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Sample records for rf heating survey

  1. JET (3He)-D scenarios relying on RF heating: survey of selected recent experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eester, D.; Casati, A.; Crombe, K.; de la Luna, E.; Ericsson, G.; Felton, R.; Giroud, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Joffrin, E.; Kallne, J.; Kiptily, V.; Marinoni, A.; Santala, M.; Valisa, M.

    2009-03-01

    Recent JET experiments have been devoted to the study of (3He) D plasmas involving radio frequency (RF) heating. This paper starts by discussing the RF heating efficiency theoretically expected in such plasmas, covering both relevant aspects of wave and of particle dynamics. Then it gives a concise summary of the main conclusions drawn from recent experiments that were either focusing on studying RF heating physics aspects or that were adopting RF heating as a tool to study plasma behavior. Depending on the minority concentration chosen, different physical phenomena are observed. At very low concentration (X[3He] < 1%), energetic tails are formed which trigger MHD activity and result in loss of fast particles. Alfv n cascades were observed and gamma ray tomography indirectly shows the impact of sawtooth crashes on the fast particle orbits. Low concentration (X[3He] < 10%) favors minority heating while for X[3He] 10% electron mode conversion damping becomes dominant. Evidence for the Fuchs et al standing wave effect (Fuchs et al 1995 Phys. Plasmas 2 1637 47) on the absorption is presented. RF induced deuterium tails were observed in mode conversion experiments with large X[3He] (18%). As tentative modeling shows, the formation of these tails can be explained as a consequence of wave power absorption by neutral beam particles that efficiently interact with the waves well away from the cold D cyclotron resonance position as a result of their substantial Doppler shift. As both ion and electron RF power deposition profiles in (3He) D plasmas are fairly narrow giving rise to localized heat sources the RF heating method is an ideal tool for performing transport studies. Various of the experiments discussed here were done in plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs). ITBs are identified as regions with locally reduced diffusivity, where poloidal spinning up of the plasma is observed. The present know-how on the role of RF heating for impurity transport is also

  2. RF Pulsed Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Pritzkau, David P.

    2002-01-03

    RF pulsed heating is a process by which a metal is heated from magnetic fields on its surface due to high-power pulsed RF. When the thermal stresses induced are larger than the elastic limit, microcracks and surface roughening will occur due to cyclic fatigue. Pulsed heating limits the maximum magnetic field on the surface and through it the maximum achievable accelerating gradient in a normal conducting accelerator structure. An experiment using circularly cylindrical cavities operating in the TE{sub 011} mode at a resonant frequency of 11.424 GHz is designed to study pulsed heating on OFE copper, a material commonly used in normal conducting accelerator structures. The high-power pulsed RF is supplied by an X-band klystron capable of outputting 50 MW, 1.5 {micro}s pulses. The test pieces of the cavity are designed to be removable to allow testing of different materials with different surface preparations. A diagnostic tool is developed to measure the temperature rise in the cavity utilizing the dynamic Q change of the resonant mode due to heating. The diagnostic consists of simultaneously exciting a TE{sub 012} mode to steady-state in the cavity at 18 GHz and measuring the change in reflected power as the cavity is heated from high-power pulsed RF. Two experimental runs were completed. One run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 120 K for 56 x 10{sup 6} pulses. The second run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 82 K for 86 x 10{sup 6} pulses. Scanning electron microscope pictures show extensive damage occurring in the region of maximum temperature rise on the surface of the test pieces.

  3. RF plasma heating in toroidal fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Golant, V.E.; Fedorov, V.I. )

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the present book is to provide, in seven chapters, a unified overview of the methods for rf heating of plasmas in toroidal fusion experiments. In Chapter 1 the problem of plasma heating in tokamaks and stellarators is formulated and the requirements for auxiliary heating techniques are described. This chapter also contains a brief review of the results of research on tokamaks and stellarators. Chapter 2 is devoted to a theoretical description of the principal physical effects involved in the rf heating of plasmas, especially the characteristics of wave propagation, of the mechanisms by which waves are absorbed and plasma heating takes place, and of the nonlinear effects that accompany heating. The primary emphasis is on a qualitative physical picture of these effects. Chapters 3-6, in turn, deal with the major rf heating techniques currently under investigation, electron cyclotron (ECH), ion cyclotron (ICH), lower hybrid (LHH), and Alfven wave heating. In each of these chapters the main schemes for heating are described, the results of theoretical analyses and numerical simulations are discussed, the technology of the heating systems is briefly described, and experimental work published through the end of 1984 is reviewed. Finally, in Chapter 7 the different rf heating techniques are compared; they are contrasted with neutral beam injection, and the feasibility of adiabatic compression as a means of heating plasmas is examined. Separate abstracts were prepared for each chapter of this book. 246 refs.

  4. Vortex formation during rf heating of plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Motley, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on a test plasma show that the linear theory of waveguide coupling to slow plasma waves begins to break down if the rf power flux exceeds approx. 30 W/cm/sup 2/. Probe measurements reveal that within 30 ..mu..s an undulation appears in the surface plasma near the mouth of the twin waveguide. This surface readjustment is part of a vortex, or off-center convective cell, driven by asymmetric rf heating of the plasma column.

  5. RF heating of nanoclusters for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letfullin, Renat R.; Letfullin, Alla R.; George, Thomas F.

    2015-03-01

    Nanodrugs selectively delivered to a tumor site can be activated by radiation for drug release, or nanoparticles (NPs) can be used as a drug themselves by producing biological damage in cancer cells through thermal, mechanical ablations or charged particle emission. Radio-frequency (RF) waves have an excellent ability to penetrate into the human body without causing healthy tissue damage, which provides a great opportunity to activate/heat NPs delivered inside the body as a contrast agent for diagnosis and treatment purposes. However the heating of NPs in the RF range of the spectrum is controversial in the research community because of the low power load of RF waves and low absorption of NPs in the RF range. To resolve these weaknesses in the RF activation of NPs and dramatically increase absorption of contrast agents in tumor, we suggest aggregating the nanoclusters inside or on the surface of the cancer cells. We simulate space distribution of temperature changes inside and outside metal and dielectric nanopraticles/nanoclusters, determine the number of nanoparticles needed to form a cluster, and estimate the thermal damage area produced in surrounding medium by nanopraticles/nanoclusters heated in the RF field.

  6. Experimental Study of RF Pulsed Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Laurent, Lisa; Tantawi, Sami; Dolgashev, Valery; Nantista, Christopher; Higashi, Yasuo; Aicheler, Markus; Heikkinen, Samuli; Wuensch, Walter; /CERN

    2011-11-04

    Cyclic thermal stresses produced by rf pulsed heating can be the limiting factor on the attainable reliable gradients for room temperature linear accelerators. This is especially true for structures that have complicated features for wakefield damping. These limits could be pushed higher by using special types of copper, copper alloys, or other conducting metals in constructing partial or complete accelerator structures. Here we present an experimental study aimed at determining the potential of these materials for tolerating cyclic thermal fatigue due to rf magnetic fields. A special cavity that has no electric field on the surface was employed in these studies. The cavity shape concentrates the magnetic field on one flat surface where the test material is placed. The materials tested in this study have included oxygen free electronic grade copper, copper zirconium, copper chromium, hot isostatically pressed copper, single crystal copper, electroplated copper, Glidcop(reg. sign), copper silver, and silver plated copper. The samples were exposed to different machining and heat treatment processes prior to rf processing. Each sample was tested to a peak pulsed heating temperature of approximately 110 C and remained at this temperature for approximately 10 x 10{sup 6} rf pulses. In general, the results showed the possibility of pushing the gradient limits due to pulsed heating fatigue by the use of copper zirconium and copper chromium alloys.

  7. Experimental study of rf pulsed heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Lisa; Tantawi, Sami; Dolgashev, Valery; Nantista, Christopher; Higashi, Yasuo; Aicheler, Markus; Heikkinen, Samuli; Wuensch, Walter

    2011-04-01

    Cyclic thermal stresses produced by rf pulsed heating can be the limiting factor on the attainable reliable gradients for room temperature linear accelerators. This is especially true for structures that have complicated features for wakefield damping. These limits could be pushed higher by using special types of copper, copper alloys, or other conducting metals in constructing partial or complete accelerator structures. Here we present an experimental study aimed at determining the potential of these materials for tolerating cyclic thermal fatigue due to rf magnetic fields. A special cavity that has no electric field on the surface was employed in these studies. The cavity shape concentrates the magnetic field on one flat surface where the test material is placed. The materials tested in this study have included oxygen free electronic grade copper, copper zirconium, copper chromium, hot isostatically pressed copper, single crystal copper, electroplated copper, Glidcop®, copper silver, and silver plated copper. The samples were exposed to different machining and heat treatment processes prior to rf processing. Each sample was tested to a peak pulsed heating temperature of approximately 110°C and remained at this temperature for approximately 10×106 rf pulses. In general, the results showed the possibility of pushing the gradient limits due to pulsed heating fatigue by the use of copper zirconium and copper chromium alloys.

  8. RF heating needs and plans for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Bora, Dhiraj; Beaumont, B.; Kobayashi, N.; Tanga, A.; Goulding, R.; Swain, D.; Jacquinot, J.

    2007-09-28

    RF heating systems are required to deliver more than half of the total auxiliary power to operate ITER successfully through the different levels. To achieve this goal, systems in the range of ICRF, LHF and ECRF will be implemented for different tasks in different phases of operation. Power levels proposed to be used in different ranges will vary depending on the needs. Different mixes of power will depend on the physics needs of the experimental programmes. Lower Hybrid power of 20 MW at 5.0 GHz is not planned for the startup phase and therefore no procurement scheme exists at the present time. 20 MW will be delivered into the plasma at 40 to 55 MHz as well as at 170 GHz with the help of Ion Cyclotron Heating (ICH) and Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) systems respectively. All the heating systems will have the capability to operate in continuous mode. A dedicated ECH 3.0 MW system at 127.6 GHz will be used for plasma breakdown and start up.

  9. Simultaneous radiofrequency (RF) heating and magnetic resonance (MR) thermal mapping using an intravascular MR imaging/RF heating system.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bensheng; El-Sharkawy, Abdel-Monem; Paliwal, Vaishali; Karmarkar, Parag; Gao, Fabao; Atalar, Ergin; Yang, Xiaoming

    2005-07-01

    Previous studies have confirmed the possibility of using an intravascular MR imaging guidewire (MRIG) as a heating source to enhance vascular gene transfection/expression. This motivated us to develop a new intravascular system that can perform MR imaging, radiofrequncy (RF) heating, and MR temperature monitoring simultaneously in an MR scanner. To validate this concept, a series of mathematical simulations of RF power loss along a 0.032-inch MRIG and RF energy spatial distribution were performed to determine the optimum RF heating frequency. Then, an RF generator/amplifier and a filter box were built. The possibility for simultaneous RF heating and MR thermal mapping of the system was confirmed in vitro using a phantom, and the obtained thermal mapping profile was compared with the simulated RF power distribution. Subsequently, the feasibility of simultaneous RF heating and temperature monitoring was successfully validated in vivo in the aorta of living rabbits. This MR imaging/RF heating system offers a potential tool for intravascular MR-mediated, RF-enhanced vascular gene therapy.

  10. Modeling of Electromagnetic Heating in RF Copper Accelerating Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Awida, M. H.; Gonin, I.; Romanov, Romanov; Khabiboulline, T.; Yakovlev, V.

    2016-01-17

    Electromagnetic heating is a critical issue in normal conducting copper RF cavities that are employed in particle accelerators. With several tens to hundreds of kilowatts dissipated RF power, there must be an effective cooling scheme whether it is water or air based or even a combination of both. In this paper we investigate the electromagnetic heating in multiple cavities that were designed at Fermilab exploring how the electromagnetic and thermal analyses are coupled together to properly design the cooling of such cavities.

  11. Possible High Power Limitations From RF Pulsed Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Pritzkau, David P.

    1998-11-23

    One of the possible limitations to achieving high power in RF structures is damage to metal surfaces due to RF pulsed heating. Such damage may lead to degradation of RF performance. An experiment to study RF pulsed heating on copper has been developed at SLAC. The experiment consists of operating two pillbox cavities in the TE{sub 011} mode using a 50 MW X-Band klystron. The estimated temperature rise of the surface of copper is 350 C for a power input of 20 MW to each cavity with a pulse length of 1.5 microseconds. Preliminary results from an experiment performed earlier are presented. A revised design for continued experiments is also presented along with relevant theory and calculations.

  12. Plasma heating: NBI & RF, an introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, R.

    1996-03-01

    The additional heating and non-inductive current-drive methods are reviewed. First, the limitations of ohmic heating in tokamaks are examined and the motivations for using additional heating in tokamaks or other machines are discussed. Next we sketch the principles of heating by injection of fast neutrals - or Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). The principle of the injector is briefly outlined. Positive and negative ion based concepts are discussed. The remainder of the lecture focuses on the processes by which the beam transfers energy to the plasma: the ionisation and slowing-down processes. Next, I make a review of the different heating schemes based on the transfer of electromagnetic energy to the plasma. The different wave heating frequency ranges are listed and the propagation and damping peculiarities are sketched in each domain. Heating in the Alfven and lower hybrid wave domains are described in some more details. 21 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Minimizing RF heating of conducting wires in MRI.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Christopher J; Karmarkar, Parag; McVeigh, Elliot R

    2007-11-01

    Performing interventions using long conducting wires in MRI introduces the risk of focal RF heating at the wire tip. Comprehensive EM simulations are combined with carefully measured experimental data to show that method-of-moments EM field modeling coupled with heat transfer modeling can adequately predict RF heating with wires partially inserted into the patient-mimicking phantom. The effects of total wire length, inserted length, wire position in the phantom, phantom position in the scanner, and phantom size are examined. Increasing phantom size can shift a wire's length of maximum tip heating from about a half wave toward a quarter wave. In any event, with wires parallel to the scanner bore, wire tip heating is minimized by keeping the patient and wires as close as possible to the central axis of the scanner bore. At 1.5T, heating is minimized if bare wires are shorter than 0.6 m or between approximately 2.4 m and approximately 3.0 m. Heating is further minimized if wire insertion into phantoms equivalent to most aqueous soft tissues is less than 13 cm or greater than 40 cm (longer for fatty tissues, bone, and lung). The methods demonstrated can be used to estimate the absolute amount of heating in order to set RF power safety thresholds.

  14. RF heating for fusion product studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hellsten, T. Johnson, T.; Sharapov, S. E.; Kiptily, V.; Rimini, F.; Eriksson, J.; Mantsinen, M.; Schneider, M.; Tsalas, M.

    2015-12-10

    Third harmonic cyclotron heating is an effective tool for accelerating deuterium (D) beams to the MeV energy range, suitable for studying ITER relevant fast particle physics in plasmas without significant tritium content. Such experiments were recently conducted in JET with an ITER like wall in D plasmas with {sup 3}He concentrations up to 30% in order to boost the fusion reactivity by D-{sup 3}He reactions. The harmonic cyclotron heating produces high-energy tails in the MeV range of D ions by on-axis heating and of {sup 3}He ions by tangential off-axis heating. The discharges are characterized by long sawtooth free periods and a rich spectrum of MHD modes excited by the fast D and {sup 3}He ions. The partitions of the power, which depend on the distribution function of D, vary strongly over several slowing down times. Self-consistent modelling of the distribution function with the SELFO-light code are presented and compared with experimental data from fast particle diagnostics.

  15. RF heating for fusion product studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellsten, T.; Johnson, T.; Sharapov, S. E.; Kiptily, V.; Eriksson, J.; Mantsinen, M.; Schneider, M.; Rimini, F.; Tsalas, M.

    2015-12-01

    Third harmonic cyclotron heating is an effective tool for accelerating deuterium (D) beams to the MeV energy range, suitable for studying ITER relevant fast particle physics in plasmas without significant tritium content. Such experiments were recently conducted in JET with an ITER like wall in D plasmas with 3He concentrations up to 30% in order to boost the fusion reactivity by D-3He reactions. The harmonic cyclotron heating produces high-energy tails in the MeV range of D ions by on-axis heating and of 3He ions by tangential off-axis heating. The discharges are characterized by long sawtooth free periods and a rich spectrum of MHD modes excited by the fast D and 3He ions. The partitions of the power, which depend on the distribution function of D, vary strongly over several slowing down times. Self-consistent modelling of the distribution function with the SELFO-light code are presented and compared with experimental data from fast particle diagnostics.

  16. High Power, Solid-State RF Generation for Plasma Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prager, James; Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth; Pierren, Chris

    2016-10-01

    Radio Frequency heating systems are rarely used by the small-scale validation platform experiments due to the high cost and complexity of these systems. Eagle Harbor Technologies (EHT), Inc. is developing an all-solid-state RF plasma heating system that uses EHT's nanosecond pulser technology in an inductive adder configuration to drive nonlinear transmission lines (NLTL). The system under development does not require the use of vacuum tube technology, is inherently lower cost, and is more robust than traditional high power RF heating schemes. The inductive adder can produce 0 to20 kV pulses into 50 Ohms with sub-10 ns rise times. The inductive adder has been used to drive NLTLs near 2 GHz with other frequencies to be tested in the future. EHT will present experimental results, including RF measurements with D-dot probes and capacitve voltage probes. During this program, EHT will test the system on Helicity Injected Torus at the University of Washington and the High Beta Tokamak at Columbia University.

  17. RF heating systems evolution for the WEST project

    SciTech Connect

    Magne, R.; Achard, J.; Armitano, A.; Argouarch, A.; Berger-By, G.; Bernard, J. M.; Bouquey, F.; Charabot, N.; Colas, L.; Corbel, E.; Delpech, L.; Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Guilhem, D.; Hillairet, J.; Jacquot, J.; Joffrin, E.; Litaudon, X.; Lombard, G.; Mollard, P.; and others

    2014-02-12

    Tore Supra is dedicated to long pulse operation at high power, with a record in injected energy of 1 GJ (2.8 MW × 380 s) and an achieved capability of 12 MW injected power delivered by 3 RF systems: Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD), Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH). The new WEST project (W [tungsten] Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) aims at fitting Tore Supra with an actively cooled tungsten coated wall and a bulk tungsten divertor. This new device will offer to ITER a test bed for validating the relevant technologies for actively cooled metallic components, with D-shaped H-mode plasmas. For WEST operation, different scenarii able to reproduce ITER relevant conditions in terms of steady state heat loads have been identified, ranging from a high RF power scenario (15 MW, 30 s) to a high fluence scenario (10 MW, 1000 s). This paper will focus on the evolution of the RF systems required for WEST. For the ICRH system, the main issues are its ELM resilience and its CW compatibility, three new actively cooled antennas are being designed, with the aim of reducing their sensitivity to the load variations induced by ELMs. The LH system has been recently upgraded with new klystrons and the PAM antenna, the possible reshaping of the antenna mouths is presently studied for matching with the magnetic field line in the WEST configuration. For the ECRH system, the device for the poloidal movement of the mirrors of the antenna is being changed for higher accuracy and speed.

  18. RF heating systems evolution for the WEST project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magne, R.; Achard, J.; Armitano, A.; Argouarch, A.; Berger-By, G.; Bernard, J. M.; Bouquey, F.; Charabot, N.; Colas, L.; Corbel, E.; Delpech, L.; Durodié, F.; Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Guilhem, D.; Hillairet, J.; Jacquot, J.; Joffrin, E.; Litaudon, X.; Milanesio, D.; Lombard, G.; Moerel, J.; Mollard, P.; Prou, M.; van Helvoirt, J.; Volpe, R.; Vulliez, K.; Wittebol, E.

    2014-02-01

    Tore Supra is dedicated to long pulse operation at high power, with a record in injected energy of 1 GJ (2.8 MW × 380 s) and an achieved capability of 12 MW injected power delivered by 3 RF systems: Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD), Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH). The new WEST project (W [tungsten] Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) aims at fitting Tore Supra with an actively cooled tungsten coated wall and a bulk tungsten divertor. This new device will offer to ITER a test bed for validating the relevant technologies for actively cooled metallic components, with D-shaped H-mode plasmas. For WEST operation, different scenarii able to reproduce ITER relevant conditions in terms of steady state heat loads have been identified, ranging from a high RF power scenario (15 MW, 30 s) to a high fluence scenario (10 MW, 1000 s). This paper will focus on the evolution of the RF systems required for WEST. For the ICRH system, the main issues are its ELM resilience and its CW compatibility, three new actively cooled antennas are being designed, with the aim of reducing their sensitivity to the load variations induced by ELMs. The LH system has been recently upgraded with new klystrons and the PAM antenna, the possible reshaping of the antenna mouths is presently studied for matching with the magnetic field line in the WEST configuration. For the ECRH system, the device for the poloidal movement of the mirrors of the antenna is being changed for higher accuracy and speed.

  19. HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS FOR FIXED CST AND RF COLUMNS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S

    2007-10-17

    In support of a small column ion exchange (SCIX) process for the Savannah River Site waste processing program, transient and steady state two-dimensional heat transfer models have been constructed for columns loaded with cesium-saturated crystalline silicotitanate (CST) or spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) beads and 6 molar sodium tank waste supernate. Radiolytic decay of sorbed cesium results in heat generation within the columns. The models consider conductive heat transfer only with no convective cooling and no process flow within the columns (assumed column geometry: 27.375 in ID with a 6.625 in OD center-line cooling pipe). Heat transfer at the column walls was assumed to occur by natural convection cooling with 35 C air. A number of modeling calculations were performed using this computational heat transfer approach. Minimal additional calculations were also conducted to predict temperature increases expected for salt solution processed through columns of various heights at the slowest expected operational flow rate of 5 gpm. Results for the bounding model with no process flow and no active cooling indicate that the time required to reach the boiling point of {approx}130 C for a CST-salt solution mixture containing 257 Ci/liter of Cs-137 heat source (maximum expected loading for SCIX applications) at 35 C initial temperature is about 6 days. Modeling results for a column actively cooled with external wall jackets and the internal coolant pipe (inlet coolant water temperature: 25 C) indicate that the CST column can be maintained non-boiling under these conditions indefinitely. The results also show that the maximum temperature of an RF-salt solution column containing 133 Ci/liter of Cs-137 (maximum expected loading) will never reach boiling under any conditions (maximum predicted temperature without cooling: 88 C). The results indicate that a 6-in cooling pipe at the center of the column provides the most effective cooling mechanism for reducing the

  20. RF heating and current drive experiment on JT-60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-09-01

    Recent experimental results of Lower Hybrid and Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (LHRF and ICRF) heating and current drive are presented on JT-60 at JAERI. Three LHRF at 2 GHz and one ICRF at 120 MHz system are installed in JT-60. Each unit has launched 2.1-2.4 MW of RF power into the JT-60, so far. Steady current up to 2 MA for 2.5 sec have been maintained only by LHCD at a density of ne=0.32×1019 m-3 with 3.1 MW. The current drive efficiency defined by ɛCD=ne (1019 m-3)R(m)IRF(MA)/PLH(MW) reach 1.5-3.0 by combination of LHCD and NBI heating. High central electron heating up to 6 keV is demonstrated at the density ne=1.7×10-19 m-3. Current profile control and improvement of energy confinement time via LHCD is observed with and without NBI heating. Optimization of the second harmonic ICRF heating is studied with 2×2 phased loop antenna. In combination heating of ICRF and NBI, remarkable beam acceleration is observed in the plasma core.

  1. A Shuttle/SpaceLab RF environment survey facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Prince, R. E.; Mcgregor, D. N.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes some of the basic system considerations of a proposed experiment for monitoring and measuring the global electromagnetic radiation environment. RF spectrum coverage for this spaceborne survey facility is anticipated to be quite broad and will include selected frequency bands ranging from UHF to millimeter waves. By establishing this RF environment survey facility, a broad data base of useful electromagnetic field intensity information will be developed. This, in turn, should help both the regulatory agencies and user community in terms of future frequency planning and system design by avoiding unwarranted interference. It is proposed that this experiment be flown as a future test bed during the Shuttle/Spacelab era for continuously gathering and updating information on earth-emitted electromagnetic emissions on a global scale.

  2. Mechanical Properties of Porcine Cartilage After Uniform RF Heating

    PubMed Central

    Zemek, Allison J.; Protsenko, Dmitry E.; Wong, Brian J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Thermally mediated modalities of cartilage reshaping utilize localized heating of cartilage combined with mechanical deformation to achieve new geometries. We sought to determine the steady state elastic modulus of thermally modified cartilage without deformation, as this provides a constraint in mechanical models of the shape change process. Study Design/Materials and Methods The main objective of this study was to characterize the steady state elastic modulus of porcine septal cartilage after uniform heating with radiofrequency (RF) to peak temperatures of 50 ± 5, 65 ± 5, and 85 ± 5°C. The cartilage was divided into three equally sized regions, designated as anterior, middle and posterior. Each region was then sectioned into two specimens with the proximal component serving as a paired control. Results The data confirm that there is high baseline variability in control steady state elastic moduli between animals. Also, the control values confirm a decreasing steady state elastic modulus from anterior to posterior. There is no statistical significance (P > 0.05) found between the elastic moduli of control and treated samples. Conclusions Although shape change and retention have been fairly well characterized, little is known about the specific relation between steady state elastic modulus of cartilage and maximum treatment temperature. We determined that the difference of steady state elastic modulus between control and treated porcine septal samples was not statistically significant after uniform heating with RF to peak temperatures of 50 ± 5, 65 ± 5, and 85 ± 5°C. Ultimately, the results of this study do not pertain to the regions of heated cartilage that are shaped to hold a new form; however, it does show that the regions that are not mechanically deformed do return to the original pre-treatment elastic modulus. This is still useful information that may be used in finite element models to predict changes in internal stress

  3. Computer simulation for improving radio frequency (RF) heating uniformity of food products: a review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi; Marra, Francesco; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan; Wang, Shaojin

    2016-11-28

    Radio frequency (RF) heating has great potential for achieving rapid and volumetric heating in foods, providing safe and high quality food products due to deep penetration depth, moisture self-balance effects, and leaving no chemical residues. However, the non-uniform heating problem (usually resulting in hot and cold spots in the heated product) needs to be resolved. The inhomogeneous temperature distribution not only affects the quality of the food but also raises the issue of food safety when the microorganisms or insects may not be controlled in the cold spots. The mathematical modelling for RF heating processes has been extensively studied in a wide variety of agricultural products recently. This paper presents a comprehensive review of recent progresses in computer simulation for RF heating uniformity improvement and the offered solutions to reduce the heating non-uniformity. It provides a brief introduction on the basic principle of RF heating technology, analyzes the applications of numerical simulation, and discusses the factors influencing the RF heating uniformity and the possible methods to improve heating uniformity. Mathematical modelling improves the understanding of RF heating of food and is essential to optimize the RF treatment protocol for pasteurization and disinfestation applications. Recommendations for future research have been proposed to further improve the accuracy of numerical models, by covering both heat and mass transfers in the model, validating these models with sample movement and mixing, and identifying the important model parameters by sensitivity analysis.

  4. A survey of the urban radiofrequency (RF) environment.

    PubMed

    Tell, Richard A; Kavet, Robert

    2014-12-01

    In 1980, Tell and Mantiply published a study of radiofrequency (RF) fields measured across 15 major metropolitan areas in the USA. They required a van fully equipped with instrumentation and computing capability for their measurements. This study aimed to assess whether and how hand-held instrumentation available today would facilitate and enhance the efficiency of large-scale surveys of ambient RF fields. In addition, the data would provide a suggestion as to how the profile of ambient RF fields has changed with respect to frequency content and magnitude. Not unexpectedly, the relative power densities were orders of magnitude lower than the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) maximum permissible exposure (MPE) for the general public, with a maximum time-averaged value across the VHF-FM-UHF-cellular bands of 0.12 % of the MPE (AM's contribution was negligible). In both the 1980 and the present study, the power density in the FM band was a major contributor to overall power density, but over time, power densities in the VHF and UHF band decreased and increased, respectively. From the perspective of absolute power density, the wideband values in the 1980 study, this study and any number of assessments conducted in European nations are not generally different from one another.

  5. RF-sheath heat flux estimates on Tore Supra and JET ICRF antennae. Extrapolation to ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Colas, L.; Portafaix, C.; Goniche, M.; Jacquet, Ph.

    2009-11-26

    RF-sheath induced heat loads are identified from infrared thermography measurements on Tore Supra ITER-like prototype and JET A2 antennae, and are quantified by fitting thermal calculations. Using a simple scaling law assessed experimentally, the estimated heat fluxes are then extrapolated to the ITER ICRF launcher delivering 20 MW RF power for several plasma scenarios. Parallel heat fluxes up to 6.7 MW/m{sup 2} are expected very locally on ITER antenna front face. The role of edge density on operation is stressed as a trade-off between easy RF coupling and reasonable heat loads. Sources of uncertainty on the results are identified.

  6. Convex optimization of MRI exposure for mitigation of RF-heating from active medical implants.

    PubMed

    Córcoles, Juan; Zastrow, Earl; Kuster, Niels

    2015-09-21

    Local RF-heating of elongated medical implants during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may pose a significant health risk to patients. The actual patient risk depends on various parameters including RF magnetic field strength and frequency, MR coil design, patient's anatomy, posture, and imaging position, implant location, RF coupling efficiency of the implant, and the bio-physiological responses associated with the induced local heating. We present three constrained convex optimization strategies that incorporate the implant's RF-heating characteristics, for the reduction of local heating of medical implants during MRI. The study emphasizes the complementary performances of the different formulations. The analysis demonstrates that RF-induced heating of elongated metallic medical implants can be carefully controlled and balanced against MRI quality. A reduction of heating of up to 25 dB can be achieved at the cost of reduced uniformity in the magnitude of the B(1)(+) field of less than 5%. The current formulations incorporate a priori knowledge of clinically-specific parameters, which is assumed to be available. Before these techniques can be applied practically in the broader clinical context, further investigations are needed to determine whether reduced access to a priori knowledge regarding, e.g. the patient's anatomy, implant routing, RF-transmitter, and RF-implant coupling, can be accepted within reasonable levels of uncertainty.

  7. Convex optimization of MRI exposure for mitigation of RF-heating from active medical implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córcoles, Juan; Zastrow, Earl; Kuster, Niels

    2015-09-01

    Local RF-heating of elongated medical implants during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may pose a significant health risk to patients. The actual patient risk depends on various parameters including RF magnetic field strength and frequency, MR coil design, patient’s anatomy, posture, and imaging position, implant location, RF coupling efficiency of the implant, and the bio-physiological responses associated with the induced local heating. We present three constrained convex optimization strategies that incorporate the implant’s RF-heating characteristics, for the reduction of local heating of medical implants during MRI. The study emphasizes the complementary performances of the different formulations. The analysis demonstrates that RF-induced heating of elongated metallic medical implants can be carefully controlled and balanced against MRI quality. A reduction of heating of up to 25 dB can be achieved at the cost of reduced uniformity in the magnitude of the B1+ field of less than 5%. The current formulations incorporate a priori knowledge of clinically-specific parameters, which is assumed to be available. Before these techniques can be applied practically in the broader clinical context, further investigations are needed to determine whether reduced access to a priori knowledge regarding, e.g. the patient’s anatomy, implant routing, RF-transmitter, and RF-implant coupling, can be accepted within reasonable levels of uncertainty.

  8. MRI thermometry: Fast mapping of RF-induced heating along conductive wires.

    PubMed

    Ehses, Philipp; Fidler, Florian; Nordbeck, Peter; Pracht, Eberhard D; Warmuth, Marcus; Jakob, Peter M; Bauer, Wolfgang R

    2008-08-01

    Conductive implants are in most cases a strict contraindication for MRI examinations, as RF pulses applied during the MRI measurement can lead to severe heating of the surrounding tissue. Understanding and mapping of these heating effects is therefore crucial for determining the circumstances under which patient examinations are safe. The use of fluoroptic probes is the standard procedure for monitoring these heating effects. However, the observed temperature increase is highly dependent on the positioning of such a probe, as it can only determine the temperature locally. Temperature mapping with MRI after RF heating can be used, but cooling effects during imaging lead to a significant underestimation of the heating effect. In this work, an MRI thermometry method was combined with an MRI heating sequence, allowing for temperature mapping during RF heating. This technique may provide new opportunities for implant safety investigations. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Evaluation of RF heating due to various implants during MR procedures.

    PubMed

    Muranaka, Hiroyuki; Horiguchi, Takayoshi; Ueda, Yoshitake; Tanki, Nobuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated radiofrequency (RF) heating of various implants embedded in a gel phantom during magnetic resonance (MR) procedures. We examined the dependence of RF heating on variation in specific absorption rate (SAR) and angle between the implant and the static magnetic field (B(0)) and on the displacement of the phantom in the irradiation coil using a 1.5-tesla MR system, and we compared the influence of RF heating on the same implant using a 3.0T MR system. Our results support the occurrence of RF heating of implants made of non-magnetizing metal. We observed greater RF heating when the implant was set parallel to B(0), embedded at a shallower depth, and placed at the center of the RF irradiation coil. We also confirmed that the rise in temperature was proportionate to the increase in SAR. We considered the difference in temperature elevation on depth of embedding to reflect the skin-depth effect of RF intensity for both the 1.5- and 3.0-T MR systems.

  10. Self-consistent simulations of rf heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. L.; Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Choi, M.

    2009-11-01

    The rf-SciDAC collaboration is developing computer simulations to predict the damping of radio frequency (rf) waves in fusion plasmas. The recent iterative coupling of the all-orders spectral wave solver AORSA to the Monte-Carlo particle codes ORBIT-rf and sMC+rf allows finite width ion orbits and rf induced spatial transport to be studied in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies [Green et al., Proc. of 18th Topical Conference on Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas, Gent, Belgium]. Here we investigate the effects of including finite ion orbits and the importance of using the full k spectrum when constructing the quasi-linear (QL) rf heating operator. Power absorption and deposition results for simulations with and without finite ion orbits and for various QL heating operators are compared for heating scenarios including minority H on Alcator C-Mod, beam heating on DIII-D and high harmonic fast wave heating on NSTX. Additionally we present the preliminary results of extending AORSA to calculate the linear wave solution in the open field line region outside the last close flux surface on NSTX.

  11. Reduction of Ag-Si electrical contact resistance by selective RF heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wijs, W.-J. A.; Ljevar, S.; van de Sande, M. J.; de With, G.

    2016-06-01

    Fast and selective inductive heating of pre-sintered silver lines on silicon as present in solar cells using 27 MHz radio-frequency inductive fields is shown. IR measurements of silicon substrates show that above 450 °C the heating rate of the samples increases sharply, indicating that both the silver and the silicon are heated. By moving the substrate with respect to the RF antenna and modulation of the RF field, silicon wafers were heated reproducibly above 450 °C with heating rates in excess of 200 °C s-1. Furthermore, selective heating of lines of pre-sintered silver paste was shown below the 450 °C threshold on silicon substrates. The orientation of the silver tracks relative to the RF antenna appeared to be crucial for homogeneity of heating. Transmission line measurements show a clear effect on contact formation between the silver lines and the silicon substrate. To lower the contact resistance sufficiently for industrial feasibility, a high temperature difference between the Si substrate and the Ag tracks is required. The present RF heating process does not match the time scale needed for contact formation between silver and silicon sufficiently, but the significantly improved process control achieved shows promise for applications requiring fast heating and cooling rates.

  12. D majority heating in JET plasmas: ICRH modelling and experimental RF deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, E.; Eester, D. van; Lamalle, P.; Krasilnikov, A.

    2007-09-28

    Recent experiments in JET have provided information on the potential of using majority RF heating schemes in large plasmas. Adopting a wide range of available diagnostics, the plasma behaviour was monitored. The main results of the experiments are that--due to the poor antenna coupling at low frequency, the low (Ohmic) plasma temperature and the reduced RF electric field amplitude near the ion-cyclotron resonance layer of the majority ions--ICRH alone is barely capable of heating the plasma. On the other hand, when preheating the plasma using neutral beam injection, the wave-plasma coupling is noticeably improved and considerable plasma heating, followed by increased neutron yield were observed in several diagnostics. This effect is not only attributed to the lower collisionality of the pre-heated plasma but also to the Doppler-shifted IC absorption of the fast beam ions. By studying the response of the plasma to sudden changes in the RF power level, the experimental power deposition profiles were determined and compared to theoretical predictions. The numerical modelling was done adopting a coupled wave/Fokker-Planck code that enables accounting for the non-Maxwellian distributions of the RF heated particles and the injected beam ions in the wave equation, and for the actual local RF fields in the Fokker-Planck description. The theoretical results confirm the experimental finding that the beam ions do play a crucial role in this heating scheme.

  13. Balanced-line rf electrode system for use in rf ground heating to recover oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Edelstein, W.A.; Vinegar, H.J.; Chiafu Hsu; Mueller, O.M.

    1993-08-17

    A system is described for extracting oil in-situ from a hydrocarbon bearing layer below a surface layer comprising: (a) a master oscillator for producing a fundamental frequency; (b) a plurality of heating sources, each comprising: radiofrequency (RF) producing means for providing a radiofrequency excitation signal based upon the fundamental frequency, a coaxial line coupled to the RF producing means for passing the radiofrequency signal through said surface layer without substantial loss of power; a conductive electrode located in the hydrocarbon bearing layer having a length related to the radiofrequency signal and adapted for radiating energy into said hydrocarbon bearing layer for causing shade oil to be extracted; a plurality of matching elements, each matching element coupled, respectively, between each respective electrode and a respective coaxial line for maximizing radiation emitted by the electrodes when they receive the radiofrequency signal; and (c) a plurality of producer wells adapted for collecting the extracted shale oil.

  14. FREQUENCY CONTROL OF RF HEATING OF GASEOUS PLASMA

    DOEpatents

    Herold, E.W.

    1962-09-01

    This invention relates to the heating of gaseous plasma by radiofrequency ion-cyclotron resonance heating. The cyclotron resonance frequencies are varied and this invention provides means for automatically controlling the frequency of the radiofrequency to maximize the rate of heating. To this end, a servo-loop is provided to sense the direction of plasma heating with frequency and a control signal is derived to set the center frequency of the radiofrequency energy employed to heat the plasma. (AEC)

  15. Improvement of radio frequency (RF) heating-assisted alkaline pretreatment on four categories of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofei; Taylor, Steven; Wang, Yifen

    2016-10-01

    Pretreatment plays an important role in making the cellulose accessible for enzyme hydrolysis and subsequent conversion because it destroys more or less resistance and recalcitrance of biomass. Radio frequency (RF)-assisted dielectric heating was utilized in the alkaline pretreatment on agricultural residues (corn stover), herbaceous crops (switchgrass), hardwood (sweetgum) and softwood (loblolly pine). Pretreatment was performed at 90 °C with either RF or traditional water bath (WB) heating for 1 h after overnight soaking in NaOH solution (0.2 g NaOH/g Biomass). Pretreated materials were characterized by chemical compositional analysis, enzyme hydrolysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The glucan yields of RF-heated four categories of hydrolysates were 89.6, 72.6, 21.7, and 9.9 %. Interestingly, RF heating raised glucan yield on switchgrass and sweetgum but not on corn stover or loblolly pine. The SEM images and FTIR spectra agreed with results of composition analysis and hydrolysis. GC-MS detected some compounds only from RF-heated switchgrass. These compounds were found by other researchers only in high-temperature (150-600 °C) and high-pressure pyrolysis processes.

  16. Numerical investigations of MRI RF field induced heating for external fixation devices

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) radio frequency (RF) field induced heating on external fixation devices can be very high in the vicinity of device screws. Such induced RF heating is related to device constructs, device placements, as well as the device insertion depth into human subjects. In this study, computational modeling is performed to determine factors associated with such induced heating. Methods Numerical modeling, based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, is used to evaluate the temperature rises near external device screw tips inside the ASTM phantom for both 1.5-T and 3-T MRI systems. The modeling approach consists of 1) the development of RF coils for 1.5-T and 3-T, 2) the electromagnetic simulations of energy deposition near the screw tips of external fixation devices, and 3) the thermal simulations of temperature rises near the tips of these devices. Results It is found that changing insertion depth and screw spacing could largely affect the heating of these devices. In 1.5-T MRI system, smaller insertion depth and larger pin spacing will lead to higher temperature rise. However, for 3-T MRI system, the relation is not very clear when insertion depth is larger than 5 cm or when pin spacing became larger than 20 cm. The effect of connection bar material on device heating is also studied and the heating mechanism of the device is analysed. Conclusions Numerical simulation is used to study RF heating for external fixation devices in both 1.5-T and 3-T MRI coils. Typically, shallower insertion depth and larger pin spacing with conductive bar lead to higher RF heating. The heating mechanism is explained using induced current along the device and power decay inside ASTM phantom. PMID:23394173

  17. Reduction of implant RF heating through modification of transmit coil electric field.

    PubMed

    Eryaman, Yigitcan; Akin, Burak; Atalar, Ergin

    2011-05-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the possibility to modify the electric-field distribution of a radio frequency (RF) coil to generate electric field-free zones in the body without significantly altering the transmit sensitivity. Because implant heating is directly related to the electric-field distribution, implant-friendly RF transmit coils can be obtained by this approach. We propose a linear birdcage transmit coil with a zero electric-field plane as an example of such implant-friendly coils. When the zero electric-field plane coincides with the implant position, implant heating is reduced, as we demonstrated by the phantom experiments. By feeding RF pulses with identical phases and shapes but different amplitudes to the two orthogonal ports of the coil, the position of the zero electric-field plane can also be adjusted. Although implant heating is reduced with this method, a linear birdcage coil results in a whole-volume average specific absorption rate that is twice that of a quadrature birdcage coil. To solve this issue, we propose alternative methods to design implant-friendly RF coils with optimized electromagnetic fields and reduced whole-volume average specific absorption rate. With these methods, the transmit field was modified to reduce RF heating of implants and obtain uniform transmit sensitivity. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. The development of RF heating of magnetically confined deuterium-tritium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hosea, J. C.; Bemabei, S.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Majeski, R.; Phillips, C. K.; Schilling, G.; Wilson the TFTR Team, J. R.

    1999-09-20

    The experimental and theoretical development of ion cyclotron radiofrequency heating (ICRF) in toroidal magnetically-confined plasmas recently culminated with the demonstration of ICRF heating of D-T plasmas, first in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and then in the Joint European Torus (JET). Various heating schemes based on the cyclotron resonances between the plasma ions and the applied ICRF waves have been used, including second harmonic tritium, minority deuterium, minority helium-3, mode conversion at the D-T ion-ion hybrid layer, and ion Bernstein wave heating. Second harmonic tritium heating was first shown to be effective in a reactor-grade plasma in TFTR. D-minority heating on JET has led to the achievement of Q=0.22, the ratio of fusion power produced to RF power input, sustained over a few energy confinement times. In this paper, some of the key building blocks in the development of rf heating of plasmas are reviewed and prospects for the development of advanced methods of plasma control based on the application of rf waves are discussed. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  19. The Development of RF Heating of Magnetically Confined Deuterium-Tritium Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    B.P. LeBlanc; C.K. Phillips; J.C. Hosea; R. Majeski; S. Bernabei

    1999-06-01

    The experimental and theoretical development of ion cyclotron radiofrequency heating (ICRF) in toroidal magnetically-confined plasmas recently culminated with the demonstration of ICRF heating of D-T plasmas, first in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and then in the Joint European Torus (JET). Various heating schemes based on the cyclotron resonances between the plasma ions and the applied ICRF waves have been used, including second harmonic tritium, minority deuterium, minority helium-3, mode conversion at the D-T ion-ion hybrid layer, and ion Bernstein wave heating. Second harmonic tritium heating was first shown to be effective in a reactor-grade plasma in TFTR. D-minority heating on JET has led to the achievement of Q = 0.22, the ratio of fusion power produced to RF power input, sustained over a few energy confinement times. In this paper, some of the key building blocks in the development of rf heating of plasmas are reviewed and prospects for the development of advanced methods of plasma control based on the application of rf waves are discussed.

  20. On RF heating of inhomogeneous collisional plasma under ion-cyclotron resonance conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Timofeev, A. V.

    2015-11-15

    During ion-cyclotron resonance (ICR) heating of plasma by the magnetic beach method, as well as in some other versions of ICR heating, it is necessary to excite Alfvén oscillations. In this case, it is difficult to avoid the phenomenon of the Alfvén resonance, in which Alfvén oscillations transform into lower hybrid oscillations. The latter efficiently interact with electrons, due to which most of the deposited RF energy is spent on electron (rather than ion) heating. The Alfvén resonance takes place due to plasma inhomogeneity across the external magnetic field. Therefore, it could be expected that variations in the plasma density profile would substantially affect the efficiency of the interaction of RF fields with charged particles. However, the results obtained for different plasma density profiles proved to be nearly the same. In the present work, a plasma is considered the parameters of which correspond to those planned in future ICR plasma heating experiments on the PS-1 facility at the Kurchatov Institute. When analyzing the interaction of RF fields with charged particles, both the collisionless resonance interaction and the interaction caused by Coulomb collisions are taken into account, because, in those experiments, the Coulomb collision frequency will be comparable with the frequency of the heating field. Antennas used for ICR heating excite RF oscillations with a wide spectrum of wavenumbers along the magnetic field. After averaging over the spectrum, the absorbed RF energy calculated with allowance for collisions turns out to be close to that absorbed in collisionless plasma, the energy fraction absorbed by electrons being substantially larger than that absorbed by ions.

  1. On RF heating of inhomogeneous collisional plasma under ion-cyclotron resonance conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    During ion-cyclotron resonance (ICR) heating of plasma by the magnetic beach method, as well as in some other versions of ICR heating, it is necessary to excite Alfvén oscillations. In this case, it is difficult to avoid the phenomenon of the Alfvén resonance, in which Alfvén oscillations transform into lower hybrid oscillations. The latter efficiently interact with electrons, due to which most of the deposited RF energy is spent on electron (rather than ion) heating. The Alfvén resonance takes place due to plasma inhomogeneity across the external magnetic field. Therefore, it could be expected that variations in the plasma density profile would substantially affect the efficiency of the interaction of RF fields with charged particles. However, the results obtained for different plasma density profiles proved to be nearly the same. In the present work, a plasma is considered the parameters of which correspond to those planned in future ICR plasma heating experiments on the PS-1 facility at the Kurchatov Institute. When analyzing the interaction of RF fields with charged particles, both the collisionless resonance interaction and the interaction caused by Coulomb collisions are taken into account, because, in those experiments, the Coulomb collision frequency will be comparable with the frequency of the heating field. Antennas used for ICR heating excite RF oscillations with a wide spectrum of wavenumbers along the magnetic field. After averaging over the spectrum, the absorbed RF energy calculated with allowance for collisions turns out to be close to that absorbed in collisionless plasma, the energy fraction absorbed by electrons being substantially larger than that absorbed by ions.

  2. An RF heated tandem mirror plasma propulsion study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. F.; Yao, X.; Peng, S.; Krueger, W. A.; Chang-Diaz, F. R.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental results on a tandem mirror hybrid plume rocket involving a three-stage system of plasma injection, heating, and subsequent injection through a magnetic nozzle are presented. In the experiments, a plasma is created by breaking down the gas with electron cyclotron resonance heating at 2 kW in the central cell, and the ion species is then heated to high temperatures with ion cyclotron resonance heating at 10 kW in the end cell. A Langmuir probe measured an electron density of 2.5 x 10 to the 16th/cu m and a temperature of 100 eV in the central cell and an ion density of 1.25 x 10 to the 17th/cu m and a temperature of 500 eV in the end cell.

  3. Advanced Synthesis of Spinnable MWCNT Forests by RF-Induction Heating Enhanced CVD Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhidov, Anvar; Holmes, William; UTD Solarno Team; Solarno UTD Team

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate here an advanced method to effectively grow tall multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) vertically oriented forests which are highly spinnable. Heating of the Fe catalyst is achieved extremely fast by RF induction heating using coils outside the quartz tube. This method and the new apparatus designed and presented in this paper allow separate control over the temperature of the substrate and the temperature of the incoming gases. In addition to temperature control, the fast T-ramping of the substrate preserves the catalyst nanoclusters from Ostwald ripening and other growth quenching effects such as carbon overgrowth of the catalyst. We show that the parametric sweet spot or bell curve of substrate spinnability can be increased significantly with this improved RF-CVD method. The catalyst nanoclusters also show a wide band of density arrangements that very positively effect spinnability and the drawing ratio. Drawing ratios can vary from 2 meters to 12 meters of sheets drawn from only 1cm of forest. RF-CVD method allows to grow fast (in several minuts) higher CNT forests at higher temperature of synthesis up to 800 K, and obtain dry-spinable CNTs, Characterization results of the samples created in the newRF-CVD system will be presented and compared to previous CNT sheet samples by conventional three-zone resistive heating CVD to measure the extent of property improvements of the CNT sheets and forests. Specifics of the experimental system will be addressed in detail and future property improvements and applications explored.

  4. RF Heating of MRI-Assisted Catheter Steering Coils for Interventional MRI.

    PubMed

    Settecase, Fabio; Hetts, Steven W; Martin, Alastair J; Roberts, Timothy P L; Bernhardt, Anthony F; Evans, Lee; Malba, Vincent; Saeed, Maythem; Arenson, Ronald L; Kucharzyk, Walter; Wilson, Mark W

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was too assess magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) radiofrequency (RF)-related heating of conductive wire coils used in magnetically steerable endovascular catheters. A three-axis microcoil was fabricated onto a 1.8Fr catheter tip. In vitro testing was performed on a 1.5-T MRI system using an agarose gel-filled vessel phantom, a transmit-receive body RF coil, a steady-state free precession pulse sequence, and a fluoroptic thermometry system. Temperature was measured without simulated blood flow at varying distances from the magnet isocenter and at varying flip angles. Additional experiments were performed with laser-lithographed single-axis microcoil-tipped microcatheters in air and in a saline bath with varied grounding of the microcoil wires. Preliminary in vivo evaluation of RF heating was performed in pigs at 1.5 T with coil-tipped catheters in various positions in the common carotid arteries with steady-state free precession pulse sequence on and off and under physiologic-flow and zero-flow conditions. In tissue-mimicking agarose gel, RF heating resulted in a maximal temperature increase of 0.35°C after 15 minutes of imaging, 15 cm from the magnet isocenter. For a single-axis microcoil, maximal temperature increases were 0.73°C to 1.91°C in air and 0.45°C to 0.55°C in saline. In vivo, delayed contrast-enhanced MRI revealed no evidence of vascular injury, and histopathologic sections from the common carotid arteries confirmed the lack of vascular damage. Microcatheter tip microcoils for endovascular catheter steering in MRI experience minimal RF heating under the conditions tested. These data provide the basis for further in vivo testing of this promising technology for endovascular interventional MRI. Copyright © 2011 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. RF Heating of Gold Cup and Conductive Plastic Electrodes during Simultaneous EEG and MRI.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Mukund; Wells, William M; Ives, John R; Britz, Patrick; Mulkern, Robert V; Orbach, Darren B

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the heating of EEG electrodes during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and to better understand the underlying physical mechanisms with a focus on the antenna effect. Gold cup and conductive plastic electrodes were placed on small watermelons with fiberoptic probes used to measure electrode temperature changes during a variety of 1.5T and 3T MRI scans. A subset of these experiments was repeated on a healthy human volunteer. The differences between gold and plastic electrodes did not appear to be practically significant. For both electrode types, we observed heating below 4°C for straight wires whose lengths were multiples of ½ the radiofrequency (RF) wavelength and stronger heating (over 15°C) for wire lengths that were odd multiples of ¼ RF wavelength, consistent with the antenna effect. The antenna effect, which has received little attention so far in the context of EEG-MRI safety, can play as significant a role as the loop effect (from electromagnetic induction) in the heating of EEG electrodes, and therefore wire lengths that are odd multiples of ¼ RF wavelength should be avoided. These results have important implications for the design of EEG electrodes and MRI studies as they help to minimize the risk to patients undergoing MRI with EEG electrodes in place.

  6. Feasibility of measuring thermoregulation during RF heating of the human calf muscle using MR based methods.

    PubMed

    Simonis, Frank F J; Petersen, Esben T; Lagendijk, Jan J W; van den Berg, Cornelis A T

    2016-04-01

    One of the main safety concerns in MR is heating of the subject due to radiofrequency (RF) exposure. Recently was shown that local peak temperatures can reach dangerous values and the most prominent parameter for accurate temperature estimations is thermoregulation. Therefore, the goal of this research is testing the feasibility of measuring thermoregulation in vivo using MR methods. The calves of 13 volunteers were scanned at 3 tesla. A Proton Resonance Frequency Shift method was used for temperature measurement. Arterial Spin Labeling and phase contrast scans were used for perfusion and flow measurements respectively. The calves were monitored during extreme RF exposure (20 W/kg, 16 min) and after physical exercise. Temperature increases due to RF absorption (range of the 90th percentile of all volunteers: 1.1-2.5°C) matched with the reference skin temperature changes. Increases in perfusion and flow were defined on the whole leg and normalized to baseline. Perfusion showed a significant increase due to RF heating (ratio compared with baseline: 1.28 ± 0.37; P < 0.05), the influence of exercise was much greater, however (2.97 ± 2.45, P < 0.01). This study represents a first exploration of measuring thermoregulation, which will become essential when new safety guidelines are based on thermal dose. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Recent experimental results of KSTAR RF heating and current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S. J. Kim, J.; Jeong, J. H.; Kim, H. J.; Joung, M.; Bae, Y. S.; Kwak, J. G.

    2015-12-10

    The overview of KSTAR activities on ICRH, LHCD and ECH/CD including the last experimental results and future plan aiming for long-pulse high-beta plasma will be presented. Recently we achieved reasonable coupling of ICRF power to H-mode plasma through several efforts to increase system reliability. Power balance will be discussed on this experiment. LHCD is still struggling in the low power regime. Review of antenna spectrum for the higher coupling in H-mode plasma will be tried. ECH/CD provides 41 sec, 0.8 MW of heating power to support high-performance long-pulse discharge. Also, 170 GHz ECH system is integrated with the Plasma Control System (PCS) for the feedback controlling of NTM. Status and plan of ECH/CD will be discussed. Finally, helicon current drive is being prepared for the next stage of KSTAR operation. The hardware preparation and the calculation results of helicon current drive in KSTAR plasma will be discussed.

  8. Use of Near-Infrared Detector to Sense RF Antenna Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, R.A.; Lee, R.L.; Baity, W.F.

    1999-11-01

    The three antennas used for ion cyclotron heating (ICH) experiments on DIII-D have experienced localized heating of the Faraday shield rods during plasma operations which has resulted in some melting. This melting is of great concern not only because of the damage it does to the rf system's ability to deliver rf to the plasma, but because of its potential to contaminate the plasma during a shot and cast the experimental results from the shot into question. A real-time sensor to detect the temperature of the antennae during plasma operations is described. The sensor uses an avalanche photo diode (APD) with sensitivity from 0.4 to 1.0 {micro}m to monitor the temperature of the antennae. Calculations for the detector sensitivity based on Planck's law are compared with experimental results and detector data taken during plasma operations are presented.

  9. Monitoring local heating around an interventional MRI antenna with RF radiometry

    PubMed Central

    Ertürk, M. Arcan; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Radiofrequency (RF) radiometry uses thermal noise detected by an antenna to measure the temperature of objects independent of medical imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, an active interventional MRI antenna can be deployed as a RF radiometer to measure local heating, as a possible new method of monitoring device safety and thermal therapy. Methods: A 128 MHz radiometer receiver was fabricated to measure the RF noise voltage from an interventional 3 T MRI loopless antenna and calibrated for temperature in a uniformly heated bioanalogous gel phantom. Local heating (ΔT) was induced using the antenna for RF transmission and measured by RF radiometry, fiber-optic thermal sensors, and MRI thermometry. The spatial thermal sensitivity of the antenna radiometer was numerically computed using a method-of-moment electric field analyses. The gel’s thermal conductivity was measured by MRI thermometry, and the localized time-dependent ΔT distribution computed from the bioheat transfer equation and compared with radiometry measurements. A “H-factor” relating the 1 g-averaged ΔT to the radiometric temperature was introduced to estimate peak temperature rise in the antenna’s sensitive region. Results: The loopless antenna radiometer linearly tracked temperature inside a thermally equilibrated phantom up to 73 °C to within ±0.3 °C at a 2 Hz sample rate. Computed and MRI thermometric measures of peak ΔT agreed within 13%. The peak 1 g-average temperature was H = 1.36 ± 0.02 times higher than the radiometric temperature for any media with a thermal conductivity of 0.15–0.50 (W/m)/K, indicating that the radiometer can measure peak 1 g-averaged ΔT in physiologically relevant tissue within ±0.4 °C. Conclusions: Active internal MRI detectors can serve as RF radiometers at the MRI frequency to provide accurate independent measures of local and peak temperature without the artifacts that can accompany MRI thermometry or

  10. Monitoring local heating around an interventional MRI antenna with RF radiometry.

    PubMed

    Ertürk, M Arcan; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M; Bottomley, Paul A

    2015-03-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) radiometry uses thermal noise detected by an antenna to measure the temperature of objects independent of medical imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, an active interventional MRI antenna can be deployed as a RF radiometer to measure local heating, as a possible new method of monitoring device safety and thermal therapy. A 128 MHz radiometer receiver was fabricated to measure the RF noise voltage from an interventional 3 T MRI loopless antenna and calibrated for temperature in a uniformly heated bioanalogous gel phantom. Local heating (ΔT) was induced using the antenna for RF transmission and measured by RF radiometry, fiber-optic thermal sensors, and MRI thermometry. The spatial thermal sensitivity of the antenna radiometer was numerically computed using a method-of-moment electric field analyses. The gel's thermal conductivity was measured by MRI thermometry, and the localized time-dependent ΔT distribution computed from the bioheat transfer equation and compared with radiometry measurements. A "H-factor" relating the 1 g-averaged ΔT to the radiometric temperature was introduced to estimate peak temperature rise in the antenna's sensitive region. The loopless antenna radiometer linearly tracked temperature inside a thermally equilibrated phantom up to 73 °C to within ±0.3 °C at a 2 Hz sample rate. Computed and MRI thermometric measures of peak ΔT agreed within 13%. The peak 1 g-average temperature was H = 1.36 ± 0.02 times higher than the radiometric temperature for any media with a thermal conductivity of 0.15-0.50 (W/m)/K, indicating that the radiometer can measure peak 1 g-averaged ΔT in physiologically relevant tissue within ±0.4 °C. Active internal MRI detectors can serve as RF radiometers at the MRI frequency to provide accurate independent measures of local and peak temperature without the artifacts that can accompany MRI thermometry or the extra space needed to accommodate alternative

  11. Monitoring local heating around an interventional MRI antenna with RF radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ertürk, M. Arcan; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Radiofrequency (RF) radiometry uses thermal noise detected by an antenna to measure the temperature of objects independent of medical imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, an active interventional MRI antenna can be deployed as a RF radiometer to measure local heating, as a possible new method of monitoring device safety and thermal therapy. Methods: A 128 MHz radiometer receiver was fabricated to measure the RF noise voltage from an interventional 3 T MRI loopless antenna and calibrated for temperature in a uniformly heated bioanalogous gel phantom. Local heating (ΔT) was induced using the antenna for RF transmission and measured by RF radiometry, fiber-optic thermal sensors, and MRI thermometry. The spatial thermal sensitivity of the antenna radiometer was numerically computed using a method-of-moment electric field analyses. The gel’s thermal conductivity was measured by MRI thermometry, and the localized time-dependent ΔT distribution computed from the bioheat transfer equation and compared with radiometry measurements. A “H-factor” relating the 1 g-averaged ΔT to the radiometric temperature was introduced to estimate peak temperature rise in the antenna’s sensitive region. Results: The loopless antenna radiometer linearly tracked temperature inside a thermally equilibrated phantom up to 73 °C to within ±0.3 °C at a 2 Hz sample rate. Computed and MRI thermometric measures of peak ΔT agreed within 13%. The peak 1 g-average temperature was H = 1.36 ± 0.02 times higher than the radiometric temperature for any media with a thermal conductivity of 0.15–0.50 (W/m)/K, indicating that the radiometer can measure peak 1 g-averaged ΔT in physiologically relevant tissue within ±0.4 °C. Conclusions: Active internal MRI detectors can serve as RF radiometers at the MRI frequency to provide accurate independent measures of local and peak temperature without the artifacts that can accompany MRI thermometry or

  12. Investigation of RF heating for tandem-mirror experiments. Phaedrus status report, Summer, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Breun, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report includes a summary description of experimental results obtained during the period of June, July and August, September 15, 1983 and details of major hardware changes to the Phaedrus experimental facility. Approximately one-third of the time was used to optimize conditions for neutral beam buildup. The remainder of the time was used to advance understanding of the RF heated and fueled tandem mirror experiments.

  13. Recent experimental results and modeling of RF heating of ({sup 3}He)-D JET plasmas: RF as a tool to study transport

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eester, D.; Lerche, E.; Marinoni, A.; Casati, A.; Joffrin, E.; Imbeaux, F.; Kiptily, V.; Sharapov, S.; Santala, M.; Giroud, C.; Crombe, K.; Andrew, Y.; Lomas, P.; Felton, R.

    2007-09-28

    D plasmas with {sup 3}He minorities have sharp, thin ion-ion hybrid layers that enable to efficiently excite short wavelength branches that are subsequently damped by fairly well localized electron Landau and TTMP absorption. Depending on the minority concentration chosen, ion minority heating or electron mode conversion damping is dominant. Recent experiments have been devoted to the study of ({sup 3}He)-D JET plasmas. One aspect of those experiments--using RF heating as a tool--is the study of the response of the plasma to RF power modulation, allowing to examine the fate of the RF power and to diagnose particle and energy transport. The present paper gives a very brief summary of a subset of these experiments. The focus will largely but not exclusively be on understanding ITB physics. The adopted probing methods are more generally applicable, though.

  14. Predictions of VRF on a Langmuir Probe under the RF Heating Spiral on the Divertor Floor on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect

    Hosea, J C; Perkins, R J; Jaworski, M A; Kramer, G J; Ahn, J-W

    2014-07-01

    RF heating deposition spirals are observed on the divertor plates on NSTX as shown in for a NB plus RF heating case. It has been shown that the RF spiral is tracked quite well by the spiral mapping of the strike points on the divertor plate of magnetic field lines passing in front of the high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) antenna on NSTX. Indeed, both current instrumented tiles and Langmuir probes respond to the spiral when it is positioned over them. In particular, a positive increment in tile current (collection of electrons) is obtained when the spiral is over the tile. This current can be due to RF rectification and/or RF heating of the scrape off layer (SOL) plasma along the magnetic field lines passing in front of the the HHFW antenna. It is important to determine quantitatively the relative contributions of these processes. Here we explore the properties of the characteristics of probes on the lower divertor plate to determine the likelyhood that the primary cause of the RF heat deposition is RF rectification.

  15. Observations of Anisotropic Ion Temperature in the NSTX Edge during RF Heating

    SciTech Connect

    T.M. Biewer; R.E. Bell; J.R. Wilson; P.M. Ryan

    2004-10-21

    A new spectroscopic diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) measures the velocity distribution of ions in the plasma edge with both poloidal and toroidal views. An anisotropic ion temperature is measured during the presence of high-power high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) radio-frequency (RF) heating in helium plasmas, with the poloidal ion temperature roughly twice the toroidal ion temperature. Moreover, the measured spectral distribution suggests that two populations are present and have temperatures of 500 eV and 50 eV with rotation velocities of -50 km/s and -10 km/s, respectively. This bi-modal distribution is observed in both the toroidal and poloidal views (in both He{sup +} and C{sup 2+} ions), and is well correlated with the period of RF power application to the plasma. The temperature of the hot edge ions is observed to increase with the applied RF power, which was scanned between 0 and 4.3 MW. The ion heating mechanism is likely to be ion-Bernstein waves (IBW) from nonlinear decay of the launched HHFW.

  16. Heating and temperature gradients of lipid bilayer samples induced by RF irradiation in MAS solid-state NMR experiments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Zhengfeng; Zhao, Weijing; Wang, Liying; Yang, Jun

    2016-05-09

    The MAS solid-state NMR has been a powerful technique for studying membrane proteins within the native-like lipid bilayer environment. In general, RF irradiation in MAS NMR experiments can heat and potentially destroy expensive membrane protein samples. However, under practical MAS NMR experimental conditions, detailed characterization of RF heating effect of lipid bilayer samples is still lacking. Herein, using (1) H chemical shift of water for temperature calibration, we systematically study the dependence of RF heating on hydration levels and salt concentrations of three lipids in MAS NMR experiments. Under practical (1) H decoupling conditions used in biological MAS NMR experiments, three lipids show different dependence of RF heating on hydration levels as well as salt concentrations, which are closely associated with the properties of lipids. The maximum temperature elevation of about 10 °C is similar for the three lipids containing 200% hydration, which is much lower than that in static solid-state NMR experiments. The RF heating due to salt is observed to be less than that due to hydration, with a maximum temperature elevation of less than 4 °C in the hydrated samples containing 120 mmol l(-1) of salt. Upon RF irradiation, the temperature gradient across the sample is observed to be greatly increased up to 20 °C, as demonstrated by the remarkable broadening of (1) H signal of water. Based on detailed characterization of RF heating effect, we demonstrate that RF heating and temperature gradient can be significantly reduced by decreasing the hydration levels of lipid bilayer samples from 200% to 30%. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. RF environment survey of Space Shuttle related EEE frequency bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J.; Prigel, B.; Postelle, J.

    1977-01-01

    Radio frequency assignments within the continental United States in frequency bands between 121 MHz abd 65 GHz were surveyed and analyzed in order to determine current utilization of anticipated frequency bands for the shuttle borne electromagnetic environment experiment. Data from both government and nongovernment files were used. Results are presented in both narrative form and in histograms which show the total number of unclassified assignments versus frequency and total assigned power versus frequency.

  18. MR safety assessment of potential RF heating from cranial fixation plates at 7 T.

    PubMed

    Kraff, Oliver; Wrede, Karsten H; Schoemberg, Tobias; Dammann, Philipp; Noureddine, Yacine; Orzada, Stephan; Ladd, Mark E; Bitz, Andreas K

    2013-04-01

    The increasing number of clinically oriented MRI studies at 7 T motivates the safety assessment of implants, since many 7 T research sites conservatively exclude all subjects with metallic implants, regardless of type or location. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential RF-induced heating during a 7 T MRI scan using a self-built transmit/receive RF coil in patients with implants used for refixation of the bone flap after craniotomy. Going beyond standard ASTM safety tests, a comprehensive test procedure for safety assessments at 7 T is presented which takes into account the more complex coupling of the electromagnetic field with the human body and the implant as well as polarization effects. The safety assessment consisted of three main investigations using (1) numerical simulations in simplified models, (2) electric and magnetic field measurements and validation procedures in homogeneous phantoms, and (3) analysis of exposure scenarios in a heterogeneous human body model including thermal simulations. Finally, 7 T in vivo images show the degree of image artifact around the implants. The simulations showed that the field distortions remain localized within the direct vicinity of the implants. A parallel E-field polarization was found to be the most relevant component in creating local SAR deviations, resulting in a 10% increase in 10-g-averaged SAR and 53% in 1-g-averaged SAR. Using a heterogeneous human head model, the implants caused field distortions and SAR elevations in the numerical simulations which were distinctly lower than the maximum local SAR value caused by the RF coil alone. Also, the position of the maximum 10-g-averaged SAR remained unchanged by the presence of the implants. Similarly, the maximum absolute local temperature remained below 39 °C in the thermal simulations. Only minor artifacts from the implants were observed in the in vivo images that would not likely affect the diagnostic image quality in patients. The findings

  19. Electron heating during E-H transition in inductively coupled RF plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, Th; Küllig, C.; Meichsner, J.

    2015-08-01

    A planar inductively coupled RF discharge (13.56 MHz) in argon and oxygen was exemplarily studied using space and phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy. The characteristic excitation rate pattern due to the electron heating during the sheath expansion was found for both gases in the E-mode. Furthermore, an intensive pattern in oxygen appears during the sheath collapse. This is associated with the electron heating caused by electric field reversal due to the strong electronegativity. The transition from the E- to the H-mode may be stepwise or continuous, depending on the gas type and total gas pressure. In the H-mode, significant differences in the excitation rate patterns exist. A broad and weakly modulated pattern is found over the RF cycle in argon, whereas in oxygen two separated patterns appear representing the electron heating for each half cycle. The reason may be the different excitation processes of the investigated resonant states and the influence of metastable argon atoms as well as attachment/detachment processes and dissociative recombination in oxygen. The E-H transition in oxygen at 5 Pa develops continuously and was studied in detail through the excitation rate. During the transition, the E- and H-mode are present and a hybrid mode was observed.

  20. Reduction of resonant RF heating in intravascular catheters using coaxial chokes.

    PubMed

    Ladd, M E; Quick, H H

    2000-04-01

    The incorporation of RF coils into the tips of intravascular devices has been shown to enable the localization of catheters and guidewires under MR guidance. Furthermore, such coils can be used for endoluminal imaging. The long cable required to connect the coil with the scanner input inadvertently acts as a dipole antenna which picks up RF energy from the body coil during transmit. Currents are induced on the cable which can lead to localized heating of surrounding tissue. Cables of various lengths were measured to determine if a resonance in the heating as a function of cable length could be found. Coaxial chokes with a length of lambda/4 were added to coaxial cables to reduce the amplitude of the currents induced on the cable shield. A 0.7-mm diameter triaxial cable, small enough to fit into a standard intravascular device, was developed and measured both with and without a coaxial choke. It is demonstrated that resonant heating does occur and that it can be significantly reduced by avoiding a resonant length of cable and by including coaxial chokes on the cable.

  1. Design and Development of a Series Switch for High Voltage in RF Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Himanshu K.; Shah, Deep; Thacker, Mauli; Shah, Atman

    2013-02-01

    Plasma is the fourth state of matter. To sustain plasma in its ionic form very high temperature is essential. RF heating systems are used to provide the required temperature. Arching phenomenon in these systems can cause enormous damage to the RF tube. Heavy current flows across the anode-cathode junction, which need to be suppressed in minimal time for its protection. Fast-switching circuit breakers are used to cut-off the load from the supply in cases of arching. The crowbar interrupts the connection between the high voltage power supply (HVPS) and the RF tube for a temporary period between which the series switch has to open. The crowbar shunts the current across the load but in the process leads to short circuiting the HVPS. Thus, to protect the load as well as the HVPS a series switch is necessary. This paper presents the design and development of high voltage Series Switch for the high power switching applications. Fiber optic based Optimum triggering scheme is designed and tested to restrict the time delay well within the stipulated limits. The design is well supported with the experimental results for the whole set-up along with the series switch at various voltage level before its approval for operation at 5.2 kV.

  2. Effect of insulating layer material on RF-induced heating for external fixation system in 1.5 T MRI system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Kainz, Wolfgang; Qian, Songsong; Wu, Wen; Chen, Ji

    2014-09-01

    The radio frequency (RF)-induced heating is a major concern when patients with medical devices are placed inside a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. In this article, numerical studies are applied to investigate the potentials of using insulated materials to reduce the RF heating for external fixation devices. It is found that by changing the dielectric constant of the insulation material, the RF-induced heating at the tips of devices can be altered. This study indicates a potential technique of developing external fixation device with low MRI RF heating.

  3. Development of long pulse RF heating and current drive for H-mode scenarios with metallic walls in WEST

    SciTech Connect

    Ekedahl, Annika Bourdelle, Clarisse; Artaud, Jean-François; Bernard, Jean-Michel; Bufferand, Hugo; Colas, Laurent; Decker, Joan; Delpech, Léna; Dumont, Rémi; Goniche, Marc; Helou, Walid; Hillairet, Julien; Lombard, Gilles; Magne, Roland; Mollard, Patrick; Nardon, Eric; Peysson, Yves; Tsitrone, Emmanuelle

    2015-12-10

    The longstanding expertise of the Tore Supra team in long pulse heating and current drive with radiofrequency (RF) systems will now be exploited in the WEST device (tungsten-W Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) [1]. WEST will allow an integrated long pulse tokamak programme for testing W-divertor components at ITER-relevant heat flux (10-20 MW/m{sup 2}), while treating crucial aspects for ITER-operation, such as avoidance of W-accumulation in long discharges, monitoring and control of heat fluxes on the metallic plasma facing components (PFCs) and coupling of RF waves in H-mode plasmas. Scenario modelling using the METIS-code shows that ITER-relevant heat fluxes are compatible with the sustainment of long pulse H-mode discharges, at high power (up to 15 MW / 30 s at I{sub P} = 0.8 MA) or high fluence (up to 10 MW / 1000 s at I{sub P} = 0.6 MA) [2], all based on RF heating and current drive using Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) and Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD). This paper gives a description of the ICRH and LHCD systems in WEST, together with the modelling of the power deposition of the RF waves in the WEST-scenarios.

  4. Development of long pulse RF heating and current drive for H-mode scenarios with metallic walls in WEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekedahl, Annika; Bourdelle, Clarisse; Artaud, Jean-François; Bernard, Jean-Michel; Bufferand, Hugo; Colas, Laurent; Decker, Joan; Delpech, Léna; Dumont, Rémi; Goniche, Marc; Helou, Walid; Hillairet, Julien; Lombard, Gilles; Magne, Roland; Mollard, Patrick; Nardon, Eric; Peysson, Yves; Tsitrone, Emmanuelle

    2015-12-01

    The longstanding expertise of the Tore Supra team in long pulse heating and current drive with radiofrequency (RF) systems will now be exploited in the WEST device (tungsten-W Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) [1]. WEST will allow an integrated long pulse tokamak programme for testing W-divertor components at ITER-relevant heat flux (10-20 MW/m2), while treating crucial aspects for ITER-operation, such as avoidance of W-accumulation in long discharges, monitoring and control of heat fluxes on the metallic plasma facing components (PFCs) and coupling of RF waves in H-mode plasmas. Scenario modelling using the METIS-code shows that ITER-relevant heat fluxes are compatible with the sustainment of long pulse H-mode discharges, at high power (up to 15 MW / 30 s at IP = 0.8 MA) or high fluence (up to 10 MW / 1000 s at IP = 0.6 MA) [2], all based on RF heating and current drive using Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) and Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD). This paper gives a description of the ICRH and LHCD systems in WEST, together with the modelling of the power deposition of the RF waves in the WEST-scenarios.

  5. On the estimation of the worst-case implant-induced RF-heating in multi-channel MRI.

    PubMed

    Córcoles, Juan; Zastrow, Earl; Kuster, Niels

    2017-03-02

    The increasing use of multiple radiofrequency (RF) transmit channels in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems makes it necessary to rigorously assess the risk of RF-induced heating. This risk is especially aggravated with inclusions of medical implants within the body. The worst-case RF-heating scenario is achieved when the local tissue deposition in the at-risk region (generally in the vicinity of the implant electrodes) reaches its maximum value while MRI exposure is compliant with predefined general specific absorption rate (SAR) limits or power requirements. This work first reviews the common approach to estimate the worst-case RF-induced heating in multi-channel MRI environment, based on the maximization of the ratio of two Hermitian forms by solving a generalized eigenvalue problem. It is then shown that the common approach is not rigorous and may lead to an underestimation of the worst-case RF-heating scenario when there is a large number of RF transmit channels and there exist multiple SAR or power constraints to be satisfied. Finally, this work derives a rigorous SAR-based formulation to estimate a preferable worst-case scenario, which is solved by casting a semidefinite programming relaxation of this original non-convex problem, whose solution closely approximates the true worst-case including all SAR constraints. Numerical results for 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 RF channels in a 3T-MRI volume coil for a patient with a deep-brain stimulator under a head imaging exposure are provided as illustrative examples.

  6. On the estimation of the worst-case implant-induced RF-heating in multi-channel MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córcoles, Juan; Zastrow, Earl; Kuster, Niels

    2017-06-01

    The increasing use of multiple radiofrequency (RF) transmit channels in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems makes it necessary to rigorously assess the risk of RF-induced heating. This risk is especially aggravated with inclusions of medical implants within the body. The worst-case RF-heating scenario is achieved when the local tissue deposition in the at-risk region (generally in the vicinity of the implant electrodes) reaches its maximum value while MRI exposure is compliant with predefined general specific absorption rate (SAR) limits or power requirements. This work first reviews the common approach to estimate the worst-case RF-induced heating in multi-channel MRI environment, based on the maximization of the ratio of two Hermitian forms by solving a generalized eigenvalue problem. It is then shown that the common approach is not rigorous and may lead to an underestimation of the worst-case RF-heating scenario when there is a large number of RF transmit channels and there exist multiple SAR or power constraints to be satisfied. Finally, this work derives a rigorous SAR-based formulation to estimate a preferable worst-case scenario, which is solved by casting a semidefinite programming relaxation of this original non-convex problem, whose solution closely approximates the true worst-case including all SAR constraints. Numerical results for 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 RF channels in a 3T-MRI volume coil for a patient with a deep-brain stimulator under a head imaging exposure are provided as illustrative examples.

  7. Heating effects of a non-equilibrium RF corona discharge in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auzas, F.; Tardiveau, P.; Puech, V.; Makarov, M.; Agneray, A.

    2010-12-01

    Electrical and thermal properties of a single electrode configuration corona discharge generated under radiofrequency high voltage inside an open air gap at pressures above 1 bar is investigated. Time-resolved imaging of the discharge shows a four-step development of the discharge at atmospheric pressure starting by streamers' inception and propagation, evolving in heating waves and stabilizing in a stationary regime until the power supply is switched off. The mean gas temperature reaches about 1700 K in tens of microseconds with electrical energy release around tens of millijoules. Heating has been attributed to ion collisions and excited species relaxation, promoted by the successive time periods of the power supply. At higher pressures, beyond 3 bar, this behaviour changes and heating occurs at the same time as the discharge propagates. It leads to hot channels which constrict near the electrode as long as the voltage pulse is applied. Temperature gets higher and saturates at 2600 K whatever the voltage and the pressure. Considering the change in the electrical energy density released within the plasma channels with pressure and voltage, temperature saturation seems to be an effect of heat confining within the channels due to pressure. The large and non-thermal plasma generated by the RF corona discharge is a very good candidate for car engine lean mixtures ignition issues.

  8. Observations of Anisotropic Ion Temperature in the NSTX Edge during RF Heating

    SciTech Connect

    T.M. Biewer; R.E. Bell; P.M. Ryan; J.R. Wilson

    2004-06-28

    A new spectroscopic diagnostic with both toroidal and poloidal views has been implemented in the edge of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). This edge rotation diagnostic (ERD) was designed to measure the velocity and temperature of ions. The intersection of the diagnostic sightlines with the intrinsic emission shell provides the localization of the measurement. There are 7 toroidally directed views and 6 poloidally directed views of the outboard plasma edge. The poloidal view is {approx}20 cm (toroidally) from the RF antenna, and the toroidal view is {approx}2 m away. The sightlines are nearly tangent to the flux surfaces. The C{sup 2+} triplet near 4651 {angstrom} and the He{sup +} line at 4685 {angstrom} are measured. In the results presented here, helium is the bulk, ''working'' ion of the discharge. The NSTX is a large spherical tokamak with a major radius of 0.85 m and a minor radius of 0.65 m. The outer walls and center-stack are lined with protective carbon tiles. Pulse lengths for these NSTX discharges are {approx} 600 ms, with an on-axis toroidal magnetic field of {approx} 0.3 T. The plasma current is 500 kA. The on-axis electron temperature and density are {le} 2 keV and {approx} 2 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, respectively with {le} 4.3 MW of High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) Radio Frequency (RF) auxiliary heating.

  9. Self-heating study of bulk acoustic wave resonators under high RF power.

    PubMed

    Ivira, Brice; Fillit, René-Yves; Ndagijimana, Fabien; Benech, Philippe; Parat, Guy; Ancey, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    The present work first provides an experimental technique to study self-heating of bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators under high RF power in the gigahertz range. This study is specially focused on film bulk acoustic wave resonators and solidly mounted resonators processed onto silicon wafers and designed for wireless systems. Precisely, the reflection coefficient of a one-port device is measured while up to several watts are applied and power leads to electrical drifts of impedances. In the following, we describe how absorbed power can be determined from the incident one in real time. Therefore, an infrared camera held over the radio frequency micro electromechanical system (RF-MEMS) surface with an exceptional spatial resolution reaching up to 2 microm/pixels gives accurate temperature mapping of resonators after emissivity correction. From theoretical point of view, accurate three-dimensional (3-D) structures for finite-element modeling analyses are carried out to know the best materials and architectures to use for enhancing power handling. In both experimental and theoretical investigations, comparison is made between film bulk acoustic wave resonators and solidly mounted resonators. Thus, the trend in term of material, architecture, and size of device for power application such as in transmission path of a transceiver is clearly identified.

  10. Novel magnetic core materials impact modelling and analysis for minimization of RF heating loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Bablu Kumar; Mohamad, Khairul Anuar; Saad, Ismail

    2016-02-01

    The eddy current that exists in RF transformer/inductor leads to generation of noise/heat in the circuit and ultimately reduces efficiency in RF system. Eddy current is generated in the magnetic core of the inductor/transformer largely determine the power loss for power transferring process. The losses for high-frequency magnetic components are complicated due to both the eddy current variation in magnetic core and copper windings reactance variation with frequency. Core materials permeability and permittivity are also related to variation of such losses those linked to the operating frequency. This paper will discuss mainly the selection of novel magnetic core materials for minimization of eddy power loss by using the approach of empirical equation and impedance plane simulation software TEDDY V1.2. By varying the operating frequency from 100 kHz to 1GHz and magnetic flux density from 0 to 2 Tesla, the eddy power loss is evaluated in our study. The Nano crystalline core material is found to be the best core material due to its low eddy power loss at low conductivity for optimum band of frequency application.

  11. A heterogeneous human tissue mimicking phantom for RF heating and MRI thermal monitoring verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yu; Wyatt, Cory; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul; Craciunescu, Oana; MacFall, James; Dewhirst, Mark; Das, Shiva K.

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes a heterogeneous phantom that mimics a human thigh with a deep-seated tumor, for the purpose of studying the performance of radiofrequency (RF) heating equipment and non-invasive temperature monitoring with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The heterogeneous cylindrical phantom was constructed with an outer fat layer surrounding an inner core of phantom material mimicking muscle, tumor and marrow-filled bone. The component materials were formulated to have dielectric and thermal properties similar to human tissues. The dielectric properties of the tissue mimicking phantom materials were measured with a microwave vector network analyzer and impedance probe over the frequency range of 80-500 MHz and at temperatures of 24, 37 and 45 °C. The specific heat values of the component materials were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter over the temperature range of 15-55 °C. The thermal conductivity value was obtained from fitting the curves obtained from one-dimensional heat transfer measurement. The phantom was used to verify the operation of a cylindrical four-antenna annular phased array extremity applicator (140 MHz) by examining the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) thermal imaging patterns for various magnitude/phase settings (including settings to focus heating in tumors). For muscle and tumor materials, MRI was also used to measure T1/T2* values (1.5 T) and to obtain the slope of the PRFS phase change versus temperature change curve. The dielectric and thermal properties of the phantom materials were in close agreement to well-accepted published results for human tissues. The phantom was able to successfully demonstrate satisfactory operation of the tested heating equipment. The MRI-measured thermal distributions matched the expected patterns for various magnitude/phase settings of the applicator, allowing the phantom to be used as a quality assurance tool. Importantly, the material formulations for the various tissue types

  12. A heterogeneous human tissue mimicking phantom for RF heating and MRI thermal monitoring verification.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yu; Wyatt, Cory; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul; Craciunescu, Oana; Macfall, James; Dewhirst, Mark; Das, Shiva K

    2012-04-07

    This paper describes a heterogeneous phantom that mimics a human thigh with a deep-seated tumor, for the purpose of studying the performance of radiofrequency (RF) heating equipment and non-invasive temperature monitoring with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The heterogeneous cylindrical phantom was constructed with an outer fat layer surrounding an inner core of phantom material mimicking muscle, tumor and marrow-filled bone. The component materials were formulated to have dielectric and thermal properties similar to human tissues. The dielectric properties of the tissue mimicking phantom materials were measured with a microwave vector network analyzer and impedance probe over the frequency range of 80-500 MHz and at temperatures of 24, 37 and 45 °C. The specific heat values of the component materials were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter over the temperature range of 15-55 °C. The thermal conductivity value was obtained from fitting the curves obtained from one-dimensional heat transfer measurement. The phantom was used to verify the operation of a cylindrical four-antenna annular phased array extremity applicator (140 MHz) by examining the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) thermal imaging patterns for various magnitude/phase settings (including settings to focus heating in tumors). For muscle and tumor materials, MRI was also used to measure T1/T2* values (1.5 T) and to obtain the slope of the PRFS phase change versus temperature change curve. The dielectric and thermal properties of the phantom materials were in close agreement to well-accepted published results for human tissues. The phantom was able to successfully demonstrate satisfactory operation of the tested heating equipment. The MRI-measured thermal distributions matched the expected patterns for various magnitude/phase settings of the applicator, allowing the phantom to be used as a quality assurance tool. Importantly, the material formulations for the various tissue types

  13. Heating mechanisms and particle flow balancing of capacitively coupled plasmas driven by combined dc/rf sources

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Wei; Xu Xiang; Dai Zhongling; Wang Younian

    2008-03-15

    Heating mechanisms and particle flow balancing of capacitively coupled plasmas driven by combined dc/rf sources have been investigated by particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo simulations. At low pressure, Ohmic heating will be suppressed and stochastic heating will be enhanced while increasing dc voltage. But the overall heating power will decrease. No heating mode transitions are observed. At high pressure, bulk plasma density decreases at low dc and rf voltage, and the one-side {alpha}-{gamma} transition will occur while increasing dc voltage. After the transition, the plasma density abruptly increases and average electron energy drops. As the result of that, the plasma is sustained by secondary electrons instead of the Ohmic heating of the bulk electrons. The dc source will reduce, or even eliminate at high voltage, the electron charge flowing into the dc powered electrode. Therefore the ratio of electron-to-ion charge flowing into the rf powered electrode over one period increases from -1.0 to -2.0--2.3 for low pressure and -2.2--5.0 for high pressure.

  14. Survey of advanced-heat-pump developments for space conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of heat pump projects with special emphasis on those supported by DOE, EPRI, and the Gas Research Institute is presented. Some historical notes on heat pump development are discussed. Market and equipment trends, well water and ground-coupled heat pumps, heat-actuated heat pump development, and international interest in heat pumps are also discussed. 30 references.

  15. Experiment and numerical simulation of RF heating in the Tandem Mirror plasma propulsion device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. F.; Peng, S.; Chang-Diaz, F. R.

    1991-01-01

    Recent results of experimental and theoretical studies of ICRF heating of the plasma in the Tendem Mirror rocket are presented. The radial and axial profile of the magnetic field of the wave have been measured, and the data agree with the results from numerical simulation. One very important new finding is that the wave damped when it approached the resonance plane. This is a strong indication of beach heating effect and that RF power is absorbed by the ions in the plasma as expected. This power absorption phenomenon was also further confirmed by the refined analytical study of the wave propagation in a slab model. The electron density in the central cell has been measured by a microwave interferometer. The existence of two types of discharge similar to those of H-alpha emission have also been observed from the density measurements. A preliminary design of a flight system for a 100-day Mars transit has been undertaken. The specific weight for a 10 MW rocket is only 0.04 kg/kW.

  16. Experiment and numerical simulation of RF heating in the Tandem Mirror plasma propulsion device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. F.; Peng, S.; Chang-Diaz, F. R.

    1991-01-01

    Recent results of experimental and theoretical studies of ICRF heating of the plasma in the Tendem Mirror rocket are presented. The radial and axial profile of the magnetic field of the wave have been measured, and the data agree with the results from numerical simulation. One very important new finding is that the wave damped when it approached the resonance plane. This is a strong indication of beach heating effect and that RF power is absorbed by the ions in the plasma as expected. This power absorption phenomenon was also further confirmed by the refined analytical study of the wave propagation in a slab model. The electron density in the central cell has been measured by a microwave interferometer. The existence of two types of discharge similar to those of H-alpha emission have also been observed from the density measurements. A preliminary design of a flight system for a 100-day Mars transit has been undertaken. The specific weight for a 10 MW rocket is only 0.04 kg/kW.

  17. SPIRAL field mapping on NSTX for comparison to divertor RF heat deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosea, J. C.; Perkins, R.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kramer, G. J.; Ahn, J.-W.; Bertelli, N.; Gerhardt, S.; Gray, T. K.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.; Phillips, C. K.; Roquemore, L.; Ryan, P. M.; Sabbagh, S.; Taylor, G.; Tritz, K.; Wilson, J. R.; NSTX Team

    2014-02-01

    Field-aligned losses of HHFW power in the SOL of NSTX have been studied with IR cameras and probes, but the interpretation of the data depends somewhat on the magnetic equilibrium reconstruction. Both EFIT02 and LRDFIT04 magnetic equilibria have been used with the SPIRAL code to provide field mappings in the scrape off layer (SOL) on NSTX from the midplane SOL in front of the HHFW antenna to the divertor regions, where the heat deposition spirals are measured. The field-line mapping spiral produced at the divertor plate with LRDFIT04 matches the HHFW-produced heat deposition best, in general. An independent method for comparing the field-line strike patterns on the outer divertor for the two equilibria is provided by measuring Langmuir probe characteristics in the vicinity of the outer vessel strike radius (OVSR) and observing the effect on floating potential, saturation current, and zero-probe-voltage current (IV=0) with the crossing of the OVSR over the probe. Interestingly, these comparisons also reveal that LRDFIT04 gives the more accurate location of the predicted OVSR, and confirm that the RF power flow in the SOL is essentially along the magnetic field lines. Also, the probe characteristics and IV=0 data indicate that current flows under the OVSR in the divertor tiles in most cases studied.

  18. An overview of the VASIMR engine: High power space propulsion with RF plasma generation and heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, F. R. Chang

    2001-10-01

    The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) is a high power, radio frequency-driven magnetoplasma rocket, capable of exhaust modulation at constant power. While the plasma is produced by a helicon discharge, the bulk of the energy is added in a separate downstream stage by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). Axial momentum is obtained by the adiabatic expansion of the plasma in a magnetic nozzle. Exhaust variation in the VASIMR is primarily achieved by the selective partitioning of the RF power to the helicon and ICRH systems, with the proper adjustment of the propellant flow. However, other complementary techniques are also being studied. Operational and performance considerations favor the light gases. The physics and engineering of this device have been under study since the late 1970s. A NASA-led, research effort, involving several terms in the United States, continues to explore the scientific and technological foundations of this concept. The research involves theory, experiment, engineering design, mission analysis, and technology development. Experimentally, high density, stable plasma discharges have been generated in Helium, Hydrogen and Deuterium, as well as mixtures of these gases. Key issues involve the optimization of the helicon discharge for high-density operation and the efficient coupling of ICRH to the plasma, prior to acceleration by the magnetic nozzle. Theoretically, the dynamics of the magnetized plasma are being studied from kinetic and fluid perspectives. Plasma acceleration by the magnetic nozzle and subsequent detachment has been demonstrated in numerical simulations. These results are presently undergoing experimental verification. A brisk technology development effort for space-qualified, compact, solid-state RF equipment, and high temperature superconducting magnets is under way in support of this project. A conceptual point design for an early space demonstrator on the International Space Station has been defined

  19. A heterogeneous human tissue mimicking phantom for RF heating and MRI thermal monitoring verification

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yu; Wyatt, Cory; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul; Craciunescu, Oana; MacFall, James; Dewhirst, Mark; Das, Shiva K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a heterogeneous phantom that mimics a human thigh with a deep seated tumor, for the purpose of studying the performance of radiofrequency (RF) heating equipment and non-invasive temperature monitoring with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The heterogeneous cylindrical phantom was constructed with an outer fat layer surrounding an inner core of phantom material mimicking muscle, tumor and marrow-filled bone. The component materials were formulated to have dielectric and thermal properties similar to human tissues. The dielectric properties of the tissue-mimicking phantom materials were measured with a microwave vector network analyzer and impedance probe over the frequency range of 80 – 500 MHz and at temperatures of 24°C, 37°C, and 45°C. The specific heat values of the component materials were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter over the temperature range of 15 – 55°C. The thermal conductivity value was obtained from fitting the curves obtained from one-dimensional heat transfer measurement. The phantom was used to verify the operation of a cylindrical 4-antenna annular phased array extremity applicator (140 MHz), by examining the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) thermal imaging patterns for various magnitude/phase settings (including settings to focus heating in tumor). For muscle and tumor materials, MR imaging was also used to measure T1/T2* values (1.5 Tesla) and to obtain the slope of the PRFS phase change vs. temperature change curve. The dielectric and thermal properties of the phantom materials were in close agreement to well-accepted published results for human tissues. The phantom was able to successfully demonstrate satisfactory operation of the tested heating equipment. The MRI-measured thermal distributions matched the expected patterns for various magnitude/phase settings of the applicator, allowing the phantom to be used as a quality assurance tool. Importantly, the material formulations for the

  20. RF tissue-heating near metallic implants during magnetic resonance examinations: an approach in the ac limit.

    PubMed

    Ballweg, Verena; Eibofner, Frank; Graf, Hansjorg

    2011-10-01

    State of the art to access radiofrequency (RF) heating near implants is computer modeling of the devices and solving Maxwell's equations for the specific setup. For a set of input parameters, a fixed result is obtained. This work presents a theoretical approach in the alternating current (ac) limit, which can potentially render closed formulas for the basic behavior of tissue heating near metallic structures. Dedicated experiments were performed to support the theory. For the ac calculations, the implant was modeled as an RLC parallel circuit, with L being the secondary of a transformer and the RF transmission coil being its primary. Parameters influencing coupling, power matching, and specific absorption rate (SAR) were determined and formula relations were established. Experiments on a copper ring with a radial gap as capacitor for inductive coupling (at 1.5 T) and on needles for capacitive coupling (at 3 T) were carried out. The temperature rise in the embedding dielectric was observed as a function of its specific resistance using an infrared (IR) camera. Closed formulas containing the parameters of the setup were obtained for the frequency dependence of the transmitted power at fixed load resistance, for the calculation of the resistance for optimum power transfer, and for the calculation of the transmitted power in dependence of the load resistance. Good qualitative agreement was found between the course of the experimentally obtained heating curves and the theoretically determined power curves. Power matching revealed as critical parameter especially if the sample was resonant close to the Larmor frequency. The presented ac approach to RF heating near an implant, which mimics specific values for R, L, and C, allows for closed formulas to estimate the potential of RF energy transfer. A first reference point for worst-case determination in MR testing procedures can be obtained. Numerical approaches, necessary to determine spatially resolved heating maps, can

  1. RF Sources for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Hosea, J.; Brunkhorst, C.; Fredd, E.; Goulding, R. H.; Goulding, R. H.; Greenough, N.; Kung, C.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Swain, D. W.; Wilson, J. R.

    2005-10-04

    The RF source requirements for the ITER ion cyclotron (IC) heating and current drive system are very challenging ? 20 MW CW power into an antenna load with a VSWR of up to 2 over the frequency range of 35-65 MHz. For the two present antenna designs under consideration, 8 sources providing 2.5 MW each are to be employed. For these sources, the outputs of two final power amplifiers (FPAs), using the high power CPI 4CM2500KG tube, are combined with a 180? hybrid combiner to easily meet the ITER IC source requirements ? 2.5 MW is supplied at a VSWR of 2 at ? 70% of the maximum tube power available in class B operation. The cylindrical cavity configuration for the FPAs is quite compact so that the 8 combined sources fit into the space allocated at the ITER site with room to spare. The source configuration is described in detail and its projected operating power curves are presented. Although the CPI tube has been shown to be stable under high power operating conditions on many facilities, a test of the combined FPA source arrangement is in preparation using existing high power 30 MHz amplifiers to assure that this configuration can be made robustly stable for all phases at a VSWR up to 2. The possibility of using 12 sources to feed a suitably modified antenna design is also discussed in the context of providing flexibility for specifying the final IC antenna design.

  2. Simulation of SAR in the Human Body to Determine Effects of RF Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michiyama, Tetsuyuki; Nikawa, Yoshio

    The body area network (BAN) has attracted attention because of its potential for high-grade wireless communication technology and its safety and high durability. Also, human area transmission of a BAN propagating at an ultra-wide band (UWB) has been demonstrated recently. When considering the efficiency of electromagnetic (EM) propagation inside the human body for BAN and hyperthermia treatment using RF, it is important to determine the mechanism of EM dissipation in the human body. A body heating system for hyperthermia must deposit EM energy deep inside the body. Also, it is important that the EM field generated by the implant system is sufficiently strong. In this study, the specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution is simulated using an EM simulator to consider the biological transmission mechanism and its effects. To utilize the EM field distribution using an implant system for hyperthermia treatment, the SAR distribution inside the human body is simulated. As a result, the SAR distribution is concentrated on the surface of human tissue, the muscle-bolus interface, the pancreas, the stomach, the spleen and the regions around bones. It can also be concentrated in bone marrow and cartilage. From these results, the appropriate location for the implant system is revealed on the basis of the current distribution and differences in the wave impedance of interfacing tissues. The possibility of accurate data transmission and suitable treatment planning is confirmed.

  3. High temperature metal purification using a compact portable rf heating and levitation system on the wake shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahs, C. A.

    1990-01-01

    The Wake Shield Facility (WSF) can provide an ideal vacuum environment for the purification of high temperature metals in space. The Modular Electromagnetic Levitator (MEL), will provide the opportunity to study undercooling of metals in space and allow to determine material properties in space. The battery powered rf levitation and heating system developed for the MEL demonstrated efficiency of 36 percent. This system is being considered to purify metals at temperatures below 3000 C.

  4. Complex-Difference Constrained Compressed Sensing Reconstruction for Accelerated PRF Thermometry with Application to MRI Induced RF Heating

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhipeng; Oh, Sukhoon; Otazo, Ricardo; Sica, Christopher T.; Griswold, Mark A.; Collins, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Introduce a novel compressed sensing reconstruction method to accelerate proton resonance frequency (PRF) shift temperature imaging for MRI induced radiofrequency (RF) heating evaluation. Methods A compressed sensing approach that exploits sparsity of the complex difference between post-heating and baseline images is proposed to accelerate PRF temperature mapping. The method exploits the intra- and inter-image correlations to promote sparsity and remove shared aliasing artifacts. Validations were performed on simulations and retrospectively undersampled data acquired in ex-vivo and in-vivo studies by comparing performance with previously proposed techniques. Results The proposed complex difference constrained compressed sensing reconstruction method improved the reconstruction of smooth and local PRF temperature change images compared to various available reconstruction methods in a simulation study, a retrospective study with heating of a human forearm in vivo, and a retrospective study with heating of a sample of beef ex vivo . Conclusion Complex difference based compressed sensing with utilization of a fully-sampled baseline image improves the reconstruction accuracy for accelerated PRF thermometry. It can be used to improve the volumetric coverage and temporal resolution in evaluation of RF heating due to MRI, and may help facilitate and validate temperature-based methods for safety assurance. PMID:24753099

  5. Effect of deuteron temperature on iron forbidden line intensities in rf-heated tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, K.; Suckewer, S.; Wouters, A.

    1987-05-01

    Two line ratios, the forbidden line at 845.5 A (2s/sup 2/2p /sup 2/P/sub 1/2/ - 2s/sup 2/2p /sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) to the allowed line at 135.7 A (2s/sup 2/2p /sup 2/P/sub 1/2/ - 2s2p/sup 2/ /sup 2/D/sub 3/2/) in Fe XXII and the forbidden line at 592.1 A (2s/sup 2/2p/sup 4/ /sup 3/P/sub 2/ - 2s/sup 2/2p/sup 4/ /sup 1/D/sub 2/) to the forbidden line at 1118.2 A (2s/sup 2/2p/sup 4/ /sup 3/P/sub 2/ - 2s/sup 2/2p/sup 4/ /sup 3/P/sub 1/) in Fe XIX, have been measured as the ion temperature-sensitive line ratios during rf heating in the Princeton Large Torus. The results indicate that deuteron collisions in plasmas of high deuteron temperature have a noticeable effect on the intensity of the forbidden lines. Measured relative intensities are compared with values from level population calculations, which include deuteron collisional excitation between the levels of the ground configuration. The agreement between the observed and calculated ratios is within 30%. A method for deuteron (or proton) temperature measurement in tokamak plasmas is discussed. 37 refs.

  6. Three-dimensional finite element heat transfer and thermal stress analysis of rf structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran Ngoc, Truc; Labrie, Jean-Pierre; Baset, Saleh

    1987-04-01

    Thermal expansion and thermal stress induced strain cause the detuning and limit the power level of radiofrequency (rf) structures. Two-dimensional finite element modeling has been used to determine the operating power limits of coupled cavity systems [1], but for complex high power accelerator structures without axial symmetry, a three-dimensional analysis is necessary. This paper describes results of a three-dimensional finite element temperature and thermal stress analysis. The analysis was performed for a high power coupled cavity linac structure operating at 1350 MHz. The results of the analysis are used to determine changes in the structure rf parameters as a function of power level and cooling water velocity.

  7. Application of the Finite Orbit Width Version of the CQL3D Code to NBI +RF Heating of NSTX Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Yu. V.; Harvey, R. W.

    2015-11-01

    The CQL3D bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck (FP) code has been upgraded to include Finite-Orbit-Width (FOW) effects. The calculations can be done either with a fast Hybrid-FOW option or with a slower but neoclassically complete full-FOW option. The banana regime neoclassical radial transport appears naturally in the full-FOW version by averaging the local collision coefficients along guiding center orbits, with a proper transformation matrix from local (R, Z) coordinates to the midplane computational coordinates, where the FP equation is solved. In a similar way, the local quasilinear rf diffusion terms give rise to additional radial transport of orbits. The full-FOW version is applied to simulation of ion heating in NSTX plasma. It is demonstrated that it can describe the physics of transport phenomena in plasma with auxiliary heating, in particular, the enhancement of the radial transport of ions by RF heating and the occurrence of the bootstrap current. Because of the bounce-averaging on the FPE, the results are obtained in a relatively short computational time. A typical full-FOW run time is 30 min using 140 MPI cores. Due to an implicit solver, calculations with a large time step (tested up to dt = 0.5 sec) remain stable. Supported by USDOE grants SC0006614, ER54744, and ER44649.

  8. Evaluation of the RF heating of a generic deep brain stimulator exposed in 1.5 T magnetic resonance scanners.

    PubMed

    Cabot, Eugenia; Lloyd, Tom; Christ, Andreas; Kainz, Wolfgang; Douglas, Mark; Stenzel, Gregg; Wedan, Steve; Kuster, Niels

    2013-02-01

    The radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field of magnetic resonance (MR) scanners can result in significant tissue heating due to the RF coupling with the conducting parts of medical implants. The objective of this article is to evaluate the advantages and shortcomings of a new four-tier approach based on a combined numerical and experimental procedure, designed to demonstrate safety of implants during MR scans. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first study analyzing this technique. The evaluation is performed for 1.5 T MR scanners using a generic model of a deep brain stimulator (DBS) with a straight lead and a helical lead. The results show that the approach is technically feasible and provides sound and conservative information about the potential heating of implants. We demonstrate that (1) applying optimized tools results in reasonable uncertainties for the overall evaluation; (2) each tier reduces the overestimation by several dB at the cost of more demanding evaluation steps; (3) the implant with the straight lead would cause local temperature increases larger than 18 °C at the RF exposure limit for the normal operating mode; (4) Tier 3 is not sufficient for the helical implant; and (5) Tier 4 might be too demanding to be performed for complex implants. We conclude with a suggestion for a procedure that follows the same concept but is between Tier 3 and 4. In addition, the evaluation of Tier 3 has shown consistency with current scan practice, namely, the resulting heat at the lead tip is less than 3.5 °C for the straight lead and 0.7 °C for the helix lead for scans at the current applied MR scan restrictions for deep brain stimulation at a head average SAR of 0.1 W/kg. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. High-temperature metal purification using a compact, portable rf heating and levitation system on the wake shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahs, C. A.

    1990-01-01

    The potential use of a compact, battery-operated rf levitator and heating system to purify high-temperature melting materials in space is described. The wake shield now being fabricated for the Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center will provide an Ultra-high vacuum (10(exp -14) Torr hydrogen, 10(exp -14) Torr helium, 10(exp -30) Torr oxygen). The use of the wake shield to purify Nb, Ti, W, Ir, and other metals to a purity level not achievable on earth is described.

  10. Compact rf heating and levitation systems for the NASA modular electromagnetic levitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The levitator demonstrates levitation of a 5 mm diam aluminum sphere at 1 G using a small, compact rf levitator operating from a small 12-V battery. This system is designed to levitate and melt niobium in space; however, the small battery unit limits the power for melting operations.

  11. Thermal and elastic response of subcutaneous tissue with different fibrous septa architectures to RF heating: numerical study.

    PubMed

    González-Suárez, Ana; Gutierrez-Herrera, Enoch; Berjano, Enrique; Jimenez Lozano, Joel N; Franco, Walfre

    2015-02-01

    Radiofrequency currents are commonly used in dermatology to treat cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues by heating. The subcutaneous morphology of tissue consists of a fine, collagenous and fibrous septa network enveloping clusters of adipocyte cells. The architecture of this network, namely density and orientation of septa, varies among patients and, furthermore, it correlates with cellulite grading. In this work we study the effect of two clinically relevant fibrous septa architectures on the thermal and elastic response of subcutaneous tissue to the same RF treatment; in particular, we evaluate the thermal damage and thermal stress induced to an intermediate- and a high-density fibrous septa network architecture that correspond to clinical morphologies of 2.5 and 0 cellulite grading, respectively. We used the finite element method to assess the electric, thermal and elastic response of a two-dimensional model of skin, subcutaneous tissue and muscle subjected to a relatively long, constant, low-power RF treatment. The subcutaneous tissue is constituted by an interconnected architecture of fibrous septa and fat lobules obtained by processing micro-MRI sagittal images of hypodermis. As comparison criteria for the RF treatment of the two septa architectures, we calculated the accumulated thermal damage that corresponds to 63% loss in cell viability. Electric currents preferentially circulated through the fibrous septa in the subcutaneous tissue. However, the intensity of the electric field was higher within the fat because it is a poor electric conductor. The power absorption in the fibrous septa relative to that in the fat varied with septum orientation: it was higher in septa with vertical orientation and lower in septa with horizontal orientation. Overall, maximum values of electric field intensity, power absorption and temperature were similar for both fibrous septa architectures. However, the high-density septa architecture (cellulite grade 0) had a more uniform

  12. Integrated design and analysis of rf heating and current drive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, P.M.; Carter, M.D.; Goulding, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    The design, analysis, and performance evaluation of rf power systems ultimately requires accurate modeling of a chain of subsystems starting with the rf transmitter and ending with the power absorption in the plasma. A collection of computer codes is used at ORNL to calculate the plasma loading and wave spectrum for a three-dimensional rf antenna, the transmission/reflection properties of the Faraday shield and its effect on the electrical characteristics and phase velocity of the antenna, the internal coupling among antenna array components and the incorporation of the antenna array into a transmission line model of the phase control, tuning, matching, and power distribution system. Some codes and techniques are more suited for the rapid evaluation of system design progressions, while others are more applicable to the detailed analysis of final designs or existing hardware. The interaction of codes and the accuracy of calculations will be illustrated by the process of determining the plasma loading as a function of phasing and density profiles for the TFTR ICRH antennas and comparing the results to measurements. An example of modeling a complex antenna geometry will be the comparison of calculations with the measured electrical response of a four-strap mockup of the JET A2 antenna array which was loaned to ORNL by the JET ICRH team.

  13. Integrated design and analysis of RF heating and current drive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, P.M.; Carter, M.D.; Goulding, R.H.; Batchelor, D.B.; Jaeger, E.F.; Stallings, D.C.; Wang, C.Y.; Baity, F.W.; Bell, G.L.; Bigelow, T.S.; England, A.C.; Hanson, G.R.; Haste, G.R.; Hoffman, D.J.; Murakami, M.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Wilgen, J.B.; Rogers, J.H.; Majeski, R.; Schilling, G.; Wilson, J.R.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bures, M.; Kaye, A.; Start, D.; Wade, T.; Ho, Y.L.; Kruger, W.; TFTR ICH Team% JET ICH Team

    1996-02-01

    The design, analysis, and performance evaluation of rf power systems ultimately requires accurate modeling of a chain of subsystems starting with the rf transmitter and ending with the power absorption in the plasma. A collection of computer codes is used at ORNL to calculate the plasma loading and wave spectrum for a three-dimensional rf antenna, the transmission/reflection properties of the Faraday shield and its effect on the electrical characteristics and phase velocity of the antenna, the internal coupling among antenna array components and the incorporation of the antenna array into a transmission line model of the phase control, tuning, matching, and power distribution system. Some codes and techniques are more suited for the rapid evaluation of system design progressions, while others are more applicable to the detailed analysis of final designs or existing hardware. The interaction of codes and the accuracy of calculations will be illustrated by the process of determining the plasma loading as a function of phasing and density profiles for the TFTR ICRH antennas and comparing the results to measurements. An example of modeling a complex antenna geometry will be the comparison of calculations with the measured electrical response of a four-strap mockup of the JET A2 antenna array which was loaned to ORNL by the JET ICRH team. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Integrated design and analysis of RF heating and current drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, P. M.; Carter, M. D.; Goulding, R. H.; Batchelor, D. B.; Jaeger, E. F.; Stallings, D. C.; Wang, C. Y.; Baity, F. W.; Bell, G. L.; Bigelow, T. S.; England, A. C.; Hanson, G. R.; Haste, G. R.; Hoffman, D. J.; Murakami, M.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Wilgen, J. B.; Rogers, J. H.; Majeski, R.; Schilling, G.; Wilson, J. R.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bures, M.; Kaye, A.; Start, D.; Wade, T.; Ho, Y. L.; Kruger, W.

    1996-02-01

    The design, analysis, and performance evaluation of rf power systems ultimately requires accurate modeling of a chain of subsystems starting with the rf transmitter and ending with the power absorption in the plasma. A collection of computer codes is used at ORNL to calculate the plasma loading and wave spectrum for a three-dimensional rf antenna, the transmission/reflection properties of the Faraday shield and its effect on the electrical characteristics and phase velocity of the antenna, the internal coupling among antenna array components and the incorporation of the antenna array into a transmission line model of the phase control, tuning, matching, and power distribution system. Some codes and techniques are more suited for the rapid evaluation of system design progressions, while others are more applicable to the detailed analysis of final designs or existing hardware. The interaction of codes and the accuracy of calculations will be illustrated by the process of determining the plasma loading as a function of phasing and density profiles for the TFTR ICRH antennas and comparing the results to measurements. An example of modeling a complex antenna geometry will be the comparison of calculations with the measured electrical response of a four-strap mockup of the JET A2 antenna array which was loaned to ORNL by the JET ICRH team.

  15. Modeling of lung's electrical impedance using fractional calculus for analysis of heat generation during RF-ablation.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Nozomu; Kobayashi, Yo; Kikuchi, Hayato; Isobe, Yosuke; Lu, XiaoWei; Miyashita, Tomoyuki; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Radio Frequency Ablation (RFA) is becoming a popular therapy for various cancers such as liver, breast, or lung cancer. RFA is one kinds of thermal therapy. However, it has been often reported about excessive ablation or non-ablation due to difficult control of ablation energy. In order to solve these difficulties, we have been proposed robotized RF-ablation system for precise cancer treatment. We have been tried to control heat energy by control of electromagnetic-wave frequency. In this paper, we reported about relation among electrical impedance of lung, lung's internal air volumes, and heat energy by use of electromagnetic-wave. In case of RFA for lung cancer, heat energy depends on electrical impedance and lung's internal air volumes. Electrical impedance has the dependence of electromagnetic-wave frequency and the dependence of lung's internal air volumes. Therefore, firstly we considered about fractional calculus model between lung's internal air volumes and electrical impedance. Secondly, we measured electric impedance frequency characteristic of lung with change of lung's internal air volumes. The measured and modeled results showed that use of fractional calculus realized high accurate model for electrical impedance of lung. And, from the results of numerical analysis of heat energy, it is supposed that control of electromagnetic-wave frequency has a small effectiveness for lung tissue ablation even if lung includes abundant air.

  16. Report on Solar Water Heating Quantitative Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Focus Marketing Services

    1999-05-06

    This report details the results of a quantitative research study undertaken to better understand the marketplace for solar water-heating systems from the perspective of home builders, architects, and home buyers.

  17. Impedance matched, high-power, rf antenna for ion cyclotron resonance heating of a plasma

    DOEpatents

    Baity, Jr., Frederick W.; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Owens, Thomas L.

    1988-01-01

    A resonant double loop radio frequency (rf) antenna for radiating high-power rf energy into a magnetically confined plasma. An inductive element in the form of a large current strap, forming the radiating element, is connected between two variable capacitors to form a resonant circuit. A real input impedance results from tapping into the resonant circuit along the inductive element, generally near the midpoint thereof. The impedance can be matched to the source impedance by adjusting the separate capacitors for a given tap arrangement or by keeping the two capacitances fixed and adjustng the tap position. This results in a substantial reduction in the voltage and current in the transmission system to the antenna compared to unmatched antennas. Because the complete circuit loop consisting of the two capacitors and the inductive element is resonant, current flows in the same direction along the entire length of the radiating element and is approximately equal in each branch of the circuit. Unidirectional current flow permits excitation of low order poloidal modes which penetrate more deeply into the plasma.

  18. Maine State Planning Office, 1990--1991 heating season home heating fuels price survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The 1990--1991 heating season was the first time in Maine that the Home Heating Fuels Survey was conducted for the United States Department of Energy by the Maine State Planning Office. This season also marked the first time that dealers were surveyed for a price for propane. Under a late agreement, the State of Maine was picked up by the regional survey of the Energy Information Agency in the beginning of October. This accounted for the weekly survey of the traditional participants in the State's Home Heating Fuels Price Survey being supplemented by biweekly DOE surveys of separate survey samples of oil and propane dealers. The SPO sample identifies 36 dealers in the State of Maine, while the DOE sample was constructed around 22 oil dealers in Maine and New Hampshire and 29 propane dealers in Maine.

  19. Maine State Planning Office, 1990--1991 heating season home heating fuels price survey. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The 1990--1991 heating season was the first time in Maine that the Home Heating Fuels Survey was conducted for the United States Department of Energy by the Maine State Planning Office. This season also marked the first time that dealers were surveyed for a price for propane. Under a late agreement, the State of Maine was picked up by the regional survey of the Energy Information Agency in the beginning of October. This accounted for the weekly survey of the traditional participants in the State`s Home Heating Fuels Price Survey being supplemented by biweekly DOE surveys of separate survey samples of oil and propane dealers. The SPO sample identifies 36 dealers in the State of Maine, while the DOE sample was constructed around 22 oil dealers in Maine and New Hampshire and 29 propane dealers in Maine.

  20. Survey of Small Scale Heat Recovery Incinerators.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    designs are available. Air and auxiliary fuel flow can be preset in accordance with feedstock throughput and heating value or continuously modulated in...organic gases and particulates generated in the primary combus- tion chamber. In most cases, steam for process heating is generated. If the feedstock ...unit design capacity (ii) manufacturing methods and marketing strategy (iii) materials of construction (iv) inclusion of feedstock preparation and/or air

  1. Axial heating and temperature of RF-excited non-neutral plasmas in Penning-Malmberg traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maero, G.; Pozzoli, R.; Romé, M.; Chen, S.; Ikram, M.

    2016-09-01

    Electro-magnetostatic traps have been used for decades to provide long-term storage of charged particle samples or non-neutral plasmas. The dynamics and equilibrium states of these ideally simple systems can be strongly diverted from the usual working conditions (i.e. single-species, quiescent samples) in the presence of oppositely charged particles or external electric field perturbations. Both these conditions occur when the plasma is generated by means of a radio-frequency (RF) excitation continuously applied on a trap electrode. The application of RF drives of some volts over periods larger than typical collisional time scales leads to residual-gas ionization and to the accumulation of an electron plasma, a process that has previously been exploited as an alternative to thermionic or photoemission electron sources. The analysis of the axial energy distribution shows a deviation of the continuously excited final state from maxwellianity dependent on the radial position and the subsequent relaxation to equilibrium after the interruption of the drive. Systematic measurements also indicate the high sensitivity to the residual gas pressure of both the total confined charge and of the attainable densities and plasma profiles. The results are compared to the information obtained from a very simple one-dimensional electron heating model and show the validity of its most basic features together with its shortcomings.

  2. A Half Century of Research on Agricultural Applications for RF and Microwave Dielectric Heating

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Basic principles of radio-frequency and microwave dielectric heating are presented, and research reports and reviews published over the past 50 or 60 years are identified for various dielectric heating applications that have been explored for potential use in the field of agriculture. Included are ...

  3. Computer modeling and ex vivo experiments with a (saline-linked) irrigated electrode for RF-assisted heating.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Javier; Perez, Juan J; Trujillo, Macarena; Berjano, Enrique

    2014-12-12

    Externally irrigated radiofrequency (RF) electrodes have been widely used to thermally ablate tumors in surface tissue and to thermally coagulate the transection plane during a surgical resection. As far as we know, no mathematical model has yet been developed to study the electrical and thermal performance of these electrodes, especially the role of the saline layer that forms around the electrode. Numerical models of a TissueLink device model DS3.0 (Salient Surgical Technologies, Portsmouth, NH, USA) were developed. Irrigation was modeled including a saline layer and a heat convection term in the governing equation. Ex vivo experiments based on fragments of bovine hepatic tissue were conducted to obtain information which was used in building the numerical model. We compared the 60°C isotherm of the computer results with the whitening contour in the heated samples. Computer and experimental results were in fine agreement in terms of lesion depth (2.4 mm in the simulations and 2.4 ± 0.6 mm in the experiments). In contrast, the lesion width was greater in the simulation (9.6 mm vs. 7.8 ± 1.8 mm). The computer simulations allowed us to explain the role of the saline layer in creating the thermal lesion. Impedance gradually decreased as heating proceeded. The saline was not observed to boil. In the proximity of the electrode (around 1 mm) the thermal lesion was mainly created by the RF power in this zone, while at a further distance the thermal lesion was created by the hot saline on the tissue surface by simple thermal conduction. Including the heat convection term associated with the saline velocity in the governing equation was crucial to verifying that the saline layer had not reached boiling temperature. The model reproduced thermal performance during heating in terms of lesion depth, and provided an explanation for: 1) the relationship between impedance, electrode insertion depth, and saline layer, and 2) the process of creating thermal lesions in the

  4. RF Plasma Heating in the PFRC-2 Device: Motivation, Goals and Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.; Brunkhorst, C.; Glasser, A.; Landsman, A.; Welch, D.

    2011-12-23

    The motivation for using radio frequency, odd-parity rotating magnetic fields for heating field-reversed-configuration (FRC) plasmas is explained. Calculations are presented of the expected electron and ion temperatures in the PFRC-2 device, currently under construction.

  5. A temperature-jump NMR probe setup using rf heating optimized for the analysis of temperature-induced biomacromolecular kinetic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinnenthal, Jörg; Wagner, Dominic; Marquardsen, Thorsten; Krahn, Alexander; Engelke, Frank; Schwalbe, Harald

    2015-02-01

    A novel temperature jump (T-jump) probe operational at B0 fields of 600 MHz (14.1 Tesla) with an integrated cage radio-frequency (rf) coil for rapid (<1 s) heating in high-resolution (HR) liquid-state NMR-spectroscopy is presented and its performance investigated. The probe consists of an inner 2.5 mm "heating coil" designed for generating rf-electric fields of 190-220 MHz across a lossy dielectric sample and an outer two coil assembly for 1H-, 2H- and 15N-nuclei. High B0 field homogeneities (0.7 Hz at 600 MHz) are combined with high heating rates (20-25 K/s) and only small temperature gradients (<±1.5 K, 3 s after 20 K T-jump). The heating coil is under control of a high power rf-amplifier within the NMR console and can therefore easily be accessed by the pulse programmer. Furthermore, implementation of a real-time setup including synchronization of the NMR spectrometer's air flow heater with the rf-heater used to maintain the temperature of the sample is described. Finally, the applicability of the real-time T-jump setup for the investigation of biomolecular kinetic processes in the second-to-minute timescale is demonstrated for samples of a model 14mer DNA hairpin and a 15N-selectively labeled 40nt hsp17-RNA thermometer.

  6. A temperature-jump NMR probe setup using rf heating optimized for the analysis of temperature-induced biomacromolecular kinetic processes.

    PubMed

    Rinnenthal, Jörg; Wagner, Dominic; Marquardsen, Thorsten; Krahn, Alexander; Engelke, Frank; Schwalbe, Harald

    2015-02-01

    A novel temperature jump (T-jump) probe operational at B(0) fields of 600 MHz (14.1 Tesla) with an integrated cage radio-frequency (rf) coil for rapid (<1 s) heating in high-resolution (HR) liquid-state NMR-spectroscopy is presented and its performance investigated. The probe consists of an inner 2.5 mm "heating coil" designed for generating rf-electric fields of 190-220 MHz across a lossy dielectric sample and an outer two coil assembly for (1)H-, (2)H- and (15)N-nuclei. High B(0) field homogeneities (0.7 Hz at 600 MHz) are combined with high heating rates (20-25 K/s) and only small temperature gradients (<±1.5 K, 3s after 20 K T-jump). The heating coil is under control of a high power rf-amplifier within the NMR console and can therefore easily be accessed by the pulse programmer. Furthermore, implementation of a real-time setup including synchronization of the NMR spectrometer's air flow heater with the rf-heater used to maintain the temperature of the sample is described. Finally, the applicability of the real-time T-jump setup for the investigation of biomolecular kinetic processes in the second-to-minute timescale is demonstrated for samples of a model 14mer DNA hairpin and a (15)N-selectively labeled 40nt hsp17-RNA thermometer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Migrating temperature "thermo-chromatographic" pulses (TCP) initiated by radio-frequency (RF) heating.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Markus; Kopinke, Frank-Dieter; Roland, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the astonishing influence of water dosage on a purged dry packed bed of NaY zeolite in the presence of an electric field with a frequency of 13.56 MHz was investigated. The injection of a small amount of water to the inlet of the bed led to pronounced selective heating of the inlet zone by more than 150 K. Thus, water represented a very effective coupling medium for dielectric heating. The selectively heated zone then slowly moved through the whole packed bed and a water pulse finally left the zeolite. This effect correlated with a coupled water and heat flux was called thermo-chromatographic pulse (TCP) emphasizing its analogy to chromatography. The phenomenon could not be performed by using conventional (convective) or microwave heating. It was demonstrated under various conditions and explained by a new model based on own experimental results as well as data from literature. The model will be the objective of a forthcoming publication.

  8. Using a Cold Radiometer to Measure Heat Loads and Survey Heat Leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiPirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Hait, T.; Shirron, P.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an inexpensive cold radiometer for use in thermal/vacuum chambers to measure heat loads, characterize emissivity and specularity of surfaces and to survey areas to evaluate stray heat loads. We report here the results of two such tests for the James Webb Space Telescope to measure heat loads and effective emissivities of2 major pieces of optical ground support equipment that will be used in upcoming thermal vacuum testing of the Telescope.

  9. Using a Cold Radiometer to Measure Heat Loads and Survey Heat Leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dipirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Hait, T.; Shirron, P.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an inexpensive cold radiometer for use in thermal/vacuum chambers to measure heat loads, characterize emissivity and specularity of surfaces and to survey areas to evaluate stray heat loads. We report here the results of two such tests for the James Webb Space Telescope to measure heat loads and effective emissivities of 2 major pieces of optical ground support equipment that will be used in upcoming thermal vacuum testing of the Telescope.

  10. Using a cold radiometer to measure heat loads and survey heat leaks

    SciTech Connect

    DiPirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Hait, T.; Shirron, P.

    2014-01-29

    We have developed an inexpensive cold radiometer for use in thermal/vacuum chambers to measure heat loads, characterize emissivity and specularity of surfaces and to survey areas to evaluate stray heat loads. We report here the results of two such tests for the James Webb Space Telescope to measure heat loads and effective emissivities of 2 major pieces of optical ground support equipment that will be used in upcoming thermal vacuum testing of the Telescope.

  11. A Survey of Pressure Vessel Code Compliance for Superconducting RF Cryomodules

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Thomas; Klebaner, Arkadiy; Nicol, Tom; Theilacker, Jay; Hayano, Hitoshi; Kako, Eiji; Nakai, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Akira; Jensch, Kay; Matheisen, Axel; Mammosser, John; /Jefferson Lab

    2011-06-07

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made from niobium and cooled with liquid helium are becoming key components of many particle accelerators. The helium vessels surrounding the RF cavities, portions of the niobium cavities themselves, and also possibly the vacuum vessels containing these assemblies, generally fall under the scope of local and national pressure vessel codes. In the U.S., Department of Energy rules require national laboratories to follow national consensus pressure vessel standards or to show ''a level of safety greater than or equal to'' that of the applicable standard. Thus, while used for its superconducting properties, niobium ends up being treated as a low-temperature pressure vessel material. Niobium material is not a code listed material and therefore requires the designer to understand the mechanical properties for material used in each pressure vessel fabrication; compliance with pressure vessel codes therefore becomes a problem. This report summarizes the approaches that various institutions have taken in order to bring superconducting RF cryomodules into compliance with pressure vessel codes. In Japan, Germany, and the U.S., institutions building superconducting RF cavities integrated in helium vessels or procuring them from vendors have had to deal with pressure vessel requirements being applied to SRF vessels, including the niobium and niobium-titanium components of the vessels. While niobium is not an approved pressure vessel material, data from tests of material samples provide information to set allowable stresses. By means of procedures which include adherence to code welding procedures, maintaining material and fabrication records, and detailed analyses of peak stresses in the vessels, or treatment of the vacuum vessel as the pressure boundary, research laboratories around the world have found methods to demonstrate and document a level of safety equivalent to the applicable pressure vessel codes.

  12. Consideration of the effects of intense tissue heating on the RF electromagnetic fields during MRI: simulations for MRgFUS in the hip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuegang Xin, Sherman; Gu, Shiyong; Carluccio, Giuseppe; Collins, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the strong dependence of tissue electrical properties on temperature, it is important to consider the potential effects of intense tissue heating on the RF electromagnetic fields during MRI, as can occur in MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery. In principle, changes of the RF electromagnetic fields could affect both efficacy of RF pulses, and the MRI-induced RF heating (SAR) pattern. In this study, the equilibrium temperature distribution in a whole-body model with 2 mm resolution before and during intense tissue heating up to 60 °C at the target region was calculated. Temperature-dependent electric properties of tissues were assigned to the model to establish a temperature-dependent electromagnetic whole-body model in a 3T MRI system. The results showed maximum changes in conductivity, permittivity, ≤ft|\\mathbf{B}1+\\right|, and SAR of about 25%, 6%, 2%, and 20%, respectively. Though the B1 field and SAR distributions are both temperature-dependent, the potential harm to patients due to higher SARs is expected to be minimal and the effects on the B1 field distribution should have minimal effect on images from basic MRI sequences.

  13. Consideration of the effects of intense tissue heating on the RF electromagnetic fields during MRI: simulations for MRgFUS in the hip.

    PubMed

    Xin, Sherman Xuegang; Gu, Shiyong; Carluccio, Giuseppe; Collins, Christopher M

    2015-01-07

    Due to the strong dependence of tissue electrical properties on temperature, it is important to consider the potential effects of intense tissue heating on the RF electromagnetic fields during MRI, as can occur in MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery. In principle, changes of the RF electromagnetic fields could affect both efficacy of RF pulses, and the MRI-induced RF heating (SAR) pattern. In this study, the equilibrium temperature distribution in a whole-body model with 2 mm resolution before and during intense tissue heating up to 60 °C at the target region was calculated. Temperature-dependent electric properties of tissues were assigned to the model to establish a temperature-dependent electromagnetic whole-body model in a 3T MRI system. The results showed maximum changes in conductivity, permittivity, [absolute value]B(1)(+)[absolute value] and SAR of about 25%, 6%, 2%, and 20%, respectively. Though the B1 field and SAR distributions are both temperature-dependent, the potential harm to patients due to higher SARs is expected to be minimal and the effects on the B1 field distribution should have minimal effect on images from basic MRI sequences.

  14. Combination radiofrequency (RF) ablation and IV liposomal heat shock protein suppression: Reduced tumor growth and increased animal endpoint survival in a small animal tumor model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Ahmed, Muneeb; Tasawwar, Beenish; Levchenko, Tatynana; Sawant, Rupa R.; Torchilin, Vladimir; Goldberg, S. Nahum

    2012-01-01

    Background To investigate the effect of IV liposomal quercetin (a known down-regulator of heat shock proteins) alone and with liposomal doxorubicin on tumor growth and end-point survival when combined with radiofrequency (RF) tumor ablation in a rat tumor model. Methods Solitary subcutaneous R3230 mammary adenocarcinoma tumors (1.3–1.5 cm) were implanted in 48 female Fischer rats. Initially, 32 tumors (n=8, each group) were randomized into four experimental groups: (a) conventional monopolar RF alone (70°C for 5 min), (b) IV liposomal quercetin alone (1 mg/kg), (c) IV liposomal quercetin followed 24hr later with RF, and (d) no treatment. Next, 16 additional tumors were randomized into two groups (n=8, each) that received a combined RF and liposomal doxorubicin (15 min post-RF, 8 mg/kg) either with or without liposomal quercetin. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed using a tumor diameter of 3.0 cm as the defined survival endpoint. Results Differences in endpoint survival and tumor doubling time among the groups were highly significant (P<0.001). Endpoint survivals were 12.5±2.2 days for the control group, 16.6±2.9 days for tumors treated with RF alone, 15.5±2.1days for tumors treated with liposomal quercetin alone, and 22.0±3.9 days with combined RF and quercetin. Additionally, combination quercetin/RF/doxorubicin therapy resulted in the longest survival (48.3±20.4 days), followed by RF/doxorubicin (29.9±3.8 days). Conclusions IV liposomal quercetin in combination with RF ablation reduces tumor growth rates and improves animal endpoint survival. Further increases in endpoint survival can be seen by adding an additional anti-tumor adjuvant agent liposomal doxorubicin. This suggests that targeting several post-ablation processes with multi-drug nanotherapies can increase overall ablation efficacy. PMID:22230341

  15. Combination radiofrequency (RF) ablation and IV liposomal heat shock protein suppression: reduced tumor growth and increased animal endpoint survival in a small animal tumor model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Ahmed, Muneeb; Tasawwar, Beenish; Levchenko, Tatynana; Sawant, Rupa R; Torchilin, Vladimir; Goldberg, S Nahum

    2012-06-10

    To investigate the effect of IV liposomal quercetin (a known down-regulator of heat shock proteins) alone and with liposomal doxorubicin on tumor growth and end-point survival when combined with radiofrequency (RF) tumor ablation in a rat tumor model. Solitary subcutaneous R3230 mammary adenocarcinoma tumors (1.3-1.5 cm) were implanted in 48 female Fischer rats. Initially, 32 tumors (n=8, each group) were randomized into four experimental groups: (a) conventional monopolar RF alone (70°C for 5 min), (b) IV liposomal quercetin alone (1 mg/kg), (c) IV liposomal quercetin followed 24hr later with RF, and (d) no treatment. Next, 16 additional tumors were randomized into two groups (n=8, each) that received a combined RF and liposomal doxorubicin (15 min post-RF, 8 mg/kg) either with or without liposomal quercetin. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed using a tumor diameter of 3.0 cm as the defined survival endpoint. Differences in endpoint survival and tumor doubling time among the groups were highly significant (P<0.001). Endpoint survivals were 12.5±2.2 days for the control group, 16.6±2.9 days for tumors treated with RF alone, 15.5±2.1 days for tumors treated with liposomal quercetin alone, and 22.0±3.9 days with combined RF and quercetin. Additionally, combination quercetin/RF/doxorubicin therapy resulted in the longest survival (48.3±20.4 days), followed by RF/doxorubicin (29.9±3.8 days). IV liposomal quercetin in combination with RF ablation reduces tumor growth rates and improves animal endpoint survival. Further increases in endpoint survival can be seen by adding an additional anti-tumor adjuvant agent liposomal doxorubicin. This suggests that targeting several post-ablation processes with multi-drug nanotherapies can increase overall ablation efficacy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Variability in RF-induced heating of a deep brain stimulation implant across MR systems.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kenneth B; Tkach, Jean A; Phillips, Micheal D; Rezai, Ali R

    2006-12-01

    To compare the MRI-related heating per unit of specific absorption rate (SAR) profile of a conductive implant between two 1.5-Tesla/64 MHz MR systems using a transmit/receive (t/r) head coil configuration. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) leads were configured within a gel-filled phantom of the human head and torso. Temperature variation at each of four contacts of the bilaterally-placed leads was monitored using fluoroptic thermometry. MRI was performed using the t/r head coils of two different-generation 1.5-Tesla MR systems from the same manufacturer. Temperature changes were normalized to SAR values for the head (DeltaT/SAR-H), and the slope of this DeltaT/SAR-H by time relationship was compared between the two scanners. The DeltaT/SAR-H for the implant ranged from 3.5 to 5.5 times higher on one MR system as compared to the other (P < 0.01) depending on the measurement site. The findings support previous observations that console-reported SAR does not constitute a reliable index of heating for elongated, conductive implants, such as the DBS hardware system tested. In contrast to our previous findings using a t/r body coil, the data presented here reveal marked differences between two MR systems using t/r head coils (the coil configuration was consistent with the implant manufacturer's imaging guidelines). J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2006. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Numerical study of heating and evaporation processes of quartz particles in RF inductively coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishin, Yu M.; Miao, Long

    2017-05-01

    Numerical simulations of heat and evaporation processes of quartz particles in Ar radio frequency inductively coupled plasma (ICP) are investigated. The quartz particles are supplied by the carrier gas into the ICP within gas-cooling. It is shown that with the increase of amplitude of discharge current above critical value there is a toroidal vortex in the ICP torch at the first coil. The conditions for the formation of vortex and the parameters of the vortex tube have been evaluated and determined. The influence of vortex, discharge current, coil numbers and feed rate of carrier gas on the evaporation efficiency of quartz particles have been demonstrated. It was found that the optimal discharge current is close to the critical value when the quartz particles with initial sizes up to 130 μm can be fully vaporized in the ICP torch with thermal power of 10kW. The heat and evaporation processes of quartz particles in the ICP torch have significant importance for the study of one-step plasma chemical reaction method directly producing silicon from silicide (SiO2) in the argon-hydrogen plasma.

  18. Electrical properties of undoped and Li-doped NiO thin films deposited by RF sputtering without intentional heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Mutsumi; Nakai, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Gaku; Yamada, Aika; Chichibu, Shigefusa F.

    2016-08-01

    The fundamental transmittance and electrical properties of undoped and Li-doped NiO thin films deposited by conventional RF sputtering without intentional heating were evaluated. Both the transmittance and resistivity of undoped and Li-doped NiO decreased with increasing O2 fraction in the sputtering gas, f(O2) = O2/(Ar + O2). The result is attributed to the increase in the concentration of acceptors of Ni vacancies (VNi) under oxygen-rich growth conditions. In addition to VNi, Li atom on the Ni site (LiNi) likely acts as a shallow accepter, which can explain the experimental finding that the carrier concentration of Li-doped NiO was approximately three orders of magnitude higher than that of the undoped case deposited under the same f(O2). The mobility of NiO was remarkably low (around 0.1-1.0 cm2 V-1 s-1) and almost independent of f(O2) or the amount of doping, reflecting the large hole effective mass.

  19. Michigan residential heating oil and propane price survey: 1995--1996 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, C.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of residential No. 2 distillate fuel (home heating oil) and liquefied petroleum gas (propane) prices over the 1995--1996 heating season in Michigan. The Michigan`s Public Service Commission (MPSC) conducted the survey under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). This survey was funded in part by a grant from the DOE. From October 1995 through March 1996, the MPSC surveyed participating distributors by telephone for current residential retail home heating oil and propane prices. The MPSC transmitted the data via a computer modem to the EIA using the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). Survey results were published in aggregate on the MPSC World Wide Web site at http://ermisweb.state.mi.us/shopp. The page was updated with both residential and wholesale prices immediately following the transmission of the data to the EIA. The EIA constructed the survey using a sample of Michigan home heating oil and propane retailers. The sample accounts for different sales volumes, geographic location, and sources of primary supply.

  20. Intrabiliary RF Heat-enhanced Local Chemotherapy of a Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Line: Monitoring with Dual-Modality Imaging—Preclinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Le, Thomas; Wu, Xia; Wang, Han; Zhang, Tong; Meng, Yanfeng; Wei, Baojie; Soriano, Stephanie S.; Willis, Patrick; Kolokythas, Orpheus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether magnetic resonance (MR) imaging heating guidewire–mediated radiofrequency (RF) hyperthermia could enhance the therapeutic effect of gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in a cholangiocarcinoma cell line and local deposit doses of chemotherapeutic drugs in swine common bile duct (CBD) walls. Materials and Methods The animal protocol was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Green fluorescent protein–labeled human cholangiocarcinoma cells and cholangiocarcinomas in 24 mice were treated with (a) combination therapy with chemotherapy (gemcitabine and 5-FU) plus RF hyperthermia, (b) chemotherapy only, (c) RF hyperthermia only, or (d) phosphate-buffered saline. Cell proliferation was quantified, and tumor changes over time were monitored with 14.0-T MR imaging and optical imaging. To enable further validation of technical feasibility, intrabiliary local delivery of gemcitabine and 5-FU was performed by using a microporous balloon with (eight pigs) or without (eight pigs) RF hyperthermia. Chemotherapy deposit doses in the bile duct walls were quantified by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test and the paired-sample Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for data analysis. Results Combination therapy induced lower mean levels of cell proliferation than chemotherapy only and RF hyperthermia only (0.39 ± 0.13 [standard deviation] vs 0.87 ± 0.10 and 1.03 ± 0.13, P < .001). Combination therapy resulted in smaller relative tumor volume than chemotherapy only and RF hyperthermia only (0.65 ± 0.03 vs 1.30 ± 0.021 and 1.37 ± 0.05, P = .001). Only in the combination therapy group did both MR imaging and optical imaging show substantial decreases in apparent diffusion coefficients and fluorescent signals in tumor masses immediately after the treatments. Chemotherapy quantification showed a higher average drug deposit dose in swine CBD walls with intrabiliary RF hyperthermia than

  1. Intrabiliary RF heat-enhanced local chemotherapy of a cholangiocarcinoma cell line: monitoring with dual-modality imaging--preclinical study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Le, Thomas; Wu, Xia; Wang, Han; Zhang, Tong; Meng, Yanfeng; Wei, Baojie; Soriano, Stephanie S; Willis, Patrick; Kolokythas, Orpheus; Yang, Xiaoming

    2014-02-01

    To determine whether magnetic resonance (MR) imaging heating guidewire-mediated radiofrequency (RF) hyperthermia could enhance the therapeutic effect of gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in a cholangiocarcinoma cell line and local deposit doses of chemotherapeutic drugs in swine common bile duct (CBD) walls. The animal protocol was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Green fluorescent protein-labeled human cholangiocarcinoma cells and cholangiocarcinomas in 24 mice were treated with (a) combination therapy with chemotherapy (gemcitabine and 5-FU) plus RF hyperthermia, (b) chemotherapy only, (c) RF hyperthermia only, or (d) phosphate-buffered saline. Cell proliferation was quantified, and tumor changes over time were monitored with 14.0-T MR imaging and optical imaging. To enable further validation of technical feasibility, intrabiliary local delivery of gemcitabine and 5-FU was performed by using a microporous balloon with (eight pigs) or without (eight pigs) RF hyperthermia. Chemotherapy deposit doses in the bile duct walls were quantified by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test and the paired-sample Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for data analysis. Combination therapy induced lower mean levels of cell proliferation than chemotherapy only and RF hyperthermia only (0.39 ± 0.13 [standard deviation] vs 0.87 ± 0.10 and 1.03 ± 0.13, P < .001). Combination therapy resulted in smaller relative tumor volume than chemotherapy only and RF hyperthermia only (0.65 ± 0.03 vs 1.30 ± 0.021 and 1.37 ± 0.05, P = .001). Only in the combination therapy group did both MR imaging and optical imaging show substantial decreases in apparent diffusion coefficients and fluorescent signals in tumor masses immediately after the treatments. Chemotherapy quantification showed a higher average drug deposit dose in swine CBD walls with intrabiliary RF hyperthermia than without it (gemcitabine: 0.32 mg/g of

  2. Stand alone computer system to aid the development of Mirror Fusion Test Facility rf heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.A.

    1983-12-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) control system architecture requires the Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS) to communicate with a LSI-11 Local Control Computer (LCC) that in turn communicates via a fiber optic link to CAMAC based control hardware located near the machine. In many cases, the control hardware is very complex and requires a sizable development effort prior to being integrated into the overall MFTF-B system. One such effort was the development of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) system. It became clear that a stand alone computer system was needed to simulate the functions of SCDS. This paper describes the hardware and software necessary to implement the SCDS Simulation Computer (SSC). It consists of a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) LSI-11 computer and a Winchester/Floppy disk operating under the DEC RT-11 operating system. All application software for MFTF-B is programmed in PASCAL, which allowed us to adapt procedures originally written for SCDS to the SSC. This nearly identical software interface means that software written during the equipment development will be useful to the SCDS programmers in the integration phase.

  3. Heat-treatment effect on Z-type hexaferrite for RF device application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Chan Hyuk; Cho, Kwang Lae; Kim, Chul Sung

    2015-01-01

    The Z-type hexaferrite Ba1.5Sr1.5Co2Fe24O41 was synthesized by using a solid state reaction method under various heat-treatment conditions. The crystal structure and magnetic properties at high frequency were characterized by on x-ray diffractometer, network analyzer, vibrating sample magnetometer, and Mössbauer spectrometer. The Ba1.5Sr1.5Co2Fe24O41 samples prepared by using the step calcination (SC12) process showed the considerably improved permeability and magnetic loss compared to those prepared by using the other processes due to the complete formation of Z-type phase from the calcination. When Co2Z sample prepared by using SC12 process was sintered at 1125 °C and cooled at a slow rate, the value of magnetic loss tan δ μ remained below 0.1 up to 750 MHz, and at 750 MHz, the values of permeability, permittivity, and dielectric loss were μ' = 7.9, ɛ' = 10.9, and tan δ ɛ = 0.01, respectively.

  4. A winter survey of domestic heating among elderly patients.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, R; Blair, A; King, D

    1996-01-01

    Elderly people have a greater need for domestic heating given the time they spend at home and the decline in the body thermoregulation that occurs with ageing. The use of domestic heating by 200 mentally competent newly admitted elderly in patients was evaluated by means of a questionnaire survey. Most patients (69%) were aware of the addition of value added tax (VAT) to their fuel bill and 31% said they had reduced the amount of heating they use because of this. A third of patients (29.5%) said they had difficulty keeping warm prior to this admission. The majority of patients said they could not manage to keep warm in the winter without financial hardship. In addition, 29% said they had reduced the amount spent on food in order to pay for fuel bills. This study suggests that cold may contribute to hospital admissions in elderly patients. This should have implications for government spending and taxation policy on domestic heating. PMID:8683507

  5. Study on the L-H transition power threshold with RF heating and lithium-wall coating on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Xu, G. S.; Nielsen, A. H.; Gao, W.; Duan, Y. M.; Liu, H. Q.; Wang, L.; Li, M. H.; Wang, M.; Zhang, X. J.; Chen, R.; Wang, H. Q.; Sun, Z.; Ding, S. Y.; Yan, N.; Liu, S. C.; Shao, L. M.; Zhang, W.; Hu, G. H.; Li, J.; Zhang, L.; Wan, B. N.; the EAST Team

    2016-05-01

    The power threshold for low (L) to high (H) confinement mode transition achieved by radio-frequency (RF) heating and lithium-wall coating is investigated experimentally on EAST for two sets of walls: an all carbon wall (C) and molybdenum chamber and a carbon divertor (Mo/C). For both sets of walls, a minimum power threshold P thr of ~0.6 MW was found when the EAST operates in a double null (DN) divertor configuration with intensive lithium-wall coating. When operating in upper single null (USN) or lower single null (LSN), the power threshold depends on the ion  ∇B drift direction. The low density dependence of the L-H power threshold, namely an increase below a minimum density, was identified in the Mo/C wall for the first time. For the C wall only the single-step L-H transition with limited injection power is observed whereas also the so-called dithering L-H transition is observed in the Mo/C wall. The dithering behaves distinctively in a USN, DN and LSN configuration, suggesting the divertor pumping capability is an important ingredient in this transition since the internal cryopump is located underneath the lower divertor. Depending on the chosen divertor configuration, the power across the separatrix P loss increases with neutral density near the lower X-point in EAST with the Mo/C wall, consistent with previous results in the C wall (Xu et al 2011 Nucl. Fusion 51 072001). These findings suggest that the edge neutral density, the ion  ∇B drift as well as the divertor pumping capability play important roles in the L-H power threshold and transition behaviour.

  6. Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B.

    1994-05-01

    A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

  7. A survey of oscillating flow in Stirling engine heat exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Terrence W.; Seume, Jorge R.

    1988-01-01

    Similarity parameters for characterizing the effect of flow oscillation on wall shear stress, viscous dissipation, pressure drop and heat transfer rates are proposed. They are based on physical agruments and are derived by normalizing the governing equations. The literature on oscillating duct flows, regenerator and porous media flows is surveyed. The operating characteristics of the heat exchanger of eleven Stirling engines are discribed in terms of the similarity parameters. Previous experimental and analytical results are discussed in terms of these parameters and used to estimate the nature of the oscillating flow under engine operating conditions. The operating points for many of the modern Stirling engines are in or near the laminar to turbulent transition region. In several engines, working fluid does not pass entirely through heat exchangers during a cycle. Questions that need to be addressed by further research are identified.

  8. A survey of oscillating flow in Stirling engine heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Terrence W.; Seume, Jorge R.

    1988-03-01

    Similarity parameters for characterizing the effect of flow oscillation on wall shear stress, viscous dissipation, pressure drop and heat transfer rates are proposed. They are based on physical agruments and are derived by normalizing the governing equations. The literature on oscillating duct flows, regenerator and porous media flows is surveyed. The operating characteristics of the heat exchanger of eleven Stirling engines are discribed in terms of the similarity parameters. Previous experimental and analytical results are discussed in terms of these parameters and used to estimate the nature of the oscillating flow under engine operating conditions. The operating points for many of the modern Stirling engines are in or near the laminar to turbulent transition region. In several engines, working fluid does not pass entirely through heat exchangers during a cycle. Questions that need to be addressed by further research are identified.

  9. RF Heating the Ionosphere,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    Kopka, Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 523 (1984). 4. H.C. Carlson, V.B. Wickwar, and G. P. Mantas, J. Atmos. and Terr. Phys. 44, 1089 (1982) 5. E. Mjolhus and T...Ionosphere," G. J. Morales, presented at the Seventh APS Topical Conference, Kissimmee, Florida, May 4-6, 1987. PPG- 1089 "Self-Consistent Modification

  10. Survey of RF exposure levels from mobile telephone base stations in Australia.

    PubMed

    Henderson, S I; Bangay, M J

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an exposure level survey of radiofrequency electromagnetic energy originating from mobile telephone base station antennas. Measurements of CDMA800, GSM900, GSM1800, and 3G(UMTS) signals were performed at distances ranging over 50 to 500 m from 60 base stations in five Australian cities. The exposure levels from these mobile telecommunications base stations were found to be well below the general public exposure limits of the ICNIRP guidelines and the Australian radiofrequency standard (ARPANSA RPS3). The highest recorded level from a single base station was 7.8 x 10(-3) W/m(2), which translates to 0.2% of the general public exposure limit.

  11. Could the heat sink effect of blood flow inside large vessels protect the vessel wall from thermal damage during RF-assisted surgical resection?

    PubMed

    González-Suárez, Ana; Trujillo, Macarena; Burdío, Fernando; Andaluz, Anna; Berjano, Enrique

    2014-08-01

    To assess by means of computer simulations whether the heat sink effect inside a large vessel (portal vein) could protect the vessel wall from thermal damage close to an internally cooled electrode during radiofrequency (RF)-assisted resection. First,in vivo experiments were conducted to validate the computational model by comparing the experimental and computational thermal lesion shapes created around the vessels. Computer simulations were then carried out to study the effect of different factors such as device-tissue contact, vessel position, and vessel-device distance on temperature distributions and thermal lesion shapes near a large vessel, specifically the portal vein. The geometries of thermal lesions around the vessels in the in vivo experiments were in agreement with the computer results. The thermal lesion shape created around the portal vein was significantly modified by the heat sink effect in all the cases considered. Thermal damage to the portal vein wall was inversely related to the vessel-device distance. It was also more pronounced when the device-tissue contact surface was reduced or when the vessel was parallel to the device or perpendicular to its distal end (blade zone), the vessel wall being damaged at distances less than 4.25 mm. The computational findings suggest that the heat sink effect could protect the portal vein wall for distances equal to or greater than 5 mm, regardless of its position and distance with respect to the RF-based device.

  12. Using a cross-coil to reduce RF heating by an order of magnitude in triple-resonance multinuclear MAS at high fields.

    PubMed

    Doty, F David; Kulkarni, Jatin; Turner, Christopher; Entzminger, George; Bielecki, Anthony

    2006-10-01

    Four different coil designs for use with MAS in triple-resonance multi-nuclear experiments at high fields are compared, using a combination of finite element analysis (FEA) software and NMR experiments, with respect to RF field strength per unit power and relative sample heating, as governed by mean E/B(1) within the sample region. A commercial FEA package, Microwave Studio 5.1 by Computer Simulation Technology (CST) is shown to obtain remarkably accurate agreement with the experiments in Q(L), L, B, E, and mode frequencies in all cases. A simplified treatment of RF heating in NMR MAS samples is derived and shown to agree with the NMR experimental results within about 10% for two representative stator designs. The coil types studied include: (1) a variable-pitch solenoid outside a ceramic coilform, (2) a conventional solenoid very closely spaced to the MAS rotor, (3) a scroll coil, and (4) a segmented saddle cross coil (XC) for (1)H with an additional solenoid over it for the two lower-frequency channels. The XC/solenoid is shown to offer substantial advantages in reduced decoupler heating, improved S/N, and improved compatibility with multinuclear tuning and high-power decoupling. This seems largely because the division of labor between two orthogonal coils allows them each, and their associated circuitry, to be separately optimized for their respective regimes.

  13. Survey of County-Level Heat Preparedness and Response to the 2011 Summer Heat in 30 U.S. States

    PubMed Central

    Ekwurzel, Brenda; Baer-Schultz, Mia; Ebi, Kristie L.; O’Neill, Marie S.; Anderson, G. Brooke

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adapting to extreme heat is becoming more critical as our climate changes. Previous research reveals that very few communities in the United States have programs to sufficiently prevent health problems during hot weather. Objective: Our goal was to examine county-level local heat preparedness and response in 30 U.S. states following the unusually hot summer of 2011. Methods: Using a multimodal survey approach, we invited local health and emergency response departments from 586 counties to participate in the largest survey to date of heat preparedness and response in the United States. County-level responses were pooled into national and regional-level summaries. Logistic regressions modeled associations between heat planning/response and county characteristics, including population, poverty rates, typical summer weather, and 2011 summer weather. Results: Of 586 counties, 190 (32%) responded to the survey. Only 40% of these counties had existing heat plans. The most common heat responses were communication about heat, outreach, and collaborations with other organizations. Both heat preparedness and heat response were, on average, more extensive in counties with higher populations, lower poverty rates, and lower percentages of older people. Heat response was generally more extensive in counties with heat plans. Conclusions: Most responding counties were underprepared for extreme heat in 2011 and lacked a formal response plan. Because counties with heat plans were more likely to act to prevent adverse heat impacts to residents, local health departments should consider adopting such plans, especially because increased extreme heat is anticipated with further climate change. Citation: White-Newsome JL, Ekwurzel B, Baer-Schultz M, Ebi KL, O’Neill MS, Anderson GB. 2014. Survey of county-level heat preparedness and response to the 2011 summer heat in 30 U.S. States. Environ Health Perspect 122:573–579; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306693 PMID:24618250

  14. Auxiliary coil controls temperature of RF induction heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Auxiliary coil controls the temperature of an RF induction furnace that is powered by a relatively unstable RF generator. Manual or servoed adjustments of the relative position of the auxiliary coil, which is placed in close proximity to the RF coil, changes the looseness of the RF coil and hence the corresponding heating effect of its RF field.

  15. Low frequency rf current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Hershkowitz, N.

    1992-01-01

    An unshielded antenna for rf heating has been developed and tested during this report period. In addition to design specifications being given, some experimental results are presented utilizing: (1) an unprotected Faraday shield, (2) insulating guard limiters, (3) unshielded antenna experiments, (4) method for detecting small rf driven currents, (5) rf fast wave current drive experiments, (6) alfven wave interactions with electrons, and (7) machine conditioning, impurity generation and density control.

  16. Survey of computer programs for heat transfer analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, A. K.

    An overview is presented of the current capabilities of thirty-eight computer programs that can be used for solution of heat transfer problems. These programs range from the large, general-purpose codes with a broad spectrum of capabilities, large user community and comprehensive user support (e.g., ANSYS, MARC, MITAS 2 MSC/NASTRAN, SESAM-69/NV-615) to the small, special purpose codes with limited user community such as ANDES, NNTB, SAHARA, SSPTA, TACO, TEPSA AND TRUMP. The capabilities of the programs surveyed are listed in tabular form followed by a summary of the major features of each program. As with any survey of computer programs, the present one has the following limitations: (1) It is useful only in the initial selection of the programs which are most suitable for a particular application. The final selection of the program to be used should, however, be based on a detailed examination of the documentation and the literature about the program; (2) Since computer software continually changes, often at a rapid rate, some means must be found for updating this survey and maintaining some degree of currency.

  17. Survey of computer programs for heat transfer analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    An overview is presented of the current capabilities of thirty-eight computer programs that can be used for solution of heat transfer problems. These programs range from the large, general-purpose codes with a broad spectrum of capabilities, large user community and comprehensive user support (e.g., ANSYS, MARC, MITAS 2 MSC/NASTRAN, SESAM-69/NV-615) to the small, special purpose codes with limited user community such as ANDES, NNTB, SAHARA, SSPTA, TACO, TEPSA AND TRUMP. The capabilities of the programs surveyed are listed in tabular form followed by a summary of the major features of each program. As with any survey of computer programs, the present one has the following limitations: (1) It is useful only in the initial selection of the programs which are most suitable for a particular application. The final selection of the program to be used should, however, be based on a detailed examination of the documentation and the literature about the program; (2) Since computer software continually changes, often at a rapid rate, some means must be found for updating this survey and maintaining some degree of currency.

  18. Survey of computer programs for heat transfer analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1986-01-01

    An overview is given of the current capabilities of thirty-three computer programs that are used to solve heat transfer problems. The programs considered range from large general-purpose codes with broad spectrum of capabilities, large user community, and comprehensive user support (e.g., ABAQUS, ANSYS, EAL, MARC, MITAS II, MSC/NASTRAN, and SAMCEF) to the small, special-purpose codes with limited user community such as ANDES, NTEMP, TAC2D, TAC3D, TEPSA and TRUMP. The majority of the programs use either finite elements or finite differences for the spatial discretization. The capabilities of the programs are listed in tabular form followed by a summary of the major features of each program. The information presented herein is based on a questionnaire sent to the developers of each program. This information is preceded by a brief background material needed for effective evaluation and use of computer programs for heat transfer analysis. The present survey is useful in the initial selection of the programs which are most suitable for a particular application. The final selection of the program to be used should, however, be based on a detailed examination of the documentation and the literature about the program.

  19. Survey of computer programs for heat transfer analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1986-01-01

    An overview is given of the current capabilities of thirty-three computer programs that are used to solve heat transfer problems. The programs considered range from large general-purpose codes with broad spectrum of capabilities, large user community, and comprehensive user support (e.g., ABAQUS, ANSYS, EAL, MARC, MITAS II, MSC/NASTRAN, and SAMCEF) to the small, special-purpose codes with limited user community such as ANDES, NTEMP, TAC2D, TAC3D, TEPSA and TRUMP. The majority of the programs use either finite elements or finite differences for the spatial discretization. The capabilities of the programs are listed in tabular form followed by a summary of the major features of each program. The information presented herein is based on a questionnaire sent to the developers of each program. This information is preceded by a brief background material needed for effective evaluation and use of computer programs for heat transfer analysis. The present survey is useful in the initial selection of the programs which are most suitable for a particular application. The final selection of the program to be used should, however, be based on a detailed examination of the documentation and the literature about the program.

  20. Strained silicon FETs on thin SiGe virtual substrates produced by He implantation: effect of reduced self-heating on DC and RF performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackbarth, T.; Herzog, H.-J.; Hieber, K.-H.; König, U.; Mantl, S.; Holländer, B.; Lenk, St.; von Känel, H.; Enciso, M.; Aniel, F.; Giguerre, L.

    2004-11-01

    Strained-Si based SiGe MODFETs on ultra-thin SiGe virtual substrates prepared by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and helium implantation are presented and compared to similar devices on thick, compositionally graded virtual substrates grown by low energy plasma enhanced CVD (LEPECVD). MBE grown 100 nm thick pseudomorphic Si 0.67Ge 0.33 layers have been relaxed to about 70% by using He + ions implanted with a dose of 2 × 10 16 cm -2 at an energy of 18 keV approximately 100 nm below the hetero-interface, followed by an annealing step at 850 °C for 600 s. Then another Si 0.67Ge 0.33 layer and a modulation doped strained Si QW are grown on top of the virtual substrate having a final degree of relaxation of about 80%. A cut-off frequency of fmax(MAG)=121 GHz was achieved with RF devices having a gate length of 70 nm. Self-heating effects in devices on thick, graded, and on thin buffer layers are addressed by experimental DC and RF data and 2-D numerical simulations of the device temperature.

  1. The influence of discharge power and heat treatment on calcium phosphate coatings prepared by RF magnetron sputtering deposition.

    PubMed

    Yonggang, Yan; Wolke, J G C; Yubao, Li; Jansen, J A

    2007-06-01

    Ca-P coatings with different Ca/P ratio and composition were successfully prepared by RF magnetron sputtering deposition. The Ca/P ratio, phase composition, structure and morphological properties were characterized by XRD, FTIR, EDS and SEM analyses. All the as-sputtered coatings were amorphous and after IR-irradiation the coatings altered into a crystalline phase. The obtained coatings had a Ca/P ratio that varied from 0.55 to 2.10 and different phase compositions or mixtures of apatite, beta-pyrophosphate and beta-tricalciumphosphate structures were formed. Evidently, the phase compositions of the sputtered coatings are determined not only by the discharge power ratio of the hydroxylapatite and calcium pyrophosphate targets but also by the annealing temperature.

  2. FINAL Report on Analysis and direct numerical simulation of RF heating processes and advanced computational methods for fusion application

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, John R.

    2015-02-23

    This completes the description of the work done under the above referenced grant. In brief, we have discovered many nonlinear effects, frequency doubling, nonlinear decays, that can prevent effective use of EBWs for plasma heating.

  3. Numerical study of plasma generation process and internal antenna heat loadings in J-PARC RF negative ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, T.; Nishida, K.; Mochizuki, S.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J.; Hatayama, A.; Ueno, A.; Oguri, H.; Ohkoshi, K.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A.; Asano, H.; Naito, F.

    2016-02-01

    A numerical model of plasma transport and electromagnetic field in the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) radio frequency ion source has been developed to understand the relation between antenna coil heat loadings and plasma production/transport processes. From the calculation, the local plasma density increase is observed in the region close to the antenna coil. Electrons are magnetized by the magnetic field line with absolute magnetic flux density 30-120 Gauss which leads to high local ionization rate. The results suggest that modification of magnetic configuration can be made to reduce plasma heat flux onto the antenna.

  4. Numerical study of plasma generation process and internal antenna heat loadings in J-PARC RF negative ion source.

    PubMed

    Shibata, T; Nishida, K; Mochizuki, S; Mattei, S; Lettry, J; Hatayama, A; Ueno, A; Oguri, H; Ohkoshi, K; Ikegami, K; Takagi, A; Asano, H; Naito, F

    2016-02-01

    A numerical model of plasma transport and electromagnetic field in the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) radio frequency ion source has been developed to understand the relation between antenna coil heat loadings and plasma production/transport processes. From the calculation, the local plasma density increase is observed in the region close to the antenna coil. Electrons are magnetized by the magnetic field line with absolute magnetic flux density 30-120 Gauss which leads to high local ionization rate. The results suggest that modification of magnetic configuration can be made to reduce plasma heat flux onto the antenna.

  5. Numerical study of plasma generation process and internal antenna heat loadings in J-PARC RF negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, T. Ueno, A.; Oguri, H.; Ohkoshi, K.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A.; Asano, H.; Naito, F.; Nishida, K.; Mochizuki, S.; Hatayama, A.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J.

    2016-02-15

    A numerical model of plasma transport and electromagnetic field in the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) radio frequency ion source has been developed to understand the relation between antenna coil heat loadings and plasma production/transport processes. From the calculation, the local plasma density increase is observed in the region close to the antenna coil. Electrons are magnetized by the magnetic field line with absolute magnetic flux density 30–120 Gauss which leads to high local ionization rate. The results suggest that modification of magnetic configuration can be made to reduce plasma heat flux onto the antenna.

  6. Complex difference constrained compressed sensing reconstruction for accelerated PRF thermometry with application to MRI-induced RF heating.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhipeng; Oh, Sukhoon; Otazo, Ricardo; Sica, Christopher T; Griswold, Mark A; Collins, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    Introduce a novel compressed sensing reconstruction method to accelerate proton resonance frequency shift temperature imaging for MRI-induced radiofrequency heating evaluation. A compressed sensing approach that exploits sparsity of the complex difference between postheating and baseline images is proposed to accelerate proton resonance frequency temperature mapping. The method exploits the intra-image and inter-image correlations to promote sparsity and remove shared aliasing artifacts. Validations were performed on simulations and retrospectively undersampled data acquired in ex vivo and in vivo studies by comparing performance with previously published techniques. The proposed complex difference constrained compressed sensing reconstruction method improved the reconstruction of smooth and local proton resonance frequency temperature change images compared to various available reconstruction methods in a simulation study, a retrospective study with heating of a human forearm in vivo, and a retrospective study with heating of a sample of beef ex vivo. Complex difference based compressed sensing with utilization of a fully sampled baseline image improves the reconstruction accuracy for accelerated proton resonance frequency thermometry. It can be used to improve the volumetric coverage and temporal resolution in evaluation of radiofrequency heating due to MRI, and may help facilitate and validate temperature-based methods for safety assurance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. On the potential for RF heating in MRI to affect metabolic rates and (18) FDG signal in PET/MR: simulations of long-duration, maximum normal mode heating.

    PubMed

    Carluccio, Giuseppe; Ding, Yu-Shin; Logan, Jean; Collins, Christopher M

    2017-02-01

    To examine the possibility that MR-induced RF power deposition (SAR) and the resulting effects on temperature-dependent metabolic rates or perfusion rates might affect observed 18FDG signal in PET/MR. Using numerical simulations of the SAR, consequent temperature increase, effect on rates of metabolism or perfusion, and [18FDG] throughout the body, we simulated the potential effect of maximum-allowable whole-body SAR for the entire duration of an hour-long PET/MR scan on observed PET signal for two different 18FDG injection times: one hour before onset of imaging and concurrent with the beginning of imaging. This was all repeated three times with the head, the heart, and the abdomen (kidneys) at the center of the RF coil. Qualitatively, little effect of MR-induced heating is observed on simulated PET images. Maximum relative increases in PET signal (26% and 31% increase, respectively, for the uptake models based on metabolism and the perfusion) occur in regions of low baseline metabolic rate (also associated with low perfusion and, thus, greater potential temperature increase due to high local SAR), such that PET signal in these areas remains comparatively low. Maximum relative increases in regions of high metabolic rate (and also high perfusion: heart, thyroid, brain, etc.) are affected mostly by the relatively small increase in core body temperature and thus are not affected greatly (10% maximum increase). Even for worst-case heating, little effect of MR-induced heating is expected on 18FDG PET images during PET/MR for many clinically relevant applications. For quantitative, dynamic MR/PET studies requiring high SAR for extended periods, it is hoped that methods like those introduced here can help account for such potential effects in design of a given study, including selection of reference locations that should not experience notable increase in temperature. © 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  8. Numerical simulation of an atmospheric pressure RF-driven plasma needle and heat transfer to adjacent human skin using COMSOL.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Maximilian; Ochoa, Angel; Breitkopf, Cornelia

    2015-06-07

    Plasma medicine is an emerging field where plasma physics is used for therapeutical applications. Temperature is an important factor to take into account with respect to the applications of plasma to biological systems. During the treatment, the tissue temperature could increase to critical values. In this work, a model is presented, which is capable of predicting the skin temperature during a treatment with a radio frequency driven plasma needle. The main gas was helium. To achieve this, a discharge model was coupled to a heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results provide maximum application times for different power depositions in order to avoid reaching critical skin temperatures.

  9. Fabrication of calcium phosphate films for coating on titanium substrates heated up to 773 K by RF magnetron sputtering and their evaluations.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kyosuke; Narushima, Takayuki; Goto, Takashi; Taira, Masayuki; Katsube, Tomoyuki

    2007-09-01

    Calcium phosphate films were fabricated on titanium substrates heated up to 773 K using radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The deposition rate, phase and preferred orientation of the calcium phosphate films were studied. Immersion tests for the films were conducted using Hanks' solution and PBS(-), and the surface reactions on the specimens coated with the calcium phosphate films were investigated. The bonding strength between the coating films and the titanium substrates before and after the immersion tests was evaluated; the bonding strength decreased after the immersion tests. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of SaOS-2 cells on a titanium plate coated with a calcium phosphate film was examined by conducting a culture test. Calcium phosphate coating increased the ALP activity of SaOS-2 cells cultured for 3 and 7 days. Titanium cylinders were coated with an amorphous calcium phosphate film and implanted into the mandibles of beagle dogs. An increase in the extent of bone-implant contact for the coated titanium cylinders was confirmed 8 to 12 weeks after implantation and compared with the case for uncoated titanium cylinders.

  10. MBMS sampling from highly heated gas mixtures (1000-3000 K) and weakly ionized RF plasmas (800-2800 K) or laser plasmas (5000-20,000 K)

    SciTech Connect

    Campargue, R.; Lebehot, A.

    1995-03-01

    The properties of the free jet expansion and molecular beam skimming can be applied to the sampling of a wide variety of gaseous media, as those considered in this workshop: reactive systems, high temperature gases, flames, plasma flows, shock zone gases, laser ablation plumes, gas phase in CVD or in high temperature corrosion, etc. In the authors` laboratory, as well as in many molecular beam groups, the MBMS sampling is not generally made for analysing the gas stagnating in the nozzle, but for optimizing and using the beam source in research experiments. Nevertheless, this beam optimization has been of great interest to investigate and minimize the distortions through the interface used for MS sampling. They are due to the reality of the gas, the deviations from ideal free jet expansion, and the possible interactions along the MBMS sampling system, from the nozzle sampler to the quadrupole analyser. The first part of this paper is an historical review on the various distortions observed at Saclay in skimming, or in MBMS sampling from room temperature gases or gas mixtures. The second part deals with neutral energetic particles resulting either from the cluster generation in expansion or from the seeding and/or heating techniques. Finally the last part of the paper is devoted to recent developments in MBMS sampling of weakly ionized RF plasmas (800-2800 K) and laser sustained plasmas (5000-20000 K). The presentation is made with large reference to the authors` previous papers, especially their later review on jets and beams.

  11. Effects of substrate heating on the photovoltaic characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells during two-step Ti film deposition by RF magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Woo; Park, Seon-Hee; Kwak, Dong-Joo; Sung, Youl-Moon

    2012-04-01

    Nanoporous Ti metal film electrodes for use as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were deposited directly on the nanoporous TiO2 layer using the two-step RF magnetron sputtering technique. The Ti film electrode replaces the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer. The effect of substrate heating during the deposition of the Ti film was studied to improve the porosity and columnar array of the film pores and the resulting cell efficiency. The porous Ti layer (-41 microm) with low sheet resistance (-1.7 omega/sq) was obtained by deposition at 250 degrees C. The porous Ti layer collects electrons from the TiO2 layer and allows the diffusion of I-/I3(-) through the holes. The DSSC efficiency (eta) using porous Ti layers with highly columnar structures was measured with the highest conversion efficiency of -5.77%; the other photovoltaic properties were ff: 0.76, V(oc): 0.72 V, and J(sc): 10.6 mA/cm2.

  12. RF transformer

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  13. Survey and evaluation of available thermal insulation materials for use on solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This is the final report of a survey and evaluation of insulation materials for use with components of solar heating and cooling systems. The survey was performed by mailing questionnaires to manufacturers of insulation materials and by conducting an extensive literature search to obtain data on relevant properties of various types of insulation materials. The study evaluated insulation materials for active and passive solar heating and cooling systems and for multifunction applications. Primary and secondary considerations for selecting insulation materials for various components of solar heating and cooling systems are presented.

  14. Effect of deposition parameters and heat-treatment on the microstructure, mechanical and electrochemical properties of hydroxyapatite/titanium coating deposited on Ti6Al4V by RF-magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jianwei; Chen, Zhangbo; Han, Wenjun; He, Danfeng; Yang, Yiming; Wang, Qingliang

    2017-09-01

    Functionally graded HA/Ti coatings were deposited on silicon and Ti6Al4V substrate by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The effect of RF-power, negative bias and heat-treatment on the microstructure, mechanical and electrochemical properties of the coatings were characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, AFM Nanoindentation and electrochemical workstation. The obtained results showed that the as-deposited HA/Ti coatings were characteristic of amorphous structure, which transformed into a crystal structure after heat-treatment, and reformed O–H peak. The content of crystallization was increasing with the increase of negative bias. A dense, homogenous, smooth and featured surface, and columnar cross-section structure was observed in SEM observation. AFM results showed that the surface roughness became higher after heat-treatment, and increased with increasing RF-power. The mechanical test indicated that the coating had a higher nanohardness (9.1 GPa) in the case of  ‑100 V and 250 W than that of Ti6Al4V substrate, and a critical load as high as 17  ±  3.5 N. The electrochemical test confirmed the HA/Ti coating served as a stable protecting barrier in improving the corrosion resistance, which the corrosion current density was 1.3% of Ti6Al4V, but it was significantly influenced by RF-power and negative bias. The contact angle test demonstrated that all the coatings exhibited favorable hydrophilic properties, and it decreased by 20–25% compared to that untreated samples. Thus all results indicated that magnetron sputtering is a promising way for fabricating a better biocompatible ceramic coating by adjusting deposition parameters and post-deposition heat treatments.

  15. General Population Knowledge about Extreme Heat: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Lisbon and Madrid.

    PubMed

    Gil Cuesta, Julita; van Loenhout, Joris Adriaan Frank; Colaço, Maria da Conceição; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2017-01-28

    Extreme heat is associated with an increased mortality and morbidity. National heat plans have been implemented to minimize the effect of extreme heat. The population's awareness and knowledge of national heat plans and extreme heat is essential to improve the community's behavior and adaptation. A general population survey was conducted in Lisbon and in Madrid to assess this knowledge. We used a questionnaire to interview passers-by. Results were compared between Lisbon and Madrid and between locals and foreigners, using Pearson Chi-square tests and Fisher's exact test. We conducted 260 interviews in six locations of different socio-economic backgrounds in each city. The most frequently mentioned extreme heat-related risk groups were the elderly (79.2%), children (49.6%) and babies (21.5%). The most frequently reported protective measures were increased fluid intake (73.1%) and avoiding exposure to the sun (50.8%). Knowledge about the heat plan was higher in Lisbon (37.2%) than in Madrid (25.2%) (p-value = 0.03). Foreigners had less knowledge of risk groups compared to locals. Heat plans were not widely known in Madrid and Lisbon. Nonetheless, knowledge of practical concepts to face extreme heat, such as certain risk groups and protective measures, was found. Our results were similar to comparable surveys where specific respondents' groups were identified as less knowledgeable. This highlighted the importance of addressing these groups when communicating public health messages on heat. Foreigners should be specifically targeted to increase their awareness.

  16. Survey of manufacturers of high-performance heat engines adaptable to solar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stine, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    The results of an industry survey made during the summer of 1983 are summarized. The survey was initiated in order to develop an information base on advanced engines that could be used in the solar thermal dish-electric program. Questionnaires inviting responses were sent to 39 companies known to manufacture or integrate externally heated engines. Follow-up telephone communication ensured uniformity of response. It appears from the survey that the technology exists to produce external-heat-addition engines of appropriate size with thermal efficiencies of over 40%. Problem areas are materials and sealing.

  17. Status report on survey of alternative heat pumping technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.

    1998-07-01

    The Department of Energy is studying alternative heat pumping technologies to identify possible cost effective alternatives to electric driven vapor compression heat pumps, air conditioners, and chillers that could help reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Over thirty different technologies are being considered including: engine driven systems, fuel cell powered systems, and alternative cycles. Results presented include theoretical efficiencies for all systems as well as measured performance of some commercial, prototype, or experimental systems. Theoretical efficiencies show that the alternative electric-driven technologies would have HSPFs between 4 and 8 Btu/Wh (1.2 to 2.3 W/W) and SEERs between 3 and 9.5 Btu/Wh (0.9 and 2.8 W/W). Gas-fired heat pump technologies have theoretical seasonal heating gCOPs from 1.1 to 1.7 and cooling gCOPs from 0.95 to 1.6 (a SEER 12 Btu/Wh electric air conditioner has a primary energy efficiency of approximately 1.4 W/W).

  18. Rising Mercury, Rising Hostility: How Heat Affects Survey Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Alexander H.; Krueger, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent social scientific research has examined connections between public opinion and weather conditions. This article contributes to this literature by analyzing the relationship between high temperature and survey response. Because hot temperatures are associated with aggression, irritation, and negativity, such conditions should lead to the…

  19. Shutter heating system of Antarctic bright star survey telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Dong, Shucheng; Jiang, Fengxin; Zhang, Hongfei; Wang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    A heat preservation system for mechanical shutter in Antarctic is introduced in the paper. The system consists of the heat preservation chamber, the host controller STM32F103C8T6 with peripheral circuit and the control algorithm. The whole design is carried out on the basis of the low temperature requirement, including the cavity structure and thermal insulation. The heat preservation chamber is used to keep the shutter warm and support the weight of the camera. Using PT100 as the temperature sensor, the signal processing circuit converts the temperature to the voltage which is then digitized by the 12 bit ADC in the STM32. The host controller transforms the voltage data into temperature, and through the tuning of the Fussy PID algorithm which controls the duty cycle of the MOSFET, the temperature control of chamber is realized. The System has been tested in the cryogenic environment for a long time, with characteristic of low temperature resistance, small volume, high accuracy of temperature control as well as remote control and detection.

  20. 2 MW CW RF load for gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Ives, R.; Marsden, David; Mizuhara, Max; Collins, George; Neilson, Jeff; Borchard, Philipp

    2011-07-01

    Final design and assembly are in progress for a 2MW CW RF load for gyrotrons. Such loads are required for testing high power gyrotrons for electron cyclotron heating of fusion plasmas. The research is building on experience with a 1 MW load to increase the power capability, reduce backscattered RF power, and improve the mechanical design. (author)

  1. Survey of literature on convective heat transfer coefficients and recovery factors for high atmosphere thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, S.

    1973-01-01

    Heat transfer phenomena of rarefied gas flows is discussed based on a literature survey of analytical and experimental rarefied gas dynamics. Subsonic flows are emphasized for the purposes of meteorological thermometry in the high atmosphere. The heat transfer coefficients for three basic geometries are given in the regimes of free molecular flow, transition flow, slip flow, and continuum flow. Different types of heat phenomena, and the analysis of theoretical and experimental data are presented. The uncertainties calculated from the interpolation rule compared with the available experimental data are discussed. The recovery factor for each geometry in subsonic rarefied flows is also given.

  2. Design Considerations for the LCLS RF Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, R.

    2005-01-31

    The LCLS rf gun design requires several modifications from existing S-band rf guns. The modifications that have the largest impact on the design of the gun are a dual rf feed and additional cooling capacity for 120 Hz operation. A list of electrical and mechanical specifications have been developed to produce the desired rf field. The simulation code ANSYS was used to study the steady state thermal properties of a 120 Hz gun. It was determined that four cooling channels at appropriate locations could be used to maintain the gun at a nearly constant frequency. The gun body stresses were all at or below the yield strength of Cu except for at the rf apertures. The stress at the apertures is over twice the yield strength and additional work is necessary to reduce the stress and still produce the desired rf coupling coefficient. Only steady state temperatures were calculated and no pulsed heating effects were considered in this study.

  3. Flexible heat pipes for CCD cooling on the Advanced Camera for Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweickart, Russell B.; Buchko, Matthew M.

    1998-08-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) is an instrument containing two charged-coupled device (CCD) cameras and a multi-anode multi-channel array (MAMA) detector being built by Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation for NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The instrument is scheduled to be installed in the Hubble Space Telescope during a space shuttle mission in December of 1999. The CCD detectors need to operate at a temperature below -80 degrees C in order to avoid unacceptable dark current. This cooling is achieved with thermo-electric coolers (TEC) mounted in evacuated assemblies that contain the detectors. Heat that is generated by the TECs must be dissipated to space. Since the CCd assemblies are centrally located within the instrument enclosure, a method must be provided for transferring this heat to a heat rejection surfaces. Heat pipes have been selected for this purpose since they are frequently used in space applications for passively transferring heat from sources to remotely located radiating panels. The alignment of the CCDs is critical, however, so the loads induced into the detectors and the optical bench containing the sensor assemblies through heat pipes must be minimized. Consequently, the CCD heat pipes have been designed with a flexible section to minimize either thermally generated or launch induced structural loads. Structural and thermal testing has shown that these heat pipes will allow the ACS detectors to attain their operating temperature while meeting alignment stability requirements. This paper presents the design of and test results from the ACS flexible heat pipes.

  4. General Population Knowledge about Extreme Heat: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Lisbon and Madrid

    PubMed Central

    Gil Cuesta, Julita; van Loenhout, Joris Adriaan Frank; Colaço, Maria da Conceição; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2017-01-01

    Extreme heat is associated with an increased mortality and morbidity. National heat plans have been implemented to minimize the effect of extreme heat. The population’s awareness and knowledge of national heat plans and extreme heat is essential to improve the community’s behavior and adaptation. A general population survey was conducted in Lisbon and in Madrid to assess this knowledge. We used a questionnaire to interview passers-by. Results were compared between Lisbon and Madrid and between locals and foreigners, using Pearson Chi-square tests and Fisher's exact test. We conducted 260 interviews in six locations of different socio-economic backgrounds in each city. The most frequently mentioned extreme heat-related risk groups were the elderly (79.2%), children (49.6%) and babies (21.5%). The most frequently reported protective measures were increased fluid intake (73.1%) and avoiding exposure to the sun (50.8%). Knowledge about the heat plan was higher in Lisbon (37.2%) than in Madrid (25.2%) (p-value = 0.03). Foreigners had less knowledge of risk groups compared to locals. Heat plans were not widely known in Madrid and Lisbon. Nonetheless, knowledge of practical concepts to face extreme heat, such as certain risk groups and protective measures, was found. Our results were similar to comparable surveys where specific respondents’ groups were identified as less knowledgeable. This highlighted the importance of addressing these groups when communicating public health messages on heat. Foreigners should be specifically targeted to increase their awareness. PMID:28134849

  5. Cryogenic vacuumm RF feedthrough device

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Genfa; Phillips, Harry Lawrence

    2008-12-30

    A cryogenic vacuum rf feedthrough device comprising: 1) a probe for insertion into a particle beam; 2) a coaxial cable comprising an inner conductor and an outer conductor, a dielectric/insulating layer surrounding the inner conductor, the latter being connected to the probe for the transmission of higher mode rf energy from the probe; and 3) a high thermal conductivity stub attached to the coaxial dielectric about and in thermal contact with the inner conductor which high thermal conductivity stub transmits heat generated in the vicinity of the probe efficiently and radially from the area of the probe and inner conductor all while maintaining useful rf transmission line characteristics between the inner and outer coaxial conductors.

  6. A survey of geothermal process heat applications in Guatemala: An engineering survey

    SciTech Connect

    Altseimer, J.H.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1988-08-01

    This study investigates how process heat from Guatemala's geothermal energy resources can be developed to reduce Guatemala's costly importation of oil, create new employment by encouraging new industry, and reduce fuel costs for existing industry. This investigation was funded by the US Agency for International Development and carried out jointly by the Guatemalan Government and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two sites, Amatitlan and Zunil, are being developed geothermally. Amatitlan is in the better industrial area but Zunil's geothermal development is more advanced. The industry around Zunil is almost exclusively agricultural and the development of an agricultural processing plant (freezing, dehydration, and cold storage) using geothermal heat is recommended. Similar developments throughout the volcanic zones of Guatemala are possible. Later, when the field at Amatitlan has been further developed, an industrial park can be planned. Potential Amatitlan applications are the final stage of salt refining, a thermal power plant, hospital/hotel heating and cooling, steam curing of concrete blocks, production of alcohol from sugar cane, and production of polyethylene from ethanol. Other special developments such as water pumping for the city of Guatemala and the use of moderate-temperature geothermal fluids for localized power production are also possible. 12 refs., 13 figs., 14 tabs.

  7. Coping with heat in the city: what can we learn from a survey immediately after a hot weather period for future heat waves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Schipper, Hans; Hackenbruch, Julia

    2015-04-01

    Karlsruhe is one of the hottest cities in Germany with a temperature record of 40.2°C in August 2003. In 2013, two hot weather periods with continuous heat warnings by the German Weather Service for 7 and 8 days occurred during the second half of July and first 10 days of August 2013, and in early August the temperatures in Karlsruhe almost reached again the record of 40.2°C. To understand how citizens experienced the heat and what strategies they used to cope with the heat, we conducted a questionnaire survey on subjective heat stress and coping strategies immediately after the hot weather period. Based on a holistic approach the questionnaire included questions on heat stress experience in different contexts of daily life, health impacts of the heat, coping measures, housing conditions, urban environment, living conditions, and socio-demographic characteristics. The responses of the 323 survey participants living and working in Karlsruhe show that they on average experienced the heat as rather stressful event, whereby the heat stress experienced at home was significant lower than heat stress experienced at work or in general. Regression analyses show that, among the factors included in the questionnaire, the health impairments suffered during the heat, the control belief and the coping measures implemented mainly determine heat stress experienced in general and at work. For the subjective heat stress at home, factors of the built urban environment such as heat loading of district, living in the attic or the ground floor, and heat protection elements of the inhabited building also played a role. At the same time, the way the respondents used different coping strategies in context of their daily activities and routines during heat suggests lessons to learn from this event how individual response to heat differs from responses to other types of natural hazards.

  8. The Use of RF Waves in Space Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bering, Edgar A., III; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Squire, Jared

    2004-01-01

    This paper will review the ways in which RF and microwave radiation may be used in the design of electric propulsion systems for spacecraft. RF power has been used or proposed in electric propulsion systems to ionize, to heat, and to accelerate the propellant, or to produce plasma used to inflate a magnetic field for solar sail purposes. Direct RF propulsion using radiation pressure or ponderomotive forces is impractical owing to efficiency considerations. Examples of various systems that have been developed or proposed will be reviewed. The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) uses RF for producing, heating and accelerating plasma. Inductive RF and microwave ion thruster schemes use e-m waves to ionize the plasma, which is then accelerated by use of dc grids. The details of the VASIMR, an inductive RF thruster, and a microwave ion thruster are discussed and contrasted with related RF systems.

  9. The Use of RF Waves in Space Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bering, Edgar A., III; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Squire, Jared

    2004-01-01

    This paper will review the ways in which RF and microwave radiation may be used in the design of electric propulsion systems for spacecraft. RF power has been used or proposed in electric propulsion systems to ionize, to heat, and to accelerate the propellant, or to produce plasma used to inflate a magnetic field for solar sail purposes. Direct RF propulsion using radiation pressure or ponderomotive forces is impractical owing to efficiency considerations. Examples of various systems that have been developed or proposed will be reviewed. The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) uses RF for producing, heating and accelerating plasma. Inductive RF and microwave ion thruster schemes use e-m waves to ionize the plasma, which is then accelerated by use of dc grids. The details of the VASIMR, an inductive RF thruster, and a microwave ion thruster are discussed and contrasted with related RF systems.

  10. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  11. Survey of Electron Heat Diffusion Driven by Sawtooth Crashes in J-TEXT Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao Li, Jian; Qing Zhang, Xiao; Rao, Bo; Ding, Yong Hua; Zhuang, Ge

    2012-10-01

    A soft X-ray diagnostic system has been established on the J-TEXT tokamak aiming to observe and survey the MHD activities, in particular, sawtooth behavior. The system consists of 8 cameras stretching to 128 collimated viewing chords which can cover the cross section of the tokamak. Investigation and analysis of the propagation of heat-pulses due to sawtooth crashes can provide the possibility to evaluate the electron heat diffusivity χep. The value deduced by heat pulse measurements on J-TEXT tokamak is about 7˜18 m^2/s, 4 ˜ 9 times of χe ( 2 m^2/s) which is predicted by power balance calculations. By applying externally resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), it is found that χep is lower than that value without RMPs. More experimental results and the analysis will be presented in the meeting.

  12. A survey of heating and turbulent boundary layer characteristics of several hypersonic research aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    Four of the configurations investigated during a proposed NASA-Langley hypersonic research aircraft program were selected for phase-change-paint heat-transfer testing and forebody boundary layer pitot surveys. In anticipation of future hypersonic aircraft, both published and unpublished data and results are reviewed and presented with the purpose of providing a synoptic heat-transfer data base from the research effort. Engineering heat-transfer predictions are compared with experimental data on both a global and a local basis. The global predictions are shown to be sufficient for purposes of configuration development, and even the local predictions can be adequate when interpreted in light of the proper flow field. In that regard, cross flow in the forebody boundary layers was examined for significant heating and aerodynamic effect on the scramjet engines. A design philosophy which evolved from the research airplane effort is used to design a forebody shape that produces thin, uniform, forebody boundary layers on a hypersonic airbreathing missile. Finally, heating/boundary layer phenomena which are not predictable with state-of-the-art knowledge and techniques are shown and discussed.

  13. State of Maine residential heating oil survey: 1995--1996 season summary

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, B.

    1996-05-01

    In Maine the cash price is surveyed, as opposed to lthe retail or charge price, as it has been identified as the price most often paid by Maine consumers. As one can see from the chart in this report, the 1995-1996 cash prices for No. 2 heating oil can be characterized as having an upward trend and much more fluctuation than last years` relatively flat line. The 1995-96 heating season started at the closing price of the previous season and for the first few weeks prices were lower than most of the 1994-95 trendline. When the weather became cooler, however, prices were on a steady incline until well into the winter. Prices leveled off for most of the rest of the season with a dramatic surge on the last week of the survey. The average statewide cash price for No. 2 heating oil this year was .861 1 cents, approximately ten cents higher than the average for 1994-1995 which was .7661 cents per gallon. It has been the observation of the SPO that during most of the 1995-1996 season, Maine`s prices showed a direct correspondence with New England rack or wholesale prices. It appeared that they never fluctuated more than 3-4 cents from each other.

  14. Airborne-temperature-survey maps of heat-flow anomalies for exploration geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgrande, N. K.

    1982-11-01

    Precise airborne temperature surveys depicted small predawn surface temperature differences related to heat flow anomalies at the Long Valley, California, KGRA. Zones with conductive heat flow differences of 45 + or - 16 nu cal/sq cm(s) has predawn surface temperature differences of 1.4 + or - 0.3 C. The warmer zones had hot water circulating in a shallow (less than 60-m-deep) aquifer. Hot wate is a useful geochemical indicator of geothermal and mineral resource potential. The precise airborne temperature survey method recorded redundant infrared scanner signals at two wavelengths (10 to 12 micrometers and 4.5 to 5.5 micrometers) and two elevations (0.3 km and 1.2 km). Ground thermistor probes recorded air and soil temperatures during the survey overflights. Radiometric temperatures were corrected for air path and reflected sky radiation effects. Corrected temperatures were displayed in image form with color coded maps which depicted 0.24 C temperature differences.

  15. Survey on the social and economic influences of wide-spreading heat-pump technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Kozo

    1988-07-01

    A survey was conducted on the current status of utilization, trends in technical development for future and policy of heat pumps (HP). Heat pumps exceeded 65 pct of shipment of air conditioners for home and 70 pct for business. Proportion of installation was 20 pct per household and a 4.8 pct per room in 1984. It was already applied to industrial processes. Technological developments are in progress on HP for cold regions, multisystem for air conditioning/hot water supply, and absorption-type HP in order to widen its application. In political aspects, its proliferation is promoted by the financial aids and favorable charging system. The use of HP in 2000 is estimated as 26 to 51 pct per room for air conditioning, 40 to 64 pct of total heat demands for air conditioning, and 7 to 17 pct in heat demands for hot water supply. Share of HP in business application will be 39 to 68 pct for air conditioning, and 3 to 9 pct for hot water supply. About 2.3 to 5.0 pct of demands for industrial process will be filled with HP. HP will have a significant influence on energy conservation and environmental improvement.

  16. State heating oil and propane program: Final report. Survey of No.2 heating oil and propane prices at the retail level, October 1997 through March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Energy Efficiency Division of the Vermont Department of Public Service (DPS) monitored the price and inventory of residential heating oil and propane during the 1997--98 heating season under a grant from the US Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration (EIA). DPS staff collected data biweekly between October 5, 1997 and March 16, 1998 on the retail price of {number_sign}2 home heating oil and propane by telephone survey. Propane price quoted was based on the rate for a residential home heating customer using 1,000+ per year. The survey included a sample of fuel dealers selected by the EIA, plus additional dealers and fuels selected by the DPS. The EIA weighted, analyzed, and reported the data collected from their sample.

  17. DOE planning workshop on rf theory and computations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the two-day workshop-meeting was to review the status of rf heating in magnetic fusion plasmas and to determine the outstanding problems in this area. The term rf heating was understood to encompass not only bulk plasma heating by externally applied electromagnetic power but also current generation in toroidal plasmas and generation of thermal barriers in tandem mirror plasmas.

  18. Comparison of ANN (MLP), ANFIS, SVM, and RF models for the online classification of heating value of burning municipal solid waste in circulating fluidized bed incinerators.

    PubMed

    You, Haihui; Ma, Zengyi; Tang, Yijun; Wang, Yuelan; Yan, Jianhua; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa; Huang, Qunxing

    2017-04-10

    The heating values, particularly lower heating values of burning municipal solid waste are critically important parameters in operating circulating fluidized bed incineration systems. However, the heating values change widely and frequently, while there is no reliable real-time instrument to measure heating values in the process of incinerating municipal solid waste. A rapid, cost-effective, and comparative methodology was proposed to evaluate the heating values of burning MSW online based on prior knowledge, expert experience, and data-mining techniques. First, selecting the input variables of the model by analyzing the operational mechanism of circulating fluidized bed incinerators, and the corresponding heating value was classified into one of nine fuzzy expressions according to expert advice. Development of prediction models by employing four different nonlinear models was undertaken, including a multilayer perceptron neural network, a support vector machine, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, and a random forest; a series of optimization schemes were implemented simultaneously in order to improve the performance of each model. Finally, a comprehensive comparison study was carried out to evaluate the performance of the models. Results indicate that the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system model outperforms the other three models, with the random forest model performing second-best, and the multilayer perceptron model performing at the worst level. A model with sufficient accuracy would contribute adequately to the control of circulating fluidized bed incinerator operation and provide reliable heating value signals for an automatic combustion control system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Superconductors for pulsed rf accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, I.E.; Farkas, Z.D.

    1985-04-01

    The choice of superconducting materials for accelerator rf cavities has been determined in the past only in part by basic properties of the superconductors, such as the critical field, and to a larger extent by criteria which include fabrication processes, surface conditions, heat transfer capabilities and so on. For cw operated cavities the trend has been toward choosing materials with higher critical temperatures and lower surface resistance, from Lead to Niobium, from Niobium to Nb/sub 3/Sn. This trend has been dictated by the specific needs of storage ring cw system and by the relatively low fields which could be reached without breakdown. The work performed at SLAC on superconducting cavities using microsecond long high power rf pulses has shown that in Pb, Nb, and Nb/sub 3/Sn fields close to the critical magnetic fields can be reached without magnetic breakdown.

  20. Low frequency rf current drive. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hershkowitz, N.

    1992-12-31

    An unshielded antenna for rf heating has been developed and tested during this report period. In addition to design specifications being given, some experimental results are presented utilizing: (1) an unprotected Faraday shield, (2) insulating guard limiters, (3) unshielded antenna experiments, (4) method for detecting small rf driven currents, (5) rf fast wave current drive experiments, (6) alfven wave interactions with electrons, and (7) machine conditioning, impurity generation and density control.

  1. Rf feedback free electron laser

    DOEpatents

    Brau, C.A.; Swenson, D.A.; Boyd, T.J. Jr.

    1979-11-02

    A free electron laser system and electron beam system for a free electron laser are provided which use rf feedback to enhance efficiency. Rf energy is extracted from an electron beam by decelerating cavities and returned to accelerating cavities using rf returns such as rf waveguides, rf feedthroughs, etc. This rf energy is added to rf klystron energy to lower the required input energy and thereby enhance energy efficiency of the system.

  2. Rf Feedback free electron laser

    DOEpatents

    Brau, Charles A.; Swenson, Donald A.; Boyd, Jr., Thomas J.

    1981-01-01

    A free electron laser system and electron beam system for a free electron laser which use rf feedback to enhance efficiency. Rf energy is extracted from an electron beam by decelerating cavities and returned to accelerating cavities using rf returns such as rf waveguides, rf feedthroughs, etc. This rf energy is added to rf klystron energy to lower the required input energy and thereby enhance energy efficiency of the system.

  3. Workers' perceptions of climate change related extreme heat exposure in South Australia: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jianjun; Hansen, Alana; Pisaniello, Dino; Bi, Peng

    2016-07-11

    Occupational exposure to extreme heat without sufficient protection may not only increase the risk of heat-related illnesses and injuries but also compromise economic productivity. With predictions of more frequent and intense bouts of hot weather, workplace heat exposure is presenting a growing challenge to workers' health and safety. This study aims to investigate workers' perceptions and behavioural responses towards extreme heat exposure in a warming climate. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in 2012 in South Australia among selected outdoor industries. Workers' heat risk perceptions were measured in the following five aspects: concerns about heat exposure, attitudes towards more training, policy and guideline support, the adjustment of work habits, and degree of satisfaction of current preventive measures. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors significantly associated with workers' heat perceptions. A total of 749 respondents participated in this survey, with a response rate of 50.9 %. A little more than half (51.2 %) of respondents were moderately or very much concerned about workplace heat exposure. Factors associated with workers' heat concerns included age, undertaking very physically demanding work, and the use of personal protective equipment, heat illness history, and injury experience during hot weather. Less than half (43.4 %) of the respondents had received heat-related training. Workers aged 25-54 years and those with previous heat-related illness/injury history showed more supportive attitudes towards heat-related training. The provision of cool drinking water was the most common heat prevention measure. A little more than half (51.4 %) of respondents were satisfied with the current heat prevention measures. About two-thirds (63.8 %) of respondents agreed that there should be more heat-related regulations and guidelines for working during very hot weather. More than two

  4. State of Maine residential heating oil survey: 1994--1995 Season summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The 1994--95 heating season approached with more attention to petroleum products than experienced in some time. This year, however, the focus was on transportation fuels with the introduction of reformulated gasolines scheduled for the first of 1995. Last year transportation fuels had been in the spotlight in the Northeast as well, for the ills experienced with a new winter mix for diesel fuel. Would RFG have the same dubious entrance as diesel`s winter mix? Would RFG implementation work and what effect would the change in stocks have on the refineries? With worries related to transportation fuels being recognized, would there be reason for concern with heating fuels? As the new year approached, the refineries seemed to have no problem with supplies and RFG stocks were eased in about the second week of December. In Maine, the southern half of the state was effected by the gasoline substitution but seven of Maine`s sixteen counties were directed to follow the recommended criteria. Since the major population concentration lies in the southern three counties, concern was real. Attention paid to emission testing had come to a head in the fall, and RFG complaints were likely. There have been years when snow and cold arrived by Thanksgiving Day. In northern Maine, snow easily covers the ground before the SHOPP survey begins. The fall slipped by with no great shocks in the weather. December was more of the same, as the weather continued to favor the public. Normally the third week in January is considered the coldest time in the year, but not this year. By the end of January, two days were recorded as being more typical of winter. By March and the end of the survey season, one could only recognize that there were perhaps a few cold days this winter. Fuel prices fluctuated little through the entire heating season. There were no major problems to report and demand never placed pressure on dealers.

  5. Electron heating enhancement due to plasma series resonance in a capacitively coupled RF discharge: Electrical modeling and comparison to experimental measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Minglu; Lu, Yijia; Cheng, Jia; Ji, Linhong

    2016-09-01

    The electron heating enhancement due to the self-excitation of the plasma series resonance in capacitively coupled plasmas is revisited by a combination of an equivalent circuit model and experiments. To improve the model accuracy, measured voltage waveforms at the powered electrode are used instead of prescribing a sinusoidal voltage supply in series with a bias capacitance. The results calculated from the electrical model are consistent with the experimental measurements performed by a Langmuir probe with verification of a microwave interferometer, at pressures of 0.2 and 0.3 Torr. High harmonics occurring in the discharge currents agree with observations in previous research. The nonlinear plasma series resonance effect is found to have a notable contribution to both ohmic and stochastic heating evaluated by the electron heating efficiencies.

  6. Recent heat flow survey and sea-floor spreading in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franken, D.; Al Amri, Z. M.

    2013-12-01

    Saudi Aramco obtained 225 new heat flow measurements along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, using an 11 m long Lister-type probe. To allow for geological control, most of the measurements were made along 2D seismic lines. In shallow areas, measurements were performed in bathymetric deeps to improve data coverage. It was observed that water bottom temperatures show an undisturbed linear gradient from ~ 21.2 °C at ~500 m water depth, to ~ 21.8 °C at ~2500 m. Consequently, high quality measurements were made from water depths as shallow as 400 m. Hard grounds on top of Pleistocene sediments prevented penetration of the probe near the toes of Upper Miocene salt glaciers terminating at the axial ridge. Based on this survey and previous data, the heat flow values range from ~80 -100 mWm-2 along the shoreline to over 350 mWm-2 at the axial ridge. However, anomalously low values between 8 and 20 mWm-2 were measured on the spreading axis where seismic data indicate Pleistocene sediments overlie volcanic rocks, probably due to groundwater circulation. One anomalously high heat flow value of 1136 mWm-2 was measured near the axial ridge, at a place where Pleistocene sediments overlie mobile salt, probably due to hydrothermal activity. In general, the regional distribution of heat flow in the eastern Red Sea shows exponential decay away from the inferred spreading axis. This is consistent with the inference that seafloor spreading in the northern Red Sea started around 15 Ma.

  7. Tx/Rx Head Coil Induces Less RF Transmit-Related Heating than Body Coil in Conductive Metallic Objects Outside the Active Area of the Head Coil.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Zoltan; Oliver-Taylor, Aaron; Kuehne, Andre; Goluch, Sigrun; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2017-01-01

    The transmit-receive (Tx/Rx) birdcage head coil is often used for excitation instead of the body coil because of the presumably lower risk of heating in and around conductive implants. However, this common practice has not been systematically tested. To investigate whether the Tx/Rx birdcage head coil produces less heating than the body coil when scanning individuals with implants, we used a 3T clinical scanner and made temperature measurements around a straight 15 cm conductor using either the Tx/Rx body or the head coil for excitation. Additionally, the transmitted fields of a Tx/Rx head coil were measured both in air and in gel using a resonant and a non-resonant B field probes as well as a non-resonant E field probe. Simulations using a finite-difference time domain solver were compared with the experimental findings. When the body coil was used for excitation, we observed heating around the 15 cm wire at various anatomical locations (both within and outside of the active volume of the head coil). Outside its active area, no such heating was observed while using the Tx/Rx head coil for excitation. The E and B fields of the Tx/Rx birdcage head coil extended well-beyond the physical dimensions of the coil. In air, the fields were monotonically decreasing, while in gel they were more complex with local maxima at the end of the ASTM phantom. These experimental findings were line with the simulations. While caution must always be exercised when scanning individuals with metallic implants, these findings support the use of the Tx/Rx birdcage head coil in place of the body coil at 3T in order to reduce the risk of heating in and around conductive implants that are remote from the head coil.

  8. Tx/Rx Head Coil Induces Less RF Transmit-Related Heating than Body Coil in Conductive Metallic Objects Outside the Active Area of the Head Coil

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Zoltan; Oliver-Taylor, Aaron; Kuehne, Andre; Goluch, Sigrun; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2017-01-01

    The transmit–receive (Tx/Rx) birdcage head coil is often used for excitation instead of the body coil because of the presumably lower risk of heating in and around conductive implants. However, this common practice has not been systematically tested. To investigate whether the Tx/Rx birdcage head coil produces less heating than the body coil when scanning individuals with implants, we used a 3T clinical scanner and made temperature measurements around a straight 15 cm conductor using either the Tx/Rx body or the head coil for excitation. Additionally, the transmitted fields of a Tx/Rx head coil were measured both in air and in gel using a resonant and a non-resonant B field probes as well as a non-resonant E field probe. Simulations using a finite-difference time domain solver were compared with the experimental findings. When the body coil was used for excitation, we observed heating around the 15 cm wire at various anatomical locations (both within and outside of the active volume of the head coil). Outside its active area, no such heating was observed while using the Tx/Rx head coil for excitation. The E and B fields of the Tx/Rx birdcage head coil extended well-beyond the physical dimensions of the coil. In air, the fields were monotonically decreasing, while in gel they were more complex with local maxima at the end of the ASTM phantom. These experimental findings were line with the simulations. While caution must always be exercised when scanning individuals with metallic implants, these findings support the use of the Tx/Rx birdcage head coil in place of the body coil at 3T in order to reduce the risk of heating in and around conductive implants that are remote from the head coil. PMID:28184184

  9. Multi-Physics Analysis of the Fermilab Booster RF Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Awida, M.; Reid, J.; Yakovlev, V.; Lebedev, V.; Khabiboulline, T.; Champion, M.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-14

    After about 40 years of operation the RF accelerating cavities in Fermilab Booster need an upgrade to improve their reliability and to increase the repetition rate in order to support a future experimental program. An increase in the repetition rate from 7 to 15 Hz entails increasing the power dissipation in the RF cavities, their ferrite loaded tuners, and HOM dampers. The increased duty factor requires careful modelling for the RF heating effects in the cavity. A multi-physic analysis investigating both the RF and thermal properties of Booster cavity under various operating conditions is presented in this paper.

  10. RF micro-discharge thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunaevsky, Alexander; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2004-11-01

    Propulsion devices for spacecrafts with masses of several tens to one hundred kilograms are in an increasing demand. These devices should provide thrust of a few mN and specific impulse of about 1000 s at the total power consumption of several tens of W. In search of an alternative solution for lower power range, we investigated an rf discharge initiated in a sub-millimeter capillary fed by a gaseous propellant. In such a discharge, it is possible to heat plasma electrons up to temperatures of ˜ 20-30 eV. Steep density drop at the open end of the capillary should be a reason of the formation of a double layer, were the discharge ions are accelerated to energies of ˜5Te. A laboratory prototype demonstrated stable operation at the argon flow rate of 4-10 sccm. The discharge was powered by a 2 MHz rf generator. Power consumption of the discharge was about 16 W. Ionization rate was moderate due to nonoptimal electrode configuration, which resulted in the propellant utilization of 6-11%. Relatively wide plume angle of ˜130 degrees indicates that the acceleration region is placed outside the capillary and has a convex shape. Stability and parameters of the discharge depends on the material of the capillary channel. Among advantages of the rf micro-discharge thruster are simplicity, small size, and absence of cathode-neutralizer. Being optimized, the rf micro-discharge thruster seems very promising propulsion device for sub-mN thrust range.

  11. RF radiation from lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation from lightning in the RF band from 3-300 MHz were monitored. Radiation in this frequency range is of interest as a potential vehicle for monitoring severe storms and for studying the lightning itself. Simultaneous measurements were made of RF radiation and fast and slow field changes. Continuous analogue recordings with a system having 300 kHz of bandwidth were made together with digital records of selected events (principally return strokes) at greater temporal resolution. The data reveal patterns in the RF radiation for the entire flash which are characteristic of flash type and independent of the frequency of observation. Individual events within the flash also have characteristic RF patterns. Strong radiation occurs during the first return strokes, but delayed about 20 micron sec with respect to the begining of the return stroke; whereas, RF radiation from subsequent return strokes tends to be associated with cloud processes preceding the flash with comparatively little radiation occurring during the return stroke itself.

  12. Market assessment for active solar heating and cooling products. Category B: A survey of decision makers in the HVAC market place. Survey instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Lilien, G. L.; Johnston, P. E.

    1980-09-01

    Telephone screener questionnaires and mail-out questionnaires for marketing surveys for solar heating and cooling equipment are presented. Questionnaires are included for the residential segment, industrial segment, HVAC professionals segment, builder/developer segment, and the commercial segment. No results are reported. (WHK)

  13. Survey Instrument Validity Part II: Validation of a Survey Instrument Examining Athletic Trainers' Knowledge and Practice Beliefs Regarding Exertional Heat Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Laura J.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of developing and validating an instrument to investigate an athletic trainer's attitudes and behaviors regarding the recognition and treatment of exertional heat stroke. Background: Following up from our initial paper, which discussed the process of survey instrument design and…

  14. Survey Instrument Validity Part II: Validation of a Survey Instrument Examining Athletic Trainers' Knowledge and Practice Beliefs Regarding Exertional Heat Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Laura J.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of developing and validating an instrument to investigate an athletic trainer's attitudes and behaviors regarding the recognition and treatment of exertional heat stroke. Background: Following up from our initial paper, which discussed the process of survey instrument design and…

  15. RF Wave Propagation and Scattering in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Wendell; Goniche, Marc; Arefiev, Alex; Peysson, Yves; Ekedahl, Annika; InstituteFusion Studies Collaboration; IRFM CEA Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The propagation, scattering and absorption of the lower hybrid and electron cyclotron RF waves used to control fusion plasmas is reviewed. Drift wave turbulence driven by the steep ion and electron temperature gradients in H-mode divertor tokamaks produces strong scattering of the RF waves used for heating and plasma currents drive Both the 3-5GHz lower-hybrid (LH) and the 170GHZ electron cyclotron (EC) waves experience scattering and diffraction as propagating through the statistically complex density of the plasma. Ray equations are used to calculate the spread of the rays and the associated change in the parallel phase, polarization and group velocity of the RF waves in the propagation through the fusion plasma. A Fokker Planck equation for the phase space of the RF plasmons is one method to describe the spread of the RF wave power in the complex geometry of a divertor tokamak using the ray tracing codes. The evolution of the electron distribution function from the resonant electron-wave interactions is summarized for several scenarios. The resulting X-ray spectrum is broaden giving better agreement with the measured X-ray spectrum than that calculated in the absence of the turbulent scattering of the RF waves. M. Goniche et al., and Tore Supra Team, Phys. Plasmas 21, 2014.

  16. A Cross-Sectional, Randomized Cluster Sample Survey of Household Vulnerability to Extreme Heat among Slum Dwellers in Ahmedabad, India

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Kathy V.; Azhar, Gulrez S.; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile. PMID:23778061

  17. A cross-sectional, randomized cluster sample survey of household vulnerability to extreme heat among slum dwellers in ahmedabad, india.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kathy V; Azhar, Gulrez S; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

    2013-06-18

    Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile.

  18. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: evidence for radiative heating and contamination in the W40 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumble, D.; Hatchell, J.; Pattle, K.; Kirk, H.; Wilson, T.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; di Francesco, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2016-08-01

    We present SCUBA-2 450 μm and 850 μm observations of the W40 complex in the Serpens-Aquila region as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey (GBS) of nearby star-forming regions. We investigate radiative heating by constructing temperature maps from the ratio of SCUBA-2 fluxes using a fixed dust opacity spectral index, β = 1.8, and a beam convolution kernel to achieve a common 14.8 arcsec resolution. We identify 82 clumps ranging between 10 and 36 K with a mean temperature of 20 ± 3 K. Clump temperature is strongly correlated with proximity to the external OB association and there is no evidence that the embedded protostars significantly heat the dust. We identify 31 clumps that have cores with densities greater than 105cm-3. 13 of these cores contain embedded Class 0/I protostars. Many cores are associated with bright-rimmed clouds seen in Herschel 70 μm images. From JCMT HARP observations of the 12CO 3-2 line, we find contamination of the 850 μm band of up to 20 per cent. We investigate the free-free contribution to SCUBA-2 bands from large-scale and ultracompact H II regions using archival VLA data and find the contribution is limited to individual stars, accounting for 9 per cent of flux per beam at 450 μm or 12 per cent at 850 μm in these cases. We conclude that radiative heating has potentially influenced the formation of stars in the Dust Arc sub-region, favouring Jeans stable clouds in the warm east and fragmentation in the cool west.

  19. Survey of potential process-heat and reject-heat utilization at a Green River nuclear-energy center

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, C.M.; Sandquist, G.M.

    1982-03-01

    Potential uses of process heat and reject heat from a nuclear-energy center at Green River, Utah have been investigated. The remoteness of the Green River site would preclude many potential industrial uses for economical reasons such as transportation costs and lack of local markets. Water-consumption requirements would also have serious impact on some applications due to limitations imposed by other contractual agreements upon the water in the region. Several processes were identified which could be considered for the Green River site; including the use of heat to separate bitumens from tar sands, district heating, warming of greenhouses and soil, and the production of fish for game and commercial sales. The size of these industries would be limited and no single process or industry can be identified at this time which could use the full amount of low-temperature reject heat that would be generated at a NEC.

  20. RF wave propagation and scattering in turbulent tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, W. Michoski, C.; Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.

    2015-12-10

    Drift wave turbulence driven by the steep electron and ion temperature gradients in H-mode divertor tokamaks produce scattering of the RF waves used for heating and current drive. The X-ray emission spectra produced by the fast electrons require the turbulence broaden RF wave spectrum. Both the 5 GHz Lower Hybrid waves and the 170 GHz electron cyclotron [EC] RF waves experience scattering and diffraction by the electron density fluctuations. With strong LHCD there are bifurcations in the coupled turbulent transport dynamics giving improved steady-state confinement states. The stochastic scattering of the RF rays makes the prediction of the distribution of the rays and the associated particle heating a statistical problem. Thus, we introduce a Fokker-Planck equation for the probably density of the RF rays. The general frame work of the coupled system of coupled high frequency current driving rays with the low-frequency turbulent transport determines the profiles of the plasma density and temperatures.

  1. Thermoregulatory responses to RF energy absorption.

    PubMed

    Adair, Eleanor R; Black, David R

    2003-01-01

    This white paper combines a tutorial on the fundamentals of thermoregulation with a review of the current literature concerned with physiological thermoregulatory responses of humans and laboratory animals in the presence of radio frequency (RF) and microwave fields. The ultimate goal of research involving whole body RF exposure of intact organisms is the prediction of effects of such exposure on human beings. Most of the published research on physiological thermoregulation has been conducted on laboratory animals, with a heavy emphasis on laboratory rodents. Because their physiological heat loss mechanisms are limited, these small animals are very poor models for human beings. Basic information about the thermoregulatory capabilities of animal models relative to human capability is essential for the appropriate evaluation and extrapolation of animal data to humans. In general, reliance on data collected on humans and nonhuman primates, however fragmentary, yields a more accurate understanding of how RF fields interact with humans. Such data are featured in this review, including data from both clinic and laboratory. Featured topics include thermal sensation, human RF overexposures, exposures attending magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), predictions based on simulation models, and laboratory studies of human volunteers. Supporting data from animal studies include the thermoregulatory profile, response thresholds, physiological responses of heat production and heat loss, intense or prolonged exposure, RF effects on early development, circadian variation, and additive drug-microwave interactions. The conclusion is inescapable that humans demonstrate far superior thermoregulatory ability over other tested organisms during RF exposure at, or even above current human exposure guidelines. Published 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Detection and location of leaks in district heating steam systems: Survey and review of current technology and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Lanham, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    This report presents the results of a survey undertaken to identify and characterize current practices for detecting and locating leaks in district heating systems, particular steam systems. Currently used technology and practices are reviewed. In addition, the survey was used to gather information that may be important for the application of acoustic leak detection. A few examples of attempts to locate leaks in steam and hot water pipes by correlation of acoustic signals generated by the leaks are also discussed.

  3. Microfluidic stretchable RF electronics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2010-12-07

    Stretchable electronics is a revolutionary technology that will potentially create a world of radically different electronic devices and systems that open up an entirely new spectrum of possibilities. This article proposes a microfluidic based solution for stretchable radio frequency (RF) electronics, using hybrid integration of active circuits assembled on flex foils and liquid alloy passive structures embedded in elastic substrates, e.g. polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This concept was employed to implement a 900 MHz stretchable RF radiation sensor, consisting of a large area elastic antenna and a cluster of conventional rigid components for RF power detection. The integrated radiation sensor except the power supply was fully embedded in a thin elastomeric substrate. Good electrical performance of the standalone stretchable antenna as well as the RF power detection sub-module was verified by experiments. The sensor successfully detected the RF radiation over 5 m distance in the system demonstration. Experiments on two-dimensional (2D) stretching up to 15%, folding and twisting of the demonstrated sensor were also carried out. Despite the integrated device was severely deformed, no failure in RF radiation sensing was observed in the tests. This technique illuminates a promising route of realizing stretchable and foldable large area integrated RF electronics that are of great interest to a variety of applications like wearable computing, health monitoring, medical diagnostics, and curvilinear electronics.

  4. A survey of public perception and response to heat warnings across four North American cities: an evaluation of municipal effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Scott C

    2007-10-01

    To examine the efficacy of municipal heat watch warning systems, a thorough evaluation of the heat mitigation plans of four North American cities--Dayton (Ohio, USA), Philadelphia (Pennsylvania, USA), Phoenix (Arizona, USA), and Toronto (Ontario, Canada)--was undertaken. In concert with this evaluation was a survey of residents in the metropolitan areas of these cities that gauged their perception of their own vulnerability to the heat, as well as their knowledge of heat warnings and the activities recommended to be undertaken to help mitigate the effects of the heat. In total, 908 respondents participated in the telephone survey. Some of the key results indicate that knowledge of the heat warning was nearly universal (90%), and likely due to pervasive media coverage more than any other means. Though knowledge of the event was widespread, knowledge of what to do was less common. Only around half of all respondents mentioned that they changed their behavior, and despite the diversity of information available on mitigating heat vulnerability, most respondents stated that they merely "avoided the outdoors" at all costs. Though air conditioning was nearly ubiquitous among respondents, over a third mentioned that economic factors of energy costs were considered in terms of how long or whether the air conditioner was turned on.

  5. Phase stable RF transport system

    DOEpatents

    Curtin, Michael T.; Natter, Eckard F.; Denney, Peter M.

    1992-01-01

    An RF transport system delivers a phase-stable RF signal to a load, such as an RF cavity of a charged particle accelerator. A circuit generates a calibration signal at an odd multiple frequency of the RF signal where the calibration signal is superimposed with the RF signal on a common cable that connects the RF signal with the load. Signal isolating diplexers are located at both the RF signal source end and load end of the common cable to enable the calibration to be inserted and extracted from the cable signals without any affect on the RF signal. Any phase shift in the calibration signal during traverse of the common cable is then functionally related to the phase shift in the RF signal. The calibration phase shift is used to control a phase shifter for the RF signal to maintain a stable RF signal at the load.

  6. Urban heat stress: novel survey suggests health and fitness as future avenue for research and adaptation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Christian; Honold, Jasmin; Lauf, Steffen; Lakes, Tobia

    2017-04-01

    Extreme heat has tremendous adverse effects on human health. Heat stress is expected to further increase due to urbanization, an aging population, and global warming. Previous research has identified correlations between extreme heat and mortality. However, the underlying physical, behavioral, environmental, and social risk factors remain largely unknown and comprehensive quantitative investigation on an individual level is lacking. We conducted a new cross-sectional household questionnaire survey to analyze individual heat impairment (self-assessed and reported symptoms) and a large set of potential risk factors in the city of Berlin, Germany. This unique dataset (n = 474) allows for the investigation of new relationships, especially between health/fitness and urban heat stress. Our analysis found previously undocumented associations, leading us to generate new hypotheses for future research: various health/fitness variables returned the strongest associations with individual heat stress. Our primary hypothesis is that age, the most commonly used risk factor, is outperformed by health/fitness as a dominant risk factor. Related variables seem to more accurately represent humans’ cardiovascular capacity to handle elevated temperature. Among them, active travel was associated with reduced heat stress. We observed statistical associations for heat exposure regarding the individual living space but not for the neighborhood environment. Heat stress research should further investigate individual risk factors of heat stress using quantitative methodologies. It should focus more on health and fitness and systematically explore their role in adaptation strategies. The potential of health and fitness to reduce urban heat stress risk means that encouraging active travel could be an effective adaptation strategy. Through reduced CO2 emissions from urban transport, societies could reap double rewards by addressing two root causes of urban heat stress: population health and

  7. Rf power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.

    1988-05-01

    This paper covers RF power sources for accelerator applications. The approach has been with particular customers in mind. These customers are high energy physicists who use accelerators as experimental tools in the study of the nucleus of the atom, and synchrotron light sources derived from electron or positron storage rings. This paper is confined to electron-positron linear accelerators since the RF sources have always defined what is possible to achieve with these accelerators. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  8. Microbunching and RF Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Venturini, M.; Migliorati, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Ferrario, M.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2010-05-23

    Velocity bunching (or RF compression) represents a promising technique complementary to magnetic compression to achieve the high peak current required in the linac drivers for FELs. Here we report on recent progress aimed at characterizing the RF compression from the point of view of the microbunching instability. We emphasize the development of a linear theory for the gain function of the instability and its validation against macroparticle simulations that represents a useful tool in the evaluation of the compression schemes for FEL sources.

  9. Enhanced-recycling H-mode regimes with edge coherent modes achieved by RF heating with lithium-wall conditioning in the EAST superconducting tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. Q.; Xu, G. S.; Guo, H. Y.; Wan, B. N.; Chen, R.; Ding, S. Y.; Yan, N.; Wang, L.; Gong, X. Z.; Liu, S. C.; Shao, L. M.; Chen, L.; Zhang, W.; Hu, G. H.; Liu, Y. L.; Li, Y. L.; Zhao, N.

    2014-12-01

    Two enhanced-recycling H-mode regimes, named low-enhanced-recycling (LER) and high-enhanced-recycling (HER) H-mode regimes, with edge coherent modes, have been achieved by lower hybrid current drive and ion cyclotron resonance heating with lithium-wall conditioning in the EAST superconducting tokamak. In the LER H-mode regime, the density and radiation increase during the ELM-free phase until the onset of edge-localized modes (ELMs), while in the HER H-mode regime, the density and radiation are well controlled without the presence of ELMs. Both LER and HER H-modes exhibit a low-frequency (frequency <100 kHz) edge quasi-coherent mode (ECM) with an initial frequency chirping down phase, following the L-H transition. In addition, an electromagnetic high-frequency coherent mode (HFM) with frequency >170 kHz appears shortly (<1 ms) after the transition during HER H-modes. Both ECM and HFM propagate in the electron diamagnetic drift direction in the lab frame with a low poloidal wavelength and may be responsible for enhanced recycling during the ELM-free phase. These two enhanced-recycling H-mode regimes may have significant implications for long-pulse high-performance operations in future fusion experiments.

  10. Research on heating, instabilities, turbulence, and rf (radiofrequency) emission from electric-field dominated plasmas. Final report, 15 March 1986-14 May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, J.R.; Alexeff, I.

    1989-07-01

    This contract has supported four research programs: (1) a program of research on plasma turbulence; (2) a program of research on plasma heating by collisional magnetic pumping; (3) a research program on the Orbitron submillimeter maser; and (4) the initial phase of a program on plasma cloaking of military targets for protection against radar and directed microwave energy weapons. Progress in these areas is documented in the text of this final report and in the twenty archival publications included in the appendices to this report. In addition to the above four research areas, work is continuing on plasma diagnostic development, and the development of new state-of-the-art data analysis and reduction methods, including software development for on-line reduction of Langmuir probe, capacitive probe, and other diagnostic information. The authors are also developing the capability to analyze electrostatic-potential fluctuations by the methods of nonlinear dynamics. An important part of our research program has been the training of graduate and undergraduate research assistants in state-of-the-art methods in the fields of high-temperature plasma physics, plasma diagnostics, communications, and related areas.

  11. RF generated atmospheric pressure plasmas and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaeyoung; Herrmann, Hans W.; Henins, Ivars; Gautier, Donald C.

    2001-10-01

    RF generated atmospheric pressure plasma sources have been developed for various materials applications. They operate with rf power and produce a α-mode capacitive discharge that is stable, steady-state, non-thermal, and volumetric. The plasma parameters of this source have been measured: electron densities of 10^11 cm-3 and electron temperatures of 2 eV by using neutral bremsstrahlung emission. Localized electron heating near the sheath boundary has been observed and is related to the discharge stability and α to γ mode (or arcing) transition using 1D fluid model. The discharge stability improves with increase in rf frequency. The electrode surface property such as the secondary electron emission coefficient also plays a significant role in determining α to γ mode transition. For example, a stable α-mode air discharge is produced using 100 MHz rf power with the use of a boron nitride cover on one of the electrodes. In comparison, an air discharge becomes unstable at a lower rf frequency (e.g. 13.56 MHz) or with an alumina cover. Similar results were obtained with various feedgas such as steam, CO_2, and hydrocarbon containing gases. Further characterization of this high frequency source is under progress. For its applications, we have successfully demonstrated the effective neutralization of actual chemical warfare agents such as VX, GD and HD. In addition, significant progresses have been made in the area of etching of organic and metal film etching, and production of novel materials.

  12. Industrial hygiene walk-through survey report of Industrial Heating and Finishing Co. , Inc. , Pelham, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, C.S.; Krishnan, E.R.; Goodman, R.J.

    1987-05-12

    In an effort to gather information on the potential occupational exposures to acrylates or methacrylates, a walk-through survey was conducted at the Industrial Heating and Finishing Facility in Pelham, Alabama. At this facility, finishing systems were processed for wood, plastic, glass, and metal substrates. Acrylic coatings have been used there since 1982. Coatings were blended at this site with catalysts, solvents and photoinitiators to prepare the needed sprays. At the site, the company used a spray booth and an ultraviolet curing unit connected by a conveyor system to demonstrate spray-coat applications on three dimensional objects to potential clients. During these demonstrations the spraying was done by hand. However, during normal operations, an automated spraying system was incorporated. The spraying was done in a separate room which was equipped with a ventilation system. The facility did not have an industrial-hygiene program, but material safety data sheets were posted in areas where the materials were used. There have been no health problems reported at this location.

  13. RF Gun Optimization Study

    SciTech Connect

    A. S. Hofler; P. Evtushenko; M. Krasilnikov

    2007-08-01

    Injector gun design is an iterative process where the designer optimizes a few nonlinearly interdependent beam parameters to achieve the required beam quality for a particle accelerator. Few tools exist to automate the optimization process and thoroughly explore the parameter space. The challenging beam requirements of new accelerator applications such as light sources and electron cooling devices drive the development of RF and SRF photo injectors. RF and SRF gun design is further complicated because the bunches are space charge dominated and require additional emittance compensation. A genetic algorithm has been successfully used to optimize DC photo injector designs for Cornell* and Jefferson Lab**, and we propose studying how the genetic algorithm techniques can be applied to the design of RF and SRF gun injectors. In this paper, we report on the initial phase of the study where we model and optimize gun designs that have been benchmarked with beam measurements and simulation.

  14. Rf2a and rf2b transcription factors

    DOEpatents

    Beachy, Roger N.; Petruccelli, Silvana; Dai, Shunhong

    2007-10-02

    A method of activating the rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) promoter in vivo is disclosed. The RTBV promoter is activated by exposure to at least one protein selected from the group consisting of Rf2a and Rf2b.

  15. Is ambient heat exposure levels associated with miscarriage or stillbirths in hot regions? A cross-sectional study using survey data from the Ghana Maternal Health Survey 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asamoah, Benedict; Kjellstrom, Tord; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2017-07-01

    It is well established that high ambient heat could cause congenital abnormalities resulting in miscarriage or stillbirth among certain species of mammals. However, this has not been systematically studied in real field settings among humans, despite the potential value of such knowledge for estimating the impact of global warming on the human species. This study sought to test the hypothesis that maternal heat exposure during pregnancy in hot regions is associated with increased prevalence of spontaneous abortions or stillbirths and to develop an analytical strategy to use existing data from maternal health surveys and existing data on historical heat levels at a geographic grid cell level. A subsample of the Ghana Maternal Health Survey 2007 was used in this study. This study sample consisted of 1136 women with pregnancy experiences between 2004 and 2007, out of which 141 women had a pregnancy that terminated in miscarriage or stillbirth. Induced-abortion cases were excluded. The linkage between ambient heat exposure and pregnancy outcome followed the epidemiological time-place-person principle, by linking timing of pregnancy outcome with historical data of local area heat levels for each month, as estimated in an international database. Maternal heat exposure level was estimated using calculated levels of the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT), which takes into account temperature, humidity, heat radiation, and air movement over the skin (wind speed). The values we used applied to exposure in the shade or in buildings without cooling (no solar heat radiation) and a standard air movement of 1 m/s. We applied two exposure durations: yearly average and monthly average for second month of pregnancy. In one analysis, we restricted the sample to four regions with time-homogeneous ambient heat. Analysis was made using logistic regression. About 12% of the latest pregnancies ended in either miscarriage (9.6%) or stillbirth (2.8%). The odds ratios indicated 12 to 15

  16. Safety assessment for the rf Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, A.; Beane, F.

    1984-08-01

    The Radio Frequency Test Facility (RFTF) is a part of the Magnetic Fusion Program's rf Heating Experiments. The goal of the Magnetic Fusion Program (MFP) is to develop and demonstrate the practical application of fusion. RFTF is an experimental device which will provide an essential link in the research effort aiming at the realization of fusion power. This report was compiled as a summary of the analysis done to ensure the safe operation of RFTF.

  17. Radio frequency heating for in-situ remediation of DNAPL

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, R.S.

    1996-08-01

    In-situ radio frequency (RF) heating technology for treating soils contaminated with dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) is described. RF imparts heat to non-conducting materials through the application of carefully controlled RF transmissions, improving contaminant flow characteristics and facilitating separation and removal from subsurface soils. The paper outlines advantages and limitations of RF remediation, process operations, general technology considerations, low permeability media considerations, commercial availability, and costs. Two case histories of RF remediation are briefly summarized. 13 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Plasma core reactor simulations using RF uranium seeded argon discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental results are described in which pure uranium hexafluoride was injected into an argon-confined, steady-state, RF-heated plasma to investigate characteristics of plasma core nuclear reactors. The 80 kW (13.56 MHz) and 1.2 MW (5.51 MHz) rf induction heater facilities were used to determine a test chamber flow scheme which offered best uranium confinement with minimum wall coating. The cylindrical fused-silica test chamber walls were 5.7-cm-ID by 10-cm-long. Test conditions included RF powers of 2-85 kW, chamber pressures of 1-12 atm, and uranium hexafluoride mass-flow rates of 0.005-0.13 g/s. Successful techniques were developed for fluid-mechanical confinement of RF-heated plasmas with pure uranium hexafluoride injection.

  19. 1.5 MW RF Load for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, Robert Lawrence; Marsden, David; Collins, George; Karimov, Rasul; Mizuhara, Max; Neilson, Jeffrey

    2016-09-01

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. developed a 1.5 MW RF load for the ITER fusion research facility currently under construction in France. This program leveraged technology developed in two previous SBIR programs that successfully developed high power RF loads for fusion research applications. This program specifically focused on modifications required by revised technical performance, materials, and assembly specification for ITER. This program implemented an innovative approach to actively distribute the RF power inside the load to avoid excessive heating or arcing associated with constructive interference. The new design implemented materials and assembly changes required to meet specifications. Critical components were built and successfully tested during the program.

  20. RF transmit power limit for the barewire loopless catheter antenna.

    PubMed

    Yeung, C J; Atalar, E

    2000-07-01

    The safety of the barewire loopless catheter antenna in transmit mode is addressed with respect to radiofrequency (RF) heating. Analytical expressions for electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) distributions surrounding the antenna are postulated and experimentally verified. Limiting RF transmit power to 40-70 mW time-averaged power, depending on the specific antenna design, will ensure that the current regulatory guideline of SAR of 8 W/kg in any gram of tissue is not exceeded. These limits can act as guidelines for the design of RF pulses for use with this device. Further study is required to examine the safety of the antenna in receive mode.

  1. AC/RF Superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  2. RF shielded connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, A.; Clatterbuck, C.

    1974-01-01

    Gap, where cable joins connector housing, is shielded effectively by composite RF shielding made from suitable potting resin material (fumed silica, thixotropic prepolymer composition), conductive coating (silver-filled, flexible, polyurethane resin), and protective jacket (wax coated housing formed around another wax form having contours shaped to match configuration).

  3. Improved RF Isolation Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G. L.; Macconnell, J.

    1985-01-01

    Circuit has high reverse isolation and wide bandwidth. Wideband isolation amplifier has low intermodulation distortion and high reverse isolation. Circuit does not require selected or matched components or directional coupling device. Circuit used in applications requiring high reverse isolation such as receiver intermediate-frequency (IF) strips and frequency distribution systems. Also applicable in RF and video signaling.

  4. Oxide Films RF Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER SKOWRONSKI , Marek 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING...Report Title: Oxide Films RF applications University: Carnegie Mellon University PIs: M. Skowronski & P. Salvador Agency: Office of Naval Research Award

  5. Time-shaped RF brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, J. A.; Vannasse, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    One RF generator is controlled from two independent work stations with aid of RF switch and simple control boxes. Brazing may be stopped manually or automatically by external brazing-temperature controller or timer in RF switch housing. Switch is air-operated with water-cooled contacts. If switch loses air pressure, generator stops transmitting power. Time-shared outlet increases utilization and productivity of costly RF generator.

  6. SU-E-T-558: An Exploratory RF Pulse Sequence Technique Used to Induce Differential Heating in Tissues Containing Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for a Possible Hyperthermic Adjuvant Effect to Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, S; Ionascu, D; Wilson, G; Thapa, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In pre-clinical trials of cancer thermotherapy, hyperthermia can be induced by exposing localized super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) to external alternating magnetic fields generated by a solenoid electrical circuit (Zhao et al., Theranostics 2012). Alternatively, an RF pulse technique implemented in a regular MRI system is explored as a possible hyperthermia induction technique . Methods: A new thermal RF pulse sequence was developed using the Philips pulse programming tool for the 3T Ingenia MRI system to provide a sinusoidal magnetic field alternating at the frequency of 1.43 kHz (multiples of sine waves of 0.7 ms period) before each excitation RF pulse for imaging. The duration of each thermal RF pulse routine was approximately 3 min, and the thermal pulse was applied multiple times to a phantom that contains different concentrations (high, medium and low) of SPION samples. After applying the thermal pulse each time, the temperature change was estimated by measuring the phase changes in the T1-weighted inversion-prepared multi-shot turbo field echo (TFE) sequence (TR=5.5 ms, TE=2.7 ms, inversion time=200 ms). Results: The phase values and relative differences among them changed as the number of applied thermal RF pulses increased. After the 5th application of the thermal RF pulse, the relative phase differences increased significantly, suggesting the thermal activation of the SPION. The increase of the phase difference was approximately linear with the SPION concentration. Conclusion: A sinusoidal RF pulse from the MRI system may be utilized to selectively thermally activate tissues containing super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

  7. Rapid heat-flowing surveying of geothermal areas, utilizing individual snowfalls as calorimeters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Donald E.

    1969-01-01

    Local differences in rate of heat transfer in vapor and by conduction through the ground in hot spring areas are difficult and time-consuming to measure quantitatively. Individual heavy snowfalls provide a rapid low-cost means of measuring total heat flow from such ground. After a favorable snowfall (heavy, brief duration, little wind, air temperature near 0°C), contacts between snow-covered and snow-free ground are mapped on a suitable base. Each mapped contact, as time elapses after a specific snowfall, is a heat-flow contour representing a decreasing rate of flow. Calibration of each mapped contact or snow line is made possible by the fact that snow remains on insulated surfaces (such as the boardwalks of Yellowstone's thermal areas) long after it has melted on adjacent warm ground. Heat-flow contours mapped to date range from 450 to 5500 μcal/cm2 sec, or 300 to 3700 times the world average of conductive heat flow. The very high rates of heat flow (2000 to > 10,000 μcal/cm2 sec) are probably too high, and the lower heat flows determinable by the method (2 sec) may be too low. Values indicated by the method are, however, probably within a factor of 2 of the total conductive and convective heat flow. Thermal anomalies from infrared imagery are similar in shape to heat-flow contours of a test area near Old Faithful geyser. Snowfall calorimetry provides a rapid means for evaluating the imagery and computer-derived products of the infrared data in terms of heat flow.

  8. Use of residential wood heating in a context of climate change: a population survey in Québec (Canada).

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Diane; Gosselin, Pierre; Valois, Pierre; Abdous, Belkacem

    2008-05-28

    Wood heating is recommended in several countries as a climate change (CC) adaptation measure, mainly to increase the autonomy of households during power outages due to extreme climatic events. The aim of this study was to examine various perceptions and individual characteristics associated with wood heating through a survey about CC adaptations. A telephone survey (n = 2,545) of adults living in the southern part of the province of Québec (Canada) was conducted in the early fall season of 2005. The questionnaire used closed questions and measured the respondents' beliefs and current adaptations about CC. Calibration weighting was used to adjust the data analysis for the respondent's age and language under stratified sampling based on health regions. More than three out of four respondents had access to a single source of energy at home, which was mainly electricity; 22.2% combined two sources or more; 18.5% heated with wood occasionally or daily during the winter. The prevalence of wood heating was higher in the peripheral regions than in the more urban regions, where there was a higher proportion of respondents living in apartments. The prevalence was also higher with participants completely disagreeing (38.5%) with the eventual prohibition of wood heating when there is smog in winter, compared to respondents somewhat disagreeing (24.2%) or agreeing (somewhat: 17.5%; completely: 10.4%) with the adoption of this strategy. It appears that the perception of living in a region susceptible to winter smog, smog warnings in the media, or the belief in the human contribution to CC, did not influence significantly wood heating practices. Increased residential wood heating could very well become a maladaptation to climate change, given its known consequences on winter smog and respiratory health. It would thus be appropriate to implement a long-term national program on improved and controlled residential wood heating. This would constitute a "no-regrets" adaptation to

  9. Use of residential wood heating in a context of climate change: a population survey in Québec (Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Diane; Gosselin, Pierre; Valois, Pierre; Abdous, Belkacem

    2008-01-01

    Background Wood heating is recommended in several countries as a climate change (CC) adaptation measure, mainly to increase the autonomy of households during power outages due to extreme climatic events. The aim of this study was to examine various perceptions and individual characteristics associated with wood heating through a survey about CC adaptations. Methods A telephone survey (n = 2,545) of adults living in the southern part of the province of Québec (Canada) was conducted in the early fall season of 2005. The questionnaire used closed questions and measured the respondents' beliefs and current adaptations about CC. Calibration weighting was used to adjust the data analysis for the respondent's age and language under stratified sampling based on health regions. Results More than three out of four respondents had access to a single source of energy at home, which was mainly electricity; 22.2% combined two sources or more; 18.5% heated with wood occasionally or daily during the winter. The prevalence of wood heating was higher in the peripheral regions than in the more urban regions, where there was a higher proportion of respondents living in apartments. The prevalence was also higher with participants completely disagreeing (38.5%) with the eventual prohibition of wood heating when there is smog in winter, compared to respondents somewhat disagreeing (24.2%) or agreeing (somewhat: 17.5%; completely: 10.4%) with the adoption of this strategy. It appears that the perception of living in a region susceptible to winter smog, smog warnings in the media, or the belief in the human contribution to CC, did not influence significantly wood heating practices. Conclusion Increased residential wood heating could very well become a maladaptation to climate change, given its known consequences on winter smog and respiratory health. It would thus be appropriate to implement a long-term national program on improved and controlled residential wood heating. This would

  10. Aerial infrared surveys in the investigation of geothermal and volcanic heat sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    This factsheet briefly summarizes and clarifies the application of aerial infrared surveys in geophysical exploration for geothermal energy sources and environmental monitoring for potential volcanic hazards.

  11. RF Gun Optimization Study

    SciTech Connect

    Alicia Hofler; Pavel Evtushenko

    2007-07-03

    Injector gun design is an iterative process where the designer optimizes a few nonlinearly interdependent beam parameters to achieve the required beam quality for a particle accelerator. Few tools exist to automate the optimization process and thoroughly explore the parameter space. The challenging beam requirements of new accelerator applications such as light sources and electron cooling devices drive the development of RF and SRF photo injectors. A genetic algorithm (GA) has been successfully used to optimize DC photo injector designs at Cornell University [1] and Jefferson Lab [2]. We propose to apply GA techniques to the design of RF and SRF gun injectors. In this paper, we report on the initial phase of the study where we model and optimize a system that has been benchmarked with beam measurements and simulation.

  12. Rf systems for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.; Brodowski, J.; Connolly, R.; Deng, D.P.; Kwiatkowski, S.; Pirkl, W.; Ratti, A.

    1995-05-01

    The RHIC rf systems must capture the injected beam, accelerate it through transition to top energy, shorten the bunches prior to rebucketing, and store the beam for 10 hours in the presence of strong intra-beam scattering. These different functions are met by three independent systems. An accelerating system at 26.7 Mhz (h = 342), a storage system at 196.1 MHz (h = 2508), and a wideband system for the damping of injection efforts.

  13. A Survey of the Literature on Heat Transfer from Solid Surfaces to Cryogenic Fluids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-10-01

    were made with this equation because there are no experimertal data on bubble radius and bubble velocity for cryogenic liquids. b. Zuber and Tribus ( 1 5...Griffith (XVIII) predicts a maximum heat flux close to the 21 experimental. helium curves. The equation of Zuber and Tribus (XVII) predicts a maximum...equation is compared with experimental results; the agreement is good. 4. 4 Natural Convection-Minimum Heat Flux-Film Boiling (153) a. Zuber and Tribus 1 p

  14. PEP-II RF cavity revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, R.A.; Koehler, G.; Li, D.; Hartman, N.; Folwell, N.; Hodgson, J.; Ko, K.; McCandless, B.

    1999-11-01

    This report describes the results of numerical simulations of the PEP-II RF cavity performed after the completion of the construction phase of the project and comparisons are made to previous calculations and measured results. These analyses were performed to evaluate new calculation techniques for the HOM distribution and RF surface heating that were not available at the time of the original design. These include the use of a high frequency electromagnetic element in ANSYS and the new Omega 3P code to study wall losses, and the development of broadband time domain simulation methods in MAFIA for the HOM loading. The computed HOM spectrum is compared with cavity measurements and observed beam-induced signals. The cavity fabrication method is reviewed, with the benefit of hindsight, and simplifications are discussed.

  15. Alternative RF coupling configurations for H- ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briefi, S.; Gutmann, P.; Fantz, U.

    2015-04-01

    RF heated sources for negative hydrogen ions both for fusion and accelerators require very high RF powers in order to achieve the required H- current what poses high demands on the RF generators and the RF circuit. Therefore it is highly desirable to improve the RF efficiency of the sources. This could be achieved by applying different RF coupling concepts than the currently used inductive coupling via a helical antenna, namely Helicon coupling or coupling via a planar ICP antenna enhanced with ferrites. In order to investigate the feasibility of these concepts, two small laboratory experiments have been set up. The PlanICE experiment, where the enhanced inductive coupling is going to be investigated, is currently under assembly. At the CHARLIE experiment systematic measurements concerning Helicon coupling in hydrogen and deuterium are carried out. The investigations show that a prominent feature of Helicon discharges occurs: the so-called low-field peak. This is a local improvement of the coupling efficiency at a magnetic field strength of a few mT which results in an increased electron density and dissociation degree. The full Helicon mode has not been achieved yet due to the limited available RF power and magnetic field strength but it might be sufficient for the application of the coupling concept to ion sources to operate the discharge in the low-field-peak region.

  16. Programmable RF System for RF System-on-Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jee-Youl; Kim, Sung-Woo; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Park, Seung-Hun; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Ha, Deock-Ho; Kim, Seung-Un

    This paper proposes a new automatic programmable radio frequency (RF) system for a System-on-Chip (SoC) transceiver. We built a 5-GHz low noise amplifier (LNA) with an on-chip programmable RF system using 0.18-(m SiGe technology. This system is extremely useful for today's RF IC devices in a complete RF transceiver environment. The programmable RF system helps it to provide DC output voltages, hence, making the compensation network automatic. The programmable RF system automatically adjusts performance of 5-GHz low noise amplifier with the processor in the SoC transceiver when the LNA goes out of the normal range of operation. The ACN compensates abnormal operation due to the unusual thermal variation or unusual process variation.

  17. Tokamak Plasma Flows Induced by Local RF Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiale; Gao, Zhe

    2015-10-01

    The tokamak plasma flows induced by the local radio frequency (RF) forces in the core region are analyzed. The effective components of local RF forces are composed of the momentum absorption term and the resonant parallel momentum transport term (i.e. the parallel component of the resonant ponderomotive forces). Different momentum balance relations are employed to calculate the plasma flows depending on different assumptions of momentum transport. With the RF fields solved from RF simulation codes, the toroidal and poloidal flows by these forces under the lower hybrid current drive and the mode conversion ion cyclotron resonance heating on EAST-like plasmas are evaluated. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11405218, 11325524, 11375235 and 11261140327), in part by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB111002, 2013GB112001 and 2013GB112010), and the Program of Fusion Reactor Physics and Digital Tokamak with the CAS “One-Three-Five” Strategic Planning

  18. Plasma core reactor simulations using RF uranium seeded argon discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted using the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) 80 kW and 1.2 MW RF induction heater systems to aid in developing the technology necessary for designing a self-critical fissioning uranium plasma core reactor (PCR). A nonfissioning, steady-state RF-heated argon plasma seeded with pure uranium hexafluoride (UF6) was used. An overall objective was to achieve maximum confinement of uranium vapor within the plasma while simultaneously minimizing the uranium compound wall deposition. Exploratory tests were conducted using the 80 kW RF induction heater with the test chamber at approximately atmospheric pressure and discharge power levels on the order of 10 kW. Four different test chamber flow configurations were tested to permit selection of the configuration offering the best confinement characteristics for subsequent tests at higher pressure and power in the 1.2 MW RF induction heater facility.

  19. Experimental investigation on drag and heat flux reduction in supersonic/hypersonic flows: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen-guo; Sun, Xi-wan; Huang, Wei; Li, Shi-bin; Yan, Li

    2016-12-01

    The drag and heat reduction problem of hypersonic vehicles has always attracted the attention worldwide, and the experimental test approach is the basis of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. In the current study, research progress of experimental investigations on drag and heat reduction are summarized by several kinds of mechanism, namely the forward-facing cavity, the opposing jet, the aerospike, the energy deposition and their combinational configurations, and the combinational configurations include the combinational opposing jet and forward-facing cavity concept and the combinational opposing jet and aerospike concept. The geometric models and flow conditions are emphasized, especially for the basic principle for the drag and heat flux reduction of each device. The measurement results of aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic are compared and analyzed as well, which can be a reference for assessing the accuracy of numerical results.

  20. Mechanism of Translation Termination: RF1 Dissociation Follows Dissociation of RF3 from the Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xinying; Joseph, Simpson

    2016-11-15

    Release factors 1 and 2 (RF1 and RF2, respectively) bind to ribosomes that have a stop codon in the A site and catalyze the release of the newly synthesized protein. Following peptide release, the dissociation of RF1 and RF2 from the ribosome is accelerated by release factor 3 (RF3). The mechanism for RF3-promoted dissociation of RF1 and RF2 is unclear. It was previously proposed that RF3 hydrolyzes GTP and dissociates from the ribosome after RF1 dissociation. Here we monitored directly the dissociation kinetics of RF1 and RF3 using Förster resonance energy transfer-based assays. In contrast to the previous model, our data show that RF3 hydrolyzes GTP and dissociates from the ribosome before RF1 dissociation. We propose that RF3 stabilizes the ratcheted state of the ribosome, which consequently accelerates the dissociation of RF1 and RF2.

  1. SPECIAL TOPIC: Survey of target plate heat flux in diverted DIII-D tokamak discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasnier, C. J.; Hill, D. N.; Petrie, T. W.; Leonard, A. W.; Evans, T. E.; Maingi, R.

    1998-08-01

    A series of observations is presented concerning divertor heat flux, qdiv, in the DIII-D tokamak, and it is shown that many features can be accounted for by assuming that the heat flux flows preferentially along field lines because τ|| < τ⊥ in the scrape-off layer (SOL). Exceptions to this agreement are pointed out and the discrepancies explained by means of two dimensional (2-D) effects. About 80% of the discharge input power can be accounted for. The power deposited on the target plate due to enhanced losses during edge localized modes (ELMs) is less than 10% of the total target power in most cases. X point height scans for lower single null (LSN) diverted discharges show that the peak heat flux variation is primarily due to flux expansion and secondarily due to transport of energy across the magnetic field in the divertor. At the outer strike point qdiv,peak propto Pin(Ip - Ip,0)G(gin)(1/Bt)4/9(Bdiv/Bmp)f(Ldivχ⊥), where G is a linear function of the inner gap, gin, over a specified range and f describes cross-field energy transport in the divertor. Evidence of radial in-out asymmetries (comparing the outer strike point with the inner strike point or centre-post) and toroidal asymmetries in qdiv is presented and the heat flux peaking due to tile gaps and misalignment of tiles is examined. For magnetically balanced double null (DN) discharges with downward ∇B ion drift, it is found that qdiv is inherently higher in the lower divertor than in the upper divertor, having a 3:1 downward bias. Examples of heat flux reduction by gas puffing deuterium or neon in LSN and DN discharges are given. At least a threefold reduction of the peak heat flux in both the upper and lower divertors of a DN discharge, using D2 puffing, is reported.

  2. Performance evaluation of RF electric and magnetic field measuring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesmith, B. C. W.; Ruggers, P. S.

    1982-03-01

    The need to quantify the electromagnetic fields emitted by industrial, scientific, or medical (ISM) products operating in the 10 to 300 MHs region requires the testing of instrumentation suitable for use in RF radiation hazard surveys. To meet this requirement, several procedures were devised to test the accuracy of the RF survey instrumentation. Measurement systems and protocols were developed and evaluated. The electric (E) an magnetic (H) field measuring instruments were tested for linearity, calibration accuracy, amplitude modulation response, directivity, antenna patterns, temperature response, drift and noise, radiofrequency interference and polarization response. Tests were performed on three commercially available RF survey instruments and a one-of-a-kind device over the 10 to 100 MHs region. Complete tests were only performed at the ISM frequency of 27.12 MHs. Errors for each of the tests are presented in tabular form.

  3. ILC RF System R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Adolphsen, Chris; /SLAC

    2012-07-03

    The Linac Group at SLAC is actively pursuing a broad range of R&D to improve the reliability and reduce the cost of the L-band (1.3 GHz) rf system proposed for the ILC linacs. Current activities include the long-term evaluation of a 120 kV Marx Modulator driving a 10 MW Multi-Beam Klystron, design of a second-generation Marx Modulator, testing of a sheet-beam gun and beam transport system for a klystron, construction of an rf distribution system with remotely-adjustable power tapoffs, and development of a system to combine the power from many klystrons in low-loss circular waveguide where it would be tapped-off periodically to power groups of cavities. This paper surveys progress during the past few years.

  4. RF Communications Laboratory Renewal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-08

    January, 1967, required placing steel beams in the lab building roof to withstand the 10,000 ft. -lb. torque rating of the positioner. All proposed...intBilUjr.™w«l«niw»r^MWMMUlPIWMMUIl»UfMM TWTWfTWTWI! SOUTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY Box 2220 Brooklngs, SO 57007-0194 Department of Electrical ...sampling and vector voltmeters, slotted lines, an rf bridge, a Q meter, octave directional couplers, f>tc. The EE Dept. also has a Hybrid

  5. RF impedance measurement calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, P.J.; Song, J.J.

    1993-02-12

    The intent of this note is not to explain all of the available calibration methods in detail. Instead, we will focus on the calibration methods of interest for RF impedance coupling measurements and attempt to explain: (1). The standards and measurements necessary for the various calibration techniques. (2). The advantages and disadvantages of each technique. (3). The mathematical manipulations that need to be applied to the measured standards and devices. (4). An outline of the steps needed for writing a calibration routine that operated from a remote computer. For further details of the various techniques presented in this note, the reader should consult the references.

  6. RF Modal Quantity Gaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanleuven, K.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective is to provide a concept of a radio frequency (RF) modal resonance technique which is being investigated as a method for gaging the quantities of subcritical cryogenic propellants in metallic tanks. Of special interest are the potential applications of the technique to microgravity propellant gaging situations. The results of concept testing using cryogenic oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, as well as paraffin simulations of microgravity fluid orientations, are reported. These test results were positive and showed that the gaging concept was viable.

  7. Tomcat-Projects_RF

    SciTech Connect

    Warrant, Marilyn M.; Garcia, Rudy J.; Zhang, Pengchu; Arms, Robert M.; Herzer, John A.; Conrad, Gregory N.; Brabson, John M.

    2004-09-15

    Tomcat-Projects_RF is a software package for analyzing sensor data obtained from a database and displaying the results with Java Servlet Pages (JSP). SQL Views into the dataset are tailored for personnel having different roles in monitoring the items in a storage facility. For example, an inspector, a host treaty compliance officer, a system engineer and software developers were the users identified that would need to access data at different levels of detail, The analysis provides a high level status of the storage facility and allows the user to go deeper into the data details if the user desires.

  8. RF current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James A.; Sparks, Dennis O.

    1998-11-10

    An RF sensor having a novel current sensing probe and a voltage sensing probe to measure voltage and current. The current sensor is disposed in a transmission line to link all of the flux generated by the flowing current in order to obtain an accurate measurement. The voltage sensor is a flat plate which operates as a capacitive plate to sense voltage on a center conductor of the transmission line, in which the measured voltage is obtained across a resistance leg of a R-C differentiator circuit formed by the characteristic impedance of a connecting transmission line and a capacitance of the plate, which is positioned proximal to the center conductor.

  9. Survey of research and applications of laser heat treatment in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Hongbin; Su, Baorong

    1996-09-01

    This paper reports the fruits of the research on fundamental theory, application basis and application of laser heat treatment since 1979 in China. Also the technical development and spreading of laser heat treatment is reported. Over 20 academic exchange activities home or abroad were organized by our country. In China, there are near 1,000 units and about 5,000 intermediate and senior scientists and engineers engaged in the research, development and production of laser heat treatment. More than 3,000 academia articles have been published home and abroad. About 2,000 Bachelors, Masters and Doctors whose major is laser application have been cultivated. In domestic plants, near 1,000 production lines of laser heat treatment on the cylinder bodies and covers of automobiles and tractors have been set up, which were deeply welcomed by the automobile makers and repairmen. There are other production lines running in some factories and making good effects, such as laser glazing production line for steel ring, laser quenching production line for master reed in elastic shaft coupling and laser quenching production line for big gears, etc.

  10. Ion source with external RF antenna

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ji, Qing; Wilde, Stephen

    2005-12-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source.

  11. The MUCOOL RF Program

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.; Bross, A.; Moretti, A.; Norris, B.; Qian, Z.; Torun, Y.; Rimmer, R.; Li, D.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Sandstrom, R.; /Geneva U.

    2006-06-26

    Efficient muon cooling requires high RF gradients in the presence of high (3T) solenoidal fields. The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) also requires that the x-ray production from these cavities is low, in order to minimize backgrounds in the particle detectors that must be located near the cavities. These cavities require thin Be windows to ensure the highest fields on the beam axis. In order to develop these cavities, the MUCOOL RF Program was started about 6 years ago. Initial measurements were made on a six-cell cavity and a single-cell pillbox, both operating at 805 MHz. We have now begun measurements of a 201 MHz pillbox cavity. This program has led to new techniques to look at dark currents, a new model for breakdown and a general model of cavity performance based on surface damage. The experimental program includes studies of thin Be windows, conditioning, dark current production from different materials, magnetic-field effects and breakdown.

  12. Report of results of benchmarking survey of central heating operations at NASA centers and various corporations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Thomas R.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years, Total Quality Management has swept across the country. Many companies and the Government have started looking at every aspect on how business is done and how money is spent. The idea or goal is to provide a service that is better, faster and cheaper. The first step in this process is to document or measure the process or operation as it stands now. For Lewis Research Center, this report is the first step in the analysis of heating plant operations. This report establishes the original benchmark that can be referred to in the future. The report also provides a comparison to other organization's heating plants to help in the brainstorming of new ideas. The next step is to propose and implement changes that would meet the goals as mentioned above. After the changes have been implemented the measuring process starts over again. This provides for a continuous improvement process.

  13. Report of results of benchmarking survey of central heating operations at NASA centers and various corporations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, Total Quality Management has swept across the country. Many companies and the Government have started looking at every aspect on how business is done and how money is spent. The idea or goal is to provide a service that is better, faster and cheaper. The first step in this process is to document or measure the process or operation as it stands now. For Lewis Research Center, this report is the first step in the analysis of heating plant operations. This report establishes the original benchmark that can be referred to in the future. The report also provides a comparison to other organization's heating plants to help in the brainstorming of new ideas. The next step is to propose and implement changes that would meet the goals as mentioned above. After the changes have been implemented the measuring process starts over again. This provides for a continuous improvement process.

  14. High power RF test of an 805 MHz RF cavity for a muon cooling channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Corlett, J.; MacGill, R.; Rimmer, R.; Wallig, J.

    2002-05-01

    We present recent high power RF test results on an 805 MHz cavity for a muon cooling experiment at Lab G in Fermilab. In order to achieve high accelerating gradient for large transverse emittance muon beams, the cavity design has adopted a pillbox like shape with 16 cm diameter beam iris covered by thin Be windows, which are demountable to allow for RF tests of different windows. The cavity body is made from copper with stiff stainless steel rings brazed to the cavity body for window attachments. View ports and RF probes are available for visual inspections of the surface of windows and cavity and measurement of the field gradient. Maximum of three thermo-couples can be attached to the windows for monitoring the temperature gradient on the windows caused by RF heating. The cavity was measured to have Q0 of about 15,000 with copper windows and coupling constant of 1.3 before final assembling. A 12 MW peak power klystron is available at Lab G in Fermilab for the high power test. The cavity and coupler designs were performed using the MAFIA code in the frequency and the time domain. Numerical simulation results and cold test measurements on the cavity and coupler will be presented for comparisons.

  15. High power RF test of an 805 MHz RF cavity for a muon cooling channel

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Derun; Corlett, J.; MacGill, R.; Rimmer, R.; Wallig, J.; Zisman, M.; Moretti, A.; Qian, Z.; Wu, V.; Summers, D.; Norem, J.

    2002-05-30

    We present recent high power RF test results on an 805 MHz cavity for a muon cooling experiment at Lab G in Fermilab. In order to achieve high accelerating gradient for large transverse emittance muon beams, the cavity design has adopted a pillbox like shape with 16 cm diameter beam iris covered by thin Be windows, which are demountable to allow for RF tests of different windows. The cavity body is made from copper with stiff stainless steel rings brazed to the cavity body for window attachments. View ports and RF probes are available for visual inspections of the surface of windows and cavity and measurement of the field gradient. Maximum of three thermo-couples can be attached to the windows for monitoring the temperature gradient on the windows caused by RF heating. The cavity was measured to have Q{sub 0} of about 15,000 with copper windows and coupling constant of 1.3 before final assembling. A 12 MW peak power klystron is available at Lab G in Fermilab for the high power test. The cavity and coupler designs were performed using the MAFIA code in the frequency and the time domain. Numerical simulation results and cold test measurements on the cavity and coupler will be presented for comparisons.

  16. An RF dosimeter for independent SAR measurement in MRI scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Di; Bottomley, Paul A.; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Edelstein, William A.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The monitoring and management of radio frequency (RF) exposure is critical for ensuring magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) safety. Commercial MRI scanners can overestimate specific absorption rates (SAR) and improperly restrict clinical MRI scans or the application of new MRI sequences, while underestimation of SAR can lead to tissue heating and thermal injury. Accurate scanner-independent RF dosimetry is essential for measuring actual exposure when SAR is critical for ensuring regulatory compliance and MRI safety, for establishing RF exposure while evaluating interventional leads and devices, and for routine MRI quality assessment by medical physicists. However, at present there are no scanner-independent SAR dosimeters. Methods: An SAR dosimeter with an RF transducer comprises two orthogonal, rectangular copper loops and a spherical MRI phantom. The transducer is placed in the magnet bore and calibrated to approximate the resistive loading of the scanner's whole-body birdcage RF coil for human subjects in Philips, GE and Siemens 3 tesla (3T) MRI scanners. The transducer loop reactances are adjusted to minimize interference with the transmit RF field (B{sub 1}) at the MRI frequency. Power from the RF transducer is sampled with a high dynamic range power monitor and recorded on a computer. The deposited power is calibrated and tested on eight different MRI scanners. Whole-body absorbed power vs weight and body mass index (BMI) is measured directly on 26 subjects. Results: A single linear calibration curve sufficed for RF dosimetry at 127.8 MHz on three different Philips and three GE 3T MRI scanners. An RF dosimeter operating at 123.2 MHz on two Siemens 3T scanners required a separate transducer and a slightly different calibration curve. Measurement accuracy was ∼3%. With the torso landmarked at the xiphoid, human adult whole‑body absorbed power varied approximately linearly with patient weight and BMI. This indicates that whole-body torso SAR is on

  17. An RF dosimeter for independent SAR measurement in MRI scanners

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Di; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Bottomley, Paul A.; Edelstein, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The monitoring and management of radio frequency (RF) exposure is critical for ensuring magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) safety. Commercial MRI scanners can overestimate specific absorption rates (SAR) and improperly restrict clinical MRI scans or the application of new MRI sequences, while underestimation of SAR can lead to tissue heating and thermal injury. Accurate scanner-independent RF dosimetry is essential for measuring actual exposure when SAR is critical for ensuring regulatory compliance and MRI safety, for establishing RF exposure while evaluating interventional leads and devices, and for routine MRI quality assessment by medical physicists. However, at present there are no scanner-independent SAR dosimeters. Methods: An SAR dosimeter with an RF transducer comprises two orthogonal, rectangular copper loops and a spherical MRI phantom. The transducer is placed in the magnet bore and calibrated to approximate the resistive loading of the scanner's whole-body birdcage RF coil for human subjects in Philips, GE and Siemens 3 tesla (3T) MRI scanners. The transducer loop reactances are adjusted to minimize interference with the transmit RF field (B1) at the MRI frequency. Power from the RF transducer is sampled with a high dynamic range power monitor and recorded on a computer. The deposited power is calibrated and tested on eight different MRI scanners. Whole-body absorbed power vs weight and body mass index (BMI) is measured directly on 26 subjects. Results: A single linear calibration curve sufficed for RF dosimetry at 127.8 MHz on three different Philips and three GE 3T MRI scanners. An RF dosimeter operating at 123.2 MHz on two Siemens 3T scanners required a separate transducer and a slightly different calibration curve. Measurement accuracy was ∼3%. With the torso landmarked at the xiphoid, human adult whole‑body absorbed power varied approximately linearly with patient weight and BMI. This indicates that whole-body torso SAR is on average

  18. An RF dosimeter for independent SAR measurement in MRI scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Di; Bottomley, Paul A.; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Edelstein, William A.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The monitoring and management of radio frequency (RF) exposure is critical for ensuring magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) safety. Commercial MRI scanners can overestimate specific absorption rates (SAR) and improperly restrict clinical MRI scans or the application of new MRI sequences, while underestimation of SAR can lead to tissue heating and thermal injury. Accurate scanner-independent RF dosimetry is essential for measuring actual exposure when SAR is critical for ensuring regulatory compliance and MRI safety, for establishing RF exposure while evaluating interventional leads and devices, and for routine MRI quality assessment by medical physicists. However, at present there are no scanner-independent SAR dosimeters. Methods: An SAR dosimeter with an RF transducer comprises two orthogonal, rectangular copper loops and a spherical MRI phantom. The transducer is placed in the magnet bore and calibrated to approximate the resistive loading of the scanner's whole-body birdcage RF coil for human subjects in Philips, GE and Siemens 3 tesla (3T) MRI scanners. The transducer loop reactances are adjusted to minimize interference with the transmit RF field (B{sub 1}) at the MRI frequency. Power from the RF transducer is sampled with a high dynamic range power monitor and recorded on a computer. The deposited power is calibrated and tested on eight different MRI scanners. Whole-body absorbed power vs weight and body mass index (BMI) is measured directly on 26 subjects. Results: A single linear calibration curve sufficed for RF dosimetry at 127.8 MHz on three different Philips and three GE 3T MRI scanners. An RF dosimeter operating at 123.2 MHz on two Siemens 3T scanners required a separate transducer and a slightly different calibration curve. Measurement accuracy was ∼3%. With the torso landmarked at the xiphoid, human adult whole‑body absorbed power varied approximately linearly with patient weight and BMI. This indicates that whole-body torso SAR is on

  19. An RF dosimeter for independent SAR measurement in MRI scanners.

    PubMed

    Qian, Di; El-Sharkawy, Abdel-Monem M; Bottomley, Paul A; Edelstein, William A

    2013-12-01

    The monitoring and management of radio frequency (RF) exposure is critical for ensuring magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) safety. Commercial MRI scanners can overestimate specific absorption rates (SAR) and improperly restrict clinical MRI scans or the application of new MRI sequences, while underestimation of SAR can lead to tissue heating and thermal injury. Accurate scanner-independent RF dosimetry is essential for measuring actual exposure when SAR is critical for ensuring regulatory compliance and MRI safety, for establishing RF exposure while evaluating interventional leads and devices, and for routine MRI quality assessment by medical physicists. However, at present there are no scanner-independent SAR dosimeters. An SAR dosimeter with an RF transducer comprises two orthogonal, rectangular copper loops and a spherical MRI phantom. The transducer is placed in the magnet bore and calibrated to approximate the resistive loading of the scanner's whole-body birdcage RF coil for human subjects in Philips, GE and Siemens 3 tesla (3T) MRI scanners. The transducer loop reactances are adjusted to minimize interference with the transmit RF field (B1) at the MRI frequency. Power from the RF transducer is sampled with a high dynamic range power monitor and recorded on a computer. The deposited power is calibrated and tested on eight different MRI scanners. Whole-body absorbed power vs weight and body mass index (BMI) is measured directly on 26 subjects. A single linear calibration curve sufficed for RF dosimetry at 127.8 MHz on three different Philips and three GE 3T MRI scanners. An RF dosimeter operating at 123.2 MHz on two Siemens 3T scanners required a separate transducer and a slightly different calibration curve. Measurement accuracy was ∼3%. With the torso landmarked at the xiphoid, human adult whole-body absorbed power varied approximately linearly with patient weight and BMI. This indicates that whole-body torso SAR is on average independent of the imaging

  20. RF MEMS Based Reconfigurable Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2004-01-01

    The presentation will first of all address the advantages of RF MEMS circuit in antenna applications and also the need for electronically reconfigurable antennas. Next, discuss some of the recent examples of RF MEMS based reconfigurable microstrip antennas. Finally, conclude the talk with a summary of MEMS antenna performance.

  1. NSLS-II RF SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.; Gash, W.; Holub, B.; Kawashima, Y.; Ma, H.; Towne, N.; Yeddulla, M.

    2011-03-28

    The NSLS-II is a new third generation light source being constructed at Brookhaven Lab. The storage ring is optimized for low emittance by use of damping wigglers to reduce the emittance to below 1 nm-rad. The RF systems are designed to provide stable beam through tight RF phase and amplitude stability requirements.

  2. A radio-frequency monitor for protection against overexposure from RF heaters.

    PubMed

    Bini, M; Ignesti, A; Millanta, L; Rubino, N; Vanni, R

    1982-09-01

    Extensive investigation on the various potentially polluting RF sources has led to the conclusion that the largest proportion of problems arising from possible RF hazards originates from industrial heating machines (short-wave). In particular, these turn out to require checks due to their intrinsic and induced instabilities. Through the analysis of RF leakage characteristics of these machines, the problem is simplified and the solution is presented in terms of an RF hazard monitor which can be used by non-specialized personnel. The monitor is also suitable for several other types of potentially dangerous apparatus in the medium- and short-wave range.

  3. Radiofrequency Heating Pathways for Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Collins, C. B.; McCoy, R. S.; Ackerson, B. J.; Collins, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    This feature article reviews the thermal dissipation of nanoscopic gold under radiofrequency (RF) irradiation. It also presents previously unpublished data addressing obscure aspects of this phenomenon. While applications in biology motivated initial investigation of RF heating of gold nanoparticles, recent controversy concerning whether thermal effects can be attributed to nanoscopic gold highlight the need to understand the involved mechanism or mechanisms of heating. Both the nature of the particle and the nature of the RF field influence heating. Aspects of nanoparticle chemistry and physics, including the hydrodynamic diameter of the particle, the oxidation state and related magnetism of the core, and the chemical nature of the ligand shell may all strongly influence to what extent a nanoparticle heats in an RF field. Aspects of RF include: power, frequency and antenna designs that emphasize relative strength of magnetic or electric fields, and also influence the extent to which a gold nanoparticle heats in RF. These nanoparticle and RF properties are analysed in the context of three heating mechanisms proposed to explain gold nanoparticle heating in an RF field. This article also makes a critical analysis of the existing literature in the context of the nanoparticle preparations, RF structure, and suggested mechanisms in previously reported experiments. PMID:24962620

  4. Similarity law for rf breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisovskiy, V.; Booth, J.-P.; Landry, K.; Douai, D.; Cassagne, V.; Yegorenkov, V.

    2008-04-01

    This paper demonstrates that the similarity law for the rf gas breakdown has the form Urf=ψ(p·L,L/R,f·L)(where Urf is the rf breakdown voltage, p is the gas pressure, L and R are the length and diameter of the discharge tube, respectively, f is the frequency of the rf electric field). It means that two rf breakdown curves registered for narrow inter-electrode gaps or in geometrically similar tubes and depicted in the Urf(p·L) graph will coincide only when the condition f·L=const is met. This similarity law follows from the rf gas breakdown equation and it is well supported by the results of measurements.

  5. Enhanced responsivity resonant RF photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Liu, R; Dev, S; Zhong, Y; Lu, R; Streyer, W; Allen, J W; Allen, M S; Wenner, B R; Gong, S; Wasserman, D

    2016-11-14

    The responsivity of room-temperature, semiconductor-based photodetectors consisting of resonant RF circuits coupled to microstrip buslines is investigated. The dependence of the photodetector response on the semiconductor material and RF circuit geometry is presented, as is the detector response as a function of the spatial position of the incident light. We demonstrate significant improvement in detector response by choice of photoconductive material, and for a given material, by positioning our optical signal to overlap with positions of RF field enhancement. Design of RF circuits with strong field enhancement are demonstrated to further improve detector response. The improved detector response demonstrated offers opportunities for applications in RF photonics, materials metrology, or single read-out multiplexed detector arrays.

  6. Proposed Experiment for Prospecting and Mining Water from Lunar Permafrost from Boreholes Using RF Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ethridge, E. C.

    2016-11-01

    The extraction of water from planetary permafrost has been demonstrated with experiments using RF heating and capture of water in a cold trap. We will describe an experiment to demonstrate the process at the lunar poles.

  7. Baseline Industrial Hygiene Survey at the Coal Fired Heating Plant, Malmstrom AFB, Montana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    entrance and maintenance (i.e., bag changing every 4-5 years), ash exposure and heat stress can create health hazards. c. Periodically, the waste ash...a neutralizing adsorbent called "mi]. klime .ŕ MilklimP is an alkaline reed slairry made by mixing q-uiklime (calciu.n oxide), ash and water. In a...USAFOEHL Report (2). b. Any of’ the thrpa (coal, ash, or combined) silica content percentages can change when new coal is delivered during the course of

  8. Measured performance of the GTA rf systems

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, P.M.; Jachim, S.P.

    1993-06-01

    This paper describes the performance of the RF systems on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The RF system architecture is briefly described. Among the RF performance results presented are RF field flatness and stability, amplitude and phase control resolution, and control system bandwidth and stability. The rejection by the RF systems of beam-induced disturbances, such as transients and noise, are analyzed. The observed responses are also compared to computer-based simulations of the RF systems for validation.

  9. Measured performance of the GTA rf systems

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, P.M.; Jachim, S.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of the RF systems on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The RF system architecture is briefly described. Among the RF performance results presented are RF field flatness and stability, amplitude and phase control resolution, and control system bandwidth and stability. The rejection by the RF systems of beam-induced disturbances, such as transients and noise, are analyzed. The observed responses are also compared to computer-based simulations of the RF systems for validation.

  10. An Orbiting Standards Platform for communication satellite system RF measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. G.; Woodruff, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Orbiting Standards Platform (OSP) is a proposed satellite dedicated to performing RF measurements on space communications systems. It would consist of a quasi-geostationary spacecraft containing an ensemble of calibrated RF sources and field strength meters operating in several microwave bands, and would be capable of accurately and conveniently measuring critical earth station and satellite RF performance parameters, such as EIRP, gain, figure of merit (G/T), crosspolarization, beamwidth, and sidelobe levels. The feasibility and utility of the OSP concept has been under joint study by NASA, NBS, Comsat and NTIA. A survey of potential OSP users was conducted by NTIA as part of this effort. The response to this survey, along with certain trends in satellite communications system design, indicates a growing need for such a measurement service.

  11. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    The power consumption of a radio generally goes as the number and strength of the RF signals it must process. In particular, a radio receiver would consume much less power if the signal presented to its electronics contained only the desired signal in a tiny percent bandwidth frequency channel, rather than the typical mix of signals containing unwanted energy outside the desired channel. Unfortunately, a lack of filters capable of selecting single channel bandwidths at RF forces the front-ends of contemporary receivers to accept unwanted signals, and thus, to operate with sub-optimal efficiency. This dissertation focuses on the degree to which capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators can achieve the aforementioned RF channel-selecting filters. It aims to first show theoretically that with appropriate scaling capacitive-gap transducers are strong enough to meet the needed coupling requirements; and second, to fully detail an architecture and design procedure needed to realize said filters. Finally, this dissertation provides an actual experimentally demonstrated RF channel-select filter designed using the developed procedures and confirming theoretical predictions. Specifically, this dissertation introduces four methods that make possible the design and fabrication of RF channel-select filters. The first of these introduces a small-signal equivalent circuit for parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators that employs negative capacitance to model the dependence of resonance frequency on electrical stiffness in a way that facilitates the analysis of micromechanical circuits loaded with arbitrary electrical impedances. The new circuit model not only correctly predicts the dependence of electrical stiffness on the impedances loading the input and output electrodes of parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical device, but does so in a visually intuitive way that identifies current drive as most appropriate for

  12. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: evidence for radiative heating in Serpens MWC 297 and its influence on local star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumble, D.; Hatchell, J.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Kirk, H.; Buckle, J.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; di Francesco, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Allen, L. E.; Cieza, L. A.; Dunham, M. M.; Harvey, P. M.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Bastien, P.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wilson, C. D.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-04-01

    We present SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm observations of the Serpens MWC 297 region, part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey of nearby star-forming regions. Simulations suggest that radiative feedback influences the star formation process and we investigate observational evidence for this by constructing temperature maps. Maps are derived from the ratio of SCUBA-2 fluxes and a two-component model of the JCMT beam for a fixed dust opacity spectral index of β = 1.8. Within 40 arcsec of the B1.5Ve Herbig star MWC 297, the submillimetre fluxes are contaminated by free-free emission with a spectral index of 1.03 ± 0.02, consistent with an ultracompact H II region and polar winds/jets. Contamination accounts for 73 ± 5 per cent and 82 ± 4 per cent of peak flux at 450 μm and 850 μm, respectively. The residual thermal disc of the star is almost undetectable at these wavelengths. Young stellar objects (YSOs) are confirmed where SCUBA-2 850 μm clumps identified by the FELLWALKER algorithm coincide with Spitzer Gould Belt Survey detections. We identify 23 objects and use Tbol to classify nine YSOs with masses 0.09 to 5.1 M⊙. We find two Class 0, one Class 0/I, three Class I and three Class II sources. The mean temperature is 15 ± 2 K for the nine YSOs and 32 ± 4 K for the 14 starless clumps. We observe a starless clump with an abnormally high mean temperature of 46 ± 2 K and conclude that it is radiatively heated by the star MWC 297. Jeans stability provides evidence that radiative heating by the star MWC 297 may be suppressing clump collapse.

  13. A survey of gas-side fouling in industrial heat-transfer equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marner, W. J.; Suitor, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Gas-side fouling and corrosion problems occur in all of the energy intensive industries including the chemical, petroleum, primary metals, pulp and paper, glass, cement, foodstuffs, and textile industries. Topics of major interest include: (1) heat exchanger design procedures for gas-side fouling service; (2) gas-side fouling factors which are presently available; (3) startup and shutdown procedures used to minimize the effects of gas-side fouling; (4) gas-side fouling prevention, mitigation, and accommodation techniques; (5) economic impact of gas-side fouling on capital costs, maintenance costs, loss of production, and energy losses; and (6) miscellaneous considerations related to gas-side fouling. The present state-of-the-art for industrial gas-side fouling is summarized by a list of recommendations for further work in this area.

  14. A survey of gas-side fouling in industrial heat-transfer equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marner, W. J.; Suitor, J. W.

    1983-11-01

    Gas-side fouling and corrosion problems occur in all of the energy intensive industries including the chemical, petroleum, primary metals, pulp and paper, glass, cement, foodstuffs, and textile industries. Topics of major interest include: (1) heat exchanger design procedures for gas-side fouling service; (2) gas-side fouling factors which are presently available; (3) startup and shutdown procedures used to minimize the effects of gas-side fouling; (4) gas-side fouling prevention, mitigation, and accommodation techniques; (5) economic impact of gas-side fouling on capital costs, maintenance costs, loss of production, and energy losses; and (6) miscellaneous considerations related to gas-side fouling. The present state-of-the-art for industrial gas-side fouling is summarized by a list of recommendations for further work in this area.

  15. Fast thermometry for superconducting rf cavity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Orris, Darryl; Bellantoni, Leo; Carcagno, Ruben H.; Edwards, Helen; Harms, Elvin Robert; Khabiboulline, Timergali N.; Kotelnikov, Sergey; Makulski, Andrzej; Nehring, Roger; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Fast readout of strategically placed low heat capacity thermometry can provide valuable information of Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity performance. Such a system has proven very effective for the development and testing of new cavity designs. Recently, several resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were installed in key regions of interest on a new 9 cell 3.9 GHz SRF cavity with integrated HOM design at FNAL. A data acquisition system was developed to read out these sensors with enough time and temperature resolution to measure temperature changes on the cavity due to heat generated from multipacting or quenching within power pulses. The design and performance of the fast thermometry system will be discussed along with results from tests of the 9 cell 3.9GHz SRF cavity.

  16. Spectroscopy of {sup 257}Rf

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, J.; Heinz, A.; Winkler, R.; Khoo, T. L.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Peterson, D.; Seweryniak, D.; Ahmad, I.; Back, B. B.; Carpenter, M. P.; Greene, J. P.; Jiang, C. L.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Robinson, A.; Savard, G.; Scott, R.; Vondrasek, R.; Wang, X.

    2009-06-15

    The isotope {sup 257}Rf was produced in the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 208}Pb({sup 50}Ti,n){sup 257}Rf. Reaction products were separated and identified by mass. Delayed spectroscopy of {sup 257}Rf and its decay products was performed. A partial decay scheme with configuration assignments is proposed based on {alpha} hindrance factors. The excitation energy of the 1/2{sup +}[620] configuration in {sup 253}No is proposed. The energy of this 1/2{sup +} state in a series of N=151 isotones increases with nuclear charge, reflecting an increase in the N=152 gap. This gap is deduced to grow substantially from 850 to 1400 keV between Z=94 and 102. An isomeric state in {sup 257}Rf, with a half-life of 160{sub -31}{sup +42} {mu}s, was discovered by detecting internal conversion electrons followed by {alpha} decay. It is interpreted as a three-quasiparticle high-K isomer. A second group of internal conversion electrons, with a half-life of 4.1{sub -1.3}{sup +2.4} s, followed by {alpha} decay, was also observed. These events might originate from the decay of excited states in {sup 257}Lr, populated by electron-capture decay of {sup 257}Rf. Fission of {sup 257}Rf was unambiguously detected, with a branching ratio of b{sub Rf}{sup SF}=0.02{+-}0.01.

  17. RF-driven ion source with a back-streaming electron dump

    DOEpatents

    Kwan, Joe; Ji, Qing

    2014-05-20

    A novel ion source is described having an improved lifetime. The ion source, in one embodiment, is a proton source, including an external RF antenna mounted to an RF window. To prevent backstreaming electrons formed in the beam column from striking the RF window, a back streaming electron dump is provided, which in one embodiment is formed of a cylindrical tube, open at one end to the ion source chamber and capped at its other end by a metal plug. The plug, maintained at the same electrical potential as the source, captures these backstreaming electrons, and thus prevents localized heating of the window, which due to said heating, might otherwise cause window damage.

  18. Diagnosing Coronal Heating in a Survey of Active Regions using the Time Lag Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viall, Nicholeen; Klimchuk, James A.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we examine 15 different active regions observed with the Solar Dynamics Observatory and analyze their nanoflare properties using the time lag method. The time lag method is a diagnostic of whether the plasma is maintained at a steady temperature, or if it is dynamic, undergoing heating and cooling cycles. An important aspect of our technique is that it analyses both observationally distinct coronal loops as well as the much more prevalent diffuse emission surrounding them. Warren et al. (2012) first studied these same 15 active regions, which are all quiescent and exhibit a broad range of characteristics, including age, total unsigned magnetic flux, area, hot emission, and emission measure distribution. We find that widespread cooling is a generic property of both loop and diffuse emission from all 15 active regions. However, the range of temperatures through which the plasma cools varies between active regions and within each active region, and only occasionally is there full cooling from above 7 MK to well below 1 MK. We find that the degree of cooling is not well correlated with slopes of the emission measure distribution measured by Warren et al. (2012). We show that these apparently contradictory observations can be reconciled with the presence of a distribution of nanoflare energies and frequencies along the line of sight, with the average delay between successive nanoflare events on a single flux tube being comparable to the plasma cooling timescale. Warren, H. P., Winebarger, A. R., & Brooks, D. H. 2012, ApJ, 759, 141

  19. Design and demonstration of heat pipe cooling for NASP and evaluation of heating methods at high heating rates

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation of two heating methods for demonstration of NASP leading edge heat pipe technology was conducted. The heating methods were and rf induction heated plasma jet and direct rf induction. Tests were conducted to determine coupling from the argon plasma jet on a surface physically similar to a heat pipe. A molybdenum tipped calorimeter was fabricated and installed in an rf induction heated plasma jet for the test. The calorimetric measurements indicated a maximum power coupling of approximately 500 W/cm{sup 2} with the rf plasma jet. The effect of change in gas composition on the heating rate was investigated using helium. An alternative to the plasma heating of a heat pipe tip, an rf concentrator was evaluated for coupling to the hemispherical tip of a heat pipe. A refractory metal heat pipe was designed, fabricated, and tested for the evaluation. The heat pipe was designed for operation at 1400 to 1900 K with power input to 1000 W/cm{sup 2} over a hemispherical nose tip. Power input of 800 W/cm{sup 2} was demonstrated using the rf concentrator. 2 refs., 13 figs.

  20. RF tuning element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, William R. (Inventor); Lubecke, Victor M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A device for tuning a circuit includes a substrate, a transmission line on the substrate that includes first and second conductors coupled to a circuit to be tuned, and a movable short-circuit for varying the impedance the transmission line presents to the circuit to be tuned. The movable short-circuit includes a dielectric layer disposed atop the transmission line and a distributed shorting element in the form of a conductive member that is configured to be slid along at least a portion of the transmission line atop the dielectric layer. The conductive member is configured to span the first and second conductors of the transmission line and to define at least a first opening that spans the two conductors so that the conductive member includes first and second sections separated by the first opening. The first and second sections of the conductive member combine with the first and second conductors of the transmission line to form first and second low impedance sections of transmission line, and the opening combines with the first and second conductors of the transmission line and the dielectric layer to form a first high impedance section of transmission line intermediate the first and second low impedance sections. Each of the first low impedance section and the first high impedance section have a length along the transmission line of approximately one-quarter wavelength, thus providing a periodic variation of transmission line impedance. That enhances reflection of rf power.

  1. Unbalanced field RF electron gun

    DOEpatents

    Hofler, Alicia

    2013-11-12

    A design for an RF electron gun having a gun cavity utilizing an unbalanced electric field arrangement. Essentially, the electric field in the first (partial) cell has higher field strength than the electric field in the second (full) cell of the electron gun. The accompanying method discloses the use of the unbalanced field arrangement in the operation of an RF electron gun in order to accelerate an electron beam.

  2. Concepts for a short wavelength rf gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzikov, S. V.; Shchelkunov, S.; Vikharev, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Three concepts of an rf gun to be operated at 0.1-10 mm wavelengths are considered. In all the concepts, the rf system exploits an accelerating traveling wave. In comparison with a classical decimeter standing-wave rf gun, we analyze the advantages of new concepts, available rf sources, and achievable beam parameters.

  3. Theory and Practice of Cavity RF Test Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Powers

    2006-08-28

    Over the years Jefferson Lab staff members have performed about 2500 cold cavity tests on about 500 different superconducting cavities. Most of these cavities were later installed in 73 different cryomodules, which were used in three different accelerators. All of the cavities were tested in our vertical test area. About 25% of the cryomodules were tested in our cryomodule test facility and later commissioned in an accelerator. The remainder of the cryomodules were tested and commissioned after they were installed in their respective accelerator. This paper is an overview which should provide a practical background in the RF systems used to test the cavities as well as provide the mathematics necessary to convert the raw pulsed or continuous wave RF signals into useful information such as gradient, quality factor, RF-heat loads and loaded Q?s. Additionally, I will provide the equations necessary for determining the measurement error associated with these values.

  4. RF-driven advanced modes of ITER operation

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, J.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Decker, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Hawkes, N.; Imbeaux, F.; Litaudon, X.; Mailloux, J.; Peysson, Y.; Schneider, M.; Brix, M.

    2009-11-26

    The impact of the Radio Frequency heating and current drive systems on the ITER advanced scenarios is analyzed by means of the CRONOS suite of codes for integrated tokamak modelling. As a first step, the code is applied to analyze a high power advanced scenario discharge of JET in order to validate both the heating and current drive modules and the overall simulation procedure. Then, ITER advanced scenarios, based on Radio Frequency systems, are studied on the basis of previous results. These simulations show that both hybrid and steady-state scenarios could be possible within the ITER specifications, using RF heating and current drive only.

  5. RF-driven advanced modes of ITER operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, J.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Brix, M.; Decker, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Hawkes, N.; Imbeaux, F.; Litaudon, X.; Mailloux, J.; Peysson, Y.; Schneider, M.

    2009-11-01

    The impact of the Radio Frequency heating and current drive systems on the ITER advanced scenarios is analyzed by means of the CRONOS suite of codes for integrated tokamak modelling. As a first step, the code is applied to analyze a high power advanced scenario discharge of JET in order to validate both the heating and current drive modules and the overall simulation procedure. Then, ITER advanced scenarios, based on Radio Frequency systems, are studied on the basis of previous results. These simulations show that both hybrid and steady-state scenarios could be possible within the ITER specifications, using RF heating and current drive only.

  6. Publication of Proceedings for the 6th Workshop on High Energy Density and High Power RF (RF 2003)

    SciTech Connect

    Victor L. Granatstein

    2004-08-08

    The 6th Workshop on High Energy Density and High Power RF (RF 2003) was held from June 22 to June 26 at the Coolfont Resort and Conference Center in Berkeley Springs, West Virginia. The Workshop was hosted by the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics (IREAP) of the University of Maryland, College Park and by the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC. As its name implies this was the sixth in a series of biennial workshops devoted to exchanging information and ideas on high power microwave sources and components. The applications addressed included particle accelerators, radar, HPM, space exploration, neutron sources and plasma heating and current driven in controlled thermonuclear fusion research. This Final Report includes a brief description of the RF 2003 Workshop and the distribution of the published proceedings.

  7. NCSX Plasma Heating Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H. W.; Spong, D.; Majeski, R.; Zarnstorff, M.

    2008-01-18

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral beam injection, and radio-frequency (rf). Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, neutral beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The experimental plan requires 3 MW of 50-keV balanced neutral beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 ms for initial experiments, to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 s. Subsequent upgrades will add 3MW of neutral beam injection (NBI). This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M NBI system. In addition, estimations are given for beam heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size and magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of rf heating by mode conversion ion Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the rf system lend themselves to current drive, so if current drive became desirable for any reason, only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The rf system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possiblyIBW-generated sheared flows.

  8. RF gun emittance correction using unsymmetrical RF cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafini, L.; Rivolta, R.; Terzoli, L.; Pagani, C.

    1992-07-01

    The beam dynamics in RF guns is characterized by an optimum injection phase which minimizes the RF-field-induced emittance blowup: such a condition corresponds to a vanishing first order term in the phase dependence of the exit transverse momentum. Away from the optimum phase, a sharp increase of the emittance is found. In this paper we analyze the possibility of compensating for both the first and second order terms, in order to recover the minimum emittance value even at phases different from the optimum one. Our scheme is based on the use of an unsymmetrical RF cavity, added downstream of the gun cavity and fully uncoupled from it, in order to be independently phased. At the exit of this cavity the minimum emittance value can be recovered, the injection phase being a free parameter to be independently optimized. In this way higher injection phases can be exploited, where the longitudinal rms emittance displays a minimum, and long bunches extracted from the gun can be magnetically compressed more efficiently, achieving a significant beam brightness increase with respect to conventionally optimized RF guns. An analytical study of the beam dynamics inside the unsymmetrical RF cavity is presented, together with the results of some numerical simulations performed with the PIC code ITACA [L. Serafini and C. Pagani, Proc. 1st EPAC, Rome, June 1988 (Word Scientific) p. 866].

  9. A survey of membrane oxygenator heat-exchanger integrity testing at cardiac surgery centres in Great Britain and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Matthew; Campbell, John

    2013-11-01

    Membrane oxygenator heat exchanger (HE) device failure is reported to be very low for both short- and long-term extracorporeal devices. All oxygenator manufacturers provide instructions for leak testing of their HE devices prior to patient use. In addition to these recommendations, since 2006 at Nottingham University Hospitals (NUH) we have also additionally pressure tested HE devices prior to use. We conducted a national survey of cardiac centers in Great Britain and Ireland to determine the methods undertaken in individual centers for validation of the integrity of HE devices. Furthermore, we also collected information on the routine maintenance techniques utilized within these centers to inhibit microbial growth in the water used in the heater-cooler units (HCUs). In total, 34 responses were collected from the 57 centers performing cardiac surgery, producing a response rate of 60%. Of the responding centers, 71% are adhering to manufacturer's recommended guidelines of circulating the water through the device for 5 minutes. Of these centers, 17% reported detecting a leak between the HE and membrane compartment of the oxygenator. In responding centers, 29% reported using the pressure test technique. In the centers utilizing pressure testing, 60% reported detecting a leak. This survey reports an association of a greater HE leak detection rate using the pressure test technique compared to using water testing in isolation (p = 0.034). We believe the pressure testing method provides the perfusionist with confidence in the integrity of the HE for short- and long-term circulatory support devices prior to use in both elective and emergency situations.

  10. "Politically-Incorrect" Electron Behavior in Low Pressure RF Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godyak, Valery; Kolobov, Vladimir

    1996-10-01

    The main interaction of plasma electrons with electromagnetic fields for bounded plasma of an rf discharge occurs in the vicinity of its boundaries (in the rf sheath of a capacitive rf discharge and in the skin layer of an inductive one). On the other hand, due to plasma inhomogeneity, a dc ambipolar field is always present in the bounded plasma. in low pressure discharges the ambipolar potential well captures low energy electrons within the discharge center while high energy electrons freely overcome the ambipolar potential and reach the plasma boundaries where heating takes place. Being segregated in space, low energy electrons are discriminated from participation in the heating process. When Coulomb interaction between low and high energy electron groups is weak, their temperatures appear to be essentially different ( a low energy peak on the EEDF). In this presentation we present theoretical and experimental evidence of such an apartheid in the low and high energy electron populations of the EEDF in rf discharge and we outline discharge conditions where such abnormal EEDF behavior is possible.

  11. ADX - Advanced Divertor and RF Tokamak Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwald, Martin; Labombard, Brian; Bonoli, Paul; Irby, Jim; Terry, Jim; Wallace, Greg; Vieira, Rui; Whyte, Dennis; Wolfe, Steve; Wukitch, Steve; Marmar, Earl

    2015-11-01

    The Advanced Divertor and RF Tokamak Experiment (ADX) is a design concept for a compact high-field tokamak that would address boundary plasma and plasma-material interaction physics challenges whose solution is critical for the viability of magnetic fusion energy. This device would have two crucial missions. First, it would serve as a Divertor Test Tokamak, developing divertor geometries, materials and operational scenarios that could meet the stringent requirements imposed in a fusion power plant. By operating at high field, ADX would address this problem at a level of power loading and other plasma conditions that are essentially identical to those expected in a future reactor. Secondly, ADX would investigate the physics and engineering of high-field-side launch of RF waves for current drive and heating. Efficient current drive is an essential element for achieving steady-state in a practical, power producing fusion device and high-field launch offers the prospect of higher efficiency, better control of the current profile and survivability of the launching structures. ADX would carry out this research in integrated scenarios that simultaneously demonstrate the required boundary regimes consistent with efficient current drive and core performance.

  12. Phase modulation in RF tag

    DOEpatents

    Carrender, Curtis Lee; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2007-02-20

    A radio frequency (RF) communication system employs phase-modulated backscatter signals for RF communication from an RF tag to an interrogator. The interrogator transmits a continuous wave interrogation signal to the RF tag, which based on an information code stored in a memory, phase-modulates the interrogation signal to produce a backscatter response signal that is transmitted back to the interrogator. A phase modulator structure in the RF tag may include a switch coupled between an antenna and a quarter-wavelength stub; and a driver coupled between the memory and a control terminal of the switch. The driver is structured to produce a modulating signal corresponding to the information code, the modulating signal alternately opening and closing the switch to respectively decrease and increase the transmission path taken by the interrogation signal and thereby modulate the phase of the response signal. Alternatively, the phase modulator may include a diode coupled between the antenna and driver. The modulating signal from the driver modulates the capacitance of the diode, which modulates the phase of the response signal reflected by the diode and antenna.

  13. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  14. Measurements of Radiofrequency (RF) Body Potential and Body Current in Personnel Aboard Two Classes of Navy Ships,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-23

    material ( celotex ) was placed under the RF current meter. This finding was consistent with results previously obtained near shipboard RF heat scalers...300 KHz to 100 GHz. New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 1982. 2. Chen JY, Gandhi OP. Thermal implications of high SAR’s in

  15. Nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus having semitoroidal rf coil for use in topical NMR and NMR imaging

    DOEpatents

    Fukushima, Eiichi; Roeder, Stephen B. W.; Assink, Roger A.; Gibson, Atholl A. V.

    1986-01-01

    An improved nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) apparatus for use in topical magnetic resonance (TMR) spectroscopy and other remote sensing NMR applications includes a semitoroidal radio-frequency (rf) coil. The semitoroidal rf coil produces an effective alternating magnetic field at a distance from the poles of the coil, so as to enable NMR measurements to be taken from selected regions inside an object, particularly including human and other living subjects. The semitoroidal rf coil is relatively insensitive to magnetic interference from metallic objects located behind the coil, thereby rendering the coil particularly suited for use in both conventional and superconducting NMR magnets. The semitoroidal NMR coil can be constructed so that it emits little or no excess rf electric field associated with the rf magnetic field, thus avoiding adverse effects due to dielectric heating of the sample or to any other interaction of the electric field with the sample.

  16. Does magnetic nano-materials in plane impedance vital for RF loss assessment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Bablu K.; Khairul A., M.; Saad, I.; Islam, Md Nazrul

    2017-08-01

    RF (radiofrequency) system core size reduction is essential to operate it efficiently in RF power and sub-system. In this drive system power loss minimization at controlled volume is the key feature. Magnetic nano-materials higher permeability enhance functionality, energy efficiency is related to device power density and system miniaturization. The major RF heating loss is associated to in plane impedance that is varied due to applied field and frequency band. Presenting impedance plane simulation software; resistance as well as inductive reactance at particular frequency band have been evaluated thus RF power loss is realized. Nano-crystalline core lowest resistance linked to highest conductivity appears to be potential for device shrinking, RF power and sub-system loss minimization.

  17. Ion bombardment in RF photoguns

    SciTech Connect

    Pozdeyev,E.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V. N.

    2009-05-04

    A linac-ring eRHIC design requires a high-intensity CW source of polarized electrons. An SRF gun is viable option that can deliver the required beam. Numerical simulations presented elsewhere have shown that ion bombardment can occur in an RF gun, possibly limiting lifetime of a NEA GaAs cathode. In this paper, we analytically solve the equations of motion of ions in an RF gun using the ponderomotive potential of the Rf field. We apply the method to the BNL 1/2-cell SRF photogun and demonstrate that a significant portion of ions produced in the gun can reach the cathode if no special precautions are taken. Also, the paper discusses possible mitigation techniques that can reduce the rate of ion bombardment.

  18. Klystron equalization for RF feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Corredoura, P.

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of colliding beam storage rings support higher luminosities by significantly increasing the number of bunches and decreasing the spacing between respective bunches. The heavy beam loading requires large RF cavity detuning which drives several lower coupled bunch modes very strongly. One technique which has proven to be very successful in reducing the coupled bunch mode driving impedance is RF feedback around the klystron-cavity combination. The gain and bandwidth of the feedback loop is limited by the group delay around the feedback loop. Existing klystrons on the world market have not been optimized for this application and contribute a large portion of the total loop group delay. This paper describes a technique to reduce klystron group delay by adding an equalizing filter to the klystron RF drive. Such a filter was built and tested on a 500 kill klystron as part of the on going PEP-II R D effort here at SLAC.

  19. Klystron equalization for RF feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Corredoura, P.

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of colliding beam storage rings support higher luminosities by significantly increasing the number of bunches and decreasing the spacing between respective bunches. The heavy beam loading requires large RF cavity detuning which drives several lower coupled bunch modes very strongly. One technique which has proven to be very successful in reducing the coupled bunch mode driving impedance is RF feedback around the klystron-cavity combination. The gain and bandwidth of the feedback loop is limited by the group delay around the feedback loop. Existing klystrons on the world market have not been optimized for this application and contribute a large portion of the total loop group delay. This paper describes a technique to reduce klystron group delay by adding an equalizing filter to the klystron RF drive. Such a filter was built and tested on a 500 kill klystron as part of the on going PEP-II R&D effort here at SLAC.

  20. Proposed RF Breakdown Studies at the AWA

    SciTech Connect

    Antipov, S.; Conde, M.; Gai, W.; Power, J.G.; Spentzouris, L.; Yusof, Z.; Dolgashev, V.; /SLAC

    2007-03-21

    A study of breakdown mechanism has been initiated at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA). Breakdown may include several factors such as local field enhancement, explosive electron emission, Ohmic heating, tensile stress produced by electric field, and others. The AWA is building a dedicated facility to test various models for breakdown mechanisms and to determine the roles of different factors in the breakdown. We plan to trigger breakdown events with a high-powered laser at various wavelengths (IR to UV) to determine the role of explosive electron emission in the breakdown process. Another experimental idea follows from the recent work on a Schottky-enabled photoemission in an RF photoinjector [1] that allows us to determine in situ the field enhancement factor on a cathode surface. Monitoring the field enhancement factor before and after the breakdown can shed some light on a number of observations such as the crater formation process.

  1. Cryostat for testing RF power couplers

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchnir, M.; Champion, M.S.; Koepke, K.P.; Misek, J.R.

    1996-03-01

    Similar to the power leads of accelerator superconducting magnets, the power couplers of accelerator superconducting cavities are components that link room temperature to superfluid helium temperature for the purpose of energy transfer. Instead of conducting kiloamperes of current they guide megawatts of RF power between those two temperatures. In this paper we describe a cryostat designed for testing the performance of these components and measuring their heat loads. A special feature of this cryostat is its minimum liquid inventory that considerably simplifies safety related requirements. This cryostat is part of a Fermilab facility contributing to the international collaboration working on TESLA (TeV Electron Superconducting Linear Accelerator). This facility is now operational and we will be presenting specifications as well as performance data on the cryostat as well as the first pair of power couplers tested with it.

  2. Ion extraction from a saddle antenna RF surface plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, V. Johnson, R. P.; Han, B.; Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Breitschopf, J.; Dudnikova, G.

    2015-04-08

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H{sup +} and H{sup −} ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm{sup 2} per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H{sup −} ion production efficiency and SPS reliability and availability. At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm{sup 2} per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power ∼1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with ∼4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H{sup −} beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the AlN discharge chamber for a long time at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Continuous wave (CW) operation of the SA SPS has been tested on the small test stand. The general design of the CW SA SPS is based on the pulsed version. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. CW operation with negative ion extraction was tested with RF power up to 1.8 kW from the generator (∼1.2 kW in the plasma) with production up to Ic=7 mA. Long term operation was tested with 1.2 kW from the RF generator (∼0.8 kW in the plasma) with production of Ic=5 mA, Iex ∼15 mA (Uex=8 kV, Uc=14 kV)

  3. The integrated optic RF spectrum analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedinoff, M. E.; Ranganath, T. R.; Joseph, T. R.; Lee, J. Y.

    1981-01-01

    The results of measurements made on a fully integrated optic RF spectrum analyzer (IOSA) are reported. The performance of the device acousto-optic bandwidth, single-tone RF resolution, two-tone RF resolution, single-tone dynamic range, two-tone dynamic range, and single-tone RF response are presented. The device parameters that control device performance are analyzed. These results demonstrate the viability of the IOSA for real time spectrum analysis of pulsed and CW RF signals. Improvements of RF bandwidth resolution can be obtained by the use of larger collimated optical beams which requires larger optical lens elements, and hence, larger crystals.

  4. Plasma rotation induced by RF

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, V. S.; Chiu, S. C.; Lin-Liu, Y. R. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5698; Omelchenko, Y. A. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5698

    1999-09-20

    Plasma rotation has many beneficial effects on tokamak operation including stabilization of MHD and microturbulence to improve the beta limit and confinement. Contrary to present-day tokamaks, neutral beams may not be effective in driving rotation in fusion reactors; hence the investigation of radiofrequency (RF) induced plasma rotation is of great interest and potential importance. This paper reviews the experimental results of RF induced rotation and possible physical mechanisms, suggested by theories, to explain the observations. This subject is only in the infancy of its research and many challenging issues remained to be understood and resolved. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Indoor ultrafine particle exposures and home heating systems: a cross-sectional survey of Canadian homes during the winter months.

    PubMed

    Weichenthal, Scott; Dufresne, Andre; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Joseph, Lawrence

    2007-05-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter has a negative effect on respiratory health in both children and adults. Ultrafine particle (UFP) exposures are of particular concern owing to their enhanced ability to cause oxidative stress and inflammation in the lungs. In this investigation, our objective was to examine the contribution of home heating systems (electric baseboard heaters, wood stoves, forced-air oil/natural gas furnace) to indoor UFP exposures. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 36 homes in the cities of Montréal, Québec, and Pembroke, Ontario. Real-time measures of indoor UFP concentrations were collected in each home for approximately 14 h, and an outdoor UFP measurement was collected outside each home before indoor sampling. A home-characteristic questionnaire was also administered, and air exchange rates were estimated using carbon dioxide as a tracer gas. Average UFP exposures of 21,594 cm(-3) (95% confidence interval (CI): 14,014, 29,174) and 6660 cm(-3) (95% CI: 4339, 8982) were observed for the evening (1600-2400) and overnight (2400-0800) hours, respectively. In an unadjusted comparison, overnight baseline UFP exposures were significantly greater in homes with electric baseboard heaters as compared to homes using forced-air oil or natural gas furnaces, and homes using wood stoves had significantly greater overnight baseline UFP exposures than homes using forced-air natural gas furnaces. However, in multivariate models, electric oven use (beta=12,253 cm(-3), 95% CI: 3524, 20,982), indoor relative humidity (beta=1136 cm(-3) %, 95% CI: 372, 1899), and indoor smoking (beta=18,192 cm(-3), 95% CI: 2073, 34,311) were the only significant determinants of mean indoor UFP exposure, whereas air exchange rate (beta=4351 cm(-3) h(-1), 95% CI: 1507, 7195) and each 10,000 cm(-3) increase in outdoor UFPs (beta=811 cm(-3), 95% CI: 244,1377) were the only significant determinants of overnight baseline UFP exposures. In general, our findings suggest that

  6. Negative ion source with external RF antenna

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Hahto, Sami K.; Hahto, Sari T.

    2007-02-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source. A converter can be included in the ion source to produce negative ions.

  7. Numerical characterization of magnetized capacitively coupled argon plasmas driven by combined dc/rf sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shali; Zhang, Ya; Wang, Hong-Yu; Wang, Shuai; Jiang, Wei

    2017-03-01

    The characteristics of magnetized capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) driven by combined dc/rf sources in argon have been investigated by a one-dimensional implicit Particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision model. Discharges operating at 13.56 MHz with a fixed rf voltage of 300 V are simulated at the pressure of 50 mTorr in argon. Four cases, i.e., CCP driven by rf source, rf + dc sources, rf source with magnetic field, and rf + dc sources with magnetic field, are presented and compared at the Vdc = -100 V, B = 50 Gs, and γi = 0.2. It is found that, with the influence of dc voltage and magnetic field, the plasma density has been greatly enhanced by over one order of magnitude over the rf-only case. This is due to the fact that the mean free path of electrons decreases by the cyclotron motion and the energetic secondary electrons are trapped by the magnetic field, leading to a significant increase in heating and ionization rates. Moreover, transition of the stochastic to Ohmic electron heating mechanism takes place as the magnetic field increases because electron kinetics can be strongly affected by the magnetic field. In general, we have demonstrated that such a configuration will enhance the discharge and thus enable CCPs work under extremely high energy density stably that can never be operated by any other configurations. We expect that such a configuration can promote many related applications, like etching, sputtering, and deposition.

  8. Estimating and interpretation of radioactive heat production using airborne gamma-ray survey data of Gabal Arrubushi area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Mohamed A. S.

    2016-02-01

    The present work deals with mapping of radioactive heat production from rocks in the Gabal Arrubushi area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt based on airborne spectral gamma-ray survey data. The results show that the radioactive heat production in the areas ranges from 0.01 μWm-3 to 5.2 μWm-3. Granites, muscovite and sericite schists in the western part of Gabal Arrubushi area have abnormally high radioactive heat production values from 2.57 μWm-3 to 4.44 μWm-3. Meanwhile, the higher averages of radioactive heat production of these rock units change from 1.21 μWm-3 to 1.5 μWm-3. The intermediate averages of heat production of felsitic mylonite schist, chlorite schist, felsites, amphibolites and Hammamat sediments are below the crustal average value range, i.e., from 0.8 μWm-3 to 1.2 μWm-3. The lowest averages of heat production values are less than 0.8 μWm-3 and found in the following rock units: Wadi sediments, rhyolites, andesites, gabbro and serpentinites.

  9. Evaluation of thermal effects due to back-streaming electrons in the IAE RF gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kii, Toshiteru; Masuda, Kai; Amazaki, Satoshi; Horii, Tomohiro; Toku, Hisayuki; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Tetsuo

    2002-05-01

    Back-streaming electrons in thermionic RF guns give a serious thermal effect to a cathode. In this study, the back-streaming beam power onto a thermionic cathode of the IAE RF gun was evaluated quantitatively by using an infrared radiation thermometer. Time evolutions of cathode surface temperature during RF macro-pulse were also calculated by using a simple 1-dimensional heat conduction model and results of a 2-dimensional particle simulation for several methods expected to reduce back-bombardment effect.

  10. Theranostic Iron Oxide/Gold Ion Nanoprobes for MR Imaging and Noninvasive RF Hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Sajid; Paul-Prasanth, Bindhu; Nair, Shantikumar V; Menon, Deepthy

    2017-08-30

    This work focuses on the development of a nanoparticulate system that can be used for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and E-field noninvasive radiofrequency (RF) hyperthermia. For this purpose, an amine-functional gold ion complex (GIC), [Au(III)(diethylenetriamine)Cl]Cl2, which generates heat upon RF exposure, was conjugated to carboxyl-functional poly(acrylic acid)-capped iron-oxide nanoparticles (IO-PAA NPs) to form IO-GIC NPs of size ∼100 nm. The multimodal superparamagnetic IO-GIC NPs produced T2-contrast on MR imaging and unlike IO-PAA NPs generated heat on RF exposure. The RF heating response of IO-GIC NPs was found to be dependent on the RF power, exposure period, and particle concentration. IO-GIC NPs at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL showed a high heating response (δT) of ∼40 °C when exposed to 100 W RF power for 1 min. In vitro cytotoxicity measurements on NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells and 4T1 cancer cells showed that IO-GIC NPs are cytocompatible at high NP concentrations for up to 72 h. Upon in vitro RF exposure (100 W, 1 min), a high thermal response leads to cell death of 4T1 cancer cells incubated with IO-GIC NPs (1 mg/mL). Hematoxylin and eosin imaging of rat liver tissues injected with 100 μL of 2.5 mg/mL IO-GIC NPs and exposed to low RF power of 20 W for 10 min showed significant loss of tissue morphology at the site of injection, as against RF-exposed or nanoparticle-injected controls. In vivo MR imaging and noninvasive RF exposure of 4T1-tumor-bearing mice after IO-GIC NP administration showed T2 contrast enhancement and a localized generation of high temperatures in tumors, leading to tumor tissue damage. Furthermore, the administration of IO-GIC NPs followed by RF exposure showed no adverse acute toxicity effects in vivo. Thus, IO-GIC NPs show good promise as a theranostic agent for magnetic resonance imaging and noninvasive RF hyperthermia for cancer.

  11. RF power deposition effects observed for the scrape off layer in NSTX/NSTX_U and EAST and the accompanying RF effects on divertor Langmuir probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosea, J.; Perkins, R. J.; Jaworski, M.; Bertelli, N.; Taylor, G.; Qin, C.; Wang, L.; Yang, J.; Zhang, X. J.

    2016-10-01

    Strong RF power deposition effects in the divertor regions have been observed in NSTX for the HHFW regime and in EAST for the minority ICRF regime. On NSTX the RF power deposition in the scrape off layer (SOL) follows the magnetic field lines from in front of the antenna to an RF heat deposition spiral on the divertor regions. The strong SOL deposition and the spiral formation occur for edge densities above the cutoff density in front of the antenna. On EAST the RF heat deposition appears to be less intense as predicted with AORSA simulations. At coupled powers on EAST up to 700 kW here, bands of deposition are observed on the lower divertor. RF deposition is also indicated on Langmuir probes on the lower outer divertors. For divertor probes in NSTX located to intercept field lines passing in the SOL away from the antenna, the floating potential is pushed negatively as expected for RF rectification. Similarly, on EAST the floating potential is pushed negatively for the field lines out in front of the antenna, but more positively for field lines that intercept the antenna/wall. To understand this latter behavior, probe IV characteristics will be investigated on NSTX-U to establish the electron energy distribution and space potential at a set of probes covering the entire SOL field strike point range. This work is supported by USDOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  12. High-Power Rf Load

    DOEpatents

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Vlieks, Arnold E.

    1998-09-01

    A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

  13. SNS LINAC RF control system.

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, A. H.; Kwon, S. I.; Prokop, M. S.; Rohlev, T. S.; Thomson, D. W.; Ma, H.

    2002-01-01

    The SNS linac RF control system (RFCS) is currently in development. A system is being installed in a superconducting test stand at Jefferson Laboratory presently. Two systems will soon be installed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and more are due to be installed early next year. The RF control system provides field control for the entire SNS linac, including an RFQ and 6 DTL cavities at 402.5 MHz as well as three different types of cavities at of 805 MHz: 4 CCL cavities, 36 medium beta superconducting (SRF) cavities, and 45 high beta superconducting cavities. In addition to field control, it provides cavity resonance control, and incorporates high power protect functions. This paper will discuss the RFCS design to date, with emphasis on the challenges of providing a universal digital system for use on each of the individual cavity types. The RF control system hardware has been designed to minimize the amount of changes for all of the applications. Through software/firmware modification and changing a couple of frequency-dependent filters, the same control system design can be used for all five cavity types. The SNS is the first to utilize SRF cavities for a pulsed high-current proton accelerator, thereby making RF control especially challenging.

  14. RF spectrometers for heterodyne receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhl, D.; Mumma, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    Several types of spectrometers developed for radio astronomy receivers which utilize RF filters, multiple oscillators and mixers, digital autocorrelators and acoustic/optic devices are considered. The RF spectrometer developed at GSFC to provide wide bandwidths (greater than 1 GHz) as well as high resolution (5MHz) is described. The 128 channel filter bank is divided into high and low resolution sections. The high resolution section is tunable by providing a second mixer ahead of the filter bank. This is necessary because infrared receivers which use gas lasers as local oscillators are only tunable to specific laser frequencies. To compensate for astronomical Doppler shifts and molecule frequency differences a second local oscillator and mixer is needed. A diagram of the RF section of the filter bank is shown. The RF spectrometer is shown to be the best means of achieving ultra-wide bandwidths for infrared heterodyne receivers. For high resolution with a large number of channels, the acousto/optical spectrometer is the principle instrument, particularly for balloon or space flight applications.

  15. Electrical characterization of rf plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.A.

    1991-08-01

    Radio-frequency (rf) electrical sources are commonly used to generate plasmas for processing of industrial materials and for related experimental work. Published descriptions of such plasmas usually include generator-power measurements, and occasionally include plasma dc-bias measurements. One or both of these quantitites are also used in industrial feedback ccontrol systems for setpoint regulation. Recent work at Sandia an elsewhere with an experimental rf discharge device (the GEC RF Reference Cell'') has shown that power and dc-bias levels are often insufficient information for specifying the state of the plasma. The plasma can have nonlinear electrical characteristics that cause harmonic generation, and the harmonic levels can depend sensitively on the impedance of the external circuitry at harmonic frequencies. Even though the harmonics may be low in amplitude, they can be directly related to large changes in plasma power and to changes in optical emission from the plasma. Consequently, in order for a worker to truly master the plasma-generation process, it is necessary to understand, measure, and control electrical characteristics of the plamsa. In this paper we describe technique that have been developed from work with the Reference Cell for making electrical measurements on rf plasmas, and we describe surprising observations of harmonic behavior. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Breakdown-Resistant RF Connectors for Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caro, Edward R.; Bonazza, Walter J.

    1987-01-01

    Resilient inserts compensate for insulation shrinkage. Coaxial-cable connector for radio-frequency (RF) energy resists electrical breakdown in vacuum. Used on RF equipment in vacuum chambers as well as in spaceborne radar and communication gear.

  17. Automatic calorimetry system monitors RF power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harness, B. W.; Heiberger, E. C.

    1969-01-01

    Calorimetry system monitors the average power dissipated in a high power RF transmitter. Sensors measure the change in temperature and the flow rate of the coolant, while a multiplier computes the power dissipated in the RF load.

  18. Seaglider surveys at Ocean Station Papa: Diagnosis of upper-ocean heat and salt balances using least squares with inequality constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelland, Noel A.; Eriksen, Charles C.; Cronin, Meghan F.

    2017-06-01

    Heat and salt balances in the upper 200 m are examined using data from Seaglider spatial surveys June 2008 to January 2010 surrounding a NOAA surface mooring at Ocean Station Papa (OSP; 50°N, 145°W). A least-squares approach is applied to repeat Seaglider survey and moored measurements to solve for unknown or uncertain monthly three-dimensional circulation and vertical diffusivity. Within the surface boundary layer, the estimated heat and salt balances are dominated throughout the surveys by turbulent flux, vertical advection, and for heat, radiative absorption. When vertically integrated balances are considered, an estimated upwelling of cool water balances the net surface input of heat, while the corresponding large import of salt across the halocline due to upwelling and diffusion is balanced by surface moisture input and horizontal import of fresh water. Measurement of horizontal gradients allows the estimation of unresolved vertical terms over more than one annual cycle; diffusivity in the upper-ocean transition layer decreases rapidly to the depth of the maximum near-surface stratification in all months, with weak seasonal modulation in the rate of decrease and profile amplitude. Vertical velocity is estimated to be on average upward but with important monthly variations. Results support and expand existing evidence concerning the importance of horizontal advection in the balances of heat and salt in the Gulf of Alaska, highlight time and depth variability in difficult-to-measure vertical transports in the upper ocean, and suggest avenues of further study in future observational work at OSP.

  19. ICR Heating in Ion Separation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Timofeev, A.V.

    2005-12-15

    A systematic procedure for analyzing the physical processes that govern ICR heating in systems for ion separation is developed. The procedure is based on an analytic model of an rf antenna generating rf fields within a plasma column in a magnetic field and includes such issues as the calculation of rf fields, examination of the ICR interaction of ions with these fields, and determination of the distribution function of the ion flow at the exit from the ICR heating system. It is shown that, even in ICR heating systems with easily achievable parameter values, ions with appreciably different masses can be efficiently separated by energy.

  20. Plasma-materials interactions during rf experiments in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.A.; Bernabei, S.; Budny, R.; Chu, T.K.; Colestock, P.; Hinnov, E.; Hooke, W.; Hosea, J.; Hwang, D.; Jobes, F.

    1984-09-01

    Plasma-materials interactions studied in recent ICRF heating and lower hybrid current drive experiments are reviewed. The microscopic processes responsible for impurity generation are discussed. In ICRF experiments, improvements in machine operation and in antenna and feedthrough design have allowed efficient plasma heating at RF powers up to 3 MW. No significant loss of energy from the plasma core due to impurity radiation occurs. Lower hybrid current drive results in the generation and maintenance of hundreds of kiloamperes of plasma current carried by suprathermal electrons. The loss of these electrons and their role in impurity generation are assessed. Methods to avoid this problem are evaluated.

  1. Study of AC/RF properties of SRF ingot niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Tsindlekht, Menachem I; Genkin, Valery M; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2013-09-01

    In an attempt to correlate the performance of superconducting radiofrequency cavities made of niobium with the superconducting properties, we present the results of the magnetization and ac susceptibility of the niobium used in the superconducting radiofrequency cavity fabrication. The samples were subjected to buffer chemical polishing (BCP) surface and high temperature heat treatments, typically applied to the cavities fabrications. The analysis of the results show the different surface and bulk ac conductivity for the samples subjected to BCP and heat treatment. Furthermore, the RF surface impedance is measured on the sample using a TE011 microwave cavity for a comparison to the low frequency measurements.

  2. RF-Thermal-Structural Analysis of a Waveguide Higher Order Mode Absorber

    SciTech Connect

    G. Cheng; E. F. Daly; R. A. Rimmer; M. Stirbet; L. Vogel; H. Wang; K. M. Wilson

    2007-07-03

    For an ongoing high current cryomodule project, a total of 5 higher order mode (HOM) absorbers are required per cavity. The load is designed to absorb Radio Frequency (RF) heat induced by HOMs in a 748.5MHz cavity. Each load is targeted at a 4 kW dissipation capability. Water cooling is employed to remove the heat generated in ceramic tiles and by surface losses on the waveguide walls. A sequentially coupled RF-thermal-structural analysis was developed in ANSYS to optimize the HOM load design. Frequency-dependent dielectric material properties measured from samples and RF power spectrum calculated by the beam-cavity interaction codes were considered. The coupled field analysis capability of ANSYS avoided mapping of results between separate RF and thermal/structural simulation codes. For verification purposes, RF results obtained from ANSYS were compared to those from MAFIA, HFSS, and Microwave Studio. Good agreement was reached and this confirms that multiple-field coupled analysis is a desirable choice in analysis of HOM loads. Similar analysis could be performed on other particle accelerator components where distributed RF heating and surface current induced losses are inevitable.

  3. Linac RF control at transient beamloading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernogubovsky, M. A.; Sugimoto, M.

    1999-06-01

    Effective RF control design is carried out under electrodynamic property analysis of the transient beam excitation, which gives the basic principle and support method for RF control. The main parameters of the RF system are defined under the directional selective coupling application; the beam dynamics with control characteristics are optimized for operating mode electrodynamics.

  4. Review of pulsed rf power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Lavine, T.L.

    1992-04-01

    I am going to talk about pulsed high-power rf generation for normal-conducting electron and positron linacs suitable for applications to high-energy physics in the Next Linear Collider, or NLC. The talk will cover some basic rf system design issues, klystrons and other microwave power sources, rf pulse-compression devices, and test facilities for system-integration studies.

  5. RF digital-to-analog converter

    DOEpatents

    Conway, P.H.; Yu, D.U.L.

    1995-02-28

    A digital-to-analog converter is disclosed for producing an RF output signal proportional to a digital input word of N bits from an RF reference input, N being an integer greater or equal to 2. The converter comprises a plurality of power splitters, power combiners and a plurality of mixers or RF switches connected in a predetermined configuration. 18 figs.

  6. RF digital-to-analog converter

    DOEpatents

    Conway, Patrick H.; Yu, David U. L.

    1995-01-01

    A digital-to analogue converter for producing an RF output signal proportional to a digital input word of N bits from an RF reference input, N being an integer greater or equal to 2. The converter comprises a plurality of power splitters, power combiners and a plurality of mixers or RF switches connected in a predetermined configuration.

  7. High-brightness rf linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Jameson, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The issue of high brightness and its ramifications in linacs driven by radio-frequency fields is discussed. A history of the RF linacs is reviewed briefly. Some current applications are then examined that are driving progress in RF linacs. The physics affecting the brightness of RF linacs is then discussed, followed by the economic feasibility of higher brightness machines. (LEW)

  8. A thermodynamical analysis of rf current drive with fast electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Bizarro, João P. S.

    2015-08-15

    The problem of rf current drive (CD) by pushing fast electrons with high-parallel-phase-velocity waves, such as lower-hybrid (LH) or electron-cyclotron (EC) waves, is revisited using the first and second laws, the former to retrieve the well-known one-dimensional (1D) steady-state CD efficiency, and the latter to calculate a lower bound for the rate of entropy production when approaching steady state. The laws of thermodynamics are written in a form that explicitly takes care of frictional dissipation and are thus applied to a population of fast electrons evolving under the influence of a dc electric field, rf waves, and collisions while in contact with a thermal, Maxwellian reservoir with a well-defined temperature. Besides the laws of macroscopic thermodynamics, there is recourse to basic elements of kinetic theory only, being assumed a residual dc electric field and a strong rf drive, capable of sustaining in the resonant region, where waves interact with electrons, a raised fast-electron tail distribution, which becomes an essentially flat plateau in the case of the 1D theory for LHCD. Within the 1D model, particularly suited for LHCD as it solely retains fast-electron dynamics in velocity space parallel to the ambient magnetic field, an H theorem for rf CD is also derived, which is written in different forms, and additional physics is recovered, such as the synergy between the dc and rf power sources, including the rf-induced hot conductivity, as well as the equation for electron-bulk heating. As much as possible 1D results are extended to 2D, to account for ECCD by also considering fast-electron velocity-space dynamics in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field, which leads to a detailed discussion on how the definition of an rf-induced conductivity may depend on whether one works at constant rf current or power. Moreover, working out the collisional dissipated power and entropy-production rate written in terms of the fast-electron distribution, it

  9. A thermodynamical analysis of rf current drive with fast electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizarro, João P. S.

    2015-08-01

    The problem of rf current drive (CD) by pushing fast electrons with high-parallel-phase-velocity waves, such as lower-hybrid (LH) or electron-cyclotron (EC) waves, is revisited using the first and second laws, the former to retrieve the well-known one-dimensional (1D) steady-state CD efficiency, and the latter to calculate a lower bound for the rate of entropy production when approaching steady state. The laws of thermodynamics are written in a form that explicitly takes care of frictional dissipation and are thus applied to a population of fast electrons evolving under the influence of a dc electric field, rf waves, and collisions while in contact with a thermal, Maxwellian reservoir with a well-defined temperature. Besides the laws of macroscopic thermodynamics, there is recourse to basic elements of kinetic theory only, being assumed a residual dc electric field and a strong rf drive, capable of sustaining in the resonant region, where waves interact with electrons, a raised fast-electron tail distribution, which becomes an essentially flat plateau in the case of the 1D theory for LHCD. Within the 1D model, particularly suited for LHCD as it solely retains fast-electron dynamics in velocity space parallel to the ambient magnetic field, an H theorem for rf CD is also derived, which is written in different forms, and additional physics is recovered, such as the synergy between the dc and rf power sources, including the rf-induced hot conductivity, as well as the equation for electron-bulk heating. As much as possible 1D results are extended to 2D, to account for ECCD by also considering fast-electron velocity-space dynamics in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field, which leads to a detailed discussion on how the definition of an rf-induced conductivity may depend on whether one works at constant rf current or power. Moreover, working out the collisional dissipated power and entropy-production rate written in terms of the fast-electron distribution, it

  10. Collisionless electron heating by radio frequency bias in low gas pressure inductive discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2012-12-10

    We show experimental observations of collisionless electron heating by the combinations of the capacitive radio frequency (RF) bias power and the inductive power in low argon gas pressure RF biased inductively coupled plasma (ICP). With small RF bias powers in the ICP, the electron energy distribution (EED) evolved from bi-Maxwellian distribution to Maxwellian distribution by enhanced plasma bulk heating and the collisionless sheath heating was weak. In the capacitive RF bias dominant regime, however, high energy electrons by the RF bias were heated on the EEDs in the presence of the ICP. The collisionless heating mechanism of the high energy electrons transited from collisionless inductive heating to capacitive coupled collisionless heating by the electron bounce resonance in the RF biased ICP.

  11. A Study of Direct Digital Manufactured RF/Microwave Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratton, John W. I.

    Various facets of direct digital manufactured (DDM) microwave packages are studied. The rippled surface inherent in fused deposition modeling (FDM) fabricated geometries is modeled in Ansoft HFSS, and its effect on the performance of microstrip transmission lines is assessed via simulation and measurement. The thermal response of DDM microstrip transmission lines is analyzed over a range of RF input powers, and linearity is confirmed over that range. Two IC packages are embedded into DDM printed circuit boards, and their performance is analyzed. The first is a low power RF switch, and the second is an RF front end device that includes a low noise amplifier (LNA) and a power amplifier (PA). The RF switch is shown to perform well, as compared to a layout designed for a Rogers 4003C microwave laminate substrate. The LNA performs within datasheet specifications. The power amplifier generates substantial heat, so a thermal management attempt is described. Finally, a capacitively loaded 6dB Wilkinson power divider is designed and fabricated using DDM techniques and materials. Its performance is analyzed and compared to simulation. The device is shown to compare favorably to a similar device fabricated on a Rogers 4003C microwave laminate using traditional printed circuit board techniques.

  12. Computer Simulation of Antiproton RF Stacking in the Precooler Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Takayama, K.; Ruggiero, A.G.

    1981-01-16

    It has been recently proposed a scheme to produce a high-intensity antiproton beam in a precooler ring with functions of both stochastic cooling and accumulating. According to this scheme 13 batches from {bar p}-target are stacked and precooled on the stacking orbit every Main Ring cycle. After that the precooled beam is transported in a second storage ring (the Accumulator) and cooled for several hours together with previous {bar p} batches. As alternative it has also been proposed to decelerate each precooler pulse down to 200 MeV at which energy it can be transferred in a modified Electron Cooling Ring for storage and further cooling. The sequence of stacking operations in the Precooler consists of (1) injecting a P beam pulse onto the injection orbit, capturing it by standing-by RF buckets, rotating the bunch in the stationary RF buckets, and reducing the bucket height so that the stationary bucket will surround tightly the bunch, (2) decelerating to the stacking orbit and (3) finally turning off the RF adiabatically, allowing the beam to debunch. This sequence is repeated 13 times to build up a complete stack every Main Ring cycle. The above steps require fairly complicated manipulations of RF system parameters. The 13 {bar P}-batches are separated by 100 msec from each other for target heating considerations. In the present study, the above sequence of stacking is investigated by numerical simulation.

  13. Superfluid helium cryogenic systems for superconducting RF cavities at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, H.; Hara, K.; Honma, T.; Hosoyama, K.; Kojima, Y.; Nakanishi, K.; Kanekiyo, T.; Morita, S.

    2014-01-29

    Recent accelerator projects at KEK, such as the Superconducting RF Test Facility (STF) for R and D of the International Linear Collider (ILC) project and the compact Energy Recovery Linac (cERL), employ superconducting RF cavities made of pure niobium, which can generate high gradient acceleration field. Since the operation temperature of these cavities is selected to be 2 K, we have developed two 2 K superfluid helium cryogenic systems for stable operation of superconducting RF cavities for each of STF and cERL. These two 2 K superfluid helium cryogenic systems are identical in principle. Since the operation mode of the cavities is different for STF and cERL, i.e. the pulse mode for STF and the continuous wave mode for cERL, the heat loads from the cavities are quite different. The 2 K superfluid helium cryogenic systems mainly consists of ordinary helium liquefiers/refrigerators, 2 K refrigerator cold boxes, helium gas pumping systems and high-performance transfer lines. The 2 K refrigerators and the high-performance transfer lines are designed by KEK. Some superconducting RF cavity cryomodules have been already connected to the 2 K superfluid helium cryogenic systems for STF and cERL respectively, and cooled down to 2 K successfully.

  14. Radiofrequency energy-induced heating during MR procedures: a review.

    PubMed

    Shellock, F G

    2000-07-01

    During an MR procedure, most of the transmitted RF power is transformed into heat within the patient's tissue as a result of resistive losses. Not surprisingly, the primary bioeffects associated with the RF radiation used for MR procedures are directly related to the thermogenic qualities of this electromagnetic field. This review article discusses the characteristics of RF energy-induced heating associated with MR procedures, with an emphasis on thermal and other physiologic responses observed in human subjects.

  15. Chemical Synthesis of alpha-Iron Cobalt and Metastable gamma-Iron Nickel Magnetic Nanoparticles with Tunable Magnetic Properties for Study of RF Heating and Magnetomechanical Responses in Polymeric Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNerny, Katie L.

    The successful development of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is necessary for a variety of biomedical applications including magnetic tagging of cells, bioseparation, cell sorting, cell tracking, targeted drug delivery, thermablative cancer therapies, diagnostics and sensing applications. For effective performance in many of these applications, the MNPs must be stable at various temperatures and chemical environments while also being easily dispersed in a variety of media. Chemical synthesis techniques have been developed to achieve desirable shapes, sizes and compositions of Fe-Co, Fe-Ni, as well as other Fe-based ternary alloy MNPs. These MNPs have been functionalized with surfactants, polymers, and antibodies for suspension in aqueous fluids that can be delivered intravenously to a desired location in the body and subsequently manipulated by alternating (AC) and direct (DC) magnetic fields. An exciting application for the gamma-FeNi MNPs that will be investigated is self-regulated heating of cancer tissue. Cancerous tissue is known to be more thermally sensitive than healthy tissue due to irregularities in tumor vasculature, and therefore MNPs can be used to heat and kill these cells while leaving healthy tissue unharmed. gamma-FeNi MNPs have tunable Curie temperatures (TC's) and can be further adjusted by the addition of an antiferromagnetic element such as Mn or Cr to reach temperatures required for killing cancer cells (between 40 and 50°C). The TC acts as an upper limit to heating as the material switches from being ferromagnetic to paramagnetic. These MNPs have been synthesized and characterized, and a model for self-regulated heating has been demonstrated. The vision for this project is to eventually functionalize the particles with a tumor-specific tag, for instance Herceptin, and to potentially attach a chemotherapeutic agent to the MNPs for combined heating and drug delivery. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used to show

  16. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: IITRI RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radio frequency heating (RFH) technologies use electromagnetic energy in the radio frequency (RF) band to heat soil in situ, thereby potentially enhancing the performance of standard soil vapor extraction (SVE) technologies. Contaminants are removed from in situ soils and transfe...

  17. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: IITRI RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radio frequency heating (RFH) technologies use electromagnetic energy in the radio frequency (RF) band to heat soil in situ, thereby potentially enhancing the performance of standard soil vapor extraction (SVE) technologies. Contaminants are removed from in situ soils and transfe...

  18. Double rf system for bunch shortening

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Yong Ho.

    1990-11-01

    It was suggested by Zisman that the combination of the two systems (double rf system) may be more effective to shorten a bunch, compromising between the desirable and the undesirable effects mentioned above. In this paper, we demonstrate that a double rf system is, in fact, quite effective in optimizing the rf performance. The parameters used are explained, and some handy formulae for bunch parameters are derived. We consider an example of bunch shortening by adding a higher-harmonic rf system to the main rf system. The parameters of the main rf system are unchanged. The double rf system, however, can be used for another purpose. Namely, the original bunch length can be obtained with a main rf voltage substantially lower than for a single rf system without necessitating a high-power source for the higher-harmonic cavities. Using a double rf system, the momentum acceptance remains large enough for ample beam lifetime. Moreover, the increase in nonlinearity of the rf waveform increases the synchrotron tune spread, which potentially helps a beam to be stabilized against longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities. We will show some examples of this application. We discuss the choice of the higher-harmonic frequency.

  19. Transport modeling of the ORNL high intensity linear RF plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, L. W.; Peng, Y. K. M.; Canik, J. M.; Goulding, R. H.; Bonnin, X.

    2010-11-01

    Recent progress in the electrode-less helicon hydrogenic plasma sourceootnotetextR.H. Goulding, et al., Proc. 18th Conf on RF Power in Plasmas, Gent, Belgium, June, 2009. have motivated the development at ORNL of an RF-plasma source that magnetically links a helicon to a mirror cell in which the plasma is heated by EBW, ICH and whistler waves. The <4m long plasma column further includes a parallel transport region connected to a pumped target plate. Such a source is modeled at three levels using: a two-point model, a 1D-parallel Braginski's fluid model in which the plasma sources/sinks are computed using the kinetic Monte Carlo neutrals code DEGAS, and the 2D SOLPS code. The required source plasma parameters to achieve certain target plasma parameters, particularly at high plasma heat and particle fluxes, are found to be sensitive to the plasma and neutrals parameters in the helicon and RF mirror cells, the effective heating via various RF techniques, the plasma and neutrals boundary conditions at the target plates and around the RF-plasma heating zones, and the pumped reservoirs with partial backflow of thermal molecules. New results of this investigation will be reported.

  20. RF Microalgal lipid content characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Al-Zuhair, Sulaiman; Taher, Hanifa; Hilal-Alnaqbi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Most conventional techniques for the determination of microalgae lipid content are time consuming and in most cases are indirect and require excessive sample preparations. This work presents a new technique that utilizes radio frequency (RF) for rapid lipid quantification, without the need for sample preparation. Tests showed that a shift in the resonance frequency of a RF open-ended coaxial resonator and a gradual increase in its resonance magnitude may occur as the lipids content of microalgae cells increases. These response parameters can be then calibrated against actual cellular lipid contents and used for rapid determination of the cellular lipids. The average duration of lipid quantification using the proposed technique was of about 1 minute, which is significantly less than all other conventional techniques, and was achieved without the need for any time consuming treatment steps. PMID:24870372

  1. Recent Advancements of RF Guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faillace, Luigi

    High-brightness, high-current electron beams are the main requirement for fourth generation light sources such as free-electron lasers (FELs), energy recovery Linacs (ERLs) and high-energy linear colliders. The most successful device for producing such beams is the Radio-Frequency (RF) photoinjector that has been undergoing a constant evolution over the past nearly 30 years towards the production of ever-lower beam emittances and higher currents. The on-going progress in the technology of higher quality materials as well as the enhanced quality of laser pulse shaping have allowed huge improvements in the generation of higher-quality electron beams. Here, it is presented an overview of recent advancements and future perspectives of RF photoinjectors for a fifth generation light source.

  2. RF microalgal lipid content characterization.

    PubMed

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud; Al-Zuhair, Sulaiman; Taher, Hanifa; Hilal-Alnaqbi, Ali

    2014-05-29

    Most conventional techniques for the determination of microalgae lipid content are time consuming and in most cases are indirect and require excessive sample preparations. This work presents a new technique that utilizes radio frequency (RF) for rapid lipid quantification, without the need for sample preparation. Tests showed that a shift in the resonance frequency of a RF open-ended coaxial resonator and a gradual increase in its resonance magnitude may occur as the lipids content of microalgae cells increases. These response parameters can be then calibrated against actual cellular lipid contents and used for rapid determination of the cellular lipids. The average duration of lipid quantification using the proposed technique was of about 1 minute, which is significantly less than all other conventional techniques, and was achieved without the need for any time consuming treatment steps.

  3. RF Microalgal lipid content characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Al-Zuhair, Sulaiman; Taher, Hanifa; Hilal-Alnaqbi, Ali

    2014-05-01

    Most conventional techniques for the determination of microalgae lipid content are time consuming and in most cases are indirect and require excessive sample preparations. This work presents a new technique that utilizes radio frequency (RF) for rapid lipid quantification, without the need for sample preparation. Tests showed that a shift in the resonance frequency of a RF open-ended coaxial resonator and a gradual increase in its resonance magnitude may occur as the lipids content of microalgae cells increases. These response parameters can be then calibrated against actual cellular lipid contents and used for rapid determination of the cellular lipids. The average duration of lipid quantification using the proposed technique was of about 1 minute, which is significantly less than all other conventional techniques, and was achieved without the need for any time consuming treatment steps.

  4. RF Chain Final Technical Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    UNCLASSIFIED ~SECR1 AFWAL-TR-82-1160 RF CHAIN FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT (U) NORTHROP CORPORATION DEFENSE SYSTEMS DIVISION 600 HICKS ROAD * ROLLING MEADOWS...ILLINOIS 60008 JANUARY 1983 TECHNICAL REPORT AFWAL-TR-82-1160 Final Report for Period October 1979 - October 1982 Distribution Limited to U. S. Government...This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. RICHARD A. HIEBER, Elec. Engr. fiNNETH W. HEL. A chnical Mgr Deception

  5. Calculation of cyclotron rf systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Genderen, W.; Van Der Heide, J. A.; Bräutigam, W.

    1987-08-01

    An approximate calculation of the characteristic properties of resonators for cyclotron rf systems is described. Formulas for the characteristic impedence of line segments are evaluated and an approximation for a dee-dummy dee system is given. A computer program has been written which also takes into account the capacity due to line discontinuities. The computed resonance frequency for cyclotrons in Eindhoven and Jülich agrees within 5% with experimental data. The power consumption is also computed and analyzed.

  6. Breakdown phenomena in rf windows

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Y.

    1995-07-05

    The multipactor and flashover phenomena of alumina rf windows used in high-power klystrons have been investigated. Multipactoring due to the high yield of secondary electron emission takes place during rf operation. A spectrum analysis of the luminescence due to multipactoring shows that multipactor electron bombardment causes an F-center of alumina, thus leading to surface melting. From the results of a high-power examination of rf windows with several kinds of alumina ceramics, it was found that an alumina material with a crystallized grain-boundary and without any voids between the boundaries, thus having a low loss-tangent value, is not liable to F-centers, even under multipactoring. Flashovers in a tree-like pattern of alumina luminescence occasionally take place on a TiN-coated surface. From the results of surface-charging measurements and high-power examinations of annealed alumina disks, the flashover phenomenon is considered to be an avalanche of electrons which have been trapped in mechanically introduced defects. The effectivenesses of multipactor-suppressing coatings and of a field-reduced window structure were also examined. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  7. Low jitter RF distribution system

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, Russell; Doolittle, Lawrence; Huang, Gang

    2012-09-18

    A timing signal distribution system includes an optical frequency stabilized laser signal amplitude modulated at an rf frequency. A transmitter box transmits a first portion of the laser signal and receive a modified optical signal, and outputs a second portion of the laser signal and a portion of the modified optical signal. A first optical fiber carries the first laser signal portion and the modified optical signal, and a second optical fiber carries the second portion of the laser signal and the returned modified optical signal. A receiver box receives the first laser signal portion, shifts the frequency of the first laser signal portion outputs the modified optical signal, and outputs an electrical signal on the basis of the laser signal. A detector at the end of the second optical fiber outputs a signal based on the modified optical signal. An optical delay sensing circuit outputs a data signal based on the detected modified optical signal. An rf phase detect and correct signal circuit outputs a signal corresponding to a phase stabilized rf signal based on the data signal and the frequency received from the receiver box.

  8. Rf System for the NLCTA

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.W.; Adolphsen, C.; Eichner, J.; Fuller, R.W.; Gold, S.L.; Hanna, S.M.; Hoag, H.A.; Holmes, S.G.; Koontz, R.F.; Lavine, Theodore L.; Loewen, R.J.; Miller, R.H.; Nantista, C.D.; Pope, R.; Rifkin, J.; Ruth, R.D.; Tantawi, S.G.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wilson, Z.; Yeremian, A.; /SLAC

    2011-08-26

    This paper describes an X-Band RF system for the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator. The RF system consists of a 90 MeV injector and a 540 MeV linac. The main components of the injector are two low-Q single-cavity prebunchers and two 0.9-m-long detuned accelerator sections. The linac system consists of six 1.8-m-long detuned and damped detuned accelerator sections powered in pairs. The rf power generation, compression, delivery, distribution and measurement systems consist of klystrons, SLEDII energy compression systems, rectangular waveguides, magic-T's, and directional couplers. The phase and amplitude for each prebuncher is adjusted via a magic-T type phase shifter/attenuator. Correct phasing between the two 0.9 m accelerator sections is obtained by properly aligning the sections and adjusting two squeeze type phase shifters. Bunch phase and bunch length can be monitored with special microwave cavities and measurement systems. The design, fabrication, microwave measurement, calibration, and operation of the sub-systems and their components are briefly presented.

  9. Heat flow survey in the vicinity of the branches of the megasplay fault in the Nankai accretionary prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamano, Makoto; Kawada, Yoshifumi; Hamamoto, Hideki

    2014-12-01

    Heat flow measurements were conducted at four sites in the Nankai accretionary prism southeast of the Kii Peninsula, around the area where the megasplay fault reaches the surface, in conjunction with long-term monitoring of bottom water temperature at nearby stations. Analysis of the obtained data showed that variations in bottom water temperature seriously affect surface heat flow measurements in the areas with water depths of less than about 2,800 m. This effect can reach up to 20% to 30% and may have significantly contributed to a large scatter in the heat flow values previously measured in the study area. The temperature records were also used to determine heat flows from sediment temperature profiles disturbed by bottom water temperature variations. Results of measurements at sites deeper than 2,800 m indicate that the regional heat flow, corrected for surface disturbances including the influence of bathymetric relief, is about 65 mW/m2, which is consistent with the value calculated using subduction thermal models. Local high heat flow values were obtained in the vicinity of the tips of the branches of the splay fault, suggesting advective heat transport by upward pore fluid flow along the faults.

  10. Radiofrequency heating pathways for gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, C. B.; McCoy, R. S.; Ackerson, B. J.; Collins, G. J.; Ackerson, C. J.

    2014-07-01

    This feature article reviews the thermal dissipation of nanoscopic gold under radiofrequency (RF) irradiation. It also presents previously unpublished data addressing obscure aspects of this phenomenon. While applications in biology motivated initial investigation of RF heating of gold nanoparticles, recent controversy concerning whether thermal effects can be attributed to nanoscopic gold highlight the need to understand the involved mechanism or mechanisms of heating. Both the nature of the particle and the nature of the RF field influence heating. Aspects of nanoparticle chemistry which may affect thermal dissipation include the hydrodynamic diameter of the particle, the oxidation state and related magnetism of the core, and the chemical nature of the ligand shell. Aspects of RF which may affect thermal dissipation include power, frequency and antenna designs that emphasize relative strength of magnetic or electric fields. These nanoparticle and RF properties are analysed in the context of three heating mechanisms proposed to explain gold nanoparticle heating in an RF field. This article also makes a critical analysis of the existing literature in the context of the nanoparticle preparations, RF structure, and suggested mechanisms in previously reported experiments.

  11. Radiofrequency heating pathways for gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Collins, C B; McCoy, R S; Ackerson, B J; Collins, G J; Ackerson, C J

    2014-08-07

    This feature article reviews the thermal dissipation of nanoscopic gold under radiofrequency (RF) irradiation. It also presents previously unpublished data addressing obscure aspects of this phenomenon. While applications in biology motivated initial investigation of RF heating of gold nanoparticles, recent controversy concerning whether thermal effects can be attributed to nanoscopic gold highlight the need to understand the involved mechanism or mechanisms of heating. Both the nature of the particle and the nature of the RF field influence heating. Aspects of nanoparticle chemistry which may affect thermal dissipation include the hydrodynamic diameter of the particle, the oxidation state and related magnetism of the core, and the chemical nature of the ligand shell. Aspects of RF which may affect thermal dissipation include power, frequency and antenna designs that emphasize relative strength of magnetic or electric fields. These nanoparticle and RF properties are analysed in the context of three heating mechanisms proposed to explain gold nanoparticle heating in an RF field. This article also makes a critical analysis of the existing literature in the context of the nanoparticle preparations, RF structure, and suggested mechanisms in previously reported experiments.

  12. Design of RF Systems for the RTD Mission VASIMR

    SciTech Connect

    Baity, F.W.; Barber, G.C.; Carter, M.D.; Chang-Diaz, F.R.; Goulding, R.H.; McCaskill, G.E.; Sparks, D.O.; Squire, J.P.

    1999-04-12

    The first flight test of the variable specific impulse magnetoplasma rocket (VASIMR) is tentatively scheduled for the Radiation and Technology Demonstration (RTD) in 2003. This mission to map the radiation environment out to several earth radii will employ both a Hall thruster and a VASIMR during its six months duration, beginning from low earth orbit. The mission will be powered by a solar array providing 12 kW of direct current electricity at 50 V. The VASIMR utilizes radiofrequency (RF) power both to generate a high-density plasma in a helicon source and to accelerate the plasma ions to high velocity by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). The VASIMR concept is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in collaboration with national laboratories and universities. Prototype plasma sources, RF amplifiers, and antennas are being developed in the experimental facilities of the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory (ASPL).

  13. PEP-II RF Cavity Revisited (LCC-0032)

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, R.

    2004-03-23

    This report describes the results of numerical simulations of the PEP-II RF cavity performed after the completion of the construction phase of the project and comparisons are made to previous calculations and measured results. These analyses were performed to evaluate new calculation techniques for the HOM distribution and RF surface heating that were not available at the time of the original design. These include the use of a high frequency electromagnetic element in ANSYS and the new Omega 3P code to study wall losses, and the development of broadband time domain simulation methods in MAFIA for the HOM loading. The computed HOM spectrum is compared with cavity measurements and observed beam-induced signals. The cavity fabrication method is reviewed, with the benefit of hindsight, and simplifications are discussed.

  14. Energetics of an rf SQUID Coupled to Two Thermal Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Gardas, B.; Łuczka, J.; Ptok, A.; Dajka, J.

    2015-01-01

    We study energetics of a Josephson tunnel junction connecting a superconducting loop pierced by an external magnetic flux (an rf SQUID) and coupled to two independent thermal reservoirs of different temperature. In the framework of the theory of quantum dissipative systems, we analyze energy currents in stationary states. The stationary energy flow can be periodically modulated by the external magnetic flux exemplifying the rf SQUID as a quantum heat interferometer. We also consider the transient regime and identify three distinct regimes: monotonic decay, damped oscillations and pulse-type behavior of energy currents. The first two regimes can be controlled by the external magnetic flux while the last regime is robust against its variation. PMID:26641890

  15. Design of RF systems for the RTD mission VASIMR

    SciTech Connect

    Baity, F. W.; Barber, G. C.; Carter, M. D.; Goulding, R. H.; Sparks, D. O.; Chang-Diaz, F. R.; McCaskill, G. E.; Squire, J. P.

    1999-09-20

    The first flight test of the variable specific impulse magnetoplasma rocket (VASIMR) is tentatively scheduled for the Radiation and Technology Demonstration (RTD) in 2003. This mission to map the radiation environment out to several earth radii will employ both a Hall thruster and a VASIMR during its six months duration, beginning from low earth orbit. The mission will be powered by a solar array providing 12 kW of direct current electricity at 50 V. The VASIMR utilizes radiofrequency (RF) power both to generate a high-density plasma in a helicon source and to accelerate the plasma ions to high velocity by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). The VASIMR concept is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in collaboration with national laboratories and universities. Prototype plasma sources, RF amplifiers, and antennas are being developed in the experimental facilities of the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory (ASPL). (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  16. Energetics of an rf SQUID Coupled to Two Thermal Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Gardas, B.; Łuczka, J.; Ptok, A.; Dajka, J.

    2015-12-07

    We study energetics of a Josephson tunnel junction connecting a superconducting loop pierced by an external magnetic flux (an rf SQUID) and coupled to two independent thermal reservoirs of different temperature. In the framework of the theory of quantum dissipative systems, we analyze energy currents in stationary states. The stationary energy flow can be periodically modulated by the external magnetic flux exemplifying the rf SQUID as a quantum heat interferometer. Additionally, we consider the transient regime and identify three distinct regimes: monotonic decay, damped oscillations and pulse-type behavior of energy currents. Furthermore, the first two regimes can be controlled by the external magnetic flux while the last regime is robust against its variation.

  17. Energetics of an rf SQUID Coupled to Two Thermal Reservoirs

    DOE PAGES

    Gardas, B.; Łuczka, J.; Ptok, A.; ...

    2015-12-07

    We study energetics of a Josephson tunnel junction connecting a superconducting loop pierced by an external magnetic flux (an rf SQUID) and coupled to two independent thermal reservoirs of different temperature. In the framework of the theory of quantum dissipative systems, we analyze energy currents in stationary states. The stationary energy flow can be periodically modulated by the external magnetic flux exemplifying the rf SQUID as a quantum heat interferometer. Additionally, we consider the transient regime and identify three distinct regimes: monotonic decay, damped oscillations and pulse-type behavior of energy currents. Furthermore, the first two regimes can be controlled bymore » the external magnetic flux while the last regime is robust against its variation.« less

  18. Summarized Data of Test Space Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Inspections from the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Study

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on the characteristics of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system(s) in the entire BASE building including types of ventilation, equipment configurations, and operation and maintenance issues

  19. Alternative RF coupling configurations for H{sup −} ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Briefi, S.; Fantz, U.; Gutmann, P.

    2015-04-08

    RF heated sources for negative hydrogen ions both for fusion and accelerators require very high RF powers in order to achieve the required H{sup −} current what poses high demands on the RF generators and the RF circuit. Therefore it is highly desirable to improve the RF efficiency of the sources. This could be achieved by applying different RF coupling concepts than the currently used inductive coupling via a helical antenna, namely Helicon coupling or coupling via a planar ICP antenna enhanced with ferrites. In order to investigate the feasibility of these concepts, two small laboratory experiments have been set up. The PlanICE experiment, where the enhanced inductive coupling is going to be investigated, is currently under assembly. At the CHARLIE experiment systematic measurements concerning Helicon coupling in hydrogen and deuterium are carried out. The investigations show that a prominent feature of Helicon discharges occurs: the so-called low-field peak. This is a local improvement of the coupling efficiency at a magnetic field strength of a few mT which results in an increased electron density and dissociation degree. The full Helicon mode has not been achieved yet due to the limited available RF power and magnetic field strength but it might be sufficient for the application of the coupling concept to ion sources to operate the discharge in the low-field-peak region.

  20. Low Cost RF Amplifier for Community TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ch, Syafaruddin; Sasongko, Sudi Mariyanto Al; Made Budi Suksmadana, I.; Mustiko Okta Muvianto, Cahyo; Ariessaputra, Suthami

    2016-01-01

    he capability of television to deliver audio video makes this media become the most effective method to spread information. This paper presents an experiment of RF amplifier design having low-cost design and providing sufficient RF power particularly for community television. The RF amplifier consists of two stages of amplifier. The first stage amplifier was used to leverage output of TV modulator from 11dBm to enable to drive next stage amplifier. CAD simulation and fabrication were run to reach optimum RF amplifier design circuit. The associated circuit was made by determining stability circle, stability gain, and matching impedance. Hence, the average power of first stage RF amplifier was 24.68dBm achieved. The second stage used RF modules which was ready match to 50 ohm for both input and output port. The experiment results show that the RF amplifier may operate at frequency ranging from 174 to 230MHz. The average output power of the 2nd stage amplifier was 33.38 Watt with the overall gain of 20.54dB. The proposed RF amplifier is a cheap way to have a stable RF amplifier for community TV. The total budget for the designed RF amplifier is only a 1/5 compared to local design of final TV amplifier.

  1. RF Processing Experience with the GTF Prototype RF Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Schmerge, J.F.

    2010-11-24

    The SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) was built to develop a high brightness electron injector for the LCLS and has been operational since 1996. A total of five different metal cathodes (4 Cu and 1 Mg) have been installed on the GTF gun. The rf processing history with the different cathodes will be presented including peak field achieved at the cathode. The LCLS gun is intended to operate at 120 MV/m and fields up to 140 MV/m have been achieved in the GTF gun. After installing a new cathode the number of rf pulses required to reach 120 MV/m is approximately 5-10 million. Total emitted dark current and Fowler Nordheim plots are also shown over the life of the cathode. The GTF photo-injector gun is an S-band standing-wave structure, with two resonant cavities and an intervening thick washer (Figure 1). The flat, back wall of the first cavity is a copper plate that serves as photocathode when illuminated with ultraviolet light from a pulsed, high-power laser. RF power enters the gun through an iris on the outer wall of the second cavity, and is coupled to the first through the axial opening of the washer. The first cavity is often referred to as a half cell, because its full-cell length has been truncated by the cathode plate and the second cavity is called the full cell. The gun is designed to operate in a {pi} mode, with the peak field on axis in each cell approximately equal. The maximum in the half cell occurs at the cathode, and in the full cell near the center of the cavity. The field profile and tuning procedures are discussed in a separate tech note [1].

  2. Application of RF Power to Plasma Flow Drive in Fusion Confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, D.B.; Berry, L.A.; Carter, M.D.; Jaeger, E.F.

    1999-09-13

    Wave induced flows can produce radially sheared velocity profiles that can in turn stabilize drift wave turbulence and improve plasma confinement. A second-order kinetic theory is developed in one-dimensional slab geometry to treat radio frequency (RF)-driven plasma flows. The Vlasov equation is solved to second order in the RF electric field. Moments of the second-order distribution function give time-averaged expressions for the heating rate, the wave kinetic flux, and the RF force exerted on the plasma. On the collisional or transport time scale, the RF force in the poloidal direction is balanced by neoclassical viscosity, and the force in the radial direction is balanced direction by ambipolar electric fields. Comparison is made with previous theories which have relied on incompressible fluid approximations. Very substantial differences are seen in situations involving the Ion Bernstein Wave, a compressional wave.

  3. Genome-wide survey of heat shock factors and heat shock protein 70s and their regulatory network under abiotic stresses in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Wen, Feng; Wu, Xiaozhu; Li, Tongjian; Jia, Mingliang; Liu, Xinshen; Li, Peng; Zhou, Xiaojian; Ji, Xinxin; Yue, Xiaomin

    2017-01-01

    The heat shock protein 70s (Hsp70s) and heat shock factors (Hsfs) play key roles in protecting plant cells or tissues from various abiotic stresses. Brachypodium distachyon, recently developed an excellent model organism for functional genomics research, is related to the major cereal grain species. Although B. distachyon genome has been fully sequenced, the information of Hsf and Hsp70 genes and especially the regulatory network between Hsfs and Hsp70s remains incomplete. Here, a total of 24 BdHsfs and 29 BdHsp70s were identified in the genome by bioinformatics analysis and the regulatory network between Hsfs and Hsp70s were performed in this study. Based on highly conserved domain and motif analysis, BdHsfs were grouped into three classes, and BdHsp70s divided into six groups, respectively. Most of Hsf proteins contain five conserved domains: DBD, HR-A/B region, NLS and NES motifs and AHA domain, while Hsp70 proteins have three conserved domains: N-terminal nucleotide binding domain, peptide binding domain and a variable C-terminal lid region. Expression data revealed a large number of BdHsfs and BdHsp70s were induced by HS challenge, and a previous heat acclimation could induce the acquired thermotolerance to help seedling suffer the severe HS challenge, suggesting that the BdHsfs and BdHsp70s played a role in alleviating the damage by HS. The comparison revealed that, most BdHsfs and BdHsp70s genes responded to multiple abiotic stresses in an overlapping relationship, while some of them were stress specific response genes. Moreover, co-expression relationships and predicted protein-protein interaction network implied that class A and B Hsfs played as activator and repressors, respectively, suggesting that BdHsp70s might be regulated by both the activation and the repression mechanisms under stress condition. Our genomics analysis of BdHsfs and BdHsp70s provides important evolutionary and functional characterization for further investigation of the accurate

  4. Single electron beam rf feedback free electron laser

    DOEpatents

    Brau, C.A.; Stein, W.E.; Rockwood, S.D.

    1981-02-11

    A free electron laser system and electron beam system for a free electron laser which uses rf feedback to enhance efficiency are described. Rf energy is extracted from a single electron beam by decelerating cavities and energy is returned to accelerating cavities using rf returns, such as rf waveguides, rf feedthroughs, resonant feedthroughs, etc. This rf energy is added to rf klystron energy to reduce the required input energy and thereby enhance energy efficiency of the system.

  5. Gyromagnetic RF source for interdisciplinary research.

    PubMed

    Romanchenko, I V; Rostov, V V; Gunin, A V; Konev, V Yu

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate a source of high power nanosecond RF pulses based on gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line. The source is designed to explore the exposure of different biological objects to strong RF fields in an air filled rectangular waveguide loaded onto ethanol RF load. The RF pulse amplitude can be varied by 52 dB, reaching a maximum value of nearly 40 kV/cm and decreasing to tens of V/cm. The RF pulse amplitude is controlled by decreasing the incident pulse amplitude from the high voltage driver. The duration of RF pulses lies in the range from 4 to 25 ns and the frequency from 0.6 to 1.0 GHz.

  6. Gyromagnetic RF source for interdisciplinary research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanchenko, I. V.; Rostov, V. V.; Gunin, A. V.; Konev, V. Yu.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate a source of high power nanosecond RF pulses based on gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line. The source is designed to explore the exposure of different biological objects to strong RF fields in an air filled rectangular waveguide loaded onto ethanol RF load. The RF pulse amplitude can be varied by 52 dB, reaching a maximum value of nearly 40 kV/cm and decreasing to tens of V/cm. The RF pulse amplitude is controlled by decreasing the incident pulse amplitude from the high voltage driver. The duration of RF pulses lies in the range from 4 to 25 ns and the frequency from 0.6 to 1.0 GHz.

  7. Decay Study of {sup 257}Rf

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, J.; Heinz, A.; Winkler, R.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Seweryniak, D.; Peterson, D.; Back, B. B.; Carpenter, M. P.; Greene, J. P.; Jiang, C. L.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Pardo, R. C.; Robinson, A.; Scott, R.; Vondrasek, R.; Wang, X.; Zhu, S.

    2009-03-04

    The isotope {sup 257}Rf was produced in the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 208}Pb({sup 50}Ti, n){sup 257}Rf. Reaction products were separated by the Argonne Fragment Mass Analyzer. Radioactive decay and spontaneous fission of {sup 257}Rf and its decay products were investigated. An isomeric state in {sup 257}Rf, with a half-life of 160{sub -31}{sup 42} {mu}S, was discovered by detecting internal conversion electrons followed by alpha decays. It is interpreted as a three-quasiparticle high-K isomer. A second group of internal-conversion electrons which were succeeded by alpha decay, with a half-life of 4.1{sub -1.3}{sup +2.4} s, was observed. These events might originate from the decay of excited states in {sup 257}Lr, populated by electron-capture decay of {sup 257}Rf, or from another isomer in {sup 257}Rf.

  8. Adjuvant liposomal doxorubicin markedly affects radiofrequency (RF) ablation-induced effects on periablational microvasculature

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Marwan; Goldberg, S. Nahum; Tasawwar, Beenish; Sawant, Rupa R.; Levchenko, Tatyana; Kumar, Gaurav; Torchilin, Vladimir P.; Ahmed, Muneeb

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of radiofrequency (RF) ablation without and with adjuvant IV liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil®) on microvessel morphology and patency and intratumoral drug delivery and retention. Materials and Methods A total of 133 tumors/animals were used. First, single subcutaneous tumors (R3230 in Fischer rats, and 786-0 in nude mice) were randomized to receive RF alone or no treatment, and sacrificed 0-72hr post-treatment. Next, combined RF/liposomal doxorubicin (1mg given 15min post-RF) was studied in R3230 tumors at 0-72hr post-treatment. Histopathologic assessment including immunohistochemical staining for ced caspase-3), heat shock protein 70 and CD34 were performed to assess morphologic vessel appearance, vessel diameter, and microvascular density. Subsequently, animals were randomized to receive RF alone, RF/liposomal doxorubicin, or control tumors, followed by intravenous fluorescent-labeled liposomes (a surrogate marker) given 0-24hr post-RF to permit qualitative assessment. Results RF ablation alone results in enlarged and dysmorphic vessels from 0-4hr, peaking at 12-24hr post-RF, occurring preferentially closer to the electrode. The addition of doxorubicin resulted in earlier vessel contraction (mean vessel area 47539±9544μm² vs. 1854±458μm² for RF alone at 15min, p<0.05). Combined RF/liposomal doxorubicin produced similar fluorescence 1hr post-treatment (40.88±33.53 AU/μm² vs. 22.1±13.19 AU/μm², p=0.14), but significantly less fluorescence at 4hr (24.3±3.65 AU/μm² vs. 2.8 ±3.14 AU/μm², p<0.002) compared to RF alone denoting earlier reduction in microvascular patency. Conclusion RF ablation induces morphologic changes to vessels within the ablation zone lasting up to 12-24hr post-treatment. The addition liposomal doxorubicin causes early vessel contraction and a reduction in periablational microvascular patency. Such changes will likely need to be considered when determining optimal drug administration and imaging

  9. Heating the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Ignat, D.W.

    1989-11-01

    The proposed CIT starts operation in the late 1990's with 20 MW of rf heating power. The tokamak and facility are to be designed to accommodate 50 MW auxiliary heating. The heating methods new being considered are ion cyclotron heating (ICH) and electron cyclotron heating (ECH). Aspects of these systems are described, and the choice of power level and type is discussed. 18 refs.

  10. High voltage RF feedthrough bushing

    DOEpatents

    Grotz, Glenn F.

    1984-01-01

    Described is a multi-element, high voltage radio frequency bushing for trmitting RF energy to an antenna located in a vacuum container. The bushing includes a center conductor of complex geometrical shape, an outer coaxial shield conductor, and a thin-walled hollow truncated cone insulator disposed between central and outer conductors. The shape of the center conductor, which includes a reverse curvature portion formed of a radially inwardly directed shoulder and a convex portion, controls the uniformity of the axial surface gradient on the insulator cone. The outer shield has a first substantially cylindrical portion and a second radially inwardly extending truncated cone portion.

  11. MEMS technologies for rf communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qun; Kim, B. K.

    2001-04-01

    Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) represents an exciting new technology derived from the same fabricating processes used to make integrated circuits. The trends of growing importance of the wireless communications market is toward the system with minimal size, cost and power consumption. For the purpose of MEMS R&D used for wireless communications, a history and present situation of MEMS device development are reviewed in this paper, and an overview of MEMS research topics on RF communication applications and the state of the art technologies are also presented here.

  12. Dust Growth by RF Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Churton, B.; Samarian, A. A.; Coueedel, L.

    2008-09-07

    The effect of the dust particle growth by RF sputtering on glow discharge has been investigated. It has been found that the growth of dust particles modifies the electrical characteristics of the discharge. In particularly, the absolute value of the self-bias voltage decreases during the particle growth due to the electron losses on the dust particles. To find the correlation between the dust growth and the self bias evolution, dust particles have been collected at different times. The dust particle growth rate is found to be linear.

  13. Superconducting DC and RF Properties of Ingot Niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Pashupati Dhakal, Gianluigi Ciovati, Peter Kneisel, Ganapati Rao Myneni

    2011-07-01

    The thermal conductivity, DC magnetization and penetration depth of large-grain niobium hollow cylindrical rods fabricated from ingots, manufactured by CBMM subjected to chemical and heat treatment were measured. The results confirm the influence of chemical and heat-treatment processes on the superconducting properties, with no significant dependence on the impurity concentrations in the original ingots. Furthermore, RF properties, such as the surface resistance and quench field of the niobium rods were measured using a TE{sub 011} cavity. The hollow niobium rod is the center conductor of this cavity, converting it to a coaxial cavity. The quench field is limited by the critical heat flux through the rods' cooling channel.

  14. RF Breakdown Prevention, Part 2 Product Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-07

    RF Breakdown Prevention, Part 2 Product Overview May 7, 2015 Preston T. Partridge Antenna Systems Department Communication Systems Implementation...REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE RF Breakdown Prevention, Part 2 Product Overview 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8802-14-C...5 - 7, 2015 RF Breakdown Prevention, Part 2 James Farrell, Boeing Satellite Systems Dr. Jeffrey P. Tate, Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems Preston

  15. Study of Direct RF Injection on Microcontroller

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-06

    test board and micro -instruction. 2.3 Organization of Report Section 3.0 describes the experiment procedure for direct RF injection. Section 4.0...coaxial cable that connects the RF source to the custom probe. The outer conductor is stripped from the coaxial line and a ground clip (used in...direct current (DC) circuits) is soldered to that stripped outer shield. A DC blocking capacitor is soldered to the RF inner conductor and is used to

  16. Recent work on an RF ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. Q.; Nakanishi, S.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental investigation of an rf ion thruster using an immersed coupler in an argon discharge is reported. The conical coil, used to couple rf power into the discharge, is placed inside the discharge vessel. The discharge was self-sustained by 100-150 MHz rf power at low environmental pressures. The ion extraction was accomplished by conventional accelerated grid optics from an unoptimized 8 cm diameter ion thruster.

  17. OPERATION OF THE RHIC RF SYSTEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    BRENNAN,J.M.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; DELONG,J.; FISCHER,W.; HAYES,T.; SMITH,K.S.; ZALTSMAN,A.

    2003-05-12

    Operational aspects of the RHIC rf system are described. To date three different beam combinations have been collided for physics production: gold-gold, deuteron-gold, and proton-proton(polarized). To facilitate this flexibility the rf systems of the two rings are independent and self-sufficient. Techniques to cope with problems such as, injection/capture, beam loading, bunch shortening, and rf noise have evolved and are explained.

  18. A brief survey of chemical defense, crew rest, and heat stress/physical training issues related to Operation Desert Storm.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, J A

    1992-06-01

    A brief questionnaire was administered to 148 soldiers, over two-thirds of whom were aviators, at the conclusion of Desert Storm. Questions were asked about chemical defense, work/rest schedules, an aspect of pharmacological support, and heat stress/physical training during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Follow-up face-to-face interviews also were conducted with some respondents. Some of the most noteworthy findings concerned (1) training issues and side effects related to pyridostigmine bromide, (2) problems with chemical defense clothing, (3) suggestions for improving crew rest, and (4) facts about the ways in which heat-related difficulties were minimized.

  19. Properties of radio-frequency heated argon confined uranium plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Pure uranium hexafluoride (UF6) was injected into an argon confined, steady state, rf-heated plasma within a fused silica peripheral wall test chamber. Exploratory tests conducted using an 80 kW rf facility and different test chamber flow configurations permitted selection of the configuration demonstrating the best confinement characteristics and minimum uranium compound wall coating. The overall test results demonstrated applicable flow schemes and associated diagnostic techniques were developed for the fluid mechanical confinement and characterization of uranium within an rf plasma discharge when pure UF6 is injected for long test times into an argon-confined, high-temperature, high-pressure, rf-heated plasma.

  20. Properties of radio-frequency heated argon confined uranium plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Pure uranium hexafluoride (UF6) was injected into an argon confined, steady state, rf-heated plasma within a fused silica peripheral wall test chamber. Exploratory tests conducted using an 80 kW rf facility and different test chamber flow configurations permitted selection of the configuration demonstrating the best confinement characteristics and minimum uranium compound wall coating. The overall test results demonstrated applicable flow schemes and associated diagnostic techniques were developed for the fluid mechanical confinement and characterization of uranium within an rf plasma discharge when pure UF6 is injected for long test times into an argon-confined, high-temperature, high-pressure, rf-heated plasma.

  1. RF Control System for the NLC Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Corredoura, Paul L.

    2000-08-23

    The proposed Next Linear Collider contains a large number of linac RF systems with new requirements for wideband klystron modulation and accurate RF vector detection. The system will be capable of automatically phasing each klystron and compensating for beam loading effects. Accelerator structure alignment is determined by detection of the beam induced dipole modes with a receiver similar to that used for measuring the accelerator RF and is incorporated into the RF system topology. This paper describes the proposed system design, signal processing techniques and includes preliminary test results.

  2. RF/optical shared aperture for high availability wideband communication RF/FSO links

    DOEpatents

    Ruggiero, Anthony J; Pao, Hsueh-yuan; Sargis, Paul

    2014-04-29

    An RF/Optical shared aperture is capable of transmitting and receiving optical signals and RF signals simultaneously. This technology enables compact wide bandwidth communications systems with 100% availability in clear air turbulence, rain and fog. The functions of an optical telescope and an RF reflector antenna are combined into a single compact package by installing an RF feed at either of the focal points of a modified Gregorian telescope.

  3. RF/optical shared aperture for high availability wideband communication RF/FSO links

    DOEpatents

    Ruggiero, Anthony J; Pao, Hsueh-yuan; Sargis, Paul

    2015-03-24

    An RF/Optical shared aperture is capable of transmitting and receiving optical signals and RF signals simultaneously. This technology enables compact wide bandwidth communications systems with 100% availability in clear air turbulence, rain and fog. The functions of an optical telescope and an RF reflector antenna are combined into a single compact package by installing an RF feed at either of the focal points of a modified Gregorian telescope.

  4. Airborne RF Measurement System and Analysis of Representative Flight RF Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Smith, Laura J.; Jones, Richard A.; Fleck, Vincent J.; Salud, Maria Theresa; Mielnik, John

    2007-01-01

    Environmental radio frequency (RF) data over a broad band of frequencies were needed to evaluate the airspace around several airports. An RF signal measurement system was designed using a spectrum analyzer connected to an aircraft VHF/UHF navigation antenna installed on a small aircraft. This paper presents an overview of the RF measurement system and provides analysis of a sample of RF signal measurement data over a frequency range of 30 MHz to 1000 MHz.

  5. Inductive Electron Heating Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuszewski, M.

    1996-11-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasmas (ICPs) have been studied for over a century. Recently, ICPs have been rediscovered by the multi-billion dollar semiconductor industry as an important class of high-density, low-pressure plasma sources suitable for the manufacture of next-generation integrated circuits. Present low-pressure ICP development is among the most active areas of plasma research. However, this development remains largely empirical, a prohibitively expensive approach for upcoming 300-mm diameter wafers. Hence, there is an urgent need for basic ICP plasma physics research, including experimental characterization and predictive numerical modeling. Inductive radio frequency (rf) power absorption is fundamental to the ICP electron heating and the resulting plasma transport but remains poorly understood. For example, recent experimental measurements and supporting fluid calculationsfootnote M. Tuszewski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 in press (1996) on a commercial deposition tool prototype show that the induced rf magnetic fields in the source can cause an order of magnitude reduction in plasma conductivity and in electron heating power density. In some cases, the rf fields penetrate through the entire volume of the ICP discharges while existing models that neglect the induced rf magnetic fields predict rf absorption in a thin skin layer near the plasma surface. The rf magnetic fields also cause more subtle changes in the plasma density and in the electron temperature spatial distributions. These data will be presented and the role of basic research in the applied world of semiconductor manufacturing will be discussed. ^*This research was conducted under the auspices of the U.S. DOE, supported by funds provided by the University of California for discretionary research by Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  6. Handbook for Gas Filled RF Cavity Aficionados'

    SciTech Connect

    Tollestrup, A.V.; Chung, Moses; Yonehara, Katsuya; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    The use of hydrogen gas filled RF cavities in muon cooling channels has been proposed by Rolland Johnson. Impressive results have been obtained toward attaining high voltage gradients and rapid training in preliminary tests done at the FNAL MTA facility. However, so far it has not been possible to test them under conditions where they were subject to the transversal of a high intensity particle beam. This note is an attempt to bring together a description of some of the pertinent physical processes that take place in the dilute plasma that is generated in the hydrogen gas by the beam. Two effects dominate. The first is that the free electrons generated can load down the cavity and transfer its energy to heating the gas. The second is a question of what happens to the plasma in the longer term. There is an enormous literature on the subject of the subject of dilute hydrogen plasmas and we can tap into this information in order to understand and predict the behavior of the cavity.

  7. Plasma-Surface Interactions and RF Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Thomas; Smithe, D. N.; Beckwith, K.; Davidson, B. D.; Kruger, S. E.; Pankin, A. Y.; Roark, C. M.

    2015-11-01

    Implementation of recently developed finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling techniques on high-performance computing platforms allows RF power flow, and antenna near- and far-field behavior, to be studied in realistic experimental ion-cyclotron resonance heating scenarios at previously inaccessible levels of resolution. We present results and 3D animations of high-performance (10k-100k core) FDTD simulations of Alcator C-Mod's field-aligned ICRF antenna on the Titan supercomputer, considering (a) the physics of slow wave excitation in the immediate vicinity of the antenna hardware and in the scrape-off layer for various edge densities, and (b) sputtering and impurity production, as driven by self-consistent sheath potentials at antenna surfaces. Related research efforts in low-temperature plasma modeling, including the use of proper orthogonal decomposition methods for PIC/fluid modeling and the development of plasma chemistry tools (e.g. a robust and flexible reaction database, principal path reduction analysis capabilities, and improved visualization options), will also be summarized. Supported by U.S. DoE SBIR Phase I/II Award DE-SC0009501 and ALCC/OLCF.

  8. Virtual Prototyping of RF Weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Keith

    2002-08-01

    We are attempting to perform virtual prototyping of RF systems, from pulse power through to antennas, with the ICEPIC (Improved Concurrent Electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell) HPC software that we have developed over the past several years with funding from AFOSR. This code simulates from first principles (Maxwell's equations and Lorenz's force law) the electrodynamics and charged particle dynamics of the RF-producing part of the system. Such simulations require major computational resources. In the past, we have simulated GigaWatt-class sources that have already been built in the laboratory including the relativistic klystron oscillator (RKO) and the magnetically insulated line oscillator (MILO). Our simulations have uncovered undesirable features of these sources, and have led us to suggest ways to improve them. We are now taking the next step in our evolution towards true virtual prototyping. We have begun to simulate the relativistic magnetron before it is been built at our lab. The details of the device that will eventually be built, including the geometric structure and the externally generated magnetic field distribution, will be based on our simulations. In this paper, we present results from ICEPIC simulations that lead to the improvement of the RKO and MILO as well as predicted characteristics the relativistic magnetron that we plan to build in the fall of 2002.

  9. RF power recovery feedback circulator

    DOEpatents

    Sharamentov, Sergey I [Bolingbrook, IL

    2011-03-29

    A device and method for improving the efficiency of RF systems having a Reflective Load. In the preferred embodiment, Reflected Energy from a superconducting resonator of a particle accelerator is reintroduced to the resonator after the phase of the Reflected Energy is aligned with the phase of the Supply Energy from a RF Energy Source. In one embodiment, a Circulator is used to transfer Reflected Energy from the Reflective Load into a Phase Adjuster which aligns the phase of the Reflected Energy with that of the Supply Energy. The phase-aligned energy is then combined with the Supply Energy, and reintroduced into the Reflective Load. In systems having a constant phase shift, the Phase Adjuster may be designed to shift the phase of the Reflected Energy by a constant amount using a Phase Shifter. In systems having a variety (variable) phase shifts, a Phase Shifter controlled by a phase feedback loop comprising a Phase Detector and a Feedback Controller to account for the various phase shifts is preferable.

  10. JLEIC SRF cavity RF Design

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shaoheng; Guo, Jiquan; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.

    2016-05-01

    The initial design of a low higher order modes (HOM) impedance superconducting RF (SRF) cavity is presented in this paper. The design of this SRF cavity is for the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC). The electron ring of JLEIC will operate with electrons of 3 to 10 GeV energy. The ion ring of JLEIC will operate with protons of up to 100 GeV energy. The bunch lengths in both rings are ~12 mm (RMS). In order to maintain the short bunch length in the ion ring, SRF cavities are adopted to provide large enough gradient. In the first phase of JLEIC, the PEP II RF cavities will be reused in the electron ring to lower the initial cost. The frequency of the SRF cavities is chosen to be the second harmonic of PEP II cavities, 952.6 MHz. In the second phase of JLEIC, the same frequency SRF cavities may replace the normal conducting PEP II cavities to achieve higher luminosity at high energy. At low energies, the synchro-tron radiation damping effect is quite weak, to avoid the coupled bunch instability caused by the intense closely-spaced electron bunches, low HOM impedance of the SRF cavities combined with longitudinal feedback sys-tem will be necessary.

  11. Development and evaluation of germanium telluride phase change material based ohmic switches for RF applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Muzhi; Rais-Zadeh, Mina

    2017-01-01

    We report on the device structure and performance of germanium telluride phase change material based ohmic RF switches. Two main types of the phase change switches using direct and indirect heating methods have been designed, fabricated and measured to analyze and compare the performance of germanium telluride in RF switch applications. Both types of switches are proven to have an insertion loss of less than 0.6 dB and an isolation of more than 13 dB for up to 20 GHz. Good linearity and power handling capability results are also measured. A reconfigurable bandpass filter using the indirectly heated phase change switch has also been developed, and shows promising performance. Efforts have been made to further analyze the issues with switching reliability, and explore possible ways of improving the performance of phase change RF switches.

  12. Error sources affecting thermocouple thermometry in RF electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, D P; Brezovich, I A

    1982-03-01

    Thermocouple thermometry errors in radiofrequency (typically 13, 56 MHZ) electromagnetic fields such as are encountered in hyperthermia are described. RF currents capacitatively or inductively coupled into the thermocouple-detector circuit produce errors which are a combination of interference, i.e., 'pick-up' error, and genuine rf induced temperature changes at the junction of the thermocouple. The former can be eliminated by adequate filtering and shielding; the latter is due to (a) junction current heating in which the generally unequal resistances of the thermocouple wires cause a net current flow from the higher to the lower resistance wire across the junction, (b) heating in the surrounding resistive material (tissue in hyperthermia), and (c) eddy current heating of the thermocouple wires in the oscillating magnetic field. Low frequency theories are used to estimate these errors under given operating conditions and relevant experiments demonstrating these effects and precautions necessary to minimize the errors are described. It is shown that at 13.56 MHz and voltage levels below 100 V rms these errors do not exceed 0.1 degrees C if the precautions are observed and thermocouples with adequate insulation (e.g., Bailey IT-18) are used. Results of this study are being currently used in our clinical work with good success.

  13. Improved nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus having semitoroidal rf coil for use in topical NMR and NMR imaging

    DOEpatents

    Fukushima, E.; Roeder, S.B.W.; Assink, R.A.; Gibson, A.A.V.

    1984-01-01

    An improved nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) apparatus for use in topical magnetic resonance (TMR) spectroscopy and other remote sensing NMR applications includes a semitoroidal radio frequency (rf) coil. The semitoroidal rf coil produces an effective alternating magnetic field at a distance from the poles of the coil, so as to enable NMR measurements to be taken from selected regions inside an object, particularly including human and other living subjects. The semitoroidal rf coil is relatively insensitive to magnetic interference from metallic objects located behind the coil, thereby rendering the coil particularly suited for use in both conventional and superconducting NMR magnets. The semitoroidal NMR coil can be constructed so that it emits little or no excess rf electric field associated with the rf magnetic field, thus avoiding adverse effects due to dielectric heating of the sample or to any other interaction of the electric field with the sample.

  14. Results of a Survey of Residential Home Heating Fuel and Stove Type and Use in the Shiprock Area of the Navajo Nation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, Joseph E.; Garcia, Linda V.

    2008-01-01

    For many Navajo people, coal provides an affordable and convenient means of home heating. However, coal combustion results in the formation and mobilization of materials that are known risk factors for respiratory and other diseases. The level of respiratory morbidity among the Navajo people is higher than can be explained by usual epidemiological risk factors. The Shiprock area of the Navajo Nation is somewhat unique in that atmospheric thermal inversions trap air pollution low to the ground, especially in winter. There are two large mine mouth coal-fired power plants located in the vicinity, with a third plant in the planning stages. Both of the existing power plants are exempt from regulation under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act due to their age. The purpose of this survey was to assess the fuel and stove type and use, and document other household characteristics that might be related to the exposure of potentially toxic coal combustion products. A total of 137 surveys was conducted in English and Navajo to ascertain and document fuel usage and the type, size and conditions of heating stoves used in both traditional and modern homes. Results have been presented to the community at the Shiprock Chapter in the Navajo language. To increase public awareness, ways to properly use and store coal and to improve stove function and ventilation were also shared.

  15. Surveying Local Health Departments and County Emergency Management Offices on Cooling Centers as a Heat Adaptation Resource in New York State.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Seema G; Lin, Shao; Sheridan, Scott C; Lu, Yi; Graber, Nathan; Primeau, Michael; Rafferty, Claudine Jones; Hwang, Syni-An

    2017-02-01

    Local agencies in New York State (NYS) set up cooling centers to provide relief from summer-time heat especially for people with limited access to air-conditioning. We aimed to determine cooling center locations in NYS, and explore county agencies' involvement in organizing and promoting utilization of cooling centers. We conducted a survey among county health and emergency preparedness offices in NYS (excluding NYC) and explored official county websites. We identified 377 cooling centers, mostly in metropolitan areas of NYS. Although 47 % of counties listed locations online, only 29 % reported locations via survey. Radio (90 %) and internet (84 %) were popular for information dissemination. Air-conditioning was available at all indoor cooling center facilities. Cooling centers in 13 % of the counties were accessible by either public transportation or shuttles arranged by the facility. About 38 % counties do not consider cooling centers important in their region or promote informal cooling centers. More than a third of New York counties had neither cooling centers nor plans to establish a cooling center as extreme heat was not perceived as a threat in their region.

  16. Obtaining DC and AC isothermal electrical characteristics for RF MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, A. K.; Fregonese, S.; Scheer, P.; Celi, D.; Juge, A.; Zimmer, T.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a new and simple approach to obtain isothermal electrical characteristics of metal oxide field effect transistor (MOSFET) from conventional non-isothermal measurements. DC and continuous wave (CW) S-parameter measurements are performed at different chuck temperatures (Tchuck). Knowing the thermal resistance (RTH) of the device the variation of DC and AC characteristic due to self-heating can be de-embedded and all the isothermal DC data and AC data above isothermal frequency can be determined. The method is validated by comparing the results with pulsed DC and pulsed RF measurements and found to be in good agreements.

  17. RF Conditioning of the Photo-Cathode RF Gun at the Advanced Photon Source - NWA RF Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T. L.; DiMonte, N.; Nassiri, A.; Sun, Y.; Zholents, A.

    2015-01-01

    A new S-band Photo-cathode (PC) gun was recently installed and RF conditioned at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) Injector Test-stand (ITS) at Argonne National Lab (ANL). The APS PC gun is a LCLS type gun fabricated at SLAC [1]. The PC gun was delivered to the APS in October 2013 and installed in the APS ITS in December 2013. At ANL, we developed a new method of fast detection and mitigation of the guns internal arcs during the RF conditioning process to protect the gun from arc damage and to RF condition more efficiently. Here, we report the results of RF measurements for the PC gun and an Auto-Restart method for high power RF conditioning.

  18. Iterative Methods to Solve Linear RF Fields in Hot Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Joseph; Svidzinski, Vladimir; Evstatiev, Evstati; Galkin, Sergei; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2014-10-01

    Most magnetic plasma confinement devices use radio frequency (RF) waves for current drive and/or heating. Numerical modeling of RF fields is an important part of performance analysis of such devices and a predictive tool aiding design and development of future devices. Prior attempts at this modeling have mostly used direct solvers to solve the formulated linear equations. Full wave modeling of RF fields in hot plasma with 3D nonuniformities is mostly prohibited, with memory demands of a direct solver placing a significant limitation on spatial resolution. Iterative methods can significantly increase spatial resolution. We explore the feasibility of using iterative methods in 3D full wave modeling. The linear wave equation is formulated using two approaches: for cold plasmas the local cold plasma dielectric tensor is used (resolving resonances by particle collisions), while for hot plasmas the conductivity kernel (which includes a nonlocal dielectric response) is calculated by integrating along test particle orbits. The wave equation is discretized using a finite difference approach. The initial guess is important in iterative methods, and we examine different initial guesses including the solution to the cold plasma wave equation. Work is supported by the U.S. DOE SBIR program.

  19. Absolute Temperature Monitoring Using RF Radiometry in the MRI Scanner

    PubMed Central

    El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Sotiriadis, Paul P.; Bottomley, Paul A.; Atalar, Ergin

    2007-01-01

    Temperature detection using microwave radiometry has proven value for noninvasively measuring the absolute temperature of tissues inside the body. However, current clinical radiometers operate in the gigahertz range, which limits their depth of penetration. We have designed and built a noninvasive radiometer which operates at radio frequencies (64 MHz) with ∼100-kHz bandwidth, using an external RF loop coil as a thermal detector. The core of the radiometer is an accurate impedance measurement and automatic matching circuit of 0.05 Ω accuracy to compensate for any load variations. The radiometer permits temperature measurements with accuracy of ±0.1°K, over a tested physiological range of 28° C–40° C in saline phantoms whose electric properties match those of tissue. Because 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners also operate at 64 MHz, we demonstrate the feasibility of integrating our radiometer with an MRI scanner to monitor RF power deposition and temperature dosimetry, obtaining coarse, spatially resolved, absolute thermal maps in the physiological range. We conclude that RF radiometry offers promise as a direct, noninvasive method of monitoring tissue heating during MRI studies and thereby providing an independent means of verifying patient-safe operation. Other potential applications include titration of hyper- and hypo-therapies. PMID:18026562

  20. Numerical design of RF ablation applicator for hepatic cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhmadi, Aditya; Basari

    2017-02-01

    Currently, cancer has become one of health problems that is difficult to be overcomed. This disease is not only difficult to be cured, but also to be detected and may cause death. For this reason, RF ablation treatment method is proposed to cure cancer. RF ablation therapy is a method in which an applicator is inserted into the body to kill cancer cells by heating the cells. The cancer cells are exposed to the temperature more than 60°C in short duration (few second to few minutes) so thus cell destruction occurs locally. For the sake of the successful treatment, a minimally invasive method is selected in order for perfect local temperature distribution in cancer cells can be achieved. In this paper, a coax-fed dipole-type applicator with interstitial irradiation technique is proposed aimed at RF ablation into hepatic cells. Numerical simulation is performed to obtain a suitable geometric dimension at operating frequency around 2.45 GHz, in order to localize the ablation area. The proposed applicator is inserted into a simple phantom representing an adult human body model in which normal and cancerous liver cells. The simulated results show that the proposed applicator is able to operate at center frequency of 2.355 GHz with blood droplet-type ablation zone and the temperature around the cancer cell by 60°C can be achieved.

  1. FinFET and UTBB for RF SOI communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskin, Jean-Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Performance of RF integrated circuit (IC) is directly linked to the analog and high frequency characteristics of the transistors, the quality of the back-end of line process as well as the electromagnetic properties of the substrate. Thanks to the introduction of the trap-rich high-resistivity Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) substrate on the market, the ICs requirements in term of linearity are fulfilled. Today partially depleted SOI MOSFET is the mainstream technology for RF SOI systems. Future generations of mobile communication systems will require transistors with better high frequency performance at lower power consumption. The advanced MOS transistors in competition are FinFET and Ultra Thin Body and Buried oxide (UTBB) SOI MOSFETs. Both devices have been intensively studied these last years. Most of the reported data concern their digital performance. In this paper, their analog/RF behavior is described and compared. Both show similar characteristics in terms of transconductance, Early voltage, voltage gain, self-heating issue but UTBB outperforms FinFET in terms of cutoff frequencies thanks to their relatively lower fringing parasitic capacitances.

  2. Parameter survey on heating conditions for glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste fabrication from type-A zeolite containing simulating FPs

    SciTech Connect

    Fujihata, Kenji; Uozumi, Koichi; Tsukada, Takeshi

    2013-07-01

    In the pyrometallurgical reprocessing for metal fuel cycle, fission products (FPs) in the spent salt is converted into a glass-bonded sodalite by means of Pressure-less Consolidation (PC). Although a standard condition of the PC method was reported, the reason for choosing this condition is not clear particularly for the temperature condition. In the present study, a parameter survey on the heating condition was performed by fabricating the glass-bonded sodalite containing simulating FPs under various conditions. The maximum temperature, the heating duration, the glass ratio in the initial material, and the weight load for pressing the material were chosen as the variable parameters. The mass balance of each element and the quality of the product were evaluated. It was exhibited that both the volatilized content and the free salt in the product were reduced by lowering the maximum temperature. The apparent density of the product was enhanced by both increasing the heating duration and increasing the weight load. Accordingly, lowering the maximum temperature while increasing the weight load was chosen to modify the fabricating condition. As a result of the modified condition, both the volatilized and the free salt ratios were reduced without significant change in the apparent density of the product. (authors)

  3. RF packaging for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drevon, C.; Monfraix, P.; Paillard, M.; Schaffauser, C.; Vendier, O.

    2002-12-01

    Alcatel Space has been working in the field of RF hybrids for a long time. This paper presents the evolution of microwave packaging, up to 40 GHz, towards more and more miniaturisation. RF packaging presents challenging trade-offs between electrical performances and manufacturability, the higher the frequency; the more these two parameters are intertwined. An important step in the field of miniaturisation was the use, beginning of 90's, of MMICs based on GaAs - Gallium Arsenide - and micropackages, following by the introduction of mixed LF/MMwave MCM. Now a good choice could be made between those MCMs and advanced micropackages. The next evolution is the use of flip-chip interconnection to minimise the length of RF connections. In term of bonding reliability, the results give values over more than five times the limits from the standards, even after 500 thermal cycles. The association of power flip-chip which high thermal conductive substrates like Aluminum Nitride - could give at least 40% reduction in the Rth for an amplifier with MMIC mounted flip-chip with emitter bumps. The glob-top technology is not yet used for higher frequencies (i.e. some or some tens of GHz). However, the results presented in this paper show that glob-top are compatible with GaAs MMICs working up to 12 GHz. With some specific design rules, the right encapsulant and the associated processes, there are little degradations of the electrical performances of a Low Level Amplifier working at 10.7 - 12.7 GHz. This has been also checked after thermal cycles.Another emergent technology with MEMS - MicroElectroMechanical Systems - could be used soon for space application, especially for very small switches with low losses. This will be made only if they could be encapsulated with an adapted packaging and if the reliability is full demonstrated following space criteria. Now, those different technologies could be associated with other miniaturization new concepts adapted to the microwave needs, such

  4. 47 CFR 95.1221 - RF exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RF exposure. 95.1221 Section 95.1221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1221 RF exposure. MedRadio...

  5. 47 CFR 95.1221 - RF exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false RF exposure. 95.1221 Section 95.1221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1221 RF exposure. A MedRadio...

  6. 47 CFR 90.1335 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RF safety. 90.1335 Section 90.1335 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1335 RF...

  7. 47 CFR 27.52 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false RF safety. 27.52 Section 27.52 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.52 RF safety. Licensees and manufacturers are subject to...

  8. 47 CFR 90.1335 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false RF safety. 90.1335 Section 90.1335 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1335 RF...

  9. 47 CFR 90.1217 - RF Hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RF Hazards. 90.1217 Section 90.1217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... § 90.1217 RF Hazards. Licensees and manufacturers are subject to the radiofrequency radiation...

  10. 47 CFR 90.1335 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RF safety. 90.1335 Section 90.1335 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1335 RF...

  11. 47 CFR 101.1525 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 101.1525 Section 101.1525 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Service and Technical Rules for the 70/80/90 GHz Bands § 101.1525 RF safety. Licensees in the...

  12. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1125 RF safety. Portable...

  13. 47 CFR 24.52 - RF hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false RF hazards. 24.52 Section 24.52 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.52 RF hazards. Licensees and manufacturers are subject to...

  14. 47 CFR 24.52 - RF hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RF hazards. 24.52 Section 24.52 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.52 RF hazards. Licensees and manufacturers are subject to...

  15. 47 CFR 90.1217 - RF Hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RF Hazards. 90.1217 Section 90.1217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... § 90.1217 RF Hazards. Licensees and manufacturers are subject to the radiofrequency radiation...

  16. 47 CFR 101.1525 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false RF safety. 101.1525 Section 101.1525 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Service and Technical Rules for the 70/80/90 GHz Bands § 101.1525 RF safety. Licensees in the...

  17. 47 CFR 95.1221 - RF exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF exposure. 95.1221 Section 95.1221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1221 RF exposure. MedRadio...

  18. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1125 RF safety. Portable...

  19. 47 CFR 90.1217 - RF Hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false RF Hazards. 90.1217 Section 90.1217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... § 90.1217 RF Hazards. Licensees and manufacturers are subject to the radiofrequency radiation...

  20. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1125 RF safety. Portable...

  1. 47 CFR 101.1525 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RF safety. 101.1525 Section 101.1525 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Service and Technical Rules for the 70/80/90 GHz Bands § 101.1525 RF safety. Licensees in the...

  2. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1125 RF safety. Portable...

  3. 47 CFR 95.1221 - RF exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false RF exposure. 95.1221 Section 95.1221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1221 RF exposure. A MedRadio...

  4. 47 CFR 95.1221 - RF exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RF exposure. 95.1221 Section 95.1221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1221 RF exposure. MedRadio...

  5. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1125 RF safety. Portable...

  6. 47 CFR 101.1525 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RF safety. 101.1525 Section 101.1525 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Service and Technical Rules for the 70/80/90 GHz Bands § 101.1525 RF safety. Licensees in the...

  7. 47 CFR 24.52 - RF hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RF hazards. 24.52 Section 24.52 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.52 RF hazards. Licensees and manufacturers are subject to...

  8. 47 CFR 24.52 - RF hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false RF hazards. 24.52 Section 24.52 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.52 RF hazards. Licensees and manufacturers are subject to...

  9. 47 CFR 90.1217 - RF Hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false RF Hazards. 90.1217 Section 90.1217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... § 90.1217 RF Hazards. Licensees and manufacturers are subject to the radiofrequency radiation...

  10. 47 CFR 101.1525 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false RF safety. 101.1525 Section 101.1525 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Service and Technical Rules for the 70/80/90 GHz Bands § 101.1525 RF safety. Licensees in the...

  11. 47 CFR 90.1335 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 90.1335 Section 90.1335 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1335 RF...

  12. 47 CFR 27.52 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false RF safety. 27.52 Section 27.52 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.52 RF safety. Licensees and manufacturers are subject to...

  13. 47 CFR 27.52 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RF safety. 27.52 Section 27.52 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.52 RF safety. Licensees and manufacturers are subject to...

  14. 47 CFR 90.1335 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false RF safety. 90.1335 Section 90.1335 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1335 RF...

  15. 47 CFR 27.52 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RF safety. 27.52 Section 27.52 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.52 RF safety. Licensees and manufacturers are subject to...

  16. RF switch positioner for communications satellite network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, A. G.; Griesser, H. P.; Grant, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The RF switch positioner is a simple, lightweight, redundant positioning mechanism used to reconfigure the antenna beam on the INTELSAT VI satellite. It simultaneously rotates approximately 100 squareax waveguide switches through a full 360 deg. The RF switch positioner has been space qualified and has performed to expectations in conjunction with the feed networks in range testing.

  17. RF SYSTEM FOR THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING.

    SciTech Connect

    BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRENNAN, J.M.; BRODOWSKI, J.; DELONG, J.; METH, M.; SMITH, K.; ZALTSMAN, A.

    2001-06-18

    During accumulation the RF beam current in the spallation neutron source ring rises from 0 to 50 amperes. A clean, 250 nanosecond gap is needed for the extraction kicker risetime. Large momentum spread and small peak current are needed to prevent instabilities and stopband related losses. A robust RF system meeting these requirements has been designed.

  18. Airborne RF Measurement System (ARMS) and Analysis of Representative Flight RF Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Smith, Laura J.; Jones, Richard A.; Fleck, Vincent J.; Salud, Maria Theresa; Mielnik, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental radio frequency (RF) data over a broad band of frequencies (30 MHz to 1000 MHz) were obtained to evaluate the electromagnetic environment in airspace around several airports. An RF signal measurement system was designed utilizing a spectrum analyzer connected to the NASA Lancair Columbia 300 aircraft's VHF/UHF navigation antenna. This paper presents an overview of the RF measurement system and provides analysis of sample RF signal measurement data. This aircraft installation package and measurement system can be quickly returned to service if needed by future projects requiring measurement of an RF signal environment or exploration of suspected interference situations.

  19. R&D ERL: Low level RF

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.

    2010-01-15

    A superconducting RF (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is currently under development at the Collider-Accelerator Department (C-AD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The major components from an RF perspective are (a) a 5-cell SRF ERL cavity, (b) an SRF photocathode electron gun, and (c) a drive laser for the photocathode gun. Each of these RF subsystems has its own set of RF performance requirements, as well as common requirements for ensuring correct synchronism between them. A low level RF (LLRF) control system is currently under development, which seeks to leverage both technology and experience gained from the recently commissioned RHIC LLRF system upgrade. This note will review the LLRF system requirements and describe the system to be installed at the ERL.

  20. Magnetoplasmonic RF mixing and nonlinear frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firby, C. J.; Elezzabi, A. Y.

    2016-07-01

    We present the design of a magnetoplasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator facilitating radio-frequency (RF) mixing and nonlinear frequency generation. This is achieved by forming the MZI arms from long-range dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides containing bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Bi:YIG). The magnetization of the Bi:YIG can be driven in the nonlinear regime by RF magnetic fields produced around adjacent transmission lines. Correspondingly, the nonlinear temporal dynamics of the transverse magnetization component are mapped onto the nonreciprocal phase shift in the MZI arms, and onto the output optical intensity signal. We show that this tunable mechanism can generate harmonics, frequency splitting, and frequency down-conversion with a single RF excitation, as well as RF mixing when driven by two RF signals. This magnetoplasmonic component can reduce the number of electrical sources required to generate distinct optical modulation frequencies and is anticipated to satisfy important applications in integrated optics.

  1. RF power generation for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Fowkes, W.R.; Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Caryotakis, G.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Farkas, Z.D.; Feinstein, J.; Ko, K.; Koontz, R.F.; Kroll, N.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, T.G.; Miller, R.H.; Pearson, C.; Spalek, G.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wilson, P.B.

    1990-06-01

    The next linear collider will require 200 MW of rf power per meter of linac structure at relatively high frequency to produce an accelerating gradient of about 100 MV/m. The higher frequencies result in a higher breakdown threshold in the accelerating structure hence permit higher accelerating gradients per meter of linac. The lower frequencies have the advantage that high peak power rf sources can be realized. 11.42 GHz appears to be a good compromise and the effort at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is being concentrated on rf sources operating at this frequency. The filling time of the accelerating structure for each rf feed is expected to be about 80 ns. Under serious consideration at SLAC is a conventional klystron followed by a multistage rf pulse compression system, and the Crossed-Field Amplifier. These are discussed in this paper.

  2. Magnetoplasmonic RF mixing and nonlinear frequency generation

    SciTech Connect

    Firby, C. J. Elezzabi, A. Y.

    2016-07-04

    We present the design of a magnetoplasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator facilitating radio-frequency (RF) mixing and nonlinear frequency generation. This is achieved by forming the MZI arms from long-range dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides containing bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Bi:YIG). The magnetization of the Bi:YIG can be driven in the nonlinear regime by RF magnetic fields produced around adjacent transmission lines. Correspondingly, the nonlinear temporal dynamics of the transverse magnetization component are mapped onto the nonreciprocal phase shift in the MZI arms, and onto the output optical intensity signal. We show that this tunable mechanism can generate harmonics, frequency splitting, and frequency down-conversion with a single RF excitation, as well as RF mixing when driven by two RF signals. This magnetoplasmonic component can reduce the number of electrical sources required to generate distinct optical modulation frequencies and is anticipated to satisfy important applications in integrated optics.

  3. Design of rf conditioner cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Govil, R.; Rimmer, R.A.; Sessler, A.; Kirk, H.G.

    1992-06-01

    Theoretical studies are made of radio frequency structures which can be used to condition electron beams so as to greatly reduce the stringent emittance requirements for successful lasing in a free-electron laser. The basic strategy of conditioning calls for modulating an electron beam in the transverse dimension, by a periodic focusing channel, while it traverses a series of rf cavities, each operating in a TM{sub 210} mode. In this paper, we analyze the cavities both analytically and numerically (using MAFIA simulations). We find that when cylindrical symmetry is broken the coupling impedance can be greatly enhanced. We present results showing various performance characteristics as a function of cavity parameters, as well as possible designs for conditioning cavities.

  4. RF Cavity Characterization with VORPAL

    SciTech Connect

    C. Nieter, C. Roark, P. Stoltz, C.D. Zhou, F. Marhauser

    2011-03-01

    When designing a radio frequency (RF) accelerating cavity structure various figures of merit are considered before coming to a final cavity design. These figures of merit include specific field and geometry based quantities such as the ratio of the shunt impedance to the quality factor (R/Q) or the normalized peak fields in the cavity. Other important measures of cavity performance include the peak surface fields as well as possible multipacting resonances in the cavity. High fidelity simulations of these structures can provide a good estimate of these important quantities before any cavity prototypes are built. We will present VORPAL simulations of a simple pillbox structure where these quantities can be calculated analytically and compare them to the results from the VORPAL simulations. We will then use VORPAL to calculate these figures of merit and potential multipacting resonances for two cavity designs under development at Jefferson National Lab for Project X.

  5. RF Jitter Modulation Alignment Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, L. F.; Fulda, P.; Diaz-Ortiz, M.; Perez Sanchez, G.; Ciani, G.; Voss, D.; Mueller, G.; Tanner, D. B.

    2017-01-01

    We will present the numerical and experimental results of a new alignment sensing scheme which can reduce the complexity of alignment sensing systems currently used, while maintaining the same shot noise limited sensitivity. This scheme relies on the ability of electro-optic beam deflectors to create angular modulation sidebands in radio frequency, and needs only a single-element photodiode and IQ demodulation to generate error signals for tilt and translation degrees of freedom in one dimension. It distances itself from current techniques by eliminating the need for beam centering servo systems, quadrant photodetectors and Gouy phase telescopes. RF Jitter alignment sensing can be used to reduce the complexity in the alignment systems of many laser optical experiments, including LIGO and the ALPS experiment.

  6. RF FEL for power beaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Robert

    The laser device components associated with operating a radio frequency-free electron laser (RF-FEL) for beaming power from Earth were designed and tested. Analysis of the power beaming system requirements reveals that the FEL, identified by NASA as the laser of choice, is the major subsystem requiring demonstration before proceeding further in proving the efficacy of laser power beaming. Rocketdyne has identified a series of low cost, low risk demonstrations which proceed sequentially, as follows: (1) a 1 kW proof-of-principle demonstration; (2) a 150 kW demonstration of beaming power to a satellite; and (3) a MW class demonstration of Earth to lunar surface power transmission. This sequence of events can be completed in 5.5 years at a cost of $188M, with key milestones each year.

  7. The development of data acquisition and processing application system for RF ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Wang, Xiaoying; Hu, Chundong; Jiang, Caichao; Xie, Yahong; Zhao, Yuanzhe

    2017-07-01

    As the key ion source component of nuclear fusion auxiliary heating devices, the radio frequency (RF) ion source is developed and applied gradually to offer a source plasma with the advantages of ease of control and high reliability. In addition, it easily achieves long-pulse steady-state operation. During the process of the development and testing of the RF ion source, a lot of original experimental data will be generated. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a stable and reliable computer data acquisition and processing application system for realizing the functions of data acquisition, storage, access, and real-time monitoring. In this paper, the development of a data acquisition and processing application system for the RF ion source is presented. The hardware platform is based on the PXI system and the software is programmed on the LabVIEW development environment. The key technologies that are used for the implementation of this software programming mainly include the long-pulse data acquisition technology, multi-threading processing technology, transmission control communication protocol, and the Lempel-Ziv-Oberhumer data compression algorithm. Now, this design has been tested and applied on the RF ion source. The test results show that it can work reliably and steadily. With the help of this design, the stable plasma discharge data of the RF ion source are collected, stored, accessed, and monitored in real-time. It is shown that it has a very practical application significance for the RF experiments.

  8. New developments in RF power and polarization measurements on the ECH System on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cengher, M.; Lohr, J.; Gorelov, Y.; Moeller, C. P.; Ponce, D.; Torrezan, A.

    2016-10-01

    The rf power injected at the tokamak by the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system is measured and calibrated on a shot to shot basis for the six 110 GHz, 1 MW class gyrotrons. A new technique for ECH power measurement at the tokamak using a 4-port rf monitor was tested. Polarization scans for each system show H-plane and E-plane rf waveforms can be combined to provide a reliable calibrated power signal at the closest access point near the tokamak. Previous attempts to calibrate the power at this end were limited by the pickup of only one polarization angle at the last miter bend. Calorimetric measurements in the relevant gyrotron cooling circuits in conjunction with the 4-port RF monitors with orthomode transducers can be used to calibrate the rf power. Other alternative approaches showing proportionality with the input power like the inline power monitor and in-vessel measurements are discussed. Future plans include mode content measurements at the tokamak end of the transmission line using the 4-port RF monitors and mode sensitive directional couplers. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  9. VERSE-Guided Numerical RF Pulse Design: A Fast Method for Peak RF Power Control

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daeho; Grissom, William A.; Lustig, Michael; Kerr, Adam B.; Stang, Pascal P.; Pauly, John M.

    2013-01-01

    In parallel excitation, the computational speed of numerical radiofrequency (RF) pulse design methods is critical when subject dependencies and system nonidealities need to be incorporated on-the-fly. One important concern with optimization-based methods is high peak RF power exceeding hardware or safety limits. Hence, online controllability of the peak RF power is essential. Variable-rate selective excitation pulse reshaping is ideally suited to this problem due to its simplicity and low computational cost. In this work, we first improve the fidelity of variable-rate selective excitation implementation for discrete-time waveforms through waveform oversampling such that variable-rate selective excitation can be robustly applied to numerically designed RF pulses. Then, a variable-rate selective excitation-guided numerical RF pulse design is suggested as an online RF pulse design framework, aiming to simultaneously control peak RF power and compensate for off-resonance. PMID:22135085

  10. Femtosecond precision measurement of laser-rf phase jitter in a photocathode rf gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Libing; Zhao, Lingrong; Lu, Chao; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Shengguang; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Pengfei; Xiang, Dao

    2017-03-01

    We report on the measurement of the laser-rf phase jitter in a photocathode rf gun with femtosecond precision. In this experiment four laser pulses with equal separation are used to produce electron bunch trains; then the laser-rf phase jitter is obtained by measuring the variations of the electron bunch spacing with an rf deflector. Furthermore, we show that when the gun and the deflector are powered by the same rf source, it is possible to obtain the laser-rf phase jitter in the gun through measurement of the beam-rf phase jitter in the deflector. Based on these measurements, we propose an effective time-stamping method that may be applied in MeV ultrafast electron diffraction facilities to enhance the temporal resolution.

  11. LH and ICRH RF electric field measurements using Doppler-free Saturation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, E. H.; Zafar, A.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Isler, R. C.; Bell, G. L.

    2016-10-01

    The physics mechanisms of wave heating and current drive processes in the bulk hot plasma are generally well identified, however, details of the wave-plasma interaction in the cold plasma edge are still not fully understood. To investigate the alluding physics non-perturbative diagnostics are required due to the large energy flux traversing the space associated with the corresponding RF antenna/launcher. A spectroscopic diagnostic, based on Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy, is currently under development at ORNL that will be capable of measuring RF electric fields with high precision (20 V/cm). The RF electric field is determined by systematically fitting a Balmer series spectral line profile obtained via DFSS using a previous validated non-perturbative quantum mechanically model. The spectral line profile is measured using Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy (DFSS). DFSS is a laser-based technique involving two counter-propagating beams, referred to as the pump and probe, which are made to overlap at a single point in space. The frequency of the laser is swept over that associated with the electronic transition of interest and the probe beam absorption intensity is measured. In this presentation an active spectroscopic technique allowing for measurements of the RF electric field driving wave-plasma interactions for lower hybrid (LH) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) systems, based on DFSS, will be discussed. Initial measurements of the electric field in the magnetized capacitively coupled RF sheath obtained on a laboratory test stand will be presented.

  12. RF System High Power Amplifier Software Conversion at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    G. Lahti; H. Dong; T. Seegerger

    2006-10-31

    Jefferson Lab is in the process of converting the RF system from analog RF modules and non-smart high power amplifiers (HPAs) to digital RF modules and smart HPAs. The present analog RF module controls both the RF signal and the non-smart HPA hardware. The new digital RF module will only control the RF signal, so the new HPA must include embedded software. This paper will describe the conversion from a software perspective, including the initial testing, the intermediate mixed system of old and new units, and finally the totally new RF system.

  13. Occupational exposures to radiofrequency fields: results of an Israeli national survey.

    PubMed

    Hareuveny, R; Kavet, R; Shachar, A; Margaliot, M; Kheifets, L

    2015-06-01

    Relatively high exposures to radiofrequency (RF) fields can occur in the broadcast, medical, and communications industries, as well in occupations that use RF emitting equipment (e.g. law enforcement). Information on exposure to workers employed in these industries and occupations is limited. We present results of an Israeli National Survey of occupational RF field levels at frequencies between ~100 kHz and 40 GHz, representing Industrial Heating, Communications, Radar, Research, and Medicine. Almost 4300 measurements from 900 sources across 25 occupations were recorded and categorised as 'routine', 'incidental', or 'unintended'. The occupation-specific geometric means (GMs) of the percentage of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs) for each of the three exposure scenarios are presented together with the geometric standard deviation (GSD). Additionally, we present estimates of occupation-specific annual personal exposures and collective exposures. The vast majority of the GM of routine exposures ranged from a fraction to less than 1% of ACGIH TLVs, except for Walkie-Talkie (GM 94% of ACGIH), Induction Heating (17%), Plastic Welding (11%), Industrial Heating (6%) and Diathermy (6%). The GM of incidental and unintended exposures exceeded the TLV for one and 14 occupations, respectively. In many cases, the within-occupation GSD was very large, and though the medians remained below TLV, variable fractions of these occupations were projected to exceed the TLV. In rank order, Walkie-Talkie, Plastic Welding, and Induction Heating workers had the highest annual cumulative personal exposure. For cumulative collective exposures within an occupation, Walkie-Talkie dominated with 96.3% of the total, reflecting both large population and high personal exposure. A brief exceedance of the TLV does not automatically translate to hazard as RF exposure limits (issued by various bodies, including ACGIH) include a 10

  14. Micro-Fabricated DC Comparison Calorimeter for RF Power Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Neji, Bilel; Xu, Jing; Titus, Albert H.; Meltzer, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Diode detection and bolometric detection have been widely used to measure radio frequency (RF) power. However, flow calorimeters, in particular micro-fabricated flow calorimeters, have been mostly unexplored as power meters. This paper presents the design, micro-fabrication and characterization of a flow calorimeter. This novel device is capable of measuring power from 100 μW to 200 mW. It has a 50-Ohm load that is heated by the RF source, and the heat is transferred to fluid in a microchannel. The temperature change in the fluid is measured by a thermistor that is connected in one leg of a Wheatstone bridge. The output voltage change of the bridge corresponds to the RF power applied to the load. The microfabricated device measures 25.4 mm × 50.8 mm, excluding the power supplies, microcontroller and fluid pump. Experiments demonstrate that the micro-fabricated sensor has a sensitivity up to 22 × 10−3 V/W. The typical resolution of this micro-calorimeter is on the order of 50 μW, and the best resolution is around 10 μW. The effective efficiency is 99.9% from 0–1 GHz and more than 97.5% at frequencies up to 4 GHz. The measured reflection coefficient of the 50-Ohm load and coplanar wave guide is less than −25 dB from 0–2 GHz and less than −16 dB at 2–4 GHz. PMID:25350509

  15. [Gene expression profile of the peripheral CD4(+)T cells in patients with RF(+) and RF(-) rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Lu, Cheng; Xu, Shi-jie; Xiao, Cheng; Yan, Xiao-ping; Zhao, Lin-hua; Wang, Jian-ming; Li, Shao; Lu, Ai-ping

    2008-02-01

    To explore the differences of the gene expression of CD4(+) lymphocytes between the RF(+) and RF(-) patients with rheumatoid arthritis. mRNA of all the CD4(+) lymphocytes samples were extracted and identified. Then they were labeled and hybridized to microarrays. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed there were 55 differential expression genes between the RF(+) and RF(-) patients with rheumatoid arthritis. There are differential expression genes between the RF(+) and RF(-) patients and these genes are related to immunoresponse.

  16. ASRDI oxygen technology survey. Volume 3: Heat transfer and fluid dynamics. Abstracts of selected technical reports and publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, A. F. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Selected information is presented from an assemblage of reports and publications on heat transfer and fluid dynamics with direct applicability to oxygen systems. For each document cited, an abstract has been prepared together with key words and a listing of most important references found in the document. Additionally, an author index, a subject index, and a key word index have been provided to simplify the retrieval of specific information from this work. In each subject area - e.g., boiling heat transfer - the individual citations are listed alphabetically by first author, with review papers dually noted under the appropriate subject category and under review papers. Of the documents reviewed and evaluated for inclusion in this publication, coverage of existing information directly concerned with oxygen was given primary emphasis. However, work not specifically oxygen-designated but considered applicable to oxygen by the reviewer e.g., a two-phase friction factor correlation derived from nitrogen experiments is occasionally given where no actual oxygen data exist, as an aid to the reader. Approximately 130 abstracts are listed.

  17. RF power transfer efficiency of inductively coupled low pressure H2 and D2 discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauner, D.; Briefi, S.; Fantz, U.

    2017-09-01

    The RF power transfer efficiency and the relevant power absorption mechanisms of inductively heated hydrogen and deuterium plasmas are investigated in the low-pressure region between 0.25 and 10 Pa. The discharges are generated in a cylindrical vessel via a helical coil applying a frequency of 1 MHz and delivered RF powers up to 800 W. The power transfer efficiency η is quantified by a subtractive method that relies on the measurement of the delivered RF power and of the RF current through the plasma coil both with and without discharge operation. By means of optical emission spectroscopy and electrical probe measurements, the key plasma parameters are obtained. For both H2 and D2, the relative behavior of the power transfer efficiency is well comparable, which increases with increasing delivered RF power and describes a maximum at pressures between 1 and 3 Pa where more than 90 % of the provided power are absorbed by the plasma. The observed relative dependencies of η on the operational parameters are found to be well explained by an analytical approach that considers the power absorption by the plasma via evaluating the RF plasma conductivity based on the measured plasma parameters. At the parameters present, non-collisional stochastic heating of electrons has to be considered for pressures p≤slant 1 {Pa}, while collisional heating dominates at higher pressure. Molecular dissociation is found to have a significant influence on the power transfer efficiency of light molecular discharges. The direct comparison of H2 and D2 identifies the higher atomic density in deuterium to cause a systematically increased power transfer efficiency due to an increased ionization rate in the present electron temperature region.

  18. Contribution of direct heating, thermal conduction and perfusion during radiofrequency and microwave ablation.

    PubMed

    Schramm, W; Yang, D; Haemmerich, D

    2006-01-01

    Heat based tumor ablation methods such as radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) ablation are increasingly accepted treatment methods for tumors not treatable by traditional surgery. Typically, an interstitial applicator is introduced under imaging guidance into the tumor, and tissue is destroyed by heating to above approximately 50 degrees C, with maximum tissue temperatures over 100 degrees C. Since high thermal gradients occur during the procedure, thermal conduction contributes significantly towards tissue heating. We created finite element method (FEM) computer models of RF and MW applicators, and determined the thermal conduction term, the resistive (for RF) or dielectric (for MW) loss term, and perfusion term. We integrated these terms over the heating period to obtain relative contribution towards tissue temperature rise (in degrees C) as a function of distance from the applicator. We performed simulations without and with perfusion, where perfusion was assumed to stop above 50 degrees C. During the first 6 minutes, direct heating by RF and MW were dominating throughout the tissue. Over the treatment period (12 min for RF, and 6 min for MW), thermal conduction was dominating at distances between than 12 and 19 mm from the RF electrode, while for MW ablation direct heating dominated everywhere. Even though thermal conduction significantly contributes towards tissue heating during ablative therapies, direct heating by RF or MW is dominating throughout most of the tissue volume. Tissue cooling due to perfusion is more significant during RF heating, in part due to the longer treatment times.

  19. High Resolution Convective Heat Transfer Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-30

    ONR Thermal Materials Workshop 2001 1 HIGH RESOLUTION CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER MEASUREMENTS Peter Ireland and Terry Jones R-R UTC in Heat Transfer...temperatures. • Fluid dynamics correct through use of Reynolds number, Mach number and Prandtl number. Mach)Pr,(Re,fNu Dimensionless heat transfer...depends on local h su rf ac e te m p T s gas temperature Tg timestart of test hTc Calibration Test data ONR Thermal Materials Workshop 2001 10 Heat

  20. Fast MRI of RF Heating Via Phase Difference Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Erik M.; Borthakur, Arijitt; Shapiro, Michael J.; Reddy, Ravinder; Leigh, John S.

    2010-01-01

    A method is presented for the rapid acquisition of temperature maps derived from phase difference maps. The temperature-dependent chemical shift coefficients (TDCSCs) of various concentrations of aqueous cobalt and dysprosium-based compounds were measured. The largest TDCSC calculated was for 100 mM DyEDTA, which had a TDCSC of −0.09 PPM/K; 160 mM CoCl2 had a TDCSC of −0.04 PPM/K. These temperature-dependent chemical shifts (TDCSs) result in phase changes in the MR signal with changing temperature. Agarose phantoms were constructed with each paramagnetic metal. A fast gradientecho (FGRE) MR image was acquired to serve as the baseline image. A “test” MRI procedure was then performed on the phantom. Immediately afterwards, a second FGRE MR image was acquired, serving as the probing image. Proper image processing as a phase difference map between the probing image and the baseline image resulted in an image which quantitatively described the temperature increase of the phantom in response to a particular “test” imaging experiment. Applications of this technique in assessing the safety of pulse sequences and MR coils are discussed. PMID:11870836

  1. Progress on Quantitative Modeling of rf Sheaths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ippolito, D. A.; Myra, J. R.; Kohno, H.; Wright, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    A new quantitative approach for computing the rf sheath potential is described, which incorporates plasma dielectric effects and the relative geometry of the magnetic field and the material boundaries. The new approach uses a modified boundary condition ("rf sheath BC") that couples the rf waves and the sheaths at the boundary. It treats the sheath as a thin vacuum region and matches the fields across the plasma-vacuum boundary. When combined with the Child-Langmuir Law (relating the sheath width and sheath potential), the model permits a self-consistent determination of the sheath parameters and the rf electric field at the sheath-plasma boundary. Semi-analytic models using this BC predict a number of general features, including a sheath voltage threshold, a dimensionless parameter characterizing rf sheath effects, and the existence of sheath plasma waves with an associated resonance. Since the sheath BC is nonlinear and dependent on geometry, computing the sheath potential numerically is a challenging computational problem. Numerical results will be presented from a new parallel-processing finite-element rf wave code for the tokamak scrape-off layer (called "rfSOL"). The code has verified the physics predicted by analytic theory in 1D, and extended the solutions into model 2D geometries. The numerical calculations confirm the existence of multiple roots and hysteresis effects, and parameter studies have been carried out. Areas for future work will be discussed.

  2. RF Negative Ion Source Development at IPP Garching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, W.; McNeely, P.; Berger, M.; Christ-Koch, S.; Falter, H. D.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Fröschle, M.; Heinemann, B.; Leyer, S.; Riedl, R.; Speth, E.; Wünderlich, D.

    2007-08-01

    IPP Garching is heavily involved in the development of an ion source for Neutral Beam Heating of the ITER Tokamak. RF driven ion sources have been successfully developed and are in operation on the ASDEX-Upgrade Tokamak for positive ion based NBH by the NB Heating group at IPP Garching. Building on this experience a RF driven H- ion source has been under development at IPP Garching as an alternative to the ITER reference design ion source. The number of test beds devoted to source development for ITER has increased from one (BATMAN) by the addition of two test beds (MANITU, RADI). This paper contains descriptions of the three test beds. Results on diagnostic development using laser photodetachment and cavity ringdown spectroscopy are given for BATMAN. The latest results for long pulse development on MANITU are presented including the to date longest pulse (600 s). As well, details of source modifications necessitated for pulses in excess of 100 s are given. The newest test bed RADI is still being commissioned and only technical details of the test bed are included in this paper. The final topic of the paper is an investigation into the effects of biasing the plasma grid.

  3. System studies of rf current drive for MST

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J. K.; Burke, D. R.; Forest, C. B.; Goetz, J. A.; Hendries, E. R.; Seltzman, A. H.; Thomas, M. A.; Diem, S.; Harvey, R. W.; Kaufman, M. C.

    2011-12-23

    Two rf schemes are being studied on the MST reversed field pinch for their potential in current profile control experiments. MHD modeling has shown that a substantial externally-driven off axis parallel current can improve stability of the dominant core tearing modes. A radially localized axisymmetric population of fast electrons has been observed by SXR emission during LH injection (100kW at 800MHz), and is consistent with CQL3D modeling which predicts a small driven current. Computational work suggests that doubling the input power will statistically improve the LH-induced SXR signal to background ratio, and that about 2MW of injected power (an order of magnitude increase) will drive enough current for stabilization of tearing modes. Additionally, a 1 MW 5.5 GHz electron Bernstein wave (EBW) experiment is under construction, which utilizes a very simple and compact antenna compatible with the demands of the RFP. EBW allows access to electron cyclotron heating and current drive in the overdense plasma. Coupling of the external electromagnetic wave to the EBW has been demonstrated, and initial tests at {approx}100kW power have produced a small, localized xray flux consistent with rf heating and high diffusivity of fast electrons. Computational work is currently underway to answer the very important questions of how much power is required, and what level of electron diffusivity is tolerable, to generate a consequential amount of EBW current.

  4. Steady state plasma operation in RF dominated regimes on EAST

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. J.; Zhao, Y. P.; Gong, X. Z.; Hu, C. D.; Liu, F. K.; Hu, L. Q.; Wan, B. N. Li, J. G.

    2015-12-10

    Significant progress has recently been made on EAST in the 2014 campaign, including the enhanced CW H&CD system over 20MW heating power (LHCD, ICRH and NBI), more than 70 diagnostics, ITER-like W-monoblock on upper divertor, two inner cryo-pumps and RMP coils, enabling EAST to investigate long pulse H mode operation with dominant electron heating and low torque to address the critical issues for ITER. H-mode plasmas were achieved by new H&CD system or 4.6GHz LHCD alone for the first time. Long pulse high performance H mode has been obtained by LHCD alone up to 28s at H{sub 98}∼1.2 or by combing of ICRH and LHCD, no or small ELM was found in RF plasmas, which is essential for steady state operation in the future Tokamak. Plasma operation in low collision regimes were implemented by new 4.6GHz LHCD with core Te∼4.5keV. The non-inductive scenarios with high performance at high bootstrap current fraction have been demonstrated in RF dominated regimes for long pulse operation. Near full non-inductive CD discharges have been achieved. In addition, effective heating and decoupling method under multi-transmitter for ICRF system were developed in this campaign, etc. EAST could be in operation with over 30MW CW heating and current drive power (LHCD ICRH NBI and ECRH), enhanced diagnostic capabilities and full actively-cooled metal wall from 2015. It will therefore allow to access new confinement regimes and to extend these regimes towards to steady state operation.

  5. Steady state plasma operation in RF dominated regimes on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. J.; Zhao, Y. P.; Gong, X. Z.; Hu, C. D.; Liu, F. K.; Hu, L. Q.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Significant progress has recently been made on EAST in the 2014 campaign, including the enhanced CW H&CD system over 20MW heating power (LHCD, ICRH and NBI), more than 70 diagnostics, ITER-like W-monoblock on upper divertor, two inner cryo-pumps and RMP coils, enabling EAST to investigate long pulse H mode operation with dominant electron heating and low torque to address the critical issues for ITER. H-mode plasmas were achieved by new H&CD system or 4.6GHz LHCD alone for the first time. Long pulse high performance H mode has been obtained by LHCD alone up to 28s at H98˜1.2 or by combing of ICRH and LHCD, no or small ELM was found in RF plasmas, which is essential for steady state operation in the future Tokamak. Plasma operation in low collision regimes were implemented by new 4.6GHz LHCD with core Te˜4.5keV. The non-inductive scenarios with high performance at high bootstrap current fraction have been demonstrated in RF dominated regimes for long pulse operation. Near full non-inductive CD discharges have been achieved. In addition, effective heating and decoupling method under multi-transmitter for ICRF system were developed in this campaign, etc. EAST could be in operation with over 30MW CW heating and current drive power (LHCD ICRH NBI and ECRH), enhanced diagnostic capabilities and full actively-cooled metal wall from 2015. It will therefore allow to access new confinement regimes and to extend these regimes towards to steady state operation.

  6. Effect of dual frequency rf power in an inductively coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ju-Ho; Lee, Ho-Won; Kim, Tae Woo; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Dual frequency inductively coupled plasma discharge is investigated. Dual RF power is applied independently to each antenna (inner and outer coil), and the electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs) are measured using a RF compensated Langmuir probe. As the ratio of low frequency power (Plow) and high frequency power (Phigh) is changed, the variation of EEDF is observed. When Plow is higher than Phigh, the low energy electrons effectively heated compared to the case when Plow is comparable to Phigh. This difference in the shape of the EEDF can be understood by correlation between the driving frequency and the collision frequency.

  7. Multi-level RF identification system

    DOEpatents

    Steele, Kerry D.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2004-07-20

    A radio frequency identification system having a radio frequency transceiver for generating a continuous wave RF interrogation signal that impinges upon an RF identification tag. An oscillation circuit in the RF identification tag modulates the interrogation signal with a subcarrier of a predetermined frequency and modulates the frequency-modulated signal back to the transmitting interrogator. The interrogator recovers and analyzes the subcarrier signal and determines its frequency. The interrogator generates an output indicative of the frequency of the subcarrier frequency, thereby identifying the responding RFID tag as one of a "class" of RFID tags configured to respond with a subcarrier signal of a predetermined frequency.

  8. Matching network for RF plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Pickard, Daniel S.; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2007-11-20

    A compact matching network couples an RF power supply to an RF antenna in a plasma generator. The simple and compact impedance matching network matches the plasma load to the impedance of a coaxial transmission line and the output impedance of an RF amplifier at radio frequencies. The matching network is formed of a resonantly tuned circuit formed of a variable capacitor and an inductor in a series resonance configuration, and a ferrite core transformer coupled to the resonantly tuned circuit. This matching network is compact enough to fit in existing compact focused ion beam systems.

  9. Capacitive probes for rf process plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savas, S. E.; Donohoe, K. G.

    1989-11-01

    Easily built capacitive probes designed for rf potential measurements in low-density reactive process plasmas are shown. The probes use no auxiliary circuitry and are made from easily available materials. They permit accurate measurements of rf fundamental and harmonic amplitudes in the plasma, in sheaths, and on insulating or conducting surfaces in vacuum or plasma environments. Measured values of plasma, sheath, and electrode surface rf potential amplitudes are shown for ˜1010 cm-3 density, unmagnetized and magnetically enhanced 13.56-MHz capacitive discharges in oxygen and nitrogen. Overall probe accuracy is estimated to be about 10% in these plasmas with the spatial resolution as fine as 0.5 mm.

  10. Nb-Pb Superconducting RF Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Sekutowicz, J.; Iversen, J.; Kreps, G.; Moller, W.D.; Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Smedley, J.; Rao, T.; Ferrario, M.; Kneisel, P.; Langner, J.; Strzyzewski, P.; Lefferts, R.; Lipski, A.; Szalowski, K.; Ko, K.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2006-03-29

    We report on the status of an electron RF-gun made of two superconductors: niobium and lead. The presented design combines the advantages of the RF performance of bulk niobium superconducting cavities and the reasonably high quantum efficiency of lead, as compared to other superconducting metals. The concept, mentioned in a previous paper, follows the attractive approach of all niobium superconducting RF-gun as it has been proposed by the BNL group. Measured values of quantum efficiency for lead at various photon energies, analysis of recombination time of photon-broken Cooper pairs for lead and niobium, and preliminary cold test results are discussed in this paper.

  11. Nb-Pb superconducting RF gun

    SciTech Connect

    J. Sekutowicz; J. Iversen; G. Kreps; W.D. Moller; W. Singer; X. Singer; I. Ben-Zvi; A. Burrill; J. Smedley; T. Rao; M. Ferrario; P. Kneisel; J. Langner; P. Strzyzewski; R. Lefferts; A. Lipski; K. Szalowski; K. Ko; L. Xiao

    2006-04-14

    We report on the status of an electron RF-gun made of two superconductors: niobium and lead. The presented design combines the advantages of the RF performance of bulk niobium superconducting cavities and the reasonably high quantum efficiency of lead, as compared to other superconducting metals. The concept, mentioned in a previous paper, follows the attractive approach of all niobium superconducting RF-gun as it has been proposed by the BNL group. Measured values of quantum efficiency for lead at various photon energies, analysis of recombination time of photon-broken Cooper pairs for lead and niobium, and preliminary cold test results are discussed in this paper.

  12. RF Power and HOM Coupler Tutorial

    SciTech Connect

    Rusnak, B

    2003-10-28

    Radio frequency (RF) couplers are used on superconducting cavities to deliver RF power for creating accelerating fields and to remove unwanted higher-order mode power for reducing emittance growth and cryogenic load. RF couplers in superconducting applications present a number of interdisciplinary design challenges that need to be addressed, since poor performance in these devices can profoundly impact accelerator operations and the overall success of a major facility. This paper will focus on critical design issues for fundamental and higher order mode (HOM) power couplers, highlight a sampling of reliability-related problems observed in couplers, and discuss some design strategies for improving performance.

  13. rf coupler technology for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Radio frequency (rf) oscillations at critical frequencies have successfully provided a means to convey power to fusion plasmas due to the electrical-magnetic properties of the plasma. While large rf systems to couple power to the plasma have been designed, built, and tested, the main link to the plasma, the coupler, is still in an evolutionary stage of development. Design and fabrication of optimal antennas for fusion applications are complicated by incomplete characterizations of the harsh plasma environment and of coupling mechanisms. A brief description of rf coupler technology required for plasma conditions is presented along with an assessment of the status and goals of coupler development.

  14. RF helicity injection and current drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamatsu, K.; Fukuyama, A.; Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.; Azumi, M.

    1990-07-01

    The relation between (Range of Frequency) RF-driven current and wave helicity is analytically and numerically studied for tokamak plasma. The helicity conversion coefficient from the wave to the plasma is generally obtained and numerically examined for the waves in the range of ion cyclotron frequency. The wave propagation equation is solved as a boundary-value problem with one-dimensional inhomogeneities. It is shown that the wave helicity well satisfies the continuity equation. It was confirmed that the RF-helicity injection is not an identical phenomenon of the reduction of the one turn loop voltage due to the RF-driven current.

  15. Modeling and Optimizing RF Multipole Ion Traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanghaenel, Sven; Asvany, Oskar; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Radio frequency (rf) ion traps are very well suited for spectroscopy experiments thanks to the long time storage of the species of interest in a well defined volume. The electrical potential of the ion trap is determined by the geometry of its electrodes and the applied voltages. In order to understand the behavior of trapped ions in realistic multipole traps it is necessary to characterize these trapping potentials. Commercial programs like SIMION or COMSOL, employing the finite difference and/or finite element method, are often used to model the electrical fields of the trap in order to design traps for various purposes, e.g. introducing light from a laser into the trap volume. For a controlled trapping of ions, e.g. for low temperature trapping, the time dependent electrical fields need to be known to high accuracy especially at the minimum of the effective (mechanical) potential. The commercial programs are not optimized for these applications and suffer from a number of limitations. Therefore, in our approach the boundary element method (BEM) has been employed in home-built programs to generate numerical solutions of real trap geometries, e.g. from CAD drawings. In addition the resulting fields are described by appropriate multipole expansions. As a consequence, the quality of a trap can be characterized by a small set of multipole parameters which are used to optimize the trap design. In this presentation a few example calculations will be discussed. In particular the accuracy of the method and the benefits of describing the trapping potentials via multipole expansions will be illustrated. As one important application heating effects of cold ions arising from non-ideal multipole fields can now be understood as a consequence of imperfect field configurations.

  16. Interventional Device Visualization with Toroidal Transceiver and Optically-Coupled Current Sensor for RF Safety Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Etezadi-Amoli, Maryam; Stang, Pascal; Kerr, Adam; Pauly, John; Scott, Greig

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The development of catheters and guidewires that are safe from radiofrequency (RF)-induced heating and clearly visible against background tissue is a major challenge in interventional MRI. An interventional imaging approach using a toroidal transmit-receive (transceive) coil is presented. This toroidal transceiver allows controlled, low levels of RF current to flow in the catheter/guidewire for visualization, and can be used with conductive interventional devices that have a localized low-impedance tip contact. Methods Toroidal transceivers were built, and phantom experiments were performed to quantify transmit power levels required for device visibility and to detect heating hazards. Imaging experiments in a pig cadaver tested the extendibility to higher field strength and non-phantom settings. A photonically-powered optically-coupled toroidal current sensor for monitoring induced RF currents was built, calibrated, and tested using an independent image-based current estimation method. Results Results indicate that high-SNR visualization is achievable using milliwatts of transmit power—power levels orders of magnitude lower than levels that induce measurable heating in phantom tests. Agreement between image-based current estimates and RF current sensor measurements validates sensor accuracy. Conclusion The toroidal transceiver, integrated with power and current sensing, could offer a promising platform for safe and effective interventional device visualization. PMID:24691876

  17. Temperature distribution during RF ablation on ex vivo liver tissue: IR measurements and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchi, Edoardo Gino; Gallati, Mario; Braschi, Giovanni; Cigada, Alfredo; Comolli, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    Radiofrequency thermal ablation is the first therapeutic option for the minimally invasive treatment of liver tumors. This medical procedure employs the Joule heat produced by a RF electromagnetic field to kill tumor cells. The outcome of the procedure is strongly affected by the temperature distribution near the RF applicator, however the measurement of this distribution, even in ex vivo experiments, is not straightforward since most traditional local temperature measurement techniques are not well-suited, due to both electromagnetic interferences and the sensor heat sink effect. Given the importance of the temperature field knowledge, in this paper special care was devoted to its measurement employing both infrared thermal imaging and NTC thermistors. Several RF ablation tests on ex vivo porcine liver tissue were carried out measuring the space-time evolution of temperature during the procedure (with spatial resolution ≤1 mm) and producing useful data for the design and the calibration of a numerical model. Electro-thermal numerical simulations of the experimental tests were performed using a mathematical model suitable for the heating phase of the procedure (up to 95 °C). The simulations results allowed to check the physical consistency of the measured data and suggested that a constant thermal conductivity is satisfactory for modeling the temperature evolution during RF ablation.

  18. Temperature distribution during RF ablation on ex vivo liver tissue: IR measurements and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchi, Edoardo Gino; Gallati, Mario; Braschi, Giovanni; Cigada, Alfredo; Comolli, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    Radiofrequency thermal ablation is the first therapeutic option for the minimally invasive treatment of liver tumors. This medical procedure employs the Joule heat produced by a RF electromagnetic field to kill tumor cells. The outcome of the procedure is strongly affected by the temperature distribution near the RF applicator, however the measurement of this distribution, even in ex vivo experiments, is not straightforward since most traditional local temperature measurement techniques are not well-suited, due to both electromagnetic interferences and the sensor heat sink effect. Given the importance of the temperature field knowledge, in this paper special care was devoted to its measurement employing both infrared thermal imaging and NTC thermistors. Several RF ablation tests on ex vivo porcine liver tissue were carried out measuring the space-time evolution of temperature during the procedure (with spatial resolution ≤1 mm) and producing useful data for the design and the calibration of a numerical model. Electro-thermal numerical simulations of the experimental tests were performed using a mathematical model suitable for the heating phase of the procedure (up to 95 °C). The simulations results allowed to check the physical consistency of the measured data and suggested that a constant thermal conductivity is satisfactory for modeling the temperature evolution during RF ablation.

  19. Gyrokinetic Calculations of Microinstabilities and Transport During RF H-Modes on Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    M.H. Redi; C. Fiore; P. Bonoli; C. Bourdelle; R. Budny; W.D. Dorland; D. Ernst; G. Hammett; D. Mikkelsen; J. Rice; S. Wukitch

    2002-06-18

    Physics understanding for the experimental improvement of particle and energy confinement is being advanced through massively parallel calculations of microturbulence for simulated plasma conditions. The ultimate goal, an experimentally validated, global, non-local, fully nonlinear calculation of plasma microturbulence is still not within reach, but extraordinary progress has been achieved in understanding microturbulence, driving forces and the plasma response in recent years. In this paper we discuss gyrokinetic simulations of plasma turbulence being carried out to examine a reproducible, H-mode, RF heated experiment on the Alcator CMOD tokamak3, which exhibits an internal transport barrier (ITB). This off axis RF case represents the early phase of a very interesting dual frequency RF experiment, which shows density control with central RF heating later in the discharge. The ITB exhibits steep, spontaneous density peaking: a reduction in particle transport occurring without a central particle source. Since the central temperature is maintained while the central density is increasing, this also suggests a thermal transport barrier exists. TRANSP analysis shows that ceff drops inside the ITB. Sawtooth heat pulse analysis also shows a localized thermal transport barrier. For this ICRF EDA H-mode, the minority resonance is at r/a * 0.5 on the high field side. There is a normal shear profile, with q monotonic.

  20. Survey of Thermal-Fluids Evaluation and Confirmatory Experimental Validation Requirements of Accident Tolerant Cladding Concepts with Focus on Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Wysocki, Aaron J.; Terrani, Kurt A.; Ali, Amir; Liu, Maolong; Blandford, Edward

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is working closely with the nuclear industry to develop fuel and cladding candidates with potentially enhanced accident tolerance, also known as accident tolerant fuel (ATF). Thermal-fluids characteristics are a vital element of a holistic engineering evaluation of ATF concepts. One vital characteristic related to boiling heat transfer is the critical heat flux (CHF). CHF plays a vital role in determining safety margins during normal operation and also in the progression of potential transient or accident scenarios. This deliverable is a scoping survey of thermal-fluids evaluation and confirmatory experimental validation requirements of accident tolerant cladding concepts with a focus on boiling heat transfer characteristics. The key takeaway messages of this report are: 1. CHF prediction accuracy is important and the correlations may have significant uncertainty. 2. Surface conditions are important factors for CHF, primarily the wettability that is characterized by contact angle. Smaller contact angle indicates greater wettability, which increases the CHF. Surface roughness also impacts wettability. Results in the literature for pool boiling experiments indicate changes in CHF by up to 60% for several ATF cladding candidates. 3. The measured wettability of FeCrAl (i.e., contact angle and roughness) indicates that CHF should be investigated further through pool boiling and flow boiling experiments. 4. Initial measurements of static advancing contact angle and surface roughness indicate that FeCrAl is expected to have a higher CHF than Zircaloy. The measured contact angle of different FeCrAl alloy samples depends on oxide layer thickness and composition. The static advancing contact angle tends to decrease as the oxide layer thickness increases.

  1. Dual polarized, heat spreading rectenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, Larry W. (Inventor); Khan, Abdur R. (Inventor); Smith, R. Peter (Inventor); Smith, Hugh K. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An aperture coupled patch splits energy from two different polarization components to different locations to spread heat. In addition, there is no physical electrical connection between the slot, patch and circuitry. The circuitry is located under a ground plane which shields against harmonic radiation back to the RF source.

  2. Micropower RF material proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    A level detector or proximity detector for materials capable of sensing through plastic container walls or encapsulating materials is of the sensor. Thus, it can be used in corrosive environments, as well as in a wide variety of applications. An antenna has a characteristic impedance which depends on the materials in proximity to the antenna. An RF oscillator, which includes the antenna and is based on a single transistor in a Colpitt's configuration, produces an oscillating signal. A detector is coupled to the oscillator which signals changes in the oscillating signal caused by changes in the materials in proximity to the antenna. The oscillator is turned on and off at a pulse repetition frequency with a low duty cycle to conserve power. The antenna consists of a straight monopole about one-quarter wavelength long at the nominal frequency of the oscillator. The antenna may be horizontally disposed on a container and very accurately detects the fill level within the container as the material inside the container reaches the level of the antenna.

  3. RF/Optical Hybrid Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrez, T. M.

    2015-05-01

    This article details analyses performed on several variations of a proposed radio frequency (RF)/optical hybrid antenna. The goal was to determine the structural impact of adding an assembly of optical mirrors to the antenna; stresses in the structural members and reflector surface deformation were used to assess this impact. The results showed that the structure could handle the added assembly, and the surface RMS increased, as expected, with larger increases seen as the antenna translates in elevation from the rigging angle of 45 deg (a predetermined location chosen to optimize panel settings during installation). In addition, actuators are located behind each optical mirror to reoptimize the mirror positions after they deflect due to the antenna being tipped in elevation. The necessary actuator motion was calculated for each mirror for a range of elevation angles, and it was found that the required motions are achievable by commonly used actuators. Resonant frequency analysis was also performed on the quadripod and tripod (for DSS-13 at Goldstone) to determine the effect that adding optical components on the apex has on the structure and its first mode; it was found that the impact is minimal to both the stresses seen in the structure and its first mode.

  4. Micropower RF material proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-11-10

    A level detector or proximity detector for materials capable of sensing through plastic container walls or encapsulating materials is disclosed. Thus, it can be used in corrosive environments, as well as in a wide variety of applications. An antenna has a characteristic impedance which depends on the materials in proximity to the antenna. An RF oscillator, which includes the antenna and is based on a single transistor in a Colpitt`s configuration, produces an oscillating signal. A detector is coupled to the oscillator which signals changes in the oscillating signal caused by changes in the materials in proximity to the antenna. The oscillator is turned on and off at a pulse repetition frequency with a low duty cycle to conserve power. The antenna consists of a straight monopole about one-quarter wavelength long at the nominal frequency of the oscillator. The antenna may be horizontally disposed on a container and very accurately detects the fill level within the container as the material inside the container reaches the level of the antenna. 5 figs.

  5. Ensuring Safety of Implanted Devices under MRI using Reversed RF Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Overall, William R.; Pauly, John M.; Stang, Pascal P.; Scott, Greig C.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with long-wire medical implants are currently prevented from undergoing MRI scans due to the risk of RF heating. We have developed a simple technique for determining the heating potential for these implants using reversed RF polarization. This technique could be used on a patient-to-patient basis as a part of the standard pre-scan procedure to ensure that the subject’s device does not pose a heating risk. By using reversed quadrature polarization, the MR scan can be sensitized exclusively to the potentially dangerous currents in the device. Here, we derive the physical principles governing the technique and explore the primary sources of inaccuracy. These principles are verified through finite-difference simulations and through phantom scans of implant leads. These studies demonstrate the potential of the technique for sensitively detecting potentially dangerous coupling conditions before they can do harm. PMID:20593374

  6. Modular open RF architecture: extending VICTORY to RF systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melber, Adam; Dirner, Jason; Johnson, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Radio frequency products spanning multiple functions have become increasingly critical to the warfighter. Military use of the electromagnetic spectrum now includes communications, electronic warfare (EW), intelligence, and mission command systems. Due to the urgent needs of counterinsurgency operations, various quick reaction capabilities (QRCs) have been fielded to enhance warfighter capability. Although these QRCs were highly successfully in their respective missions, they were designed independently resulting in significant challenges when integrated on a common platform. This paper discusses how the Modular Open RF Architecture (MORA) addresses these challenges by defining an open architecture for multifunction missions that decomposes monolithic radio systems into high-level components with welldefined functions and interfaces. The functional decomposition maximizes hardware sharing while minimizing added complexity and cost due to modularization. MORA achieves significant size, weight and power (SWaP) savings by allowing hardware such as power amplifiers and antennas to be shared across systems. By separating signal conditioning from the processing that implements the actual radio application, MORA exposes previously inaccessible architecture points, providing system integrators with the flexibility to insert third-party capabilities to address technical challenges and emerging requirements. MORA leverages the Vehicular Integration for Command, Control, Communication, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR)/EW Interoperability (VICTORY) framework. This paper concludes by discussing how MORA, VICTORY and other standards such as OpenVPX are being leveraged by the U.S. Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command (RDECOM) Communications Electronics Research, Development, and Engineering Center (CERDEC) to define a converged architecture enabling rapid technology insertion, interoperability and reduced SWaP.

  7. 47 CFR 27.52 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... this chapter, as appropriate. Applications for equipment authorization of mobile or portable devices... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.52 RF safety. Licensees and manufacturers are subject to...

  8. Degreasing and cleaning superconducting RF Niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Rauchmiller, Michael; Kellett, Ron; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    The purpose and scope of this report is to detail the steps necessary for degreasing and cleaning of superconducting RF Niobium cavities in the A0 clean room. It lists the required equipment and the cleaning procedure.

  9. RF synchronized short pulse laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Fuwa, Yasuhiro Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Tongu, Hiromu; Inoue, Shunsuke; Hashida, Masaki; Sakabe, Shuji; Okamura, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Atsushi

    2016-02-15

    A laser ion source that produces shortly bunched ion beam is proposed. In this ion source, ions are extracted immediately after the generation of laser plasma by an ultra-short pulse laser before its diffusion. The ions can be injected into radio frequency (RF) accelerating bucket of a subsequent accelerator. As a proof-of-principle experiment of the ion source, a RF resonator is prepared and H{sub 2} gas was ionized by a short pulse laser in the RF electric field in the resonator. As a result, bunched ions with 1.2 mA peak current and 5 ns pulse length were observed at the exit of RF resonator by a probe.

  10. High-{Tc} rf SQUID magnetometers

    SciTech Connect

    Mueck, M.

    1994-12-31

    The discovery of high temperature superconductors has revived the interest in rf SQUIDS, which, in the case of conventional superconductors had been surpassed in performance by the dc SQUID. Several advantages are offered by the rf SQUID, like the requirement for only a single weak link and a low 1/f noise. With high bias frequencies (> 100 MHz) it is possible to obtain flux noise values comparable to dc SQUIDS. At present, HTS rf SQUIDs offer a field sensitivity of less than 100 fT/{radical}Hz ({at} 1 Hz). This is already sufficient for a number of serious applications. This paper reviews recent developments towards practical rf SQUIDs made of high-{Tc} superconductors.

  11. Si-based RF MEMS components.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, James E.; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Baker, Michael Sean; Fleming, James Grant; Stewart, Harold D.; Dyck, Christopher William

    2005-01-01

    Radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) are an enabling technology for next-generation communications and radar systems in both military and commercial sectors. RF MEMS-based reconfigurable circuits outperform solid-state circuits in terms of insertion loss, linearity, and static power consumption and are advantageous in applications where high signal power and nanosecond switching speeds are not required. We have demonstrated a number of RF MEMS switches on high-resistivity silicon (high-R Si) that were fabricated by leveraging the volume manufacturing processes available in the Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL), a Class-1, radiation-hardened CMOS manufacturing facility. We describe novel tungsten and aluminum-based processes, and present results of switches developed in each of these processes. Series and shunt ohmic switches and shunt capacitive switches were successfully demonstrated. The implications of fabricating on high-R Si and suggested future directions for developing low-loss RF MEMS-based circuits are also discussed.

  12. Single frequency RF powered ECG telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, W. H.; Hynecek, J.; Homa, J.

    1979-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that a radio frequency magnetic field can be used to power implanted electronic circuitry for short range telemetry to replace batteries. A substantial reduction in implanted volume can be achieved by using only one RF tank circuit for receiving the RF power and transmitting the telemetered information. A single channel telemetry system of this type, using time sharing techniques, was developed and employed to transmit the ECG signal from Rhesus monkeys in primate chairs. The signal from the implant is received during the period when the RF powering radiation is interrupted. The ECG signal is carried by 20-microsec pulse position modulated pulses, referred to the trailing edge of the RF powering pulse. Satisfactory results have been obtained with this single frequency system. The concept and the design presented may be useful for short-range long-term implant telemetry systems.

  13. Digital-Centric RF CMOS Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzawa, Akira

    Analog-centric RFCMOS technology has played an important role in motivating the change of technology from conventional discrete device technology or bipolar IC technology to CMOS technology. However it introduces many problems such as poor performance, susceptibility to PVT fluctuation, and cost increase with technology scaling. The most important advantage of CMOS technology compared with legacy RF technology is that CMOS can use more high performance digital circuits for very low cost. In fact, analog-centric RF-CMOS technology has failed the FM/AM tuner business and the digital-centric CMOS technology is becoming attractive for many users. It has many advantages; such as high performance, no external calibration points, high yield, and low cost. From the above facts, digital-centric CMOS technology which utilizes the advantages of digital technology must be the right path for future RF technology. Further investment in this technology is necessary for the advancement of RF technology.

  14. New developments in RF power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.H.

    1994-06-01

    The most challenging rf source requirements for high-energy accelerators presently being studied or designed come from the various electron-positron linear collider studies. All of these studies except TESLA (the superconducting entry in the field) have specified rf sources with much higher peak powers than any existing tubes at comparable high frequencies. While circular machines do not, in general, require high peak power, the very high luminosity electron-positron rings presently being designed as B factories require prodigious total average rf power. In this age of energy conservation, this puts a high priority on high efficiency for the rf sources. Both modulating anodes and depressed collectors are being investigated in the quest for high efficiency at varying output powers.

  15. FERMILAB CRYOMODULE TEST STAND RF INTERLOCK SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Troy; Diamond, J. S.; McDowell, D.; Nicklaus, D.; Prieto, P. S.; Semenov, A.

    2016-10-12

    An interlock system has been designed for the Fermilab Cryo-module Test Stand (CMTS), a test bed for the cryo- modules to be used in the upcoming Linac Coherent Light Source 2 (LCLS-II) project at SLAC. The interlock system features 8 independent subsystems, one per superconducting RF cavity and solid state amplifier (SSA) pair. Each system monitors several devices to detect fault conditions such as arcing in the waveguides or quenching of the SRF system. Additionally each system can detect fault conditions by monitoring the RF power seen at the cavity coupler through a directional coupler. In the event of a fault condition, each system is capable of removing RF signal to the amplifier (via a fast RF switch) as well as turning off the SSA. Additionally, each input signal is available for re- mote viewing and recording via a Fermilab designed digitizer board and MVME 5500 processor.

  16. CEBAF'S New RF Separator Structure Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Reza Kazimi; Jock Fugitt; A. Krycuk; Charles Sinclair; Larry Turlington

    1993-05-01

    Prototypes of the rf separator for CEBAF have been made and successfully beam tested. The structure is a new design which has a high transverse shunt impedance together with a small transverse dimension compared to more conventional rf deflecting structures. Five rf separators will be used at CEBAF to allow beam from any one of the five recirculation passes to be delivered to any of the three experimental halls. The authors have already described the basic design of the structure and theoretical calculations. They have also reported some results from rf measurements and beam tests. In this paper they present more beam test results, their final design parameters, and test results of coupling two 1/2 wavelength cavities together.

  17. Signal interference RF photonic bandstop filter.

    PubMed

    Aryanfar, Iman; Choudhary, Amol; Shahnia, Shayan; Pagani, Mattia; Liu, Yang; Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2016-06-27

    In the microwave domain, signal interference bandstop filters with high extinction and wide stopbands are achieved through destructive interference of two signals. Implementation of this filtering concept using RF photonics will lead to unique filters with high performance, enhanced tuning range and reconfigurability. Here we demonstrate an RF photonic signal interference filter, achieved through the combination of precise synthesis of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) loss with advanced phase and amplitude tailoring of RF modulation sidebands. We achieve a square-shaped, 20-dB extinction RF photonic filter over a tunable bandwidth of up to 1 GHz with a central frequency tuning range of 16 GHz using a low SBS loss of ~3 dB. Wideband destructive interference in this novel filter leads to the decoupling of the filter suppression from its bandwidth and shape factor. This allows the creation of a filter with all-optimized qualities.

  18. A no-load RF calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernoff, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The described device can be used to measure the output of any dc powered RF source. No dummy load is required for the measurements. The device is, therefore, called the 'no-load calorimeter' (NLC). The NLC measures the power actually fed to the antenna or another useful load. It is believed that the NLC can compete successfully with directional coupler type systems in measuring the output of high-power RF sources.

  19. RF waveguide phase-directed power combiners

    DOEpatents

    Nantista, Christopher D.; Dolgashev, Valery A.; Tantawi, Sami G.

    2017-05-02

    High power RF phase-directed power combiners include magic H hybrid and/or superhybrid circuits oriented in orthogonal H-planes and connected using E-plane bends and/or twists to produce compact 3D waveguide circuits, including 8.times.8 and 16.times.16 combiners. Using phase control at the input ports, RF power can be directed to a single output port, enabling fast switching between output ports for applications such as multi-angle radiation therapy.

  20. RF/Optical Demonstration: Focal Plane Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, D. J.; Chung, S.; Kovalik, J.; Gama, E.; Fernandez, M. M.

    2016-11-01

    In this article, we describe the second-generation focal plane optical assembly employed in the RF/optical demonstration at DSS-13. This assembly receives reflected light from the two mirror segments mounted on the RF primary. The focal plane assembly contains a fast steering mirror (FSM) to stabilize the focal plane spot, a pupil camera to aid in aligning the two segments, and several additional cameras for receiving the optical signal prior to as well as after the FSM loop.