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Sample records for rhabdovirus viral haemorrhagic

  1. Genotyping of the fish rhabdovirus, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus, by restriction fragment length polymorphisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Winton, James R.; Lorenzen, Niels

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a standardized molecular assay that used limited resources and equipment for routine genotyping of isolates of the fish rhabdovirus, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). Computer generated restriction maps, based on 62 unique full-length (1524 nt) sequences of the VHSV glycoprotein (G) gene, were used to predict restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns that were subsequently grouped and compared with a phylogenetic analysis of the G-gene sequences of the same set of isolates. Digestion of PCR amplicons from the full-lengthG-gene by a set of three restriction enzymes was predicted to accurately enable the assignment of the VHSV isolates into the four major genotypes discovered to date. Further sub-typing of the isolates into the recently described sub-lineages of genotype I was possible by applying three additional enzymes. Experimental evaluation of the method consisted of three steps: (i) RT-PCR amplification of the G-gene of VHSV isolates using purified viral RNA as template, (ii) digestion of the PCR products with a panel of restriction endonucleases and (iii) interpretation of the resulting RFLP profiles. The RFLP analysis was shown to approximate the level of genetic discrimination obtained by other, more labour-intensive, molecular techniques such as the ribonuclease protection assay or sequence analysis. In addition, 37 previously uncharacterised isolates from diverse sources were assigned to specific genotypes. While the assay was able to distinguish between marine and continental isolates of VHSV, the differences did not correlate with the pathogenicity of the isolates.

  2. Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral

    MedlinePlus

    ... fever, dengue, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur forest disease). Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2015 All information on Ebola virus disease Ebola features map Dashboard - Progress update ...

  3. Characterization of Viral Communities of Biting Midges and Identification of Novel Thogotovirus Species and Rhabdovirus Genus.

    PubMed

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Robert, Catherine; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg; Desnues, Christelle

    2016-03-11

    More than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them RNA viruses represent the majority. Ceratopogonidae (genus Culicoides) are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.). They are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the Oropouche virus. Female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. In this context, we report here the analysis of RNA viral communities of Senegalese biting midges using next-generation sequencing techniques as a preliminary step toward the identification of potential viral biohazards. Sequencing of the RNA virome of three pools of Culicoides revealed the presence of a significant diversity of viruses infecting plants, insects and mammals. Several novel viruses were detected, including a novel Thogotovirus species, related but genetically distant from previously described tick-borne thogotoviruses. Novel rhabdoviruses were also detected, possibly constituting a novel Rhabdoviridae genus, and putatively restricted to insects. Sequences related to the major viruses transmitted by Culicoides, i.e., African horse sickness, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses were also detected. This study highlights the interest in monitoring the emergence and circulation of zoonoses and epizooties using their arthropod vectors.

  4. Characterization of Viral Communities of Biting Midges and Identification of Novel Thogotovirus Species and Rhabdovirus Genus

    PubMed Central

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Robert, Catherine; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg; Desnues, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    More than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them RNA viruses represent the majority. Ceratopogonidae (genus Culicoides) are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.). They are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the Oropouche virus. Female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. In this context, we report here the analysis of RNA viral communities of Senegalese biting midges using next-generation sequencing techniques as a preliminary step toward the identification of potential viral biohazards. Sequencing of the RNA virome of three pools of Culicoides revealed the presence of a significant diversity of viruses infecting plants, insects and mammals. Several novel viruses were detected, including a novel Thogotovirus species, related but genetically distant from previously described tick-borne thogotoviruses. Novel rhabdoviruses were also detected, possibly constituting a novel Rhabdoviridae genus, and putatively restricted to insects. Sequences related to the major viruses transmitted by Culicoides, i.e., African horse sickness, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses were also detected. This study highlights the interest in monitoring the emergence and circulation of zoonoses and epizooties using their arthropod vectors. PMID:26978389

  5. Characterization of Viral Communities of Biting Midges and Identification of Novel Thogotovirus Species and Rhabdovirus Genus.

    PubMed

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Robert, Catherine; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg; Desnues, Christelle

    2016-03-01

    More than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them RNA viruses represent the majority. Ceratopogonidae (genus Culicoides) are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.). They are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the Oropouche virus. Female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. In this context, we report here the analysis of RNA viral communities of Senegalese biting midges using next-generation sequencing techniques as a preliminary step toward the identification of potential viral biohazards. Sequencing of the RNA virome of three pools of Culicoides revealed the presence of a significant diversity of viruses infecting plants, insects and mammals. Several novel viruses were detected, including a novel Thogotovirus species, related but genetically distant from previously described tick-borne thogotoviruses. Novel rhabdoviruses were also detected, possibly constituting a novel Rhabdoviridae genus, and putatively restricted to insects. Sequences related to the major viruses transmitted by Culicoides, i.e., African horse sickness, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses were also detected. This study highlights the interest in monitoring the emergence and circulation of zoonoses and epizooties using their arthropod vectors. PMID:26978389

  6. Distribution and variation of NV genes in fish rhabdoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, G.; Higman, K.H.; Bjorklund, H.V.

    1997-01-01

    The fish rhabdovirus infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) contains a non-virion (NV) gene between the glycoprotein (G) and polymerase (L) genes on its RNA genome. The present study investigated three other fish rhabdovirus genomes and found that the NV gene of hirame rhabdovirus is closely related to the NV of IHNV, whereas the viral haemorrhagic septicemia NV gene showed evidence of significant divergence. Most importantly, spring viraemia of carp virus, the only vesiculovirus-like fish rhabdovirus examined, did not have an NV gene at its genomic RNA G-L junction. These results suggest that the presence of an NV gene is characteristic of the unassigned fish rhabdovirus subgroup previously classified as lyssaviruses, and that the NV gene is not essential for replication in fish cells per se, since it is absent in a vesiculovirus-like fish rhabdovirus.

  7. [Viral haemorrhagic fevers--evolution of the epidemic potential].

    PubMed

    Markin, V A; Markov, V I

    2002-01-01

    In this review modern data on dangerous and particularly dangerous viral haemorrhagic fevers caused by a group of viruses belonging to the families of phylo-, arena-, flavi-, bunya- and togaviruses are presented. Morbidity rates and epidemics caused by Marburg virus, Ebola fever virus, Lassa fever virus, Argentinian and Bolivian haemorrhagic fever viruses, dengue haemorrhagic fever virus, Crimean haemorrhagic fever virus, Hantaviruses are analyzed. Mechanisms of the evolution of the epidemic manifestation of these infections are considered. The importance of the development of tools and methods of diagnosis, rapid prevention and treatment of exotic haemorrhagic fevers is emphasized.

  8. Recent advances in vaccines against viral haemorrhagic fevers.

    PubMed

    Baize, S; Marianneau, P; Georges-Courbot, M C; Deubel, V

    2001-10-01

    Development of vaccines against viral haemorrhagic fevers is a public health priority. Recent advances in our knowledge of pathogenesis and of the immune responses elicited by these viruses emphasize the crucial role of the immune system in the control of infection, but also its probable involvement in pathogenesis. Several vaccine candidates against viral haemorrhagic fevers have been evaluated in animals during the past year. Together, these data suggest that a vaccine approach against viral haemorrhagic fevers is feasible, should induce well-balanced immune responses with cellular and humoral components, and should avoid the potential deleterious effects that are associated with such immune responses. PMID:11964870

  9. Recent advances in vaccines against viral haemorrhagic fevers.

    PubMed

    Baize, S; Marianneau, P; Georges-Courbot, M C; Deubel, V

    2001-10-01

    Development of vaccines against viral haemorrhagic fevers is a public health priority. Recent advances in our knowledge of pathogenesis and of the immune responses elicited by these viruses emphasize the crucial role of the immune system in the control of infection, but also its probable involvement in pathogenesis. Several vaccine candidates against viral haemorrhagic fevers have been evaluated in animals during the past year. Together, these data suggest that a vaccine approach against viral haemorrhagic fevers is feasible, should induce well-balanced immune responses with cellular and humoral components, and should avoid the potential deleterious effects that are associated with such immune responses.

  10. Fish Rhabdoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, G.; Winton, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many important viral pathogens of fish are members of the family Rhabdoviridae. The viruses in this large group cause significant losses in populations of wild fish as well as among fish reared in aquaculture. Fish rhabdoviruses often have a wide host and geographic range, and infect aquatic animals in both freshwater and seawater. The fish rhabdoviruses comprise a diverse collection of isolates that can be placed in one of two quite different groups: isolates that are members of the established genusNovirhabdovirus, and those that are most similar to members of the genus Vesiculovirus. Because the diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses are important to aquaculture, diagnostic methods for their detection and identification are well established. In addition to regulations designed to reduce the spread of fish viruses, a significant body of research has addressed methods for the control or prevention of diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses, including vaccination. The number of reported fish rhabdoviruses continues to grow as a result of the expansion of aquaculture, the increase in global trade, the development of improved diagnostic methods, and heightened surveillance activities. Fish rhabdoviruses serve as useful components of model systems to study vertebrate virus disease, epidemiology, and immunology.

  11. Nososcomial transmission of viral haemorrhagic fever in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Richards, Guy A

    2015-09-01

    Recent events in West Africa have highlighted the potential for the viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) to cause considerable mortality and morbidity among heathcare workers. However, this is not a new threat as, although the risk is currently increased, it has always been present. In South Africa (SA) the only endemic haemorrhagic fever is Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, transmitted by the Hyalomma tick, which is ubiquitous in cattle farming areas. Johannesburg, the commercial and transport hub of SA, is unusual in that all cases of VHF seen there are imported, either from rural areas in SA or from countries to the north. Johannesburg functions as the gateway to and from the rest of Africa, and as a destination for more affluent residents of neighbouring countries seeking medical attention. Numerous outbreaks of nosocomial infection have occurred in SA, and these are described in the form of brief case reports. PMID:26428962

  12. An ELISA for detection of trout antibodies to viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus using recombinant fragments of their viral G protein.

    PubMed

    Encinas, P; Gomez-Casado, E; Estepa, A; Coll, J M

    2011-09-01

    An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method to study serum antibodies to viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was designed by using recombinant fragments of their G protein. By using this fragment-ELISA, we describe the binding of antibodies against recombinant G fragments of 45-445 amino acids present in VHSV-hyperimmunized trout sera. Fragments were designed by taking into account their tridimensional pH-dependent structure and functional domains. Sera were obtained from hyperimmunized trout following 4-5 intraperitoneal injections of VHSV antigens by using Freund's or saponin adjuvants. Sera from different hyperimmunized trout differed quantitatively rather than qualitatively in their recognition of solid-phase frg11 (56-110), frg12 (65-109), frg13 (97-167), frg14 (141-214), frg15 (65-250), frg16 (252-450) and G (G21-465) by Western blot and ELISA. However, titres were higher when using frg11, frg15 or frg16, rather than G21-465, suggesting higher accessibility to G epitopes. Further knowledge of the antigenicity of the G protein of rhabdoviruses by using fragments might be used to improve current vaccines. On the other hand, they might be used to dissect the trout antibody response to VHSV infections, to complement in vitro neutralizing assays, and/or to quantitate anti-VHSV antibodies in VHSV-infected/vaccinated trout, other fish and/or other body fluids such as mucus.

  13. Detection of rhabdovirus viral RNA in oropharyngeal swabs and ectoparasites of Spanish bats.

    PubMed

    Aznar-Lopez, Carolina; Vazquez-Moron, Sonia; Marston, Denise A; Juste, Javier; Ibáñez, Carlos; Berciano, Jose Miguel; Salsamendi, Egoitz; Aihartza, Joxerra; Banyard, Ashley C; McElhinney, Lorraine; Fooks, Anthony R; Echevarria, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdoviruses infect a variety of hosts, including mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, insects and plants. As bats are the natural host for most members of the genus Lyssavirus, the specificity of the amplification methods used for active surveillance is usually restricted to lyssaviruses. However, the presence of other rhabdoviruses in bats has also been reported. In order to broaden the scope of such methods, a new RT-PCR, able to detect a diverse range of rhabdoviruses, was designed. The method detected 81 of 86 different rhabdoviruses. In total, 1488 oropharyngeal bat swabs and 38 nycteribiid samples were analysed, and 17 unique rhabdovirus-related sequences were detected. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that those sequences detected in bats did not constitute a monophyletic group, even when originating from the same bat species. However, all of the sequences detected in nycteribiids and one sequence obtained from a bat did constitute a monophyletic group with Drosophila melanogaster sigma rhabdovirus.

  14. Production of recombinant snakehead rhabdovirus: the NV protein is not required for viral replication.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M C; Simon, B E; Kim, C H; Leong, J A

    2000-03-01

    Snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) affects warm water fish in Southeast Asia and belongs to the genus Novirhabdovirus by virtue of its nonvirion gene (NV). Because SHRV grows best at temperatures between 28 and 31 degrees C, we were able to use the T7 expression system to produce viable recombinant SHRV from a cloned cDNA copy of the viral genome. Expression of a positive-strand RNA copy of the 11, 550-nucleotide SHRV genome along with the viral nucleocapsid (N), phosphoprotein (P), and polymerase (L) proteins resulted in the generation of infectious SHRV in cells preinfected with a vaccinia virus vector for T7 polymerase expression. Recombinant virus production was verified by detection of a unique restriction site engineered into the SHRV genome between the NV and L genes. Since we were now able to begin examining the function of the NV gene, we constructed a recombinant virus containing a nonsense mutation located 22 codons into the coding sequence of the NV protein. The NV knockout virus was produced at a concentration as high as that of wild-type virus in cultured fish cells, and the resulting virions appeared to be identical to the wild-type virions in electron micrographs. These initial studies suggest that NV has no critical function in SHRV replication in cultured fish cells.

  15. Sequence variation of the glycoprotein gene identifies three distinct lineages within field isolates of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, a fish rhabdovirus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benmansour, A.; Bascuro, B.; Monnier, A.F.; Vende, P.; Winton, J.R.; de Kinkelin, P.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the genetic diversity of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), the sequence of the glycoprotein genes (G) of 11 North American and European isolates were determined. Comparison with the G protein of representative members of the family Rhabdoviridae suggested that VHSV was a different virus species from infectious haemorrhagic necrosis virus (IHNV) and Hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV). At a higher taxonomic level, VHSV, IHNV and HIRRV formed a group which was genetically closest to the genus Lyssavirus. Compared with each other, the G genes of VHSV displayed a dissimilar overall genetic diversity which correlated with differences in geographical origin. The multiple sequence alignment of the complete G protein, showed that the divergent positions were not uniformly distributed along the sequence. A central region (amino acid position 245-300) accumulated substitutions and appeared to be highly variable. The genetic heterogeneity within a single isolate was high, with an apparent internal mutation frequency of 1.2 x 10(-3) per nucleotide site, attesting the quasispecies nature of the viral population. The phylogeny separated VHSV strains according to the major geographical area of isolation: genotype I for continental Europe, genotype II for the British Isles, and genotype III for North America. Isolates from continental Europe exhibited the highest genetic variability, with sub-groups correlated partially with the serological classification. Neither neutralizing polyclonal sera, nor monoclonal antibodies, were able to discriminate between the genotypes. The overall structure of the phylogenetic tree suggests that VHSV genetic diversity and evolution fit within the model of random change and positive selection operating on quasispecies.

  16. Rhabdovirus-like endogenous viral elements in the genome of Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells are actively transcribed: Implications for adventitious virus detection.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Christoph; Jarvis, Donald L

    2016-07-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf) cell lines are used to produce several biologicals for human and veterinary use. Recently, it was discovered that all tested Sf cell lines are persistently infected with Sf-rhabdovirus, a novel rhabdovirus. As part of an effort to search for other adventitious viruses, we searched the Sf cell genome and transcriptome for sequences related to Sf-rhabdovirus. To our surprise, we found intact Sf-rhabdovirus N- and P-like ORFs, and partial Sf-rhabdovirus G- and L-like ORFs. The transcribed and genomic sequences matched, indicating the transcripts were derived from the genomic sequences. These appear to be endogenous viral elements (EVEs), which result from the integration of partial viral genetic material into the host cell genome. It is theoretically impossible for the Sf-rhabdovirus-like EVEs to produce infectious virus particles as 1) they are disseminated across 4 genomic loci, 2) the G and L ORFs are incomplete, and 3) the M ORF is missing. Our finding of transcribed virus-like sequences in Sf cells underscores that MPS-based searches for adventitious viruses in cell substrates used to manufacture biologics should take into account both genomic and transcribed sequences to facilitate the identification of transcribed EVE's, and to avoid false positive detection of replication-competent adventitious viruses.

  17. Viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits and human health.

    PubMed Central

    Carman, J. A.; Garner, M. G.; Catton, M. G.; Thomas, S.; Westbury, H. A.; Cannon, R. M.; Collins, B. J.; Tribe, I. G.

    1998-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits (VHD), a potential biological control for wild rabbits in Australia and New Zealand, escaped from quarantined field trials on Wardang Island and spread to the mainland of Australia in October 1995. This study looked for any evidence of infection or illness in people occupationally exposed to the virus. Two hundred and sixty-nine people were interviewed and 259 blood samples were collected. Exposures to VHD-infected rabbits ranged from nil to very high. No VHD antibodies were detected in any of the 259 sera when tested by VHD competitive enzyme immunoassay, which had been validated with 1013 VHDV-specific antibody negative sera. A questionnaire designed to elicit symptoms of disease in a range of organ systems found no significant differences between illness in those exposed and those not exposed to VHD, nor could an association be found between exposure and subsequent episodes of illness. The findings are consistent with the view that exposure to VHD is not associated with infection or disease in humans. PMID:9825794

  18. Efficacy of a glycoprotein DNA vaccine against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii Valenciennes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, L.M.; Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.; Grady, C.A.; Roon, S.E.; O’Reilly, J.; Gregg, J.L.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and its associated disease state, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), is hypothesized to be a proximate factor accounting for the decline and failed recovery of Pacific herring populations in Prince William Sound, AK (Marty et al. 1998, 2003, 2010). Survivors of laboratory-induced VHSV epizootics develop resistance to subsequent viral exposure (Kocan et al. 2001; Hershberger et al. 2007, 2010), which is likely the result of immune system recognition of the viral glycoprotein (G) (Lecocq-Xhonneux et al. 1994), a surface antigen that contains neutralizing epitopes (Lorenzen, Olesen & Jorgensen 1990; Jørgensen et al. 1995) and cell attachment domains (Lecocq-Xhonneux et al. 1994; Estepa & Coll 1996). These properties have proven useful in the development of G-gene-based DNA vaccines for VHSV and a related rhabdovirus, infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) (Anderson et al. 1996; Heppell et al. 1998; Corbeil et al. 1999; Einer-Jensen et al. 2009). Rainbow trout fingerlings, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), vaccinated with 1 µg of either the VHS or IHN vaccine are protected from VHS when exposed to virus as early as 4 days (44 degree days) post-vaccination (p.v.) (Lorenzen et al. 2002). At later time points (80 days p.v.; 880 degree days), the level of cross-protection against VHS by IHN vaccination is either completely lost (60 days p.v.; 660 degree days) (3 g rainbow trout; 1 µg vaccine dose) (Lorenzen et al. 2002) or present at intermediate levels (6.5 g rainbow trout; 1 µg vaccine dose) (Einer-Jensen et al. 2009). Comparatively, VHS vaccination remains effective as long as 9 months (2520 degree days) p.v. (100 g rainbow trout; 0.5 µg vaccine dose) (McLauchlan et al. 2003). These results suggest that IHN and VHS vaccination activate a rapid transitory innate immune response against VHSV that is followed by long-term adaptive immunity in VHS-vaccinated trout (Lorenzen et al. 2002).

  19. Alkhurma haemorrhagic fever--a viral haemorrhagic disease unique to the Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Memish, Ziad A; Charrel, Remi N; Zaki, Ali M; Fagbo, Shamsudeen F

    2010-11-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of human and animal pathogens on a global scale continues unabated. One such pathogen is the arbovirus that causes Alkhurma haemorrhagic fever, which emerged in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the mid 1990s. It has since re-emerged in other regions of the country and threatens to widen its area of endemicity beyond the peninsula. Human and animal movements, especially those associated with the annual mass gathering event of Hajj (pilgrimage) may facilitate introduction into other continental masses, where it must be differentiated from dengue and other similar arboviral haemorrhagic fevers. In addition to dengue and Kadam viruses, which are known to be endemic in Saudi Arabia, it is thought that other flaviviruses exist in the region, though undetected. Collectively, these viruses present diagnostic challenges that may confound the recognition of clinical cases of Alkhurma haemorrhagic fever. The Saudi Ministry of Health is making concerted efforts to expand the evidence base in order to enhance the diagnostic and preventive protocols used to address the challenge of Alkhurma haemorrhagic fever.

  20. Threat of Marburg and Ebola viral haemorrhagic fevers in Africa.

    PubMed

    Tukei, P M

    1996-01-01

    Marburg and Ebola viruses are members of the filovirus family that can be regarded as recently emerged. These viruses have caused sporadic outbreaks of fatal haemorrhagic disease in Africa, Europe and recently in the USA. The case fatality rates rank among the highest ranging from 33-80%. The mode of transmission of these viruses are clearly through close contact with blood and body fluids. Disease outbreaks have been amplified in hospital situations with poor blood precautions. In villages disease has been amplified through contamination with blood and fluids during nursing the sick and burial rituals. The source of the viruses has eluded discovery and new theories regarding the nature of these viruses are being entertained. The threat of new outbreaks in Africa is real since serological evidence of the presence of the virus has been documented in Kenya, Sudan, Zaire, Zimbabwe, Gabon, Cote-d'Ivoire and Gabon.

  1. [Ebola and Marburg fever--outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fever].

    PubMed

    Chlíbek, R; Smetana, J; Vacková, M

    2006-12-01

    With an increasing frequency of traveling and tourism to exotic countries, a new threat-import of rare, very dangerous infections-emerges in humane medicine. Ebola fever and Marburg fever, whose agents come from the same group of Filoviridae family, belong among these diseases. The natural reservoir of these viruses has not yet been precisely determined. The pathogenesis of the diseases is not absolutely clear, there is neither a possibility of vaccination, nor an effective treatment. Fever and haemorrhagic diathesis belong to the basic symptoms of the diseases. Most of the infected persons die, the death rate is 70-88 %. The history of Ebola fever is relatively short-30 years, Marburg fever is known almost 40 years. Hundreds of people have died of these diseases so far. The study involves epidemics recorded in the world and their epidemiological relations. Not a single case has been recorded in the Czech Republic, nevertheless a sick traveler or infected animals are the highest risk of import these diseases. In our conditions, the medical staff belong to a highly endangered group of people because of stringent isolation of patients, strict rules of barrier treatment regime and high infectivity of the diseases. For this reason, the public should be prepared for possible contact with these highly virulent infections.

  2. Rhabdovirus accessory genes.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Joubert, D Albert; Blasdell, Kim R

    2011-12-01

    The Rhabdoviridae is one of the most ecologically diverse families of RNA viruses with members infecting a wide range of organisms including placental mammals, marsupials, birds, reptiles, fish, insects and plants. The availability of complete nucleotide sequences for an increasing number of rhabdoviruses has revealed that their ecological diversity is reflected in the diversity and complexity of their genomes. The five canonical rhabdovirus structural protein genes (N, P, M, G and L) that are shared by all rhabdoviruses are overprinted, overlapped and interspersed with a multitude of novel and diverse accessory genes. Although not essential for replication in cell culture, several of these genes have been shown to have roles associated with pathogenesis and apoptosis in animals, and cell-to-cell movement in plants. Others appear to be secreted or have the characteristics of membrane-anchored glycoproteins or viroporins. However, most encode proteins of unknown function that are unrelated to any other known proteins. Understanding the roles of these accessory genes and the strategies by which rhabdoviruses use them to engage, divert and re-direct cellular processes will not only present opportunities to develop new anti-viral therapies but may also reveal aspects of cellar function that have broader significance in biology, agriculture and medicine.

  3. A novel multiplex RT-qPCR method based on dual-labelled probes suitable for typing all known genotypes of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, D; López-Vázquez, C; Skall, H F; Mikkelsen, S S; Olesen, N J; Dopazo, C P

    2016-04-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) is a notifiable fish disease, whose causative agent is a rhabdovirus isolated from a wide range of fish species, not only in fresh but also in marine and brackish waters. Phylogenetic studies have identified four major genotypes, with a strong geographical relationship. In this study, we have designed and validated a new procedure--named binary multiplex RT-qPCR (bmRT-qPCR)--for simultaneous detection and typing of all four genotypes of VHSV by real-time RT-PCR based on dual-labelled probes and composed by two multiplex systems designed for European and American/Asiatic isolates, respectively, using a combination of three different fluorophores. The specificity of the procedure was assessed by including a panel of 81 VHSV isolates covering all known genotypes and subtypes of the virus, and tissue material from experimentally infected rainbow trout, resulting in a correct detection and typing of all strains. The analytical sensitivity was evaluated in a comparative assay with titration in cell culture, observing that both methods provided similar limits of detection. The proposed method can be a powerful tool for epidemiological analysis of VHSV by genotyping unknown samples within a few hours.

  4. Isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus from muskellunge, Esox masquinongy (Mitchill), in Lake St Clair, Michigan, USA reveals a new sublineage of the North American genotype

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elsayed, E.; Faisal, M.; Thomas, M.; Whelan, G.; Batts, W.; Winton, J.

    2006-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from muskellunge, Esox masquinongy (Mitchill), caught from the NW portion of Lake St Clair, Michigan, USA in 2003. Affected fish exhibited congestion of internal organs; the inner wall of the swim bladder was thickened and contained numerous budding, fluid-filled vesicles. A virus was isolated using fish cell lines inoculated with a homogenate of kidney and spleen tissues from affected fish. Focal areas of cell rounding and granulation appeared as early as 24 h post-inoculation and expanded rapidly to destroy the entire cell sheet by 96 h. Electron microscopy revealed virions that were 170-180 nm in length by 60-70 nm in width having a bullet-shaped morphology typical of rhabdoviruses. The virus was confirmed as VHSV by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis of the entire nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes revealed the virus was a member of the North American genotype of VHSV; however, the isolate was sufficiently distinct to be considered a separate sublineage, suggesting its origin may have been from marine species inhabiting the eastern coastal areas of the USA or Canada. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Determination and analysis of the complete genome sequence of Paralichthys olivaceus rhabdovirus (PORV).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ruo-Lin; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2014-04-01

    Paralichthys olivaceus rhabdovirus (PORV), which is associated with high mortality rates in flounder, was isolated in China in 2005. Here, we provide an annotated sequence record of PORV, the genome of which comprises 11,182 nucleotides and contains six genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-NV-L-5'. Phylogenetic analysis based on glycoprotein sequences of PORV and other rhabdoviruses showed that PORV clusters with viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), genus Novirhabdovirus, family Rhabdoviridae. Further phylogenetic analysis of the combined amino acid sequences of six proteins of PORV and VHSV strains showed that PORV clusters with Korean strains and is closely related to Asian strains, all of which were isolated from flounder. In a comparison in which the sequences of the six proteins were combined, PORV shared the highest identity (98.3 %) with VHSV strain KJ2008 from Korea.

  6. Viral haemorrhagic fevers in Europe--effective control requires a co-ordinated response.

    PubMed

    Crowcroft, N S; Morgan, D; Brown, D

    2002-03-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) have attracted the attention of the medical world and general public for many reasons, some based in reality and more on misinformation. They are amongst the highest profile infections in the public mind, because they are thought to be highly infectious and to kill most of their victims in a dramatic way (1,2). To add to the intrigue, mysteries remain about the source of some of the viruses involved. They emerge and re-emerge in many countries, most recently Ebola in Uganda in 2000 (3) and Gabon in 2001/02 (4), and Congo Crimean Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) in Kosovo (5) and Pakistan in 2001 (6). Large outbreaks have affected populations in endemic areas, living mainly in inaccessible areas or refugee camps where living conditions are very difficult. Poorly resourced medical facilities have played a role in amplifying transmission and infection control measures have been difficult or virtually impossible to establish. These viruses are likely to remain a threat until the reservoir is identified and as long as endemic areas are afflicted with ecological change, poverty and social instability. Recent events since September 11 2001 remind us of their potential to be used as weapons, and that fear can present a risk to public health. PMID:12631941

  7. Characterisation of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolates from an outbreak with haemorrhagic enteritis and severe pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Yeşilbağ, Kadir; Förster, Christine; Ozyiğit, M Ozgür; Alpay, Gizem; Tuncer, Pelin; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; König, Matthias

    2014-02-21

    During 2007 a disease outbreak occurred in cattle in the Marmara region of western Turkey characterised by severe pneumonia and haemorrhagic enteritis in calves. Cases from three farms at different locations were examined and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolated in all cases. Phylogenetic characterisation of the virus isolates allocated them in a new cluster tentatively named as BVDV-1r.

  8. Viral load of various tissues of rainbow trout challenged with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus at various stages of disease.

    PubMed

    Oidtmann, B; Joiner, C; Stone, D; Dodge, M; Reese, R A; Dixon, P

    2011-01-21

    Market-sized rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were challenged by waterborne exposure to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV isolate of genogroup Ia). Fish were sampled at 4 stages of infection (before onset of clinical signs, clinically affected fish, mortalities and survivors) and the viral load determined in (1) internal organs, (2) muscle tissue and (3) brain and gill tissue. Virus levels were determined by virus titration and real-time RT-PCR. VHSV was detected by either method in the majority of fish before onset of clinical signs and in the survivor group as well as in all fish in the clinically affected fish and mortality groups. Mean virus amounts per mg of tissue determined by virus titration (TCID50) or real-time RT-PCR (copy number) were > 10(4) in preclinical fish, > 10(3.8) in clinically affected fish, > 10(3.9) in mortalities and > 10(1.2) in survivors. Virus levels tended to be highest in the internal organs of subclinical and clinically affected fish and in brain and gill tissue of survivors. The results demonstrate that significant levels of VHSV can be found in tissues of rainbow trout that may be marketed for human consumption, which may have relevance for the biosecurity of VHS-free areas.

  9. Virulence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype III in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Mori, Koh-ichiro; Olesen, Niels J

    2016-01-08

    In general, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates from marine fish species in European waters (genotypes GIb, GII and GIII) are non- to low virulent in rainbow trout. However, a VHSV isolation was made in 2007 from a disease outbreak in sea farmed rainbow trout in Norway. The isolate, named NO-2007-50-385, was demonstrated to belong to GIII. This isolate has attracted attention to assess which of the viral genome/proteins might be associated with the virulence in rainbow trout. In this study, we describe the difference of virulence in rainbow trout between the NO-2007-50-385 and 4p168 isolates as representatives of virulent and non-virulent GIII isolates, respectively. Rainbow trout were bath challenged with VHSV NO-2007-50-385 for 1 and 6 h, resulting in cumulative mortalities of 5 and 35%, respectively. No mortality was observed in the rainbow trout groups immersed with the genotype III VHSV isolate 4p168 for 1 and 6 h. The viral titre in organs from fish challenged with NO-2007-50-385 for 6 h increased more rapidly than those exposed for 1 h. By in vitro studies it was demonstrated that the final titres of VHSV DK-3592B (GI), NO-2007-50-385 and 4p168 inoculated on EPC cells were very similar, whereas when inoculated on the rainbow trout cell line RTG-2 the titre of the non-virulent 4p168 isolate was 3-4 logs below the two other VHSV isolates. Based on a comparative analysis of the entire genome of the genotype III isolates, we suggest that substitutions of amino acids in positions 118-123 of the nucleo-protein are candidates for being related to virulence of VHSV GIII in rainbow trout.

  10. Spatio-temporal risk factors for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in Danish aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Bang Jensen, Britt; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Korsholm, Henrik; Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2014-05-13

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) is an economically very important fish disease in the northern hemisphere. When the VHS virus was first isolated in Denmark 50 yr ago, more than 80% of the 800 Danish fish farms were considered to be infected, but vigilant surveillance and eradication programmes led to a drastic reduction in prevalence, and finally, to complete eradication of VHS. Denmark thus obtained official status as an approved VHS-free member state within the European Union in November 2013. Data on outbreaks within the country have been collected since 1970, and here we combined these data with the geographical coordinates of fish farms to identify clusters of high disease prevalence and other risk factors. Our analyses revealed a statistically significant cluster in the southwestern part of the country, which persisted throughout the study period. Being situated within such a cluster was a significant risk factor for VHS. For freshwater rainbow trout farms situated inland, the number of upstream farms was a determining risk factor for VHS, as was distance to the nearest VHS-infected farm and year. Whether the farm used fresh or marine water in production did not have any influence on the risk of VHS, when accounting for whether the farm was situated inside a cluster of high risk. This information can be used when implementing risk-based surveillance programmes.

  11. Sublethal concentrations of ichthyotoxic alga Prymnesium parvum affect rainbow trout susceptibility to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted; Lorenzen, Ellen; Snogdal Boutrup, Torsten; Hansen, Per Juel; Lorenzen, Niels

    2016-01-13

    Ichthyotoxic algal blooms are normally considered a threat to maricultured fish only when blooms reach lethal cell concentrations. The degree to which sublethal algal concentrations challenge the health of the fish during blooms is practically unknown. In this study, we analysed whether sublethal concentrations of the ichthyotoxic alga Prymnesium parvum affect the susceptibility of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). During exposure to sublethal algal concentrations, the fish increased production of mucus on their gills. When fish were exposed to the algae for 12 h prior to the addition of virus, a marginal decrease in the susceptibility to VHSV was observed compared to fish exposed to VHSV without algae. If virus and algae were added simultaneously, inclusion of the algae increased mortality by 50% compared to fish exposed to virus only, depending on the experimental setup. We concluded that depending on the local exposure conditions, sublethal concentrations of P. parvum could affect susceptibility of fish to infectious agents such as VHSV. PMID:26758652

  12. A mortality event in wrasse species (Labridae) associated with the presence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.

    PubMed

    Munro, E S; McIntosh, R E; Weir, S J; Noguera, P A; Sandilands, J M; Matejusova, I; Mayes, A S; Smith, R

    2015-04-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) is an infectious disease of farmed and wild fish and has an extensive host range in both freshwater and marine environments. In December 2012, a wrasse population consisting of ballan, Labrus bergylta (Ascanius), corkwing, Symphodus melops (L.), cuckoo, Labrus mixtus L., goldsinny, Ctenolabrus rupestris (L.), and rock cook, Centrolabrus exoletus (L.), held at a marine hatchery in the Shetland Isles, Scotland, experienced a mortality event. Approximately 10 000 wrasse were being held at the facility on behalf of an Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., aquaculture company prior to being deployed for the biological control of parasites on marine pen Atlantic salmon, aquaculture sites. Fish Health Inspectors from Marine Scotland Science initiated a diagnostic investigation, and subsequent diagnostic testing confirmed the site to be VHSV positive by qRT-PCR and virus isolation followed by ELISA. A VHSV genotype-specific qRT-PCR assay revealed that the isolates belonged to genotype III, the European marine strain of the virus. The virus genotype was further confirmed by nucleic acid sequencing of the partial nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes followed by BLAST nucleotide searches. This study reports for the first time the detection of VHSV within multiple wrasse species and highlights the need for a comprehensive risk-based approach to the use of wrasse and other finfish species as biological controls within the aquaculture industry.

  13. First isolation and genotyping of viruses from recent outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Toplak, Ivan; Hostnik, Peter; Rihtaric, Danijela; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank; Jencic, Vlasta

    2010-10-26

    In November and December 2007, the virus causing viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) was detected in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from 2 fish farms in Slovenia. During 2008 and 2009 the infection spread only among rainbow trout farms and 4 new outbreaks were confirmed. High mortality and clinical signs of VHS were observed among the diseased fish. VHSV was confirmed by virus isolation, immunoperoxidase test, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and phylogenetic analysis. Based on 1 complete (1524 nucleotides [nt]) and 9 partial (600 nt) glycoprotein gene nucleotide sequences, 9 VHSV isolates from the 6 VHS outbreaks were genetically closely related (99 to 100% identity), and were classified into the Subgroup I-a of Genotype I, most closely related to the German isolates Dstg21-07, Dstg36-06, and Dstg54-1-07 (99 to 100% identity). Phylogenetic analysis and epidemiological investigations confirmed that the VHS virus had been (re)introduced with imported live fish, and that subsequent outbreaks were linked to the initial infection. Our study shows that direct nucleotide sequencing of RT-PCR products, amplified from the tissue of VHSV-infected fish, represents a reliable tool for fast routine genotyping in diagnostic laboratories. This is the first report of a natural epidemic associated with VHSV infection in Slovenia since the eradication of the disease in 1977. PMID:21166311

  14. Spatio-temporal risk factors for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in Danish aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Bang Jensen, Britt; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Korsholm, Henrik; Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2014-05-13

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) is an economically very important fish disease in the northern hemisphere. When the VHS virus was first isolated in Denmark 50 yr ago, more than 80% of the 800 Danish fish farms were considered to be infected, but vigilant surveillance and eradication programmes led to a drastic reduction in prevalence, and finally, to complete eradication of VHS. Denmark thus obtained official status as an approved VHS-free member state within the European Union in November 2013. Data on outbreaks within the country have been collected since 1970, and here we combined these data with the geographical coordinates of fish farms to identify clusters of high disease prevalence and other risk factors. Our analyses revealed a statistically significant cluster in the southwestern part of the country, which persisted throughout the study period. Being situated within such a cluster was a significant risk factor for VHS. For freshwater rainbow trout farms situated inland, the number of upstream farms was a determining risk factor for VHS, as was distance to the nearest VHS-infected farm and year. Whether the farm used fresh or marine water in production did not have any influence on the risk of VHS, when accounting for whether the farm was situated inside a cluster of high risk. This information can be used when implementing risk-based surveillance programmes. PMID:24991736

  15. Differentially expressed genes after viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus infection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jee Youn; Kwon, Mun-Gyeong; Seo, Jung Soo; Do, Jung Wan; Park, Myoung-Ae; Jung, Sung-Hee; Ahn, Sang Jung

    2016-09-25

    A strain of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from cultured olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) during epizootics in South Korean. This strain showed high mortality to olive flounder in in vivo challenge experiment. The complete genomic RNA sequences were determined and phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of glycoprotein revealed that this isolate was grouped into genotype IVa of genus Novirhabdovirus. Expression profile of genes in olive flounder was analyzed at day 1 and day3 after infection with this VHSV isolate by using cDNA microarray containing olive flounder 13K cDNA clones. Microarray analysis revealed 785 up-regulated genes and 641 down-regulated genes by at least two-fold in virus-infected fish compared to healthy control groups. Among 785 up-regulated genes, we identified seven immune response-associated genes, including the interferon (IFN)-induced 56-kDa protein (IFI56), suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), interleukin 8 (IL-8), cluster of differentiation 83 (CD83), α-globin (HBA), VHSV-induced protein-6 (VHSV6), and cluster of differentiation antigen 9 (CD9). Our results confirm previous reports that even virulent strain of VHSV induces expression of genes involved in protective immunity against VHSV. PMID:27599933

  16. Isolation and characterization of Scophthalmus maximus rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Ya; Tao, Jian-Jun; Gui, Lang; Zhou, Guang-Zhou; Ruan, Hong-Mei; Li, Zhen-Qiu; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2007-02-28

    A rhabdovirus associated with a lethal hemorrhagic disease in cultured turbot Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus was isolated. The virus induced typical cytopathogenic effects (CPE) in 9 of 15 fish cell lines examined and was then propagated and isolated from infected carp leucocyte cells (CLC). Electron microscopy observations revealed that the negatively stained virions had a typical bullet-shaped morphology with one rounded end and one flat base end. The bullet-shaped morphology was more obvious and clear in ultrathin sections of infected cells. Experimental infections also indicated that the S. maximus rhabdovirus (SMRV) was not only a viral pathogen for cultured turbot, but also had the ability to infect other fish species, such as freshwater grass carp. A partial nucleotide sequence of the SMRV polymerase gene was determined by RT-PCR using 2 pairs of degenerate primers designed according to the conserved sequences of rhabdovirus polymerase genes. Homology analysis, amino acid sequence alignment, and phylogenetic relationship analysis of the partial SMRV polymerase sequence indicated that SMRV was genetically distinct from other rhabdoviruses. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of the purified SMRV revealed 5 major structural proteins, and their molecular masses were estimated to be about 250, 58, 47, 42, and 28 kDa. Significant serological reactivity differences were also observed between SMRV and its nearest neighbor, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). The data suggest that SMRV is likely a novel fish rhabdovirus, although it is closely related to rhabdoviruses in the genus Vesiculovirus.

  17. Survey of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in wild fishes in the southeastern Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Ogut, H; Altuntas, C

    2014-05-13

    Species diversity in the Black Sea ecosystem has been declining rapidly over the last 2 decades. To assess the occurrence and distribution of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in various wild fish species, a wild marine fish survey was carried out in 2009, 2010, and 2011. The pooled or individual samples of kidney, liver, and spleen of 5025 specimens, belonging to 17 fish species, were examined virologically using cell culture. The cells showing cytopathic effects (CPE) were subjected to ELISA and multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-mPCR), for VHSV and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), after blind passaging to determine the virus species causing CPE. The virus species and possibility of co-infection with IPNV were verified by the RT-mPCR developed in this study. Twelve species of fish (pontic shad Alosa immaculata, red mullet Mullus barbatus, three-bearded rockling Gaidropsarus vulgaris, black scorpionfish Scorpaena porcus, Mediterranean horse mackerel Trachurus mediterraneus, whiting Merlangius merlangus euxinus, stargazer Uranoscopus scaber, pilchard Sardina pilchardus, garfish Belone belone, round goby Neogobius melanostomus, thornback ray Raja clavata, and anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus) tested positive for VHSV Genotype Ie (VHSV-Ie). Except whiting, pilchard, and round goby, the rest are new host records for VHSV. The extent and spread of VHSV-Ie was significantly higher among bottom fish than among pelagic fish. Sensitivity and specificity of the RT-mPCR developed was sufficiently high, suggesting that this assay may be used for both diagnostic and surveillance testing. According to the RT-mPCR results, IPNV was not present in wild fish. These results support the hypothesis that the VHSV-Ie genotype, highly prevalent among fish species in the Black Sea, may have a serious impact on the population dynamics of wild fish stocks. PMID:24991737

  18. Development of an oral vaccine for immunisation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia.

    PubMed

    Adelmann, Malte; Köllner, Bernd; Bergmann, Sven M; Fischer, Uwe; Lange, Bodo; Weitschies, Werner; Enzmann, Peter-Joachim; Fichtner, Dieter

    2008-02-01

    In the European Union Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (VHS) eradication is still based on stamping out. Due to the lack of effective low cost vaccines immune prophylaxis is currently not used to combat VHS. This paper describes a new oral delivery method for immunisation of trout with attenuated virus. The vaccine consists of lyophilised virus surrounded by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and was extruded under low temperature. In the stomach of trout, the use of additional neutralising and adsorbing bases resulted in a neutral pH around the vaccine pellets, thus protecting the antigen against gastric acid. The in vivo efficacy of this delivery method was examined in three animal challenge experiments using an attenuated VHS virus (VHSV) strain as a vaccine. After vaccination, VHSV mRNA in gut, heart, kidney, spleen and blood was amplified by semi-nested PCR after RT-PCR. Indirect immune fluorescence test detected VHS vaccine virus in the gut. The expression of MHC class II, CD4 and CD8alpha mRNAs after oral vaccination was measured in gut using real-time RT-PCR. Antibody levels were measured by ELISA one week before vaccination and five weeks after vaccination. Animals were challenged six weeks after vaccination with highly virulent VHSV and mortality was recorded. The experiments showed that orally delivered vaccine virus was released from the vaccine preparation, penetrated the gut mucosa and led to higher expression levels of MHC class II and CD4 mRNAs when compared to control guts. VHSV antibodies were detected after oral vaccination. Immunisation with this new vaccine formulation was followed by a significant protection against VHSV. While the cumulative mortality in the non-vaccinated control group reached 70%, more than 75% of the orally vaccinated fish were protected upon challenge. PMID:18191880

  19. Arbovirus infections and viral haemorrhagic fevers in Uganda: a serological survey in Karamoja district, 1984.

    PubMed

    Rodhain, F; Gonzalez, J P; Mercier, E; Helynck, B; Larouze, B; Hannoun, C

    1989-01-01

    Sera collected in May 1984 from 132 adult residents of Karamoja district, Uganda, were examined by haemagglutination inhibition tests for antibodies against selected arboviruses, namely Chikungunya and Semliki Forest alphaviruses (Togaviridae); dengue type 2, Wesselsbron, West Nile, yellow fever and Zika flaviviruses (Flaviviridae); Bunyamwera, Ilesha and Tahyna bunyaviruses (Bunyaviridae); and Sicilian sandfly fever phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae); and by immunofluorescence tests against certain haemorrhagic fever viruses, Lassa fever arenavirus (Arenaviridae), Ebola-Sudan, Ebola-Zaïre and Marburg filoviruses (Filoviridae), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever nairovirus and Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae). Antibodies against Chikungunya virus were the most prevalent (47%), followed by flavivirus antibodies (16%), which were probably due mainly to West Nile virus. No evidence of yellow fever or dengue virus circulation was observed. A few individuals had antibodies against Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Lassa, Ebola and Marburg viruses, suggesting that these viruses all circulate in the area.

  20. Analysis of the nucleoprotein gene identifies three distinct lineages of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) within the European marine environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snow, M.; Cunningham, C.O.; Melvin, W.T.; Kurath, G.

    1999-01-01

    A ribonuclease (RNase) protection assay (RPA) has been used to detect nucleotide sequence variation within the nucleoprotein gene of 39 viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates of European marine origin. The classification of VHSV isolates based on RPA cleavage patterns permitted the identification of ten distinct groups of viruses based on differences at the molecular level. The nucleotide sequence of representatives of each of these groupings was determined and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. This revealed grouping of the European marine isolates of VHSV into three genotypes circulating within distinct geographic areas. A fourth genotype was identified comprising isolates originating from North America. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that VHSV isolates recovered from wild caught fish around the British Isles were genetically related to isolates responsible for losses in farmed turbot. Furthermore, a relationship between naturally occurring marine isolates and VHSV isolates causing mortality among rainbow trout in continental Europe was demonstrated. Analysis of the nucleoprotein gene identifies distinct lineages of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus within the European marine environment. Virus Res. 63, 35-44. Available from: 

  1. Characterisation of the genomes of four putative vesiculoviruses: tench rhabdovirus, grass carp rhabdovirus, perch rhabdovirus and eel rhabdovirus European X.

    PubMed

    Stone, David M; Kerr, Rose C; Hughes, Margaret; Radford, Alan D; Darby, Alistair C

    2013-11-01

    The complete coding sequences were determined for four putative vesiculoviruses isolated from fish. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis based on the predicted amino acid sequences of the five main proteins assigned tench rhabdovirus and grass carp rhabdovirus together with spring viraemia of carp and pike fry rhabdovirus to a lineage that was distinct from the mammalian vesiculoviruses. Perch rhabdovirus, eel virus European X, lake trout rhabdovirus 903/87 and sea trout virus were placed in a second lineage that was also distinct from the recognised genera in the family Rhabdoviridae. Establishment of two new rhabdovirus genera, "Perhabdovirus" and "Sprivivirus", is discussed.

  2. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals. PMID:22355456

  3. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Maureen K; Laing, Kerry J; Winton, James R

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  4. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non-virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  5. The model of response to viral haemorrhagic fevers of the National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Lazzaro Spallanzani".

    PubMed

    Armignacco, O; Lauria, F N; Puro, V; Macrì, G; Petrecchia, A; Ippolito, G

    2001-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are severe and life-threatening diseases caused by a range of viruses. However, only four agents of VHF are known to be readily capable of person-to-person spread: Lassa virus, Crimean/Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Ebola and Marburg viruses. Diseases caused by these viruses are endemic only in few areas in the world, most notably Africa and some rural parts of the Middle East and Eastern Europe. Nonetheless, the increasing volume of international travel presents a greater likelihood for the importation of these infections or of suspected cases in non endemic countries. Four conditions can lead to the importation and to the subsequent recognition of VHF within Europe: 1) patients arriving as a result of a planned medical evacuation; 2) persons who became sick on route to their destination; 3) persons discovered ill when entering a country, for example during routine clinical examination at the airport; 4) persons becoming sick after their arrival. Public health implications and the risk of secondary spread of pathogens in the above reported circumstances are very different. Similarly, preparedness and response should vary. This paper summarizes the present knowledge on the four VHF capable of person-to-person spread, describes the high isolation area constructed at the Italian National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani in Rome to respond to the occurrence of VHF. A brief overview of procedures and equipment adopted is provided.

  6. Application of control measures against viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits in the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic.

    PubMed

    Rodák, L; Smíd, B; Valícek, L

    1991-06-01

    The first outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) of rabbits were reported from eastern Slovakia in 1987. In 1988, the infection spread throughout the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic. Electron microscopy was used by the Veterinary Research Institute in Brno to diagnose the disease during the early stage of infection. At present, the regional laboratories of the veterinary investigation services use the haemagglutination and the direct immunofluorescence tests as the principal methods to demonstrate the causal agent. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase techniques have been developed to demonstrate VHD virus, while the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been used to detect antibodies. Diagnostic kits, allowing a wide use of these methods, are now available commercially. Two types of inactivate vaccines were developed and produced in 1988 and 1989. VHD is controlled by vaccination of exposed rabbit colonies. This is accompanied by other preventive and protective measures, directed by district veterinary officers following instructions from federal authorities.

  7. Viral replication in excised fin tissues (VREFT) corresponds with prior exposure of Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grady, C.A.; Gregg, J.L.; Wade, R.M.; Winton, J.R.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Procedures for a viral replication in excised fin tissue (VREFT) assay were adapted to Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, and optimized both to reduce processing time and to provide the greatest resolution between na??ve herring and those previously exposed to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), Genogroup IVa. The optimized procedures included removal of the left pectoral fin from a euthanized fish, inoculation of the fin with >105 plaque-forming units (PFU) mL-1 VHSV for 1 h, rinsing the fin in fresh medium six times to remove unadsorbed virions, incubation of the fin in fresh medium for 4 days and enumeration of the viral titre in a sample of the incubation medium by plaque assay. The optimized VREFT assay was effective at identifying the prior exposure history of laboratory-reared Pacific herring to VHSV. The geometric mean VREFT value was significantly greater (P < 0.01) among na??ve herring (1.2 ?? 103 PFU mL-1) than among groups that survived exposure to VHSV (1.0-2.9 ?? 102 PFU mL-1); additionally, the proportion of cultures with no detectable virus was significantly greater (P = 0.0002) among fish that survived exposure to VHSV (39-47%) than among na??ve fish (3.3%). The optimized VREFT assay demonstrates promise for identifying VHSV exposure history and forecasting disease potential in populations of wild Pacific herring. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The glycoprotein genes and gene junctions of the fish rhabdoviruses spring viremia of carp virus and hirame rhabdovirus: Analysis of relationships with other rhabdoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bjorklund, H.V.; Higman, K.H.; Kurath, G.

    1996-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the glycoprotein genes and all of the internal gene junctions of the fish pathogenic rhabdoviruses spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) and hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV) have been determined from cDNA clones generated from viral genomic RNA. The SVCV glycoprotein gene sequence is 1588 nucleotides (nt) long and encodes a 509 amino acid (aa) protein. The HIRRV glycoprotein gene sequence comprises 1612 nt, coding for a 508 aa protein. In sequence comparisons of 15 rhabdovirus glycoproteins, the SVCV glycoprotein gene showed the highest amino acid sequence identity (31.2-33.2%) with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV), Chandipura virus (CHPV) and vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV). The HIRRV glycoprotein gene showed a very high amino acid sequence identity (74.3%) with the glycoprotein gene of another fish pathogenic rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), but no significant similarity with glycoproteins of VSIV or rabies virus (RABV). In phylogenetic analyses SVCV was grouped consistently with VSIV, VSNJV and CHPV in the Vesiculovirus genus of Rhabdoviridae. The fish rhabdoviruses HIRRV, IHNV and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) showed close relationships with each other, but only very distant relationships with mammalian rhabdoviruses. The gene junctions are highly conserved between SVCV and VSIV, well conserved between IHNV and HIRRV, but not conserved between HIRRV/IHNV and RABV. Based on the combined results we suggest that the fish lyssa-type rhabdoviruses HIRRV, IHNV and VHSV may be grouped in their own genus within the family Rhabdoviridae. Aquarhabdovirus has been proposed for the name of this new genus.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in British Columbia, Canada, reveals transmission from wild to farmed fish.

    PubMed

    Garver, Kyle A; Traxler, Garth S; Hawley, Laura M; Richard, Jon; Ross, Jay P; Lovy, Jan

    2013-05-27

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is a fish pathogen found throughout the Northern Hemisphere and is capable of infecting and causing mortality in numerous marine and freshwater hosts. In the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada, the virus has been detected for 20 yr with many occurrences of mass mortalities among populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes) and sardine Sardinops sagax as well as detections among cultured Atlantic Salmo salar and Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha salmon. We compared nucleotide sequence of the full glycoprotein (G) gene coding region (1524 nt) of 63 VHSV isolates sampled during its recorded presence from 1993 to 2011 from 6 species and a total of 29 sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolates fell into sub-lineage IVa within the major VHSV genetic group IV. Of the 63 virus isolates, there were 42 unique sequences, each of which was ephemeral, being repeatedly detected at most only 1 yr after its initial detection. Multiple sequence types were revealed during single viral outbreak events, and genetic heterogeneity was observed within isolates from individual fish. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis revealed a close genetic linkage between VHSV isolates obtained from pelagic finfish species and farmed salmonids, providing evidence for virus transmission from wild to farmed fish.

  10. Oral transmission as a route of infection for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Schönherz, A A; Hansen, M H H; Jørgensen, H B H; Berg, P; Lorenzen, N; Einer-Jensen, K

    2012-06-01

    Surveys among wild marine fish have revealed occurrence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) infections in a high number of diverse fish species. In marine aquaculture of rainbow trout, preying on invading wild fish might thus be a risk factor for introduction and adaptation of VHSV and subsequent disease outbreaks. Our objective was to determine whether an oral transmission route for VHSV in rainbow trout exists. Juvenile trout were infected through oral, waterborne and cohabitation transmission routes, using a recombinant virus strain harbouring Renilla luciferase as reporter gene. Viral replication in stomach and kidney tissue was detected through bioluminescence activity of luciferase and qRT-PCR. Replication was detected in both tissues, irrespective of transmission route. Replication patterns, however, differed among transmission routes. In trout infected through oral transmission, replication was detected in the stomach prior to kidney tissue. In trout infected through waterborne or cohabitation transmission, replication was detected in kidney prior to stomach or in both tissues simultaneously. We demonstrate the existence of an oral transmission route for VHSV in rainbow trout. This implies that preying on invading infected wild fish is a risk factor for introduction of VHSV into marine cultures of rainbow trout.

  11. Interferon response following infection with genetically similar isolates of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) exhibiting contrasting virulence in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Campbell, S; McBeath, A; Secombes, C; Snow, M; Collet, B

    2011-01-01

    Isolates of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) were identified which are genetically similar yet, based on their isolation history were considered likely to differ in virulence in juvenile rainbow trout. An experimental infection study was performed in order to verify this hypothesis and provide an experimental infectivity model with which to investigate the basis for susceptibility of rainbow trout to this commercially important virus. Significant differences in mortality were obtained following both intraperitoneal (IP) injection and immersion challenges with an early marine (DK-M.Rhabdo) and early rainbow trout VHSV isolate (DK-F1) respectively. Expression of Type I IFN, Mx1 (an IFN-inducible protein), and viral genes (encoding nucleo-, phospho-, matrix, glyco- and non-viron proteins) was studied in sequential tissue samples using real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR). Resulting data revealed a significant increase in IFN and Mx1 expression detected in fish challenged by IP injection with both isolates. Expression levels of these genes were directly related to the degree of viral replication as measured by the expression of VHSV RNAs. In immersion-challenged fish a significant increase in Mx1 was observed only when using the virulent isolate DK-F1; however no elevated host response was detectable in fish challenged with the marine isolate DK-M.Rhabdo. Quintessentially the inability to detect any virus in trout challenged with the marine isolate via immersion suggests the virus was incapable of establishing infection. The mechanisms for this appear to be more related to initial cellular entry and replication rather than due to the overcoming of initial infection via an elevated host innate immune response. PMID:21056106

  12. Temporary protection of rainbow trout gill epithelial cells from infection with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus IVb.

    PubMed

    Al-Hussinee, L; Pham, P H; Russell, S; Tubbs, L; Tafalla, C; Bols, N C; Dixon, B; Lumsden, J S

    2016-09-01

    The branchial epithelium is not only a primary route of entry for viral pathogens, but is also a site of viral replication and subsequent shedding may also occur from the gill epithelium. This study investigated the potential of agents known to stimulate innate immunity to protect rainbow trout epithelial cells (RTgill-W1) from infection with VHSV IVb. RTgill-W1 cells were pretreated with poly I:C, FuGENE(®) HD + poly I:C, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS + poly I:C or heat-killed VHSV IVb and then infected with VHSV IVb 4 days later. Cytopathic effect (CPE) was determined at 2, 3, 4, 7 and 11 days post-infection. Virus in cells and supernatant was detected using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). All of the treatments delayed the onset of CPE (per cent of monolayer destruction), compared with untreated controls; however, killed VHSV or poly I:C combined with LPS was the most effective. Similarly, the detection of viral RNA in the supernatant was delayed, and the quantity was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by all treatments with the exception of LPS alone (4 days). Unlike many of the other treatments, pretreatment of RTgill-W1 with heat-killed VHSV did not upregulate interferon 1, 2 or MX 1 gene expression.

  13. Field-deployable real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viral ribonucleic acid.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W C; Stallknecht, D E; Mecham, J O

    2004-01-01

    Nucleic acid sequence information from molecular evolution studies of bluetongue virus (BTV) and related epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) strains has resulted in a large database of genomic information. Published sequence data and sequence data from our laboratory were used to design real-time field-deployable reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection of BTV or EHDV viral RNA. The assays used standard RNA extraction and TaqMan chemistries and the entire process was completed in

  14. Hospital preparedness and management of patients affected by viral haemorrhagic fever or smallpox at the Lazzaro Spallanzani Institute, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, G; Nicastri, E; Capobianchi, M; Di Caro, A; Petrosillo, N; Puro, V

    2005-03-01

    The US cases of anthrax in 2001 and the recent severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak have heightened the need for preparedness and response to naturally emerging and re-emerging infections or deliberately released biological agents. This report describes the response model of the Istituto Nazionale per le Malattie Infettive Lazzaro Spallanzani (INMI), Rome, Italy for managing patients suspected of or affected by smallpox or viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) either in the context of an intentional release or natural occurrence. The INMI is Italy's leading hospital in its preparedness and response plan to bioterrorism-related infectious agents. All single and double rooms of INMI are equipped with negative air pressure, sealed doors, high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and a fully-equipped anteroom; moreover, a dedicated high isolation unit with a laboratory next door for the initial diagnostic assays is available for admission of sporadic patients requiring high isolation. For patient transportation, two fully equipped ambulances and two stretcher isolators with a negative pressure section are available. Biomolecular and traditional diagnostic assays are currently performed in the biosafety level 3/4 (BSL 3/4) laboratories. Continuing education and training of hospital staff, consistent application of infection control practices, and availability of adequate personnel protective equipment are additional resources implemented for the care of highly infectious patients and to maintain the readiness of an appropriately trained workforce to handle large scale outbreaks.

  15. Epidemiological aspects of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus genotype II isolated from Baltic herring, Clupea harengus membras L.

    PubMed

    Gadd, T; Jakava-Viljanen, M; Tapiovaara, H; Koski, P; Sihvonen, L

    2011-07-01

    This study was carried out to clarify the role of wild fish, especially Baltic herring, Clupea harengus membras L., in the epidemiology of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in brackish water in Finland. Baltic herring with no visible signs of disease were collected from the Archipelago Sea, the Gulf of Bothnia and the eastern Gulf of Finland. In total, 7580 herring were examined by virus isolation as 758 pooled samples and 3029 wild salmonid broodfish as pooled samples during 2004-2006. VHSV was isolated from 51 pooled herring samples in bluegill fibroblast-2 cells, but not in epithelioma papulosum cyprini cells. The majority of isolations were from the coastal archipelago and from fish caught during the spawning season. Based on glycoprotein (G) gene sequences, the virus was classified as a member of genotype II of VHSV. Pairwise comparisons of the G gene regions of herring isolates revealed that all the isolates were closely related, with 98.8-100% nucleotide homology. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that they were closely related to the strains isolated previously from herring and sprat, Sprattus sprattus (L.), in Gotland and to the VHSV isolates from European river lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis (L.), in the rivers that flow into the Bothnian Bay. The infection in Baltic herring is likely to be independent of the VHSV Id epidemic in farmed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

  16. Rainbow trout surviving infections of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) show lasting antibodies to recombinant G protein fragments.

    PubMed

    Encinas, P; Gomez-Casado, E; Fregeneda-Grandes; Olesen, N J; Lorenzen, N; Estepa, A; Coll, J M

    2011-03-01

    Rainbow trout antibodies (Abs) binding to recombinant fragments (frgs) derived from the protein G of the viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV)-07.71 strain, could be detected by ELISA (frg-ELISA) in sera from trout surviving laboratory-controlled infections. Abs were detected not only by using sera from trout infected with the homologous VHSV isolate but also with the VHSV-DK-201433 heterologous isolate, which had 13 amino acid changes. Sera from healthy trout and/or from trout surviving infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) infection, were used to calculate cut-off absorbances to differentiate negative from positive sera. Specific anti-VHSV Abs could then be detected by using any of the following frgs: frg11 (56-110), frg15 (65-250), frg16 (252-450) or G21-465. While high correlations were found among the ELISA values obtained with the different frgs, no correlations between any frg-ELISA and complement-dependent 50% plaque neutralization test (PNT) titres could be demonstrated. Between 4 and 10 weeks after VHSV infection, more trout sera were detected as positives by using heterologous frg-ELISA rather than homologous PNT. Furthermore, the percentage of positive sera detected by frg11-ELISA increased with time after infection to reach 100%, while those detected by complement-dependent PNT decreased to 29.4%, thus confirming that the lack of neutralizing Abs does not mean the lack of any anti-VHSV Abs in survivor trout sera. Preliminary results with sera from field samples suggest that further refinements of the frg-ELISA could allow detection of anti-VHSV trout Abs in natural outbreaks caused by different heterologous VHSV isolates. The homologous frg-ELISA method could be useful to follow G immunization attempts during vaccine development and/or to best understand the fish Ab response during VHSV infections. The viral frgs approach might also be used with other fish species and/or viruses.

  17. Molecular and cellular aspects of rhabdovirus entry.

    PubMed

    Albertini, Aurélie A V; Baquero, Eduard; Ferlin, Anna; Gaudin, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Rhabdoviruses enter the cell via the endocytic pathway and subsequently fuse with a cellular membrane within the acidic environment of the endosome. Both receptor recognition and membrane fusion are mediated by a single transmembrane viral glycoprotein (G). Fusion is triggered via a low-pH induced structural rearrangement. G is an atypical fusion protein as there is a pH-dependent equilibrium between its pre- and post-fusion conformations. The elucidation of the atomic structures of these two conformations for the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G has revealed that it is different from the previously characterized class I and class II fusion proteins. In this review, the pre- and post-fusion VSV G structures are presented in detail demonstrating that G combines the features of the class I and class II fusion proteins. In addition to these similarities, these G structures also reveal some particularities that expand our understanding of the working of fusion machineries. Combined with data from recent studies that revealed the cellular aspects of the initial stages of rhabdovirus infection, all these data give an integrated view of the entry pathway of rhabdoviruses into their host cell.

  18. Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Rhabdovirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Albertini, Aurélie A. V.; Baquero, Eduard; Ferlin, Anna; Gaudin, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Rhabdoviruses enter the cell via the endocytic pathway and subsequently fuse with a cellular membrane within the acidic environment of the endosome. Both receptor recognition and membrane fusion are mediated by a single transmembrane viral glycoprotein (G). Fusion is triggered via a low-pH induced structural rearrangement. G is an atypical fusion protein as there is a pH-dependent equilibrium between its pre- and post-fusion conformations. The elucidation of the atomic structures of these two conformations for the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G has revealed that it is different from the previously characterized class I and class II fusion proteins. In this review, the pre- and post-fusion VSV G structures are presented in detail demonstrating that G combines the features of the class I and class II fusion proteins. In addition to these similarities, these G structures also reveal some particularities that expand our understanding of the working of fusion machineries. Combined with data from recent studies that revealed the cellular aspects of the initial stages of rhabdovirus infection, all these data give an integrated view of the entry pathway of rhabdoviruses into their host cell. PMID:22355455

  19. An individual-based model of rabbit viral haemorrhagic disease on European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fa, John E.; Sharples, Colin M.; Bell, Diana J.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    We developed an individual-based model of Rabbit Viral Hemorrhagic Disease (RVHD) for European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.), representing up to 1000 rabbits in four hectares. Model output for productivity and recruitment matched published values. The disease was density-dependent and virulence affected outcome. Strains that caused death after several days produced greater overall mortality than strains in which rabbits either died or recovered very quickly. Disease effect also depended on time of year. We also elaborated a larger scale model representing 25 km2 and 100,000+ rabbits, split into a number of grid-squares. This was a more traditional model that did not represent individual rabbits, but employed a system of dynamic equations for each grid-square. Disease spread depended on probability of transmission between neighboring grid-squares. Potential recovery from a major population crash caused by the disease relied on disease virulence and frequency of recurrence. The model's dependence on probability of disease transmission between grid-squares suggests the way that the model represents the spatial distribution of the population affects simulation. Although data on RVHD in Europe are lacking, our models provide a basis for describing the disease in realistic detail and for assessing influence of various social and spatial factors on spread.

  20. Maize rhabdovirus-vector transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    oth of the plant-infecting rhabdovirus genera, Nucleorhabdovirus and Cytorhabdovirus, contain viruses that infect maize (Zea mays L.). The maize infecting rhabdoviruses are transmitted by hemipteran insects in the families Cicadellidae and Delphacidae in a persistent propagative manner. This chapt...

  1. Model for ranking freshwater fish farms according to their risk of infection and illustration for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia.

    PubMed

    Oidtmann, Birgit C; Pearce, Fiona M; Thrush, Mark A; Peeler, Edmund J; Ceolin, Chiara; Stärk, Katharina D C; Dalla Pozza, Manuela; Afonso, Ana; Diserens, Nicolas; Reese, R Allan; Cameron, Angus

    2014-08-01

    We developed a model to calculate a quantitative risk score for individual aquaculture sites. The score indicates the risk of the site being infected with a specific fish pathogen (viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV); infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus, Koi herpes virus), and is intended to be used for risk ranking sites to support surveillance for demonstration of zone or member state freedom from these pathogens. The inputs to the model include a range of quantitative and qualitative estimates of risk factors organised into five risk themes (1) Live fish and egg movements; (2) Exposure via water; (3) On-site processing; (4) Short-distance mechanical transmission; (5) Distance-independent mechanical transmission. The calculated risk score for an individual aquaculture site is a value between zero and one and is intended to indicate the risk of a site relative to the risk of other sites (thereby allowing ranking). The model was applied to evaluate 76 rainbow trout farms in 3 countries (42 from England, 32 from Italy and 2 from Switzerland) with the aim to establish their risk of being infected with VHSV. Risk scores for farms in England and Italy showed great variation, clearly enabling ranking. Scores ranged from 0.002 to 0.254 (mean score 0.080) in England and 0.011 to 0.778 (mean of 0.130) for Italy, reflecting the diversity of infection status of farms in these countries. Requirements for broader application of the model are discussed. Cost efficient farm data collection is important to realise the benefits from a risk-based approach.

  2. Genetic diversity of perch rhabdoviruses isolates based on the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes.

    PubMed

    Talbi, Chiraz; Cabon, Joelle; Baud, Marine; Bourjaily, Maya; de Boisséson, Claire; Castric, Jeannette; Bigarré, Laurent

    2011-12-01

    Despite the increasing impact of rhabdoviruses in European percid farming, the diversity of the viral populations is still poorly investigated. To address this issue, we sequenced the partial nucleoprotein (N) and complete glycoprotein (G) genes of nine rhabdoviruses isolated from perch (Perca fluviatilis) between 1999 and 2010, mostly from France, and analyzed six of them by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Using two rabbit antisera raised against either the reference perch rhabdovirus (PRhV) isolated in 1980 or the perch isolate R6146, two serogroups were distinguished. Meanwhile, based on partial N and complete G gene analysis, perch rhabdoviruses were divided into four genogroups, A-B-D and E, with a maximum of 32.9% divergence (G gene) between isolates. A comparison of the G amino acid sequences of isolates from the two identified serogroups revealed several variable regions that might account for antigenic differences. Comparative analysis of perch isolates with other rhabdoviruses isolated from black bass, pike-perch and pike showed some strong phylogenetic relationships, suggesting cross-host transmission. Similarly, striking genetic similarities were shown between perch rhabdoviruses and isolates from other European countries and various ecological niches, most likely reflecting the circulation of viruses through fish trade as well as putative transfers from marine to freshwater fish. Phylogenetic relationships of the newly characterized viruses were also determined within the family Rhabdoviridae. The analysis revealed a genetic cluster containing only fish viruses, including all rhabdoviruses from perch, as well as siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV) and eel virus X (EVEX). This cluster was distinct from the one represented by spring viraemia of carp vesiculovirus (SVCV), pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV) and mammalian vesiculoviruses. The new genetic data provided in the present study shed light on the diversity of rhabdoviruses infecting perch in

  3. RNA splicing in a new rhabdovirus from Culex mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Ryusei; Isawa, Haruhiko; Hoshino, Keita; Tsuda, Yoshio; Yanase, Tohru; Sasaki, Toshinori; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Sawabe, Kyoko

    2011-07-01

    Among members of the order Mononegavirales, RNA splicing events have been found only in the family Bornaviridae. Here, we report that a new rhabdovirus isolated from the mosquito Culex tritaeniorhynchus replicates in the nuclei of infected cells and requires RNA splicing for viral mRNA maturation. The virus, designated Culex tritaeniorhynchus rhabdovirus (CTRV), shares a similar genome organization with other rhabdoviruses, except for the presence of a putative intron in the coding region for the L protein. Molecular phylogenetic studies indicated that CTRV belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae, but it is yet to be assigned a genus. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that the CTRV virion is extremely elongated, unlike virions of rhabdoviruses, which are generally bullet shaped. Northern hybridization confirmed that a large transcript (approximately 6,500 nucleotides [nt]) from the CTRV L gene was present in the infected cells. Strand-specific reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses identified the intron-exon boundaries and the 76-nt intron sequence, which contains the typical motif for eukaryotic spliceosomal intron-splice donor/acceptor sites (GU-AG), a predicted branch point, and a polypyrimidine tract. In situ hybridization exhibited that viral RNAs are primarily localized in the nucleus of infected cells, indicating that CTRV replicates in the nucleus and is allowed to utilize the host's nuclear splicing machinery. This is the first report of RNA splicing among the members of the family Rhabdoviridae.

  4. Genetic diversity and associated pathology of rhabdovirus infections in farmed and wild perch Perca fluviatilis in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Ruane, N M; Rodger, H D; McCarthy, L J; Swords, D; Dodge, M; Kerr, R C; Henshilwood, K; Stone, D M

    2014-12-01

    Rhabdovirus infections are an emerging problem for both wild and farmed freshwater fish in Northern Europe. In October 2005, a clinical outbreak with an approximate mortality rate of 40% occurred in a single batch of juvenile perch on a farm in the Republic of Ireland. Clinical signs developed slowly and were consistent with a perch rhabdovirus infection: signs included haemorrhages at the base of the fins and apparent impairment of the central nervous system (manifested as loss of equilibrium and erratic swimming behaviour). Studies suggest that the infected fish originated from a hatchery within the country which relied on wild fish broodstock to supplement the production of perch juveniles. A related rhabdovirus was subsequently isolated from this hatchery. Virus isolation studies have shown that rhabdoviruses were often isolated from wild fish in the vicinity of the hatchery between 1993 and 2005. All isolates were analysed using a generic primer set specific for the L gene of fish vesiculotype viruses. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all isolates recovered from perch clustered together with the European lake trout rhabdovirus (903/87) of the genus Perhabdovirus. In addition to this, anguillid rhabdovirus was isolated from eel, and the partial L-gene sequence of a previously reported isolate from tench clustered with the pike fry rhabdoviruses, in the genus Sprivivirus.

  5. Factors controlling the early stages of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia epizootics: Low exposure levels, virus amplification and fish-to-fish transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Gregg, J.L.; Grady, C.A.; Hart, L.M.; Roon, S.R.; Winton, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus, Genogroup IVa (VHSV), was highly infectious to Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes), even at exposure doses occurring below the threshold of sensitivity for a standard viral plaque assay; however, further progression of the disease to a population-level epizootic required viral amplification and effective fish-to-fish transmission. Among groups of herring injected with VHSV, the prevalence of infection was dose-dependent, ranging from 100%, 75% and 38% after exposure to 19, 0.7 and 0.07 plaque-forming units (PFU)/fish, respectively. Among Pacific herring exposed to waterborne VHSV (140PFUmL-1), the prevalence of infection, geometric mean viral tissue titre and cumulative mortality were greater among cohabitated herring than among cohorts that were held in individual aquaria, where fish-to-fish transmission was prevented. Fish-to-fish transmission among cohabitated herring probably occurred via exposure to shed virus which peaked at 680PFUmL-1; shed virus was not detected in the tank water from any isolated individuals. The results provide insights into mechanisms that initiate epizootic cascades in populations of wild herring and have implications for the design of VHSV surveys in wild fish populations. ?? Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Comparative susceptibility among three stocks of yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus strain IVb from the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Olson, W; Emmenegger, E; Glenn, J; Winton, J; Goetz, F

    2013-08-01

    The Great Lakes strain of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus IVb (VHSV-IVb) is capable of infecting a wide number of naive species and has been associated with large fish kills in the Midwestern United States since its discovery in 2005. The yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), a freshwater species commonly found throughout inland waters of the United States and prized for its high value in sport and commercial fisheries, is a species documented in several fish kills affiliated with VHS. In the present study, differences in survival after infection with VHSV IVb were observed among juvenile fish from three yellow perch broodstocks that were originally derived from distinct wild populations, suggesting innate differences in susceptibility due to genetic variance. While all three stocks were susceptible upon waterborne exposure to VHS virus infection, fish derived from the Midwest (Lake Winnebago, WI) showed significantly lower cumulative % survival compared with two perch stocks derived from the East Coast (Perquimans River, NC and Choptank River, MD) of the United States. However, despite differences in apparent susceptibility, clinical signs did not vary between stocks and included moderate-to-severe haemorrhages at the pelvic and pectoral fin bases and exophthalmia. After the 28-day challenge was complete, VHS virus was analysed in subsets of whole fish that had either survived or succumbed to the infection using both plaque assay and quantitative PCR methodologies. A direct correlation was identified between the two methods, suggesting the potential for both methods to be used to detect virus in a research setting. PMID:23305522

  7. Risks associated with commodity trade: transmission of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) to rainbow trout fry from VHSV-carrying tissue-homogenates.

    PubMed

    Oidtmann, B; Joiner, C; Reese, R A; Stone, D; Dodge, M; Dixon, P

    2011-06-01

    Movements of commodity fish present a potential risk of transferring pathogens. Within a study to estimate the risk from imported rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss carcases, fry were exposed to tissue homogenates from market size rainbow trout infected experimentally with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) by waterborne exposure to VHS virus (VHSV, isolate of genotype Ia). Tissues were collected from fish that showed clinical signs and from recent mortalities. Homogenates of (i) internal organs, (ii) brain/gills and (iii) muscle tissue were prepared and added to tanks holding the fry. Virus transmission occurred from all tissues tested, causing high mortality of the fry. The results underline the potential risk of introduction of VHSV through the trade of fish products.

  8. Comparative susceptibility among three stocks of yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus strain IVb from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, W.; Emmenegger, E.; Glenn, J.; Winton, J.; Goetz, F.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Lakes strain of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus IVb (VHSV-IVb) is capable of infecting a wide number of naive species and has been associated with large fish kills in the Midwestern United States since its discovery in 2005. The yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), a freshwater species commonly found throughout inland waters of the United States and prized for its high value in sport and commercial fisheries, is a species documented in several fish kills affiliated with VHS. In the present study, differences in survival after infection with VHSV IVb were observed among juvenile fish from three yellow perch broodstocks that were originally derived from distinct wild populations, suggesting innate differences in susceptibility due to genetic variance. While all three stocks were susceptible upon waterborne exposure to VHS virus infection, fish derived from the Midwest (Lake Winnebago, WI) showed significantly lower cumulative % survival compared with two perch stocks derived from the East Coast (Perquimans River, NC and Choptank River, MD) of the United States. However, despite differences in apparent susceptibility, clinical signs did not vary between stocks and included moderate-to-severe haemorrhages at the pelvic and pectoral fin bases and exophthalmia. After the 28-day challenge was complete, VHS virus was analysed in subsets of whole fish that had either survived or succumbed to the infection using both plaque assay and quantitative PCR methodologies. A direct correlation was identified between the two methods, suggesting the potential for both methods to be used to detect virus in a research setting.

  9. Structural insights into the rhabdovirus transcription/replication complex.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Ivan; Yabukarski, Filip; Ruigrok, Rob W H; Jamin, Marc

    2011-12-01

    The rhabdoviruses have a non-segmented single stranded negative-sense RNA genome. Their multiplication in a host cell requires three viral proteins in addition to the viral RNA genome. The nucleoprotein (N) tightly encapsidates the viral RNA, and the N-RNA complex serves as the template for both transcription and replication. The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is a two subunit complex that consists of a large subunit, L, and a non-catalytic cofactor, the phosphoprotein, P. P also acts as a chaperone of nascent RNA-free N by forming a N(0)-P complex that prevents N from binding to cellular RNAs and from polymerizing in the absence of RNA. Here, we discuss the recent molecular and structural studies of individual components and multi-molecular complexes that are involved in the transcription/replication complex of these viruses with regard to their implication in viral transcription and replication.

  10. First isolation of hirame rhabdovirus from freshwater fish in Europe.

    PubMed

    Borzym, E; Matras, M; Maj-Paluch, J; Baud, M; De Boisséson, C; Talbi, C; Olesen, N J; Bigarré, L

    2014-05-01

    A rhabdovirus was isolated in cell culture inoculated with tissue material from diseased grayling, Thymallus thymallus (L.), originating from a fish farm affected by a mortality episode in Poland. Diagnostics tests showed that the virus was not related to novirhabdoviruses known in Europe, nor to vesiculovirus-like species, except perch rhabdovirus (PRhV) with which it shared moderate serological relations. However, RT-PCR with PRhV probes gave negative results. To identify the virus, a random-priming sequence-independent single primer amplification was adopted. Surprisingly, two of the obtained sequences exhibited a high identity (>99%) with hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV), a novirhabdovirus usually found in fish in marine Asiatic countries, for instance Japan, China and Korea. The full-length sequence of the phosphoprotein gene (P) demonstrated a higher identity of the present isolate with HIRRV from China compared with the Korean isolate. An identical viral sequence was also found in brown trout, Salmo trutta trutta L., affected by mortalities in a second farm in the same region, after a likely contamination from the grayling farm. To our knowledge, this is the first report of HIRRV in Europe, and in two hosts from fresh water that have not been described before as susceptible species.

  11. Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with resistance to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus ): a comparison between bacterium, parasite and virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ramilo, Silvia T; De La Herrán, Roberto; Ruiz-Rejón, Carmelo; Hermida, Miguel; Fernández, Carlos; Pereiro, Patricia; Figueras, Antonio; Bouza, Carmen; Toro, Miguel A; Martínez, Paulino; Fernández, Jesús

    2014-06-01

    One of the main objectives of genetic breeding programs in turbot industry is to reduce disease-related mortality. In the present study, a genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting resistance and survival to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) was carried out. Three full-sib families with approximately 90 individuals each were genotyped and evaluated by linear regression and maximum likelihood approaches. In addition, a comparison between QTL detected for resistance and survival time to other important bacterial and parasite diseases affecting turbot (furunculosis and scuticociliatosis) was also carried out. Finally, the relationship between QTL affecting resistance/survival time to the virus and growth-related QTL was also evaluated. Several genomic regions controlling resistance and survival time to VHS were detected. Also significant associations between the evaluated traits and genotypes at particular markers were identified, explaining up to 14 % of the phenotypic variance. Several genomic regions controlling general and specific resistance to different diseases in turbot were detected. A preliminary gene mining approach identified candidate genes related to general or specific immunity. This information will be valuable to develop marker-assisted selection programs and to discover candidate genes related to disease resistance to improve turbot production.

  12. Larval Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes), are highly susceptible to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia and survivors are partially protected after their metamorphosis to juveniles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Gregg, J.; Pacheco, C.; Winton, J.; Richard, J.; Traxler, G.

    2007-01-01

    Pacific herring were susceptible to waterborne challenge with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) throughout their early life history stages, with significantly greater cumulative mortalities occurring among VHSV-exposed groups of 9-, 44-, 54- and 76-day-old larvae than among respective control groups. Similarly, among 89-day-1-year-old and 1+year old post-metamorphosed juveniles, cumulative mortality was significantly greater in VHSV-challenged groups than in respective control groups. Larval exposure to VHSV conferred partial protection to the survivors after their metamorphosis to juveniles as shown by significantly less cumulative mortalities among juvenile groups that survived a VHS epidemic as larvae than among groups that were previously nai??ve to VHSV. Magnitude of the protection, measured as relative per cent survival, was a direct function of larval age at first exposure and was probably a reflection of gradual developmental onset of immunocompetence. These results indicate the potential for easily overlooked VHS epizootics among wild larvae in regions where the virus is endemic and emphasize the importance of early life history stages of marine fish in influencing the ecological disease processes. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  13. Isolation and molecular characterization of Fikirini rhabdovirus, a novel virus from a Kenyan bat.

    PubMed

    Kading, Rebekah C; Gilbert, Amy T; Mossel, Eric C; Crabtree, Mary B; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Niezgoda, Michael; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Weil, M Ryan; Montgomery, Joel M; Rupprecht, Charles E; Miller, Barry R

    2013-11-01

    Zoonotic and vector-borne pathogens have comprised a significant component of emerging human infections in recent decades, and bats are increasingly recognized as reservoirs for many of these disease agents. To identify novel pathogens associated with bats, we screened tissues of bats collected in Kenya. Virus isolates were identified by next generation sequencing of viral nucleic acid preparations from the infected cell culture supernatant and characterized. Here we report the identification of Fikirini rhabdovirus, a novel rhabdovirus isolated from a bat, Hipposideros vittatus, captured along the Kenyan coast.

  14. Rhabdovirus evasion of the interferon system.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Martina; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus

    2009-09-01

    The family Rhabdoviridae contains important pathogens of humans, livestock, and crops, including the insect-transmitted vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and the neurotropic rabies virus (RV), which is directly transmitted between mammals. In spite of a highly similar organization of RNA genomes, proteins, and virus particles, cell biology of VSV and RV is divergent in several aspects, particularly with respect to their interplay with the cellular host defense. While infection with both rhabdoviruses is recognized via viral triphosphate RNAs by the cytoplasmic RNA helicase/translocase RIG-I, the viral counteractions to limit the response are contrasting. VSV infection is characterized by a rapid general shutdown of host gene expression and severe cytopathic effects, due to multiple activities of the matrix (M) protein affecting host polymerase functions and mRNA nuclear export, and by rapid and high-level virus replication. In contrast, RV spread and transmission relies on preserving the integrity of host cells, particularly of neurons. While a general cell shutdown by RV M is not observed, RV phosphoprotein (P) has developed independent functions to interfere with activation of IRFs and with STAT signaling. The molecular mechanisms employed are different from those of the paramyxovirus P gene products serving similar functions, and illustrate evolution of IFN antagonists to specifically support virus survival in the natural niches.

  15. Molecular Detection of Adenoviruses, Rhabdoviruses, and Paramyxoviruses in Bats from Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Conrardy, Christina; Tao, Ying; Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Agwanda, Bernard; Breiman, Robert F.; Anderson, Larry J.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Tong, Suxiang

    2014-01-01

    We screened 217 bats of at least 20 species from 17 locations in Kenya during July and August of 2006 for the presence of adenovirus, rhabdovirus, and paramyxovirus nucleic acids using generic reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR assays. Of 217 bat fecal swabs examined, 4 bats were adenovirus DNA-positive, 11 bats were paramyxovirus RNA-positive, and 2 bats were rhabdovirus RNA-positive. Three bats were coinfected by two different viruses. By sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis, the Kenya bat paramyxoviruses and rhabdoviruses from this study may represent novel viral lineages within their respective families; the Kenya bat adenoviruses could not be confirmed as novel, because the same region sequences from other known bat adenovirus genomes for comparison were lacking. Our study adds to previous evidence that bats carry diverse, potentially zoonotic viruses and may be coinfected with more than one virus. PMID:24865685

  16. Isolation and characterization of a novel Rhabdovirus from a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kouji; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Hamasaki, Chinami; Kuwata, Ryusei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kazuo; Endoh, Daiji; Nagata, Noriyo; Nagai, Makoto; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki; Morikawa, Shigeru; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Maeda, Ken

    2015-09-30

    A novel rhabdovirus was isolated from the serum of a healthy Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) and identified using the rapid determination system for viral nucleic acid sequences (RDV), next-generation sequencing, and electron microscopy. The virus was tentatively named wild boar rhabdovirus 1 (WBRV1). Phylogenetic analysis of the entire genome sequence indicated that WBRV1 is closely related to Tupaia rhabdovirus (TRV), which was isolated from cultured cells of hepatocellular carcinoma tissue of tree shrew. TRV has not been assigned to any genus of Rhabdoviridae till date. Analysis of the L gene indicated that WBRV1 belongs to the genus Vesiculovirus. These observations suggest that both TRV and WBRV1 belong to a new genus of Rhabdoviridae. Next-generation genome sequencing of WBRV1 revealed 5 open reading frames of 1329, 765, 627, 1629, and 6336 bases in length. The WBRV1 gene sequences are similar to those of other rhabdoviruses. Epizootiological analysis of a population of wild boars in Wakayama prefecture in Japan indicated that 6.5% were positive for the WBRV1 gene and 52% were positive for WBRV1-neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, such viral neutralizing antibodies were found in domestic pigs in another prefecture. WBRV1 was inoculated intranasally and intraperitoneally into SCID and BALB/c mice and viral RNA was detected in SCID mice, suggesting that WBRV1 can replicate in immunocompromised mice. These results indicate this novel virus is endemic in wild animals and livestock in Japan.

  17. [Fatal haemorrhagic rift valley fever: a case at Madagascar].

    PubMed

    Raveloson, N E; Ramorasata, J C; Rasolofohanitrininosy, R; Rakotoarivony, S T; Andrianjatovo, J J; Sztark, F

    2010-04-01

    Rift valley fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis that can also infect humans. Haemorrhagic RVF is a severe potentially fatal form of the disease. Although haemorrhagic RVF accounts for only 1% of all infections, death occurs in up to 5% of cases. The purpose of this report is describe a severe case of haemorrhagic RVF observed in a 22-year-old cattle breeder admitted to the intensive care units of the Joseph Raseta Befelatanana University Hospitals in Antananarivo. The disease presented as an infectious syndrome but hemorrhagic manifestations developed early (day 2). They consisted of diffuse haemorrhage events (haemorrhagic vomit, gingival haemorrhage, skin haemorrhage, urinary haemorrhage, and haemorrhage on the venous puncture site). In spite of intensive care, haemorrhagic complications lead to death on day 4 of clinical evolution. Laboratory findings demonstrated alteration in liver function and coagulation disturbances. Multiple organ failure was also observed.

  18. In vivo virulence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss correlates inversely with in vitro Mx gene expression.

    PubMed

    Cano, Irene; Collet, Bertrand; Pereira, Clarissa; Paley, Richard; van Aerle, Ronny; Stone, David; Taylor, Nick G H

    2016-05-01

    The in vitro replication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates from each VHSV genotype and the associated cellular host Mx gene expression were analysed. All the isolates were able to infect RTG-2 cells and induce increased Mx gene expression (generic assay detecting isoforms 1 and 3 [Mx1/3]). A trout pathogenic, genotype Ia isolate (J167), showing high replication in RTG-2 cells (by infective titre and N gene expression) induced lower Mx1/3 gene expression than observed in VHSV isolates known to be non-pathogenic to rainbow trout: 96-43/8, 96-43/10 (Ib); 1p49, 1p53 (II); and MI03 (IVb). Paired co-inoculation assays were analysed using equal number of plaque forming units per ml (PFU) of J167 (Ia genotype) with other less pathogenic VHSV genotypes. In these co-inoculations, the Mx1/3 gene expression was significantly lower than for the non-pathogenic isolate alone. Of the three rainbow trout Mx isoforms, J167 did not induce Mx1 up-regulation in RTG-2 or RTgill-W1 cells. Co-inoculating isolates resulted in greater inhibition of Mx in both rainbow trout cell lines studied. Up-regulation of sea bream Mx in SAF-1 cells induced by 96-43/8 was also lower in co-inoculation assays with J167. The RTG-P1 cell line, expressing luciferase under the control of the interferon-induced Mx rainbow trout gene promoter, showed low luciferase activity when inoculated with pathogenic strains: J167, DK-5131 (Ic), NO-A-163/68 (Id), TR-206239-1, TR-22207111 (Ie), 99-292 (IVa), and CA-NB00-01 (IVc). Co-inoculation assays showed a J167-dose dependent inhibition of the luciferase activity. The data suggest that virulent VHSV isolates may interfere in the interferon pathways, potentially determining higher pathogenicity.

  19. In vivo virulence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss correlates inversely with in vitro Mx gene expression.

    PubMed

    Cano, Irene; Collet, Bertrand; Pereira, Clarissa; Paley, Richard; van Aerle, Ronny; Stone, David; Taylor, Nick G H

    2016-05-01

    The in vitro replication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates from each VHSV genotype and the associated cellular host Mx gene expression were analysed. All the isolates were able to infect RTG-2 cells and induce increased Mx gene expression (generic assay detecting isoforms 1 and 3 [Mx1/3]). A trout pathogenic, genotype Ia isolate (J167), showing high replication in RTG-2 cells (by infective titre and N gene expression) induced lower Mx1/3 gene expression than observed in VHSV isolates known to be non-pathogenic to rainbow trout: 96-43/8, 96-43/10 (Ib); 1p49, 1p53 (II); and MI03 (IVb). Paired co-inoculation assays were analysed using equal number of plaque forming units per ml (PFU) of J167 (Ia genotype) with other less pathogenic VHSV genotypes. In these co-inoculations, the Mx1/3 gene expression was significantly lower than for the non-pathogenic isolate alone. Of the three rainbow trout Mx isoforms, J167 did not induce Mx1 up-regulation in RTG-2 or RTgill-W1 cells. Co-inoculating isolates resulted in greater inhibition of Mx in both rainbow trout cell lines studied. Up-regulation of sea bream Mx in SAF-1 cells induced by 96-43/8 was also lower in co-inoculation assays with J167. The RTG-P1 cell line, expressing luciferase under the control of the interferon-induced Mx rainbow trout gene promoter, showed low luciferase activity when inoculated with pathogenic strains: J167, DK-5131 (Ic), NO-A-163/68 (Id), TR-206239-1, TR-22207111 (Ie), 99-292 (IVa), and CA-NB00-01 (IVc). Co-inoculation assays showed a J167-dose dependent inhibition of the luciferase activity. The data suggest that virulent VHSV isolates may interfere in the interferon pathways, potentially determining higher pathogenicity. PMID:27066706

  20. Ebola haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, Heinz; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2011-03-01

    Ebola viruses are the causative agents of a severe form of viral haemorrhagic fever in man, designated Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and are endemic in regions of central Africa. The exception is the species Reston Ebola virus, which has not been associated with human disease and is found in the Philippines. Ebola virus constitutes an important local public health threat in Africa, with a worldwide effect through imported infections and through the fear of misuse for biological terrorism. Ebola virus is thought to also have a detrimental effect on the great ape population in Africa. Case-fatality rates of the African species in man are as high as 90%, with no prophylaxis or treatment available. Ebola virus infections are characterised by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that causes impairment of the vascular, coagulation, and immune systems, leading to multiorgan failure and shock, and thus, in some ways, resembling septic shock.

  1. Improving the safety of viral DNA vaccines: development of vectors containing both 5' and 3' homologous regulatory sequences from non-viral origin.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lopez, A; Encinas, P; García-Valtanen, P; Gomez-Casado, E; Coll, J M; Estepa, A

    2013-04-01

    Although some DNA vaccines have proved to be very efficient in field trials, their authorisation still remains limited to a few countries. This is in part due to safety issues because most of them contain viral regulatory sequences to driving the expression of the encoded antigen. This is the case of the only DNA vaccine against a fish rhabdovirus (a negative ssRNA virus), authorised in Canada, despite the important economic losses that these viruses cause to aquaculture all over the world. In an attempt to solve this problem and using as a model a non-authorised, but efficient DNA vaccine against the fish rhabdovirus, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), we developed a plasmid construction containing regulatory sequences exclusively from fish origin. The result was an "all-fish vector", named pJAC-G, containing 5' and 3' regulatory sequences of β-acting genes from carp and zebrafish, respectively. In vitro and in vivo, pJAC-G drove a successful expression of the VHSV glycoprotein G (G), the only antigen of the virus conferring in vivo protection. Furthermore, and by means of in vitro fusion assays, it was confirmed that G protein expressed from pJAC-G was fully functional. Altogether, these results suggest that DNA vaccines containing host-homologous gene regulatory sequences might be useful for developing safer DNA vaccines, while they also might be useful for basic studies.

  2. Ammocoetes of Pacific lamprey are not susceptible to common fish rhabdoviruses of the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, Gael; Jolley, C J.; Thompson, Tarin M.; Thompson, D.; Whitesel, A.T.; Gutenberger, S.; Winton, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Pacific Lampreys Entosphenus tridentatus have experienced severe population declines in recent years and efforts to develop captive rearing programs are under consideration. However, there is limited knowledge of their life history, ecology, and potential to harbor or transmit pathogens that may cause infectious disease. As a measure of the possible risks associated with introducing wild lampreys into existing fish culture facilities, larval lampreys (ammocoetes) were tested for susceptibility to infection and mortality caused by experimental exposures to the fish rhabdovirus pathogens: infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). Two IHNV isolates, representing the U and M genogroups, and one VHSV isolate from the IVa genotype were each delivered to groups of ammocoetes by immersion at moderate and high viral doses, and by intraperitoneal injection. Ammocoetes were then held in triplicate tanks with no substrate or sediment. During 41 d of observation postchallenge there was low or no mortality in all groups, and no virus was detected in the small number of fish that died. Ammocoetes sampled for incidence of infection at 6 and 12 d after immersion challenges also had no detectable virus, and no virus was detected in surviving fish from any group. A small number of ammocoetes sampled 6 d after the injection challenge had detectable virus, but at levels below the original quantity of virus injected. Overall there was no evidence of infection, replication, or persistence of any of the viruses in any of the treatment groups. Our results suggest that Pacific Lampreys are highly unlikely to serve as hosts that maintain or transmit these viruses.

  3. Ammocoetes of Pacific Lamprey are not susceptible to common fish rhabdoviruses of the U.S. Pacific northwest.

    PubMed

    Kurath, G; Jolley, J C; Thompson, T M; Thompson, D; Whitesel, T A; Gutenberger, S; Winton, J R

    2013-12-01

    Pacific Lampreys Entosphenus tridentatus have experienced severe population declines in recent years and efforts to develop captive rearing programs are under consideration. However, there is limited knowledge of their life history, ecology, and potential to harbor or transmit pathogens that may cause infectious disease. As a measure of the possible risks associated with introducing wild lampreys into existing fish culture facilities, larval lampreys (ammocoetes) were tested for susceptibility to infection and mortality caused by experimental exposures to the fish rhabdovirus pathogens: infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). Two IHNV isolates, representing the U and M genogroups, and one VHSV isolate from the IVa genotype were each delivered to groups of ammocoetes by immersion at moderate and high viral doses, and by intraperitoneal injection. Ammocoetes were then held in triplicate tanks with no substrate or sediment. During 41 d of observation postchallenge there was low or no mortality in all groups, and no virus was detected in the small number of fish that died. Ammocoetes sampled for incidence of infection at 6 and 12 d after immersion challenges also had no detectable virus, and no virus was detected in surviving fish from any group. A small number of ammocoetes sampled 6 d after the injection challenge had detectable virus, but at levels below the original quantity of virus injected. Overall there was no evidence of infection, replication, or persistence of any of the viruses in any of the treatment groups. Our results suggest that Pacific Lampreys are highly unlikely to serve as hosts that maintain or transmit these viruses.

  4. Evolutionary dynamics and genetic diversity from three genes of Anguillid rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Bellec, Laure; Cabon, Joelle; Bergmann, Sven; de Boisséson, Claire; Engelsma, Marc; Haenen, Olga; Morin, Thierry; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Schuetze, Heike; Toffan, Anna; Way, Keith; Bigarré, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    Wild freshwater eel populations have dramatically declined in recent past decades in Europe and America, partially through the impact of several factors including the wide spread of infectious diseases. The anguillid rhabdoviruses eel virus European X (EVEX) and eel virus American (EVA) potentially play a role in this decline, even if their real contribution is still unclear. In this study, we investigate the evolutionary dynamics and genetic diversity of anguiillid rhabdoviruses by analysing sequences from the glycoprotein, nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein (P) genes of 57 viral strains collected from seven countries over 40 years using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian approaches. Phylogenetic trees from the three genes are congruent and allow two monophyletic groups, European and American, to be clearly distinguished. Results of nucleotide substitution rates per site per year indicate that the P gene is expected to evolve most rapidly. The nucleotide diversity observed is low (2-3 %) for the three genes, with a significantly higher variability within the P gene, which encodes multiple proteins from a single genomic RNA sequence, particularly a small C protein. This putative C protein is a potential molecular marker suitable for characterization of distinct genotypes within anguillid rhabdoviruses. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first molecular characterization of EVA, brings new insights to the evolutionary dynamics of two genotypes of Anguillid rhabdovirus, and is a baseline for further investigations on the tracking of its spread.

  5. Lack of correlation between the resistances to two rhabdovirus infections in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Verrier, Eloi R; Ehanno, Aude; Biacchesi, Stéphane; Le Guillou, Sandrine; Dechamp, Nicolas; Boudinot, Pierre; Bremont, Michel; Quillet, Edwige

    2013-07-01

    The Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) and the Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV) are two rhabdoviruses responsible for serious outbreaks in salmonid farms. To date, little is known about the variability of host response to these viruses. Using gynogenetic clonal lines of rainbow trout exhibiting a wide range of resistance to viral infections, we showed that there was no correlation between the resistance to VHSV and IHNV. We also confirmed the importance of fish weight for its susceptibility to IHNV infection. Finally, using a chimeric recombinant IHNV expressing the VHSV glycoprotein, we showed that the glycoprotein plays a key role in the virulence and in the level of resistance observed in different genetic backgrounds. Taken together, our results provide new prospects for a better understanding of host responses to rhabdovirus infections in salmonids.

  6. Isolation of a rhabdovirus during outbreaks of disease in cyprinid fish species at fishery sites in England.

    PubMed

    Way, K; Bark, S J; Longshaw, C B; Denham, K L; Dixon, P F; Feist, S W; Gardiner, R; Gubbins, M J; Le Deuff, R M; Martin, P D; Stone, D M; Taylor, G R

    2003-12-01

    A virus was isolated during disease outbreaks in bream Abramis brama, tench Tinca tinca, roach Rutilis rutilis and crucian carp Carassius carassius populations at 6 fishery sites in England in 1999. Mortalities at the sites were primarily among recently introduced fish and the predominant fish species affected was bream. The bream stocked at 5 of the 6 English fishery sites were found to have originated from the River Bann, Northern Ireland. Most fish presented few consistent external signs of disease but some exhibited clinical signs similar to those of spring viraemia of carp (SVC), with extensive skin haemorrhages, ulceration on the flanks and internal signs including ascites and petechial haemorrhages. The most prominent histopathological changes were hepatocellular necrosis, interstitial nephritis and splenitis. The virus induced a cytopathic effect in tissue cultures (Epithelioma papulosum cyprini [EPC] cells) at 20 degrees C and produced moderate signals in an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of SVC virus. The virus showed a close serological relationship to pike fry rhabdovirus in both EIA and serum neutralisation assays and to a rhabdovirus isolated during a disease outbreak in a bream population in the River Bann in 1998. A high degree of sequence similarity (> or = 99.5% nucleotide identity) was observed between the English isolates and those from the River Bann. Experimental infection of juvenile bream, tench and carp with EPC cell-grown rhabdovirus by bath and intraperitoneal injection resulted in a 40% mortality of bream in the injection group only. The virus was re-isolated from pooled kidney, liver and spleen tissue samples from moribund bream. The field observations together with the experimental results indicate that this rhabdovirus is of low virulence but may have the potential to cause significant mortality in fishes under stress.

  7. Initial sequence characterization of the rhabdoviruses of squamate reptiles, including a novel rhabdovirus from a caiman lizard (Dracaena guianensis)

    PubMed Central

    Wellehan, James F.X.; Pessier, Allan P.; Archer, Linda L.; Childress, April L.; Jacobson, Elliott R.; Tesh, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Rhabdoviruses infect a variety of hosts, including non-avian reptiles. Consensus PCR techniques were used to obtain partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene sequence from five rhabdoviruses of South American lizards; Marco, Chaco, Timbo, Sena Madureira, and a rhabdovirus from a caiman lizard (Dracaena guianensis). The caiman lizard rhabdovirus formed inclusions in erythrocytes, which may be a route for infecting hematophagous insects. This is the first information on behavior of a rhabdovirus in squamates. We also obtained sequence from two rhabdoviruses of Australian lizards, confirming previous Charleville virus sequence and finding that, unlike a previous sequence report but in agreement with serologic reports, Almpiwar virus is clearly distinct from Charleville virus. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis revealed that most known rhabdoviruses of squamates cluster in the Almpiwar subgroup. The exception is Marco virus, which is found in the Hart Park group. PMID:22397930

  8. Initial sequence characterization of the rhabdoviruses of squamate reptiles, including a novel rhabdovirus from a caiman lizard (Dracaena guianensis).

    PubMed

    Wellehan, James F X; Pessier, Allan P; Archer, Linda L; Childress, April L; Jacobson, Elliott R; Tesh, Robert B

    2012-08-17

    Rhabdoviruses infect a variety of hosts, including non-avian reptiles. Consensus PCR techniques were used to obtain partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene sequence from five rhabdoviruses of South American lizards; Marco, Chaco, Timbo, Sena Madureira, and a rhabdovirus from a caiman lizard (Dracaena guianensis). The caiman lizard rhabdovirus formed inclusions in erythrocytes, which may be a route for infecting hematophagous insects. This is the first information on behavior of a rhabdovirus in squamates. We also obtained sequence from two rhabdoviruses of Australian lizards, confirming previous Charleville virus sequence and finding that, unlike a previous sequence report but in agreement with serologic reports, Almpiwar virus is clearly distinct from Charleville virus. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis revealed that most known rhabdoviruses of squamates cluster in the Almpiwar subgroup. The exception is Marco virus, which is found in the Hart Park group.

  9. Application of a sensitive, specific and controlled real-time PCR assay to surveillance indicates a low prevalence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in wild herring, Clupea harengus L., in Scottish waters.

    PubMed

    Matejusova, I; McKay, P; Bland, F; Snow, M

    2010-10-01

    Surveillance data on the distribution of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in the North Sea (UK), targeting Atlantic herring in areas with previous virus detection, were obtained from research cruises conducted during 2005. The sensitive molecular approach of real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was applied alongside a newly developed endogenous positive control assay specific for herring (elongation factor 1α) to ensure integrity of template. Three hundred and five pools from 1937 individual herring were tested, and no evidence of VHSV in association with wild Atlantic herring was detected. Samples were obtained from Scottish waters where marine aquaculture is conducted. The results confirm that previous tissue culture studies have most likely not significantly underestimated the prevalence of carrier herring in this area. The significance of migratory species such as herring as a reservoir species for VHSV, with the potential to translocate virus genotypes between geographical areas, is discussed. PMID:20735797

  10. Application of a sensitive, specific and controlled real-time PCR assay to surveillance indicates a low prevalence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in wild herring, Clupea harengus L., in Scottish waters.

    PubMed

    Matejusova, I; McKay, P; Bland, F; Snow, M

    2010-10-01

    Surveillance data on the distribution of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in the North Sea (UK), targeting Atlantic herring in areas with previous virus detection, were obtained from research cruises conducted during 2005. The sensitive molecular approach of real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was applied alongside a newly developed endogenous positive control assay specific for herring (elongation factor 1α) to ensure integrity of template. Three hundred and five pools from 1937 individual herring were tested, and no evidence of VHSV in association with wild Atlantic herring was detected. Samples were obtained from Scottish waters where marine aquaculture is conducted. The results confirm that previous tissue culture studies have most likely not significantly underestimated the prevalence of carrier herring in this area. The significance of migratory species such as herring as a reservoir species for VHSV, with the potential to translocate virus genotypes between geographical areas, is discussed.

  11. First isolation of a rhabdovirus from perch Perca fluviatilis in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Wahli, Thomas; Bellec, Laure; von Siebenthal, Beat; Cabon, Joëlle; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Morin, Thierry

    2015-10-16

    Perca fluviatilis is a fish species of increasing interest to the Swiss fish farming industry. In recent years, recirculation systems have been specifically set up to increase production. In one of these farms, abnormal spiral swimming associated with elevated mortalities occurred in repeated batches of imported perch shortly after stocking on several occasions. No bacterial or parasitic etiology was detected, but a virus grown in bluegill fry (BF-2) cells was identified as perch rhabdovirus. Subsequent investigations of other samples suggested a viral tropism for the central nervous system (CNS). Phylogenetic analysis of the partial N and entire G gene sequences positioned this isolate in genogroup C of the species Perch rhabdovirus, with high nucleotide and amino acid (aa) sequence identities with the DK5533 strain isolated in Denmark in 1989. Comparative studies using other closely related isolates allowed the distinction of 2 serological patterns among perch rhabdoviruses and the identification of a proline substitution by a serine in position 147 of the glycoprotein potentially involved in antigenic differentiation. Even if perch imported onto the farm tested negative by virus isolation prior to transport, they may have been the origin of this outbreak since CNS tissue was not included in the samples that were analyzed. Another possibility might be a sub-clinical infection with a viral load in resident fish too low to be detected. This study reports the first isolation of a perch rhabdovirus in Switzerland, and emphasizes the necessity of optimizing diagnostic tools that facilitate better control of the risks associated with fish translocation.

  12. First isolation of a rhabdovirus from perch Perca fluviatilis in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Wahli, Thomas; Bellec, Laure; von Siebenthal, Beat; Cabon, Joëlle; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Morin, Thierry

    2015-10-16

    Perca fluviatilis is a fish species of increasing interest to the Swiss fish farming industry. In recent years, recirculation systems have been specifically set up to increase production. In one of these farms, abnormal spiral swimming associated with elevated mortalities occurred in repeated batches of imported perch shortly after stocking on several occasions. No bacterial or parasitic etiology was detected, but a virus grown in bluegill fry (BF-2) cells was identified as perch rhabdovirus. Subsequent investigations of other samples suggested a viral tropism for the central nervous system (CNS). Phylogenetic analysis of the partial N and entire G gene sequences positioned this isolate in genogroup C of the species Perch rhabdovirus, with high nucleotide and amino acid (aa) sequence identities with the DK5533 strain isolated in Denmark in 1989. Comparative studies using other closely related isolates allowed the distinction of 2 serological patterns among perch rhabdoviruses and the identification of a proline substitution by a serine in position 147 of the glycoprotein potentially involved in antigenic differentiation. Even if perch imported onto the farm tested negative by virus isolation prior to transport, they may have been the origin of this outbreak since CNS tissue was not included in the samples that were analyzed. Another possibility might be a sub-clinical infection with a viral load in resident fish too low to be detected. This study reports the first isolation of a perch rhabdovirus in Switzerland, and emphasizes the necessity of optimizing diagnostic tools that facilitate better control of the risks associated with fish translocation. PMID:26480912

  13. A survey of wild marine fish identifies a potential origin of an outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in wrasse, Labridae, used as cleaner fish on marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms.

    PubMed

    Wallace, I S; Donald, K; Munro, L A; Murray, W; Pert, C C; Stagg, H; Hall, M; Bain, N

    2015-06-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from five species of wrasse (Labridae) used as biological controls for parasitic sea lice predominantly, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), on marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms in Shetland. As part of the epidemiological investigation, 1400 wild marine fish were caught and screened in pools of 10 for VHSV using virus isolation. Eleven pools (8%) were confirmed VHSV positive from: grey gurnard, Eutrigla gurnardus L.; Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L.; Norway pout, Trisopterus esmarkii (Nilsson); plaice, Pleuronectes platessa L.; sprat, Sprattus sprattus L. and whiting, Merlangius merlangus L. The isolation of VHSV from grey gurnard is the first documented report in this species. Nucleic acid sequencing of the partial nucleocapsid (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes was carried out for viral characterization. Sequence analysis confirmed that all wild isolates were genotype III the same as the wrasse and there was a close genetic similarity between the isolates from wild fish and wrasse on the farms. Infection from these local wild marine fish is the most likely source of VHSV isolated from wrasse on the fish farms.

  14. Isolation and characterization of a rhabdovirus from starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) collected from the northern portion of Puget Sound, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mork, Christina; Hershberger, Paul K.; Kocan, Richard; Batts, William N.; Winton, James R.

    2004-01-01

    The initial characterization of a rhabdovirus isolated from a single, asymptomatic starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) collected during a viral survey of marine fishes from the northern portion of Puget Sound, Washington, USA, is reported. Virions were bullet-shaped and approximately 100 nm long and 50 nm wide, contained a lipid envelope, remained stable for at least 14 days at temperatures ranging from -80 to 5 degrees C and grew optimally at 15 degrees C in cultures of epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells. The cytopathic effect on EPC cell monolayers was characterized by raised foci containing rounded masses of cells. Pyknotic and dark-staining nuclei that also showed signs of karyorrhexis were observed following haematoxylin and eosin, May-Grunwald Giemsa and acridine orange staining. PAGE of the structural proteins and PCR assays using primers specific for other known fish rhabdoviruses, including Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Spring viremia of carp virus, and Hirame rhabdovirus, indicated that the new virus, tentatively termed starry flounder rhabdovirus (SFRV), was previously undescribed in marine fishes from this region. In addition, sequence analysis of 2678 nt of the amino portion of the viral polymerase gene indicated that SFRV was genetically distinct from other members of the family Rhabdoviridae for which sequence data are available. Detection of this virus during a limited viral survey of wild fishes emphasizes the void of knowledge regarding the diversity of viruses that naturally infect marine fish species in the North Pacific Ocean.

  15. Isolation and characterization of a rhabdovirus from starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) collected from the northern portion of Puget Sound, Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    Mork, Christina; Hershberger, Paul; Kocan, Richard; Batts, William; Winton, James

    2004-02-01

    The initial characterization of a rhabdovirus isolated from a single, asymptomatic starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) collected during a viral survey of marine fishes from the northern portion of Puget Sound, Washington, USA, is reported. Virions were bullet-shaped and approximately 100 nm long and 50 nm wide, contained a lipid envelope, remained stable for at least 14 days at temperatures ranging from -80 to 5 degrees C and grew optimally at 15 degrees C in cultures of epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells. The cytopathic effect on EPC cell monolayers was characterized by raised foci containing rounded masses of cells. Pyknotic and dark-staining nuclei that also showed signs of karyorrhexis were observed following haematoxylin and eosin, May-Grunwald Giemsa and acridine orange staining. PAGE of the structural proteins and PCR assays using primers specific for other known fish rhabdoviruses, including Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Spring viremia of carp virus, and Hirame rhabdovirus, indicated that the new virus, tentatively termed starry flounder rhabdovirus (SFRV), was previously undescribed in marine fishes from this region. In addition, sequence analysis of 2678 nt of the amino portion of the viral polymerase gene indicated that SFRV was genetically distinct from other members of the family Rhabdoviridae for which sequence data are available. Detection of this virus during a limited viral survey of wild fishes emphasizes the void of knowledge regarding the diversity of viruses that naturally infect marine fish species in the North Pacific Ocean.

  16. A novel fish rhabdovirus from sweden is closely related to the Finnish rhabdovirus 903/87.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Tove; Ostman-Myllyoja, Lillemor; Hellström, Anders; Martelius, Suzanne; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Björklund, Harry

    2002-10-01

    A novel rhabdovirus, preliminary designated as the Sea trout rhabdovirus 28/97 (STRV 28/97), was isolated from sea trout (Salmo trutta trutta) in Sweden in 1996. The fish showed central nervous symptoms, and at the autopsy petechial bleedings in the mesenteric fat were visible. STRV 28/97 was shown to be serologically related to the vesiculotype rhabdovirus 903/87 isolated from brown trout (Salmo trutta lacustris) in Finland [1,3]. The sequences for the nucleocapsid protein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and beginning of the polymerase protein of STRV 28/97 were determined. At the amino acid level the genes were over 97% similar to virus 903/87. The nucleocapsid proteins, glycoproteins and beginning of the polymerase protein of STRV 28/97 and virus 903/87 were clustered with the vesiculoviruses and the phosphoproteins close to the vesiculoviruses in protein parsimony analysis. The matrix proteins formed a distinct clade in protein parsimony analysis.

  17. A new bacilliform fathead minnow rhabdovirus that produces syncytia in tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Iwanowicz, L R; Goodwin, A E

    2002-05-01

    A pathogenic bacilliform virus 130-180 nm in length and 31-47 nm in diameter was isolated from moribund fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exhibiting hemorrhages in their eyes and skin. A cytopathic effect of multifocal syncytia was observed in the epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line after a 48 h incubation at 20 degrees C. A similar cytopathic effect was also observed in other cell lines tested, but not in bluegill fry, koi fin, or Chinook salmon embryo cells. The filterable agent was inactivated by exposure to 50 degrees C for 10 min, 20% ether, 2 and 50% chloroform, pH 3, and pH 10, was unaffected by 5'-iodo-2 deoxyuridine, and appeared bacilliform and occasionally bullet-shaped by electron microscopy. These results are consistent with those of rhabdoviruses. Immunodot blots performed with antisera against selected fish rhabdoviruses, an aquareovirus, and a birnavirus were all negative. River's postulates were fulfilled in fathead minnows, but the agent did not replicate or cause disease in other cyprinids or salmonids during challenge experiments. Hepatic, splenic, and renal lesions were observed during histological analysis of diseased fish from viral challenges and from the original case. Structural proteins resolved via SDS-PAGE had molecular weights similar to those reported in lyssaviruses of the family Rhabdoviridae; however, syncytia formation is not a typical cytopathic effect of rhabdoviruses. This virus, has tentatively been named the fathead minnow rhabdovirus (FHMRV) and is most similar to the members of the family Rhabdoviridae, but atypical properties like syncytia formation may justify the assignment to a novel taxon.

  18. [Haemorrhagic fever viruses, possible bioterrorist use].

    PubMed

    Rigaudeau, Sophie; Bricaire, François; Bossi, Philippe

    2005-01-29

    The majority of haemorrhagic fever viruses are responsible for various clinical manifestations, the mutual characteristics of which are fever and haemorrhage in 5 to 70% of cases. All degrees of severity can be observed, ranging from isolated fever to multi-organ failure and death. These viruses belong to one of the following families: filoviridae, arenaviridae, bunyaviridae, and flaviviridae. They must be considered as dangerous biological weapons that could potentially be used. Most of the viruses responsible for haemorrhagic fever can be transmitted to humans through the air in spray form, except the dengue virus and the agents of haemorrhagic fever from the Congo Crimea and the haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome that are difficult to handle in cell culture. In the event of a bioterrorist act, the management of persons infected or suspected of being so will be made by the referent departments of infectious diseases, defined by the French Biotox plan. Management includes isolation, confirmation or invalidation of the diagnosis and rapid initiation of treatment with ribavirin. Ribavirin is recommended for the treatment and prophylaxis of arenavirus and bunyavirus infections; it is not effective for the other families of virus. Except for yellow fever, there is no vaccination for the other forms of viral haemorrhagic fever. PMID:15687968

  19. [Haemorrhagic fever viruses, possible bioterrorist use].

    PubMed

    Rigaudeau, Sophie; Bricaire, François; Bossi, Philippe

    2005-01-29

    The majority of haemorrhagic fever viruses are responsible for various clinical manifestations, the mutual characteristics of which are fever and haemorrhage in 5 to 70% of cases. All degrees of severity can be observed, ranging from isolated fever to multi-organ failure and death. These viruses belong to one of the following families: filoviridae, arenaviridae, bunyaviridae, and flaviviridae. They must be considered as dangerous biological weapons that could potentially be used. Most of the viruses responsible for haemorrhagic fever can be transmitted to humans through the air in spray form, except the dengue virus and the agents of haemorrhagic fever from the Congo Crimea and the haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome that are difficult to handle in cell culture. In the event of a bioterrorist act, the management of persons infected or suspected of being so will be made by the referent departments of infectious diseases, defined by the French Biotox plan. Management includes isolation, confirmation or invalidation of the diagnosis and rapid initiation of treatment with ribavirin. Ribavirin is recommended for the treatment and prophylaxis of arenavirus and bunyavirus infections; it is not effective for the other families of virus. Except for yellow fever, there is no vaccination for the other forms of viral haemorrhagic fever.

  20. Concurrent injection of a rhabdovirus-specific DNA vaccine with a polyvalent, oil-adjuvanted vaccine delays the specific anti-viral immune response in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Lisa A; LaPatra, S E; Adams, A; Thompson, K D; Balfry, S K; McKinley, R S; Schulte, P M

    2010-04-01

    Vaccines are commonly used in salmonid aquaculture as a method of disease prevention. Although there is a substantial amount of published research regarding the immunological and physiological effects following the injection of different polyvalent vaccines and DNA vaccines, there are no published reports examining the physiological and immunological effects of concurrent vaccine injection, which is the situation encountered in aquaculture. Using key immunological parameters such as lysozyme activity and specific antibody titres we examined the short-term activation of the immune response of cultured Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) following concurrent injection with a traditional, polyvalent, oil-adjuvanted vaccine (AV) and an IHNV-specific DNA vaccine (DV). Our results indicate that different aspects of the innate and adaptive immune responses are influenced in either a positive or negative manner. While concurrent vaccine injection elicited an increase in lysozyme activity, changes in antibody titre (Ab) were antigen specific. The production of anti-Aeromonas salmonicida Abs was significantly greater in the combined vaccine group at 296 degree days post-vaccine injection (dd pvi), while the production of anti-Listonella anguillarum Abs was significantly greater at 106 dd pvi in the combined vaccine group. Of even greater interest was the apparent delay in production of IHNV-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAb) when the DV was injected concurrently with the polyvalent AV. The results indicated that concurrent injection of a polyvalent oil-AV and a DV can be beneficial to the production of antibodies; however, the specific anti-viral response may be delayed.

  1. Epizootic haemorrhagic disease.

    PubMed

    Maclachlan, N J; Zientara, S; Savini, G; Daniels, P W

    2015-08-01

    Summary Epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) is an arthropod-transmitted viral disease of certain wild ungulates, notably North American white-tailed deer and, more rarely, cattle. The disease in white-tailed deer results from vascular injury analogous to that caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), to which EHD virus (EHDV) is closely related. There are seven serotypes of EHDV recognised, and Ibaraki virus, which is the cause of sporadic disease outbreaks in cattle in Asia, is included in EHDV serotype 2. The global distribution and epidemiology of BTV and EHDV infections are also similar, as both viruses occur throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world where they are transmitted by biting Culicoides midges and infect a wide variety of domestic and wild ungulates. However, the global distribution and epidemiology of EHDV infection are less well characterised than they are for BTV. Whereas most natural and experimental EHDV infections (other than Ibaraki virus infection) of livestock are subclinical or asymptomatic, outbreaks of EHD have recently been reported among cattle in the Mediterranean Basin, Reunion Island, South Africa, and the United States. Accurate and convenient laboratory tests are increasingly available for the sensitive and specific serological and virological diagnosis of EHDV infection and confirmation of EHD in animals, but commercial vaccines are available only for prevention of Ibaraki disease and not for protection against other strains and serotypes of EHDV. PMID:26601439

  2. Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Rigau-Pérez, J G; Clark, G G; Gubler, D J; Reiter, P; Sanders, E J; Vorndam, A V

    1998-09-19

    The incidence and geographical distribution of dengue have greatly increased in recent years. Dengue is an acute mosquito-transmitted viral disease characterised by fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, rash, nausea, and vomiting. Some infections result in dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), a syndrome that in its most severe form can threaten the patient's life, primarily through increased vascular permeability and shock. The case fatality rate in patients with dengue shock syndrome can be as high as 44%. For decades, two distinct hypotheses to explain the mechanism of DHF have been debated-secondary infection or viral virulence. However, a combination of both now seems to be the plausible explanation. The geographical expansion of DHF presents the need for well-documented clinical, epidemiological, and virological descriptions of the syndrome in the Americas. Biological and social research are essential to develop effective mosquito control, medications to reduce capillary leakage, and a safe tetravalent vaccine.

  3. A DN-mda5 transgenic zebrafish model demonstrates that Mda5 plays an important role in snakehead rhabdovirus resistance.

    PubMed

    Gabor, K A; Charette, J R; Pietraszewski, M J; Wingfield, D J; Shim, J S; Millard, P J; Kim, C H

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma Differentiation-Associated protein 5 (MDA5) is a member of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) family, which is a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor that detects viral nucleic acids. Here we show an Mda5-dependent response to rhabdovirus infection in vivo using a dominant-negative mda5 transgenic zebrafish. Dominant-negative mda5 zebrafish embryos displayed an impaired antiviral immune response compared to wild-type counterparts that can be rescued by recombinant full-length Mda5. To our knowledge, we have generated the first dominant-negative mda5 transgenic zebrafish and demonstrated a critical role for Mda5 in the antiviral response to rhabdovirus.

  4. Subsequent bilateral thalamic haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Jesus; Scherle, Claudio; Machado, Calixto

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous or subsequent bilateral thalamic haemorrhage is rare, and most reported cases are from Asian countries. An 80-year-old white Cuban man, with a history of arterial hypertension, suffered sudden onset of right hemiparesis. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed a left posteromedial thalamic haemorrhage. Two days later his condition suddenly deteriorated: blood pressure was 220/105 mm Hg, he was stuporous and tetraplegic, respiration was ataxic, and his gaze was fixed and deviated downward and inward. CT scan showed haemorrhages in both thalami, extending to the ventricles. 32 h later the patient died. There are few previous publications of simultaneous or subsequent bilateral thalamic haemorrhages and this is the first report involving a Hispanic patient. Prognosis in patients with bilateral thalamic haemorrhage is poor, and the mechanism underlying the development of subsequent and symmetrical bleeding is not clear. PMID:21709830

  5. Comparison of two birnavirus-rhabdovirus coinfections in fish cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, S; Alonso, M; Pérez-Prietol, S I

    2005-11-28

    Aquabirnaviruses, such as the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), Novirhabdoviruses, such as the infectious hematopoiteic necrosis virus (IHNV) and the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), cause considerable losses to the salmonid industry worldwide. Coinfections of 2 viruses have been described, but the interactions between rhabdoviruses and birnaviruses have not been examined closely. Using virus titration, flow cytometry and RT-PCR assays, we compared the effect of IPNV on the replication of IHNV and VHSV in tissue culture cells. RT-PCR assays indicated that simultaneous infection of IPNV with VHSV does not affect the replication of the rhabdovirus either in the first or successive passages; the infective titers were similar in single and double infections. In contrast, coinfection of IPNV with IHNV induced a fall in infectivity, with reduced expression of IHNV viral antigens in BF-2 cells from Lepomis macrochirus and a loss of 4.5 log10 units of the infective titer after 3 successive passages. It was possible to stimulate BF-2 cells to produce significant interferon-like activity against IHNV but not against VHSV.

  6. Characterization of snakehead rhabdovirus infection in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Phelan, Peter E; Pressley, Meagan E; Witten, P Eckhard; Mellon, Mark T; Blake, Sharon; Kim, Carol H

    2005-02-01

    The zebrafish, Danio rerio, has become recognized as a valuable model for the study of development, genetics, and toxicology. Recently, the zebrafish has been recognized as a useful model for infectious disease and immunity. In this study, the pathogenesis and antiviral immune response of zebrafish to experimental snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) infection was characterized. Zebrafish 24 h postfertilization to 30 days postfertilization were susceptible to infection by immersion in 10(6) 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) of SHRV/ml, and adult zebrafish were susceptible to infection by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 10(5) TCID50 of SHRV/ml. Mortalities exceeded 40% in infected fish, and clinical presentation of infection included petechial hemorrhaging, redness of the abdomen, and erratic swim behavior. Virus reisolation and reverse transcription-PCR analysis of the viral nucleocapsid gene confirmed the presence of SHRV. Histological sections of moribund embryonic and juvenile fish revealed necrosis of the pharyngeal epithelium and liver, in addition to congestion of the swim bladder by cell debris. Histopathology in adult fish injected i.p. was confined to the site of injection. The antiviral response in zebrafish was monitored by quantitative real-time PCR analysis of zebrafish interferon (IFN) and Mx expression. IFN and Mx levels were elevated in zebrafish exposed to SHRV, although expression and intensity differed with age and route of infection. This study is the first to examine the pathogenesis of SHRV infection in zebrafish. Furthermore, this study is the first to describe experimental infection of zebrafish embryos with a viral pathogen, which will be important for future experiments involving targeted gene disruption and forward genetic screens.

  7. Routine clinical inspections in Norwegian marine salmonid sites: A key role in surveillance for freedom from pathogenic viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS).

    PubMed

    Lyngstad, Trude Marie; Hellberg, Hege; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Bang Jensen, Britt; Brun, Edgar; Sergeant, Evan; Tavornpanich, Saraya

    2016-02-01

    Since the mid-1980s, clinical inspections of aquaculture sites carried out on a regular basis by authorized veterinarians and fish health biologists (known as fish health services: FHS) have been an essential part of aquatic animal health surveillance in Norway. The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the performance of FHS routine clinical inspections for the detection of VHS and (2) to explore the effectiveness of risk-based prioritisation of FHS inspections for demonstrating freedom from VHS in marine salmonid sites in Norway. A stochastic simulation model was developed to estimate site sensitivity (SeS), population sensitivity (SeP), and probability of freedom (PFree). The estimation of SeS takes into consideration the probability that FHS submit samples if a site is infected, the probability that a sample is tested if submitted, the effective probability of infection in fish with clinical signs, laboratory test sensitivity, and the number of tested samples. SeP and PFree were estimated on a monthly basis over a 12 month period for six alternative surveillance scenarios and included the risk factors: region, species, area production density, and biosecurity level. Model results indicate that the current surveillance system, based on routine inspections by the FHS has a high capability for detecting VHS and that there is a high probability of freedom from VHS in Norwegian marine farmed salmonids (PFree >95%). Sensitivity analysis identified the probabilities that samples are submitted and submitted samples are tested, as the most influential input variables. The model provides a supporting tool for evaluation of potential changes in the surveillance strategy, and can be viewed as a platform for similar exotic viral infectious diseases in marine salmonid farming in Norway, if they share similar risk factors. PMID:26754927

  8. Characterization of resistance to rhabdovirus and retrovirus infection in a human myeloid cell line.

    PubMed

    Boso, Guney; Somia, Nikunj V

    2015-01-01

    Viruses interact with various permissive and restrictive factors in host cells throughout their replication cycle. Cell lines that are non-permissive to viral infection have been particularly useful in discovering host cell proteins involved in viral life cycles. Here we describe the characterization of a human myeloid leukemia cell line, KG-1, that is resistant to infection by retroviruses and a Rhabdovirus. We show that KG-1 cells are resistant to infection by Vesicular Stomatits Virus as well as VSV Glycoprotein (VSVG) pseudotyped retroviruses due to a defect in binding. Moreover our results indicate that entry by xenotropic retroviral envelope glycoprotein RD114 is impaired in KG-1 cells. Finally we characterize a post- entry block in the early phase of the retroviral life cycle in KG-1 cells that renders the cell line refractory to infection. This cell line will have utility in discovering proteins involved in infection by VSV and HIV-1.

  9. Isolation and identification of a lethal rhabdovirus from farmed rice field eels Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Ou, Tong; Zhu, Ruo-Lin; Chen, Zhong-Yuan; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2013-11-01

    We provide the first description of a virus responsible for a systemic hemorrhagic disease causing high mortality in farmed rice field eels Monopterus albus in China. Typical signs exhibited by the diseased fish were extensive hemorrhages in the skin and viscera and some neurological signs, such as loss of equilibrium and disorganized swimming. Histopathological examination revealed various degrees of necrosis within the spleen and liver. Virus isolation was attempted from visceral tissues of diseased fish by inoculation on 6 fish cell lines. Typical cytopathic effects (CPE) were produced in bluegill fry (BF2) cells, so this cell line was chosen for further isolation and propagation of the virus. Electron microscopy observation showed that the negative stained viral particles had the characteristic bullet shape of rhabdoviruses and an estimated size of 60 × 120 nm. We therefore tentatively refer to this virus as Monopterus albus rhabdovirus (MoARV). Molecular characterization of MoARV, including sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), and glycoprotein (G) genes, revealed 94.5 to 97.3% amino acid similarity to that of Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequences of N and G proteins indicated that MoARV should be a member of the genus Vesiculovirus. Koch's postulates were fulfilled by infecting healthy rice field eels with MoARV, which produced an acute infection. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that MoARV RNA could be detected in both naturally and experimentally infected fish. The data suggest that MoARV was the causative pathogen of the disease.

  10. Detection and genome analysis of a novel (dima)rhabdovirus (Riverside virus) from Ochlerotatus sp. mosquitoes in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Gábor; Boros, Ákos; Pál, József; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Pankovics, Péter

    2016-04-01

    During an investigation for potential arboviruses present in mosquitoes in Hungary (Central Europe) three highly similar virus strains of a novel rhabdovirus (family Rhabdoviridae) called Riverside virus (RISV, KU248085-KU248087) were detected and genetically characterized from Ochlerotatus sp. mosquito pools collected from 3 geographical locations using viral metagenomic and RT-PCR methods. The ssRNA(-) genome of RISVs follows the general genome layout of rhabdoviruses (3'-N-P-M-G-L-5') with two alternatives, small ORFs in the P and G genes (Px and Gx). The genome of RISVs contains some unusual features such as the large P proteins, the short M proteins with the absence of N-terminal region together with the undetectable "Late budding" motif and the overlap of P and M genes. The unusually long 3' UTRs of the M genes of RISVs probably contain a remnant transcription termination signal which is suggesting the presence of an ancestral gene. The phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparisons show that the closest known relative of RISVs is the recently identified partially sequenced mosquito-borne rhabdovirus, North Creek virus (NOCRV), from Australia. The RISVs and NOCRV form a distinct, basally rooted lineage in the dimarhabdovirus supergroup. The host species range of RISVs is currently unknown, although the presence of these viruses especially in Ochlerotatus sp. mosquitoes which are known to be fierce biting pests of humans and warm-blooded animals and abundant and widespread in Hungary could hold some potential medical and/or veterinary risks.

  11. Complete genome sequence and integrated protein localization and interaction map for alfalfa dwarf virus, which combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Bejerman, Nicolás; Giolitti, Fabián; Breuil, Soledad de; Trucco, Verónica; Nome, Claudia; Lenardon, Sergio; Dietzgen, Ralf G.

    2015-09-15

    Summary: We have determined the full-length 14,491-nucleotide genome sequence of a new plant rhabdovirus, alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV). Seven open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the antigenomic orientation of the negative-sense, single-stranded viral RNA, in the order 3′-N-P-P3-M-G-P6-L-5′. The ORFs are separated by conserved intergenic regions and the genome coding region is flanked by complementary 3′ leader and 5′ trailer sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleoprotein amino acid sequence indicated that this alfalfa-infecting rhabdovirus is related to viruses in the genus Cytorhabdovirus. When transiently expressed as GFP fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, most ADV proteins accumulated in the cell periphery, but unexpectedly P protein was localized exclusively in the nucleus. ADV P protein was shown to have a homotypic, and heterotypic nuclear interactions with N, P3 and M proteins by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. ADV appears unique in that it combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses. - Highlights: • The complete genome of alfalfa dwarf virus is obtained. • An integrated localization and interaction map for ADV is determined. • ADV has a genome sequence similarity and evolutionary links with cytorhabdoviruses. • ADV protein localization and interaction data show an association with the nucleus. • ADV combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses.

  12. Characterization of a venom gland-associated rhabdovirus in the parasitoid wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata.

    PubMed

    Simmonds, Tyler J; Carrillo, Daniel; Burke, Gaelen R

    2016-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps reproduce by laying their eggs on or inside of a host insect, which triggers a defense response in the host insect that kills the developing wasp. To counteract the host's lethal response, some parasitoid wasps are associated with symbiotic viruses that alter host metabolism and development to promote successful development of the wasp embryo. These symbiotic viruses display a number of characteristics that differ from those of pathogenic viruses, but are poorly understood with the exception of one group, the polydnaviruses. Here, we characterize the genome of a non-polydnavirus associated with parasitoid wasps, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata rhabdovirus (DlRhV), and assess its role as a potential mutualistic virus. Our results show that the DlRhV genome contains six open reading frames (ORFs). Three ORFs show sequence homology to known viral genes and one ORF encodes a previously identified protein, called parasitism-specific protein 24 (PSP24), that has been hypothesized to play a role in promoting successful parasitism by D. longicaudata. We constructed a phylogeny that shows that DlRhV is most closely related to other insect-infecting rhabdoviruses. Finally, we report that DlRhV infection does not occur in all populations of D. longicaudata, and is not required for successful parasitism. PMID:27374981

  13. Subcellular trafficking in rhabdovirus infection and immune evasion: a novel target for therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Oksayan, Sibil; Ito, Naoto; Moseley, Greg; Blondel, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Rabies Virus (RABV) are the prototypic members of the rhabdovirus family. These viruses have a particularly broad host range, and despite the availability of vaccines, RABV still causes more than 50,000 human deaths a year. Trafficking of the virion or viral particles is important at several stages of the replicative life cycle, including cellular entry, localization into the cytoplasmic inclusion bodies which primarily house the transcription and replication of the viral genome, and migration to the plasma membrane from whence the virus is released by budding. Intriguingly, specific viral proteins, VSV M and RABV P have also been shown to undergo intracellular trafficking independent of the other viral apparatus. These proteins are multifunctional, and play roles in antagonism of host processes, namely the IFN system, and as such enable viral evasion of the innate cellular antiviral response. A body of recent research has been aimed at characterizing the mechanisms by which these proteins are able to shuttle between and localize to various subcellular sites, including the nucleus, which is not required during the cytoplasmic replicative life cycle of the virus. This work has indicated that trafficking of these proteins plays a significant role in determining the ability of the viruses to replicate and cause infection, and as such, represents a viable target for development of a new generation of vaccines and prophylactic therapeutics which are required to battle these pathogens of human and agricultural significance.

  14. Rhabdovirus matrix protein structures reveal a novel mode of self-association.

    PubMed

    Graham, Stephen C; Assenberg, René; Delmas, Olivier; Verma, Anil; Gholami, Alireza; Talbi, Chiraz; Owens, Raymond J; Stuart, David I; Grimes, Jonathan M; Bourhy, Hervé

    2008-12-01

    The matrix (M) proteins of rhabdoviruses are multifunctional proteins essential for virus maturation and budding that also regulate the expression of viral and host proteins. We have solved the structures of M from the vesicular stomatitis virus serotype New Jersey (genus: Vesiculovirus) and from Lagos bat virus (genus: Lyssavirus), revealing that both share a common fold despite sharing no identifiable sequence homology. Strikingly, in both structures a stretch of residues from the otherwise-disordered N terminus of a crystallographically adjacent molecule is observed binding to a hydrophobic cavity on the surface of the protein, thereby forming non-covalent linear polymers of M in the crystals. While the overall topology of the interaction is conserved between the two structures, the molecular details of the interactions are completely different. The observed interactions provide a compelling model for the flexible self-assembly of the matrix protein during virion morphogenesis and may also modulate interactions with host proteins.

  15. Increasing virulence, but not infectivity, associated with serially emergent virus strains of a fish rhabdovirus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breyta, Rachel; McKenney, Douglas; Tesfaye, Tarin; Ono, Kotaro; Kurath, Gael

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance and genetic typing of field isolates of a fish rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), has identified four dominant viral genotypes that were involved in serial viral emergence and displacement events in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in western North America. To investigate drivers of these landscape-scale events, IHNV isolates designated 007, 111, 110, and 139, representing the four relevant genotypes, were compared for virulence and infectivity in controlled laboratory challenge studies in five relevant steelhead trout populations. Viral virulence was assessed as mortality using lethal dose estimates (LD50), survival kinetics, and proportional hazards analysis. A pattern of increasing virulence for isolates 007, 111, and 110 was consistent in all five host populations tested, and correlated with serial emergence and displacements in the virus-endemic lower Columbia River source region during 1980–2013. The fourth isolate, 139, did not have higher virulence than the previous isolate 110. However, the mG139M genotype displayed a conditional displacement phenotype in that it displaced type mG110M in coastal Washington, but not in the lower Columbia River region, indicating that factors other than evolution of higher viral virulence were involved in some displacement events. Viral infectivity, measured as infectious dose (ID50), did not correlate consistently with virulence or with viral emergence, and showed a narrow range of variation relative to the variation observed in virulence. Comparison among the five steelhead trout populations confirmed variation in resistance to IHNV, but correlations with previous history of virus exposure or with sites of viral emergence varied between IHNV source and sink regions. Overall, this study indicated increasing viral virulence over time as a potential driver for emergence and displacement events in the endemic Lower Columbia River source region where these IHNV genotypes originated

  16. A DN-mda5 Transgenic Zebrafish 1 Model Demonstrates that Mda5 Plays an Important Role in Snakehead Rhabdovirus Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gabor, KA; Charette, JR; Pietraszewski, MJ; Wingfield, DJ; Shim, JS; Millard, PJ; Kim, CH

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma Differentiation-Associated protein 5 (MDA5) is a member of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) family, which is a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor that detects viral nucleic acids. Here we show an Mda5-dependent response to rhabdovirus infection in vivo using a dominant-negative mda5 transgenic zebrafish. Dominant-negative mda5 zebrafish embryos displayed an impaired antiviral immune response compared to wild-type counterparts that can be rescued by recombinant full-length Mda5. To our knowledge, we have generated the first dominant-negative mda5 transgenic zebrafish and demonstrated a critical role for Mda5 in the antiviral response to rhabdovirus. PMID:25634485

  17. The evolution, diversity, and host associations of rhabdoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Longdon, Ben; Murray, Gemma G. R.; Palmer, William J.; Day, Jonathan P.; Parker, Darren J; Welch, John J.; Obbard, Darren J.; Jiggins, Francis M.

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomic studies are leading to the discovery of a hidden diversity of RNA viruses. These new viruses are poorly characterized and new approaches are needed predict the host species these viruses pose a risk to. The rhabdoviruses are a diverse family of RNA viruses that includes important pathogens of humans, animals, and plants. We have discovered thirty-two new rhabdoviruses through a combination of our own RNA sequencing of insects and searching public sequence databases. Combining these with previously known sequences we reconstructed the phylogeny of 195 rhabdovirus sequences, and produced the most in depth analysis of the family to date. In most cases we know nothing about the biology of the viruses beyond the host they were identified from, but our dataset provides a powerful phylogenetic approach to predict which are vector-borne viruses and which are specific to vertebrates or arthropods. By reconstructing ancestral and present host states we found that switches between major groups of hosts have occurred rarely during rhabdovirus evolution. This allowed us to propose seventy-six new likely vector-borne vertebrate viruses among viruses identified from vertebrates or biting insects. Based on currently available data, our analysis suggests it is likely there was a single origin of the known plant viruses and arthropod-borne vertebrate viruses, while vertebrate- and arthropod-specific viruses arose at least twice. There are also few transitions between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Viruses also cluster together at a finer scale, with closely related viruses tending to be found in closely related hosts. Our data therefore suggest that throughout their evolution, rhabdoviruses have occasionally jumped between distantly related host species before spreading through related hosts in the same environment. This approach offers a way to predict the most probable biology and key traits of newly discovered viruses. PMID:27774286

  18. Management of postpartum haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Marie Pierre; Benhamou, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum Haemorrhage (PPH) is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Treatment of acquired coagulopathy observed in severe PPH is an important part of PPH management, but is mainly based on literature in trauma patients, and data thus should be interpreted with caution. This review describes recent advances in transfusion strategy and in the use of tranexamic acid and fibrinogen concentrates in women with PPH. PMID:27408694

  19. Management of postpartum haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Marie Pierre; Benhamou, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum Haemorrhage (PPH) is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Treatment of acquired coagulopathy observed in severe PPH is an important part of PPH management, but is mainly based on literature in trauma patients, and data thus should be interpreted with caution. This review describes recent advances in transfusion strategy and in the use of tranexamic acid and fibrinogen concentrates in women with PPH. PMID:27408694

  20. Genomic characterization and taxonomic position of a rhabdovirus from a hybrid snakehead.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Weiwei; Wang, Qing; Wang, Yingying; Liu, Cun; Liang, Hongru; Fang, Xiang; Wu, Shuqin

    2014-09-01

    A new rhabdovirus, tentatively designated as hybrid snakehead rhabdovirus C1207 (HSHRV-C1207), was first isolated from a moribund hybrid snakehead (Channa maculata×Channa argus) in China. We present the complete genome sequence of HSHRV-C1207 and a comprehensive sequence comparison between HSHRV-C1207 and other rhabdoviruses. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that HSHRV-C1207 shared the highest degree of homology with Monopterus albus rhabdovirus and Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus. All three viruses clustered into a single group that was distinct from the recognized genera in the family Rhabdoviridae. Our analysis suggests that HSHRV-C1207, as well as MARV and SCRV, should be assigned to a new rhabdovirus genus.

  1. Characterization and application of monoclonal antibodies against turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) Rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guang-Zhou; Li, Zheng-Qiu; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2006-01-01

    Five monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), 1G8, 1H9, 2D2, 2D3, and 2F5, against Scophthalmus maximus rhabdovirus (SMRV) were prepared. Characterization of the mAbs included indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, isotyping, viral inhibition assay, immunofluorescence staining of virus-infected cell cultures, and Western blot analysis. Isotyping revealed that 1G8 and 1H9 were of the IgG2b subclass and that the other three were IgM. 2D2, 2D3, and 2F5 partially inhibited SMRV infection in epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC) cell culture. Western blotting showed that all five mAbs could react with two SMRV proteins with molecular masses of approximately 30 kDa (P) and 26 kDa (M). These two proteins were localized within the cytoplasm of SMRV-infected EPC cells by immunofluorescence assay. Also, progressive foci of viral replication in cell cultures were monitored from 6 to 24 h, using mAb 2D3 as the primary antibody. A flow cytometry procedure was used to detect and quantify SMRV-infected (0.01 PFU/cell) EPC cells with mAb 2D3, and 10.8% of cells could be distinguished as infected 36 h postinfection. Moreover, mAb 2D3 was successfully applied for the detection of viral antigen in cryosections from flounder tissues by immunohistochemistry tests.

  2. Early Activation of Teleost B Cells in Response to Rhabdovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Abós, Beatriz; Castro, Rosario; González Granja, Aitor; Havixbeck, Jeffrey J.; Barreda, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To date, the response of teleost B cells to specific pathogens has been only scarcely addressed. In this work, we have demonstrated that viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a fish rhabdovirus, has the capacity to infect rainbow trout spleen IgM-positive (IgM+) cells, although the infection is not productive. Consequently, we have studied the effects of VHSV on IgM+ cell functionality, comparing these effects to those elicited by a Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ligand, poly(I·C). We found that poly(I·C) and VHSV significantly upregulated TLR3 and type I interferon (IFN) transcription in spleen and blood IgM+ cells. Further effects included the upregulated transcription of the CK5B chemokine. The significant inhibition of some of these effects in the presence of bafilomycin A1 (BAF), an inhibitor of endosomal acidification, suggests the involvement of an intracellular TLR in these responses. In the case of VHSV, these transcriptional effects were dependent on viral entry into B cells and the initiation of viral transcription. VHSV also provoked the activation of NF-κB and the upregulation of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) cell surface expression on IgM+ cells, which, along with the increased transcription of the costimulatory molecules CD80/86 and CD83, pointed to VHSV-induced IgM+ cell activation toward an antigen-presenting profile. Finally, despite the moderate effects of VHSV on IgM+ cell proliferation, a consistent effect on IgM+ cell survival was detected. IMPORTANCE Innate immune responses to pathogens established through their recognition by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) have been traditionally ascribed to innate cells. However, recent evidence in mammals has revealed that innate pathogen recognition by B lymphocytes is a crucial factor in shaping the type of immune response that is mounted. In teleosts, these immediate effects of viral encounter on B lymphocytes have not been addressed to date. In our study, we

  3. Isolation and characterisation of rhabdovirus from wild common bream Abramis brama, roach Rutilus rutilus, farmed brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Rowley, H; Graham, D A; Campbell, S; Way, K; Stone, D M; Curran, W L; Bryson, D G

    2001-12-20

    Rhabdovirus was isolated from wild common bream Abramis brama during a disease outbreak with high mortality in Northern Ireland during May 1998. Rhabdovirus was also isolated at the same time from healthy farmed rainbow Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta on the same stretch of river and 11 mo later from healthy wild bream and roach Rutilus rutilus in the same river system. Experimental intra-peritoneal infection of bream and mirror carp Cyprinus carpio var specularis with 2 of these isolates produced low mortality rates of < or = 12%. Serological testing of these isolates by virus neutralisation indicated that they were antigenically closely related to pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV) but not to spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV), while testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated them to be antigenically different from both. Comparison of nucleotide sequence data of a 550 base pair segment of the viral glycoprotein generated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated a high (> or = 96.6%) degree of similarity between these isolates and a previous Northern Ireland isolate made in 1984, a 1997 isolate from bream in the Republic of Ireland and an earlier Dutch isolate from roach. In contrast, similarity between these isolates and PFRV was < 82.4%, indicating that these viruses belong to 2 distinct genogroups, while similarity to SVCV was even lower (< 67.4%).

  4. Delayed traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Baratham, Gopal; Dennyson, William G.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-one out of 7,866 head injuries were complicated by the development of delayed intracerebral haematomata. The age distribution of patients with this condition closely resembled that of patients with subdural haematomata and differed sharply from patients with extradural haemorrhage. This finding, combined with the fact that the two conditions often coexisted, suggests the possibility of similar aetiological factors operating in their production. The injury producing the lesion was often minor and the larger haematomata appeared to be associated with longer `asymptomatic' intervals. The neurological deterioration was in most instances clearly the result of an increase in intracranial pressure. When possible, angiography followed by definitive craniotomy was the most satisfactory method of management and multiple burr holes even when combined with needling of the hemisphere yielded unsatisfactory results. The distribution of lesions tended to confirm their traumatic origin. On no occasion was there a vascular abnormality to account for the haemorrhage and, despite the fact that the ages of most patients were in the seventh and eighth decades, the incidence of degenerative vascular disease was small. Contusional injury causes a local failure of the mechanisms that regulate cerebral blood flow. Hypoxia, hypercapnia, and venous congestion produce cerebral hyperaemia which encourages gradual haematoma formation particularly at the sites of injury. This explains not only the situation of the lesions but also the latency between the trauma and their development. PMID:5084138

  5. Methamphetamine-related brainstem haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Zelia K; Bennett, Iwan E; Chan, Patrick; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2016-10-01

    We report the case of an otherwise healthy 29-year-old woman who presented with a brainstem haemorrhage following intravenous methamphetamine use. Extensive investigation did not reveal an underlying pathology, and the development of symptoms was temporally related to methamphetamine injection. Although intracerebral haemorrhage secondary to methamphetamine use is well documented, this report describes a haemorrhage within the brainstem which is a rare location. While animal studies have demonstrated the potential of methamphetamines to produce brainstem haemorrhages, there has only been one previous report describing a haemorrhage in this location due to amphetamine use in humans. We conclude with a brief discussion of the clinical features and aetiology of methamphetamine-related stroke. PMID:27345417

  6. Methamphetamine-related brainstem haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Zelia K; Bennett, Iwan E; Chan, Patrick; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2016-10-01

    We report the case of an otherwise healthy 29-year-old woman who presented with a brainstem haemorrhage following intravenous methamphetamine use. Extensive investigation did not reveal an underlying pathology, and the development of symptoms was temporally related to methamphetamine injection. Although intracerebral haemorrhage secondary to methamphetamine use is well documented, this report describes a haemorrhage within the brainstem which is a rare location. While animal studies have demonstrated the potential of methamphetamines to produce brainstem haemorrhages, there has only been one previous report describing a haemorrhage in this location due to amphetamine use in humans. We conclude with a brief discussion of the clinical features and aetiology of methamphetamine-related stroke.

  7. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the flounder Paralichthys olivaceus rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guang-Zhou; Gui, Lang; Li, Zheng-Qiu; Yuan, Xiu-Ping; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2008-03-01

    Two MAbs (3C7 and 3C9) against flounder Paralichthys olivaceus rhabdovirus (PORV) were generated with hybridoma cell fusion technology and characterized by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, isotype test, Western blot and immunodot analysis and immunofluorescence assay. Isotyping tests demonstrated that both of the two MAbs belonged to IgM subclass. Western blot analysis showed the MAbs reacted with 42, 30, and 22 kDa viral proteins, which were localized within the cytoplasm of PORV-infected grass carp ovary (GCO) cells analyzed by indirect immunofluorescences tests. The MAb 3C7 was also selected at random for detecting virus antigens in the inoculated grass carp tissues by immunohistochemistry assay. Flow cytometry tests showed that at the 36 h postinfection (0.25 PFU/cell), the 23% PORV-infected GCO cells could be distinguished from the uninfected cells with the MAb 3C7. Such MAbs could be useful for diagnosis and potential treatment of viral infection.

  8. Cellular and Molecular Interactions of Rhabdoviruses with their Insect and Plant Hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rhabdoviruses form a large family (Rhabdoviridae) whose host ranges include humans, other vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. There are about 75 plant-infecting rhabdoviruses described, several of which are economically important pathogens that are persistently transmitted to their plant ho...

  9. Cellular and molecular aspects of rhabdovirus interactions with insect and plant hosts.

    PubMed

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Tsai, Chi-Wei; Whitfield, Anna E; Redinbaugh, Margaret G; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2009-01-01

    The rhabdoviruses form a large family (Rhabdoviridae) whose host ranges include humans, other vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. There are at least 90 plant-infecting rhabdoviruses, several of which are economically important pathogens of various crops. All definitive plant-infecting and many vertebrate-infecting rhabdoviruses are persistently transmitted by insect vectors, and a few putative plant rhabdoviruses are transmitted by mites. Plant rhabdoviruses replicate in their plant and arthropod hosts, and transmission by vectors is highly specific, with each virus species transmitted by one or a few related insect species, mainly aphids, leafhoppers, or planthoppers. Here, we provide an overview of plant rhabdovirus interactions with their insect hosts and of how these interactions compare with those of vertebrate-infecting viruses and with the Sigma rhabdovirus that infects Drosophila flies. We focus on cellular and molecular aspects of vector/host specificity, transmission barriers, and virus receptors in the vectors. In addition, we briefly discuss recent advances in understanding rhabdovirus-plant interactions.

  10. The role of the vascular endothelium in arenavirus haemorrhagic fevers.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) caused by arenaviruses are among the most devastating emerging human diseases. The most important pathogen among the arenaviruses is Lassa virus (LASV), the causative agent of Lassa fever that is endemic to West Africa. On the South American continent, the New World arenavirus Junin virus (JUNV), Machupo (MACV), Guanarito (GTOV), and Sabia virus (SABV) have emerged as causative agents of severe VHFs. Clinical and experimental studies on arenavirus VHF have revealed a crucial role of the endothelium in their pathogenesis. However, in contrast to other VHFs, haemorrhages are not a salient feature of Lassa fever and fatal cases do not show overt destruction of vascular tissue. The functional alteration of the vascular endothelium that precede shock and death in fatal Lassa fever may be due to more subtle direct or indirect effects of the virus on endothelial cells. Haemorrhagic disease manifestations and vascular involvement are more pronounced in the VHF caused by the South American haemorrhagic fever viruses. Recent studies on JUNV revealed perturbation of specific endothelial cell function, including expression of cell adhesion molecules, coagulation factors, and vasoactive mediators as a consequence of productive viral infection. These studies provided first possible links to some of the vascular abnormalities observed in patients, however, their relevance in vivo remains to be investigated.

  11. Detection of cutaneous antibodies in excised skin explants from grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes), immune to Scophthalmus maximus rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Lü, A-J; Li, Z-Q; Zhang, Q-Y

    2008-08-01

    This study determined whether cutaneous antibodies were present in excised skin explants of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, immune to Scophthalmus maximus rhabdovirus (SMRV). Culture fluid from immune skin explants were assayed by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA), Western blot, indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and flow cytometry (FCM). iELISA showed that cutaneous antibody titres were much lower (1:12) than antiserum titres (1:1458) from intraperitoneally immunized grass carp. The phosphoprotein and matrix protein antigens of purified SMRV proteins were recognized by cutaneous antibodies from skin culture fluid using Western blot. The skin culture fluid produced staining signals in viral assembly sites and cytoplasm of SMRV-infected epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells by IFA. FCM showed that 4.39% SMRV-infected EPC cells were detected, while non-specific reaction was seen in 2% of control cells. This is the first description of cutaneous antibodies against SMRV in grass carp.

  12. Sequence analysis and expression of the M1 and M2 matrix protein genes of hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishizawa, T.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced a 2318 nucleotide region of the genomic RNA of hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV), an important viral pathogen of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. This region comprises approximately two-thirds of the 3' end of the nucleocapsid protein (N) gene and the complete matrix protein (M1 and M2) genes with the associated intergenic regions. The partial N gene sequence was 812 nucleotides in length with an open reading frame (ORF) that encoded the carboxyl-terminal 250 amino acids of the N protein. The M1 and M2 genes were 771 and 700 nucleotides in length, respectively, with ORFs encoding proteins of 227 and 193 amino acids. The M1 gene sequence contained an additional small ORF that could encode a highly basic, arginine-rich protein of 25 amino acids. Comparisons of the N, M1, and M2 gene sequences of HIRRV with the corresponding sequences of the fish rhabdoviruses, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) or viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) indicated that HIRRV was more closely related to IHNV than to VHSV, but was clearly distinct from either. The putative consensus gene termination sequence for IHNV and VHSV, AGAYAG(A)(7), was present in the N-M1, M1-M2, and M2-G intergenic regions of HIRRV as were the putative transcription initiation sequences YGGCAC and AACA. An Escherichia coli expression system was used to produce recombinant proteins from the M1 and M2 genes of HIRRV. These were the same size as the authentic M1 and M2 proteins and reacted with anti-HIRRV rabbit serum in western blots. These reagents can be used for further study of the fish immune response and to test novel control methods.

  13. Characterization of Durham virus, a novel rhabdovirus that encodes both a C and SH protein

    PubMed Central

    Allison, A. B.; Palacios, G.; Rosa, A. Travassos da; Popov, V. L.; Lu, L.; Xiao, S. Y.; DeToy, K.; Briese, T.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Keel, M. K.; Stallknecht, D. E.; Bishop, G. R.; Tesh, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    The family Rhabdoviridae is a diverse group of non-segmented, negative-sense RNA viruses that are distributed worldwide and infect a wide range of hosts including vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Of the 114 currently recognized vertebrate rhabdoviruses, relatively few have been well characterized at both the antigenic and genetic level; hence, the phylogenetic relationships between many of the vertebrate rhabdoviruses remain unknown. The present report describes a novel rhabdovirus isolated from the brain of a moribund American coot (Fulica americana) that exhibited neurological signs when found in Durham County, North Carolina, in 2005. Antigenic characterization of the virus revealed that it was serologically unrelated to 68 other known vertebrate rhabdoviruses. Genomic sequencing of the virus indicated that it shared the highest identity to Tupaia rhabdovirus (TUPV), and as only previously observed in TUPV, the genome encoded a putative C protein in an overlapping open reading frame (ORF) of the phosphoprotein gene and a small hydrophobic protein located in a novel ORF between the matrix and glycoprotein genes. Phylogenetic analysis of partial amino acid sequences of the nucleoprotein and polymerase proteins indicated that, in addition to TUPV, the virus was most closely related to avian and small mammal rhabdoviruses from Africa and North America. In this report, we present the morphological, pathological, antigenic, and genetic characterization of the new virus, tentatively named Durham virus (DURV), and discuss its potential evolutionary relationship to other vertebrate rhabdoviruses. PMID:20863863

  14. Characterization of Durham virus, a novel rhabdovirus that encodes both a C and SH protein.

    PubMed

    Allison, A B; Palacios, G; Travassos da Rosa, A; Popov, V L; Lu, L; Xiao, S Y; DeToy, K; Briese, T; Lipkin, W I; Keel, M K; Stallknecht, D E; Bishop, G R; Tesh, R B

    2011-01-01

    The family Rhabdoviridae is a diverse group of non-segmented, negative-sense RNA viruses that are distributed worldwide and infect a wide range of hosts including vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Of the 114 currently recognized vertebrate rhabdoviruses, relatively few have been well characterized at both the antigenic and genetic level; hence, the phylogenetic relationships between many of the vertebrate rhabdoviruses remain unknown. The present report describes a novel rhabdovirus isolated from the brain of a moribund American coot (Fulica americana) that exhibited neurological signs when found in Durham County, North Carolina, in 2005. Antigenic characterization of the virus revealed that it was serologically unrelated to 68 other known vertebrate rhabdoviruses. Genomic sequencing of the virus indicated that it shared the highest identity to Tupaia rhabdovirus (TUPV), and as only previously observed in TUPV, the genome encoded a putative C protein in an overlapping open reading frame (ORF) of the phosphoprotein gene and a small hydrophobic (SH) protein located in a novel ORF between the matrix and glycoprotein genes. Phylogenetic analysis of partial amino acid sequences of the nucleoprotein and polymerase protein indicated that, in addition to TUPV, the virus was most closely related to avian and small mammal rhabdoviruses from Africa and North America. In this report, we present the morphological, pathological, antigenic, and genetic characterization of the new virus, tentatively named Durham virus (DURV), and discuss its potential evolutionary relationship to other vertebrate rhabdoviruses.

  15. Massive obstetric haemorrhage with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Su, Lin Lin; Chong, Yap Seng

    2012-02-01

    Massive obstetric haemorrhage is a major contributor towards maternal morbidity and mortality. The main causes are abruptio placentae, placenta praevia and postpartum haemorrhage. Clinicians managing pregnant women should be equipped with the knowledge and skills for managing massive obstetric haemorrhage to institute timely and appropriate life-saving treatment. Prompt resuscitation and reversal of coagulopathy are critical while definitive measures are carried out to arrest the bleeding. Massive antepartum haemorrhage necessitates deliveries whereas interventions for postpartum haemorrhage range from medical to surgical measures. Algorithms such as haemostasis are useful aids to the systematic and stepwise management of postpartum haemorrhage. Surgical measures used to avoid peripartum haemorrhage include uterine compression sutures, uterine balloon tamponade, uterine artery, and internal iliac artery ligation. Tranexamic acid and recombinant factor VII are more recent medical interventions in massive postpartum haemorrhage. Education, regular drills and adherence to guidelines and protocols are important to reduce haemorrhage-related maternal deaths. PMID:22101177

  16. Outbreak of hirame rhabdovirus infection in cultured spotted sea bass Lateolabrax maculatus on the western coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Seo, H-G; Do, J W; Jung, S H; Han, H-J

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we determined the cause of a disease outbreak in spotted sea bass, Lateolabrax maculatus reared in culture cages on the western coast of Korea in 2013. The major signs in the diseased fish exhibited were haemorrhaging on the membranes of the abdomen, gastrointestinal organs and opercular gills, as well as an enlarged spleen. No external morphological signs of infection were visible, except for a darkening in colour. No parasites or pathological bacteria were isolated from the diseased fish; however, epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells inoculated with tissue homogenates from the diseased fish showed cytopathic effects (CPEs). Virus particles in the EPC cells were bullet-shaped, 185-225 nm long and 70-80 nm wide, characteristic of Rhabdoviridae. Polymerase chain reaction analyses of homogenized tissues from the diseased fish and supernatants of cell cultures with CPEs indicated specific, 553-bp-long fragments corresponding to the matrix protein gene of the hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV). Phylogenetically, the HIRRV phosphoprotein gene of spotted sea bass was more closely related to phosphoproteins from Chinese and Polish HIRRV strains than from other Korean strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of HIRRV infection in cultured spotted sea bass.

  17. Ubiquitin depletion and dominant-negative VPS4 inhibit rhabdovirus budding without affecting alphavirus budding.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Gwen M; Hanson, Phyllis I; Kielian, Margaret

    2007-12-01

    The budding reactions of a number of enveloped viruses use the cellular machinery involved in the formation of the luminal vesicles of endosomal multivesicular bodies (MVB). Budding of these viruses is dependent on the presence of specific late-domain motifs in membrane-associated viral proteins. Such budding reactions usually involve ubiquitin and are blocked by expression of an ATPase-deficient form of VPS4, a cellular AAA+ ATPase believed to be required late in the MVB pathway for the disassembly/release of the MVB machinery. Here we examined the role of the MVB pathway in the budding of the late-domain-containing rhabdovirus vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and the alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV). We tested early and late steps in the MVB pathway by depleting ubiquitin with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 and by using cell lines inducibly expressing VPS4A or VPS4B protein. As previously shown, VSV budding was strongly dependent on ubiquitin. In contrast to the findings of previous studies with VPS4A, expression of ATPase-deficient mutants of either VPS4A or VPS4B inhibited VSV budding. Inhibition by VPS4 required the presence of the PPPY late domain on the VSV matrix protein and resulted in the accumulation of nonreleased VSV particles at the plasma membrane. In contrast, SFV budding was independent of both ubiquitin and the activity of VPS4, perhaps reflecting the important role of the highly organized envelope protein lattice during alphavirus budding.

  18. Differential effects of alloherpesvirus CyHV-3 and rhabdovirus SVCV on apoptosis in fish cells.

    PubMed

    Miest, Joanna J; Adamek, Mikolaj; Pionnier, Nicolas; Harris, Sarah; Matras, Marek; Rakus, Krzysztof Ł; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Steinhagen, Dieter; Hoole, Dave

    2015-03-23

    Whilst Herpesviridae, which infect higher vertebrates, actively influence host immune responses to ensure viral replication, it is mostly unknown if Alloherpesviridae, which infect lower vertebrates, possess similar abilities. An important antiviral response is clearance of infected cells via apoptosis, which in mammals influences the outcome of infection. Here, we utilise common carp infected with CyHV-3 to determine the effect on the expression of genes encoding apoptosis-related proteins (p53, Caspase 9, Apaf-1, IAP, iNOS) in the pronephros, spleen and gills. The influence of CyHV-3 on CCB cells was also studied and compared to SVCV (a rhabdovirus) which induces apoptosis in carp cell lines. Although CyHV-3 induced iNOS expression in vivo, significant induction of the genetic apoptosis pathway was only seen in the pronephros. In vitro CyHV-3 did not induce apoptosis or apoptosis-related expression whilst SVCV did stimulate apoptosis. This suggests that CyHV-3 possesses mechanisms similar to herpesviruses of higher vertebrates to inhibit the antiviral apoptotic process.

  19. Characterization of perch rhabdovirus (PRV) in farmed grayling Thymallus thymallus.

    PubMed

    Gadd, Tuija; Viljamaa-Dirks, Satu; Holopainen, Riikka; Koski, Perttu; Jakava-Viljanen, Miia

    2013-10-11

    Two Finnish fish farms experienced elevated mortality rates in farmed grayling Thymallus thymallus fry during the summer months, most typically in July. The mortalities occurred during several years and were connected with a few neurological disorders and peritonitis. Virological investigation detected an infection with an unknown rhabdovirus. Based on the entire glycoprotein (G) and partial RNA polymerase (L) gene sequences, the virus was classified as a perch rhabdovirus (PRV). Pairwise comparisons of the G and L gene regions of grayling isolates revealed that all isolates were very closely related, with 99 to 100% nucleotide identity, which suggests the same origin of infection. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that they were closely related to the strain isolated from perch Perca fluviatilis and sea trout Salmo trutta trutta caught from the Baltic Sea. The entire G gene sequences revealed that all Finnish grayling isolates, and both the perch and sea trout isolates, were most closely related to a PRV isolated in France in 2004. According to the partial L gene sequences, all of the Finnish grayling isolates were most closely related to the Danish isolate DK5533 from pike. The genetic analysis of entire G gene and partial L gene sequences showed that the Finnish brown trout isolate ka907_87 shared only approximately 67 and 78% identity, respectively, with our grayling isolates. The grayling isolates were also analysed by an immunofluorescence antibody test. This is the first report of a PRV causing disease in grayling in Finland.

  20. Identification of genetically modified Maraba virus as an oncolytic rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Brun, Jan; McManus, Dan; Lefebvre, Charles; Hu, Kang; Falls, Theresa; Atkins, Harold; Bell, John C; McCart, J Andrea; Mahoney, Douglas; Stojdl, David F

    2010-08-01

    To expand our current array of safe and potent oncolytic viruses, we screened a variety of wild-type (WT) rhabdoviruses against a panel of tumor cell lines. Our screen identified a number of viruses with varying degrees of killing activity. Maraba virus was the most potent of these strains. We built a recombinant system for the Maraba virus platform, engineered a series of attenuating mutations to expand its therapeutic index, and tested their potency in vitro and in vivo. A double mutant (MG1) strain containing both G protein (Q242R) and M protein (L123W) mutations attenuated Maraba virus in normal diploid cell lines, yet appeared to be hypervirulent in cancer cells. This selective attenuation was mediated through interferon (IFN)-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Finally, the Maraba MG1 strain had a 100-fold greater maximum tolerable dose (MTD) than WT Maraba in vivo and resulted in durable cures when systemically administered in syngeneic and xenograft models. In summary, we report a potent new oncolytic rhabdovirus platform with unique tumor-selective attenuating mutations.

  1. Dengue haemorrhagic fever in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wong, H B

    1981-01-01

    The history of dengue haemorrhagic fever as distinct from dengue fever in South-East Asia is traced. The epidemiology of the disease in the various countries is contrasted with that in Singapore since DHF first appeared on the scene in South-East Asia. From this survey, it is concluded that the dengue haemorrhagic fever is a new disease presentation, and its fate in SE Asia depends on the immunological state of the community, attempts at vector control, and probably antigenic variation in the various types of dengue virus. The pathogenetic mechanisms are discussed in detail. Diagnosis is presented with a detailed discussion of diagnosis of the pre-shock stage. Finally, the management of dengue haemorrhagic fever is discussed.

  2. Spontaneous adrenal haemorrhage in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    A, Anagnostopoulos; S, Sharma

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a case of spontaneous adrenal haemorrhage, in a 28-year-old woman at 36 weeks of a twin pregnancy. Initial symptom was sudden onset chest pain which soon migrated to abdomen, accompanied by hypovolaemic shock and fetal bradycardia. Subsequent caesarean section for suspected placental abruption and resuscitation with nine units of blood, 10 of cryoprecipitate, four of fresh frozen plasma and two of platelets, in order to treat anaemia of Hgb of 3.6 g/dl and disseminated intravascular coagulation, failed to stabilise the woman. A CT scan of abdomen and pelvis then revealed a 15×17×17 cm retroperitoneal haematoma, secondary to right adrenal haemorrhage. Management was with laparotomy drainage and packing of the retroperitoneal haematoma along with the use of activated factor VII. Adrenal haemorrhage in pregnancy is an extremely rare, acute, life-threatening condition, presenting with non-specific symptoms. PMID:22679231

  3. Kolente virus, a rhabdovirus species isolated from ticks and bats in the Republic of Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Ghedin, Elodie; Rogers, Matthew B.; Widen, Steven G.; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Wood, Thomas G.; Fitch, Adam; Popov, Vsevolod; Holmes, Edward C.; Walker, Peter J.; Tesh, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Kolente virus (KOLEV) is a rhabdovirus originally isolated from ticks and a bat in Guinea, West Africa, in 1985. Although tests at the time of isolation suggested that KOLEV is a novel rhabdovirus, it has remained largely uncharacterized. We assembled the complete genome sequence of the prototype strain DakAr K7292, which was found to encode the five canonical rhabdovirus structural proteins (N, P, M, G and L) with alternative ORFs (>180 nt) in the P and L genes. Serologically, KOLEV exhibited a weak antigenic relationship with Barur and Fukuoka viruses in the Kern Canyon group. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that KOLEV represents a distinct and divergent lineage that shows no clear relationship to any rhabdovirus except Oita virus, although with limited phylogenetic resolution. In summary, KOLEV represents a novel species in the family Rhabdoviridae. PMID:24062532

  4. Kolente virus, a rhabdovirus species isolated from ticks and bats in the Republic of Guinea.

    PubMed

    Ghedin, Elodie; Rogers, Matthew B; Widen, Steven G; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Wood, Thomas G; Fitch, Adam; Popov, Vsevolod; Holmes, Edward C; Walker, Peter J; Vasilakis, Nikos; Tesh, Robert B

    2013-12-01

    Kolente virus (KOLEV) is a rhabdovirus originally isolated from ticks and a bat in Guinea, West Africa, in 1985. Although tests at the time of isolation suggested that KOLEV is a novel rhabdovirus, it has remained largely uncharacterized. We assembled the complete genome sequence of the prototype strain DakAr K7292, which was found to encode the five canonical rhabdovirus structural proteins (N, P, M, G and L) with alternative ORFs (>180 nt) in the P and L genes. Serologically, KOLEV exhibited a weak antigenic relationship with Barur and Fukuoka viruses in the Kern Canyon group. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that KOLEV represents a distinct and divergent lineage that shows no clear relationship to any rhabdovirus except Oita virus, although with limited phylogenetic resolution. In summary, KOLEV represents a novel species in the family Rhabdoviridae.

  5. Characterization of Snakehead Rhabdovirus Infection in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)†

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Peter E.; Pressley, Meagan E.; Witten, P. Eckhard; Mellon, Mark T.; Blake, Sharon; Kim, Carol H.

    2005-01-01

    The zebrafish, Danio rerio, has become recognized as a valuable model for the study of development, genetics, and toxicology. Recently, the zebrafish has been recognized as a useful model for infectious disease and immunity. In this study, the pathogenesis and antiviral immune response of zebrafish to experimental snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) infection was characterized. Zebrafish 24 h postfertilization to 30 days postfertilization were susceptible to infection by immersion in 106 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) of SHRV/ml, and adult zebrafish were susceptible to infection by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 105 TCID50 of SHRV/ml. Mortalities exceeded 40% in infected fish, and clinical presentation of infection included petechial hemorrhaging, redness of the abdomen, and erratic swim behavior. Virus reisolation and reverse transcription-PCR analysis of the viral nucleocapsid gene confirmed the presence of SHRV. Histological sections of moribund embryonic and juvenile fish revealed necrosis of the pharyngeal epithelium and liver, in addition to congestion of the swim bladder by cell debris. Histopathology in adult fish injected i.p. was confined to the site of injection. The antiviral response in zebrafish was monitored by quantitative real-time PCR analysis of zebrafish interferon (IFN) and Mx expression. IFN and Mx levels were elevated in zebrafish exposed to SHRV, although expression and intensity differed with age and route of infection. This study is the first to examine the pathogenesis of SHRV infection in zebrafish. Furthermore, this study is the first to describe experimental infection of zebrafish embryos with a viral pathogen, which will be important for future experiments involving targeted gene disruption and forward genetic screens. PMID:15650208

  6. Dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome. An unwelcome arrival in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Teelucksingh, S; Mangray, A S; Barrow, S; Jankey, N; Prabhakar, P; Lewis, M

    1997-06-01

    This is the first report of dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome in Trinidad. Dengue infection was confirmed serologically or by viral isolation in five patients, aged 15 to 53 years, who presented with fever, thrombocytopenia and haemoconcentration. Three patients developed dengue shock syndrome, which was fatal; although there was no haemorrhagic tendency among these patients, bleeding occurred shortly before death in one of them. Two patients who had dengue haemorrhagic fever survived. The co-circulation of dengue virus serotypes 1, 2, and 4 in the Caribbean facilitates the development of dengue shock syndrome (DSS) or dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Clinicians should therefore be aware of their clinical features, laboratory diagnosis and clinical management. Appropriate public health interventions and improved surveillance should be implemented to reduce the risk of DHF/DSS associated mortality in Trinidad and Tobago.

  7. Rhabdovirus-Based Vaccine Platforms against Henipaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Kurup, Drishya; Wirblich, Christoph; Feldmann, Heinz; Marzi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The emerging zoonotic pathogens Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are in the genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. HeV and NiV infections can be highly fatal to humans and livestock. The goal of this study was to develop candidate vaccines against henipaviruses utilizing two well-established rhabdoviral vaccine vector platforms, recombinant rabies virus (RABV) and recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), expressing either the codon-optimized or the wild-type (wt) HeV glycoprotein (G) gene. The RABV vector expressing the codon-optimized HeV G showed a 2- to 3-fold increase in incorporation compared to the RABV vector expressing wt HeV G. There was no significant difference in HeV G incorporation in the VSV vectors expressing either wt or codon-optimized HeV G. Mice inoculated intranasally with any of these live recombinant viruses showed no signs of disease, including weight loss, indicating that HeV G expression and incorporation did not increase the neurotropism of the vaccine vectors. To test the immunogenicity of the vaccine candidates, we immunized mice intramuscularly with either one dose of the live vaccines or 3 doses of 10 μg chemically inactivated viral particles. Increased codon-optimized HeV G incorporation into RABV virions resulted in higher antibody titers against HeV G compared to inactivated RABV virions expressing wt HeV G. The live VSV vectors induced more HeV G-specific antibodies as well as higher levels of HeV neutralizing antibodies than the RABV vectors. In the case of killed particles, HeV neutralizing serum titers were very similar between the two platforms. These results indicated that killed RABV with codon-optimized HeV G should be the vector of choice as a dual vaccine in areas where rabies is endemic. IMPORTANCE Scientists have been tracking two new viruses carried by the Pteropid fruit bats: Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV). Both viruses can be fatal to humans and also pose a serious risk to

  8. Massive large-bowel haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, P.; Thomas, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Operative intervention for massive colonic haemorrhage is fortunately rarely necessary, but planned, low-risk segmental resections can only be performed if the bleeding site is known. This information can most frequently be obtained by using a combination of sigmoidoscopy, barium enema examination, and selective mesenteric angiography. PMID:6972724

  9. Phosphate acceptor amino acid residues in structural proteins of rhabdoviruses.

    PubMed

    Sokol, F; Tan, K B; McFalls, M L; Madore, P

    1974-07-01

    Partial acid hydrolysates of the [(32)P]phosphate- or [(3)H]serine-labeled proteins of purified vesicular stomatitis, rabies, Lagos bat, Mokola, or spring viremia of carp virions and of purified intracellular nucleocapsids of these viruses have been analyzed by paper electrophoresis for the presence of phosphorylated amino acids. Both phosphoserine and phosphothreonine, with the former predominant, were present in virion and nucleocapsid preparations that contained phosphoproteins. An exception was the fish rhabdovirus, which contained only phosphoserine. When vesicular stomatitis or rabies virus proteins were phosphorylated in a cell-free system by the virion-associated protein kinase and analyzed for the presence of phosphorylated amino acid residues, phosphoserine was again found to be more abundant than phosphothreonine. After in vitro protein phosphorylation, another phospho-compound, possibly a third phosphoamino acid, was detected in the partial acid hydrolysates of these viruses. PMID:4365328

  10. Host-switching by a vertically transmitted rhabdovirus in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Longdon, Ben; Wilfert, Lena; Osei-Poku, Jewelna; Cagney, Heather; Obbard, Darren J; Jiggins, Francis M

    2011-10-23

    A diverse range of endosymbionts are found within the cells of animals. As these endosymbionts are normally vertically transmitted, we might expect their evolutionary history to be dominated by host-fidelity and cospeciation with the host. However, studies of bacterial endosymbionts have shown that while this is true for some mutualists, parasites often move horizontally between host lineages over evolutionary timescales. For the first time, to our knowledge, we have investigated whether this is also the case for vertically transmitted viruses. Here, we describe four new sigma viruses, a group of vertically transmitted rhabdoviruses previously known in Drosophila. Using sequence data from these new viruses, and the previously described sigma viruses, we show that they have switched between hosts during their evolutionary history. Our results suggest that sigma virus infections may be short-lived in a given host lineage, so that their long-term persistence relies on rare horizontal transmission events between hosts.

  11. Safety and efficacy of an inactivated Carbopol-adjuvanted goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus vaccine for domestic geese.

    PubMed

    Gelfi, Jacqueline; Pappalardo, Michael; Claverys, Carine; Peralta, Brigitte; Guerin, Jean-Luc

    2010-04-01

    Haemorrhagic nephritis enteritis of the goose (HNEG) is an epizootic viral disease in domestic geese. The causal agent is a polyomavirus, namely goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus. To help control the disease, an inactivated vaccine was developed, based on viral particles produced in goose kidney cells. Viral material was quantified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, inactivated with beta-propiolactone and adjuvanted with Carbopol, an acrylic acid polymer. Carbopol proved to be more immunogenic than aluminium hydroxide and was totally safe when administered to young goslings and breeders alike. Carbopol-adjuvanted vaccine induced a high serological response. Moreover, goslings hatched from vaccinated breeders were protected against viral challenge, indicating that maternally-derived neutralizing antibodies (MDA) were efficiently transferred. MDA were still detectable 15 days post-hatch. Clinical trials will be necessary to accurately evaluate a vaccine-based HNEG control strategy under field conditions.

  12. A Novel Rhabdovirus Isolated from the Straw-Colored Fruit Bat Eidolon helvum, with Signs of Antibodies in Swine and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Binger, Tabea; Annan, Augustina; Drexler, Jan Felix; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Kallies, René; Adankwah, Ernest; Wollny, Robert; Kopp, Anne; Heidemann, Hanna; Dei, Dickson; Agya-Yao, Festus Courage; Junglen, Sandra; Feldt, Torsten; Kurth, Andreas; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bats have been implicated as reservoirs of emerging viruses. Bat species forming large social groups and roosting in proximity to human communities are of particular interest. In this study, we sampled a colony of ca. 350,000 individuals of the straw-colored fruit bat Eidolon helvum in Kumasi, the second largest city of Ghana. A novel rhabdovirus (Kumasi rhabdovirus [KRV]) was isolated in E. helvum cell cultures and passaged to Vero cells as well as interferon-competent human and primate cells (A549 and MA104). Genome composition was typical for a rhabdovirus. KRV was detected in 5.1% of 487 animals, showing association with the spleen but not the brain. Antibody prevalence was 11.5% by immunofluorescence and 6.4% by plaque reduction virus neutralization test (PRNT). Detection throughout 3 sampling years was pronounced in both annual wet seasons, of which only one overlaps the postparturition season. Juvenile bats showed increased viral prevalence. No evidence of infection was obtained in 1,240 female mosquitos (6 different genera) trapped in proximity to the colony to investigate potential vector association. Antibodies were found in 28.9% (5.4% by PRNT) of 107 swine sera but not in similarly large collections of sheep, goat, or cattle sera. The antibody detection rate in human subjects with occupational exposure to the bat colony was 11% (5/45 persons), which was significantly higher than in unexposed adults (0.8% [1/118]; chi square, P < 0.001). KRV is a novel bat-associated rhabdovirus potentially transmitted to humans and swine. Disease associations should be investigated. IMPORTANCE Bats are thought to carry a huge number of as-yet-undiscovered viruses that may pose epidemic threats to humans and livestock. Here we describe a novel dimarhabdovirus which we isolated from a large colony of the straw-colored fruit bat Eidolon helvum in Ghana. As these animals are exposed to humans and several livestock species, we looked for antibodies indicating

  13. In vivo virus growth competition assays demonstrate equal fitness of fish rhabdovirus strains that co-circulate in aquaculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troyer, R.M.; Garver, K.A.; Ranson, J.C.; Wargo, A.R.; Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    A novel virus growth competition assay for determining relative fitness of RNA virus variants in vivo has been developed using the fish rhabdovirus, Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We have conducted assays with IHNV isolates designated B, C, and D, representing the three most common genetic subtypes that co-circulate in Idaho trout farm aquaculture. In each assay, groups of 30 fish were immersed in a 1:1 mixture of two genotypes of IHNV, and then held in individual beakers for a 72 h period of in vivo competitive virus replication. Progeny virus populations in each fish were analyzed for the presence and proportion of each viral genotype. In two independent assays of the B:C isolate pair, and two assays of the B:D pair, all fish were co-infected and there was a high level of fish-to-fish variation in the ratio of the two competing genotypes. However, in each assay the average ratio in the 30-fish group was not significantly different from the input ratio of 1:1, indicating equal or nearly equal viral fitness on a host population basis, under the conditions tested. ?? 2008.

  14. A Case of Haemorrhagic Constrictive Pericarditis with Bilateral Pleural Effusions

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Julie; Talebi, Soheila; Cativo, Eder; Mushiyev, Savi; Pekler, Gerald; Visco, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Presentation of pericardial disease is diverse, with the viral aetiology being the most common cause; however, when haemorrhagic pericardial effusion is present, these causes are narrowed to few aetiologies. We present a case of a young female of African descent who presented with diffuse abdominal pain and vomiting. Initial work-up showed pericardial effusion with impending echocardiographic findings of cardiac tamponade and bilateral pleural effusions. Procedures included a left video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) with pericardial window. We consider that it is important for all physicians to be aware of not only typical presentation but also atypical and unusual clinical picture of pericardial disease. PMID:27807484

  15. Development of a multiplex assay to measure the effects of shipping and storage conditions on the quality of RNA used in molecular assays for detection of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus.

    PubMed

    Siah, A; Duesund, H; Frisch, K; Nylund, A; McKenzie, P; Saksida, S

    2014-09-01

    Abstract In routine diagnostics, real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) has become a powerful method for fish health screening. Collection, transportation, and storage conditions of specimens could dramatically affect their integrity and could consequently affect RT-qPCR test results. In this study, to assess the expression profile of elongation factor 1 alpha (ELF-1α) gene, head kidney (HK) tissues from Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar were exposed at room temperature, 4°C, -20°C, and -80°C as well as in 70% ethanol for 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Data showed a significant increase of RT-qPCR cycle threshold (Ct) values for ELF-1α ranging from 14.7 to 26.5 cycles for tissues exposed to room temperature. In order to mimic the sample transportation conditions, different temperatures of storage were used and tissue quality was evaluated using ELF-1α gene expression. Data showed that Ct values for ELF-1α increased significantly when the tissues were transported on ice for 2 h, stored at -20°C, thawed on ice for 6 h, and stored again at -80°C. The HK tissues collected from Atlantic Salmon challenged with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) through intraperitoneal injection were exposed at room temperature for 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Data showed a good correlation of values for ELF-1α and VHSV Ct although the ELF-1α mRNA of the host degraded faster than the RNA of VHSV. Based on these data, HK tissues could be transported on ice or ice packs without the quality of the tissue being affected when stored at -80°C upon arrival at the laboratory. In addition, 70% ethanol could be used as a preservative for long-distance transportation. For an efficient diagnostic test, a duplex VHSV-ELF-1α was developed and optimized. Data showed that the sensitivity of the duplex assay for VHSV was similar to the singleplex. Received November 25, 2013; accepted February 14, 2014. PMID:25229489

  16. [Viral hemorrhagic fever].

    PubMed

    Kager, P A

    1998-02-28

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers, such as Lassa fever and yellow fever, cause tens of thousands of deaths annually outside the Netherlands. The viruses are mostly transmitted by mosquitoes, ticks or via excreta of rodents. Important to travellers are yellow fever, dengue and Lassa and Ebola fever. For yellow fever there is an efficacious vaccine. Dengue is frequently observed in travellers; prevention consists in avoiding mosquito bites, the treatment is symptomatic. Lassa and Ebola fever are extremely rare among travellers; a management protocol can be obtained from the Netherlands Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports. Diagnostics of a patient from the tropics with fever and haemorrhagic diathesis should be aimed at treatable disorders such as malaria, typhoid fever, rickettsiosis or bacterial sepsis, because the probability of such a disease is much higher than that of Lassa or Ebola fever.

  17. Sigma viruses from three species of Drosophila form a major new clade in the rhabdovirus phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Longdon, Ben; Obbard, Darren J; Jiggins, Francis M

    2010-01-01

    The sigma virus (DMelSV), which is a natural pathogen of Drosophila melanogaster, is the only Drosophila-specific rhabdovirus that has been described. We have discovered two new rhabdoviruses, D. obscura and D. affinis, which we have named DObsSV and DAffSV, respectively. We sequenced the complete genomes of DObsSV and DMelSV, and the L gene from DAffSV. Combining these data with sequences from a wide range of other rhabdoviruses, we found that the three sigma viruses form a distinct clade which is a sister group to the Dimarhabdovirus supergroup, and the high levels of divergence between these viruses suggest that they deserve to be recognized as a new genus. Furthermore, our analysis produced the most robustly supported phylogeny of the Rhabdoviridae to date, allowing us to reconstruct the major transitions that have occurred during the evolution of the family. Our data suggest that the bias towards research into plants and vertebrates means that much of the diversity of rhabdoviruses has been missed, and rhabdoviruses may be common pathogens of insects.

  18. A ribonuclease protection assay can distinguish spring viremia of carp virus from pike fry rhabdovirus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahne, W.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Thirteen rhabdovirus isolates from 10 teleost fish species as well as reference strains of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) and pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV) cross-reacted in an indirect immunofluorescence assay and were thus indistinguishable by this method. A ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) using a super(32)P-labeled RNA probe made from a cloned copy of the full length SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene was able to discriminate clearly between the type strains of SVCV and PFRV and among the 13 rhabdovirus isolates. Results for the RPA were generally in agreement with standard serum neutralisation assays; however, the RPA was also able to detect genomic differences between isolates of SVCV. These results have implications for fish disease control programs for SVCV.

  19. Mouse model of intracerebellar haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Tijjani Salihu, Abubakar; Muthuraju, Sangu; Aziz Mohamed Yusoff, Abdul; Ahmad, Farizan; Zulkifli Mustafa, Mohd; Jaafar, Hasnan; Idris, Zamzuri; Rahman Izaini Ghani, Abdul; Malin Abdullah, Jafri

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the behavior and neuronal morphological changes in the perihaemorrhagic tissue of the mouse intracerebellar haemorrhage experimental model. Adult male Swiss albino mice were stereotactically infused with collagenase type VII (0.4U/μl of saline) unilaterally in to the cerebellum, following anaesthesia. Motor deficits were assessed using open field and composite score for evaluating the mouse model of cerebellar ataxia at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after collagenase infusion. The animals were sacrificed at the same time interval for evaluation of perihaematomal neuronal degeneration using haematoxylin and eosin staining and Annexin V-FITC/Propidium iodide assay. At the end of the study, it was found that infusion of 0.4U collagenase produces significant locomotor and ataxic deficit in the mice especially within the first week post surgery, and that this gradually improved within three weeks. Neuronal degeneration evident by cytoplasmic shrinkage and nuclear pyknosis was observed at the perihaematomal area after one day; especially at 3 and 7 days post haemorrhage. By 21 days, both the haematoma and degenerating neurons in the perihaematomal area were phagocytosed and the remaining neuronal cells around the scar tissue appeared normal. Moreover, Annexin-V/propidium iodide-positive cells were observed at the perihaematomal area at 3 and 7 days implying that the neurons likely die via apoptosis. It was concluded that a population of potentially salvageable neurons exist in the perihaematomal area after cerebellar haemorrhage throughout a wide time window that could be amenable to treatment. PMID:27327104

  20. Genetic diversification of an emerging pathogen: A decade of mutation by the fish Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS) virus in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) is an RNA rhabdovirus, which causes one of the world's most serious fish diseases, infecting >80 freshwater and marine species across the Northern Hemisphere. A new, novel, and especially virulent substrain - VHSv-IVb - first appeared in the Laurentian Gre...

  1. Dengue haemorrhagic fever in Burma.

    PubMed

    Thaung, U; Ming, C K; Thein, M

    1975-12-01

    Although sporadic from 1965 to 1969, a major outbreak of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) occurred for the first time in Rangoon in 1970. Since then the disease has occurred every year in Rangoon and is now observed to be expanding to other urban areas in the country. The clinical diagnosis of DHF was confused by concurrent outbreaks of influenza A in 1971 and influenza A and B in 1972. A laboratory study of 3,447 clinically diagnosed haemorrhagic fever cases showed that 1643 cases (47.8%) were due to dengue and chikungunya, 296 (8.6%) to influenza A, 85(2.5%) to influenza B, 12(0.3%) to measles and 1411(40.8%) were of unknown aetiology during the 5 year period 1970-1974. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes are widely distributed in the country up to and including 900 meters above sea level but breeding is not found above that altitude. The absolute larval population which is highest in July as well as landing rate correlated with the peak incidence of DHF cases.

  2. Dengue viral infections; pathogenesis and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    McBride, W J; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H

    2000-07-01

    Dengue viral infections affect up to 100 million individuals per year. Dengue haemorrhagic fever is a clinical form of disease characterised by intravascular fluid loss. There has been a marked increase in the incidence of this form of the disease over the last few decades, associated with significant mortality, particularly in the paediatric population. A number of theories relating to the pathogenesis of dengue haemorrhagic fever exist that have evolved from the analysis of the epidemiology of this disease. Virological and immunopathological factors are both important but the exact mechanisms for the disease are unknown.

  3. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Zaire, 1976

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Between 1 September and 24 October 1976, 318 cases of acute viral haemorrhagic fever occurred in northern Zaire. The outbreak was centred in the Bumba Zone of the Equateur Region and most of the cases were recorded within a radius of 70 km of Yambuku, although a few patients sought medical attention in Bumba, Abumombazi, and the capital city of Kinshasa, where individual secondary and tertiary cases occurred. There were 280 deaths, and only 38 serologically confirmed survivors. The index case in this outbreak had onset of symptoms on 1 September 1976, five days after receiving an injection of chloroquine for presumptive malaria at the outpatient clinic at Yambuku Mission Hospital (YMH). He had a clinical remission of his malaria symptoms. Within one week several other persons who had received injections at YMH also suffered from Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and almost all subsequent cases had either received injections at the hospital or had had close contact with another case. Most of these occurred during the first four weeks of the epidemic, after which time the hospital was closed, 11 of the 17 staff members having died of the disease. All ages and both sexes were affected, but women 15-29 years of age had the highest incidence of disease, a phenomenon strongly related to attendance at prenatal and outpatient clinics at the hospital where they received injections. The overall secondary attack rate was about 5%, although it ranged to 20% among close relatives such as spouses, parent or child, and brother or sister. Active surveillance disclosed that cases occurred in 55 of some 550 villages which were examined house-by-house. The disease was hitherto unknown to the people of the affected region. Intensive search for cases in the area of north-eastern Zaire between the Bumba Zone and the Sudan frontier near Nzara and Maridi failed to detect definite evidence of a link between an epidemic of the disease in that country and the outbreak near Bumba. Nevertheless it was

  4. Haemoglobin scavenging after subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Durnford, A; Dunbar, J; Galea, J; Bulters, D; Nicoll, J A R; Boche, D; Galea, I

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and effective clearance of cell-free haemoglobin after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is important to prevent vasospasm and neurotoxicity and improve long-term outcome. Haemoglobin is avidly bound by haptoglobin, and the complex is cleared by CD163 expressed on the membrane surface of macrophages. We studied the kinetics of haemoglobin and haptoglobin in cerebrospinal fluid after SAH. We show that haemoglobin levels rise gradually after SAH. Haptoglobin levels rise acutely with aneurysmal rupture as a result of injection of blood into the subarachnoid space. Although levels decline as haemoglobin scavenging occurs, complete depletion of haptoglobin does not occur and levels start rising again, indicating saturation of CD163 sites available for haptoglobin-haemoglobin clearance. In a preliminary neuropathological study we demonstrate that meningeal CD163 expression is upregulated after SAH, in keeping with a proinflammatory state. However, loss of CD163 occurs in meningeal areas with overlying blood compared with areas without overlying blood. Becauses ADAM17 is the enzyme responsible for shedding membrane-bound CD163, its inhibition may be a potential therapeutic strategy after SAH.

  5. Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Rougeron, V; Feldmann, H; Grard, G; Becker, S; Leroy, E M

    2015-03-01

    Ebolaviruses and Marburgviruses (family Filoviridae) are among the most virulent pathogens for humans and great apes causing severe haemorrhagic fever and death within a matter of days. This group of viruses is characterized by a linear, non-segmented, single-stranded RNA genome of negative polarity. The overall burden of filovirus infections is minimal and negligible compared to the devastation caused by malnutrition and other infectious diseases prevalent in Africa such as malaria, dengue or tuberculosis. In this paper, we review the knowledge gained on the eco/epidemiology, the pathogenesis and the disease control measures for Marburg and Ebola viruses developed over the last 15 years. The overall progress is promising given the little attention that these pathogen have achieved in the past; however, more is to come over the next decade given the more recent interest in these pathogens as potential public and animal health concerns. Licensing of therapeutic and prophylactic options may be achievable over the next 5-10 years.

  6. Dengue haemorrhagic fever in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sumarmo

    1987-09-01

    Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) was first recognized in Indonesia in the cities of Jakarta and Surabaya in 1968, 15 years after its recognition in the Philippines. During the 1968 outbreak, a total of 58 clinical cases with 24 deaths were reported. The number of reported cases since then has increased sharply, with the highest number of cases recorded in the years 1973 (10, 189 cases), 1983 (13,668 cases), and 1985 (13,588 cases). Outbreaks of the disease have spread to involve most of the major urban areas, as well as some of the rural areas. In 1985, the disease had spread to 26 of 27 Provinces and 160 of 300 regencies or municipalities. At present, the disease is endemic in many large cities and small towns. Interestingly, DHF has not been reported in some cities, even though dengue virus transmission rates in those cities are high. The epidemic pattern of DHF for the country as a whole has become irregular. Since 1982, the intensity and spread of DHF has created an increasing public health problem in Indonesia, particularly in Java where 60% of the total population of the country resides. Java contributed about 71% of all cases occurring in the country in 1982, 84% in 1983, and 91% in 1984. The peak monthly incidence of DHF was frequently reported during October through April, months which coincide with the rainy season. The morbidity rate for Indonesia, estimated from reported cases over five years (1981-1985), ranged between 3.39 to 8.65 per 100,000 population.

  7. Subdural haemorrhages in infants: population based study

    PubMed Central

    Jayawant, S; Rawlinson, A; Gibbon, F; Price, J; Schulte, J; Sharples, P; Sibert, J R; Kemp, A M

    1998-01-01

    Objectives To identify the incidence, clinical outcome, and associated factors of subdural haemorrhage in children under 2 years of age, and to determine how such cases were investigated and how many were due to child abuse. Design Population based case series. Setting South Wales and south west England. Subjects Children under 2 years of age who had a subdural haemorrhage. We excluded neonates who developed subdural haemorrhage during their stay on a neonatal unit and infants who developed a subdural haemorrhage after infection or neurosurgical intervention. Main outcome measures Incidence and clinical outcome of subdural haemorrhage in infants, the number of cases caused by child abuse, the investigations such children received, and associated risk factors. Results Thirty three children (23 boys and 10 girls) were identified with subdural haemorrhage. The incidence was 12.8/100 000 children/year (95% confidence interval 5.4 to 20.2). Twenty eight cases (85%) were under 1 year of age. The incidence of subdural haemorrhage in children under 1 year of age was 21.0/100 000 children/year and was therefore higher than in the older children. The clinical outcome was poor: nine infants died and 15 had profound disability. Only 22 infants had the basic investigations of a full blood count, coagulation screen, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, skeletal survey or bone scan, and ophthalmological examination. In retrospect, 27 cases (82%) were highly suggestive of abuse. Conclusion Subdural haemorrhage is common in infancy and carries a poor prognosis; three quarters of such infants die or have profound disability. Most cases are due to child abuse, but in a few the cause is unknown. Some children with subdural haemorrhage do not undergo appropriate investigations. We believe the clinical investigation of such children should include a full multidisciplinary social assessment, an ophthalmic examination, a skeletal survey supplemented with a bone scan or a

  8. Genomic sequence of mandarin fish rhabdovirus with an unusual small non-transcriptional ORF.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Guang-Zhou; Gui, Jian-Fang; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2008-03-01

    The complete genome of mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV) was cloned and sequenced. It comprises 11,545 nucleotides and contains five genes encoding the nucleoprotein N, the phosphoprotein P, the matrix protein M, the glycoprotein G, and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase protein L. At the 3' and 5' termini of SCRV genome, leader and trailer sequences show inverse complementarity. The N, P, M and G proteins share the highest sequence identities (ranging from 14.8 to 41.5%) with the respective proteins of rhabdovirus 903/87, the L protein has the highest identity with those of vesiculoviruses, especially with Chandipura virus (44.7%). Phylogenetic analysis of L proteins showed that SCRV clustered with spring vireamia of carp virus (SVCV) and was most closely related to viruses in the genus Vesiculovirus. In addition, an overlapping open reading frame (ORF) predicted to encode a protein similar to vesicular stomatitis virus C protein is present within the P gene of SCRV. Furthermore, an unoverlapping small ORF downstream of M ORF within M gene is predicted (tentatively called orf4). Therefore, the genomic organization of SCRV can be proposed as 3' leader-N-P/C-M-(orf4)-G-L-trailer 5'. Orf4 transcription or translation products could not be detected by northern or Western blot, respectively, though one similar mRNA band to M mRNA was found. This is the first report on one small unoverlapping ORF in M gene of a fish rhabdovirus.

  9. Experimental respiratory Marburg virus haemorrhagic fever infection in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Smither, Sophie J; Nelson, Michelle; Eastaugh, Lin; Laws, Thomas R; Taylor, Christopher; Smith, Simon A; Salguero, Francisco J; Lever, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Marburg virus causes a highly infectious and lethal haemorrhagic fever in primates and may be exploited as a potential biothreat pathogen. To combat the infection and threat of Marburg haemorrhagic fever, there is a need to develop and license appropriate medical countermeasures. To determine whether the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) would be an appropriate model to assess therapies against Marburg haemorrhagic fever, initial susceptibility, lethality and pathogenesis studies were performed. Low doses of virus, between 4 and 28 TCID50, were sufficient to cause a lethal, reproducible infection. Animals became febrile between days 5 and 6, maintaining a high fever before succumbing to disease between 8 and 11 days postchallenge. Typical signs of Marburg virus infection were observed including haemorrhaging and a transient rash. In pathogenesis studies, virus was isolated from the animals’ lungs from day 3 postchallenge and from the liver, spleen and blood from day 5 postchallenge. Early signs of histopathology were apparent in the kidney and liver from day 3. The most striking features were observed in animals exhibiting severe clinical signs, which included high viral titres in all organs, with the highest levels in the blood, increased levels in liver function enzymes and blood clotting times, decreased levels in platelets, multifocal moderate-to-severe hepatitis and perivascular oedema. PMID:23441639

  10. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Home » For Veterans and the Public Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... the Public Veterans and Public Home How is Hepatitis C Treated? Find the facts about the newest ...

  11. Ultrasound findings in dengue haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Pramuljo, H S; Harun, S R

    1991-01-01

    The ultrasound examination of 29 children, aged between 2 to 13 years with clinical and serological proven dengue haemorrhagic fever were reviewed and correlated with the findings in the literature. Ultrasound findings consisted of: (1) ascites, (2) pleural effusion, (3) abnormal gallbladder wall and (4) abnormal liver parenchyma. Ascites is common in DHF. Pleural effusion was found on the right and on bilateral pleural spaces. There was no isolated left pleural effusions. The abnormal gallbladder wall has never been mentioned before in the literature and the abnormal liver parenchyma might be due to intraparenchymal and subcapsular haemorrhages.

  12. Dengue viral infections

    PubMed Central

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing this disease. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate treatment are vital if disease related morbidity and mortality are to be limited. This review outlines aspects of the epidemiology of dengue infections, the dengue virus and its mosquito vector, clinical features and pathogenesis of dengue infections, and the management and control of these infections. PMID:15466994

  13. Dengue viral infections.

    PubMed

    Malavige, G N; Fernando, S; Fernando, D J; Seneviratne, S L

    2004-10-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing this disease. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate treatment are vital if disease related morbidity and mortality are to be limited. This review outlines aspects of the epidemiology of dengue infections, the dengue virus and its mosquito vector, clinical features and pathogenesis of dengue infections, and the management and control of these infections.

  14. Bivens arm virus: a new rhabdovirus isolated from Culicoides insignis in Florida and related to Tibrogargan virus of Australia.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, E P; Calisher, C H; Tesh, R B; Lazuick, J S; Bowen, R; Greiner, E C

    1989-02-01

    During field studies in 1981 on the transmission of bluetongue viruses in ruminants in Florida, a virus was isolated from Culicoides insignis collected near water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) recently imported from Trinidad. Electron microscopy showed that this isolate, for which the name Bivens Arm virus is proposed, has rhabdovirus morphology. Serologic comparisons were made with recognized rhabdoviruses from terrestrial vertebrates and hematophagous arthropods. Indirect fluorescent antibody, complement fixation and neutralization tests indicated antigenic reactivity between Bivens Arm virus and two rhabdoviruses found only in Australia, Tibrogargan and Coastal Plains viruses. The Australian isolates cause subclinical infections in cattle and water buffalo and are believed to be transmitted by Culicoides. Initially, it was thought that Bivens Arm virus may have been introduced to Florida with the water buffalo from Trinidad, but a serologic survey of cattle serum, collected before the importation of the buffalo revealed antibody to the virus in cattle on farms located in diverse areas of Florida.

  15. Spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage in a young adult

    PubMed Central

    Baksi, Aditya; Gupta, Shahana; Ray, Udipta; Ghosh, Shibajyoti

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of a primary adrenal cortical malignancy presenting with spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage in a young adult. To the best of our knowledge, this is the thirteenth such case to be reported in the English literature. PMID:24658522

  16. Expression and partial characterisation of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus non-structural proteins.

    PubMed

    Urakova, Nadya; Frese, Michael; Hall, Robyn N; Liu, June; Matthaei, Markus; Strive, Tanja

    2015-10-01

    The intracellular replication and molecular virulence mechanisms of Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) are poorly understood, mainly due to the lack of an effective cell culture system for this virus. To increase our understanding of RHDV molecular biology, the subcellular localisation of recombinant non-structural RHDV proteins was investigated in transiently transfected rabbit kidney (RK-13) cells. We provide evidence for oligomerisation of p23, and an ability of the viral protease to cleave the p16:p23 junction in trans, outside the context of the nascent polyprotein chain. Notably, expression of the viral polymerase alone and in the context of the entire RHDV polyprotein resulted in a redistribution of the Golgi network. This suggests that, similar to other positive-strand RNA viruses, RHDV may recruit membranes of the secretory pathway during replication, and that the viral polymerase may play a critical role during this process. PMID:26071926

  17. A strain of Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus causes high mortality among cultured Largemouth Bass in South China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dongmei; Deng, Guocheng; Bai, Junjie; Li, Shengjie; Yu, Lingyun; Quan, Yingchun; Yang, Xiaojing; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Zemin; Ye, Xing

    2013-09-01

    In April 2011, 40% mortality of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides juveniles occurred at a farm of Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province, China. Infected fish became lethargic, exhibited corkscrew and irregular swimming, and developed a distended abdomen and crooked body. Fish began to die within 2 d after the appearance of clinical signs. In order to analyze the pathogeny and diagnose the disease earlier, observation of clinical signs, cell infection, titer calculation, electron microscopy, immersion infection assay for fish, and nucleotide sequence analysis were carried out. Fathead minnow (FHM) cell cultures, inoculated with filtrate of liver and spleen homogenates from the diseased fish, developed the obvious cytopathic effect 46 h after inoculation in the primary culture and 24 h at the first passage. Typical rhabdovirus particles, 115-143 nm in length and 62-78 nm in diameter, were observed in infected FHM cells by direct transmission electron microscopy. The isolated virus produced a titer of 10(7.15) TCID50/mL. Immersion-Fish infected with the virus had similar clinical signs and 80% mortality with 10(2.5) LD50/mL. The data indicated that the rhabdovirus was the lethal pathogeny of the current disease. Based on nucleoprotein-gene nucleotide sequence multiple alignment analysis, the newly isolated virus is a strain of Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV) under family Rhabdoviridae, which was initially isolated from Mandarin Fish Siniperca chuatsi. Up to the present, at least four virus strains have been isolated from diseased Largemouth Bass, which have had different clinical signs. Comparison of the clinical signs can help in an early diagnosis of the disease. PMID:23915177

  18. A strain of Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus causes high mortality among cultured Largemouth Bass in South China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dongmei; Deng, Guocheng; Bai, Junjie; Li, Shengjie; Yu, Lingyun; Quan, Yingchun; Yang, Xiaojing; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Zemin; Ye, Xing

    2013-09-01

    In April 2011, 40% mortality of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides juveniles occurred at a farm of Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province, China. Infected fish became lethargic, exhibited corkscrew and irregular swimming, and developed a distended abdomen and crooked body. Fish began to die within 2 d after the appearance of clinical signs. In order to analyze the pathogeny and diagnose the disease earlier, observation of clinical signs, cell infection, titer calculation, electron microscopy, immersion infection assay for fish, and nucleotide sequence analysis were carried out. Fathead minnow (FHM) cell cultures, inoculated with filtrate of liver and spleen homogenates from the diseased fish, developed the obvious cytopathic effect 46 h after inoculation in the primary culture and 24 h at the first passage. Typical rhabdovirus particles, 115-143 nm in length and 62-78 nm in diameter, were observed in infected FHM cells by direct transmission electron microscopy. The isolated virus produced a titer of 10(7.15) TCID50/mL. Immersion-Fish infected with the virus had similar clinical signs and 80% mortality with 10(2.5) LD50/mL. The data indicated that the rhabdovirus was the lethal pathogeny of the current disease. Based on nucleoprotein-gene nucleotide sequence multiple alignment analysis, the newly isolated virus is a strain of Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV) under family Rhabdoviridae, which was initially isolated from Mandarin Fish Siniperca chuatsi. Up to the present, at least four virus strains have been isolated from diseased Largemouth Bass, which have had different clinical signs. Comparison of the clinical signs can help in an early diagnosis of the disease.

  19. Persistent natural infection of a Culex tritaeniorhynchus cell line with a novel Culex tritaeniorhynchus rhabdovirus strain.

    PubMed

    Gillich, Nadine; Kuwata, Ryusei; Isawa, Haruhiko; Horie, Masayuki

    2015-09-01

    Culex tritaeniorhynchus rhabdovirus (CTRV) is a mosquito virus that establishes persistent infection without any obvious cell death. Therefore, occult infection by CTRV can be present in mosquito cell lines. In this study, it is shown that NIID-CTR cells, which were derived from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, are persistently infected with a novel strain of CTRV. Complete genome sequencing of the infecting strain revealed that it is genetically similar but distinct from the previously isolated CTRV strain, excluding the possibility of contamination. These findings raise the importance of further CTRV studies, such as screening of CTRV in other mosquito cell lines.

  20. Spontaneous Idiopathic Unilateral Adrenal Haemorrhage (SIAH).

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Syed Ali; Zaman, Shamas; Ahmed, Irfan

    2015-04-01

    Spontaneous Idiopathic Adrenal Haemorrhage (SIAH) is an unusual surgical emergency which can present with life threatening massive retroperitoneal bleeding. Most of the cases reported in the literature are associated with use of anticoagulation or underlying adrenal pathology such as tumors or cysts. Since this clinical entity is uncommon and clinical presentation is very indistinct, the diagnosis can be easily missed and can be challenging for the treating physicians. Nevertheless a raised clinical suspicion coupled with advances in radiological imaging have considerably improved the detection of SIAH in recent times. We report an unusual case of a 20 years old healthy female student who presented to our hospital with sudden onset of abdominal pain and shock. She was diagnosed as a case of massive spontaneous idiopathic unilateral adrenal haemorrhage, unaccompanied by any hematologic disorder, trauma or underlying pathology. Although patient was hemodynamically unstable at presentation, she was resuscitated promptly, investigated appropriately, hence recovered uneventfully with conservative management alone.

  1. Viral pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, S B

    1991-09-01

    Viral pneumonias are common in infants and young children but rare in adults. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and para-influenza viruses are the most frequent viral pathogens in infants and children. Influenza virus types A and B account for over one half of viral pneumonias in adults. Immunocompromised hosts are susceptible to pneumonias caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV) and other herpesviruses, as well as rubeola and adenovirus. Diagnosis of viral pneumonia depends on appropriate viral cultures and acute and convalescent sera for specific antibodies. Superinfection with bacteria is common in adults. Anti-viral therapy is available for several respiratory viruses. Ribavirin, amantadine/rimantadine, interferon alpha, and acyclovir are antiviral drugs that may be of benefit in treatment and prophylaxis. Prevention of viral pneumonia will depend upon improved viral immunization practices.

  2. Severe intracranial haemorrhage in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Francisco; Morais, Sofia; Sevivas, Teresa; Veiga, Ricardo; Salvado, Ramon; Taborda, Adelaide

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia is a rare (1/1000–5000 births) life-threatening disorder, caused by fetomaternal incompatibility for a fetal human platelet alloantigen inherited from the father, with production of maternal alloantibodies against fetal platelets, leading to severe thrombocytopenia and potential bleeding. Intracranial haemorrhage is the most feared complication. This report presents the case of a term newborn infant, born from caesarean section after a normal pregnancy, presenting signs of skin bleeding with different ages. Obstetric history included a previous spontaneous abortion after amniocentesis. Severe thrombocytopenia (4×109/l platelets) was found and brain ultrasound showed multiple intracranial haemorrhages. Human platelet antigen (HPA) phenotyping showed maternal negative HPA-1a and paternal positive HPA-1a platelets. Strongly positive anti-HPA-1a and weakly positive anti-human leukocyte antigen class I alloantibodies were found in the mother. Multiple platelet transfusions, intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroid were given but favourable response was accomplished only after a compatible platelet transfusion. Brain MRI showed multiple subacute and chronic haemorrhages. PMID:22679192

  3. Structure-function relationships and mode of replication of animal rhabdoviruses.

    PubMed

    Sokol, F; Koprowski, H

    1975-03-01

    Recently accumulated knowledge allows more precise comparison of the structural (and possibly evolutionary) relationships of several different animal rhabdoviruses: vesicular stomatitis virus, rabies virus, Kern Canyon virus, and spring viremia of carp virus. Each virus is composed primarily of a glycoprotein, an RNA-associated nucleoprotein, and one or two membrane proteins. Vesicular stomatitis virus group viruses contain lesser amounts of two additional distinct polypeptides, NS and L. The separate viruses undergo structural polypeptide phosphorylation in vivo according to characteristic patterns. In vesicular stomatitis virus the NS protein is selectively phosphorylated. In rabies group viruses and in spring viremia of carp virus, the nucleoprotein is the predominant phosphoprotein; in these viruses only the phosphorylated moiety is selectively cleaved off with trypsin. In Kern Canyon virus, only membrane protein and glycoprotein are weakly phosphorylated. Each virus possesses a virion-bound protein kinase. Vesicular stomatitis virus group viruses, Kern Canyon virus, and spring viremia of carp virus only contain virion-bound transcriptases of respectively decreasing levels of activity demonstrable in vitro. Vesicular stomatitis and Kern Canyon viruses replicate efficiently in enucleated cells; rabies virus does not. Based upon these observations, it is suggested that vesicular stomatitis virus may represent the most highly evolved of these rhabdoviruses, whereas spring viremia of carp and Kern Canyon viruses may represent "evolutionary links" between the vesicular stomatitis and rabies virus groups. PMID:165494

  4. A Novel Rhabdovirus Associated with Acute Hemorrhagic Fever in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Slikas, Elizabeth; Steffen, Imke; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Sittler, Taylor; Veeraraghavan, Narayanan; Ruby, J. Graham; Wang, Chunlin; Makuwa, Maria; Mulembakani, Prime; Tesh, Robert B.; Mazet, Jonna; Rimoin, Anne W.; Taylor, Travis; Schneider, Bradley S.; Simmons, Graham; Delwart, Eric; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Chiu, Charles Y.; Leroy, Eric M.

    2012-01-01

    Deep sequencing was used to discover a novel rhabdovirus (Bas-Congo virus, or BASV) associated with a 2009 outbreak of 3 human cases of acute hemorrhagic fever in Mangala village, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Africa. The cases, presenting over a 3-week period, were characterized by abrupt disease onset, high fever, mucosal hemorrhage, and, in two patients, death within 3 days. BASV was detected in an acute serum sample from the lone survivor at a concentration of 1.09×106 RNA copies/mL, and 98.2% of the genome was subsequently de novo assembled from ∼140 million sequence reads. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BASV is highly divergent and shares less than 34% amino acid identity with any other rhabdovirus. High convalescent neutralizing antibody titers of >1∶1000 were detected in the survivor and an asymptomatic nurse directly caring for him, both of whom were health care workers, suggesting the potential for human-to-human transmission of BASV. The natural animal reservoir host or arthropod vector and precise mode of transmission for the virus remain unclear. BASV is an emerging human pathogen associated with acute hemorrhagic fever in Africa. PMID:23028323

  5. A novel rhabdovirus associated with acute hemorrhagic fever in central Africa.

    PubMed

    Grard, Gilda; Fair, Joseph N; Lee, Deanna; Slikas, Elizabeth; Steffen, Imke; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Sittler, Taylor; Veeraraghavan, Narayanan; Ruby, J Graham; Wang, Chunlin; Makuwa, Maria; Mulembakani, Prime; Tesh, Robert B; Mazet, Jonna; Rimoin, Anne W; Taylor, Travis; Schneider, Bradley S; Simmons, Graham; Delwart, Eric; Wolfe, Nathan D; Chiu, Charles Y; Leroy, Eric M

    2012-09-01

    Deep sequencing was used to discover a novel rhabdovirus (Bas-Congo virus, or BASV) associated with a 2009 outbreak of 3 human cases of acute hemorrhagic fever in Mangala village, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Africa. The cases, presenting over a 3-week period, were characterized by abrupt disease onset, high fever, mucosal hemorrhage, and, in two patients, death within 3 days. BASV was detected in an acute serum sample from the lone survivor at a concentration of 1.09 × 10(6) RNA copies/mL, and 98.2% of the genome was subsequently de novo assembled from ≈ 140 million sequence reads. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BASV is highly divergent and shares less than 34% amino acid identity with any other rhabdovirus. High convalescent neutralizing antibody titers of >1:1000 were detected in the survivor and an asymptomatic nurse directly caring for him, both of whom were health care workers, suggesting the potential for human-to-human transmission of BASV. The natural animal reservoir host or arthropod vector and precise mode of transmission for the virus remain unclear. BASV is an emerging human pathogen associated with acute hemorrhagic fever in Africa.

  6. Orchid fleck virus is a rhabdovirus with an unusual bipartite genome.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hideki; Maeda, Takanori; Shirako, Yukio; Tamada, Tetsuo

    2006-08-01

    Orchid fleck virus (OFV) has an unusual bipartite negative-sense RNA genome with clear sequence similarities to those of nucleorhabdoviruses. The OFV genome consists of two single-stranded RNA molecules, RNA1 and RNA2 that are 6413 and 6001 nt long, respectively, with open reading frame (ORF) information in the complementary sense. RNA1 encodes 49 (ORF1), 26 (ORF2), 38 (ORF3), 20 (ORF4) and 61 kDa (ORF5) proteins, and RNA2 encodes a single protein of 212 kDa (ORF6). ORF1, ORF5 and ORF6 proteins had significant similarities (21-38 % identity) to the nucleocapsid protein (N), glycoprotein (G) and polymerase (L) gene products, respectively, of other rhabdoviruses, especially nucleorhabdoviruses, whereas ORF2, ORF3 and ORF4 proteins had no significant similarities to other proteins in the international databases. Similarities between OFV and rhabdoviruses were also found in the sequence complementarity at both termini of each RNA segment (the common terminal sequences are 3'-UGUGUC---GACACA-5'), the conserved intergenic sequences and in being negative sense. It was proposed that a new genus Dichorhabdovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae of the order Mononegavirales should be established with OFV as its prototype member and type species.

  7. Drosophila melanogaster mounts a unique immune response to the Rhabdovirus sigma virus.

    PubMed

    Tsai, C W; McGraw, E A; Ammar, E-D; Dietzgen, R G; Hogenhout, S A

    2008-05-01

    Rhabdoviruses are important pathogens of humans, livestock, and plants that are often vectored by insects. Rhabdovirus particles have a characteristic bullet shape with a lipid envelope and surface-exposed transmembrane glycoproteins. Sigma virus (SIGMAV) is a member of the Rhabdoviridae and is a naturally occurring disease agent of Drosophila melanogaster. The infection is maintained in Drosophila populations through vertical transmission via germ cells. We report here the nature of the Drosophila innate immune response to SIGMAV infection as revealed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis of differentially expressed genes identified by microarray analysis. We have also compared and contrasted the immune response of the host with respect to two nonenveloped viruses, Drosophila C virus (DCV) and Drosophila X virus (DXV). We determined that SIGMAV infection upregulates expression of the peptidoglycan receptor protein genes PGRP-SB1 and PGRP-SD and the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes Diptericin-A, Attacin-A, Attacin-B, Cecropin-A1, and Drosocin. SIGMAV infection did not induce PGRP-SA and the AMP genes Drosomycin-B, Metchnikowin, and Defensin that are upregulated in DCV and/or DXV infections. Expression levels of the Toll and Imd signaling cascade genes are not significantly altered by SIGMAV infection. These results highlight shared and unique aspects of the Drosophila immune response to the three viruses and may shed light on the nature of the interaction with the host and the evolution of these associations.

  8. The antiviral defense mechanisms in mandarin fish induced by DNA vaccination against a rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong-Yuan; Lei, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2012-06-15

    Plasmid DNAs containing Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV) glycoprotein gene (pcDNA-G) and nucleoprotein gene (pcDNA-N) were constructed, and used to determine the antiviral immune response elicited by DNA vaccination in mandarin fish. In vitro and in vivo expression of the plasmid constructs was confirmed in transfected cells and muscle tissues of vaccinated fish by Western blot, indirect immunofluorescence or RT-PCR analysis. Fish injected with pcDNA-G exhibited protective effect against SCRV challenge with a relative percent survival (RPS) of 77.5%, but no significant protection (RPS of 2.5%) was observed in fish vaccinated with pcDNA-N. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that vaccination with pcDNA-G decreased histological lesions and suppressed the virus replication in fish target organs, e.g. kidney, liver, spleen, gill and heart. Transcriptional analysis further revealed that the expression levels of type I IFN system genes including interferon regulation factor-7 (IRF-7) gene, myxovirus resistance (Mx) gene and virus inhibitory protein (Viperin) gene were strongly up-regulated after injection with pcDNA-G, whereas the level of transcription of immunoglobulin M (IgM) gene did not show a statistically significant change. These results reveal that type I IFN antiviral immune response is rapidly triggered by the plasmid DNA containing rhabdovirus glycoprotein gene in fish, which offers an explanation of molecular mechanisms for DNA vaccination inducing mandarin fish resist to SCRV disease.

  9. Transferrin receptor 1 is a cellular receptor for New World haemorrhagic fever arenaviruses.

    PubMed

    Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Abraham, Jonathan; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Kuhn, Jens H; Nguyen, Dan; Li, Wenhui; Nagel, Jane; Schmidt, Paul J; Nunberg, Jack H; Andrews, Nancy C; Farzan, Michael; Choe, Hyeryun

    2007-03-01

    At least five arenaviruses cause viral haemorrhagic fevers in humans. Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus, uses the cellular receptor alpha-dystroglycan to infect cells. Machupo, Guanarito, Junin and Sabia viruses are New World haemorrhagic fever viruses that do not use alpha-dystroglycan. Here we show a specific, high-affinity association between transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and the entry glycoprotein (GP) of Machupo virus. Expression of human TfR1, but not human transferrin receptor 2, in hamster cell lines markedly enhanced the infection of viruses pseudotyped with the GP of Machupo, Guanarito and Junin viruses, but not with those of Lassa or lymphocytic choriomeningitis viruses. An anti-TfR1 antibody efficiently inhibited the replication of Machupo, Guanarito, Junin and Sabia viruses, but not that of Lassa virus. Iron depletion of culture medium enhanced, and iron supplementation decreased, the efficiency of infection by Junin and Machupo but not Lassa pseudoviruses. These data indicate that TfR1 is a cellular receptor for New World haemorrhagic fever arenaviruses.

  10. Viral pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Pneumonia - viral; "Walking pneumonia" - viral Images Lungs Respiratory system References Lee FE, Treanor J. Viral infections. In: Mason RJ, VC Broaddus, Martin TR, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel’s Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2010: ...

  11. Clinical and epidemiological patterns of Argentine haemorrhagic fever

    PubMed Central

    Maiztegui, J. I.

    1975-01-01

    The epidemiology of Argentine haemorrhagic fever (AHF) is closely related to cricetine rodents acting as natural hosts of Junin virus. The endemo-epidemic area, which has increased 5 times since the disease was first recognized 15-20 years ago, is located in a densely populated region of Argentina. It has been shown that the virus of LCM is active in humans and rodents of the AHF endemic area; this demonstrates the simultaneous presence of two arenaviruses pathogenic for man in a given geographic location. The disease is characterized by haematological, renal, neurological and cardiovascular changes. Electron microscopy and immunohistochemical studies have shown cytopathic changes, characteristic intracellular virus-like particles, and antigenic determinants of Junin virus in different organs from 9 cases of AHF. No deposits of immunoglobulins or C3 were found in the kidneys; in addition, an absence of fibrinogen and C3 in the hepatocytes and of immunoglobulins in the spleen was observed. These findings suggest a direct viral pathogenic action in the human disease. Ultrastructural and immunofluorescence studies in tissues of guinea-pigs inoculated with two strains of Junin virus revealed the presence of the same types of virus-like particles and antigenic determinants of Junin virus as were encountered in the human subjects with AHF. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:1085212

  12. Plant rhabdoviruses: new insights and research needs in the interplay of negative-strand RNA viruses with plant and insect hosts.

    PubMed

    Mann, Krin S; Dietzgen, Ralf G

    2014-08-01

    Rhabdoviruses are taxonomically classified in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. As a group, rhabdoviruses can infect plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. Plant cyto- and nucleorhabdoviruses infect a wide variety of species across both monocot and dicot families, including agriculturally important crops such as lettuce, wheat, barley, rice, maize, potato and tomato. Plant rhabdoviruses are transmitted by and replicate in hemipteran insects such as aphids (Aphididae), leafhoppers (Cicadellidae), or planthoppers (Delphacidae). These specific interactions between plants, viruses and insects offer new insights into host adaptation and molecular virus evolution. This review explores recent advances as well as knowledge gaps in understanding of replication, RNA silencing suppression and movement of plant rhabdoviruses with respect to both plant and insect hosts.

  13. Plant rhabdoviruses: new insights and research needs in the interplay of negative-strand RNA viruses with plant and insect hosts.

    PubMed

    Mann, Krin S; Dietzgen, Ralf G

    2014-08-01

    Rhabdoviruses are taxonomically classified in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. As a group, rhabdoviruses can infect plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. Plant cyto- and nucleorhabdoviruses infect a wide variety of species across both monocot and dicot families, including agriculturally important crops such as lettuce, wheat, barley, rice, maize, potato and tomato. Plant rhabdoviruses are transmitted by and replicate in hemipteran insects such as aphids (Aphididae), leafhoppers (Cicadellidae), or planthoppers (Delphacidae). These specific interactions between plants, viruses and insects offer new insights into host adaptation and molecular virus evolution. This review explores recent advances as well as knowledge gaps in understanding of replication, RNA silencing suppression and movement of plant rhabdoviruses with respect to both plant and insect hosts. PMID:24610553

  14. Characterization of the Tupaia Rhabdovirus Genome Reveals a Long Open Reading Frame Overlapping with P and a Novel Gene Encoding a Small Hydrophobic Protein

    PubMed Central

    Springfeld, Christoph; Darai, Gholamreza; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Rhabdoviruses are negative-stranded RNA viruses of the order Mononegavirales and have been isolated from vertebrates, insects, and plants. Members of the genus Lyssavirus cause the invariably fatal disease rabies, and a member of the genus Vesiculovirus, Chandipura virus, has recently been associated with acute encephalitis in children. We present here the complete genome sequence and transcription map of a rhabdovirus isolated from cultivated cells of hepatocellular carcinoma tissue from a moribund tree shrew. The negative-strand genome of tupaia rhabdovirus is composed of 11,440 nucleotides and encodes six genes that are separated by one or two intergenic nucleotides. In addition to the typical rhabdovirus genes in the order N-P-M-G-L, a gene encoding a small hydrophobic putative type I transmembrane protein of approximately 11 kDa was identified between the M and G genes, and the corresponding transcript was detected in infected cells. Similar to some Vesiculoviruses and many Paramyxovirinae, the P gene has a second overlapping reading frame that can be accessed by ribosomal choice and encodes a protein of 26 kDa, predicted to be the largest C protein of these virus families. Phylogenetic analyses of the tupaia rhabdovirus N and L genes show that the virus is distantly related to the Vesiculoviruses, Ephemeroviruses, and the recently characterized Flanders virus and Oita virus and further extends the sequence territory occupied by animal rhabdoviruses. PMID:15890917

  15. Characterization of the Tupaia rhabdovirus genome reveals a long open reading frame overlapping with P and a novel gene encoding a small hydrophobic protein.

    PubMed

    Springfeld, Christoph; Darai, Gholamreza; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2005-06-01

    Rhabdoviruses are negative-stranded RNA viruses of the order Mononegavirales and have been isolated from vertebrates, insects, and plants. Members of the genus Lyssavirus cause the invariably fatal disease rabies, and a member of the genus Vesiculovirus, Chandipura virus, has recently been associated with acute encephalitis in children. We present here the complete genome sequence and transcription map of a rhabdovirus isolated from cultivated cells of hepatocellular carcinoma tissue from a moribund tree shrew. The negative-strand genome of tupaia rhabdovirus is composed of 11,440 nucleotides and encodes six genes that are separated by one or two intergenic nucleotides. In addition to the typical rhabdovirus genes in the order N-P-M-G-L, a gene encoding a small hydrophobic putative type I transmembrane protein of approximately 11 kDa was identified between the M and G genes, and the corresponding transcript was detected in infected cells. Similar to some Vesiculoviruses and many Paramyxovirinae, the P gene has a second overlapping reading frame that can be accessed by ribosomal choice and encodes a protein of 26 kDa, predicted to be the largest C protein of these virus families. Phylogenetic analyses of the tupaia rhabdovirus N and L genes show that the virus is distantly related to the Vesiculoviruses, Ephemeroviruses, and the recently characterized Flanders virus and Oita virus and further extends the sequence territory occupied by animal rhabdoviruses.

  16. European survey on laboratory preparedness, response and diagnostic capacity for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, 2012.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Garcia, M D; Negredo, A; Papa, A; Donoso-Mantke, O; Niedrig, M; Zeller, H; Tenorio, A; Franco, L

    2014-07-03

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an infectious viral disease that has (re-)emerged in the last decade in south-eastern Europe, and there is a risk for further geographical expansion to western Europe. Here we report the results of a survey covering 28 countries, conducted in 2012 among the member laboratories of the European Network for Diagnostics of 'Imported' Viral Diseases (ENIVD) to assess laboratory preparedness and response capacities for CCHF. The answers of 31 laboratories of the European region regarding CCHF case definition, training necessity, biosafety, quality assurance and diagnostic tests are presented. In addition, we identified the lack of a Regional Reference Expert Laboratory in or near endemic areas. Moreover, a comprehensive review of the biosafety level suitable to the reality of endemic areas is needed. These issues are challenges that should be addressed by European public health authorities. However, all respondent laboratories have suitable diagnostic capacities for the current situation.

  17. European survey on laboratory preparedness, response and diagnostic capacity for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, 2012.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Garcia, M D; Negredo, A; Papa, A; Donoso-Mantke, O; Niedrig, M; Zeller, H; Tenorio, A; Franco, L

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an infectious viral disease that has (re-)emerged in the last decade in south-eastern Europe, and there is a risk for further geographical expansion to western Europe. Here we report the results of a survey covering 28 countries, conducted in 2012 among the member laboratories of the European Network for Diagnostics of 'Imported' Viral Diseases (ENIVD) to assess laboratory preparedness and response capacities for CCHF. The answers of 31 laboratories of the European region regarding CCHF case definition, training necessity, biosafety, quality assurance and diagnostic tests are presented. In addition, we identified the lack of a Regional Reference Expert Laboratory in or near endemic areas. Moreover, a comprehensive review of the biosafety level suitable to the reality of endemic areas is needed. These issues are challenges that should be addressed by European public health authorities. However, all respondent laboratories have suitable diagnostic capacities for the current situation. PMID:25011064

  18. Acute myocardial infarction complicating subarachnoid haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    van der Velden, L.B.J.; Otterspoor, L.C.; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Biessels, G.J.; Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    An acute myocardial infarction is a rare complication of a subarachnoid haemorrhage. The combination of these two conditions imposes important treatment dilemmas. We describe two patients with this combination of life-threatening conditions. Patient 1 was treated with emergency percutaneous coronary intervention followed by clipping of the anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Six months after discharge the patient's memory and orientation had almost completely recovered. Patient 2 was treated with aspirin until coiling of the aneurysm could be performed. After successful coiling low-molecular-weight heparin was added. One week later the patient died due to a free wall rupture. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:284-7.19789696) PMID:19789696

  19. Viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Puigdomènech, Isabel; de Armas-Rillo, Laura; Machado, José-David

    2011-01-01

    Viruses have developed different survival strategies in host cells by crossing cell-membrane compartments, during different steps of their viral life cycle. In fact, the non-regenerative viral membrane of enveloped viruses needs to encounter the dynamic cell-host membrane, during early steps of the infection process, in which both membranes fuse, either at cell-surface or in an endocytic compartment, to promote viral entry and infection. Once inside the cell, many viruses accomplish their replication process through exploiting or modulating membrane traffic, and generating specialized compartments to assure viral replication, viral budding and spreading, which also serve to evade the immune responses against the pathogen. In this review, we have attempted to present some data that highlight the importance of membrane dynamics during viral entry and replicative processes, in order to understand how viruses use and move through different complex and dynamic cell-membrane structures and how they use them to persist. PMID:21966556

  20. Molecular epidemiology of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) in Australia: when one became many

    PubMed Central

    Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Mutze, Greg; Peacock, David; Strive, Tanja; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2015-01-01

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) was introduced into Australia in 1995 as a biological control agent against the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). We evaluated its evolution over a 16 year period (1995–2011) by examining 50 isolates collected throughout Australia, as well as the original inoculum strains. Phylogenetic analysis of capsid protein VP60 sequences of the Australian isolates, compared to those sampled globally, revealed that they form a monophyletic group with the inoculum strains (CAPM V-351 and RHDV351INOC). Strikingly, despite more than 3000 re-releases of RHDV351INOC since 1995, only a single viral lineage has sustained its transmission in the long-term, indicative of a major competitive advantage. In addition, we find evidence for widespread viral gene flow, in which multiple lineages entered individual geographic locations, resulting in a marked turnover of viral lineages with time, as well as a continual increase in viral genetic diversity. The rate of RHDV evolution recorded in Australia – 4.0 (3.3 – 4.7) × 10−3 nucleotide substitutions per site per year – was higher than previously observed in RHDV, and evidence for adaptive evolution was obtained at two VP60 residues. Finally, more intensive study of a single rabbit population (Turretfield) in South Australia provided no evidence for viral persistence between outbreaks, with genetic diversity instead generated by continual strain importation. PMID:24251353

  1. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever: challenges of controlling an enemy still at large.

    PubMed

    Kurane, I; Takasaki, T

    2001-01-01

    Dengue virus infections are a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world: mainly Southeast and South Asia, Central and South America, and the Caribbean. Understanding the pathogenesis of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), the severe form of dengue illness, is a very important and challenging research subject. Viral virulence and immune responses have been considered as two major factors responsible for the pathogenesis. Virological studies are attempting to define the molecular basis of viral virulence. The immunopathological mechanisms appear to include a complex series of immune responses. A rapid increase in the levels of cytokines and chemical mediators apparently plays a key role in inducing plasma leakage, shock and haemorrhagic manifestations. It is likely that the entire process is initiated by infection with a so-called virulent dengue virus, often with the help of enhancing antibodies in secondary infection, and then triggered by rapidly elevated cytokines and chemical mediators produced by intense immune activation. However, understanding of the DHF pathogenesis is not complete. We still have a long way to go.

  2. [World epidemiological situation: viral disease incidence (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rodhain, F

    1981-01-01

    The importance of viral disease, although estimated with difficulty, seems very large in human pathology. Viruses appear to be involved in most of respiratory disease. Moreover, in tropical countries, measles and viral diarrhoeas (mainly rotaviruses) are fatal for many children. But smallpox eradication must be considered as the most important fact which occurred in the field during the last five years, and the consequences of this new situation are discussed. Finally, beyond the recent question of african viral haemorrhagic fevers, one must take in account the increasing prevalence of several arboviruses, specially dengue in southeast Asia, which is one of the first causes of paediatric mortality in urban environment.

  3. Dengue haemorrhagic fever in children in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Kabra, S K; Verma, I C; Arora, N K; Jain, Y; Kalra, V

    1992-01-01

    An epidemic of dengue haemorrhagic fever occurred in Delhi during 1988. A total of 21 paediatric patients with dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome were evaluated from September to November 1988. All the patients had fever, restlessness, ecchymotic spots and ascites. Pleural effusion occurred in 19 patients (90%), and 18 (86%) exhibited each of the following: vomiting, thrombocytopenia, and haemoconcentration. Hepatomegaly was observed in 15 patients (71%) and splenomegaly in three (14%). Titres of haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies against dengue virus type 2 were raised in all the 15 cases from whom sera were collected during the acute stage. Convalescent sera from five patients had increased titres of HI antibodies to dengue virus type 2. The remaining 10 cases exhibited raised IgM antibody levels against dengue virus type 2. The fatality rate for serologically proven cases was 13% (2 of 15 patients), while for all patients (including those diagnosed clinically (6) and serologically (15)) it was 33.3% (7 of 21). Patients who survived had no sequelae, except one who had transient hypertension that lasted for two weeks.

  4. Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever: Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, U C; Nagar, Rachna

    2008-11-01

    The relationship of this country with dengue has been long and intense. The ?rst recorded epidemic of clinically dengue-like illness occurred at Madras in 1780 and the dengue virus was isolated for the ?rst time almost simultaneously in Japan and Calcutta in 1943-1944. After the ?rst virologically proved epidemic of dengue fever along the East Coast of India in 1963-1964, it spread to allover the country.The ?rst full-blown epidemic of the severe form of the illness,the dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome occurred in North India in 1996. Aedes aegypti is the vector for transmission of the disease. Vaccines or antiviral drugs are not available for dengue viruses; the only effective way to prevent epidemic degure fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) is to control the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti and prevent its bite. This country has few virus laboratories and some of them have done excellent work in the area of molecular epidemiology,immunopathology and vaccine development. Selected work done in this country on the problems of dengue is presented here.

  5. Hypertrophic olivary degeneration secondary to pontine haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wein, Sara; Yan, Bernard; Gaillard, Frank

    2015-07-01

    We report a 58-year-old man who developed hyptertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) after haemorrhage of a cavernous malformation in the pons. Lesions of the triangle of Guillain and Mollaret (the dentatorubro-olivary pathway) may lead to HOD, a secondary transsynaptic degeneration of the inferior olivary nucleus. HOD is considered unique because the degenerating olive initially becomes hypertrophic rather than atrophic. The primary lesion causing pathway interruption is often haemorrhage, either due to hypertension, trauma, surgery or, as in our patient, a vascular malformation such as a cavernoma. Ischaemia and demyelination can also occasionally be the inciting events. The classic clinical presentation of HOD is palatal myoclonus, although not all patients with HOD develop this symptom. The imaging features of HOD evolve through characteristic phases. The clue to the diagnosis of HOD is recognition of the distinct imaging stages and identification of a remote primary lesion in the triangle of Guillain and Mollaret. Familiarity with the classic imaging findings of this rare phenomenon is necessary in order to avoid misdiagnosis and prevent unnecessary intervention.

  6. Mapping the neutralizing epitopes on the glycoprotein of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus, a fish rhabdovirus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, C.; Chien, M.S.; Landolt, M.L.; Batts, W.; Winton, J.

    1996-01-01

    Twelve neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the fish rhabdovirus, infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), were used to select 20 MAb escape mutants. The nucleotide sequence of the entire glycoprotein (G) gene was determined for six mutants representing differing cross-neutralization patterns and each had a single nucleotide change leading to a single amino acid substitution within one of three regions of the protein. These data were used to design nested PCR primers to amplify portions of the G gene of the 14 remaining mutants. When the PCR products from these mutants were sequenced, they also had single nucleotide substitutions coding for amino acid substitutions at the same, or nearby, locations. Of the 20 mutants for which all or part of the glycoprotein gene was sequenced, two MAbs selected mutants with substitutions at amino acids 230-231 (antigenic site I) and the remaining MAbs selected mutants with substitutions at amino acids 272-276 (antigenic site II). Two MAbs that selected mutants mapping to amino acids 272-276, selected other mutants that mapped to amino acids 78-81, raising the possibility that this portion of the N terminus of the protein was part of a discontinuous epitope defining antigenic site II. CLUSTAL alignment of the glycoproteins of rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and IHNV revealed similarities in the location of the neutralizing epitopes and a high degree of conservation among cysteine residues, indicating that the glycoproteins of three different genera of animal rhabdoviruses may share a similar three-dimensional structure in spite of extensive sequence divergence.

  7. Characterization of the components and activity of Sonchus yellow net rhabdovirus polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, J D; Jackson, A O

    1997-01-01

    Sonchus yellow net virus (SYNV) is the best-characterized member of a group of plant rhabdoviruses that replicate in the host cell nucleus. Using a recently developed method for partial purification of active SYNV polymerase by salt extraction of nuclei from infected plant tissue (J. D. O. Wagner et al, J. Virol. 70:468-477, 1996), we have identified the nucleocapsid (N), M2, and L proteins as polymerase complex components (based on copurification with the polymerase activity and by coimmunoprecipitation assays). Furthermore, the L protein was shown by antibody inhibition analysis to be a functional component of the polymerase. A second complex of M2 and L proteins, thought to be a precursor to the polymerase complex, was also identified. In addition, we conducted a detailed characterization of SYNV RNA synthesis in vitro. The results demonstrate that the RNAs are transcribed sequentially, beginning with the N mRNA and followed successively by the remaining five mRNAs in the order of their genome organization. Gene expression conforms to a cascade pattern, with synthesis of the 3'-proximal N mRNA occurring at the highest level, followed by consecutively lower levels of transcription from each subsequent gene. The reaction conditions favor transcription over minus-sense RNA replication, which, we posit, is inhibited near specific signal sequences located on the antigenomic template. The results support the concept that the mechanism of transcription is highly conserved among diverse rhabdoviruses and are compatible with a unified model for the regulation of genomic and antigenomic RNA synthesis. PMID:9032374

  8. Viral meningitis.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, David R

    2005-01-01

    Viruses probably account for most cases of acute meningitis. Viral meningitis is often assumed to be a largely benign disease. For the commonest pathogens causing meningitis, enteroviruses, this is usually the case; however, for many of the other pathogens causing viral meningitis, and for common pathogens in the immunocompromised or infants, viral meningitis is frequently associated with substantial neurological complications and a significant mortality. Diagnostic methods for rapid and accurate identification of pathogens have improved over recent years, permitting more precise and earlier diagnoses. There have been fewer developments in therapies for viral meningitis, and there remain no effective therapies for most pathogens, emphasising the importance of prevention and early diagnosis. This review focuses on the presentation, diagnosis and management of viral meningitis and also covers the prevention of meningitis for pathogens where effective vaccines are available. PMID:16474042

  9. Viral meningitis.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, David R

    2005-01-01

    Viruses probably account for most cases of acute meningitis. Viral meningitis is often assumed to be a largely benign disease. For the commonest pathogens causing meningitis, enteroviruses, this is usually the case; however, for many of the other pathogens causing viral meningitis, and for common pathogens in the immunocompromised or infants, viral meningitis is frequently associated with substantial neurological complications and a significant mortality. Diagnostic methods for rapid and accurate identification of pathogens have improved over recent years, permitting more precise and earlier diagnoses. There have been fewer developments in therapies for viral meningitis, and there remain no effective therapies for most pathogens, emphasising the importance of prevention and early diagnosis. This review focuses on the presentation, diagnosis and management of viral meningitis and also covers the prevention of meningitis for pathogens where effective vaccines are available.

  10. Complete genomic sequence and taxonomic position of eel virus European X (EVEX), a rhabdovirus of European eel.

    PubMed

    Galinier, Richard; van Beurden, Steven; Amilhat, Elsa; Castric, Jeannette; Schoehn, Guy; Verneau, Olivier; Fazio, Géraldine; Allienne, Jean-François; Engelsma, Marc; Sasal, Pierre; Faliex, Elisabeth

    2012-06-01

    Eel virus European X (EVEX) was first isolated from diseased European eel Anguilla anguilla in Japan at the end of seventies. The virus was tentatively classified into the Rhabdoviridae family on the basis of morphology and serological cross reactivity. This family of viruses is organized into six genera and currently comprises approximately 200 members, many of which are still unassigned because of the lack of molecular data. This work presents the morphological, biochemical and genetic characterizations of EVEX, and proposes a taxonomic classification for this virus. We provide its complete genome sequence, plus a comprehensive sequence comparison between isolates from different geographical origins. The genome encodes the five classical structural proteins plus an overlapping open reading frame in the phosphoprotein gene, coding for a putative C protein. Phylogenic relationship with other rhabdoviruses indicates that EVEX is most closely related to the Vesiculovirus genus and shares the highest identity with trout rhabdovirus 903/87.

  11. Bichat guidelines for the clinical management of haemorrhagic fever viruses and bioterrorism-related haemorrhagic fever viruses.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Philippe; Tegnell, Anders; Baka, Agoritsa; Van Loock, Frank; Hendriks, Jan; Werner, Albrecht; Maidhof, Heinrich; Gouvras, Georgios

    2004-12-15

    Haemorrhagic fever viruses (HFVs) are a diverse group of viruses that cause a clinical disease associated with fever and bleeding disorder. HFVs that are associated with a potential biological threat are Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), Lassa fever and New World arenaviruses (Machupo, Junin, Guanarito and Sabia viruses) (Arenaviridae), Rift Valley fever (Bunyaviridae) and yellow fever, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, and Kyanasur Forest disease (Flaviviridae). In terms of biological warfare concerning dengue, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and Hantaviruses, there is not sufficient knowledge to include them as a major biological threat. Dengue virus is the only one of these that cannot be transmitted via aerosol. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and the agents of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome appear difficult to weaponise. Ribavirin is recommended for the treatment and the prophylaxis of the arenaviruses and the bunyaviruses, but is not effective for the other families. All patients must be isolated and receive intensive supportive therapy.

  12. Rhabdovirus-induced apoptosis in a fish cell line is inhibited by a human endogenous acid cysteine proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Björklund, H V; Johansson, T R; Rinne, A

    1997-07-01

    To determine the mechanisms of cell death in rhabdovirus-infected cells, we studied the infection of the epithelial papilloma of carp cell line with spring viremia of carp virus. Studies using electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis revealed changes in cell morphology and DNA fragmentation indicative of apoptosis. The virus-induced apoptosis was inhibited in cells treated with a human endogenous acid cysteine proteinase inhibitor. PMID:9188644

  13. Merida virus, a putative novel rhabdovirus discovered in Culex and Ochlerotatus spp. mosquitoes in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Charles, Jermilia; Firth, Andrew E; Loroño-Pino, Maria A; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E; Farfan-Ale, Jose A; Lipkin, W Ian; Blitvich, Bradley J; Briese, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Sequences corresponding to a putative, novel rhabdovirus [designated Merida virus (MERDV)] were initially detected in a pool of Culex quinquefasciatus collected in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. The entire genome was sequenced, revealing 11 798 nt and five major ORFs, which encode the nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L). The deduced amino acid sequences of the N, G and L proteins have no more than 24, 38 and 43 % identity, respectively, to the corresponding sequences of all other known rhabdoviruses, whereas those of the P and M proteins have no significant identity with any sequences in GenBank and their identity is only suggested based on their genome position. Using specific reverse transcription-PCR assays established from the genome sequence, 27 571 C. quinquefasciatus which had been sorted in 728 pools were screened to assess the prevalence of MERDV in nature and 25 pools were found positive. The minimal infection rate (calculated as the number of positive mosquito pools per 1000 mosquitoes tested) was 0.9, and similar for both females and males. Screening another 140 pools of 5484 mosquitoes belonging to four other genera identified positive pools of Ochlerotatus spp. mosquitoes, indicating that the host range is not restricted to C. quinquefasciatus. Attempts to isolate MERDV in C6/36 and Vero cells were unsuccessful. In summary, we provide evidence that a previously undescribed rhabdovirus occurs in mosquitoes in Mexico.

  14. A novel strategy for the determination of a rhabdovirus genome and its application to sequencing of Eggplant mottled dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Pappi, Polyxeni G; Dovas, Chrysostomos I; Efthimiou, Konstantinos E; Maliogka, Varvara I; Katis, Nikolaos I

    2013-08-01

    A novel strategy employing the rhabdovirus untranslated conserved intergenic regions was developed and applied successfully for the determination of the complete nucleotide sequence of Eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV). The EMDV genome contains seven open reading frames with the same organization as Potato yellow dwarf virus (PYDV), the type species of the genus Nucleorhabdovirus. These two species encode five core genes [nucleocapsid (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix (M), glycoprotein (G), and the polymerase (L)] like other viruses of the genus and an additional one (X), located between N and P, giving rise to a protein with currently unknown function. Furthermore, both EMDV and PYDV contain a gene (Y), inserted between P and M, which probably encodes the virus movement protein, in concordance with the rest of the plant-infecting rhabdoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the polymerase gene confirmed the classification of EMDV within the genus Nucleorhabdovirus and showed a close evolutionary relationship to PYDV. The novel sequencing strategy developed is a useful tool for the genome determination of yet uncharacterized rhabdoviruses.

  15. Successful Resolution of Preretinal Haemorrhage with Intravitreal Ranibizumab

    PubMed Central

    Noorlaila, Baharuddin; Raja-Azmi, Mohd-Noor

    2016-01-01

    We would like to report two cases of preretinal haemorrhage from two different aetiology courses of bleeding being treated with intravitreal ranibizumab and its outcome. Our first case was a 39-year-old man with a diagnosis of severe aplastic anaemia that presented with bilateral premacular haemorrhages in both eyes. His right eye vision was 6/45 and it was counting finger in the left eye. He was treated with intravitreal ranibizumab once to the right eye and twice to the left eye. Right eye showed complete resolution of premacular haemorrhage and minimal residual premacular haemorrhage in the left eye at 3 months after initial presentation. Our second case was a 32-year-old healthy teacher that presented with preretinal haemorrhage at superotemporal region extending to macular area in left eye secondary to valsalva retinopathy. Her left vision was counting finger. She was treated with single intravitreal ranibizumab to the left eye. There was significant reduction of premacular haemorrhage and her left eye vision improved to 6/6 at 10 weeks after injection. Both cases had favourable outcome with intravitreal ranibizumab and can be considered as nonsurgical treatment option in treating premacular haemorrhage. PMID:27800200

  16. Bilateral adrenal gland haemorrhage: an unusual cause

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Vasant; Malabu, Usman; Cameron, Donald; Sangla, Kunwarjit

    2014-01-01

    Summary Our patient had drainage of a large amoebic liver abscess. This got complicated by a severe degree of hypotension, which required aggressive fluid resuscitation and hydrocortisone support. Computerised tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed bilateral adrenal gland haemorrhage (BAH) resulting in primary adrenal gland failure, which was the cause for hypotension. Patient was on long-term warfarin for provoked deep vein thrombosis of lower limb, which was discontinued before the procedure. Thrombophilia profile indicated the presence of lupus anticoagulant factor with prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Patient was discharged on lifelong warfarin. This case emphasises the need for strong clinical suspicion for diagnosing BAH, rare but life-threatening condition, and its association with amoebic liver abscess and anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome (APLS). Learning points Recognition of BAH as a rare complication of sepsis.APLS can rarely cause BAH. PMID:25276353

  17. vig-1, a New Fish Gene Induced by the Rhabdovirus Glycoprotein, Has a Virus-Induced Homologue in Humans and Shares Conserved Motifs with the MoaA Family

    PubMed Central

    Boudinot, Pierre; Massin, Pascale; Blanco, Mar; Riffault, Sabine; Benmansour, Abdenour

    1999-01-01

    We used mRNA differential display methodology to analyze the shift of transcription profile induced by the fish rhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), in rainbow trout leukocytes. We identified and characterized a new gene which is directly induced by VHSV. This VHSV-induced gene (vig-1) encodes a 348-amino-acid protein. vig-1 is highly expressed during the experimental disease in lymphoid organs of the infected fish. Intramuscular injection of a plasmid vector expressing the viral glycoprotein results in vig-1 expression, showing that the external virus protein is sufficient for the induction. vig-1 expression is also obtained by a rainbow trout interferon-like factor, indicating that vig-1 can be induced through different pathways. Moreover, vig-1 is homologous to a recently described human cytomegalovirus-induced gene. Accordingly, vig-1 activation may represent a new virus-induced activation pathway highly conserved in vertebrates. The deduced amino acid sequence of vig-1 is significantly related to sequences required for the biosynthesis of metal cofactors. This suggests that the function of vig-1 may be involved in the nonspecific virus-induced synthesis of enzymatic cofactors of the nitric oxide pathway. PMID:9971762

  18. Dengue haemorrhagic fever in children in the 1996 Delhi epidemic.

    PubMed

    Kabra, S K; Jain, Y; Pandey, R M; Madhulika; Singhal, T; Tripathi, P; Broor, S; Seth, P; Seth, V

    1999-01-01

    An epidemic of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) occurred in Delhi in 1996. A total of 240 children between the age of 4 months to 13 years of either sex, admitted in one hospital, were evaluated. Two hundred and sixteen (90%) children were from Delhi. A clinical diagnosis of dengue fever (DF) was made in 25 (10%), dengue fever with unusual bleeding (DFB) in 22 (9%), DHF in 80 (33%) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) in 113 (47%) of the children strictly according to the WHO classification. The age peaked at 8 years. There was no association between various grades of severity of illness and age-groups though girls suffered from more severe illness. No association between severity of malnutrition and severity of illness was observed. Tourniquet test was positive in 40% with DF, 18% with DFB, 62% with DHF and 64% with DSS. In DSS haematemesis was present in 55 (49%), epistaxis in 39 (35%), melaena in 27 (24%) and ecchymosis in 34 (30%) patients. Children diagnosed as DFB had haematemesis and epistaxis in 12 (55%) and 10 (45%) respectively. Intravenous fluid requirement was clearly less in DFB patients than in DHF/DSS patients. Unusual clinical features in the form of jaundice were present in 7 (6%), hepatic encephalopathy in 6 (5%) and dengue encephalopathy in 6 (5%) patients. Dengue 2 virus was isolated from 10 of the 50 patients for whom viral culture was done on C6/36 clone of Aedes albopictus cell line. Eighteen patients suffering from DSS died giving an overall case fatality of 7.5%. The mortality rate in DHF/DSS was 9.3%. It is further suggested that DFB is a distinct entity. Most patients could be classified by the WHO classification if a retrospective packed cell volume was used to assess haemoconcentration. We suggest that development of area-specific criteria for diagnosis and management is desirable.

  19. Strand-specific, real-time RT-PCR assays for quantification of genomic and positive-sense RNAs of the fish rhabdovirus, Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Hart, S. Alexandra; Kurath, Gael; Winton, James R.

    2006-01-01

    The fish rhabdovirus, Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), is an important pathogen of salmonids. Cell culture assays have traditionally been used to quantify levels of IHNV in samples; however, real-time or quantitative RT-PCR assays have been proposed as a rapid alternative. For viruses having a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome, standard qRT-PCR assays do not distinguish between the negative-sense genome and positive-sense RNA species including mRNA and anti-genome. Thus, these methods do not determine viral genome copy number. This study reports development of strand-specific, qRT-PCR assays that use tagged primers for enhancing strand specificity during cDNA synthesis and quantitative PCR. Protocols were developed for positive-strand specific (pss-qRT-PCR) and negative-strand specific (nss-qRT-PCR) assays for IHNV glycoprotein (G) gene sequences. Validation with synthetic RNA transcripts demonstrated the assays could discriminate the correct strand with greater than 1000-fold fidelity. The number of genome copies in livers of IHNV-infected fish determined by nss-qRT-PCR was, on average, 8000-fold greater than the number of infectious units as determined by plaque assay. We also compared the number of genome copies with the quantity of positive-sense RNA and determined that the ratio of positive-sense molecules to negative-sense genome copies was, on average, 2.7:1. Potential future applications of these IHNV strand-specific qRT-PCR assays are discussed.

  20. Interferon type I responses to virus infections in carp cells: In vitro studies on Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 and Rhabdovirus carpio infections.

    PubMed

    Adamek, Mikołaj; Rakus, Krzysztof Ł; Chyb, Jarosław; Brogden, Graham; Huebner, Arne; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2012-09-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are secreted mediators that play a fundamental role in the innate immune response against viruses among all vertebrate classes. Common carp is a host for two highly contagious viruses: spring viraemia of carp virus (Rhabdovirus carpio, SVCV) and the Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), which belong to Rhabdoviridae and Alloherpesviridae families, respectively. Both viruses are responsible for significant losses in carp aquaculture. In this paper we studied the mRNA expression profiles of genes encoding for proteins promoting various functions during the interferon pathway, from pattern recognition receptors to antiviral genes, during in vitro viral infection. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of the interferon pathway (stimulated with poly I:C) on CyHV-3 replication and the speed of virus spreading in cell culture. The results showed that two carp viruses, CyHV-3 and SVCV induced fundamentally different type I IFN responses in CCB cells. SVCV induced a high response in all studied genes, whereas CyHV-3 seems to induce no response in CCB cells, but it induces a response in head kidney leukocytes. The lack of an IFN type I response to CyHV-3 could be an indicator of anti-IFN actions of the virus, however the nature of this mechanism has to be evaluated in future studies. Our results also suggest that an activation of type I IFN in CyHV-3 infected cells can limit the spread of the virus in cell culture. This would open the opportunity to treat the disease associated with CyHV-3 by an application of poly I:C in certain cases.

  1. Experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage results in multifocal axonal injury.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Terrance T; Magnoni, Sandra; MacDonald, Christine L; Dikranian, Krikor; Milner, Eric; Sorrell, James; Conte, Valeria; Benetatos, Joey J; Zipfel, Gregory J; Brody, David L

    2015-09-01

    The great majority of acute brain injury results from trauma or from disorders of the cerebrovasculature, i.e. ischaemic stroke or haemorrhage. These injuries are characterized by an initial insult that triggers a cascade of injurious cellular processes. The nature of these processes in spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage is poorly understood. Subarachnoid haemorrhage, a particularly deadly form of intracranial haemorrhage, shares key pathophysiological features with traumatic brain injury including exposure to a sudden pressure pulse. Here we provide evidence that axonal injury, a signature characteristic of traumatic brain injury, is also a prominent feature of experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage. Using histological markers of membrane disruption and cytoskeletal injury validated in analyses of traumatic brain injury, we show that axonal injury also occurs following subarachnoid haemorrhage in an animal model. Consistent with the higher prevalence of global as opposed to focal deficits after subarachnoid haemorrhage and traumatic brain injury in humans, axonal injury in this model is observed in a multifocal pattern not limited to the immediate vicinity of the ruptured artery. Ultrastructural analysis further reveals characteristic axonal membrane and cytoskeletal changes similar to those associated with traumatic axonal injury. Diffusion tensor imaging, a translational imaging technique previously validated in traumatic axonal injury, from these same specimens demonstrates decrements in anisotropy that correlate with histological axonal injury and functional outcomes. These radiological indicators identify a fibre orientation-dependent gradient of axonal injury consistent with a barotraumatic mechanism. Although traumatic and haemorrhagic acute brain injury are generally considered separately, these data suggest that a signature pathology of traumatic brain injury-axonal injury-is also a functionally significant feature of subarachnoid haemorrhage, raising

  2. Experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage results in multifocal axonal injury

    PubMed Central

    Magnoni, Sandra; MacDonald, Christine L.; Dikranian, Krikor; Milner, Eric; Sorrell, James; Conte, Valeria; Benetatos, Joey J.; Zipfel, Gregory J.; Brody, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The great majority of acute brain injury results from trauma or from disorders of the cerebrovasculature, i.e. ischaemic stroke or haemorrhage. These injuries are characterized by an initial insult that triggers a cascade of injurious cellular processes. The nature of these processes in spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage is poorly understood. Subarachnoid haemorrhage, a particularly deadly form of intracranial haemorrhage, shares key pathophysiological features with traumatic brain injury including exposure to a sudden pressure pulse. Here we provide evidence that axonal injury, a signature characteristic of traumatic brain injury, is also a prominent feature of experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage. Using histological markers of membrane disruption and cytoskeletal injury validated in analyses of traumatic brain injury, we show that axonal injury also occurs following subarachnoid haemorrhage in an animal model. Consistent with the higher prevalence of global as opposed to focal deficits after subarachnoid haemorrhage and traumatic brain injury in humans, axonal injury in this model is observed in a multifocal pattern not limited to the immediate vicinity of the ruptured artery. Ultrastructural analysis further reveals characteristic axonal membrane and cytoskeletal changes similar to those associated with traumatic axonal injury. Diffusion tensor imaging, a translational imaging technique previously validated in traumatic axonal injury, from these same specimens demonstrates decrements in anisotropy that correlate with histological axonal injury and functional outcomes. These radiological indicators identify a fibre orientation-dependent gradient of axonal injury consistent with a barotraumatic mechanism. Although traumatic and haemorrhagic acute brain injury are generally considered separately, these data suggest that a signature pathology of traumatic brain injury—axonal injury—is also a functionally significant feature of subarachnoid haemorrhage

  3. Viral Gastroenteritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. Several different viruses can cause viral gastroenteritis, which is highly contagious ... and last for 1 to 3 days. Some viruses cause symptoms that last longer. [ Top ] What are ...

  4. Viral arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Infectious arthritis - viral ... Ohl CA, Forster D. Infectious arthritis of native joints. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ...

  5. Corticosteroid therapy of experimental hydrocephalus after intraventricular-subarachnoid haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, H. A.; Wilson, Rene B.; Patel, P. P.; Esmaili, M.

    1974-01-01

    Symptomatic hydrocephalus after subarachnoid haemorrhage seems to result both from mechanical obstruction of arachnoid villi and basilar cisterns and from an inflammatory cellular reaction in the villi. Subarachnoid haemorrhage was induced in rabbits using whole blood injected through an implanted intraventricular needle. Control rabbits receiving intraventricular methyl prednisolone acetate but no blood, developed ventricular dilation significantly more often than untreated controls. Eighty-three per cent of rabbits with untreated experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage developed moderate to severe hydrocephalus. Intramuscular steroid therapy significantly reduced the incidence of hydrocephalus. Images PMID:4406223

  6. Bovine ephemeral fever rhabdovirus α1 protein has viroporin-like properties and binds importin β1 and importin 7.

    PubMed

    Joubert, D Albert; Blasdell, Kim R; Audsley, Michelle D; Trinidad, Lee; Monaghan, Paul; Dave, Keyur A; Lieu, Kim G; Amos-Ritchie, Rachel; Jans, David A; Moseley, Gregory W; Gorman, Jeffrey J; Walker, Peter J

    2014-02-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) is an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that is classified as the type species of the genus Ephemerovirus. In addition to the five canonical rhabdovirus structural proteins (N, P, M, G, and L), the large and complex BEFV genome contains several open reading frames (ORFs) between the G and L genes (α1, α2/α3, β, and γ) encoding proteins of unknown function. We show that the 10.5-kDa BEFV α1 protein is expressed in infected cells and, consistent with previous predictions based on its structure, has the properties of a viroporin. Expression of a BEFV α1-maltose binding protein (MBP) fusion protein in Escherichia coli was observed to inhibit cell growth and increase membrane permeability to hygromycin B. Increased membrane permeability was also observed in BEFV-infected mammalian cells (but not cells infected with an α1-deficient BEFV strain) and in cells expressing a BEFV α1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein, which was shown by confocal microscopy to localize to the Golgi complex. Furthermore, the predicted C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of α1, which contains a strong nuclear localization signal (NLS), was translocated to the nucleus when expressed independently, and in an affinity chromatography assay employing a GFP trap, the full-length α1 was observed to interact specifically with importin β1 and importin 7 but not with importin α3. These data suggest that, in addition to its function as a viroporin, BEFV α1 may modulate components of nuclear trafficking pathways, but the specific role thereof remains unclear. Although rhabdovirus accessory genes occur commonly among arthropod-borne rhabdoviruses, little is known of their functions. Here, we demonstrate that the BEFV α1 ORF encodes a protein which has the structural and functional characteristics of a viroporin. We show that α1 localizes in the Golgi complex and increases cellular permeability. We also show that BEFV α1 binds importin β1 and importin 7

  7. Characterization of an Sf-rhabdovirus-negative Spodoptera frugiperda cell line as an alternative host for recombinant protein production in the baculovirus-insect cell system.

    PubMed

    Maghodia, Ajay B; Geisler, Christoph; Jarvis, Donald L

    2016-06-01

    Cell lines derived from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf), are widely used as hosts for recombinant protein production in the baculovirus-insect cell system (BICS). However, it was recently discovered that these cell lines are contaminated with a virus, now known as Sf-rhabdovirus [1]. The detection of this adventitious agent raised a potential safety issue that could adversely impact the BICS as a commercial recombinant protein production platform. Thus, we examined the properties of Sf-RVN, an Sf-rhabdovirus-negative Sf cell line, as a potential alternative host. Nested RT-PCR assays showed Sf-RVN cells had no detectable Sf-rhabdovirus over the course of 60 passages in continuous culture. The general properties of Sf-RVN cells, including their average growth rates, diameters, morphologies, and viabilities after baculovirus infection, were virtually identical to those of Sf9 cells. Baculovirus-infected Sf-RVN and Sf9 cells produced equivalent levels of three recombinant proteins, including an intracellular prokaryotic protein and two secreted eukaryotic glycoproteins, and provided similar N-glycosylation patterns. In fact, except for the absence of Sf-rhabdovirus, the only difference between Sf-RVN and Sf9 cells was SF-RVN produced higher levels of infectious baculovirus progeny. These results show Sf-RVN cells can be used as improved, alternative hosts to circumvent the potential safety hazard associated with the use of Sf-rhabdovirus-contaminated Sf cells for recombinant protein manufacturing with the BICS.

  8. Disseminated fungal infection complicated with pulmonary haemorrhage in a case of acute myeloid leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Thulkar, S; Sharma, S; Das, P; Kumar, L

    2000-01-01

    Pulmonary haemorrhage is a common necropsy finding in acute leukaemia, however, it is rarely diagnosed during life. A man with acute myeloid leukaemia is reported who presented with disseminated fungal infection, anaemia, thrombocytopenia, and subconjuctival and petechial haemorrhages. During the course of the patient's illness, the chest infection was complicated with bilateral pulmonary haemorrhage. The diagnosis of pulmonary haemorrhage was based on characteristic clinical and radiological findings. The patient improved on treatment.


Keywords: leukaemia; pulmonary infiltrate; haemorrhage PMID:11060145

  9. Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome involving the liver.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y C; Wong, T W; Yap, E H; Tan, H C; Lee, H W; Chu, Y K; Lee, P W

    1987-09-01

    A case of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome that originated in Malaysia is reported. The patient presented with clinical symptoms which were not typical of the disease as seen in endemic regions. Renal involvement, which is characteristic of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, was mild, and the predominant symptom was a persistently marked elevation of serum transaminase levels that was suggestive of hepatitis. Liver involvement has not been described in the Asian form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The patient developed a petechial skin rash and had severe thrombocytopenia. Serological confirmation of the diagnosis of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome was obtained by the demonstration of significant antibody rises to hantaviruses in the patient's acute- and convalescent-phase sera.

  10. Isolated spinal artery aneurysm: a rare culprit of subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sung, Tony H T; Leung, Warren K W; Lai, Bill M H; Khoo, Jennifer L S

    2015-04-01

    Isolated spinal artery aneurysm is a rare lesion which could be accountable for spontaneous spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage. We describe the case of a 74-year-old man presenting with sudden onset of chest pain radiating to the neck and back, with subsequent headache and confusion. Initial computed tomography aortogram revealed incidental finding of subtle acute spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage. A set of computed tomography scans of the brain showed further acute intracranial subarachnoid haemorrhage with posterior predominance, small amount of intraventricular haemorrhage, and absence of intracranial vascular lesions. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a thrombosed intradural spinal aneurysm with surrounding sentinel clot, which was trapped and excised during surgical exploration. High level of clinical alertness is required in order not to miss this rare but detrimental entity. Its relevant aetiopathological features and implications for clinical management are discussed.

  11. [Retinal haemorrhages in non-accidental head injury in childhood].

    PubMed

    Oberacher-Velten, I M; Helbig, H

    2014-09-01

    Retinal haemorrhages are one of the three cardinal manifestations of the "shaken baby syndrome" or "non-accidental head injury" in childhood. The role of an ophthalmologist in suspected non-accidental head injury has not only medical but also legal aspects and has been discussed controversially in the literature. The differential diagnosis and the specificity of retinal haemorrhages in childhood for an abusive head trauma will be pointed out in this paper.

  12. Visual restoration after suprachoroidal haemorrhage in glaucoma surgery.

    PubMed

    Rao, Aparna

    2014-03-04

    Suprachoroidal haemorrhage is the most dreaded complication feared by any surgeon during glaucoma surgery. Rapid explosive expulsion of intraocular contents can occur, which makes vision loss almost inevitable in most cases. Yet, adequate preparedness, prompt recognition of the earliest signs and quick closure of the wound can salvage the eye or even prevent loss of vision. This case highlights the successful visual rehabilitation and outcome in a patient with advanced glaucoma who experienced delayed expulsive haemorrhage intraoperatively.

  13. Viral arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael; Marks, Jonathan L

    2016-01-01

    Acute-onset arthritis is a common clinical problem facing both the general clinician and the rheumatologist. A viral aetiology is though to be responsible for approximately 1% of all cases of acute arthritis with a wide range of causal agents recognised. The epidemiology of acute viral arthritis continues to evolve, with some aetiologies, such as rubella, becoming less common due to vaccination, while some vector-borne viruses have become more widespread. A travel history therefore forms an important part of the assessment of patients presenting with an acute arthritis. Worldwide, parvovirus B19, hepatitis B and C, HIV and the alphaviruses are among the most important causes of virally mediated arthritis. Targeted serological testing may be of value in establishing a diagnosis, and clinicians must also be aware that low-titre autoantibodies, such as rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibody, can occur in the context of acute viral arthritis. A careful consideration of epidemiological, clinical and serological features is therefore required to guide clinicians in making diagnostic and treatment decisions. While most virally mediated arthritides are self-limiting some warrant the initiation of specific antiviral therapy. PMID:27037381

  14. Epidemic outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis caused by coxsackievirus A24 in Thailand, 2014.

    PubMed

    Chansaenroj, J; Vongpunsawad, S; Puenpa, J; Theamboonlers, A; Vuthitanachot, V; Chattakul, P; Areechokchai, D; Poovorawan, Y

    2015-10-01

    Acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreaks are often attributed to viral infection. In 2014, an unprecedented nationwide outbreak of infectious conjunctivitis occurred in Thailand, which affected >300 000 individuals over 3 months. To identify and characterize the virus responsible for the epidemic, eye swab specimens from 119 patients were randomly collected from five different provinces. Conserved regions in the enteroviral 5'-UTR and adenovirus hexon gene were analysed. Enterovirus was identified in 71·43% (85/119) of the samples, while no adenovirus was detected. From enterovirus-positive samples, the coxsackievirus A24 variant (70·59%, 84/119) and echovirus (0·84%, 1/119) were identified. Additional sequencing of full-length VP1 and 3C genes and subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that these clinical isolates form a new lineage cluster related to genotype IV-C5. In summary, the coxsackievirus A24 variant was identified as an aetiological agent for the recent acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreak in Thailand.

  15. First dengue haemorrhagic fever epidemic in the Americas, 1981: insights into the causative agent.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Roche, Rosmari; Hinojosa, Yoandri; Guzman, Maria G

    2014-12-01

    Historical records describe a disease in North America that clinically resembled dengue haemorrhagic fever during the latter part of the slave-trading period. However, the dengue epidemic that occurred in Cuba in 1981 was the first laboratory-confirmed and clinically diagnosed outbreak of dengue haemorrhagic fever in the Americas. At that time, the presumed source of the dengue type 2 strain isolated during this epidemic was considered controversial, partly because of the limited sequence data and partly because the origin of the virus appeared to be southern Asia. Here, we present a molecular characterisation at the whole-genome level of the original strains isolated at different time points during the epidemic. Phylogenetic trees constructed using Bayesian methods indicated that 1981 Cuban strains group within the Asian 2 genotype. In addition, the study revealed that viral evolution occurred during the epidemic - a fact that could be related to the increasing severity from month to month. Moreover, the Cuban strains exhibited particular amino acid substitutions that differentiate them from the New Guinea C prototype strain as well as from dengue type 2 strains isolated globally.

  16. A nairovirus isolated from African bats causes haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and severe hepatic disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Orba, Yasuko; Sasaki, Michihito; Moonga, Ladslav; Hang’ombe, Bernard M.; Mweene, Aaron S.; Umemura, Takashi; Ito, Kimihito; Hall, William W.; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Bats can carry important zoonotic pathogens. Here we use a combination of next-generation sequencing and classical virus isolation methods to identify novel nairoviruses from bats captured from a cave in Zambia. This nairovirus infection is highly prevalent among giant leaf-nosed bats, Hipposideros gigas (detected in samples from 16 individuals out of 38). Whole-genome analysis of three viral isolates (11SB17, 11SB19 and 11SB23) reveals a typical bunyavirus tri-segmented genome. The strains form a single phylogenetic clade that is divergent from other known nairoviruses, and are hereafter designated as Leopards Hill virus (LPHV). When i.p. injected into mice, the 11SB17 strain causes only slight body weight loss, whereas 11SB23 produces acute and lethal disease closely resembling that observed with Crimean–Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus in humans. We believe that our LPHV mouse model will be useful for research on the pathogenesis of nairoviral haemorrhagic disease. PMID:25451856

  17. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV): a review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a calicivirus of the genus Lagovirus that causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in adult European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). First described in China in 1984, the virus rapidly spread worldwide and is nowadays considered as endemic in several countries. In Australia and New Zealand where rabbits are pests, RHDV was purposely introduced for rabbit biocontrol. Factors that may have precipitated RHD emergence remain unclear, but non-pathogenic strains seem to pre-date the appearance of the pathogenic strains suggesting a key role for the comprehension of the virus origins. All pathogenic strains are classified within one single serotype, but two subtypes are recognised, RHDV and RHDVa. RHD causes high mortality in both domestic and wild adult animals, with individuals succumbing between 48-72 h post-infection. No other species has been reported to be fatally susceptible to RHD. The disease is characterised by acute necrotising hepatitis, but haemorrhages may also be found in other organs, in particular the lungs, heart, and kidneys due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Resistance to the disease might be explained in part by genetically determined absence or weak expression of attachment factors, but humoral immunity is also important. Disease control in rabbitries relies mainly on vaccination and biosecurity measures. Such measures are difficult to be implemented in wild populations. More recent research has indicated that RHDV might be used as a molecular tool for therapeutic applications. Although the study of RHDV and RHD has been hampered by the lack of an appropriate cell culture system for the virus, several aspects of the replication, epizootology, epidemiology and evolution have been disclosed. This review provides a broad coverage and description of the current knowledge on the disease and the virus. PMID:22325049

  18. Dengue haemorrhagic fever in Malaysia: a review.

    PubMed

    George, R

    1987-09-01

    The historical background, epidemiology and changing pattern of clinical disease as seen in Malaysia is reviewed. The preliminary results of the longitudinal study of epidemiology of dengue in Malaysia is also presented. Studies led by Rudnick et al. over some 18 years have established that the disease is endemically transmitted by both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus causing illnesses ranging from mild febrile episodes through classical dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever and the dengue shock syndrome. The first epidemic occurred in 1962 in Penang, and the second major epidemic in 1974 in Selangor. From then on epidemics seem to occur every 4 years, i.e. 1978, and then in 1982. With increasing number of cases being seen from the end of 1985 and in 1986, and with the increasing numbers of positive virus isolates, another epidemic may occur this year. Though in the early years, mainly children were affected, recently more cases are being seen in 16-30 years age group. There is also a changing pattern in the clinical presentation of the cases. The clinician has to be aware of the various modes of presentation of this sinister disease. A high index of suspicion is needed for early diagnosis, as management is mainly symptomatic and there is no specific drug as yet to combat the shock and bleeding manifestations.

  19. Dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome: are they tumour necrosis factor-mediated disorders?

    PubMed

    Yadav, M; Kamath, K R; Iyngkaran, N; Sinniah, M

    1991-12-01

    A consecutive series of 24 patients with clinical features of primary dengue infection and 22 controls (14 patients with viral fever of unknown origin and 8 healthy subjects) were assayed for serum levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF). The acute sera of the 24 patients with clinical dengue infection were positive for dengue virus-specific IgM antibody. Clinically, 8 had dengue fever (DF), 14 dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and 2 dengue shock syndrome (DSS). All 16 patients with DHF/DSS had significantly elevated serum TNF levels but the 8 DF patients had TNF levels equivalent to that in the 22 controls. A case is made for augmented TNF production having a role for the pathophysiological changes observed in DHF/DSS and mediator modulation as a possible therapeutic approach to treatment.

  20. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with hepatitis? How does a pregnant woman pass hepatitis B virus to her baby? If I have hepatitis B, what does my baby need so that she ... Can I breastfeed my baby if I have hepatitis B? More information on viral hepatitis What is hepatitis? ...

  1. Pregnancy outcomes associated with viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Reddick, K L B; Jhaveri, R; Gandhi, M; James, A H; Swamy, G K

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) to pregnancy-related complications including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preterm birth (PTB), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), pre-eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and cholestasis. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried for all pregnancy-related discharges, pregnancy complications and viral hepatitis from 1995 to 2005. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between HBV, HCV, HBV + HCV and pregnancy-related complications including GDM, PTB, IUGR, pre-eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage, cholestasis and caesarean delivery. Model covariates included maternal age, race, insurance status, substance use and medical complications including liver complication, hypertension, HIV, anaemia, thrombocytopenia and sexually transmitted infections. Of 297 664 pregnant women data available for analysis, 1446 had a coded diagnosis of HBV, HCV or both. High-risk behaviours, such as smoking, alcohol and substance use were higher in women with either HBV or HCV. Women with HBV had an increased risk for PTB (aOR 1.65, CI [1.3, 2.0]) but a decreased risk for caesarean delivery (aOR 0.686, CI [0.53, 0.88]). Individuals with HCV had an increased risk for GDM (aOR 1.6, CI [1.0, 2.6]). Individuals with both HBV and HCV co-infection had an increased risk for antepartum haemorrhage (aOR 2.82, CI [1.1, 7.2]). There was no association of viral hepatitis with IUGR or pre-eclampsia. Women with hepatitis have an increased risk for complications during pregnancy. Research to determine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of counselling patients about potential risks for adverse outcomes is warranted. PMID:21692952

  2. The metabolic effects of moderately severe upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in man.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, K. J.; Alberti, K. G.; Binder, C.; Holdstock, G.; Karran, S. J.; Smith, C. L.; Talbot, S.; Turnell, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolic effects of moderately severe gastrointestinal haemorrhage were investigated in man. Before resuscitation, patients had raised circulating concentrations of glucose, lactate, alanine, glycerol and cortisol. After urgent operation for haemorrhage, metabolite concentrations were similar to those of control patients having elective abdominal surgery, but insulin concentrations were higher and cortisol lower in haemorrhage patients. There were no significant differences in nitrogen excretion between haemorrhage patients and their controls, but urinary 3-methyl-histidine excretion by haemorrhage patients was lower indicating decreased muscle protein breakdown. Decreased amino acid release from muscle might account for previously reported imparied wound healing after haemorrhage. PMID:7045838

  3. Epidemiology of viral infections in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Doraisingham, S; Goh, K T; Ling, A E

    1987-04-01

    As Singapore is a densely populated island, and also a major air and sea port, the importation and dissemination of viral infections is facilitated. Respiratory viral infections have the highest prevalence rates, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) being the most important ones. Seasonal variation occurs with influenza, RSV and parainfluenza virus type 1 infections. The age distribution and clinical picture associated with infections due to the various respiratory viruses are similar to those reported in other countries. Carrier rates for hepatitis B are high, but differ in the three major ethnic groups, vertical transmission from infected mothers being an important mode of transmission. Outbreaks of hepatitis A have been associated with the consumption of inadequately cooked shellfish. Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections are acquired early in life and herpes simplex, more slowly. Genital herpes is increasing in incidence. Coxsackievirus A24 and enterovirus 70 have caused major epidemics of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis at 5-10 year intervals. Outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease due to coxsackievirus A16 have also occurred. With the declining incidence of dengue haemorrhagic fever, the percentage of susceptible individuals in children under 10 years, has increased markedly. Epidemics of rubella which occurred during the past decade, together with immunisation, have increased herd immunity to this virus. PMID:2825585

  4. Epidemiology of viral infections in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Doraisingham, S; Goh, K T; Ling, A E

    1987-04-01

    As Singapore is a densely populated island, and also a major air and sea port, the importation and dissemination of viral infections is facilitated. Respiratory viral infections have the highest prevalence rates, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) being the most important ones. Seasonal variation occurs with influenza, RSV and parainfluenza virus type 1 infections. The age distribution and clinical picture associated with infections due to the various respiratory viruses are similar to those reported in other countries. Carrier rates for hepatitis B are high, but differ in the three major ethnic groups, vertical transmission from infected mothers being an important mode of transmission. Outbreaks of hepatitis A have been associated with the consumption of inadequately cooked shellfish. Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections are acquired early in life and herpes simplex, more slowly. Genital herpes is increasing in incidence. Coxsackievirus A24 and enterovirus 70 have caused major epidemics of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis at 5-10 year intervals. Outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease due to coxsackievirus A16 have also occurred. With the declining incidence of dengue haemorrhagic fever, the percentage of susceptible individuals in children under 10 years, has increased markedly. Epidemics of rubella which occurred during the past decade, together with immunisation, have increased herd immunity to this virus.

  5. Chronic haemorrhagic radiation proctitis: A review.

    PubMed

    Nelamangala Ramakrishnaiah, Vishnu Prasad; Krishnamachari, Srinivasan

    2016-07-27

    Chronic haemorrhagic radiation proctitis (CHRP) is a difficult problem faced by the patients following radiation for pelvic malignancy. There is no standard treatment for this condition, but many methods of treatment are available. The aim of this study was to review the literature to see whether there is an improvement in the available evidence in comparison with previously published systematic reviews in treating patients with CHRP. The PubMed/Medline database and Google Scholar search was selectively searched. Studies, which treated patients with rectal bleeding due to chronic radiation proctitis or CHRP, were included. Seventy studies were finally selected out of which 14 were randomized controlled clinical trials. Though these studies could not be compared, it could be seen that there was an improvement in the methodology of the studies. There was an objective assessment of symptoms, signs and an objective assessment of outcomes. But, still, there were only a few studies that looked into the quality of life following treatment of CHRP. To increase recruitment to trials, a national registry of cases with established late radiation toxicity would facilitate the further improvement of such studies. Some of the conclusions that could be reached based on the available evidence are 4% formalin should be the first line treatment for patients with CHRP. Formalin and argon plasma coagulation (APC) are equally effective, but formalin is better for severe disease. Refractory patients, not responding to formalin or APC, need to be referred for hyperbaric oxygen therapy or surgery. Radio-frequency ablation is a promising modality that needs to be studied further in randomized trials. PMID:27462390

  6. Chronic haemorrhagic radiation proctitis: A review

    PubMed Central

    Nelamangala Ramakrishnaiah, Vishnu Prasad; Krishnamachari, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Chronic haemorrhagic radiation proctitis (CHRP) is a difficult problem faced by the patients following radiation for pelvic malignancy. There is no standard treatment for this condition, but many methods of treatment are available. The aim of this study was to review the literature to see whether there is an improvement in the available evidence in comparison with previously published systematic reviews in treating patients with CHRP. The PubMed/Medline database and Google Scholar search was selectively searched. Studies, which treated patients with rectal bleeding due to chronic radiation proctitis or CHRP, were included. Seventy studies were finally selected out of which 14 were randomized controlled clinical trials. Though these studies could not be compared, it could be seen that there was an improvement in the methodology of the studies. There was an objective assessment of symptoms, signs and an objective assessment of outcomes. But, still, there were only a few studies that looked into the quality of life following treatment of CHRP. To increase recruitment to trials, a national registry of cases with established late radiation toxicity would facilitate the further improvement of such studies. Some of the conclusions that could be reached based on the available evidence are 4% formalin should be the first line treatment for patients with CHRP. Formalin and argon plasma coagulation (APC) are equally effective, but formalin is better for severe disease. Refractory patients, not responding to formalin or APC, need to be referred for hyperbaric oxygen therapy or surgery. Radio-frequency ablation is a promising modality that needs to be studied further in randomized trials. PMID:27462390

  7. Postpartum haemorrhage: a cause of maternal morbidity.

    PubMed

    Shirazee, Hasibul Hasan; Saha, Sudip Kr; Das, Indrani; Mondal, Tanmoy; Samanta, Sandip; Sarkar, Moloy

    2010-10-01

    To identify and analyse the risk factors associated with postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and assess their impact on the maternal morbidity, a prospective observational study was carried out over a period of one year in a tertiary level referral institute in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. All the cases of PPH were identified and studied. Data analyses were done using Chi-square test. Out of 210 cases of maternal morbidity, 79 (37.6%) were found to have PPH as the causative factor. Uterine atonicity was found to be the main cause leading to 45 cases (56.9%) of PPH. With respect to the mode of delivery severe PPH was found in 34.3% of vaginally and 60% of operatively delivered patients which had statistical significance. More number of severe PPH cases, 17/31 (54.8%), had delivered outside the medical college. Here comes the role of 24-hour quality emergency obstetric care (EMOC), active management of 3rd stage of labour and early referral to the higher centre. The case fatality rate of PPH during the study period was 7.5%. This finding is quite close to the observation made in a North Indian tertiary hospital based study. In order to reduce maternal morbidity and thereby indirectly maternal mortality and to improve the overall maternal health, prevention and control of PPH can play a significant role. An integrated approach at all levels of healthcare delivery system, active management of labour and efficient emergency obstetric care will help in controlling the PPH. PMID:21510550

  8. Neurosurgical management of L-asparaginase induced haemorrhagic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ogbodo, Elisha; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; O’Sullivan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe a case of L-asparaginase induced intracranial thrombosis and subsequent haemorrhage in a newly diagnosed 30-year-old man with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who was successfully managed by surgical intervention. At presentation, he had a Glasgow Coma Score of 7/15, was aphasic and had dense right hemiplegia. Neuroimaging revealed an acute anterior left middle cerebral artery infarct with parenchymal haemorrhagic conversion, mass effect and subfalcine herniation. He subsequently underwent left frontal craniotomy and evacuation of large frontal haematoma and decompressive craniectomy for cerebral oedema. Six months postoperatively he underwent titanium cranioplasty. He had made good clinical recovery and is currently mobilising independently with mild occasional episodes of expressive dysphasia, difficulty with fine motor movement on the right side, and has remained seizure free. This is the first documented case of L-asparaginase induced haemorrhagic stroke managed by neurosurgical intervention. The authors emphasise the possible role of surgery in managing chemotherapy induced intracranial complications. PMID:22605598

  9. [Meteorological observations concerning haemorrhages after tonsillectomy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Dubs, R; Primault, B

    1975-09-01

    Based on the observation of 929 patients who had to be subjected to tonsillectomy within a period of twelve months, the authors concluded that the vast majority of post operative haemorrhages occurred during the beginning of a good weather period (clearing from the west), not quite so often during a "Föhn"-period (warm winds from the south). This contrasts somewhat with the observations of other authors who found a connection between haemorrhages and the beginning of a period of bad weather (close and stuffy, increasing humidity, high clouds). The dependence of postoperative haemorrhages on meteorological influences would perhaps give a reason for the hitherto medically unexplainable 40 per cent bleedings. Based on these observations it would be desirable for the meteorologic stations (or the media) to inform the doctors and hospitals about the weather phases.

  10. [Erythrocytes and microvascular tone during acute traumatic haemorrhagic shock].

    PubMed

    Morel, N; Biais, M; Delaunay, F; Dubuisson, V; Cassone, O; Siméon, F; Morel, O; Janvier, G

    2013-05-01

    Haemorrhagic shock remains a leading cause of death in trauma patients. The concept of haematologic damage control is gradually taking place in the management of traumatic haemorrhagic shock. It is based primarily on the early implementation of a quality blood transfusion involving erythrocytes, plasmas and platelets transfusion. Red blood cell transfusion is mainly supported by the oxygen carrier properties of erythrocytes. However, it appears that erythrocytes ability to modulate the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) plays a major role in capillary opening and perfusion. Erythrocytes are also actively involved in the processes of hemostasis and coagulation. In this context, it seems difficult to define a threshold of hemoglobin concentration to determine the implementation of a blood transfusion in traumatic haemorrhagic shock.

  11. Haemorrhagic complications of pancreatitis: presentation, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed Central

    Ammori, B. J.; Madan, M.; Alexander, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Massive haemorrhage is an uncommon complication in pancreatitis. Most affected patients suffer from chronic disease with associated pseudocyst. We present five patients (four male) with a mean age of 41 years (range 34-48 years). All patients had alcohol-induced pancreatitis complicated either by haematemesis (3), intraperitoneal haemorrhage (1) or both haematemesis and intraperitoneal haemorrhage (1). Source of bleeding was pseudocyst wall (2), splenic artery pseudoaneurysm (2) and splenic artery rupture (1). Distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy was performed in two patients, intracystic ligation and drainage in two, and packing with subsequent external drainage in one. Rebleeding occurred in two patients and required subsequent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy in one; the other patient died of splenic rupture. No rebleeding and no mortality occurred after resection. Primary pancreatic resection is recommended whenever possible. Other management options include embolisation and ligation. Images Figure 1 PMID:9849330

  12. Dengue haemorrhagic fever in Cuba. II. Clinical investigations.

    PubMed

    Guzman, M G; Kouri, G P; Bravo, J; Soler, M; Vazquez, S; Santos, M; Villaescusa, R; Basanta, P; Indan, G; Ballester, J M

    1984-01-01

    Clinical and serological studies were carried out on 114 patients admitted to hospital in Havana, Cuba with Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DHF/DSS). Serological confirmation of dengue was obtained in 90% of cases, with 5% of cases primary and 95% secondary. Fever, haemorrhagic manifestations, vomiting and headache were the most frequent signs and symptoms. Among haemorrhagic manifestations, petechiae and vaginal bleeding were reported in a larger number of patients. 21 patients presented shock and, of these, 20 were secondary infections. The disease appeared more frequently in white persons and in women. The aetiopathogenicity of the syndromes is discussed. 95% of the cases could be explained on the basis of the secondary infection hypothesis.

  13. Genome of turbot rhabdovirus exhibits unusual non-coding regions and an additional ORF that could be expressed in fish cell.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ruo-Lin; Lei, Xiao-Ying; Ke, Fei; Yuan, Xiu-Ping; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2011-02-01

    Genomic sequence of Scophthalmus maximus rhabdovirus (SMRV) isolated from diseased turbot has been characterized. The complete genome of SMRV comprises 11,492 nucleotides and encodes five typical rhabdovirus genes N, P, M, G and L. In addition, two open reading frames (ORF) are predicted overlapping with P gene, one upstream of P and smaller than P (temporarily called Ps), and another in P gene which may encodes a protein similar to the vesicular stomatitis virus C protein. The C ORF is contained within the P ORF. The five typical proteins share the highest sequence identities (48.9%) with the corresponding proteins of rhabdoviruses in genus Vesiculovirus. Phylogenetic analysis of partial L protein sequence indicates that SMRV is close to genus Vesiculovirus. The first 13 nucleotides at the ends of the SMRV genome are absolutely inverse complementarity. The gene junctions between the five genes show conserved polyadenylation signal (CATGA(7)) and intergenic dinucleotide (CT) followed by putative transcription initiation sequence A(A/G)(C/G)A(A/G/T), which are different from known rhabdoviruses. The entire Ps ORF was cloned and expressed, and used to generate polyclonal antibody in mice. One obvious band could be detected in SMRV-infected carp leucocyte cells (CLCs) by anti-Ps/C serum via Western blot, and the subcellular localization of Ps-GFP fusion protein exhibited cytoplasm distribution as multiple punctuate or doughnut shaped foci of uneven size.

  14. Fatal cerebral haemorrhage in a hypertensive seven-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Brandtner, Herwig; Monticelli, Fabio C; Meyer, Harald J; Biebl, Ariane; Budka, Herbert

    2016-09-01

    A seven-year-old boy died from autopsy-proven brain haemorrhage due to hypertensive vasculopathy. This emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and therapy of hypertension in children. Brain haemorrhage is a potentially fatal complication of paediatric hypertension.

  15. The collagen-binding protein of Streptococcus mutans is involved in haemorrhagic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Kazuhiko; Hokamura, Kazuya; Taniguchi, Naho; Wada, Koichiro; Kudo, Chiho; Nomura, Ryota; Kojima, Ayuchi; Naka, Shuhei; Muranaka, Yoshinori; Thura, Min; Nakajima, Atsushi; Masuda, Katsuhiko; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Speziale, Pietro; Shimada, Nobumitsu; Amano, Atsuo; Kamisaki, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Tokutaro; Umemura, Kazuo; Ooshima, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Although several risk factors for stroke have been identified, one-third remain unexplained. Here we show that infection with Streptococcus mutans expressing collagen-binding protein (CBP) is a potential risk factor for haemorrhagic stroke. Infection with serotype k S. mutans, but not a standard strain, aggravates cerebral haemorrhage in mice. Serotype k S. mutans accumulates in the damaged, but not the contralateral hemisphere, indicating an interaction of bacteria with injured blood vessels. The most important factor for high-virulence is expression of CBP, which is a common property of most serotype k strains. The detection frequency of CBP-expressing S. mutans in haemorrhagic stroke patients is significantly higher than in control subjects. Strains isolated from haemorrhagic stroke patients aggravate haemorrhage in a mouse model, indicating that they are haemorrhagic stroke-associated. Administration of recombinant CBP causes aggravation of haemorrhage. Our data suggest that CBP of S. mutans is directly involved in haemorrhagic stroke. PMID:21952219

  16. Fatal cerebral haemorrhage in a hypertensive seven-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Brandtner, Herwig; Monticelli, Fabio C; Meyer, Harald J; Biebl, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    A seven-year-old boy died from autopsy-proven brain haemorrhage due to hypertensive vasculopathy. This emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and therapy of hypertension in children. Brain haemorrhage is a potentially fatal complication of paediatric hypertension.

  17. Periventricular intraparenchymal cerebral haemorrhage in preterm infants: the role of venous infarction.

    PubMed

    Gould, S J; Howard, S; Hope, P L; Reynolds, E O

    1987-03-01

    Haemorrhage into cerebral parenchymal tissue supero-lateral to the angles of the lateral ventricles is a major cause of death and disability in preterm infants. It is frequently associated with germinal layer and intraventricular haemorrhage but the mechanism by which parenchymal haemorrhage occurs is uncertain. Recent studies have suggested that it is due to bleeding into tissue previously damaged by ischaemia following cerebral hypoperfusion. We have studied 68 preterm infant brains, of which four contained early intraparenchymal haemorrhage supero-lateral to the angles of the lateral ventricles which were associated with large germinal layer and intraventricular haemorrhages. The anatomical distribution and histological features of these haemorrhages suggested that they resulted from venous infarction and that the venous drainage of the periventricular tissues had been obstructed by the germinal layer haemorrhages. In these four infants, bleeding into parenchymal tissues could be regarded as a complication of germinal layer and intraventricular haemorrhage rather than of cerebral hypoperfusion.

  18. Thermal inactivation of rabies and other rhabdoviruses: stabilization by the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid at physiological temperatures.

    PubMed

    Michalski, F; Parks, N F; Sokol, F; Clark, H F

    1976-07-01

    Thermal inactivation of rabies and several other rhabdoviruses was studied using virus suspended in several different diluents. Rabies serogroup viruses were more stable than Kern Canyon or vesicular stomatitis viruses. Limited studies of two fish rhabdoviruses requiring low temperatures (less than 33 C) for replication indicated that they were not markedly more thermolabile than rabies virus. Bovine serum protein components in complex cell culture media stabilized virus at 56 C, but at temperatures of less than or equal to 37 C, sodium tris (hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane (NT) buffer containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (NTE) was a much more efficient stabilizer of virus infectivity. Chelating agents EDTA and ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)tetraacetic acid were equally efficient in protection of rabies virus infectivity; the effect of each was lost when excess Ca2+ was added. Bovine serum in NT or NTE buffers produced a thermostabilizing effect at 37 C not provided by the same serum concentration in complex cell culture media. Bovine serum was more efficient than EDTA in stabilizing virus infectivity during repeated cycles of freezing and thawing. PMID:181323

  19. A new NOTCH3 mutation presenting as primary intracerebral haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Pradotto, Luca; Orsi, Laura; Daniele, Dino; Caroppo, Paola; Lauro, Danilo; Milesi, Alessandra; Sellitti, Luigi; Mauro, Alessandro

    2012-04-15

    Primary intracerebral haemorrhages (PICH) are defined as haemorrhages within the brain parenchyma in the absence of readily identifiable causes. CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy) is a hereditary vascular disease and its mainly clinical manifestations are early-onset infarcts. Spontaneous lobar haematomas are a rare occurrence. We report a very unusual presentation of CADASIL in a 65 year-old man carrying a new NOTCH3 mutation. The clinical onset of the disease was related to an intracerebral haematoma following colon surgery and causing a delirium. In brief, our report suggests that CADASIL must be considered in patient with PICH. PMID:22206696

  20. Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) outbreak in Calcutta--1990.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, N; Mukherjee, K K; Chakravarti, S K; Mukherjee, M K; De, P N; Sengupta, M; Banik, G B; Bhowmick, P; Sinha, S K; Chakraborty, M S

    1993-03-01

    An outbreak of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) occurred in Calcutta between September and December, 1990. Children and young adults were the major victims. Haemorrhagic manifestations and shocks were the main features in most of the hospitalised cases. Five mouse pathogenic agents were isolated from 105 acute cases and all were identified as DEN-3. HI and CF test with 55 paired sera revealed evidence of dengue infection in 33 (60 per cent) and flavivirus group reaction including dengue in 17 (30.9 per cent). It was for the first time, that DEN-3 was considered to be the etiologic agent for DHF in Calcutta.

  1. Haemorrhagic Lumbar Juxtafacet Cyst with Ligamentum Flavum Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Ghent, Finn; Davidson, Trent; Mobbs, Ralph Jasper

    2014-01-01

    Juxtafacet cysts are an uncommon cause of radiculopathy. They occur most frequently in the lumbar region, and their distribution across the spine correlates with mobility. Haemorrhagic complications are rare and may occur in the absence of any provocation, although there is some association with anticoagulation and trauma. We present a case of acute radiculopathy due to an L5/S1 juxtafacet cyst with unprovoked haemorrhage which was found to extend into ligamentum flavum. The patient underwent uncomplicated microscope assisted decompression with excellent results. The demographics, presentation, aetiology, and management of juxtafacet cysts are discussed. PMID:25580330

  2. Study of a viral-dual infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by seroneutralization, western blot and polymerase chain reaction assays.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, S; Vilas, M P; Alonso, M; Pérez, S I

    1995-12-01

    Viral-dual infections in fish are of interest to aquaculture practices but they are rarely described and studied. Several methods were applied in this work to demonstrate a case of coinfection in a reared rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population. Inoculation in cell cultures and cross-neutralization tests were the standard procedures that made it possible to isolate and identify a birnavirus, the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), and suspect of a second virus. Western blotting with both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, and reverse transcriptional-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrate coexistence of both, IPNV and a rhabdovirus.

  3. Emerging and re-emerging viral infections in Europe.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Agostino; Beltramo, Tiziana; Torre, Donato

    2007-01-01

    Emerging viral infections are becoming a serious problem in Europe in the recent years. This is particularly true for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), West Nile virus (WNV) disease, Toscana virus (TOSV) disease, and potentially for avian influenza virus (H5N1). In contrast, emergence or re-emergence of severe viral infections, including tick borne encephalitis virus, and viral haemorrhagic fever caused by Hantavirus and dengue virus have been frequently reported in several European countries. Laboratory diagnosis of these viral infections based on viral isolation or detection by immune electron microscopy, immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has dramatically improved in the recent years, and SARS represents a good example of a diagnostic approach to emerging viral infections. Finally, old and new promising agents are in the pipeline of pharmaceutical companies to treat emerging viral infections. However only prevention based on large epidemiological studies, and research and development of new vaccines may be able to control and eventually eradicate these deadly viral infections.

  4. Electron and immunoelectron microscopy of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV).

    PubMed

    Valícek, L; Smíd, B; Rodák, L; Kudrna, J

    1990-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) had a calicivirus-like structure and a diameter of 31.5-33.0 nm. Antigenic relationship between the investigated RHDV strain and the causal agent of RHD in China was demonstrated by immunoelectron microscopy.

  5. Immunoelectron microscopy of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Valícek, L; Smíd, B; Rodák, L

    1992-12-01

    Five monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), prepared and tested in ELISA, immunoperoxidase (IP) and immunofluorescence (IF) test previously, reacted specifically in immunoelectron microscopy (IEM), too. No differences in binding of individual MoAbs with full or empty RHDV particles were found by IEM.

  6. Intestinal haemorrhage in Antarctica. A multinational rescue operation.

    PubMed

    Podkolinski, M T; Semmens, K

    1979-09-22

    Three nations cooperated in the aerial evacuation from an Australian Antarctic station of a patient with gastrointestinal haemorrhage, after conservative treatment. The combined operation is described, and reference is made to the difficulties in medical management arising from polar isolation. Attention is drawn to logistic improvements which would alleviate this situation.

  7. Delayed haemorrhage in conservative surgery for ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rachagan, S P; Neoh, H S

    1990-03-01

    A case of delayed haemorrhage after conservative surgery for ectopic pregnancy is presented. Brief pathophysiology of the condition is presented. The importance of beta-subunit human chorionic gonadotrophin monitoring of the serum in this patient is highlighted. Surgical procedures to prevent this complication are also discussed.

  8. Breathing-Impaired Speech after Brain Haemorrhage: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heselwood, Barry

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented from an auditory and acoustic analysis of the speech of an adult male with impaired prosody and articulation due to brain haemorrhage. They show marked effects on phonation, speech rate and articulator velocity, and a speech rhythm disrupted by "intrusive" stresses. These effects are discussed in relation to the speaker's…

  9. Enhanced arbovirus surveillance with deep sequencing: identification of novel rhabdoviruses and bunyaviruses in Australian mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Lark L.; Page, Brady L.; Greninger, Alexander L.; Herring, Belinda L.; Russell, Richard C.; Doggett, Stephen L.; Haniotis, John; Wang, Chunlin; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Viral metagenomics characterizes known and identifies unknown viruses based on sequence similarities to any previously sequenced viral genomes. A metagenomics approach was used to identify virus sequences in Australian mosquitoes causing cytopathic effects in inoculated mammalian cell cultures. Sequence comparisons revealed strains of Liao Ning virus (Reovirus, Seadornavirus), previously detected only in China, livestock-infecting Stretch Lagoon virus (Reovirus, Orbivirus), two novel dimarhabdoviruses, named Beaumont and North Creek viruses, and two novel orthobunyaviruses, named Murrumbidgee and Salt Ash viruses. The novel virus proteomes diverged by ≥50% relative to their closest previously genetically characterized viral relatives. Deep sequencing also generated genomes of Warrego and Wallal viruses, orbiviruses linked to kangaroo blindness, whose genomes had not been fully characterized. This study highlights viral metagenomics in concert with traditional arbovirus surveillance to characterize known and new arboviruses in field-collected mosquitoes. Follow-up epidemiological studies are required to determine whether the novel viruses infect humans. PMID:24314645

  10. Enhanced arbovirus surveillance with deep sequencing: Identification of novel rhabdoviruses and bunyaviruses in Australian mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Lark L; Page, Brady L; Greninger, Alexander L; Herring, Belinda L; Russell, Richard C; Doggett, Stephen L; Haniotis, John; Wang, Chunlin; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric L

    2014-01-01

    Viral metagenomics characterizes known and identifies unknown viruses based on sequence similarities to any previously sequenced viral genomes. A metagenomics approach was used to identify virus sequences in Australian mosquitoes causing cytopathic effects in inoculated mammalian cell cultures. Sequence comparisons revealed strains of Liao Ning virus (Reovirus, Seadornavirus), previously detected only in China, livestock-infecting Stretch Lagoon virus (Reovirus, Orbivirus), two novel dimarhabdoviruses, named Beaumont and North Creek viruses, and two novel orthobunyaviruses, named Murrumbidgee and Salt Ash viruses. The novel virus proteomes diverged by ≥ 50% relative to their closest previously genetically characterized viral relatives. Deep sequencing also generated genomes of Warrego and Wallal viruses, orbiviruses linked to kangaroo blindness, whose genomes had not been fully characterized. This study highlights viral metagenomics in concert with traditional arbovirus surveillance to characterize known and new arboviruses in field-collected mosquitoes. Follow-up epidemiological studies are required to determine whether the novel viruses infect humans. PMID:24314645

  11. Enhanced arbovirus surveillance with deep sequencing: Identification of novel rhabdoviruses and bunyaviruses in Australian mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Lark L; Page, Brady L; Greninger, Alexander L; Herring, Belinda L; Russell, Richard C; Doggett, Stephen L; Haniotis, John; Wang, Chunlin; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric L

    2014-01-01

    Viral metagenomics characterizes known and identifies unknown viruses based on sequence similarities to any previously sequenced viral genomes. A metagenomics approach was used to identify virus sequences in Australian mosquitoes causing cytopathic effects in inoculated mammalian cell cultures. Sequence comparisons revealed strains of Liao Ning virus (Reovirus, Seadornavirus), previously detected only in China, livestock-infecting Stretch Lagoon virus (Reovirus, Orbivirus), two novel dimarhabdoviruses, named Beaumont and North Creek viruses, and two novel orthobunyaviruses, named Murrumbidgee and Salt Ash viruses. The novel virus proteomes diverged by ≥ 50% relative to their closest previously genetically characterized viral relatives. Deep sequencing also generated genomes of Warrego and Wallal viruses, orbiviruses linked to kangaroo blindness, whose genomes had not been fully characterized. This study highlights viral metagenomics in concert with traditional arbovirus surveillance to characterize known and new arboviruses in field-collected mosquitoes. Follow-up epidemiological studies are required to determine whether the novel viruses infect humans.

  12. Haemorrhagic smolt syndrome (HSS) in Norway: pathology and associated virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Nylund, A; Plarre, H; Hodneland, K; Devold, M; Aspehaug, V; Aarseth, M; Koren, C; Watanabe, K

    2003-03-17

    Atlantic salmon Salmo salar pre-smolt, smolt and post-smolt, with clinical signs of haemorrhagic smolt syndrome (HSS) have been found in several locations along the Norwegian coast (Rogaland to Troms). Affected fish had pale gills and bleeding at the fin bases, but seemed to be in good physical condition with no obvious weight loss. The internal organs and body cavity showed distinct bleedings. Petechiae were found on the gastrointestinal tract, swim bladder and peritoneum, visceral adipose tissue, heart and somatic musculature. The liver was bright yellow and sometimes mottled with petechiae and ecchymoses. Acitic fluid was found in the visceral cavity and fluid was also present in the pericardial cavity. Histological examination revealed haemorrhage in most organs. The glomeruli were degenerated and the renal tubules were filled with erythrocytes. The aims of this study were to describe the pathology and discover, if possible, the aetiology of the HSS. Tissues were collected for light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunofluorescence (IFAT), reverse transcription (RT)-PCR diagnostics (screening for infectious salmon anaemia virus [ISAV], viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus [VHSV], salmon pancreas disease virus [SPDV], sleeping disease virus [SDV] and infectious haematopoetic necrosis virus [IHNV]), and tissue homogenates (heart, liver, kidney and spleen) were sterile-filtered and inoculated into cell cultures. Homogenates made from several tissues were also injected intraperitoneally into salmon and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The diagnostic tests revealed no consistent findings of any pathogens, with the exception of TEM which showed 2 types of virus-like particles: Type I was 50 to 60 nm in diameter and Type II about 50 nm in diameter. These virus-like particles were found in salmon from all farms affected by HSS and screened by TEM. Several different cells, blood vessel endothelial cells, endocardial cells, heart myofibres, and leukocytes

  13. Adrenal crisis secondary to bilateral adrenal haemorrhage after hemicolectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Venessa H M; Kabir, Shahrir; Ip, Julian C Y

    2016-01-01

    Summary Adrenal haemorrhage is a rare cause of adrenal crisis, which requires rapid diagnosis, prompt initiation of parenteral hydrocortisone and haemodynamic monitoring to avoid hypotensive crises. We herein describe a case of bilateral adrenal haemorrhage after hemicolectomy in a 93-year-old female with high-grade colonic adenocarcinoma. This patient’s post-operative recovery was complicated by an acute hypotensive episode, hypoglycaemia and syncope, and subsequent computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. Given her labile blood pressure, intravenous hydrocortisone was commenced with rapid improvement of blood pressure, which had incompletely responded with fluids. A provisional diagnosis of hypocortisolism was made. Initial heparin-induced thrombocytopenic screen (HITTS) was positive, but platelet count and coagulation profile were both normal. The patient suffered a concurrent transient ischaemic attack with no neurological deficits. She was discharged on a reducing dose of oral steroids with normal serum cortisol levels at the time of discharge. She and her family were educated about lifelong steroids and the use of parenteral steroids should a hypoadrenal crisis eventuate. Learning points: Adrenal haemorrhage is a rare cause of hypoadrenalism, and thus requires prompt diagnosis and management to prevent death from primary adrenocortical insufficiency. Mechanisms of adrenal haemorrhage include reduced adrenal vascular bed capillary resistance, adrenal vein thrombosis, catecholamine-related increased adrenal blood flow and adrenal vein spasm. Standard diagnostic assessment is a non-contrast CT abdomen. Intravenous hydrocortisone and intravenous substitution of fluids are the initial management. A formal diagnosis of primary adrenal insufficiency should never delay treatment, but should be made afterwards.

  14. Ngaingan virus, a macropod-associated rhabdovirus, contains a second glycoprotein gene and seven novel open reading frames.

    PubMed

    Gubala, Aneta; Davis, Steven; Weir, Richard; Melville, Lorna; Cowled, Chris; Walker, Peter; Boyle, David

    2010-03-30

    Ngaingan virus (NGAV) was isolated from a pool of biting midges that were collected in the tropics of northern Australia. Reported here is the full-length sequence of the NGAV genome, which, at over 15.7 kb, is the largest in any rhabdovirus described to date and contains 13 genes, the highest number of genes observed in any (-) ssRNA virus. Seven of these putative genes show no significant homology to known proteins. Like viruses in the genus Ephemerovirus, NGAV possesses a second glycoprotein gene (G(NS)). Phylogenetic analyses, however, place NGAV within the yet to be classified "Hart Park" group containing Wongabel and Flanders viruses, which do not contain a second glycoprotein gene. Screening of various animal sera from northern Australia has indicated that NGAV is currently circulating in macropods (wallabies, wallaroos and kangaroos), highlighting the need for further studies to determine its potential to cause disease in these species.

  15. Evolution of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), a fish rhabdovirus, in Europe over 20 years: implications for control.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Peter-Joachim; Castric, Jeannette; Bovo, Giuseppe; Thiery, Richard; Fichtner, Dieter; Schütze, Heike; Wahli, Thomas

    2010-02-24

    The fish pathogenic rhabdovirus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes substantial losses in European aquaculture. IHNV was first detected in Europe in 1987 and has since undergone considerable spread. Phylogenetic analyses of the full G-gene sequences of 73 isolates obtained from 4 countries in Europe (France, n = 18; Italy, 9; Switzerland, 4; Germany, 42) enable determination of the evolution of the virus in Europe since the first detection, and identification of characteristic changes within the G-genes of European strains. Further, the database allows us to analyse the pathways of distribution in Europe over time. The results suggest that in most of the recent cases, spread of IHNV was related to trade of infected fish. The data further demonstrate that knowledge of the sequence is required to determine the source of infections in farms.

  16. Viral Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Haeman; Boltz, David A.; Webster, Robert G.; Smeyne, Richard Jay

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a debilitating neurological disorder characterized that affects 1-2% of the adult population over 55 years of age. For the vast majority of cases, the etiology of this disorder is unknown, although it is generally accepted that there is a genetic susceptibility to any number of environmental agents. One such agent may be viruses. It has been shown that numerous viruses can enter the nervous system, i.e. they are neurotropic, and induce a number of encephalopathies. One of the secondary consequences of these encephalopathies can be parkinsonism, that is both transient as well as permanent. One of the most highlighted and controversial cases of viral parkinsonism is that which followed the 1918 influenza outbreak and the subsequent induction of von Economo's encephalopathy. In this review, we discuss the neurological sequelae of infection by influenza virus as well as that of other viruses known to induce parkinsonism including Coxsackie, Japanese encephalitis B, St. Louis, West Nile and HIV viruses. PMID:18760350

  17. Viral evolution

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Arshan; Kim, Kyung Mo; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Explaining the origin of viruses remains an important challenge for evolutionary biology. Previous explanatory frameworks described viruses as founders of cellular life, as parasitic reductive products of ancient cellular organisms or as escapees of modern genomes. Each of these frameworks endow viruses with distinct molecular, cellular, dynamic and emergent properties that carry broad and important implications for many disciplines, including biology, ecology and epidemiology. In a recent genome-wide structural phylogenomic analysis, we have shown that large-to-medium-sized viruses coevolved with cellular ancestors and have chosen the evolutionary reductive route. Here we interpret these results and provide a parsimonious hypothesis for the origin of viruses that is supported by molecular data and objective evolutionary bioinformatic approaches. Results suggest two important phases in the evolution of viruses: (1) origin from primordial cells and coexistence with cellular ancestors, and (2) prolonged pressure of genome reduction and relatively late adaptation to the parasitic lifestyle once virions and diversified cellular life took over the planet. Under this evolutionary model, new viral lineages can evolve from existing cellular parasites and enhance the diversity of the world’s virosphere. PMID:23550145

  18. Viral hepatitis*

    PubMed Central

    Deinhardt, F.; Gust, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Three forms of viral hepatitis can be recognized: hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis non-A, non-B. Hepatitis A is caused by a picornavirus, is transmitted by the faceal—oral route, does not become chronic, and no chronic virus carriers exist. The virus can be grown in cell cultures, and killed as well as live attenuated virus vaccines are under development. Hepatitis B is caused by an enveloped virus containing a circular, double-stranded form of DNA. The disease is transmitted parenterally through inoculation of blood or blood products containing virus or through close personal contact with a virus-positive person. Hepatitis B becomes chronic in a certain number of cases and can lead to cirrhosis and primary liver cell carcinoma. The blood and certain body secretions of individuals with a persistent or chronic infection may remain infectious for many years. The hepatitis B virus cannot be grown in cell cultures but the entire genome has been sequenced and cloned in bacterial and eukaryotic cells. An inactivated virus vaccine has been prepared from hepatitis B surface antigen present in the plasma of hepatitis B virus carriers and further vaccines are under development. The agents of hepatitis non-A, non-B have not been identified. It is possible to distinguish between a predominantly parenterally transmitted and an orally transmitted form of hepatitis non-A, non-B. The latter is reported to be caused by a picornavirus that does not, however, have any antigenic relationship with hepatitis A virus. PMID:6817933

  19. Increased post-operative haemorrhage seen in adult coblation tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Noon, A P; Hargreaves, S

    2003-09-01

    Coblation is a new soft tissue surgical technique that is being used for tonsillectomy. Published results show a significant decrease in the amount of post-operative pain experienced by patients undergoing coblation tonsillectomy. There has been no published work to date on the incidence of post-operative haemorrhage. From August 2001 to November 2002 one surgeon performed 36 coblation tonsillectomies on adults. On another list he performed 29 by his standard method of dissection and bipolar coagulation. Retrospective analysis found a significant increase in the secondary haemorrhage rate in adult patients undergoing coblation tonsillectomy (22.2 vs. 3.4 per cent). At our department coblation tonsillectomy has been abandoned until further work into its safety has been published.

  20. Resuscitation in massive obstetric haemorrhage using an intraosseous needle.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, D J; Bukunola, B; Samuels, T L; Induruwage, L; Uncles, D R

    2011-04-01

    A 38-year-old woman experienced a massive postpartum haemorrhage 30 minutes after emergency caesarean delivery. The patient became severely haemodynamically compromised with an unrecordable blood pressure. Rapid fluid resuscitation was limited by the capacity of the intravenous cannula in place at the time and inability to establish additional vascular access using conventional routes in a timely manner. An intraosseous needle was inserted in the proximal humerus at the first attempt and administration of resuscitation fluid by this route subsequently enabled successful placement of further intravenous lines. Blood and blood products were deployed in conjunction with intra-operative cell salvage and transoesophageal Doppler cardiac output monitoring was used to assess adequacy of volume replacement. Haemorrhage control was finally achieved with the use of recombinant factor VIIa and hysterectomy. PMID:21401545

  1. Bilateral adrenal haemorrhagic infarction in a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Rebecca Louise; Clark, James; Field, Benjamin

    2014-11-19

    A 68-year-old woman with antiphospholipid syndrome presented with a 3-day history of bilateral loin pain, vomiting, fever and confusion. On examination she was febrile, hypotensive and tachycardic. Investigations revealed raised inflammatory markers, renal impairment and hyponatraemia. Abdominal ultrasound revealed two well-defined heterogeneous areas bilaterally in the region of the adrenal glands. This prompted serum cortisol measurement and a CT of the abdomen. Cortisol was low in the context of sepsis at 48 nmol/L, and CT confirmed bilateral heterogeneous adrenal pathology. The patient was managed for septic shock and adrenal insufficiency. She was recognised to have several risk factors for haemorrhagic infarction of the adrenals: antiphospholipid syndrome, sepsis, postoperative state and anticoagulant therapy. She was discharged well on glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid therapy and a repeat CT at 4 weeks confirmed the diagnosis of bilateral adrenal infarct and haemorrhage.

  2. Dengue haemorrhagic fever integral hypothesis: confirming observations, 1987-2007.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Maria G; Kouri, Gustavo

    2008-06-01

    In 1987, Kouri et al. published in Transactions their integral hypothesis to explain the development of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) epidemics (Kouri, G.P., Guzmán, M.G., Bravo, J.R., 1987. Why dengue haemorrhagic fever in Cuba? 2. An integral analysis. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 81, 821-823). Based on observations carried out during the 1981 Cuban DHF epidemic, the authors integrated in one model the most advanced knowledge at that time. Observations in the last 20 years confirm the importance of this multifactorial and unifying view of the problem, where the interaction between the host, the virus and the vector in an epidemiological and ecosystem setting might determine DHF as a final outcome. Investigations on the interaction among host, virus and mosquito with an ecosystemic view are needed.

  3. Detection and localization of internal haemorrhaging using electrical bioimpedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, J.; Fenech, M.

    2013-04-01

    Electrical bioimpedance is an effective measuring tool to provide quick, non-invasive, real-time results which will be applied to the detection of internal haemorrhaging. Experiments were performed on female Fancy Rats weighing 333±44g, and 10mL of porcine blood was injected abdominally over 3 minutes. Data was collected using an 8×8 needle electrode array at 5 kHz, and 95 kHz and sent to the BioParHom Z-Flow. A strong correlation was found between the electrode paths crossing directly through the blood injection site, showing a decrease of about -0.17±0.1Ω/mL for the 5 kHz frequency. This correlation allows us to quickly detect internal haemorrhaging and also localize it with the current path set-up in the electrode array.

  4. Blood products and their use in traumatic major haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Deveau, Simon Ross

    2016-02-01

    Blood loss due to trauma is a leading cause of death in young people and is the result of the 'lethal triad' of hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy, which collectively reduce haemostasis. Emergency department nurses can help to reverse the triad through the timely and efficient use of blood products and fluids. This article briefly examines different blood groups, describes the elements of the lethal triad, and discusses the blood products used to transfuse patients with major haemorrhage. PMID:26853674

  5. Spontaneous subdural haemorrhage in a patient with scleroderma renal crisis

    PubMed Central

    Bhangoo, Munveer Singh; Hein, Paul; Nicholson, Laura; Carter, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman with a history of systemic sclerosis presented with new onset seizures and renal failure. The patient's history, laboratory data and pathology supported the diagnosis of scleroderma renal crisis. The patient was also noted to have a subdural haemorrhage (SDH) in the absence of trauma. This is the first report of scleroderma renal crisis associated with a spontaneous SDH. PMID:25193814

  6. Surgical Trial in Lobar Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH II) Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Within the spectrum of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage there are some patients with large or space occupying haemorrhage who require surgery for neurological deterioration and others with small haematomas who should be managed conservatively. There is equipoise about the management of patients between these two extremes. In particular there is some evidence that patients with lobar haematomas and no intraventricular haemorrhage might benefit from haematoma evacuation. The STICH II study will establish whether a policy of earlier surgical evacuation of the haematoma in selected patients will improve outcome compared to a policy of initial conservative treatment. Methods/Design an international multicentre randomised parallel group trial. Only patients for whom the treating neurosurgeon is in equipoise about the benefits of early craniotomy compared to initial conservative treatment are eligible. All patients must have a CT scan confirming spontaneous lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (≤1 cm from the cortex surface of the brain and 10-100 ml in volume). Any clotting or coagulation problems must be corrected and randomisation must take place within 48 hours of ictus. With 600 patients, the study will be able to demonstrate a 12% benefit from surgery (2p < 0.05) with 80% power. Stratified randomisation is undertaken using a central 24 hour randomisation service accessed by telephone or web. Patients randomised to early surgery should have the operation within 12 hours. Information about the status (Glasgow Coma Score and focal signs) of all patients through the first five days of their trial progress is also collected in addition to another CT scan at about five days (+/- 2 days). Outcome is measured at six months via a postal questionnaire to the patient. Primary outcome is death or severe disability defined using a prognosis based 8 point Glasgow Outcome Scale. Secondary outcomes include: Mortality, Rankin, Barthel, EuroQol, and Survival. Trial

  7. First detection of pike fry-like rhabdovirus in barbel and spring viraemia of carp virus in sturgeon and pike in aquaculture in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vicenova, Monika; Reschova, Stanislava; Pokorova, Dagmar; Hulova, Jana; Vesely, Tomas

    2011-06-16

    Rapid antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing of cell cultures with organ homogenate from fish, collected from farms with a predominance of common carp or in natural aquaculture in the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2008, identified piscine vesiculovirus in 27 of 178 samples. Using reverse transcription semi-nested PCR, targeting a 550 nucleotide region of the glycoprotein (G) gene, piscine vesiculovirus was confirmed in 23 of the 27 organ samples diagnosed by ELISA as infected. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from 18 isolates from common carp Cyprinus carpio (family Cyprinidae), 2 isolates from northern pike Esox lucius (family Esocidae), and 1 isolate each from Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii (family Acipenseridae), common barbel Barbus barbus (family Cyprinidae), and koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi (family Cyprinidae). The sequences (based on 401 nucleotides) clustered into 2 genogroups. The majority of isolates (n = 22), including those from sturgeon and pike, grouped with the spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) Genogroup I and Subgroup Id. The 22 isolates could be further subdivided into 2 groups: Id1 (n = 20) and Id2 (n = 2). A marker (a non-conservative nucleotide substitution) for the Id1 SVCV group was identified. It was specifically found in all sequences of Id1 isolates when testing SVCV originating from different countries. The remaining isolate from barbel, was classified in the pike fry-like rhabdovirus Genogroup IV. This is the first confirmation of natural SVCV infection in sturgeon and pike, and pike fry-like rhabdovirus infection in barbel. In the case of the pike fry-like rhabdovirus, this is also its first identification in the Czech Republic. According to the presence/absence of evident clinical signs of rhabdoviral disease in the 3 infected hosts, only the sturgeon seemed to be susceptible to the monitored rhabdovirus.

  8. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Maize mosaic rhabdovirus-infected gut tissues of Peregrinus maidis reveals the presence of key components of insect innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, A E; Rotenberg, D; Aritua, V; Hogenhout, S A

    2011-04-01

    The corn planthopper, Peregrinus maidis, causes direct feeding damage to plants and transmits Maize mosaic rhabdovirus (MMV) in a persistent-propagative manner. MMV must cross several insect tissue layers for successful transmission to occur, and the gut serves as an important barrier for rhabdovirus transmission. In order to facilitate the identification of proteins that may interact with MMV either by facilitating acquisition or responding to virus infection, we generated and analysed the gut transcriptome of P. maidis. From two normalized cDNA libraries, we generated a P. maidis gut transcriptome composed of 20,771 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Assembly of the sequences yielded 1860 contigs and 14,032 singletons, and biological roles were assigned to 5793 (36%). Comparison of P. maidis ESTs with other insect amino acid sequences revealed that P. maidis shares greatest sequence similarity with another hemipteran, the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. We identified 202 P. maidis transcripts with putative homology to proteins associated with insect innate immunity, including those implicated in the Toll, Imd, JAK/STAT, Jnk and the small-interfering RNA-mediated pathways. Sequence comparisons between our P. maidis gut EST collection and the currently available National Center for Biotechnology Information EST database collection for Ni. lugens revealed that a pathogen recognition receptor in the Imd pathway, peptidoglycan recognition protein-long class (PGRP-LC), is present in these two members of the family Delphacidae; however, these recognition receptors are lacking in the model hemipteran Acyrthosiphon pisum. In addition, we identified sequences in the P. maidis gut transcriptome that share significant amino acid sequence similarities with the rhabdovirus receptor molecule, acetylcholine receptor (AChR), found in other hosts. This EST analysis sheds new light on immune response pathways in hemipteran guts that will be useful for further dissecting innate

  9. Viral diseases of wild and farmed European eel Anguilla anguilla with particular reference to the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Beurden, Steven J; Engelsma, Marc Y; Roozenburg, Ineke; Voorbergen-Laarman, Michal A; van Tulden, Peter W; Kerkhoff, Sonja; van Nieuwstadt, Anton P; Davidse, Aart; Haenen, Olga L M

    2012-10-10

    Diseases are an important cause of losses and decreased production rates in freshwater eel farming, and have been suggested to play a contributory role in the worldwide decline in wild freshwater eel stocks. Three commonly detected pathogenic viruses of European eel Anguilla anguilla are the aquabirnavirus eel virus European (EVE), the rhabdovirus eel virus European X (EVEX), and the alloherpesvirus anguillid herpesvirus 1 (AngHV1). In general, all 3 viruses cause a nonspecific haemorrhagic disease with increased mortality rates. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the aetiology, prevalence, clinical signs and gross pathology of these 3 viruses. Reported experimental infections showed the temperature dependency and potential pathogenicity of these viruses for eels and other fish species. In addition to the published literature, an overview of the isolation of pathogenic viruses from wild and farmed A. anguilla in the Netherlands during the past 2 decades is given. A total of 249 wild A. anguilla, 39 batches of glass eels intended for farming purposes, and 239 batches of farmed European eels were necropsied and examined virologically. AngHV1 was isolated from wild yellow and silver A. anguilla from the Netherlands from 1998 until the present, while EVEX was only found sporadically, and EVE was never isolated. In farmed A. anguilla AngHV1 was also the most commonly isolated virus, followed by EVE and EVEX.

  10. Pathology of goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus infection in goose embryos.

    PubMed

    Bernáth, Sándor; Farsang, Attila; Kovács, Andrea; Nagy, Edith; Dobos-Kovács, Mihály

    2006-02-01

    Goose embryos were infected with goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV) onto the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) in order to examine the effect of GHPV on the embryos and to obtain data on whether embryos could develop into infected, virus-shedding goslings, as well as to present an accurate biological method for virus titration. The reported method of infection could offer a possibility to express the virus titre as the median embryo infective dose (EID(50)). As a special pathological feature of the disease, extensive cerebral haemorrhages were observed, which protruded the skullcap in many cases. Some embryos infected with 10(1.25) or 10(0.25) EID(50)/0.2 ml were able to hatch; however, they were in poor physical condition and died by post-hatching day 4 showing haemorrhagic nephritis and enteritis of geese. Virus shedding was revealed by polymerase chain reaction. The ability of some of the infected goose embryos to hatch may indicate the potency of GHPV to spread vertically, although this needs further study for confirmation.

  11. Superselective coil embolization in gastrointestinal haemorrhage: early experience.

    PubMed

    Nawawi, O; Young, N; So, S

    2006-02-01

    This is a retrospective study to evaluate our early experience of using selective microcoil embolization in patients who had gastrointestinal (GI) haemorrhage. From December 2002 to December 2003, six patients with GI haemorrhage (upper GI, n = 1; lower GI, n = 5) underwent superselective microcoil embolization. Microcatheters were used to carry out embolizations in branches of the superior mesenteric artery. Microcoils were used in five patients and a combination of microcoils and embolospheres was used in one patient. Technical success (bleeding target devascularization) was achieved in all patients who showed active bleeding at the time of angiography. Two patients had recurrent bleeding within 24 h of embolization, of which one (16.7%) died. The other patient did not require active intervention as bleeding was minimal and resolved with conservative management. Satisfactory clinical success (no rebleeding after 30 days) was achieved in five patients. No clinical signs and symptoms of bowel ischaemia occurred in these patients. Follow-up colonoscopy carried out in two patients did not show any signs of ischaemia in the affected bowel segments. Superselective microcoil embolization is an effective and safe method of controlling and arresting bleeding in GI haemorrhage.

  12. [Dengue haemorrhagic fever in children: ten years of clinical experience].

    PubMed

    Méndez, Angela; González, Gerardo

    2003-06-01

    In Bucaramanga, Colombia, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) has become endemo-epidemic since 1992. A cross-sectional study covering a period of 10 years (February, 1992 to February, 2002) was undertaken in children under 13 years of age hospitalized at the University Hospital. Observations were recorded on the clinical features, laboratory tests and the natural development of the disease. A total of 763 patients were examined, of whom 617 were classified as having DHF according to the WHO criteria (9.1% Grade I, 61.5% Grade II, 21.7% Grade III and 7.5% Grade IV). One hundred forty six patients could not be classified. The highest incidence took place in 1997, 1998 and 2001. Seventy four per cent of patients came from the metropolitan area of Bucaramanga; 48% were males; 0.3%, newborns; 11.8%, infants; 23%, pre-school children, and 64.9%, school children. The most important clinical features were fever and haemorrhagic manifestations (100%); vomiting (60%); abdominal pain (57%); headache (50%); osteomyalgia (40.8%); hepatomegaly (33%), and macular rash (29%). Among the haemorrhagic manifestations we found petechiae (56%); positive tourniquet test (35%); gastrointestinal bleeding (34%), and epistaxis (32%). Serous effusion was found in 17.7% of cases. Alarm signs of shock were found in 29%. Fifty two per cent had leucopenia and 37.3% atypic lymphocytes. Among other unusual manifestations were hepatitis, encephalopathy, alithiasic cholecystitis, acute renal failure, haemophagocytic syndrome and coinfections. Of the 617 cases, 12 died (1.5%).

  13. Healthcare-associated Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Turkey, 2002-2014: a multicentre retrospective cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Leblebicioglu, H; Sunbul, M; Guner, R; Bodur, H; Bulut, C; Duygu, F; Elaldi, N; Cicek Senturk, G; Ozkurt, Z; Yilmaz, G; Fletcher, T E; Beeching, N J

    2016-04-01

    Healthcare-related transmission of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a well-recognized hazard. We report a multicentre retrospective cross-sectional study undertaken in Turkey in 2014 in nine hospitals, regional reference centres for CCHF, covering the years 2002 to 2014 inclusive. Data were systematically extracted from charts of all personnel with a reported health care injury/accident related to CCHF. Blood samples were tested for CCHF IgM/IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or viral nucleic acid detection by PCR after the injury. Fifty-one healthcare-related exposures were identified. Twenty-five (49%) of 51 resulted in laboratory-confirmed infection, with a 16% (4/25) overall mortality. The main route of exposure was needlestick injury in 32/51 (62.7%). A potential benefit of post-exposure prophylaxis with ribavirin was identified. PMID:26806137

  14. High incidence of post-tonsillectomy secondary haemorrhage following coblation tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Praveen, C V; Parthiban, Subashini; Terry, R M

    2013-01-01

    To examine the incidence of haemorrhage following tonsillectomy, to explore the usefulness of antibiotic in preventing postoperative haemorrhage and to examine if the haemorrhage depended on the level of expertise of the surgeon. A retrospective review analysing tonsillectomy method, the rate secondary haemorrhage, the grade of operating surgeon. A χ(2) analysis was used to determine the statistical difference between the haemorrhage rates of different tonsillectomy methods. One thousand three hundred and thirty-six tonsillectomies were performed during this period by four different methods: 615 by cold steel dissection, 582 by Coblation, 32 by bipolar dissection and 107 by Helica thermal coagulation. 621 tonsillectomies were performed by Consultant grade and middle grades performed 693 operations. 124 patients (9.3 %) were readmitted with haemorrhage. The secondary haemorrhage requiring surgery for controlling bleeding for cold steel dissection method was 1.5 % compared to 6.7 % for coblation method (P < 0.01 %), 6.3 % for bipolar dissection and 1.9 % for Helica thermal coagulation method. Overall consultants had a post tonsillectomy haemorrhage rate of 5.5 % and middle grades had a rate of 3.7 %. 86.5 % of the patients were already on routine prophylactic oral antibiotics at the time of presentation with haemorrhage needing surgical arrest and 13.5 % were not on antibiotics (P < 0.05 %). There was statistically significant difference in secondary haemorrhage rate between coblation and cold steel dissection methods. Coblation tonsillectomies had an increased need for operative intervention to control secondary haemorrhage. Routine use of antibiotic and expertise of operating surgeon had no bearing on secondary haemorrhage rate.

  15. Activation of coagulation factor XI, without detectable contact activation in dengue haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    van Gorp, E C; Minnema, M C; Suharti, C; Mairuhu, A T; Brandjes, D P; ten Cate, H; Hack, C E; Meijers, J C

    2001-04-01

    A prospective cohort study was performed in 50 patients with dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) to determine the potential role of the contact activation system and factor XI activation (intrinsic pathway) in the coagulation disorders in DHF. To establish whether TAFI (thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor) was involved in the severity of the coagulation disorders, the TAFI antigen and activity levels were also determined. Markers of contact activation (kallikrein--C1-inhibitor complexes), the intrinsic pathway of coagulation (factor XIa--C1-inhibitor complexes) and TAFI were measured and correlated to thrombin generation markers (thrombin--anti-thrombin complexes (TAT), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2)) and a marker for fibrinolysis [plasmin--alpha 2--anti-plasmin complexes (PAP)]. Activation of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation was clearly demonstrated by elevated levels of factor XIa--C1-inhibitor complexes, without evidence of contact activation, reflected by undetectable kallikrein--C1-inhibitor complexes. Both TAFI antigen and activity levels were decreased in all patients, which may contribute to the severity of bleeding complications in DHF because of the impaired capacity of the coagulation system to protect the fibrin clot from fibrinolysis. These findings in a human viral infection model are in accordance with earlier findings in bacterial sepsis.

  16. Managing Major Postpartum Haemorrhage following Acute Uterine Inversion with Rusch Balloon Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Keriakos, Remon; Chaudhuri, Smriti Ray

    2011-01-01

    Acute postpartum uterine inversion is a relatively rare complication. The uterus inverts and the uterine fundus prolapses to or through the dilated cervix. It is associated with major postpartum haemorrhage with or without shock. Shock is sometimes out of proportion to the haemorrhage. Minimal maternal morbidity and mortality can be achieved when uterine inversion is promptly and aggressively managed. We present this report of three cases of acute uterine inversion complicated with major postpartum haemorrhage and managed with Rusch balloon. The paper highlights the importance of early recognition and the safety of the use of intrauterine balloon to manage major postpartum haemorrhage in these cases. PMID:24826322

  17. Pure sensory stroke from compression of putaminal haemorrhage: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The literature rarely describes putaminal haemorrhage producing pure spinothalamic sensory deficit. Here reports a case of putaminal haemorrhage in which selective impairment of the spinothalamic sensory modality was due to the compression of the hematoma. Case presentation A 57 year old hypertensive man presented with a pure sensory stroke(PSS), and CT scan showed a putaminal haemorrhage. The clinical course was characterized by rapid resolution of the deficits. Conclusion This case illustrates this rarely of PSS from compression of putaminal haemorrhage of good functional and vital prognosis, and stresses the value of CT scanning for diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:19133162

  18. [Viral superantigens].

    PubMed

    Us, Dürdal

    2016-07-01

    , expression of endogenous SAgs leads to thymic deletion of responding T cells (bearing Vβ6-9+ TCR) due to self-tolerance induction during the fetal life, and protects the host against future exogenous MMTV infections. The SAg of rabies virus is the N protein found in nucleocapsid structure and stimulates Vβ8+TCR-bearing T cells. The SAg-induced polyclonal activation of T cells leads to turn-off the specific immune response, to enhance the immunopathogenesis and facilitates viral transmission from the initial site of infection (the muscle tissue) to the nerve endings. In case of EBV-associated SAg that activates Vβ13+TCR-bearing T cells, it was detected that the SAg activity was not encoded by EBV itself, but instead was due to the transactivation of HERV-K18 by EBV latent membrane proteins, whose env gene encodes the SAg (Sutkowski, et al. 2001). It has been denoted that EBV-induced SAg expression plays a role in the long-term persistence and latency of virus in memory B cells, in the development of autoimmune diseases and in the oncogenesis mechanisms. The proteins which are identified as SAgs of HIV are Nef and gp120. It is believed that, the massive activation of CD4+ T cells (selectively with Vβ-12+, Vβ-5.3+ and Vβ-18+ TCRs) in early stages of infection and clonal deletion, anergy and apoptosis of bystander T cells in the late stages may be due to SAg property of Nef protein, as well as the other mechanisms. However there are some studies indicating that Nef does not act as a SAg (Lapatschek, et al. 2001). HIV gp120 glycoprotein is a B-cell SAg that binds to VH3-expressing B cell receptors and causes polyclonal B cell activation. In addition, binding of gp120 to IgE on the surface of basophiles and mast cells causes activation of those cells, secretion of high level proinflammatory mediators leading to allergic reactions and tissue damage. In a recent study, the depletion (anergy or deletion) of T cell populations bearing Vβ12+, Vβ13+ and Vβ17+ TCR have been

  19. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome.

  20. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. PMID:26612372

  1. Acute adrenal haemorrhage: diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, J G; Borri, M L; Menasce, S; Ajzen, S; Kater, C E; Faiçal, S

    1996-01-01

    Acute adrenal haemorrhage (AAH) is a rare disorder with different aetiologies. Aiming to discuss this condition, this report deals with four different cases that will be analysed and examined below, each one of them confirmed by biopsy or surgery and followed clinically and radiologically. In these cases it was found that the patients suffered from localized abdominal pain (4/4) and fever (2/4); one patient had adrenal insufficiency due to bilateral massive AAH. Therefore we concluded that AAH is an uncommon condition with variable clinical manifestations. PMID:9089038

  2. [Leptospirosis with necro-haemorrhagic cholecystitis in a Boxer puppy].

    PubMed

    Steil, D; Quandt, A; Mayer-Scholl, A; Sie, J M; Löhr, C V; Teifke, J P

    2014-01-01

    A Boxer puppy from the island of Rügen, which was properly vaccinated according to its age, was presented with acute gastrointestinal symptoms. The presumptive diagnosis of leptospirosis with acute renal failure, hepatic damage, and jaundice was confirmed by seroconversion (increased titre to 1 : 800 in a non-vaccine serogroup 4 weeks after disease onset). Cholecystitis was diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and sonographic results. After an initial improvement, the puppy's condition deteriorated and cholecystectomy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis indicated a haemorrhagic necrotizing cholecystitis.

  3. [Leptospirosis with necro-haemorrhagic cholecystitis in a Boxer puppy].

    PubMed

    Steil, D; Quandt, A; Mayer-Scholl, A; Sie, J M; Löhr, C V; Teifke, J P

    2014-01-01

    A Boxer puppy from the island of Rügen, which was properly vaccinated according to its age, was presented with acute gastrointestinal symptoms. The presumptive diagnosis of leptospirosis with acute renal failure, hepatic damage, and jaundice was confirmed by seroconversion (increased titre to 1 : 800 in a non-vaccine serogroup 4 weeks after disease onset). Cholecystitis was diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and sonographic results. After an initial improvement, the puppy's condition deteriorated and cholecystectomy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis indicated a haemorrhagic necrotizing cholecystitis. PMID:25423604

  4. Acute retrobulbar haemorrhage: An ophthalmologic emergency for the emergency physician.

    PubMed

    Pamukcu, Can; Odabaşı, Mahmut

    2015-07-01

    Acute retrobulbar haemorrhage (ARBH) is a rare ophthalmic emergency observed following blunt eye trauma. Multiple trauma and loss of consciousness can hide symptoms of ARBH. Rapid diagnosis and immediate lateral canthotomy and cantholysis must be performed to prevent permanent visual loss in patients. Medical treatment can be added to surgical therapy. Lateral canthotomy and cantholysis are simple procedures that can be performed by emergency physicians. In this report, it was aimed to present a case with post-traumatic ARBH and provide general knowledge about the diagnosis, follow-up and treatment of ARBH.

  5. [Seizures caused by subarachnoid haemorrhage in a pregnant woman].

    PubMed

    Shim, Susy; Christiansen, Ulla Birgitte; Sørensen, Anne Nødgaard

    2016-07-25

    This case report describes a pregnant woman of gestational week 37 + 2 days who was admitted to the hospital with first-time seizures. The patient was stabilized, and an acute caesarian section was performed due to the possible aetiology of eclampsia and the advanced gestational age. Because of the atypical clinical history and normal maternal blood samples a computed tomography of the cerebrum was performed demonstrating a subarachnoid haemorrhage. A computed tomography-angiography revealed an aneurism at the anterior communicating artery. The aneurism was coiled the following day to reduce the risk of rebleeding. PMID:27460576

  6. A rare case of a giant haemorrhagic adrenal cyst.

    PubMed

    Kaderabek, D; McLeod, N; Tigges, T

    2012-01-01

    Giant adrenal cysts are an infrequent encounter in surgical practice. In this article we discuss a case of a 66 year old woman who presented with increasing abdominal girth and was subsequently found to have a large retroperitoneal mass on computed tomography (CT) scan. After a thorough endocrine work up was completed, the patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy with resection of a giant adrenal mass. This was ultimately found to be a haemorrhagic cyst. This case highlights the clinical features and management of this relatively rare finding.

  7. In vitro evaluation of marine-microorganism extracts for anti-viral activity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Viral-induced infectious diseases represent a major health threat and their control remains an unachieved goal, due in part to the limited availability of effective anti-viral drugs and measures. The use of natural products in drug manufacturing is an ancient and well-established practice. Marine organisms are known producers of pharmacological and anti-viral agents. In this study, a total of 20 extracts from marine microorganisms were evaluated for their antiviral activity. These extracts were tested against two mammalian viruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), using Vero cells as the cell culture system, and two marine virus counterparts, channel catfish virus (CCV) and snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV), in their respective cell cultures (CCO and EPC). Evaluation of these extracts demonstrated that some possess antiviral potential. In sum, extracts 162M(4), 258M(1), 298M(4), 313(2), 331M(2), 367M(1) and 397(1) appear to be effective broad-spectrum antivirals with potential uses as prophylactic agents to prevent infection, as evident by their highly inhibitive effects against both virus types. Extract 313(2) shows the most potential in that it showed significantly high inhibition across all tested viruses. The samples tested in this study were crude extracts; therefore the development of antiviral application of the few potential extracts is dependent on future studies focused on the isolation of the active elements contained in these extracts. PMID:20691099

  8. Management of a delayed post-pancreatoduodenectomy haemorrhage using endovascular techniques

    PubMed Central

    Asai, Kengo; Zaydfudim, Victor; Truty, Mark; Reid-Lombardo, KMarie; Kendrick, Michael; Que, Florencia; Nagorney, David; Andrews, James; Farnell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background A delayed post-pancreatoduodenectomy haemorrhage is associated with a significant increase in peri-operative mortality. Endovascular techniques are frequently used for a delayed haemorrhage. However, limited data exists on the short- and long-term outcomes of this approach. A retrospective review over a 10-year period at a quaternary-referral pancreatic centre was performed. Methods Between 2002–2012, 1430 pancreatoduodenectomies were performed, and 32 patients had a delayed haemorrhage (occurring >24 h post-operatively) managed by endovascular techniques. The clinicopathological variables related to a haemorrhage were investigated. Results A total of 42 endovascular procedures were performed at a median of 25 days, with the majority of delayed haemorrhages occurring after 7 days. There were four deaths (13%) with three occurring in patients with a grade C haemorrhage. Seven patients (22%) experienced rebleeding, and two patients developed hepatic abscesses. Conclusion A delayed haemorrhage post-pancreaticoduodenectomy can be managed by endovascular techniques with acceptable morbidity and mortality. Rebleeding and hepatic abscesses may occur and can be managed non-operatively in most cases. The association of a delayed haemorrhage with a pancreatic fistula makes this a challenging clinical problem. PMID:26235930

  9. Fatal cerebral haemorrhage in a hypertensive seven-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Brandtner, Herwig; Monticelli, Fabio C; Meyer, Harald J; Biebl, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    A seven-year-old boy died from autopsy-proven brain haemorrhage due to hypertensive vasculopathy. This emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and therapy of hypertension in children. Brain haemorrhage is a potentially fatal complication of paediatric hypertension. PMID:27688895

  10. Fatal cerebral haemorrhage in a hypertensive seven-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Brandtner, Herwig; Monticelli, Fabio C; Meyer, Harald J; Biebl, Ariane; Budka, Herbert

    2016-09-01

    A seven-year-old boy died from autopsy-proven brain haemorrhage due to hypertensive vasculopathy. This emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and therapy of hypertension in children. Brain haemorrhage is a potentially fatal complication of paediatric hypertension. PMID:27688895

  11. Rice yellow stunt rhabdovirus protein 6 suppresses systemic RNA silencing by blocking RDR6-mediated secondary siRNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongyan; Song, Xiaoguang; Xie, Chuanmiao; Huo, Yan; Zhang, Fujie; Chen, Xiaoying; Geng, Yunfeng; Fang, Rongxiang

    2013-08-01

    The P6 protein of Rice yellow stunt rhabdovirus (RYSV) is a virion structural protein that can be phosphorylated in vitro. However its exact function remains elusive. We found that P6 enhanced the virulence of Potato virus X (PVX) in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum plants, suggesting that it might function as a suppressor of RNA silencing. We examined the mechanism of P6-mediated silencing suppression by transiently expressing P6 in both N. benthamiana leaves and rice protoplasts. Our results showed that P6 could repress the production of secondary siRNAs and inhibit systemic green fluorescent protein RNA silencing but did not interfere with local RNA silencing in N. benthamiana plants or in rice protoplasts. Intriguingly, P6 and RDR6 had overlapping subcellular localization and P6 bound both rice and Arabidopsis RDR6 in vivo. Furthermore, transgenic rice plants expressing P6 showed enhanced susceptibility to infection by Rice stripe virus. Hence, we propose that P6 is part of the RYSV's counter-defense machinery against the plant RNA silencing system and plays a role mainly in affecting RDR6-mediated secondary siRNA synthesis. Our work provides a new perspective on how a plant-infecting nucleorhabdovirus may counteract host RNA silencing-mediated antiviral defense.

  12. Hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV) as the cause of a natural disease outbreak in cultured black seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegeli) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wi-Sik; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2015-12-01

    In 2015, a high mortality rate of about 40% was observed in black seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegeli) on a farm on the southern coast of Korea. Most of the diseased fish showed a hemorrhage of the mouth, pale liver, petechial hemorrhaging in the internal fat, and an enlarged spleen. Other than Alella sp., no parasites or bacteria were isolated from the diseased fish, and all of the tissue filtrates produced cytopathic effects (CPEs) in FHM and CHSE-214 cells. A polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the cell culture supernatants with CPE expressed specific 730-bp fragments for the hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV) phosphoprotein gene. The nucleotide sequences showed a minimum of 95.8% identity to five other known isolates of HIRRV, including CA-9703 and 8401-H from olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in Korea and Japan. An experimental challenge was conducted in which the virus was delivered by injection, and the cumulative mortalities of black seabream challenged with this new HIRRV isolate at 10(4.8) TCID50/fish and 10(3.8) TCID50/fish were 100% and 20%, respectively. This fulfilled Koch's postulates and confirmed that HIRRV was the cause of disease and mortality for both the natural and experimental infection of black seabream.

  13. The antiviral potential of interferon-induced cotton rat Mx proteins against orthomyxovirus (influenza), rhabdovirus, and bunyavirus.

    PubMed

    Stertz, Silke; Dittmann, Jan; Blanco, Jorge C G; Pletneva, Lioubov M; Haller, Otto; Kochs, Georg

    2007-10-01

    Influenza A virus (FLUAV) is an important human pathogen able to cause devastating pandemics. Recently, cotton rats have been proposed as an animal model to study the innate immune response against FLUAV and other human pathogens. The interferon (IFN)-induced Mx GTPases are part of the cell-autonomous innate immune response against viruses. We, therefore, tested the antiviral activity of the two cotton rat Mx proteins that were recently identified. The nuclear cotton rat Mx1 protein was found to be a strong inhibitor of FLUAV, whereas the cytoplasmic cotton rat Mx2 protein was inactive. Cotton rat Mx2, but not cotton rat Mx1, was able to inhibit the rhabdovirus vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and the bunyavirus Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) known to replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Thus, cotton rats possess two Mx proteins that have selective antiviral activity that depends on their intracellular localization. We conclude that the Mx status of cotton rats differs from that of conventional inbred mouse strains, which are known to have defective Mx genes. Therefore, cotton rats are a suitable animal model to study experimental infections with FLUAV and other RNA viruses.

  14. Recombinant activated factor VII in post partum haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Magon, Navneet; Babu, K. M.; Kapur, Krishan; Chopra, Sanjiv; Joneja, Gurdarshan Singh

    2013-01-01

    Post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) is a life-threatening obstetric complication and the leading cause of maternal death. Any bleeding that results in or could result in haemodynamic instability, if untreated, must be considered as PPH. There is no controversy about the need for prevention and treatment of PPH. The keystone of management of PPH entails first, non-invasive and nonsurgical methods and then invasive and surgical methods. However, mortality remains high. Therefore, new advancements in the treatment are most crucial. One such advancement has been the use of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in PPH. First used 12 years back in PPH, this universal haemostatic agent has been effectively used in controlling PPH. The best available indicator of rFVIIa efficacy is the arrest of haemorrhage, which is judged by visual evidence and haemodynamic stabilization. It also reduces costs of therapy and the use of blood components in massive PPH. In cases of intractable PPH with no other obvious indications for hysterectomy, administration of rFVIIa should be considered before surgery. We share our experience in a series of cases of PPH, successfully managed using rFVIIa. PMID:24403703

  15. Intracerebral haemorrhage in Down syndrome: protected or predisposed?

    PubMed

    Buss, Lewis; Fisher, Elizabeth; Hardy, John; Nizetic, Dean; Groet, Jurgen; Pulford, Laura; Strydom, André

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), which arises from trisomy of chromosome 21, is associated with deposition of large amounts of amyloid within the central nervous system. Amyloid accumulates in two compartments: as plaques within the brain parenchyma and in vessel walls of the cerebral microvasculature. The parenchymal plaque amyloid is thought to result in an early onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, a phenomenon so common amongst people with DS that it could be considered a defining feature of the condition. The amyloid precursor protein ( APP) gene lies on chromosome 21 and its presence in three copies in DS is thought to largely drive the early onset AD. In contrast, intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), the main clinical consequence of vascular amyloidosis, is a more poorly defined feature of DS. We review recent epidemiological data on stroke (including haemorrhagic stroke) in order to make comparisons with a rare form of familial AD due to duplication (i.e. having three copies) of the APP region on chromosome 21, here called 'dup-APP', which is associated with more frequent and severe ICH. We conclude that although people with DS are at increased risk of ICH, this is less common than in dup-APP, suggesting the presence of mechanisms that act protectively. We review these mechanisms and consider comparative research into DS and dup-APP that may yield further pathophysiological insight. PMID:27239286

  16. Comparative studies for serodiagnosis of haemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle sera.

    PubMed

    El-Jakee, Jakeen K; Ali, Samah Said; El-Shafii, Soumaya Ahmed; Hessain, Ashgan M; Al-Arfaj, Abdullah A; Mohamed, Moussa I

    2016-01-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia caused by Pasteurella multocida is a major epizootic disease in cattle and buffaloes in developing countries with high morbidity and mortality rate. In the present study, a total of 88 P. multocida isolates were isolated from 256 nasopharyngeal swabs and lung tissues samples (34.4%) during the period from January, 2013 to March, 2014 from different governorates located in Egypt. Dead calves showed the highest percentage of P. multocida isolation followed by the emergency slaughtered calves, diseased calves then apparently healthy ones. These isolates were confirmed as P. multocida microscopically, biochemically by traditional tests and by API 20E commercial kit then by PCR. The percentages of positive serum samples using somatic antigen and micro-agglutination test at 1/1280 diluted serum were 10%, 54.49% and 0% in apparently healthy, diseased and emergency slaughtered samples, respectively whereas, the percentages using capsular antigen and indirect haemagglutination test were 40%, 60.89% and 60% in apparently healthy, diseased and emergency slaughtered samples, respectively. The ELISA showed the highest sensitivity for diagnosing P. multocida in apparently healthy, diseased and emergency slaughtered animals with percentages of 42%; 92.9% and 80%, respectively. The obtained results revealed that the ELISA using capsular antigen of P. multocida is a more sensitive and specific serological test for diagnosis of haemorrhagic septicaemia. PMID:26858538

  17. Acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome in dogs: 108 cases.

    PubMed

    Mortier, F; Strohmeyer, K; Hartmann, K; Unterer, S

    2015-06-13

    No prospective studies including large numbers of dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) are published so far. The aim of this case-control study was to describe signalment, history, clinical signs, laboratory values and course of disease in dogs with AHDS. Dogs (108) with idiopathic acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea (<3 days) were prospectively enrolled. Clinical assessment was performed by calculation of the 'AHDS index' (0-18). The hospital population and 21 healthy dogs served as control groups. Dogs with AHDS had a significantly lower body weight (median 9.8 kg) and age (median five years) than other dogs of the hospital population (20 kg; 10 years) (P<0.001). Predisposed breeds were Yorkshire terrier, miniature pinscher, miniature schnauzer and Maltese. The syndrome was more likely to occur during winter. Vomiting preceded the onset of bloody diarrhoea in 80 per cent of dogs and haematemesis was observed in half of those cases. Median AHDS index at presentation was 12 (range 3-17). Haematocrit was generally high (median 57.1 per cent; range 33-76 per cent), but exceeded 60 per cent only in 31.4 per cent of dogs. Haematocrit of 48.1 per cent of dogs was above reference range, as was monocyte (50.0 per cent), segmented (59.6 per cent) and band neutrophil count (45.2 per cent). A rapid clinical improvement occurred during the first 48 hours.

  18. Dengue haemorrhagic fever and the dengue shock syndrome in India.

    PubMed

    Lall, R; Dhanda, V

    1996-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of dengue fever ranges from asymptomatic infection through severe haemorrhage and sudden fatal shock. Increased capillary permeability is the diagnostic feature of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). The pathophysiology of DHF/dengue shock syndrome (DSS) is related to sequential infection with different serotypes of the virus, variations in virus virulence, interaction of the virus with environmental or host factors and a combination of various risk factors. Infection due to low virulence strains is assumed to be the reason for the infrequent incidence of serious dengue disease in India. Since all four serotypes of the dengue virus have been implicated in various outbreaks in this country and several outbreaks of DHF/DSS have been recorded since the first report in 1963, further epidemics of the disease are likely. The situation is aggravated by the recent emergence of DHF/DSS in Sri Lanka. In view of the potential of this disease to spread, effective preventive and control measures should be a priority.

  19. An outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Kaduna, Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    Babalola, O E; Amoni, S S; Samaila, E; Thaker, U; Darougar, S

    1990-01-01

    Clinical studies were carried out on two groups of patients with acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) during an epidemic in 1985 in Northern Nigeria. Group 1 consisted of 99 students attending a girls' boarding school, group 2 of 200 patients selected randomly from 1000 examined at the local clinic. Moderate to severe hyperaemia and papillary responses were present in the palpebral conjunctiva of all patients, and 234 (66%) had subconjunctival haemorrhages. Transient superficial punctate keratitis was noted in over 60% of patients. A transient flare suggestive of a low grade iritis was seen in five patients. No neurological disorders were noted. Serological studies were carried out on patients from group 2. Fifteen paired and 20 single serum samples were titrated against adenovirus type 4 (Ad-4) and enterovirus type 70 (EV-70). Two pairs of sera showed a 4-fold rise in antibody levels to EV-70, whereas the antibody titres to EV-70 in the rest of the sera ranged from 1:20 (no antibody) to 1:160. None of the paired serum samples showed a 4-fold rise in antibody levels to adenovirus. The results of clinical studies and serological findings support EV-70 as a probable cause of AHC in Nigeria. PMID:2155654

  20. Purification and characterization of an organ specific haemorrhagic toxin from Vipera russelli russelli (Russell's viper) venom.

    PubMed

    Kole, L; Chakrabarty, D; Datta, K; Bhattacharyya, D

    2000-04-01

    A haemorrhagic toxin (VRR-12) from Vipera russelli russelli (Russell's viper) venom has been purified by ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-50 followed by size-exclusion HPLC to electrophoretically homogeneous state. It is a 12 kDa single polypeptide having 1 mole of Zn+2 ion. This toxin induces intense intestinal haemorrhage and to a lesser extent skeletal muscle haemorrhage in mice. It does not show detectable proteolytic and esterolytic activity with selected substrates under specified conditions, haemolytic and phospholipase activity. When VRR-12, preincubated with bivalent antiserum against Saw-scaled and Russell's viper venom or EDTA was injected, haemorrhagic activity was not reduced, on the other hand preincubation with phenylmethyl sulphonyl fluoride reduced the activity markedly. Biodistribution studies with 125I VRR-12 show that haemorrhagic manifestation by this toxin is not a direct function of the fraction of the totally administered toxin distributed to that tissue. PMID:10983422

  1. Condom Tamponade in the Management of Primary Postpartum Haemorrhage: A Report of three cases in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Maya, Ernest T; Buntugu, Kennedy A; Aki, Lovelace; Srofenyoh, Emmanuel K

    2015-09-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage is one of the major causes of maternal mortality worldwide. The leading cause of primary postpartum haemorrhage is uterine atony and active management of the third stage of labour with oxytocin is recommended for preventing primary postpartum haemorrhage. Parenteral oxytocin is also the drug of choice for medical management of postpartum haemorrhage secondary to uterine atony. Condom uterine balloon tamponade is .a low cost technique that can be used as a second-line option for treatment. We report retrospectively three cases of primary PPH secondary to uterine atony which were managed successfully with condom tamponade. Condom tamponade is effective in managing post partum haemorrhage secondary to uterine atony and we advocate for the training of all skilled attendants on how to insert the condom tamponade.

  2. Induction of anti-viral genes during acute infection with Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, John D.; Woodson, James C.; Hershberger, Paul K.; Grady, Courtney; Gregg, Jacob L.; Purcell, Maureen K.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with the aquatic rhabdovirus Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa results in high mortality in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and is hypothesized to be a potential limiting factor for herring recovery. To investigate anti-viral immunity in the Pacific herring, four immune response genes were identified: the myxovirus resistance (Clpa-Mx), a major histocompatibility complex IB (named Clpa-UAA.001), the inducible immunoproteosome subunit 9 (Clpa-PSMB9) and the neutrophil chemotactic factor (Clpa-LECT2). Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assays were developed based on these gene sequences to investigate the host immune response to acute VHSV infection following both injection and immersion challenge. Virus levels were measured by both plaque assay and RT-qPCR and peaked at day 6 during the 10-day exposure period for both groups of fish. The interferon stimulated genes (Clpa-Mx, −UAA.001, and −PSMB9) were significantly up-regulated in response to VHSV infection at both 6 and 10 days post-infection in both spleen and fin. Results from this study indicate that Pacific herring mount a robust, early antiviral response in both fin and spleen tissues. The immunological tools developed in this study will be useful for future studies to investigate antiviral immunity in Pacific herring.

  3. Induction of anti-viral genes during acute infection with Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii).

    PubMed

    Hansen, John D; Woodson, James C; Hershberger, Paul K; Grady, Courtney; Gregg, Jacob L; Purcell, Maureen K

    2012-02-01

    Infection with the aquatic rhabdovirus Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa results in high mortality in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and is hypothesized to be a potential limiting factor for herring recovery. To investigate anti-viral immunity in the Pacific herring, four immune response genes were identified: the myxovirus resistance (Clpa-Mx), a major histocompatibility complex IB (named Clpa-UAA.001), the inducible immunoproteosome subunit 9 (Clpa-PSMB9) and the neutrophil chemotactic factor (Clpa-LECT2). Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assays were developed based on these gene sequences to investigate the host immune response to acute VHSV infection following both injection and immersion challenge. Virus levels were measured by both plaque assay and RT-qPCR and peaked at day 6 during the 10-day exposure period for both groups of fish. The interferon stimulated genes (Clpa-Mx, -UAA.001, and -PSMB9) were significantly up-regulated in response to VHSV infection at both 6 and 10 days post-infection in both spleen and fin. Results from this study indicate that Pacific herring mount a robust, early antiviral response in both fin and spleen tissues. The immunological tools developed in this study will be useful for future studies to investigate antiviral immunity in Pacific herring.

  4. Hybrid alphavirus-rhabdovirus propagating replicon particles are versatile and potent vaccine vectors.

    PubMed

    Rose, Nina F; Publicover, Jean; Chattopadhyay, Anasuya; Rose, John K

    2008-04-15

    Self-propagating, infectious, virus-like particles are generated in animal cell lines transfected with a Semliki Forest virus RNA replicon encoding a single viral structural protein, the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) glycoprotein. We show here that these infectious particles, which we call propagating replicons, are potent inducers of neutralizing antibody in animals yet are nonpathogenic. Mice vaccinated with a single dose of the particles generated high titers of VSV-neutralizing antibody and were protected from a subsequent lethal challenge with VSV. Induction of antibody required RNA replication. We also report that additional genes (including an HIV-1 envelope protein gene) expressed from the propagating replicons induced strong cellular immune responses to the corresponding proteins after a single inoculation. Our studies reveal the potential of these particles as simple and safe vaccine vectors inducing strong humoral and cellular immune responses.

  5. Of cascades and perfect storms: the immunopathogenesis of dengue haemorrhagic fever-dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS).

    PubMed

    Pang, Tikki; Cardosa, Mary Jane; Guzman, Maria G

    2007-01-01

    The past four decades has witnessed a consolidation of the original observations made in the 1970s that dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) have an immunological basis. Following reinfection with a dengue virus of different serotype, severe disease is linked to high levels of antibody-enhanced viral replication early in illness which is followed by a cascade of memory T-cell activation and a 'storm' of inflammatory cytokines and other chemical mediators. These compounds are released mainly from T cells, monocytes/macrophages and endothelial cells, and ultimately cause an increase in vascular permeability. The consolidation of the evidence has been largely due to several important prospective sero-epidemiological studies in areas endemic for DHF/DSS, which have shown that risk of severe disease is significantly higher in secondary dengue infections. These advances have underscored the fact that DHF/DSS pathogenesis is a complex, multifactorial process involving cocirculation of various dengue virus serotypes and the interplay of host and viral factors that influence disease severity. The continued search to define risk factors in susceptible populations must be combined with the new techniques of molecular virology and innovative approaches in vaccine design to achieve the ultimate objective of developing a safe and effective vaccine. PMID:17130899

  6. Emergence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in the North American Great Lakes region is associated with low viral genetic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, T.M.; Batts, W.N.; Faisal, M.; Bowser, P.; Casey, J.W.; Phillips, K.; Garver, K.A.; Winton, J.; Kurath, G.

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a fish rhabdovirus that causes disease in a broad range of marine and freshwater hosts. The known geographic range includes the Northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and recently it has invaded the Great Lakes region of North Ame­rica. The goal of this work was to characterize genetic diversity of Great Lakes VHSV isolates at the early stage of this viral emergence by comparing a partial glycoprotein (G) gene sequence (669 nt) of 108 isolates collected from 2003 to 2009 from 31 species and at 37 sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolates fell into sub-lineage IVb within the major VHSV genetic group IV. Among these 108 isolates, genetic diversity was low, with a maximum of 1.05% within the 669 nt region. There were 11 unique sequences, designated vcG001 to vcG011. Two dominant sequence types, vcG001 and vcG002, accounted for 90% (97 of 108) of the isolates. The vcG001 isolates were most widespread. We saw no apparent association of sequence type with host or year of isolation, but we did note a spatial pattern, in which vcG002 isolates were more prevalent in the easternmost sub-regions, including inland New York state and the St. Lawrence Seaway. Different sequence types were found among isolates from single disease outbreaks, and mixtures of types were evident within 2 isolates from ­individual fish. Overall, the genetic diversity of VHSV in the Great Lakes region was found to be extremely low, consistent with an introduction of a new virus into a geographic region with ­previously naïve host populations.

  7. Intracerebral haemorrhage profiles are changing: results from the Dijon population-based study.

    PubMed

    Béjot, Yannick; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Durier, Jérôme; Aboa-Eboulé, Corine; Rouaud, Olivier; Giroud, Maurice

    2013-02-01

    Incidence of intracerebral haemorrhage over the past three decades is reported as stable. This disappointing finding is questionable and suggests that any reduction in intracerebral haemorrhage incidence associated with improvements in primary prevention, namely, better control of blood pressure, might have been offset by an increase in cases of intracerebral haemorrhage owing to other factors, including the use of antithrombotic drugs in the ageing population. Therefore, we aimed to analyse trends in intracerebral haemorrhage incidence from 1985 to 2008 in the population-based registry of Dijon, France, taking into consideration the intracerebral haemorrhage location, the effect of age and the changes in the distribution of risk factors and premorbid treatments. Incidence rates were calculated and temporal trends were analysed by age groups (<60, 60-74 and ≥75 years) and intracerebral haemorrhage location (lobar or deep) according to study periods 1985-92, 1993-2000 and 2001-08. Over the 24 years of the study, 3948 patients with first-ever stroke were recorded. Among these, 441 had intracerebral haemorrhage (48.3% male), including 49% lobar, 37% deep, 9% infratentorial and 5% of undetermined location. Mean age at onset increased from 67.3 ± 15.9 years to 74.7 ± 16.7 years over the study period (P < 0.001). Overall crude incidence was 12.4/100,000/year (95% confidence interval: 11.2-13.6) and remained stable over time. However, an ∼80% increase in intracerebral haemorrhage incidence among people aged ≥75 years was observed between the first and both second and third study periods, contrasting with a 50% decrease in that in individuals aged <60 years, and stable incidence in those aged 60-74 years. This result was attributed to a 2-fold increase in lobar intracerebral haemorrhage in the elderly, concomitantly with an observed rise in the premorbid use of antithrombotics at this age, whatever the intracerebral haemorrhage location considered. In conclusion

  8. Life-threatening haemorrhage after 750 Le Fort I osteotomies and 376 SARPE procedures.

    PubMed

    Politis, C

    2012-06-01

    This study assessed the incidence, presenting symptoms, diagnosis, and management of patients with life-threatening postoperative haemorrhage after total Le Fort I osteotomy and surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE). The medical records of 750 consecutive Le Fort I osteotomies and 376 consecutive SARPEs, both of which involved pterygomaxillary separation with a curved osteotome and a mallet, were analysed prospectively. Two cases of life-threatening haemorrhage were observed in the Le Fort I osteotomy group, both initiated on postoperative day 7. Anterior and posterior nasal packing were successful in one patient; the other required two embolizations for bleeding control (incidence of life-threatening postoperative haemorrhage: 2/750; confidence interval: 0.03-0.96%). In the SARPE group, one brisk epistaxis on the first postoperative day was controlled with anterior and posterior nasal packing under general anaesthesia. This haemorrhage was not considered life threatening (incidence of life-threatening postoperative haemorrhage: 0/376; confidence interval: 0-0.98%). In no case could the source of bleeding be established during re-explorative surgery or during diagnostic arteriography. The authors conclude that life-threatening haemorrhage is an exceptional finding after Le Fort I osteotomy; the observed incidence was 2/750, and life-threatening haemorrhage was not observed after SARPE in this series, despite the use of identical pterygomaxillary separation.

  9. Diagnostic laboratory for bleeding disorders ensures efficient management of haemorrhagic disorders.

    PubMed

    Riddell, A; Chuansumrit, A; El-Ekiaby, M; Nair, S C

    2016-07-01

    Haemorrhagic disorders like Postpartum haemorrhage and Dengue haemorrhagic fever are life threatening and requires an active and efficient transfusion service that could provide the most appropriate blood product which could be effective in managing them. This would essentially require prompt identification of the coagulopathy so that the best available product can be given to the bleeding patient to correct the identified haemostatic defect which will help control the bleeding. This would only be possible if the transfusion service has a laboratory to correctly detect the haemostatic defect and that too with an accuracy and precision which is ensured by a good laboratory quality assurance practices. These same processes are necessary for the transfusion services to ensure the quality of the blood products manufactured by them and that it contains adequate amounts of haemostasis factors which will be good to be effective in the management of haemorrhagic disorders. These issues are discussed in detail individually in the management of postpartum haemorrhage and Dengue haemorrhagic fever including when these can help in the use of rFVIIa in Dengue haemorrhagic fever. The requirements to ensure good-quality blood products are made available for the management of these disorders and the same have also been described. PMID:27405683

  10. [Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in southern Russia].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G; Efremenko, V I

    2004-01-01

    At the end of the 20th--the beginning of the 21st century activation of a natural focus of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in southern Russia was noted. As a consequence, in 2002 outbreaks and sporadic cases of this disease were registered on the territory of 6 out of 13 administrative units of the Southern Federal District. To minimize the epidemiological consequences of the aggravating epidemiological situation considerable efforts and means were required from health care organs and institutions of the state sanitary and epidemiological service, including essential financial expenditures. The results of natural foci of CCHF survey, obtained by 2002, as well as main trends of prophylactic and antiepidemic interventions are presented. Scientific research and practical observations made it possible to work out a number of methodological regulations concerning the diagnostics, treatment and prophylaxis of CCHF.

  11. Why dengue haemorrhagic fever in Cuba? 2. An integral analysis.

    PubMed

    Kouri, G P; Guzmán, M G; Bravo, J R

    1987-01-01

    The epidemiological factors present in Cuba in 1981, when the dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) epidemic occurred, were exceptional when compared to those of other countries in the region. Evidence is presented which demonstrates that virulence of the circulating strain is an important element in the analysis of an epidemic. Although the two current hypotheses to explain the occurrence of DHF/DSS epidemics are valid in well defined but different epidemiological situations, neither Halstead's hypothesis of secondary-type infection or Rosen's hypothesis of the role played by the virulence of the circulating strain can explain all cases. An integrated, multifactorial and unifying hypothesis is presented, which could be applied in different epidemiological situations. It is based mainly on an in-depth analysis of the literature and of the Cuban experience.

  12. Acute haemorrhage associated with pancreatic pseudocyst and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kiviluoto, T; Schröder, T; Kivilaakso, E; Lempinen, M

    1984-01-01

    The present study reports 18 patients operated on for chronic pancreatitis complicated by bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract, the peritoneal cavity or the retroperitoneal space. Damage to the splenic artery by a pancreatic pseudocyst was the most common reason for the bleeding (10 patients, 56%) and the most common site was the duodenum (10 patients, 56%). Eleven patients were treated by transcystic multiple suture ligations combined with external drainage of the pseudocyst, and seven by pancreatic resection or total pancreatectomy. Hospital mortality was 33% (6 patients); two patients had undergone transcystic suture ligation, and four pancreatic resection. Five patients needed a reoperation because of further bleeding, four of them having been treated initially by transcystic suture ligation. Our results suggest that haemostasis by suture ligation is a method to be recommended if the patient's condition has been exacerbated by severe haemorrhage.

  13. Rodent control programmes in areas affected by Bolivian haemorrhagic fever

    PubMed Central

    Mercado R., Rodolfo

    1975-01-01

    Bolivian haemorrhagic fever (BHF) caused by Machupo virus is acquired by contact with the excretions and secretions of Calomys callosus, an indigenous cricetine rodent which is preadapted to peridomestic habitats. It competes successfully with Mus musculus, but not with Rattus rattus. A successful disease control programme has functioned in Beni Department since 1964. It is based on trapping surveys and the detection of splenomegaly in Calomys rodents as an index of chronic virus infection. Mass trapping and poisoning are used initially, and regular trapping is employed to control Calomys populations in towns where disease has occurred. More than 1000 cases of BHF were recorded from 1960-1964, but less than 200 in the past 10 years. The cost of this programme is approximately $30 000 annually. PMID:182405

  14. Haemorrhage, hyponatraemia and more than just a hack.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mitsu; Kandil, Hala

    2014-06-18

    A 43-year-old previously healthy solicitor presented with a 9-day history of cough productive of yellow sputum with a prodrome of sore throat and myalgia. The cough was paroxysmal in nature and severe enough to cause extensive bilateral subconjunctival haemorrhages and cough syncopes multiple times a day, with one bout of associated haematemesis on the day of admission. He was isolated, treated for a presumed atypical chest infection with tazocin and clarithromycin, and monitored carefully until the hyponatraemia on presentation was resolved. Atypical screen and blood cultures were sent off, though unexciting at first, eventually confirmed the unlikely; Bordetella pertussis, much to the surprise of many who had Legionella as the top differential.

  15. Return to theatre in secondary post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage: a comparison of coblation and dissection techniques.

    PubMed

    Amir, Ida; Belloso, Antonio; Broomfield, Stephen J; Morar, Pradeep

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the incidence of return to theatre (RTT) for post-operative haemorrhage following coblation and dissection tonsillectomy and to investigate those that required RTT more than 10 days post-surgery. Retrospective review of post-tonsillectomy haemorrhages requiring RTT from April 2005 to March 2009 was conducted. Of 2,541 tonsillectomies performed, 81% were by coblation and 19% by dissection methods. The overall RTT rate was 1.7%. No difference was found in the overall RTT rates for primary and secondary haemorrhage between the two techniques. However, the overall RTT rates for primary and secondary haemorrhage were higher in adults than children (P = 0.0456 and P = 0.0215, respectively). RTT for secondary haemorrhage during the first ten post-operative days occurred in both coblation and dissection tonsillectomy with no significant difference. After the first post-operative week, late secondary bleeding requiring RTT occurred only in the coblation group (P = 0.0676). Four patients required blood transfusion; all were in the coblation group, three of which were required during RTT in the late secondary haemorrhage (after 10 days). The post-operative RTT rates for coblation tonsillectomy did not reveal a change of trend over the 4-year study period. Our RTT rate for secondary haemorrhage is higher than earlier published results. A learning curve could not be identified in RTT for coblation tonsillectomy haemorrhage. Late secondary haemorrhages requiring surgical intervention have only been identified in cases performed by coblation and could potentially be life threatening as 33% (3/9) required blood transfusion. This phenomenon may be explained by a particular physiological healing process associated with coblation.

  16. Consent for Brain Tissue Donation after Intracerebral Haemorrhage: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Samarasekera, Neshika; Lerpiniere, Christine; Farrall, Andrew J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; White, Philip M.; Torgersen, Antonia; Ironside, James W.; Smith, Colin; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam

    2015-01-01

    Background Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage is a devastating form of stroke and its incidence increases with age. Obtaining brain tissue following intracerebral haemorrhage helps to understand its cause. Given declining autopsy rates worldwide, the feasibility of establishing an autopsy-based collection and its generalisability are uncertain. Methods We used multiple overlapping sources of case ascertainment to identify every adult diagnosed with intracerebral haemorrhage between 1st June 2010-31st May 2012, whilst resident in the Lothian region of Scotland. We sought consent from patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (or their nearest relative if the patient lacked mental capacity) to conduct a research autopsy. Results Of 295 adults with acute intracerebral haemorrhage, 110 (37%) could not be approached to consider donation. Of 185 adults/relatives approached, 91 (49%) consented to research autopsy. There were no differences in baseline demographic variables or markers of intracerebral haemorrhage severity between consenters and non-consenters. Adults who died and became donors (n = 46) differed from the rest of the cohort (n = 249) by being older (median age 80, IQR 76–86 vs. 75, IQR 65–83, p = 0.002) and having larger haemorrhages (median volume 23ml, IQR 13–50 vs. 13ml, IQR 4–40; p = 0.002). Conclusions Nearly half of those approached consent to brain tissue donation after acute intracerebral haemorrhage. The characteristics of adults who gave consent were comparable to those in an entire community, although those who donate early are older and have larger haemorrhage volumes. PMID:26302447

  17. A risk scoring system for prediction of haemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Zodpey, S P; Tiwari, R R

    2005-01-01

    The present pair-matched case control study was carried out at Government Medical College Hospital, Nagpur, India, a tertiary care hospital with the objective to devise and validate a risk scoring system for prediction of hemorrhagic stroke. The study consisted of 166 hospitalized CT scan proved cases of hemorrhagic stroke (ICD 9, 431-432), and a age and sex matched control per case. The controls were selected from patients who attended the study hospital for conditions other than stroke. On conditional multiple logistic regression five risk factors- hypertension (OR = 1.9. 95% Cl = 1.5-2.5). raised scrum total cholesterol (OR = 2.3, 95% Cl = 1.1-4.9). use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents (OR = 3.4, 95% Cl =1.1-10.4). past history of transient ischaemic attack (OR = 8.4, 95% Cl = 2.1- 33.6) and alcohol intake (OR = 2.1, 95% Cl = 1.3-3.6) were significant. These factors were ascribed statistical weights (based on regression coefficients) of 6, 8, 12, 21 and 8 respectively. The nonsignificant factors (diabetes mellitus, physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, type A personality, history of claudication, family history of stroke, history of cardiac diseases and oral contraceptive use in females) were not included in the development of scoring system. ROC curve suggested a total score of 21 to be the best cut-off for predicting haemorrhag stroke. At this cut-off the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictivity and Cohen's kappa were 0.74, 0.74, 0.74 and 0.48 respectively. The overall predictive accuracy of this additive risk scoring system (area under ROC curve by Wilcoxon statistic) was 0.79 (95% Cl = 0.73-0.84). Thus to conclude, if substantiated by further validation, this scorincy system can be used to predict haemorrhagic stroke, thereby helping to devise effective risk factor intervention strategy. PMID:16479901

  18. Viral Entry into Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orsogna, Maria R.

    2010-09-01

    Successful viral infection of a healthy cell requires complex host-pathogen interactions. In this talk we focus on the dynamics specific to the HIV virus entering a eucaryotic cell. We model viral entry as a stochastic engagement of receptors and coreceptors on the cell surface. We also consider the transport of virus material to the cell nucleus by coupling microtubular motion to the concurrent biochemical transformations that render the viral material competent for nuclear entry. We discuss both mathematical and biological consequences of our model, such as the formulation of an effective integrodifferential boundary condition embodying a memory kernel and optimal timing in maximizing viral probabilities.

  19. Recurrent hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhages: what should we do when a new hemispheric ischaemic event strikes?

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Osama S M

    2012-01-01

    Hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage is usually a once in a lifetime event and recurrences are rare. Most recurrences usually develop within 2 years of the first event and the majority usually target the basal ganglia and thalami. Failure of blood pressure control is the most important, potentially preventable, culprit behind the development of primary intracerebral haemorrhages. However, the occurrence of a recurrent bleed in patients with optimally controlled hypertension should always prompt the physician to think of a new co-operating factor. We report on a 60-year-old hypertensive woman who developed right-sided thalamic haemorrhage 5 days after sustaining a lacunar infarct of the left thalamus for which she had been prescribed a dual antiplatelet therapy: aspirin and clopidrogrel. She had a history of two bilateral sequential hypertensive deep cerebellar haemorrhages which were developed 2 years ago. PMID:23264163

  20. Recurrent hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhages: what should we do when a new hemispheric ischaemic event strikes?

    PubMed

    Amin, Osama S M

    2012-01-01

    Hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage is usually a once in a lifetime event and recurrences are rare. Most recurrences usually develop within 2 years of the first event and the majority usually target the basal ganglia and thalami. Failure of blood pressure control is the most important, potentially preventable, culprit behind the development of primary intracerebral haemorrhages. However, the occurrence of a recurrent bleed in patients with optimally controlled hypertension should always prompt the physician to think of a new co-operating factor. We report on a 60-year-old hypertensive woman who developed right-sided thalamic haemorrhage 5 days after sustaining a lacunar infarct of the left thalamus for which she had been prescribed a dual antiplatelet therapy: aspirin and clopidrogrel. She had a history of two bilateral sequential hypertensive deep cerebellar haemorrhages which were developed 2 years ago. PMID:23264163

  1. Contralateral haemorrhagic pulmonary metastases (“choriocarcinoma syndrome”) after pneumonectomy for primary pulmonary choriocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Durieu, I; Berger, N; Loire, R; Gamondes, J P; Guillaud, P H; Cordier, J F

    1994-01-01

    The case history is presented of a patient which illustrates both the diagnostic difficulties of an extremely rare tumour (choriocarcinoma of the lung) and its associated haemorrhagic metastases (“choriocarcinoma syndrome”). Images PMID:7517072

  2. Subarachnoid haemorrhage and cerebral vasculopathy in a child with sickle cell anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Inusa, Baba; Casale, Maddalena; Booth, Caroline; Lucas, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Stroke in sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is either infarctive or haemorrhagic in nature. In childhood, over 75% of strokes in SCA are infarctive. We present an adolescent with SCA who developed hypertension at the age of 13, and was treated with lisinopril. Sixteen months later she was found in cardiorespiratory arrest and died on arrival in hospital. The last transcranial Doppler scan performed 6 months before her death and a brain MRI were reported normal. The autopsy discovered massive subarachnoid haemorrhage in association with vascular damage in the circle of Willis arteries. The case highlights a cause of haemorrhagic stroke, the first reported association between hypertension, SCA and a histopathologically proven cerebral vasculopathy. The difficulties in the management of haemorrhagic stroke and the poor outcome in SCA are discussed. PMID:25336550

  3. Management of postpartum haemorrhage with uterine balloon tamponade: The way forward.

    PubMed

    Marasinghe, Jeevan P; Du Plessis, Jacobus; Epitawela, Dinesh; Umstad, Mark P

    2015-08-01

    Uterine balloon tamponade has rapidly gained popularity in the management of postpartum haemorrhage. It is a conservative method often utilised before embarking on advanced surgical interventions. The mechanism of action, complications and long-term outcomes are discussed. PMID:26130087

  4. Acute ischaemic brain lesions in intracerebral haemorrhage: multicentre cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Gregoire, Simone M; Charidimou, Andreas; Gadapa, Naveen; Dolan, Eamon; Antoun, Nagui; Peeters, Andre; Vandermeeren, Yves; Laloux, Patrice; Baron, Jean-Claude; Jäger, Hans R; Werring, David J

    2011-08-01

    Subclinical acute ischaemic lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging have recently been described in spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage, and may be important to understand pathophysiology and guide treatment. The underlying mechanisms are uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that ischaemic lesions are related to magnetic resonance imaging markers of the severity and type of small-vessel disease (hypertensive arteriopathy or cerebral amyloid angiopathy) in a multicentre, cross-sectional study. We studied consecutive patients with intracerebral haemorrhage from four specialist stroke centres, and age-matched stroke service referrals without intracerebral haemorrhage. Acute ischaemic lesions were assessed on magnetic resonance imaging (<3 months after intracerebral haemorrhage) using diffusion-weighted imaging. White matter changes and cerebral microbleeds were rated with validated scales. We investigated associations between diffusion-weighted imaging lesions, clinical and radiological characteristics. We included 114 patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (39 with clinically probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy) and 47 age-matched controls. The prevalence of diffusion-weighted imaging lesions was 9/39 (23%) in probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related intracerebral haemorrhage versus 6/75 (8%) in the remaining patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (P = 0.024); no diffusion-weighted imaging lesions were found in controls. Diffusion-weighted imaging lesions were mainly cortical and were associated with mean white matter change score (odds ratio 1.14 per unit increase, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.28, P = 0.024) and the presence of strictly lobar cerebral microbleeds (odds ratio 3.85, 95% confidence interval 1.15-12.93, P = 0.029). Acute, subclinical ischaemic brain lesions are frequent but previously underestimated after intracerebral haemorrhage, and are three times more common in cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related intracerebral haemorrhage than in

  5. Determinants and Time Trends for Ischaemic and Haemorrhagic Stroke in a Large Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yutao; Wang, Hao; Tao, Tao; Tian, Yingchun; Wang, Yutang; Chen, Yundai; Lip, Gregory Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The clinical epidemiology of stroke has been widely investigated in Caucasian populations, but the changes over time in the proportion of ischaemic to haemorrhagic strokes is less clear, especially in the Chinese population. Aims Our objective was to study the determinants and time trends for ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, in relation to age, in a large Chinese population cohort. Methods Using a medical insurance database in the southwest of China from 2001 to 2012, time trends in age-adjusted ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke incidence and the contributing risk factors associated with age were investigated. Results Among 425,901 individuals without prior stroke (52.4% male, median age 54), the rate of ischaemic stroke (per 1000 patient-years) decreased between 2002–2007, then remained broadly similar between 2008–2012. The rate of haemorrhagic stroke showed a similar trend, being approximately 1.3–1.9 from 2008–2012. Compared to patients age<65, ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke incidences (rate, 95% confidential interval, CI) were higher in the elderly population (age <65 versus age ≥65: ischaemic: 3.64, 3.33–4.00, vs 14.33, 14.01–14.60; haemorrhagic: 1.09, 1.00–1.10 vs 2.52,2.40–2.70, respectively, both p<0.001). There were no significant differences in haemorrhagic stroke rates between the elderly and the very elderly population. Ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke shared similar risk factors (age, hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), vascular disease, and diabetes mellitus) (all p<0.05). In subjects age<75 years, CAD (7.17, 4.14–12.37) and diabetes mellitus (3.27, 2.42–4.42) contributed most to the developing of haemorrhagic stroke (all p<0.001). Amongst the very elderly, vascular disease (2.24, 1.49–3.37) was an additional major risk factor for haemorrhagic stroke, together with CAD and diabetes mellitus (all p<0.001). Conclusion In this large Chinese cohort, there was an increased risk of ischaemic stroke compared

  6. Exosomes in Viral Disease.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Monique R; Kashanchi, Fatah; Jacobson, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Viruses have evolved many mechanisms by which to evade and subvert the immune system to ensure survival and persistence. However, for each method undertaken by the immune system for pathogen removal, there is a counteracting mechanism utilized by pathogens. The new and emerging role of microvesicles in immune intercellular communication and function is no different. Viruses across many different families have evolved to insert viral components in exosomes, a subtype of microvesicle, with many varying downstream effects. When assessed cumulatively, viral antigens in exosomes increase persistence through cloaking viral genomes, decoying the immune system, and even by increasing viral infection in uninfected cells. Exosomes therefore represent a source of viral antigen that can be used as a biomarker for disease and targeted for therapy in the control and eradication of these disorders. With the rise in the persistence of new and reemerging viruses like Ebola and Zika, exploring the role of exosomes become more important than ever. PMID:27324390

  7. Viral Disease Networks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Vidal, Marc; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2010-03-01

    Viral infections induce multiple perturbations that spread along the links of the biological networks of the host cells. Understanding the impact of these cascading perturbations requires an exhaustive knowledge of the cellular machinery as well as a systems biology approach that reveals how individual components of the cellular system function together. Here we describe an integrative method that provides a new approach to studying virus-human interactions and its correlations with diseases. Our method involves the combined utilization of protein - protein interactions, protein -- DNA interactions, metabolomics and gene - disease associations to build a ``viraldiseasome''. By solely using high-throughput data, we map well-known viral associated diseases and predict new candidate viral diseases. We use microarray data of virus-infected tissues and patient medical history data to further test the implications of the viral diseasome. We apply this method to Epstein-Barr virus and Human Papillomavirus and shed light into molecular development of viral diseases and disease pathways.

  8. [Oedema and haemorrhagic diathesis in a 50-year-old woman with thyrotoxicosis].

    PubMed

    Kozlov, A; Joeres, R; Braun, U

    2014-11-01

    We describe the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with tachyarrhythmia, mild fever, peripheral oedema, ascites, epistaxis and gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Blood analysis revealed hyperthyroxinaemia. Analysis of thyroid-stimulating antibodies highlighted Graves' disease being the cause of the prevailing thyrotoxic crisis. Remarkable in this case of thyrotoxicosis is a liver affection without elevated transaminases but disturbed serum protein synthesis leading to hypalbuminaemic oedema and haemorrhagic complications. Thyrostatic treatment led to clinical response.

  9. Retroperitoneal Haematom due to Spontaneous Rupture and Haemorrhage of Adrenal Cyst Presenting with Grey Turner's Sign.

    PubMed

    Sonmez, Bedriye Muge; Yilmaz, Fevzi; Özkan, Fevzi Bircan; Ongar, Murat; Özturk, Derya; Cesur, Fatma

    2015-07-01

    Spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage is a rare entity and a potentially life-threatening condition. A 41-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with left flank pain and dysuria. Her physical examination disclosed left abdominal and costovertebral angle tenderness, left flank ecchymosis (Grey Turner sign). Abdominal computerised tomography revealed spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage. She was discharged after 10 days with recommendation of urology follow-up.

  10. Perimetric demonstration of spontaneous visual field recovery following occipital lobe haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lin, Siying; George, Badie Z; Wilson-Holt, Nicholas J

    2013-08-29

    A 45-year-old patient on lifelong warfarin therapy after a metal aortic valve replacement developed a homonymous visual field defect following an occipital lobe haemorrhage. The patient received only conservative management and yet described continued improvement in her visual field defect for up to 20 months following the initial cerebral insult. We present the first conclusive illustrative documentation of visual recovery in a patient with an occipital lobe haemorrhage with sequential automated perimetric assessments over an extended period of time.

  11. Ischaemic stroke in a 21-year-old with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Kane, Ingrid; Pitt Ford, Alexandra; Lawton, Kirsty; Poitelea, Marius; Gainsborough, Nicola

    2016-10-01

    A 21-year-old man presented with an acute ischaemic stroke. He had a history of epistaxis and a family history of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. We gave thrombolysis after some deliberation, and he made a good neurological recovery. This case highlights the link between hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia and ischaemic stroke, the potential risks of thrombolysis in such patients and the need to consider pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in patients with stroke.

  12. Viral susceptibility of newly established cell lines from the Hawaiian monk seal Monachus schauinslandi.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuanan; Aguirre, A Alonso; Wang, Yun; Zeng, Lingbing; Loh, Philip C; Yanagihara, Richard

    2003-12-29

    Ten of 11 cell lines, recently established from the snout (MS-SN), periorbital soft tissue (MS-EY), liver (MS-LV), kidney (MS-KD), lung (MS-LG), spleen (MS-SP), heart (MS-HT), thyroid (MS-TY), brain (MS-BR) and urinary bladder (MS-UB) of a juvenile Hawaiian monk seal Monachus schauinslandi, were evaluated in vitro for their susceptibility to 5 mammalian viruses: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), reovirus type 3 (Reo-3), poliovirus type 1 (Polio-1) and vaccinia virus (Vac); 5 fish viruses: channel catfish herpesvirus (CCV), infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), fish rhabdovirus carpio (RC) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV); and 2 marine mammal morbilliviruses: phocine distemper virus (PDV) and dolphin distemper virus (DMV). Four well-established continuous cell-lines of nonhuman primate (Vero) and fish (EPC, CHSE-214 and BB) origin served as controls to standardize the virus infectivity assays. Virus yields were quantified as 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) ml(-1) on Day 7 post-inoculation. Results of the viral challenge assays revealed that the monk seal cell lines shared a similar pattern of susceptibility to the mammalian viruses. Despite their different tissue origins, all monk seal cells were sensitive to HSV-1, Vac, VSV and Reo-3, but were refractory to Polio-1. A characteristic viral-induced cytopathic effect was noted with VSV and Reo-3, and distinct plaques were observed for HSV-1 and Vac. Monk seal cell lines were also susceptible to PDV and DMV, 2 morbilliviruses isolated from seals and dolphins, respectively. By contrast, these cell lines were generally resistant to VHSV, IHNV and IPNV, with varying susceptibility to RC and CCV. The wide range of viral susceptibility of these monk seal cell lines suggests their potential value in studying viruses of monk seals and other marine mammals. PMID:14960030

  13. Four dengue virus serotypes found circulating during an outbreak of dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in Jakarta, Indonesia, during 2004.

    PubMed

    Suwandono, Agus; Kosasih, Herman; Nurhayati; Kusriastuti, Rita; Harun, Syahrial; Ma'roef, Chairin; Wuryadi, Suharyono; Herianto, Bambang; Yuwono, Djoko; Porter, Kevin R; Beckett, Charmagne G; Blair, Patrick J

    2006-09-01

    Periodic outbreaks of dengue have emerged in Indonesia since 1968, with the severity of resulting disease increasing in subsequent years. In early 2004, a purported dengue outbreak erupted across the archipelago, with over 50,000 cases and 603 deaths reported. To confirm the disease aetiology and to provide an epidemiological framework of this epidemic, an investigation was conducted in ten hospitals within the capital city of Jakarta. Clinical and laboratory findings were determined from a cohort of 272 hospitalised patients. Exposure to dengue virus was determined in 180 (66.2%) patients. When clinically assessed, 100 (55.6%) of the 180 patients were classified as having dengue fever (DF), 31 (17.2%) as DF with haemorrhagic manifestations and 49 (27.2%) as dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Evidence from haemagglutination inhibition assays suggested that 33/40 (82.5%) of those with DHF from which laboratory evidence was available suffered from a secondary dengue infection. All four dengue viruses were identified upon viral isolation, with DEN-3 being the most predominant serotype recovered, followed by DEN-4, DEN-2 and DEN-1. In summary, the 2004 outbreak of dengue in Jakarta, Indonesia, was characterised by the circulation of multiple virus serotypes and resulted in a relatively high percentage of a representative population of hospitalised patients developing DHF.

  14. UK guidelines on the management of variceal haemorrhage in cirrhotic patients

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Dhiraj; Stanley, Adrian J; Hayes, Peter C; Patch, David; Millson, Charles; Mehrzad, Homoyon; Austin, Andrew; Ferguson, James W; Olliff, Simon P; Hudson, Mark; Christie, John M

    2015-01-01

    These updated guidelines on the management of variceal haemorrhage have been commissioned by the Clinical Services and Standards Committee (CSSC) of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) under the auspices of the liver section of the BSG. The original guidelines which this document supersedes were written in 2000 and have undergone extensive revision by 13 members of the Guidelines Development Group (GDG). The GDG comprises elected members of the BSG liver section, representation from British Association for the Study of the Liver (BASL) and Liver QuEST, a nursing representative and a patient representative. The quality of evidence and grading of recommendations was appraised using the AGREE II tool. The nature of variceal haemorrhage in cirrhotic patients with its complex range of complications makes rigid guidelines inappropriate. These guidelines deal specifically with the management of varices in patients with cirrhosis under the following subheadings: (1) primary prophylaxis; (2) acute variceal haemorrhage; (3) secondary prophylaxis of variceal haemorrhage; and (4) gastric varices. They are not designed to deal with (1) the management of the underlying liver disease; (2) the management of variceal haemorrhage in children; or (3) variceal haemorrhage from other aetiological conditions. PMID:25887380

  15. Electrocardiographic changes in patients with haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Puljiz, Ivan; Kuzman, Ilija; Markotić, Alemka; Turcinov, Drago; Matić, Mladen; Makek, Nikola

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the incidence, type and dynamics of electrocardiography (ECG) alterations in patients with haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) according to different stages of the disease. 79 patients hospitalized at the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Zagreb during the large HFRS outbreak in Croatia in 2002 were retrospectively analysed. HFRS diagnosis was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A 12-lead resting ECG was obtained. 30 (38%) patients had abnormal ECG findings, most frequently in the oliguric stage. Increased levels of urea and creatinine were observed in all patients with abnormal ECG, along with abnormal chest X-ray in nearly 50% of cases. Sinus tachycardia was the most frequent ECG disorder in the febrile stage, and bradycardia in the oliguric stage. During the course of disease, some other ECG disorders were recorded: bundle branch conduction defects, non-specific ventricular repolarization disturbances, supraventricular and ventricular extrasystoles, prolonged QT interval, low voltage of the QRS complexes in standard limb leads, atrioventricular block first-degree, and atrial fibrillation. Myocarditis was present in 3 patients. In conclusion, abnormal ECG was found in more than one-third of HFRS patients with the most common findings during the oliguric stage. All ECG changes were transient. PMID:16138429

  16. Survival of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) in the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Henning, J.; Meers, J.; Davies, P. R.; Morris, R. S.

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the persistence of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) in the environment. Virus was impregnated onto two carrier materials (cotton tape and bovine liver) and exposed to environmental conditions on pasture during autumn in New Zealand. Samples were collected after 1, 10, 44 and 91 days and the viability of the virus was determined by oral inoculation of susceptible 11- to 14-week-old New Zealand White rabbits. Evidence of RHDV infection was based on clinical and pathological signs and/or seroconversion to RHDV. Virus impregnated on cotton tape was viable at 10 days of exposure but not at 44 days, while in bovine liver it was still viable at 91 days. The results of this study suggest that RHDV in animal tissues such as rabbit carcasses can survive for at least 3 months in the field, while virus exposed directly to environmental conditions, such as dried excreted virus, is viable for a period of less than 1 month. Survival of RHDV in the tissues of dead animals could, therefore, provide a persistent reservoir of virus, which could initiate new outbreaks of disease after extended delays. PMID:16050519

  17. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2012-05-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a paediatric disease, the age distribution of dengue has been rising and more cases have been observed in adolescents and adults. Furthermore, the development of tourism in the tropics has led to an increase in the number of tourists who become infected, most of whom are adults. Symptoms and risk factors for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue differ between children and adults, with co-morbidities and incidence in more elderly patients associated with greater risk of mortality. Treatment options for DF and DHF in adults, as for children, centre round fluid replacement (either orally or intravenously, depending on severity) and antipyretics. Further data are needed on the optimal treatment of adult patients.

  18. Bleeding manifestations of dengue haemorrhagic fever in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    George, R; Duraisamy, G

    1981-03-01

    Analysis of the bleeding manifestations of 130 cases of dengue haemorrhagic fever admitted into the Children's ward of the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur from May 1973 to September 1978 has been done. Petechial skin rash, epistaxis and gum bleeding were seen most commonly in mild and moderately severe cases. However, blood stained gastric aspirates, and severe haematemesis were seen in severe or very severe cases. Though with better vector control and preventive measures, a marked reduction in the incidence of the cases has been noted, severe cases were seen with symptoms of shock and gastrointestinal bleeding. These symptoms carried a bad prognosis. Among 15 children that died 10 had gastrointestinal bleeding and 2 had a disseminated intravascular coagulation defect. Lymphocytosis with atypical lymphocytes, low platelet count, low reticulocyte count and raised packed cell volume were the main haematological features seen in all these cases. All these features reverted to normal within a week. Mild evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation was seen in a number of cases, but severe features were seen only in four. Two cases improved as a result of heparin therapy. PMID:6111919

  19. Traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage: a clinicoradiological and TCD correlation.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, R; Sharma, B S; Gupta, S K; Khandelwal, N; Tiwari, M K; Khosla, V K

    2001-06-01

    Twenty five consecutive patients with CT proven pure traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage (tSAH) were studied, prospectively over a 6 month period. They constituted 2% of all head injuries. Most of the patients (88%) had a mild or moderate head injury at the time of admission, with a mean glasgow comma scale (GCS) of 10.68. The CT scan findings were divided into 3 grades. Grade 1 - blood in hemispheric region only (n=4), grade 2 - blood in basal region only (n=11), grade 3 - blood in both hemispheric as well as basal region (n=10). Transcranial doppler ultrasound (TCD) velocities were recorded in all patients by insonating the middle cerebral artery, internal carotid artery and anterior cerebral artery on both sides. All patients were also subjected to digital substraction angiography (DSA). All patients with mild head injury had normal TCD velocity (<100 cm/sec), while TCD velocities of more than 150 cm/sec were seen only in one patient with severe head injury. Patients with severe head injury were found to have grade 3 tSAH on CT. No statistically significant correlation was found between the CT grade and TCD velocities. Angiographic vasospasm was found in 2 patients with severe head injury only. 90.2% of patients had good outcome at discharge. PMID:11447432

  20. Surgical management of postpartum haemorrhage: survey of French obstetricians

    PubMed Central

    Bouet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Brun, Stéphanie; Madar, Hugo; Schinkel, Elsa; Merlot, Benjamin; Sentilhes, Loïc

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the theoretical and practical knowledge of French obstetricians about the surgical management of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Our study is a national anonymous self-administered survey. A total of 363 obstetricians responded to this questionnaire between December 2013 and April 2014. Questionnaire sent through email to all French obstetricians who are members of either of two federations of hospital-based obstetricians. Answers were collected until the end of June 2014. The main outcome measure was obstetricians’ level of mastery of each surgical technique. The results were analysed descriptively (proportions). Only the 286 questionnaires fully completed were analysed; the complete response rate was 23% (286/1246). In all, 33% (95/286) of the responding obstetricians reported that they had not mastered sufficiently or even at all the technique for bilateral ligation of the uterine arteries, 37% (105/286) for uterine compression suture, 62% (178/286) for ligation of the internal iliac arteries, and 47% (134/286) for emergency peripartum hysterectomy. In all, 18% (52/286) of respondents stated that they had not mastered any of these techniques. Our study shows that a worrisome number of French obstetricians reported insufficient mastery of the surgical techniques for PPH management. PMID:27460158

  1. Surgical management of postpartum haemorrhage: survey of French obstetricians.

    PubMed

    Bouet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Brun, Stéphanie; Madar, Hugo; Schinkel, Elsa; Merlot, Benjamin; Sentilhes, Loïc

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the theoretical and practical knowledge of French obstetricians about the surgical management of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Our study is a national anonymous self-administered survey. A total of 363 obstetricians responded to this questionnaire between December 2013 and April 2014. Questionnaire sent through email to all French obstetricians who are members of either of two federations of hospital-based obstetricians. Answers were collected until the end of June 2014. The main outcome measure was obstetricians' level of mastery of each surgical technique. The results were analysed descriptively (proportions). Only the 286 questionnaires fully completed were analysed; the complete response rate was 23% (286/1246). In all, 33% (95/286) of the responding obstetricians reported that they had not mastered sufficiently or even at all the technique for bilateral ligation of the uterine arteries, 37% (105/286) for uterine compression suture, 62% (178/286) for ligation of the internal iliac arteries, and 47% (134/286) for emergency peripartum hysterectomy. In all, 18% (52/286) of respondents stated that they had not mastered any of these techniques. Our study shows that a worrisome number of French obstetricians reported insufficient mastery of the surgical techniques for PPH management. PMID:27460158

  2. Operative interventions in the management of major postpartum haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Keriakos, R; Chaudhuri, S

    2012-01-01

    In many recent studies in the developed world, the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) has been rising, though the mortality has come down, suggesting improvement in the management of this condition. Since the publication of the RCOG guidelines in 2009 for management of PPH and the Sheffield guidelines for the use of Rusch balloon along with the initial small case series (Keriakos and Mukhopadhyay 2006), many units have introduced the guidelines into clinical practice. This has led to the reduction of surgical intervention in our unit. Major PPH accounted for 1.6% of the total deliveries in our hospital. Surgical interventions accounted for 7.8% of these cases and only 0.1% of the total deliveries. Risk factors for PPH were identified in 83%. In this paper, we reviewed the management of all patients who had major PPH and failed medical management over a period of about 4 years. All surgical interventions including Rusch balloon, B-Lynch suture, radiological interventions and hysterectomy were described. An update to Rusch balloon guidelines and Sheffield guidelines for management of major PPH are appended. PMID:22185528

  3. Quality of life and cognitive deficits after subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hütter, B O; Gilsbach, J M; Kreitschmann, I

    1995-01-01

    In a retrospective study of 58 patients after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) with a late result either good (GOS = I) or fair (GOS = II), patients were examined 1-5 years after the acute event for their quality of life including a neuropsychological examination. Cognitive deficits were found in visual short-term memory (46%) and in the three parameters of a reaction-time task ranging from 31 to 65%. Further deficits were found in verbal long-term memory (28%), concentration (5-13%) and language (11%). The quality of life was reduced in the SAH patients according to a self-rating scale in motivation (50%), interests (47%), mental capacity (47%), free-time activities (52%), social relationships (39%), concentration (70%), fine motor co-ordination (25%) and sleep (47%). A further 77% of the patients reported more frequent headaches since their SAH. Depression was found in 30% of the SAH patients. Life-satisfaction was significantly reduced in 37%, whereas 48% of the SAH patients suffered from increased emotional lability and in 41% motivation was significantly reduced. Negative job consequences like loss of job or demotion were reported by 16% of the patients investigated and an additional 15% had been retired. PMID:7576273

  4. Bleeding manifestations of dengue haemorrhagic fever in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    George, R; Duraisamy, G

    1981-03-01

    Analysis of the bleeding manifestations of 130 cases of dengue haemorrhagic fever admitted into the Children's ward of the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur from May 1973 to September 1978 has been done. Petechial skin rash, epistaxis and gum bleeding were seen most commonly in mild and moderately severe cases. However, blood stained gastric aspirates, and severe haematemesis were seen in severe or very severe cases. Though with better vector control and preventive measures, a marked reduction in the incidence of the cases has been noted, severe cases were seen with symptoms of shock and gastrointestinal bleeding. These symptoms carried a bad prognosis. Among 15 children that died 10 had gastrointestinal bleeding and 2 had a disseminated intravascular coagulation defect. Lymphocytosis with atypical lymphocytes, low platelet count, low reticulocyte count and raised packed cell volume were the main haematological features seen in all these cases. All these features reverted to normal within a week. Mild evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation was seen in a number of cases, but severe features were seen only in four. Two cases improved as a result of heparin therapy.

  5. Risk factors for primary postpartum haemorrhage. A case control study.

    PubMed

    Selo-Ojeme, D O; Okonofua, F E

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine which background factors predispose women to primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) at the Obafemi Awolowo University Hospital. The study consisted of 101 women who developed PPH after a normal vaginal delivery and 107 women with normal unassisted vaginal delivery without PPH Both cases and controls were investigated for sociodemographic risk factors, medical and obstetric histories, antenatal events and labour and delivery outcomes. Data were abstracted from the medical and delivery records and risks were estimated by multivariate logistic regression. The results of the univariate analysis revealed a number of potential risk factors for PPH but after adjustment by logistic regression three factors remained significant. These were prolonged second and third stages of labour and non-use of oxytocics after vaginal delivery. Previously hypothesised risk factors for PPH such as grand multiparity, primigravidity and previous episodes of PPH were not significantly associated with PPH. We conclude that primary PPH in this population is mostly associated with prolonged second and third stages of labour and non use of oxytocics. Efforts to reduce the incidence of PPH should not only be directed at proper management of labour but also training and retraining of primary health care workers and alternative health care providers in the early referral of patients with prolonged labour.

  6. Viruses and viral proteins

    PubMed Central

    Verdaguer, Nuria; Ferrero, Diego; Murthy, Mathur R. N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than 30 years X-ray crystallography has been by far the most powerful approach for determining the structures of viruses and viral proteins at atomic resolution. The information provided by these structures, which covers many important aspects of the viral life cycle such as cell-receptor recognition, viral entry, nucleic acid transfer and genome replication, has extensively enriched our vision of the virus world. Many of the structures available correspond to potential targets for antiviral drugs against important human pathogens. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of different structural aspects of the above-mentioned processes. PMID:25485129

  7. Protective effects of a Modified Vaccinia Ankara-based vaccine candidate against Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus require both cellular and humoral responses.

    PubMed

    Dowall, Stuart D; Graham, Victoria A; Rayner, Emma; Hunter, Laura; Watson, Robert; Taylor, Irene; Rule, Antony; Carroll, Miles W; Hewson, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a severe tick-borne disease, endemic in many countries in Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Asia. There is no approved vaccine currently available against CCHF. The most promising candidate, which has previously been shown to confer protection in the small animal model, is a modified Vaccinia Ankara virus vector expressing the CCHF viral glycoprotein (MVA-GP). It has been shown that MVA-GP induces both humoral and cellular immunogenicity. In the present study, sera and T-lymphocytes were passively and adoptively transferred into recipient mice prior to challenge with CCHF virus. Results demonstrated that mediators from both arms of the immune system were required to demonstrate protective effects against lethal challenge.

  8. Protective effects of a Modified Vaccinia Ankara-based vaccine candidate against Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus require both cellular and humoral responses

    PubMed Central

    Dowall, Stuart D.; Graham, Victoria A.; Rayner, Emma; Hunter, Laura; Watson, Robert; Taylor, Irene; Rule, Antony; Carroll, Miles W.; Hewson, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a severe tick-borne disease, endemic in many countries in Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Asia. There is no approved vaccine currently available against CCHF. The most promising candidate, which has previously been shown to confer protection in the small animal model, is a modified Vaccinia Ankara virus vector expressing the CCHF viral glycoprotein (MVA-GP). It has been shown that MVA-GP induces both humoral and cellular immunogenicity. In the present study, sera and T-lymphocytes were passively and adoptively transferred into recipient mice prior to challenge with CCHF virus. Results demonstrated that mediators from both arms of the immune system were required to demonstrate protective effects against lethal challenge. PMID:27272940

  9. Viral infections during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Silasi, Michelle; Cardenas, Ingrid; Kwon, Ja-Young; Racicot, Karen; Aldo, Paula; Mor, Gil

    2015-03-01

    Viral infections during pregnancy have long been considered benign conditions with a few notable exceptions, such as herpes virus. The recent Ebola outbreak and other viral epidemics and pandemics show how pregnant women suffer worse outcomes (such as preterm labor and adverse fetal outcomes) than the general population and non-pregnant women. New knowledge about the ways the maternal-fetal interface and placenta interact with the maternal immune system may explain these findings. Once thought to be 'immunosuppressed', the pregnant woman actually undergoes an immunological transformation, where the immune system is necessary to promote and support the pregnancy and growing fetus. When this protection is breached, as in a viral infection, this security is weakened and infection with other microorganisms can then propagate and lead to outcomes, such as preterm labor. In this manuscript, we review the major viral infections relevant to pregnancy and offer potential mechanisms for the associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25582523

  10. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related Links About VSPB (Viral Special Pathogens Branch) File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  11. VIRAL INFECTIONS DURING PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Silasi, Michelle; Cardenas, Ingrid; Racicot, Karen; Kwon, Ja-Young; Aldo, Paula; Mor, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Viral infections during pregnancy have long been considered benign conditions with a few notable exceptions, such as herpes virus. The recent Ebola outbreak and other viral epidemics and pandemics show how pregnant women suffer worse outcomes (such as preterm labor and adverse fetal outcomes) than the general population and non-pregnant women. New knowledge about the ways the maternal-fetal interface and placenta interact with the maternal immune system may explain these findings. Once thought to be “immunosuppressed”, the pregnant woman actually undergoes an immunological transformation, where the immune system is necessary to promote and support the pregnancy and growing fetus. When this protection is breached, as in a viral infection, this security is weakened and infection with other microorganisms can then propagate and lead to outcomes, such as preterm labor. In this manuscript, we review the major viral infections relevant to pregnancy, and offer potential mechanisms for the associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25582523

  12. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevalent among blacks as among whites. Viral Hepatitis Transmission People can be infected with the three most ... risk for HAV. • • New data suggest that sexual transmission of HCV among MSM with HIV occurs more ...

  13. Viral miRNAs.

    PubMed

    Plaisance-Bonstaff, Karlie; Renne, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Since 2004, more than 200 microRNAs (miRNAs) have been discovered in double-stranded DNA viruses, mainly herpesviruses and polyomaviruses (Nucleic Acids Res 32:D109-D111, 2004). miRNAs are short 22  ±  3 nt RNA molecules that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression by binding to 3'-untranslated regions (3'UTR) of target mRNAs, thereby inducing translational silencing and/or transcript degradation (Nature 431:350-355, 2004; Cell 116:281-297, 2004). Since miRNAs require only limited complementarity for binding, miRNA targets are difficult to determine (Mol Cell 27:91-105, 2007). To date, targets have only been experimentally verified for relatively few viral miRNAs, which either target viral or host cellular gene expression: For example, SV40 and related polyomaviruses encode miRNAs which target viral large T antigen expression (Nature 435:682-686, 2005; J Virol 79:13094-13104, 2005; Virology 383:183-187, 2009; J Virol 82:9823-9828, 2008) and miRNAs of α-, β-, and γ-herpesviruses have been implicated in regulating the transition from latent to lytic gene expression, a key step in the herpesvirus life cycle. Viral miRNAs have also been shown to target various host cellular genes. Although this field is just beginning to unravel the multiple roles of viral miRNA in biology and pathogenesis, the current data strongly suggest that virally encoded miRNAs are able to regulate fundamental biological processes such as immune recognition, promotion of cell survival, angiogenesis, proliferation, and cell differentiation. This chapter aims to summarize our current knowledge of viral miRNAs, their targets and function, and the challenges lying ahead to decipher their role in viral biology, pathogenesis, and for γ-herepsvirus-encoded miRNAs, potentially tumorigenesis. PMID:21431678

  14. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of antibodies to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus and determination of its major structural proteins.

    PubMed

    Rodák, L; Smíd, B; Valícek, L; Veselý, T; Stĕpánek, J; Hampl, J; Jurák, E

    1990-05-01

    An ELISA was developed for the determination of antibodies to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) in whole blood and blood serum of rabbits. Naturally acquired antibodies were detected in 19.4% of blood samples collected from 1461 rabbits in 43 farms apparently free of the disease, 19.7% samples were doubtful and 60.9% of the rabbits were free of antibodies to RHDV. Their presence has a considerable effect on the resistance of rabbits to infection with RHDV. Antibodies were also found in rabbit blood serum samples collected up to 12 years before the first outbreaks of RHD were reported. Up to 14 viral protein antigens were determined by PAGE and Western blot analysis, of which three with Mr values of 61K, 38K and 52K were major proteins, the 61K being dominant. Our hyperimmune sera, a Chinese reference serum and sera with positive antibody titres, including those collected several years before the first outbreaks of RHD, reacted identically with these antigens in the Western blot analysis. The data obtained suggest that naturally acquired antibodies are a product of a specific response to prior infection with an avirulent strain of the virus.

  15. Generation of virus-like particles for emerging epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus: Towards the development of safe vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Alshaikhahmed, Kinda; Roy, Polly

    2016-02-17

    Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is an insect-transmitted pathogen which causes high mortality in deer populations and may also cause high morbidity in cattle. EHDV belongs to the Orbivirus genus and is closely related to the prototype Bluetongue virus (BTV). To date seven distinct serotypes have been recognized. However, a live-attenuated vaccine is commercially available against only one serotype namely EHDV-2, which has been responsible for multiple outbreaks in North America, Canada, Asia and Australia. Here we expressed four major capsid proteins (VP2, VP3, VP5 and VP7) of EHDV-1 using baculovirus multiple gene expression systems and demonstrated that three-layered VLPs were assembled mimicking the authentic EHDV particles but lacking the viral genomic RNA segments and the transcriptase complex (TC). Antibodies generated with VLPs not only neutralized EHDV-1 infection in cell culture but also showed cross neutralizing reactivity against two other serotypes, EHDV-2 and EHDV-6. For proof of concept, we demonstrated that EHDV-2 VLPs could be generated rapidly by expressing the EHDV-2 variable outer capsid proteins (VP2, VP5) together with EHDV-1 VP3 and VP7, the two inner capsid proteins, which are highly conserved among the 7 serotypes. Data presented in this study validate the VLPs as a potential vaccine and demonstrate that a vaccine could be developed rapidly in the event of an outbreak of a new serotype.

  16. Transmission of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in china and the role of climate factors: a review.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Alana; Cameron, Scott; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Williams, Craig; Han, Gil-Soo; Bi, Peng

    2015-04-01

    Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a rodent-borne disease that poses a serious public health threat in China. HFRS is caused by hantaviruses, mainly Seoul virus in urban areas and Hantaan virus in agricultural areas. Although preventive measures including vaccination programs and rodent control measures have resulted in a decline in cases in recent years, there has been an increase in incidence in some areas and new endemic areas have emerged. This review summarises the recent literature relating to the effects of climatic factors on the incidence of HFRS in China and discusses future research directions. Temperature, precipitation and humidity affect crop yields, rodent breeding patterns and disease transmission, and these can be influenced by a changing climate. Detailed surveillance of infections caused by Hantaan and Seoul viruses and further research on the viral agents will aid in interpretation of spatiotemporal patterns and a better understanding of the environmental and ecological drivers of HFRS amid China's rapidly urbanising landscape and changing climate. PMID:25704595

  17. Hepatitis of viral origin in Leporidae: introduction and aetiological hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Morisse, J P; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E

    1991-06-01

    In less than ten years, two very serious viral hepatic diseases have spread through Leporidae populations (rabbits and hares) in numerous countries. In May 1989, the Office International des Epizooties designated this new disease of rabbits "viral haemorrhagic disease" and entered it as a List B disease in the International Animal Health Code. Clinically, the disease is very similar to the European brown hare syndrome. However, numerous uncertainties prevail today on the true nature of the viruses of the two species. Although they are related, the viruses appear to be different and cross infection between species has given contradictory results. Hepatitis of Leporidae have probably existed in Europe for several years, although their viral aetiology has been demonstrated only recently. The acute form has occurred in hares in Northern Europe since approximately 1980, while the inapparent (or ignored) form has been present in rabbits in Czechoslovakia since 1975. These diseases of Leporidae are true viral hepatitis which, in their fulminating forms, bear a remarkable resemblance to human viral hepatitis (B and non-A non-B) with regard to clinical symptoms, pathological lesions and mode of transmission. The dominant faecal-oral transmission observed for types A and E hepatitis would explain the particular susceptibility of family-kept rabbits, as they are fed potentially contaminated fodder. As the clinically similar fulminating hepatitis in human beings is caused by a diversity of viruses (both RNA and DNA), the disease in Leporidae might also be caused by different viruses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1760579

  18. Emerging viral infections with special reference to India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, K

    1996-04-01

    An emerging viral infection may be a totally new disease with undescribed symptomatology as it was in the case of Kyasanur forest disease in Karnataka, but more often it is an introduction of a known or little known disease in an area where the disease did not occur earlier e.g. yellow fever in Kenya or Rift valley fever in Egypt. The virus may show altered degree of virulence due to many changing factors as in the case of the different haemorrhagic fevers. Many factors may contribute to the emergence of viral infections which may be genetic exchanges or mutations; adaptation to new hosts or vectors; and changed social patterns of humans like urbanization, rapid transport, trade, migration of people or of vectors, strain on civic facilities or changing moral values and life-styles. Large scale changes in ecology due to global warming, deforestation or afforestation, building of dams or canals, changed agricultural practices, rearing of livestock or birds may also contribute to emergence of viral diseases. A number of emergent virus infections relatively important to India have been discussed. To combat emergent virus infections, a comprehensive strategy needs to be evolved. A national viral surveillance system needs to be established. Epidemiology of virus diseases needs to be studied in depth. Development of diagnostic reagents and their supply to investigating centres, a Central serum bank, and a virus respository are important factors. Research and development on viruses, as regards the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis and vaccinology of virus infections need to be strengthened. An international network of databases of virus infections needs to be instituted. A global network for the diagnosis and containment of emerging viral diseases is advocated.

  19. Intra-alveolar haemorrhage in sudden infant death syndrome: a cause for concern?

    PubMed Central

    Yukawa, N; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Green, M A

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The "Back to Sleep" campaign in 1991 resulted in a dramatic decrease in the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The proportion of presumed SIDS deaths being actually suspicious deaths from airway obstruction is likely to have become relatively greater. There is usually little pathological evidence to suggest smothering, but intra-alveolar haemorrhage appears to be more prominent in cases where interference with the airway is suspected. AIM: To attempt to quantify intra-alveolar haemorrhage to see whether it could be used as a marker to distinguish between smothering/overlaying and SIDS. METHODS: Intra-alveolar haemorrhage was quantified using digital image analysis on haematoxylin/eosin stained sections taken from the lungs of 62 consecutive infants who had died suddenly and unexpectedly. Cases were initially classified according to the original cause of death. After quantitation, the case histories were critically reviewed. Three pathologists independently made microscopic assessments of the degree of intra-alveolar haemorrhage in the first 24 cases to see whether these accurately reflected the quantitative results. RESULTS: 73% of those infants with a history suggesting possible involuntary overlaying and 45% of those with a history suspicious of smothering had significant intra-alveolar haemorrhage (> 5% of total lung surface area assessed). From the history, the cause of death in 11 cases initially classified as SIDS would better have been given as "Unascertained." Simple microscopic assessments underestimated the true extent of the haemorrhage in 33% (8/24). CONCLUSIONS: If a moderate degree (at least 5%) of pulmonary parenchymal haemorrhage is observed, this may be an indicator of airway obstruction for a significant period, either from overlaying or possibly smothering. The diagnosis of SIDS may be being used inappropriately in such cases. Images PMID:10645227

  20. NCBI viral genomes resource.

    PubMed

    Brister, J Rodney; Ako-Adjei, Danso; Bao, Yiming; Blinkova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological innovations have ignited an explosion in virus genome sequencing that promises to fundamentally alter our understanding of viral biology and profoundly impact public health policy. Yet, any potential benefits from the billowing cloud of next generation sequence data hinge upon well implemented reference resources that facilitate the identification of sequences, aid in the assembly of sequence reads and provide reference annotation sources. The NCBI Viral Genomes Resource is a reference resource designed to bring order to this sequence shockwave and improve usability of viral sequence data. The resource can be accessed at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/viruses/ and catalogs all publicly available virus genome sequences and curates reference genome sequences. As the number of genome sequences has grown, so too have the difficulties in annotating and maintaining reference sequences. The rapid expansion of the viral sequence universe has forced a recalibration of the data model to better provide extant sequence representation and enhanced reference sequence products to serve the needs of the various viral communities. This, in turn, has placed increased emphasis on leveraging the knowledge of individual scientific communities to identify important viral sequences and develop well annotated reference virus genome sets.

  1. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants. PMID:25962882

  2. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants.

  3. A peptide targeted against phosphoprotein and leader RNA interaction inhibits growth of Chandipura virus -- an emerging rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arunava; Chakraborty, Prasenjit; Polley, Smarajit; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Roy, Siddhartha

    2013-11-01

    The fatal illness caused by Chandipura virus (CHPV), an emerging pathogen, presently lacks any therapeutic option. Previous research suggested that interaction between the virally encoded phosphoprotein (P) and the positive sense leader RNA (le-RNA) may play an important role in the viral lifecycle. In this report, we have identified a β-sheet/loop motif in the C-terminal domain of the CHPV P protein as essential for this interaction. A synthetic peptide encompassing this motif and spanning a continuous stretch of 36 amino acids (Pep208-243) was found to bind the le-RNA in vitro and inhibit CHPV growth in infected cells. Furthermore, a stretch of three amino acid residues at position 217-219 was identified as essential for this interaction, both in vitro and in infected cells. siRNA knockdown-rescue experiments demonstrated that these three amino acid residues are crucial for the leader RNA binding function of P protein in the CHPV life cycle. Mutations of these three amino acid residues render the peptide completely ineffective against CHPV. Effect of inhibition of phosphoprotein-leader RNA interaction on viral replication was assayed. Peptide Pep208-243 tagged with a cell penetrating peptide was found to inhibit CHPV replication as ascertained by real time RT-PCR. The specific inhibition of viral growth observed using this peptide suggests a new possibility for designing of anti-viral agents against Mononegavirale group of human viruses.

  4. Massive haemorrhage in liver transplantation: Consequences, prediction and management.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Stuart; Corredor, Carlos; Ye, Jia Jia; Srinivas, Coimbatore; McCluskey, Stuart A

    2016-06-24

    From its inception the success of liver transplantation has been associated with massive blood loss. Massive transfusion is classically defined as > 10 units of red blood cells within 24 h, but describing transfusion rates over a shorter period of time may reduce the potential for survival bias. Both massive haemorrhage and transfusion are associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity (need for dialysis/surgical site infection) following liver transplantation although causality is difficult to prove due to the observational design of most trials. The blood loss associated with liver transplantation is multifactorial. Portal hypertension secondary to cirrhosis results in extensive collateral circulation, which can bleed during hepatectomy particular if portal pressures are increased. Avoiding volume loading and maintenance of a low central venous pressure together with the use of vasopressors have been shown to reduce blood loss and transfusion during liver transplantation, but may increase the risk of renal impairment post-operatively. Coagulation defects may be present pre-transplant, but haemostasis is often re-balanced due to a deficit in both pro- and anti-coagulation factors. Further derangement of haemostasis may develop in the anhepatic and neohepatic phases due to absent hepatic metabolic function, hyperfibrinolysis and platelet sequestration in the donor liver. Point-of-care tests of coagulation such as the viscoelastic tests rotation thromboelastometry/thromboelastometry allow and more accurate and rapid assessment of these derangements in coagulation and guide the use of factor replacement and antifibrinolytics. Transfusion protocols guided by these tests have been shown to reduce transfusion rates compared with conventional coagulation tests, but have not shown improvements in mortality or morbidity. Pre-operative factors associated with massive transfusion include previous surgery, re-do transplantation, the aetiology and severity of liver

  5. Massive haemorrhage in liver transplantation: Consequences, prediction and management

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, Stuart; Corredor, Carlos; Ye, Jia Jia; Srinivas, Coimbatore; McCluskey, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    From its inception the success of liver transplantation has been associated with massive blood loss. Massive transfusion is classically defined as > 10 units of red blood cells within 24 h, but describing transfusion rates over a shorter period of time may reduce the potential for survival bias. Both massive haemorrhage and transfusion are associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity (need for dialysis/surgical site infection) following liver transplantation although causality is difficult to prove due to the observational design of most trials. The blood loss associated with liver transplantation is multifactorial. Portal hypertension secondary to cirrhosis results in extensive collateral circulation, which can bleed during hepatectomy particular if portal pressures are increased. Avoiding volume loading and maintenance of a low central venous pressure together with the use of vasopressors have been shown to reduce blood loss and transfusion during liver transplantation, but may increase the risk of renal impairment post-operatively. Coagulation defects may be present pre-transplant, but haemostasis is often re-balanced due to a deficit in both pro- and anti-coagulation factors. Further derangement of haemostasis may develop in the anhepatic and neohepatic phases due to absent hepatic metabolic function, hyperfibrinolysis and platelet sequestration in the donor liver. Point-of-care tests of coagulation such as the viscoelastic tests rotation thromboelastometry/thromboelastometry allow and more accurate and rapid assessment of these derangements in coagulation and guide the use of factor replacement and antifibrinolytics. Transfusion protocols guided by these tests have been shown to reduce transfusion rates compared with conventional coagulation tests, but have not shown improvements in mortality or morbidity. Pre-operative factors associated with massive transfusion include previous surgery, re-do transplantation, the aetiology and severity of liver

  6. Intracranial haemorrhage among a population of haemophilic patients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Antunes, S V; Vicari, P; Cavalheiro, S; Bordin, J O

    2003-09-01

    Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in haemophilic patients. The overall incidence of ICH has been reported to range from 2.2% to 7.5% in patients with haemophilia. From 1987 to 2001, 401 haemophilic patients from the Serviço de Hemofilia, Disciplina de Hematologia e Hemoterapia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo were evaluated. The episodes of ICH were documented by CT scan and the anatomic location, clinical presentation, relationship to trauma and clinical factors, including the presence of HIV infection and the presence of inhibitor, were reviewed. Among 401 haemophilic patients, 45 ICH episodes in 35 (8.7%) patients with age ranging from 4 days to 49 years (mean 10.6 years) were observed. A history of recent trauma was documented in 24 (53.3%) cases. Seventeen (37.8%) episodes occurred in more than one site of bleeding, 12 (26.7%) were subdural, seven (15.5%) subarachnoid, four (8.9%) epidural, two (4.4%) intracerebral and one (2.2%) intraventricular. The most frequent symptoms were headache and drowsiness. All patients were submitted to replacement therapy and neurosurgical intervention was performed in eight (17.8%) patients. Despite the treatment, three (8.6%) haemophilia A patients died due to the ICH event and three presented late sequelae. The most important aspect of ICH management is the early replacement therapy in haemophilic patients. This prompt treatment will increase the chances of a better prognosis. Another impact measure consists in the administration of the deficient coagulation factor after every head trauma, even when considered minor.

  7. Acute intracerebral haemorrhage: grounds for optimism in management.

    PubMed

    Delcourt, Candice; Anderson, Craig

    2012-12-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most devastating types of stroke, which has considerable disease burden in "non-white" ethnic groups where the population-attributable risks of elevated blood pressure are very high. Since the treatment of ICH remains largely supportive and expectant, nihilism and the early withdrawal of active therapy influence management decisions in clinical practice. However, approaches to management are now better defined on the basis of evidence that both survival and speed (and degree) of recovery are critically dependent on the location, size, and degree of expansion and extension into the intraventricular system of the haematoma of the ICH. Although no medical treatment has been shown to improve outcome in ICH, several promising avenues have emerged that include haemostatic therapy and intensive control of elevated blood pressure. Conversely, there is continued controversy over the role of evacuation of the haematoma of ICH via open craniotomy. Despite being an established practice for several decades, and having undergone evaluation in multiple randomised trials, there is uncertainty over which patients have the most to gain from an intervention with clear procedural risk. Minimally invasive surgery via local anaesthetic applied drill-puncture of the cranium and infusion of a thrombolytic agent is an attractive option for patients requiring critical management of the haematoma, not just in low resource settings but arguably also in specialist centres of western countries. With several ongoing clinical trials nearing completion, these treatments could enter routine practice within the next few years, further justifying the urgency of "time is brain" and that active management within well-organized, comprehensive acute stroke care units includes patients with ICH. PMID:23088860

  8. Dengue haemorrhagic fever and Japanese B encephalitis in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nathin, M A; Harun, S R; Sumarmo

    1988-09-01

    Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) was first recognized in Indonesia in the cities of Jakarta and Surabaya in 1968, 15 years after its recognition in the Philippines. During the 1968 outbreak, a total of 58 clinical cases with 24 deaths were reported. The number of reported cases since then has increased sharply, with the highest number of cases recorded in the years 1973 (10,189 cases), 1983 (13,668 cases), and 1985 (13,588 cases). Outbreaks of the disease have spread to involve most of the major urban areas, as well as some of the rural areas. In 1985, the disease had spread to 26 of 27 Provinces and 160 of 300 regencies of municipalities. At present, the disease is endemic in many large cities and small towns. Interestingly, DHF has not been reported in some cities, even though dengue virus transmission rates in those cities are high. The epidemic pattern of DHF for the country as a whole has become irregular. Since 1982, the intensity and spread of DHF has created an increasing public health problem in Indonesia, particularly in Java where 60% of the total population of the country resides. Java contributed about 71% of all cases occurring in the country in 1982, 84% in 1983, and 91% in 1984. The peak monthly incidence of DHF was frequently reported during October through April, months which coincide with the rainy season. The morbidity rate for Indonesia, estimated from reported cases over five years (1981-1985), ranged between 3.39 to 8.65 per 100,000 population. The overall case fatality rate has steadily declined from 41.3% in 1968 to 3% in 1984.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever: history and current status.

    PubMed

    Gubler, Duane J

    2006-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is an old disease; the first record of a clinically compatible disease being recorded in a Chinese medical encyclopaedia in 992. As the global shipping industry expanded in the 18th and 19th centuries, port cities grew and became more urbanized, creating ideal conditions for the principal mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. Both the mosquitoes and the viruses were thus spread to new geographic areas causing major epidemics. Because dispersal was by sailing ship, however, there were long intervals (10-40 years) between epidemics. In the aftermath of World War II, rapid urbanization in Southeast Asia led to increased transmission and hyperendemicity. The first major epidemics of the severe and fatal form of disease, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), occurred in Southeast Asia as a direct result of this changing ecology. In the last 25 years of the 20th century, a dramatic global geographic expansion of epidemic DF/DHF occurred, facilitated by unplanned urbanization in tropical developing countries, modern transportation, lack of effective mosquito control and globalization. As we go into the 21st century, epidemic DF/DHF is one of the most important infectious diseases affecting tropical urban areas. Each year there are an estimated 50-100 million dengue infections, 500000 cases of DHF that must be hospitalized and 20000-25 000 deaths, mainly in children. Epidemic DF/DHF has an economic impact on the community of the same order of magnitude as malaria and other important infectious diseases. There are currently no vaccines nor antiviral drugs available for dengue viruses; the only effective way to prevent epidemic DF/DHF is to control the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti.

  10. Haemorrhagic disease of the newborn in the British Isles: two year prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    McNinch, A W; Tripp, J H

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the incidence of haemorrhagic disease of the newborn in the British Isles, study risk factors, and examine the effect of vitamin K prophylaxis. DESIGN--Prospective survey of all possible cases of haemorrhagic disease of the newborn as reported by consultant paediatricians using the monthly notification cards of the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit and a follow up questionnaire for each case to validate the diagnosis and accrue further data. SETTING--Britain (England, Scotland, and Wales) and Ireland (Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic) during December 1987 to March 1990. PATIENTS--27 infants classified as having confirmed (n = 25) or probable (n = 2) haemorrhagic disease of the newborn. RESULTS--24 of the 27 infants were solely breast fed. 10 suffered intracranial haemorrhage; two of these died and there was clinical concern about the remainder. 20 infants had received no vitamin K prophylaxis, and seven had received oral prophylaxis. Relative risk ratios for these groups compared with babies who had received intramuscular vitamin K were 81:1 and 13:1 respectively. Six infants had hepatitis (alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency in four), unsuspected until presentation with haemorrhagic disease of the newborn, of whom four had received oral prophylaxis. One other baby had prolonged jaundice. One mother had taken phenytoin during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS--All newborn infants should receive vitamin K prophylaxis. Intramuscular vitamin K is more effective than oral prophylactic regimens currently used in the British Isles. PMID:1747578

  11. ECMO Rescue Therapy in Diffuse Alveolar Haemorrhage: A Case Report with Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Gautam; Kumar, Raj; Yadav, Sankalp

    2016-06-01

    Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) has evolved as a treatment option for patients having potentially reversible severe respiratory failure who are deteriorating on conventional ventilation. During ECMO, systemic anticoagulation is needed to maintain patency of the circuit. Therefore, ongoing haemorrhage remains a relative contra-indication to ECMO as it can further increase the bleeding. There is only limited evidence available for the use of ECMO in patients with alveolar haemorrhage. Most of these patients did not receive any anticoagulation during ECMO. We describe our experience with a patient who received intravenous anticoagulation during ECMO for refractory hypoxemic respiratory failure due to Diffuse Alveolar Haemorrhage (DAH) associated with Granulomatosis polyangitis (Wegner's GPA). ECMO sustained life by maintaining gas exchange support and provided the time for the immunotherapy to be effective. We report the successful use of anticoagulation during ECMO in a patient with DAH. PMID:27504336

  12. Dating of Acute and Subacute Subdural Haemorrhage: A Histo-Pathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Murali G; Vashista, Rakesh Kumar; Sharma, Suresh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Microscopic study of the organization of the Subdural Haemorrhage (SDH) verified against the time period can help us in the determination of its age which has serious medico-legal implications. Very few studies concerning the dating of SDH are present in the literature. Aim This study was conducted for dating the early subdural haemorrhage by routine histopathological stains. Materials and Methods A prospective analytical study was conducted during July 2009 to December 2010. A total of 100 cases (50 males and 50 females) fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in this study. Routine histopathological staining of the subdural haematoma was done. Results Correlation between the frequency of a given histomorphological phenomenon and the length of the Post-Traumatic Interval (PTI) was evidential. All the histomorphological features, when correlated with PTI groups, were found to be statistically significant, except for Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes (PMN). Conclusion We concluded that routine histopathology was reliable in the dating of early subdural haemorrhages.

  13. ECMO Rescue Therapy in Diffuse Alveolar Haemorrhage: A Case Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raj; Yadav, Sankalp

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) has evolved as a treatment option for patients having potentially reversible severe respiratory failure who are deteriorating on conventional ventilation. During ECMO, systemic anticoagulation is needed to maintain patency of the circuit. Therefore, ongoing haemorrhage remains a relative contra-indication to ECMO as it can further increase the bleeding. There is only limited evidence available for the use of ECMO in patients with alveolar haemorrhage. Most of these patients did not receive any anticoagulation during ECMO. We describe our experience with a patient who received intravenous anticoagulation during ECMO for refractory hypoxemic respiratory failure due to Diffuse Alveolar Haemorrhage (DAH) associated with Granulomatosis polyangitis (Wegner’s GPA). ECMO sustained life by maintaining gas exchange support and provided the time for the immunotherapy to be effective. We report the successful use of anticoagulation during ECMO in a patient with DAH. PMID:27504336

  14. Acute Kidney Injury is More Common in Acute Haemorrhagic Stroke in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ray, N C; Chowdhury, M A; Sarkar, S R

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after acute stroke and is an independent predictor of both early and long-term mortality after acute stroke. Acute kidney injury is associated with increased mortality in haemorrhagic stroke patients. This cross sectional observational study was conducted in Nephrology, Neuromedicine and Medicine department of Mymensingh Medical College & Hospital, Mymensingh from July 2012 to June 2014. A total of 240 patients with newly detected acute stroke confirmed by CT scan of brain were included in this study. According to this study, 15.42% of acute stroke patients developed AKI. Among the patients with haemorrhagic stroke 21.87% developed AKI while only 13.07% patients with ischaemic stroke developed AKI. So, early diagnosis and management of AKI in patients with acute stroke especially in haemorrhagic stroke is very important to reduce the morbidity and mortality of these patients. PMID:26931240

  15. Adrenal haemorrhage with cholestasis and adrenal crisis in a newborn of a diabetic mother.

    PubMed

    Koklu, Esad; Kurtoglu, Selim; Akcakus, Mustafa; Koklu, Selmin

    2007-03-01

    The large hyperaemic foetal adrenal gland is vulnerable to vascular damage. This may occur in the neonatal period as a consequence of difficult labour, or its aetiology may not be apparent. The spectrum of presentation is considerable, ranging from asymptomatic to severe life-threatening intra-abdominal haemorrhage. The presentation of adrenal insufficiency may be delayed but the regenerative capacity of the adrenal is great, and most adrenal haemorrhage is not associated with significantly impaired function. Some reports showed that cholestatic hepatopathy with congenital hypopituitarism reversed by hydrocortisone treatment is considered in the context of the endocrine syndrome, probably as a consequence of the adrenal failure. We describe a case of bilateral adrenal haemorrhage with hepatitis syndrome and persistent hypoglycaemia in a newborn male with striking features of neonatal cholestasis and adrenal crisis.

  16. Dengue haemorrhagic fever outbreak in October-November 1996 in Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, H; Prabhakar, H; Mathew, P; Marshalla, R; Arya, M

    1997-07-01

    An epidemic of haemorrhagic fever broke out in Ludhiana in October and November 1996. Persons of all age groups were affected with preponderance of young adults. Haemorrhagic manifestations like rashes, epistaxis, bleeding from the gums and haematemesis were observed. The cause of fever was investigated. Serum samples collected at random from 71 patients were tested by ELISA for dengue types 1-4 IgM antibodies. These were positive in 96.7 per cent of cases. Immunoblot testing for IgM and IgG for all serotypes of dengue virus were positive in 90.2 and 73.2 per cent of the serum samples respectively. The haemorrhagic fever was serologically proven to be due to dengue virus.

  17. Mosquito-borne haemorrhagic fevers of South and South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Halstead, S B

    1966-01-01

    During the past decade outbreaks of a severe haemorrhagic disease caused by dengue viruses of multiple types have been reported in the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Viet-Nam and eastern India. In many of these outbreaks chikungunya virus, a group A arbovirus, was simultaneously the cause of similar but probably milder disease. Both these viruses appear to be able to be able to produce classical dengue fever in some individuals and disease with haemorrhagic manifestations in others. Because of the growing public health importance and the progressive spread of this disease a unified review of its clinical and epidemiological features has been needed. This paper presents the history and salient clinical features of mosquito-borne haemorrhagic fever and summarizes recent epidemiological studies and current diagnostic and control methods.

  18. Dengue type 1 epidemic with haemorrhagic manifestations in Fiji, 1989-90.

    PubMed

    Fagbami, A H; Mataika, J U; Shrestha, M; Gubler, D J

    1995-01-01

    A dengue type 1 epidemic occurred in Fiji between July 1989 and July 1990. Virus isolation in C6/36 cell cultures and Toxorhynchites mosquitos yielded 36 strains. Of the 3686 cases recorded by the Ministry of Health, 60% involved indigenous Fijians and 37%, Indians. A house-to-house survey revealed that a large majority of patients had classical dengue symptoms and 8% reported haemorrhagic manifestations. Among the children and adults hospitalized for dengue, 43% had haemorrhagic manifestations, including epistaxis, gingival bleeding, haematemesis, melaena and haematuria. A total of 15 patients with haemorrhagic manifestations and/or shock died, 10 of whom were aged 0-15 years; the diagnoses were confirmed in four cases by virus isolation or serology.

  19. An epidemic of dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome in Delhi: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, V K; Suri, S; Bhasin, A; Srivastava, L; Bharadwaj, M

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four cases of dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome were studied in Delhi in the months of September and October, 1988. The majority of these cases were boys aged 6-10 years. Classical symptoms of dengue (fever, headache, aesthesia, myalgia) occurred in all the patients. Digestive symptoms (nausea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal pain and hepatomegaly) were also common. Haemorrhagic manifestations were present in 41.7% of the cases. Of these, 90% had gastrointestinal haemorrhages. Shock occurred in 17 cases (70.8%). Thrombocytopenia and prolongation of coagulation profile were found in 62.5% of cases. Three patients (12.5%) who presented with encephalopathy died. The other 21 patients recovered after an average period of 2-8 days.

  20. Nosocomial viral respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Graman, P S; Hall, C B

    1989-12-01

    Nosocomial infections with respiratory tract viruses, particularly influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses, account for the majority of serious nosocomial viral disease. Chronically ill, immunocompromised, elderly, and very young hosts are especially vulnerable to potentially life-threatening involvement of the lower respiratory tract. Effective preventive strategies are based upon early accurate viral diagnosis and an appreciation of the epidemiology and mechanisms of transmission for each viral agent. Influenza viruses spread via airborne dispersion of small particle aerosols, resulting in explosive outbreaks; control measures emphasize immunization and chemoprophylaxis of susceptible patients and personnel, and isolation of those already infected. Transmission of respiratory syncytial virus, in contrast, seems to require closer contact, with virus passed on hands, fomites, or in large droplets inoculated into the eyes and nose at close range. Strategies for control of nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus are designed to interrupt hand carriage and inoculation of virus onto mucous membranes.

  1. Viral hepatitis: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Satsangi, Sandeep; Chawla, Yogesh K

    2016-07-01

    Viral hepatitis is a cause for major health care burden in India and is now equated as a threat comparable to the "big three" communicable diseases - HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Hepatitis A virus and Hepatitis E virus are predominantly enterically transmitted pathogens and are responsible to cause both sporadic infections and epidemics of acute viral hepatitis. Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus are predominantly spread via parenteral route and are notorious to cause chronic hepatitis which can lead to grave complications including cirrhosis of liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. Around 400 million people all over the world suffer from chronic hepatitis and the Asia-Pacific region constitutes the epicentre of this epidemic. The present article would aim to cover the basic virologic aspects of these viruses and highlight the present scenario of viral hepatitis in India. PMID:27546957

  2. Modeling Viral Capsid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    I present a review of the theoretical and computational methodologies that have been used to model the assembly of viral capsids. I discuss the capabilities and limitations of approaches ranging from equilibrium continuum theories to molecular dynamics simulations, and I give an overview of some of the important conclusions about virus assembly that have resulted from these modeling efforts. Topics include the assembly of empty viral shells, assembly around single-stranded nucleic acids to form viral particles, and assembly around synthetic polymers or charged nanoparticles for nanotechnology or biomedical applications. I present some examples in which modeling efforts have promoted experimental breakthroughs, as well as directions in which the connection between modeling and experiment can be strengthened. PMID:25663722

  3. Comparative distribution of petechial haemorrhages as a function of aircraft cockpit geometry.

    PubMed

    Whinnery, J E

    1987-07-01

    One of the stresses to which aircrew are subjected in a modern highly manoeuvrable military aircraft is produced by high-speed turns; the resultant elevated G forces may cause petechial haemorrhages, particularly in the lower limbs. Since an aeroplane is an inconvenient laboratory, the mechanisms responsible for these haemorrhages are best investigated by elevated G forces produced in a human centrifuge on the ground, where a similar stress produces the same kind of haemorrhage. Such physical stimuli are in effect a modification of the normal terrestrial gravitational force (a force which under normal conditions is assumed to be +1 G) acting in a + Gz (head to foot) direction. The distribution of petechial haemorrhages is determined by a number of factors, including cockpit configuration. Differences in the distribution of petechial haemorrhages in the F-15 and F-16 aircraft (12 degrees tilt-back seat and 30 degrees tilt-back seat with elevation of the heel, respectively) lend an insight into those body areas where there is inadequate protection. The phenomenon usually begins to develop in healthy individuals at approximately +5 Gz (head to foot), with virtually everyone having petechial haemorrhages at +9 Gz. The kinetics of +Gz -induced petechiasis is interesting, because individuals develop an acclimatized resistance to these formations, whose exact aetiology is unknown; whether or not the petechiae are due to rupture of susceptible capillaries or to diapedesis is also unknown. Stasis and pooling of blood in the lower limbs play a specific role in the petechial formation; it is not only the +Gz stress, but also the protective equipment and techniques which determine the extent and magnitude of the petechiasis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Physical activity and subarachnoid haemorrhage: a population based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Fann, J; Kukull, W; Katon, W; Longstreth, W

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate physical activity as a risk factor for subarachnoid haemorrhage.
METHODS—A population based case-control study in King County, Washington. A standardised, personal interview was used to determine physical activity during the past year and at the onset of the bleed for case patients and a similar reference time for control subjects. Conditional logistic regression and a case cross over analysis were performed in which each case patient served as his or her own control. Subjects were 149 men and women with incident, spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage and two control subjects per case patient. Control subjects were identified through random digit dialing and matched on age, sex, and respondent type.
RESULTS—Four of the 149 (2.7%) case patients were engaged in vigorous physical activity at the time of their subarachnoid haemorrhage. With those who were engaged in non-vigorous or no physical activity serving as the reference group, the relative risk of sustaining a subarachnoid haemorrhage for those engaged in vigorous physical activity was 11.6 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.2-113.2). In the case cross over analysis, the relative risk was 15.0 (95% CI 4.3-52.2). Higher levels of long term regular physical activity over the past year were associated with a lower, but not statistically significant, risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage (test for trend, p=0.3).
CONCLUSION—The risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage is increased during vigorous physical activity, although only a few result from this mechanism.

 PMID:11080229

  5. Viral vaccines: selected topics.

    PubMed

    Kańtoch, M

    1996-01-01

    Significant role of viruses in pathology, their dominating position in etiology of infectious diseases point at the special position of active prophylactic procedures based on vaccination. The real role and value of viral vaccines of classic and modern generations, the limitation of immune potency in suppression of defence mechanisms, some problems of immunization against virus vertical transmission are presented in the paper. The reader may find tables which cumulate selected but significant patterns of viral vaccines and vaccinations, and selected papers devoted to topics discussed. PMID:9017153

  6. Viral meningitis and encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Tuppeny, Misti

    2013-09-01

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, whereas encephalitis is inflammation of the parenchymal brain tissue. The single distinguishing element between the 2 diagnoses is the altered state of consciousness, focal deficits, and seizures found in encephalitis. Consequently meningoencephalitis is a term used when both findings are present in the patient. Viral meningitis is not necessarily reported as it is often underdiagnosed, whereas encephalitis cases are on the increase in various areas of North America. Improved imaging and viral diagnostics, as well as enhanced neurocritical care management, have improved patient outcomes to date.

  7. Viral infections in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Marlier, D; Vindevogel, H

    2006-07-01

    This review provides a current update on the major viral diseases of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica), based on scientific reports and clinical experience. Paramyxovirus 1, adenovirus, rotavirus, herpesvirus 1, poxvirus and circovirus infections are described according to common clinical signs and target tissues. Since pigeons are sometimes treated as if they were poultry, the review also summarises the common viral infections of poultry for which pigeons are considered resistant. It is hoped that the review will provide a useful reference for veterinarians and others and offer advice on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the major infectious diseases of pigeons.

  8. Failure of Viral Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, William S.; Bruinsma, Robijn F.; Michel, Jean-Philippe; Knobler, Charles M.; Ivanovska, Irena L.; Schmidt, Christoph F.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.

    2006-12-01

    We report a combined theoretical and experimental study of the structural failure of viral shells under mechanical stress. We find that discontinuities in the force-indentation curve associated with failure should appear when the so-called Föppl von Kármán (FvK) number exceeds a critical value. A nanoindentation study of a viral shell subject to a soft-mode instability, where the stiffness of the shell decreases with increasing pH, confirms the predicted onset of failure as a function of the FvK number.

  9. Dengue viral infection.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Y K; Singh, S; Singh, T

    1998-02-01

    Dengue viral infection produces a spectrum of disease. For example, mild dengue disease is characterized by biphasic fever, myalgia, arthralgia, leukopenia, and lymphadenopathy, while dengue hemorrhagic fever is an often fatal disease characterized by hemorrhages and shock syndrome. The disease, especially in its severe form, is seen more often among children than among adults. With focus upon India, dengue's etiology, epidemiology, pathology, pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever, clinical manifestations of both the mild and severe forms of dengue viral infection, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and prognosis are discussed.

  10. Emerging viral infections.

    PubMed

    Bale, James F

    2012-09-01

    Unique disorders appear episodically in human populations and cause life-threatening systemic or neurological disease. Historical examples of such disorders include von Economo encephalitis, a disorder of presumed viral etiology; acquired immune deficiency syndrome, caused by the human immunodeficiency virus; and severe acute respiratory syndrome, caused by a member of the coronavirus family. This article describes the factors that contribute to the emergence of infectious diseases and focuses on selected recent examples of emerging viral infections that can affect the nervous system of infants, children, and adolescents.

  11. Viral apoptotic mimicry.

    PubMed

    Amara, Ali; Mercer, Jason

    2015-08-01

    As opportunistic pathogens, viruses have evolved many elegant strategies to manipulate host cells for infectious entry and replication. Viral apoptotic mimicry, defined by the exposure of phosphatidylserine - a marker for apoptosis - on the pathogen surface, is emerging as a common theme used by enveloped viruses to promote infection. Focusing on the four best described examples (vaccinia virus, dengue virus, Ebola virus and pseudotyped lentivirus), we summarize our current understanding of apoptotic mimicry as a mechanism for virus entry, binding and immune evasion. We also describe recent examples of non-enveloped viruses that use this mimicry strategy, and discuss future directions and how viral apoptotic mimicry could be targeted therapeutically.

  12. Feto - maternal haemorrhage in parturients: Incidence and its determinants.

    PubMed

    Adeniji, A O; Mabayoje, V O; Raji, A A; Muhibi, M A; Tijani, A A; Adeyemi, A S

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study of parturients at a tertiary health institution in south-western Nigeria aims to identify the incidence, severity and obstetric factors predisposing to feto - maternal haemorrhage (FMH) in our population. The exclusion criteria were haemoglobinopathy and patient's refusal of consent to participate in the study. The prepared slide was processed as in the acid elution test described by Kleihauer - Betke. The FMH was calculated using Mollison formula (Mollison 1972). Baseline data included maternal biodata, blood group, RhD and haemoglobin electrophoresis, route/mode of delivery, duration of labour, obstetric interventions, fetal blood group and birth weight. Data generated were analysed with Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 11 software. Frequency tables, cross-tabulations and correlations were performed. Pearson's correlation was applied to continuous variables, while Spearman's correlation was utilised for discrete variables. Level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. A total of 163 parturients were studied, of which eight were multifetal gestations. There were no significant differences in maternal age, parity, estimated gestational age at delivery and birth weight, in both groups of parturients with and without FMH. A total of 17 parturients (10.43%), four of which were multifetal gestations (2.45%), had demonstrable FMH. Large FMH (>15 ml fetal cells) were noted in 10 (6.14%) parturients, of which, four were RhD-negative mothers. A total of 9.8% and 11.5% parturients in the vaginal and caesarean delivery groups, respectively, had significant FMH (p = 0.736). Incidence of large FMH was similar with each of the routes of delivery. Antepartum complications of pregnancy, delivery manoeuvres and episiotomy were not significant determinants of FMH. Multiple gestations, fetal birth weight and complications in labour were significantly associated with risk of FMH. Risk-based approach to management, in Rh

  13. Inter-species transmission of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) from turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) to rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Schönherz, Anna A; Lorenzen, Niels; Einer-Jensen, Katja

    2013-04-01

    Successful viral infection is a complex mechanism, involving many host-pathogen interactions that developed during coevolution of host and pathogen, and often result in host-species specificity. Nevertheless, many viruses are able to infect several host species and sporadically cross species barriers. The viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a rhabdovirus with high economic impact on the aquaculture industry, has developed an exceptionally wide host range across marine and freshwater environments. Transmission of VHSV between host species therefore represents a potential risk for aquaculture, which currently is not addressed in biosecurity managements. The objective of this study was to investigate the inter-species transmission potential of VHSV and evaluate whether infected marine wild fish pose a potential risk on marine cultured rainbow trout. A cohabitation infection trial with turbot as donor and rainbow trout as recipient host species was conducted. Turbot were intraperitoneally injected with either a marine-adapted (MA) or a trout-adapted (TA) VHSV isolate and subsequently grouped with naïve rainbow trout. Both VHSV isolates were able to replicate and cause mortality in turbot, while only the TA isolate was able to cross the species barrier and infect rainbow trout with fatal outcome. The results demonstrate that a marine fish species can function as reservoir and transmitter of TA VHSV isolates.

  14. Isolation and identification of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) from farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ahmadivand, Sohrab; Soltani, Mehdi; Mardani, Karim; Shokrpoor, Sara; Rahmati-Holasoo, Hooman; Mokhtari, Abbas; Hasanzadeh, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a rhabdovirus that causes one of the most important fish diseases in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) production industry. During the present study from October 2014 to July 2015, the virus causing viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) was isolated and identified in rainbow trout farms from five of sixteen farms experiencing mass mortalities in six provinces of Iran with major trout production. Cumulative mortalities at VHSV-positive farms ranged from 30 to 70%. Clinical signs of disease included exophthalmia, petechial hemorrhages in the mandible and around the eyes, a swollen abdomen and darkening of the integument, widespread petechiae of the musculature and pyloric regions, severe congestion of the kidney, and pale enlarged livers. In addition, histopathologic examinations of tissues showed severe lesions in muscle, kidney and liver, which were compatible with those already described for VHS. Furthermore, homogenates tissues of diseased fish induced cytopathic effects (CPE) in CHSE-214 cells, and confirmatory diagnosis of VHS was made by RT-PCR reactions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation and identification of VHSV from farmed trout in Iran, which may have originated from Europe.

  15. [Haemorrhagic colitis in a young male after the use of amoxicillin].

    PubMed

    van Hensbroek, P Boele; Hack, W W M; Labadie, J

    2005-12-31

    A 16-year-old boy had rectal blood loss due to haemorrhagic colitis probably resulting from oral and intravenous administration of amoxicillin. He also had haemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopenia, both also most likely resulting from the use of amoxicillin and/or ibuprofen. In the week following the discontinuation of amoxicillin and ibuprofen, the symptoms of bloody diarrhoea disappeared spontaneously and the blood picture became normal. Haemorrhagic colitis is a known side effect of amoxicillin that is rarely seen. Discontinuation of treatment typically results in a quick and uneventful recovery.

  16. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: an aetiological agent of acute haemorrhagic oedema of infancy.

    PubMed

    Di Lernia, Vito

    2014-11-01

    Acute haemorrhagic oedema of infancy (AHEI) is considered a separate clinical entity among cutaneous small vessel vasculitis of childhood. It usually occurs in children younger than 2 years of age, with spontaneous recovery occurring within a few weeks. A history of recent upper respiratory or urinary tract infections or immunisation is found in most patients. Although Mycoplasma pneumoniae has been linked to a wide array of skin eruptions or diseases, it is not recognised as a possible cause of acute haemorrhagic oedema of infancy. The authors report a child with AHEI and a concurrent M. pneumoniae infection.

  17. Dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome: lessons from the Cuban epidemic, 1981.

    PubMed Central

    Kouri, G. P.; Guzmán, M. G.; Bravo, J. R.; Triana, C.

    1989-01-01

    Dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) is one of the principal causes of hospitalization and death among children in several south-east Asian countries. Also, in the Region of the Americas, there has been an increase in the frequency of dengue fever epidemics and in the number of cases of DHF/DSS. In 1981 an epidemic of dengue haemorrhagic fever occurred in Cuba and this suggests that there is a high risk that such epidemics could recur in the region. The article summarizes the main clinical, virological, and epidemiological data obtained during the outbreak, some of which are reported for the first time. PMID:2805215

  18. Technetium labelled red blood cell scintigraphy in the diagnosis of intestinal haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, M. H.; Neoptolemos, J. P.; Watkin, E. M.; Cosgriff, P.; Barrie, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    99m-Technetium labelled red blood cell scintigraphy was used in the investigation of 15 adult patients with suspected small or large bowel bleeding requiring at least five units of blood (mean 14.3 units) and one neonate with rectal bleeding. Scintigraphy was found to be an accurate method of detecting the site of haemorrhage and was superior to angiography. This technique may be of particular value in patients with profuse colonic haemorrhage when the view at colonoscopy is poor. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:3872094

  19. The global pandemic of dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever: current status and prospects for the future.

    PubMed

    Gubler, D J

    1998-03-01

    Dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever has been one of the most important resurgent tropical diseases in the past 17 years, with expanding geographic distribution of both the viruses and the mosquito vectors, increased frequency of epidemics, the development of hyperendemicity (co-circulation of multiple virus serotypes) and the emergence of dengue haemorrhagic fever in new areas. This paper briefly reviews the changing epidemiology of dengue, discusses some of the factors responsible for the recent resurgence, and reviews the current options for reversing the trend of emergent disease.

  20. Dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome: lessons from the Cuban epidemic, 1981.

    PubMed

    Kouri, G P; Guzmán, M G; Bravo, J R; Triana, C

    1989-01-01

    Dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) is one of the principal causes of hospitalization and death among children in several south-east Asian countries. Also, in the Region of the Americas, there has been an increase in the frequency of dengue fever epidemics and in the number of cases of DHF/DSS. In 1981 an epidemic of dengue haemorrhagic fever occurred in Cuba and this suggests that there is a high risk that such epidemics could recur in the region. The article summarizes the main clinical, virological, and epidemiological data obtained during the outbreak, some of which are reported for the first time.

  1. Meningeal haemorrhage and congestion associated with the perinatal mortality of beef calves.

    PubMed

    Haughey, K G

    1975-01-01

    Thirty Angus, Hereford and Shorthorn term calves dying before, during or within 7 days of birth in a large beef herd were autopsied. Selected specimens were examined histologically. Two carcasses were classified in the category of ante-parturient death, 24 as parturient, and 4 were classified in the post-parturient death category. Three of the latter showed evidence of starvation. Eight of the calves in the parturient death category were assisted during delivery, and 16 were not assisted. The incidence of nulliparous dams among assisted parturient deaths was significantly higher than among the unassisted group. A high incidence of meningeal haemorrhages and congestion were observed at single or multiple sites, within and around the cranial and spinal meninges. The lesions comprised subdural and epidural haemorrhages, bloodstained cerebrospinal fluid and leptomeningeal haemorrhage and congestion. They were seen in calves in both parturient and post-parturient death categories but not in the ante-parturient group. All calves classified in the parturient death category which were assisted during delivery showed haemorrhages involving the cranial and/or spinal meninges. Additional birth injuries, including separation of the costo-chondral junctions, fractured ribs, haemorrhage into the hip joints, inter-vertebral fibrocartilages and axillae, and rupture of the liver, were frequently present. Ten of the calves in the parturient death category which were unassisted during delivery showed meningeal haemorrhage and congestion. Two of the 4 calves in the post-parturient death category showed similar lesions and both showed evidence of starvation. The meningeal haemorrhages and congestion were similar to those observed in perinatal lamb mortality. They are considered manifestations of injury to the CNS arising from trauma and/or hypoxia during birth. Gross or microscopic evidence of infection was present in 2 calves in the post-parturient death category. Calves which had

  2. Overview of recent DNA vaccine development for fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, G.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Since the first description of DNA vaccines for fish in 1996, numerous studies of genetic immunisation against the rhabdovirus pathogens infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) have established their potential as both highly efficacious biologicals and useful basic research tools. Single small doses of rhabdovirus DNA constructs provide extremely strong protection against severe viral challenge under a variety of conditions. DNA vaccines for several other important fish viruses, bacteria, and parasites are under investigation, but they have not yet shown high efficacy. Therefore, current research is focussed on mechanistic studies to understand the basis of protection, and on improvement of the nucleic acid vaccine applications against a wider range of fish pathogens.

  3. BIOMARKERS OF VIRAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Viral and protozoan pathogens associated with raw sludge can cause encephalitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, myocarditis, and a number of other diseases. Raw sludge that has been treated to reduce these pathogens can be used for land application according to the regulations spec...

  4. Viral Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleckler, A.; Butterfield, M. C.

    2012-09-01

    Viral SSA takes advantage of the amateur astronomy community to provide an extremely low-cost and geographically-diverse network of optical SSA sites. In the spirit of programs such as DARPA's Grand Challenge and the National Weather Service's program of providing amateur meteorologists with weather stations linked to a central professional meteorological facility, we form a cooperative bond with a willing community of technically-minded individuals. We term this program "viral" because we will qualify an initial set of astronomers for SSA operation and then use word of mouth in the astronomy community, as well as an outreach program, to pull in new observers. The use of modern remote controlled telescopes allows the incorporation of certified amateur, university, and commercial telescope systems. The availability of the local Viral SSA member for troubleshooting eliminates most significant costs of operating a large network. In this talk, we discuss the key concepts of Viral SSA and the route to a network of 100+ sites in a three year or less timeframe.

  5. Leafhopper viral pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four newly discovered viral pathogens in leafhopper vectors of Pierce’s disease of grapes, have been shown to replicate in sharpshooter leafhoppers; the glassy-winged sharpshooter, GWSS, Homalodisca vitripennis, and Oncometopia nigricans (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The viruses were classified as memb...

  6. Arthropod- and rodent-borne viral and rickettsial diseases in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions: Memorandum from a WHO Meeting*

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Arthropod- and rodent-borne viral and rickettsial diseases continue to be one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions. Both epidemics and sporadic cases occur. In some years, outbreaks of dengue haemorrhagic fever and Japanese encephalitis reached alarming proportions. The significance of other arthropod- and rodent-borne viral and rickettsial diseases has still to be determined. Therefore, continuous epidemiological surveillance, diagnosis, and control of these groups of diseases remains an urgent task. The objectives, targets, priority areas, and strategies for future plans of action have been identified and recommendations formulated. PMID:6603917

  7. Arthropod- and rodent-borne viral and rickettsial diseases in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Arthropod- and rodent-borne viral and rickettsial diseases continue to be one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions. Both epidemics and sporadic cases occur. In some years, outbreaks of dengue haemorrhagic fever and Japanese encephalitis reached alarming proportions. The significance of other arthropod- and rodent-borne viral and rickettsial diseases has still to be determined. Therefore, continuous epidemiological surveillance, diagnosis, and control of these groups of diseases remains an urgent task.The objectives, targets, priority areas, and strategies for future plans of action have been identified and recommendations formulated.

  8. Homology of complete genome sequences for dengue virus type-1, from dengue-fever- and dengue-haemorrhagic-fever-associated epidemics in Hawaii and French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Imrie, A; Roche, C; Zhao, Z; Bennett, S; Laille, M; Effler, P; Cao-Lormeau, V-M

    2010-04-01

    Dengue epidemic virulence is thought to be conferred by various factors, including the genotype of the virus involved. Increased or decreased epidemic virulence has been associated not only with the introduction of type-2 (DENV-2) strains into the South Pacific, the Caribbean and South America, but also with newly emergent DENV-3 genotypes in Sri Lanka, and the year-to-year variation in the DENV-4 strains circulating in Puerto Rico. These observations indicate that there are inherent differences among viral genotypes in their capacity to induce severe disease, that is, their virulence potential. The present study involved a comparison of the complete genome sequences of DENV-1 viruses that had been isolated from cases of dengue fever (DF) or dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) that occurred in French Polynesia or Hawaii in 2001, when a virulent DHF-associated dengue epidemic was occurring throughout the Pacific region. Previous studies have identified putative virulence-associated motifs and substitutions in the DENV-2 genome, and the main aim of the present study was to identify similar changes in DENV-1 that may be associated with viral virulence. As no virulence determinants were seen, however, in any gene or untranslated region, it appears that genotype is not the sole determinant of virulence in DENV-1. Further studies, to compare DF- and DHF-associated strains of DENV-1 isolated from epidemics of variable virulence, in the same eco-biological context, are needed.

  9. Studies on pathogenesis following single and double infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Brudeseth, B E; Castric, J; Evensen, O

    2002-03-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were bath challenged with viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) virus or infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus or with both viruses simultaneously. The viral distribution and development of histologic lesions were examined using immunohistochemistry, while virus titer in kidney was determined by viral titration in cell culture. Single infections with VHS virus and IHN virus showed similar distributions of virus in internal organs. The early identification of virus in gill epithelium, 1 and 2 days postinfection (PI) for VHS virus and IHN virus, respectively, indicates that this organ is the point of entry for both viruses. The detection of VHS virus at 1 day PI and 3 days PI for IHN virus is indicative of kidney and spleen being the target organs for these viruses. A simultaneous infection of VHS virus and IHN virus resulted in both viruses establishing an infection. Further double infection did not result in a statistically significant lower titer of both viruses in kidney but a more restricted distribution of IHN virus in internal organs compared with the single infected group. The most striking finding is that, for IHN virus, virus was not detected in the brain in situ in the double-infected group. This study provides support for the conclusion that simultaneous infection with two piscine rhabdoviruses in a susceptible host results in some degree of interaction at the cell level, leading to a reduced systemic distribution of IHN virus.

  10. Viral, parasitic and prion diseases of farmed deer and bison.

    PubMed

    Haigh, J C; Mackintosh, C; Griffin, F

    2002-08-01

    The most important viral disease of farmed deer and bison is malignant catarrhal fever. The other herpesviruses which have been isolated from these species are briefly described. Other viral agents that are recognised in these animals, including adenovirus, parapox, foot and mouth disease, bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, bovine virus diarrhoea, rotavirus and coronavirus, are also discussed. Ectoparasites of importance in this group in various parts of the world include a variety of ticks, as well as lice, keds, Oestridae, mange mites and fire ants. Helminth parasites include liver flukes (Fascioloides and Fasciola), gastrointestinal nematodes of the family Trichostrongylidae, pulmonary lungworms of the genus Dictyocaulus and extra-pulmonary lungworms of the family Protostrongylidae. Chronic wasting disease is principally important in North America, where the disease occurs in wild cervids in a limited area and has been reported in farmed deer in a small number of states in the United States of America and one province in Canada. These diseases are summarised in terms of their classification, epidemiology, clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and control. PMID:11974612

  11. [Reflection on 2 current viral diseases: yellow fever and dengue].

    PubMed

    Chastel, C

    1997-01-01

    Yellow fever and dengue are two current viral diseases induced by flaviviruses and usually transmitted by the same mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. From 1987 to 1991, 18,753 cases of yellow fever, mainly from Africa, have been notified to WHO, leading to 4,522 deaths. On the other hand, WHO estimates that 2.5 billions individuals living in tropical areas are at risk to contract dengue fevers. In fact, 500,000 patients are hospitalized each year for dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome and 90% of them are children. Nevertheless, the control of these two viral diseases would be reached easily in destroying mechanically the mosquito larval resting places. Although superficially similar, the two entities are in fact quite different. Relatively few is known about the pathogenesis of yellow fever whereas, for dengue fevers, it is difficult to integrate so many results accumulated to explain the occurrence of haemorrhagic phenomena according to the two main theories so far proposed which are not exclusive. The immunological one (S.B. Halstead) tries to explain the pathological events by the effect of anti-dengue enhancing antibodies acquired during a previous exposure to one of the dengue viruses, whereas that of increased virus virulence (L. Rosen) refers to fast passages between individuals during explosive epidemics.

  12. Feasibility of electrical impedance tomography in haemorrhagic stroke treatment using adaptive mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasehi Tehrani, J.; Anderson, C.; Jin, C.; van Schaik, A.; Holder, D.; McEwan, A.

    2010-04-01

    EIT has been proposed for acute stroke differentiation, specifically to determine the type of stroke, either ischaemia (clot) or haemorrhage (bleed) to allow the rapid use of clot-busting drugs in the former (Romsauerova et al 2006) . This addresses an important medical need, although there is little treatment offered in the case of haemorrhage. Also the demands on EIT are high with usually no availability to take a 'before' measurement, ruling out time difference imaging. Recently a new treatment option for haemorrhage has been proposed and is being studied in international randomised controlled trial: the early reduction of elevated blood pressure to attenuate the haematoma. This has been shown via CT to reduce bleeds by up to 1mL by Anderson et al 2008. The use of EIT as a continuous measure is desirable here to monitor the effect of blood pressure reduction. A 1mL increase of haemorrhagic lesion located near scalp on the right side of head caused a boundary voltage change of less than 0.05% at 50 kHz. This could be visually observed in a time difference 3D reconstruction with no change in electrode positions, mesh, background conductivity or drift when baseline noise was less than 0.005% but not when noise was increased to 0.01%. This useful result informs us that the EIT system must have noise of less than 0.005% at 50 kHz including instrumentation, physiological and other biases.

  13. Pneumoencephalo-roulette tomography of operated primary pontine haemorrhage with long survival: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kowada, M; Yamaguchi, K; Ito, Z; Matsuoka, S

    1972-04-01

    Pre- and postoperative pneumoencephalo-roulette tomography has been carried out in two cases of primary pontine haemorrhage with long survival. A pontine or cerebellar atrophy was revealed in case 1, in whom an intrapontine haematoma was removed. A markedly hollowed pons on the affected side has been demonstrated nearly five months after ventriculoatrial shunting in case 2.

  14. Trends in maternal mortality due to haemorrhage: two decades of Indian rural observations.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, S; Sirohi, Ritu

    2004-01-01

    Obstetric haemorrhage continues to be a major cause of maternal mortality. Our analysis of records of over a period of 20 years from April 1982 to March 2002 reveals that it was a contributory cause of maternal mortality in 19.9% of cases. The majority of deaths, (65%) had occurred within 24 hours of admission and in 47.5% of cases there was severe anaemia on admission; 17.5% had died due to an atonic PPH, which was the largest category, followed by ruptured uterus (15%), abruptio placenta (15%) and retained placenta (12.5%). Deaths due to obstetric haemorrhage because of a ruptured uterus, retained placenta and abortion have decreased from 22.22% between 1982 and 1987 to zero in the last 5 years and an increase was seen in deaths due to haemorrhage because of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and ectopic pregnancy, from 1.69% to 4.87%, unclassified haemorrhage 1.96% to 7.31% and placenta praevia from zero between 1982 and 1987 to 4.87% between 1997 and 2002. PMID:14675979

  15. Visual outcome of 25-gauge microincision vitrectomy surgery in diabetic vitreous haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Burhan Abdul Majid; Rizvi, Syed Fawad; Mahmood, Syed Asaad; Mal, Washoo; Zafar, Shakir

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the visual outcome and complications of 25-gauge micro incision vitrectomy surgery (MIVS) in diabetic vitreous haemorrhage. Methods: This Quasi Experimental study was conducted at LRBT, Tertiary eye care hospital Karachi, from February 2012 to January 2013. Sixty eyes of sixty patients with uncontrolled type II diabetes mellitus (DM) were included. There were 43 (71.7%) males and 17 (28.3%) females. Age range was 40 – 60 years. All randomly selected patients underwent 25-gauge sutureless micro incision vitrectomy surgery for diabetic vitreous haemorrhage. Main outcomes measured were best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) assessed with logMAR and post-operative complications. Follow ups were at one day, one week, one month, three months and six months post-operatively. Result: Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) gradually improved in majority of subjects in each subsequent follow up visit. Preoperative visual acuity was 1.023 ±0.226 logMAR, which was improved after final follow up to 0.457±0.256 and P-value was < 0.001. Five patients developed recurrent vitreous haemorrhage during study period, one patient developed cataract (1.7%), one (1.7%) had ocular hypotony defined as intraocular pressure < 5 mmHg and one (1.7%) developed endophthalmitis. Conclusion: 25-gauge micro incision vitrectomy surgery (MIVS) is an effective sutureless parsplana vitrectomy surgery which has good visual outcome in diabetic vitreous haemorrhage with minimum manageable complications. PMID:26649013

  16. Incidence and outcome of subarachnoid haemorrhage: a retrospective population based study

    PubMed Central

    Pobereskin, L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The purpose was to define the incidence and case fatality rates of subarachnoid haemorrhage in the population of Devon and Cornwall.
METHODS—A retrospective population based design was employed with multiple overlapping methods of case ascertainment. A strict definition of subarachnoid haemorrhage was used. Age and sex specific incidence rates and relative risks for death at different time intervals are calculated.
RESULTS—Eight hundred cases of first ever subarachnoid haemorrhage were identified; 77% of cases were verified by CT, 22% by necropsy, and 1% by lumbar puncture. The incidence rates are higher than those previously reported in the United Kingdom. The age standardised incidence rate (/100 000 person-years) for females was 11.9 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 9.5-15.0), for males 7.4 (5.4-10.0), and the total rate was 9.7 (7.5-12.6). The case fatality rates at 24 hours, 1 week, and 30 days were 21 (18-24)%, 37 (33-41)%, and 44 (40-49)% respectively. The relative risk for death at 30days for those over 60 years:under 60 years was 2.95 (2.18-3.97).
CONCLUSION—The incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage in the United Kingdom is higher than previously reported. Three quarters of the mortality occurs within 3days.

 PMID:11181855

  17. Computational Intelligence Method for Early Diagnosis Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever Using Fuzzy on Mobile Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Afan; Lina, Yen; Simon, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Mortality from Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is still increasing in Indonesia particularly in Jakarta. Diagnosis of the dengue shall be made as early as possible so that first aid can be given in expectation of decreasing death risk. The Study will be conducted by developing expert system based on Computational Intelligence Method. On the first year, study will use the Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) Method to diagnose Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever particularly in Mobile Device consist of smart phone. Expert system application which particularly using fuzzy system can be applied in mobile device and it is useful to make early diagnosis of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever that produce outcome faster than laboratory test. The evaluation of this application is conducted by performing accuracy test before and after validation using data of patient who has the Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever. This expert system application is easy, convenient, and practical to use, also capable of making the early diagnosis of Dengue Haemorraghic to avoid mortality in the first stage.

  18. Viral Membrane Scission

    PubMed Central

    Rossman, Jeremy S.; Lamb, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Virus budding is a complex, multistep process in which viral proteins make specific alterations in membrane curvature. Many different viral proteins can deform the membrane and form a budding virion, but very few can mediate membrane scission to complete the budding process. As a result, enveloped viruses have developed numerous ways of facilitating membrane scission, including hijacking host cellular scission machinery and expressing their own scission proteins. These proteins mediate scission in very different ways, though the biophysical mechanics underlying their actions may be similar. In this review, we explore the mechanisms of membrane scission and the ways in which enveloped viruses use these systems to mediate the release of budding virions. PMID:24099087

  19. Viral membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Stephen C

    2015-05-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a "fusion loop" or "fusion peptide") engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics.

  20. Haemorrhagic shock in mice--intracellular signalling and immunomodulation of peritoneal macrophages' LPS response.

    PubMed

    Rani, Meenakshi; Husain, Baher; Lendemans, Sven; Schade, Fritz U; Flohé, Sascha

    2006-01-01

    Haemorrhagic shock leads to decreased proinflammatory cytokine response which is associated with an increased susceptibility to bacterial infections. In the present study, the effect of GM-CSF on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF-alpha release and MAPkinase activation was analysed on the background of a possible immunostimulating activity of this substance. Male BALB/c mice were bled to a mean arterial blood pressure of 50 mmHg for 45 min followed by resuscitation. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated 20 h after haemorrhage and incubated with 10 ng/ml GM-CSF for 6h before LPS stimulation. TNF-alpha synthesis was studied in the culture supernatants using ELISA. Phosphorylation of ERK, p38MAPK and IkappaBalpha was detected by Western blotting. LPS-induced TNF-alpha production of peritoneal macrophages was significantly decreased 20 h after haemorrhage in comparison to the corresponding cells of sham-operated mice. In parallel the phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha was less in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages from haemorrhagic mice. LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was also decreased in peritoneal macrophages isolated after haemorrhagic shock. In contrast, p38MAPK was phosphorylated more intensely after LPS-stimulation in macrophages collected from shocked mice. GM-CSF incubation elevated LPS-induced TNF-alpha response of macrophages from both sham-operated and shocked mice which was accompanied by an elevated IkappaB and ERK phosphorylation. In general, GM-CSF treatment in vitro enhanced peritoneal macrophages LPS-response both in terms of TNF-alpha synthesis and IkappaB and MAPK signalling, but the levels always stayed lower than those of GM-CSF-treated cells from sham-operated animals. In conclusion, GM-CSF preincubation could partly reactivate the depressed functions of peritoneal macrophages and may therefore exert immunostimulating properties after shock or trauma.

  1. Prolactin inhibits the increased cytokine gene expression in Kupffer cells following haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X H; Zellweger, R; Ayala, A; Chaudry, I H

    1996-02-01

    Kupffer cells are an important source of proinflammatory cytokines and contribute to the systemic inflammatory response observed following haemorrhagic shock. The systemic release of cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, etc., has been associated with the decreased host immune and organ dysfunction following hypotension. Studies indicate that anterior pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) plays an important role in the regulation of lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage function in vivo, as well as in vitro. However, it is not known what effects PRL administration has on Kupffer cells proinflammatory mediator release following haemorrhage. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to determine the effect of in vivo PRL administration on cytokine gene expression in Kupffer cells after haemorrhage. To study this, C3H/HeN male mice were bled to and maintained at a mean arterial pressure of 35 mmHg for 60 minutes, then resuscitated with shed blood, and segregated into two groups: one group was treated with PRL (100 micrograms/25 g body weight subcutaneously) while the other group received saline-vehicles. This was followed with lactated Ringer's solution (2 x the volume of shed blood). Two hours thereafter, the animals were sacrificed, Kupffer cells were isolated and stimulated with or without 10 micrograms/ml LPS for 1 hour. Total RNA was extracted and cytokine mRNA was detected by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results demonstrated that haemorrhage markedly increased the level of mRNA for IL-1 beta, IL-6, TGF-beta and TNF-beta in Kupffer cells. However, in vivo PRL treatment significantly decreased the cytokine gene expression in Kupffer cells following haemorrhage. This indicates that PRL may be useful in blunting the systemic inflammatory response associated with cell and organ depression following shock.

  2. Viral membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  3. Optimizing Viral Discovery in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Young, Cristin C. W.; Olival, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Viral discovery studies in bats have increased dramatically over the past decade, yet a rigorous synthesis of the published data is lacking. We extract and analyze data from 93 studies published between 2007–2013 to examine factors that increase success of viral discovery in bats, and specific trends and patterns of infection across host taxa and viral families. Over the study period, 248 novel viruses from 24 viral families have been described. Using generalized linear models, at a study level we show the number of host species and viral families tested best explained number of viruses detected. We demonstrate that prevalence varies significantly across viral family, specimen type, and host taxonomy, and calculate mean PCR prevalence by viral family and specimen type across all studies. Using a logistic model, we additionally identify factors most likely to increase viral detection at an individual level for the entire dataset and by viral families with sufficient sample sizes. Our analysis highlights major taxonomic gaps in recent bat viral discovery efforts and identifies ways to improve future viral pathogen detection through the design of more efficient and targeted sample collection and screening approaches. PMID:26867024

  4. Optimizing Viral Discovery in Bats.

    PubMed

    Young, Cristin C W; Olival, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Viral discovery studies in bats have increased dramatically over the past decade, yet a rigorous synthesis of the published data is lacking. We extract and analyze data from 93 studies published between 2007-2013 to examine factors that increase success of viral discovery in bats, and specific trends and patterns of infection across host taxa and viral families. Over the study period, 248 novel viruses from 24 viral families have been described. Using generalized linear models, at a study level we show the number of host species and viral families tested best explained number of viruses detected. We demonstrate that prevalence varies significantly across viral family, specimen type, and host taxonomy, and calculate mean PCR prevalence by viral family and specimen type across all studies. Using a logistic model, we additionally identify factors most likely to increase viral detection at an individual level for the entire dataset and by viral families with sufficient sample sizes. Our analysis highlights major taxonomic gaps in recent bat viral discovery efforts and identifies ways to improve future viral pathogen detection through the design of more efficient and targeted sample collection and screening approaches. PMID:26867024

  5. Ebola haemorrhagic fever virus: pathogenesis, immune responses, potential prevention.

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, Janusz; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Nazimek, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Ebola zoonotic RNA filovirus represents human most virulent and lethal pathogens, which induces acute hemorrhagic fever and death within few days in a range of 60-90% of symptomatic individuals. Last outbreak in 2014 in West Africa caused panic that Ebola epidemic can be spread to other continents. Number of deaths in late December reached almost 8,000 individuals out of more than 20,000 symptomatic patients. It seems that only a coordinated international response could counteract the further spread of Ebola. Major innate immunity mechanisms against Ebola are associated with the production of interferons, that are inhibited by viral proteins. Activation of host NK cells was recognized as a leading immune function responsible for recovery of infected people. Uncontrolled cell infection by Ebola leads to an impairment of immunity with cytokine storm, coagulopathy, systemic bleeding, multi-organ failure and death. Tested prevention strategies to induce antiviral immunity include: i. recombinant virus formulations (vaccines); ii. cocktail of monoclonal antibodies (serotherapy); iii. alternative RNA-interference-based antiviral methods. Maintaining the highest standards of aseptic and antiseptic precautions is equally important. Present brief review summarizes a current knowledge concerning pathogenesis of Ebola hemorrhagic disease and the virus interaction with the immune system and discusses recent advances in prevention of Ebola infection by vaccination and serotherapy.

  6. The NV Gene of Snakehead Rhabdovirus (SHRV) Is Not Required for Pathogenesis, and a Heterologous Glycoprotein Can Be Incorporated into the SHRV Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Marta; Kim, Carol H.; Johnson, Marc C.; Pressley, Meagan; Leong, Jo-Ann

    2004-01-01

    Snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) affects warm-water fish in Southeast Asia and belongs to the genus Novirhabdovirus by virtue of its “nonvirion” (NV) gene. To examine the function of the NV gene, we used a recently developed reverse genetic system to produce a viable recombinant SHRV carrying an NV gene deletion. The recombinant virus was produced at the same rate and same final concentrations as the wild-type virus in cultured fish cells in spite of the NV gene deletion. The role of the NV protein in fish pathogenesis was also investigated. Zebra fish (Danio rerio) were infected with the NV deletion mutant or with a recombinant virus containing a copy of the SHRV genome, and similar mortality rates as well as final mortalities were recorded, suggesting no apparent role for the NV protein in fish pathogenesis. Interestingly, the unsuccessful rescue of fully viable recombinants with genomes containing deletions in the G/NV gene junction suggested a role for the gene junction in virus transcription and replication. Finally, we demonstrated that the SHRV glycoprotein can be replaced by the glycoprotein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) or by a hybrid protein composed of SHRV and IHNV sequences. PMID:15140985

  7. A host-factor interaction and localization map for a plant-adapted rhabdovirus implicates cytoplasm-tethered transcription activators in cell-to-cell movement.

    PubMed

    Min, Byoung-Eun; Martin, Kathleen; Wang, Renyuan; Tafelmeyer, Petra; Bridges, Max; Goodin, Michael

    2010-11-01

    To identify host factors that play critical roles in processes, including cell-to-cell movement of plant-adapted rhabdoviruses, we constructed and validated a high-resolution Nicotiana benthamiana yeast two-hybrid library. The library was screened with the putative movement protein (sc4), nucleocapsid (N), and matrix (M) proteins of Sonchus yellow net virus (SYNV). This resulted in identification of 31 potential host factors. Steady-state localization studies using autofluorescent protein fusions to full-length clones of interactors were conducted in transgenic N. benthamiana marker lines. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays were used to validate two-hybrid interactions. The sc4 interactor, sc4i21, localized to microtubules. The N interactor, Ni67, localized to punctuate loci on the endoplasmic reticulum. These two proteins are 84% identical homologues of the Arabidopsis phloem-associated transcription activator AtVOZ1, and contain functional nuclear localization signals. Sc4i17 is a microtubule-associated motor protein. The M interactor, Mi7, is a nuclear-localized transcription factor. Combined with a binary interaction map for SYNV proteins, our data support a model in which the SYNV nucleocapsids are exported from the nucleus and moved cell-to-cell by transcription activators tethered in the cytoplasm.

  8. The NV gene of snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) is not required for pathogenesis, and a heterologous glycoprotein can be incorporated into the SHRV envelope.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Marta; Kim, Carol H; Johnson, Marc C; Pressley, Meagan; Leong, Jo-Ann

    2004-06-01

    Snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) affects warm-water fish in Southeast Asia and belongs to the genus Novirhabdovirus by virtue of its "nonvirion" (NV) gene. To examine the function of the NV gene, we used a recently developed reverse genetic system to produce a viable recombinant SHRV carrying an NV gene deletion. The recombinant virus was produced at the same rate and same final concentrations as the wild-type virus in cultured fish cells in spite of the NV gene deletion. The role of the NV protein in fish pathogenesis was also investigated. Zebra fish (Danio rerio) were infected with the NV deletion mutant or with a recombinant virus containing a copy of the SHRV genome, and similar mortality rates as well as final mortalities were recorded, suggesting no apparent role for the NV protein in fish pathogenesis. Interestingly, the unsuccessful rescue of fully viable recombinants with genomes containing deletions in the G/NV gene junction suggested a role for the gene junction in virus transcription and replication. Finally, we demonstrated that the SHRV glycoprotein can be replaced by the glycoprotein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) or by a hybrid protein composed of SHRV and IHNV sequences.

  9. Epidemiology of Intracranial Haemorrhages Associated with Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants in Spain: TAC Registry

    PubMed Central

    Zapata-Wainberg, Gustavo; Ximénez-Carrillo Rico, Álvaro; Benavente Fernández, Lorena; Masjuan Vallejo, Jaime; Gállego Culleré, Jaime; Freijó Guerrero, María del Mar; Egido, José; Gómez Sánchez, José Carlos; Martínez Domeño, Alejandro; Purroy García, Francisco; Vives Pastor, Bárbara; Blanco González, Miguel; Vivancos, José

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (VKA-OACs) are effective for primary and secondary prevention of embolic events. The rate of haemorrhagic neurological complications in patients admitted to neurology departments in Spain is not yet known. Aims We aimed to determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with intracranial haemorrhage secondary to VKA-OACs as well as the incidence of this severe complication. Methods We conducted a retrospective, descriptive, multi-centre study using information from the medical records of all patients admitted to neurology departments, diagnosed with spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage, and treated with VKA-OACs within a 1-year period. We collected demographic and care data from centres, patients' medical records [demographic data, medical history, haemorrhage origin, vascular risk factors, concomitant treatment, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores], and patients' outcome at 3 months [independence (modified Rankin Scale score <3) and mortality rate]. Results Twenty-one hospitals serving a population of 8,155,628 inhabitants participated in the study. The total number of cases was 235, the mean age was 78.2 (SD 9.4) years, and the baseline NIHSS score was 11.6 (SD 9.5; median 9; interquartile range 14). The VKA-OACs used were acenocoumarol in 95.3% (224 patients) and warfarin in 4.7% (11 patients). The haemorrhage origin was deep in 29.8%, lobar in 25.5%, intraventricular in 11.5%, extensive in 17.4% (>100 ml), cerebellar in 12.3%, and in the brainstem in 3.4%. The international normalised ratio was within therapeutic ranges at admission (according to indication) in 29.4% (69 patients). The global incidence (cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year) is 2.88. The in-hospital mortality rate was 40%, and 24.3% of the patients were independent at 3 months, while the mortality at 3 months was 42.6%. Conclusion VKA-OAC treatment is associated with a large percentage of all

  10. Combating emerging viral threats

    PubMed Central

    Bekerman, Elena; Einav, Shirit

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Most approved antiviral therapeutics selectively inhibit proteins encoded by a single virus, thereby providing a “one drug-one bug” solution. As a result of this narrow spectrum of coverage and the high cost of drug development, therapies are currently approved for fewer than ten viruses out of the hundreds known to cause human disease. This perspective summarizes progress and challenges in the development of broad-spectrum antiviral therapies. These strategies include targeting enzymatic functions shared by multiple viruses and host cell machinery by newly discovered compounds or by repurposing approved drugs. These approaches offer new practical means for developing therapeutics against existing and emerging viral threats. PMID:25883340

  11. Viral complement regulatory proteins.

    PubMed

    Rosengard, A M; Ahearn, J M

    1999-05-01

    The inactivation of complement provides cells and tissues critical protection from complement-mediated attack and decreases the associated recruitment of other inflammatory mediators. In an attempt to evade the host immune response, viruses have evolved two mechanisms to acquire complement regulatory proteins. They can directly seize the host cell complement regulators onto their outer envelope and/or they can produce their own proteins which are either secreted into the neighboring intercellular space or expressed as membrane-bound proteins on the infected host cell. The following review will concentrate on the viral homologues of the mammalian complement regulatory proteins, specifically those containing complement control protein (CCP) repeats. PMID:10408371

  12. [Viral exanthematic childhood diseases].

    PubMed

    Allwinn, R; Doerr, H W

    1997-01-01

    Exanthem is defined as multiple, inflammatory skin alteration with a hematogenic, lymphogenic or neurogenic origin. Typically, so called exanthematic children's diseases are measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) and in the past small pox. The pathogenesis of the viral-caused diseases primarily occurs in the vascular connective tissue. The cytopathogenetic effects result in inflammatory tissue reactions with activation of defence mechanism and producing of immune complexes. First symptoms are hyperemia, edema and inflammatory infiltrates with itchy swellings. Virological laboratory diagnosis are necessary especially for the progress of atypical infectious diseases, for persons with immunological or chronical illness and under chemotherapeutical or immunosuppressival treatment.

  13. Viral surveillance and discovery

    PubMed Central

    Lipkin, Walter Ian; Firth, Cadhla

    2014-01-01

    The field of virus discovery has burgeoned with the advent of high throughput sequencing platforms and bioinformatics programs that enable rapid identification and molecular characterization of known and novel agents, investments in global microbial surveillance that include wildlife and domestic animals as well as humans, and recognition that viruses may be implicated in chronic as well as acute diseases. Here we review methods for viral surveillance and discovery, strategies and pitfalls in linking discoveries to disease, and identify opportunities for improvements in sequencing instrumentation and analysis, the use of social media and medical informatics that will further advance clinical medicine and public health. PMID:23602435

  14. Equine viral arteritis.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2014-12-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV), the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), is a respiratory and reproductive disease that occurs throughout the world. EAV infection is highly species-specific and exclusively limited to members of the family Equidae, which includes horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras. EVA is an economically important disease and outbreaks could cause significant losses to the equine industry. The primary objective of this article is to summarize current understanding of EVA, specifically the disease, pathogenesis, epidemiology, host immune response, vaccination and treatment strategies, prevention and control measures, and future directions.

  15. Human viral gastroenteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, M L

    1989-01-01

    During the last 15 years, several different groups of fastidious viruses that are responsible for a large proportion of acute viral gastroenteritis cases have been discovered by the electron microscopic examination of stool specimens. This disease is one of the most prevalent and serious clinical syndromes seen around the world, especially in children. Rotaviruses, in the family Reoviridae, and fastidious fecal adenoviruses account for much of the viral gastroenteritis in infants and young children, whereas the small caliciviruses and unclassified astroviruses, and possibly enteric coronaviruses, are responsible for significantly fewer cases overall. In addition to electron microscopy, enzyme immunoassays and other rapid antigen detection systems have been developed to detect rotaviruses and fastidious fecal adenoviruses in the stool specimens of both nonhospitalized patients and those hospitalized for dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Experimental rotavirus vaccines have also been developed, due to the prevalence and seriousness of rotavirus infection. The small, unclassified Norwalk virus and morphologically similar viruses are responsible for large and small outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in older children, adolescents, and adults. Hospitalization of older patients infected with these viruses is usually not required, and their laboratory diagnoses have been limited primarily to research laboratories. Images PMID:2644024

  16. [Emergent viral infections].

    PubMed

    Galama, J M

    2001-03-31

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic infections such as dengue and hepatitis E, but also of hepatitis A, which is no longer endemic. Apart from import diseases new viruses have appeared (Nipah-virus and transfusion-transmitted virus). Existing viruses may suddenly cause more severe diseases, e.g. infection by enterovirus 71. The distribution area of a virus may change, e.g. in case of West Nile virus, an Egyptian encephalitis virus that appears to have established itself in the USA. Furthermore, there is no such thing as a completely new virus; it is always an existing virus that has adapted itself to another host or that was already present in humans but has only recently been discovered. A number of factors facilitate the emergence of new infectious diseases. These include intensive animal husbandry and the transport of animals. The unexpected appearance of West Nile virus in the western hemisphere was possibly due to animal transportation.

  17. Menses, fertility and pregnancy following the use of balloon tamponade technology in the management of postpartum haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Christos

    2014-06-01

    This manuscript describes five cases of pregnancies and births in women that have previously required the uterine-specific Bakri™ balloon in the management of postpartum haemorrhage. In addition, this manuscript reviews the impact on menses, fertility and subsequent pregnancies as potential surrogate effects on the myometrium and endometrium, when balloon tamponade technology is used as a 'uterine-sparing' second-line approach in the management of postpartum haemorrhage.

  18. Complications and pregnancy outcome following uterine compression suture for postpartum haemorrhage: a single centre experience.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Mathur, M; Tagore, S

    2014-07-01

    In the treatment of postpartum haemorrhage from uterine atony, uterine compression sutures, such as the B-Lynch suture and its modifications have a role with the advantage of preservation of the uterus for fertility. There is however, a risk that apposition of the anterior and posterior walls of the uterus will impede drainage of lochia, resulting in undesirable complications. We undertook a five-year retrospective study of all women who underwent uterine compression sutures at the KK Women's and Children's Hospital, between 2008 and 2012. In total, 23 women had uterine compression sutures during the study period, of which, nineteen women managed to conserve their uterus. Our complication rate was 25%, which included persistent vaginal discharge, pyometra and endometritis. There were three conceptions, with two successful pregnancies. Our study shows uterine compression suture to be a safe and effective alternative to avoid hysterectomy with preservation of fertility at the time of major postpartum haemorrhage. The outcome of subsequent pregnancies is reassuring.

  19. Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia during treatment of Fournier gangrene.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Timothy Lee; Thangasamy, Isaac A; Reynolds, Jamie

    2014-10-14

    We present a case of bilateral adrenal haemorrhage (BAH) associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT) in a 61-year-old man admitted to hospital for the treatment of Fournier's gangrene. He presented to hospital with scrotal swelling and fever, and developed spreading erythaema and a gangrenous scrotum. His scrotum was surgically debrided and intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered. Unfractionated heparin was given postoperatively for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis. The patient deteriorated clinically 8-11 days postoperatively with delirium, chest pain and severe hypertension followed by hypotension and thrombocytopaenia. Abdominal CT scan revealed bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. Antibodies to the heparin-platelet factor 4 complex were present. HIT-associated BAH was diagnosed and heparin was discontinued. Intravenous bivalirudin and hydrocortisone were started, with rapid improvement in clinical status. BAH is a rare complication of HIT and should be considered in the postoperative patient with unexplained clinical deterioration.

  20. Pancreatico-enteric fistula post pancreatic duct ligation for delayed haemorrhage complicating pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Adarsh; Noaman, Islam; Mahfouz, Ahmed; Khawar, Mahwish; Khalaf, Hatem; Elaffandi, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pancreatic fistula remains the main cause for postoperative morbidity following pancreaticoduodenectomy. The coincidence of sentinel bleed prior to post pancreatectomy haemorrhage (PPH) and pancreatic fistula is associated with very high mortality. Presentation of case We report a case of pancreaticoduodenectomy complicated by postoperative leak and hematemesis. Severe delayed haemorrhage from the pancreatico-jejunostomy necessitated re-laparotomy and complete disconnection of the pancreatic anastomosis. Hemodynamic instability precluded a pancreatectomy or creation of a new anastomosis. A follow up MRI done 3 weeks after the patient’s discharge demonstrated a fistulous tract causing a communication between both the pancreatic and biliary systems and the enteric loop. Discussion Spontaneous development a pancreatico-enteric fistula despite ligation of the pancreatic duct and complete disconnection of the pancreatic anastomosis has never been reported in literature to date. Conclusion Pancreatic duct occlusion may be considered over a completion pancreatectomy or revisional pancreatic anastomosis in hemodynamically unstable and challenging cases. PMID:26921533

  1. [Multidisciplinary consensus document on the management of massive haemorrhage (HEMOMAS document)].

    PubMed

    Llau, J V; Acosta, F J; Escolar, G; Fernández-Mondéjar, E; Guasch, E; Marco, P; Paniagua, P; Páramo, J A; Quintana, M; Torrabadella, P

    2016-01-01

    Massive haemorrhage is common and often associated with high morbidity and mortality. We perform a systematic review of the literature, with extraction of the recommendations from the existing evidences because of the need for its improvement and the management standardization. From the results we found, we wrote a multidisciplinary consensus document. We begin with the agreement in the definitions of massive haemorrhage and massive transfusion, and we do structured recommendations on their general management (clinical assessment of bleeding, hypothermia management, fluid therapy, hypotensive resuscitation and damage control surgery), blood volume monitoring, blood products transfusion (red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, platelets and their best transfusion ratio), and administration of hemostatic components (prothrombin complex, fibrinogen, factor VIIa, antifibrinolytic agents).

  2. Multidisciplinary consensus document on the management of massive haemorrhage (HEMOMAS document).

    PubMed

    Llau, J V; Acosta, F J; Escolar, G; Fernández-Mondéjar, E; Guasch, E; Marco, P; Paniagua, P; Páramo, J A; Quintana, M; Torrabadella, P

    2015-11-01

    Massive haemorrhage is common and often associated with high morbidity and mortality. We perform a systematic review of the literature, with extraction of the recommendations from the existing evidences because of the need for its improvement and the management standardization. From the results we found, we wrote a multidisciplinary consensus document. We begin with the agreement in the definitions of massive haemorrhage and massive transfusion, and we do structured recommendations on their general management (clinical assessment of bleeding, hypothermia management, fluid therapy, hypotensive resuscitation and damage control surgery), blood volume monitoring, blood products transfusion (red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, platelets and their best transfusion ratio), and administration of hemostatic components (prothrombin complex, fibrinogen, factor VIIa, antifibrinolytic agents).

  3. [Multidisciplinary consensus document on the management of massive haemorrhage (HEMOMAS document)].

    PubMed

    Llau, J V; Acosta, F J; Escolar, G; Fernández-Mondéjar, E; Guasch, E; Marco, P; Paniagua, P; Páramo, J A; Quintana, M; Torrabadella, P

    2016-01-01

    Massive haemorrhage is common and often associated with high morbidity and mortality. We perform a systematic review of the literature, with extraction of the recommendations from the existing evidences because of the need for its improvement and the management standardization. From the results we found, we wrote a multidisciplinary consensus document. We begin with the agreement in the definitions of massive haemorrhage and massive transfusion, and we do structured recommendations on their general management (clinical assessment of bleeding, hypothermia management, fluid therapy, hypotensive resuscitation and damage control surgery), blood volume monitoring, blood products transfusion (red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, platelets and their best transfusion ratio), and administration of hemostatic components (prothrombin complex, fibrinogen, factor VIIa, antifibrinolytic agents). PMID:26688462

  4. Multidisciplinary consensus document on the management of massive haemorrhage (HEMOMAS document).

    PubMed

    Llau, J V; Acosta, F J; Escolar, G; Fernández-Mondéjar, E; Guasch, E; Marco, P; Paniagua, P; Páramo, J A; Quintana, M; Torrabadella, P

    2015-11-01

    Massive haemorrhage is common and often associated with high morbidity and mortality. We perform a systematic review of the literature, with extraction of the recommendations from the existing evidences because of the need for its improvement and the management standardization. From the results we found, we wrote a multidisciplinary consensus document. We begin with the agreement in the definitions of massive haemorrhage and massive transfusion, and we do structured recommendations on their general management (clinical assessment of bleeding, hypothermia management, fluid therapy, hypotensive resuscitation and damage control surgery), blood volume monitoring, blood products transfusion (red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, platelets and their best transfusion ratio), and administration of hemostatic components (prothrombin complex, fibrinogen, factor VIIa, antifibrinolytic agents). PMID:26233588

  5. [The use of carboprost tromethamole for prevention and treatment of postpartal haemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Milchev, N; Amaliev, G; Amaliev, I; Apiosian, Zh; Mladenova, M

    2011-01-01

    All around the world as well as in Bulgaria postpartal haemorrhage is a main reason of maternal death. The treatment of postpartal haemorrhage of which approximately 70% is caused by hypotony of the uterus is still a challenge for physician-obstetrician. In the following study we have used prostaglandin-Carboprost tromethamole (Prostin 15M) for treatment of this important obstetric pathology. One year investigation which includes 82 patients with hypotony during vaginal delivery or cesarian section. Results showed that the use of Carboprost tromethamole (Prostin 15M) in treatment of hypotony leads to fast and extended contraction of the uterus as well as significantly decreases blood loss and the necessity of haemotrasfusion.

  6. Spinal Intradural Schwannoma with Acute Intratumoural Haemorrhage: Case Report and Review

    PubMed Central

    Kongwad, Lakshman I.; Valiathan, Manna G.

    2016-01-01

    Schwannomas account for around half of all intradural spinal tumours, with chronic progressive symptoms as the most common presenting features. Intratumoural haemorrhage as a presenting feature of spinal schwannoma is very rare and only 11 cases have been reported till date. Authors here report a previously asymptomatic 40-year-old male who presented with acute onset paraplegia 12 hours after a minor trauma. MR imaging revealed a C7-D3 intradural-extramedullary lesion with features of acute blood and showing no enhancement. Emergency laminectomy and complete removal of the mass was performed and histopathology revealed features of schwannoma with haemorrhage. Patient had modest improvement of his neurological deficits at a follow-up of 6 months. Pertinent literature is reviewed in brief. PMID:26894121

  7. Spontaneous intra-hepatic haemorrhage in a patient with fever of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Leung, Vincent K S; Lam, Clement Y W; Chan, C C; Ng, W L; Loke, Tony K L; Luk, I Sc; Chau, T N; Wu, Arthur H W; Fong, W N; Lam, S H

    2007-08-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa is a systemic necrotising vasculitis that affects the small- and medium-sized arteries. Multifocal aneurysmal formation in the renal, hepatic, and mesenteric vasculature is a hallmark of this condition, and spontaneous aneurysmal rupture may occur, resulting in life-threatening haemorrhage. We describe a 42-year-old man who initially presented with fever of unknown origin. A diagnosis could not be reached at that time despite extensive investigations. The fever subsided spontaneously after 8 weeks, and the patient remained well for 6 years until he was admitted again for evaluation of fever. During his hospital stay, he developed a spontaneous massive intra-hepatic haemorrhage resulting in hepatic rupture and a haemoperitoneum. The bleeding was controlled at emergency laparotomy. An abdominal angiography demonstrated multiple microaneurysms in the hepatic and mesenteric arterial vasculature. The clinical findings suggested polyarteritis nodosa, and the source of bleeding was probably a ruptured intra-hepatic artery aneurysm.

  8. Successful treatment of active haemorrhage from a duodenal diverticulum using surgicel (absorbable haemostat): a case report.

    PubMed

    Muguti, Gi; Gandhi, H; Ridgeway, D

    2007-01-01

    Haemorrhage is one of the rare but serious complications of duodenal diverticula. Current methods of treatment include: endoscopy with injection therapy or hemoclip application and diverticulectomy. In this paper we present the case of a 61 year old man with life threatening haemorrhage who was managed successfully with gentle packing of a bleeding duodenal diverticulum using SURGICEL (Absorbable Haemostat). This appears to be a simple and effective way of dealing with the problem especially in situations where other methods are ineffective or inapplicable. Early surgical intervention before the development of any coagulopathy increases the chances of a successful outcome. It has not been possible to find a similar report from a thorough literature search. PMID:20353131

  9. The role of the histaminergic system in the central cardiovascular regulation in haemorrhagic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Jochem, Jerzy; Kasperska-Zajac, Alicja

    2012-01-01

    The histaminergic system consists of neurons located in tuberomammillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus. It affects many functions of the central nervous system, including regulation of the brainstem cardiovascular center. In this paper, we present current review of the literature concerning the role of the histaminergic system in the cardiovascular regulation in haemorrhagic hypotension. Experimental studies demonstrate that in both, normotension and critical hemorrhagic hypotension, histamine, acting as a central neurotransmitter, evokes the pressor effect. Interestingly, increases in mean arterial pressure are significantly higher in hypovolaemic than in normovolaemic animals. Many lines of evidence support the hypothesis that in haemorrhagic shock, the histaminergic system is able to activate neural and humoral compensatory mechanisms involving the sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin systems, arginine vasopressin and proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides. We suggest that the histaminergic system could be a new target for treatment of hemorrhagic hypotension.

  10. Christmas disease: diagnosis and management of a haemorrhagic diathesis following dentofacial trauma.

    PubMed

    Tamagond, Sridevi B; Hugar, Santosh I; Patil, Anil; Huddar, SandhyaRani

    2015-01-01

    Haemorrhagic diathesis has been of much concern to health professionals including dentists. It is not infrequent that a dentist becomes the first person to diagnose a bleeding disorder while performing dental treatment. Haemophilia is an X linked disorder with a frequency of about 1:10,000 births. Haemophilia B is much less common than haemophilia A, and affects only 1:300,000 males born alive. The clinical features of haemophilia B are very similar to those of haemophilia A with a prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time. This case report describes the dental management of a patient with an uncommon haematological disorder, namely, factor IX deficiency, which remained undiagnosed until the patient had to undergo dentofacial trauma with unexpected severe haemorrhage. Preventive dentistry remains vital to young haemophiliacs. Surgical dental procedures may be performed for haemophiliacs but they must be judiciously coordinated by dental and medical health professionals.

  11. Dengue haemorrhagic fever in adults: a prospective study of 110 cases.

    PubMed

    Wali, J P; Biswas, A; Handa, R; Aggarwal, P; Wig, N; Dwivedi, S N

    1999-01-01

    One hundred and ten adult patients hospitalized with dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) during the recent outbreak in North India were prospectively studied. Of these, 48 (43.6%) were grade I, 40 (36.4%) grade II, 10 (9.1%) grade III and 12 (10.9%) grade IV DHF. Dengue shock syndrome (DSS) was seen in 22 (20%) patients. Fever, headache, myalgias and arthralgias were the common symptoms seen in 100%, 80.9%, 76.2% and 52.3% patients, respectively. Spontaneous bleeding was seen in 62 patients (56.4%) with mucocutaneous bleeding being the most common (46 patients). Gastrointestinal bleeding was seen in 38 (34.5%) patients. In as many as 40 patients, the haemorrhagic manifestations occurred after the fever had come down. Fifty-five patients (50%) required platelet transfusions. Twelve patients died, giving a mortality rate of 10.9% in the present study. Prompt recognition and supportive treatment can be lifesaving.

  12. [Recurrent intraparenchimal haemorrhages in a patient with cerebral amyloidotic angiopathy: description of one autopsy case].

    PubMed

    Gallo, C; Orlassino, R; Vineis, C

    2006-02-01

    Cerebral amyloidotic angiopathy represents the most frequent cause of lobar haematoma in young patients and represents 5-10% of the non-traumatic cerebral haemorrhages. In the present work, we describe one autoptic case of recurrent cerebral haemorrhages in a 58-year-old woman. Macroscopically in the brain multiple haemorragic areas were present in the right frontal pole, right frontal and temporo-parietal lobes with homolateral ventricular inundation. The histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and biomolecular investigations confirmed the presence of amyloid deposits in the middle-size and little-size cerebral arteries. We report, moreover, a novel mutation (Leu705Val) within the Abeta sequence of a AbetaPP in a family with autosomal dominant, recurrent intracerebral hemorrhages beginning in the sixth decade of life.

  13. Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia during treatment of Fournier gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Tattersall, Timothy Lee; Thangasamy, Isaac A; Reynolds, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of bilateral adrenal haemorrhage (BAH) associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT) in a 61-year-old man admitted to hospital for the treatment of Fournier's gangrene. He presented to hospital with scrotal swelling and fever, and developed spreading erythaema and a gangrenous scrotum. His scrotum was surgically debrided and intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered. Unfractionated heparin was given postoperatively for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis. The patient deteriorated clinically 8–11 days postoperatively with delirium, chest pain and severe hypertension followed by hypotension and thrombocytopaenia. Abdominal CT scan revealed bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. Antibodies to the heparin-platelet factor 4 complex were present. HIT-associated BAH was diagnosed and heparin was discontinued. Intravenous bivalirudin and hydrocortisone were started, with rapid improvement in clinical status. BAH is a rare complication of HIT and should be considered in the postoperative patient with unexplained clinical deterioration. PMID:25315802

  14. Expression of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, TNF-β and GM-CSF in peripheral blood leukocytes of rabbits experimentally infected with rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.

    PubMed

    Trzeciak-Ryczek, Alicja; Tokarz-Deptuła, Beata; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2016-04-15

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a highly morbid and mortal viral infection of European rabbits. This disease is one of the main causes of death in wild rabbits, and results in large economic losses in farms of rabbits worldwide. Although the first outbreak of this disease was noted in 1984, the pathogenesis of RHD and mechanisms of RHDV (rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus) pathogenecity have still not been fully elucidated. Recent studies indicate a role of the immune response, especially peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), in the pathogenesis of this disease. Thus, in the present study we investigated the expression of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, TNF-β and GM-CSF genes in PBL of RHDV-infected rabbits. We also compared the expression of genes encoding these cytokines in rabbits with different course of RHDV infection (in animals that died 36h postinfection or survived until 60th h after infection). The study revealed that three (IL-10, TNF-β and GM-CSF) out of five investigated genes encoding cytokines showed increased expression in PBL of RHDV-infected rabbits, and the level of expression depended on the course of RHD. The results indicate the potential role of these cytokines in RHDV infection and their influence on the survival time of infected rabbits.

  15. Viral noncoding RNAs: more surprises

    PubMed Central

    Tycowski, Kazimierz T.; Guo, Yang Eric; Lee, Nara; Moss, Walter N.; Vallery, Tenaya K.; Xie, Mingyi

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells produce several classes of long and small noncoding RNA (ncRNA). Many DNA and RNA viruses synthesize their own ncRNAs. Like their host counterparts, viral ncRNAs associate with proteins that are essential for their stability, function, or both. Diverse biological roles—including the regulation of viral replication, viral persistence, host immune evasion, and cellular transformation—have been ascribed to viral ncRNAs. In this review, we focus on the multitude of functions played by ncRNAs produced by animal viruses. We also discuss their biogenesis and mechanisms of action. PMID:25792595

  16. Haemorrhagic papular rash associated to Flavimonas oryzihabitans bacteraemia in a child.

    PubMed

    Kansouzidou, A; Charitidou, C; Poubrou, E; Daniilidis, V D; Tsagaropoulou, H

    2000-03-01

    Flavimonas oryzihabitans is a gram-negative rod that has rarely been implicated in human infections. The involvement of this organism has been documented in serious infections, the majority of which were cases of bacteraemia or peritonitis. We report the first isolation of the organism in Greece, from a case of bacteraemia, associated with haemorrhagic papular rash, in a paediatric patient and describe the phenotypic characteristics of the strain.

  17. Internal iliac artery embolisation for intractable bladder haemorrhage in the peri-operative phase

    PubMed Central

    Gujral, S.; Bell, R.; Kabala, J.; Persad, R.

    1999-01-01

    Intractable haemorrhage from the bladder wall during transurethral resection of bladder tumour is uncommon but potentially catastrophic. Internal iliac artery embolisation is a minimally invasive technique, which is now widely practised to stop bleeding from branches of these arteries in situations including pelvic malignancy, obstetric and gynaecological emergencies and trauma. We report its successful use peri-operatively, in an unfit, elderly patient with uncontrolled bleeding.


Keywords: embolisation; internal iliac artery; transurethral resection of bladder tumour PMID:10448498

  18. Internal iliac artery embolisation for intractable bladder haemorrhage in the peri-operative phase.

    PubMed

    Gujral, S; Bell, R; Kabala, J; Persad, R

    1999-03-01

    Intractable haemorrhage from the bladder wall during transurethral resection of bladder tumour is uncommon but potentially catastrophic. Internal iliac artery embolisation is a minimally invasive technique, which is now widely practised to stop bleeding from branches of these arteries is situations including pelvic malignancy, obstetric and gynaecological emergencies and trauma. We report its successful use peri-operatively, in an unfit, elderly patient with uncontrolled bleeding.

  19. Spontaneous liver haemorrhage and haemobilia as initial presentation of undiagnosed polyarteritis nodosa.

    PubMed

    Battula, N; Tsapralis, D; Morgan, M; Mirza, D

    2012-05-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic necrotising vasculitis that could result in multifocal aneurysms of visceral arteries. Isolated multiple aneurysms of the hepatic arteries in the setting of PAN is extremely rare. Patients are typically asymptomatic and, very rarely, spontaneous rupture with life threatening haemorrhage could be the initial presentation of an undiagnosed PAN. Accurate diagnosis, effective haemostasis and prompt initiation of immunosuppressive treatment with the help of a multidisciplinary team will improve the clinical outcomes.

  20. Dengue haemorrhagic fever in Cuba. I. Serological confirmation of clinical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Guzman, M G; Kouri, G P; Bravo, J; Calunga, M; Soler, M; Vazquez, S; Venereo, C

    1984-01-01

    Serological studies by the haemagglutinin inhibition test to confirm a clinical diagnosis of dengue were done on 406 patients during the dengue 2 epidemic in Cuba in 1981. 49% of the cases were serologically positive; of these 64% was classified as primary and 36% as secondary. The frequency of symptoms is described: the most frequent were fever, headache, malaise and vomiting. Haemorrhagic manifestations predominated significantly in the secondary cases. The white race and female sex were found to predominate in the positive cases.

  1. Deaths associated with dengue haemorrhagic fever: the first in Australia in over a century.

    PubMed

    McBride, William J H

    2005-07-01

    A dengue fever epidemic was recognised in the Torres Strait Islands of Queensland in late 2003. Two fatal cases of dengue haemorrhagic fever occurred in early 2004. This severe manifestation is more common when a patient is infected a second time, with a different virus serotype to the first infection. These are the first fatalities related to dengue fever in Australia in over a century.

  2. Role of the massive transfusion protocol in the management of haemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Waters, J H

    2014-12-01

    The concept of rapid delivery of multiple blood products to the bedside of a massively haemorrhaging patient seems to be a logical approach to the management of the massively bleeding patient. However, controversy exists in the use of fixed blood component ratios. Assessing the extent of the coagulopathy through point-of-care testing might provide patients with product administration as needed, and avoid excessive transfusion and its associated complications.

  3. Dating of Acute and Subacute Subdural Haemorrhage: A Histo-Pathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Murali G; Vashista, Rakesh Kumar; Sharma, Suresh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Microscopic study of the organization of the Subdural Haemorrhage (SDH) verified against the time period can help us in the determination of its age which has serious medico-legal implications. Very few studies concerning the dating of SDH are present in the literature. Aim This study was conducted for dating the early subdural haemorrhage by routine histopathological stains. Materials and Methods A prospective analytical study was conducted during July 2009 to December 2010. A total of 100 cases (50 males and 50 females) fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in this study. Routine histopathological staining of the subdural haematoma was done. Results Correlation between the frequency of a given histomorphological phenomenon and the length of the Post-Traumatic Interval (PTI) was evidential. All the histomorphological features, when correlated with PTI groups, were found to be statistically significant, except for Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes (PMN). Conclusion We concluded that routine histopathology was reliable in the dating of early subdural haemorrhages. PMID:27630864

  4. In vitro contractile effects of agents used in the clinical management of postpartum haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John J; Crosby, David A; Crankshaw, Denis J

    2016-10-15

    Uterine atony is a major cause of postpartum haemorrhage and maternal mortality. However, the comparative pharmacology of agents used to treat this condition is poorly understood. This study evaluates, using human pregnant myometrium in vitro, a range of contractile parameters for agents used in the clinical treatment of atonic postpartum haemorrhage. The effects of oxytocin, carbetocin, ergometrine, carboprost, syntometrine and misoprostol were investigated in 146 myometrial strips from 19 donors. The potency and maximal response values were obtained, and compared, using both maximal amplitude and mean contractile force as indices of contraction. Single, EC50 concentrations of the agents were administered and both force and contraction peak parameters were compared during a 15-min exposure. Differences were considered significant when P<0.05. There were no significant differences in the peak amplitude of response between agents, except for misoprostol, which was inactive. There was a wide difference in potencies using both measures of contractility, with oxytocin and carbetocin being the most potent. The most important difference between the agents was in their ability to increase the mean contractile force, with oxytocin superior to all agents except syntometrine. In single dose experiments, mean contractile force was the parameter that separated the agents. In this respect, oxytocin was not statistically different from carboprost or syntometrine, but was superior to all other agents. These findings support a clear role for oxytocin as the first line agent for treatment of postpartum haemorrhage and raise doubts about the potential clinical usefulness of misoprostol. PMID:27423315

  5. Acute headache at emergency department: reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome complicated by subarachnoid haemorrhage and cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Yger, M; Zavanone, C; Abdennour, L; Koubaa, W; Clarençon, F; Dupont, S; Samson, Y

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is becoming widely accepted as a rare cause of both ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke and should be evocated in case of thunderclap headaches associated with stroke. We present the case of a patient with ischemic stroke associated with cortical subarachnoid haemorrhage (cSAH) and reversible diffuse arteries narrowing, leading to the diagnosis of reversible vasoconstriction syndrome. Case Report. A 48-year-old woman came to the emergency department because of an unusual thunderclap headache. The computed tomography of the brain completed by CT-angiography was unremarkable. Eleven days later, she was readmitted because of a left hemianopsia. One day after her admission, she developed a sudden left hemiparesis. The brain MRI showed ischemic lesions in the right frontal and occipital lobe and diffuse cSAH. The angiography showed vasoconstriction of the right anterior cerebral artery and stenosis of both middle cerebral arteries. Nimodipine treatment was initiated and vasoconstriction completely regressed on day 16 after the first headache. Conclusion. Our case shows a severe reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome where both haemorrhagic and ischemic complications were present at the same time. The history we reported shows that reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is still underrecognized, in particular in general emergency departments.

  6. Major haemorrhage associated with a pseudocyst in chronic pancreatitis: a gastro-surgical challenge.

    PubMed

    Rantala, A; Ovaska, J

    1996-01-01

    During the fifteen years between 1979 and 1994, ten patients with alcohol-associated chronic pancreatitis were treated for acute haemorrhage from pancreatic pseudocyst. Five of the cases took place in the last two years of the period. All patients were men with a median age of 39.5 years and with a mean of six years of alcohol misuse. Seven patients presented with massive gastrointestinal bleeding, two with intraperitoneal and one with retroperitoneal bleeding. In six patients the pseudocyst had perforated into the stomach or duodenum. Pancreatic resection resulted in permanent haemostasis in those patients it was attempted to perform, whereas ligation of the bleeding site failed in three out of four patients. One angiographic embolisation resulted in a good primary result but after 77 days the patient was operated on for recurrent bleeding. There was no hospital mortality, but altogether five patients were reoperated on for recurrent haemorrhage and six patients had other postoperative complications. Haemorrhage from pancreatic pseudocyst must be suspected in patients with anamnestic alcohol misuse and major gastrointestinal bleeding. Aggressive diagnostic evaluation, experience in pancreatic surgery, and operative strategies consisting of either resection or extracystic ligation are mandatory in the treatment of this acute condition.

  7. Update on the Surgical Trial in Lobar Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH II): statistical analysis plan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies had suggested that the outcome for patients with spontaneous lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) and no intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) might be improved with early evacuation of the haematoma. The Surgical Trial in Lobar Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH II) set out to establish whether a policy of earlier surgical evacuation of the haematoma in selected patients with spontaneous lobar ICH would improve outcome compared to a policy of initial conservative treatment. It is an international, multi-centre, prospective randomised parallel group trial of early surgery in patients with spontaneous lobar ICH. Outcome is measured at six months via a postal questionnaire. Results Recruitment to the study began on 27 November 2006 and closed on 15 August 2012 by which time 601 patients had been recruited. The protocol was published in Trials (http://www.trialsjournal.com/content/12/1/124/). This update presents the analysis plan for the study without reference to the unblinded data. The trial data will not be unblinded until after follow-up is completed in early 2013. The main trial results will be presented in spring 2013 with the aim to publish in a peer-reviewed journal at the same time. Conclusion The data from the trial will provide evidence on the benefits and risks of early surgery in patients with lobar ICH. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN22153967 PMID:23171588

  8. Whole genome sequence of a goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus detected in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Fehér, Enikő; Lengyel, György; Dán, Adám; Farkas, Szilvia L; Bányai, Krisztián

    2014-06-01

    Goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV) provoke haemorrhagic nephritis and enteritis of domestic geese. Outbreaks were detected in European countries and caused economic losses for goose keepers. Domestic ducks may be infected with GHPV without any signs typical for geese. The genomic organisation of some isolates was described but the gene functions and the pathomechanisms of the virus was not precisely defined. Here we describe the genome sequence and structure of GHPV of a goose from a Hungarian goose flock showing characteristics of the haemorrhagic nephritis and enteritis. The GHPV genome investigated in this study was 5252 bp long and was very similar (99% nucleotide identity) to sequences deposited in the GenBank. All the whole GHPV genomes possess the same ORFs in length, including the VP1, VP2, VP3, ORF-X, t and T tumour antigens. Amino acid changes are detected mainly in the putative ORF-X region. Data about the GHPV genome imply a conserved genomic structure among isolates from different countries. Genomic and epidemiological studies may help vaccine development efforts and identify potential heterologous reservoirs of GHPV.

  9. Expression kinetics of key genes in the early innate immune response to Great Lakes viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus IVb infection in yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Wendy; Emmenegger, Eveline; Glenn, Jolene; Simchick, Crystal; Winton, Jim; Goetz, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    The recently discovered strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, VHSV-IVb, represents an example of the introduction of an extremely pathogenic rhabdovirus capable of infecting a wide variety of new fish species in a new host-environment. The goal of the present study was to delineate the expression kinetics of key genes in the innate immune response relative to the very early stages of VHSV-IVb infection using the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) as a model. Administration of VHSV-IVb by IP-injection into juvenile yellow perch resulted in 84% cumulative mortality, indicating their high susceptibility to this disease. In fish sampled in the very early stages of infection, a significant up-regulation of Mx gene expression in the liver, as well as IL-1β and SAA activation in the head kidney, spleen, and liver was directly correlated to viral load. The potential down-regulation of Mx in the hematopoietic tissues, head kidney and spleen, may represent a strategy utilized by the virus to increase replication.

  10. Analysis of DNA-vaccinated fish reveals viral antigen in muscle, kidney and thymus, and transient histopathologic changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garver, K.A.; Conway, C.M.; Elliott, D.G.; Kurath, G.

    2005-01-01

    A highly efficacious DNA vaccine against a fish rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), was used in a systematic study to analyze vaccine tissue distribution, persistence, expression patterns, and histopathologic effects. Vaccine plasmid pIHNw-G, containing the gene for the viral glycoprotein, was detected immediately after intramuscular injection in all tissues analyzed, including blood, but at later time points was found primarily in muscle tissue, where it persisted to 90 days. Glycoprotein expression was detected in muscle, kidney, and thymus tissues, with levels peaking at 14 days and becoming undetectable by 28 days. Histologic examination revealed no vaccine-specific pathologic changes at the standard effective dose of 0.1 ??g DNA per fish, but at a high dose of 50 ??g an increased inflammatory response was evident. Transient damage associated with needle injection was localized in muscle tissue, but by 90 days after vaccination no damage was detected in any tissue, indicating the vaccine to be safe and well tolerated. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005.

  11. Distribution of an invasive aquatic pathogen (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) in the Great Lakes and its relationship to shipping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bain, Mark B.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Hope, Kristine M.; Eckerlin, Geofrey E.; Casey, Rufina N.; Groocock, Geoffrey H.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Bowser, Paul R.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Cangelosi, Allegra; Casey, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a rhabdovirus found in fish from oceans of the northern hemisphere and freshwaters of Europe. It has caused extensive losses of cultured and wild fish and has become established in the North American Great Lakes. Large die-offs of wild fish in the Great Lakes due to VHSV have alarmed the public and provoked government attention on the introduction and spread of aquatic animal pathogens in freshwaters. We investigated the relations between VHSV dispersion and shipping and boating activity in the Great Lakes by sampling fish and water at sites that were commercial shipping harbors, recreational boating centers, and open shorelines. Fish and water samples were individually analyzed for VHSV using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and cell culture assays. Of 1,221 fish of 17 species, 55 were VHSV positive with highly varied qRT-PCR titers (1 to 5,950,000 N gene copies). The detections of VHSV in fish and water samples were closely associated and the virus was detected in 21 of 30 sites sampled. The occurrence of VHSV was not related to type of site or shipping related invasion hotspots. Our results indicate that VHSV is widely dispersed in the Great Lakes and is both an enzootic and epizootic pathogen. We demonstrate that pathogen distribution information could be developed quickly and is clearly needed for aquatic ecosystem conservation, management of affected populations, and informed regulation of the worldwide trade of aquatic organisms.

  12. Distribution of an Invasive Aquatic Pathogen (Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus) in the Great Lakes and Its Relationship to Shipping

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Mark B.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Hope, Kristine M.; Eckerlin, Geofrey E.; Casey, Rufina N.; Groocock, Geoffrey H.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Bowser, Paul R.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Cangelosi, Allegra; Casey, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a rhabdovirus found in fish from oceans of the northern hemisphere and freshwaters of Europe. It has caused extensive losses of cultured and wild fish and has become established in the North American Great Lakes. Large die-offs of wild fish in the Great Lakes due to VHSV have alarmed the public and provoked government attention on the introduction and spread of aquatic animal pathogens in freshwaters. We investigated the relations between VHSV dispersion and shipping and boating activity in the Great Lakes by sampling fish and water at sites that were commercial shipping harbors, recreational boating centers, and open shorelines. Fish and water samples were individually analyzed for VHSV using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and cell culture assays. Of 1,221 fish of 17 species, 55 were VHSV positive with highly varied qRT-PCR titers (1 to 5,950,000 N gene copies). The detections of VHSV in fish and water samples were closely associated and the virus was detected in 21 of 30 sites sampled. The occurrence of VHSV was not related to type of site or shipping related invasion hotspots. Our results indicate that VHSV is widely dispersed in the Great Lakes and is both an enzootic and epizootic pathogen. We demonstrate that pathogen distribution information could be developed quickly and is clearly needed for aquatic ecosystem conservation, management of affected populations, and informed regulation of the worldwide trade of aquatic organisms. PMID:20405014

  13. An outbreak of VHSV (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) infection in farmed Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in Japan.

    PubMed

    Isshik, T; Nishizawa, T; Kobayashi, T; Nagano, T; Miyazaki, T

    2001-11-01

    A rhabdoviral disease occurred in farmed populations of market sized Japanese flounder (hirame) Paralichthys olivaceus in the Seto Inland Sea of Japan in 1996. The causative agent was identified as viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) based on morphological, immunological, and genetic analyses. Diseased fish that were artificially injected with a representative virus isolate showed the same pathological signs and high mortality as observed in the natural outbreak. This is the first report of an outbreak of VHSV infection in cultured fish in Japan. Clinical signs of diseased fish included dark body coloration, an expanded abdomen due to ascites, congested liver, splenomegaly, and a swollen kidney. Myocardial necrosis was most prominent and accompanied by inflammatory reactions. Necrotic lesions also occurred in the liver, spleen and hematopoietic tissue, and were accompanied by circulatory disturbances due to cardiac failure. Hemorrhagic lesions did not always appear in the lateral musculature. Transmission electron microscopy revealed many rhabdovirus particles and associated inclusion bodies containing nucleocapsids in the necrotized myocardium. The histopathological findings indicated that the necrotizing myocarditis could be considered a pathognomonic sign of VHSV infection in Japanese flounder. PMID:11775799

  14. [Update chronic viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Ziegenhagen, D J

    2016-03-01

    More than 500,000 people in Germany have chronic viral hepatitis. The interferon-based treatments formerly used in hepatitis B have been widely replaced by life-long oral medication with nucleoside or nucleotide analogues. Treatment for chronic hepatitis C has been improved substantially by the development of new and very expensive drug combinations. Up to 90% of patients can now be cured with certainty, and one to two years after successful treatment there is no relevant risk of recurrence. These individuals expect to receive insurance cover under appropriate conditions. Vaccination programmes are very efficient at decreasing the incidence of hepatitis B, but no vaccine against hepatitis C is likely to become available in the next decade. PMID:27111951

  15. Viral quasispecies evolution.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Esteban; Sheldon, Julie; Perales, Celia

    2012-06-01

    Evolution of RNA viruses occurs through disequilibria of collections of closely related mutant spectra or mutant clouds termed viral quasispecies. Here we review the origin of the quasispecies concept and some biological implications of quasispecies dynamics. Two main aspects are addressed: (i) mutant clouds as reservoirs of phenotypic variants for virus adaptability and (ii) the internal interactions that are established within mutant spectra that render a virus ensemble the unit of selection. The understanding of viruses as quasispecies has led to new antiviral designs, such as lethal mutagenesis, whose aim is to drive viruses toward low fitness values with limited chances of fitness recovery. The impact of quasispecies for three salient human pathogens, human immunodeficiency virus and the hepatitis B and C viruses, is reviewed, with emphasis on antiviral treatment strategies. Finally, extensions of quasispecies to nonviral systems are briefly mentioned to emphasize the broad applicability of quasispecies theory.

  16. Viral Quasispecies Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Julie; Perales, Celia

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Evolution of RNA viruses occurs through disequilibria of collections of closely related mutant spectra or mutant clouds termed viral quasispecies. Here we review the origin of the quasispecies concept and some biological implications of quasispecies dynamics. Two main aspects are addressed: (i) mutant clouds as reservoirs of phenotypic variants for virus adaptability and (ii) the internal interactions that are established within mutant spectra that render a virus ensemble the unit of selection. The understanding of viruses as quasispecies has led to new antiviral designs, such as lethal mutagenesis, whose aim is to drive viruses toward low fitness values with limited chances of fitness recovery. The impact of quasispecies for three salient human pathogens, human immunodeficiency virus and the hepatitis B and C viruses, is reviewed, with emphasis on antiviral treatment strategies. Finally, extensions of quasispecies to nonviral systems are briefly mentioned to emphasize the broad applicability of quasispecies theory. PMID:22688811

  17. Significance of subchorionic haemorrhage and pregnancy outcome in threatened miscarriage to predict miscarriage, pre-term labour and intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, E; Altay, M; Gelişen, O

    2011-01-01

    Subchorionic haemorrhage in the 1st trimester of pregnancy can be seen in some patients and the significance of it is controversial. In this study, subchorionic haemorrhage was found to be significantly associated with increased risk of miscarriage and IUGR. On the other hand, we did not see a significant relation between pre-term labour and subchorionic haemorrhage. We hope these findings will help clinicians in their practice about pregnancy follow-up. PMID:21417641

  18. Molecular cloning, sequencing and expression in Escherichia coli of the capsid protein gene from rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (Spanish isolate AST/89).

    PubMed

    Boga, J A; Casais, R; Marin, M S; Martin-Alonso, J M; Carmenes, R S; Prieto, M; Parra, F

    1994-09-01

    We describe the cloning, nucleotide sequencing and expression in Escherichia coli of the major capsid component (VP60) from the Spanish field isolate AST/89 of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). The sequence of the 3'-terminal 2483 nucleotides of the genome was found to be 95.4% identical to the German RHDV strain, showing ten changes in the deduced VP60 amino acid sequence. The gene coding for this structural polypeptide has been expressed in bacteria as a beta-galactosidase fusion protein or using a T7 RNA polymerase-based system. The VP60 fusion protein showed only partial antigenic similarity with native VP60 and did not confer protective immunity. The recombinant VP60 produced in the T7 RNA polymerase-based system was antigenically similar to the viral polypeptide as determined using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. When used to immunize rabbits the recombinant VP60 was able to protect the animals against a lethal challenge using purified RHDV.

  19. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    MedlinePlus

    Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused ...

  20. A Polymorphism in the Processing Body Component Ge-1 Controls Resistance to a Naturally Occurring Rhabdovirus in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chuan; Magwire, Michael M; Bayer, Florian; Jiggins, Francis M

    2016-01-01

    Hosts encounter an ever-changing array of pathogens, so there is continual selection for novel ways to resist infection. A powerful way to understand how hosts evolve resistance is to identify the genes that cause variation in susceptibility to infection. Using high-resolution genetic mapping we have identified a naturally occurring polymorphism in a gene called Ge-1 that makes Drosophila melanogaster highly resistant to its natural pathogen Drosophila melanogaster sigma virus (DMelSV). By modifying the sequence of the gene in transgenic flies, we identified a 26 amino acid deletion in the serine-rich linker region of Ge-1 that is causing the resistance. Knocking down the expression of the susceptible allele leads to a decrease in viral titre in infected flies, indicating that Ge-1 is an existing restriction factor whose antiviral effects have been increased by the deletion. Ge-1 plays a central role in RNA degradation and the formation of processing bodies (P bodies). A key effector in antiviral immunity, the RNAi induced silencing complex (RISC), localises to P bodies, but we found that Ge-1-based resistance is not dependent on the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway. However, we found that Decapping protein 1 (DCP1) protects flies against sigma virus. This protein interacts with Ge-1 and commits mRNA for degradation by removing the 5' cap, suggesting that resistance may rely on this RNA degradation pathway. The serine-rich linker domain of Ge-1 has experienced strong selection during the evolution of Drosophila, suggesting that this gene may be under long-term selection by viruses. These findings demonstrate that studying naturally occurring polymorphisms that increase resistance to infections enables us to identify novel forms of antiviral defence, and support a pattern of major effect polymorphisms controlling resistance to viruses in Drosophila. PMID:26799957