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Sample records for rheological properties

  1. Rheological properties of synovial fluids.

    PubMed

    Fam, H; Bryant, J T; Kontopoulou, M

    2007-01-01

    Synovial fluid is the joint lubricant and shock absorber [Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 32 (2002), 10-37] as well as the source of nutrition for articular cartilage. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the rheological properties of synovial fluid as they relate to its chemical composition. Given its importance in the rheology of synovial fluid, an overview of the structure and rheology of HA (hyaluronic acid) is presented first. The rheology of synovial fluids is discussed in detail, with a focus on the possible diagnosis of joint pathology based on the observed differences in rheological parameters and trends. The deterioration of viscoelastic properties of synovial fluid in pathological states due to effects of HA concentration and molecular weight is further described. Recent findings pertaining to the composition and rheology of periprosthetic fluid, the fluid that bathes prosthetic joints in vivo are reported.

  2. Rheological properties of selected dairy products.

    PubMed

    Vélez-Ruiz, J F; Barbosa Cánovas, G V

    1997-06-01

    This article reviews rheological properties of milk, concentrated milk, cream, butter, ice cream, and yogurt, as well as the structure and some physicochemical properties of milk components. A brief description of basic rheological concepts related to liquids, solids, and viscoelasticity is presented, including those rheological models commonly used to characterize dairy products. Rheological behaviors exhibited by these dairy products, including Newtonian in milk and concentrated milk, nonNewtonian in concentrated milk, cream, and yogurt, thixotropy revealed by concentrated milk, cream, and yogurt, and the viscoelastic characteristics displayed by butter, ice cream, and yogurt, are analyzed, and relevant process variables affecting the rheological behavior of dairy products are discussed. Also, to facilitate the comparison of test methods and identify the typical instrumentation and models utilized in rheological characterization of dairy products, experimental conditions and equations used for modeling are included in a tabulated form.

  3. Rheological properties of defense waste slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The major objective of this two-year project has been to obtain refined and reliable experimental data about the rheological properties of melter feeds. The research has involved both experimental studies and model development. Two experimental facilities have been set up to measure viscosity and pressure drop. Mathematical models have been developed as a result of experimental observation and fundamental rheological theory. The model has the capability to predict the viscosity of melter slurries in a range of experimental conditions. The final results of the investigation could be used to enhance the current design base for slurry transportation systems and improve the performance of the slurry mixing process. If successful, the cost of this waste treatment will be reduced, and disposal safety will be increased. The specific objectives for this project included: (1) the design, implementation, and validation of the experimental facility in both batch and continuous operating modes; (2) the identification and preparation of melter feed samples of both the SRS and Hanford waste slurries at multiple solids concentration levels; (3) the measurement and analysis of the melter feeds to determine the effects of the solids concentration, pH value, and other factors on the rheological properties of the slurries; (4) the correlation of the rheological properties as a function of the measured physical and chemical parameters; and (5) transmission of the experimental data and resulting correlation to the DOE site user to guide melter feed preparation and transport equipment design.

  4. Rheological properties of Cubic colloidal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boromand, Arman; Maia, Joao

    2016-11-01

    Colloidal and non-colloidal suspensions are ubiquitous in many industrial application. There are numerous studies on these systems to understand and relate their complex rheological properties to their microstructural evolution under deformation. Although most of the experimental and simulation studies are centered on spherical particles, in most of the industrial applications the geometry of the colloidal particles deviate from the simple hard sphere and more complex geometries exist. Recent advances in microfabrication paved the way to fabricate colloidal particles with complex geometries for applications in different areas such as drug delivery where the fundamental understanding of their dynamics has remained unexplored. In this study, using dissipative particle dynamics, we investigate the rheological properties of cubic (superball) particles which are modeled as the cluster of core-modified DPD particles. Explicit representation of solvent particles in the DPD scheme will conserve the full hydrodynamic interactions between colloidal particles. Rheological properties of these cubic suspensions are investigated in the dilute and semi-dilute regimes. The Einstein and Huggins coefficients for these particles with different superball exponent will be calculate which represent the effect of single particle's geometry and multibody interactions on viscosity, respectively. The response of these suspensions is investigated under simple shear and oscillatory shear where it is shown that under oscillation these particles tend to form crystalline structure giving rise to stronger shear-thinning behavior recently measured experimentally.

  5. Rheological properties of a vesicle suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedda, M.; Benlahsen, M.; Misbah, C.

    2014-11-01

    The rheological behavior of a dilute suspension of vesicles in linear shear flow at a finite concentration is analytically examined. In the quasispherical limit, two coupled nonlinear equations that describe the vesicle orientation in the flow and its shape evolution were derived [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 028104 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.028104] and serve here as a starting point. Of special interest is to provide, for the first time, an exact analytical prediction of the time-dependent effective viscosity ηeff and normal stress differences N1 and N2. Our results shed light on the effect of the viscosity ratio λ (defined as the inner over the outer fluid viscosities) as the main controlling parameter. It is shown that ηeff,N1 , and N2 either tend to a steady state or describe a periodic time-dependent rheological response, previously reported numerically and experimentally. In particular, the shear viscosity minimum and the cusp singularities of ηeff,N1 , and N2 at the tumbling threshold are brought to light. We also report on rheology properties for an arbitrary linear flow. We were able to obtain a constitutive law in a closed form relating the stress tensor to the strain rate tensor. It is found that the resulting constitutive markedly contrasts with classical laws known for other complex fluids, such as emulsions, capsule suspensions, and dilute polymer solutions (Oldroyd B model). We highlight the main differences between our law and classical laws.

  6. Rheological properties of aging thermosensitive suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnomo, Eko H.; van den Ende, Dirk; Mellema, Jorrit; Mugele, Frieder

    2007-08-01

    Aging observed in soft glassy materials inherently affects the rheological properties of these systems and has been described by the soft glassy rheology (SGR) model [S. M. Fielding , J. Rheol. 44, 323 (2000)]. In this paper, we report the measured linear rheological behavior of thermosensitive microgel suspensions and compare it quantitatively with the predictions of the SGR model. The dynamic moduli [ G'(ω,t) and G″(ω,t) ] obtained from oscillatory measurements are in good agreement with the model. The model also predicts quantitatively the creep compliance J(t-tw,tw) , obtained from step stress experiments, for the short time regime [(t-tw)

  7. Nanoparticles in Polymers: Assembly, Rheology and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Yuanqiao

    Inorganic nanoparticles have the potential of providing functionalities that are difficult to realize using organic materials; and nanocomposites is an effective mean to impart processibility and construct bulk materials with breakthrough properties. The dispersion and assembly of nanoparticles are critical to both processibility and properties of the resulting product. In this talk, we will discuss several methods to control the hierarchical structure of nanoparticles in polymers and resulting rheological, mechanical and optical properties. In one example, polymer-particle interaction and secondary microstructure were designed to provide a low viscosity composition comprising exfoliated high aspect ratio clay nanoparticles; in another example, the microstructure control through templates was shown to enable unique thermal mechanical and optical properties. Jeff Munro, Stephanie Potisek, Phillip Hustad; all of the Dow Chemical Company are co-authors.

  8. Rheological Properties of Aqueous Nanometric Alumina Suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chuanping

    2004-01-01

    Colloidal processing is an effective and reliable approach in the fabrication of the advanced ceramic products. Successful colloidal processing of fine ceramic powders requires accurate control of the rheological properties. The accurate control relies on the understanding the influences of various colloidal parameters on the rheological properties. Almost all research done on the rheology paid less attention to the interactions of particle and solvent. However, the interactions of the particles are usually built up through the media in which the particles are suspended. Therefore, interactions of the particle with the media, the adsorbed layers on the particle surface, and chemical and physical properties of media themselves must influence the rheology of the suspension, especially for the dense suspensions containing nanosized particles. Relatively little research work has been reported in this area. This thesis addresses the rheological properties of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions, and paying more attention to the interactions between particle and solvent, which in turn influence the particle-particle interactions. Dense nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions with low viscosity were achieved by environmentally-benign fructose additives. The rheology of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions and its variation with the particle volume fraction and concentration of fructose were explored by rheometry. The adsorptions of solute (fructose) and solvent (water) on the nanometric alumina particle surfaces were measured and analyzed by TG/DSC, TOC, and NMR techniques. The mobility of water molecules in the suspensions and its variation with particle volume fractions and fructose additive were determined by the 17O NMR relaxation method. The interactions between the nanometric alumina particles in water and fructose solutions were investigated by AFM. The results indicated that a large number of water layers were physically bound on the particles

  9. Thermal and rheological properties of breadfruit starch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueyu; Chen, Ling; Li, Xiaoxi; Xie, Fengwei; Liu, Hongshen; Yu, Long

    2011-01-01

    The thermal and rheological properties of breadfruit starch were studied using DSC and 2 different rheometers. It was found that the gelatinization temperature of starch with excess moisture content (>70%) was at approximately 75 °C. A new endotherm was detected at about 173 °C when the moisture content was lower than required for full gelatinization of the starch. A detailed examination revealed that this endotherm represented the melting of amylose-lipid complexes. Breadfruit starch paste exhibited shear-thinning fluid characteristics, and good thermal and pH stability. The setback viscosity of the breadfruit starch was lower than that of potato and corn starches. The rheological properties of the breadfruit starch paste was well described by the Herschel-Bulkley model at a shear rate of 0 to 100 s(-1), where R(2) is greater than 0.95, and it behaved like a yield-pseudoplastic fluid. Both the storage modulus and loss modulus of the paste initially increased sharply, then dropped after reaching the gelatinization peak. Breadfruit starch gel showed both flexibility and viscosity. Suspension with 6% starch content exhibited very weak gel rigidity; however, this increased significantly at starch contents above 20%.

  10. Rheological properties of dairy cattle manure.

    PubMed

    El-Mashad, Hamed M; van Loon, Wilko K P; Zeeman, Grietje; Bot, Gerard P A

    2005-03-01

    Rheological properties are important for the design and modelling of handling and treating fluids. In the present study, the viscosity of liquid manure (about 10% total solids) was measured at different shear rates (2.38-238 s(-1)). The effect of temperature on the viscosity at different shear rates was also studied. The results showed that manure has non-Newtonian flow properties, because the viscosity strongly depended on the applied shear rate. The results showed also that manure behaves like real plastic materials. The power-law model of the shear stress and the rate of shear showed that the magnitude of the consistency coefficient decreased while increasing the temperature, with high values of the determination coefficient. Moreover, the results showed that the Arrhenius-type model fitted the temperature effect on manure viscosity very well (R2 at least 0.95) with calculated activation energy of 17.0+/-0.3 kJ mol(-1).

  11. Using Ultrasound to Measure Mud Rheological Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maa, P. Y. P. Y.; Kwon, J. I.; Park, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    In order to predict the dynamic responses of newly consolidated cohesive sediment beds, a better understanding of the material rheological properties (bulk density, ρ, kinematic viscosity, ν, and shear modulus, G, assuming mud is a simple Voigt viscoelastic model) of these sediment beds is needed. An acoustic approach that uses a commercially available 250 kHz shear wave transducer and tone-burst waves has been developed to measure those properties. This approach uses a 86.3 mm long delay-line (DL) to separate the generated pressure and shear waves, and measures the reflected shear waves as well as the reflected pressure waves caused at the interface between the delay line and the mud to interpret these properties. By using materials (i.e., air, water, olive oil, and honey) with available rheological properties to establish a calibration relationship between the information carried by the measured reflected waves and those given material properties, the mud properties as well as thνe change of these properties during consolidation can be interpreted. Using jelly pudding as a check, a value of G ≈ 12310 N/m2 and ν ≈ 5 x 10-5 m2/s were estimated. For the consolidating kaolinite bed (with zero salinity and initial suspended sediment concentration about 420 g/cm3), the measurements show that the shear modulus developed after about 40 hours and approached a value on the order of 15000 N/m2 after about 100 hours. The initial kinematic viscosity was about 5 x 10-4 m2/s, and it decreased slowly with time and approached a low plateau between 10-6 and 10-7 m2/s after 300 hours. The measured bulk density showed a small increasing rate during the entire consolidation period, except at a short period between 80 and 90 hours after consolidation. Results from this study suggest a promising approach for developing an in-situ instrument to measure mud properties, as well as many other materials in other industries.

  12. Rheological properties of heavy oils and heavy oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, M.R.

    1996-06-01

    In this study, the author investigated the effects of a number of process variables such as shear rate, measurement temperature, pressure, the influence of pretreatment, and the role of various amounts of added water on the rheology of the resulting heavy oil or the emulsion. Rheological properties of heavy oils and the corresponding emulsions are important from transportation and processing standpoints.

  13. Rheological Properties of Aqueous Peanut Flour Dispersions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rheological behaviors of aqueous peanut flour dispersions were characterized across a range of conditions, including controlled heating and cooling rates under both large and small-strain deformations. Fat content of the dry flours influenced rheological changes, as dispersions of higher fat fl...

  14. Rheological properties of asphalts with particulate additives

    SciTech Connect

    Shashidhar, N.; Chollar, B.H.

    1996-12-31

    The Superpave asphalt binder specifications are performance-based specifications for purchasing asphalt binders for the construction of roads. This means that the asphalt is characterized by fundamental material (rheological) properties that relate to the distress modes of the pavements. The distress modes addressed are primarily rutting, fatigue cracking and low temperature cracking. For example, G*/sin({delta}) is designed to predict the rutting potential of pavements, where G* is the magnitude of the complex shear modulus and 6 is the phase angle. The binder for a road that is situated in a certain climatic zone requires the binder to have a minimum G*/sin({delta}) of 2200 Pa at the highest consecutive 7-day average pavement temperature the road had experienced. Implicit in such a performance based specification is that the fundamental property, G*/sin({delta}), of the binder correlates with rutting potential of the pavement regardless of the nature of the binder. In other words, the specification is transparent to the fact that the binder can simply be an asphalt, or an asphalt modified by polymers, particulates and other materials that can form a two-phase mixture. This paper discusses the asphalt-particulate system.

  15. Biodegradable compounds: Rheological, mechanical and thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Lucia, G.; Santella, M.; Malinconico, M.; Cerruti, P.; Pantani, R.

    2015-12-01

    Recently great attention from industry has been focused on biodegradable polyesters derived from renewable resources. In particular, PLA has attracted great interest due to its high strength and high modulus and a good biocompatibility, however its brittleness and low heat distortion temperature (HDT) restrict its wide application. On the other hand, Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) is a biodegradable polymer with a low tensile modulus but characterized by a high flexibility, excellent impact strength, good thermal and chemical resistance. In this work the two aliphatic biodegradable polyesters PBS and PLA were selected with the aim to obtain a biodegradable material for the industry of plastic cups and plates. PBS was also blended with a thermoplastic starch. Talc was also added to the compounds because of its low cost and its effectiveness in increasing the modulus and the HDT of polymers. The compounds were obtained by melt compounding in a single screw extruder and the rheological, mechanical and thermal properties were investigated. The properties of the two compounds were compared and it was found that the values of the tensile modulus and elongation at break measured for the PBS/PLA/Talc compound make it interesting for the production of disposable plates and cups. In terms of thermal resistance the compounds have HDTs high enough to contain hot food or beverages. The PLA/PBS/Talc compound can be, then, considered as biodegradable substitute for polystyrene for the production of disposable plates and cups for hot food and beverages.

  16. Dynamic and rheological properties of soft biological cell suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Alireza; Li, Xuejin

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying dynamic and rheological properties of suspensions of soft biological particles such as vesicles, capsules, and red blood cells (RBCs) is fundamentally important in computational biology and biomedical engineering. In this review, recent studies on dynamic and rheological behavior of soft biological cell suspensions by computer simulations are presented, considering both unbounded and confined shear flow. Furthermore, the hemodynamic and hemorheological characteristics of RBCs in diseases such as malaria and sickle cell anemia are highlighted. PMID:27540271

  17. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva. PMID:26305698

  18. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva.

  19. Rheological Properties of Enzymatically Isolated Tomato Fruit Cuticle.

    PubMed

    Petracek, P. D.; Bukovac, M. J.

    1995-10-01

    Rheological properties were determined for cuticular membranes (CMs) enzymatically isolated from mature tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Pik Red) fruit. The cuticle responded as a viscoelastic polymer in stress-strain studies. Both CM and dewaxed CM expanded and became more elastic and susceptible to fracture when hydrated, suggesting that water plasticized the cuticle. Dewaxing of the CM caused similar changes in elasticity and fracturing, indicating that wax may serve as a supporting filler in the cutin matrix. Exposure of the cuticle to the surfactant Triton X-100 did not significantly affect its rheological properties.

  20. Rheological properties of silica suspensions in aqueous cellulose derivatives solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryo, Y.; Kawaguchi, M.

    1992-05-01

    The rheological properties of the silica suspensions in aqueous solutions of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) were investigated in terms of the shear stress and storage and loss moduli (G' and G`) as a function of silica content, HPMC concentration, and HPMC molecular weight by using a coaxial cylinder rheometer.

  1. Pasting and rheological properties of quinoa-oat composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quinoa (Chenopodium, quinoa) flour, known for its essential amino acids, was composited with oat products containing ß-glucan known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing heart disease. Quinoa-oat composites were developed and evaluated for their pasting and rheological properties by a Rapid ...

  2. Rheological properties of simulated debris flows in the laboratory environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ling, Chi-Hai; Chen, Cheng-lung; Jan, Chyan-Deng; ,

    1990-01-01

    Steady debris flows with or without a snout are simulated in a 'conveyor-belt' flume using dry glass spheres of a uniform size, 5 or 14 mm in diameter, and their rheological properties described quantitatively in constants in a generalized viscoplastic fluid (GVF) model. Close agreement of the measured velocity profiles with the theoretical ones obtained from the GVF model strongly supports the validity of a GVF model based on the continuum-mechanics approach. Further comparisons of the measured and theoretical velocity profiles along with empirical relations among the shear stress, the normal stress, and the shear rate developed from the 'ring-shear' apparatus determine the values of the rheological parameters in the GVF model, namely the flow-behavior index, the consistency index, and the cross-consistency index. Critical issues in the evaluation of such rheological parameters using the conveyor-belt flume and the ring-shear apparatus are thus addressed in this study.

  3. Rheological properties of kaolin and chemically simulated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, C.L.

    1981-12-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory is conducting tests to determine the best operating conditions of pumps used to transfer insoluble radioactive sludges from old to new waste tanks. Because it is not feasible to conduct these tests with real or chemically simulated sludges, kaolin clay is being used as a stand-in for the solid waste. The rheology tests described herein were conducted to determine whether the properties of kaolin were sufficiently similar to those of real sludge to permit meaningful pump tests. The rheology study showed that kaolin can be substituted for real waste to accurately determine pump performance. Once adequately sheared, kaolin properties were found to remain constant. Test results determined that kaolin should not be allowed to settle more than two weeks between pump tests. Water or supernate from the waste tanks can be used to dilute sludge on an equal volume basis because they identically affect the rheological properties of sludge. It was further found that the fluid properties of kaolin and waste are insensitive to temperature.

  4. Modeling of rheological properties for entangled polymer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Nilanjana

    The study of entangled polymer rheology both in the field of medicine and polymer processing has their major importance. Mechanical properties of biomolecules are studied in order to better understand cellular behavior. Similarly, industrial processing of polymers needs thorough understanding of rheology so as to improve process techniques. Work in this dissertation has been organized into three major sections. Firstly, numerical/analytical models are reviewed for describing rheological properties and mechanical behaviors of cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton models are classified into categories according to the length scales of the phenomena of interest. The main principles and characteristics of each model are summarized and discussed by comparison with each other, thus providing a systematic understanding of biopolymer network modeling. Secondly, a new constitutive "toy" Mead-Banerjee-Park (MBP) model is developed for monodisperse entangled polymer systems, by introducing the idea of a configuration dependent friction coefficient (CDFC) and entanglement dynamics (ED) into the MLD "toy" model. The model is tested against experimental data in steady and transient extensional and shear flows. The model simultaneously captures the monotonic thinning of the extensional flow curve of polystyrene (PS) melts and the extension hardening found in PS solutions. Thirdly, the monodisperse MBP model is accordingly modified into polydisperse MBP "toy" constitutive model to predict the nonlinear viscoelastic material properties of model polydisperse systems. The polydisperse MBP toy model accurately predicts the material properties in the forward direction for transient uniaxial extension and transient shear flow.

  5. Rheological properties of polyolefin composites highly filled with calcium carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Fierro, Annalisa; Jakubowska, Paulina; Sterzynski, Tomasz

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the rheological properties of highly filled polyolefin composites (HFPCs) have been investigated. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), with stearic acid modified surface, was used as filler. Ternary compounds have been obtained by the inclusion of a CaCO3/polypropylene master batch into the high density polyethylene matrix. The highly filled polyolefin composites with CaCO3 content in the range between 40 and 64 wt% have been prepared in the molten state using a single-screw extruder, the temperature of the extrusion die was set at 230°C. The melt rheological properties of the HFPCs have been extensively investigated both in oscillatory and steady shear flow.

  6. Rheological and thermal properties of PP-based WPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzanti, V.; Mollica, F.; El Kissi, N.

    2014-05-01

    Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) has attracted great interest in outdoor building products for the reduced cost and the possibility of using recycled materials. Nevertheless the material shows two problems: the large viscosity due to the presence of high concentrations of filler and the degradation of cellulose during processing The aim of this work was to investigate the rheological and thermal properties of WPC. The material used for the experiments was a commercial PP-based WPC compound, with different concentrations of natural fibers (30, 50, 70% wt.). The thermal properties were studied to check for degradation of natural fibers during the subsequent rheological tests. Analyzing the storage and loss moduli and the complex viscosity curves obtained using a parallel plate rheometer it was possible to observe some features related to the viscoelastic nature of the composite.

  7. Clay-cement suspensions - rheological and functional properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, L.; Izak, P.; Mastalska-Poplawska, J.; Gajek, M.

    2017-01-01

    The piping erosion in soil is highly unexpected in civil engineering. Elimination of such damages is difficult, expensive and time-consuming. One of the possibility is the grouting method. This method is still developed into direction of process automation as well as other useful properties of suspensions. Main way of modernization of the grouting method is connected it with rheology of injection and eventuality of fitting them to specific problems conditions. Very popular and useful became binders based on modified clays (clay-cement suspensions). Important principle of efficiency of the grouting method is using of time-dependent pseudothixotropic properties of the clay-cement suspensions. The pseudo-rheounstability aspect of the suspensions properties should be dedicated and fitted to dynamic changes of soil conditions destructions. Whole process of the modification of the suspension rheology is stimulated by the specific agents. This article contains a description of practical aspects of the rheological parameters managing of the clay-cement suspensions, dedicated to the building damages, hydrotechnic constructions etc.

  8. Tuneable Rheological Properties of Fluorinated Pickering Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon Orellana, Laura Andreina; Riechers, Birte; Caen, Ouriel; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    Pickering emulsions are an appealing approach to stabilize liquid-liquid dispersions without surfactants. Recently, amphiphilic silica nanoparticles have been proposed as an alternative to surfactants for droplet microfluidics applications, where aqueous drops are stabilized in fluorinated oils. This system, proved to be effective in preventing the leakage of resorufin, a model dye that was known to leak in surfactant-stabilized drops. The overall capabilities of droplet-based microfluidics technology is highly dependent on the dynamic properties of droplets, interfaces and emulsions. Therefore, fluorinated pickering emulsions dynamic properties need to be characterized, understood and controlled to be used as a substitute of already broadly studied emulsions for droplet microfluidics applications. In this study, fluorinated pickering emulsions have been found to behave as a Herschel Bulkley fluid, representing a challenge for common microfluidic operations as re-injection and sorting of droplets. We found that this behavior is controlled by the interaction between the interfacial properties of the particle-laden interface and the bulk properties of the two phases

  9. Hanford Waste Physical and Rheological Properties: Data and Gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, Dean E.; Wells, Beric E.; Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Tingey, Joel M.; Cooley, Scott K.

    2012-03-01

    The retrieval, transport, treatment and disposal operations associated with Hanford Tank Wastes involve the handling of a wide range of slurries. Knowledge of the physical and rheological properties of the waste is a key component to the success of the design and implementation of the waste processing facilities. Previous efforts to compile and analyze the physical and rheological properties were updated with new results including information on solids composition and density, particle size distributions, slurry rheology, and particle settling behavior. The primary source of additional data is from a recent series of tests sponsored by the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. These tests involved an extensive suite of characterization and bench-scale process testing of 8 waste groups representing approximately 75% of the high-level waste mass expected to be processed through the WTP. Additional information on the morphology of the waste solids was also included. Based on the updated results, a gap analysis to identify gaps in characterization data, analytical methods and data interpretation was completed.

  10. Rheological Properties of Quasi-2D Fluids in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stannarius, Ralf; Trittel, Torsten; Eremin, Alexey; Harth, Kirsten; Clark, Noel; Maclennan, Joseph; Glaser, Matthew; Park, Cheol; Hall, Nancy; Tin, Padetha

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, research on complex fluids and fluids in restricted geometries has attracted much attention in the scientific community. This can be attributed not only to the development of novel materials based on complex fluids but also to a variety of important physical phenomena which have barely been explored. One example is the behavior of membranes and thin fluid films, which can be described by two-dimensional (2D) rheology behavior that is quite different from 3D fluids. In this study, we have investigated the rheological properties of freely suspended films of a thermotropic liquid crystal in microgravity experiments. This model system mimics isotropic and anisotropic quasi 2D fluids [46]. We use inkjet printing technology to dispense small droplets (inclusions) onto the film surface. The motion of these inclusions provides information on the rheological properties of the films and allows the study of a variety of flow instabilities. Flat films have been investigated on a sub-orbital rocket flight and curved films (bubbles) have been studied in the ISS project OASIS. Microgravity is essential when the films are curved in order to avoid sedimentation. The experiments yield the mobility of the droplets in the films as well as the mutual mobility of pairs of particles. Experimental results will be presented for 2D-isotropic (smectic-A) and 2D-nematic (smectic-C) phases.

  11. Study of rheological properties of polypropylene/organoclay hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Yu, Suzhu; Liu, Songlin; Zhao, Jianhong; Yong, Ming Shyan

    2006-12-01

    Polypropylene nanocomposites reinforced with organic modified montmorillonite clay have been fabricated by melt compounding using extrusion. The morphology of the composites is studied with transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The melt-state rheological properties of the nanocomposites have been investigated as a function of temperature and organoclay loading. It is found that the organoclays are intercalated and dispersed evenly in the matrix. The storage and loss moduli of the hybrid composites decrease with temperature and increase with organoclay concentration. Both polypropylene and its composites demonstrate a melt-like rheological behavior, indicating the low degree of exfoliation of the organoclay. A shear thinning behavior is found for both polypropylene and its composites, but the onset of shear thinning for organoclay composites occurs at lower shear rates.

  12. The Rheological Properties of the Biopolymers in Synovial Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Wendy E.; Klossner, Rebecca R.; Wetsch, Julie; Oates, Katherine M. N.; Colby, Ralph H.

    2005-03-01

    The polyelectrolyte hyaluronic acid (HA, hyaluronan), its interactions with anti-inflammatory drugs and other biopolymers, and its role in synovial fluid are being studied. We are investigating the rheological properties of sodium hyaluronate (NaHA) solutions and an experimental model of synovial fluid (comprised of NaHA, and the plasma proteins albumin and γ-globulins). Steady shear measurements on bovine synovial fluid and the synovial fluid model indicate that the fluids are highly viscoeleastic and rheopectic (stress increases with time under steady shear). In addition, the influence of anti-inflammatory agents on these solutions is being explored. Initial results indicate that D-penicillamine and hydroxychloroquine affect the rheology of the synovial fluid model and its components. The potential implications of these results will be discussed.

  13. An apparatus for measuring the rheological properties of dental materials.

    PubMed

    Combe, E C; Moser, J B

    1976-01-01

    An indirect extrusion capillary viscometer has been developed. This has been tested for nonsetting Newtonian fluids and was found to give results close to, but slightly lower than the actual viscosity. The same apparatus has been successfully applied to a non-Newtonian fluid to determine the dependence of viscosity on shear rate. The technique described should meet the requirements for assessing the rheological characteristics important in the mixing and setting of dental materials. The developed viscometer must be coupled with a sensitive mechanical testing machine capable of an adequate range of crosshead speeds that can be changed rapidly. By obtaining force vs time curves at different shear rates for setting materials, viscosity can be calculated as a function of time. Also, the viscosity at any given time during the setting process can be calculated as a function of shear rate. This chould be of aid in the interpretation of changes in rheological properties during setting of dental materials.

  14. Rheological and dielectric properties of different gold nanoparticle sizes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have found themselves useful for diagnostic, drug delivery and biomedicine applications, but one of the important concerns is about their safety in clinical applications. Nanoparticle size has been shown to be an extremely important parameter affecting the nanoparticle uptake and cellular internalization. The rheological properties assume to be very important as it affects the pressure drop and hence the pumping power when nano-fluids are circulated in a closed loop. The rheological and dielectric properties have not been documented and identified before. The aim of the present study was to investigate the rheology and the dielectric properties of different GNPs sizes in aqueous solution. Methods 10, 20 and 50 nm GNPs (Product MKN-Au, CANADA) was used in this study. The rheological parameters were viscosity, torque, shear stress, shear rate, plastic viscosity, yield stress, consistency index, and activation energy. These rheological parameters were measured using Brookfield LVDV-III Programmable rheometer supplied with temperature bath and controlled by a computer. Results The shear stress and shear rate of GNPs have shown a linear relationship and GNPs exhibited Newtonian behaviour. The GNPs with larger particle size (50 nm) exhibited more viscosity than those with smaller particle sizes (10 and 20 nm). Viscosity decreased with increasing the temperature for all the examined GNP sizes. The flow behaviour index (n) values were nearly ≤ 1 for all examined GNP sizes. Dielectric data indicated that the GNPs have strong dielectric dispersion in the frequency range of 20-100 kHz. The conductivity and relaxation time decreased with increasing the GNP size. Conclusions This study indicates that the GNP size has considerable influence on the viscosity of GNPs. The strong dielectric dispersion was GNP size dependent. The decrease in relaxation time might be attributed to increase in the localized charges distribution within the medium

  15. Investigating the rheological properties of native plant latex

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Georg; Friedrich, Christian; Gillig, Carina; Vollrath, Fritz; Speck, Thomas; Holland, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Plant latex, the source of natural rubber, has been of interest to mankind for millennia, with much of the research on its rheological (flow) properties focused towards industrial application. However, little is known regarding the rheology of the native material as produced by the plant, a key factor in determining latex's biological functions. In this study, we outline a method for rheological comparison between native latices that requires a minimum of preparatory steps. Our approach provides quantitative insights into the coagulation mechanisms of Euphorbia and Ficus latex allowing interpretation within a comparative evolutionary framework. Our findings reveal that in laboratory conditions both latices behave like non-Newtonian materials with the coagulation of Euphorbia latex being mediated by a slow evaporative process (more than 60 min), whereas Ficus appears to use additional biochemical components to increase the rate of coagulation (more than 30 min). Based on these results, we propose two different primary defensive roles for latex in these plants: the delivery of anti-herbivory compounds (Euphorbia) and rapid wound healing (Ficus). PMID:24173604

  16. Investigating the rheological properties of native plant latex.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Georg; Friedrich, Christian; Gillig, Carina; Vollrath, Fritz; Speck, Thomas; Holland, Chris

    2014-01-06

    Plant latex, the source of natural rubber, has been of interest to mankind for millennia, with much of the research on its rheological (flow) properties focused towards industrial application. However, little is known regarding the rheology of the native material as produced by the plant, a key factor in determining latex's biological functions. In this study, we outline a method for rheological comparison between native latices that requires a minimum of preparatory steps. Our approach provides quantitative insights into the coagulation mechanisms of Euphorbia and Ficus latex allowing interpretation within a comparative evolutionary framework. Our findings reveal that in laboratory conditions both latices behave like non-Newtonian materials with the coagulation of Euphorbia latex being mediated by a slow evaporative process (more than 60 min), whereas Ficus appears to use additional biochemical components to increase the rate of coagulation (more than 30 min). Based on these results, we propose two different primary defensive roles for latex in these plants: the delivery of anti-herbivory compounds (Euphorbia) and rapid wound healing (Ficus).

  17. Identification of rheological properties of human body surface tissue.

    PubMed

    Benevicius, Vincas; Gaidys, Rimvydas; Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Marozas, Vaidotas

    2014-04-11

    According to World Health Organization obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges of the 21st century. It has tripled since the 1980s and the numbers of those affected continue to rise at an alarming rate, especially among children. There are number of devices that act as a prevention measure to boost person's motivation for physical activity and its levels. The placement of these devices is not restricted thus the measurement errors that appear because of the body rheology, clothes, etc. cannot be eliminated. The main objective of this work is to introduce a tool that can be applied directly to process measured accelerations so human body surface tissue induced errors can be reduced. Both the modeling and experimental techniques are proposed to identify body tissue rheological properties and prelate them to body mass index. Multi-level computational model composed from measurement device model and human body surface tissue rheological model is developed. Human body surface tissue induced inaccuracies can increase the magnitude of measured accelerations up to 34% when accelerations of the magnitude of up to 27 m/s(2) are measured. Although the timeframe of those disruptions are short - up to 0.2 s - they still result in increased overall measurement error.

  18. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose substituent analysis and rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Akinosho, Hannah; Hawkins, Samantha; Wicker, Louise

    2013-10-15

    The methyl and hydroxypropyl substituents in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) affect the resulting gel properties. These substituents in five HPMC gels were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, small-amplitude oscillatory shear measurements, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In FT-IR spectra, the most intense peak appeared at 1053 cm(-1), denoting the presence of the glucose ring. The ratio of peak intensities at 1452 cm(-1), which represents -C-H absorptions, and at 1053 cm(-1) (I1452/I1053) and percent methylation from gas chromatography exhibited a linear association (r(2)=0.6296). The broadening of the Raman spectra indicated that the relative crystallinity of HPMC decreases with increasing hydroxypropyl contents. DSC showed no linear relationship between the percent hydroxypropylation in HPMC and the percentage of free water in an HPMC gel. Small-amplitude oscillatory shear measurements revealed that the formation of an entanglements networks and/or weak gel depends on substituent contents.

  19. Rheological and Tribological Properties of Complex Biopolymer Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klossner, Rebecca Reese

    2011-12-01

    The rheological and tribological properties of an experimental synovial fluid model were investigated in order to determine the solution dynamics of the three most abundant macromolecules present in synovial fluid, the fluid that lubricates freely moving (synovial) joints. These components, hyaluronic acid (HA) and the plasma proteins, albumin and gamma-globulins are combined in a phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS) and subjected to steady shear rheology testing, as well as nanoindenter-based scratch testing, which allows for the study of the lubrication properties of the experimental synovial fluid model. Steady shear experiments, where the shear rate was increased from low to high, and then decreased from high to low, showed hysteresis in only protein containing solutions, whereas samples of HA in PBS behaved as a "typical" polyelectrolyte in solution. Subsequent rheological experiments on the synovial fluid model exhibited an increase in viscosity at low shear stresses, indicating that a structure was present at these low shear stresses, which was not found at higher shear stresses. This result is in agreement with studies conducted on the same model which show unusual rheological behavior at low shear rates. Low shear stresses can cause modifications to the external protein surface, resulting in their unfolding and creating many opportunities for the molecules to reorder themselves. As the proteins reorder themselves, the newly exposed hydrophobic patches will have a tendency to aggregate together, creating a network within the fluid, and, in turn causing the observed increased viscosity at low shear stresses. Additionally, an anti-inflammatory drug, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was added to the solutions. This addition diminishes the protein aggregation process substantially. Finally, the HA component of the synovial fluid model was replaced with a neutral polymer in order to examine the role of HA in synovial fluid. As suspected, the HA appears to have

  20. Rheological and thermal properties of polylactide/silicate nanocomposites films.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Jasim; Varshney, Sunil K; Auras, Rafeal

    2010-03-01

    Polylactide (DL)/polyethylene glycol/silicate nanocomposite blended biodegradable films have been prepared by solvent casting method. Rheological and thermal properties were investigated for both neat amorphous polylactide (PLA-DL form) and blend of montmorillonite (clay) and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG). Melt rheology of the PLA individually and blends (PLA/clay; PLA/PEG; PLA/PEG/clay) were performed by small amplitude oscillation shear (SAOS) measurement. Individually, PLA showed an improvement in the viscoelastic properties in the temperature range from 180 to 190 degrees C. Incorporation of nanoclay (3% to 9% wt) was attributed by significant improvements in the elastic modulus (G') of PLA/clay blend due to intercalation at higher temperature. Both dynamic modulii of PLA/PEG blend were significantly reduced with addition of 10% PEG. Rheometric measurement could not be conducted while PLA/PEG blends containing 25% PEG. A blend of PLA/PEG/clay (68/23/9) showed liquid-like properties with excellent flexibility. Thermal analysis of different clay loading films indicated that the glass transition temperatures (T(g)) remained unaffected irrespective of clay concentration due to immobilization of polymer chain in the clay nanocomposite. PEG incorporation reduced the T(g) of the blend (PLA/PEG and PLA/PEG/clay) significantly. Both rheological and thermal analysis data supported plasticization and flexibility of the blended films. It is also interesting to study competition between PLA and PEG for the intercalation into the interlayer spacing of the clay. This study indicates that PLA/montmorillonite blend could serve as effective nano-composite for packaging and other applications.

  1. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES & MOLECULAR WEIGHT DISTRIBUTIONS OF FOUR PERFLUORINATED THERMOPLASTIC POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D M; Shields, A L

    2009-02-24

    Dynamic viscosity measurements and molecular weight estimates have been made on four commercial, amorphous fluoropolymers with glass transitions (Tg) above 100 C: Teflon AF 1600, Hyflon AD 60, Cytop A and Cytop M. These polymers are of interest as binders for the insensitive high explosive 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) because of their high density and Tg above ambient, but within a suitable processing range of TATB. As part of this effort, the rheological properties and molecular weight distributions of these polymers were evaluated.

  2. Interparticle interactions in concentrated suspensions and their bulk (rheological) properties.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Tharwat

    2011-10-14

    The interparticle interactions in concentrated suspensions are described. Four main types of interactions can be distinguished: (i) "Hard-sphere" interactions whereby repulsive and attractive forces are screened. (ii) "Soft" or electrostatic interactions determined by double layer repulsion. (iii) Steric repulsion produced by interaction between adsorbed or grafted surfactant and polymer layers. (iv)and van der Waals attraction mainly due to London dispersion forces. Combination of these interaction energies results in three main energy-distance curves: (i) A DLVO type energy-distance curves produced by combination of double layer repulsion and van der Waals attraction. For a stable suspension the energy-distance curve shows a "barrier" (energy maximum) whose height must exceed 25kT (where k is the Boltzmann constant and T is the absolute temperature). (ii) An energy-distance curve characterized by a shallow attractive minimum at twice the adsorbed layer thickness 2δ and when the interparticle-distance h becomes smaller than 2δ the energy shows a sharp increase with further decrease of h and this is the origin of steric stabilization. (iii) an energy-distance curve characterized by a shallow attractive minimum, an energy maximum of the DLVO type and a sharp increase in energy with further decrease of h due to steric repulsion. This is referred to as electrosteric repulsion. The flocculation of electrostatically and sterically stabilized suspensions is briefly described. A section is devoted to charge neutralization by polyelectrolytes and bridging flocculation by polymers. A distinction could be made between "dilute", "concentrated" and "solid suspensions" in terms of the balance between the Brownian motion and interparticle interaction. The states of suspension on standing are described in terms of interaction forces and the effect of gravity. The bulk properties (rheology) of concentrated suspensions are described starting with the case of very dilute

  3. The influence of additives on rheological properties of limestone slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworska, B.; Bartosik, A.

    2014-08-01

    Limestone slurry appears in the lime production process as the result of rinsing the processed material. It consists of particles with diameter smaller than 2 mm and the water that is a carrier of solid fraction. Slurry is directed to the settling tank, where the solid phase sediments and the excess water through the transfer system is recovered for re-circulation. Collected at the bottom of the tank sludge is deposited in a landfill located on the premises. Rheological properties of limestone slurry hinder its further free transport in the pipeline due to generated flow resistance. To improve this state of affairs, chemical treatment of drilling fluid, could be applied, of which the main task is to give the slurry properties suitable for the conditions encountered in hydrotransport. This treatment consists of applying chemical additives to slurry in sufficient quantity. Such additives are called as deflocculants or thinners or dispersants, and are chemical compounds which added to aqueous solution are intended to push away suspended particles from each other. The paper presents the results of research allowing reduction of shear stress in limestone slurry. Results demonstrate rheological properties of limestone slurry with and without the addition of modified substances which causes decrease of slurry viscosity, and as a consequence slurry shear stress for adopted shear rate. Achieving the desired effects increases the degree of dispersion of the solid phase suspended in the carrier liquid and improving its ability to smooth flow with decreased friction.

  4. Particle size dependent rheological property in magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jie; Pei, Lei; Xuan, Shouhu; Yan, Qifan; Gong, Xinglong

    2016-06-01

    The influence of the particle size on the rheological property of magnetic fluid was studied both by the experimental and computer simulation methods. Firstly, the magnetic fluids were prepared by dispersing Fe3O4 nanospheres with size varied from 40 nm to 100 nm and 200 nm in the solution. Then, the rheological properties were investigated and it was found that the relative magnetorheological effects increased with increasing the particle size. Finally, the molecular dynamic simulation was used to analyze the mechanical characteristics of the magnetic fluid and the chain-like model agreed well with the experimental result. The authentic chain-like structure observed by a microscope agreed with the simulation results. The three particles composed of the similar cluster nanostructure, thus they exhibited similar magnetic property. To this end, the unique assembling microstructures was the origination of the mechanical difference. And it was found that the higher MR (magnetorheological) effects of the large particle based magnetic fluid was originated from the stronger assembling microstructure under the applying magnetic field.

  5. Comparison of the rheological properties of four root canal sealers

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Seok Woo; Lee, Young-Kyu; Zhu, Qiang; Shon, Won Jun; Lee, Woo Cheol; Kum, Kee Yeon; Baek, Seung Ho; Lee, In Bog; Lim, Bum-Soon; Bae, Kwang Shik

    2015-01-01

    The flowability of a root canal sealer is clinically important because it improves the penetration of the sealer into the complex root canal system. The purpose of this study was to compare the flowabilities of four root canal sealers, measured using the simple press method (ISO 6876), and their viscosities, measured using a strain-controlled rheometer. A newly developed, calcium phosphate-based root canal sealer (Capseal) and three commercial root canal sealers (AH Plus, Sealapex and Pulp Canal Sealer EWT) were used in this study. The flowabilities of the four root canal sealers were measured using the simple press method (n=5) and their viscosities were measured using a strain-controlled rheometer (n=5). The correlation between these two values was statistically analysed using Spearman's correlation test. The flow diameters and the viscosities of the root canal sealers were strongly negatively correlated (ρ=−0.8618). The viscosity of Pulp Canal Sealer EWT was the lowest and increased in the following order: AH Plusrheological properties. The viscosities measured using the strain-controlled rheometer were more precise than the flowabilities measured using the simple press method, suggesting that the rheometer can accurately measure the rheological properties of root canal sealers. PMID:25059248

  6. Influence of cell properties on rheological characterization of microalgae suspensions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinru; Jiang, Zeyi; Chen, Liang; Chou, Aihui; Yan, Hai; Zuo, Yi Y; Zhang, Xinxin

    2013-07-01

    The influences of algal cell size and surface charge on rheological properties of microalgae suspensions were investigated. The effective viscosity of two microalgae suspensions, i.e., the freshwater Chlorella sp. and the marine Chlorella sp., was measured as a function of their volume fractions in the range of 0.70-4.31%. The hydrodynamic diameters of the freshwater Chlorella sp. and the marine Chlorella sp. were measured to be 3.13 and 6.00 μm, respectively. The Zeta potentials of these two algal cells were measured to be -23.73 and -81.81 mV, respectively. The intrinsic viscosities of these two microalgae suspensions were further determined to be 24.7 and 16.1, respectively. Combining with theoretical models, these results indicated that the algal cell size has a predominant effect over cell surface charge in affecting rheological properties of microalgae suspensions. Smaller algal cells result in a higher effective viscosity of the microalgae suspension.

  7. Waxy soft white wheat: extrusion characteristics and thermal and rheological properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waxy wheat flour was analyzed for its thermal and rheological properties and extruded to understand its processing characteristics. Comparisons were made with normal soft white wheat flour to identify extrusion differences under the same conditions. The thermal and rheological properties through Rap...

  8. The rheological properties of silated hydroxypropylmethylcellulose tissue engineering matrices.

    PubMed

    Fatimi, Ahmed; Tassin, Jean François; Quillard, Sophie; Axelos, Monique A V; Weiss, Pierre

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes the rheological properties of silated hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC-Si) used in biomaterials domain as a three-dimensional synthetic matrix for tissue engineering. The HPMC-Si is an HPMC grafted with 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). HPMC and HPMC-Si were studied. It is shown that although silanization reduces the hydrodynamic volume in dilute solution, it does not affect significantly the rheological behavior of the concentrated solutions. The HPMC-Si viscous solution (pH 12.8) cross-links by decreasing the pH using an acid buffer, since HPMC-Si solution transforms into an elastic state. The kinetics of cross-linking and final elastic properties is influenced by several parameters such as polymer concentration, pH and temperature. pH and temperature play an important role in the silanol condensation, mainly responsible for network formation. The study of the gelation process revealed the dependence of the final concentration of HPMC-Si hydrogel on cross-linking kinetics and viscoelastic properties. The percolation theory was applied to determine gel point and to discuss the dependence of storage (G') and loss (G'') moduli on frequency. Results showed that both G' and G'' exhibit a power-law behavior with an exponent (0.68) which extends over the entire frequency range. This method is the only one to characterize the time where a liquid viscous phase shifts to hydrogel with elastic properties. In this case it was about 23 min for a final pH of 7.4.

  9. Processing parameters matching effects upon Rhizobium tropici biopolymers' rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Flávia Duta; Lopes, Léa Maria de Almeida; de França, Francisca Pessôa

    2008-07-01

    The combined effects of the processing parameters upon rheological properties of biopolymers produced by Rhizobium tropici were studied as a function of the Ca(+2) ions' concentration variation, yeast extract concentration added to the medium, aeration, and agitation, maintaining the mannitol concentration in 10 g/L. The experiments were carried out using a fermenter with 20-L capacity as a reactor. All processing parameters were monitored online. The temperature [(30 +/- 1) degrees C] and pH values (7.0) were kept constant throughout the experimental time. As a statistical tool, a complete 2(3) factorial design with central point and response surface was used to investigate the interactions between relevant variables of the fermentation process: calcium carbonate concentration, yeast extract concentration, aeration, and agitation. The processing parameter setup for reaching the maximum response for rheological propriety production was obtained when applying mannitol concentration of 10.0 g/L, calcium carbonate concentration 1.0 g/L, yeast extract concentration 1.0 g/L, aeration 1.30 vvm, and agitation 800 rpm. The viscosimetric investigation of polysaccharide solutions exposed their shear-thinning behavior and polyelectrolytic feature.

  10. Tribological and Rheological Properties of a Synovial Fluid Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klossner, Rebecca; Liang, Jing; Krause, Wendy

    2010-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) and the plasma proteins, albumin and globulins, are the most abundant macromolecules in synovial fluid, the fluid that lubricates freely moving joints. In previous studies, bovine synovial fluid, a synovial fluid model (SFM) and albumin in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were observed to be rheopectic---viscosity increases over time under constant shear. Additionally, steady shear experiments have a strong shear history dependence in protein-containing solutions, whereas samples of HA in PBS behaved as a ``typical'' polyelectrolyte. The observed rheopexy and shear history dependence are indicative of structure building in solution, which is most likely caused by protein aggregation. The tribology of the SFM was also investigated using nanoindenter-based scratch tests. The coefficient of frictions (μ) between the diamond nanoindenter tip and a polyethylene surface was measured in the presence of the SFM and solutions with varied protein and HA concentrations. The lowest μ is observed in the SFM, which most closely mimics a healthy joint. Finally, an anti-inflammatory drug, hydroxychloroquine, was shown to inhibit protein interactions in the SFM in rheological studies, and thus the tribological response was examined. We hypothesize that the rheopectic behavior is important in lubrication regimes and therefore, the rheological and tribological properties of these solutions will be correlated.

  11. Phase behavior, rheological and mechanical properties of hydrophilic polymer dispersions.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Sushila; Bunt, Craig; Rathbone, Michael; Alany, Raid G

    2011-06-01

    Liquid polymeric systems that can undergo phase change (sol to gel) upon administration into the teat canal of cow's mammary gland can serve as a physical barrier to invading pathogens and can also serve as a reservoir for controlled release of therapeutic agents. The aim of the study was to investigate the phase behavior, rheological and mechanical properties of selected in situ gelling systems. Six in situ gelling polymer formulations were identified using phase behavior studies. Rheological studies revealed pseudoplastic flow with thixotropy. All six formulations showed significantly different viscosity, pseudoplasticity and thixotropy values except for CMC1 and HPMC2 which where statistically similar. The gel strength was dependent on the solvent system used and amount of water in the system. These in situ gelling systems have the potential to serve as a platform for development of intramammary formulations intended for administration into the teat canal of the cow's mammary gland. They can serve as a physical barrier or a matrix for controlled drug release.

  12. Influence of decavanadate clusters on the rheological properties of gelatin.

    PubMed

    Carn, Florent; Djabourov, Madeleine; Coradin, Thibaud; Livage, Jacques; Steunou, Nathalie

    2008-10-09

    The influence of polyoxovanadate clusters ([H(2)V(10)O(28)](4-)) on the thermo-reversible gelation of porcine skin gelatin solution (type A, M w approximately 40 000 g.mol (-1), pH = 3.4 < isoelectric point (IEP) approximately 8) has been investigated as a function of temperature and vanadate concentration by combining rheology and microcalorimetry. This work shows that the rheological properties of the system depend on electrostatic interactions between [H(2)V(10)O(28)](4-) and positively charged gelatin chains. In a first stage, we describe the renaturation of the gelatin triple helices in the presence of decavanadate clusters. We reveal that, when gelatin chains are in coil conformation (30 degrees C < T < 50 degrees C), the inorganic clusters act as physical cross-linkers that govern the visco-elastic properties of the mixture with an exponential dependence of the (G', G'') modulus with the vanadate concentration. Below 30 degrees C, we show that gelatin triple helix nucleation is slightly favored by the presence of vanadate, but above a helix concentration of 0.012 g.cm (-3), G' is fully governed by the helix concentration. During the melting process, we reveal the non-fully reversible behavior of the vanadate/gelatin rheological properties and the stabilization of gelatin triple helices due to vanadate species until 50 degrees C. This non-reversible character has also been observed in the same experimental conditions with collagen/vanadate solutions. This is the first time that such a stabilization of triple helices has been reported in the case of gelatin hydrogels chemically cross-linked or not. We propose to analyze these results by considering that triple helix aggregates should persist because of decavanadate bridging, that the nucleation of an extended triple helix network may induce a strong modification of the vanadate cross-linker distribution in the system, or both, thus promoting the formation of thermally stable vanadate/gelatin micro-gels in the

  13. Novel formulations of ballistic gelatin. 1. Rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Zecheru, Teodora; Său, Ciprian; Lăzăroaie, Claudiu; Zaharia, Cătălin; Rotariu, Traian; Stănescu, Paul-Octavian

    2016-06-01

    Ballistic gelatin is the simulant of the human body during field tests in forensics and other related fields, due to its physical and mechanical similarities to human trunk and organs. Since the ballistic gelatin used in present has important issues to overcome, an alternative approach is the use of gelatin-polymer composites, where a key factor is the insertion of biocompatible materials, which replicate accurately the human tissues. In order to be able to obtain an improved material in terms of mechanical performances by an easy industrial-scale technology, before the verification of the ballistic parameters by shooting in agreement with military standards, one of the best and cheapest solutions is to perform a thorough check of their rheological properties, in standard conditions.

  14. Rheological properties of carbon nanotubes-reinforced magnetorheological elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, S. A. A.; Mazlan, SA; Nik Ismail, N. I.; Ubaidillah; Khairi, MHA; Yunus, NA

    2017-01-01

    Magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) based on the natural rubber with different types of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) as additives were synthesized. MRE with pristine MWCNTs was prepared as a control and the carboxylated (MWCNT-COOH), as well as hydroxylated (MWCNT-OH) were introduced as new additives in MRE. Their rheological properties under different magnetic field were evaluated by using the rheometer (MCR 302, AntonPaar, Austria) equipped with the electromagnetic device. The dependency of MREs towards excitation frequencies under different magnetic field was investigated. It is shown that the storage modulus and loss factor of MRE with functionalized MWCNTs exhibited noticeable increment in MR performance compared to control parallel with the frequencies increment.

  15. Research on the rheological properties of a perfluoropolyether based ferrofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenkun; Yao, Jie; Li, Decai

    2017-02-01

    A perfluoropolyether based ferrofluid was prepared using co-precipitation method and the rheological properties of the ferrofluid were studied by a rotational rheometer. A series of experiments were designed to study the influence of magnetic field, shear rate and temperature on the magnetoviscous effect of the perfluoropolyether based ferrofluid. Consecutive measurements of the megnetoviscous parameter with the temperature-increasing process were made and totally different tendency of the curves was observed under a range of shear rates. The magnetic field strength influence on the observed temperature dependencies was also studied experimentally. A discussion on the different mechanisms of the influence of temperature on magnetoviscous effect is presented based on the chain model of magnetic particles and the viscosity-temperature characteristics of the base carrier liquid.

  16. Rheological properties of elastomeric impression materials before and during setting.

    PubMed

    McCabe, J F; Arikawa, H

    1998-11-01

    In this study, we examined the rheological properties of elastomeric impression materials, both before and during setting, to assess the clinical significance of certain key characteristics such as viscosity, pseudoplasticity, and the rate of development of elasticity. The hypothesis to be tested was that monitoring the change in tan delta is the most appropriate means of monitoring the setting characteristics of elastomers. The loss tangent (tan delta) and the dynamic viscosity (eta') for five impression materials (both unmixed pastes and mixed/setting materials) were measured by means of a controlled-stress rheometer in a cone/plate configuration. For unmixed pastes, tests were performed at various frequencies (0.1 to 10 Hz) and torques (from 1 to 50 x 10(-4) Nm), while testing on setting materials was performed at constant frequency (1 Hz) and torque (3 x 10(-3) Nm). Most base and catalyst pastes were pseudoplastic before being mixed. Immediately after being mixed, the polyether (tan delta = 9.85) and polysulfide (tan delta = 9.54) elastomers showed tan delta markedly higher than those of other mixed materials (tan delta = 4.96 to 3.01). The polyvinylsiloxane elastomers showed lower initial tan delta, which rapidly reduced even further with time. This suggests that these materials should be used as soon as possible after being mixed. The polyether elastomer had a comparatively long induction period during which the tan delta remained at a high value. These characteristics are thought to be key factors in controlling clinical efficacy and therefore support the hypothesis that monitoring tan delta is an appropriate method for evaluating the setting characteristics of elastomers. One limitation was that the controlled-stress rheometer was unable to monitor rheological properties through to completion of setting.

  17. Rheological properties of aqueous Pluronic-alginate systems containing liposomes.

    PubMed

    Grassi, G; Crevatin, A; Farra, R; Guarnieri, G; Pascotto, A; Rehimers, B; Lapasin, R; Grassi, M

    2006-09-01

    Rheological and erosion studies regarding a liposome-containing polymeric blend that is propaedeutic to its use in paving techniques in tubular organs, such as blood vessels, are reported. Attention is focused on an aqueous polymeric blend composed of Pluronic (PF127) and alginate (Protanal LF 10/60) because both polymers, when dissolved in water at a sufficiently high concentration, are subjected to different structural mechanisms, which are driven by temperature increase and addition of bivalent cations, respectively, and both result in marked viscoelastic and plastic properties. After proving the compatibility between PF127 and alginate, we show that the structural transition temperature of the blend, T(ST), can be properly modulated. In particular, we found that T(ST) for an aqueous solution of pure Pluronic 20% w/w is about 21 degrees C and that even slight reductions in polymer concentration result in considerable T(ST) decrease. The addition of salts or alginate (provided as Na-alginate) provokes a substantial decrease of T(ST) and thus the alginate concentration in the blend should not exceed 1% w/w. In addition, liposomes slow down the structural transition but do not substantially affect the rheological properties of the system in the final state at higher temperatures, thus showing that they can be added to the polymeric blend without significant effects. Finally, erosion tests show that after contact with a source of bivalent cations, the polymeric blend containing PF127 and alginate shows an erosion resistance neatly improved with respect to the simple structured Pluronic system having the same polymer concentration. As a whole, all these results constitute the basis for future potential applications of the considered polymeric blend in tubular organs such as blood vessels.

  18. Dynamic light scattering for measuring microstructure and rheological properties of food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years there has been significant interest in the determination of microstructural and rheological properties of viscoelastic food materials and their formulations. This is because the arrangement (architecture) of the micro­ and nano­components, size distribution, and rheological (mechanic...

  19. Rheological and morphological properties of graphene-epoxy nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Raimondo, Marialuigia; Lafdi, Khalid; Guadagno, Liberata

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the rheological and morphological properties of an epoxy resin filled with graphene-based nanoparticles have been investigated. Two samples of partially exfoliated graphite (pEG) and carboxylated partially exfoliated graphite (CpEG), differing essentially for the content of carboxylated groups, are used. The percentage of exfoliated graphite is slightly different for the two samples: 56% for pEG and and 60% for CpEG. Exfoliated graphite is prepared using traditional acid intercalation followed by a sudden treatment at high temperature (900°C). The epoxy matrix is prepared by mixing a tetrafunctional precursor with a reactive diluent which produces a significant decrease in the viscosity of the epoxy precursor so that the dispersion step of nanofillers in the matrix can easily occur. The hardener agent, the 4,4-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS), is added at a stoichiometric concentration with respect to all the epoxy rings. The inclusion of the pEG and CpEG samples in the formulated epoxy mixture significantly modifies the rheological behaviour of the mixture itself. The epoxy mixture, indeed, shows a Newtonian behavior; on the contrary the complex viscosity of the nanocomposites clearly shows a shear thinning behavior at 3 wt % of pEG content and at 0.75 wt% of CpEG content. The increase in complex viscosity with the increasing of pEG and CpEG content is mostly caused by a dramatic increase in the storage modulus of the nanocomposites. All the graphene-based epoxy mixtures are cured by a two-stage curing cycles: a first isothermal stage is carried out at the lower temperature of 125°C for 1 hour and, then, a second isothermal stage at the higher temperature of 200°C for 3 hours. The different morphology shown by the two pEG and CpEG samples is consistent with the difference in the percentage of exfoliation degree and well correlates with the rheological behavior of investigated graphene-epoxy nanocomposites.

  20. Rheological and microstructural properties of porcine gastric digesta and diets containing pectin or mango powder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Dhital, Sushil; Williams, Barbara A; Chen, Xiao Dong; Gidley, Michael J

    2016-09-05

    Hydrated polysaccharides and their assemblies are known to modulate gastric emptying rate due to their capacity to change the structural and rheological properties of gastric contents (digesta). In the present study, we investigated the rheological and microstructural properties of gastric digesta from pigs fed with diets incorporating mango powder or pectin, and compared results with those from hydrated diets of the same water content, in order to investigate the origins for rheological changes in the pig stomach. All of the hydrated diets and gastric digesta were particle-dominated suspensions, generally showing weak gel or more solid-like behavior with the storage modulus (G') always greater than loss modulus (G") under small deformation oscillatory measurements, and with small deformation viscosity greater than steady shear viscosity (i.e. non-Cox-Merz superposition). Although significant rheological differences were observed between the hydrated diets, rheological parameters for gastric digesta were similar for all diets, indicative of a rheological homeostasis in the pig stomach. Whilst the addition of gastric mucin (20mg/mL) to control and mango diets altered the rheology to match the gastric digesta rheology, the effect of mucin on the pectin-containing diet was negligible. The viscous effect of pectin also hindered the action of alpha amylase as observed from relatively less damaged starch granules in pectin digesta compared to mango and control digesta. Based on the experimental findings that the rheology of gastric digesta differs from hydrated diets of the same water content, the current study revealed composition-dependent complex behavior of gastric digesta in vivo, suggesting that the rheology of food products or ingredients may not necessarily reflect the rheological effect when ingested.

  1. The rheological properties of tara gum (Caesalpinia spinosa).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanbei; Ding, Wei; Jia, Lirong; He, Qiang

    2015-02-01

    The rheological properties of tara gum, as affected by concentration, temperature, pH and the presence of salts and sucrose, were investigated by using steady and dynamic shear measurements and atomic force microscope observation. Tara gum exhibited non-Newtonian, pseudoplastic behaviour without thixotropy at tested concentrations (0.2-1.0%, w/v). Salts (CaCl2 and NaCl) led to a viscosity reduction, which was more sensitive to Ca(2+) than to Na(+). The gum had stable viscosity over a wide pH range (pH 3-11), and the influence of sucrose was concentration dependent. Increasing temperature from 20°C to 80°C decreased the gum viscosity. Frequency sweeps indicated that tara gum (1.0% w/v) behaved as a liquid at low frequency, and acted more like a gel at high frequency. With the decrease of concentration, tara gum may show a viscous property rather than an elastic one. These results are potentially useful for the application of tara gum in food processing.

  2. Effect of thermal modification on rheological properties of polyethylene blends

    SciTech Connect

    Siriprumpoonthum, Monchai; Nobukawa, Shogo; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Satoh, Yasuo; Sasaki, Hiroko

    2014-03-15

    We examined the effects of thermal modification under flow field on the rheological properties of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) with high molecular weight, low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and their blends, without thermal stabilizer. Although structural changes during processing are not detected by size extrusion chromatography or nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, linear viscoelastic properties changed greatly, especially for the LLDPE. A cross-linking reaction took place, leading to, presumably, star-shaped long-chain branches. Consequently, the modified LLDPE, having high zero-shear viscosity, became a thermorheologically complex melt. Moreover, it should be noted that the drawdown force, defined as the uniaxial elongational force at a constant draw ratio, was significantly enhanced for the blends. Enhancement of elongational viscosity was also detected. The drawdown force and elongational viscosity are marked for the thermally modified blend as compared with those for the blend of thermally modified pure components. Intermolecular cross-linking reactions between LDPE and LLDPE, yielding polymers with more than two branch points per chain, result in marked strain-hardening in the elongational viscosity behavior even at small strain. The recovery curve of the oscillatory modulus after the shear modification is further evidence of a branched structure.

  3. Functional and rheological properties of cold plasma treated rice starch.

    PubMed

    Thirumdas, Rohit; Trimukhe, A; Deshmukh, R R; Annapure, U S

    2017-02-10

    The present work deals with aimed to study the effect of cold plasma treatment on the functional and rheological properties of rice starch using two different power levels (40 and 60W). The changes in amylose content, turbidity, pH, water and fat absorption due to plasma treatment were evaluated. Where decrease in the turbidity and pH after the treatment was observed. Gel hydration properties and syneresis study revealed that there is an increase in leaching of amylose molecules after the treatment. Rapid Visco Analyzer examination showed an increase in pasting and final viscosities. From G' and G″ moduli determination we observed that there is decrease in retrogradation tendency of starch gels. XRD did not show any change in A-type pattern but decrease in the relative crystallinity was observed due to depolymerization caused by active plasma species. FTIR shows some of the additional functional groups after treatment. SEM showed formation of fissures on the surface of starch granules due to etching caused by the plasma species. Thus, plasma treatment can be one of the methods for physical modification of starch.

  4. Simulation and experimental study of rheological properties of CeO2-water nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loya, Adil; Stair, Jacqueline L.; Ren, Guogang

    2015-10-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles offer great merits over controlling rheological, thermal, chemical and physical properties of solutions. The effectiveness of a nanoparticle to modify the properties of a fluid depends on its diffusive properties with respect to the fluid. In this study, rheological properties of aqueous fluids (i.e. water) were enhanced with the addition of CeO2 nanoparticles. This study was characterized by the outcomes of simulation and experimental results of nanofluids. The movement of nanoparticles in the fluidic media was simulated by a large-scale molecular thermal dynamic program (i.e. LAMMPS). The COMPASS force field was employed with smoothed particle hydrodynamic potential (SPH) and discrete particle dynamics potential (DPD). However, this study develops the understanding of how the rheological properties are affected due to the addition of nanoparticles in a fluid and the way DPD and SPH can be used for accurately estimating the rheological properties with Brownian effect. The rheological results of the simulation were confirmed by the convergence of the stress autocorrelation function, whereas experimental properties were measured using a rheometer. These rheological values of simulation were obtained and agreed within 5 % of the experimental values; they were identified and treated with a number of iterations and experimental tests. The results of the experiment and simulation show that 10 % CeO2 nanoparticles dispersion in water has a viscosity of 2.0-3.3 mPas.

  5. Different macro- and micro-rheological properties of native porcine respiratory and intestinal mucus.

    PubMed

    Bokkasam, Harish; Ernst, Matthias; Guenther, Marco; Wagner, Christian; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2016-08-20

    Aim of this study was to investigate the similarities and differences at macro- and microscale in the viscoelastic properties of mucus that covers the epithelia of the intestinal and respiratory tract. Natural mucus was collected from pulmonary and intestinal regions of healthy pigs. Macro-rheological investigations were carried out through conventional plate-plate rheometry. Microrheology was investigated using optical tweezers. Our data revealed significant differences both in macro- and micro-rheological properties between respiratory and intestinal mucus.

  6. Rheological and biochemical properties of Solanum lycocarpum starch.

    PubMed

    Di-Medeiros, Maria Carolina B; Pascoal, Aline M; Batista, Karla A; Bassinello, Priscila Z; Lião, Luciano M; Leles, Maria Inês G; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2014-04-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the rheological and physicochemical properties of Solanum lycocarpum starch. The thermogravimetric analysis of S. lycocarpum starch showed a typical three-step weight loss pattern. Microscopy revealed significant changes in the granule morphology after hydrothermal treatment. Samples hydrothermally treated at 50°C for 10 min lost 52% of their crystallinity, which was recovered after storage for 7 days at 4°C. However, samples hydrothermally treated at 65°C were totally amorphous. This treatment was sufficient to completely disrupt the starch granule, as evidenced by the absence of an endothermic peak in the DSC thermogram. The RVA of S. lycocarpum starch revealed 4440.7cP peak viscosity, 2660.5cP breakdown viscosity, 2414.1cP final viscosity, 834.3cP setback viscosity, and a pasting temperature of 49.6°C. The low content of resistant starch (10.25%) and high content of digestible starch (89.78%) in S. lycocarpum suggest that this starch may be a good source for the production of hydrolysates, such as glucose syrup and its derivatives.

  7. Taxonomy of granular rheology from grain property networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, David M.; Tordesillas, Antoinette

    2012-01-01

    We construct complex networks from symbolic time series of particle properties within a dense quasistatically deforming granular assembly subjected to biaxial compression. The structure of the resulting networks embodies the evolving structural rearrangements in the granular material, in both contact forces and contact topologies. These rearrangements are usefully summarized through standard network statistics as well as building block motifs and community structures. Dense granular media respond to applied compression and shear by a process of self-organization to form two cooperatively evolving structures comprising the major load-bearing columnlike force chains, and the lateral trusslike three-cycle triangle topologies. We construct networks summarizing their individual evolution based on relationships between symbolic time series indicating a particle's chronological force chain and three-cycle membership histories. We test which particle membership histories are similar with respect to each other through the information theory-based measure of Hamming distance. The complex networks summarize the essential structural rearrangements, while the community structures within the networks partition the material into distinct zones of deformation, including interlacing subregions of failure inside the shear band. The taxonomy of granular rheology at the mesoscopic scale distills the inelastic structural rearrangements throughout loading history down to its core elements, and should lay bare an objective and physics-based formalism for thermodynamic internal variables and associated evolution laws.

  8. Rheological and microstructural properties of the chia seed polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Adhikari, Raju; Kasapis, Stefan; Adhikari, Benu

    2015-11-01

    Chia seed polysaccharide (CSP) was extracted from chia (Salvia hispanica) seeds, and its rheological and microstructural properties in aqueous solutions were studied. CSP solution exhibited Newtonian and shear thinning flow patterns depending on shear rate when the concentration was ≤0.06% (w/v). CSP solutions at concentrations >0.06% (w/v) exhibited strong shear thinning behaviour within the shear rate tested (0.001-300s(-1)). The transition from dilute to semi-dilute regime occurred at a critical concentration (C*) of 0.03gdL(-1). The intrinsic viscosity was high (∼16dLg(-1)) and concentration dependence of zero shear viscosity in the semi-dilute regime followed η0∝C(2.7) relationship. The storage modulus (G') was higher than the loss modulus (G″) at all experimental frequencies and their frequency dependence was negligible at all tested concentrations. Apparent shear viscosity was smaller than dynamic complex viscosity at equivalent values of deformation and G' varied with the square of concentration indicating a gel-like behaviour in CSP solutions within 0.02-3.0% (w/v) concentrations. Controlled acid hydrolysis of purified CSP yielded various low molecular fractions with fairly uniform polydispersity giving a Mark-Houwink-Sakurada relationship of intrinsic viscosity equaling to 1.52×10(-4) (molecular weight)(0.803) (dLg(-1)).

  9. Chain-configuration dependent rheological properties in transient networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sing, Michelle; Wang, Zhen-Gang; McKinley, Gareth; Olsen, Bradley

    2014-03-01

    Complex associative networks capable of shear thinning followed by recovery on the order of seconds are of interest as injectable biomaterials. However, there is a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms that contribute to rheological properties such as the network's yield stress and rate of self-healing. Here we present a transient network theory for associative physical gels arising from the chemical kinetic form of the Smoluchowski Equation capable of modeling the full chain end-to-end distance distribution while tracking the fraction of looped, bridged, and free chain configurations in the gel. By varying the equilibrium association rate relative to the material relaxation time, we are able to track the evolution of loop and bridge chain fraction as the system undergoes stress instabilities. We have evidence that these instabilities result from non-monotonic trends in loop and bridge chain fraction when the end group association rate is high relative to the dissociation rate. This behavior provides insight into the complex kinetic interactions responsible for certain mechanical behaviors while serving as a valuable predictive tool for gel design. Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Department of Defense National Defense Science and Engineering Fellowship Program

  10. Temperature dependent rheological property of copper oxide nanoparticles suspension (nanofluid).

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Devdatta P; Das, Debendra K; Chukwu, Godwin A

    2006-04-01

    A nanofluid is the dispersion of metallic solid particles of nanometer size in a base fluid such as water or ethylene glycol. The presence of these nanoparticles affects the physical properties of a nanofluid via various factors including shear stress, particle loading, and temperature. In this paper the rheological behavior of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles of 29 nm average diameter dispersed in deionized (DI) water is investigated over a range of volumetric solids concentrations of 5 to 15% and various temperatures varying from 278-323 degrees K. These experiments showed that these nanofluids exhibited time-independent pseudoplastic and shear-thinning behavior. The suspension viscosities of nanofluids decrease exponentially with respect to the shear rate. Suspension viscosity follows the correlation in the form ln(mus) = A(1/T)-B, where constants A and B are the functions of volumetric concentrations. The calculated viscosities from the developed correlations and experimental values were found to be within +/- 10% of their values.

  11. Determination of Extensional Rheological Properties by Hyperbolic Contraction Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stading, Mats

    2008-07-01

    Extensional rheologyy is important for diverse applications such as processing of viscoelastic fluids, mouthfeel of semi-solid foods, cell mitosis and baking, and is also a useful tool for testing the applicability of constitutive equations. Despite the documented influence of extensional rheological properties, it is seldom measured due to experimental difficulties. There are only commercial equipments available for low-viscosity fluids by Capillary Breakup and for polymer melts by Meissner-type winding of ribbons around cylinders. Both methods have limited applicability for medium-viscosity fluids such as foods and other biological systems. Contraction flows are extensively studied and a new test method has been developed based on contraction flow through a hyperbolic nozzle. The method is suitable for medium-viscosity fluids and has been validated by comparison to results from Filament Stretching and Capillary Breakup. The hyperbolic contraction flow method has been used to characterize food and medical systems, distinguish between different products having equal shear behavior, quantify ropy mouth feel and to predict foaming behavior of biopolymers.

  12. Relevance of rheological properties of sodium alginate in solution to calcium alginate gel properties.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shao; Thacker, Ankur; Sperger, Diana M; Boni, Riccardo L; Buckner, Ira S; Velankar, Sachin; Munson, Eric J; Block, Lawrence H

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether sodium alginate solutions' rheological parameters are meaningful relative to sodium alginate's use in the formulation of calcium alginate gels. Calcium alginate gels were prepared from six different grades of sodium alginate (FMC Biopolymer), one of which was available in ten batches. Cylindrical gel samples were prepared from each of the gels and subjected to compression to fracture on an Instron Universal Testing Machine, equipped with a 1-kN load cell, at a cross-head speed of 120 mm/min. Among the grades with similar % G, (grades 1, 3, and 4), there is a significant correlation between deformation work (L(E)) and apparent viscosity (η(app)). However, the results for the partial correlation analysis for all six grades of sodium alginate show that L(E) is significantly correlated with % G, but not with the rheological properties of the sodium alginate solutions. Studies of the ten batches of one grade of sodium alginate show that η(app) of their solutions did not correlate with L(E) while tan δ was significantly, but minimally, correlated to L(E). These results suggest that other factors--polydispersity and the randomness of guluronic acid sequencing--are likely to influence the mechanical properties of the resultant gels. In summary, the rheological properties of solutions for different grades of sodium alginate are not indicative of the resultant gel properties. Inter-batch differences in the rheological behavior for one specific grade of sodium alginate were insufficient to predict the corresponding calcium alginate gel's mechanical properties.

  13. [The Rheological Properties of Blood Depending on Age and Sex].

    PubMed

    Filatova, O V; Sidorenko, A A; Agarkova, S A

    2015-01-01

    The rheological properties of blood (viscosity, concentration of red blood cells, erythrocyte sedimantation rate, prothrombin index, and fibrinogen and blood lipid concentration) were studied in apparently healthy subjects of both sexes within the age range from 1 to 75 years. We observed an increase in blood viscosity from infancy to adulthood, followed by a decrease in older age in males. A progressive increase in viscosity is observed in females with aging. We determined three age periods during which the viscosity values remain constant: 1) from the period of early infancy to the second childhood (3.6 ± 0.07 mPa s regardless of sex); 2) from adolescence to the second period of adulthood (5.1 ± 0.06 in men; 4.3 ± 0.05 mPa s in women); 3) elderly and senile age (4.7 ± 0.13 in men; 4.4 ± 0.09 mPa s in women). Sex-related differences in the absolute value of blood viscosity (p < 0.001) were discovered in the period of adulthood. Moreover, we observed sex-related differences in the values of determination coefficients of interrelation between viscosity and the level of red blood cells (R(M)2 = 0.41, p < 0.001; R(F)2 = 0.35, p < 0.001), and viscosity and cholesterol level (R(M)2 = 0.47, p < 0.001; R(F)2 = 0.68, p < 0.001) among men and women. The factor analysis showed that blood viscosity correlates with the concentration of red blood cells by 28%; with the level of fibrinogen, by 23%; with the cholesterol concentration, by 20%.

  14. Nonlocal rheological properties of granular flows near a jamming limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranson, Igor S.; Tsimring, Lev S.; Malloggi, Florent; Clément, Eric

    2008-09-01

    We study the rheology of sheared granular flows close to a jamming transition. We use the approach of partially fluidized theory (PFT) with a full set of equations extending the thin layer approximation derived previously for the description of the granular avalanches phenomenology. This theory provides a picture compatible with a local rheology at large shear rates [G. D. R. Midi, Eur. Phys. J. E 14, 341 (2004)] and it works in the vicinity of the jamming transition, where a description in terms of a simple local rheology comes short. We investigate two situations displaying important deviations from local rheology. The first one is based on a set of numerical simulations of sheared soft two-dimensional circular grains. The next case describes previous experimental results obtained on avalanches of sandy material flowing down an incline. Both cases display, close to jamming, significant deviations from the now standard Pouliquen’s flow rule [O. Pouliquen, Phys. Fluids 11, 542 (1999); 11, 1956 (1999)]. This discrepancy is the hallmark of a strongly nonlocal rheology and in both cases, we relate the empirical results and the outcomes of PFT. The numerical simulations show a characteristic constitutive structure for the fluid part of the stress involving the confining pressure and the material stiffness that appear in the form of an additional dimensionless parameter. This constitutive relation is then used to describe the case of sandy flows. We show a quantitative agreement as far as the effective flow rules are concerned. A fundamental feature is identified in PFT as the existence of a jammed layer developing in the vicinity of the flow arrest that corroborates the experimental findings. Finally, we study the case of solitary erosive granular avalanches and relate the outcome with the PFT analysis.

  15. THE RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF WHEAT PROTEIN ISOLATE PROLITE TM 200 SUSPENSIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Linear and non-linear rheological properties of wheat protein isolate PROLITE TM 200 suspensions were investigated as a function of concentration and pH. Linear dynamic viscoelastic properties for PROLITE TM 200 were strongly dependent on concentration and pH. The higher the concentration, the str...

  16. Modification of rheological, thermal and functional properties of tapioca starch using gum arabic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The addition of gum arabic (GA) to native tapioca starch (TS) to modify the functionality of TS was investigated. GA is well known for its stabilizing, emulsifying, and thickening properties. The effects of adding GA (0.1-1.0%) on pasting, rheological and solubility properties of TS (5%) were analy...

  17. Thermal and rheological properties of nixtamalized maize starch.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Montealvo, G; Sánchez-Rivera, M M; Paredes-López, O; Bello-Pérez, L A

    2006-12-15

    The effect of nixtamalization process on thermal and rheological characteristics of corn starch was studied. Starch of raw sample had higher gelatinization temperature than its raw counterpart, because, the Ca(2+) ions stabilize starch structure of nixtamalized sample; however, the enthalpy values were not different in both samples. The temperature of the phase transition of the retrograded starches (raw and nixtamalized) were not different at the storage times assessed, but the enthalpy values of the above mentioned transition was different, indicating a lower reorganization of the starch structure in the nixtamalized sample. The viscoamylographic profile showed differences between both starches, since raw starch had higher peak viscosity than the nixtamalized sample due to partial gelatinization of some granules during this heat treatment. Rheological test showed that at low temperature (25 degrees C) the raw and nixtamalized starches presented different behaviour; however, the elastic characteristic was more important in the starch gel structure. The nixtamalization process produced changes in thermal and rheological characteristics becoming important in those products elaborated from nixtamalized maize.

  18. Dielectric and rheological properties of polyaniline organic dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohli, N.; Belhadj Mohamed, A.; Vignéras-Lefèbvre, V.; Miane, J.-L.

    2009-05-01

    This paper reports the examination of the evolution of polyaniline-organic solvent interactions in the temperature range of 294-353 K. For this purpose, rheological and dielectric investigations have been undertaken for dispersions of plast-doped polyaniline in two different solvents (dichloroacetic acid and formic acid/dichloroacetic acid mixture). Dielectric permittivity has been investigated using the open ended coaxial line method in the frequency range of [100 MHz, 10 GHz]. Dielectric loss spectra of both dispersions showed a relaxation peak which was well fitted by Havriliak-Negami function. The relaxation was attributed to a Maxwell Wagner Sillars relaxation within polyaniline clusters. The difference found between relaxation parameters of the pure solvent and polyaniline dispersions was attributed to the solvent/polyaniline interactions. The relaxation time relative to the PANI/DCAA dispersion followed an Arrhenius law. While a Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law was found for the relaxation time of PANI/DCAA-FA dispersion. Above a certain temperature, 318 K for PANI/DCAA and 313 K for PANI/DCAA-FA, the rheological parameters of the dispersions changed, thus indicating a morphological change of polyaniline in the dispersion. In the same range of temperature, α and β relaxation parameters undergo significant changes. Those changes in dielectric and rheological parameters seem to be related to a structural change occurring in the polyaniline organic dispersion systems while increasing temperature. An interesting correlation between permittivity and viscosity was obtained.

  19. Crystallization and polymorphism of triacylglycerols contribute to the rheological properties of processed cheese.

    PubMed

    Gliguem, Hela; Ghorbel, Dorra; Lopez, Christelle; Michon, Camille; Ollivon, Michel; Lesieur, Pierre

    2009-04-22

    The thermal, rheological, and structural behaviors of a spreadable processed cheese were studied by complementary techniques including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rheology, and X-ray diffraction as a function of temperature. In this product, fat is present as a dispersed phase. Thermal and rheological properties were studied at different cooling rates between 0.5 and 10 degrees C min(-1) from 60 to 3 degrees C. Crystallization properties of fat were monitored at a cooling rate of -2 degrees C min(-1) from 60 to -10 degrees C. Fat triacylglycerols (TGs) crystallized at 15 degrees C in a triple-chain length 3Lalpha (72 A) structure correlated to exothermic events and to the sudden increase in the rheological moduli G' and G''. Upon heating at 2 degrees C min(-1), the polymorphic transition of TGs evidence the melting of the 3Lalpha structure and the formation of a 2Lbeta' (36.7-41.5 A) structure. Melting of the latter follows. These transformations coincide with thermal events observed by DSC and the decrease in two steps of the rheological moduli. The influence of fat crystallization, melting, and polymorphism upon the viscoelastic properties is clearly demonstrated upon both heating and cooling.

  20. Development and rheological properties of ecological emulsions formulated with a biosolvent and two microbial polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Cayado, L A; Alfaro, M C; Muñoz, J; Raymundo, A; Sousa, I

    2016-05-01

    The influence of gum concentration and rhamsan/welan gum ratio on rheological properties, droplet size distribution and physical stability of eco-friendly O/W emulsions stabilized by an ecological surfactant were studied in the present work. The emulsions were prepared with 30wt% α-pinene, a terpenic solvent and an ecological alternative for current volatile organic compounds. Rheological properties of emulsions showed an important dependence on the two studied variables. Flow curves were fitted to the Cross model and no synergistic effect between rhamsan and welan gums was demonstrated. Emulsions with submicron mean diameters were obtained regardless of the gum concentration or the rhamsan/welan ratio used. Multiple light scattering illustrated that creaming was practically eliminated by the incorporation of polysaccharides. The use of rhamsan and welan gums as stabilizers lead to apparent enhancements in emulsion rheology and physical stability.

  1. Rheological and Mechanical Properties of Crosslinked Block Copolymer Nanofiber and Polystyrene Blends.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Sungwon; Thio, Yonathan

    2009-03-01

    The mechanical and rheological properties of blends of crosslinked and uncrosslinked poly(styrene)-b-poly(isoprene) copolymer with commercially available polystyrene were studied. Cylindrical morphology of PS-b-PI copolymer was employed for generating nanofiber morphology. Cold vulcanization process using sulfur monochloride (S2Cl2) was used to preserve the morphology. Blends of uncrosslinked PS-b-PI copolymer with neat polystyrene were also prepared. Both blend samples were prepared by solvent casting method with the filler contents varying between 0.5 and 10 wt%. The mechanical and rheological properties were characterized and the microstructures of the fiber and the systems were imaged. The dynamic moduli (G' and G'') of the crosslinked system increased with increasing the fiber content compared to the uncrosslinked system. The results were compared to the rheological model by fitting to Cross-Williamson. This blend study indicated critical volume concentration of nanofiber between 5 and 10 wt% of nanofiber content.

  2. Rheological, mucoadhesive and release properties of Carbopol gels in hydrophilic cosolvents.

    PubMed

    Bonacucina, Giulia; Martelli, Sante; Palmieri, Giovanni F

    2004-09-10

    Carbopol is one of the most common thickening agent for water phases. It is used after neutralisation and its rheological properties in the aqueous medium are well known. The aim of this work was to investigate the gelation properties of Carbopol 971 e 974 polymeric systems in water-miscible cosolvents such as glycerine and PEG 400. Since in these cosolvents, carboxypolymethylene precipitates after neutralisation with a base, then the attention was pointed out of the gelation properties of the different systems at increasing temperature, in order to obtain Carbopols gels avoiding neutralisation and, at the same time, making possible the dissolution in these gels of insoluble or poorly soluble water drugs. Rheological properties of PEG 400 and glycerine samples were compared with similar systems in water by performing oscillatory analyses and measuring the main rheological parameters, G', G" and delta. The results obtained showed that Carbopol 971 and 974 in PEG 400 gave rise after heating to gels that show a satisfactory rheological behaviour. The elastic modulus is greater than the viscous one showing a remarkable elastic character of these samples and the performed frequency sweeps show a typical spectrum of a "gel-like" structure. Being Carbopols well-known mucoadhesive polymers, gels adhesive properties were studied using the ex vivo method. Then, the possible cutaneous irritation were also tested using the in vivo method (Draize test). No signs of cutaneous irritation and good mucoadhesive properties were obtained for the PEG 400 and water gels of Carbopol 974 prepared by heating. After rheological and mucoadhesive properties were set, paracetamol as a model drug was then inserted in the composition of the gels and the release characteristics were defined. Dissolution tests pointed out the greater release control properties of PEG 400-Carbopol 971 samples. These studies showed PEG 400-Carbopol systems as a first-rate alternative to traditional water gels.

  3. Dynamic rheological properties of plant cell-wall particle dispersions.

    PubMed

    Day, Li; Xu, Mi; Øiseth, Sofia K; Lundin, Leif; Hemar, Yacine

    2010-12-01

    The rheological behaviour of plant cell-wall particle dispersions was investigated using dynamic oscillatory measurements. Two starting plant materials, broccoli stem and carrot were used and two types of particles were obtained by mechanically shearing blanched (80°C, 10 min) or cooked (100°C, 15 min) plant tissues. Blanching resulted in cell-wall particles made up of a collection of clusters of cells with an average particles size of ∼200 μm, while cooking generated nearly all single-cell particles with an average particle size of ∼80 μm. The rheological measurements showed that in the range of weight concentrations considered (∼0.5% to ∼8%) the dispersions behaved as elastic materials with the elastic modulus G' higher than G″ within the frequency range (0.01-10 Hz). This study shows that the behaviour of the complex modulus G* as a function of the effective volume fraction ϕ can be modelled using different theoretical equations. To do so, it is assumed that below a critical volume fraction ϕc a network of plant cell-wall particles was formed and G* as a function of ϕ obeys a power-law relationship. However above ϕc, where the particles were highly packed, G* could be modelled using theoretical equations developed for concentrated emulsions and elastic particle dispersions.

  4. Rheological and pasting properties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flours with and without jet-cooking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasting, rheological and water-holding properties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) flour obtained from whole achenes separated into three particle sizes, and three commercial flours (Fancy, Supreme and Farinetta) were measured with or without jet-cooking. Fancy had instantaneous paste viscosity ...

  5. Rheological and Mechanical Properties of Silica-Based Bagasse-Fiber-Ash-Reinforced Recycled HDPE Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitticharoen, W.; Chainawakul, A.; Sangkas, T.; Kuntham, Y.

    2016-07-01

    The rheological and mechanical properties of a recycled high-density polyethylene biocomposite with silicabased bagasse fiber ash as a reinforcing filler were investigated. The bagasse fiber ash (BFA) was surface-treated using a silane coupling agent (vinyltrimethoxysilane). Composites with BFA whose particle size was varied in the range of 3 to 25wt.% (37, 53, and 105mm), were prepared and examined.

  6. Effects of sorghum flour addition on chemical and rheological properties of hard white winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was carried out to investigate the chemical and rheological properties of different blends prepared using hard white winter wheat and whole or decorticated sorghum. Whole and decorticated sorghum were used to replace 5, 10, 15, and 20% of wheat flour. Wheat samples had higher protein, moi...

  7. Effect of salt on the functional and rheological properties of fresh Queso Fresco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Queso Fresco (QF), a high-moisture fresh Hispanic-style cheese, typically contains 1.5 to 2.0% salt that gives it a distinct salty flavor and helps control spoilage microorganisms. This study investigated the contribution of salt to the functional and rheological properties of QF to provide the basi...

  8. Effect of salt on the chemical, functional, and rheological properties of Queso Fresco during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of salt to the functional and rheological properties of Queso Fresco (QF), a high-moisture fresh Hispanic-style cheese, was investigated to provide the basis for developing a low-salt version. QF was manufactured in triplicate from pasteurized, homogenized milk using a commercial pr...

  9. Rheological properties of reactive extrusion modified waxy starch and waxy starch-polyacrylamide copolymer gels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rheological properties of modified waxy starch and waxy starch-polyacrylamide graft copolymers prepared by reactive extrusion were investigated. Both materials can absorb huge amount of water and form gels. The modified waxy starch and waxy starch-polyacrylamide graft copolymer gels all exhibite...

  10. Impact of reaction conditions on architecture and rheological properties of starch graft polyacrylamide polymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We carried out experiments examining the impact that solvent selection and reaction conditions have on the radical initiated graft polymerization reaction of acrylamide onto starch. We have also evaluated the rheological properties the starch graftpolyacrylamide product when a gel is formed in water...

  11. The Rheological Properties of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Gels from Rotational Viscometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Glenn A.; Bella, Malika; Salzmann, Christoph G.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was developed to follow the gelation of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution upon addition of borax by using rotational viscometry. The rheological properties of the gel were examined, measuring the dependence of viscosity and shear stress on the shear rate. Time-dependent studies were also conducted in which the viscosity of…

  12. Rheological properties of a biological thermo-responsive hydrogel produced from soybean oil polymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rheological properties of a newly developed biological thermo-hydrogel made from vegetable oil were investigated. The material named HPSO-HG is a hydrolytic product of polymerized soybean oil (PSO). HPSO-HG is a thermo-responsive gel, and it exhibited viscoelastic behavior above 2% (wt.%) at roo...

  13. Rheological properties of a biological thermo-responsive hydrogel produced from soybean oil polymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rheological properties of a newly developed biological thermo-hydrogel made from vegetable oil were investigated. The material named HPSO-VI is a hydrolytic product of polymerized soybean oil (PSO). HPSO-VI exhibited viscoelastic behavior above 2% (wt. %) at room temperature and viscous fluid ...

  14. Rheological Properties of a Biological Thermo-Hydrogel Produced from Soybean Oil Polymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rheological properties of a newly developed biological thermo-hydrogel made from vegetable oil were investigated. The material named HPSO-HG is a hydrolytic product of polymerized soybean oil (PSO). HPSO-HG exhibited viscoelastic behavior above 2% (wt.%) at room temperature and viscous fluid b...

  15. Effects of ripening on rheological properties of avocado pulp (Persea americana mill. Cv. Hass)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, F.; Roman, A.; Ortiz, J.

    2015-04-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill) Hass variety is the most planted in Chile with a greater trade prospect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maturity on rheological properties of Chilean Avocado Hass pulp. Fresh unripe avocados were washed and peeled, cut and stored at 3 different times; a portion was treated at 5°C and the other was treated at 20°C until it reached 2 lb puncture pressure. During maturation changes would develop due to temperature and time, with internal cellular structure changes. Preliminary results of the rheological characteristics of avocado puree show a Bingham plastic behavior.

  16. Rheological properties of the product slurry of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Muguercia, I.; Yang, G.; Ebadian, M.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mattus, A.J.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    The Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process is an innovative technology for immobilizing the liquid from Low Level radioactive Waste (LLW). An experimental study was conducted to measure the rheological properties of the pipe flow of the NAC product slurry. Test results indicate that the NAC product slurry has a profound rheological behavior. At low solids concentration, the slurry exhibits a typical dilatant fluid (or shear thinning)fluid. The transition from dilatant fluid to pseudo-plastic fluid will occur at between 25% to 30% solids concentration in temperature ranges of 50--80{degree}C. Correlation equations are developed based on the test data.

  17. Rheological Properties of Silica Nanoparticles in Brine and Brine-Surfactant Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pales, Ashley; Kinsey, Erin; Li, Chunyan; Mu, Linlin; Bai, Lingyun; Clifford, Heather; Darnault, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Rheological Properties of Silica Nanoparticles in Brine and Brine-Surfactant Systems Ashley R. Pales, Erin Kinsey, Chunyan Li, Linlin Mu, Lingyun Bai, Heather Clifford, and Christophe J. G. Darnault Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Laboratory of Hydrogeoscience and Biological Engineering, L.G. Rich Environmental Laboratory, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA Nanofluids are suspensions of nanometer sized particles in any fluid base, where the nanoparticles effect the properties of the fluid base. Commonly, nanofluids are water based, however, other bases such as ethylene-glycol, glycerol, and propylene-glycol, have been researched to understand the rheological properties of the nanofluids. This work aims to understand the fundamental rheological properties of silica nanoparticles in brine based and brine-surfactant based nanofluids with temperature variations. This was done by using variable weight percent of silica nanoparticles from 0.001% to 0.1%. Five percent brine was used to create the brine based nanofluids; and 5% brine with 2CMC of Tween 20 nonionic surfactant (Sigma-Aldrich) was used to create the brine-surfactant nanofluid. Rheological behaviors, such as shear rate, shear stress, and viscosity, were compared between these nanofluids at 20C and at 60C across the varied nanoparticle wt%. The goal of this work is to provide a fundamental basis for future applied testing for enhanced oil recovery. It is hypothesized that the addition of surfactant will have a positive impact on nanofluid properties that will be useful for enhance oil recovery. Differences have been observed in preliminary data analysis of the rheological properties between these two nanofluids indicating that the surfactant is having the hypothesized effect.

  18. Effect of Shear Rate and Temperature on Rheological Properties of Vegetable Based Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nik, W. B. Wan; Giap, S. G. Eng; Senin, H. B.; Bulat, K. H. Ku

    2007-05-01

    Petroleum oil has been the raw material for over 90% of hydraulic fluid. Limitations of this base material in the aspect of non-renewable, not environmental friendly and its sustainability in the future have prompted a search for more stable and environmentally friendly alternatives. This article presents rheological aspects of hydraulic fluid derived from bio-based material when used as hydraulic fluid. Palm oil with F10 additive is found to be most shearstable. Various empirical models such as modified Power Law, Herschel-Bulkley and Arrhenius-type-relationship are used to evaluate the rheological data. The influence of shear rate and temperature on the variation of viscosity is clearly observed but temperature has more significant influence. Interpretations of rheological models indicate that crop oils belong to pseudo-plastic category. The effect of oil degradation in the aspect of physical property on viscosity is also evaluated.

  19. Rheological and structural properties of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus during heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Xue, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhaohui; Xu, Jiachao; Xue, Changhu

    2005-07-01

    Changes in tissue structure, rheological properties and water content of raw and heated sea cucumber meat were studied. Sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus was heated at 25°C , 70°C and 100°C water for 5 min. The structural changes were observed using a light microscope and the rheological parameters (rupture strength, adhesive strength and deformation) determined using a texture meter. Microscopic photograph revealed that the structural change of heated meat was greater than that of raw meat. The rupture strength, adhesive strength and deformation of raw meat were smaller than those of the heated meat. Meanwhile, rheological parameters showed positive correlation with heating temperature. These changes are mainly caused by thermal denaturation and gelatinization of collagen during heating. These changes were also evidenced in observations using a light microscope and differential scanning calorimetry.

  20. Rheological properties of wood polymer composites and their role in extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duretek, I.; Schuschnigg, S.; Gooneie, A.; Langecker, G. R.; Holzer, C.

    2015-04-01

    The influence of the rheological behaviour of PP based wood plastic composites (WPC) has been investigated in this research by means of a high pressure capillary rheometer incorporating dies having different geometries. The rheological experiments were performed using slit and round dies. The influence of moisture content on the flow properties of the WPC has been investigated as well. It was observed that higher moisture contents lead to wall slippage effect. Furthermore, measured viscosity data have been used in flow simulation of an extrusion profile die. Also, the influence of different rheological models on the simulation results is demonstrated. This research work presents a theoretical and experimental study on the measurement and prediction of the die pressure in the extrusion process of wood-plastic composite (WPC).

  1. [Rheologic properties of bile and their possible significance for lithogenesis].

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, M

    1986-01-01

    In the sparse literature dealing with the rheological characterization of bile You can find supporters of the Newtonian and the Maxwell flow behaviour theories. The submitted examinations of 33 bile specimens sampled postoperatively by T-drainages were carried out with the help of a Contraves-Low-Shear-Viscometer. They definitely show the bile fluid's exponential increase in absolute dynamic viscosity under low shear conditions. Consequently bile behaves like a Maxwell (= Non-Newtonian) fluid, especially considering the variously caused pathological retardation of bile flow. This fact may play a decisive role in fostering lithogenesis. The classification of bile as a fluid with Maxwell behaviour is probably a pathophysiologically important fact with respect to cholelithogenesis and offers a model for further discussion on the prevention of recurrent biliary tract concrements formation.

  2. Effect of Cephalaria syriaca addition on rheological properties of composite flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoðlu, M. M.

    2012-10-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the effect of whole and defatted Cephalaria syriaca flour on the rheological properties of composite flours that used in bran bread production. Cephalaria syriaca products were used to replace 0.25, 0.75, 1.25, 1.75, and 2.25% of wheat-wheat bran composite flour, and its rheological and fermentative properties were measured by farinograph, extensograph and rheofermentometre. The data showed that the rheological parameters of flours were greatly modified by addition of Cephalaria syriaca. The rheological properties of wheatwheat bran composite flour added with whole and defatted Cephalaria syriaca flour were considerably improved with regard to especially extensograph characteristics such as dough resistance, area (energy), ratio number and rheofermentometer parameters such as Hm, T1, Tx, volume loss and gas retention, as compared to control. However addition of Cephalaria syriaca products adversely affected the farinograph characteristics. Generally, these effects of both whole and defatted Cephalaria syriaca flour increased, as the addition level increased. Maximum Tx, gas retention and area (energy) of dough were obtained from wheat-wheat bran composite flour added with 1.75% whole Cephalaria syriaca flour, while the highest dough stability was at addition level of 0.25% whole Cephalaria syriaca flour.

  3. Analysis of the Magnetic Field Influence on the Rheological Properties of Healthy Persons Blood

    PubMed Central

    Nawrocka-Bogusz, Honorata

    2013-01-01

    The influence of magnetic field on whole blood rheological properties remains a weakly known phenomenon. An in vitro analysis of the magnetic field influence on the rheological properties of healthy persons blood is presented in this work. The study was performed on blood samples taken from 25 healthy nonsmoking persons and included comparative analysis of the results of both the standard rotary method (flow curve measurement) and the oscillatory method known also as the mechanical dynamic analysis, performed before and after exposition of blood samples to magnetic field. The principle of the oscillatory technique lies in determining the amplitude and phase of the oscillations of the studied sample subjected to action of a harmonic force of controlled amplitude and frequency. The flow curve measurement involved determining the shear rate dependence of blood viscosity. The viscoelastic properties of the blood samples were analyzed in terms of complex blood viscosity. All the measurements have been performed by means of the Contraves LS40 rheometer. The data obtained from the flow curve measurements complemented by hematocrit and plasma viscosity measurements have been analyzed using the rheological model of Quemada. No significant changes of the studied rheological parameters have been found. PMID:24078918

  4. Effect of pH on Rheological Properties of Dysphagia-Oriented Thickened Water.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seung-No; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2016-03-01

    Flow and dynamic rheological properties of thickened waters prepared with commercial food thickeners were investigated at different pH levels (3, 4, 5, 6, and 7). The commercial xanthan gum (XG)-based thickener (thickener A) and starch-based thickener (thickener B), which have been commonly used in a domestic hospital and nursing home for patients with swallowing difficulty (dysphagia) in Korea, were selected in this study. Thickened samples with both thickeners at different pH levels showed high shear-thinning flow behaviors (n=0.08~0.22). Thickened samples at pH 3 showed higher n values and lower consistency index (K) values when compared to those at other pH levels. The K values of thickener A increased with an increase in pH level, while the n values decreased, showing that the flow properties greatly depended on pH. There were no noticeable changes in the K values of thickener B between pH 4 and 7. At pH 3, the thickened water with thickener A showed a higher storage modulus (G') value, while that with thickener B showed a lower G'. These rheological parameters exhibited differences in rheological behaviors between XG-based and starch-based thickeners, indicating that the rheological properties of thickened waters appear to be greatly influenced by the acidic condition and the type of food thickener. Appropriately selecting a commercial food thickener seems to be greatly important for the preparation of thickened acidic fluids with desirable rheological properties for safe swallowing.

  5. Effect of pH on Rheological Properties of Dysphagia-Oriented Thickened Water

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seung-No; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2016-01-01

    Flow and dynamic rheological properties of thickened waters prepared with commercial food thickeners were investigated at different pH levels (3, 4, 5, 6, and 7). The commercial xanthan gum (XG)-based thickener (thickener A) and starch-based thickener (thickener B), which have been commonly used in a domestic hospital and nursing home for patients with swallowing difficulty (dysphagia) in Korea, were selected in this study. Thickened samples with both thickeners at different pH levels showed high shear-thinning flow behaviors (n=0.08~0.22). Thickened samples at pH 3 showed higher n values and lower consistency index (K) values when compared to those at other pH levels. The K values of thickener A increased with an increase in pH level, while the n values decreased, showing that the flow properties greatly depended on pH. There were no noticeable changes in the K values of thickener B between pH 4 and 7. At pH 3, the thickened water with thickener A showed a higher storage modulus (G′) value, while that with thickener B showed a lower G′. These rheological parameters exhibited differences in rheological behaviors between XG-based and starch-based thickeners, indicating that the rheological properties of thickened waters appear to be greatly influenced by the acidic condition and the type of food thickener. Appropriately selecting a commercial food thickener seems to be greatly important for the preparation of thickened acidic fluids with desirable rheological properties for safe swallowing. PMID:27069910

  6. Effect of rheological properties of dissolved cellulose/microfibrillated cellulose blend suspensions on film forming.

    PubMed

    Saarikoski, Eve; Rissanen, Marja; Seppälä, Jukka

    2015-03-30

    Enzymatically treated cellulose was dissolved in a NaOH/ZnO solvent system and mixed together with microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in order to find the threshold in which MFC fibers form a percolation network within the dissolved cellulose solution and in order to improve the properties of regenerated cellulose films. In the aqueous state, correlations between the rheological properties of dissolved cellulose/MFC blend suspensions and MFC fiber concentrations were investigated and rationalized. In addition, rheological properties of diluted MFC suspensions were characterized and a correlation with NaOH concentration was found, thus partly explaining the flow properties of dissolved cellulose/MFC blend suspensions. Finally, based on results from Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), MFC addition had strengthening/plasticizing effect on regenerated cellulose films if low concentrations of MFC, below the percolation threshold (5.5-6 wt%, corresponding to 0.16-0.18 wt% of MFC in the blend suspensions), were used.

  7. Buckwheat and Millet Affect Thermal, Rheological, and Gelling Properties of Wheat Flour.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kao; Gan, Renyou; Dai, Shuhong; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Corke, Harold; Zhu, Fan

    2016-03-01

    Buckwheat (BF) and millet (MF) are recommended as healthy foods due to their unique chemical composition and health benefits. This study investigated the thermal and rheological properties of BF-WF (wheat flour) and MF-WF flour blends at various ratios (0:100 to 100:0). Increasing BF or MF concentration led to higher cold paste viscosity and setback viscosity of pasting properties gel adhesiveness, storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) of dynamic oscillatory rheology, and yield stress (σ0 ) of flow curve of WF. BF and MF addition decreased peak viscosity and breakdown of pasting, gel hardness, swelling volume, and consistency coefficient (K) of flow curve of WF. Thermal properties of the blends appeared additive of that of individual flour. Nonadditive effects were observed for some property changes in the mixtures, and indicated interactions between flour components. This may provide a physicochemical basis for using BF and MF in formulating novel healthy products.

  8. Influence of melt annealing on rheological and electrical properties of compatibilized multiwalled carbon nanotubes in polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasti, Giuseppe; Ambrogi, Veronica; Cerruti, Pierfrancesco; Gentile, Gennaro; Di Maio, Rosa; Carfagna, Cosimo

    2014-05-01

    Pristine and surface functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were melt mixed with a polypropylene (PP) polymer matrix. Rheology, morphology, electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were evaluated for different MWCNT loadings. Melt annealing effect on properties was also investigated. It was found that both surface functionalization of MWCNT and thermal annealing were able to favor a better dispersion of the particles, inducing the formation of a percolative network.

  9. Linear correlation between rheological, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties of polycarbophil polymer blends for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    De Souza Ferreira, Sabrina Barbosa; Da Silva, Jéssica Bassi; Borghi-Pangoni, Fernanda Belincanta; Junqueira, Mariana Volpato; Bruschi, Marcos Luciano

    2017-02-14

    Polycarbophil is widely used in a variety of pharmaceutical formulations, mainly for their strong ability to adhere to the epithelial and mucous barriers (bio/mucoadhesion). On the other hand, its association with the thermoresponsive polymer (poloxamer 407) has been poorly explored. This work investigates the rheological, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties of polymer blends containing polycarbophil and poloxamer 407, in order to select the best formulations for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Mechanical (hardness, compressibility, adhesiveness, softness, and mucoadhesion) and rheological characteristics (consistency index, yield value and hysteresis area) showed that 20% (w/w) poloxamer 407- polymer blends exhibited higher values parameters. However, the rheological interaction parameter, which was more sensible than the mechanical interaction parameter, revealed higher synergism for systems comprising 15% (w/w) poloxamer 407, due to the system organization and polymers' properties. Furthermore, gelation temperatures were appropriated, suggesting that polymer blends can be used as biomedical materials, and displaying easy administration, enhanced retention and prolonged residence time at the site of application. Therefore, rheological, mechanical and mucoadhesive characterization provided a rational basis for selecting appropriated systems, useful for mucoadhesive drug delivery systems and biomedical applications.

  10. Rheology of PVC Plastisol: Particle Size Distribution and Viscoelastic Properties.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, N.; Harrell, E. R.

    2001-06-01

    Plastisols of poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, are suspensions of fine particles in plasticizer with about 50% resin volume fraction. Typically, the gross particle size ranges from 15 to 0.2 &mgr;m and smaller, where the common practice of spray-drying these resins and subsequent grinding of larger particles dictate the size ranges including agglomerates as well as the primary particles. The plastisol is a pastelike liquid, which may be spread to coat substrates. The coated substrates are heated in an oven to gel and fuse the material for producing uniform, rubbery products. Because the first step of processing is spreading the plastisol on a substrate, rheology at room temperature is obviously important. The material is thixotropic under very low stress. The flow behavior is pseudoplastic and exhibits dilatancy and fracture at high shear rate. This work is concerned with the pseudoplastic behavior but the dynamic mechanical measurements are employed instead of the usual steady-state shear flow measurements. This is because the steady shear may break up agglomerates. The dynamic measurements with small strain-amplitude avoid the break-up of the agglomerates. This is important, because this work is concerned with the effects of the particle size distribution on the material behavior. The frequency dependence of both viscous and elastic behavior is recorded and presented with samples varying in particle size distribution. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  11. Pectin from Abelmoschus esculentus: optimization of extraction and rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Sun, Han-Ju; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2014-09-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the parameters of pectin extraction from okra pods. The extracted okra pectin was then investigated by steady-shear and oscillatory rheological measurements. Statistical analysis showed that the linear term of the liquid-solid ratio, the quadratic term of the pH, and the linear term of the extraction time showed highly significant effects on pectin yield. The optimal extraction conditions that maximized the pectin yield within the experimental range of the variables researched were a pH of 3.9, an extraction time of 64 min, an extraction temperature of 60°C, and a liquid-solid ratio of 42:1. Under these conditions, the pectin yield was predicted to be 2.71%. At a liquid-solid ratio less than 2.5% w/w in aqueous solution, the pectin extracted from okra presented non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior and could be well described by the Cross model. The okra pectin showed predominantly viscous responses (G'

  12. Morphological influence of cellulose nanoparticles (CNs) from cottonseed hulls on rheological properties of polyvinyl alcohol/CN suspensions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ling; He, Hui; Li, Mei-Chun; Song, Kunlin; Cheng, H N; Wu, Qinglin

    2016-11-20

    The present work describes the isolation of cellulose nanoparticles (CNs) with different morphologies and their influence on rheological properties of CN and CN-poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) suspensions. Cottonseed hulls were used for the first time to extract three types of CNs, including fibrous cellulose nanofibers, rod-like cellulose nanocrystals and spherical cellulose nanoparticles through mechanical and chemical methods. Rheology results showed that the rheological behavior of the CN suspensions was strongly dependent on CN concentration and particle morphology. For PVA/CN systems, concentration of PVA/CN suspension, morphology of CNs, and weight ratio of CN to PVA were three main factors that influenced their rheology behaviors. This research reveals the importance of CN morphology and composition concentration on the rheological properties of PVA/CN, providing new insight in preparing high performance hydrogels, fibers and films base on PVA/CN suspension systems.

  13. Rheological properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) derived composite membranes for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remiš, T.

    2017-01-01

    Rheological properties of new anhydrous proton conducting membrane based on PVA, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS),sulfosuccinic acid (SSA), titanium dioxide (TiO2)was examined at various stoichiometric ratios. SSA was used as sulfonating agents to form a crosslinked structure and as proton source, whereas TEO Sand TiO2were utilized to improve the thermal and mechanical properties of the membrane. In order to verify that all the substances were immobilized into the matrix, the membranes were analysed by means of FT-IR. The rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of the membranes were investigated using rheometer ARES G2 and thermogravimetic analyser (TGA).The analysis of mixed PVA solutions exhibited a unique behaviour of viscosity with increased crosslink density. The dynamic storage modulus G´ of dried composite membranes shows better mechanical resistance and increased tolerance to pressure applied during membrane electrode assembly (MEA).

  14. Rheological and physical properties of spray-dried mucilage obtained from Hylocereus undatus cladodes.

    PubMed

    García-Cruz, E E; Rodríguez-Ramírez, J; Méndez Lagunas, L L; Medina-Torres, L

    2013-01-02

    This study examines the rheological behavior of reconstituted spray-dried mucilage isolated from the cladodes of pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus), the effects of concentration and its relationship with physical properties were analyzed in reconstituted solutions. Drying process optimization was carried out through the surface response method, utilizing a factorial 2(3) design with three central points, in order to evaluate yield and rheological properties. The reconstituted mucilage exhibited non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior, which adequately fit the Cross model (R(2)>0.95). This dynamic response suggests a random coil configuration. The steady-shear viscosity and dynamic response are suitably correlated through the Cox-Merz rule, confirming the mucilage's stability of flow. Analysis of the physical properties of the mucilage (Tg, DTP, and particle morphology) explains the shear-thinning behavior.

  15. Effect of ageing on rheological properties of storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Yu, Jianying; Wu, Shaopeng

    2010-10-15

    Oxidative ageing as an inevitable process in practical road paving has a great effect on the properties of polymer-modified asphalts (PMAs). In this article, the effect of short-term and long-term oxidative ageing on the rheological, physical properties and the morphology of the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)- and storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts was studied, respectively. The analysis on the rheological and physical properties of the PMAs before and after ageing showed the two major effects of ageing. On one hand, ageing prompted the degradation of polymer and increased the viscous behaviour of the modified binders, on the other, ageing changed the asphalt compositions and improved the elastic behaviour of the modified binders. The final performance of the aged binders depended on the combined effect. After ageing, the storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts showed an obvious viscous behaviour compare with the SBS-modified asphalts and this led to an improved low-temperature creep property. The rutting resistance of the SBS-modified asphalts declined by the addition of sulfur due to the structural instability of the SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts. The rheological properties of the modified binders before and after ageing also depended strongly on the structural characteristics of SBS. The observation by using optical microscopy showed the compatibility between asphalt and SBS was improved with further ageing, especially for the storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts.

  16. Finite element analysis and simulation of rheological properties of bulk molding compound (BMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergin, M. Fatih; Aydin, Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Bulk molding compound (BMC) is one of the important composite materials with various engineering applications. BMC is a thermoset plastic resin blend of various inert fillers, fiber reinforcements, catalysts, stabilizers and pigments that form a viscous, molding compound. Depending on the end-use application, bulk molding compounds are formulated to achieve close dimensional control, flame and scratch resistance, electrical insulation, corrosion and stain resistance, superior mechanical properties, low shrink and color stability. Its excellent flow characteristics, dielectric properties, and flame resistance make this thermoset material well-suited to a wide variety of applications requiring precision in detail and dimensions as well as high performance. When a BMC is used for these purposes, the rheological behavior and properties of the BMC is the main concern. In this paper, finite element analysis of rheological properties of bulk molding composite material was studied. For this purpose, standard samples of composite material were obtained by means of uniaxial hot pressing. 3 point flexural tests were then carried out by using a universal testing machine. Finite element analyses were then performed with defined material properties within a specific constitutive material behavior. Experimental and numerical results were then compared. Good correlation between the numerical simulation and the experimental results was obtained. It was expected with this study that effects of various process parameters and boundary conditions on the rheological behavior of bulk molding compounds could be determined by means of numerical analysis without detailed experimental work.

  17. Measurement of the Rheological Properties of High Performance Concrete: State of the Art Report

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, Chiara F.

    1999-01-01

    The rheological or flow properties of concrete in general and of high performance concrete (HPC) in particular, are important because many factors such as ease of placement, consolidation, durability, and strength depend on the flow properties. Concrete that is not properly consolidated may have defects, such as honeycombs, air voids, and aggregate segregation. Such an important performance attribute has triggered the design of numerous test methods. Generally, the flow behavior of concrete approximates that of a Bingham fluid. Therefore, at least two parameters, yield stress and viscosity, are necessary to characterize the flow. Nevertheless, most methods measure only one parameter. Predictions of the flow properties of concrete from its composition or from the properties of its components are not easy. No general model exists, although some attempts have been made. This paper gives an overview of the flow properties of a fluid or a suspension, followed by a critical review of the most commonly used concrete rheology tests. Particular attention is given to tests that could be used for HPC. Tentative definitions of terms such as workability, consistency, and rheological parameters are provided. An overview of the most promising tests and models for cement paste is given.

  18. How far are rheological parameters from amplitude sweep tests predictable using common physicochemical soil properties?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoppe, N.; Horn, R.

    2017-01-01

    A basic understanding of soil behavior on the mesoscale resp. macroscale (i.e. soil aggregates resp. bulk soil) requires knowledge of the processes at the microscale (i.e. particle scale), therefore rheological investigations of natural soils receive growing attention. In the present research homogenized and sieved (< 2 mm) samples from Marshland soils of the riparian zone of the River Elbe (North Germany) were analyzed with a modular compact rheometer MCR 300 (Anton Paar, Ostfildern, Germany) with a profiled parallel-plate measuring system. Amplitude sweep tests (AST) with controlled shear deformation were conducted to investigate the viscoelastic properties of the studied soils under oszillatory stress. The gradual depletion of microstructural stiffness during AST cannot only be characterized by the well-known rheological parameters G, G″ and tan δ but also by the dimensionless area parameter integral z, which quantifies the elasticity of microstructure. To discover the physicochemical parameters, which influences the microstructural stiffness, statistical tests were used taking the combined effects of these parameters into account. Although the influence of the individual factors varies depending on soil texture, the physicochemical features significantly affecting soil micro structure were identified. Based on the determined statistical relationships between rheological and physicochemical parameters, pedotransfer functions (PTF) have been developed, which allow a mathematical estimation of the rheological target value integral z. Thus, stabilizing factors are: soil organic matter, concentration of Ca2+, content of CaCO3 and pedogenic iron oxides; whereas the concentration of Na+ and water content represent structurally unfavorable factors.

  19. Determinations of molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of high polymers by the rheological properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J. Y.; Hou, T. H.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1989-01-01

    Several methods are reviewed by which the molecular weight (MW) and the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of polymeric material were determined from the rheological properties. A poly(arylene ether) polymer with six different molecular weights was used in this investigation. Experimentally measured MW and MWD were conducted by GPC/LALLS (gel permeation chromatography/low angle laser light scattering), and the rheological properties of the melts were measured by a Rheometric System Four rheometer. It was found that qualitative information of the MW and MWD of these polymers could be derived from the viscoelastic properties, with the methods proposed by Zeichner and Patel, and by Dormier et al., by shifting the master curves of the dynamic storage modulus, G', and the loss modulus, G'', along the frequency axis. Efforts were also made to calculate quantitative profiles of MW and MWD for these polymers from their rheological properties. The technique recently proposed by Wu was evaluated. It was found that satisfactory results could only be obtained for polymers with single modal distribution in the molecular weight.

  20. Thermal, emulsifying and rheological properties of polysaccharides sequentially extracted from Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb leaves.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi-Xin; Shi, Jun-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Li, Ling; Jiang, Li; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2016-12-01

    Plant polysaccharides are widely used in food industry as thickening and gelling agents and these attributes largely depend on their thermal, emulsifying and rheological properties. As known, the extraction methods always bring about the diversification of property and functions of polysaccharides. Thus, the Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb leaves polysaccharides (VBTLP) were sequentially extracted using hot buffer (HBSS), chelating agent (CHSS), dilute alkaline (DASS) and concentrated alkaline (CASS). The thermal, emulsifying and rheological properties of VBTLP were investigated in the present study. Within the range of 20-225°C, CHSS showed the highest peak temperature, whereas HBSS displayed the highest endothermic enthalpy and highest emulsifying activity, while, CASS showed the longest emulsifying stability. The VBTLP solutions exhibited non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior within the concentrations of 0.6-2.5%. The apparent viscosity of VBTLP solution decreased under following conditions: acidic pH (4.0), alkaline pH (10.0), in the presence of Ca(2+) and at high temperature, while it increased in the presence of Na(+) and at freezing conditions. The modulus G' and G″ of VBTLP solutions were increased with increasing oscillation frequency, and the crossover frequency shifted to lower values when the polysaccharide content increased. The above results of thermal, emulsifying and rheological properties of VBTLPs supplied the basis for V. bracteatum leaves in potential industrial applications of foods.

  1. A comparison of calculated and measured rheological properties of crystallising lavas in the field and in the laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkerton, Harry; Norton, Gill

    1993-01-01

    Models of most magmatic processes, including realistic models of planetary lava flows require accurate data on the rheological properties of magma. Previous studies suggest that field and laboratory rheological properties of Hawaiian lavas can be calculated from their physico-chemical properties using a non-Newtonian rheology model. The present study uses new measurements of the rheological properties of crystallizing lavas to show that this is also true for lavas from Mount Etna. Rheological measurements on quenched Etna basalts were made in a specially designed furnace using a Haake Rotovisco viscometer attached to a spindle which has been designed to eliminate slippage at the melt-spindle interface. Using this spindle, we have made measurements at lower temperatures than other workers in this field. From these measurements, Mount Etna lavas are Newtonian at temperatures above 1120 C and they are thixotropic pseudoplastic fluids with a yield strength at lower temperatures. The close agreement between calculated and measured rheology over the temperature range 1084 - 1125 C support the use of the non-Newtonian rheology model in future modeling of planetary lava flows.

  2. The Measurement of Surface Rheological and Surface Adhesive Properties using Nanosphere Embedment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheson, Stephen; McKenna, Gregory

    2008-03-01

    In previous work, we determined the actual rheological behavior at the surface of a polystyrene film with nanometer scale resolution by applying a viscoelastic contact mechanics model to experimental data in the literature. The goal of our current research is to build upon this analysis and use nanosphere embedment experiments to probe the nanorheological behavior of polymer surfaces near the glass transition, in the melt state and in the solid rubbery state. An atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to measure the embedment depth as nanoparticles are pulled into the surface by the thermodynamic work of adhesion. The results show that, with properly designed experiments, both the surface adhesion properties and the surface rheological properties can be extracted from nanosphere embedment rates. We include work on a phase separated copolymer and a commercially available polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) rubber.

  3. Rheological properties of refined wheat - millet flour based dough under thermo-mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Subir K; Tiwari, Anu; Mishra, Atishay; Singh, Alok

    2015-05-01

    Designed experiments were conducted to study the rheological properties of baking dough prepared from different refined wheat flour (RWF) - barnyard millet blends with varying amount of water (WA), salt and sugar. Dough was subjected to thermo-mechanical stress in Mixolab, in which rheological properties were recorded in terms of five different torques. Second order polynomial models were developed using response surface methodology (RSM) to understand the effect of input variables (WA, barnyard millet, salt and sugar; all expressed as per cent of base flour) on torques recorded by Mixolab. Optimum values of input variables were obtained with constraints based on torque values which represented the qualities of acceptable bread dough. The models predicted that a dough with 57, 26, 1.8 and 3.3% of water, barnyard millet, salt and sugar, respectively, can be used for bread baking purposes.

  4. Effects of alginate gel on rheological properties of hair-tail ( Trichiurus lepturus) surimi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yong; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Lili; Lin, Dan; Xu, Jiachao; Xue, Changhu

    2011-06-01

    Effects of alginate gel at different concentrations on rheological properties of hair-tail ( Trichiurus lepturus) surimi were investigated. Alginate gel (1%-3%) exhibited enhanced effects, especially when alginate gel concentration increased. The rheological properties of mixture samples were studied by the time sweep, frequency sweep and temperature sweep. The critical strain values of the mixture samples for the onset of non-linear viscoelasticity were about 5%. The storage modulus G' of the mixture samples increased with time for 4 h. The frequency sweep showed that G' was greater than G″ for all the mixture gels with different alginate gel concentrations, and values of both n' and n″ for all samples were low (<0.2), these constants corresponding to G' and G″, and indicating the elasticity of mixture gels. The values of storage modulus G' decreased during heating process and increased with decreasing temperature.

  5. Rheological and physical properties of gelatin suspensions containing cellulose nanofibers for potential coatings.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Ricardo D; Skurtys, Olivier; Osorio, Fernando; Zuluaga, Robin; Gañán, Piedad; Castro, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    Rheological and physical properties of edible coating formulations containing gelatin, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs), and glycerol are characterized. Measured properties are analyzed in order to optimize edible coating thickness. Results show that coating formulations density increases linearly with gelatin concentration in presence of CNFs. Surface tension decreases with either gelatin or CNF concentration increases. Power law model well described the rheological behavior of edible coating formulations since determination coefficient was high (R(2 )> 0.98) and standard error was low (SE < 0.0052). Formulations showed pseudoplastic (shear-thinning) flow behavior and no time-dependent features were observed. The flow behavior index was not significantly affected by any factor. Consistency coefficient increases with gelatin concentrations but it decreases with glycerol concentrations.

  6. Influence of molecular weight on structure and rheological properties of microcrystalline chitosan mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Katarzyna

    2015-08-01

    In the present work, the atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies and rheological properties of aqueous solutions of microcrystalline chitosan (MCCh), polyacrylamide (PAM) and their mixtures at different weight ratios have been investigated. Flow measurements were carried out using on solutions of native polymers and their mixtures with various weight fractions of components. It has been observed that the polymer solutions and their mixtures exhibited the non-Newtonian behavior with shear-thinning and/or shear-thickening areas. Rheological parameters from power law and activation energy of viscous flow are determined and discussed. The AFM images showed difference in surface properties films for the native polymers and their mixtures. The roughness of the mixtures increases with the increase of MCCh content. This may indicate a strong interaction between the polymeric components.

  7. Technology of Ultrasonic Treatment of High-Viscosity Oil from Yarega Oilfield to Improve the Rheological Properties of Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemenkov, Y. D.; Zemenkova, M. Y.; Berg, V. I.; Gordievskaya, E. F.

    2016-10-01

    The article investigates the possibility of applying ultrasonic treatment oil from Yarega oilfield to improve of rheological properties, reduce oil viscosity in Russian pipeline transportation system, and increase its efficiency and performance. Created laboratory test bed of ultrasonic waves.

  8. Direct-writing construction of layered meshes from nanoparticles-vaseline composite inks: rheological properties and structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Kunpeng; Sun, Jingbo; Li, Qi; Wang, Rui; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2011-02-01

    Direct-writing is superior in the construction of arbitrarily designed three-dimensional (3D) structures. In this work, we develop a series of organic inks doped with nanoparticles to fabricate 3D meshes of interpenetrating rods. The effects of nanoparticle addition on the rheological properties of organic inks were analyzed. The results revealed intelligible relationship between the ink's formability and rheological properties, which could be beneficial to the construction of 3D structures from organic inks by direct writing.

  9. Determination of rheological property and its effect on key aroma release of Shanxi aged vinegar.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Qiu, Ju; Li, Zaigui

    2016-08-01

    The rheological property of Shanxi aged vinegar (SAV) was determined by rheometer, and its effects on release in eight key aroma components of SAV was investigated by SPME-GC-MS. In order to simulate the change of rheological property of SAV, a modified SAV system was developed from a finished SAV using carboxymethylcellulose, pectin, glucose, fructose, sodium chloride and tannic acid at indicate levels. The consistency coefficients (K) of SAV ranged from 1.09e(-5) to 0.0137, which was correlated to glucose, polyphenol, acids and (o)Bx. SAV changed from shear-thickening to Newtonian fluid during long-time ageing. In the modified SAV system, the K values increased significantly, and two modified vinegar became quasi-Newtonian fluids too. Furthermore, release of the eight key aroma compounds decreased significantly and decreased was pronounced, for acetic acid, furfural and tetramethylpyrazine. The results demonstrated rheological property correlated to the concentrate of sugar, salt, polyphenol, acids and macromolecule, which significantly affected the release of major aroma compounds.

  10. Formulating gels for decreased mucociliary transport using rheologic properties: polyacrylic acids.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ankur J; Donovan, Maureen D

    2007-04-20

    The purpose of these studies was to identify the rheologic properties of polyacrylic acid gels necessary for optimal reductions in mucociliary clearance. The mucociliary transport of 2 bioadhesive polyacrylic acid polymers, polycarbophil and carbopol, was assessed in vitro by measuring their clearance rates across explants of ciliated bovine tracheal tissue. The viscoelastic properties of polymer gels were measured in the presence of mucus using controlled stress rheometry. Combinations of apparent viscosity (eta) and complex modulus (G*) were found to be the most useful parameters in the identification of polyacrylic acid formulations capable of decreasing mucociliary transport rate (MTR). A narrow range of eta and G* values suitable for reducing mucociliary clearance, while remaining sufficiently fluid for intranasal administration, were identified. The correlations between the rheologic parameters of the polycarbophil gels and their mucociliary transport rates were used to identify other polyacrylic acid gels that also had suitable mucociliary clearance properties, demonstrating that these parameters can be used to direct the optimization of formulations using simple in vitro rheologic testing.

  11. Rheological properties of magnetorheological polishing fluid featuring plate-like iron particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Kruti; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-10-01

    In this work, magnetorheological polishing fluid (MRP) rheological properties are experimentally investigated for bi-disperse suspension of plate-like iron particles and non-magnetic abrasive particles dispersed in carrier fluid to see the influence of small-sized non-magnetic particle on the large-size Mr fluid. As a first step, structural and morphology of iron plate-like particles are described in details. The rheological properties are then characterized using magnetorheometer. Particle size and volume fraction of both particles play an important role during the breaking and reforming the structure under application of magnetic field which influence on the rheological properties of MRP fluid. Three different constitutive models, such as the Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley and Casson equations are considered to evaluate their predictive capability of apparent viscosity of proposed MRP fluid. The yield stress increases with increasing magnetic field strength. The results obtained from three models show that the flow index exhibits shear thinning behavior of fluid. A comparative work between the model results and experimental results is also undertaken.

  12. Salt matters: How salt affects the rheological and physical properties of gelatine for analogue modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizzi, S.; Funiciello, F.; Corbi, F.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Mojoli, G.

    2016-06-01

    Gelatine is extensively used as analogue material for the easiness to tune its physical and rheological properties. The addition of salt to gelatine is generally adopted to increase the density of the material, improving the scaling of the models. However, the way the addition of salt changes the rheological properties of gelatine is generally underestimated. Here, we investigate both rheological and physical properties (i.e., density and transparency) of type A pig-skin 2.5 wt.% gelatine at T = 10 °C as a function of salt concentration, cNaCl, and ageing time. We established a standard preparation recipe and measuring protocol, yielding to uniform samples with reproducible behaviour. Rheometric measurements show that the presence of salt weakens the gelatine structure, with a decrease of both material rigidity and viscosity as cNaCl increases. Salted gelatine behaviour moves from viscoelastic to dominantly elastic as the ageing time increases. Density and cloudiness also increase with cNaCl. Finally, we present results from subduction interplate seismicity models performed with pure and salted gelatines, showing that the modified material may improve the modelling performance and open new perspectives in experimental tectonics.

  13. Using cell monolayer rheology to probe average single cell mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Sander, Mathias; Flesch, Julia; Ott, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    The cell monolayer rheology technique consists of a commercial rotational rheometer that probes the mechanical properties of a monolayer of isolated cells. So far we have described properties of an entire monolayer. In this short communication, we show that we can deduce average single cell properties. Results are in very good agreement with earlier work on single cell mechanics. Our approach provides a mean of 105-106 adherent cells within a single experiment. This makes the results very reproducible. We extend our work on cell adhesion strength and deduce cell adhesion forces of fibroblast cells on fibronectin coated glass substrates.

  14. Effect of thermal and freezing treatments on rheological, textural and color properties of basil seed gum.

    PubMed

    Zameni, Akefe; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Aalami, Mehran; Salehi, Fakhreddin

    2015-09-01

    Hydrocolloids are macromolecular carbohydrates that are added to many foodstuffs to achieve the appropriate rheological and textural properties and to prevent synersis or to increase the viscosity and stability of foodstuffs. In this study the effect of different thermal treatments (25, 50, 75, 100 and 121°C for 20 min) and freezing treatments (-18 and -25 °C for 24 h) on rheological, textural and color change of basil seed gum as a new source of hydrocolloids was investigated. The results demonstrated that basil seed gum solutions had desirable rheological and textural properties. Power law model well described non-newtonian pseudoplastic behavior of basil seed gum in all conditions. When the hydrocolloid samples were heated or frozen, increase in viscosity of basil seed gum solutions was observed. Hardness, adhesiveness and consistency of basil seed gel for control sample were 13.5 g, 16.79, 52.59 g.s, respectively and all increased after thermal treatments. The results revealed that basil seed gum has the excellent ability to stand against heat treatment and the highest hardness, adhesiveness and consistency value of gum gels were observed in sample treated at 121 °C for 20 min. In addition this gum gel has the good ability to stand against freeze-thaw treatment and its textural properties improved after freezing. Therefore, basil seed gum can be employed as a textural and rheological modifier in formulation of foods exposed to thermal and freezing temperatures.

  15. Probing anisotropic surface properties and interaction forces of chrysotile rods by atomic force microscopy and rheology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dingzheng; Xie, Lei; Bobicki, Erin; Xu, Zhenghe; Liu, Qingxia; Zeng, Hongbo

    2014-09-16

    Understanding the surface properties and interactions of nonspherical particles is of both fundamental and practical importance in the rheology of complex fluids in various engineering applications. In this work, natural chrysotile, a phyllosilicate composed of 1:1 stacked silica and brucite layers which coil into cylindrical structure, was chosen as a model rod-shaped particle. The interactions of chrysotile brucite-like basal or bilayered edge planes and a silicon nitride tip were measured using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The force-distance profiles were fitted using the classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, which demonstrates anisotropic and pH-dependent surface charge properties of brucite-like basal plane and bilayered edge surface. The points of zero charge (PZC) of the basal and edge planes were estimated to be around pH 10-11 and 6-7, respectively. Rheology measurements of 7 vol % chrysotile (with an aspect ratio of 14.5) in 10 mM NaCl solution showed pH-dependent yield stress with a local maximum around pH 7-9, which falls between the two PZC values of the edge and basal planes of the rod particles. On the basis of the surface potentials of the edge and basal planes obtained from AFM measurements, theoretical analysis of the surface interactions of edge-edge, basal-edge, and basal-basal planes of the chrysotile rods suggests the yield stress maximum observed could be mainly attributed to the basal-edge attractions. Our results indicate that the anisotropic surface properties (e.g., charges) of chrysotile rods play an important role in the particle-particle interaction and rheological behavior, which also provides insight into the basic understanding of the colloidal interactions and rheology of nonspherical particles.

  16. Synthetic Tracheal Mucus with Native Rheological and Surface Tension Properties

    PubMed Central

    Hamed, R.; Fiegel, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study the development of a model tracheal mucus with chemical composition and physical properties (bulk viscoelasticity and surface tension) matched to that of native tracheal mucus is described. The mucus mimetics were formulated using components that are abundant in tracheal mucus (glycoproteins, proteins, lipids, ions and water) at concentrations similar to those found natively. Pure solutions were unable to achieve the gel behavior observed with native mucus. The addition of a bi-functional crosslinking agent enabled control over the viscoelastic properties of the mucus mimetics by tailoring the concentration of the crosslinking agent and the duration of crosslinking. Three mucus mimetic formulations with different bulk viscoelastic properties, all within the normal range for non-diseased tracheal mucus, were chosen for investigation of surfactant spreading at the air-mimetic interface. Surfactant spread quickly and completely on the least viscoelastic mimetic surface, enabling the surface tension of the mimetic to be lowered to match native tracheal mucus. However, surfactant spreading on the more viscoelastic mimetics was hindered, suggesting that the bulk properties of the mimetics dictate the range of surface properties that can be achieved. PMID:23813841

  17. Rheological properties of peanut oil-diesel fuel blends

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.; Law, S.E.

    1982-07-01

    Basic physical properties of peanut oil-diesel fuel blends were experimentally determined to help establish suitability for use in compression-ignition engines. For volumetric proportions of peanut oil ranging in 20 percent increments from 0 percent to 100 percent, the continuously varying properties at 21/sup 0/C were found to range as follows: heating value - 45.8 to 40.3 MJ/kg; specific gravity - 0.848 to 0.915; surface tension - 28.3 to 35.6 mN/m; and kinematic viscosity - 3.8 to 7.0 cSt. Dynamic viscosity measured as a function of shear rate over a 0/sup 0/C to 80/sup 0/C temperature range indicated nonNewtonian flow properties at shear rates less than 3/s.

  18. Oats Protein Isolate: Thermal, Rheological, Surface & Functional Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oat protein isolate (OPI) was extracted in 0.015 N NaOH in a 10:1 ratio solvent:flour and was precipitated by adjusting the pH to 4.5 and freeze-dried. The thermal properties of OPI were determined using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). OPI with 6% moisture content exhibited a glass transi...

  19. Rheological and textural properties of pulse starch gels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The properties of starch gels from black beans, chickpeas, lentils and navy beans were investigated. Differences were shown between starch sources, and effect of starch concentration was studied. Navy bean starch had the highest peak and final viscosities in pasting tests, while black bean starch h...

  20. Pasting and rheological properties of rice starch as affected by pullulan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Tong, Qunyi; Ren, Fei; Zhu, Guilan

    2014-05-01

    Effect of pullulan (PUL) on the pasting, rheological properties of rice starch (RS) was investigated. The swelling power, amylose leaching, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) observation of the samples were also conducted to explore the possible interaction between starch and pullulan. Rapid visco-analysis (RVA) showed that PUL significantly changed viscosity parameters of rice starch-pullulan (RS-PUL) mixtures. Dynamic rheological measurements revealed that the modulus (G', G″) of the mixtures increased with the increase of pullulan concentration from 0.01% to 0.07%, but then decreased with the increase of pullulan concentration from 0.07% to 0.50%. The pasting and rheological properties of samples indicated that pullulan could blend well with rice starch and promote the gelatinization of starch granules at low concentration of pullulan, but suppress the gelatinization of starch granules at high concentration of pullulan. The results of swelling power, leached amylose and CLSM observation of samples further suggest that the interaction between starch and pullulan occurred in the RS-PUL system and the interaction was hypothesized to be responsible for these results.

  1. Interfacial Rheological Properties of Contrast Microbubble Targestar P as a Function of Ambient Pressure.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Krishna N; Sarkar, Kausik

    2016-04-01

    In this Technical Note, we determine the interfacial rheological parameters of the encapsulation of the contrast agent Targestar P using ultrasound attenuation. The characteristic parameters are obtained according to two interfacial rheological models. The properties-surface dilatational elasticity (0.09 ± 0.01 N/m) and surface dilatational viscosity (8 ± 0.1E-9 N·s/m)-are found to be of similar magnitude for both models. Contrast microbubbles experience different ambient pressure in different organs. We also measure these parameters as functions of ambient pressure using attenuation measured at different overpressures (0, 100 and 200 mm Hg). For each value of ambient hydrostatic pressure, we determine the rheological properties, accounting for changes in the size distribution caused by the pressure change. We discuss different models of size distribution change under overpressure: pure adiabatic compression or gas exchange with surrounding medium. The dilatational surface elasticity and viscosity are found to increase with increasing ambient pressure.

  2. Rheological properties and tunable thermoplasticity of phenolic rich fraction of pyrolysis bio-oil.

    PubMed

    Sahaf, Amir; Laborie, Marie-Pierre G; Englund, Karl; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; McDonald, Armando G

    2013-04-08

    In this work we report on the preparation, characterization, and properties of a thermally treated lignin-derived, phenolic-rich fraction (PRF) of wood pyrolysis bio-oil obtained by ethyl acetate extraction. The PRF was characterized for viscoelastic and rheological behavior using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and cone and plate rheology. A unique thermoplastic behavior was evidenced. Heat-treated PRFs acquire high modulus but show low temperatures of thermal flow which can be systematically manipulated through the thermal pretreatment. Loss of volatiles, changes in molecular weight, and glass transition temperature (Tg) were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), mass spectrometry (MS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. Underlying mechanisms for the thermal and rheological behavior are discussed with regard to interactions between pyrolytic lignin nanoparticles present in the system and the role of volatile materials on determining the properties of the material resembling in several aspects to colloidal suspension systems. Low thermal flow temperatures and reversible thermal effects can be attributed to association of pyrolytic lignin particles due to intermolecular interactions that are easily ruptured at higher temperatures. The thermoplastic behavior of PRF and its low Tg is of particular interest, as it gives opportunities for application of this fraction in several melt processing and adhesive technologies.

  3. Microstructure, rheological and wound healing properties of collagen-based gel from cuttlefish skin.

    PubMed

    Jridi, Mourad; Bardaa, Sana; Moalla, Dorsaf; Rebaii, Tarak; Souissi, Nabil; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Nasri, Moncef

    2015-01-01

    Collagen-based biomaterials are of the utmost importance for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The aims of the present investigation were to evaluate structural and rheological properties of collagen-based gel obtained from cuttlefish skin, and to investigate its ability to enhance wound healing. Scanning electron microscopy of resulted gel showed a dense fibrillar microstructure with high interconnection network with a smaller pore size. In addition, the rheological characterization of collagen gel showed an excellent reversibility, when subjected to a temperature variation. Moreover, in the wound-healing study, topical application of collagen based gel increased significantly the percentage of wound closure over a period of 12 days, when compared to the untreated and CICAFLORA(®)-treated groups. Wound-healing activity of collagen gel was confirmed by histopathology study. Thus, cuttlefish collagen based gel might be useful as a wound healing agent.

  4. Rheological properties of micro-/nanofibrillated cellulose suspensions: wall-slip and shear banding phenomena.

    PubMed

    Nechyporchuk, Oleksandr; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur; Pignon, Frédéric

    2014-11-04

    The rheological properties of enzymatically hydrolyzed and TEMPO-oxidized microfibrillated/nanofibrillated cellulose (MFC/NFC) aqueous suspensions were investigated in oscillation and steady-flow modes and were compared with the morphology of the studied materials. The flow instabilities, which introduce an error in the rheological measurements, were discovered during flow measurements. A wall-slip (interfacial slippage on the edge of geometry tools and suspension) was detected at low shear rates for two types of NFC suspensions while applying cone-plate geometry. A roughening of the tool surfaces was performed to overcome the aforementioned problem. Applying to TEMPO-oxidized NFC, a stronger suspension response was detected at low shear rates with higher values of measured shear stress. However, a shear banding (localization of shear within a sample volume) became more pronounced. The use of serrated tools for enzymatically hydrolyzed NFC produced lower shear stress at the moderate shear rates, which was influenced by water release from the suspension.

  5. Chemical and rheological properties of the beta-glucan produced by Pediococcus parvulus 2.6.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Susana E; Areizaga, Javier; Irastorza, Ana; Dueñas, Maria T; Santamaria, Antxon; Muñoz, María E

    2009-03-11

    Some physicochemical and rheological properties of the exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Pediococcus parvulus 2.6 were examined. Structural characterization by NMR ((1)H and 2D-COSY) showed that the same EPS, a 2-substituted (1,3)-beta-D-glucan, was synthesized irrespective of sugar source used for growth (glucose, fructose, or maltose). The molecular masses of these beta-glucans were always very high (>10(6) Da) and influenced by the culture medium or sugar source. The steady shear rheological experiments showed that all concentrations of the beta-glucan aqueous solutions exhibited a pseudoplastic behavior at high shear rates. Viscoelastic behavior of beta-glucan solutions was determined by dynamic oscillatory analysis. A critical concentration of 0.35% associated with the appearance of entanglements was calculated. The beta-glucan adopts an ordered hydrogen bond dependent helical conformation in neutral and slightly alkaline aqueous solutions, which was partly denatured under more alkaline conditions.

  6. Effects of Iron Oxides on the Rheological Properties of Cementitious Slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Chul-Woo; Chun, Jaehun; Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

    2014-04-02

    Iron oxide has been considered a promising host for immobilizing and encapsulating radioactive 99Tc (t1/2=2.1x105 year), which significantly enhances the stability of 99Tc within a cementitious waste form. However, the flow behavior of cementitious slurry containing iron oxide has never been investigated to ensure its workability, which directly influences the preparation and performance of the cementitious waste form monolith. Variation in the rheological properties of the cementitious slurry were studied using rheometry and ultrasonic wave reflection to understand the effects of various iron oxides (magnetite, hematite, ferrihydrite, and goethite) during the cement setting and stiffening processes. The rheological behavior significantly varied with the addition of different chemical compounds of iron oxides. Complementary microscopic characteristics such as colloidal vibration currents, morphology, and particle size distributions further suggest that the most adverse alteration of cement setting and stiffening behavior caused by the presence of goethite may be attributed to its acicular shape.

  7. The rheological properties of polysaccharides sequentially extracted from peony seed dreg.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Sun, Yu-Han; Xu, Qi-Xin; Li, Ling; Prasad, Chandan; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2016-10-01

    The peony seed dreg polysaccharides (PSDPs) were sequentially extracted using hot buffer (HBSS), chelating agent (CHSS), dilute alkaline (DASS) and concentrated alkaline (CASS). The rheological properties of PSDPs were investigated by steady-shear and oscillatory rheological measurements. The four PSDPs fractions in solution exhibited typical non-Newtonian and shear-thinning behavior. The viscosity of HBSS was higher than the rest. While the viscosity value of all PSDPs solution decreased at acid pH (4.0) and alkaline pH (10.0), in the presence of Ca(2+) and high temperature (90°C), it increased in the presence of Na(+) and following freezing. The modulus G' and G" of all PSDPs solution were increased with increasing oscillation frequency ranging between 0.01 and 100Hz at each concentration. In all four cases, the crossover of G' and G" values decreased gradually with increasing concentration of samples.

  8. Comparison between extensional rheological properties of low density polyethylene melt in SER and RME rheometric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narimissa, Esmaeil; Rolón-Garrido, Víctor Hugo; Wagner, Manfred Hermann

    2015-04-01

    Precise evaluation and notional prediction of extensional rheological behaviour of polymeric melts and solutions are of significant importance in polymer industry. This is evident in the well documentation of the dominance of elongational deformation of polymeric systems in processes such as melt spinning, blow moulding, biaxial stretching of extruded sheets, etc. The relevant commercial extensional rheometers thus far discussed in the literature are RME and SER. This research, for the first time, compares the extensional viscosity measurements of low density polyethylene at 140, 150, and 170 °C through RME and SER devices. Despite the observed similarities found in this comparative investigation, the main difference was laid in maximum Hencky strain, strain hardening viscosity, and the variation of those rheological properties with testing temperature of the samples.

  9. Influence of the nanotube oxidation on the rheological and electrical properties of CNT/HDPE composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Somma, Elvira; Valentino, Olga; Simon, George; Neitzert, Heinz-Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Rheological and electrical properties of nanocomposites based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and high density polyethylene (HDPE), prepared by melt mixing in a micro-twin screw extruder, have been investigated. The effect of MWNT concentration (0.5 and 2.5 wt %) and nanotube surface treatment (oxidative treatment in a tubular furnace at 500°C for 1 hr in a 95% nitrogen, 5% oxygen atmosphere) has been analyzed. It has been found that the sample conductivity with oxidation of the nanotubes decreases more than 2 orders of magnitude. Scanning electron microscopy showed good adhesion and dispersion of nanotubes in the matrix, independently of the surface treatment. Electrical and rheological measurements revealed that the oxidative treatment, causing some reduction of the MWNT quality, decreases the efficiency of the nanotube matrix interaction.

  10. Time and shear effects upon rheological properties of crosslinked fluids--an evaluation method

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, S.N.; Watters, L.T.

    1984-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for evaluating time and shear effects on flow properties of crosslinked polymer fluids. An apparatus has been designed and assembled to simulate crosslinking the fluid on the fly, fluid flowing down the well, through the perforations, and in the fracture. The apparatus is designed such that laminar and turbulent flow properties can be evaluated simultaneously. The results such as turbulent friction pressure, effect of pipe and perforation shear on the rheological properties of fluids in the fracture, rehealing properties in the fracture, temperature stability of fluids, etc., can be obtained from the data gathered with the apparatus. Several different polymer-crosslinker systems have been evaluated. Results show that the best performer is an HPG (hydroxyproply guar) - delayed titanate crosslinker system which exhibits practically base gel friction pressure in turbulent flow, excellent rehealing properties and good temperature stability in fracture flow. It is found that perforation shear has practically no effect on the rheological properties of the HPG - delayed titanate crosslinker system. Also, this system shows quicker and better rehealing properties at lower fracture flow rates resulting in a more viscous gel.

  11. Effective Rheological Properties in Semi-dilute Bacterial Suspensions.

    PubMed

    Potomkin, Mykhailo; Ryan, Shawn D; Berlyand, Leonid

    2016-03-01

    Interactions between swimming bacteria have led to remarkable experimentally observable macroscopic properties such as the reduction in the effective viscosity, enhanced mixing, and diffusion. In this work, we study an individual-based model for a suspension of interacting point dipoles representing bacteria in order to gain greater insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the drastic reduction in the effective viscosity. In particular, asymptotic analysis is carried out on the corresponding kinetic equation governing the distribution of bacteria orientations. This allows one to derive an explicit asymptotic formula for the effective viscosity of the bacterial suspension in the limit of bacterium non-sphericity. The results show good qualitative agreement with numerical simulations and previous experimental observations. Finally, we justify our approach by proving existence, uniqueness, and regularity properties for this kinetic PDE model.

  12. [The rheology properties of common hydrophilic gel excipients].

    PubMed

    Hou, Yan-Long; Li, He-Ran; Gao, Ya-Nan; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qi-Fang; Xu, Lu; Liu, Zhen-Yun; Chen, Hong-Tao; Li, San-Ming

    2014-08-01

    To investigate theological properties of common hydrophilic gel excipients such as Carbopol based on viscosity, the viscosity was determined by rotation method and falling-ball method. Linear regression was made between ln(eta) and concentration, the slope of which was used to explore the relation between viscosity and concentration of different excipients. The viscosity flow active energy (E(eta)) was calculated according to Arrhenius equation and was used to investigate the relation between viscosity and temperature of different excipients. The results showed that viscosities measured by two methods were consistent. Concentration of guargum (GG) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) solution had a great influence on the viscosity, k > 5; while concentration of polyvinylpyrrolidone-K30 (PVP-K30) and polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) exerted a less effect on viscosity, k < 0.2; viscosity flow active energy of different excipients were close, which ranged from 30 to 40 kJ x mol(-1). Therefore, theological properties study could provide the basis for application of excipients and establish a foundation for the research of relation between excipients structure, property and function.

  13. Surface dilational rheological properties in the nonlinear domain.

    PubMed

    Bykov, A G; Liggieri, L; Noskov, B A; Pandolfini, P; Ravera, F; Loglio, G

    2015-08-01

    The interfacial tension response to dilational deformation of interfacial area exhibits a (more or less) nonlinear behavior, depending on the amplitude of the deformation. Studies of such observable interfacial properties in the nonlinear domain suggest valuable information about the two-dimensional microstructure of the interfacial layer, as well as about the structure time-evolution. In this article, the emphasis is centered on the available mathematical methods for quantitatively analyzing and describing the magnitude and the characteristics of the nonlinear interfacial viscoelastic properties. Specifically, in periodic oscillation experiments the nonlinear behavior can be represented by the combination of a linear part (the surface dilational modulus), with an additional complementary Fourier analysis parameterizing the nonlinearity. Also asymmetric Lissajous plots, of interfacial tension versus deformation, are useful tools for expanding the response nonlinearity into four distinct components relevant to significant points of the cyclic loop. In connection with the mathematical methods, nonequilibrium thermodynamic formulations provide a powerful theoretical framework for investigating the interfacial dynamic properties of multiphase systems. Experimental results for adsorption layers of complex components, available in the literature, show notable nonlinear interfacial viscoelastic behavior. In particular in this review, data are illustrated for solutions of polymers and of polyelectrolyte/surfactant complexes. The observed nonlinear findings reveal formation of complexes, patches, and other different interfacial structures.

  14. [Development of technology, of rheological and biopharmaceutical properties of new gel].

    PubMed

    Mekhralieva, S Dzh

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research is the development of technology for preparation of hydrogel Glysotrical and study its rheological and biopharmaceutical characteristics. Based on gel-forming chitosan, PEG-400, glycerol and Tween-80 a new composition of hydrogel - Glysotrical was developed. Rheological properties of Glysotrical, as well as biopharmaceutical properties of artificial (cellophane) and natural membrane (chicken and pork skin) were investigated by dialysis. Rheological properties of different concentrations of chitosan solution and gel Glysotrical prepared on their basis were studied. It was determined that gel derived from the 5% solution of chitosan meets the technological requirements (pH-5,5-6,0, melting point-75,0±1,07°C, dynamic viscosity - 890,6 ± 3,57 cps). Rheological properties of the hydrogel Glysotrical, prepared on the basis of a multi-component composition in different temperatures (20, 40, 60°C) were identified. It was found that shear of helium drug (458 H/m2, 355 H/m2) at 20° and 40°C is lower, and the value of dynamic viscosity (912spz, 602spz) higher than that of chitosan gel; the hydrogel is stable at 20° and 40°C. High kinetic activity of hydrogel with Tween-80 is observed. During 5 hours membrane maximum quantity of routine diffusion from helium mass into dialysate in cellophane is 57,54 ±0,51%; in normal skin chicken - 20,04±0,55%; in the skin of chicken treated with 2% citric acid - 23,14±0,45%; normal pig skin - 12,64±0,09%; in the skin of pigs, treated with acid - 15,08± 0,11%. The study showed that the gel Glysotrical at 10-22°C is maintained for 2 years. Physico-chemical, rheological, technological and biopharmaceutical research showed that 4% gel Glysotrical was good in treatment of dermatological diseases.

  15. Rheological regional properties of brain tissue studied under cyclic creep/ recovery shear stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjema, F.; Lounis, M.; Khelidj, B.; Bessai, N.

    2015-04-01

    The rheological properties of brain tissue were studied by repeated creep-recovery shear tests under static conditions for different regions. Corpus callosum CC, Thalamus Th and Corona radiata CR. Non-linear viscoelastic model was also proposed to characterize the transient/steady states of shear creep results. From the creep-recovery data it was obvious that the brain tissues show high regional anisotropy. However. the both samples exhibit fluid viscoelastic properties in the first shear stress cycle of 100 Pa, while this behaviour evolutes to solid viscoelastic with cyclic effect.

  16. The influence of winter swimming on the rheological properties of blood.

    PubMed

    Teległów, Aneta; Dąbrowski, Zbigniew; Marchewka, Anna; Tyka, Aleksander; Krawczyk, Marcin; Głodzik, Jacek; Szyguła, Zbigniew; Mleczko, Edward; Bilski, Jan; Tyka, Anna; Tabarowski, Zbigniew; Czepiel, Jacek; Filar-Mierzwa, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in blood rheology resulting from regular winter swimming. The study was carried out on 12 male winter swimmers. Venous blood for morphological, biochemical and rheological analysis was sampled twice from each winter swimmer - at the beginning of the season and after its completion. There were no significant changes detected in the median values of most blood morphological parameters. The only exception pertained to MCHC which was significantly lower after the season. Winter swimming entailed significant decrease in median elongation index values at shear stress levels of 0.30 Pa and 0.58 Pa, and significant increase in median values of this parameter at shear stress levels ≥1.13 Pa. No significant changes were observed in winter swimmers' median values of aggregation indices and plasma viscosity. The median level of glucose was lower post winter swimming in comparison to the pre-seasonal values. In contrast, one season of winter swimming did not influence swimmers' median value of fibrinogen concentration. In summary, this study revealed positive effects of winter swimming on the rheological properties of blood, manifested by an increase in erythrocyte deformability without accompanying changes in erythrocyte aggregation.

  17. Optimization of the functional characteristics, pasting and rheological properties of pearl millet-based composite flour.

    PubMed

    Awolu, Olugbenga Olufemi

    2017-02-01

    Optimisation of composite flour comprising pearl millet, kidney beans and tigernut with xanthan gum was evaluated for rheological evaluations. The functional properties of the composite flour were optimized using optimal design of response surface methodology. The optimum blends, defined as blends with overall best functional characteristics were run 3 (75.956% pearl millet, 17.692% kidney beans, 6.352% tigernut flours), run 7 (85.000% pearl millet, 10.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours) and run 13 (75.000% pearl millet, 20.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours). The pasting characteristics and rheological evaluation of the optimized blends were further evaluated in rapid visco units (RVU). Run 7 had the overall best pasting characteristics; peak viscosity (462 RVU), trough (442 RVU), breakdown viscosity (20 RVU), final viscosity (975 RVU), setback (533 RVU), peak time (5.47 min) and pasting temperature (89.60 °C). These values were found to be better than several composite flours consisting mixture of wheat and non-wheat crops. In addition, the rheological characteristics (measured by Mixolab) showed that run 7 is the best in terms of dough stability, swelling, water absorption and shelf stability. Composite flour with 85% pearl millet flour in addition to kidney beans and tigernut flours could therefore serve as a viable alternative to 100% wheat flour in bread production.

  18. Morphology evolution and rheological properties of polybutadiene/polyisoprene blend after the cessation of steady shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Dong, Xia; Zou, Fasheng; Yang, Jian; Wang, Dujin; Han, Charles C.

    2013-09-01

    The morphology evolution and rheological response of a near-critical composition polybutadiene/polyisoprene blend after the cessation of steady shear was studied with an ARES rheometer and a shear light scattering photometer equipped with an optical microscope in this work. The relationship between the morphology of the blend during the relaxation after the cessation of steady shear with different shear rates and their corresponding rheological properties was successfully established. It was found that the different shear-induced morphologies under steady shear would relax to the equilibrium states via varied mechanisms after the shear cessation. The average size of the dispersed domains in the coarsening process was influenced by the pre-shear history. The results indicated that the pre-shear history could slow down the growth rate of phase domains during the coarsening process. It had effect on the coarsening mechanism on the early stage of relaxation after the cessation of very strong shear when the homogenization effects were strong, but no effect on the late stage. The storage modulus G' increased significantly in the breakup process of the string-like phase. After all the string-like structures were broken up into small ellipsoids, then G' gradually decreased and finally approached to an invariant value. The characteristic rheological behavior can be attributed to the different structure on the relaxation process.

  19. A New Theoretical Approach Based on the Maxwell Model to Obtain Rheological Properties of Solidifying Alloys and Its Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Akira; Takai, Ryosuke; Ezaki, Hideaki; Okane, Toshimitsu; Yoshida, Makoto

    2017-04-01

    This paper proposes a new method for obtaining the rheological properties of solidifying alloys in the brittle temperature range (BTR). In that range, alloys show not only rheological, but also brittle behavior. Conventional methods to obtain rheological properties require steady state stress with ductility. Therefore, rheological properties of BTR alloys are unobtainable, or are otherwise including the effects of microscopic damage. The method proposed in this paper uses the stress-strain relation derived from the Maxwell model assuming that strain hardening is negligible in solid-liquid coexistence states. By removing the plastic strain term, the creep strain rate in Norton's law is derived by the total strain rate and stress rate without the steady state stress condition. Consequently, the stress exponent n and material constant A of Norton's law can be obtained even for alloys in the BTR. We applied this method to both tensile process before crack initiation and stress relaxation process. According to the Maxwell model, couples of the properties ( n and A) obtained in both processes must be equal. Therefore, the difference can validate the obtained properties. From tensile and stress relaxation tests, we obtained the properties of solidifying Al-5 wt pct Mg alloy. We validated results by examining the difference. This report is the first to provide a method to obtain the rheological properties of BTR alloy without damage.

  20. Stabilization and Control of Rheological Properties of Fe2O3/Al(OH)(3)-rich Colloidal Slurries Under High Ionic Strength and pH

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Jaehun; Poloski, Adam P.; Hansen, E. K.

    2010-08-01

    Controlling the stability and rheological properties of colloidal slurries has been an important but challenging issue for various applications such as cosmetics, ceramic processing, and nuclear waste treatment. For example, at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford and Savannah River sites, operation of the waste treatment facilities with increased solids loading affects waste processing rates but impacts the rheological properties. We investigated various rheological modifiers on a Fe2O3-rich nuclear waste simulant, characterized by high ionic strength and pH, in order to reduce rheological properties of the colloidal slurry. Rheological modifiers change particle interactions in colloidal slurries; they mainly alter the electrostatic and steric interactions between particles, leading to a change in rheological properties. Weak acid type rheological modifiers strengthen electrostatic repulsion whereas nonionic/polymer surfactant type rheological modifiers introduce a steric repulsion. Using rheological analysis, it was found that citric acid and polyacrylic acid are good rheological modifiers for the simulant tested, effectively reducing yield stresses by as much as 70%. Further analysis supports that addition of such rheological modifiers increases the stability of the slurry. Binding cations in bulk solution and adsorption on the surface of the particles are identified as a reasonable working mechanism for citric acid and polyacrylic acid.

  1. Rheological properties of granular materials - Critical parameters and mixing rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilenko, Alisa Victoria

    2011-12-01

    Granular materials can be found at any stage of processing in many industries, such as food, pharmaceuticals, catalysts, and chemicals. These materials exhibit a variety of flow patterns, and their state and behavior differ from application to application. Since there is a lack of fundamental understanding of particulate or powder behavior, multiple problems can be encountered during routine manufacturing. Scale-up can also be a challenge, as the lack of constitutive equations for granular materials forces most scaleup efforts to follow the trial-and-error route. Powder characterization measurements are employed as both a selection tool and a predictive method for the material's process performance. Therefore, it plays a very important role in process and product development. The numerous existing methods used to characterize the flow properties of powders are mostly application-specific and it is not clear how they correlate with each other or with process performance. Moreover, understanding the relationships between the material properties and the processing conditions is necessary for a successful design of a continuous manufacturing system, which has been a major focus for pharmaceutical industry in the recent years. Before such changes can be implemented, a better understanding of fundamental physical phenomena governing powder flow behavior must be developed. In this work we study particulate/powder flow behavior experimentally using several characterization methods, including the Gravitational Displacement Rheometer (an avalanching tester), the rotational shear cell, and the compressibility tester. We establish the variables of interest through correlative comparison and study the differences and similarities between the methods in order to investigate particulate/powder flow behavior during processing and characterization. A mixing rule for principal stresses is developed through investigation of shear behavior of binary mixtures in a shear cell. In order

  2. The effects of salt on rheological properties of asphalt after long-term aging.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin; Wang, Ying; Luo, Yilin; Yin, Long

    2013-01-01

    Limited studies in recent years have shown that asphalt pavement subject to seawater in coastal regions or deicing salt in cold regions may be seriously damaged after being soaked in saline water for a long time. However, there is limited research into the influence of salt on rheological properties of asphalt after long-term aging. In this study, rheological properties of unmodified and polymer-modified asphalt after long-term aging were tested after being soaked in different concentrations of salt (0.3%~5%) for different durations (1 day~30 days). Orthogonal array based on the Taguchi method was used for experimental design. The frequency sweep tests were performed on the specimens of aged asphalt after being soaked for complex modulus and phase angle master curves and ultimate fatigue temperature. BBR tests were performed for stiffness. The test results indicate that saline water appears to reduce low temperature properties and fatigue resistance properties and improved high temperature properties of aged asphalt, and it also affects the sensitivity of complex modulus and phase angles at low frequencies.

  3. Enhancement of Gleditsia sinensis gum rheological properties with pressure cell treatment in semi-solid state.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zi-yuan; Zhang, Wei-an; Duan, Jiu-fang; Zhang, Wei-ming; Sun, Da-feng; Jiang, Jian-xin

    2016-03-01

    The apparent viscosity, molecular weight, and molecular weight distribution are important physical properties that determine the functional properties of galactomannan gum. Gleditsia sinensis gum (GSG) in semi-solid state was pressure cell treated over a range of temperature (30-110 °C) under nitrogen maintained at a pressure of 1.0-4.0 MPa. Physicochemical properties of GSG samples both before and after the pressure cell treatment were characterized. These include measurements of rheological properties by LVDV-III Ultra Rheometer, molecular weight and radius of gyration by light scattering, and changes in surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy. GSG had the highest apparent viscosity at a treatment temperature of 30 °C; further increase in temperature led to decrease in apparent viscosity. The apparent viscosity of GSG can be efficiently improved at room temperature and low pressure. The process of pressure cell treatment of GSG in semi-solid state could be industrialized for enhancement of rheological properties of galactomannan gum.

  4. The Effects of Salt on Rheological Properties of Asphalt after Long-Term Aging

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xin; Luo, Yilin; Yin, Long

    2013-01-01

    Limited studies in recent years have shown that asphalt pavement subject to seawater in coastal regions or deicing salt in cold regions may be seriously damaged after being soaked in saline water for a long time. However, there is limited research into the influence of salt on rheological properties of asphalt after long-term aging. In this study, rheological properties of unmodified and polymer-modified asphalt after long-term aging were tested after being soaked in different concentrations of salt (0.3%~5%) for different durations (1 day~30 days). Orthogonal array based on the Taguchi method was used for experimental design. The frequency sweep tests were performed on the specimens of aged asphalt after being soaked for complex modulus and phase angle master curves and ultimate fatigue temperature. BBR tests were performed for stiffness. The test results indicate that saline water appears to reduce low temperature properties and fatigue resistance properties and improved high temperature properties of aged asphalt, and it also affects the sensitivity of complex modulus and phase angles at low frequencies. PMID:24459450

  5. Effect of cream fermentation on microbiological, physicochemical and rheological properties of L. helveticus-butter.

    PubMed

    Ewe, Joo-Ann; Loo, Su-Yi

    2016-06-15

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and rheological properties of butter produced by Lactobacillus helveticus fermented cream. The incorporation of putative probiotic - the L. helveticus, to ferment cream prior to butter production was anticipated to alter the nutritional composition of butter. Changes in crude macronutrients and the resultant modification relating to textural properties of butter induced upon metabolic activities of L. helveticus in cream were focused in this research. Fermented butter (LH-butter) was produced by churning the cream that was fermented by lactobacilli at 37 °C for 24 h. Physicochemical analysis, proximate analysis and rheology properties of LH-butter were compared with butter produced using unfermented cream (control). LH-butter showed a significantly (P<0.05) higher fat content and acid value; lower moisture and ash; and was softer than the control. Cream fermentation modified nutritional and textural properties of butter in which LH-butter contained higher health beneficial unsaturated fatty acids than the control and thus rendered the product softer. Its enrichment with probiotics could thus further enhance its functional property.

  6. Rheological properties of isotropic magnetorheological elastomers featuring an epoxidized natural rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhani Yunus, Nurul; Amri Mazlan, Saiful; Ubaidillah; Choi, Seung-Bok; Imaduddin, Fitrian; Aziz, Siti Aishah Abdul; Khairi, Muntaz Hana Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    This study presents principal field-dependent rheological properties of magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) in which an epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) is adopted as a matrix (in short, we call it ENR-based MREs). The isotropic ENR-based MRE samples are fabricated by mixing the ENR compound with carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) with different weight percentages. The morphological properties of the samples are firstly analysed using the microstructure assessment. The influences of the magnetic field on the viscoelastic properties of ENR-based MREs are then examined through the dynamic test under various excitation frequencies. The microstructure of MRE samples exhibits a homogeneous distribution of CIPs in the ENR matrix. The dramatic increment of storage modulus, loss modulus and loss tangent of the ENR-based MREs are also observed from the field-dependent rheological test. This directly demonstrates that the stiffness and damping properties of the samples can be adjusted by the magnetic field. It is also seen that the CIP content, exciting frequency and the magnetic field essentially influence the dynamic properties of the ENR-based MREs. The strong correlation between the magnetization and the magneto-induced storage modulus could be used as a useful guidance in synthesizing the ENR-based MREs for certain applications.

  7. Binary mixtures of two anionic polysaccharides simulating the rheological properties of oxidised starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, Marek; Dobosz, Anna; Adamczyk, Greta; Krystyjan, Magdalena; Kowalski, Stanisław; Tomasik, Piotra; Kutyła-Kupidura, Edyta M.

    2017-01-01

    Modifications of starches are carried out to improve their industrial usefulness. However, the consumers prefer natural products. For this reason, various methods of starch properties modification are applied to replace those requiring the use of chemical reagents. The aim of this study was to determine whether it is possible to use binary pastes, containing normal potato starch and xanthan gum, as substitutes of chemically modified starches (with oxidised starch E 1404 pastes as an example). Flow curves with hysteresis loops, apparent viscosity at constant shear rate of 50 s-1 and in-shear structural recovery test with pre-shearing were applied to study the rheological properties of the pastes. It was found that two anionic hydrocolloids, potato starch and xanthan gum, can form binary systems with thickening properties, provided that their proportions are adequately adjusted. Some of the binary pastes under investigation exhibited rheological properties resembling pastes of starch oxidised with hypochlorite (E 1404). The way of tailoring the binary pastes properties is presented.

  8. Physicochemical, morphological and rheological properties of canned bean pastes "negro Queretaro" variety (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Preciado, A H; Estrada-Girón, Y; González-Álvarez, A; Fernández, V V A; Macías, E R; Soltero, J F A

    2014-09-01

    Proximate, thermal, morphological and rheological properties of canned "negro Querétaro" bean pastes, as a function of fat content (0, 2 and 3 %) and temperature (60, 70 and 85 °C), were evaluated. Raw and precooked bean pastes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Well-defined starch granules in the raw bean pastes were observed, whereas a gelatinized starch paste was observed for the canned bean pastes. The DSC analysis showed that the raw bean pastes had lower onset peak temperatures (79 °C, 79.1 °C) and gelatinization enthalpy (1.940 J/g), compared to that precooked bean pastes (70.4 °C, 75.7 °C and 1.314 J/g, respectively) thermal characteristics. Moreover, the dynamic rheological results showed a gel-like behavior for the canned bean pastes, where the storage modulus (G') was frequency independent and was higher than the loss modulus (G″). The non-linear rheological results exhibited a shear-thinning flow behavior, where the steady shear-viscosity was temperature and fat content dependent. For canned bean pastes, the shear-viscosity data followed a power law equation, where the power law index (n) decreased when the temperature and the fat content increased. The temperature effect on the shear-viscosity was described by an Arrhenius equation, where the activation energy (Ea) was in the range from 19.04 to 36.81 KJ/mol. This rheological behavior was caused by gelatinization of the starch during the cooking and sterilization processes, where starch-lipids and starch-proteins complex were formed.

  9. Effect of Carboxymethylation on the Rheological Properties of Hyaluronan

    PubMed Central

    Wendling, Rian J.; Christensen, Amanda M.; Quast, Arthur D.; Atzet, Sarah K.; Mann, Brenda K.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical modifications made to hyaluronan to enable covalent crosslinking to form a hydrogel or to attach other molecules may alter the physical properties as well, which have physiological importance. Here we created carboxymethyl hyaluronan (CMHA) with varied degree of modification and investigated the effect on the viscosity of CMHA solutions. Viscosity decreased initially as modification increased, with a minimum viscosity for about 30–40% modification. This was followed by an increase in viscosity around 45–50% modification. The pH of the solution had a variable effect on viscosity, depending on the degree of carboxymethyl modification and buffer. The presence of phosphates in the buffer led to decreased viscosity. We also compared large-scale production lots of CMHA to lab-scale and found that large-scale required extended reaction times to achieve the same degree of modification. Finally, thiolated CMHA was disulfide crosslinked to create hydrogels with increased viscosity and shear-thinning aspects compared to CMHA solutions. PMID:27611817

  10. Modified fractal model and rheological properties of colloidal networks.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dongming; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2008-02-15

    The scaling relationship between the storage modulus (G(')) and the volume fraction of solids (Phi) in fat crystal networks has been explained by the fractal model developed by our group. However, many experimental results and simulation studies suggest that the stress distribution within a colloidal network is dramatically heterogeneous, which means that a small part of the network carries most of the stress, while the other part of the network does not contribute much to the elastic properties of the system. This concept was introduced into a modified fractal model. The volume fraction of solids term (Phi) in the original fractal model was replaced by Phi(e), the effective volume fraction of solids, in the modified fractal model, which represents the volume fraction of stress-carrying solids. A proposed expression for Phi(e) is given and a modified expression for the scaling relationship between G(') and Phi is obtained. The modified fractal model fits the experiment data well and successfully explains the sometimes observed nonlinear log-log behavior between the storage modulus of colloidal networks and their volume fraction of solids.

  11. Changes in Saliva Rheological Properties and Mucin Glycosylation in Dry Mouth.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, N M A; Shirlaw, P; Pramanik, R; Carpenter, G H; Proctor, G B

    2015-12-01

    Saliva is vital for the maintenance of normal oral physiology and mucosal health. The loss of salivary function can have far-reaching consequences, as observed with dry mouth, which is associated with increased orodental disease, speech impairment, dysphagia, and a significant negative effect on quality of life. The timely diagnosis of oral dryness is vital for the management of orodental disease and any associated often-undiagnosed systemic disease (e.g., Sjögren syndrome). Our aim was to investigate differences in mucin glycoproteins and saliva rheological properties between sufferers and nonsufferers of dry mouth in order to understand the relationship between saliva composition, rheological properties, and dryness perception and provide additional potential diagnostic markers. All patients exhibited objective and subjective oral dryness, irrespective of etiology. Over half of the patients (n = 20, 58.8%) had a saliva secretion rate above the gland dysfunction cutoff of 0.1 mL/min. Mucin (MUC5B and MUC7) concentrations were generally similar or higher in patients. Despite the abundance of these moisture-retaining proteins, patients exhibited reduced mucosal hydration (wetness) and significantly lower saliva spinnbarkeit (stringiness), suggesting a loss of the lubricating and retention/adhesion properties of saliva, which, at least partially, are associated with mucin glycoproteins. Over 90% of patients with dry mouth (DMPs) consistently had unstimulated whole mouth saliva (UWMS) spinnbarkeit below the proposed normal cutoff (10 mm). Further analysis of mucins revealed the reduced glycosylation of mucins in DMPs compared to healthy controls. Our data indicate that UWMS mucin concentrations are not reduced in dry mouth but that the mucin structure (glycosylation) is altered. UWMS from DMPs had reduced spinnbarkeit, the assessment of which, in conjunction with sialometry, could improve sensitivity for the diagnosis of dry mouth. Additionally, it may be useful to

  12. Rheological properties of polyvinylsiloxane impression materials before mixing and during setting related to handling characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyang-Ok; Lee, In-Bog

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine and compare the handling and rheological properties of polyvinylsiloxane impression pastes before mixing and during setting, and to investigate the effect of its constituents on the properties of the materials. Five polyvinylsiloxane impression materials (Examixfine, Extrude, Honigum, Imprint II, and Express) were used. A flow test and a drip test were performed to determine the handling characteristics. The rheological properties of each impression material prior to mixing (shear stress, viscosity) and during setting (storage modulus G'), loss modulus G″), loss tangent tanδ) were measured with a stress-controlled rheometer at 25°C and 32°C, respectively. Inorganic filler content of each impression material was measured and observed with a SEM. The molecular weight distribution of polymer matrix was determined with a gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Express and Honigum display lower flow compared to the other materials, due to their high yield-stress values. Examixfine exhibits the greatest flow. All materials display pseudoplastic behavior, excluding the Examixfine catalyst. The viscosities at low shear rate are greatest for Express and Honigum; however, under high shear conditions, the viscosities of Extrude and Honigum are the lowest. Following mixing, each material show an increase in G', finally reaching a plateau, and the tanδ rapidly decreases with time. Imprint II shows the highest final G' as well as the most rapid decrease in tanδ. Express and Imprint II present the highest filler content and rough filler surface, while Honigum shows the lowest filler content and small filler particles. Most products are composed of polymers over 30 kDa and oligomers less than 1 kDa. Each impression material possesses different rheological properties, which significantly affect the handling characteristics. The yield stress of the impression material minimizes unnecessary flow prior to and after seating. Viscoelastic

  13. Simple empirical model for identifying rheological properties of soft biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yo; Tsukune, Mariko; Miyashita, Tomoyuki; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the rheological properties of soft biological tissue is a key issue for mechanical systems used in the health care field. We propose a simple empirical model using fractional dynamics and exponential nonlinearity (FDEN) to identify the rheological properties of soft biological tissue. The model is derived from detailed material measurements using samples isolated from porcine liver. We conducted dynamic viscoelastic and creep tests on liver samples using a plate-plate rheometer. The experimental results indicated that biological tissue has specific properties: (i) power law increase in the storage elastic modulus and the loss elastic modulus of the same slope; (ii) power law compliance (gain) decrease and constant phase delay in the frequency domain; (iii) power law dependence between time and strain relationships in the time domain; and (iv) linear dependence in the low strain range and exponential law dependence in the high strain range between stress-strain relationships. Our simple FDEN model uses only three dependent parameters and represents the specific properties of soft biological tissue.

  14. Rheological properties of wheat starch influenced by amylose-lysophosphatidylcholine complexation at different gelation phases.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi-Abhari, S; Woortman, A J J; Hamer, R J; Loos, K

    2015-05-20

    Amylose is able to form helical inclusion complexes with lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). This complexation influences the functional and rheological properties of wheat starch; however it is well known that the formation of these complexes lead the starchy systems to a slower enzymatic hydrolysis. Based on this, to benefit from both the structuring properties of starch and also lower digestibility of the inclusion complexes, the objective of this study is the formation of amylose-LPC inclusion complexes while developing a firm network providing the desired functional properties in a starchy system. To investigate the influence of amylose-LPC complex formation at different stages of starch gelation on the viscosity behavior of wheat starch, 3% (w/w) LPC was added at three different points of the viscosity profile, obtained by rapid visco analyzer (RVA). LPC addition at all points affected the gelation behavior of wheat starch as compared with the reference. LPC addition at half-peak and peak of the viscosity profile resulted in a viscosity increase during cooling. Measuring the dynamic rheological properties of the freshly prepared gelatinized samples showed a decrease of storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G") in the presence of LPC. During storage, in the presence of LPC, a lower elasticity was observed which indicates a lower rate of amylose retrogradation due to complexation with LPC.

  15. Rheological and mechanical properties of polyamide 6 modified by electron-beam initiated mediation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Boo Young; Kim, Jae Hong

    2015-07-01

    Polyamide (PA6) has been modified by electron-beam initiated mediator process to improve drawbacks of PA6. Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was chosen as a reactive mediator for modification process of PA6. The mixture of the PA6 and GMA was prepared by using a twin-screw extruder, and then the mixture was exposed to electron-beam irradiation at various doses at room temperature. The modified PA6 were characterized by observing rheological and mechanical properties and compared virgin PA6. Thermal properties, water absorption, and gel fraction were also investigated. Tight gel was not found even when PA6 was irradiated at 200 kGy. Complex viscosity and storage modulus of PA6 were remarkably increased by electron-beam irradiation with medium of GMA. Maximum increase in complex viscosity was 75 times higher than virgin PA6 at 0.1 rad/s when it was irradiated at 200 kGy with the GMA. Mechanical properties were also improved without scarifying of processability. The reaction mechanisms for the mediation process with the reactive mediator of GMA were estimated to elucidate the cause of significantly enhanced rheological and mechanical properties without loss of thermoplasticity.

  16. Rheological properties and baking performance of new oat beta-glucan-rich hydrocolloids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Suyong; Warner, Kathleen; Inglett, George E

    2005-12-14

    Two new oat beta-glucan hydrocolloids (designated C-trim20 and C-trim30) obtained through a thermal-shearing process were evaluated for their potential use in food products as functional ingredients. Their rheological characteristics were investigated using steady and dynamic shear measurements. Both samples exhibited typical shear-thinning and viscoelastic properties of random coil polysaccharides. The Cross equation was also used to examine the dependence of their apparent viscosity on shear rates. Furthermore, the effects of flour replacement with C-trim20 on the physical, rheological, and sensory properties of cookies were studied. The cookies containing C-trim20 exhibited reduced spreading characteristics compared with the control due to their increased elastic properties. Also, higher water content and water activity were observed in the C-trim20 cookies. However, flour replacement with C-trim20 up to 10% produced cookies with instrumental texture properties similar to those of the control, which was in good agreement with the sensory results.

  17. Effect of alcohol-acid modification on physicochemical, rheological and morphological properties of glutinous rice starch.

    PubMed

    Gope, Sangeeta; Samyor, Duyi; Paul, Atanu Kumar; Das, Amit Baran

    2016-12-01

    In the present study chemical modification of glutinous rice starch was carried out using 1-Buatnol-hydrochloric acid with varying time and temperature. The changes in physico-chemical, dynamic rheological and morphological properties of starch during hydrolysis was investigated. There was a significant increase in water solubility of starch due to modification; however, swelling and sedimentation value decrease after modification. The peak, hold and final viscosity of modified starches were decreased significantly as compared to native starch. Thermal properties and dynamic rheological properties of rice starch were changed with the change in time and temperature during modification. The storage (G') modulus, loss (G″) modulus, dynamic viscosity (η') and complex viscosity (η*) of modified starches were varied significantly. Analysis of microstructure revealed that the hydrolysis altered morphology of starch granules. The hydrolysis was affected the surface properties and granule size of rice starch. These results suggested that 1-butanol-HCl hydrolysis of glutinous rice starch can be a preferred way of modification.

  18. Simple empirical model for identifying rheological properties of soft biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yo; Tsukune, Mariko; Miyashita, Tomoyuki; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the rheological properties of soft biological tissue is a key issue for mechanical systems used in the health care field. We propose a simple empirical model using fractional dynamics and exponential nonlinearity (FDEN) to identify the rheological properties of soft biological tissue. The model is derived from detailed material measurements using samples isolated from porcine liver. We conducted dynamic viscoelastic and creep tests on liver samples using a plate-plate rheometer. The experimental results indicated that biological tissue has specific properties: (i) power law increase in the storage elastic modulus and the loss elastic modulus of the same slope; (ii) power law compliance (gain) decrease and constant phase delay in the frequency domain; (iii) power law dependence between time and strain relationships in the time domain; and (iv) linear dependence in the low strain range and exponential law dependence in the high strain range between stress-strain relationships. Our simple FDEN model uses only three dependent parameters and represents the specific properties of soft biological tissue.

  19. Laser Speckle Rheology for evaluating the viscoelastic properties of hydrogel scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajjarian, Zeinab; Nia, Hadi Tavakoli; Ahn, Shawn; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Nadkarni, Seemantini K.

    2016-12-01

    Natural and synthetic hydrogel scaffolds exhibit distinct viscoelastic properties at various length scales and deformation rates. Laser Speckle Rheology (LSR) offers a novel, non-contact optical approach for evaluating the frequency-dependent viscoelastic properties of hydrogels. In LSR, a coherent laser beam illuminates the specimen and a high-speed camera acquires the time-varying speckle images. Cross-correlation analysis of frames returns the speckle intensity autocorrelation function, g2(t), from which the frequency-dependent viscoelastic modulus, G*(ω), is deduced. Here, we establish the capability of LSR for evaluating the viscoelastic properties of hydrogels over a large range of moduli, using conventional mechanical rheometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based indentation as reference-standards. Results demonstrate a strong correlation between |G*(ω)| values measured by LSR and mechanical rheometry (r = 0.95, p < 10‑9), and z-test analysis reports that moduli values measured by the two methods are identical (p > 0.08) over a large range (47 Pa – 36 kPa). In addition, |G*(ω)| values measured by LSR correlate well with indentation moduli, E, reported by AFM (r = 0.92, p < 10‑7). Further, spatially-resolved moduli measurements in micro-patterned substrates demonstrate that LSR combines the strengths of conventional rheology and micro-indentation in assessing hydrogel viscoelastic properties at multiple frequencies and small length-scales.

  20. The effect of gum tragacanth on the rheological properties of salep based ice cream mix.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Abdullah; Cengiz, Alime; Kahyaoglu, Talip

    2016-06-05

    The influence of concentration (0-0.5%, w/w) of gum tragacanth (GT) on thixotropy, dynamic, and creep-recovery rheological properties of ice cream mixes prepared with milk or water based were investigated. These properties were used to evaluate the viscoelastic behavior and internal structure of ice cream network. The textural properties of ice cream were also evaluated. Thixotropy values of samples were reduced by increasing GT concentration. The dynamic and creep-recovery analyses exhibited that GT addition increased both ice cream elastic and viscous behaviors. The increasing of Burger's model parameters with GT concentration indicated higher resistance network to the stress and more elastic behavior of samples. The applying of Cox-Merz rule is possible by using shift factor (α). GT also led to an increase in Young's modulus and the stickiness of ice creams. The obtained results highlighted the possible application of GT as a valuable member to promote structural properties of ice cream.

  1. Evaluation of dough rheological properties and bread texture of pearl millet-wheat flour mix.

    PubMed

    Maktouf, Sameh; Jeddou, Khawla Ben; Moulis, Claire; Hajji, Hejer; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Ellouz-Ghorbel, Raoudha

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken with the objective of formulating composite bread using pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) flours . Rheological and bread making properties of composite flours were evaluated. Mixolab results revealed torque increased and dough stability time decreased upon incorporation of pearl millet flour in wheat flour. The incorporation of millet flour at optimum level (5 %) led to an increase of the dough strength (W) and the elasticity-to-extensibility ratio (P/L) by 31 % and 65 % respectively. The bread texture and volume were also improved. These findings indicated the potentiality of using millet flour in bread making.

  2. Effects of colloidal nanosilica on the rheological properties of epoxy resins filled with organoclay.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dinh Huong; Song, Gwang Seok; Lee, Dai Soo

    2011-05-01

    The rheological properties of epoxy resins filled with organoclay and colloidal nanosilica were investigated by employing a parallel plate rheometer in flow mode at 25 degrees C. Shear thickening and shear thinning behaviors were observed in the epoxy resins filled with a mixture of organoclay and colloidal nanosilica. Minima were observed in the relaxation time of the systems consisting of epoxy resins filled with organoclay and colloidal silica as the content of colloidal nanosilica was increased. It seems that the colloidal nanosilica increased the mobility of the filled epoxy resins and reduced the interactions between the silicate layers in the systems.

  3. Rheological properties of ammonia-water liquids and crystal-liquid slurries - Planetological applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Croft, S. K.; Lunine, J. I.; Lewis, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    The laboratory-measured viscosities of liquid mixtures representative of the variety of cryovolcanic substances of the icy satellites are presently noted to be much greater than could be expected on the assumption that end-member molecules are noninteractive; this observation is supported by others concerning molar volumes and vapor pressure relations, which indicate the presence of strong molecular-interaction forces that fundamentally affect the mixtures' physical properties. Since the rheological effects of partial crystallization parallel the characteristics of silicate lavas, icy satellite cryovolcanic morphologies are similarly interpretable with allowances for differences in surface gravities and lava densities.

  4. Rheological properties and the mechanism of a viscous flow of aqueous pectin solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netesova, G. A.; Kotov, V. V.; Bodyakina, I. M.; Lukin, A. L.

    2012-09-01

    The rheological properties and mechanisms of a viscous flow of diluted apple pectin solutions are investigated. It is found that the rise in solution viscosity upon an increase in concentration and a drop in temperature is, along with the corresponding degree to which the interaction between pectin molecules and solvent is reduced, associated with the processes of structuring. The entropy of a viscous flow of pectin solutions is found to be positive: it grows with a rise in concentration is virtually temperature independent. It is established that the entropy factor makes the main contribution to the free energy value of a viscous flow.

  5. Estimates of rheologic properties for flows on the Martian volcano Ascraeus Mons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimbelman, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Morphological measurements on six well-defined volcanic flows near the summit of the Martian volcano Ascraeus Mons were used to calculate the yield strength and viscosity of the lavas. The results are similar to values obtained for flows on other Martian and terrestrial shield volcanoes. Calculated viscosities are generally higher than measured viscosities for basaltic lavas but considerably smaller than rhyolite or dacite viscosities. The estimated rheologic properties of the Martian flows are most consistent with basaltic or basaltic andesite lavas, but some individual flows could consist of more evolved lavas.

  6. Using micromechanical resonators to measure rheological properties and alcohol content of model solutions and commercial beverages.

    PubMed

    Paxman, Rosemary; Stinson, Jake; Dejardin, Anna; McKendry, Rachel A; Hoogenboom, Bart W

    2012-01-01

    Micromechanic resonators provide a small-volume and potentially high-throughput method to determine rheological properties of fluids. Here we explore the accuracy in measuring mass density and viscosity of ethanol-water and glycerol-water model solutions, using a simple and easily implemented model to deduce the hydrodynamic effects on resonating cantilevers of various length-to-width aspect ratios. We next show that these measurements can be extended to determine the alcohol percentage of both model solutions and commercial beverages such as beer, wine and liquor. This demonstrates how micromechanical resonators can be used for quality control of every-day drinks.

  7. Functional and rheological properties of amaranth albumins extracted from two Mexican varieties.

    PubMed

    Silva-Sánchez, C; González-Castañeda, J; de León-Rodríguez, A; Barba de la Rosa, A P

    2004-01-01

    The functional and rheological properties of amaranth albumins isolates extracted from two new Mexican varieties were determined. Functional properties tested were protein solubility, foaming, water and oil absorption capacities, emulsifying activity, and emulsion stability. The maximum solubility values for both amaranth albumins were found above pH 6 and values were compared to the solubility of egg albumins. Albumins from amaranth showed excellent foaming capacity and foaming stability at pH 5, suggesting that this protein could be used as whipping agents as egg albumins, also the water and oil absorption capacities reached their maximum values at acidic pH, suggesting that amaranth albumins could be appropriate in preparation of acidic foods. The rheological test based on farinograms and alveograms showed that wheat flour supplemented with 1% amaranth albumins improves the dough properties due to higher mixing stability and the bread had better crumb characteristics. In addition of the known high nutritional values of amaranth albumins, our results indicate the high potential for use of these proteins as an ingredient in food preparations.

  8. Systematic modification of the rheological properties of colloidal suspensions with polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    PubMed

    Hess, Andreas; Pretzl, Melanie; Heymann, Lutz; Fery, Andreas; Aksel, Nuri

    2011-09-01

    Tailoring rheological properties of colloidal suspensions with the adsorption of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) is based on the idea of controlling macroscopic mechanical properties by modifying the particle surface in a reproducible and well-understood manner. With layer-by-layer self-assembly, monodisperse polystyrene particles are coated with up to ten layers of the oppositely charged strong polyelectrolytes: poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) and poly(styrene sulfonate). The conformation of the adsorbed polyelectrolyte is controlled by the ionic strength of the used aqueous polyelectrolyte solution. For 1M NaCl solution, a brushlike adsorption of the polyelectrolyte is expected. The ability of PEMs to serve on a nanoscale level as surface modifiers and influence macroscopic rheological properties like viscoelasticity, yield stress, and shear banding is discussed. The mechanical behavior of these suspensions is qualitatively described by the theory of Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek with short-range repulsion and long-range attraction. A scaling rule is proposed which distinguishes between the precusor and the multilayer regime.

  9. Effect of frying on the rheological and chemical properties of palm oil and its blends.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Bazlul Mobin; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Ahmad, Anees; Ayob, Afizah; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi; Ak, Mohd Omar

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the changes in the physicochemical properties of palm oil and its blends by FTIR and rheological measurements. Application of heat produces some chemical compounds as impurities and even toxic compounds in oils and fats that give absorbance at different region. FTIR spectra of pure palm olein shows an absorbance at 3002 cm(-1) whereas other pure oils show maximum absorption at around 3007 cm(-1) due to C-H stretching vibration of cis-double bond (=C-H). By blending of high unsaturated oils with palm olein, a clear shift of 3007 cm(-1) band to 3005 cm(-1) occurs. Viscosity of palm olein was found higher among all oils while it subsequently and substantially reduced by blending with other oils. Since it is a function of temperature, viscosity of pure oils and their blends decreases with the increase of temperature. The loss modulus (G''), for all oil blends before and after frying, in rheological experiment was found higher for all oils than the storage modulus (G'), therefore, the viscous property was found higher than elastic property of oils and blends. However, the critical stress for all oil blends was found higher than that of pure oils.

  10. Rheological properties and sensory characteristics of set-type soy yogurt.

    PubMed

    Donkor, Osaana N; Henriksson, A; Vasiljevic, T; Shah, N P

    2007-11-28

    The study examined chemical composition and rheological and sensory properties of probiotic soy yogurt during 28 day storage at 4 degrees C. Soymilk supplemented with 2% (w/v) inulin or 1% (w/v) each of raffinose and glucose was used as a base for soy yogurt manufacture. Viability of probiotic organisms and their metabolic activity measured as production of organic acids and aldehyde content responsible for beany flavor, as well as rheological and sensory properties of soy yogurt, were examined. Inulin or raffinose/glucose supplementation in soymilk increased the bacterial population by one log cycle and the amount of lactic acid. Probiotic bacteria metabolized more aldehyde than yogurt culture and substantially reduced the beaniness in soy yogurt as determined by sensory evaluation. The probiotic soy yogurts showed more viscous and pseudoplastic properties than the control soy yogurts, but the sensory evaluation results showed preference for the control soy yogurts which were slightly less viscous. Control soy yogurt provided better mouth feel than probiotic soy yogurts.

  11. Potential contribution of microbial communities in technical ceramics for the improvement of rheological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Bernardino; Miller, Ana Z.; Santos, Ricardo; Monteiro, Sílvia; Dias, Diamantino; Neves, Orquídia; Dionísio, Amélia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2014-05-01

    Several bacterial and fungal species naturally occurring in ceramic raw materials used in construction, such as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Aureobasidium, are known to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS). These polymers excreted by the cells are of widespread occurrence and may confer unique and potentially interesting properties with potential industrial uses, such as viscosity control, gelation, and flocculation, during ceramic manufacturing. In this study, the microbial communities present in clay raw materials were identified by both cultural methods and DNA-based molecular techniques in order to appraise their potential contribution to enhance the performance of technical ceramics through the use of EPS. Mineralogical identification by X- Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of the clay raw materials, as well as characterization of rheological properties of ceramic slips were also performed. Microbial EPS production and its introduction into ceramic slips will be then carried out in order to evaluate their effects on the rheological properties of the ceramic slips, powders and conformed bodies. Some positive aspects related to the use of EPS are: reduction of the environmental impact caused by synthetic organic additives, reduction of production costs, as well as the costs related with operator protection systems, gaseous effluent treatments, complex landfill, among others.

  12. Determination of the mineral fraction and rheological properties of microwave modified starch from Canna edulis.

    PubMed

    Lares, Mary; Pérez, Elevina

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of the physical modification by microwave irradiation on the mineral fraction and rheological properties of starch isolated from Canna edulis rhizomes. Phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, calcium and zinc were evaluated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Rheological properties were determined using both the Brabender amylograph and Brookfield viscosimeter. Except for the calcium concentration, mineral contents decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after microwave treatment. The amylographic profile was also modified, showing increased pasting temperature range and breakdown index, whereas the viscosity peak, viscosity at holding (95 degrees C) and cooling periods (50 degrees C), setback and consistency decreased as compared to the native starch counterpart. Although viscosity decreased in the microwaved sample, presumably due to starch changes at molecular level, it retained the general pseudo plastic behavior of native starch. It is concluded that canna starch may be modified by microwave irradiation in order to change its functional properties. This information should be considered when using microwave irradiation for food processing. Furthermore, the altered functional attributes of canna modified starch could be advantageous in new product development.

  13. Rheology, processing, and mechanical properties of thermoplastic/graphite fiber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Scobbo, J.J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Various cause and effect relations between the rheology, processing and mechanical properties of poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) and poly(arylene sulfide) (PAS) matrix composites were studied. The test methods and characterization schemes used emphasize novel techniques for characterizing composites that have not been used previously. A dynamic mechanical analyzer has been modified and used to characterize transition temperatures of the neat matrix resins and the 60 volume percent continuous graphite fiber reinforced composites. Transitions related to local order may have been found in PEEK at 380{degree}C and PAS at 345{degree}C. Transitions such as these have not been reported previously using dynamic mechanical analysis. Basic rheological behavior of the resins has been studied using dynamic mechanical analysis. Similar dynamic tests were performed on PEEK and PAS matrix unidirectional prepreg tape-based laminates. Tests were performed for the first time in simple shear with the matrix in the melt state. Simple shear deformation is of interest because it represents flow behavior of laminated composites in processing operations such as thermoforming. A simple model of resin layers between fibrous plates describes the observed behavior. A bending mode dynamic test has been developed to determine laminate softening temperatures. This test has been shown to be beneficial in the characterization of composite elastic properties at room temperature. The test requires less material and labor than other more common mechanical property tests. Processing studies were conducted where the radiative heating of laminates was simulated to determine optimum thermoforming cycle times.

  14. The effects of surface functionalization on rheology, structure and transport properties of nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranka, Moulik A.

    In this thesis, the effects of surface functionalization using hydrophobic silanes on properties of nanocomposites comprising 42 nm silica particles suspended in a melt of polyethylene-glycol (PEG) are studied using rheological, static and dynamic x-ray scattering studies. The nanocomposites are studied in the low molecular weight unentangled (PEG-400) and high molecular weight entangled (PEG-20000) regimes. We find no differences in the properties of the bare and silanized particles in the low volume fraction regime up to where the interparticle separation distance h > 6Rg. In the region of 6Rg > h > 3Rg (5Rg > h > 3Rg, in case of entangled melts), we find substantial differences in the rheological, structure and transport properties when comparing the bare and silanized particles. In the unentangled melts, we observe up to four orders of magnitude drop in the viscosity of the composites at the highest levels of silanization and observe shear thinning behavior that is unlike what is universally seen for hard spheres. For the entangled melts, a yield stress is observed for the silanized particles that is absent in the case of the bare particles and there is a divergence in the elastic modulus in comparison to bare particles. We observe an anomalous speed up in the density relaxations and an associated maxima in structure properties in the case of unentangled melts which has been reported previously for particles experiencing soft repulsive potentials. A clear reentrant behavior in structure and transport properties is observed for bare particles in the entangled melts that have been previously reported for particles interacting with soft repulsive potentials such as square shoulder and ramp potentials. In the silanized systems, the density relaxation times although lower than bare particles, is ii unaffected by increasing volume fraction up to h ~ 3Rg and is decoupled from the structure properties which are non-monotonic similar to bare particles. In the region of

  15. Effect of storage duration on the rheological properties of goose liquid egg products and eggshell membranes.

    PubMed

    Kumbar, V; Nedomova, S; Trnka, J; Buchar, J; Pytel, R

    2016-07-01

    In practice, goose eggs are increasingly used and, therefore, the rheological properties have to be known for processing. The eggs of geese (Landes Goose, Anser anser f. domestica) were stored for one, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 wk at a constant temperature 4°C. First of all, the egg quality parameters were described in terms of egg weight, egg weight loss, egg shape index, yolk height, albumen height, yolk index, albumen index, and Haugh units. In the next step the rheological behavior of liquid egg products (egg yolk, albumen, and whole liquid egg) was studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Flow curves of all liquid egg products exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior. This behavior can be described using the Herschel-Bulkley model and for technical application using the Ostwald-de Waele model. The effect of the storage duration on the rheological behavior is different for the different liquid egg products. With the exception of very low shear rates, the viscosity of the egg yolk as well as of the whole liquid egg decreases with storage time. At lower shear rates there is a tendency toward increased albumen viscosity with storage duration. The storage duration also affects the mechanical properties of the eggshell membrane. This effect has been evaluated in terms of the ultimate tensile strength, fracture strain, and fracture toughness. All these parameters increased with the loading rate, but decreased during the egg storage. These mechanical phenomena should be respected, namely in the design of the egg model for the numerical simulation of the egg behavior under different kinds of the mechanical loading.

  16. Rheological properties of PP/CaCO3 micron-nano composite blends processing based on elongation rheology via vane extruder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhao, Kang; Rongyuan, Chen; Guizhen, Zhang; Zhitao, Yang; Jinping, Qu

    2016-03-01

    This work aimed to study, for the first time, the rheological properties of the melt blending of PP/micron-CaCO3 and PP/nano-CaCO3 composite processing based on elongation rheology by a novel vane extruder to toughen PP. The rheological behavior of the blends was studied by capillary rheometer. The results show that: PP/CaCO3 Micron-nano copolymer blends are pseudo plastic fluid. The apparent viscosity initially increases with the increasing of feller. The change of the apparent viscosity also depends on the filler type which proves difference when the blends are on the low shear rate. When the shear rate is low, the apparent shear viscosity of micron-nano composite material is more sensitive to shear rate. For PP/micron-CaCO3 composite blend, the non-Newtonian index shows a trend of gradually increasing. In PP/nano-CaCO3 composite blend, the non-Newtonian index changed little in general with the increase of nano-filler content.

  17. Effects of locust bean gum on the structural and rheological properties of resistant corn starch.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Raza; Singh, Ajaypal; Vatankhah, Hamed; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2017-03-01

    In this study, interactions between resistant corn starch (RS) (5% w/w) and locust bean gum (LBG) (0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0% w/v) on the viscoelastic, pasting and morphological characteristics of aqueous dispersions were evaluated. Results showed that the storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), and apparent viscosity values of starch/gum (RS/LBG) mixtures were enhanced with the addition of LBG, and the rheograms demonstrated a biphasic behavior. RS/LBG samples were predominantly either solid like (G' > G'') or viscous (G'' > G'), depending on the added concentration level of LBG. Gum addition also caused higher peak viscosity, breakdown and total set back of RS/LBG mixtures. A strong correlation between rheological and structural properties was found. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images confirmed the transition of starch particles from a scattered angular shape to clustered structures cross-linked by dense aggregate junction zones justifying the observed changes in rheological properties.

  18. Dissipative particle dynamics simulation on the rheological properties of heavy crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sibo; Xu, Junbo; Wen, Hao

    2015-11-01

    The rheological properties of heavy crude oil have a significant impact on the production, refining and transportation. In this paper, dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations were performed to study the effects of the addition of light crude oil and emulsification on the rheological properties of heavy crude oil. The simulation results reflected that the addition of light crude oil reduced the viscosity effectively. The shear thinning behaviour of crude oil mixtures were becoming less distinct as the increase of the mass fraction of light crude oil. According to the statistics, the shear had an influence on the aggregation and spatial orientation of asphaltene molecules. In addition, the relationship between the viscosity and the oil mass fraction was investigated in the simulations of emulsion systems. The viscosity increased with the oil mass fraction slowly in oil-in-water emulsions. When the oil mass fraction was higher than 50%, the increase became much faster since systems had been converted into water-in-oil emulsions. The equilibrated morphologies of emulsion systems were shown to illustrate the phase inversion. The surfactant-like feature of asphaltenes was also studied in the simulations.

  19. The physico-chemical properties of chia seed polysaccharide and its microgel dispersion rheology.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kelvin Kim Tha; Matia-Merino, Lara; Chiang, Jie Hong; Quek, Ruisong; Soh, Stephanie Jun Bing; Lentle, Roger G

    2016-09-20

    The polysaccharide gel layer surrounding hydrated chia seeds was extracted using water and isolated by ethanol precipitation. The freeze-dried sample consisted of ∼95% non-starch polysaccharides (35% w/w neutral soluble fraction and 65% w/w negatively charged insoluble fraction). The soluble polysaccharide fraction has molar mass, root-mean square radius and intrinsic viscosity of ∼5×10(5)g/mol, 39nm and 719mL/g, respectively. The whole polysaccharide (included soluble and insoluble fractions) when dispersed in water showed presence of irregular shape, fibrous microgel particles with an average size (D4,3) of ∼700μm. Rheological measurements indicated a 'weak' viscoelastic gel and strong shear dependent properties even at low concentration (0.05% w/w). The viscosity of the dispersion was fairly resistant to variations in temperatures (20-80°C), pH (4-12), ionic strengths (0.01-0.5M NaCl) and cation types (MgCl2, CaCl2, NaCl and KCl). The swollen microgel particles dispersed in soluble polysaccharide continuous phase provided complex and potentially useful rheological properties in food systems.

  20. Rheological properties of phosphorylated exopolysaccharide produced by Sporidiobolus pararoseus JD-2.

    PubMed

    Han, Mei; Du, Chao; Xu, Zhi-Yuan; Qian, He; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2016-07-01

    The exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Sporidiobolus pararoseus JD-2 contained about 2.0% phosphorus and its zeta potential was -30mV at pH 6.0. This indicated that it was an anionic polymer. In steady shear measurements, there was a Newtonian plateau in low shear rates, but power-law behavior exhibited at high shear rates. So Williamson model was used to study the flow character of the EPS solutions. This phenomenon was according to its high molecular weight and entanglement networks. Considering the EPS was an anionic polymer, the influence of added salts on apparent viscosity of EPS were studied. Different NaCl concentrations had little effect on the viscosity of the EPS, but high concentrations of CaCl2 increased the viscosity of EPS significantly. EPS solutions showed inapparent thixotropic properties in stress growth and thixotropic loop experiment. According to the flow curve results and oscillatory shear results obtained, the rheological properties of EPS solutions were closer to that of entanglement network system, like carboxy methyl cellulose rather than weak gel structure such as xanthan gum. The EPS had the function to enhance immunological functions. Understanding the rheological characteristics of EPS was essential to exploit the functionality of this EPS in different food or medicine systems.

  1. Particle stability in dilute fermented dairy drinks: formation of fluid gel and impact on rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Kiani, H; Mousavi, M E; Mousavi, Z E

    2010-12-01

    Fluid gels are known to be very shear-thinning materials with yield stress. In this study, the rheological properties of gellan and gellan-pectin fluid gels in fermented dairy drinks were evaluated using viscometric measurements. Both gellan- and gellan-pectin-containing solutions showed the rheological properties of fluid gels resulting in stabilization of particles; but no evidence of a fluid gel was observed for those with pectin alone and those with no hydrocolloid content. Unlike pectin, gellan gum was capable of creating significant values of yield stress and accordingly stabilized colloidal particles and extrinsic added solid particles in the fermented dairy drink. However, pectin improved the stability in combination with gellan. The origin of fluid gel formation was assumed to be both permanent interactions occurring between gellan and proteins, forming hairy particle gels and transient interactions between the particle gels. The significance of yield stress values for particle stability was demonstrated and two methods, including a noteworthy infinite apparent viscosity method and a conventional Bingham approach, were employed to calculate the values of yield stress. Both the methods showed a good application potential due to their simplicity, reasonable results and also wide availability of the instrument applied.

  2. Opposite rheological properties of neuronal microcompartments predict axonal vulnerability in brain injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevesse, Thomas; Dabiri, Borna E.; Parker, Kevin Kit; Gabriele, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    Although pathological changes in axonal morphology have emerged as important features of traumatic brain injury (TBI), the mechanical vulnerability of the axonal microcompartment relative to the cell body is not well understood. We hypothesized that soma and neurite microcompartments exhibit distinct mechanical behaviors, rendering axons more sensitive to a mechanical injury. In order to test this assumption, we combined protein micropatterns with magnetic tweezer rheology to probe the viscoelastic properties of neuronal microcompartments. Creep experiments revealed two opposite rheological behaviors within cortical neurons: the cell body was soft and characterized by a solid-like response, whereas the neurite compartment was stiffer and viscous-like. By using pharmacological agents, we demonstrated that the nucleus is responsible for the solid-like behavior and the stress-stiffening response of the soma, whereas neurofilaments have a predominant contribution in the viscous behavior of the neurite. Furthermore, we found that the neurite is a mechanosensitive compartment that becomes softer and adopts a pronounced viscous state on soft matrices. Together, these findings highlight the importance of the regionalization of mechanical and rigidity-sensing properties within neuron microcompartments in the preferential damage of axons during traumatic brain injury and into potential mechanisms of axonal outgrowth after injury.

  3. Rheological, thermo-mechanical, and baking properties of wheat-millet flour blends.

    PubMed

    Aprodu, Iuliana; Banu, Iuliana

    2015-07-01

    Millet has long been known as a good source of fiber and antioxidants, but only lately started to be exploited by food scientists and food industry as a consequence of increased consumer awareness. In this study, doughs and breads were produced using millet flour in different ratios (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) to white, dark, and whole wheat flour. The flour blends were evaluated in terms of rheological and thermo-mechanical properties. Fundamental rheological measurements revealed that the viscosity of the flour formulations increases with wheat flour-extraction rate and decreases with the addition of millet flour. Doughs behavior during mixing, overmixing, pasting, and gelling was established using the Mixolab device. The results of this bread-making process simulation indicate that dough properties become critical for the flour blends with millet levels higher than 30%. The breads were evaluated for volume, texture, and crumb-grain characteristics. The baking test and sensory evaluation results indicated that substitution levels of up to 30% millet flour could be used in composite bread flour. High levels of millet flour (40 and 50%) negatively influenced the loaf volume, crumb texture, and taste.

  4. Opposite rheological properties of neuronal microcompartments predict axonal vulnerability in brain injury.

    PubMed

    Grevesse, Thomas; Dabiri, Borna E; Parker, Kevin Kit; Gabriele, Sylvain

    2015-03-30

    Although pathological changes in axonal morphology have emerged as important features of traumatic brain injury (TBI), the mechanical vulnerability of the axonal microcompartment relative to the cell body is not well understood. We hypothesized that soma and neurite microcompartments exhibit distinct mechanical behaviors, rendering axons more sensitive to a mechanical injury. In order to test this assumption, we combined protein micropatterns with magnetic tweezer rheology to probe the viscoelastic properties of neuronal microcompartments. Creep experiments revealed two opposite rheological behaviors within cortical neurons: the cell body was soft and characterized by a solid-like response, whereas the neurite compartment was stiffer and viscous-like. By using pharmacological agents, we demonstrated that the nucleus is responsible for the solid-like behavior and the stress-stiffening response of the soma, whereas neurofilaments have a predominant contribution in the viscous behavior of the neurite. Furthermore, we found that the neurite is a mechanosensitive compartment that becomes softer and adopts a pronounced viscous state on soft matrices. Together, these findings highlight the importance of the regionalization of mechanical and rigidity-sensing properties within neuron microcompartments in the preferential damage of axons during traumatic brain injury and into potential mechanisms of axonal outgrowth after injury.

  5. Coarse-grained red blood cell model with accurate mechanical properties, rheology and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fedosov, Dmitry A; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George E

    2009-01-01

    We present a coarse-grained red blood cell (RBC) model with accurate and realistic mechanical properties, rheology and dynamics. The modeled membrane is represented by a triangular mesh which incorporates shear inplane energy, bending energy, and area and volume conservation constraints. The macroscopic membrane elastic properties are imposed through semi-analytic theory, and are matched with those obtained in optical tweezers stretching experiments. Rheological measurements characterized by time-dependent complex modulus are extracted from the membrane thermal fluctuations, and compared with those obtained from the optical magnetic twisting cytometry results. The results allow us to define a meaningful characteristic time of the membrane. The dynamics of RBCs observed in shear flow suggests that a purely elastic model for the RBC membrane is not appropriate, and therefore a viscoelastic model is required. The set of proposed analyses and numerical tests can be used as a complete model testbed in order to calibrate the modeled viscoelastic membranes to accurately represent RBCs in health and disease.

  6. Relating foam and interfacial rheological properties of β-lactoglobulin solutions.

    PubMed

    Lexis, M; Willenbacher, N

    2014-12-28

    We have determined bulk rheology of β-lactoglobulin (BLG) foams and surface viscoelasticity of corresponding protein solutions by varying pH as well as type, valency and concentration of the added salt in a wide range. Foam rheology was characterized by the storage modulus G0, the apparent yield stress τy, and the critical strain γc,foam defining the cessation of the linear viscoelastic response. These quantities were determined at gas volume fractions ϕ between 82% and 96%. Surface viscoelasticity was characterized in shear and dilation, corresponding shear and dilational moduli G, E' as well as the critical stress τc,surface and strain γc,surface marking the onset of non-linear response in oscillatory surface shear experiments were determined at fixed frequency. Beyond the widely accepted assumption that G0 and τy are solely determined by the Laplace pressure within the droplets and the gas volume fraction we have found that both quantities strongly depend on corresponding interfacial properties. G0 increases linearly with G and even stronger with E', τy varies proportional to τc,surface and γc,foam scales linearly with γc,surface. Furthermore, deviations from these simple scaling laws with significantly higher reduced G0 and τy values are observed only for foams at pH 5 and when a trivalent salt was added. Then also the dependence of these quantities on ϕ is unusually weak and we attribute these findings to protein aggregation and structure formation across the lamellae than the dominating bulk rheology.

  7. Characterizing the rheological properties of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) by thermomechanical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, J.

    1993-12-31

    The increasing demand for products with qualities of functional performance of rubber coupled with ease of processability have enabled thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) to be used more often in traditional application usually reserved for natural and synthetic rubbers. The economic advantages of TPE of few steps to manufacture, processed on less costly equipment that also allows for faster production than versus slow-cycling, capital intensive rubber processing equipment and recyclability for scrap have enhanced its appeal to manufacturers. However, TPE are relatively new to some manufacturers that are unaware of the attributes of this class of materials. The study conducted will characterize the rheological properties of TPE to exhibit the stiffness or hardness, damping factors and other mechanical properties.

  8. Rheological properties and thickening mechanism of aqueous diutan gum solution: Effects of temperature and salts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Long; Gong, Houjian; Dong, Mingzhe; Li, Yajun

    2015-11-05

    Rheological properties of a new microbial polysaccharide, diutan gum in aqueous solution have been systematically investigated. It is found that molecular aggregates of diutan gum can be formed at a very low concentration (0.12 g/L), and the mechanism of thickening by diutan gum is proposed. The viscosity retention rate of diutan gum changes little when increasing the temperature from 298 K to 348 K or in a high salinity solution (55.5 g L(-1)). Gel structure can be formed in the diutan gum solution, owing to the finding that the dynamic modulus has an exponential relationship with the concentration. The gel properties of diutan gum are not sensitive to temperature, and are virtually independent of cationic environment (Na(+) and Ca(2+)). The temperature/salt tolerance of the diutan gum solution is mainly attributed to its perfect double helix molecular conformation, the location of the side chains of its molecules, and its water retention capacity.

  9. Evaluation of rheological properties and swelling behaviour of sonicated scleroglucan samples.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Siddique Akber; Matricardi, Pietro; Meo, Chiara Di; Alhaique, Franco; Coviello, Tommasina

    2012-02-24

    Scleroglucan is a natural polysaccharide that has been proposed for various applications. However there is no investigation on its property variations when the molecular weight of this polymer is reduced. Scleroglucan was sonicated at two different polymer concentrations for different periods of time and the effect of sonication was investigated with respect to molecular weight variations and rheological properties. Molar mass, estimated by viscometric measurements, was drastically reduced already after a sonication for a few min. Sonicated samples were used for the preparation of gels in the presence of borate ions. The effect of borax on the new samples was investigated by recording the mechanical spectra and the flow curves. A comparison with the system prepared with the dialysed polymer was also carried out. The anisotropic elongation, observed with tablets of scleroglucan and borax, was remarkably reduced when the sonicated samples were used for the preparation of the gels.

  10. Effect of whey and casein protein hydrolysates on rheological, textural and sensory properties of cookies.

    PubMed

    Gani, Adil; Broadway, A A; Ahmad, Mudasir; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Wani, Ali Abas; Wani, Sajad Mohd; Masoodi, F A; Khatkar, Bupinder Singh

    2015-09-01

    Milk proteins were hydrolyzed by papain and their effect on the rheological, textural and sensory properties of cookies were investigated. Water absorption (%) decreased significantly as the amount of milk protein concentrates and hydrolysates increased up to a level of 15 % in the wheat flour. Dough extensibility decreased with inrease in parental proteins and their hydrolysates in wheat flour, significantly. Similarly, the pasting properties also varied significantly in direct proportion to the quantity added in the wheat flour. The colour difference (ΔE) of cookies supplemented with milk protein concentrates and hydrolysates were significantly higher than cookies prepared from control. Physical and sensory characteristics of cookies at 5 % level of supplementation were found to be acceptable. Also the scores assigned by the judges for texture and colour were in good agreement with the measurements derived from the physical tests.

  11. Some rheological properties of the extracellular polysaccaride produced by Volcaniella eurihalina F2-7

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, C.; Ferrer, M.R.; Martinex-Checa, F.; Bejar, V.; Quesada, E.

    1995-10-01

    Volcaniella eurihalina strain F2-7 synthesizes an exopolysaccharide named V2-7, primarily composed of glucose, mannose, and rhamnose. The effect of chemical and physical factors of solution viscosity was studied. The V2-7 EPS showed pseudoplastic behavior at concentrations over 0.5% w/v. Viscosity decreased with temperature, but the viscosity values were restored after cooling. Freeze-thawing treatment did not affect the rheological properties of its solutions. Addition of inorganic salts produced a diminution of viscosity. However, the most remarkable aspect of V2-7 EPS is the effect of pH on its solutions; it is able to form high viscosity solution, like a gel, at low pH values even in the presence of inorganic salts. This property, not present in neutral and alkaline solutions, makes it potentially useful for various industrial applications 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Rheological and textural properties of microemulsion-based polymer gels with indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Froelich, Anna; Osmałek, Tomasz; Kunstman, Paweł; Roszak, Rafał; Białas, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present novel microemulsion (ME)-based semisolid polymer gels designed for topical administration of poorly water soluble non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Indomethacin (IND) was used as a model compound. The ME consisted of castor oil, water, Tween®80 as a surfactant and ethanol as cosurfactant. To obtain the desired consistency of the formulations Carbopol®960 was applied as a thickening agent. The aim of the study was to analyze in detail the mechanical properties of the obtained systems, with special attention paid to the features crucial for topical application. The rheological and textural experiments performed for samples with and without the incorporated drug clearly indicate that flow characteristics, viscoelastic properties and texture profiles were affected by the presence of IND. Novel semisolid formulations with IND described for the first time in this paper can be considered as an alternative for commercially available conventional topical dosage forms.

  13. Rheological and interfacial properties at the equilibrium of almond gum tree exudate (Prunus dulcis) in comparison with gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Sessa, Mariarenata; Ferrari, Giovanna; Hamdi, Salem; Donsi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Almond gum contains an arabinogalactan-type polysaccharide, which plays an important role in defining its interfacial and rheological properties. In this study, rheological and interfacial properties of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions were comparatively investigated. The interfacial tension of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions was measured using the pendant drop method in hexadecane. The asymptotic interfacial tension values for almond gum were significantly lower than the corresponding values measured for gum arabic, especially at high concentration. Rheological properties were characterized by steady and oscillatory tests using a coaxial geometry. Almond gum flow curves exhibited a shear thinning non-Newtonian behavior with a tendency to a Newtonian plateau at low shear rate, while gum arabic flow curves exhibited such behavior only at high shear rate. The influence of temperature (5-50  ℃) on the flow curves was studied at 4% (m/m) gum concentration and the Newtonian viscosities at infinite and at zero shear rate, for gum arabic and almond gum, respectively, were accurately fitted by an Arrhenius-type equation. The dynamic properties of the two gum dispersions were also studied. Both gum dispersions exhibited viscoelastic properties, with the viscous component being predominant in a wider range of concentrations for almond gum, while for gum arabic the elastic component being higher than the elastic one especially at higher concentrations.The rheological and interfacial tension properties of almond gum suggest that it may represent a possible substitute of gum arabic in different food applications.

  14. The rheological properties of self-emulsifying systems, water and microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Newton, J M; Bazzigialuppi, M; Podczeck, F; Booth, S; Clarke, A

    2005-10-01

    The rheological properties of mixtures of equal parts of a range of ratios of a self-emulsifying system (MP) and water (W) added to microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), have been measured by an extrusion capillary rheometer. These measurements allow assessment of both the shear and tension components of flow plus the elastic behaviour of the wet powder masses, although the results for the estimation of shear stress require careful interpretation due to the limitation of the measuring system and the assumptions made in their derivation. The results indicate that there are three regions of behaviour of the systems, which are all significantly different from the mixtures containing only W and MCC. At low MP contents (1.5--23%), the masses increase in their resistance to shear and elongational flow and have lower elasticity. These similarities in behaviour occur in spite of considerable increase in the viscosity of the MPW mixtures and a change to non-Newtonian flow of the fluid. The behaviour of the 46% MP system is intermediate between these systems and the high MP concentrations (69, 80 and 92%). These latter systems show less resistance to shear and elongational flow than the first group of concentrations, but show considerably higher levels of elasticity. As the resistance to shear decreases, so does the impairment of the surface of the extrudate. There is clear evidence of a systematic change in behaviour of the wet powder masses as the values for the angle of entry of the wet mass into the die when plotted against the ratio of the resistance to die entry (upstream pressure loss) to the shear stress within the die, is linear on a log/log scale. Also, the values of compliance of the systems as a function of shear stress fall on a common curve. Changes in the ratio of the MPW to MCC for a system for a single level of MP (46%) resulted in a change in the values of the rheological parameters but not the type of behaviour. As all these wet powder masses had been shown

  15. Influence of lecithin on some physical chemical properties of poloxamer gels: rheological, microscopic and in vitro permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Bentley, M V; Marchetti, J M; Ricardo, N; Ali-Abi, Z; Collett, J H

    1999-12-20

    Thermoreversible gels may be used in delivery systems which require a sol-gel transition at body temperature. The influence of the addition of lecithin, a permeation enhancer, on the rheological and in vitro permeation properties of poloxamer 407 gels was investigated. Light microscopy and rheological parameters were used to characterize the microscopic structure of the formulations which showed non Newtonian behaviour, pseudoplastic flow with a yield value. Increased concentrations of lecithin increased the thixotropy, yield value, apparent viscosity, and the gelation temperature of the gels. Light microscopy showed the formation of micellar structures by the addition of lecithin, which may account for changes in rheological properties. In vitro permeation of a model drug, triamcinolone acetonide, was decreased when the lecithin concentration was increased. The presence of lecithin in the poloxamer gel improved the characteristics for topical drug delivery.

  16. The characterizations of rheological, electrokinetical and structural properties of ODTABr/MMT and HDTABr/MMT organoclays

    SciTech Connect

    Isci, S. Uslu, Y.O.; Ece, O.I.

    2009-05-15

    In the present paper, we have investigated as a function of surfactant concentration the rheological (yield value, plastic viscosity) and electrokinetic (mobility, zeta potential) properties of montmorillonite (MMT) dispersions. The influence of surfactants (Octadeccyltrimethylammonium bromide, ODTABr and Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, HDTABr) on dispersions of Na-activated bentonite was evaluated by rheological and electrokinetic measurements, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The interactions between clay minerals and surfactants in water-based Na-activated MMT dispersions (2 wt.%) were examined in detail using rheologic parameters, such as viscosity, yield point, apparent and plastic viscosity, hysteresis area, and electrokinetic parameters of mobility and zeta potentials, and XRD also analyses helped to determine swelling properties of d-spacings. MMT and organoclay dispersions showed Bingham Plastic flow behavior. The zeta potential measurements displayed that the surfactant molecules hold on the clay particle surfaces and the XRD analyses displayed that they get into the basal layers.

  17. Laser Speckle Rheology for evaluating the viscoelastic properties of hydrogel scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Hajjarian, Zeinab; Nia, Hadi Tavakoli; Ahn, Shawn; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Nadkarni, Seemantini K.

    2016-01-01

    Natural and synthetic hydrogel scaffolds exhibit distinct viscoelastic properties at various length scales and deformation rates. Laser Speckle Rheology (LSR) offers a novel, non-contact optical approach for evaluating the frequency-dependent viscoelastic properties of hydrogels. In LSR, a coherent laser beam illuminates the specimen and a high-speed camera acquires the time-varying speckle images. Cross-correlation analysis of frames returns the speckle intensity autocorrelation function, g2(t), from which the frequency-dependent viscoelastic modulus, G*(ω), is deduced. Here, we establish the capability of LSR for evaluating the viscoelastic properties of hydrogels over a large range of moduli, using conventional mechanical rheometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based indentation as reference-standards. Results demonstrate a strong correlation between |G*(ω)| values measured by LSR and mechanical rheometry (r = 0.95, p < 10−9), and z-test analysis reports that moduli values measured by the two methods are identical (p > 0.08) over a large range (47 Pa – 36 kPa). In addition, |G*(ω)| values measured by LSR correlate well with indentation moduli, E, reported by AFM (r = 0.92, p < 10−7). Further, spatially-resolved moduli measurements in micro-patterned substrates demonstrate that LSR combines the strengths of conventional rheology and micro-indentation in assessing hydrogel viscoelastic properties at multiple frequencies and small length-scales. PMID:27905494

  18. Influence of whipping temperature on the whipping properties and rheological characteristics of whipped cream.

    PubMed

    Ihara, K; Habara, K; Ozaki, Y; Nakamura, K; Ochi, H; Saito, H; Asaoka, H; Uozumi, M; Ichihashi, N; Iwatsuki, K

    2010-07-01

    The effects of whipping temperature (5 to 15 degrees C) on the whipping (whipping time and overrun) and rheological properties of whipped cream were studied. Fat globule aggregation (aggregation ratio of fat globules and serum viscosity) and air bubble factors (overrun, diameter, and surface area) were measured to investigate the mechanism of whipping. Whipping time, overrun, and bubble diameters decreased with increasing temperature, with the exception of bubble size at 15 degrees C. The aggregation ratio of fat globules tended to increase with increasing temperature. Changes in hardness and bubble size during storage were relatively small at higher temperatures (12.5 and 15 degrees C). Changes in overrun during storage were relatively small in the middle temperature range (7.5 to 12.5 degrees C). From the results, the temperature range of 7.5 to 12.5 degrees C is recommended for making whipped creams with a good texture, and a specific temperature should be decided when taking into account the preferred overrun. The correlation between the whipped cream strain hardness and serum viscosity was high (R(2)=0.906) and persisted throughout the temperature range tested (5 to 15 degrees C). A similar result was obtained at a different whipping speed (140 rpm). The multiple regression analysis in the range of 5 to 12.5 degrees C indicated a high correlation (R(2)=0.946) in which a dependent variable was the storage modulus of whipped cream and independent variables were bubble surface area and serum viscosity. Therefore, fat aggregation and air bubble properties are important factors in the development of cream hardness. The results of this study suggest that whipping temperature influences fat globule aggregation and the properties of air bubbles in whipped cream, which alters its rheological properties.

  19. Effect of Thickener Type on the Rheological Properties of Hot Thickened Soups Suitable for Elderly People with Swallowing Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Gun; Yoo, Whachun; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2014-01-01

    Flow and dynamic rheological properties of hot thickened soups for consumption by the elderly people with swallowing difficulty (dysphagia) were investigated at a serving temperature of 60°C. In this study, sea mustard soup (SMS) and dried pollock soup (DPS), which have been widely known as favorable hot soups provided in a domestic hospitals and nursing homes for dysphagic patients, were thickened with four commercial xanthan gum (XG)-based food thickeners (coded A~D) marketed in Korea. Thickened soups prepared with different thickeners showed high shear-thinning flow behaviors (n=0.15~0.21). Apparent viscosity (ηa,50), consistency index (K), storage modulus (G′), and loss modulus (G″) demonstrated differences in rheological behaviors between the XG-based thickeners. The magnitudes of G′ were much higher than those of G″ over the entire range of frequency (ω) with the high dependence on ω, showing the rheological behavior similar to a weak gel. In general, all rheological parameter values of thickened DPS samples were higher when compared to the thickened SMS samples. These results indicate that flow and dynamic rheological properties of hot thickened soups containing commercial XG-based thickeners are strongly dependent on the type of thickener and soup. PMID:25580403

  20. The rheological properties of modified microcrystalline cellulose containing high levels of model drugs.

    PubMed

    Knight, Paul E; Podczeck, Fridrun; Newton, J Michael

    2009-06-01

    The rheological properties of different types of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) mixed with model drugs and water have been evaluated to identify the influence of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) added to the cellulose during preparation. A ram extruder was used as a capillary rheometer. The mixtures consisted of 20% spheronizing agent (standard grade MCC or modified types with 6% or 8% of low viscosity grade SCMC) and 80% of ascorbic acid, ibuprofen or lactose monohydrate. The introduction of SCMC changed all rheological parameters assessed. It produced more rigid systems, requiring more stress to induce and maintain flow. Degree of non-Newtonian flow, angle of convergence, extensional viscosity, yield and die land shear stress at zero velocity, and static wall friction were increased, but recoverable shear and compliance were decreased. The presence of SCMC did not remove the influence of the type of drug. The mixture of ibuprofen and standard MCC had the lowest values for shear stress as a function of the rate of shear, extensional viscosity, and angle of convergence, but the highest values for recoverable shear and compliance. The findings indicate that the system has insufficient rigidity to form pellets.

  1. Design of a dual nanostructured lipid carrier formulation based on physicochemical, rheological, and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitorino, Carla; Alves, Luís; Antunes, Filipe E.; Sousa, João J.; Pais, Alberto A. C. C.

    2013-10-01

    The synergy between nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and chemical penetration enhancers provides the basis for a promising strategy to effectively deliver drugs through the skin. In the present work, focus is given to the study of the interaction of limonene, ethanol, and Carbopol Ultrez® 10NF, as the gelling agent, with a co-encapsulating NLC dispersion, containing both olanzapine and simvastatin. The analysis is based on rheological, mechanical, and physicochemical properties. The nanoparticle size ranged from 130 to 400 nm, depending on the system considered. The inclusion of carbopol resulted in a considerable increase in the NLC particle size, which was attributed to carbomer bridging nanoparticles, resulting in some particle aggregation. Rheological measurements indicated that the viscosity of the neat carbopol hydrogel was reduced by the enhancers and to a higher extent by the presence of NLC. A more apolar medium can be pointed out as a general explanation, while a polymer/nanoparticle hydrophobic interaction coupled with surfactant/polymer H-bonding provides the rationale for the NLC effect. The inclusion of enhancers and a carbomer largely contributed to the physicochemical stability of the NLC formulation, as revealed by the low transmission profiles and more negative zeta potential values.

  2. Influence of Anti-inflammatory Drugs on the Rheological Properties of Synovial Fluid and Its Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Wendy E.; Klossner, Rebecca R.; Liang, Jing; Colby, Ralph H.

    2006-03-01

    The polyelectrolyte hyaluronic acid (HA, hyaluronan), its interactions with anti-inflammatory drugs and other biopolymers, and its role in synovial fluid are being studied. We are investigating the rheological properties of sodium hyaluronate (NaHA) solutions and an experimental model of synovial fluid (comprised of NaHA, and the plasma proteins albumin and γ-globulins). Steady shear measurements on bovine synovial fluid, the synovial fluid model, and plasma protein solutions indicate that the fluids are rheopectic (stress increases with time under steady shear). In addition, the influence of anti-inflammatory agents on these solutions is being explored. Initial results indicate that D-penicillamine and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) affect the rheology of the synovial fluid model and its components. While HCQ has no effect on the viscosity of NaHA solutions, it inhibits/suppresses the observed rheopexy of the synovial fluid model and plasma protein solutions. In contrast, D-penicillamine has a complex, time dependent effect on the viscosity of NaHA solutions,---reducing the zero shear rate viscosity of a 3 mg/mL NaHA (in phosphate buffered saline) by ca. 40% after 44 days. The potential implications of these results will be discussed.

  3. Effect of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) on crystallinity, mechanical and rheological properties of polypropylene/CNCs nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheriasl, D.; Carreau, P. J.; Dubois, C.; Riedl, B.

    2015-05-01

    Rheological and mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP)/CNCs nanocomposites were compared with those of nanocomposites containing poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) as a compatibilizer. The nanocomposites were prepared by a Brabender internal mixer at CNC contents of 5 wt%. The compression molded nanocomposite dog-bones and disks were characterized regarding their tensile and dynamic rheological behavior, respectively. The complex viscosity of the nanocomposites samples containing the compatibilizer were increased, slightly, compared to the non-compatibilized nanocomposite samples. Moreover, an overshoot in the transient start-up viscosity of the compatibilized nanocomposite was observed. The Young modulus of the nanocomposite samples containing the compatibilizer were increased up to ca. 37% compared to the neat PP. The elongation at break was decreased in all PP/CNC nanocomposite samples, but less for the nanocomposite samples containing the compatibilizer. The crystalline content of the PP in the nanocomposites and also the crystallization temperature were increased after compatibilization. These results could be ascribed to the efficiency of the poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) as a compatibilizer that favors a better dispersion and wetting of the hydrophilic CNCs within the hydrophobic PP.

  4. The effect of nanoparticle permeation on the bulk rheological properties of mucus from the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, M D; Van Rooij, L K; Chater, P I; Pereira de Sousa, I; Pearson, J P

    2015-10-01

    The effectiveness of delivering oral therapeutic peptides, proteins and nucleotides is often hindered by the protective mucus barrier that covers mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Encapsulation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in nanocarriers is a potential strategy to protect the cargo but they still have to pass the mucus barrier. Decorating nanoparticles with proteolytic enzymes has been shown to increase the permeation through mucus. Here we investigate the effect of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) nanoparticles decorated with bromelain (BRO), a proteolytic enzyme from pineapple stem, on the bulk rheology of mucus as well as non-decorated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles. Porcine intestinal mucus from the small intestine was incubated for 30min in the presence of PLGA nanoparticles or polyacrylic nanoparticles decorated with bromelain (PAA-BRO). The effect of nanoparticles on the rheological properties, weight of gel, released glycoprotein content from mucus as well as the viscosity of liquid removed was assessed. Treatment with nanoparticles decreased mucus gel strength with PAA-BRO reducing it the most. PAA-BRO nanoparticles resulted in the release of increased glycoprotein from the gel network whereas mucus remained a gel and exhibited a similar breakdown stress to control mucus. Therefore it would be possible to use bromelain to increase the permeability of nanoparticles through mucus without destroying the gel and leaving the underlying mucosa unprotected.

  5. Effects of Momordica charantia L. on the blood rheological properties in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    França, Eduardo Luzía; Ribeiro, Elton Brito; Scherer, Edson Fredulin; Cantarini, Déborah Giovanna; Pessôa, Rafael Souza; França, Fernando Luzía; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina

    2014-01-01

    An evaluation of the rheological properties and the effects of Momordica. charantia L. (M. charantia) nanoparticles and polyethylene glycol (PEG) microspheres adsorbed with M. charantia nanoparticles on the blood of hyperglycemic patients is presented. Blood samples were collected according to glycemic status: normoglycemic (N = 56) and hyperglycemic (N = 26). General and hematological characteristics were determined. Blood rheological parameters were determined at room temperature and under a temperature scan. We determined the effects on whole blood viscosity of treatment with an extract of M. charantia, PEG, or PEG microspheres adsorbed with plant extract. The viscosity of the blood of hyperglycemic patients is greater than that of normoglycemic patients. Nanoparticles of M. charantia extracts lowered blood viscosity at equivalent rates in normo- and hyperglycemic individuals. PEG microspheres did not reduce blood viscosity in hyperglycemic individuals. However, PEG microspheres adsorbed with nanofraction extracts of M. charantia reduced blood viscosity. These data suggest that the effects of diabetes on the viscosity of the blood should be considered. The use of a nanoparticles extract of M. charantia and its adsorption on PEG microspheres may represent an alternative for the control and treatment of blood disorders in diabetic patients.

  6. Rheological and hydrodynamic properties of cellulose acetate/ionic liquid solutions.

    PubMed

    Rudaz, Cyrielle; Budtova, Tatiana

    2013-02-15

    Rheological properties of cellulose acetate/1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAc) solutions are studied using shear dynamic and steady state rheology in a large range of polymer concentrations (from 0.1 to 10 wt.%) and temperatures (from 0 °C to 80 °C). Master plots for storage and loss moduli and for dynamic viscosity were built and shift parameters determined. Cellulose acetate/EMIMAc behaves as a classical polymer solution and obeys Cox-Merz law. Cellulose acetate intrinsic viscosity [η] was determined as a function of temperature and compared with the literature data for cellulose acetates dissolved in other solvents and cellulose dissolved in EMIMAc. Cellulose acetate intrinsic viscosity turned out to be much less temperature sensitive than that of cellulose. Specific viscosity-C[η] master plot was built: the slopes in log-log scale are 1.2 and 3.1 in dilute and semi-dilute regions, respectively. The activation energy as a function of concentration follows a power-law dependence.

  7. Intraluminal mapping of tissue viscoelastic properties using laser speckle rheology catheter (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Hosoda, Masaki; Tshikudi, Diane M.; Nadkarni, Seemantini K.

    2016-03-01

    A number of disease conditions including coronary atherosclerosis, peripheral artery disease and gastro-intestinal malignancies are associated with alterations in tissue mechanical properties. Laser speckle rheology (LSR) has been demonstrated to provide important information on tissue mechanical properties by analyzing the time scale of temporal speckle intensity fluctuations, which serves as an index of tissue viscoelasticity. In order to measure the mechanical properties of luminal organs in vivo, LSR must be conducted via a miniature endoscope or catheter. Here we demonstrate the capability of an omni-directional LSR catheter to quantify tissue mechanical properties over the entire luminal circumference without the need for rotational motion. Retracting the catheter using a motor-drive assembly enables the reconstruction of cylindrical maps of tissue mechanical properties. The performance of the LSR catheter is tested using a luminal phantom with mechanical moduli that vary in both circumferential and longitudinal directions. 2D cylindrical maps of phantom viscoelastic properties are reconstructed over four quadrants of the coronary circumference simultaneously during catheter pullback. The reconstructed cylindrical maps of the decorrelation time constants easily distinguish the different gel components of the phantom with different viscoelastic moduli. The average values of decorrelation times calculated for each gel component of the phantom show a strong correspondence with the viscoelastic moduli measured via standard mechanical rheometry. These results highlight the capability for cylindrical mapping of tissue viscoelastic properties using LSR in luminal organs using a miniature catheter, thus opening the opportunity for improved diagnosis of several disease conditions.

  8. Rheological Principles for Food Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daubert, Christopher R.; Foegeding, E. Allen

    Food scientists are routinely confronted with the need to measure physical properties related to sensory texture and processing needs. These properties are determined by rheological methods, where rheology is a science devoted to the deformation and flow of all materials. Rheological properties should be considered a subset of the textural properties of foods, because the sensory detection of texture encompasses factors beyond rheological properties. Specifically, rheological methods accurately measure "force," "deformation," and "flow," and food scientists and engineers must determine how best to apply this information. For example, the flow of salad dressing from a bottle, the snapping of a candy bar, or the pumping of cream through a homogenizer are each related to the rheological properties of these materials. In this chapter, we describe fundamental concepts pertinent to the understanding of the subject and discuss typical examples of rheological tests for common foods. A glossary is included as Sect. 30.6 to clarify and summarize rheological definitions throughout the chapter.

  9. PAA/PEO comb polymer effects on the rheological property evolution in concentrated cement suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Glen Harold

    We have studied the behavior of polyelectrolyte-based comb polymers in dilute solution and on the rheological property evolution of concentrated Portland cement suspensions. These species consisted of charge-neutral, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) "teeth" grafted onto a poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) "backbone" that contains one ionizable carboxylic acid group (COOH) per monomer unit. As a benchmark, our observations were compared to those obtained for pure cement pastes and systems containing pure polyelectrolyte species, i.e., sulfonated naphthalene formaldehyde (SNF) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). The behavior of PAA/PEO comb polymers, SNF, and PAA in dilute solution was studied as a function of pH in the absence and presence of mono-, di-, and trivalent counterions. Light scattering and turbidity measurements were carried out to assess their hydrodynamic radius and stability in aqueous solution, respectively. PAA experienced large conformational changes as a function of solution pH and ionic strength. Moreover, dilute solutions of ionized SNF and PAA species became unstable in the presence of multivalent counterions due to ion-bridging interactions. PAA/PEO solutions exhibited enhanced stability relative to pure polyelectrolytes under analogous conditions. The charge neutral PEO teeth shielded the underlying PAA backbone from ion-bridging interactions. In addition, such species hindered conformational changes in solution due to steric interactions between adjacent teeth. A new oscillatory shear technique was developed to probe the rheological property evolution of concentrated cement systems. The rheological property evolution of ordinary and white Portland cement systems were studied in the absence and presence of pure polyelectrolytes and PAA/PEO comb polymers with a wide range of PAA backbone molecular weight, PEO teeth molecular weight, and acid:imide ratio. Cement-PAA suspensions experienced rapid irreversible stiffening and set at 6 min due to ion

  10. Some Mineral Physics Observations Pertinent to the Rheological Properties of Super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karato, S.

    2010-12-01

    Both orbital and thermal evolution of recently discovered super-Earths (terrestrial planets whit mass exceeding that of Earth) depends critically on the rheological properties of their mantle. Although direct experimental studies on rheological properties are unavailable under the conditions equivalent to the deep mantles of these planets (~1 TPa and ~5000 K), a review of key materials science observations suggests that the deep mantle of these planets have much lower viscosity than most of the shallower regions of these planets. The key observations are: (i) phase transformations likely occur under these conditions including the B1 to B2 transition in MgO (1) and the dissociation of MgSiO3 into two oxides (MgO and SiO2) (2), (ii) the systematics in high-temperature creep show that materials with NaCl (B1) structures have much smaller viscosity than other oxides compared at the same normalized conditions (3), and (iii) diffusion coefficients in most of materials have a minimum at certain pressure and above that pressure it increases with pressure (due to mechanism transition) (4). In addition, a review of existing studies also shows that the ionic solids with B2 (CsCl) structure have larger diffusion coefficients than their B1 counter parts. Furthermore, if metallization transition occurs in any of these materials, delocalized electrons will further weaken the material. All of these observations or concepts suggest that even though the viscosity of a planet (below the asthenosphere) increases with depth in the relatively shallow regions, viscosity likely starts to decrease with depth below some critical depth (>~2000 km). The inferred low viscosity of super-Earths implies a large tidal dissipation and relatively rapid orbital evolution. Also such a rheological properties likely promote a layered mantle convection that enhances a weak deep mantle and retards the thermal evolution. 1. A. R. Oganov, M. J. Gillan, G. D. Price, Journal of Chemical Physics 118, 10174

  11. Physicochemical, pasting, rheological, thermal and morphological properties of horse chestnut starch.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Syed Insha; Jan, Kulsum; Singh, Sukhcharn; Saxena, D C

    2015-09-01

    Indian Horse chestnuts contain high content of starch which can be explored to be used in various applications in food industry as encapsulating agent, stabilizer, binder, thickener, gelling agents and many more. Horse chest nut is locally available and can be a boon for food industry if the inherent properties are explored. Hence, horse chest nut starch can be a better option for the replacement of conventional starches to meet the industrial demand of starch. Physicochemical, pasting, rheological, thermal and morphological properties of starch isolated from Indian Horse chestnut (HCN) were determined. Amylose content was found to be 26.10 %. Peak viscosity obtained from RVA profile was 4110 cP. Hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness and gumminess were determined by Texture Profile Analyser. Particle size analysis showed a typical Uni modal size distribution profile with particle distribution ranging from 7.52 to 27.44 μm. The shape of starch granules varied from round, irregular, oval, and elliptical with smooth surface. X- ray diffraction revealed that HCN starch showed a typical C-type pattern with characteristic peaks at 5.7, 15.0, 17.3 and 22.3°. The transition temperatures (To, Tp, and Tc) and enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) values were 53.35, 58.81, 63.57 °C and 8.76 J/g, respectively. The rheological properties were determined in terms of variation of storage modulus (G (/)), loss modulus (G (//)) and loss factor (tan δ) at different temperatures. Peak G (/), peak G (//) and peak tan δ values were observed as 10,400 Pa, 1,710 Pa, and 0.164, respectively.

  12. A comparison of field-dependent rheological properties between spherical and plate-like carbonyl iron particles-based magneto-rheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan Shilan, Salihah; Amri Mazlan, Saiful; Ido, Yasushi; Hajalilou, Abdollah; Jeyadevan, Balachandran; Choi, Seung-Bok; Azhani Yunus, Nurul

    2016-09-01

    This work proposes different sizes of the plate-like particles from conventional spherical carbonyl iron (CI) particles by adjusting milling time in the ball mill process. The ball mill process to make the plate-like particles is called a solid-state powder processing technique which involves repeated welding, fracturing and re-welding of powder particles in a high-energy ball mill. The effect of ball milling process on the magnetic behavior of CI particles is firstly investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer. It is found form this investigation that the plate-like particles have higher saturation magnetization (about 8%) than that of the spherical particles. Subsequently, for the investigation on the sedimentation behavior the cylindrical measurement technique is used. It is observed from this measurement that the plate-like particles show slower sedimentation rate compared to the spherical particles indicating higher stability of the MR fluid. The field-dependent rheological properties of MR fluids based on the plate-like particles are then investigated with respect to the milling time which is directly connected to the size of the plate-like particles. In addition, the field-dependent rheological properties such as the yield stress are evaluated and compared between the plate-like particles based MR fluids and the spherical particles based MR fluid. It is found that the yield shear stress of the plate-like particles based MR fluid is increased up to 270% compared to the spherical particles based MR fluid.

  13. Some Qualitative and Rheological Properties of Virgin Olive Oil- Apple Vinegar Salad Dressing Stabilized With Xanthan Gum

    PubMed Central

    Abedinzadeh, Solmaz; Torbati, Mohammadali; Azadmard-Damirchi, Sodeif

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Lipid oxidation and rheological properties are the main qualitative parameters determined in food emulsions. Salad dressings are food emulsions important in our daily diet, but conventional salad dressings have high amounts of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids because of egg yolk in their formulations. There are many studies on the modification of salad dressing formulations to replace egg yolk and saturated fats. The present study describes new formulation of salad dressing with olive oil and apple vinegar to produce a functional food product. Methods: This study investigated the qualitative properties, oxidative stability, rheological behavior and microstructure of the salad dressing without egg yolk. Oil-in-water emulsions were prepared with virgin olive oil and apple vinegar stabilized with various percentages of xanthan (T1: 0.25%, T2: 0.5%. T3: 0.75%). Samples were stored at refrigerator for 90 days and experiments were performed at production day and during storage. Results: The obtained results showed that peroxide value was increased for all samples during storage, but it was at an acceptable level. Fatty acid changes were not significant during storage. Droplet size was reduced by increasing xanthan gum. T2 had the best rheological properties during storage. Generally, T2 and T3 had higher scores and were more acceptable in organoleptic assay. Conclusion: Obtained results showed that T2 had suitable qualitative and rheological properties and can be a proper egg yolk free salad dressing to introduce to the market. PMID:28101467

  14. Complex rheological properties of a water-soluble extract from the fronds of the black tree fern, Cyathea medullaris.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kelvin K T; Matia-Merino, Lara; Hall, Christopher E; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2007-11-01

    A water-soluble extract was obtained from the fronds of a New Zealand native black tree fern (Cyathea medullaris or Mamaku in Māori). The extract exhibited complex rheological behavior. Newtonian, shear-thinning, shear-thickening, thixotropic, antithixotropic, and viscoelastic behaviors were observed depending on polymer concentration, shear rate, and shear history. The extract also displayed rod-climbing and self-siphoning properties typical of viscoelastic fluids. Such complex rheological properties have been reported in synthetic or chemically modified polymers but are less frequent in unmodified biopolymers. Although Mamaku extract obtained from the pith of the fern has been traditionally used by the Māori in New Zealand for treating wounds and diarrhea among other ailments, this material has never been characterized before. This study reports on the chemical composition of the extract and on its viscoelastic properties through rotational and oscillatory rheological measurements. Explanations of the mechanism behind the rheological properties were based on transient network models for associating polymers.

  15. Impact of the substitution of rice bran on rheological properties of dough and in the new product development.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice bran is a nutrient-rich co-product of the rice milling industries. The impact of adding 2-20% rice bran in wheat flour on the rheological behavior of the dough was investigated using the instruments, Farinograph, Consistograph, and Alveograph. The changes in physico-chemical properties were fo...

  16. Short Communication: Rheological properties of blood serum of rats after irradiation with different gamma radiation doses in vivo.

    PubMed

    Abdelhalim, Mohamed Anwar K; Moussa, Sherif Aa; Ms, Al-Ayed

    2016-01-01

    The blood serum rheological properties open the door to find suitable radio-protectors and convenient therapy for many cases of radiation exposure. The present study aimed to investigate the rheological properties of rat blood serum at wide range of shear rates after whole body irradiation with different gamma radiation doses in vivo. Healthy male rats were divided into five groups; one control group and 4 irradiated groups. The irradiation process was carried out using Co60 source with dose rate of 0.883cG/sec. Several rheological parameters were measured using Brookfield LVDV-III Programmable rheometer. A significant increase in viscosity and shear stress was observed with 25 and 50Gy corresponding to each shear rate compared with the control; while a significant decrease observed with 75 and 100Gy. The viscosity exhibited a Non-Newtonian behaviour with the shear rate while shear stress values were linearly related with shear rate. The decrease in blood viscosity might be attributed to changes in molecular weight, pH sensitivity and protein structure. The changes in rheological properties of irradiated rats' blood serum might be attributed to destruction changes in the haematological and dimensional properties of rats' blood products.

  17. Effect of texture on rheological properties: the case of ɛ-Fe (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, S.; Gruson, M.; Tomé, C. N.; Nishiyama, N.; Wang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Lattice preferred orientations (LPO) are known to affect the physical properties of materials. However, in most high pressure deformation experiments, LPO are ignored when interpreting the measured stress-strain curves. In addition, stress measurements in those experiments are complicated by the effect of plastic deformation on the measured lattice strains(1). Here, we present a new interpretation of the results obtained on hcp-iron at up to 19 GPa and 600 K in the deformation-DIA(2). In those experiments, five independent stress-strain curves were obtained on axial shortening with a ductile behavior of the sample for all. Stress were studied using results of monochromatic X-ray diffraction and the elastic theory of lattice strains(3). However, measured stresses were inconsistent with a change of behavior after 4% axial strain, particularly for strains measured on the 0002 line. We use elasto-plastic self consistent modeling(1) to show that this change of behavior is due to the evolution of LPO in the sample. With compression, 10-10 planes in hcp-iron align parallel to the compression direction and this affects the rheological behavior of the sample, which can not be summarized in a simple average law. We will also discuss the implication of those results for the extraction of polycrystalline rheological properties for materials with non-random lattice preferred orientations and how this could affect our understanding of the Earth deep interior. 1- S. Merkel, C.N. Tomé, H.-R Wenk, A modeling analysis of the influence of plasticity on high pressure deformation of hcp-Co, Phys. Rev. B, 79, 064110 (2009) 2- N. Nishiyama, Y. Wang, M. L. Rivers, S. R. Sutton, D. Cookson, Rheology of e-iron up to 19 GPa and 600 K in the D-DIA, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L23304 (2007) 3- A. K. Singh, C. Balasingh, H. K. Mao, R. J. Hemley, J. Shu, Analysis of lattice strains measured under non-hydrostatic pressure, J. Appl. Phys., 83, 7567-7575 (1998)

  18. Rheological behavior and cryogenic properties of cyanate ester/epoxy insulation material for fusion superconducting magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Z. X.; Huang, C. J.; Li, L. F.; Li, J. W.; Tan, R.; Tu, Y. P.

    2014-01-27

    In a Tokamak fusion reactor device like ITER, insulation materials for superconducting magnets are usually fabricated by a vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI) process. Thus these insulation materials must exhibit low viscosity, long working life as well as good radiation resistance. Previous studies have indicated that cyanate ester (CE) blended with epoxy has an excellent resistance against neutron irradiation which is expected to be a candidate insulation material for a fusion magnet. In this work, the rheological behavior of a CE/epoxy (CE/EP) blend containing 40% CE was investigated with non-isothermal and isothermal viscosity experiments. Furthermore, the cryogenic mechanical and electrical properties of the composite were evaluated in terms of interlaminar shear strength and electrical breakdown strength. The results showed that CE/epoxy blend had a very low viscosity and an exceptionally long processing life of about 4 days at 60 °C.

  19. Thermal and Rheological Properties of Polypropylene/Organoclay/Poly(ethylene-co-octene) Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tongchen; Dong, Xia; Du, Kai; Meng, Kun; Han, Charles C.; Wang, Ke; Fu, Qiang

    2007-03-01

    Poly(ethylene-co-octene) (PEOc) is added to polypropylene/organoclay(organic modified montmorillonite-OMMT) nanocomposites which are prepared by a co-rotating twin-screw extruder to improve the properties of these materials. These ternary materials are investigated in details with the combination of XRD, TGA and rheology measurements. The onset and 5% loss temperatures have increased with clay content increasing and reached to a plateau when clay composition is 2% or higher. The degradation temperatures of the ternary nanocomposites are higher than binary nanocomposites. Storage modulus of these two systems show a pseudo-solid like behavior in low frequency region when clay content is 2% or higher. But ternary nanocomposite is more stable and relaxation slower than binary composites. All results indicated that PEOc plays an important role for thermal stability and structure stability of these nanocomposites.

  20. Molecular weight degradation and rheological properties of schizophyllan under ultrasonic treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Kui; Zhang, Qi; Tong, Litao; Liu, Liya; Zhou, Xianrong; Zhou, Sumei

    2015-03-01

    Molecular weight degradation effects of schizophyllan (SPG) under ultrasonic treatments were investigated in this study. The degradation product was treated by alcohol fractional precipitation technology, and the molecular weight and rheological properties of ultrasonic-treated SPG (USPG) fractions were evaluated. Average molecular weight of SPG decreased significantly after ultrasonic treatments, and degradation product had more narrow distribution of molecular weight. The molecular weight degradation kinetics of SPG is adequately described by a second-order reaction. USPG fractions with different molecular weight were obtained by fractional precipitation for final alcohol concentration fractions 0-40%, 40-60% and 60-80%, respectively. USPG fractions had near-Newtonian flow behaviors, and USPG₈₀% exhibited viscous responses over the entire accessible frequency range. Therefore, ultrasonic treatment is a viable modification technology for SPG and other polymer materials with high molecular weight.

  1. Characteristics and Rheological Properties of Polysaccharide Nanoparticles from Edible Mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenhang; Li, Cong; Du, Guanhua; Zhang, Xiuling; Zhang, Hongjie

    2017-03-01

    Nanotechnology has become relevant in the food-related industries, and edible mushrooms can be a potential raw material for providing satisfied edible nanomaterial. In this study, by following 3 different pretreatments (hot water or cold alkali or hot alkali) insoluble polysaccharide nanoparticles were prepared from Flammulina velutipes by wet milling and high pressure homogenization and their properties were investigated. The resultant nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, GC-MS (for its main compositions), FTIR, XRD, and TG. The 1 wt% nanoparticle dispersions presented non-Newtonian, shear-thinning fluids with the viscosity in an increasing order for the hot water < cold alkali < hot alkali. Moreover, the dynamical rheological results showed differences of storage (G') and loss (G″) moduli of these particle dispersions. It was concluded that the Flammulina velutipes-derived polysaccharides nanoparticles have great potential applications in the food industry, for example, as emulsifiers, reinforcement agents, and bioactive carriers.

  2. The effect of curdlan on the rheological properties of restructured ribbonfish (Trichiurus spp.) meat gel.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunhua; Yuan, Chunhong; Chen, Shiguo; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin

    2015-07-15

    The influence of curdlan at different levels, as well as the method of addition, on the viscoelastic characteristics of ribbonfish meat gel was investigated. From a small amplitude oscillatory shear analysis (SAOA), a variety of viscoelastic parameters were established and identified to measure the intensity of the interactions between curdlan and protein in the fish meat gel network structure. The results of water holding capacity, texture, sensory property and microstructure analyses were strongly in agreement with the rheology data, suggesting that SAOA might be an appropriate method for the industrial assessment of the quality of fish meat gel. Additionally, the recombination mechanism of the complex system formed by the fish protein and curdlan was also clarified. Compared with the irreversible curdlan gel samples, the addition of reversible curdlan gel to the fish meat gel formed a much denser cross-linked interpenetrating structure, which led to a more stable and ordered three-dimensional gel complex.

  3. Influence of gamma radiation on the physicochemical and rheological properties of sterculia gum polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Baljit; Sharma, Vikrant

    2013-11-01

    Keeping in view the influence of gamma radiation on the physiochemical properties of the polysaccharides and their importance in the food and pharmaceutical industry, in the present study attempt has been made to investigate the effects of absorbed dose on FTIR, XRD, SEMs, absorbance, pH, solubility, water absorption capacity, emulsion stability and rheology of sterculia gum. Increase in solubility and decrease in swellability of gum has been observed on increasing the absorbed dose. The emulsion stability has improved for the gum sample irradiated with total dose of 8.1±0.2 kGy. Apparent viscosity of gum solution first increased with increase in dose from 0 to 8.1±0.2 kGy than decreased with regular trends with further increase in total absorbed dose. Flow behavior of gum solution shifted to Newtonian from non-Newtonian with increasing the dose.

  4. Modification of the rheological properties of screen printing ceramic paints containing gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izak, P.; Mastalska-Poplawska, J.; Lis, J.; Stempkowska, A.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents the results of modification of rheological properties of screen printing paints containing gold. 15 wt% glossy gold paste and 15 wt% glossy liquid gold were used as modifiers containing gold. The study showed that the gold paint for screen printing can be obtained by evaporation of the 15 wt% liquid gold and the golden luster. The compaction process of liquid gold by evaporation is slow and easy to perform in industrial conditions. The second way to adapt the 15 wt% gold ceramic paint for screen printing application depended on adding the aniseed oil and the pine oil. The course of the flow curve of the gold paste without modification indicates that it is shear thinning and shows the desired effect of thixotropy, and even anti-thixotropy, at low shear rates (<50-1 s-1). The introduction of the essential oils eliminates this phenomenon and the paste converts itself from the non-rheostable to the rheostable liquid.

  5. Rheological properties of algae slurries for minimizing harvesting energy requirements in biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Wileman, Angel; Ozkan, Altan; Berberoglu, Halil

    2012-01-01

    Rheological properties of microalgae slurries were measured as a function of biomass concentration from 0.5 to 80 kg/m(3) for Nannochloris sp., Chlorella vulgaris, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. At biomass concentrations smaller than 20 kg/m(3), all slurries displayed a Newtonian fluid behavior with less than 30% increase in the effective viscosity from that of the nutrient medium. However, at biomass concentrations larger than 60 kg/m(3), the slurries of the green algae, Nannochloris sp. and C. vulgaris, displayed a shear thinning non-Newtonian behavior with varying degrees of sensitivity to shear rate while that of the diatom, P. tricornutum, was still a Newtonian fluid up to 80 kg/m(3). Moreover, bioenergy pumping effectiveness showed significant deviation among different species in the non-Newtonian regime. Finally, dewatering the slurries to concentration factors larger than 80 did not further increase the total bioenergy harvest effectiveness.

  6. Effect of various superplasticizers on rheological properties of cement paste and mortars

    SciTech Connect

    Masood, I.; Agarwal, S.K. )

    1994-01-01

    The effect of eight commercial superplasticizers including one developed from Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) at CBRI on the rheological properties viz. viscosity and flow of cement paste and mortars have been investigated. The viscosity measurements have been made at various shear rates (5--100 rpm). It is found that at higher rates (100 rpm) even with the low concentration of superplasticizers (0.1), the viscosity of the cement paste is more or less the same as that obtained with 0.6 % dosages of SPs at lesser shear rates. The effect of split addition (delayed addition) of superplasticizers on viscosity of cement paste and 1:3 cement sand mortar have also been studied. A decrease in viscosity due to split addition has been observed in the cement paste and there is an increase of 15--20 % in flow of mortars.

  7. Rheological and volumetric properties of TiO2-ethylene glycol nanofluids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Homogeneous stable suspensions obtained by dispersing dry TiO2 nanoparticles in pure ethylene glycol were prepared and studied. Two types of nanocrystalline structure were analyzed, namely anatase and rutile phases, which have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The rheological behavior was determined for both nanofluids at nanoparticle mass concentrations up to 25%, including flow curves and frequency-dependent storage and loss moduli, using a cone-plate rotational rheometer. The effect of temperature over these flow curve tests at the highest concentration was also analyzed from 283.15 to 323.15 K. Furthermore, the influence of temperature, pressure, nanocrystalline structure, and concentration on the volumetric properties, including densities and isobaric thermal expansivities, were also analyzed. PMID:23763850

  8. Rheological Properties of Cross-Linked Hyaluronan–Gelatin Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Vanderhooft, Janssen L.; Alcoutlabi, Mataz; Magda, Jules J.; Prestwich, Glenn D.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogels that mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) are used in three-dimensional cell culture, cell therapy, and tissue engineering. A semi-synthetic ECM based on cross-linked hyaluronana offers experimental control of both composition and gel stiffness. The mechanical properties of the ECM in part determine the ultimate cell phenotype. We now describe a rheological study of synthetic ECM hydrogels with storage shear moduli that span three orders of magnitude, from 11 to 3 500 Pa, a range important for engineering of soft tissues. The concentration of the chemically modified HA and the cross-linking density were the main determinants of gel stiffness. Increase in the ratio of thiol-modified gelatin reduced gel stiffness by diluting the effective concentration of the HA component. PMID:18839402

  9. The effect of structural properties on rheological behaviour of starches in binary dimethyl sulfoxide-water solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ptaszek, Paweł; Dziubiński, Marek; Grzesik, N. Mirosław; Liszka-Skoczylas, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This research study analysed the rheological properties of potato amylose and potato amylopectin in binary solutions of the following water and dimethyl sulfoxide concentrations: 90% DMSO (1), 80% DMSO (2) and 50% DMSO (3), with preparation methodology involving the dissolution at the temperature of 98°C. The studies of dynamic light scattering on the biopolymer coils and the determination of main relaxation times of the solutions were carried out. For the amylose solutions, the fast relaxation phenomena are predominant. The results of the quality tests of the hysteresis loop showed, that the amylose solutions in the solvents (1) and (2) are rheologically stable and shear-thickened. The amylose solutions in solvents (3) reveal oscillatory alterations of viscosity in the time. Amylopectin solutions are characterized by 80% share of slow relaxation phenomena, very low diffusion coefficients and hydrodynamic radii in the range of 2000 nm. The amylopectin solutions are rheologically unstable. PMID:28152071

  10. Physicochemical, thermal and rheological properties of starches isolated from malting barley varieties.

    PubMed

    Pycia, Karolina; Gałkowska, Dorota; Juszczak, Lesław; Fortuna, Teresa; Witczak, Teresa

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize physicochemical, thermal and rheological properties of starches isolated from malting barley varieties. The analyzed starches contained 19.6-25.2 g of amylose, 42.47-70.67 mg of phosphorus, 0.50-1.26 g of protein and 0.10-0.61 g of fat per 100 g of starch dry mass. The clarity of the 1 % (w/w) starch pastes ranged from 5.4 to 9.8 %. Values of the characteristic gelatinization temperatures were in the ranges of 56.5-58.5 °C, 61.2-63.0 °C and 66.7-68.7 °C, respectively for TO, TP and TE, whereas values of gelatinization enthalpy were from 6.49 to 9.61 J/g. The barley starches showed various tendency to retrogradation, from 24.52 to 44.22 %, measured as R = ∆HR/∆HG value. The pasting curves showed differences in pasting characteristics of the barley starches, where values of peak (PV) and final (FV) viscosities were 133-230 mPa·s and 224-411 mPa·s, respectively. The barley starch pastes exhibited non-Newtonian, shear thinning flow behaviour and thixotropy phenomenon. After cooling the starch gels showed different viscoelastic properties, however, most of them behaved like weak gels (tan δ = G″/G' > 0.1). Significant linear correlations between the parameters of pasting characteristic and some rheological parameters were found.

  11. Influence of Plasticizer Amount on Rheological and Hydration Properties of CEM II Type Portland Cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šeputytė-Juciké, J.; Pundienė, I.; Kičaitė, A.; Pranckevičienė, J.

    2015-11-01

    The article analyzes the effect of plasticizer (based on polycarboxilates) amount (0.3 - 1.2% wt. of cement) on the rheological and hydration properties of two Portland cements pastes: CEM II/A-S 42.5N and CEM II/A-LL 42.5N. Increase of plasticizer amount reduces viscosity of CEM II/A-LL 42.5N cement paste from 3 to 12 times, where viscosity of CEM II/A-S 42.5N cement paste reduces from 5 to 20 times. The optimum plasticizer dose (0.3%) in case of CEM II/A-S 42.5N and (1.2%) in case of CEM II/A-LL 42.5N was established. Calorimetry studies have shown that plasticizer reduces the wetting heat release rate in CEM II/A-LL 42.5N cement twice and in CEM II/A-S 42.5N cement - by 25%. Plasticizer prolongs the maximum heat release rate time by 16 h in CEM II/A-LL 42.5N samples and reduces heat release rate by 19%. In CEM II/A-S 42.5N cement samples plasticizer prolongs maximum heat release rate time by 14.5 h and increases heat release rate by 15%. The goal of this study is to analyze the effect of the dosage of the most widely used plasticizer on solubility characteristics, rheological and hydration properties of two cements CEM II/A-S 42.5N and CEM II/A-LL 42.5N to establish the optimum dose of plasticizer in cements pastes.

  12. Rheological properties of sewage sludge during enhanced anaerobic digestion with microwave-H2O2 pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jibao; Yu, Dawei; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Min; Wang, Yawei; Wei, Yuansong; Tong, Juan

    2016-07-01

    The rheological behavior of sludge is of serious concern in anaerobic digestion. This study investigated the rheological properties of sewage sludge during enhanced anaerobic digestion with microwave-H2O2 pretreatment (MW-H2O2). The results showed that MW-H2O2 pretreatment resulted in the improvement of sludge flowability and weakening of its viscoelastic properties. Further positive effects on the rheological properties of digested sludge during anaerobic digestion were observed. The flowability was improved with a low level of apparent viscosity. The decrease of the consistency index and increase of the flow behavior index indicated that the strength of the inner structures and non-Newtonian flow characteristics of digested sludge weakened. Both the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) decreased, indicating that the viscoelastic behavior became weak. These effects were possibly attributed to the changes of the digested sludge micro-structures, such as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). This study concluded that anaerobic digestion for treating sewage sludge combined with pretreatment is a more favorable option than single anaerobic digestion from the perspective of rheology.

  13. Rheology of the vitreous gel: effects of macromolecule organization on the viscoelastic properties.

    PubMed

    Sharif-Kashani, Pooria; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Sassoon, Daniel; Kavehpour, H Pirouz

    2011-02-03

    The macromolecular organization of vitreous gel is responsible for its viscoelastic properties. Knowledge of this correlation enables us to relate the physical properties of vitreous to its pathology, as well as optimize surgical procedures such as vitrectomy. Herein, we studied the rheological properties (e.g. dynamic deformation, shear stress-strain flow, and creep compliance) of porcine vitreous humor using a stressed-control shear rheometer. All experiments were performed in a closed environment with the temperature set to that of the human body (i.e. 37°C) to mimic in-vivo conditions. We modeled the creep deformation using the two-element retardation spectrum model. By associating each element of the model to an individual biopolymeric system in the vitreous gel, a distinct response to the applied stress was observed from each component. We hypothesized that the first viscoelastic response with the short time scale (~1 s) is associated with the collagen structure, while the second viscoelastic response with longer time scale (~100 s) is related to the microfibrilis and hyaluronan network. Consequently, we were able to differentiate the role of each main component from the overall viscoelastic properties.

  14. Chemical and rheological properties of exopolysaccharides produced by four isolates of rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Moretto, Cristiane; Castellane, Tereza Cristina Luque; Lopes, Erica Mendes; Omori, Wellington Pine; Sacco, Laís Postai; Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes de Macedo

    2015-11-01

    The rheological, physicochemical properties, emulsification and stability of exopolysaccharides (EPSs) from four rhizobia isolates (LBMP-C01, LBMP-C02, LBMP-C03 and LBMP-C04) were studied. The EPS yields of isolates under these experimental conditions were in the range of 1.5-6.63gL(-1). The LBMP-C04 isolate, which presented the highest EPS production (6.63gL(-1)), was isolated from Arachis pintoi and was identified as a Rhizobium sp. strain that could be explored as a possible potential source for the production of extracellular heteropolysaccharides. All polymers showed a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid behavior or shear thinning property in aqueous solutions. Among the four EPS tested against hydrocarbons, EPS LBMP-C01 was found to be more effective against hexane, olive and soybean oils (89.94%, 82.75% and 81.15%, respectively). Importantly, we found that changes in pH (2-11) and salinity (0-30%) influenced the emulsification of diesel oil by the EPSs. EPSLBMP-C04 presented optimal emulsification capacity at pH 10 (E24=53%) and 30% salinity (E24=27%). These findings contribute to the understanding of the influence of the chemical composition, physical properties and biotechnology applications of rhizobial EPS solutions their bioemulsifying properties.

  15. Rheological properties of somen noodles--a traditional Japanese wheat product.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Mina; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the rheological properties of the Japanese wheat product tenobe somen noodles manufactured using a unique traditional process-"Te-nobe (hand-stretched)." In an extension test, the maximum resistance to extension (R(max)) and extensibility until rupture (Erup) of boiled somen noodles were measured on a Texture Analyzer in the tension test mode and compared with those of machine-made somen noodles. The R(max) and Erup values per unit cross-sectional area were significantly higher for boiled tenobe somen noodles than for machine-made somen noodles, clearly indicating the higher resistance to extension and extensibility of the former. A compression test performed using the Texture Analyzer in the biting-test mode revealed that although the maximum force of compression (F(max)) was lower for boiled tenobe somen noodles than for machine-made somen noodles, the former had more characteristic texture than the latter, which was shown by comparing the force-deformation curve of each somen noodle. Scanning electron microscopy revealed differences between dried tenobe and machine-made somen noodles, which may reflect their rheological differences. Lateral and sectional micrographs of tenobe somen noodles showed regular arrays of starch granules and gluten networks, and some air spaces. Tenobe somen noodles exhibited significantly higher dityrosine content than the flour used for their manufacture, indicating that tyrosine residues in gluten proteins cross-link during the manufacturing process; however, the dityrosine content in tenobe somen noodles were not higher than that in machine-made somen noodles.

  16. Probing the rheological properties of supported thin polystyrene films by investigating the growth dynamics of wetting ridges.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Biao; Tian, Houkuan; Liang, Yongfeng; Xu, Hao; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Li; Wang, Xinping

    2016-07-13

    Despite its importance in the processing of nanomaterials, the rheological behavior of thin polymer films is poorly understood, partly due to the inherent measurement challenges. Herein, we have developed a facile method for investigating the rheological behavior of supported thin polymeric films by monitoring the growth of the "wetting ridge"-a microscopic protrusion on the film surface due to the capillary forces exerted by a drop of ionic liquid placed on the film surface. It was found that the growth dynamics of the wetting ridge and the behavior of polystyrene rheology are directly linked. Important rheological properties, such as the flow temperature (Tf), viscosity (η), and terminal relaxation time (τ0) of thin polystyrene films, can be derived by studying the development of the height of the wetting ridge with time and the sample temperature. Rheological studies using the proposed approach for supported thin polystyrene (PS) films with thickness down to 20 nm demonstrate that the PS thin film exhibits facilitated flow, with reduced viscosity and lowered viscous temperature and a shortened rubbery plateau, when SiOx-Si was used as the substrate. However, sluggish flow was observed for the PS film supported by hydrogen-passivated silicon substrates (H-Si). The differences in enthalpic interactions between PS and the substrates are the reason for this divergence in the whole-chain mobility and flow ability of thin PS films deposited on SiOx-Si and H-Si surfaces. These results indicate that this approach could be a reliable rheological probe for supported thin polymeric films with different thicknesses and various substrates.

  17. Impact of high pressure treatment on functional, rheological, pasting, and structural properties of lentil starch dispersions.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Jasim; Thomas, Linu; Taher, Ayoub; Joseph, Antony

    2016-11-05

    Lentil starch (LS) dispersions (flour to water 1:4w/w) were subjected to high pressure (HP) treatment at 0.1, 400, 500 and 600MPa for 10min, followed by evaluation on the functional, particle size, rheological, pasting, and structural properties of post-process samples. Water holding capacity of pressurized starch increased with the pressure intensity due to increase in damaged starch. The amount of resistant starch increased from 5 to 6.8% after pressure treatment at 600MPa. An increase in starch granule particle size (196-207μm) was obvious after HP treatment. The lentil starch was completely gelatinized after pressure treatment at 600MPa for 10min as evidenced from differential scanning calorimetry, rheometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy observation. The elastic modulus, G' of lentil starch gel was less frequency dependent, and higher in magnitude at high pressure (>500MPa) than at lower pressure range (≤400MPa). XRD analysis revealed the disappearance of two diffraction peak intensities at 14.86° and 22.82° at 600MPa for 10min, which confirms the transformation of crystalline to amorphous region of lentil starch. Pasting properties were significantly influenced by the pressure treatment especially at 600MPa, resulting in a considerable decrease in peak viscosity, breakdown and final viscosity, and an increase in peak time. It can be inferred that the functional properties of pressure-treated LS are mainly based on the structural destruction of granules.

  18. Influence of medium-chain triglycerides on expansion and rheological properties of extruded corn starch.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Mario; Emin, M Azad; Hochstein, Bernhard; Willenbacher, Norbert; Schuchmann, Heike Petra

    2013-04-02

    Enhancement of product properties of extruded starch based products can be achieved by incorporating health promoting oil into the matrix. In order to achieve a preferably high expansion with a homogeneous pore structure, the expansion mechanisms have to be understood. In our study, we applied a customized twin-screw extruder set up to feed medium-chain triglycerides after complete gelatinization of corn starch, minimizing its effect on the starch gelatinization. Despite the fact, that the addition of up to 3.5% oil showed no influence on the extrusion parameters, we observed a three-fold increase in sectional expansion. Longitudinal expansion was less affected by the oil content. Rheological properties of the gelatinized starch were measured using an inline slit die rheometer. In addition to shear viscosity, we presented a method to determine the Bagley pressure, which reflects the elongational properties of a fluid. We were able to observe an increase in the Bagley pressure from about 25 bar up to 35-37 bar due to the addition of oil.

  19. Tailoring the optical and rheological properties of an epoxy acrylate based host-guest system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleißner, Uwe; Hanemann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Polymers with individually adjusted optical and rheological properties are gaining more and more importance in industrial applications like in information technology. To modify the refractive index n, an electron-rich organic dopant is added to a commercially available polymer based resin. Changes in viscosity for applications like ink-jet printing can be achieved by using a comonomer with suitable properties. Therefore we used a commercially available epoxy acrylate based UV-curable polymer matrix to investigate the influence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) on viscosity and phenanthrene on refractive index. Refractive index was measured at a wavelength of 589 nm and 20 °C using an Abbe refractometer. As a result the change in viscosity decreased linearly from 47 Pa·s to 4 mPa·s which is a more suitable region for inkjet printing. However, the refractive index decreased at the same time from 1.548 to 1.514. Adding phenanthrene the refractive index increased linearly from 1.548 up to 1.561. It was shown that both, viscosity and refractive index can be successfully adjusted in a wide range depending on desired properties.

  20. Self-assembly of cationic multidomain peptide hydrogels: supramolecular nanostructure and rheological properties dictate antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Linhai; Xu, Dawei; Sellati, Timothy J; Dong, He

    2015-12-07

    Hydrogels are an important class of biomaterials that have been widely utilized for a variety of biomedical/medical applications. The biological performance of hydrogels, particularly those used as wound dressing could be greatly advanced if imbued with inherent antimicrobial activity capable of staving off colonization of the wound site by opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Possessing such antimicrobial properties would also protect the hydrogel itself from being adversely affected by microbial attachment to its surface. We have previously demonstrated the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of supramolecular assemblies of cationic multi-domain peptides (MDPs) in solution. Here, we extend the 1-D soluble supramolecular assembly to 3-D hydrogels to investigate the effect of the supramolecular nanostructure and its rheological properties on the antimicrobial activity of self-assembled hydrogels. Among designed MDPs, the bactericidal activity of peptide hydrogels was found to follow an opposite trend to that in solution. Improved antimicrobial activity of self-assembled peptide hydrogels is dictated by the combined effect of supramolecular surface chemistry and storage modulus of the bulk materials, rather than the ability of individual peptides/peptide assemblies to penetrate bacterial cell membrane as observed in solution. The structure-property-activity relationship developed through this study will provide important guidelines for designing biocompatible peptide hydrogels with built-in antimicrobial activity for various biomedical applications.

  1. Effects of two warm-mix additives on aging, rheological and failure properties of asphalt cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omari, Isaac Obeng

    Sustainable road construction and maintenance could be supported when excellent warm-mix additives are employed in the modification of asphalt. These warm-mix additives provide remedies for today's requirements such as fatigue cracking resistance, durability, thermal cracking resistance, rutting resistance and resistance to moisture damage. Warm-mix additives are based on waxes and surfactants which reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions significantly during the construction phase of the pavement. In this study, the effects of two warm mix additives, siloxane and oxidised polyethylene wax, on roofing asphalt flux (RAF) and asphalt modified with waste engine oil (655-7) were investigated to evaluate the rheological, aging and failure properties of the asphalt binders. In terms of the properties of these two different asphalts, RAF has proved to be superior quality asphalt whereas 655-7 is poor quality asphalt. The properties of the modified asphalt samples were measured by Superpave(TM) tests such as Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) test and Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) test as well as modified protocols such as the extended BBR (eBBR) test (LS-308) and the Double- Edge-Notched Tension (DENT) test (LS-299) after laboratory aging. In addition, the Avrami theory was used to gain an insight on the crystallization of asphalt or the waxes within the asphalt binder. This study has however shown that the eBBR and DENT tests are better tools for providing accurate specification tests to curb thermal and fatigue cracking in contemporary asphalt pavements.

  2. Rheological behaviour and physical properties of controlled-release gluten-based bioplastics.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Martínez, D; Partal, P; Martínez, I; Gallegos, C

    2009-03-01

    Bioplastics based on glycerol, water and wheat gluten have been manufactured in order to determine the effect that mechanical processing and further thermal treatments exert on different thermo-mechanical properties of the biomaterials obtained. An "active agent", KCl was incorporated in these matrices to develop controlled-release formulations. Oscillatory shear, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), diffusion and water absorption tests were carried out in order to study the influence of the above-mentioned treatments on the physico-chemical characteristics and rheological behaviour of these bioplastic samples. Wheat gluten protein-based bioplastics studied in this work present a high ability for thermosetting modification, due to protein denaturation, which may favour the development of a wide variety of biomaterials. Bioplastic hygroscopic properties depend on plasticizer nature and processing procedure, and may be a key factor for industrial applications where water absorption is required. On the other hand, high water absorption and slow KCl release from bioplastic samples (both of them suitable properties in agricultural applications) may be obtained by adding citric acid to a given formulation, at selected processing conditions.

  3. Effect of high-pressure on calorimetric, rheological and dielectric properties of selected starch dispersions.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Jasim; Singh, Ajaypal; Ramaswamy, H S; Pandey, Pramod K; Raghavan, G S V

    2014-03-15

    Effects of high-pressure (HP) treatment on the rheological, thermal and dielectric properties of the four selected starch dispersions (two modified starches, one native and one resistant) were evaluated. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and oscillatory rheometry were employed to assess the extent of starch gelatinization and the developed gel rigidity (G') of starch gels after HP treatment. It was observed that starch dispersions gelatinized completely at 500 MPa with a 30-min holding time. The HP-treated starch samples exhibited predominantly solid-like (G'>G") behavior except for the resistant starch. Pressure-induced gel rigidity differed significantly among starch samples. The G' of starch gels increased with the pressure (400-600 MPa) in the studied frequency range (0.1-10 Hz) except for the native starch where a marginal decrease was recorded at similar condition. The holding time (15-30 min) and concentration (20-25% w/w) significantly attributed towards gel rigidity of starch samples. Measurement of dielectric properties of HP-treated samples over the frequency range 450-4450 MHz indicated differences in the dielectric constant (ɛ'), loss factor (ɛ") and penetration depth among starch gels. Pressure did not show any effect on dielectric property of the resistant starch sample. Power penetration depth decreased significantly with frequency and with the pressure.

  4. Morphological, Thermal, and Rheological Properties of Starches from Maize Mutants Deficient in Starch Synthase III.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Bertoft, Eric; Li, Guantian

    2016-08-31

    Morphological, thermal, and rheological properties of starches from maize mutants deficient in starch synthase III (SSIII) with a common genetic background (W64A) were studied and compared with the wild type. SSIII deficiency reduced granule size of the starches from 16.7 to ∼11 μm (volume-weighted mean). Thermal analysis showed that SSIII deficiency decreased the enthalpy change of starch during gelatinization. Steady shear analysis showed that SSIII deficiency decreased the consistency coefficient and yield stress during steady shearing, whereas additional deficiency in granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) increased these values. Dynamic oscillatory analysis showed that SSIII deficiency decreased G' at 90 °C during heating and increased it when the paste was cooled to 25 °C at 40 Hz during a frequency sweep. Additional GBSS deficiency further decreased the G'. Structural and compositional bases responsible for these changes in physical properties of the starches are discussed. This study highlighted the relationship between SSIII and some physicochemical properties of maize starch.

  5. Intrinsic viscosity and rheological properties of natural and substituted guar gums in seawater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shibin; He, Le; Guo, Jianchun; Zhao, Jinzhou; Tang, Hongbiao

    2015-05-01

    The intrinsic viscosity and rheological properties of guar gum (GG), hydroxypropyl guar (HPG) and carboxymethyl guar (CMG) in seawater and the effects of shear rate, concentration, temperature and pH on these properties were investigated. An intrinsic viscosity-increasing effect was observed with GG and HPG in seawater (SW) compared to deionized water (DW), whereas the intrinsic viscosity of CMG in seawater was much lower than that in DW due to a screening effect that reduced the repulsion between the polymer chains. Regardless of the functional groups, all sample solutions was well characterized by a modified Cross model that exhibited the transition from Newtonian to pseudoplastic in the low shear rate range at the concentrations of interest to industries, and their viscosity increased with the increase in their concentration but decreased with the increase in temperature. In contrast to nonionic GG or HPG, anionic CMG had a slightly decreased viscosity property in SW, exhibiting polyelectrolyte viscosity behavior. The α value in the zero-shear rate viscosity vs. concentration power-law equation for the samples gave the order of CMG>HPG>GG while the SW solution of CMG had the lowest viscous flow activation energy and exhibited a strong pH-dependent viscosity by a different shear rate.

  6. Turkish Tombul hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) protein concentrates: functional and rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Tatar, F; Tunç, M T; Kahyaoglu, T

    2015-02-01

    Turkish Tombul hazelnut consumed as natural or processed forms were evaluated to obtain protein concentrate. Defatted hazelnut flour protein (DHFP) and defatted hazelnut cake protein (DHCP) were produced from defatted hazelnut flour (DHF) and defatted hazelnut cake (DHC), respectively. The functional properties (protein solubility, emulsifying properties, foaming capacity, and colour), and dynamic rheological characteristics of protein concentrates were measured. The protein contents of samples varied in the range of 35-48 % (w/w, db) and 91-92 % (w/w, db) for DHF/DHC and DHFP/DHCP samples, respectively. The significant difference for water/fat absorption capacity, emulsion stability between DHF and DHC were determined. On the other hand, the solubility and emulsion activity of DHF and DHC were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Emulsion stability of DHFP (%46) was higher than that of DHCP (%35) but other functional properties were found similar. According to these results, the DHCP could be used as DHFP in food product formulations. The DHFP and DHCP samples showed different apparent viscosity at the same temperature and concentration, the elastic modulus (G' value) of DHPC was also found higher than that of DHFP samples.

  7. Physicochemical and rheological properties of starch and flour from different durum wheat varieties and their relationships with noodle quality.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amritpal; Shevkani, Khetan; Katyal, Mehak; Singh, Narpinder; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2016-04-01

    Starch and flour properties of different Indian durum wheat varieties were evaluated and related to noodle-making properties. Flours were evaluated for pasting properties, protein characteristics (extractable as well as unextractable monomeric and polymeric proteins) and dough rheology (farinographic properties), while starches were evaluated for granule size, thermal, pasting, and rheological properties. Flour peak and final viscosities related negatively to the proportion of monomeric proteins but positively to that of polymeric proteins whereas opposite relations were observed for dough rheological properties (dough-development time and stability). Starches from varieties with higher proportion of large granules showed the presence of less stable amylose-lipids and had more swelling power, peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity than those with greater proportion of small granules. Noodle-cooking time related positively to the proportion of monomeric proteins and starch gelatinization temperatures but negatively to that of polymeric proteins and amylose content. Varieties with more proteins resulted in firmer noodles. Noodle-cohesiveness related positively to the proportion of polymeric proteins and amylose-lipids complexes whereas springiness correlated negatively to amylose content and retrogradation tendency of starches.

  8. SEASONAL VARIABILITY OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ULVAN IN TWO ULVA SPECIES (CHLOROPHYTA) FROM THE BRITTANY COAST(1).

    PubMed

    Robic, Audrey; Sassi, Jean-François; Dion, Patrick; Lerat, Yannick; Lahaye, Marc

    2009-08-01

    The seasonal variability in the extraction yield, physicochemical characteristics, and rheological properties of ulvan from two Ulva species contributing to Brittany "green tides" has been studied. These seaweeds were collected in the water column for Ulva armoricana Dion, de Reviers et Coat and on hard substrata for Ulva rotundata Bliding. The maximum ulvan extraction efficiency was not related to the maximum ulvan content in the seaweeds, but with the active growth period of the seaweeds. Ulvan chemical structure, macromolecular characteristics, and rheological properties were affected by both species and seasons. The proportion of high-molecular-weight ulvan was the major factor positively correlated with the gelling properties. Characteristics of ulvan from U. rotundata subjected to tides were more affected by seasons than ulvan from U. armoricana living in a more constant environment. These results point to several useful recommendations concerning Ulva sp. biomass collected with regard to ulvan characteristics and uses.

  9. Nanoscale Properties of Rocks and Subduction Zone Rheology: Inferences for the Mechanisms of Deep Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, M. R.

    2007-12-01

    Grain boundaries are the key for the understanding of mineral reaction kinetics. More generally, nanometer scale processes involved in breaking and establishing bonds at reaction sites determine how and at which rate bulk rock properties change in response to external tectonic forcing and possibly feed back into various geodynamic processes. A particular problem is the effects of grain-boundary energy on the kinetics of the olivine-spinel phase transformation in subducting slabs. Slab rheology is affected in many ways by this (metastable) mineral phase change. Sluggish kinetics due to metastable hindrance is likely to cause particular difficulties, because of possible strong non-linear feedback loops between strain-rate and change of creep properties during transformation. In order to get these nanoscale properties included into thermo-mechanical models, reliable kinetic data is required. The measurement of grain-boundary energies is, however, a rather difficult problem. Conventional methods of grain boundary surface tension measurement include (a) equilibrium angles at triple junction (b) rotating ball method (c) thermal groove method, and others (Gottstein & Shvindlerman, 1999). Here I suggest a new method that allows for the derivation of grain-boundary energies for an isochemical phase transformation based on experimental (in-situ) kinetic data in combination with a corresponding dynamic scaling law (Riedel and Karato, 1997). The application of this method to the olivine-spinel phase transformation in subducting slabs provides a solution to the extrapolation problem of measured kinetic data: Any kinetic phase boundary measured at the laboratory time scale can be "scaled" to the correct critical isotherm at subduction zones, under experimentelly "forbidden" conditions (Liou et al., 2000). Consequences for the metastability hypothesis that relates deep seismicity with olivine metastability are derived and discussed. References: Gottstein G, Shvindlerman LS (1999

  10. Molecular assembly, interfacial rheology and foaming properties of oligofructose fatty acid esters.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Silvia E H J; Schols, Henk A; van der Linden, Erik; Sagis, Leonard M C

    2014-01-01

    Two major types of food-grade surfactants used to stabilize foams are proteins and low molecular weight (LMW) surfactants. Proteins lower the surface tension of interfaces and tend to unfold and stabilize the interface by the formation of a visco-elastic network, which leads to high surface moduli. In contrast, LMW surfactants lower the surface tension more than proteins, but do not form interfaces with a high modulus. Instead, they stabilize the interface through the Gibbs-Marangoni mechanism that relies on rapid diffusion of surfactants, when surface tension gradients develop as a result of deformations of the interface. A molecule than can lower the surface tension considerably, like a LMW surfactant, but also provide the interface with a high modulus, like a protein, would be an excellent foam stabilizer. In this article we will discuss molecules with those properties: oligofructose fatty acid esters, both in pure and mixed systems. First, we will address the synthesis and structural characterization of the esters. Next, we will address self-assembly and rheological properties of air/water interfaces stabilized by the esters. Subsequently, this paper will deal with mixed systems of mono-esters with either di-esters and lauric acid, or proteins. Then, the foaming functionality of the esters is discussed.

  11. Effect of extraction process on composition, oxidative stability and rheological properties of purslane seed oil.

    PubMed

    Delfan-Hosseini, Sasan; Nayebzadeh, Kooshan; Mirmoghtadaie, Leila; Kavosi, Maryam; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh

    2017-05-01

    Purslane seed oil could be considered as potential nutritious oil due to its desirable fatty acid composition and other biological active compounds. In this study the effect of three extraction procedure including solvent extraction, cold pressing and microwave pretreatment (MW) followed by cold pressing on oil yield, physicochemical properties, oxidative stability and rheological behaviors of oil was investigated. Solvent extracted oil had the highest extraction yield (72.31%). Pretreatment by microwave before cold press extraction resulted in an increase in extraction yield, total phenolic compound (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Cold press extracted oil had the lowest oxidative stability (4.64h). This property was greatly enhanced by microwave irradiation, so that the longest oxidative stability was found in MW-cold press extracted oil with 9.67h. Furthermore, all extracted oils demonstrated Newtonian flow behaviors. MW-cold press extracted oil had the greatest apparent viscosity and highest sensitivity to temperature changes (Ea=29.18kJ/mol(-1)).

  12. Rheological and Solid-Liquid Separation Properties of Bimodal Suspensions of Colloidal Gibbsite and Boehmite

    PubMed

    Bruinsma; Wang; Li; Liu; Smith; Bunker

    1997-08-01

    Bimodal suspensions of nanometer-sized boehmite particles and micron-sized gibbsite particles in 0.10 M NaNO3 are used as models to gain insight into the physical properties of agglomerating colloidal suspensions containing bimodal distributions of primary particles. Results on the gibbsite-boehmite mixtures show that the presences of small particles in a suspension can have a dramatic impact on the rheological, sedimentation, and filtration characteristics of suspensions of larger particles. Transmission electron micrographs show that boehmite forms a coating on the larger gibbsite particles. The coating provides steric repulsion and reduces the attractive interactions between the larger particles, leading to viscosity decreases and greater densification of sediments and filter cakes. A model has been developed to rationalize observed property changes based on the range of agglomerate structures that can form in mixtures of large and small particles. Results are discussed in the content of the processing of nuclear waste sludges, but are applicable to a wide range of bimodal suspensions.

  13. Some physicochemical and rheological properties of starch isolated from avocado seeds.

    PubMed

    Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Barbosa-Martín, Enrique; Martínez-Antonio, Agustino; González-Mondragón, Edith; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2016-05-01

    Seeds from avocado (Persea americana Miller) fruit are a waste byproduct of fruit processing. Starch from avocado seed is a potential alternative starch source. Two different extraction solvents were used to isolate starch from avocado seeds, functional and rheological characteristics measured for these starches, and comparisons made to maize starch. Avocado seed powder was suspended in a solution containing 2 mM Tris, 7.5 mM NaCl and 80 mM NaHSO3 (solvent A) or sodium bisulphite solution (1500 ppm SO2, solvent B). Solvent type had no influence (p>0.05) on starch properties. Amylose content was 15-16%. Gelatinization temperature range was 56-74 °C, peak temperature was 65.7 °C, and transition enthalpy was 11.4-11.6J/g. At 90 °C, solubility was 19-20%, swelling power 28-30 g water/g starch, and water absorption capacity was 22-24 g water/g starch. Pasting properties were initial temperature 72 °C; maximum viscosity 380-390 BU; breakdown -2 BU; consistency 200 BU; and setback 198 BU. Avocado seed starch dispersions (5% w/v) were characterized as viscoelastic systems, with G'>G″. Avocado seed starch has potential applications as a thickening and gelling agent in food systems, as a vehicle in pharmaceutical systems and an ingredient in biodegradable polymers for food packaging.

  14. Rheology, structure, and properties of new phosphate glass/polymer hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urman, Kevin Leonard

    Physical modification of structure and properties via polymer blending and reinforcement is a common practice in the plastics industry and has a large economic advantage over synthesizing new polymeric materials to fulfill new material needs. Despite the large amount of interest in polymer blends and composites, the currently available commercial materials cannot satisfy the growing need for new advanced materials. This need is being addressed in part by inorganic/organic hybrid materials. By blending low-TG phosphate glasses with polymeric materials, a new class of inorganic/organic hybrids can be created. These hybrids can be processed conventionally with glass loadings of up to 60% by volume or 90% by weight, making it possible to obtain significant improvements in properties that are impossible to achieve from classical polymer blends and composites. This class of inorganic/organic hybrids containing both the inorganic low-TG phosphate glass (Pglass) and the organic polymer are very unique materials because both hybrid components are fluid during processing. Thereby, providing the ability to tailor both the hybrid morphology and properties in unprecedented ways through carefully controlled processing. This dissertation discusses the continuing research into low-Tg tin fluorophosphate glass blended with commodity resins. The specific resins of interest are low density polyethylene (LDPE), polyamide 12, and polyamide 6. The shear rheology and the extensional flow characteristics of LDPE hybrids were studied to understand hybrid behavior under flow characteristics typical of many polymer processing techniques. The elongational flow was also utilized to generate unique morphologies, enhance crystallinity, and to alter polymer chain orientation. The extension of this field into interacting commodity resins like polyamide 12 and polyamide 6 yielded new hybrids with unprecedented properties. Polyamide 12 hybrids were used to build the first processing/structure/property

  15. Effect of trisodium citrate on rheological and physical properties and microstructure of yogurt.

    PubMed

    Ozcan-Yilsay, T; Lee, W-J; Horne, D; Lucey, J A

    2007-04-01

    The effect of trisodium citrate (TSC) on the rheological and physical properties and microstructure of yogurt was investigated. Reconstituted skim milk was heated at 85 degrees C for 30 min, and various concentrations (5 to 40 mM) of TSC were added to the milk, which was then readjusted to pH 6.50. Milk was inoculated with 2% yogurt culture and incubated at 42 degrees C until pH was 4.6. Acid-base titration was used to determine changes in the state of colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) in milk. Total and soluble Ca contents of the milk were determined. The storage modulus (G') and loss tangent (LT) values of yogurts were measured as a function of pH using dynamic oscillatory rheology. Large deformation rheological properties were also measured. Microstructure of yogurt was observed using confocal scanning laser microscopy, and whey separation was also determined. Addition of TSC reduced casein-bound Ca and increased the solubilization of CCP. The G' value of gels significantly increased with addition of low levels of TSC, and highest G' values were observed in samples with 10 to 20 mM TSC; higher (> 20 mM) TSC concentrations resulted in a large decrease in G' values. The LT of yogurts increased after gelation to attain a maximum at pH approximately 5.1, but no maximum was observed in yogurts made with > or = 25 mM of TSC because CCP was completely dissolved prior to gelation. Partial removal of CCP resulted in an increase in the LT value at pH 5.1. At low TSC levels, the removal of CCP crosslinks may have facilitated greater rearrangement and molecular mobility of the micelle structure, which may have helped to increase G' and LT values of gels by increasing the formation of crosslinks between strands. At high TSC concentrations the micelles were completely disrupted and CCP crosslinks were dissolved, both of which resulted in very weak yogurt gels with large pores obvious in confocal micrographs. Gelation pH and yield stress significantly decreased with the use of

  16. Influence of hydrodynamic cavitation on the rheological properties and microstructure of formulated Greek-style yogurts.

    PubMed

    Meletharayil, G H; Metzger, L E; Patel, Hasmukh A

    2016-11-01

    of cavitation that can influence final textural properties of the product, make this technology promising for large-scale industrial application. Overall, the current set of experiments employed in the manufacture of GSY, which included the use of TMPC as a protein source in conjunction with hydrodynamic cavitation, could help achieve comparable titratable acidity values, rheological properties, and microstructure to that of a commercial strained Greek yogurt.

  17. Effect of Crumb Rubber and Warm Mix Additives on Asphalt Aging, Rheological, and Failure Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Prashant

    Asphalt-rubber mixtures have been shown to have useful properties with respect to distresses observed in asphalt concrete pavements. The most notable change in properties is a large increase in viscosity and improved low-temperature cracking resistance. Warm mix additives can lower production and compaction temperatures. Lower temperatures reduce harmful emissions and lower energy consumption, and thus provide environmental benefits and cut costs. In this study, the effects of crumb rubber modification on various asphalts such as California Valley, Boscan, Alaska North Slope, Laguna and Cold Lake were also studied. The materials used for warm mix modification were obtained from various commercial sources. The RAF binder was produced by Imperial Oil in their Nanticoke, Ontario, refinery on Lake Erie. A second commercial PG 52-34 (hereafter denoted as NER) was obtained/sampled during the construction of a northern Ontario MTO contract. Some regular tests such as Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) and Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR), Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) and some modified new protocols such as the extended BBR test (LS-308) and the Double-Edge Notched Tension (DENT) test (LS-299) are used to study, the effect of warm mix and a host of other additives on rheological, aging and failure properties. A comparison in the properties of RAF and NER asphalts has also been made as RAF is good quality asphalt and NER is bad quality asphalt. From the studies the effect of additives on chemical and physical hardening tendencies was found to be significant. The asphalt samples tested in this study showed a range of tendencies for chemical and physical hardening.

  18. Effects of Pressure, Temperature, Treatment Time, and Storage on Rheological, Textural, and Structural Properties of Heat-Induced Chickpea Gels.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, María Dolores; Fuentes, Raúl; Canet, Wenceslao

    2015-04-15

    Pressure-induced gelatinization of chickpea flour (CF) was studied in combination with subsequent temperature-induced gelatinization. CF slurries (with 1:5 flour-to-water ratio) and CF in powder form were treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), temperature (T), and treatment time (t) at three levels (200, 400, 600 MPa; 10, 25, 50 °C; 5, 15, 25 min). In order to investigate the effect of storage (S), half of the HHP-treated CF slurries were immediately analyzed for changes in oscillatory rheological properties under isothermal heating at 75 °C for 15 min followed by cooling to 25 °C. The other half of the HHP-treated CF slurries were refrigerated (at 4 °C) for one week and subsequently analyzed for changes in oscillatory properties under the same heating conditions as the unrefrigerated samples. HHP-treated CF in powder form was analyzed for changes in textural properties of heat-induced CF gels under isothermal heating at 90 °C for 5 min and subsequent cooling to 25 °C. Structural changes during gelatinization were investigated using microscopy. Pressure had a more significant effect on rheological and textural properties, followed by T and treatment t (in that order). Gel aging in HHP-treated CF slurries during storage was supported by rheological measurements.

  19. Rheological and Pasting Properties of Naked Barley Flour as Modified by Guar, Xanthan, and Locust Bean Gums

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sung-Jin; Lee, Youngseung; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2016-01-01

    To understand the effects of adding different gums (guar, xanthan, and locust bean gums) on naked barley flour (NBF), the rheological and pasting properties of NBF-gum mixtures were measured at different gum concentrations (0, 0.3, and 0.6% w/w). Steady shear rheological properties were determined by rheological parameters for power law and Casson models. All samples showed a clear trend of shear-thinning behavior (n=0.16~0.48) and had a non-Newtonian nature with yield stress. Consistency index, apparent viscosity, and yield stress values increased with an increase in gum concentration. Storage modulus values were more predominant than loss modulus values with all concentrations of gums. There is a more pronounced synergistic effect of elastic properties of NBF in the presence of xanthan gum. Rapid visco analyser pasting properties showed that the addition of gums resulted in a significant increase in the peak, breakdown, setback, and final viscosities, whereas the pasting temperature decreased. PMID:28078260

  20. Effects of Pressure, Temperature, Treatment Time, and Storage on Rheological, Textural, and Structural Properties of Heat-Induced Chickpea Gels

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, María Dolores; Fuentes, Raúl; Canet, Wenceslao

    2015-01-01

    Pressure-induced gelatinization of chickpea flour (CF) was studied in combination with subsequent temperature-induced gelatinization. CF slurries (with 1:5 flour-to-water ratio) and CF in powder form were treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), temperature (T), and treatment time (t) at three levels (200, 400, 600 MPa; 10, 25, 50 °C; 5, 15, 25 min). In order to investigate the effect of storage (S), half of the HHP-treated CF slurries were immediately analyzed for changes in oscillatory rheological properties under isothermal heating at 75 °C for 15 min followed by cooling to 25 °C. The other half of the HHP-treated CF slurries were refrigerated (at 4 °C) for one week and subsequently analyzed for changes in oscillatory properties under the same heating conditions as the unrefrigerated samples. HHP-treated CF in powder form was analyzed for changes in textural properties of heat-induced CF gels under isothermal heating at 90 °C for 5 min and subsequent cooling to 25 °C. Structural changes during gelatinization were investigated using microscopy. Pressure had a more significant effect on rheological and textural properties, followed by T and treatment t (in that order). Gel aging in HHP-treated CF slurries during storage was supported by rheological measurements. PMID:28231191

  1. Rheological and Pasting Properties of Naked Barley Flour as Modified by Guar, Xanthan, and Locust Bean Gums.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sung-Jin; Lee, Youngseung; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2016-12-01

    To understand the effects of adding different gums (guar, xanthan, and locust bean gums) on naked barley flour (NBF), the rheological and pasting properties of NBF-gum mixtures were measured at different gum concentrations (0, 0.3, and 0.6% w/w). Steady shear rheological properties were determined by rheological parameters for power law and Casson models. All samples showed a clear trend of shear-thinning behavior (n=0.16~0.48) and had a non-Newtonian nature with yield stress. Consistency index, apparent viscosity, and yield stress values increased with an increase in gum concentration. Storage modulus values were more predominant than loss modulus values with all concentrations of gums. There is a more pronounced synergistic effect of elastic properties of NBF in the presence of xanthan gum. Rapid visco analyser pasting properties showed that the addition of gums resulted in a significant increase in the peak, breakdown, setback, and final viscosities, whereas the pasting temperature decreased.

  2. Estimation of rheological properties in an extrusion process using in-line fiber-optic Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Vedula, S.; Hansen, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    Poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) (EVA) is a very common polymer used in hot melt adhesives. In this work, in-line monitoring of the rheological properties, e.g., melt flow index (MI), storage (G{prime}) modulus, loss modulus (G{double_prime}) and complex viscosity ({eta}{sup *}), of these copolymers in an extrusion process, using fiber-optic NIR spectroscopy is demonstrated. Shear and pressure effects on the molten polymer during extrusion, allow extraction of information about MI from the NIR absorption spectra. Calibration models built on spectra in the C-H first overtone wavelength region (1620-1840 nm), yield very good predictions for these properties. Results of simultaneous real-time monitoring of composition and the rheological parameters shall be discussed in detail. In-line monitoring is desired for its numerous advantages e.g., lower waste, lower developmental cycle time and lower costs.

  3. Self-assembly of cationic multidomain peptide hydrogels: supramolecular nanostructure and rheological properties dictate antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Linhai; Xu, Dawei; Sellati, Timothy J.; Dong, He

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogels are an important class of biomaterials that have been widely utilized for a variety of biomedical/medical applications. The biological performance of hydrogels, particularly those used as wound dressing could be greatly advanced if imbued with inherent antimicrobial activity capable of staving off colonization of the wound site by opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Possessing such antimicrobial properties would also protect the hydrogel itself from being adversely affected by microbial attachment to its surface. We have previously demonstrated the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of supramolecular assemblies of cationic multi-domain peptides (MDPs) in solution. Here, we extend the 1-D soluble supramolecular assembly to 3-D hydrogels to investigate the effect of the supramolecular nanostructure and its rheological properties on the antimicrobial activity of self-assembled hydrogels. Among designed MDPs, the bactericidal activity of peptide hydrogels was found to follow an opposite trend to that in solution. Improved antimicrobial activity of self-assembled peptide hydrogels is dictated by the combined effect of supramolecular surface chemistry and storage modulus of the bulk materials, rather than the ability of individual peptides/peptide assemblies to penetrate bacterial cell membrane as observed in solution. The structure-property-activity relationship developed through this study will provide important guidelines for designing biocompatible peptide hydrogels with built-in antimicrobial activity for various biomedical applications.Hydrogels are an important class of biomaterials that have been widely utilized for a variety of biomedical/medical applications. The biological performance of hydrogels, particularly those used as wound dressing could be greatly advanced if imbued with inherent antimicrobial activity capable of staving off colonization of the wound site by opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Possessing such antimicrobial properties would

  4. Effects of reducing fat content on the proteolytic and rheological properties of Cheddar-like caprine milk cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-moisture Cheddar-like cheeses made from caprine milk containing 3.6, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.1-0.5% fat were manufactured and their proteolytic and rheological properties compared after 1, 3, and 6 mo of aging at 4 deg C. The full-fat (FF), reduced fat (RF), low-fat (LF), and non-fat (NF) cheeses conta...

  5. Application of an Aspergillus saitoi protease preparation to soybean curd to modify its functional and rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Nishinoaki, Mizuho; Asakura, Tomiko; Watanabe, Tomomi; Kunizaki, Etsuko; Matsumoto, Mami; Eto, Wakako; Tamura, Tomoko; Minami, Michiko; Obata, Akio; Abe, Keiko; Funaki, Junko

    2008-02-01

    An Aspergillus saitoi protease preparation, Molsin, was found to contain beta-glucosidase as well as protease activities. Application of Molsin to soybean curd improved its functionality by converting the contained isoflavone glycosides to their aglycones through beta-glucosidase, and also modified the rheological property into a creamy consistency through protease. The enzymatically modified soybean curd was characterized by a ductility flow having no particular rupture point.

  6. Rheological properties and sugar composition of locust bean gum from different carob varieties (Ceratonia siliqua L.).

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Valeria; Tomaselli, Filippo; Gentile, Alessandra; La Malfa, Stefano; Maccarone, Emanuele

    2004-12-29

    The seeds of the main Italian carob varieties, Latinissima and Tantillo, and those of two selected accessions of Latinissima were evaluated in terms of yield, rheological properties, and sugar composition of the endosperm (LBG). The separation of the seed components in Latinissima and its seedlings yielded meanly 52.2% gum, 17.4% germ, and 30.5% tegument, whereas Tantillo furnished a lower gum yield (38.5%) and a higher yield of tegument (45.8%). The viscosity of 1% LBG aqueous solutions was measured at different shear rates (3-60 rpm), pH values (3.0-6.0), and temperatures (10-60 degrees C). The best results were shown by Latinissima, whereas Tantillo provided always the poorest thickening capacity. The content of free simple sugars and sucrose in the raw flours, the total monosaccharide residues after acidic hydrolysis, the mannose/galactose ratio, and the distribution of polysaccharides by size exclusion chromatography accounted for the observed viscosities. The seeds of Latinissima showed the highest technological potential.

  7. Rheological Properties and Electrospinnability of High-Amylose Starch in Formic Acid.

    PubMed

    Lancuški, Anica; Vasilyev, Gleb; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Zussman, Eyal

    2015-08-10

    Starch derivatives, such as starch-esters, are commonly used as alternatives to pure starch due to their enhanced mechanical properties. However, simple and efficient processing routes are still being sought out. In the present article, we report on a straightforward method for electrospinning high-amylose starch-formate nanofibers from 17 wt % aqueous formic acid (FA) dispersions. The diameter of the electrospun starch-formate fibers ranged from 80 to 300 nm. The electrospinnability window between starch gelatinization and phase separation was determined using optical microscopy and rheological studies. This window was shown to strongly depend on the water content in the FA dispersions. While pure FA rapidly gelatinized starch, yielding solutions suitable for electrospinning within a few hours at room temperature, the presence of water (80 and 90 vol % FA) significantly delayed gelatinization and dissolution, which deteriorated fiber quality. A complete destabilization of the electrospinning process was observed in 70 vol % FA dispersions. Optical micrographs showed that FA induced a disruption of starch granule with a loss of crystallinity confirmed by X-ray diffraction. As a result, starch fiber mats exhibited a higher elongation at break when compared to brittle starch films.

  8. Dissolution of unmodified waxy starch in ionic liquid and solution rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiqing; Budtova, Tatiana

    2013-03-01

    Dissolution of waxy corn starch in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAc) was qualitatively studied and compared with gelatinisation process in water. The rheological properties of starch-EMIMAc solutions were investigated in dilute and semi-dilute regions, from 0.1 to 10 wt% over temperature range from 20 °C to 100 °C. The values of zero shear viscosity were obtained by applying Carreau-Yasuda model to shear-thinning flow curves and plotted vs. polymer concentration. Power law exponents in viscosity-concentration dependence in semi-dilute region were compared with the ones reported previously for microcrystalline cellulose. Intrinsic viscosity was obtained as a function of temperature and compared with the one of microcrystalline cellulose; starch was found to be much less temperature sensitive than cellulose. Amylopectin overlap concentration in EMIMAc was compared with the one in water and 0.5 M NaOH-water. Based on these comparisons it was suggested that starch conformation in EMIMAc is similar to the one in water (compact ellipsoid). The activation energy was calculated for starch-EMIMAc solutions and demonstrated to obey power-law concentration dependence.

  9. In vitro digestibility, physicochemical, thermal and rheological properties of banana starches.

    PubMed

    Utrilla-Coello, R G; Rodríguez-Huezo, M E; Carrillo-Navas, H; Hernández-Jaimes, C; Vernon-Carter, E J; Alvarez-Ramirez, J

    2014-01-30

    Banana starches (BS) were isolated from Enano, Morado, Valery and Macho cultivars. The BS possessed B-type crystallinity and an amylose content varying from 19.32 to 26.35%. Granules had an oval morphology with different major-to-minor axis ratios, exhibiting both mono- and bi-modal distributions and mean particle sizes varying from 32.5 to 45 μm. BS displayed zeta-potential values ranging between -32.25 and -17.32 mV, and formed gels of incipient to moderate stability. The enthalpy of gelatinization of BS affected the crystalline order stability within the granules. In-vitro digestibility tests showed fractions as high as 68% of resistant starch. Rheological oscillatory tests at 1 Hz showed that BS dispersions (7.0%, w/w) exhibited Type III behaviour, attributed to the formation of a continuous phase complex three-dimensional amylose gel reinforced by swollen starch granules acting as fillers. Amylose content and granules morphology were the main factors influencing the BS properties.

  10. Investigation of thermal conductivity and rheological properties of nanofluids containing graphene nanoplatelets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, stable homogeneous graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) nanofluids were prepared without any surfactant by high-power ultrasonic (probe) dispersion of GNPs in distilled water. The concentrations of nanofluids were maintained at 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1 wt.% for three different specific surface areas of 300, 500, and 750 m2/g. Transmission electron microscopy image shows that the suspensions are homogeneous and most of the materials have been well dispersed. The stability of nanofluid was investigated using a UV-visible spectrophotometer in a time span of 600 h, and zeta potential after dispersion had been investigated to elucidate its role on dispersion characteristics. The rheological properties of GNP nanofluids approach Newtonian and non-Newtonian behaviors where viscosity decreases linearly with the rise of temperature. The thermal conductivity results show that the dispersed nanoparticles can always enhance the thermal conductivity of the base fluid, and the highest enhancement was obtained to be 27.64% in the concentration of 0.1 wt.% of GNPs with a specific surface area of 750 m2/g. Electrical conductivity of the GNP nanofluids shows a significant enhancement by dispersion of GNPs in distilled water. This novel type of nanofluids shows outstanding potential for replacements as advanced heat transfer fluids in medium temperature applications including solar collectors and heat exchanger systems. PMID:24410867

  11. Rheological properties of a polysaccharide from floral mushrooms cultivated in Huangshan Mountain.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin-Long; Zhang, Jing-Cheng; Liu, Yong; Sun, Han-Ju; Wang, Jun-Hui

    2016-03-30

    A polysaccharide fraction (FMPS) was isolated from floral mushrooms cultivated in Huangshan Mountain, and the rheological properties of FMPS in aqueous solutions were investigated. The FMPS solution showed shear-thinning behavior at 25°C. Dynamic viscoelastic tests revealed that G' and G″ exhibited strong dependences on the concentration and temperature. The FMPS/water system exhibited sol and weak gel behavior with the change of concentration and temperature. The exponent n of G'∼ω(n) and tan δ also exhibited strong dependences on the concentration and temperature. The gel point (cgel) of FMPS solution was 1.16×10(-2)g/mL at 15°C, and the Tgel of 1.4×10(-2)g/mL FMPS solution was 20.6°C. Dynamic frequency sweep measurements indicated that the FMPS gel system was stable in the selected range of frequency. The heating-cooling process proved that the sol-gel transition of FMPS in aqueous solutions was thermally reversible.

  12. Effect of d-allulose on rheological properties of chicken breast sausage.

    PubMed

    Hadipernata, M; Ogawa, M; Hayakawa, S

    2016-09-01

    d-Allulose (Alu), a rare sugar, was applied to chicken breast sausage as a sucrose (Suc) substitute. The ratio (w/w) of Alu to Suc in sugar that was added to the sausage batter was 0/1 (A0S1), 3/7 (A3S7), 7/3 (A7S3), and 1/0 (A1S0). The total amount of Suc used was 2.5% of the weight of minced chicken breast meat. Substituting Suc with Alu did not affect water content, cooking loss, breaking stress, breaking strain, and modulus of elasticity of chicken breast sausage, but a 100% substitution with Alu caused a 10% decrease in viscosity and a 31% decrease in expressible water. A significant difference appeared in the rheological properties of elasticity, viscosity, and water-holding capacity of chicken breast sausage frozen-stored (-20°C) for 90 d. Particularly, the modulus of elasticity for A1S0 chicken breast sausage was 19% higher than that of the control A0S1 chicken breast sausage, suggesting that Alu appreciably reduced the deterioration in elasticity that is caused by long-term frozen storage of sausage. The quality improvement of frozen-stored chicken breast sausage demonstrates the feasibility and benefits of the application of Alu to frozen foods.

  13. Evolution of Globular Microstructure and Rheological Properties of Stellite™ 21 Alloy after Heating to Semisolid State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sołek, Krzysztof Piotr; Rogal, Łukasz; Kapranos, Platon

    2017-01-01

    Metal alloys can be successfully thixoformed in the partially liquid state if they display non-dendritic near-globular microstructures. The article presents the development of feedstock with such non-dendritic microstructure produced through the solid-state route of strain-induced melt-activated (SIMA) method, for a Stellite ™ 21 alloy. Stellite ™ alloys are a range of cobalt-chromium alloys designed for wear and corrosion resistance, currently shaped by casting, powder metallurgy or forging processes, but semisolid-state processing offers the possibility of a near-net-shaping method for these alloys. In this work, sprayformed followed by extrusion samples were heated to the temperature range at which the liquid and solid phases coexist in the material and spheroidal shape solid particles in a liquid matrix were obtained as required for semisolid processing. Microstructural investigations were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in combination with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), with a further objective of analyzing the rheological properties of Stellite ™ 21 alloy in the semisolid state, providing results to be used for identification of a processing window of temperature and viscosity ranges for thixoforming this alloy.

  14. Optimization of the rheological properties of epoxy resins for glass and carbon reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phyo Maung, Pyi; Malysheva, G.; Romanova, I.

    2016-10-01

    Vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM) offers advantages such as simplicity, low cost of consumables, and the ability to carry out the impregnation process and curing without using expensive equipment and tooling. In the VARTM process, rheological properties of resin have a critical impact on the impregnation and curing process. In this article, the experimental results of viscosity are presented, including the glass transition temperature, and the tensile and bending strength of the epoxy binders with the amine hardener, which depend on the quantity of its active solvent composition. The active solvent used is diethylene glycol. It shows that for an increase in the content of the active solvent, a reduction in the viscosity and a reduction of the glass transition temperature and strength occurs. The optimum composition of the binder is selected by using the Pareto optimization criteria and the Cayley - Smorodinskaya method. By using the epoxy binder, the active solvent should not exceed 10-15% by weight. This approach helps to optimize the amount of active solvent added to the epoxy resins for the criterion of viscosity, strength, and heat resistance.

  15. Textural, Rheological and Sensory Properties and Oxidative Stability of Nut Spreads—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shakerardekani, Ahmad; Karim, Roselina; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd; Chin, Nyuk Ling

    2013-01-01

    Tree nuts are rich in macro and micronutrients, phytochemicals, tocopherols and phenolic compounds. The development of nut spreads would potentially increase the food uses of nuts and introduce consumers with a healthier, non-animal breakfast snack food. Nut spreads are spreadable products made from nuts that are ground into paste. Roasting and milling (particle size reduction) are two important stages for the production of nut spreads that affected the textural, rheological characteristic and overall quality of the nut spread. Textural, color, and flavor properties of nut spreads play a major role in consumer appeal, buying decisions and eventual consumption. Stability of nut spreads is influenced by its particle size. Proper combination of ingredients (nut paste, sweetener, vegetable oil and protein sources) is also required to ensure a stable nut spread product is produced. Most of the nut spreads behaved like a non-Newtonian pseudo-plastic fluid under yield stress which help the producers how to start pumping and stirring of the nut spreads. Similar to other high oil content products, nut spreads are susceptible to autoxidation. Their oxidation can be controlled by application of antioxidants, using processing techniques that minimize tocopherol and other natural antioxidant losses. PMID:23429239

  16. The rheological properties of bamboo cellulose pulp/ionic liquid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. F.; Zhang, P. R.; Wu, J.; Jia, Q. X.; Liu, X. Y.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, two kinds of spinning solutions were prepared by dissolving bamboo cellulose pulp into 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazole chloride salt ([EMIM] Cl) and 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazole diethyl phosphate salt ([BMIM]DEP) ionic liquids, respectively. Furthermore, the rotational rheometer was used to test the steady-state rheological properties of above as-prepared spinning solutions. The research results show that both of these two ionic liquids exhibit better solubility to the bamboo cellulose pulp. The apparent viscosities(ηa) decrease with the increased temperature(T) and shear rate(γ) and increase with the increased concentration. The non-Newtonian index(n) declined with the increase of both shear rate and concentration, as well as increased with the build-up temperature. The structural viscosity index(Δη) increased with the increased concentration and tended to decrease with temperature rise. Meanwhile, viscous flow activation energy(Eη) decreases with the increased share rate as well as the concentration. According to the results, it can be seen that the bamboo cellulose pulp/[EMIM]Cl with the concentration of 6% at 70°C exhibits better spinnability.

  17. Relationship between physical properties of casein micelles and rheology of skim milk concentrate.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, A O; Ipsen, R; Schrader, K; Ardö, Y

    2005-11-01

    The properties of casein micelles in milk concentrates are of interest for the use of ultrafiltered (UF) skim milk concentrates in dairy products, and for the general understanding of colloidal stability and behavior of the casein micelle. The rheological behavior of UF skim milk concentrate with a casein concentration of 19.5% (wt/wt) was investigated at different pH and NaCl concentrations by analyzing flow viscometry and small amplitude oscillatory shear measurements. Viscometric flow curves were fitted to the Carreau-Yasuda model with the aim of determining values for the viscosity at infinite high shear rates and thereby estimate the voluminosity of the casein micelles (nu(casein)) in the UF concentrate. The voluminosity of the casein micelles increased with addition of NaCl and decreased when pH was decreased from 6.5 to 5.5. At pH 5.2, nu(casein) increased because of acid-induced aggregation of the casein micelles. The changes in nu(casein) could be interpreted from transmission electron microscopy of freeze-fractured samples of the UF concentrate and partly from dynamic light scattering measurements. Altered interactions between casein micelles due to different pH and NaCl concentrations are proposed to occur due to collapse of the kappa-casein layer, changed ionic strength, and altered distance between casein micelles.

  18. The changes in serum and whole blood rheological properties of rabbits during the progression of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    K Abdelhalim, Mohamed Anwar; Al-Ayed, Mohammed Suliman; Abdelmottaleb Moussa, Sherif A; Al-Mohy, Yanallah Hussain

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the role of zinc (Zn)-supplemented with high cholesterol diet (HCD) on the serum and whole blood rheological properties of rabbits fed a HCD. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three groups. The HCD group was fed a diet with 1.0% cholesterol and 1.0% olive oil. The HCD + Zn group was fed a diet with 1.0% cholesterol, 1.0% olive oil, and Zn. Blood viscosity, shear stress, and torque (%) were measured at shear rates ranging from 225 to 1875 s-1 for serum and 75-900 s-1 for whole blood. Serum viscosity and shear stress in HCD rabbits were significantly higher at all shear rates compared to controls; while whole blood viscosity and shear stress in HCD rabbits were significantly lower at all shear rates compared to controls. Viscosity and shear stress in both serum and whole blood from rabbits in the HCD + Zn group returned to normal values at all shear rates. The Zn supplemented to HCD rabbits, delays the progression of atherosclerosis. Changes in blood serum viscosity could reflect changes in non-clotting proteins, glucose, nutrients and trace elements; while changes in whole blood viscosity could result from changes in hematocrit, hemoglobin, and erythrocyte count. One of the factors responsible for increasing the serum viscosity values of HCD rabbits might be attributed to increase in Fe and decrease in Zn levels in the blood serum.

  19. Rheological, mechanical and degradable properties of injectable chitosan/silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite/glycerophosphate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingjing; Liu, Jiaoyan; Shi, Yanmei; Wan, Ying

    2016-12-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were incorporated into chitosan/glycerophosphate (GP) system to prepare new types of hydrogels. The formulated chitosan/SF/GP and chitosan/SF/HA/GP solutions were found to be injectable at room temperature, and able to form into hydrogels at near-physiological temperature and pH. Rheological measurements showed that elastic modulus of certain chitosan/SF/GP and chitosan/SF/HA/GP gels could reach around 1.8 and 15kPa, respectively, and was much higher than their respective viscous modulus. Compressive measurements revealed that some chitosan/SF/GP and chitosan/SF/HA/GP gels had 8 and 20-fold modulus and strength higher than the chitosan/GP gel, respectively, confirming that compressive properties of these gels were greatly improved. Results obtained from in vivo degradation demonstrated that degradation endurance of the optimized chitosan/SF/GP and chitosan/SF/HA/GP gels was significantly enhanced as compared to the chitosan/GP gel, and the degradation rate of the gels could be regulated by the SF component alone or by the combination of SF and HA components.

  20. Rheological properties and formation mechanism of DC electric fields induced konjac glucomannan-tungsten gels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lixia; Jiang, Yaoping; Lin, Youhui; Pang, Jie; Liu, Xiang Yang

    2016-05-20

    Konjac glucomannan-tungsten (KGM-T) hydrogel of electrochemical reversibility was successfully produced under DC electric fields in the presence of sodium tungstate. The structure and the effects of sodium tungstate concentration, KGM concentration, voltage and electric processing time on the rheological properties of the gels were investigated. pH experiments showed that KGM sol containing Na2WO4·2H2O in the vicinity of the positive electrode became acidic and the negative electrode basic after the application of DC electric fields. Under acid conditions, WO4(2-) ions transformed into isopoly-tungstic acid ions. FTIR and Raman studies indicated that isopoly-tungstic acid ions absorbed on KGM molecular chain and cross-linked with -OH groups at C-6 position on sugar units of KGM. Frequency sweep data showed with increasing sodium tungstate concentration, voltage, and electric processing time, the viscoelastic moduli, i.e., the storage and the loss moduli of the gel increased, whereas an increase in KGM concentration led to a decrease in gel viscoelastic moduli. The temperature sweep measurements indicated the obtained gel exhibited high thermal stability. Finally, the mechanism of gel formation was proposed. Our work may pave the way to use DC electric fields for the design and development of KGM gels as well as polysaccharide gels.

  1. Investigation of thermal conductivity and rheological properties of nanofluids containing graphene nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Mehrali, Mohammad; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Latibari, Sara Tahan; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Mehrali, Mehdi; Zubir, Mohd Nashrul Bin Mohd; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis

    2014-01-13

    In the present study, stable homogeneous graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) nanofluids were prepared without any surfactant by high-power ultrasonic (probe) dispersion of GNPs in distilled water. The concentrations of nanofluids were maintained at 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1 wt.% for three different specific surface areas of 300, 500, and 750 m2/g. Transmission electron microscopy image shows that the suspensions are homogeneous and most of the materials have been well dispersed. The stability of nanofluid was investigated using a UV-visible spectrophotometer in a time span of 600 h, and zeta potential after dispersion had been investigated to elucidate its role on dispersion characteristics. The rheological properties of GNP nanofluids approach Newtonian and non-Newtonian behaviors where viscosity decreases linearly with the rise of temperature. The thermal conductivity results show that the dispersed nanoparticles can always enhance the thermal conductivity of the base fluid, and the highest enhancement was obtained to be 27.64% in the concentration of 0.1 wt.% of GNPs with a specific surface area of 750 m2/g. Electrical conductivity of the GNP nanofluids shows a significant enhancement by dispersion of GNPs in distilled water. This novel type of nanofluids shows outstanding potential for replacements as advanced heat transfer fluids in medium temperature applications including solar collectors and heat exchanger systems.

  2. The effect of spherical nanoparticles on rheological properties of bi-dispersed magnetorheological fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Kannappan, K. Thiruppathi; Laherisheth, Zarana; Parekh, Kinnari; Upadhyay, R. V.

    2015-06-24

    In the present investigation, the rheological properties of bi-dispersed magnetorheological (MR) fluid based on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanosphere and microsphere of iron particles are experimentally investigated. The MR fluid is prepared by substituting nanosphere of 40nm Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles in MR fluids having microsphere iron particles (7-8 μm). Three different weight fractions (0%, 1% and 3%) of nanosphere-microsphere MR fluids are synthesized. In the absence of the magnetic field, substitution of magnetic nanosphere decreases the viscosity lower than without substituted sample at high as well as low shear rate. Upon the application of the magnetic field, the particles align along the direction of the field, which promotes the yield stress. Here too the yield stress value decreases with magnetic nanosphere substitution. This behaviour is explain based on the inter-particle interaction as well as formation of nanosphere cloud around the magnetic microsphere, which effectively reduces the viscosity and works as weak point when chains are formed. Variation of dynamic yield stress with magnetic field is explained using microscopic model. In any event such fluid does not sediment and is not abrasive so it could be useful if not too high yield stress is needed.

  3. Evolution of Globular Microstructure and Rheological Properties of Stellite™ 21 Alloy after Heating to Semisolid State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sołek, Krzysztof Piotr; Rogal, Łukasz; Kapranos, Platon

    2016-11-01

    Metal alloys can be successfully thixoformed in the partially liquid state if they display non-dendritic near-globular microstructures. The article presents the development of feedstock with such non-dendritic microstructure produced through the solid-state route of strain-induced melt-activated (SIMA) method, for a Stellite™ 21 alloy. Stellite™ alloys are a range of cobalt-chromium alloys designed for wear and corrosion resistance, currently shaped by casting, powder metallurgy or forging processes, but semisolid-state processing offers the possibility of a near-net-shaping method for these alloys. In this work, sprayformed followed by extrusion samples were heated to the temperature range at which the liquid and solid phases coexist in the material and spheroidal shape solid particles in a liquid matrix were obtained as required for semisolid processing. Microstructural investigations were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in combination with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), with a further objective of analyzing the rheological properties of Stellite™ 21 alloy in the semisolid state, providing results to be used for identification of a processing window of temperature and viscosity ranges for thixoforming this alloy.

  4. Study and modeling of the rheological properties of concentrated water-in-oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Koroleva, M.Yu.; Yurtov, E.V.

    1994-07-01

    Study of the rheological curves of concentrated water-in-oil emulsions indicates that such systems behave like non-Newtonian pseudo-plastic liquids. A number of mathematical models for rheological curves: Chong, Frankel-Acrivos, Ostwald-Weil, Bingham, Stainer, Ferry, Haven, Ellis, and Meter models are considered. The regions of the model adequacy for rheological curves of emulsions with different contents of the dispersed phase are determined. It was shown that only the Ellis model adequately describes the complete rheological curves of concentrated water-in-oil emulsions of the studied composition. Therefore, this model can be applied to the prediction of the viscosity values for emulsions with various phase ratios.

  5. GO/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposites: effect of different dispersing agents on rheological, thermal, wettability and electrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Giuri, Antonella; Masi, Sofia; Colella, Silvia; Listorti, Andrea; Rizzo, Aurora; Liscio, Andrea; Treossi, Emanuele; Palermo, Vincenzo; Gigli, Giuseppe; Mele, Claudio; Esposito Corcione, Carola

    2017-04-28

    In this work glucose (G), α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCNa) are used as dispersing agents for graphene oxide (GO), exploring the influence of both saccharide units and geometric/steric hindrance on the rheological, thermal, wettability and electrochemical properties of a GO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) nanocomposite. By acting on the saccharide-based additives, we can modulate the rheological, thermal, and wettability properties of the GO/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite. Firstly, the influence of all the additives on the rheological behaviour of GO and PEDOT:PSS was investigated separately in order to understand the effect of the dispersing agent on both the components of the ternary nanocomposite, individually. Subsequently, steady shear and dynamic frequency tests were conducted on all the nanocomposite solutions, characterized by thermal, wettability and morphological analysis. Finally, the electrochemical properties of the GO/PEDOT composites with different dispersing agents for supercapacitors were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The CV results revealed that GO/PEDOT with glucose exhibited the highest specific capacitance among the systems investigated.

  6. Antimicrobial, Rheological, and Thermal Properties of Plasticized Polylactide Films Incorporated with Essential Oils to Inhibit Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Jasim; Hiremath, Nikhil; Jacob, Harsha

    2016-02-01

    Polylactide (PLA) is the most mature biobased and biodegradable polymer. Due to its inherent brittleness, the polymer cannot be used as a packaging material without plasticizer. An attempt was made to develop antimicrobial plasticized PLA film by incorporating polyethylene glycol (PEG) and 3 essential oils (EO), namely cinnamon, garlic, and clove by solvent casting method. Physical, thermal, and rheological properties of those films were evaluated for practical applications whereas the antimicrobial properties were tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter jejuni-pathogens related to poultry industry. Both PEG and EOs led to the formation of flexible PLA/PEG/EO films with significant drop in the glass transition temperature (Tg ), and mechanical property. Time-temperature superposition (TTS) principle was employed to melt rheology of EO-based films at selected temperature, and rheological moduli superimposed well in an extended frequency range. Among EOs, cinnamon and clove oil-based films (PLA/PEG/CIN and PLA/PEG/CLO) exhibited a complete zone of inhibition against C. jejuni at the maximum concentration (1.6 mL per 2 g PLA/PEG blend) whereas the garlic oil-based film (PLA/PEG/GAR) had the lowest activity.

  7. Interpreting attenuation at different excitation amplitudes to estimate strain-dependent interfacial rheological properties of lipid-coated monodisperse microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lang; Porter, Tyrone M; Sarkar, Kausik

    2015-12-01

    Broadband attenuation of ultrasound measured at different excitation pressures being different raises a serious theoretical concern, because the underlying assumption of linear and independent propagation of different frequency components nominally requires attenuation to be independent of excitation. Here, this issue is investigated by examining ultrasound attenuation through a monodisperse lipid-coated microbubble suspension measured at four different acoustic excitation amplitudes. The attenuation data are used to determine interfacial rheological properties (surface tension, surface dilatational elasticity, and surface dilatational viscosity) of the encapsulation according to three different models. Although different models result in similar rheological properties, attenuation measured at different excitation levels (4-110 kPa) leads to different values for them; the dilatation elasticity (0.56 to 0.18 N/m) and viscosity (2.4 × 10(-8) to 1.52 × 10(-8) Ns/m) both decrease with increasing pressure. Numerically simulating the scattered response, nonlinear energy transfer between frequencies are shown to be negligible, thereby demonstrating the linearity in propagation and validating the attenuation analysis. There is a second concern to the characterization arising from shell properties being dependent on excitation amplitude, which is not a proper constitutive variable. It is resolved by arriving at a strain-dependent rheology for the encapsulation. The limitations of the underlying analysis are discussed.

  8. Effect of Angum gum in combination with tragacanth gum on rheological and sensory properties of ketchup.

    PubMed

    Komeilyfard, Ahmadreza; Fazel, Mohammad; Akhavan, Hamidreza; Mousakhani Ganjeh, Alireza

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Angum gum (AnG) alone and in combination with tragacanth gum (TG) on the stability, texture, sensory, and rheological properties of tomato ketchup. AnG, TG, and Angum gum and tragacanth gum mixture (AnGT; 1:1 ratio) were added at levels of 0.5, 1, and 1.5%. Ten tomato ketchup formulations were produced: control (without hydrocolloid), AnG (0.5-1.5%), TG (0.5-1.5%), AnGT (0.5-1.5%). It was observed that the hydrocolloids addition to tomato ketchup significantly decreased the Bostwick consistency value and serum separation at 2200, 5000, and 8800 g. Textural properties of tomato ketchup by using back extrusion test and particle size analysis were significantly increased with hydrocolloid addition. All tomato ketchup formulations showed shear thinning behavior and the addition of hydrocolloids increased apparent viscosity. The power law and Herschel-Bulkley models were successfully fitted with experimental data. The flow behavior indices of Herschel-Bulkley and power law models were changed in the range of 0.19-0.24 and 0.14-0.30, respectively. The consistency coefficients of these models were in the range of 16.31-79.57 and 11.19-146.06 Pa s(n) , respectively. The storage modulus (G') of all tomato ketchups was higher than the loss modulus (G″). Hydrocolloid addition showed no significant effect on the color indices (L*, a*, b*, hue angle, chroma, and total color differences) of tomato ketchup. The overall acceptability of 1.5% AnG, 0.5% TG, 1 and 1.5% AnGT were significantly higher than other samples. Therefore, AnG can be used alone and in combination with TG as stabilizer in tomato ketchup.

  9. Rheological properties of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked collagen solutions analyzed quantitatively using mechanical models.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhenhua; Duan, Lian; Wu, Lei; Shen, Lirui; Li, Guoying

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the rheological behavior of collagen solutions crosslinked by various amounts of glutaraldehyde (GTA) [GTA/collagen (w/w)=0-0.1] is fundamental either to design optimized products or to ensure stable flow. Under steady shear, all the samples exhibited pseudoplasticity with shear-thinning behavior, and the flow curves were well described by Ostwald-de Waele model and Carreau model. With increased amounts of GTA, the viscosity increased from 6.15 to 168.54 Pa·s at 0.1s(-1), and the pseudoplasticity strengthened (the flow index decreased from 0.549 to 0.117). Additionally, hysteresis loops were evaluated to analyze the thixotropy of the native and crosslinked collagen solutions, and indicated that stronger thixotropic behavior was associated with higher amount of GTA. Furthermore, the values of apparent yield stress were negative, and a flow index <1 for all the systems obtained via Herschel-Bulkley model confirmed that the native and crosslinked collagen solutions belonged to pseudoplastic fluid without apparent yield stress. However, the increment of dynamic denaturation temperature determined by dynamic temperature sweep was not obvious. The viscoelastic properties were examined based on creep-recovery measurements and then simulated using Burger model and a semi-empirical model. The increase in the proportion of recoverable compliance (instantaneous and retardant compliance) reflected that the crosslinked collagen solutions were more resistant to the deformation and exhibited more elastic behavior than the native collagen solution, accompanied by the fact that the compliance value decreased from 39.317 to 0.152 Pa(-1) and the recovery percentage increased from 1.128% to 87.604%. These data indicated that adjusting the amount of GTA could be a suitable mean for manipulating mechanical properties of collagen-based biomaterials.

  10. Effects of erdosteine on sputum biochemical and rheologic properties: pharmacokinetics in chronic obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Marchioni, C F; Moretti, M; Muratori, M; Casadei, M C; Guerzoni, P; Scuri, R; Fregnan, G B

    1990-01-01

    Erdosteine is a new thioderivative endowed with mucokinetic, mucolytic, and free-radical-scavenging properties. This study evaluated (in a double-blind design vs. placebo) its efficacy on biochemical and rheologic properties of sputum and on some indices of respiratory function in chronic patients with chronic bronchitis (10 per group), while receiving basic treatment with a controlled-release theophylline preparation. The pharmacokinetics of erdosteine and theophylline were also studied. We found that a 2 week treatment with erdosteine (300 mg 3 times daily) was able to reduce significantly (p less than 0.05) the sputum apparent viscosity, fucose content, and macromolecular dry weight (MDW) with no statistically significant influence on sputum elasticity, DNA, albumin, total proteins, total IgA, lactoferrin, and lysozyme content. The treatment caused a significant increase in the following ratios: total IgA/albumin, lactoferrin/albumin, and lysozyme/albumin. The pharmacokinetics of erdosteine, its metabolites, and theophylline were the same after 1 or 14 days of treatment, evidence both of absence of an enzymatic induction and of an accumulation process. Further confirmation that there was no interference between erdosteine and theophylline was obtained from the data available on the group of patients receiving only theophylline, since its plasma levels and related pharmacokinetic parameters were identical to those obtained in patients receiving both drugs. In conclusion, 2 weeks of therapy with erdosteine reduced the marker of mucus glycoproteins (fucose) in patients with chronic bronchitis but did not interfere with the pharmacokinetics of xanthine derivatives. We also suggest that the significant increment in the IgA/albumin ratio might be related to a sum of other local effects such as reduction of the inflammatory process and enhancement of the humoral defense mechanism.

  11. The Measurement of Surface Rheological and Surface Adhesive Properties of a PDMS Rubber using Micro- and Nano-Particle Embedment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheson, Stephen; McKenna, Gregory

    2009-03-01

    In previous work, we used particle embedment data to determine the rheological response of the surfaces of a polystyrene film, a phase separated copolymer and a commercially available polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) rubber through the application of a viscoelastic contact mechanics model. The goal of the current research is to build off this analysis and use micro- and nano-sphere embedment experiments to probe the surface rheological behavior of PDMS in the rubbery state. The work includes measurements made with different particle diameters and chemistries. An atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to measure the embedment depth as nanoparticles are pulled into the surface by the thermodynamic work of adhesion. Present results show that silica probes of different sizes (500 nm and 300 nm) give different results for the surface adhesion properties and the surface rheological properties determined from the particle embedment data and at scales much larger than the nanometer size scale where one might expect such deviations. Possible water entrapment and effects of particle surface composition on the results will be discussed.

  12. Effect of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on rheological and mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of PLA/CNC nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Musa R; Khoshkava, Vahid

    2015-06-05

    In earlier work, we reported that spray freeze drying of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) yields porous agglomerate structures. On the other hand, the conventional spray dried CNC (CNCSD) and the freeze dried CNC (CNCFD) produce compact solid structures with very low porosity. As it is rather difficult to obtain direct microscopic evidence of the quality of dispersion of CNC in polymer nanocomposites, it was shown that supporting evidence of the quality and influence of dispersion in a polypropylene (PP)/CNC nanocomposite could be obtained by studying the rheological behavior, mechanical properties and crystallization characteristics of PP/CNC nanocomposites. In an effort to produce a sustainable, fully biosourced, biodegradable nanocomposite, this manuscript presents the results of a study of the rheological, mechanical and crystallization behavior of PLA/CNCSFD nanocomposites obtained by melt processing. The results are analyzed to determine CNC network formation, rheological percolation threshold concentrations, mechanical properties in the rubbery and glassy states, and the effect of CNCSFD on crystalline nucleation and crystallization rates of PLA. These results suggest that the porosity and network structure of CNCSFD agglomerates contribute significantly to good dispersion of CNC in the PLA matrix.

  13. Rheological and functional properties of composite sweet potato - wheat dough as affected by transglutaminase and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Ndayishimiye, Jean Bernard; Huang, Wei-Ning; Wang, Feng; Chen, Yong-Zheng; Letsididi, Rebaone; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; Ndahetuye, Jean Baptiste; Tang, Xiao-Juan

    2016-02-01

    Effect of transglutaminase (TGM) and ascorbic acid (AA) on composite sweet potato - wheat dough functional and rheological properties was studied. Partial substitution of wheat flour with sweet potato flour at the level of 20 % significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced glutenin, gliadin, dough stability, protein weakening, storage modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G″). Mixolab revealed that both TGM and AA treated dough had stability and protein weakening closed to wheat dough (control), with TGM treated dough having the highest values. TGM Introduced new cross-link bonds as shown by the change of amino acid concentration, leading to an increase in storage modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G″), with G' being higher at all levels of TGM concentration. The opposite was observed for composite dough treated with AA as measured by controlled - stress rheometer. TGM treatment increased glutenin and gliadin content. Compared with the control, dough treated with AA exhibited high molecular weight of polymers than TGM treated dough. The results indicate that the TGM and AA modification of the mixolab and dynamic rheological characteristics (G' and G″) dependent on the changes of GMP, glutenin, gliadin and protein weakening in the composite dough. TGM and AA treatment could improve functional and rheological properties of sweet potato - wheat dough to levels that might be achieved with normal wheat bread. However, it's extremely important to optimize the concentrations of both additives to obtain the optimum response.

  14. Effect of high-pressure homogenization on droplet size distribution and rheological properties of ice cream mixes.

    PubMed

    Innocente, N; Biasutti, M; Venir, E; Spaziani, M; Marchesini, G

    2009-05-01

    The effect of different homogenization pressures (15/3 MPa and 97/3 MPa) on fat globule size and distribution as well as on structure-property relationships of ice cream mixes was investigated. Dynamic light scattering, steady shear, and dynamic rheological analyses were performed on mixes with different fat contents (5 and 8%) and different aging times (4 and 20 h). The homogenization of ice cream mixes determined a change from bimodal to monomodal particle size distributions and a reduction in the mean particle diameter. Mean fat globule diameters were reduced at higher pressure, but the homogenization effect on size reduction was less marked with the highest fat content. The rheological behavior of mixes was influenced by both the dispersed and the continuous phases. Higher fat contents caused greater viscosity and dynamic moduli. The lower homogenization pressure (15/3 MPa) mainly affected the dispersed phase and resulted in a more pronounced viscosity reduction in the higher fat content mixes. High-pressure homogenization (97/3 MPa) greatly enhanced the viscoelastic properties and the apparent viscosity. Rheological results indicated that unhomogenized and 15/3 MPa homogenized mixes behaved as weak gels. The 97/3 MPa treatment led to stronger gels, perhaps as the overall result of a network rearrangement or interpenetrating network formation, and the fat globules were found to behave as interactive fillers. High-pressure homogenization determined the apparent viscosity of 5% fat to be comparable to that of 8% fat unhomogenized mix.

  15. The influence of zinc on the blood serum of cadmium-treated rats through the rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Sherif Aa; Alaamer, Abdulaziz; Abdelhalim, Mohamed A K

    2016-01-01

    The blood rheological properties serve as an important indicator for the early detection of many diseases. This study aimed to investigate the influence of zinc (Zn) on blood serum of cadmium (Cd) intoxication-treated male rats through the rheological properties. The rheological parameters were measured in serum of control, Cd, and Cd+Zn groups at wide range of shear rates (225-1875 s(-1)). The rat blood serum showed a non-significant change in cadmium-treated rats' %torque and shear stress at the lower shear rates (200-600 s(-1)) while a significant increase was observed at the higher shear rates (650-1875 s(-1)) compared with the control. The rat blood serum viscosity increased significantly in the Cd-treated group at each shear rate compared with the control. The viscosity and shear rate exhibited a non-Newtonian behavior for all groups. The increase in blood serum viscosity in Cd-treated male rats might be attributed to destruction or changes in the non-clotting proteins, and other blood serum components. In Cd+Zn-treated rats, the rat blood serum viscosity values returned nearer to the control values at each shear rate. Our results confirmed that Zn displaced Cd or compete with the binding sites for Cd uptake.

  16. Steady-shear rheological properties of graphene-reinforced epoxy resin for manufacturing of aerospace composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausi, Marialaura; Santonicola, M. Gabriella; Laurenzi, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the steady-shear rheological behavior and the absolute viscosity of epoxy matrix reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets (xGnP) before cure. Three different grades of xGnP (grades C, M and H) were dispersed homogenously at different weight percentages (wt%) into the epoxy matrix, ranging from 0.5 to 5 wt%. It is found that nanocomposite fluids with xGnP-C exhibit a Newtonian behavior at shear rate in the range 0.1-100 s-1, conversely, nanocomposite fluids with xGnP of grade M and H exhibit a shear-thinning behavior with the increase of nanoplatelet loading. Results from this analysis indicate how the steady shear rheological properties of the nano-reinforced polymer fluids depend on the geometrical characteristics of the graphene nanoplatelets.

  17. Rheological properties essential for the atomization of Coal Water Slurries (CWS). Final report, September 1, 1991--July 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ohene, F.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect of low shear, high shear rheology, viscoelastic, and extensional properties on the atomization of CWS. In the atomization studies, the mean drop size of the CWS sprays were determined at various air-to-CWS ratios using a Malvern 2600 particle size analyzer and a Delavan Solid Cone Atomizing Nozzle. Solids-loading, coal particle size distributions, and chemical additives were varied in order to determine the significant properties that influence CWS atomization. A correlation of the mass mean droplet size with high shear, viscoelastic and extensional behaviors were made in order to determine the influence of these parameters on CWS atomization.

  18. Effect of ultrafiltration process on physico-chemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm saps.

    PubMed

    Makhlouf-Gafsi, Ines; Baklouti, Samia; Mokni, Abir; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Blecker, Christophe; Besbes, Souhail; Masmoudi, Manel

    2016-07-15

    This study investigates the effect of the ultrafiltration process on physicochemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm sap. All the studied syrups switched from pseudoplastic rheological behaviour (n=0.783) to Newtonian behaviour (n∼1) from 10 to 50 °C respectively and present similar thermal profiles. Results revealed that the ultrafiltration process significantly affects the rheological behaviour of the male and female syrups. These differences on rheological properties are attributed to the variation of chemical composition between sap and sap permeate syrups. Furthermore, the effect of temperature on viscosity of the syrups was investigated during heating and cooling processes at the same shear rate (50s(-1)). This study provides idea of the stability of the syrup by evaluating the area between heating and cooling curves. Actually, the syrup prepared from male sap permeate is the most stable between the four studied syrups.

  19. Concentration-dependent rheological properties of ECM hydrogel for intracerebral delivery to a stroke cavity

    PubMed Central

    Massensini, Andre R.; Ghuman, Harmanvir; Saldin, Lindsey T.; Medberry, Christopher J.; Keane, Timothy J.; Nicholls, Francesca J.; Velankar, Sachin S.; Badylak, Stephen F.; Modo, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials composed of mammalian extracellular matrix (ECM) promote constructive tissue remodeling with minimal scar tissue formation in many anatomical sites. However, the optimal shape and form of ECM scaffold for each clinical application can vary markedly. ECM hydrogels have been shown to promote chemotaxis and differentiation of neuronal stem cells, but minimally invasive delivery of such scaffold materials to the central nervous system (CNS) would require an injectable form. These ECM materials can be manufactured to exist in fluid phase at room temperature, while forming hydrogels at body temperature in a concentration-dependent fashion. Implantation into the lesion cavity after a stroke could hence provide a means to support endogenous repair mechanisms. Herein, we characterize the rheological properties of an ECM hydrogel composed of urinary bladder matrix (UBM) that influence its delivery and in vivo interaction with host tissue. There was a notable concentration-dependence in viscosity, stiffness, and elasticity; all characteristics important for minimally invasive intracerebral delivery. An efficient MRI-guided injection with drainage of fluid from the cavity is described to assess in situ hydrogel formation and ECM retention at different concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 mg/mL). Only ECM concentrations >3 mg/mL gelled within the stroke cavity. Lower concentrations were not retained within the cavity, but extensive permeation of the liquid phase ECM into the peri-infarct area was evident. The concentration of ECM hydrogel is hence an important factor affecting gelation, host-biomaterial interface, as well intra-lesion distribution. PMID:26318805

  20. Effect of VA and MWNT contents on the rheological and physical properties of EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Ho; Lee, Seungwon; Kim, Byoung Chul; Shin, Bong-Seob; Jeon, Jong-Young; Chae, Dong Wook

    2016-02-01

    Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers with two different VA contents (15 and 33 wt.%, denoted by EVA15 and EVA33, respectively) were melt compounded with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and the effect of VA and nanotube contents on the rheological, thermal and morphological properties was investigated. The addition of nanotubes into both EVAs increased the onset temperature of crystallization and broadened the peak, but further addition from 3 wt.% slightly decreased the temperature with increasing nanotube contents. In the wide angle X-ray diffraction patterns the peak of EVA15 was little affected by the presence of nanotubes but that of EVA33 slightly shifted to higher degree and became sharper with increasing nanotube contents. Dynamic viscosity (η') increased with nanotube contents giving abrupt increase at 2 wt.% nanotubes. Loss tangent decreased with increasing nanotube contents exhibiting the plateau-like behavior over most of the frequency range from 2 wt.% nanotubes. In the Casson plot, yield stress increased with nanotube content and its increasing extent was more notable for more VA content. In the Cole-Cole plot, the presence of nanotubes from 2 wt.% gave rise to the deviation from the single master curve by decreasing the slope. The deviated extent of EVA33 became more remarkable with increasing nanotube contents than that of EVA15. The stress-strain curve showed that more improved tensile modulus and yield stress were achieved by the introduction of MWNTs for EVA 33 than for EVA15. Tensile strength of EVA33 increased with increasing nanotube contents, while that of EVA15 decreased.

  1. The Effect of Particle Size on Hydrolysis Reaction Rates and Rheological Properties in Cellulosic Slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasari, Rajesh K.; Berson, R. Eric

    The effect of varying initial particle sizes on enzymatic hydrolysis rates and rheological properties of sawdust slurries is investigated. Slurries with four particle size ranges (33 μm < x ≤ 75 μm, 150 μm < x ≤ 180 μm 295 μm < x ≤ 425 μm, and 590 μm < x ≤ 850 μm) were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using an enzyme dosage of filter paper units per gram of cellulose at 50°C and 250 rpm in shaker flasks. At lower initial particle sizes, higher enzymatic reaction rates and conversions of cellulose to glucose were observed. After 72 h 50 and 55% more glucose was produced from the smallest size particles than the largest size ones, for initial solids concentration of 10 and 13% (w/w), respectively. The effect of initial particle size on viscosity over a range of shear was also investigated. For equivalent initial solids concentration, smaller particle sizes result in lower viscosities such that at a concentration of 10% (w/w), the viscosity decreased from 3000 cP for 150 μm < x ≤ 180 μm particle size slurries to 61.4 cP for 33 μm < x ≤ 75 μm particle size slurries. Results indicate particle size reduction may provide a means for reducing the long residence time required for the enzymatic hydrolysis step in the conversion of biomass to ethanol. Furthermore, the corresponding reduction in viscosity may allow for higher solids loading and reduced reactor sizes during large-scale processing.

  2. The effect of polymer-surfactant interaction on the rheological properties of surfactant enhanced alkaline flooding formulations

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1993-02-01

    Surfactant-enhanced, lower pH (weak) alkaline chemicals are effective for mobilizing residual oil. Polymer is used for mobility control because if mobility control is lost, then oil recovery is reduced. The ability to maintain mobility control during surfactant-alkaline flooding can be adversely affected by chemical interaction. In this work, interaction between polymers and surfactants was shown to be affected by pH, ionic strength, crude oil, and the properties of the polymers and surfactants. Polymer-surfactant interaction (phase separation, precipitation, and viscosity loss) occurred between most of the polymers and surfactants that were tested. Polymer-surfactant interaction is difficult to eliminate, and no method was found for completely eliminating interaction. Polymer-surfactant interaction occurred at optimal salinity and below optimal salinity. Polymer-surfactant interaction had an adverse effect on polymer rheology; however, the adverse effect of interaction on polymer rheology was lessened when oil was present. Increasing the pH of chemical systems further reduced the adverse effects of interaction on polymer rheology.

  3. Rheological Properties of Nanoparticle Silica-Surfactant Stabilized Crude Oil Emulsions: Influence of Temperature, Nanoparticle Concentration and Water Volume Fraction"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsey, Erin; Pales, Ashley; Li, Chunyan; Mu, Linlin; Bai, Lingyun; Clifford, Heather; Darnault, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Oil in water emulsions occur during oil extraction due to the presence of water, naturally-occurring surface-active agents and mechanical mixing in pipelines or from oil spillage. Emulsions present difficulties for use of oil in fuel and their rheological properties are important to treat environmental impacts of spills. The objective of this study is to assess the rheological characteristics of oil in water emulsions stabilized by 5% NaCl brine, Tween 20 surfactant and silica nanoparticles to gain knowledge about the behavior of oil flow in pipelines and characterize them for environmental applications. Rheological behaviors such as shear rate, shear stress, and viscosity of Prudhoe Bay crude oil emulsions were analyzed with varying percent of water volume fractions (12.5, 25 and 50%), varying weight percent of silica nanoparticles (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 weight %), with and without 2 CMC Tween 20 nonionic surfactant. Emulsions with varying water volume fractions were analyzed at 20, 40 and 60 degrees Celsius. Flow curve analysis of the emulsions was performed using an Anton-Paar rheometer. Preliminary findings indicate that increased temperature and increasing the concentration of nanoparticles both produced lower shear stress and that the addition of surfactant decreased the viscosity and shear stress of the emulsions.

  4. Rheological properties of silica dispersions stabilized by stereoregular poly(methyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Carriere, Pascal; Feller, Jean-François; Dupuis, Dominique; Grohens, Yves

    2004-04-01

    The adsorption of stereoregular polymers and its effect on the conformation and dynamics of the polymer at interfaces are only poorly understood. 1H NMR has revealed a lowering of the peaks assigned to isotactic sequences whatever the PMMA tacticity, which provides evidence of stereospecific adsorption of the isotactic segments on silica. Entropic factors are therefore assumed to control the configuration of the adsorbed layer. Tacticity-dependent rheological behavior is revealed by dynamic investigations carried out on silica dispersions. The driving forces likely to induce the stereoselective adsorption and tacticity-dependent rheology of suspensions are discussed.

  5. Rheological properties and gelation of aqueous cellulose-NaOH solutions.

    PubMed

    Roy, Cédric; Budtova, Tatiana; Navard, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    The shear rheology of a microcrystalline cellulose dissolved in a 9% NaOH aqueous solution was studied in the steady and oscillatory modes. The cellulose-(9% NaOH-H(2)O) mixtures show not to be true solutions. In the dilute regime, with cellulose concentration below 1%, the rheological behavior is typical of the one of suspensions. The formation of cellulose aggregates is favored when temperature is increased. In the semidilute regime, an irreversible aggregate-based gelation occurs, being faster with increasing temperature.

  6. Rheological and biological properties of a hydrogel support for cells intended for intervertebral disc repair

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cell-based approaches towards restoration of prolapsed or degenerated intervertebral discs are hampered by a lack of measures for safe administration and placement of cell suspensions within a treated disc. In order to overcome these risks, a serum albumin-based hydrogel has been developed that polymerizes after injection and anchors the administered cell suspension within the tissue. Methods A hydrogel composed of chemically activated albumin crosslinked by polyethylene glycol spacers was produced. The visco-elastic gel properties were determined by rheological measurement. Human intervertebral disc cells were cultured in vitro and in vivo in the hydrogel and their phenotype was tested by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Matrix production and deposition was monitored by immuno-histology and by biochemical analysis of collagen and glycosaminoglycan deposition. Species specific in situ hybridization was performed to discriminate between cells of human and murine origin in xenotransplants. Results The reproducibility of the gel formation process could be demonstrated. The visco-elastic properties were not influenced by storage of gel components. In vitro and in vivo (subcutaneous implants in mice) evidence is presented for cellular differentiation and matrix deposition within the hydrogel for human intervertebral disc cells even for donor cells that have been expanded in primary monolayer culture, stored in liquid nitrogen and re-activated in secondary monolayer culture. Upon injection into the animals, gels formed spheres that lasted for the duration of the experiments (14 days). The expression of cartilage- and disc-specific mRNAs was maintained in hydrogels in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating the maintenance of a stable specific cellular phenotype, compared to monolayer cells. Significantly higher levels of hyaluronan synthase isozymes-2 and -3 mRNA suggest cell functionalities towards those needed for the support of the regeneration of

  7. Effect of sucrose and pectin addition on physical, chemical, thermal and rheological properties of frozen/thawed pineapple pulps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conceição, Márcia Cavalcante; Fernandes, Tatiana Nunes; Prado, Mônica Elisabeth Torres; de Resende, Jaime Vilela

    2012-09-01

    Pectin (0-1.0 g/100 mL) and sucrose (0-20 g/100 mL) were added to pineapple pulp to improve their rheological properties, thermal properties and stability after freezing and thawing processes. The properties of the mixes were characterized before and after freezing and thawing. Samples were frozen at -20°C, and the freeze concentration was evaluated every 60 min. The thawing rate was evaluated at 19°C and quantified by photographic editing and image analysis software. The thawing rates and values for the freeze concentration were leveled out at pectin concentrations above 0.5 g/100 mL pectin, which indicated that pectin functions to maintain structural homogeneity during freezing. In the thawed samples, the plastic viscosity values were leveled out from pectin concentrations (0.25-0.75 g/100 mL) as the sucrose concentration increased when compared to unfrozen samples. The differences between the rheological parameters of the unfrozen and frozen/thawed pulps, the higher yield stress values after thawing were attributed to the size of suspended particles in the pulp. Applications can specify formulations of frozen products containing pectin, where these properties can be handled after thawing the product.

  8. Non-local rheological properties of granular flows near a jamming limit.

    SciTech Connect

    Aranson, I. S.; Tsimring, L. S.; Malloggi, F.; Clement, E.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of California at San Diego; CNRS-ESPCI Univ.

    2008-01-01

    We study the rheology of sheared granular flows close to a jamming transition. We use the approach of partially fluidized theory (PFT) with a full set of equations extending the thin layer approximation derived previously for the description of the granular avalanches phenomenology. This theory provides a picture compatible with a local rheology at large shear rates [G. D. R. Midi, Eur. Phys. J. E 14, 341 (2004)] and it works in the vicinity of the jamming transition, where a description in terms of a simple local rheology comes short. We investigate two situations displaying important deviations from local rheology. The first one is based on a set of numerical simulations of sheared soft two-dimensional circular grains. The next case describes previous experimental results obtained on avalanches of sandy material flowing down an incline. Both cases display, close to jamming, significant deviations from the now standard Pouliquen's flow rule [O. Pouliquen, Phys. Fluids 11, 542 (1999); 11, 1956 (1999)]. This discrepancy is the hallmark of a strongly nonlocal rheology and in both cases, we relate the empirical results and the outcomes of PFT. The numerical simulations show a characteristic constitutive structure for the fluid part of the stress involving the confining pressure and the material stiffness that appear in the form of an additional dimensionless parameter. This constitutive relation is then used to describe the case of sandy flows. We show a quantitative agreement as far as the effective flow rules are concerned. A fundamental feature is identified in PFT as the existence of a jammed layer developing in the vicinity of the flow arrest that corroborates the experimental findings. Finally, we study the case of solitary erosive granular avalanches and relate the outcome with the PFT analysis.

  9. Rheological and electrical properties of hybrid nanocomposites of epoxy resins filled with graphite nanoplatelets and carbon black.

    PubMed

    Truong, Quang-Trung; Lee, Seon-Suk; Lee, Dai-Soo

    2011-02-01

    Graphite nanoplatelets (GNP) were prepared by microwave irradiation of natural graphites intercalated with ferric chloride in nitromethane (GIC). Intercalated structure of GIC was confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. SEM images of GIC after microwave irradiation showed the exfoliation of GIC, the formation of GNPs. Hybrid nanocomposites of bisphenol-A type epoxy resins filled with GNP and a conductive carbon black (CB) were prepared and rheological and electrical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. Viscosity and electrical surface resistivity of the nanocomposites showed minima at certain mixtures of GNP and CB in the epoxy resins.

  10. Compositional analysis and rheological properties of gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium): a tree gum from India.

    PubMed

    Vinod, V T P; Sashidhar, R B; Sarma, V U M; Vijaya Saradhi, U V R

    2008-03-26

    Gum kondagogu ( Cochlospermum gossypium) is a tree exudate gum that belongs to the family Bixaceae. Compositional analysis of the gum by HPLC and LC-MS revealed uronic acids to be the major component of the polymer ( approximately 26 mol %). Furthermore, analysis of the gum by GC-MS indicated the presence of sugars such as arabinose (2.52 mol %), mannose (8.30 mol %), alpha- d-glucose (2.48 mol %), beta- d-glucose (2.52 mol %), rhamnose (12.85 mol %), galactose (18.95 mol %), d-glucuronic acid (19.26 mol %), beta- d-galactouronic acid (13.22 mol %), and alpha- d-galacturonic acid (11.22 mol %). Gum kondagogu, being rich in rhamnose, galactose, and uronic acids, can be categorized on the basis of its sugar composition as a rhamnogalacturonan type of gum. The rheological measurements performed on the gum suggest that above 0.6% (w/v) it shows a Newtonian behavior and shear rate thinning behavior as a function of gum concentration. The viscoelastic behavior of gum kondagogu solutions (1 and 2%) in aqueous as well as in 100 mM NaCl solution exhibits a typical gel-like system. The G' (viscous modulus)/ G'' (elastic modulus) ratios of native gum kondagogu (1 and 2%) in aqueous solution were found to be 1.89 and 1.85 and those in 100 mM NaCl to be 1.54 and 2.2, respectively, suggesting a weak gel-like property of the polymer. Crossover values of G' and G'' were observed to be at frequencies of 0.432 Hz for 1% and 1.2 Hz for 2% for native gum in aqueous condition, indicating a predominantly liquid- to solid-like behavior, whereas crossover values of 2.1 Hz for 1% and 1.68 Hz for 2% gum in 100 mM NaCl solution suggest a larger elastic contribution.

  11. Effect of gelatinized flour fraction on thermal and rheological properties of wheat-based dough and bread.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Navas, H; Guadarrama-Lezama, A Y; Vernon-Carter, E J; García-Díaz, S; Reyes, I; Alvarez-Ramírez, J

    2016-11-01

    This work considered gelatinized wheat flour fraction with properties similar to hydrocolloid to enhance the strength of dough network by improving water retention and rheological characteristics. The gelatinized (90 °C) fraction of the wheat flour was incorporated in the dough formulation at different levels (5, 10, and 20% w/w). The effects of the gelatinized flour (GF) fraction on the dough rheology and thermal properties were studied. The incorporation of GF induced a moderate increase of dough viscoelasticity and reduced the freezing and melting enthalpies. On the other hand, the changes in bread textural properties brought by incorporation of GF were insignificant, indicating that the gelatinized fraction acted as a binder that enhanced water trapping in the structure. SEM images showed a more heterogeneous crumb microstructure (e.g., gas cells, porous, etc.) bread prepared using GF. Drying kinetics obtained from TGA indicated that the water diffusivity decreased with the incorporation of GF, which suggested that the bread had a compact microstructure.

  12. Rheological and tribological properties of carbon nanotube/thermoplastic nanocomposites incorporating inorganic fullerene-like WS2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Naffakh, Mohammed; Marco, Carlos; Ellis, Gary

    2012-07-12

    The rheological and tribological properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-reinforced poly(phenylene sulphide) (PPS) and poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) nanocomposites prepared via melt-extrusion were investigated. The effectiveness of employing a dual-nanofiller strategy combining polyetherimide (PEI)-wrapped SWCNTs with inorganic fullerene-like tungsten disulfide (IF-WS2) nanoparticles for property enhancement of the resulting hybrid composites was evaluated. Viscoelastic measurements revealed that the complex viscosity η, storage modulus G', and loss modulus G″ increased with SWCNT content. In the low-frequency region, G' and G″ became almost independent of frequency at higher SWCNT loadings, suggesting a transition from liquid-like to solid-like behavior. The incorporation of increasing IF-WS2 contents led to a progressive drop in η and G' due to a lubricant effect. PEEK nanocomposites showed lower percolation threshold than those based on PPS, ascribed to an improved SWCNT dispersion due to the higher affinity between PEI and PEEK. The SWCNTs significantly lowered the wear rate but only slightly reduced the coefficient of friction. Composites with both nanofillers exhibited improved wear behavior, attributed to the outstanding tribological properties of these nanoparticles and a synergistic reinforcement effect. The combination of SWCNTs with IF-WS2 is a promising route for improving the tribological and rheological performance of thermoplastic nanocomposites.

  13. Effect of surfactants on surface activity and rheological properties of type I collagen at air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Kezwoń, Aleksandra; Góral, Ilona; Frączyk, Tomasz; Wojciechowski, Kamil

    2016-12-01

    We describe the effect of three synthetic surfactants (anionic - sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic - cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and nonionic - Triton X-100 (TX-100)) on surface properties of the type I calf skin collagen at the air/water interface in acidic solutions (pH 1.8). The protein concentration was fixed at 5×10(-6)molL(-1) and the surfactant concentration was varied in the range 5×10(-6)molL(-1)-1×10(-4)molL(-1), producing the protein/surfactant mixtures with molar ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20. An Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis (ADSA) method was used to determine the dynamic surface tension and surface dilatational moduli of the mixed adsorption layers. Two spectroscopic techniques: UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorimetry allowed us to determine the effect of the surfactants on the protein structure. The thermodynamic characteristic of the mixtures was studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Modification of the collagen structure by SDS at low surfactant/protein ratios has a positive effect on the mixture's surface activity with only minor deterioration of the rheological properties of the adsorbed layers. The collagen/CTAB mixtures do not show that pronounced improvement in surface activity, while rheological properties are significantly deteriorated. The mixtures with non-ionic TX-100 do not show any synergistic effects in surface activity.

  14. Biodegradable blends of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) / polyhydroxybutrate (PHB) copolymer and its effects on rheological, thermal and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Nitin K.

    Poly (Lactic acid) is the most important plastic derived from the renewable resources. PLA based products have extensively been used in the medical industry. However, PLA has a few disadvantages such as inherent brittleness and low toughness despite a high modulus. A focus of this experiment was to study the improvement in toughness of PLA and to study the changes in thermal and rheological properties by blending PLA with a PHB copolymer. Where, PLA and PHB copolymer were melt blended using a twin screw Brabender extruder in the ratios of 100/0, 70/30, 50/50, 30/70, 0/100. Further, the blends were injection molded into tensile bar and impact bars for mechanical testing. Rheological properties were studied using a Galaxy capillary rheometer for melt viscosities and temperature dependence indicated a shear-thinning behavior along with power law model and consistency index. Blends were characterized to study the phase model using a differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), showed two separate phases. Mechanical properties were analyzed using a Tensile and Izod impact test indicating decrease in elastic modulus with increase in toughness and elongation as the PHB copolymer content was increased in the blend.

  15. Rheology of nanofluids: a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Chen, Haisheng; Witharana, Sanjeeva

    2013-11-01

    The rheological behavior of nanofluids published in recent research papers and the relevant patents are reviewed in this article. Effects of various factors such as preparation, nanoparticle and base fluid properties, concentration, temperature, surface charge, and aggregation etc. on the rheological behavior of nanofluids are discussed. Brownian motion and nanoparticle aggregation are found to be the major mechanisms for rheological properties of nanofluids compared to the micro-sized suspensions. The importance of microstructure as means of understanding the mechanisms behind the rheological and heat transfer behavior of nanofluids is also disclosed.

  16. Properties of starch-polyglutamic acid (PGA) graft copolymer prepared by microwave irradiation - Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and rheology studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rheological properties of waxy starch-'-polygutamic acid (PGA) graft copolymers were investigated. Grafting was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The starch-PGA copolymers absorbed water and formed gels, which exhibited concentration-dependent viscoelastic solid properties. Higher starch-PGA conce...

  17. Investigation of the effects of hydroalcoholic solutions on textural and rheological properties of various controlled release grades of hypromellose.

    PubMed

    Missaghi, Shahrzad; Fegely, Kurt A; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali R

    2009-01-01

    Hypromellose (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, HPMC) matrices are widely used in the formulation of sustained release dosage forms. The integrity and performance of an HPMC matrix formulation depends on rapid hydration and gel formation upon ingestion. Due to the recent alert issued by the Food and Drug Administration regarding the potential negative influence of alcoholic beverages on extended release (ER) formulations, several researchers have evaluated the potential influence of hydroalcoholic media on drug release from ER dosage forms. It has been reported that HPMC matrix formulations do not show "dose dumping" in hydroalcoholic media. The purpose of this study was a fundamental investigation on the effect of hydroalcoholic solutions (0-40% v/v ethanol) on textural and rheological properties of different viscosity grades of neat HPMC, as the functional ingredient within a hydrophilic matrix. In general, hydroalcoholic solutions had little effect on gel formation and mechanical properties of hydrated compacts, while the rheological behavior of HPMC showed dependency on the ethanol content of such solutions.

  18. Rheological and physical properties of camel and cow milk gels enriched with phosphate and calcium during acid-induced gelation.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Mohammad; Foukani, Mohammed; Karoui, Romdhane

    2017-02-01

    The rheological properties of acid-induced coagulation of camel and cow milk gels following the addition of calcium chloride (CaCl2) and hydrogen phosphate dehydrate (Na2HPO4*2H2O) were investigated using a dynamic low amplitude oscillatory rheology. For a considered condition, the final values of storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) of camel milk gels were significantly lower than those of cow milk gels. The increase of the added CaCl2 levels improved significantly the gelation properties of camel and cow milk gels, since a reduction in the gelation time and an increase in the gel firmness were observed. Following the addition of Na2HPO4*2H2O at 10 and 20 mM, no significant effect on the gelation rate and the firmness of camel milk gels was observed, while, a significant decrease in the gelation rate and firmness were observed for cow milk gels.

  19. Effect of concentration, homogenization and stabilizing salts on heat stability and rheological properties of cow skim milk ultrafiltered retentate.

    PubMed

    Meena, Ganga Sahay; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Borad, Sanket; Panjagari, Narender Raju

    2016-11-01

    Ultrafiltration (UF) of skimmed milk altered the composition of UF retentate and decreased the heat stability. Heat stability further reduced upon its subsequent homogenization or diafiltration. Poor heat stability of UF retentate restricts its processing at elevated temperatures. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of protein concentration, homogenization and addition of stabilizing salts on the heat stability and rheological properties of UF retentates. Changes in the heat stability of fivefold homogenized UF retentate (5× HUFR) was studied in the pH range of 6.1-7.0. Disodium phosphate and trisodium citrate significantly increased the heat coagulation time (HCT) from 1.45 min (pH 6.41) to 120 min (at pH 6.5, 6.6, 7.0) and 80 min (pH 6.6), respectively. Significant reduction in ζ-potential of UF retentates was observed with an increase in calcium and reduction in pH during UF process. Rheological behaviour of retentates above threefold concentration exhibited Herschel-Bulkley behavior with linear increase in flow behavior index (n). Changes in the viscosity of the homogenized retentates were measured at the respective pH of maximum heat stability as a function of temperature (20-80 °C). Promising approaches that might improve the heat stability, solubility and other functional properties of protein rich powders have been discussed in this article.

  20. Effects of κ-carrageenan on rheological properties of dually modified sago starch: Towards finding gelatin alternative for hard capsules.

    PubMed

    Fakharian, Mohammad-Hassan; Tamimi, Nasser; Abbaspour, Hossein; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza; Karim, A A

    2015-11-05

    Composite sago starch-based system was developed and characterized with the aim to find an alternative to gelatin in the processing of pharmaceutical capsules. Dually modified (Hydrolyzed-Hydroxypropylated) sago starches were combined with κ-carrageenan (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1%). The rheological properties of the proposed composite system were measured and compared with gelatin as reference material. Results show that combination of HHSS12 (Hydrolysed-hydroxypropylated sago starch at 12h) with 0.5% κ-carrageenan was comparable to gelatin rheological behavior in pharmaceutical capsule processing. The solution viscosity at 50 °C and sol-gel transition of the proposed composite system were comparable to those of gelatin. The viscoelastic moduli (G' and G") for the proposed system were lower than those of gelatin. These results illustrate that by manipulation of the constituents of sago starch-based composite system, a suitable alternative to gelatin can be produced with comparable properties and this could find potential application in pharmaceutical capsule industry.

  1. Phase behavior, rheological property, and transmutation of vesicles in fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon surfactant mixtures.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zaiwu; Qin, Menghua; Chen, Xiushan; Liu, Changcheng; Li, Hongguang; Hao, Jingcheng

    2012-06-26

    We present a detailed study of a salt-free cationic/anionic (catanionic) surfactant system where a strongly alkaline cationic surfactant (tetradecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide, TTAOH) was mixed with a single-chain fluorocarbon acid (nonadecafluorodecanoic acid, NFDA) and a hyperbranched hydrocarbon acid [di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid, DEHPA] in water. Typically the concentration of TTAOH is fixed while the total concentration and mixing molar ratio of NFDA and DEHPA is varied. In the absence of DEHPA and at a TTAOH concentration of 80 mmol·L(-1), an isotropic L(1) phase, an L(1)/L(α) two-phase region, and a single L(α) phase were observed successively with increasing mixing molar ratio of NFDA to TTAOH (n(NFDA)/n(TTAOH)). In the NFDA-rich region (n(NFDA)/n(TTAOH) > 1), a small amount of excess NFDA can be solubilized into the L(α) phase while a large excess of NFDA eventually leads to phase separation. When NFDA is replaced gradually by DEHPA, the mixed system of TTAOH/NFDA/DEHPA/H(2)O follows the same phase sequence as that of the TTAOH/NFDA/H(2)O system and the phase boundaries remain almost unchanged. However, the viscoelasticity of the samples in the single L(α) phase region becomes higher at the same total surfactant concentration as characterized by rheological measurements. Cryo-transmission electron microscopic (cryo-TEM) observations revealed a microstructural evolution from unilamellar vesicles to multilamellar ones and finally to gaint onions. The size of the vesicle and number of lamella can be controlled by adjusting the molar ratio of NFDA to DEHPA. The dynamic properties of the vesicular solutions have also been investigated. It is found that the yield stress and the storage modulus are time-dependent after a static mixing process between the two different types of vesicle solutions, indicating the occurrence of a dynamic fusion between the two types of vesicles. The microenvironmental changes induced by aggregate transitions were probed by

  2. Study of the rheological properties of a fermentation broth of the fungus Beauveria bassiana in a bioreactor under different hydrodynamic conditions.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Ramírez, Diola Marina; Medina-Torres, Luis; Valencia-López, José Javier; Calderas, Fausto; López Miranda, Javier; Medrano-Roldán, Hiram; Solís-Soto, Aquiles

    2012-11-01

    Fermentation with filamentous fungi in a bioreactor is a complex dynamic process that is affected by flow conditions and the evolution of the rheological properties of the medium. These properties are mainly affected by the biomass concentration and the morphology of the fungus. In this work, the rheological properties of a fermentation with the fungus Beauveria bassiana under different hydrodynamic conditions were studied and the rheological behavior of this broth was simulated through a mixture of carboxymethyl cellulose sodium and cellulose fibers (CMCNa-SF). The bioreactor was a 10 L CSTR tank operated at different stir velocities. Rheological results were similar at 100 and 300 rpm for both systems. However, there was a significant increase in the viscosity accompanied by a change in the consistence index, calculated according to the power law model, for both systems at 800 rpm. The systems exhibited shear-thinning behavior at all stir velocities, which was determined with the power law model. The mixing time was observed to increase as the cellulose content in the system increased and, consequently, the efficiency of mixing diminished. These results are thought to be due to the rheological and morphological similarities of the two fungal systems. These results will help in the optimization of scale-up production of these fungi.

  3. Characterization of the rheological, textural, and sensory properties of samples of commercial US cream cheese with different fat contents.

    PubMed

    Brighenti, M; Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Lim, K; Nelson, K; Lucey, J A

    2008-12-01

    In this study, 18 commercial samples of cream cheeses from the United States, including full-fat, Neufchatel or one-third less fat, and fat-free cheeses were analyzed for their rheological, textural, and sensory properties. Dynamic rheological properties were measured by small-amplitude oscillatory rheology during heating from 5 to 80 degrees C and cooling from 80 to 5 degrees C. The parameters measured were storage modulus (G') and loss tangent (LT). Hardness of cream cheeses was determined by penetration and spreadability tests with a texture analyzer. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis was performed by a trained panel to determine textural properties including firmness, stickiness, cohesiveness of mass, gumminess, difficulty to dissolve, particle size, and difficulty to spread. Principal component analysis of sensory and instrumental parameters was performed to identify relationships between these different parameters and to group samples with similar characteristics. A standard recipe for preparation of cheesecakes was used to test the influence of type of cream cheese on cake properties. Hardness of cheesecakes was also determined by penetration. Most full-fat cream cheeses showed significantly greater G' values than the Neufchatel or fat-free cheeses at temperatures below 25 degrees C during the heating cycle. For the cheeses containing fat (full fat and Neufchatel), G' values steeply decreased during heating up to 40 degrees C; the decrease was greater for full-fat cream cheese compared with Neufchatel cheeses. In full-fat cream cheese, one maximum in the LT profile was observed during heating at temperatures below 40 degrees C. In Neufchatel cheeses, a smaller maximum in LT was observed at temperatures below 40 degrees C, whereas fat-free cream cheeses showed no noticeable maximum LT in this temperature region. Most full-fat cream cheeses had greater values of hardness as determined by penetration or spreadability compared with Neufchatel or fat

  4. Thermophysical and Rheological Properties of Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids: The Effect of Aliphatic versus Aromatic Functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Ran; Xue, Lianjie; Tamas, George; Quitevis, Edward; Simon, Sindee

    2014-03-01

    As a material class, ionic liquids possess attractive properties and have a wide range of potential uses. In this work, a series of imidazolium-based ionic liquids with the same carbon number varying from aliphatic to aromatic functionalities are investigated. The effects of cation symmetry and larger aromatic polycyclic functionality are studied. The thermal properties, including the glass transition temperature, melting temperature, and decomposition temperature, are characterized, and the density and the ionic conductivity are measured as a function of temperature. Rheological studies are performed using both steady-state and dynamic shear modes. The Cox-Merz relationship between the steady shear viscosity and the dynamic viscosity is examined. The temperature dependence of viscosity is described by the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and the dynamic fragility is calculated for each ionic liquid and compared to the fragility obtained from calorimetry. Master curves of dynamic shear responses are also constructed and will be discussed.

  5. Thermal, tensile and rheological properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) processed and irradiated by gamma-ray in different atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreto, H. F. R. E-mail: ana-feitoza@yahoo.com.br; Oliveira, A. C. F. E-mail: ana-feitoza@yahoo.com.br; Parra, D. F. E-mail: ablugao@ipen.br; Lugão, A. B. E-mail: ablugao@ipen.br; Gaia, R.

    2014-05-15

    The aim of this paper is to investigate structural changes of high density polyethylene (HDPE) modified by ionizing radiation (gamma rays) in different atmospheres. The gamma radiation process for modification of commercial polymers is a widely applied technique to promote new physical-chemical and mechanical properties. Gamma irradiation originates free radicals which can induce chain scission or recombination, providing its annihilation, branching or crosslinking. This polymer was irradiated with gamma source of {sup 60}Co at doses of 5, 10, 20, 50 or 100 kGy at a dose rate of 5 kGy/h. The changes in molecular structure of HDPE, after gamma irradiations were evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile machine and oscillatory rheology. The results showed the variations of the properties depending on the dose at each atmosphere.

  6. Effect of liposomes on rheological and syringeability properties of hyaluronic acid hydrogels intended for local injection of drugs.

    PubMed

    El Kechai, Naila; Bochot, Amélie; Huang, Nicolas; Nguyen, Yann; Ferrary, Evelyne; Agnely, Florence

    2015-06-20

    The aim of this work was to thoroughly study the effect of liposomes on the rheological and the syringeability properties of hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels intended for the local administration of drugs by injection. Whatever the characteristics of the liposomes added (neutral, positively or negatively charged, with a corona of polyethylene glycol chains, size), the viscosity and the elasticity of HA gels increased in a lipid concentration-dependent manner. Indeed, liposomes strengthened the network formed by HA chains due to their interactions with this polymer. The nature and the resulting effects of these interactions depended on liposome composition and concentration. The highest viscosity and elasticity were observed with liposomes covered by polyethylene glycol chains while neutral liposomes displayed the lowest effect. Despite their high viscosity at rest, all the formulations remained easily injectable through needles commonly used for local injections thanks to the shear-thinning behavior of HA gels. The present study demonstrates that rheological and syringeability tests are both necessary to elucidate the behavior of such systems during and post injection. In conclusion, HA liposomal gels appear to be a promising and versatile formulation platform for a wide range of applications in local drug delivery when an injection is required.

  7. Optical and Rheological Properties of a Semi-Diluted Equimolar Solution of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide and Potassium Bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decruppe, J. P.; Cappelaere, E.; Cressely, R.

    1997-02-01

    We report in this paper the results of rheological and optical experiments performed on a semi-diluted viscoelastic solution of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in water with sodium bromide at a concentration of 0.3 M l^{-1} in surfactant and salt. This concentration in surfactant is much smaller than the concentration which gives a nematic phase at rest. The solution behaves like a Maxwell fluid with a single relaxation time. When submitted to a shear flow, this solution shows a behaviour typical of a system undergoing a phase transition. When observed between crossed polarizer and analyzer, the gap of the Couette cell appears divided in two bands the optical properties of which are different; in rheology, the curves σ(dot{γ}) are also characteristic of these systems where the shear stress presents a plateau extending between two critical values, dot{γ}_{1c}, and dot{γ}_{2c} of the shear rate. We finally compare the results with previous experiments performed on a concentrated solution of CTAB containing no salt.

  8. Dynamic and shear stress rheological properties of guar galactomannans and its hydrolyzed derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Majid; Bakalis, Serafim; Gouseti, Ourania; Zahoor, Tahir; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Guar galactomannan from seed of Cyamopsis tetragonolobus was hydrolyzed using acid (HCl), base [Ba(OH)2] and enzyme (mannanase) method to obtain depolymerized substances with possible functional applications as soluble dietary fiber. Rheological behavior of crude, purified, and depolymerized guar gum solutions was studied at 25 °C, using shear stress and dynamic oscillatory measurements, performed with controlled stress rheometer Bohlin CVO (Malvern Instruments) fitted with cone-and-plate geometry. The various guar gums solutions with different viscosities exhibited shear-thinning behavior at high shear rate and Newtonian behavior at low shear rate. At low shear rate, sigma crude guar gum (SCGG), crude guar gum (CGG), acid hydrolyzed guar gum (AHGG) and enzyme hydrolyzed guar gum (EHGG) exhibited viscosities of 18.59, 1.346, 0.149 and 0.022 Pas, respectively. Oscillatory experiments (G", G') of gums solutions showed typical behavior of weak viscoelastic gel. All investigated guar gums were further used for glucose bio-accessibility using a novel in vitro small intestinal model (SIM). All gums solutions resulted in 20% reduction in simulated glucose absorption, indicating a non-significant functionality difference between various guar gums. So, it can be concluded that hydrolyzed guar gums without disturbing their rheological and physiological behavior would be useful for incorporation in various food products as soluble dietary fiber.

  9. Rheological properties of typical chernozems (Kursk oblast) under different land uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaidapova, D. D.; Chestnova, V. V.; Shein, E. V.; Milanovskii, E. Yu.

    2016-08-01

    Rheological parameters of humus horizons from typical chernozems under different land use—on a virgin land (unmown steppe) and under an oak forest, long-term black fallow, and agricultural use—have been studied by the amplitude sweep method with an MCR-302 modular rheometer at water contents corresponding to swelling limit and liquid limit. From the curves of elastic and viscous moduli, the ranges of elastic and viscoelastic (plastic) behavior of soil pastes—as well as that of transition from viscoelastic to viscous behavior—have been determined. It has been shown that the rheological behavior is largely determined by the content of organic matter, which can act as a binding agent structuring the interparticle bonds and as a lubricant in the viscous-flow (plastic) state of soil pastes. Soil samples enriched with organic matter (virgin land, oak forest, forest belt) have a more plastic behavior and a higher resistance to loads. Soil samples with the lower content of organic matter (long-term fallow, plowland) are characterized by a more rigid cohesion of particles and a narrower range of load resistance. Soil pastes at the water content of liquid limit have a stronger interparticle cohesion and a more brittle behavior than at the water content of swelling limit. Methodological aspects of testing soil pastes at the constant sample thickness and the controlled normal load have been considered. For swelling soil samples, tests under controlled normal load are preferred.

  10. Effect of ball milling energy on rheological and thermal properties of amaranth flour.

    PubMed

    Roa, Diego F; Baeza, Rosa I; Tolaba, Marcela P

    2015-12-01

    Pearled amaranth grains obtained by abrasive milling were processed by planetary ball milling to produce amaranth flours. The influence of milling energy on rheological and thermal behavior of amaranth flour dispersions and stability during 24 h storage at 4 °C were investigated based on a factorial design. The rheological behavior of flour dispersions (4 % and 8 % w/v) was determined using a rotational viscometer, while gelatinization degree was determined by differential scanning calorimetry as a measure of structural changes.The power law model was found to be suitable in expressing the relationship between shear stress and shear rate. Flour dispersions showed a pseudoplastic behavior. However this character decreased with the storage being dependent on flour concentration and milling energy. A decrease of the consistency index and an increase of the flow behavior index were observed as a result of the increasing milling energy. Gelatinization enthalpy decrease showed the loss of crystalline structure due to ball milling. Amaranth flour dispersions presented increasing stability during storage. It was observed, that the stability changed with the concentration of amaranth flours.Thus, more stable dispersions were obtained as the flour concentration increased. The highly milled sample was the most stable sample during the storage.

  11. Effect of cocoa butter replacement with a beta-glucan-rich hydrocolloid (C-trim30) on the rheological and tribological properties of chocolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocoa butter in chocolates was replaced with C-trim30 (5, 10, 15% by weight), a beta-glucan-rich hydrocolloid containing elevated amount of beta-glucan (32%, db). Then, the effects of the C-trim30 on the rheological, tribological, and textural properties of chocolates were investigated. The viscos...

  12. Utilization of tartary buckwheat bran as a source of rutin and its effect on the rheological and antioxidant properties of wheat-based products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tartary buckwheat bran, a by-product of buckwheat flour production was utilized as a source of rutin, and the extracted rutin-enriched material (REM) was used to fortify wheat-based foods of which rheological and antioxidant properties were characterized. REM contained a high content of rutin (29.6 ...

  13. Influence of Chemical Extraction on Rheological Behavior, Viscoelastic Properties and Functional Characteristics of Natural Heteropolysaccharide/Protein Polymer from Durio zibethinus Seed

    PubMed Central

    Amid, Bahareh Tabatabaee; Mirhosseini, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the demand for a natural plant-based polymer with potential functions from plant sources has increased considerably. The main objective of the current study was to study the effect of chemical extraction conditions on the rheological and functional properties of the heteropolysaccharide/protein biopolymer from durian (Durio zibethinus) seed. The efficiency of different extraction conditions was determined by assessing the extraction yield, protein content, solubility, rheological properties and viscoelastic behavior of the natural polymer from durian seed. The present study revealed that the soaking process had a more significant (p < 0.05) effect than the decolorizing process on the rheological and functional properties of the natural polymer. The considerable changes in the rheological and functional properties of the natural polymer could be due to the significant (p < 0.05) effect of the chemical extraction variables on the protein fraction present in the molecular structure of the natural polymer from durian seed. The natural polymer from durian seed had a more elastic (or gel like) behavior compared to the viscous (liquid like) behavior at low frequency. The present study revealed that the natural heteropolysaccharide/protein polymer from durian seed had a relatively low solubility ranging from 9.1% to 36.0%. This might be due to the presence of impurities, insoluble matter and large particles present in the chemical structure of the natural polymer from durian seed. PMID:23203099

  14. Empirical rheology and pasting properties of soft-textured durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and hard-textured common wheat (T. aestivum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puroindoline (PIN) proteins are the molecular basis for wheat kernel texture classification and affect flour milling performance. This study aimed at investigating the effect of PINs on kernel physical characteristics and dough rheological properties of common wheat (Alpowa cv, soft wheat) and durum...

  15. The effect of epoxidized soybean oil on mechanical and rheological properties of poly(butylene succinate)/lignin via vane extruder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huanyu; Huang, Zhaoxia; Qu, Jinping; Meng, Cong

    2016-03-01

    Epoxidized Soybean Oil (ESO) have been used as the compatilizer in the Poly (butylene succinate)/lignin (PBS/lignin) composites. Compatibilized composites were fabricated by a novel vane extruder (VE) which can generate global and dynamic elongational flow. The effects of ESO on the mechanical, rheological properties and morphology of PBS/lignin were studied. The results indicated that the use of ESO had plasticizing effect on the matrix PBS while the addition reduced tensile strength. From SEM micrographs it could be clearly observed that there was a better interfacial adhesion between lignin and matrix. Meanwhile, rheological tests showed the incorporation of ESO improved its Newtonian behavior and can enhance PBS's flexibility.

  16. Novel hydrogels of chitosan and poly(vinyl alcohol)-g-glycolic acid copolymer with enhanced rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Lejardi, A; Hernández, R; Criado, M; Santos, Jose I; Etxeberria, A; Sarasua, J R; Mijangos, C

    2014-03-15

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has been grafted with glycolic acid (GL), a biodegradable hydroxyl acid to yield modified poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAGL). The formation of hydrogels at pH = 6.8 and physiological temperature through blending chitosan (CS) and PVAGL at different concentrations has been investigated. FTIR, DOSY NMR and oscillatory rheology measurements have been carried out on CS/PVAGL hydrogels and the results have been compared to those obtained for CS/PVA hydrogels prepared under the same conditions. The experimental results point to an increase in the number of interactions between chitosan and PVAGL in polymer hydrogels prepared with modified PVA. The resulting materials with enhanced elastic properties and thixotropic behavior are potential candidates to be employed as injectable materials for biomedical applications.

  17. Influence of substitution on the rheological properties and gelation of hydroxyethyl cellulose solution in NaOH-water solvent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wencong; Li, Faxue; Yu, Jianyong; Navard, Patrick; Budtova, Tatiana

    2015-06-25

    The rheological properties of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) with a low molar substitution (MS) dissolved in 8wt% NaOH-water were studied as a function of solution temperature, polymer concentration and molar substitution. Special attention was paid to gelation kinetics. Similar to cellulose dissolved in alkali or ionic liquids, the intrinsic viscosity of HEC decreased with temperature increase, indicating a decrease of solvent thermodynamic quality. The gelation time of HEC solutions decreased exponentially with temperature but the kinetics is much slower than the gelation of microcrystalline cellulose solutions in the same solvent. Higher molar substitution leads to slower gelation. The small amount of introduced hydroxyethyl groups prevented cellulose aggregation thus increasing solution stability.

  18. Influence of different purification and drying methods on rheological properties and viscoelastic behaviour of durian seed gum.

    PubMed

    Amid, Bahareh Tabatabaee; Mirhosseini, Hamed

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different purification and drying methods on the viscoelastic behaviour and rheological properties of durian seed gum. The results indicated that the purified gum A (using isopropanol and ethanol) and D (using hydrochloric acid and ethanol) showed the highest and lowest viscosity, respectively. Four drying techniques included oven drying (105 °C), freeze drying, spray drying and vacuum oven drying. In the present work, all purified gums exhibited more elastic (gel-like) behaviour than the viscous (liquid-like) behaviour (G″

  19. Rheological properties of concentrated solutions of gelatin in an ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate.

    PubMed

    Horinaka, Jun-Ichi; Okamoto, Arisa; Takigawa, Toshikazu

    2016-10-01

    Rheological properties of gelatin solutions were examined in concentrated regions. Gelatin species from porcine skin and from bovine bone were dissolved in an ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate. The dynamic viscoelasticity data for the solutions exhibited rubbery plateaus, indicating the existence of entanglement coupling between gelatin chains in the solutions. From the analogy with rubber elasticity, assuming that the molecular weight between entanglements (Me) is the average mesh size of the entanglement network, Me for gelatin in the solutions were determined from the heights of the rubbery plateaus. Then the value of Me in the molten state (Me,melt), a material constant reflecting the chemical structure of polymer species, for gelatin was estimated to be 8.7×10(3). Compared to synthetic polyamides whose Me,melt were known, Me,melt for gelatin was significantly larger, which could be explained by the densely repeating amide bonds composing gelatin.

  20. Effect of soluble polysaccharides addition on rheological properties and microstructure of chitin nanocrystal aqueous dispersions.

    PubMed

    Tzoumaki, Maria V; Moschakis, Thomas; Biliaderis, Costas G

    2013-06-05

    Mixtures of chitin nanocrystal aqueous dispersions (at pH 3.0) with soluble polysaccharides of varying molecular features were examined rheologically and microscopically, under different conditions of biopolymer concentration, ionic strength, pH and temperature. The addition of non-adsorbing polysaccharides (guar gum, locust bean gum and xanthan) as well as oppositely charged (κ-carrageenan) to a chitin nanocrystal dispersion, resulted in a network formation and the gel strength increased with the chitin nanocrystal concentration. In contrast, the chitin nanocrystal - chitosan or - pullulan mixed dispersions did not show any network formation (tanδ>1) at the concentration range examined. An increase in ionic strength and pH also resulted in an enhanced elasticity of the chitin nanocrystal-guar gum dispersions. Furthermore, an increase in the elastic modulus, which was irreversible upon cooling, was observed upon heating the chitin nanocrystal-polysaccharide mixed dispersions.

  1. Rheological properties and thermal conductivity of AlN-poly(propylene glycol) suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Maciej; Rutkowski, Pawel; Kata, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Nanofluids have recently attracted researches' attention as a new generation of heat-transferring fluids used in heat exchangers and for energy storage. Also aluminium nitride is commonly known for its considerable heat conductivity, as high as 320 W/(m K). Because of that, the compound might be a preferable dispersed phase of heat-transferring fluids. This presented studies are focused on nano-AlN-poly(propylene glycol) dispersions which can be applied as potential cooling fluids. The rheological response of the suspensions on shearing and their thermal conductivity in the function of solids concentration and temperature were measured and discussed. The most desired result of the studies is to produce dispersions with Newtonian-like flow at increased temperature and at higher shear rate. All the aforementioned parameters conjugated with significant thermal conductivity of such nanofluids could predispose them to be used as effective cooling media.

  2. Rheological properties of guar galactomannan solutions during hydrolysis with galactomannanase and alpha-galactosidase enzyme mixtures.

    PubMed

    Mahammad, Shamsheer; Comfort, Donald A; Kelly, Robert M; Khan, Saad A

    2007-03-01

    Guar galactomannan, a naturally occurring polysaccharide, is susceptible to hydrolysis by three enzymes: beta-mannosidase, beta-mannanase, and alpha-galactosidase. The beta-mannosidase cleaves a single mannose unit from the nonreducing end of the guar molecule, the beta-mannanase cleaves interior glycosidic bonds between adjacent mannose units, and the alpha-galactosidase cleaves the galactose side branches off the guar. In this study, hydrolysis of guar solutions using hyperthermopilic versions of these enzymes together in different proportions and combinations are examined. The enzymatic reactions are carried out in situ in a rheometer, and the progress of the reaction is monitored through measuring the variation in zero shear viscosity. We find the presence of alpha-galactosidase to affect the action of both beta-mannanase and beta-mannosidase with respect to solution rheology. However, this effect is more pronounced when the alpha-galactosidase and beta-mannanase or beta-mannosidase enzymes were added sequentially rather than simultaneously. This likely is the result of debranching of the guar, which facilitates attack on beta-1,4-linkages by both the beta-mannanase and the beta-mannosidase enzymes and increases hydrolytic rates by the individual enzymes. A rheology-based kinetic model is developed to estimate the reaction rate constants and interpret synergistic effects of multiple enzyme contributions. The model fits the experimental data well and reveals that both the native and the debranched guar have the same activation energy for beta-mannanase action, although debranching considerably increases the frequency of enzyme-guar interactions.

  3. Influence of amine-grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes on physical and rheological properties of PMMA-based nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ki-Seok; Park, Soo-Jin

    2011-11-15

    In this work, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was grafted onto amine treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NH-MWNTs) and the physical and rheological properties of the NH-MWNTs-g-PMMA nanocomposites were investigated. The graft reaction of NH-MWNTs and the PMMA matrix was confirmed from the change of the N{sub 1S} peaks, including those of amine oxygen and amide oxygen, by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The thermal and mechanical properties of the NH-MWNT-g-PMMA nanocomposites were enhanced by the graft reaction between NH-MWNTs and PMMA matrix. In addition, the viscosity of the nanocomposites was increased with the addition of NH-MWNTs. Storage (G') and loss modulus (G'') were significantly increased by increase in the NH-MWNT content compared to acid-treated MWNTs/PMMA nanocomposites. This increase was attributed to the strong interaction by the grafting reaction between NH-MWNTs and the PMMA matrix. - Graphical abstract: This describes the increase of mechanical properties in NH-MWNTs-g-PMMA hybrid composites with different NH-MWNT contents. Highlights: > Aminized carbon nanotubes are used as reinforcement for poly(methylmethacrylate). > Poly(methylmethacrylate) is grafted on aminized carbon nanotubes by thermal reaction. > Grafting of carbon nanotubes and polymer provide enhanced physical properties. > It was due to the strong interaction between carbon nanotubes and polymer matrix.

  4. Comparison of the effects of different heat treatment processes on rheological properties of cake and bread wheat flours.

    PubMed

    Bucsella, Blanka; Takács, Ágnes; Vizer, Viktoria; Schwendener, Urs; Tömösközi, Sándor

    2016-01-01

    Dry and hydrothermal heat treatments are efficient for modifying the technological-functional and shelf-life properties of wheat milling products. Dry heat treatment process is commonly used to enhance the volume of cakes. Hydrothermal heat treatment makes wheat flours suitable as thickener agents. In this study, cake and bread wheat flours that differed in baking properties were exposed to dry (100 °C, 12 min) and hydrothermal (95 °C, 5 min, 5-20 l/h water) heat treatments. Rheological differences caused by the treatments were investigated in a diluted slurry and in a dough matrix. Dry heat treatment resulted in enhanced dough stability. This effect was significantly higher in the cake flour than the bread flour. Altered viscosity properties of the bread flour in the slurry matrix were also observed. The characteristics of hydrothermally treated samples showed matrix dependency: their viscosity increases in the slurry and decreases in the dough matrix. These results can support us to produce flour products with specific techno-functional properties.

  5. Effect of Mineralogy on the Rheological Properties of Olivine, Othopyroxene and Olivine/Orthopyroxene Mixtures at High Temperature and Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homburg, J. M.; Mei, S.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    To better understand the influence of mineralogy on the rheological properties of the upper mantle, we have carried out a series of triaxial compressive creep experiments on olivine/orthopyroxene mixtures under high pressures (~6 GPa) and high temperatures (1373 - 1473 K) under anhydrous conditions. Experiments were performed using the deformation-DIA (D-DIA) apparatus on beamline X17B2 at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Samples of three mineralogical compositions (olivine, orthopyroxene and 50:50 volumetric ratio of olivine:orthopyroxene) were prepared from fine-grained (~10 μm) mineral separates of San Carlos olivine and orthopyroxene. Orthopyroxene and olivine/orthopyroxene samples were cold pressed to attain a cylinder ~1 mm in length and 1.1 mm in diameter. The cold pressed sample was then stacked with a hot-pressed olivine sample of similar size and assembled with alumina pistons, a boron nitride sleeve and graphite resistance heater into a 6.2-mm edge length cubic pressure medium. Nickel disks were placed at the ends of both samples to act as strain markers. During each experiment, in-situ stress and strain measurements were obtained from X-ray diffraction and radiography, respectively. After annealing the samples at the pressure/temperature conditions of deformation for ~2 hours to insure compaction of the cold pressed sample, experiments were conducted at constant strain rates between 2.2x10^-5 and 3.3x10^-5 s^-1 up to axial strains of 5 to 20%. The orthopyroxene and olivine/orthopyroxene mixture deformed at approximately the same rate with the mixed phase system displaying some weakening relative to the single-phase system. This observation suggests that orthopyroxene may be controlling sample behavior in the mixed phase material. In contrast, the orthopyroxene and olivine/orthopyroxene samples crept ~ 2 - 3 times faster than olivine. This contrast in rheological behavior was observed at lower temperatures

  6. Rheological Properties of Ascending Magma at a Basaltic Andesitic System: Puy De La Vache, France As a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, L.; Sehlke, A.; Harris, A. J. L.; Whittington, A. G.; Menand, T.

    2014-12-01

    Eruptions at basaltic andesitic systems are often characterized by effusive behavior. However, an increasing number of examples around the World indicate that these magmas, with low degrees of differentiation and basic compositions, have the capacity to produce explosive eruptions; thus presenting a considerable hazard. Volcanoes in the Chaîne des Puys (France), more specically the Puy de la Vache volcano, are good examples of explosive activity at basaltic andesitic centers. A combination of factors can explain this behavior: high magma ascent rate, high content of dissolved gases and high crystal contents. The latter leads to an increase in magma viscosity. The rheological properties of the magma control the eruptive style; viscosity itself strongly depends on composition, temperature, crystal fraction and vesicularity. In particular, an increase in crystal content may drastically change the composition of the residual melt and adds rigid particles to the mixture, inducing a complex strain rate dependence. Here, we are interested in the rheology of basaltic andesitic magmas as a function of crystal content. To quantify the effect of crystals on the viscosity, we measured the stress-strain relationship of the remelted Puy de la Vache lava by concentric cylinder viscometry at super and subliquidus conditions. Concurrently, we performed a textural analysis to determine the crystal fraction at each temperature. We also measured viscosities close to the glass transition using a parallel plate viscometer. We then compared the measured viscosities with those obtained from calculations using existing models. With the experimentally obtained stress-strain rate relationship of the magma at different temperatures and crystal fractions, our goal is to design a model where viscosity varies across the conduit depending on the shear stress and strain rate conditions. This will allow us to characterize the potential explosive behavior of basaltic to andesitic magmas.

  7. Comparison of rheological, mechanical, electrical properties of HDPE filled with BaTiO3 with different polar surface tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jun; Zhang, Jun

    2016-12-01

    In this work, three types of coupling agents: isopropyl trioleic titanate (NDZ105), vinyltriethoxysilane (SG-Si151), 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH550) were applied to modify the surface tension of Barium titanate (BaTiO3) particles. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirm the chemical adherence of coupling agents to the particle surface. The long hydrocarbon chains in NDZ105 can cover the particle surface and reduce the polar surface tension of BaTiO3 from 37.53 mJ/m2 to 7.51 mJ/m2, turning it from hydrophilic to oleophilic properties. The short and non-polar vinyl groups in SG-Si151 does not influence the surface tension of BaTiO3, but make BaTiO3 have both hydrophilic and oleophilic properties. The polar amino in KH550 can keep BaTiO3 still with hydrophilic properties. It is found that SG-Si151 modified BaTiO3 has the lowest interaction with HDPE matrix, lowering the storage modulus of HDPE composites to the greatest extent. As for mechanical properties, the polar amino groups in KH550 on BaTiO3 surface can improve the adhesion of BaTiO3 with HDPE matrix, which increases the elongation at break of HDPE composites to the greatest extent. In terms of electrical properties, the polar amino groups on surface of BaTiO3 can boost the dielectric properties of HDPE/BaTiO3 composites and decrease the volume resistivity of HDPE/BaTiO3 composites. The aim of this study is to investigate how functional groups affect the rheological, mechanical and electrical properties of HDPE composites and to select a coupling agent to produce HDPE/BaTiO3 composites with low dielectric loss, high dielectric constant and elongation at break.

  8. Calculating rheologic properties of magmas from field observations combined with experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verberne, R.; Ulmer, P.; Muntener, O.

    2010-12-01

    In order to investigate the emplacement processes that occur in shallow level plutonic magma reservoirs, we try to relate phase assemblages and mineral composition to the emplacement history of a particular rock suite by combining field and experimental approaches to understand the physical, rheological and temporal evolution of crystallizing batholiths. Here we present a case study of the Listino Ring Structure of the Adamello Batholith, N-Italy, where processes of interaction between felsic and mafic magmas, such as mafic dike injection in partly crystallized silicic magmas, dike disaggregation, enclave formation, and near-solidus shearing were studied in glacier-polished outcrops. Most of these phenomena are generally assigned to fluid dynamic processes operating in a magma reservoir (Turner & Campbell, 1986), where rheological barriers (e.g. viscosity contrast) inhibit chemical mixing of mafic magmas with crystal-rich silicic magmas (Sparks & Marshall, 1986; Blundy & Sparks, 1992). Our approach centers around the determination of mineral assemblages and crystal fractions present at the time of the process under investigation. The mineral assemblage at the time of injection of mafic magmas, can be determined from the observation that minerals from the host magma are being mechanically incorporated as phenocrysts into the mafic enclaves before quenching occurs. In the case of synmagmatic deformation, the crystals present during deformation can possibly be identified by determining the crystal fraction displaying plastic deformation. Having determined the modal mineralogy and composition of phases, combining with whole rock chemistry of both magmas and a pressure estimate obtained from Al-in-Hornblende barometry by Blundy & Caddick (unpublished), allows us to constrain the temperature and H2O-content of the host magma. The melt fraction and composition of the host magma can then be calculated from available experimental data, and the melt composition can be

  9. Multiscale Modeling of the Effects of Salt and Perfume Raw Materials on the Rheological Properties of Commercial Threadlike Micellar Solutions.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xueming; Zou, Weizhong; Koenig, Peter H; McConaughy, Shawn D; Weaver, Mike R; Eike, David M; Schmidt, Michael J; Larson, Ronald G

    2017-03-23

    We link micellar structures to their rheological properties for two surfactant body-wash formulations at various concentrations of salts and perfume raw materials (PRMs) using molecular simulations and micellar-scale modeling, as well as traditional surfactant packing arguments. The two body washes, namely, BW-1EO and BW-3EO, are composed of sodium lauryl ethylene glycol ether sulfate (SLEnS, where n is the average number of ethylene glycol repeat units), cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB), ACCORD (which is a mixture of six PRMs), and NaCl salt. BW-3EO is an SLE3S-based body wash, whereas BW-1EO is an SLE1S-based body wash. Additional PRMs are also added into the body washes. The effects of temperature, salt, and added PRMs on micellar lengths, breakage times, end-cap free energies, and other properties are obtained from fits of the rheological data to predictions of the "Pointer Algorithm" [ Zou , W. ; Larson , R.G. J. Rheol. 2014 , 58 , 1 - 41 ], which is a simulation method based on the Cates model of micellar dynamics. Changes in these micellar properties are interpreted using the Israelachvili surfactant packing argument. From coarse-grained molecular simulations, we infer how salt modifies the micellar properties by changing the packing between the surfactant head groups, with the micellar radius remaining nearly constant. PRMs do so by partitioning to different locations within the micelles according to their octanol/water partition coefficient POW and chemical structures, adjusting the packing of the head and/or tail groups, and by changing the micelle radius, in the case of a large hydrophobic PRM. We find that relatively hydrophilic PRMs with log POW < 2 partition primarily to the head group region and shrink micellar length, decreasing viscosity substantially, whereas more hydrophobic PRMs, with log POW between 2 and 4, mix with the hydrophobic surfactant tails within the micellar core and slightly enhance the viscosity and micelle length, which is

  10. The influence of nanodiamond on the oxygenation states and micro rheological properties of human red blood cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Chung; Tsai, Lin-Wei; Perevedentseva, Elena; Chang, Hsin-Hou; Lin, Ching-Hui; Sun, Der-Shan; Lugovtsov, Andrei E.; Priezzhev, Alexander; Mona, Jani; Cheng, Chia-Liang

    2012-10-01

    Nanodiamond has been proven to be biocompatible and proposed for various biomedical applications. Recently, nanometer-sized diamonds have been demonstrated as an effective Raman/fluorescence probe for bio-labeling, as well as, for drug delivery. Bio-labeling/drug delivery can be extended to the human blood system, provided one understands the interaction between nanodiamonds and the blood system. Here, the interaction of nanodiamonds (5 and 100 nm) with human red blood cells (RBC) in vitro is discussed. Measurements have been facilitated using Raman spectroscopy, laser scanning fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser diffractometry (ektacytometry). Data on cell viability and hemolytic analysis are also presented. Results indicate that the nanodiamonds in the studied condition do not cause hemolysis, and the cell viability is not affected. Importantly, the oxygenation/deoxygenation process was not found to be altered when nanodiamonds interacted with the RBC. However, the nanodiamond can affect some RBC properties such as deformability and aggregation in a concentration dependent manner. These results suggest that the nanodiamond can be used as an effective bio-labeling and drug delivery tool in ambient conditions, without complicating the blood's physiological conditions. However, controlling the blood properties including deformability of RBCs and rheological properties of blood is necessary during treatment.

  11. Enzymatic hydrolysis of whey and casein protein- effect on functional, rheological, textural and sensory properties of breads.

    PubMed

    Gani, Adil; Broadway, A A; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Wani, Ali Abas; Maqsood, Sajid; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Shah, Asima; Rather, Sajad Ahmad; Gani, Asir

    2015-12-01

    Milk proteins were hydrolyzed by papain and their effect on the rheological, textural and sensory properties of bread were investigated. Water absorption capacity, emulsification capacity, foam volume, foam stability and solubility of Whey and casein protein concentrates and their hydrolysates were determined. The farinograph parameters of wheat flour and blends of wheat flour with casein and whey protein and their hydrolysates were determined to evaluate changes in water absorption capacity, dough development time, dough stability time and mixing tolerance index. The incorporation of WPC, casein and their hydrolysates up to the level of 5 % showed dough properties comparable to control. It was also found that 5 % level incorporation of milk proteins and their hydrolysates have no drastic effect on physical and sensory attributes of bread. The pasting properties showed significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) when compared with wheat flour at all levels of addition of whey and casein protein concentrates and hydrolysates. Scanning electron microscopy of bread samples shows disruption in the well-defined protein - starch complex of wheat flour bread and the structure of gluten was weak as the concentration of whey protein increases in the wheat flour bread.

  12. Blood thixotropy in patients with sickle cell anaemia: role of haematocrit and red blood cell rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Vent-Schmidt, Jens; Waltz, Xavier; Romana, Marc; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Lemonne, Nathalie; Billaud, Marie; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Connes, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    We compared the blood thixotropic/shear-thinning properties and the red blood cells' (RBC) rheological properties between a group of patients with sickle cell anaemia (SS) and healthy individuals (AA). Blood thixotropy was determined by measuring blood viscosity with a capillary viscometer using a "loop" protocol: the shear rate started at 1 s-1 and increased progressively to 922 s-1 and then re-decreased to the initial shear rate. Measurements were performed at native haematocrit for the two groups and at 25% and 40% haematocrit for the AA and SS individuals, respectively. RBC deformability was determined by ektacytometry and RBC aggregation properties by laser backscatter versus time. AA at native haematocrit had higher blood thixotropic index than SS at native haematocrit and AA at 25% haematocrit. At 40% haematocrit, SS had higher blood thixotropic index than AA. While RBC deformability and aggregation were lower in SS than in AA, the strength of RBC aggregates was higher in the former population. Our results showed that 1) anaemia is the main modulator of blood thixtropy and 2) the low RBC deformability and high RBC aggregates strength cause higher blood thixotropy in SS patients than in AA individuals at 40% haematocrit, which could impact blood flow in certain vascular compartments.

  13. The influence of nanodiamond on the oxygenation states and micro rheological properties of human red blood cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Chung; Tsai, Lin-Wei; Perevedentseva, Elena; Chang, Hsin-Hou; Lin, Ching-Hui; Sun, Der-Shan; Lugovtsov, Andrei E; Priezzhev, Alexander; Mona, Jani; Cheng, Chia-Liang

    2012-10-01

    Nanodiamond has been proven to be biocompatible and proposed for various biomedical applications. Recently, nanometer-sized diamonds have been demonstrated as an effective Raman/fluorescence probe for bio-labeling, as well as, for drug delivery. Bio-labeling/drug delivery can be extended to the human blood system, provided one understands the interaction between nanodiamonds and the blood system. Here, the interaction of nanodiamonds (5 and 100 nm) with human red blood cells (RBC) in vitro is discussed. Measurements have been facilitated using Raman spectroscopy, laser scanning fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser diffractometry (ektacytometry). Data on cell viability and hemolytic analysis are also presented. Results indicate that the nanodiamonds in the studied condition do not cause hemolysis, and the cell viability is not affected. Importantly, the oxygenation/deoxygenation process was not found to be altered when nanodiamonds interacted with the RBC. However, the nanodiamond can affect some RBC properties such as deformability and aggregation in a concentration dependent manner. These results suggest that the nanodiamond can be used as an effective bio-labeling and drug delivery tool in ambient conditions, without complicating the blood's physiological conditions. However, controlling the blood properties including deformability of RBCs and rheological properties of blood is necessary during treatment.

  14. Effect of nano-alumina concentration on the mechanical, rheological, barrier and morphological properties of guar gum.

    PubMed

    Savvashe, Prashant; Kadam, Pravin; Mhaske, Shashank

    2016-04-01

    In this work, nano-alumina was utilized as a reinforcing agent for guar gum, with an aim to improve its performance properties; especially, mechanical and barrier i.e. water vapor transmission rate (WVTR). Films were prepared by the process of solution casting. Concentration of nano-alumina was varied as 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 parts per hundred parts of resin (phr) in guar gum. The prepared pristine and guar gum/alumina nano-composite films were characterized for mechanical, puncture, x-ray diffraction, barrier, rheological and morphological properties. Tensile strength, Young's modulus, puncture strength, viscosity and crystallinity increased; whereas, WVTR, elongation at break (%) and damping factor decreased with increased concentration of nano-alumina in guar gum. However, optimized improvement in the performance properties were determined for 5 phr nano-alumina loaded guar gum polymer matrix, attributed to its better dispersion and interaction into the guar gum polymer chains due to the hydrophilic nature of both the materials. Above 5 phr concentration nano-alumina started forming aggregates, as evident from scanning electron microscopy.

  15. Rheology of Active Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Active networks drive a diverse range of critical processes ranging from motility to division in living cells, yet a full picture of their rheological capabilities in non-cellular contexts is still emerging, e.g., How does the rheological response of a network capable of remodeling under internally-generated stresses differ from that of a passive biopolymer network? In order to address this and other basic questions, we have engineered an active gel composed of microtubules, bidirectional kinesin motors, and molecular depletant that self-organizes into a highly dynamic network of active bundles. The network continually remodels itself under ATP-tunable cycles of extension, buckling, fracturing, and self-healing. Using confocal rheometry we have simultaneously characterized the network's linear and non-linear rheological responses to shear deformation along with its dynamic morphology. We find several surprising and unique material properties for these active gels; most notably, rheological cloaking, the ability of the active gel to drive large-scale fluid mixing over several orders of flow magnitude while maintaining an invariant, solid-like rheological profile and spontaneous flow under confinement, the ability to exert micro-Newton forces to drive persistent directed motion of the rheometer tool. Taken together, these results and others to be discussed highlight the rich stress-structure-dynamics relationships in this class of biologically-derived active gels.

  16. Injectable pectin hydrogels produced by internal gelation: pH dependence of gelling and rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Helena R; Munarin, Fabiola; Gentilini, Roberta; Visai, Livia; Granja, Pedro L; Tanzi, Maria Cristina; Petrini, Paola

    2014-03-15

    The production of injectable pectin hydrogels by internal gelation with calcium carbonate is proposed. The pH of pectin was increased with NaOH or NaHCO3 to reach physiological values. The determination of the equivalence point provided evidence that the pH can be more precisely modulated with NaHCO3 than with NaOH. Degradation and inability to gel was observed for pectin solutions with pH 5.35 or higher. Therefore, pectin solutions with pH values varying from 3.2 (native pH) to 3.8 were chosen to produce the gels. The increase of the pH for the crosslinked hydrogels, as well as the reduction of the gelling time and their thickening, was dependent upon the amount of calcium carbonate, as confirmed by rheology. Hydrogel extracts were not cytotoxic for L-929 fibroblasts. On the overall, the investigated formulations represent interesting injectable systems providing an adequate microenvironment for cell, drug or bioactive molecules delivery.

  17. A Study on the Rheological Properties of Recycled Rubber-Modified Asphalt Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Karacasu, Murat; Er, Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Using waste rubber in asphalt mixes has become a common practice in road construction. This paper presents the results of a study on the rheological characteristics of rubber-modified asphalt (RMA) concrete under static and dynamic loading conditions. A number of static and dynamic creep tests were conducted on RMA mix specimens with different rubber sizes and contents, and a series of resonant column tests were conducted to evaluate the shear modulus and damping values. To simulate the stress-strain response of traffic-induced loading, the measurements were taken for different confining pressures and strain levels. The results of the study indicated that rubber modification increases stiffness and damping ratio, making it a very attractive material for use in road construction. However the grain size of the rubber is very important. Although RMA may cost up to 100% more than regular asphalt, the advantages it brings, such as an increased service life of the road and proper waste utilization contributing to a more sustainable infrastructure, may justify the added cost. PMID:25695096

  18. Determination of Interfacial Rheological Properties through Microgravity Oscillations of Bubbles and Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadim, Ali; Rush, Brian M.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes our derivations of analytical expressions for the frequencies and damping constants for small-amplitude axisymmetric shape oscillations of a liquid drop suspended in an immiscible fluid host in microgravity. In particular, this work addresses large Reynolds number shape oscillations and focuses on the surface rheological effects that arise from the presence of insoluble surfactants at the interface. Parameters characterizing viscous effects from the bulk phases, surface viscous effects, Marangoni effects from the surface advection and diffusion of surfactants, and the Gibbs elasticity are all considered and analyzed to determine the relative importance of each contribution. Supplementing the analytical treatment for small-amplitude oscillations, a numerical boundary integral equation formulation is developed for the study of large-amplittide axisymmetric oscillations of a drop in vacuum. The boundary integral formulation is an extension of classical potential flow theory and approximately accounts for viscous effects in the bulk fluid as well as the surface viscous and Marangoni effects resulting from an insoluble surfactant contaminating the interface. Theoretical and numerical results are presented for four distinct cases. These, range from the case when the effects of the surfactants are 'negligible' to 'large' when compared to the viscous effects in the bulk phases. The feasibility of the non-contact measurement of the surface parameters, using experimental observations for the oscillation frequencies and damping constants of drops and bubbles, is discussed.

  19. A study on the rheological properties of recycled rubber-modified asphalt mixtures.

    PubMed

    Karacasu, Murat; Okur, Volkan; Er, Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Using waste rubber in asphalt mixes has become a common practice in road construction. This paper presents the results of a study on the rheological characteristics of rubber-modified asphalt (RMA) concrete under static and dynamic loading conditions. A number of static and dynamic creep tests were conducted on RMA mix specimens with different rubber sizes and contents, and a series of resonant column tests were conducted to evaluate the shear modulus and damping values. To simulate the stress-strain response of traffic-induced loading, the measurements were taken for different confining pressures and strain levels. The results of the study indicated that rubber modification increases stiffness and damping ratio, making it a very attractive material for use in road construction. However the grain size of the rubber is very important. Although RMA may cost up to 100% more than regular asphalt, the advantages it brings, such as an increased service life of the road and proper waste utilization contributing to a more sustainable infrastructure, may justify the added cost.

  20. In situ determination of rheological properties and void fraction: Hanford Waste Tank 241-SY-103

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, C.L.; Stewart, C.W.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Terrones, G.; Chen, G.; Wilkins, N.E.

    1995-11-01

    This report presents the results of the operation of the void fraction instrument (VFI) and ball rheometer in Hanford Tank 241-SY-103. The two instruments were deployed through risers 17C and 22A in July and August 1995 to gather data on the gas content and rheology of the waste. The results indicate that the nonconvective sludge layer contains up to 12% void and an apparent viscosity of 104 to 105 cP with a yield strength less than 210 Pa. The convective layer measured zero void and had no measurable yield strength. Its average viscosity was about 45 cP, and the density was less than 1.5 g/cc. The average void fraction was 0.047 {plus_minus} 0.015 at riser 17C and 0.091 {plus_minus} 0.015 at riser 22A. The stored gas volume based on these void fraction measurements is 213 {plus_minus} 42 M{sup 3} at 1 atmosphere.

  1. Rheological and Mechanical Property Measurements of PMDI Foam at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Nemer, Martin Bernard; Brooks, Carlton F.; Shelden, Bion; Soehnel, Melissa Marie; Barringer, David Alan

    2014-10-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the viscosity of liquefied 20 lb/ft3 poly methylene diisocyanate (PMDI) foam and the stress required to puncture solid PMDI foam at elevated temperatures. For the rheological measurements the foam was a priori liquefied in a pressure vessel such that the volatiles were not lost in the liquefaction process. The viscosity of the liquefied PMDI foam was found to be Newtonian with a power law dependence on temperature log10(μ/Pa s) = 20.6 – 9.5 log10(T/°C) for temperatures below 170 °C. Above 170 °C, the viscosity was in the range of 0.3 Pa s which is close to the lower measurement limit (≈ 0.1 Pa s) of the pressurized rheometer. The mechanical pressure required to break through 20lb/ft3 foam was 500-800 psi at temperatures from room temperature up to 180 °C. The mechanical pressure required to break through 10 lb/ft3 was 170-300 psi at temperatures from room temperature up to 180 °C. We have not been able to cause gas to break through the 20 lb/ft3 PMDI foam at gas pressures up to 100 psi.

  2. A comparison of the sensory and rheological properties of molecular and particulate forms of xanthan gum☆

    PubMed Central

    Abson, Rachael; Gaddipati, Sanyasi R.; Hort, Joanne; Mitchell, John R.; Wolf, Bettina; Hill, Sandra E.

    2014-01-01

    A particulate form of xanthan gum was prepared by extrusion cooking. The temperature dependence of the viscosity of this form shows similarities to starch with an increase in viscosity to a maximum with increasing temperature as a result of the swelling of the particles. The rheology and mixing behaviour with water of the particulate and conventional molecular forms of xanthan were compared with a modified starch. The particulate xanthan products mixed rapidly with water in a similar way to ungelatinised starch, whereas conventional molecular xanthan systems mixed poorly. Using an experienced sensory panel, model tomato products thickened with the three systems were compared at equal shear viscosities. The panel could not discriminate between the tomato flavour of the three products, but found that the xanthan products were perceived as being significantly thicker. These observations were consistent with previous work. Salt perception for both xanthan products was poorer than for the starch thickened systems. A hypothesis to explain why xanthan does not fit into the previously postulated link between mixing and perception is presented. PMID:24591753

  3. Graphene networks with low percolation threshold in ABS nanocomposites: selective localization and electrical and rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chong; Zhang, Shimin; Wang, Feng; Wen, Bin; Han, Chunchun; Ding, Yanfen; Yang, Mingshu

    2014-08-13

    Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin (ABS)/graphene nanocomposites were prepared through a facile coagulation method. Because the chemical reduction of graphene oxide was in situ conducted in the presence of ABS at the dispersion stage, the aggregation of the graphene nanosheets was avoided. It was shown by transmission electron microscopy that the graphene nanosheets were selectively located and homogeneously dispersed in the styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) phase. The electrical conductivity and linear viscoelastic behavior of the nanocomposites were systematically studied. With increasing filler content, graphene networks were established in the SAN phase. Consequently, the nanocomposites underwent a transition from electrical insulator to conductor at a percolation threshold of 0.13 vol %, which is smaller than that of other ABS composites. Such a low percolation threshold results from extreme geometry, selective localization, and homogeneous dispersion of the graphene nanosheets in SAN phase. Similarly, the rheological response of the nanocomposites also showed a transition to solid-like behavior. Due to the thermal reduction of graphene nanosheets and structure improvement of graphene networks, enhanced electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites was obtained after annealing.

  4. Morphological influence of cellulose nanoparticles (CNs) from cottonseed hulls on rheological properties of polyvinyl alcohol/CN suspensions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work aims to extract and characterize fibrous, rod-like and spherical cellulose nanoparticles (CNs) from cottonseed hull and to investigate the structure-morphology-rheology relationships. The rheological behavior of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/CNs suspensions was also examined to guide the solve...

  5. Mathematical model of microbicidal flow dynamics and optimization of rheological properties for intra-vaginal drug delivery: Role of tissue mechanics and fluid rheology.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Md Rajib; Camarda, Kyle V; Kieweg, Sarah L

    2015-06-25

    Topically applied microbicide gels can provide a self-administered and effective strategy to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We have investigated the interplay between vaginal tissue elasticity and the yield-stress of non-Newtonian fluids during microbicide deployment. We have developed a mathematical model of tissue deformation driven spreading of microbicidal gels based on thin film lubrication approximation and demonstrated the effect of tissue elasticity and fluid yield-stress on the spreading dynamics. Our results show that both elasticity of tissue and yield-stress rheology of gel are strong determinants of the coating behavior. An optimization framework has been demonstrated which leverages the flow dynamics of yield-stress fluid during deployment to maximize retention while reaching target coating length for a given tissue elasticity.

  6. Effect of chain extension on rheology and tensile properties of PHB and PHB-PLA blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousfield, Glenn

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), referred to as PHB, is a bacterially-synthesized and biodegradable polymer which is being considered as a substitute for non-biodegradable bulk polymers like polypropylene. PHB is naturally extremely isotactic and naturally has a very high degree of crystallinity, resulting in a stiff but brittle material. The stability of PHB crystals also means that the melting point of the polymer is approximately 170°C, high with respect to similar polymers. For instance, the melting point of poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) is only 53°C (Saito, Nakamura, Hiramitsu, & Doi, 1996). Above 170°C, PHB is subject to a thermomechanical degradation mechanism, meaning that the polymer cannot be melted without degrading. One possible solution to the problem of degradation is to add a chain extender to the molten polymer to increase average molecular weight to counteract the molecular weight lost to degradation. In this work, a variety of chain extenders (JoncrylRTM ADR 4368-C, pyromellitic dianhydride, hexamethylene diisocyanate, polycarbodiimide) were compounded with a random copolymer of 98 mol% 3-hydroxybutyrate and 2 mol% 3-hydroxyvalerate (referred to as PHB) in concentrations ranging from 0.25% to 4%, to determine which chain extender functionality worked best with PHB. Molecular weight change was inferred from torque monitored during compounding, and from complex viscosity determined from parallel-plate rheology. None of the chain extenders changed the rate of degradation of PHB, although Joncryl increased the complex viscosity of the polymer. PHB was also blended with Poly(L-lactic acid), referred to as PLLA in PHB/PLLA ratios of 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100, to determine the effect of blending on the thermal stability of PHB. Again, thermal stability was determined by monitoring torque during compounding and by measuring complex viscosity through parallel-plate rheology. Blends in which PHB was the more abundant phase, as well as the 50% PHB/50% PLA

  7. Development of probiotic dairy beverages: rheological properties and application of mathematical models in sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Castro, W F; Cruz, A G; Bisinotto, M S; Guerreiro, L M R; Faria, J A F; Bolini, H M A; Cunha, R L; Deliza, R

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry-flavored probiotic dairy beverages (2% vol/vol Lactobacillus acidophilus) were produced using 0, 20, 35, 50, 65, and 80% (vol/vol) whey in their formulations. Mathematical models (survival analysis, minimal significant difference, and mean global acceptance) were used to identify the optimal (sensorially) whey concentration in probiotic beverages. Fifty-five consumers evaluated acceptance of the beverages using hybrid 9-point hedonic scales. In addition, Lb. acidophilus were enumerated and pH was determined. Rheological behavior is an important characteristic for the processing and sensory acceptance of dairy beverages, varying with the presence of additives, fermentation process (time, bacterial strain), and whey concentrations used. All beverages presented minimal counts of 8 log cfu/mL of Lb. acidophilus, and pH ranged from 4.09 to 4.14. Increasing the whey content increased the fragility of the gel structure, probably because of the replacement of casein by whey proteins, once the concentrations of other ingredients in formulation were fixed. Whey content had a significant effect on acceptance of the probiotic dairy beverages; beverages with whey contents greater than 65% resulted in lower acceptance by consumers. The model of mean global acceptance presented 2 solutions with high sensory scores: beverages with 12 and 65% whey, the latter being of interest because it allows greater use of the whey by-product. The Weibull distribution presented a prediction of whey concentration of 49%, with higher sensory acceptance. The methodologies used in this research were shown to be useful in determining the constituents of food formulations, especially for whey-based probiotic beverages.

  8. Effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum on pasting, thermo-mechanical and rheological properties of wheat dough.

    PubMed

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S

    2016-12-01

    Partially hydrolyzed guar gum was prepared using enzymatic hydrolysis of native guar gum that can be utilized as soluble fiber source. The effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) on pasting, thermo-mechanical and rheological properties of wheat flour was investigated using rapid visco-analyzer, Mixolab and Microdoughlab. Wheat flour was replaced with 1-5g PHGG per 100g of wheat flour on weight basis. PHGG addition decreased the peak, trough, breakdown, setback and final viscosity of wheat flour. Water absorption and amylase activity of wheat dough were increased whereas starch gelatinization and protein weakening of wheat dough were reduced as a result of PHGG addition to wheat flour. PHGG addition also increased the peak dough height, arrival time, dough development time, dough stability and peak energy of wheat dough system. However, dough softening was decreased after PHGG addition to wheat flour dough. Overall, it can be assumed that PHGG has influenced the properties of wheat flour dough system by decreasing the RVA viscosities and increasing the water absorption and starch gelatinization of wheat dough system.

  9. Rheological, baking, and sensory properties of composite bread dough with breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst) and wheat flours.

    PubMed

    Bakare, Adegoke H; Osundahunsi, Oluwatooyin F; Olusanya, Joseph O

    2016-07-01

    The rheological (Pasting, farinograph, and alveograph) properties of wheat flour (WF) replaced with breadfruit four (05-40%) was analyzed. Baking and sensory qualities of the resulting bread were evaluated. Differences in baking properties of loaves produced under laboratory and industrial conditions were analyzed with t-test, whereas ANOVA was used for other analyses. Peak and final viscosities in the composite blends (CB) ranged from 109.20 to 114.06 RVU and 111.86 to 134.40 RVU, respectively. Dough stability decreased from 9.15 to 0.78 min, whereas farinograph water absorption increased 59.7-65.9%. Alveograph curve configuration ratio increased from 1.27 to 7.39, whereas specific volume (Spv) of the loaves decreased from 2.96 to 1.32 cm(3)/g. The Spv of WF loaves were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that of the 5% CB, whereas production conditions had no significant effects on absorbed water (t = 0.532, df = 18 P = 0.3005), weight loss during baking (t = 0.865, df = 18, P = 0.199), and Spv (t = 0.828, df = 14.17, P = 0.211). The sensory qualities of the 5% blend were not significantly different from the WF.

  10. Rheological properties of styrene-butadiene rubber filled with electron beam modified surface treated dual phase fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugharaj, A. M.; Bhowmick, Anil K.

    2004-01-01

    The rheological properties of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) loaded with dual phase filler were measured using Monsanto Processability Tester (MPT) at three different temperatures (100°C, 110°C and 130°C) and four different shear rates (61.3, 306.3, 613, and 1004.5 s -1). The effect of electron beam modification of dual phase filler in absence and presence of trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) or triethoxysilylpropyltetrasulphide (Si-69) on melt flow properties of SBR was also studied. The viscosity of all the systems decreases with shear rate indicating their pseudoplastic or shear thinning nature. The higher shear viscosity for the SBR loaded with the electron beam modified filler is explained in terms of variation in structure of the filler upon electron beam irradiation. Die swell of the modified filler loaded SBR is slightly higher than that of the unmodified filler loaded rubber, which is explained by calculating normal stress difference for the systems. Activation energy of the modified filler loaded SBR systems is also slightly higher than that of the control filler loaded SBR system.

  11. Relationships of flour solvent retention capacity, secondary structure and rheological properties with the cookie making characteristics of wheat cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Seeratpreet; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2014-09-01

    The relationships of grain, flour solvent retention capacity (SRC) and dough rheological properties with the cookie making properties of wheat cultivars were evaluated. Cultivars with higher proportion of intermolecular-β-sheets+antiparallel β sheets and lower α-helix had greater gluten strength. The grain weight and diameter positively correlated with the proportion of fine particles and the cookie spread factor (SF) and negatively to the grain hardness (GH) and Na2CO3 SRC. The SF was higher in the flour with a higher amount of fine particle and with a lower Na2CO3 SRC and dough stability (DS). The breaking strength (BS) of cookies was positively correlated to lactic acid (LA) SRC, DS, peak time, sedimentation value (SV), G' and G″. Na2CO3 SRC and GH were strongly correlated. The gluten performance index showed a strong positive correlation with SV, DS, G' and G″. The water absorption had a significant positive correlation with sucrose SRC and LASRC. Cultivars with higher GH produced higher amount of coarse particles in flours that had higher Na2CO3 SRC and lower cookie SF.

  12. The influence of hydrogen, deformation geometry, and grain size on the rheological properties of olivine at upper mantle conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tielke, Jacob A.

    Many important geophysical processes, including mantle convection and the associated movement of Earth's tectonic plates, are strongly dependent upon the rheological properties of Earth's upper mantle. Olivine is the most abundant mineral in the upper mantle and therefore largely controls the mechanical behavior of this region of Earth's interior. Many experimental investigations have been carried out to study the rheological properties of olivine single crystals, synthetically produced aggregates, and naturally occurring mantle rocks at asthenospheric temperatures. In contrast, relatively few studies have focused on measuring the rheological properties of olivine deforming at lithospheric temperatures. Furthermore, there are several unanswered questions about the microphysical processes that control deformation of olivine at upper mantle conditions. One outstanding question in the field of rock and mineral physics is Do different microphysical processes control the rate of deformation of olivine at asthenospheric compared to lithospheric mantle conditions? To address this question we carried out direct shear experiments on olivine single crystals at temperatures that span the transition from lithospheric to asthenospheric mantle conditions. The results of these experiments, which are presented in Chapter 2, demonstrate that the dependence of strain rate upon stress transitions from a power-law relationship at high temperatures to an exponential dependence at lower temperatures. This transition in rheological behavior is consistent with deformation that is controlled by the climb of dislocations at high-temperature conditions and deformation that is controlled by the glide of dislocations at low-temperature conditions. Furthermore, the direct shear geometry allows for isolation of the (001)[100] and (100)[001] dislocation slip systems, which cannot be individually activated in triaxial compression. At high-temperature conditions, crystals oriented for shear on the

  13. Modulation of the rheological and mucoadhesive properties of thermosensitive poloxamer-based hydrogels intended for the rectal administration of quinine.

    PubMed

    Koffi, A A; Agnely, F; Ponchel, G; Grossiord, J L

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this work was to formulate and characterize thermosensitive gels based on poloxamer 407, a thermosensitive polymer, and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), a bioadhesive polymer, intended for the rectal delivery of quinine in children. In order to avoid the macroscopic phase separation between the two polymers it was necessary to add propanediol-1,2. After the formulation of stable ternary systems, their rheological properties were studied as a function of temperature. It was thus possible to obtained the gelation temperature of the systems as well as their elastic modulus, G', at 37 degrees C. It appeared that HPMC in the presence of propanediol-1,2 had a synergistic effect on the gelation of poloxamer 407. Tests on the rabbit rectal mucous membrane, founded on a technique of traction of the adhesive/adhered joint, made it possible to characterize the bioadhesive properties of the gels by measuring the work of adhesion, W, and the maximum detachment force, F(max). Over small concentration ranges of poloxamer and HPMC, very important variations of the viscoelastic and mucoadhesives properties were observed. It was shown that the viscoelastic and the bioadhesive properties were tightly correlated. Indeed, an empirical equivalence relation was established between the shear frequency and the rate of deformation in traction and allowed to describe all our samples by a master curve. This master curve would make it possible to predict the values of W at various rates of traction by the simple non-destructive measurement of the elastic modulus, G', at an equivalent shear frequency.

  14. The effect of crystal plasticity and mineral stability on the rheological properties of magma during spine extrusion at Unzen, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Paul A.; Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan; Ashworth, James D.; Mariani, Elisabetta; von Aulock, Felix W.; Coats, Rebecca; Miwa, Takahiro

    2016-04-01

    The presence of crystals in silicic magmas is known to have a significant effect on the rheological properties inducing a non-Newtonian response. Plastic deformation of the crystalline phase in magmatic suspensions is believed to be partially responsible for this characteristic behaviour via accommodating strain, but little has been investigated on its role in volcanic processes. The spine extrusion following the final stages of endogenous growth of the 1991-95 lava dome eruption at Unzen volcano, Japan, has provided a unique opportunity to investigate the contribution of the different deformation mechanisms and varying petrological phenomena associated with magma ascent. The spine forms a shear zone consisting of four structurally discrete units over a 6 m transect including: gouge (1), a heavily sheared zone (2) to a moderately sheared zone (3), and an undeformed magmatic core (4). Here we report the first systematic study of the microstructures, mineralogy, crystal stability, geochemistry and crystal size distribution across this shear zone. The spine samples are porphyritic dacites with varying abundance of phenocrysts (20-30 vol.%), dominantly plagioclase, hornblende and biotite with minor quartz. The groundmass contains the same mineralogy plus pyroxene, magnetite and ilmenite. The microlites (35 vol.%) show a strong trachytic texture in areas of high shear, providing evidence of strain localisation. Brittle deformation is evident across the spine, with the higher sheared samples showing more crystal size reduction of the phenocrysts. By performing high-temperature (900° C) uniaxial compressive strength tests at constant strain rates (10-5 and 10-3 s-1), it can be inferred that crystals play a key role in the rheological properties, by forming a rigid but weak network that serves to partition stress and thus localise strain within the flowing melt. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) enables the identification of crystal plasticity in both phenocrysts

  15. Rheology and confocal reflectance microscopy as probes of mechanical properties and structure during collagen and collagen/hyaluronan self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-li; Kaufman, Laura J

    2009-02-18

    In this work, the gelation of three-dimensional collagen and collagen/hyaluronan (HA) composites is studied by time sweep rheology and time lapse confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM). To investigate the complementary nature of these techniques, first collagen gel formation is investigated at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/mL at 37 degrees C and 32 degrees C. The following parameters are used to describe the self-assembly process in all gels: the crossover time (t(c)), the slope of the growth phase (k(g)), and the arrest time (t(a)). The first two measures are determined by rheology, and the third by CRM. A frequency-independent rheological measure of gelation, t(g), is also measured at 37 degrees C. However, this quantity cannot be straightforwardly determined for gels formed at 32 degrees C, indicating that percolation theory does not fully capture the dynamics of collagen network formation. The effects of collagen concentration and gelation temperature on k(g), t(c), and t(a) as well as on the mechanical properties and structure of these gels both during gelation and at equilibrium are elucidated. Composite collagen/HA gels are also prepared, and their properties are monitored at equilibrium and during gelation at 37 degrees C and 32 degrees C. We show that addition of HA subtly alters mechanical properties and structure of these systems both during the gelation process and at equilibrium. This occurs in a temperature-dependent manner, with the ratio of HA deposited on collagen fibers versus that distributed homogeneously between fibers increasing with decreasing gelation temperature. In addition to providing information on collagen and collagen/HA structure and mechanical properties during gelation, this work shows new ways in which rheology and microscopy can be used complementarily to reveal details of gelation processes.

  16. A new highly viscoelastic hyaluronic acid gel: rheological properties, biocompatibility and clinical investigation in esthetic and restorative surgery.

    PubMed

    Iannitti, Tommaso; Bingöl, Ali Ö; Rottigni, Valentina; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2013-11-18

    Nowadays there is an increased demand for safe and effective volume enhancing fillers to achieve soft tissue augmentation in order to overcome tissue defects and aging-associated skin changes. In the present study we characterized the rheological and biological properties of Variofill(®), a new highly viscoelastic hyaluronic acid gel, by investigating the local effects following subcutaneous implantation in the rat to detect the host-tissue reactions and biodegradation over 18 months. We also investigated, for the first time, the application of Variofill(®) in esthetic and restorative surgery in two medical case reports. In the first case report we successfully performed Variofill(®) treatment to improve facial scars in a patient previously involved in a car crash. In the second case report we carried out a novel procedure involving a high-dose (1000 ml) injection of Variofill(®) into the dermis and subcutis of the abdominal quadrants in order to allow a classic reconstructive procedure of the abdominal wall in a patient presenting a wide incisional hernia.

  17. The effect of binders on the rheological properties and the microstructure formation of lithium-ion battery anode slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sanghyuk; Kim, Sunhyung; Ahn, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Seung Jong

    2015-12-01

    There have been many efforts to enhance the performance and the stability of Li-ion battery. It is crucial to develop a new material as well as to understand the mechanism of microstructure formation of the electrode in order to enhance the performance of the battery. In this study, the effect of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) on the microstructure formation as well as on the rheological properties in the aqueous anode slurries is investigated. The graphite particles aggregate with each other due to their hydrophobicity and form a gel structure in an aqueous slurry. Both CMC and SBR induce the dispersion of the graphite particles by adsorbing onto the graphite surface. In the graphite/CMC/SBR slurry, the SBR can affect the dispersion of the graphite particles at low CMC concentration, while the microstructure is not changed regardless of added SBR at high CMC concentration because the SBR cannot adsorb on the graphite surface due to the presence of CMC. The microstructure of the slurry is also confirmed by the cryo-SEM images. Understanding the role of the binders on the microstructure formation will be helpful for the effective design of the battery slurries.

  18. Porous gravity currents: A survey to determine the joint influence of fluid rheology and variations of medium properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciriello, Valentina; Longo, Sandro; Chiapponi, Luca; Di Federico, Vittorio

    2016-06-01

    We develop a model to grasp the combined effect of rheology and spatial stratifications on two-dimensional non-Newtonian gravity-driven flow in porous media. We consider a power-law constitutive equation for the fluid, and a monomial variation of permeability and porosity along the vertical direction (transverse to the flow) or horizontal direction (parallel to the flow). Under these assumptions, similarity solutions are derived in semi-analytical form for thin gravity currents injected into a two-dimensional porous medium and having constant or time-varying volume. The extent and shape of the porous domain affected by the injection is significantly influenced by the interplay of model parameters. These describe the fluid (flow behaviour index n), the spatial heterogeneity (coefficients β, γ, δ, ω for variations of permeability and porosity in the horizontal or vertical direction), and the type of release (volume exponent α). Theoretical results are validated against two sets of experiments with α = 1 (constant inflow) conducted with a stratified porous medium (simulated by superimposing layers of glass beads of different diameter) and a Hele-Shaw analogue for power-law fluid flow, respectively. In the latter case, a recently established Hele-Shaw analogy is extended to the variation of properties parallel to the flow direction. Comparison with experimental results shows that the proposed model is able to capture the propagation of the current front and the current profile.

  19. Textural and rheological properties of Pacific whiting surimi as affected by nano-scaled fish bone and heating rates.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tao; Park, Jae W

    2015-08-01

    Textural and rheological properties of Pacific whiting (PW) surimi were investigated at various heating rates with the use of nano-scaled fish bone (NFB) and calcium chloride. Addition of NFB and slow heating improved gel strength significantly. Activity of endogenous transglutaminase (ETGase) from PW surimi was markedly induced by both NFB calcium and calcium chloride, showing an optimal temperature at 30°C. Initial storage modulus increased as NFB calcium concentration increased and the same trend was maintained throughout the temperature sweep. Rheograms with temperature sweep at slow heating rate (1°C/min) exhibited two peaks at ∼ 35°C and ∼ 70°C. However, no peak was observed during temperature sweep from 20 to 90°C at fast heating rate (20°C/min). Protein patterns of surimi gels were affected by both heating rate and NFB calcium concentration. Under slow heating, myosin heavy chain intensity decreased with NFB calcium concentration, indicating formation of ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine cross-links by ETGase and NFB calcium ion.

  20. The effect of soluble salt in bone ash and other factors on the rheological properties of bone china bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shifan

    A dynamic stress rheometric technique was developed to determine the plasticity of bone china bodies. In addition, the effect of natural variations of commercial bone ash on the rheology and processability of bone china was examined. The plasticity was then related to the floc characteristics of the body. In carrying out this study the physical and colloidal characteristics of a wide range of commercial bone ash batches were determined. The effect of washing bone ash on the properties of bone ash was also determined. The preparation of bone china body followed accepted industrial processing. The extent of flocculation of the bone china body was determined using the Carmen-Kozeny model for filter pressed cakes. Dynamic mechanical analyses were conducted on all samples using a dynamic stress rheometer using a of parallel plate geometery. Stress sweep analyses were used to determine the linear viscoelastic range for other tests and the loss factor of the sample. Frequency sweep analyses were run to obtain the instantaneous modulus as the measurement of plasticity. Creep test analyses were carried out to find the steady viscosity. Mean relaxation time was calculated out from the measured instantaneous modulus and steady viscosity.

  1. Rheological properties of molten flax- and Tencel{sup ®}-polypropylene composites: Influence of fiber morphology and concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Abdennadher, Ahmed; Vincent, Michel; Budtova, Tatiana

    2016-01-15

    The rheological properties of short fiber reinforced polypropylene were investigated. Flax and Tencel{sup ®} are two cellulose based fibers used in this study. Flax fibers are extracted from the bast of plants. They are composed of thin elementary fibers and rigid thick bundles made of elementary fibers “glued” together. Tencel{sup ®} is a man-made cellulosic fiber spun from cellulose solution, with a uniform diameter, thin, and flexible. First, fiber dimensions before and after compounding were analyzed. Both types of fibers were broken during compounding. Flax shows larger length and diameter than Tencel{sup ®}, but aspect ratio of flax is smaller. The reason is that after compounding flax remained in bundles. Dynamic viscosity, elastic and viscous moduli were studied as a function of fiber type, concentration (from 0 to 30 wt. %), and composite temperature (from 180 to 200 °C). All Tencel{sup ®}-based composites showed higher apparent yield stress, viscosity, and moduli compared to flax-based composites at the same fiber concentrations. The results are analyzed in terms of the influence of fiber type, aspect ratio, and flexibility. The importance of considering fiber morphology is demonstrated as far as it controls fiber flexibility and fiber-fiber interactions.

  2. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Thin Plates of A6061 Wrought Aluminum Alloy Using Rheology Forging Process with Electromagnetic Stirring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chul Kyu; Bolouri, Amir; Kang, Chung Gil

    2014-06-01

    We propose the possibility of fabricating A6061 thin plates using the rheology forging process. Electromagnetic stirring (EMS) is used to fabricate a semi-solid slurry. A thin plate is formed by injecting the slurry into the forging die. When the punch speed used to compress the slurry is low, turbulent flow occurs. When the punch speed is high, laminar flow occurs, and the solid and liquid phases move simultaneously. For a pressure of 150 MPa or below, incomplete filling behavior and cracks occur. For a pressure of 200 MPa or above, a durable formed product can be obtained. However, the differences between the mechanical properties according to the application of EMS and pressure are slight. The microstructure of the slurry without EMS has an unclear distinction between the liquid phase and solid phase. However, the microstructure of the thin plates formed by using this slurry has a clear distinction between the liquid and solid with respect to the spheroid shapes. The tensile strength and elongation for a thin plate formed with a punch speed of 300 mm/s and pressure of 250 MPa with EMS slurry are 169 MPa and 11.0 pct, respectively. After T6 heat treatment, the tensile strength improves to 305 MPa.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thermal and rheological properties of grain amaranth starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangli; Kasapis, Stefan; Bao, Jinsong; Corke, Harold

    2009-11-01

    Physical properties of starch from two cultivars of gamma-irradiated grain amaranth with different amylose content were investigated. Pasting viscosities decreased continuously with the increase in dosages of irradiation. Furthermore, different irradiation dosages resulted in modification of the thermal properties and crystallinity of starch. Dynamic oscillation on shear was also employed, temperature and frequency sweeps showed that changes in storage modulus and loss modulus were significant, with Tibet Yellow producing more elastic gels as compared to Hy030 at different irradiation dosages.

  4. The rheology of a growing leaf: stress-induced changes in the mechanical properties of leaves

    PubMed Central

    Sahaf, Michal; Sharon, Eran

    2016-01-01

    We study in situ the mechanics and growth of a leaf. Young Nicotiana tabacum leaves respond to applied mechanical stress by altering both their mechanical properties and the characteristics of their growth. We observed two opposite behaviours, each with its own typical magnitude and timescale. On timescales of the order of minutes, the leaf deforms in response to applied tensile stress. During this phase we found a high correlation between the applied stress field and the local strain field throughout the leaf surface. For times over 12 hours the mechanical properties of the leaf become anisotropic, making it more resilient to deformation and restoring a nearly isotropic growth field despite the highly anisotropic load. These observations suggest that remodelling of the tissue allows the leaf to respond to mechanical perturbations by changing its properties. We discuss the relevance of the observed behaviour to the growth regulation that leads to proper leaf shape during growth. PMID:27651350

  5. Rheological properties of mudflows associated with the spring 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens volcano, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.H.; Malin, M.C.; D'Alli, R.E.; Greeley, R.

    1981-01-01

    Rhelogoical properties of three recent mudflows at Mount St. Helens were estimated using technique developed for deterimining the properties of debris flows based on the geometry of their deposits. Calculated yield strengths of 1100, 1000, and 400 Pa, maximum flow velocities of 10 to 31 m/s, volumetric flow rates of 300 to 3400 m/sup 3//s, and plastic viscosities of 20 to 320 Ps-s all compare favorably with measured and estimated values cited in the literature. A method for determining likely sites of future mudflow initiation based on these data is outlined.

  6. A Theoretical Study of some Rheological Properties of the Aggregation of the Molecules Deoxy- Hemoglobin S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensah, Francis; Grant, Julius; Thorpe, Arthur

    2010-02-01

    Sickle cell disease is a serious public health problem that affects many people worldwide. In this paper, the Langevin equation is used for hemoglobin's aggregation in sickle cell anemia. Several parameters are explored such as the time-dependent deformation of the aggregates whose plot gives a sigmoid, the time-dependent expressions obtained for the coefficient of viscosity and the elastic modulus which characterize the aggregation of the sickle hemoglobin. Other properties such as the viscoelastic and the elasto-thixotropic properties of the sickle hemoglobin polymer are also described. An attempt is made to approach the polymerization process in terms of a dynamical system. )

  7. Effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on rheological and physical properties of polyamide-based thermoplastic elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Won-Sik; Kwon, Oh Joo; Kim, Byoung Chul; Chae, Dong Wook

    2012-09-01

    The polyamide-based thermoplastic elastomers (Pebax®) were melt compounded with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs: 0.25˜5 wt%) and the variation of rheological and physical properties with MWNT contents was investigated. The crystallization temperature (Tc) of the nanocomposites with 0.5 wt% MWNTs was most increased by ca. 8oC, but it was decreased by further addition. In addition, the presence of MWNTs broadened the Tc peak with increasing nanotube contents. In contrast, the melting behavior was little influenced by the presence of MWNTs for all compositions. The incorporation of MWNTs increased the complex viscosity with MWNT contents and the abrupt increase was observed from 1 wt%. In addition, lower Newtonian flow region became disappearing with increasing MWNT contents, exhibiting notable shear thinning behavior from 1 wt% loading. Storage modulus was increased with MWNT contents in a similar manner to viscosity. Casson plot demonstrated a non-zero positive intercept for all the samples. In particular, the abrupt increase of yield stress was observed from 1 wt% loading. In the Cole-Cole plot, the nanocomposites gave a deviated curve from pure Pebax and the slope was decreased with increasing MWNT contents. The relaxation time calculated from viscoelastic parameters was increased with nanotube contents, but the increasing extents were reduced with increasing frequency. From 2 wt% MWNTs, the electrical conductivity was observed, indicating that the electrical percolation existed between 1.5 and 2 wt%. At 0.25 wt% loading the tensile strength was slightly increased, but it was gradually decreased by further addition. The introduction of MWNTs increased the tensile modulus with nanotube contents. In addition, ductile properties were reduced with increasing MWNT contents, resulting in low toughness.

  8. Rheological properties and molecular structure of tunicate cellulose in LiCl/1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone.

    PubMed

    Tamai, Nobutake; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Takayoshi

    2004-01-01

    Solution properties and molecular structure of tunicate cellulose (TC), an animal cellulose from Halocynthia roretzi, were investigated in terms of rheological and dilute solution properties. The solvent used is 8 wt % LiCl/1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMI). A solution of dissolving pulp (DP), derived from plant, was also used for comparison. The weight-average molecular weight, Mw, and the limiting viscosity number, [eta], of the TC were evaluated to be 413 x 10(6) and 2645 mL/g, respectively. The TC solution showed the same concentration dependence of GN (GN=5.49 x 10(6)phiw(2.1)4 Pa; phiw: weight fraction of cellulose in solution; GN: plateau modulus) as the DP solution and, moreover, also as the solution of cotton linter (CC) in 8 wt % LiCl/N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc). This exponent of 2.1(4) indicates that network structure by entanglements was formed in these solutions. According to the theory of Fetters et al., moreover, such identity means that all of these celluloses have the identical chain structure though their biological origins are far different. On the other hand, the phiw-dependence of eta0-etas (eta0=zero shear rate viscosity of solution; etas=solvent viscosity) was different between the TC and the DP solution in the semidilute regime: the TC solution exhibited eta0-etas proportional, variant phiw(7.5) and the DP solution eta0-etas proportional, variant phiw4. According to the theory of Doi-Edwards, this exponent of 4 (the DP solution) indicates that the DP behaves as flexible polymers in the solution. In contrast, the dependence for the TC solution seems unexplainable on the basis of molecular theories. This difference probably signifies the difference in the relaxation process or mechanism in entanglement systems.

  9. Effect of hydrostatic high-pressure processing on the chemical, functional, and rheological properties of starter-free Queso Fresco.

    PubMed

    Van Hekken, D L; Tunick, M H; Farkye, N Y; Tomasula, P M

    2013-10-01

    Queso Fresco (QF), a popular high-moisture, high-pH Hispanic-style cheese sold in the United States, underwent high-pressure processing (HPP), which has the potential to improve the safety of cheese, to determine the effects of this process on quality traits of the cheese. Starter-free, rennet-set QF (manufactured from pasteurized, homogenized milk, milled before hooping, and not pressed) was cut into 4.5- × 4.5- × 15-cm blocks and double vacuum packaged. Phase 1 of the research examined the effects of hydrostatic HPP on the quality traits of fresh QF that had been warmed to a core temperature of 20 or 40 °C; processed at 200, 400, or 600 MPa for 5, 10, or 20 min; and stored at 4 °C for 6 to 8d. Phase 2 examined the long-term effects of HPP on quality traits when QF was treated at 600 MPa for 3 or 10 min, and stored at 4 or 10 °C for up to 12 wk. Warming the QF to 40 °C before packaging and exposure to high pressure resulted in loss of free whey from the cheese into the package, lower moisture content, and harder cheese. In phase 2, the control QF, regardless of aging temperature, was significantly softer than HPP cheeses over the 12 wk of storage. Hardness, fracture stress, and fracture rigidity increased with length of exposure time and storage temperature, with minor changes in the other properties. Queso Fresco remained a bright white, weak-bodied cheese that crumbled and did not melt upon heating. Although high pressures or long processing times may be required for the elimination of pathogens, cheese producers must be aware that HPP altered the rheological properties of QF and caused wheying-off in cheeses not pressed before packaging.

  10. Effect of in situ exopolysaccharide production on physicochemical, rheological, sensory, and microstructural properties of the yogurt drink ayran: an optimization study based on fermentation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, M T; Dertli, E; Toker, O S; Tatlisu, N B; Sagdic, O; Arici, M

    2015-03-01

    Exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing starter cultures are preferred for the manufacture of fermented milk products to improve rheological and technological properties. However, no clear correlation exists between EPS production and the rheological and technological properties of fermented milk products such as the yogurt drink ayran. In this study, 4 different strain conditions (EPS- and EPS+ Streptococcus thermophilus strains) were tested as a function of incubation temperature (32, 37, or 42°C) and time (2, 3, or 4 h) to determine the effect of culture type and in situ EPS production on physicochemical, rheological, sensory, and microstructural properties of ayran. Furthermore, we assessed the effect of fermentation conditions on amounts of EPS production by different EPS-producing strains during ayran production. A multifactorial design of response surface methodology was used to model linear, interaction, and quadratic effects of these variables on steady shear rheological properties of ayran samples and in situ EPS production levels. The physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of ayran samples altered depending on incubation conditions and strain selection. Steady shear tests showed that ayran samples inoculated with EPS+ strains exhibited pseudoplastic flow behavior. Production of ayran with EPS- strain (control sample) resulted in the lowest apparent viscosity values (η50), whereas those produced with the combination of 2 EPS+ strains yielded ayran with notably increased η50 values. We concluded that incubation time was the variable with the greatest effect on η50, consistency coefficient (K), and flow behavior index (n) values. In situ EPS production was also affected by these conditions during ayran fermentation in which strain-specific metabolism conditions were found to be the most important factor for EPS production. In addition, these findings correlated the amount of in situ EPS produced with the rheological properties of ayran. Scanning

  11. Polyesters Based on Linoleic Acid for Biolubricant Basestocks: Low-Temperature, Tribological and Rheological Properties.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Bashar Mudhaffar; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Hairunisa, Nany; Yousif, Emad; Basu, Roma Choudhury

    2016-01-01

    Presently, plant oils which contain high percentage of linoleic acid 1 are perceived to be a viable alternative to mineral oil for biolubricant applications due to their biodegradability and technical properties. In order to get biodegradable lubricant, triester derivatives compounds (1-5) were synthesized and characterized. The processes involved were monoepoxidation of linoleic acid 2, oxirane ring opening 3, esterification 4 and acylation 5. The structures of the products were confirmed by FTIR, 1H and 13C-NMR and LC-MS. The results that showed lowest temperature properties were obtained for triester 5, with a pour point value (PP) of -73°C, highest onset temperature (260°C) and lowest volatility at 0.30%. Viscosity index (VI) increased for the ester's synthetic compounds (2, 3, 4, 5), while the PP decreased. This behavior is the result of the increase of the chain length of the branching agents. Triester based linoleic acid has improved properties such as low-temperature and tribological properties. These results will make it feasible for plant oil to be used for biolubricants, fuels in chain saws, transmission oil and brake fluid.

  12. Polyesters Based on Linoleic Acid for Biolubricant Basestocks: Low-Temperature, Tribological and Rheological Properties

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Bashar Mudhaffar; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Hairunisa, Nany; Yousif, Emad; Basu, Roma Choudhury

    2016-01-01

    Presently, plant oils which contain high percentage of linoleic acid 1 are perceived to be a viable alternative to mineral oil for biolubricant applications due to their biodegradability and technical properties. In order to get biodegradable lubricant, triester derivatives compounds (1–5) were synthesized and characterized. The processes involved were monoepoxidation of linoleic acid 2, oxirane ring opening 3, esterification 4 and acylation 5. The structures of the products were confirmed by FTIR, 1H and 13C-NMR and LC-MS. The results that showed lowest temperature properties were obtained for triester 5, with a pour point value (PP) of -73°C, highest onset temperature (260°C) and lowest volatility at 0.30%. Viscosity index (VI) increased for the ester’s synthetic compounds (2, 3, 4, 5), while the PP decreased. This behavior is the result of the increase of the chain length of the branching agents. Triester based linoleic acid has improved properties such as low-temperature and tribological properties. These results will make it feasible for plant oil to be used for biolubricants, fuels in chain saws, transmission oil and brake fluid. PMID:27008312

  13. Rheological properties of a biological thermo-responsive hydrogel prepared from vegetable oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrogel is a colloidal gel in which water is the dispersion medium. The unique properties of hydrogels make this kind of materials have many utilization potentials, such as drug delivery, gene therapy, wound care products, breast implant materials, cosmetic products, and tissue engineering. Hydroge...

  14. Rheological, mucoadhesive and release properties of pluronic F-127 gel and pluronic F-127/polycarbophil mixed gel systems.

    PubMed

    Tirnaksiz, F; Robinson, J R

    2005-07-01

    This study was designed to combine the mucoadhesive property of Noveon and the thermosensitive property of Pluronic F-127 into one gel system. A rheological study of Pluronic aqueous sols (10-35%), Noveon gels (0.5-2%) and of mixed gels containing Pluronic (10-17.5%) and polycarbophil (0.5-2.5%) was conducted at different temperatures (15-35 degrees C). The viscosity of Pluronic sols increased with an increase in temperature and the mixed gels had thermoreversible property. The viscosity of mixed gels was higher than that of the Pluronic sols containing only Pluronic because of the increase in total polymer concentration. No interaction was found between -COOH groups of Noveon and Pluronic molecules at the studied concentrations of polymers; the viscosity of mixed gels containing un-neutralized Noveon was lower than that of the neutralized mixed gels. The effect of Pluronic F-127 on the mucoadhesive property of Noveon was investigated. The mucoadhesive properties of Pluronic and Noveon gels were compared by a force of detachment test. It was found that Pluronic and Noveon gels showed approximately the same mucoadhesive strength. However, there were significant differences in the viscosity of Noveon and Pluronic gels. The adhesive force of the mixed gel was almost same as that of the Noveon gel. The Pluronic did not affect the adhesive power of Noveon and the increased viscosity did not affect the bioadhesive force of the mixed gels. In spite of increasing viscosity of the gel, the percentage of released model material (mannitol) increased with increasing temperature. This is based on the previously reported observation that the interaction between the Pluronic molecules squeezed mannitol molecules out of the polymer chains. The mannitol release obeyed zero-order kinetics and the flux values of mixed gels at 15 and 35 degrees C were very similar. The Noveon chains among Pluronic chains probably hindered the diffusion of mannitol molecules and the release was thus

  15. Erythrocyte rheology.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, J

    1985-01-01

    Erythrocyte deformability was formerly measured by its contribution to whole blood viscosity. It is now more commonly measured by filtration of erythrocytes through, or aspiration into, pores of 3-5 microns diameter and by the measurement of shear induced erythrocyte elongation using laser diffractometry. Recent improvements in the technology for erythrocyte filtration have included the removal of acute phase reactants from test erythrocyte suspensions, ultrasonic cleaning and reuse of filter membranes, awareness of the importance of mean cell volume as a determinant of flow through 3 microns diameter pores, and the ability to detect subpopulations of less deformable erythrocytes. Measurements of erythrocyte elongation by laser diffractometry, using the Ektacytometer, are also influenced by cell size and need to be corrected for mean cell volume. These advances have greatly improved the sensitivity and specificity of rheological methods for measuring the deformability of erythrocytes and for investigating the mode of action of rheologically active drugs. Images PMID:3900147

  16. Effect of electron beam-cross-linked gels on the rheological properties of raw natural rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Suman; Chattopadhyay, Santanu; Bharadwaj, Y. K.; Sabharwal, S.; Bhowmick, Anil K.

    2008-05-01

    Electron beam (EB)-cross-linked natural rubber (NR) gels were prepared from latex and characterized by various techniques. The addition of a small amount of these gels to raw NR was found to reduce the apparent shear viscosity and die swell remarkably. This effect was further enhanced with the addition of butyl acrylate as a sensitizer. The apparent shear viscosity first decreased up to 8 phr of gel loading and then increased. However, the percent die swell value decreased steadily upon gel loading. These were explained by calculating principal normal stress difference, the activation energy of melt flow and characteristics of EB-cross-linked gels. These effects were also reflected in the changes of mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of gel-filled raw NR. Tailoring of the above properties could be done with the help of these gels.

  17. Physical Property and Rheological Testing of Actual Transuranic Waste from Hanford Single-Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Tingey, Joel M. ); Gao, Johnway ); Delegard, Calvin H. ); Bagaasen, Larry M. ); Wells, Beric E. )

    2003-08-25

    Composites of sludge from Hanford tanks 241-B-203 (B-203), 241-T-203 (T-203), 241-T-204 (T-204), and 241-T-110 (T-110) were prepared at the Hanford 222-S Laboratory and transferred to the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for measurement of the composites' physical properties. These tank composites were prepared from core samples retieved from these tanks. These core samples may not be representative of the entire contents of the tank but provide some indication of the properties of the waste in these underground storage tanks. Dilutions in water were prepared from the composite samples. The measurements included paint filter tests, viscosity, shear strength, settling and centrifuging behavior, a qualitative test of stickiness, total solids concentration, and extrusion tests to estimate shear strength.

  18. Reaction mechanism and rheological properties of polypropylene irradiated under various atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugão, Ademar B.; Hutzler, Beatriz; Ojeda, Telmo; Tokumoto, Shinichi; Siemens, Richard; Makuuchi, Keizo; Villavicencio, Anna.-Lucia C. H.

    2000-03-01

    It is well-known that the melt-strength properties of a polymer increases with molecular weight and with long chain branching due to the increase in the entanglement level. This study is a contribution for the understanding of the following points: — the role of branching, crosslinking and degradation on melt strength properties; — the mechanism and the kinetics of PP irradiation with time of irradiation and the importance of double bond formation. The results showed that degradation was the major reaction in the initial step of irradiation no matter the atmosphere and or antioxidant. However, double bond formation increased the production of branching and crosslinking reactions. Double bond formation had no effect on the crystallization kinetics, on the other hand, long chain branching had a marked effect on the crystallization temperature.

  19. [Rheologic properties of some pharmaceutical excipients in drug forms and cosmetic preparation technology].

    PubMed

    Tsagareishvili, G V; Bashura, A A; Alekseeva, M A; Bashura, G S

    2012-06-01

    The establishment of mechanisms and principles of the formation of deformation (fracture) of spatial structure of bentonite solutions and various solutions and disperse systems is one or the most important problems of modern pharmaceutical technology. The article presents the results of a long-term research of influence of high-molecular compounds and surfactants on the properties of designed dosage drug forms and cosmetic preparation. Research data, as the basis for drug combinations "gel" with dekamitoksin, extract Aesculus hippocastanum L and probiotics.

  20. Rheological and mechanical properties of polypropylene prepared with multi-walled carbon nanotube masterbatch.

    PubMed

    Shim, Young-Sun; Park, Soo-Jin

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the effects of polypropylene-grafted maleic-anhydride-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PP-MWNTs) on the viscoelastic behaviors and mechanical properties of a polypropylene-(PP)-based composite system were examined. The PP-MWNT/PP composites were prepared via melt mixing with a 3:1 ratio of PP-g-MA and acid-treated MWNTs at 220 degrees C. The surface characteristics of the PP-MWNTs were confirmed via Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The viscoelastic behavior and mechanical properties of the PP-MWNT/PP composites were confirmed using a rheometer and an ultimate testing machine (UTM). The storage and loss moduli increased with increasing PP-MWNT content. The critical intensity stress factor (K(IC)) of the PP-MWNT/PP composites at high filler loading was also higher than that of the MWNT/PP composites. In conclusion, the viscoelastic behavior and mechanical properties of MWNT/PP can be improved by grafting MWNTs to PP-g-MA.

  1. Relationship between the electrical and rheological properties of potato tuber tissue after various forms of processing.

    PubMed

    Dejmek, Petr; Miyawaki, Osato

    2002-06-01

    The impedance at frequencies of 1-1000 kHz and dynamic bending storage modulus measured by the vibrating reed method were compared for potato tuber tissue, which had been processed by various methods. Raw potato tuber tissue strips were either heated for 30 min up to 100 degrees C or frozen-thawed. Some samples were osmotically dehydrated in a mannitol solution up to a concentration of 0.7 mol/l. The electrical reactance correlated well with the storage modulus of heated or frozen-thawed potato tissues, but not with the storage modulus of the mannitol-treated tissue. The storage modulus appeared to be strongly dependent on the turgor pressure of the cells which was drastically decreased by the heating, freezing-thawing, and osmotic treatments. The electrical properties reflect the cell integrity, and a large difference was observed between the change in impedance after heating or freezing-thawing, and that after the osmotic treatment. A significant change in the electric properties was also observed for a starch suspension at the gelatinization temperature. However, the contribution due to gelatinization did not appear to play an important role in the change of electrical properties of potato tissue by heating.

  2. Rheology in lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    The rheological effects on lubrication are discussed. The types of lubrication considered are thick film hydrodynamic lubrication and thin film elastohydrodynamic lubrication. The temperature-viscosity, viscoelastic, shear-thinning, and normal stess effects on the lubrication of journal bearings are analyzed. A graph of the pressure distribution of viscoelastic liquids in journal bearings is provided. Mathematical models are developed to define the effects of various properties of the lubricants on friction reduction.

  3. Rheological properties, shape oscillations, and coalescence of liquid drops with surfactants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apfel, R. E.; Holt, R. G.

    1990-01-01

    A method was developed to deduce dynamic interfacial properties of liquid drops. The method involves measuring the frequency and damping of free quadrupole oscillations of an acoustically levitated drop. Experimental results from pure liquid-liquid systems agree well with theoretical predictions. Additionally, the effects of surfactants is considered. Extension of these results to a proposed microgravity experiment on the drop physics module (DPM) in USML-1 are discussed. Efforts are also underway to model the time history of the thickness of the fluid layer between two pre-coalescence drops, and to measure the film thickness experimentally. Preliminary results will be reported, along with plans for coalescence experiments proposed for USML-1.

  4. Effect of Porcine Collagen Peptides on the Rheological and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The effects of low molecular-weight collagen peptides derived from porcine skin were investigated on the physicochemical and sensorial properties of chocolate ice cream. Collagen peptides less than 1 kDa in weight were obtained by sub-critical water hydrolysis at a temperature of 300℃ and a pressure of 80 bar. Ice cream was then prepared with gelatin powder and porcine skin hydrolysate (PSH) stabilizers mixed at seven different ratios (for a total of 0.5 wt%). There was no significant difference in color between the resulting ice cream mixtures. The increase in apparent viscosity and shear thinning of the ice cream was more moderate with PSH added than with gelatin. Moreover, the samples containing more than 0.2 wt% PSH had enhanced melting resistance, while the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH had the lowest storage modulus at -20℃ and the second highest loss modulus at 10℃, indicating that this combination of hydrocolloids leads to relatively softer and creamier chocolate ice cream. Among the seven types of ice creams tested, the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH and 0.3 wt% gelatin had the best physicochemical properties. However, in sensory evaluations, the samples containing PSH had lower chocolate flavor scores and higher off-flavor scores than the sample prepared with just 0.5 wt% gelatin due to the strong off-flavor of PSH. PMID:26761823

  5. Thermodynamic and rheological properties of solid-liquid systems in coal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1995-06-30

    The objective of this project is to develop a model for solid-liquid equilibria and a model for viscosities of the products of coal liquefaction processes. The same characterization procedure and representation by continuous distributions as used in previous work on vapor-liquid equilibria and excess enthalpies of coal liquids will be used. Models when fully developed win give the solid-liquid phase equilibrium properties and viscosities as factors of temperature and pressure for known molecular weight distribution and structural characterization of the coal liquid. To accomplish this well, the project requires three tasks: (1) Solid-Liquid phase equilibrium model development; (2) Experimental Viscosity Measurements; and (3) Viscosity Model Development. A model for viscosity computation of coal model compound liquids and coal derived liquids has been developed. Literature review for this work included compilation of a number of data sets, critical investigation of data measurement techniques available in the literature, and investigation of models for liquid and solid phase thermodynamic computations. During the preliminary stages it was discovered that for development of a liquid or solid state equation of state, accurate predictive models for a number of saturation properties, such as, liquid and solid vapor pressures, saturated liquid and solid volumes, heat capacities of liquids and solids at saturation, etc. Most of the remaining time on this task was spent in developing predictive correlations for vapor pressures and saturated liquid volumes of organic liquids in general and coal model liquids in particular.

  6. Effect of Porcine Collagen Peptides on the Rheological and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    PubMed

    Li, Liying; Kim, Jae-Hyeong; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Min, Sang-Gi; Chun, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    The effects of low molecular-weight collagen peptides derived from porcine skin were investigated on the physicochemical and sensorial properties of chocolate ice cream. Collagen peptides less than 1 kDa in weight were obtained by sub-critical water hydrolysis at a temperature of 300℃ and a pressure of 80 bar. Ice cream was then prepared with gelatin powder and porcine skin hydrolysate (PSH) stabilizers mixed at seven different ratios (for a total of 0.5 wt%). There was no significant difference in color between the resulting ice cream mixtures. The increase in apparent viscosity and shear thinning of the ice cream was more moderate with PSH added than with gelatin. Moreover, the samples containing more than 0.2 wt% PSH had enhanced melting resistance, while the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH had the lowest storage modulus at -20℃ and the second highest loss modulus at 10℃, indicating that this combination of hydrocolloids leads to relatively softer and creamier chocolate ice cream. Among the seven types of ice creams tested, the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH and 0.3 wt% gelatin had the best physicochemical properties. However, in sensory evaluations, the samples containing PSH had lower chocolate flavor scores and higher off-flavor scores than the sample prepared with just 0.5 wt% gelatin due to the strong off-flavor of PSH.

  7. Effect of freezing on the rheological, chemical and colour properties of Serpa cheese.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Nuno; Canada, João; Sousa, Isabel

    2011-02-01

    The effect of freezing on the properties of a raw ewes'-milk semi-soft cheese (Serpa cheese) was studied using small amplitude oscillatory (SAOS) and texture measurements, colour and chemical parameters. The freezing was introduced at three different stages of the ripening process (28, 35 and 42 days), and the cheeses were maintained frozen for 12 months. Cheeses were submitted to a slow or fast freezing method, and to different storage temperatures: -10 and -20°C (three replicates for each set conditions). Chemical data showed that only the proteolysis indicators exhibited differences between frozen and non-frozen samples; frozen samples showed higher values of NPN than the non-frozen samples, indicating that the freezing process did not prevent the secondary proteolysis of cheese. Frozen samples showed a significantly (P<0·05) stronger structure than the non-frozen, as indicated by hardness. However, the differences between the frozen and non-frozen samples were not significantly for storage modulus (G' 1Hz) and loss tangent (tan δ 1Hz) (P>0·05). Freezing affected mainly colour parameters: frozen samples were more luminous, and more yellow-green. The results allowed us to conclude that the damages caused by freezing to cheese properties could be minimized if this type of storage is introduced at the end of ripening (42 d) using a freezing temperature of -20°C.

  8. Ultrasonication effects on thermal and rheological properties of carbon nanotube suspensions.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Binglu; Jacobi, Anthony M

    2012-02-14

    The preparation of nanofluids is very important to their thermophysical properties. Nanofluids with the same nanoparticles and base fluids can behave differently due to different nanofluid preparation methods. The agglomerate sizes in nanofluids can significantly impact the thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids and lead to a different heat transfer performance. Ultrasonication is a common way to break up agglomerates and promote dispersion of nanoparticles into base fluids. However, research reports of sonication effects on nanofluid properties are limited in the open literature. In this work, sonication effects on thermal conductivity and viscosity of carbon nanotubes (0.5 wt%) in an ethylene glycol-based nanofluid are investigated. The corresponding effects on the agglomerate sizes and the carbon nanotube lengths are observed. It is found that with an increased sonication time/energy, the thermal conductivity of the nanofluids increases nonlinearly, with the maximum enhancement of 23% at sonication time of 1,355 min. However, the viscosity of nanofluids increases to the maximum at sonication time of 40 min, then decreases, finally approaching the viscosity of the pure base fluid at a sonication time of 1,355 min. It is also observed that the sonication process not only reduces the agglomerate sizes but also decreases the length of carbon nanotubes. Over the current experimental range, the reduction in agglomerate size is more significant than the reduction of the carbon nanotube length. Hence, the maximum thermal conductivity enhancement and minimum viscosity increase are obtained using a lengthy sonication, which may have implications on application.

  9. Ultrasonication effects on thermal and rheological properties of carbon nanotube suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Binglu; Jacobi, Anthony M.

    2012-02-01

    The preparation of nanofluids is very important to their thermophysical properties. Nanofluids with the same nanoparticles and base fluids can behave differently due to different nanofluid preparation methods. The agglomerate sizes in nanofluids can significantly impact the thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids and lead to a different heat transfer performance. Ultrasonication is a common way to break up agglomerates and promote dispersion of nanoparticles into base fluids. However, research reports of sonication effects on nanofluid properties are limited in the open literature. In this work, sonication effects on thermal conductivity and viscosity of carbon nanotubes (0.5 wt%) in an ethylene glycol-based nanofluid are investigated. The corresponding effects on the agglomerate sizes and the carbon nanotube lengths are observed. It is found that with an increased sonication time/energy, the thermal conductivity of the nanofluids increases nonlinearly, with the maximum enhancement of 23% at sonication time of 1,355 min. However, the viscosity of nanofluids increases to the maximum at sonication time of 40 min, then decreases, finally approaching the viscosity of the pure base fluid at a sonication time of 1,355 min. It is also observed that the sonication process not only reduces the agglomerate sizes but also decreases the length of carbon nanotubes. Over the current experimental range, the reduction in agglomerate size is more significant than the reduction of the carbon nanotube length. Hence, the maximum thermal conductivity enhancement and minimum viscosity increase are obtained using a lengthy sonication, which may have implications on application.

  10. Fabrication and investigation on field-dependent properties of natural rubber based magneto-rheological elastomer isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ain Abd Wahab, Nurul; Amri Mazlan, Saiful; Ubaidillah; Kamaruddin, Shamsul; Intan Nik Ismail, Nik; Choi, Seung-Bok; Haziq Rostam Sharif, Amirul

    2016-10-01

    This study presents a laminated magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) isolator which applies to vibration control in practice. The proposed isolator is fabricated with multilayer MRE sheets associated with the natural rubber (NR) as a matrix, and steel plates. The fabricated MRE isolator is then magnetically analysed to achieve high magnetic field intensity which can produce high damping force required for effective vibration control. Subsequently, the NR-based MRE specimen is tested to identify the field-dependent rheological properties such as storage modulus with 60 weight percentage of carbonyl iron particles. It is shown from this test that the MR effect of MRE specimen is quantified to reach up to 120% at 0.8 T. Following the design stage, the electromagnetic simulation using the finite element method magnetic (FEMM) software is carried out for analysing the magnetic flux distribution in the laminated MRE isolator. The laminated MRE isolator is then examined to a series of compression for static and dynamic test under various applied currents using the dynamic fatigue machine and biaxial dynamic testing machine. It is shown that the static compression force is increased by 14.5% under strong magnetic field compared to its off-state. Meanwhile, the dynamic compression test results show that the force increase of the laminated MRE isolator is up to 16% and 7% for low and high frequency respectively. From the results presented in this work, it is demonstrated that the full-scale concept of the MRE isolator can be one of the potential candidates for vibration control applications by tunability of the dynamic stiffness.

  11. Rheology of two-phase composites: implications for flow properties of the lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Nishiyama, N.; Hilairet, N.; Fiquet, G.; Tsuchiya, T.

    2011-12-01

    We examine flow properties and deformation-induced fabric evolution in two-phase composites using the deformation DIA (D-DIA) and the high-pressure x-ray tomography microscope (HPXTM) with monochromatic synchrotron radiation. Stress-strain curves were determined on an analog lower mantle material CaGeO3 perovskite (GePv) plus MgO. The sintered polycrystalline rock was synthesized from the disproportionation reaction of CaMgGeO4 (olivine) - GePv+MgO at 12 GPa and 1573 K for 4 h. The sample contains 28 vol% MgO, and is an excellent analog material for the lower mantle. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the average grain size was about 1 micron. The sample was deformed in the D-DIA at pressures from 4 to 12 GPa, temperatures 600 to 1200 K, and strain rates from 1x to 3x10-5 s-1. The maximum axial strain was 16 %. Elastic constants for GePv were calculated using first-principles with the generalized gradient corrections (GGC) technique. In order to examine effects of the second phase on flow properties, a pure GePv sample was deformed under identical conditions. Flow properties of MgO are available from our previous studies [1]. The relative stress levels in GePv and MgO in the composite sample are in general agreement with numerical simulations [2]. Another analog, a mixture of San Carlos olivine and Fe-S, was examined in the HPXTM. The strength contrast of two phases is similar to that of perovskite and ferropericlase. The initial texture was of the load-bearing framework (LBF) type, with isolated "weak" Fe-S grains sounded by "strong" silicate framework. During shear deformation, a strong shape preferred orientation began to develop in the sample at shear strains above 300%, forming an interconnected weak layer (IWL) texture. The development of deformation fabric was continuously monitored by tomographic imaging under high pressure to a maximum shear strain of 1300%. Applications of these results to dynamics of the lower mantle are discussed. [1] Uchida, T

  12. Effect of addition of bottom ash on the rheological properties of fly ash slurry at varying temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K.; Kumar, S.; Gupta, M.; Garg, H. C.

    2016-09-01

    Presently, fly ash is transporting through slurry pipeline in the thermal power plant. Aim of the present investigation is to examine the rheological behaviour of finer particle (fly ash) slurry suspension with and without addition of coarser particles (bottom ash). Mixture of fly and bottom ash is taken with proportion of 9:1, 8:2 and 7:3 (by weight). The temperature of slurry suspension is varying from 25 to 40°C at solid concentration 30 % (by weight). Rheological tests are conducted with the variation of shear rate from 100 to 300 sec-1 for all slurry samples. Addition of coarse particles of bottom ash in finer particles of fly ash slurry, leads to improve the rheological characteristics of slurry suspension. The addition of bottom ash can result substantial saving in energy consumption with reduction in relative viscosity.

  13. Alkali and Acid Solubilization Effects on Rheological Properties of Horse Mackerel Muscle Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo-Deaño, L.; Tovar, C. A.

    2008-07-01

    Influence of the acid (Type A) and alkali (Type B) solubilization of muscle proteins in the viscoelastic properties of surimi and surimi gels made from horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) muscle were evaluated. Stress and frequency sweep tests showed that surimi from method B presents higher viscoelastic moduli, lowest values of phase angle and minimum viscoelastic moduli dependence with frequency than surimi A. These results show a high inicial protein aggregation in surimi B, that could explain the greater firmness and hardness of this sample, showing a more compact network structure. From static and dynamic tests, gel developed from alkali solubilization resulted in higher gel strength and more rigid network than that from acidic pH, despite the incial protein aggregation of surimi B its protein keeps better gelation capacity. The less structural quality of GA gel is likely due to the more lipid content on the surimi as compared to alkali treatment.

  14. Rheological properties of bi-dispersed magnetorheological fluids based on plate-like iron particles with application to a small-sized damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Kruti; Xuan Phu, Do; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the rheological properties and an application of bi-dispersed magnetorheological fluid (MRF) based on plate-like iron particles are experimentally investigated. A bi-dispersed MR Fluid is prepared using two different micron-scale sizes of plate-like iron particles. In the absence of a magnetic field, the properties of the fluid are isotropic. Upon the application of a magnetic field, the magnetized particles form a chain aligned in the direction of the field, which promotes the appearance of a yield stress. The reversible transition from solid to liquid is the basic requirement of MR applications. Due to the anisotropy in the shape and formation of a less compact structure in the iron plate-like particles, weak sedimentation and good redispersibility of the proposed MR fluid are created. The physical properties of the proposed MR fluids are evaluated and applied to the design of a small-sized controllable MR vibration damper, which can be used for vibration control of a washing machine. The MR damper is a semi-active device that dissipates energy during vibration motion to increase the stability of the application system. Three different weight fractions of the bi-dispersed MR fluids are prepared, and their rheological properties are presented and discussed. Based on their rheological properties, the figures of merit of the proposed MR fluids are derived. A comparison of these figures of merit gives the nominal behavior of the MR fluids, which are important in the design of the application device. A stability test is also performed to check the settling rate of MR fluids per day. The change in damping force due to the problem of particles settling in the MRF and the field-dependent damping force are measured with the MR damper operated just after filling the MRF and with the MR damper operated after waiting for 48 h after filling. With basic rheological properties and outstanding mechanical properties, it is clearly demonstrated that the proposed MR

  15. Thermodynamic and rheological properties of solid-liquid systems in coal processing. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1995-06-30

    The work on this project was initiated on September 1, 1991. The project consisted of two different tasks: (1) Development of a model to compute viscosities of coal derived liquids, and (2) Investigate new models for estimation of thermodynamic properties of solid and liquid compounds of the type that exist in coal, or are encountered during coal processing. As for task 1, a model for viscosity computation of coal model compound liquids and coal derived liquids has been developed. The detailed model is presented in this report. Two papers, the first describing the pure liquid model and the second one discussing the application to coal derived liquids, are expected to be published in Energy & Fuels shortly. Marginal progress is reported on task 2. Literature review for this work included compilation of a number of data sets, critical investigation of data measurement techniques available in the literature, investigation of models for liquid and solid phase thermodynamic computations. During the preliminary stages it was discovered that for development of a liquid or solid state equation of state, accurate predictive models for a number of saturation properties, such as, liquid and solid vapor pressures, saturated liquid and solid volumes, heat capacities of liquids and solids at saturation, etc. Most the remaining time on this task was spent in developing predictive correlations for vapor pressures and saturated liquid volumes of organic liquids in general and coal model liquids in particular. All these developments are discussed in this report. Some recommendations for future direction of research in this area are also listed.

  16. Functional and rheological properties of proteins in frozen turkey breast meat with different ultimate pH.

    PubMed

    Chan, J T Y; Omana, D A; Betti, M

    2011-05-01

    Functional and rheological properties of proteins from frozen turkey breast meat with different ultimate pH at 24 h postmortem (pH(24)) have been studied. Sixteen breast fillets from Hybrid Tom turkeys were initially selected based on lightness (L*) values for each color group (pale, normal, and dark), with a total of 48 breast fillets. Further selection of 8 breast samples was made within each class of meat according to the pH(24). The average L* and pH values of the samples were within the following range: pale (L* >52; pH ≤5.7), normal (46 < L* < 52; 5.9 < pH <6.1), and dark (L* <46; pH ≥6.3), referred to as low, normal, and high pH meat, respectively. Ultimate pH did not cause major changes in the emulsifying and foaming properties of the extracted sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins. An SDS-PAGE profile of proteins from low and normal pH meat was similar, which revealed that the extent of protein denaturation was the same. Low pH meat had the lowest water-holding capacity compared with normal and high pH meat as shown by the increase in cooking loss, which can be explained by factors other than protein denaturation. Gel strength analysis and folding test revealed that gel-forming ability was better for high pH meat compared with low and normal pH meat.Dynamic viscoelastic behavior showed that myosin denaturation temperature was independent of pH(24). Normal and high pH meat had similar hardness, springiness, and chewiness values as revealed by texture profile analysis. The results from this study indicate that high pH meat had similar or better functional properties than normal pH meat. Therefore, high pH meat is suitable for further processed products, whereas low pH meat may need additional treatment or ingredient formulations to improve its functionality.

  17. The effect of polymer-surfactant interaction on the rheological properties of surfactant enhanced alkaline flooding formulations. [Phase separation, precipitation and viscosity loss

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1993-02-01

    Surfactant-enhanced, lower pH (weak) alkaline chemicals are effective for mobilizing residual oil. Polymer is used for mobility control because if mobility control is lost, then oil recovery is reduced. The ability to maintain mobility control during surfactant-alkaline flooding can be adversely affected by chemical interaction. In this work, interaction between polymers and surfactants was shown to be affected by pH, ionic strength, crude oil, and the properties of the polymers and surfactants. Polymer-surfactant interaction (phase separation, precipitation, and viscosity loss) occurred between most of the polymers and surfactants that were tested. Polymer-surfactant interaction is difficult to eliminate, and no method was found for completely eliminating interaction. Polymer-surfactant interaction occurred at optimal salinity and below optimal salinity. Polymer-surfactant interaction had an adverse effect on polymer rheology; however, the adverse effect of interaction on polymer rheology was lessened when oil was present. Increasing the pH of chemical systems further reduced the adverse effects of interaction on polymer rheology.

  18. Graphene networks and their influence on free-volume properties of graphene-epoxidized natural rubber composites with a segregated structure: rheological and positron annihilation studies.

    PubMed

    He, Canzhong; She, Xiaodong; Peng, Zheng; Zhong, Jieping; Liao, Shuangquan; Gong, Wei; Liao, Jianhe; Kong, Lingxue

    2015-05-14

    Epoxidized natural rubber-graphene (ENR-GE) composites with segregated GE networks were successfully fabricated using the latex mixing combined in situ reduced technology. The rheological behavior and electrical conductivity of ENR-GE composites were investigated. At low frequencies, the storage modulus (G') became frequency-independent suggesting a solid-like rheological behavior and the formation of GE networks. According to the percolation theory, the rheological threshold of ENR-GE composites was calculated to be 0.17 vol%, which was lower than the electrical threshold of 0.23 vol%. Both percolation thresholds depended on the evolution of the GE networks in the composites. At low GE concentrations (<0.17 vol%), GE existed as individual units, while a "polymer-bridged GE network" was constructed in the composites when GE concentrations exceeded 0.17 vol%. Finally, a "three-dimensional GE network" with percolation conductive paths was formed with a GE concentration of 0.23 vol%, where a remarkable increase in the conductivity of ENR-GE composites was observed. The effect of GE on the atom scale free-volume properties of composites was further studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and positron age momentum correlation measurements. The motion of ENR chains was retarded by the geometric confinement of "GE networks", producing a high-density interfacial region in the vicinity of GE nanoplatelets, which led to a lower ortho-positronium lifetime intensity and smaller free-volume hole size.

  19. Genetic control of wheat quality: interactions between chromosomal regions determining protein content and composition, dough rheology, and sponge and dough baking properties.

    PubMed

    Mann, Gulay; Diffey, Simon; Cullis, Brian; Azanza, Fermin; Martin, David; Kelly, Alison; McIntyre, Lynne; Schmidt, Adele; Ma, Wujun; Nath, Zena; Kutty, Ibrahim; Leyne, P Emmett; Rampling, Lynette; Quail, Ken J; Morell, Matthew K

    2009-05-01

    While the genetic control of wheat processing characteristics such as dough rheology is well understood, limited information is available concerning the genetic control of baking parameters, particularly sponge and dough (S&D) baking. In this study, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed using a population of doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between Australian cultivars Kukri x Janz grown at sites across different Australian wheat production zones (Queensland in 2001 and 2002 and Southern and Northern New South Wales in 2003) in order to examine the genetic control of protein content, protein expression, dough rheology and sponge and dough baking performance. The study highlighted the inconsistent genetic control of protein content across the test sites, with only two loci (3A and 7A) showing QTL at three of the five sites. Dough rheology QTL were highly consistent across the 5 sites, with major effects associated with the Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 loci. The Glu-D1 5 + 10 allele had consistent effects on S&D properties across sites; however, there was no evidence for a positive effect of the high dough strength Glu-B1-al allele at Glu-B1. A second locus on 5D had positive effects on S&D baking at three of five sites. This study demonstrated that dough rheology measurements were poor predictors of S&D quality. In the absence of robust predictive tests, high heritability values for S&D demonstrate that direct selection is the current best option for achieving genetic gain in this product category.

  20. Rheological properties and bread quality of frozen sweet dough with added xanthan and different freezing rate.

    PubMed

    Akbarian, Mina; Koocheki, Arash; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Milani, Elnaz

    2016-10-01

    In this paper the effects of frozen storage time, xanthan gum and rate of freezing on frozen sweet dough properties and unfermented bread quality was investigated. Results revealed that the water holding capacity, WHC, K1 (stress decay rate) and K2 (residual stress at the end of the stress relaxation experiment) values of frozen dough decreased with increasing frozen storage time and decreasing freezing rate; while the lowest values for these parameters were obtained for samples without xanthan gum. The amount of unfreezable water increased and freezable water decreased with addition of xanthan gum. Glass transition temperature for fresh or frozen sweet were around -37 and -39 °C, respectively. Addition of xanthan gum increased the glass transition temperature of fresh and fozen sweet dough. Firmness and gumminess of sweet bread increased during frozen storage which led to lower specific volume of frozen sweet bread. Increasing freezing rate and addition of xanthan gum to dough formulation improved the texture and specific volume of the final bread.

  1. Amaranth proteins foaming properties: Film rheology and foam stability - Part 2.

    PubMed

    Bolontrade, Agustín J; Scilingo, Adriana A; Añón, María C

    2016-05-01

    In this work the influence of pH and ionic strength on the stability of foams prepared with amaranth protein isolate was analyzed. The behaviour observed was related to the physico-chemical and structural changes undergone by amaranth protein as a result of those treatments. The results obtained show that foams prepared at acidic pH were more stable than the corresponding to alkaline pH. At pH 2.0 the foams presented higher times and more volumes of drainage. This behaviour is consistent with the characteristics of the interfacial film, which showed a higher viscoelasticity and a greater flexibility at acidic pH than alkaline pH value, which in turn increased by increasing the concentration of proteins in the foaming solution. It is also important to note that the presence of insoluble protein is not necessarily detrimental to the properties of the foam. Detected changes in the characteristics of the interfacial film as in the foam stability have been attributed to the increased unfolding, greater flexibility and net charge of amaranth proteins at acidic conditions.

  2. [Comparison of rheologic properties between Ca-alginate hydrogel microspheres suspension and whole blood].

    PubMed

    Xu, Pei; Wang, Xiang; Li, Yaojin; Wang, Feifei; Duan, Ming; Yang, Li

    2013-02-01

    Starting from the form of red blood cells and the hematocrit (Hct, about 45 vol% of whole blood), we tried to prepare a kind of microspheres suspension to imitate non-Newtonian fluid property of whole blood, exploring its potentiality to be applied in blood viscosity quality control substance. In our study, we produced Ca-alginate hydrogel microspheres using emulsion polymerization, then we suspended the microspheres in 0.9 wt% NaCl solution to obtain a kind of liquid sample with the microspheres taking 45% volume. Then we used two types of viscometers to measure and analyse the changes of sample viscosity at different shear rate. We observed the forms of Ca-alginate hydrogel microspheres with microscope, and found them to be relatively complete, and their diameters to be normally distributed. Diameters of about 90% of the microspheres were distributed in a range from 6 to 22 micron. The samples were examined with viscometer FASCO-3010 and LG-R-80c respectively, both of which have shown a shear-thinning effect. After 5-week stability test, the CV of viscosity results corresponding to the two instruments were 7.3% to 13.8% and 8.9% to 14.2%, respectively. Although some differences existed among the results under the same shear rate, the general variation trends of the corresponding results were consistent, so the sample had the potentiality to be widely used in calibrating a different type of blood viscometer.

  3. Influence of deacetylation on the rheological properties of xanthan-guar interactions in dilute aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Khouryieh, H A; Herald, T J; Aramouni, F; Bean, S; Alavi, S

    2007-04-01

    An oscillating capillary rheometer was used to investigate the effects of xanthan deacetylation on the viscoelastic properties and intrinsic viscosity of xanthan and guar mixtures in dilute aqueous solutions. Deacetylated xanthan exhibited a stronger synergistic interaction with guar than native xanthan did due to the destabilized helical structure and increased chain flexibility of the deacetylated xanthan. No gels were observed for all xanthan-guar mixtures. Native xanthan-guar mixtures exhibited a liquid-like behavior, whereas deacetylated xanthan-guar mixtures exhibited a gel-like behavior. The relative viscosity and elasticity of deacetylated xanthan-guar mixtures were much stronger than those for native xanthan-guar mixtures. The intrinsic viscosities of deacetylated xanthan-guar mixtures were higher than the calculated values assuming no interaction, whereas the intrinsic viscosities of native xanthan-guar mixtures were lower than the calculated values assuming no interaction, demonstrating that intermolecular binding occurred between the disordered segments of xanthan and guar gum in dilute aqueous solutions.

  4. Effect of some essential oils on rheological properties of wheat flour dough.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa

    2009-03-01

    The effects of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), majorana (Origanum vulgare L.), sage (Salvia triloba L), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), pickling herb (Echinophora tenuifolia L.) and laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) essential oils on extensograph and farinograph characteristics of wheat flour doughs were determined. Also, some chemical properties (moisture content, ash content, wet gluten content, sedimentation value and falling number) were established. The results show that resistance to extension, maximum resistance, ratio number (minimum) and ratio number (maximum) values were increased by S. hortensis oil addition during the proving time. Extensibility values of S. hortensis, O. vulgare and S. triloba at 90 min of proving time were found lower that than those of other proving times (except S. triloba at 135 min). According to the extensograph results, rosemary, pickling herb and laurel oils allowed higher extensibility and energy, and lower resistance to extension and maximum resistance (Brabender Unit Line). The farinograph water absorption (500 farinograph units) varied from 63.6 to 64.7. The development time of dough with rosemary oil was the same as the control group. Stabilities of dough with savory sater, majorana and sage oil were found lower that those of both control and other oils. As a result, rosemary, pickling herb and laurel oils had an advantage on the extensograph and farinograph characteristics of wheat flour dough.

  5. Structural characterisation and rheological properties of a polysaccharide from sesame leaves (Sesamum radiatum Schumach. & Thonn.).

    PubMed

    Nep, E I; Carnachan, S M; Ngwuluka, N C; Kontogiorgos, V; Morris, G A; Sims, I M; Smith, A M

    2016-11-05

    A polysaccharide from the leaves of Sesamum radiatum was extracted by maceration in deionized water followed by ethanol precipitation then chemically and physically characterised. Monosaccharide composition and linkages were determined by high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy respectively. Sesamum gum was composed of glucuronic acid, mannose, galactose, and xylose with trace quantities of glucose, rhamnose and arabinose. Proton and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and linkage analysis revealed a glucuronomannan based structure comprising a backbone of →4)-β-d-GlcpA-(1→2)-α-d-Manp-(1→ with side-chains of galactose and xylose. Hydrated sesamum gum displayed temperature independent viscoelastic properties with no thermal hysteresis. Intrinsic viscosity was determined to be 3.31 and 4.40dLg(-1) in 0.1M NaCl and deionised water respectively, while the critical concentration was determined to be 0.1% w/v. The characterisation performed in this study will help direct potential applications of this material in foods and pharmaceuticals.

  6. Effects of Red Bean (Vigna angularis) Protein Isolates on Rheological Properties of Microbial Transglutaminase Mediated Pork Myofibrillar Protein Gels as Affected by Fractioning and Preheat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Chul

    2016-01-01

    Fractioning and/or preheating treatment on the rheological properties of myofibrillar protein (MP) gels induced by microbial transglutaminase (MTG) has been reported that they may improve the functional properties. However, the optimum condition was varied depending on the experimental factors. This study was to evaluate the effect of red bean protein isolate (RBPI) on the rheological properties of MP gels mediated by MTG as affected by modifications (fractioning: 7S-globulin of RBPI and/or preheat treatment (pre-heating; 95℃/30 min): pre-heating RBPI or pre-heating/7S-globulin). Cooking yields (CY, %) of MP gels was increased with RBPI (p<0.05), while 7S-globulin decreased the effect of RBPI (p<0.05); however, preheating treatments did not affect the CY (p>0.05). Gel strength of MP was decreased when RBPI or 7S-globulin added, while preheat treatments compensated for the negative effects of those in MP. This effect was entirely reversed by MTG treatment. Although the major band of RBPI disappeared, the preheated 7S globulin band was remained. In scanning electron microscopic (SEM) technique, the appearance of more cross-linked structures were observed when RBPI was prepared with preheating at 95℃ to improve the protein-protein interaction during gel setting of MP mixtures. Thus, the effects of RBPI and 7S-globulin as a substrate, and water and meat binder for MTG-mediated MP gels were confirmed to improve the rheological properties. However, preheat treatment of RBPI should be optimized. PMID:27857544

  7. Optimizing cellulase usage for improved mixing and rheological properties of acid-pretreated sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Geddes, Claudia C; Peterson, James J; Mullinnix, Michael T; Svoronos, Spyros A; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2010-12-01

    Consolidation of bioprocessing steps with lignocellulose is limited by hydrolysate toxicity, the fibrous nature of suspensions, and low activity of cellulase enzymes. Combinations of enzyme dose and treatment conditions improved the flow properties and pumping of acid-pretreated sugarcane bagasse slurries (10% dry weight). Low levels of cellulase enzyme (0.1 and 0.5 FPU/g dry weight acid-pretreated bagasse) were found to reduce viscosities by 77-95% after 6 h, solubilizing 3.5% of the bagasse dry weight. Flow of slurries through small funnels was a useful predictor of success with centrifugal and diaphragm pumps. Equations were derived that describe viscosity and solubilized carbohydrates as a function of time and cellulase dosage. Blending of acid-pretreated bagasse (10% dry weight) with suspensions of acid-pretreated bagasse (10% dry weight) that had been previously digested with cellulase enzymes (low viscosity) did not increase viscosity in a linear fashion. Viscosity of these mixtures remained relatively constant until a threshold level of new fiber was reached, followed by a rapid increase with further additions. Up to 35% fresh acid-pretreated bagasse could be blended with enzyme-digested fiber (5.0 FPU/g dry weight acid-pretreated fiber; 6 h) with only a modest increase in viscosity. The smooth surfaces of enzyme-treated fiber are proposed to hinder the frequency and extent of interactions between fibrils of fresh fiber particles (acid-pretreated) until a threshold concentration is achieved, after which fiber interactions and viscosity increase dramatically. These results were used to model the viscosity in an ideal continuous stirred tank reactor (liquefaction) as a function of residence time and enzyme dosage.

  8. Effect of enzymatic treatments on the rheological and oil-resisting properties of wheat flour-based frying batters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new enzymatic approach was introduced to reduce the oil uptake of batter-coated fried foods. Cross-linking (transglutaminase) and cell wall-degrading (viscozyme) enzymes were incorporated into the formulation of wheat flour-based frying batters and their rheological/oil-resisting effects were eva...

  9. Influence of pH and temperature on the rheological properties of aqueous dispersions of starch-sodium palmitate complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aqueous dispersions of high-amylose corn starch were steam jet cooked and blended with aqueous solutions of sodium palmitate to form amylose inclusion complexes. The rheology of dispersions of these complexes was examined. Acetic acid was added to reduce the pH, converting complexed sodium palmita...

  10. Supramolecular structure, phase behavior and thermo-rheological properties of a poly (L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) statistical copolymer.

    PubMed

    Ugartemendia, Jone M; Muñoz, M E; Santamaria, A; Sarasua, J R

    2015-08-01

    PLAcoCL samples, both unaged, termed PLAcoCLu, and aged over time, PLAcoCLa, were prepared and analyzed to study the phase structure, morphology, and their evolution under non-quiescent conditions. X- ray diffraction, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Atomic Force Microscopy were complemented with thermo-rheological measurements to reveal that PLAcoCL evolves over time from a single amorphous metastable state to a 3 phase system, made up of two compositionally different amorphous phases and a crystalline phase. The supramolecular arrangements developed during aging lead to a rheological complex behavior in the PLAcoCLa copolymer: Around Tt=131 °C thermo-rheological complexity and a peculiar chain mobility reduction were observed, but at T>Tt the thermo-rheological response of a homogeneous system was recorded. In comparison with the latter, the PLLA/PCL 70:30 physical blend counterpart showed double amorphous phase behavior at all temperatures, supporting the hypothesis that phase separation in the PLAcoCLa copolymer is caused by the crystallization of polylactide segment blocks during aging.

  11. Effects of basil seed gum, Cress seed gum and Quince seed gum on the physical, textural and rheological properties of whipped cream.

    PubMed

    Farahmandfar, Reza; Asnaashari, Maryam; Salahi, Mohammad Reza; Khosravi Rad, Tandis

    2017-05-01

    This study focuses on the physical, textural and rheological properties of low fat (LF) whipped cream with 30% fat content developed with Basil seed gum (BSG), Cress seed gum (CSG) and Quince seed gum (QSG) at the concentration of 0.1 and 0.3% (w/w) and comparison with high fat (HF) whipped cream sample (55%) as control. Flow curves were analyzed using Herschel bulkey and Carreau models through a fitting procedure. The rheological investigations confirmed that all samples were shear thinning fluid exhibiting a yield stress and thixotropy properties. The frequency sweep test showed that at the same gum concentration, mixes containing BSG have higher G', G″ and η(*) than those of mixes with QSG and CSG, and all mixes containing gum displayed weak gel-like behavior. Analysis showed that adding and increasing gums concentration caused to increased viscosity, hardness and overrun, leading to a better quality in the final products. Moreover, textural properties showed that the effect of BSG on hardness and adhesiveness was significantly greater than QSG and CSG at the same concentration. Based on obtained result, 0.3% concentration of added BSG had a much greater effects on the whipped cream properties than those of mixes with QSG and CSG.

  12. The effect of diesters and lauric acid on rheological properties of air/water interfaces stabilized by oligofructose lauric acid monoesters.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Silvia E H J; Schols, Henk A; van der Linden, Erik; Sagis, Leonard M C

    2013-08-14

    In this study, the rheological properties of interfaces stabilized by oligofructose fatty acid esters were elucidated. First, the properties of interfaces stabilized by monoesters (ME), diesters (DE), lauric acid (LA), oligofructose (OF), and mixtures of ME with DE, LA, or OF were studied. Second, the properties of interfaces stabilized by the crude product (CP) containing ME, DE, LA, and OF were studied. The dependency of the dilatational modulus on frequency and deformation amplitude indicated the possible formation of a soft glass phase for ME, and a viscous interface for DE. When ME and DE were mixed at a ratio of 0.8/0.2, the experimental results suggest that the interfacial structure consists of islands of a glass phase formed by ME, dispersed in a 2D viscous phase of DE. CP stabilized interfaces, where the ratio ME/DE was higher, lead to a different rheological response. The ratio ME/DE plays an important role in the surface properties of the CP. This may have significant consequences for applications in macroscopic systems such as foams.

  13. To Evaluate the Effect of Solvents and Different Relative Humidity Conditions on Thermal and Rheological Properties of Microcrystalline Cellulose 101 Using METHOCEL™ E15LV as a Binder.

    PubMed

    Jagia, Moksh; Trivedi, Maitri; Dave, Rutesh H

    2016-08-01

    The solvent used for preparing the binder solution in wet granulation can affect the granulation end point and also impact the thermal, rheological, and flow properties of the granules. The present study investigates the effect of solvents and percentage relative humidity (RH) on the granules of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as the binder. MCC was granulated using 2.5% w/w binder solution in water and ethanol/water mixture (80:20 v/v). Prepared granules were dried until constant percentage loss on drying, sieved, and further analyzed. Dried granules were exposed to different percentage RH for 48 h at room temperature. Powder rheometer was used for the rheological and flow characterization, while thermal effusivity and differential scanning calorimeter were used for thermal analysis. The thermal effusivity values for the wet granules showed a sharp increase beginning 50% w/w binder solution in both cases, which reflected the over-wetting of granules. Ethanol/water solvent batches showed greater resistance to flow as compared to the water solvent batches in the wet granule stage, while the reverse was true for the dried granule stage, as evident from the basic flowability energy values. Although the solvents used affected the equilibration kinetics of moisture content, the RH-exposed granules remained unaffected in their flow properties in both cases. This study indicates that the solvents play a vital role on the rheology and flow properties of MCC granules, while the different RH conditions have little or no effect on them for the above combination of solvent and binder.

  14. Experiments on Paint Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartranft, Thomas J.; Settles, Gary S.

    1998-11-01

    We seek a better understanding of the atomization of paints for purposes of limiting the environmental impact of spray painting. However, to do so one must confront both the shear and extensional rheology of mobile non-Newtonian fluids whose very composition is often complex and even unknown. A conventional Couette rheometer yields data on paint shear behavior, but no commercial instrument is available to measure the extensional viscosity, which is believed to govern ligamentary breakup in spray painting. Here a converging-flow extensional rheometer has been built for this purpose. Flow rate and orifice pressure drop are measured and related to the rheological properties of the fluid. At first, experience was gained by visualizing in this device the flow of clear aqueous solutions of both Newtonian (glycerol) and non-Newtonian (polyacrylamide) thickeners. Commercial latex and marine paints were then tested, with the goal of characterizing their extensional behavior and the hope that they might be replaceable by simpler aqueous rheological "substitute" fluids insofar as their atomization behavior is concerned. (Research supported by the US Navy via the Penn State Applied Research Laboratory.)

  15. Rheology of pig skin gelatine: Defining the elastic domain and its thermal and mechanical properties for geological analogue experiment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Otterloo, Jozua; Cruden, Alexander R.

    2016-06-01

    Gelatine is a viscoelastic polymer that has been employed widely in geological analogue experiments to study processes related to the elastic behaviour of rocks such as tensile fracturing, seismicity and magma intrusion. However, the elastic domain of this material has not yet been clearly defined by rheological tests. Here we describe the rheology and define the elastic domain of 250 bloom/20 mesh pigskin gelatine at concentrations ≤ 10 wt.% and temperatures of 5-25 °C; however, these results are strongly comparable with gelatine of 245-260 bloom. New equations are given for the shear and elastic moduli in relationship to temperature and gelatine concentration. It is found that at concentrations ≤ 3 wt.% the tested gelatine is best described by a rheological model composed of a combination of Kelvin-Voight and Maxwell elements and, therefore, is not suitable to model elastic behaviour in geological analogue experiments. At higher concentrations it is best described by a simpler viscoelastic model comprising a single Maxwell element. In order to ensure that geological analogue experiments remain within the elastic domain where the elastic component is far greater than the viscous component, strain rates should range between 0.1 and 10 s- 1 and temperature values should be < 15 °C. With a Poisson's ratio of 0.45 for concentrations > 3 wt.% analogue experiments using gelatine approximate the elastic behaviour of natural rocks more closely than previously assumed.

  16. High-water-content mouldable polyvinyl alcohol-borax hydrogels reinforced by well-dispersed cellulose nanoparticles: dynamic rheological properties and hydrogel formation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Han, Jingquan; Lei, Tingzhou; Wu, Qinglin

    2014-02-15

    Cellulose nanoparticle (CNP) reinforced polyvinyl alcohol-borax (PB) hydrogels were produced via a facile approach in an aqueous system. The effects of particle size, aspect ratio, crystal structure, and surface charge of CNPs on the rheological properties of the composite hydrogels were investigated. The rheological measurements confirmed the incorporation of well-dispersed CNPs to PB system significantly enhanced the viscoelasticity and stiffness of hydrogels. The obtained free-standing, high elasticity and mouldable hydrogels exhibited self-recovery under continuous step strain and thermo-reversibility under temperature sweep. With the addition of cellulose I nanofibers, a 19-fold increase in the high-frequency plateau of storage modulus was obtained compared with that of the pure PB. CNPs acted as multifunctional crosslinking agents and nanofillers to physically and chemically bridge the 3D network hydrogel. The plausible mechanism for the multi-complexation between CNPs, polyvinyl alcohol and borax was proposed to understand the relationship between the 3D network and hydrogel properties.

  17. Effect of binding of an oligomeric cationic fluorosurfactant on the dilational rheological properties of gelatin adsorbed at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ashwin; Kim, Yongsin; Kausch, Charles M; Thomas, Richard R

    2006-09-12

    The effect of binding of an oligomeric cationic fluorooxetane surfactant on the interfacial properties of adsorbed gelatin-fluorooxetane complexes has been studied using dynamic surface tension and dilational rheological measurements. Adsorption kinetics of gelatin-fluorooxetane complexes are reminiscent of a mixed (barrier/diffusion limited) process, while the dilational rheological properties of the interface exhibit a strong dependence on surfactant concentration. At low surfactant concentrations, dilational surface moduli as well as phase angles are relatively insensitive to the presence of the fluorooxetane. However, at the critical aggregation concentration of the polymer-surfactant system, there is a sharp increase in the complex modulus. Further increase in the fluorooxetane concentration does not significantly affect the complex modulus. The phase angle, however, does increase with increasing fluorooxetane concentration due to the transport of bound fluorooxetane from the subsurface to the solution-air interface. These results indicate that, at fluorooxetane concentrations exceeding the critical aggregation concentration, the polymer-surfactant complexes adsorb to form cross-linked multilayers at the solution-air interface.

  18. Statistical modelling of the rheological and mucoadhesive properties of aqueous poly(methylvinylether-co-maleic acid) networks: Redefining biomedical applications and the relationship between viscoelasticity and mucoadhesion.

    PubMed

    Jones, David S; Laverty, Thomas P; Morris, Caoimhe; Andrews, Gavin P

    2016-08-01

    Poly(methylvinylether-co-maleic acid) (PMVE/MA) is commonly used as a component of pharmaceutical platforms, principally to enhance interactions with biological substrates (mucoadhesion). However, the limited knowledge on the rheological properties of this polymer and their relationships with mucoadhesion has negated the biomedical use of this polymer as a mono-component platform. This study presents a comprehensive study of the rheological properties of aqueous PMVE/MA platforms and defines their relationships with mucoadhesion using multiple regression analysis. Using dilute solution viscometry the intrinsic viscosities of un-neutralised PMVE/MA and PMVE/MA neutralised using NaOH or TEA were 22.32±0.89dLg(-1), 274.80±1.94dLg(-1) and 416.49±2.21dLg(-1) illustrating greater polymer chain expansion following neutralisation using Triethylamine (TEA). PMVE/MA platforms exhibited shear-thinning properties. Increasing polymer concentration increased the consistencies, zero shear rate (ZSR) viscosities (determined from flow rheometry), storage and loss moduli, dynamic viscosities (defined using oscillatory analysis) and mucoadhesive properties, yet decreased the loss tangents of the neutralised polymer platforms. TEA neutralised systems possessed significantly and substantially greater consistencies, ZSR and dynamic viscosities, storage and loss moduli, mucoadhesion and lower loss tangents than their NaOH counterparts. Multiple regression analysis enabled identification of the dominant role of polymer viscoelasticity on mucoadhesion (r>0.98). The mucoadhesive properties of PMVE/MA platforms were considerable and were greater than those of other platforms that have successfully been shown to enhance in vivo retention when applied to the oral cavity, indicating a positive role for PMVE/MA mono-component platforms for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.

  19. The effect of mineral fillers on the rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of halogen-free flame-retardant polypropylene/expandable graphite compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattausch, Hannelore; Laske, Stephan; Hohenwarter, Dieter; Holzer, Clemens

    2015-05-01

    In many polyolefin applications, such as electrical cables or automotive applications, the fire protection is a very important task. Unfortunately flame-retardant polymeric materials are often halogenated and form toxic substances in case of fire, which explains the general requirement to reduce the halogen content to zero. Non-halogenated, state-of-the-art flame retardants must be incorporated into the polymer in very high grades (> 40 wt%) leading to massive decrease in mechanical properties and/or processability. In this research work halogen-free flame-retardant polypropylene (PP) /expandable graphite (EG) were filled with minerals fillers such as layered silicates (MMT), magnesium hydroxide (MgOH), zeolite (Z) and expanded perlite (EP) in order to enhance the flame-retardant effect. The rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of these materials were investigated to gain more fundamental knowledge about synergistic combinations of flame-retardants and other additives. The rheological properties were characterized with a rotational rheometer with plate-plate setup. The EG/EP/PP compound exhibited the highest increase in viscosity (˜ 37 %). As representative value for the mechanical properties the Young's modulus was chosen. The final Young's modulus values of the twofold systems gained higher values than the single ones. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) was utilized to investigate the material with respect to volatile substances and combustion behavior. All materials decomposed in one-step degradation. The EG filled compounds showed a significant increase in sample weight due to the expansion of EG. The combustion behavior of these materials was characterized by cone calorimeter tests. Especially combinations of expandable graphite with mineral fillers exhibit a reduction of the peak heat release rate during cone calorimeter measurements of up to 87% compared to pure PP.

  20. Use of response surface methodology to investigate the effects of brown and golden flaxseed on wheat flour dough microstructure and rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Codină, Georgiana Gabriela; Mironeasa, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of brown flaxseed and golden flaxseed on the water absorption and the rheological parameters of wheat flour. The rheological properties were evaluated by the Mixolab. The optimum parameters were identified for high quality flaxseed-wheat composite flour bread. Each predictor variable was tested at five levels. The microstructure of dough was assessed by epifluorescence light microscopy. The substitution of 4.81/100 g for brown flaxseed and 5.07/100 g for golden flaxseed was found optimal. At the optimum level of brown and golden flaxseed, the water absorption of 55.07/100 g, dough development time of 1.28 min and dough stability of 10.04 min was observed. In terms of protein quality the optimum values were 0.41 N m for C2 and 0.69 for C1-2, and in terms of starch characteristics they were 1.56 N m for C3, 1.14 for C3-2, 1.33 N m for C4, 0.20 for C3-4, 1.97 N m for C5 and 0.60 for C5-4.

  1. High Resolution MR-Elastography : a Unique Tool to Study the Rheological Properties of Tissue In Vivo and the Origin of Its Multiscale Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrat, Benoit; Tanter, Mickael; Fink, Mathias; Sinkus, Ralph

    2008-07-01

    Although the rheology of soft tissue samples is subject to extensive studies, mainly via rheometer measurements, only a few papers discuss the mechanical behaviour of living biological tissues. This is mainly due to the lack of a reliable and accurate technique to quantitatively assess the stress-strain relationship in vivo. In this study, we show that MR-Elastography with its full 3D potential gives unique access to the frequency dependency of the complex shear modulus. In-vivo multi-frequent experiments were conducted in rat brain, fibrotic rat liver and human breast tissue. Additionally, a full physically-motivated model, in agreement with the causality principle, has been developed to explain the observed dispersion properties and finite element simulations were conducted to understand their microscopic origin. MR-Elastography can be efficiently used to study rheology in vivo. The frequency behaviour of the macroscopic viscoelastic parameters gives additional information about the microscopic structure of the material. The observed power-law leads to the hypothesis that an underlying self-similar network is responsible for it. Simulations show that the vascular network is a potential candidate. If proven, this could lead to a contrast provided on a macroscopic scale sensitive to changes on the level of the microscopic vascular architecture. Furthermore, at low frequency, the apparent loss modulus seems to originate from the multiple scattering at the micro level rather than from the intrinsic viscosity.

  2. Bioactive constituents in liposomes incorporated in orange juice as new functional food: thermal stability, rheological and organoleptic properties.

    PubMed

    Marsanasco, Marina; Piotrkowski, Bárbara; Calabró, Valeria; Del Valle Alonso, Silvia; Chiaramoni, Nadia S

    2015-12-01

    Liposomes were developed with bioactive constituents (omega-3, omega-6, tocopherol) incorporated in acid food. They were made of soy phosphatidylcholine (SPC) allowing the encapsulation of antioxidant vitamin C (VC) and tocopherol. Stearic acid (SA) or calcium stearate (CaS) was added as a bilayer stabilizer. The structural and oxidative stability of the liposomes were studied considering the heat effect of pasteurization. Size was analyzed by light scattering; shape and structure were studied by optical and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Membrane packing was studied with merocyanine 540. Surface charge and oxidative stability were analyzed by zeta potential and ORAC method, respectively. The liposomes showed significant stability in all of the parameters mentioned above and an important protective effect over thermolabile VC. To confirm their applicability in food, the rheological behavior and a sensory evaluation of liposomes with vitamin C and bioactive constituents were studied. The sensory evaluation of liposomes in orange juice was performed by the overall acceptability and triangular tests with 40 and 78 potential consumers, respectively. The incorporation of all liposomal formulation did not change the acceptability of orange juice. Noteworthy, SPC and SPC:SA systems had rheological behavior similar to a Newtonian fluid whereas that SPC:CaS presented a pseudoplastic one, both considered excellent for larger scale production. From all the obtained results, we can conclude that these liposomal formulations are suitable for food industry applications, incorporating bioactive constituents and generating functional orange juice that conserves its bioactivity after pasteurization.

  3. Effects of rhythmic exercise performed to music on the rheological properties of blood in women over 60 years of age.

    PubMed

    Marchewka, Anna; Filar-Mierzwa, Katarzyna; Dąbrowski, Zbigniew; Teległó, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of motor rehabilitation, in the form of rhythmic exercise to music, on the rheological characteristics of blood in older women. The study included 30 women (65-80 years of age), and the control group was comprised of 10 women of corresponding age. Women from the experimental group were subjected to a five-month rehabilitation program, in the form of rhythmic exercise performed to music (three 30-minute sessions per week); women from the control group were not involved in any regular physical activity. Blood samples from all the women were examined for hematological, rheological, and biochemical parameters prior to the study and five months thereafter. The rehabilitation program was reflected by a significant improvement of erythrocyte count and hematocrit. Furthermore, an improvement of erythrocyte deformability was observed by lower shear stress levels, while no significant changes were noted by the higher shear stress values. The rehabilitation resulted in a marked decrease of the aggregation amplitude while no significant changes were observed in aggregation index and total aggregation half-time. Additionally, the training regimen was reflected by a significant increase in the plasma viscosity, while no significant changes in fibrinogen levels were noted.

  4. Atomic force microscopy for the examination of single cell rheology.

    PubMed

    Okajima, Takaharu

    2012-11-01

    Rheological properties of living cells play important roles in regulating their various biological functions. Therefore, measuring cell rheology is crucial for not only elucidating the relationship between the cell mechanics and functions, but also mechanical diagnosis of single cells. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is becoming a useful technique for single cell diagnosis because it allows us to measure the rheological properties of adherent cells at any region on the surface without any modifications. In this review, we summarize AFM techniques for examining single cell rheology in frequency and time domains. Recent applications of AFM for investigating the statistical analysis of single cell rheology in comparison to other micro-rheological techniques are reviewed, and we discuss what specificity and universality of cell rheology are extracted using AFM.

  5. The relationship of oxygen uptake rate and k(L)a with rheological properties in high cell density cultivation of docosahexaenoic acid by Schizochytrium sp. S31.

    PubMed

    Chang, Guifang; Wu, Juan; Jiang, Cuihong; Tian, Guiwei; Wu, Qinghang; Chang, Ming; Wang, Xingguo

    2014-01-01

    Three independent cultures by fed batch strategy under different oxygen supply levels were investigated with Schizochytrium sp. S31 on glycerol in 50 L bioreactor. Three cultures all achieved high cell density cultivation (HCDC) with more than 100 g/L biomass density. However, the culture with middle oxygen supply level achieved the highest DHA concentration at 21.26 g/L. Dissolved oxygen (DO) limitation was commonly encountered in the present cultures, which was due to the dramatic decrease of kLa in high oxygen supply culture resulted from significantly increasing apparent viscosity of the broth. The rheological properties of the three cultures all exhibited shear-thinning behavior. The oxygen uptake rate (OUR) predominately influenced by kLa was suggested to replace DO as on-line control parameter for scale-up production of DHA.

  6. Effects of endogenous small molecular compounds on the rheological properties, texture and microstructure of soymilk coagulum: Removal of phytate using ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruican; Guo, Shuntang

    2016-11-15

    This study aims to clarify the roles played by endogenous small molecular components in soymilk coagulation process and the properties of gels. Soymilk samples with decreasing levels of small molecules were prepared by ultrafiltration, to reduce the amount of phytate and salts. CaSO4-induced coagulation process was analyzed using rheological methods. Results showed that removal of free small molecules decreased the activation energy of protein coagulation, resulting in accelerated reaction and increased gel strength. However, too fast a reaction led to the drop in storage modulus (G'). Microscopic observation suggested that accelerated coagulation generated a coarse and non-uniform gel network with large pores. This network could not hold much water, leading to serious syneresis. Endogenous small molecules in soymilk were vital in the fine gel structure. Coagulation rate could be controlled by adjusting the amount of small molecules to obtain tofu products with the optimal texture.

  7. Relating natural heterogeneities and rheological properties of rocksalt: New insights from microstructural observations and petrophyisical parameters on Messinian halites from the Italian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speranza, Giulio; Vona, Alessandro; Vinciguerra, Sergio; Romano, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The importance and economic interest of rocksalt as well as its influence on tectonics and applicative purposes such as mining, hydrocarbons extraction, and nuclear waste storage are well known. Careful characterization of physical and chemical properties of rocksalt is fundamental as the rocksalt behavior may influence its potential use for applicative purposes. Mechanical and rheological properties of rocksalt have been extensively studied in the past. However, the role of natural heterogeneities within rocksalt and their effect on salt rheology have not been investigated quantitatively. Here we present a comprehensive salt facies study on Messinian rocksalt from several Italian sites (Volterra Basin, Tuscany, Caltanissetta Basin, Sicily and Crotone Basin, Calabria). Four salt facies end members have been identified and analyzed by optical analyses. The main facies-defining characteristics resulted to be the primary salt crystal abundance, crystal size, roundness and orientation, as well as the clay inclusion contents. Three out of four facies were placed on an evolutionary path from an "immature," with respect to the deformation history, to a "mature," rocksalt. So we observed, with increasing rocksalt maturity, a progressive disappearing of primary crystal remnants, increasing crystals elongation and iso-orientation and decreasing in crystal size. This trend has been confirmed by differential stress calculation from subgrain size. Through seismic waves velocity measurements and uniaxial compressive runs, specific salt facies were tested. Results of the investigations demonstrate that the facies parameters have a distinct influence on the rocksalt petrophysical parameters like P- and S-waves velocity, dynamic and static Young Modulus, elastic limit, and strain at peak. Finally, this study allowed to suggest the subdivision of Volterra's salt sequence in three different units that have been subjected to variable deformation degree in response to the different

  8. Rheological properties, oxidative stability, and tocopherol content during storage of fried dough made with Silky fowl egg: comparison with hen egg.

    PubMed

    Toyosaki, T

    2010-05-01

    Eggs from Silky fowl and White Leghorn hens were used to prepare fried dough. The rheological properties, lipid oxidative stability, and trans, trans-2,4-decadienal and tocopherol content of fried dough made with Silky fowl egg were compared with dough made with hen egg. The fried dough was stored in a glass bottle at 50 degrees C in the dark for 12 d. The fried dough made with Silky fowl egg showed little change in hardness and adhesion for 12 d at 50 degrees C. However, in the fried dough made with hen egg, hardness increased drastically and adhesion decreased. The fried dough made with Silky fowl egg showed restricted generation of hydroperoxides during 12 d in storage at 50 degrees C. In contrast, the fried dough made with hen egg showed an increased amount of hydroperoxides during the 12-d storage. The lowest concentration of trans, trans-2,4-decadienal was observed in fried dough made with Silky fowl egg, whereas the concentration of trans, trans-2,4-decadienal in fried dough made with hen egg was significantly increased. Total tocopherols in fried dough made with Silky fowl egg were degraded 23.3 mg/100 g of fried dough by the end of the experimental period at 50 degrees C. In contrast, total tocopherols in the fried dough made with hen egg were degraded 40 mg/100 g of fried dough. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids decreased and the hydroperoxide content increased with storage time. The unsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio and hydroperoxide and tocopherol contents were lower in fried dough made with Silky fowl egg than in that made with hen egg, indicating decreased lipid oxidation. The present experiment suggests that the use of Silky fowl egg could improve the rheological properties, oxidative stability, and trans, trans-2,4-decadienal and tocopherol contents of fried dough.

  9. Properties of Ductile Shear Zones Below Strike-Slip Faults: Insights From Numerical Experiments Incorporating Laboratory-Derived Rheologies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialko, Y. A.; Takeuchi, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the long-term evolution of stress and strain in a ductile substrate driven by far-field plate motion and slip on a vertical transform fault cutting through the brittle crust. Numerical models that incorporate laboratory-derived power-law rheologies with Arrhenius temperature dependence, viscous dissipation, and conductive heat transfer give rise to long-lived fault "roots" that localize deformation below the brittle-ductile transition. Strain localization in the viscoelastic medium in this case results from thermomechanical coupling and power law dependence of strain rate on stress. For conditions corresponding to the San Jacinto and San Andreas Faults in Southern California, the predicted width of the shear zone in the lower crust is a few kilometers; this shear zone accommodates more than 50% of the far-field plate motion. Coupled thermomechanical models predict a single-layer lithosphere in case of "dry" composition of the lower crust and upper mantle, and a "jelly sandwich" lithosphere in case of "wet" composition. Deviatoric stress in the lithosphere in our models is relatively insensitive to the water content, the far-field loading rate, and the fault strength, and is of the order of 102 MPa. Furthermore, stress in the lithosphere is found to inversely correlate with the velocity of relative plate motion. Somewhat surprisingly, we find that the thermally-activated shear zones have little effect on postseismic relaxation. In particular, the presence of such zones does not change the polarity of vertical displacements in cases of rheologies that are able to generate robust postseismic transients. We conclude that additional (to thermomechanical coupling) mechanisms of strain localization are required for a viscoelastic model to produce a vertical deformation pattern similar to that due to afterslip on a deep extension of a fault. Possible candidates include dynamic grain re-crystallization, and fabric development (mylonitization).

  10. Experimental constraints on the rheology and mechanical properties of lava erupted in the Holuhraun area during the 2014 rifting event at Bárðarbunga, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavallee, Yan; Kendrick, Jackie; Wall, Richard; von Aulock, Felix; Kennedy, Ben; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn

    2015-04-01

    A fissure eruption began at Holuhraun on 16 August 2014, following magma drainage from the Bárðarbunga volcanic system (Iceland). Extrusion initiated as fire fountaining along a segment of the fracture and rapidly localised to a series of small, aligned cones containing a lava lake that over spilled at both ends, feeding a large lava field. The lava composition and flow behaviour put some constraints on its rheology and mechanical properties. The lava erupted is a nearly aphyric basalt containing approximately 2-3% plagioclase with traces of olivine and pyroxene in a quenched groundmass composed of glass and 20-25% microlites. The transition from fire fountaining to lava flow leads to lava with variable vesicularities; pyroclasts expelled during fire fountaining reach up to 80% vesicles whilst the lava contain up to 45% vesicles. Textures in the lava vary from a'a to slabby pahoehoe, and flow thicknesses from several meters to few centimetres. Tension gashes, crease structures and shear zones in the upper lava carapace reveal the importance of both compressive and tensional stresses. In addition, occasional frictional marks at the base of the lava flow as well as bulldozing of sediments along the flow hint at the importance of frictional properties of the rocks during lava flow. Flow properties, textures and failure modes are strongly dependent on the material properties as well as the local conditions of stress and temperature. Here we expand our field observation with preliminary high-temperature experimental data on the rheological and mechanical properties of the erupted lava. Dilatometric measurements are used to constrain the thermal expansion coefficient of the lava important to constrain the dynamics of cooling of the flow. Micropenetration is further employed to determine the viscosity of the melt at super-liquidus temperature, which is compared to the temperature-dependence of viscosity as constrained by geochemistry. Lastly, uniaxial compression and

  11. Evolution of nano-rheological properties of Nafion¯ thin films during pH modification by strong base treatment: A static and dynamic force spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslami, Babak; López-Guerra, Enrique A.; Raftari, Maryam; Solares, Santiago D.

    2016-04-01

    Addition of a strong base to Nafion® proton exchange membranes is a common practice in industry to increase their overall performance in fuel cells. Here, we investigate the evolution of the nano-rheological properties of Nafion thin films as a function of the casting pH, via characterization with static and dynamic, contact and intermittent-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The addition of KOH causes non-monotonic changes in the viscoelastic properties of the films, which behave as highly dissipative, softer materials near neutral pH values, and as harder, more elastic materials at extreme pH values. We quantify this behavior through calculation of the temporal evolution of the compliance and the glassy compliance under static AFM measurements. We complement these observations with dynamic AFM metrics, including dissipated power and virial (for intermittent-contact-mode measurements), and contact resonance frequency and quality factor (for dynamic contact-mode measurements). We explain the non-monotonic material property behavior in terms of the degree of ionic crosslinking and moisture content of the films, which vary with the addition of KOH. This work focuses on the special case study of the addition of strong bases, but the observed mechanical property changes are broadly related to water plasticizing effects and ionic crosslinking, which are also important in other types of films.

  12. Studies on effect of temperature and time on textural and rheological properties of starch isolated from traditional rice cultivars of Kashmir (India).

    PubMed

    Bhat, Farhan M; Riar, Charanjit S

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, the effect of storage temperature and time on the textural and rheological properties of starch gels from seven different rice cultivars having higher amylose content than the hybrid rice varieties were evaluated. Water solubility and swelling power increased with every 10C increase in temperature due to granule swelling and solubilization of starch wherein the maximum solubility was found in starch of Koshkari rice cultivar (0.721 to 13.50) and swelling power in starch of Zag rice cultivar (3.688 to 10.806). However, syneresis in the analyzed rice starch gels had shown a fluctuating trend for each individual cultivar at different storage periods in which the cultivars Zag had shown the highest values of syneresis during storage (4.123 to 4.957%). In the texture profile analysis of starch gel of these cultivars, Mushki Budgi had the highest value of hardness (0.723N), gumminess (36.262) and chewiness (31.056). The turbidity values of gelatinized starch suspensions from different rice cultivars increased progressively during the first 4 days of storage followed by a decrease in the 5th day coupled with slight increase in the 6th day. The highest turbidity was found in Zag ranging from 1.47 to 1.67 during refrigerated storage after 6 days. The rheological analysis revealed that Zag indicated the highest value of TG' (76.96C) whereas cultivars Koshkari and Mushki Kandi had shown the lowest value of TG' (74.34C) upon heating cycle.

  13. Alpha thalassemia protects sickle cell anemia patients from macro-albuminuria through its effects on red blood cell rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Lamarre, Yann; Romana, Marc; Lemonne, Nathalie; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Tarer, Vanessa; Mougenel, Danielle; Waltz, Xavier; Tressières, Benoît; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Connes, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    While chronic hemolysis has been suspected to be involved in the development of glomerulopathy in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA), no study focused on the implications of blood rheology. Ninety-six adults with SCA at steady state were included in the present cross-sectional study. Three categories were defined: normo-albuminuria (NORMO, n = 41), micro-albuminuria (MICRO, n = 23) and macro-albuminuria (MACRO, n = 32). Blood was sampled to measure hematological and hemorheological parameters, and genomic DNA extraction was performed to detect the presence of α-thalassemia. The prevalence of α-thalassemia was lower in the MACRO group compared with the two other groups. Anemia was more severe in the MACRO compared with the NORMO group leading the former group to exhibit decreased blood viscosity. Red blood cell deformability was lower and red blood cell aggregates strength was greater in the MACRO compared to the two other groups, and this was directly attributed to the lower frequency of α-thalassemia in the former group. Our results show the protective role of α-thalassemia against the development of sickle cell glomerulopathy, and strongly suggest that this protection is mediated through the decrease of anemia, the increase of RBC deformability and the lowering of the RBC aggregates strength.

  14. Pressure-Induced Slip-System Transition in Forsterite: Single-Crystal Rheological Properties at Mantle Pressure and Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Raterron,P.; Chen, J.; Li, L.; Weidner, D.; Cordier, P.

    2007-01-01

    Deformation experiments were carried out in a Deformation-DIA high-pressure apparatus (D-DIA) on oriented Mg2SiO4 olivine (Fo100) single crystals, at pressure (P) ranging from 2.1 to 7.5 GPa, in the temperature (T) range 1373-1677 K, and in dry conditions. These experiments were designed to investigate the effect of pressure on olivine dislocation slip-system activities, responsible for the lattice-preferred orientations observed in the upper mantle. Two compression directions were tested, promoting either [100] slip alone or [001] slip alone in (010) crystallographic plane. Constant applied stress ({sigma}) and specimen strain rates (Formula) were monitored in situ using time-resolved X-ray synchrotron diffraction and radiography, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation of the run products reveals that dislocation creep assisted by dislocation climb and cross slip was responsible for sample deformation. A slip transition with increasing pressure, from a dominant [100]-slip to a dominant [001]-slip, is documented. Extrapolation of the obtained rheological laws to upper-mantle P, T, and {sigma} conditions, suggests that [001]-slip activity becomes comparable to [100]-slip activity in the deep upper mantle, while [001] slip is mostly dominant in subduction zones. These results provide alternative explanations for the seismic anisotropy attenuation observed in the upper mantle, and for the 'puzzling' seismic-anisotropy anomalies commonly observed in subduction zones.

  15. Effect of soluble calcium on the renneting properties of casein micelles as measured by rheology and diffusing wave spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sandra, S; Ho, M; Alexander, M; Corredig, M

    2012-01-01

    Addition of calcium chloride to milk has positive effects on cheese-making because it decreases coagulation time, creates firmer gels, and increases curd yield. Although addition of calcium chloride is a widely used industrial practice, the effect of soluble calcium on the preliminary stages of gelation is not fully understood. In addition, it is not known whether the manner of addition and equilibration of the soluble calcium would affect the rennetability of the casein micelles. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to study the details of the coagulation behavior of casein micelles in the presence of additional calcium, and to elucidate whether the manner in which this cation is added (directly as calcium chloride or by gradual exchange through dialysis) affects the functionality of the micelles. Calcium was added as CaCl(2) (1 mM final added concentration) directly to skim milk or indirectly using dialysis against 50 volumes of milk. Additional soluble calcium did not affect the primary phase of the renneting reaction, as demonstrated by the analysis of the casein macropeptide (CMP) released in solution; however, it shortened the coagulation time of the micelles and increased the firmness of the gel. The turbidity parameter of samples with or without calcium showed that similar amounts of CMP were needed for particle interactions to commence. However, the amount of CMP released at the point of gelation, as indicated by rheology, was lesser for samples with added calcium, which can be attributed to a greater extent of calcium bridging on the surface or between micelles. The results also showed that the manner in which calcium was presented to the micelles did not influence the mechanism of gelation.

  16. Rheology of biological macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyaratne, Amila Dinesh

    Proteins have interesting mechanical properties in addition to the remarkable functionality. For example, Guanylate kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes Guano- sine monophosphate (GMP) to Guanosine diphosphate (GDP) conversion and this enzyme is approximately 5 nm in size. A gold nano particle of similar size shows linear elasticity for strains up to ˜ 0.1% and shows plastic deformation beyond that, whereas the enzyme Guanylate kinase can have strains up to 1 % with reversible deformation. Our experiments show many different regimes of the mechanical response before the plastic deformation of these proteins. In this dissertation, I study the materials properties of two classes of proteins, an ion channel protein and a transferase, which is a globular protein. The experimental techniques to study the materials properties of these proteins were uniquely developed at the Zocchi lab. Therefore, we were able to observe previously unknown characteristics of these folded proteins. The mechanical properties of the voltage gated potassium channel KvAP was studied by applying AC depolarizing voltages. This technique gave new information about the system that was not seen in the previous studies. These previous experiments were based on applying DC depolarizing voltage steps across the membrane to study the ionic current. By monitoring the ionic current at different depolarizing voltage steps, the DC gating process of the channel could be under- stood. We probed the channel using AC depolarizing signals instead of DC pulses and the ionic current revealed new behaviors, which cannot be predicted with the DC response. We found that the conformational motion of the voltage sensing domain of the ion channel shows internal dissipation. Further, a new non linearity in the dissipation parameter was found in which the dissipation parameter increased with the shear rate of the applied force. Previous studies at the Zocchi lab used a nano rheology experiment on the protein Guanylate

  17. The impact of fermentation with exopolysaccharide producing lactic acid bacteria on rheological, chemical and sensory properties of pureed carrots (Daucus carota L.).

    PubMed

    Juvonen, Riikka; Honkapää, Kaisu; Maina, Ndegwa H; Shi, Qiao; Viljanen, Kaarina; Maaheimo, Hannu; Virkki, Liisa; Tenkanen, Maija; Lantto, Raija

    2015-08-17

    Fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) offers a natural means to modify technological and nutritional properties of foods and food ingredients. This study explored the impact of fermentation with different exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing LAB on rheological, chemical and sensory properties of puréed carrots in water, as a vegetable model, with the focus on texture formation. The screening of 37 LAB strains for starter selection revealed 16 Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Weissella strains capable of EPS (dextran, levan, and/or β-glucan) production in the carrot raw material. Fermentations with five out of six selected EPS producers modified perceived texture of the liquid carrot model (p<0.05). The formation of low-branched dextran correlated with perceived thickness, whereas the production of β-glucan correlated with perceived elasticity. Low-branched dextran producing Weissella confusa and Leuconostoc lactis strains produced thick texture accompanied by pleasant odour and flavour. The fermentation with the selected EPS-producing LAB strains is a promising clean label approach to replace hydrocolloid additives as texturizers in vegetable containing products, not only carrot.

  18. Comparison of observed rheological properties of hard wheat flour dough with predictions of the Giesekus-Leonov, White-Metzner and Phan-Thien Tanner models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhanasekharan, M.; Huang, H.; Kokini, J. L.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The measured rheological behavior of hard wheat flour dough was predicted using three nonlinear differential viscoelastic models. The Phan-Thien Tanner model gave good zero shear viscosity prediction, but overpredicted the shear viscosity at higher shear rates and the transient and extensional properties. The Giesekus-Leonov model gave similar predictions to the Phan-Thien Tanner model, but the extensional viscosity prediction showed extension thickening. Using high values of the mobility factor, extension thinning behavior was observed but the predictions were not satisfactory. The White-Metzner model gave good predictions of the steady shear viscosity and the first normal stress coefficient but it was unable to predict the uniaxial extensional viscosity as it exhibited asymptotic behavior in the tested extensional rates. It also predicted the transient shear properties with moderate accuracy in the transient phase, but very well at higher times, compared to the Phan-Thien Tanner model and the Giesekus-Leonov model. None of the models predicted all observed data consistently well. Overall the White-Metzner model appeared to make the best predictions of all the observed data.

  19. Time domain analysis of the weighted distributed order rheological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lili; Pu, Hai; Li, Yan; Li, Ming

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the fundamental solution and relevant properties of the weighted distributed order rheological model in the time domain. Based on the construction of distributed order damper and the idea of distributed order element networks, this paper studies the weighted distributed order operator of the rheological model, a generalization of distributed order linear rheological model. The inverse Laplace transform on weighted distributed order operators of rheological model has been obtained by cutting the complex plane and computing the complex path integral along the Hankel path, which leads to the asymptotic property and boundary discussions. The relaxation response to weighted distributed order rheological model is analyzed, and it is closely related to many physical phenomena. A number of novel characteristics of weighted distributed order rheological model, such as power-law decay and intermediate phenomenon, have been discovered as well. And meanwhile several illustrated examples play important role in validating these results.

  20. Rheological Predictions of Network Systems Swollen with Entangled Solvent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    solvent was previously studied experimentally. In this article, we use the discrete slip-link model to predict its linear and nonlinear rheology ...Model parameters are obtained from the dynamic modulus data of pure solvent. Network rheology predictions also require an estimate of the fraction and...Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 rheology ;polymer properties;gels, networks;mathematical modeling;multiscale modeling REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR

  1. Bio-nanocomposite films reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals: Rheology of film-forming solutions, transparency, water vapor barrier and tensile properties of films.

    PubMed

    El Miri, Nassima; Abdelouahdi, Karima; Barakat, Abdellatif; Zahouily, Mohamed; Fihri, Aziz; Solhy, Abderrahim; El Achaby, Mounir

    2015-09-20

    This study was aimed to develop bio-nanocomposite films of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/starch (ST) polysaccharide matrix reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) using the solution casting method. The CNC were extracted at the nanometric scale from sugarcane bagasse via sulfuric acid hydrolysis and used as reinforcing phase to produce CMC/ST-CNC bio-nanocomposite films at different CNC loading levels (0.5-5.0 wt%). Steady shear viscosity and dynamic viscoelastic measurements of film-forming solution (FFS) of neat CMC, CMC/ST blend and CMC/ST-CNC bio-nanocomposites were evaluated. Viscosity measurements revealed that a transition from Newtonian behavior to shear thinning occurred when CNC were added. The dynamic tests confirmed that all FFS have a viscoelastic behavior with an entanglement network structure, induced by the hydrogen bonding. In regard to the cast film quality, the rheological data showed that all FFS were suitable for casting of films at ambient temperature. The effect of CNC addition on the optical transparency, water vapor permeability (WVP) and tensile properties of bio-nanocomposite films was studied. It was found that bio-nanocomposite films remain transparent due to CNC dispersion at the nanoscale. The WVP was significantly reduced and the elastic modulus and tensile strength were increased gradually with the addition of CNC. Herein, the steps to form new eco-friendly bio-nanocomposite films were described by taking advantage of the combination of CMC, ST and CNC. The as-produced films exhibited good optical transparency, reduced WVP and enhanced tensile properties, which are the main properties required for packaging applications.

  2. Effect of high-pressure treatment on the structural and rheological properties of resistant corn starch/locust bean gum mixtures.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Raza; Vatankhah, Hamed; Singh, Ajaypal; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2016-10-05

    In this study, effects of a 30min high pressure (HP) treatment (200-600MPa) at room temperature on the rheological, thermal and morphological properties of resistant corn starch (RS) (5% w/w) and locust bean gum (LBG) (0.25, 0.50 and 1.0% w/v) dispersions were evaluated. Results showed that the storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), and apparent viscosity values of starch/gum (RS/LBG) mixtures were enhanced with an increase pressure level, and demonstrated a bi-phasic behavior. HP treated RS/LBG samples were predominantly either solid like (G'>G'') or viscous (G''>G'), depending on the pressure level and LBG concentrations. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of the pressurized mixtures showed a major effect on gelatinization temperatures (To, Tp,), and it was observed that RS/LBG mixtures gelatinized completely at ≥400MPa with a 30min holding time. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images confirmed that at 600MPa, RS/LBG mixtures retained granular structures and their complete disintegration was not observed even at the endpoint of the gelatinization.

  3. Alternatives to conventional thermal treatments in fruit-juice processing. Part 2: Effect on composition, phytochemical content, and physicochemical, rheological, and organoleptic properties of fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2017-02-11

    Traditional thermal techniques may cause losses in nutritional quality and phytochemical contents, and also in physicochemical, rheological, and organoleptic properties of processed fruit juices. This paper provides an overview of the effect on these qualities by the use of alternatives to traditional thermal treatments in fruit-juice processing, for three key operations in fruit-juice production such as microbial inactivation, enzyme inactivation, and juice-yield improvement. These alternatives are UV light, high-intensity light pulses, γ-irradiation, pulsed electric fields, radiofrequency electric fields, Ohmic heating, microwave heating, ultrasound, high hydrostatic pressure, supercritical carbon dioxide, ozonation, and flash-vacuum expansion. Although alternatives to heat treatments seem to be less detrimental than the thermal treatment, there are many parameters and conditions that influence the output, as well as the nature of the juice itself, hampering comparisons between different studies. Additionally, future research should focus on understanding the mechanisms underlying the changes in the overall quality of fruit juices, and also on scaled-up processes, process design, and optimization that need to be deal with in detail to maximize their potential as alternative nonthermal technologies in fruit-juice processing while maintaining fruit-juice attributes to the maximum.

  4. Effect of Soybean Flour on Physico-chemical, Functional, and Rheological Properties of Composite Flour from Rice, Sweet Potato, and Potato

    PubMed Central

    Julianti, Elisa; Rusmarilin, Herla; Ridwansyah; Yusraini, Era

    2016-01-01

    Three composite flours were prepared by combining rice flour, potato starch, sweet potato flour, soybean flour, and xanthan gum in the ratio of 30: 15: 50: 4.5: 0.5; 30: 15: 45: 9.5: 0.5; and 30: 15: 40: 14.5: 0.5, were analysed for selected physical, chemical, functional, and rheological properties. Fat, protein, ash, and crude fibre content were found to increase with increase in the ratio of soybean flour and decrease in the ratio of sweet potato flour in the mixture. The composite flours were not significantly different in water and oil absorption capacity, swelling power, and baking expansion. There was a tendency for the relative viscosities of the composite flours to increase significantly with increasing proportion of the soybean flour and decreasing proportion of sweet potato flour in the mixture. Pasting viscosity measurements of the composite flours gave maximum (peak) viscosity values ranging from 582.00–668.67 cP. The pasting analysis results indicated increased level of setback and final viscosity, pasting temperature, setback and stability ratio while peak viscosity decreased with increasing proportion of soybean flour and decreasing proportion of sweet potato flour in the mixture. PMID:27965751

  5. The effect of centrifugation at various g force levels on rheological properties of rat, dog, pig and human red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Ferenc; Toth, Eniko; Miszti-Blasius, Kornel; Nemeth, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory investigations often require centrifugation of blood samples for various erythrocyte tests. Although there is a lack of data about the effect of centrifugation at various g force levels on erythrocyte rheological properties. We aimed to investigate the effect of a 10-minute centrifugation at 500, 1000 or 1500 g at 15°C of rat, dog, pig and human venous (K3-EDTA, 1.5 mg/ml) blood samples. Hematological parameters, erythrocyte deformability, cell membrane stability, osmotic gradient ektacytometry (osmoscan) and erythrocyte aggregation were determined. Hematological and erythrocyte deformability parameters showed interspecies differences, centrifugation caused no significant alterations. Cell membrane stability for human erythrocytes centrifuged at higher g level showed less decrease in deformability. Osmoscan O min parameter showed slight elevation in dog centrifuged aliquots. Erythrocyte aggregation parameters changed unexpectedly. Rat and dog erythrocyte aggregation indices significantly dropped in centrifuged aliquots. Pig erythrocyte aggregation indices increased significantly after centrifugation. Human erythrocyte aggregation was the most stable one among the investigated species. The used centrifugation protocols caused the largest alterations in erythrocyte aggregation in a controversial way among the investigated species. On the other hand, erythrocyte deformability parameters were stable, cell membrane stability and osmoscan data show minor shifts.

  6. Effects of cold water swimming on blood rheological properties and composition of fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes of untrained older rats.

    PubMed

    Teległów, Aneta; Dabrowski, Zbigniew; Marchewka, Anna; Tabarowski, Zbigniew; Bilski, Jan; Jaśkiewicz, Jerzy; Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Głodzik, Jacek; Lizak, Dorota; Kepińska, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    This is the first report on the effects of a single bout of swimming to exhaustion in cold water on rat erythrocyte deformability, aggregation and fatty acid composition in erythrocyte membranes. The results indicate that there was a significant decrease in body temperature of experimental rats swimming in water at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C when compared to the control. Erythrocyte aggregation indices did not change after swimming in water at 4 degrees C whereas erythrocyte deformability increased at shear stress 1,13 [Pa] and 15,96 [Pa]. Physical effort performed in water at 4 degrees C when compared to the control group resulted in an increase in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acid content in erythrocyte membranes that influenced the increase in their fluidity and permeability even though that of polyunsaturated n-6 fatty acids decreased. Physical effort performed in 25 degrees C water resulted in an increase in saturated fatty acid content and a decrease in all polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated n-6 fatty acids when compared to the control group. Swimming of untrained old rats in cold water affected rheological properties oferythrocytes in a negligible way while changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes were more pronounced.

  7. Relationship between the rheological properties of thickener solutions and their velocity through the pharynx as measured by the ultrasonic pulse Doppler method.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Akiko; Hasegawa, Atsuko; Kohyama, Kaoru; Kumagai, Hitomi; Kumagai, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    The dependence of the dynamic viscoelastic parameters of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), xanthan gum, and guar gum solutions on the angular frequency (omega) was compared with that of their viscosity (mu) on the shear rate (gamma). In addition, the effect of these rheological properties on the maximum velocity through the pharynx, V(max), as measured by the ultrasonic pulse Doppler method, was investigated. The CMC and guar gum solutions examined were taken as a dilute solution and a true polymer solution, respectively. The xanthan gum solution was taken as a weak gel above 0.5% and a true polymer solution below 0.2%. The maximum velocity, V(max), of the thickener solutions correlated well with mu, the dynamic viscosity eta', and the complex viscosity eta(*), especially those measured at gamma or omega of 20-30 s(-1) (or rad/s) and above, suggesting that mu, eta', and eta(*) are suitable indexes for care foods of the liquid type for dysphagic patients.

  8. The Monoglyceride Content Affects the Self-Assembly Behavior, Rheological Properties, Syringeability, and Mucoadhesion of In Situ-Gelling Liquid Crystalline Phase.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Kariane M; Teixeira, Cristian C C; Kaminski, Renata C K; Sarmento, Victor H V; Couto, Renê O; Pulcinelli, Sandra H; Freitas, Osvaldo

    2016-08-01

    This article reports the development of a precursor liquid crystalline system based on a mixture of monoglycerides (MO) and Cremophor(®) (CREM) that exhibits in situ gelation to a liquid crystalline phase. The effects of different MO/CREM ratios and the water content (WC) on several performance characteristics were investigated with a full factorial design. The formulations were characterized by polarized light microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and water uptake assays. Rheological, syringeability, and mucoadhesion evaluation were also performed. The polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering results for average and high MO/CREM ratios (2.1 and 4.0, respectively) indicated the coexistence of phases in transition to the liquid crystalline phase, independently of the WC. These systems became more viscous after taking up water, showing peaks characteristic of a cubic phase. Systems that had average and high MO/CREM ratios also exhibited shear-thinning behavior and high elasticity. Most systems showed suitable mucoadhesion for buccal purposes. Response surface methodology results demonstrated that the relative contribution of MO was the principal factor that affected the performance of the system. Accordingly, these precursor systems with average to high MO/CREM ratios and an average WC (10% w/w) demonstrated physicochemical and mucoadhesive properties that could enable them to be used as an in situ-gelling controlled drug delivery platform.

  9. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure and high dynamic pressure on stability and rheological properties of model oil-in-water emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigikocin, Erman; Mert, Behic; Alpas, Hami

    2011-09-01

    Both static and dynamic high pressure applications provide interesting modifications in food structures which lead to new product formulations. In this study, the effects of two different treatments, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and high dynamic pressure (HDP), on oil-in-water emulsions were identified and compared. Microfluidization was selected from among the HDP homogenization techniques. The performance of each process was analyzed in terms of rheological modifications and emulsion stability improvements compared with the coarse emulsions. The stability of the emulsions was determined comparatively by using an analytical photo-centrifuge device employing novel analysis technology. Whey protein isolate (WPI) in combination with a food polysaccharide (xanthan gum, guar gum or locust bean gum) were used as emulsifying and stabilizing ingredients. The effective disruption of oil droplets and the degradation of polysaccharides by the shear forces under high pressure in HDP microfluidization yielded finer emulsions with lower viscosities, leading to distinctive improvements in emulsion stability. On the other hand, improvements in stability obtained with HHP treatment were due to the thickening of the emulsions mainly induced by protein unfolding. The corresponding increases in viscosity were intensified in emulsion formulations containing higher oil content. Apart from these, HHP treatment was found to be relatively more contributive to the enhancements in viscoelastic properties.

  10. Effect of Soybean Flour on Physico-chemical, Functional, and Rheological Properties of Composite Flour from Rice, Sweet Potato, and Potato.

    PubMed

    Julianti, Elisa; Rusmarilin, Herla; Ridwansyah; Yusraini, Era

    2016-11-01

    Three composite flours were prepared by combining rice flour, potato starch, sweet potato flour, soybean flour, and xanthan gum in the ratio of 30: 15: 50: 4.5: 0.5; 30: 15: 45: 9.5: 0.5; and 30: 15: 40: 14.5: 0.5, were analysed for selected physical, chemical, functional, and rheological properties. Fat, protein, ash, and crude fibre content were found to increase with increase in the ratio of soybean flour and decrease in the ratio of sweet potato flour in the mixture. The composite flours were not significantly different in water and oil absorption capacity, swelling power, and baking expansion. There was a tendency for the relative viscosities of the composite flours to increase significantly with increasing proportion of the soybean flour and decreasing proportion of sweet potato flour in the mixture. Pasting viscosity measurements of the composite flours gave maximum (peak) viscosity values ranging from 582.00-668.67 cP. The pasting analysis results indicated increased level of setback and final viscosity, pasting temperature, setback and stability ratio while peak viscosity decreased with increasing proportion of soybean flour and decreasing proportion of sweet potato flour in the mixture.

  11. Rheological Properties of Aqueous Acid Solutions of Chitosan: Experiment and Calculations of the Viscometric Functions on the Basis of a Mesoscopic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipovskaya, A. B.; Abramov, A. Yu.; Pyshnograi, G. V.; Aziz, Al Joda Hyder Nadom

    2016-05-01

    The rheological properties of chitosan solutions in acetic acid at 20°C in the range of polymer concentrations from 0.5 to 8 mass% and acid concentrations from 2 to 70% have been investigated. With the use of a modified Vinogradov-Pokrovskii model based on the microstructural approach to the description of polymer fluid dynamics, numerical solutions of gradient dependences of viscometric functions of aqueous acid solutions of chitosan have been obtained. It has been established that the numerical solution describes with good accuracy the experimental viscosity rheograms. The values of the highest Newton viscosity ηmax have been calculated. The concentration modes of semidiluted and concentrated solutions have been determined by the dependence of ηmax on the polymer concentration, and the range of concentrations in which the mass transfer mechanism changes and a fluctuation network is formed has been found. It has been shown that the concentration of acetic acid practically does not influence the structure and character of flow of chitosan solutions, the formation concentration of a network, and the efficiency of its labile nodes.

  12. On the cytoskeleton and soft glassy rheology.

    PubMed

    Mandadapu, Kranthi K; Govindjee, Sanjay; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2008-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a complex structure within the cellular corpus that is responsible for the main structural properties and motilities of cells. A wide range of models have been utilized to understand cytoskeletal rheology and mechanics (see e.g. [Mofrad, M., Kamm, R., 2006. Cytoskeletal Mechanics: Models and Measurements. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]). From this large collection of proposed models, the soft glassy rheological model (originally developed for inert soft glassy materials) has gained a certain traction in the literature due to the close resemblance of its predictions to certain mechanical