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Sample records for rhizosphere bdellovibrio spp

  1. Irrigation differentially impacts populations of indigenous antibiotic-producing Pseudomonas spp. in the rhizosphere of wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This work determined the impact of irrigation on the seasonal dynamics of populations of Pseudomonas spp. producing the antibiotics phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (Phz+) and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl+) in the rhizosphere of wheat grown in the low precipitation zone (150 to 300 mm annually) of the...

  2. Irrigation differentially impacts populations of indigenous antibiotic-producing pseudomonas spp. in the rhizosphere of wheat.

    PubMed

    Mavrodi, Olga V; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Parejko, James A; Thomashow, Linda S; Weller, David M

    2012-05-01

    This work determined the impact of irrigation on the seasonal dynamics of populations of Pseudomonas spp. producing the antibiotics phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (Phz(+)) and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl(+)) in the rhizosphere of wheat grown in the low-precipitation zone (150 to 300 mm annually) of the Columbia Plateau of the Inland Pacific Northwest. Population sizes and plant colonization frequencies of Phz(+) and Phl(+) Pseudomonas spp. were determined in winter and spring wheat collected during the growing seasons from 2008 to 2009 from selected commercial dryland and irrigated fields in central Washington State. Only Phz(+) bacteria were detected on dryland winter wheat, with populations ranging from 4.8 to 6.3 log CFU g(-1) of root and rhizosphere colonization frequencies of 67 to 100%. The ranges of population densities of Phl(+) and Phz(+) Pseudomonas spp. recovered from wheat grown under irrigation were similar, but 58 to 100% of root systems were colonized by Phl(+) bacteria whereas only 8 to 50% of plants harbored Phz(+) bacteria. In addition, Phz(+) Pseudomonas spp. were abundant in the rhizosphere of native plant species growing in nonirrigated areas adjacent to the sampled dryland wheat fields. This is the first report that documents the impact of irrigation on indigenous populations of two closely related groups of antibiotic-producing pseudomonads that coinhabit the rhizosphere of an economically important cereal crop. These results demonstrate how crop management practices can influence indigenous populations of antibiotic-producing pseudomonads with the capacity to suppress soilborne diseases of wheat.

  3. Irrigation Differentially Impacts Populations of Indigenous Antibiotic-Producing Pseudomonas spp. in the Rhizosphere of Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Mavrodi, Olga V.; Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Parejko, James A.; Thomashow, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    This work determined the impact of irrigation on the seasonal dynamics of populations of Pseudomonas spp. producing the antibiotics phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (Phz+) and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl+) in the rhizosphere of wheat grown in the low-precipitation zone (150 to 300 mm annually) of the Columbia Plateau of the Inland Pacific Northwest. Population sizes and plant colonization frequencies of Phz+ and Phl+ Pseudomonas spp. were determined in winter and spring wheat collected during the growing seasons from 2008 to 2009 from selected commercial dryland and irrigated fields in central Washington State. Only Phz+ bacteria were detected on dryland winter wheat, with populations ranging from 4.8 to 6.3 log CFU g−1 of root and rhizosphere colonization frequencies of 67 to 100%. The ranges of population densities of Phl+ and Phz+ Pseudomonas spp. recovered from wheat grown under irrigation were similar, but 58 to 100% of root systems were colonized by Phl+ bacteria whereas only 8 to 50% of plants harbored Phz+ bacteria. In addition, Phz+ Pseudomonas spp. were abundant in the rhizosphere of native plant species growing in nonirrigated areas adjacent to the sampled dryland wheat fields. This is the first report that documents the impact of irrigation on indigenous populations of two closely related groups of antibiotic-producing pseudomonads that coinhabit the rhizosphere of an economically important cereal crop. These results demonstrate how crop management practices can influence indigenous populations of antibiotic-producing pseudomonads with the capacity to suppress soilborne diseases of wheat. PMID:22389379

  4. Use of bioluminescence markers to detect Pseudomonas spp. in the Rhizosphere

    SciTech Connect

    De Weger, L.A.; Lugtenberg, B.J.J. ); Dunbar, P.; Sayler, G.S. ); Mahafee, W.F. )

    1991-12-01

    The use of bioluminescence as a sensitive marker for detection of Pseudomonas spp. in the rhizosphere was investigated. Continuous expression of the luxCDABE genes, required for bioluminescence, was not detectable in the rhizosphere. However, when either a naphthalene-inducible luxCDABE construct or a constitutive luxAB construct (coding only for the luciferase) was introduced into the Pseudomonas cells, light emission could be initiated just prior to measurement by the addition of naphthalene or the substrate for luciferase, n-decyl aldehyde, respectively. These Pseudomonas cells could successfully be detected in rhizosphere by using autophotography or optical fiber light measurement techniques. Detection required the presence of 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} CFU/cm of root, showing that the bioluminescence technique is at least 1,000-fold more sensitive than {beta}-galactosidase-based systems.

  5. Use of Bioluminescence Markers To Detect Pseudomonas spp. in the Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    de Weger, Letty A.; Dunbar, Paul; Mahafee, Walter F.; Lugtenberg, Ben J. J.; Sayler, Gary S.

    1991-01-01

    The use of bioluminescence as a sensitive marker for detection of Pseudomonas spp. in the rhizosphere was investigated. Continuous expression of the luxCDABE genes, required for bioluminescence, was not detectable in the rhizosphere. However, when either a naphthalene-inducible luxCDABE construct or a constitutive luxAB construct (coding only for the luciferase) was introduced into the Pseudomonas cells, light emission could be initiated just prior to measurement by the addition of naphthalene or the substrate for luciferase, n-decyl aldehyde, respectively. These Pseudomonas cells could successfully be detected in the rhizosphere by using autophotography or optical fiber light measurement techniques. Detection required the presence of 103 to 104 CFU/cm of root, showing that the bioluminescence technique is at least 1,000-fold more sensitive than β-galactosidase-based systems. Images PMID:16348610

  6. Bdellovibrios in Callinectus sapidus, the Blue Crab

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Jacqueline I.; Williams, Henry N.

    1992-01-01

    Bdellovibrios were recovered from the gill tissue of all of 31 crabs sampled and from all samples of epibiota obtained from the ventral shell surface of 15 crabs. The results suggest that the blue crab is a reservoir for bdellovibrios. The association with crabs may be an important factor in the ecology of the bdellovibrios. PMID:16348706

  7. [Bacillus isolates from rhizosphere of cacti improve germination and bloom in Mammillaria spp. (Cactaceae)].

    PubMed

    Chávez-Ambriz, Lluvia A; Hernández-Morales, Alejandro; Cabrera-Luna, José A; Luna-Martínez, Laura; Pacheco-Aguilar, Juan R

    Cacti are the most representative vegetation of arid zones in Mexico where rainfall is scarce, evapotranspiration is high and soil fertility is low. Plants have developed physiological strategies such as the association with microorganisms in the rhizosphere zone to increase nutrient uptake. In the present work, four bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of Mammillaria magnimamma and Coryphantha radians were obtained and named as QAP3, QAP19, QAP22 and QAP24, and were genetically identified as belonging to the genus Bacillus, exhibiting in vitro biochemical properties such as phosphate solubilization, indoleacetic acid production and ACC deaminase activity related to plant growth promotion, which was tested by inoculating M. magnimamma seeds. It was found that all isolates increased germination from 17 to 34.3% with respect to the uninoculated control seeds, being QAP24 the one having the greatest effect, accomplishing the germination of viable seeds (84.7%) three days before the control seeds. Subsequently, the inoculation of Mammillari zeilmanniana plants with this isolate showed a positive effect on bloom, registering during two months from a one year period, an increase of up to 31.0% in the number of flowering plants compared to control plants. The characterized Bacillus spp. isolates have potential to be used in conservation programs of plant species from arid zones. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Predacious bacteria, Bdellovibrio with potential for biocontrol.

    PubMed

    Markelova, Natalia Y

    2010-11-01

    Bacteria of the genus of Bdellovibrio are highly motile Gram-negative predators of other Gram-negative bacteria causing lysis of their prey. Here we report results of studies on the interactions of Bdellovibrio with species of Alcaligenes, Campylobacter, Erwinia, Escherichia, Helicobacter, Pseudomonas, Legionella, and Shigella in agar lower, liquid media and cells attached to a surface. Helicobacter pylori was studied employing both actively growing and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) cells. The majority of the bacterial strains tested were found to be susceptible to Bdellovibrio. A significant observation was that Bdellovibrio attacked both actively growing and VBNC H. pylori, that phenomenon has never been reported. The results indicate that bdellovibrios have potential as biocontrol agents.

  9. Facultatively Parasitic Strain of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus1

    PubMed Central

    Diedrich, D. L.; Denny, C. F.; Hashimoto, T.; Conti, S. F.

    1970-01-01

    A strain of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus (designated strain UKi2) was isolated which was capable of growing either saprophytically in host-free medium or endoparasitically in Escherichia coli B/r. It was quantitatively determined that each bdellovibrio could develop in solid medium to produce a colony, and 65% of the cells in a late exponential-phase culture were capable of inducing E. coli B/r spheroplasts. A photomicrographic sequence of single E. coli spheroplasts containing bdellovibrios demonstrated that parasitically derived B. bacteriovorus UKi2 could develop saprophytically after release from the host cells. Strain UKi2 appears to be morphologically quite similar to previously described obligately parasitic bdellovibrios; biochemical data on this strain suggests its close relationship to some of the previously described host-independent strains of Bdellovibrio. Images PMID:4908792

  10. Interactions between Bdellovibrio and its host cell.

    PubMed

    Stolp, H

    1979-04-11

    The bdellovibrios are extremely small bacteria with the unique property of being parasites of other (gram-negative) bacteria. In the presence of viable and susceptible bacteria a Bdellovibrio cell physically 'attacks' an individual host cell, attaches to its surface, penetrates the cell wall, and multiples within the periplasmic (intramural) space of its prey. The invading Bdellovibrio and its progeny degrade and consume the cellular constituents of the invaded host bacterium. This process finally results in complete lysis of the host cell and release of the Bdellovibrio progeny. From a population of parasitic bdellovibrios, derivatives can be selected that grow on complex nutrient media. Currently, none of the different nutritional types can be propagated in a fully defined synthetic medium. By degradation of the cellular constituents of the host the Bdellovibrio cell in its periplasmic space has available all the monomeric subunits needed to synthesis of the macromolecules. Peculiarities of Bdellovibrio metabolism with respect to uptake of preformed molecules and energy efficiency are discussed.

  11. Identification of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soils with inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum spp., the causative agent of anthracnose disease.

    PubMed

    Intra, Bungonsiri; Mungsuntisuk, Isada; Nihira, Takuya; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2011-04-01

    Colletotrichum is one of the most widespread and important genus of plant pathogenic fungi worldwide. Various species of Colletotrichum are the causative agents of anthracnose disease in plants, which is a severe problem to agricultural crops particularly in Thailand. These phytopathogens are usually controlled using chemicals; however, the use of these agents can lead to environmental pollution. Potential non-chemical control strategies for anthracnose disease include the use of bacteria capable of producing anti-fungal compounds such as actinomycetes spp., that comprise a large group of filamentous, Gram positive bacteria from soil. The aim of this study was to isolate actinomycetes capable of inhibiting the growth of Colletotrichum spp, and to analyze the diversity of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soil. A total of 304 actinomycetes were isolated and tested for their inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides strains DoA d0762 and DoA c1060 and Colletotrichum capsici strain DoA c1511 which cause anthracnose disease as well as the non-pathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain IFO 10217. Most isolates (222 out of 304, 73.0%) were active against at least one indicator fungus or yeast. Fifty four (17.8%) were active against three anthracnose fungi and 17 (5.6%) could inhibit the growth of all three fungi and S. cerevisiae used in the test. Detailed analysis on 30 selected isolates from an orchard at Chanthaburi using the comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that most of the isolates (87%) belong to the genus Streptomyces sp., while one each belongs to Saccharopolyspora (strain SB-2) and Nocardiopsis (strain CM-2) and two to Nocardia (strains BP-3 and LK-1). Strains LC-1, LC-4, JF-1, SC-1 and MG-1 exerted high inhibitory activity against all three anthracnose fungi and yeast. In addition, the organic solvent extracts prepared from these five strains inhibited conidial growth of the three indicator fungi. Preliminary analysis of crude

  12. Ecological functions of Trichoderma spp. and their secondary metabolites in the rhizosphere: interactions with plants.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Cornejo, Hexon Angel; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; del-Val, Ek; Larsen, John

    2016-04-01

    Trichodermaspp. are common soil and root inhabitants that have been widely studied due to their capacity to produce antibiotics, parasitize other fungi and compete with deleterious plant microorganisms. These fungi produce a number of secondary metabolites such as non-ribosomal peptides, terpenoids, pyrones and indolic-derived compounds. In the rhizosphere, the exchange and recognition of signaling molecules byTrichodermaand plants may alter physiological and biochemical aspects in both. For example, severalTrichodermastrains induce root branching and increase shoot biomass as a consequence of cell division, expansion and differentiation by the presence of fungal auxin-like compounds. Furthermore,Trichoderma, in association with plant roots, can trigger systemic resistance and improve plant nutrient uptake. The present review describes the most recent advances in understanding the ecological functions ofTrichodermaspp. in the rhizosphere at biochemical and molecular levels with special emphasis on their associations with plants. Finally, through a synthesis of the current body of work, we present potential future research directions on studies related toTrichodermaspp. and their secondary metabolites in agroecosystems.

  13. A Rhizosphere-Associated Symbiont, Photobacterium spp. Strain MELD1, and Its Targeted Synergistic Activity for Phytoprotection against Mercury

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Dony Chacko; Ho, Ying-Ning; Gicana, Ronnie Gicaraya; Mathew, Gincy Marina; Chien, Mei-Chieh; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Though heavy metal such as mercury is toxic to plants and microorganisms, the synergistic activity between them may offer benefit for surviving. In this study, a mercury-reducing bacterium, Photobacterium spp. strain MELD1, with an MIC of 33 mg . kg-1 mercury was isolated from a severely mercury and dioxin contaminated rhizosphere soil of reed (Phragmites australis). While the whole genome sequencing of MELD1 confirmed the presence of a mer operon, the mercury reductase MerA gene showed 99% sequence identity to Vibrio shilloni AK1 and implicates its route resulted from the event of horizontal gene transfer. The efficiency of MELD1 to vaporize mercury (25 mg . kg-1, 24 h) and its tolerance to toxic metals and xenobiotics such as lead, cadmium, pentachlorophenol, pentachloroethylene, 3-chlorobenzoic acid, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is promising. Combination of a long yard bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. Sesquipedalis) and strain MELD1 proved beneficial in the phytoprotection of mercury in vivo. The effect of mercury (Hg) on growth, distribution and tolerance was examined in root, shoot, leaves and pod of yard long bean with and without the inoculation of strain MELD1. The model plant inoculated with MELD1 had significant increases in biomass, root length, seed number, and increased mercury uptake limited to roots. Biolog plate assay were used to assess the sole-carbon source utilization pattern of the isolate and Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) productivity was analyzed to examine if the strain could contribute to plant growth. The results of this study suggest that, as a rhizosphere-associated symbiont, the synergistic activity between the plant and MELD1 can improve the efficiency for phytoprotection, phytostabilization and phytoremediation of mercury. PMID:25816328

  14. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus : A future antimicrobial agent?

    PubMed

    Harini, K; Ajila, Vidya; Hegde, Shruthi

    2013-11-01

    Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) are small, predatory, Deltaproteobacteria that prey on other Gram-negative pathogens. Many authors have unfolded the possible use of BALOs as biological control agents in environmental as well as medical microbiological settings. They are found strongly associated with natural biofilms and recent studies have shown that effective predation occurs in these naturally occurring bacterial communities. Periodontal infections could also be an interesting target for the application of BALOs as biological Gram-negative bacteria and therefore potentially susceptible to BALOs antimicrobial agents. This proposition is based on the fact that almost all periodontal pathogens are predation. Accordingly, this review aims to present the evolution toward applying Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus as an antibacterial agent to deal with oral infections, general medical conditions, environmental and industrial issues.

  15. Potential of a 16S rRNA-based taxonomic microarray for analyzing the rhizosphere effects of maize on Agrobacterium spp. and bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Sanguin, Hervé; Remenant, Benoît; Dechesne, Arnaud; Thioulouse, Jean; Vogel, Timothy M; Nesme, Xavier; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Grundmann, Geneviève L

    2006-06-01

    Bacterial diversity is central to ecosystem sustainability and soil biological function, for which the role of roots is important. The high-throughput analysis potential of taxonomic microarray should match the breadth of bacterial diversity. Here, the power of this technology was evidenced through methodological verifications and analysis of maize rhizosphere effect based on a 16S rRNA-based microarray developed from the prototype of H. Sanguin et al. (Environ. Microbiol. 8:289-307, 2006). The current probe set was composed of 170 probes (41 new probes in this work) that targeted essentially the Proteobacteria. Cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons were carried out on maize rhizosphere and bulk soil DNA. All tested clones that had a perfect match with corresponding probes were positive in the hybridization experiment. The hierarchically nested probes were reliable, but the level of taxonomic identification was variable, depending on the probe set specificity. The comparison of experimental and theoretical hybridizations revealed 0.91% false positives and 0.81% false negatives. The microarray detection threshold was estimated at 0.03% of a given DNA type based on DNA spiking experiments. A comparison of the maize rhizosphere and bulk soil hybridization results showed a significant rhizosphere effect, with a higher predominance of Agrobacterium spp. in the rhizosphere, as well as a lower prevalence of Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes, a new taxon of interest in soil. In addition, well-known taxonomic groups such as Sphingomonas spp., Rhizobiaceae, and Actinobacteria were identified in both microbial habitats with strong hybridization signals. The taxonomic microarray developed in the present study was able to discriminate and characterize bacterial community composition in related biological samples, offering extensive possibilities for systematic exploration of bacterial diversity in ecosystems.

  16. Potential of a 16S rRNA-Based Taxonomic Microarray for Analyzing the Rhizosphere Effects of Maize on Agrobacterium spp. and Bacterial Communities†

    PubMed Central

    Sanguin, Hervé; Remenant, Benoît; Dechesne, Arnaud; Thioulouse, Jean; Vogel, Timothy M.; Nesme, Xavier; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Grundmann, Geneviève L.

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial diversity is central to ecosystem sustainability and soil biological function, for which the role of roots is important. The high-throughput analysis potential of taxonomic microarray should match the breadth of bacterial diversity. Here, the power of this technology was evidenced through methodological verifications and analysis of maize rhizosphere effect based on a 16S rRNA-based microarray developed from the prototype of H. Sanguin et al. (Environ. Microbiol. 8:289-307, 2006). The current probe set was composed of 170 probes (41 new probes in this work) that targeted essentially the Proteobacteria. Cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons were carried out on maize rhizosphere and bulk soil DNA. All tested clones that had a perfect match with corresponding probes were positive in the hybridization experiment. The hierarchically nested probes were reliable, but the level of taxonomic identification was variable, depending on the probe set specificity. The comparison of experimental and theoretical hybridizations revealed 0.91% false positives and 0.81% false negatives. The microarray detection threshold was estimated at 0.03% of a given DNA type based on DNA spiking experiments. A comparison of the maize rhizosphere and bulk soil hybridization results showed a significant rhizosphere effect, with a higher predominance of Agrobacterium spp. in the rhizosphere, as well as a lower prevalence of Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes, a new taxon of interest in soil. In addition, well-known taxonomic groups such as Sphingomonas spp., Rhizobiaceae, and Actinobacteria were identified in both microbial habitats with strong hybridization signals. The taxonomic microarray developed in the present study was able to discriminate and characterize bacterial community composition in related biological samples, offering extensive possibilities for systematic exploration of bacterial diversity in ecosystems. PMID:16751545

  17. Bdellovibrio exovorus sp. nov., a novel predator of Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Koval, Susan F; Hynes, Sandra H; Flannagan, Ronald S; Pasternak, Zohar; Davidov, Yaacov; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    The life cycle, prey range and taxonomic status of a Bdellovibrio-like organism, strain JSS(T), were studied. Strain JSS(T) was isolated from sewage in London, Ontario, Canada, in enrichment culture with Caulobacter crescentus prey cells. During predation, this strain remained attached to the outside of a stalked C. crescentus cell. No periplasmic growth stage was observed and no bdelloplast was formed. The stalked cells of C. crescentus retained their shape and, after predation, were devoid of cytoplasmic content, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. A periplasmic growth stage has been a definitive character in the description of members of the genera Bdellovibrio, Bacteriovorax, Bacteriolyticum and Peredibacter. This is the first description of an epibiotic predator in this group of prokaryotic predators. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain JSS(T) was 46.1 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that this strain was related to Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus strains HD100(T), 109J, 114 and 127 (90-93 % similarity). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences grouped strain JSS(T) with the Bdellovibrio cluster, but at a distance from other Bdellovibrio isolates. On the basis of features of the life cycle and phylogenetic data, it was concluded that strain JSS(T) merits classification as the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Bdellovibrio exovorus sp. nov. is proposed (type strain JSS(T) =ATCC BAA-2330(T) = DSM 25223(T)).

  18. The lifestyle switch protein Bd0108 of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is an intrinsically disordered protein.

    PubMed

    Prehna, Gerd; Ramirez, Benjamin E; Lovering, Andrew L

    2014-01-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a δ-proteobacterium that preys upon Salmonella spp., E. coli, and other Gram-negative bacteria. Bdellovibrio can grow axenically (host-independent, HI, rare and mutation-driven) or subsist via a predatory lifecycle (host-dependent, HD, the usual case). Upon contact with prey, B. bacteriovorus enters the host periplasm from where it slowly drains the host cytosol of nutrients for its own replication. At the core of this mechanism is a retractile pilus, whose architecture is regulated by the protein Bd0108 and its interaction with the neighboring gene product Bd0109. Deletion of bd0108 results in negligible pilus formation, whereas an internal deletion (the one that instigates host-independence) causes mis-regulation of pilus length. These mutations, along with a suite of naturally occurring bd0108 mutant strains, act to control the entry to HI growth. To further study the molecular mechanism of predatory regulation, we focused on the apparent lifecycle switch protein Bd0108. Here we characterize the solution structure and dynamics of Bd0108 using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy complemented with additional biophysical methods. We then explore the interaction between Bd0108 and Bd0109 in detail utilizing isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and NMR spectroscopy. Together our results demonstrate that Bd0108 is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) and that the interaction with Bd0109 is of low affinity. Furthermore, we observe that Bd0108 retains an IDP nature while binding Bd0109. From our data we conclude that Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus utilizes an intrinsically disordered protein to regulate its pilus and control predation signaling.

  19. The Lifestyle Switch Protein Bd0108 of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus Is an Intrinsically Disordered Protein

    PubMed Central

    Prehna, Gerd; Ramirez, Benjamin E.; Lovering, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a δ-proteobacterium that preys upon Salmonella spp., E. coli, and other Gram-negative bacteria. Bdellovibrio can grow axenically (host-independent, HI, rare and mutation-driven) or subsist via a predatory lifecycle (host-dependent, HD, the usual case). Upon contact with prey, B. bacteriovorus enters the host periplasm from where it slowly drains the host cytosol of nutrients for its own replication. At the core of this mechanism is a retractile pilus, whose architecture is regulated by the protein Bd0108 and its interaction with the neighboring gene product Bd0109. Deletion of bd0108 results in negligible pilus formation, whereas an internal deletion (the one that instigates host-independence) causes mis-regulation of pilus length. These mutations, along with a suite of naturally occurring bd0108 mutant strains, act to control the entry to HI growth. To further study the molecular mechanism of predatory regulation, we focused on the apparent lifecycle switch protein Bd0108. Here we characterize the solution structure and dynamics of Bd0108 using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy complemented with additional biophysical methods. We then explore the interaction between Bd0108 and Bd0109 in detail utilizing isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and NMR spectroscopy. Together our results demonstrate that Bd0108 is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) and that the interaction with Bd0109 is of low affinity. Furthermore, we observe that Bd0108 retains an IDP nature while binding Bd0109. From our data we conclude that Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus utilizes an intrinsically disordered protein to regulate its pilus and control predation signaling. PMID:25514156

  20. Rhizosphere bacteria of Costularia spp. from ultramafic soils in New Caledonia: diversity, tolerance to extreme edaphic conditions, and role in plant growth and mineral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Gonin, Mathieu; Gensous, Simon; Lagrange, Alexandre; Ducousso, Marc; Amir, Hamid; Jourand, Philippe

    2013-03-01

    Rhizosphere bacteria were isolated from Costularia spp., pioneer sedges from ultramafic soils in New Caledonia, which is a hotspot of biodiversity in the South Pacific. Genus identification, ability to tolerate edaphic constraints, and plant-growth-promoting (PGP) properties were analysed. We found that 10(5) colony-forming units per gram of root were dominated by Proteobacteria (69%) and comprised 21 genera, including Burkholderia (28%), Curtobacterium (15%), Bradyrhizobium (9%), Sphingomonas (8%), Rhizobium (7%), and Bacillus (5%). High proportions of bacteria tolerated many elements of the extreme edaphic conditions: 82% tolerated 100 μmol·L(-1) chromium, 70% 1 mmol·L(-1) nickel, 63% 10 mmol·L(-1) manganese, 24% 1 mmol·L(-1) cobalt, and 42% an unbalanced calcium/magnesium ratio (1/16). These strains also exhibited multiple PGP properties, including the ability to produce ammonia (65%), indole-3-acetic acid (60%), siderophores (52%), and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (39%); as well as the capacity to solubilize phosphates (19%). The best-performing strains were inoculated with Sorghum sp. grown on ultramafic substrate. Three strains significantly enhanced the shoot biomass by up to 33%. The most successful strains influenced plant nutrition through the mobilization of metals in roots and a reduction of metal transfer to shoots. These results suggest a key role of these bacteria in plant growth, nutrition, and adaptation to the ultramafic constraints.

  1. Enrichment for Hydrogen-Oxidizing Acinetobacter spp. in the Rhizosphere of Hydrogen-Evolving Soybean Root Nodules †

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Tit-Yee; Graham, Lennox; O'Hara, Eileen; Maier, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Field soybean plants were inoculated with Hup+ wild-type or H2 uptake-negative (Hup−) mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. For two consecutive summers we found an enrichment for acinetobacters associated with the surfaces of the H2-evolving nodules. Soybean root nodules that evolved H2 had up to 12 times more Acinetobacter spp. bacteria associated with their surfaces than did nodules incapable of evolving H2. All of the newly isolated strains identified as Acinetobacter obtained from the surfaces of root nodules, as well as known established Acinetobacter strains, were capable of oxidizing H2, a property not previously described for this alkane-degrading soil bacterium. Images PMID:16347197

  2. Antibiotic and Biosurfactant Properties of Cyclic Lipopeptides Produced by Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. from the Sugar Beet Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, T. H.; Sørensen, D.; Tobiasen, C.; Andersen, J. B.; Christophersen, C.; Givskov, M.; Sørensen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) with antibiotic and biosurfactant properties are produced by a number of soil bacteria, including fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. To provide new and efficient strains for the biological control of root-pathogenic fungi in agricultural crops, we isolated approximately 600 fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. from two different agricultural soils by using three different growth media. CLP production was observed in a large proportion of the strains (approximately 60%) inhabiting the sandy soil, compared to a low proportion (approximately 6%) in the loamy soil. Chemical structure analysis revealed that all CLPs could be clustered into two major groups, each consisting of four subgroups. The two major groups varied primarily in the number of amino acids in the cyclic peptide moiety, while each of the subgroups could be differentiated by substitutions of specific amino acids in the peptide moiety. Production of specific CLPs could be affiliated with Pseudomonas fluorescens strain groups belonging to biotype I, V, or VI. In vitro analysis using both purified CLPs and whole-cell P. fluorescens preparations demonstrated that all CLPs exhibited strong biosurfactant properties and that some also had antibiotic properties towards root-pathogenic microfungi. The CLP-producing P. fluorescens strains provide a useful resource for selection of biological control agents, whether a single strain or a consortium of strains was used to maximize the synergistic effect of multiple antagonistic traits in the inoculum. PMID:12089023

  3. Uptake of intact nucleoside monophosphates by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J.

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, E G; McCabe, J B; Barke, J I

    1985-01-01

    The degraded nucleic acids and ribosomes of its prey cell provide Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J with a source of ribonucleoside monophosphates and deoxyribonucleoside monophosphates for biosynthesis and respiration. We demonstrate that bdellovibrios, in contrast to almost all other bacteria, take up these nucleoside monophosphates into the cell in an intact, phosphorylated form. In this way they are able to assimilate more effectively the cellular contents of their prey. Studies with UMP and dTMP demonstrate that they are transported and accumulated against a concentration gradient, achieving internal levels at least 10 times the external levels. Treatment of the bdellovibrios with azide or carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone eliminates their ability to either transport or maintain accumulated UMP and suggests the presence of a freely reversible exchange mechanism. There are at least two separate classes of transport systems for nucleoside monophosphates, each exhibiting partial specificity for either ribonucleoside monophosphates or deoxyribonucleoside monophosphates. Kinetic analyses of UMP transport in different developmental stages of strain 109J indicate that each stage expresses a single, saturable uptake system with a distinct apparent substrate affinity constant (Kt) of 104 microM in attack phase cells and 35 microM in prematurely released growth phase filaments. The capacity for transport of UMP by the growth phase filaments was 2.4 times that of the attack phase cells. These data, in addition to the apparent lack of environmental control of UMP transport capacity in attack phase cells, suggest that there are two transport systems for UMP in bdellovibrios and that the high-affinity, high-capacity growth phase system is developmentally regulated. PMID:4030692

  4. Spatially Organized Films from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus Prey Lysates

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Megan A.; Núñez, Megan E.; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Goffredi, Shana; Shamskhou, Elya; Faudree, Leanna; Chang, Evan; Landry, Rebecca M.; Ma, Andrew; Choi, Da-Eun; Thomas, Nicholas; Schmitt, Jaclyn

    2014-01-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a Gram-negative predator of other Gram-negative bacteria. Interestingly, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J cells grown in coculture with Escherichia coli ML-35 prey develop into a spatially organized two-dimensional film when located on a nutrient-rich surface. From deposition of 10 μl of a routine cleared coculture of B. bacteriovorus and E. coli cells, the cells multiply into a macroscopic community and segregate into an inner, yellow circular region and an outer, off-white region. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and atomic force microscopy measurements confirm that the mature film is spatially organized into two morphologically distinct Bdellovibrio populations, with primarily small, vibroid cells in the center and a complex mixture of pleomorphic cells in the outer radii. The interior region cell population exhibits the hunting phenotype while the outer region cell subpopulation does not. Crowding and high nutrient availability with limited prey appear to favor diversification of the B. bacteriovorus population into two distinct, thriving subpopulations and may be beneficial to the persistence of B. bacteriovorus in biofilms. PMID:25239909

  5. Metabolism of periplasmic membrane-derived oligosaccharides by the predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J

    SciTech Connect

    Ruby, E.G.; McCabe, J.B.

    1988-02-01

    Membrane-derived oligosaccharides (MDO), a class of osmotically active carbohydrates, are the major organic solutes present in the periplasm of Escherichia coli and many other gram-negative bacteria when cells are grown in a medium of low osmolarity. Analyses of growing cells of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, a gram-negative predator of other bacteria, have confirmed that they also synthesize a characteristic MDO-like class of oligosaccharides. The natural growth environment of bdellovibrios is the periplasm of other gram-negative bacteria. Because of this location, prey cell MDO constitute a potential source of organic nutrients for growing bdellovibrios. Using cells of E. coli whose MDO were /sup 3/H labeled, we examined the extent to which B. bacteriovorus 109J metabolizes these prey cell components. Interestingly, there was neither significant degradation nor incorporation of prey cell MDO by bdellovibrios during the course of their intracellular growth. In fact, bdellovibrios had little capability either to degrade extracellular MDO that was made available to them or to transport glucose, the major monomeric constituent of prey cell MDO. Instead, periplasmic MDO were irreversibly lost to the extracellular environment during the period of bdellovibrio attack and penetration. Thus, although prey cell periplasmic proteins are retained, other important periplasmic components are released early in the bdellovibrio growth cycle. The loss of these MDO may aid in the destabilization of the prey cell plasma membrane, increasing the availability of cytoplasmic constituents to the periplasmic bdellovibrio.

  6. A Transcriptional “Scream” Early Response of E. coli Prey to Predatory Invasion by Bdellovibrio

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Carey; Ivanov, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    We have transcriptionally profiled the genes differentially expressed in E. coli prey cells when predatorily attacked by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus just prior to prey cell killing. This is a brief, approximately 20–25 min period when the prey cell is still alive but contains a Bdellovibrio cell in its periplasm or attached to and penetrating its outer membrane. Total RNA was harvested and labelled 15 min after initiating a semi-synchronous infection with an excess of Bdellovibrio preying upon E. coli and hybridised to a macroarray spotted with all predicted ORFs of E. coli. SAM analysis and t-tests were performed on the resulting data and 126 E. coli genes were found to be significantly differentially regulated by the prey upon attack by Bdellovibrio. The results were confirmed by QRT-PCR. Amongst the prey genes upregulated were a variety of general stress response genes, potentially “selfish” genes within or near prophages and transposable elements, and genes responding to damage in the periplasm and osmotic stress. Essentially, the presence of the invading Bdellovibrio and the resulting damage to the prey cell elicited a small “transcriptional scream”, but seemingly no specific defensive mechanism with which to counter the Bdellovibrio attack. This supports other studies which do not find Bdellovibrio resistance responses in prey, and bodes well for its use as a “living antibiotic”. PMID:20024656

  7. A transcriptional "Scream" early response of E. coli prey to predatory invasion by Bdellovibrio.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Carey; Ivanov, Pavel; Sockett, Renee Elizabeth

    2010-06-01

    We have transcriptionally profiled the genes differentially expressed in E. coli prey cells when predatorily attacked by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus just prior to prey cell killing. This is a brief, approximately 20-25 min period when the prey cell is still alive but contains a Bdellovibrio cell in its periplasm or attached to and penetrating its outer membrane. Total RNA was harvested and labelled 15 min after initiating a semi-synchronous infection with an excess of Bdellovibrio preying upon E. coli and hybridised to a macroarray spotted with all predicted ORFs of E. coli. SAM analysis and t-tests were performed on the resulting data and 126 E. coli genes were found to be significantly differentially regulated by the prey upon attack by Bdellovibrio. The results were confirmed by QRT-PCR. Amongst the prey genes upregulated were a variety of general stress response genes, potentially "selfish" genes within or near prophages and transposable elements, and genes responding to damage in the periplasm and osmotic stress. Essentially, the presence of the invading Bdellovibrio and the resulting damage to the prey cell elicited a small "transcriptional scream", but seemingly no specific defensive mechanism with which to counter the Bdellovibrio attack. This supports other studies which do not find Bdellovibrio resistance responses in prey, and bodes well for its use as a "living antibiotic".

  8. Formation of stable bdelloplasts as a starvation-survival strategy of marine bdellovibrios

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Amat, A.; Torrella, F. )

    1990-09-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Bdellovibrio have been isolated from a variety of habitats, including soil (15), rivers (1), estuarine water, seawater, and solar salt concentration ponds. Several wild-type isolates of marine bdellovibrios formed stable bdelloplasts when they infected gram-negative bacterial prey under certain culture conditions. Synchronous predator-prey cultures and low nutrient concentrations increased the yield of stable bdelloplasts. The bdellovibrio cells retained in the stable bdelloplasts showed a high survival capacity in nutrient-depleted saline solution (10% viable Bdellovibrio cells after 3 months at 25{degrees}C), whereas Bdellovibrio attack-phase cells kept under the same starvation conditions lost viability more quickly (1% viable cells after 48 h). The addition of yeast extract to a stable bdelloplast suspension induced lysis of the bdelloplasts and release of motile infecting attack-phase Bdellovibrio cells. Other substances, such as free amino acids, protein hydrolysates, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, carbohydrates, and organic amines, did not induce such a release. Stable bdelloplasts were highly hydrophobic and had a lower endogenous respiration rate than attack-phase cells. In general, stable bdelloplasts were almost as sensitive to temperature changes, desiccation, sonication, tannic acid, and Triton X-100 treatment as attack-phase cells. Electron microscopy of stable bdelloplasts did not reveal any extra cell wall layer, either in the bdelloplast envelope or in the retained Bdellovibrio cells, unlike the bdellocysts of the soil bacterium Bdellovibrio sp. strain W. The authors propose that formation of stable bdelloplasts is a survival strategy of marine bdellovibrios which occurs in response to nutrient- and prey-poor seawater habitats.

  9. The Rhizosphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiro, Arthur D.

    1978-01-01

    The rhizosphere is the area directly surrounding the roots of a plant and an area of tremendous microbial growth. This article described techniques for studying this soil biome. Illustrations are included. (MA)

  10. The Rhizosphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiro, Arthur D.

    1978-01-01

    The rhizosphere is the area directly surrounding the roots of a plant and an area of tremendous microbial growth. This article described techniques for studying this soil biome. Illustrations are included. (MA)

  11. Effects of Temperature, Salinity, and Substrate on the Colonization of Surfaces In Situ by Aquatic Bdellovibrios

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, J. I.; Turng, B.; Williams, H. N.; Baer, M. L.

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that surfaces are a more conducive habitat than the water column for the proliferation of bdellovibrios in the aquatic environment. The effect of temperature and salinity on the colonization of bdellovibrios on oyster shell, glass, and polystyrene surfaces in situ was investigated over an annual cycle. Sterile surfaces were suspended in various bodies of water for intervals ranging from 24 to 120 h. The results revealed that bdellovibrios associated with different types of surfaces over a broad temperature and salinity range. After 24 h of submersion in waters with temperatures from 9.0 to 26.7(deg)C, the ranges in log(inf10) values per square centimeter for the three surfaces were as follows: oyster shell, 2.2 to 2.5; glass, 0.3 to 2.2; and polystyrene, 0.7 to 1.6. Bdellovibrios were not recovered from surfaces submerged in water at temperatures below 8(deg)C during the 120-h experimental cycle. The number of bdellovibrios and culturable bacteria on oyster shells was significantly higher than the numbers on glass and polystyrene at all time intervals. The number of bdellovibrios was positively correlated with temperature and salinity on all surfaces. A positive correlation between the number of recoverable bacteria and temperature was observed, but the results with respect to salinity were diverse. The numbers of bdellovibrios recovered from oyster shells (up to 48 h) and water samples were significantly increased at salinities greater than 11(permil) compared to those in lower-salinity environments. The results of this study reveal that like many other bacteria in the aquatic environment, bdellovibrios prefer to associate with surfaces. This association provides the predators a rich source of prey bacteria in surface biofilms and perhaps protection in the gel-like matrix of the biofilm. PMID:16535502

  12. Rhizospheric pseudomonads

    PubMed Central

    Rudrappa, Thimmaraju

    2008-01-01

    Of the different groups of soil microorganisms, pseudomonads are one of the important class, playing various roles in the plants growth and development. Although they have been reported to inflict both beneficial and harmful effect on plants, they act through various mechanisms. Among the different mechanisms, cyanogenesis is one of the important factors used by pseudomonads to cause positive and less studied negative effects in the rhizosphere. By employing a bioassay driven approach, we dissected the direct effect of pseudomonad cyanogenesis on host plants and also its indirect effect through the inhibition of beneficial biofilm formation by B. subtilis. This study may further our understanding on the multi-tropic rhizospheric interactions mediated by rhizospheric pseudomonads. PMID:19704457

  13. Isolation of Bdellovibrio sp. from soil samples in Mexico and their potential applications in control of pathogens.

    PubMed

    Oyedara, Omotayo Opemipo; De Luna-Santillana, Erick de Jesus; Olguin-Rodriguez, Omar; Guo, Xianwu; Mendoza-Villa, Marco Antonio; Menchaca-Arredondo, Jorge Luis; Elufisan, Temidayo Oluyomi; Garza-Hernandez, Javier Alfonso; Garcia Leon, Israel; Rodriguez-Perez, Mario Alberto

    2016-12-01

    In this study, two strains of Bdellovibrio were isolated from soil samples using the culture-dependent technique and two members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (Klebsiella sp. and Salmonella sp.) as prey. The Bdellovibrio strains were bacteriolytic, plaque-forming, and highly motile gram-negative bacteria. We identified and confirmed the Bdellovibrio strains using microscopy, PCR amplification, and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. They were observed to be different strains based on hit locus and prey range analyses. Here, the first report on Bdellovibrio strains isolated from soil in Mexico corroborates earlier report indicating that populations of Bdellovibrio found in soil are heterogeneous thereby the need to identify the various strains.

  14. Rhizosphere size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov; Razavi, Bahar

    2017-04-01

    Estimation of the soil volume affected by roots - the rhizosphere - is crucial to assess the effects of plants on properties and processes in soils and dynamics of nutrients, water, microorganisms and soil organic matter. The challenges to assess the rhizosphere size are: 1) the continuum of properties between the root surface and root-free soil, 2) differences in the distributions of various properties (carbon, microorganisms and their activities, various nutrients, enzymes, etc.) along and across the roots, 3) temporal changes of properties and processes. Thus, to describe the rhizosphere size and root effects, a holistic approach is necessary. We collected literature and own data on the rhizosphere gradients of a broad range of physico-chemical and biological properties: pH, CO2, oxygen, redox potential, water uptake, various nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Fe), organic compounds (glucose, carboxylic acids, amino acids), activities of enzymes of C, N, P and S cycles. The collected data were obtained based on the destructive approaches (thin layer slicing), rhizotron studies and in situ visualization techniques: optodes, zymography, sensitive gels, 14C and neutron imaging. The root effects were pronounced from less than 0.5 mm (nutrients with slow diffusion) up to more than 50 mm (for gases). However, the most common effects were between 1 - 10 mm. Sharp gradients (e.g. for P, carboxylic acids, enzyme activities) allowed to calculate clear rhizosphere boundaries and so, the soil volume affected by roots. The first analyses were done to assess the effects of soil texture and moisture as well as root system and age on these gradients. The most properties can be described by two curve types: exponential saturation and S curve, each with increasing and decreasing concentration profiles from the root surface. The gradient based distribution functions were calculated and used to extrapolate on the whole soil depending on the root density and rooting intensity. We

  15. Indole acetic acid production by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. from the rhizosphere of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. and their variation in extragenic repetitive DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Sethia, Bedhya; Mustafa, Mariam; Manohar, Sneha; Patil, Savita V; Jayamohan, Nellickal Subramanian; Kumudini, Belur Satyan

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas (FP) is a heterogenous group of growth promoting rhizobacteria that regulate plant growth by releasing secondary metabolic compounds viz., indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophores, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide. In the present study, IAA producing FPs from the rhizosphere of Plectranthus amboinicus were characterized morphologically, biochemically and at the molecular level. Molecular identification of the isolates were carried out using Pseudomonas specific primers. The effect of varying time (24, 48, 72 and 96 h), Trp concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 μg x ml(-1)), temperature (10, 26, 37 and 50 ± 2 degrees C) and pH (6, 7 and 8) on IAA production by 10 best isolates were studied. Results showed higher IAA production at 72 h incubation, at 300 μg x ml(-1) Trp concentration, temperature 26 ± 2 degrees C and pH 7. TLC with acidified ethyl acetate extract showed that the IAA produced has a similar Rf value to that of the standard IAA. Results of TLC were confirmed by HPLC analysis. Genetic diversity of the isolates was also studied using 40 RAPD and 4 Rep primers. Genetic diversity parameters such as dominance, Shannon index and Simpson index were calculated. Out of 40 RAPD primers tested, 9 (2 OP-D series and 7 OP-E series) were shortlisted for further analysis. Studies using RAPD, ERIC, BOX, REP and GTG5 primers revealed that isolates exhibit significant diversity in repetitive DNA sequences irrespective of the rhizosphere.

  16. Metabolism of RNA-ribose by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus during intraperiplasmic growth on Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Hespell, R B; Odelson, D A

    1978-01-01

    During intraperiplasmic growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J on Escherichia coli some 30 to 60% of the initial E. coli RNA-ribose disappeared as cell-associated orcinol-positive material. The levels of RNA-ribose in the suspending buffer after growth together with the RNA-ribose used for bdellovibrio DNA synthesis accounted for 50% or less of the missing RNA-ribose. With intraperiplasmic growth in the presence of added U-14C-labeled CMP, GMP, or UMP, radioactivity was found both in the respired CO2 and incorporated into the bdellovibrio cell components. The addition of exogenous unlabeled ribonucleotides markedly reduced the amounts of both the 14CO2 and 14C incorporated into the progeny bdellovibrios. During intraperiplasmic growth of B. bacteriovorus on [U-14C]ribose-labeled E. coli BJ565, ca. 74% and ca. 19% of the initial 14C was incorporated into the progeny bdellovibrios and respired CO2, respectively. Under similar growth conditions, the addition of glutamate substantially reduced only the 14CO2; however, added ribonucleotides reduced both the 14CO2 and the 14C incorporated into the progeny bdellovibrios. No similar effects were found with added ribose-5-phosphate. The distribution of 14C in the major cell components was similar in progeny bdellovibrios whether obtained from growth on [U-14C]ribose-labeled E. coli BJ565 or from E. coli plus added U-14C-labeled ribonucleotides. After intraperiplasmic growth of B. bacteriovorus on [5,6-3H-]uracil-[U-14C]ribose-labeled E. coli BJ565 (normal or heat treated), the whole-cell 14C/3H ratio of the progeny bdellovibrios was some 50% greater and reflected the higher 14C/3H ratios found in the cell fractions. B. bacteriovorus and E. coli cell extracts both contained 5'-nucleotidase, uridine phosphorylase, purine phosphorylase, deoxyribose-5-phosphate aldolase, transketolase, thymidine phosphorylase, phosphodeoxyribomutase, and transaldolase enzyme activities. The latter three enzyme activities were either absent

  17. Effects of Orally Administered Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus on the Well-Being and Salmonella Colonization of Young Chicks ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Atterbury, Robert J.; Hobley, Laura; Till, Robert; Lambert, Carey; Capeness, Michael J.; Lerner, Thomas R.; Fenton, Andrew K.; Barrow, Paul; Sockett, R. Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a bacterium which preys upon and kills Gram-negative bacteria, including the zoonotic pathogens Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Bdellovibrio has potential as a biocontrol agent, but no reports of it being tested in living animals have been published, and no data on whether Bdellovibrio might spread between animals are available. In this study, we tried to fill this knowledge gap, using B. bacteriovorus HD100 doses in poultry with a normal gut microbiota or predosed with a colonizing Salmonella strain. In both cases, Bdellovibrio was dosed orally along with antacids. After dosing non-Salmonella-infected birds with Bdellovibrio, we measured the health and well-being of the birds and any changes in their gut pathology and culturable microbiota, finding that although a Bdellovibrio dose at 2 days of age altered the overall diversity of the natural gut microbiota in 28-day-old birds, there were no adverse effects on their growth and well-being. Drinking water and fecal matter from the pens in which the birds were housed as groups showed no contamination by Bdellovibrio after dosing. Predatory Bdellovibrio orally administered to birds that had been predosed with a gut-colonizing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 strain (an important zoonotic pathogen) significantly reduced Salmonella numbers in bird gut cecal contents and reduced abnormal cecal morphology, indicating reduced cecal inflammation, compared to the ceca of the untreated controls or a nonpredatory ΔpilA strain, suggesting that these effects were due to predatory action. This work is a first step to applying Bdellovibrio therapeutically for other animal, and possibly human, infections. PMID:21705523

  18. Effects of orally administered Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus on the well-being and Salmonella colonization of young chicks.

    PubMed

    Atterbury, Robert J; Hobley, Laura; Till, Robert; Lambert, Carey; Capeness, Michael J; Lerner, Thomas R; Fenton, Andrew K; Barrow, Paul; Sockett, R Elizabeth

    2011-08-15

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a bacterium which preys upon and kills Gram-negative bacteria, including the zoonotic pathogens Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Bdellovibrio has potential as a biocontrol agent, but no reports of it being tested in living animals have been published, and no data on whether Bdellovibrio might spread between animals are available. In this study, we tried to fill this knowledge gap, using B. bacteriovorus HD100 doses in poultry with a normal gut microbiota or predosed with a colonizing Salmonella strain. In both cases, Bdellovibrio was dosed orally along with antacids. After dosing non-Salmonella-infected birds with Bdellovibrio, we measured the health and well-being of the birds and any changes in their gut pathology and culturable microbiota, finding that although a Bdellovibrio dose at 2 days of age altered the overall diversity of the natural gut microbiota in 28-day-old birds, there were no adverse effects on their growth and well-being. Drinking water and fecal matter from the pens in which the birds were housed as groups showed no contamination by Bdellovibrio after dosing. Predatory Bdellovibrio orally administered to birds that had been predosed with a gut-colonizing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 strain (an important zoonotic pathogen) significantly reduced Salmonella numbers in bird gut cecal contents and reduced abnormal cecal morphology, indicating reduced cecal inflammation, compared to the ceca of the untreated controls or a nonpredatory ΔpilA strain, suggesting that these effects were due to predatory action. This work is a first step to applying Bdellovibrio therapeutically for other animal, and possibly human, infections.

  19. Initiation of Chromosomal Replication in Predatory Bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus

    PubMed Central

    Makowski, Łukasz; Donczew, Rafał; Weigel, Christoph; Zawilak-Pawlik, Anna; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a small Gram-negative predatory bacterium that attacks other Gram-negative bacteria, including many animal, human, and plant pathogens. This bacterium exhibits a peculiar biphasic life cycle during which two different types of cells are produced: non-replicating highly motile cells (the free-living phase) and replicating cells (the intracellular-growth phase). The process of chromosomal replication in B. bacteriovorus must therefore be temporally and spatially regulated to ensure that it is coordinated with cell differentiation and cell cycle progression. Recently, B. bacteriovorus has received considerable research interest due to its intriguing life cycle and great potential as a prospective antimicrobial agent. Although, we know that chromosomal replication in bacteria is mainly regulated at the initiation step, no data exists about this process in B. bacteriovorus. We report the first characterization of key elements of initiation of chromosomal replication – DnaA protein and oriC region from the predatory bacterium, B. bacteriovorus. In vitro studies using different approaches demonstrate that the B. bacteriovorus oriC (BdoriC) is specifically bound and unwound by the DnaA protein. Sequence comparison of the DnaA-binding sites enabled us to propose a consensus sequence for the B. bacteriovorus DnaA box [5′-NN(A/T)TCCACA-3′]. Surprisingly, in vitro analysis revealed that BdoriC is also bound and unwound by the host DnaA proteins (relatively distantly related from B. bacteriovorus). We compared the architecture of the DnaA–oriC complexes (orisomes) in homologous (oriC and DnaA from B. bacteriovorus) and heterologous (BdoriC and DnaA from prey, Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa) systems. This work provides important new entry points toward improving our understanding of the initiation of chromosomal replication in this predatory bacterium. PMID:27965633

  20. Genome-wide comparative analysis of ABC systems in the Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Chen, Huan; Williams, Henry N

    2015-05-10

    Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALOs) are gram-negative, predatory bacteria with wide variations in genome sizes and GC content and ecological habitats. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems have been identified in several prokaryotes, fungi and plants and have a role in transport of materials in and out of cells and in cellular processes. However, knowledge of the ABC systems of BALOs remains obscure. A total of 269 putative ABC proteins were identified in BALOs. The genes encoding these ABC systems occupy nearly 1.3% of the gene content in freshwater Bdellovibrio strains and about 0.7% in their saltwater counterparts. The proteins found belong to 25 ABC system families based on their structural characteristics and functions. Among these, 16 families function as importers, 6 as exporters and 3 are involved in various cellular processes. Eight of these 25 ABC system families were deduced to be the core set of ABC systems conserved in all BALOs. All Bacteriovorax strains have 28 or less ABC systems. On the contrary, the freshwater Bdellovibrio strains have more ABC systems, typically around 51. In the genome of Bdellovibrio exovorus JSS (CP003537.1), 53 putative ABC systems were detected, representing the highest number among all the BALO genomes examined in this study. Unexpected high numbers of ABC systems involved in cellular processes were found in all BALOs. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the majority of ABC proteins can be assigned into many separate families with high bootstrap supports (>50%). In this study, a general framework of sequence-structure-function connections for the ABC systems in BALOs was revealed providing novel insights for future investigations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genome-wide comparative analysis of ABC systems in the Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Chen, Huan; Williams, Henry N.

    2015-01-01

    Bdellovibrio -and-like organisms (BALOs) are gram-negative, predatory bacteria with wide variations in genome sizes and GC content and ecological habitats. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems have been identified in several prokaryotes, fungi and plants and have a role in transport of materials in and out of cells and in cellular processes. However, knowledge of the ABC systems of BALOs remains obscure. A total of 269 putative ABC proteins were identified in BALOs. The genes encoding these ABC systems occupy nearly 1.3% of the gene content in freshwater Bdellovibrio strains and about 0.7% in their saltwater counterparts. The proteins found belong to 25 ABC system families based on their structural characteristics and functions. Among these, 16 families function as importers, 6 as exporters and 3 are involved in various cellular processes. Eight of these 25 ABC system families were deduced to be the core set of ABC systems conserved in all BALOs. All Bacteriovorax strains have 28 or less ABC systems. On the contrary, the freshwater Bdellovibrio strains have more ABC systems, typically around 51. In the genome of Bdellovibrio exovorus JSS (CP003537.1), 53 putative ABC systems were detected, representing the highest number among all the BALO genomes examined in this study. Unexpected high numbers of ABC systems involved in cellular processes were found in all BALOs. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the majority of ABC proteins can be assigned into many separate families with high bootstrap supports (>50%). In this study, a general framework of sequence–structure–function connections for the ABC systems in BALOs was revealed providing novel insights for future investigations. PMID:25707746

  2. Biocontrol of Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria and bacterial phytopathogens by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.

    PubMed

    McNeely, Damian; Chanyi, Ryan M; Dooley, James S; Moore, John E; Koval, Susan F

    2017-04-01

    Bdellovibrio and like organisms are predatory bacteria that have the unusual property of using the cytoplasmic constituents of other Gram-negative bacteria as nutrients. These predators may thus provide an alternative approach to the biocontrol of human and plant pathogens. Predators were isolated on Burkholderia cenocepacia K56-2 and J2315 as prey cells, in enrichment cultures with soil and sewage. Three isolates (DM7C, DM8A, and DM11A) were identified as Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus on the basis of morphology, a periplasmic life cycle, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The prey range of these isolates was tested on Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria and several phytopathogenic bacteria of agricultural importance. Of 31 strains of the Burkholderia cepacia complex tested, only 4 were resistant to predation by strain DM7C. A subset of 9 of the prey tested were also susceptible to strains DM8A and DM11A. Of 12 phytopathogens tested, 4 were resistant to strains DM7C and DM8A, and only 2 were resistant to strain DM11A. Thus, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus strains retrieved from environmental samples on 2 Burkholderia cenocepacia isolates from cystic fibrosis patients did not distinguish in their prey range between other isolates of that pathogen or phytopathogens. Such strains hold promise as potential wide-spectrum biocontrol agents.

  3. Ankyrin-mediated self-protection during cell invasion by the bacterial predator Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Carey; Cadby, Ian T.; Till, Rob; Bui, Nhat Khai; Lerner, Thomas R.; Hughes, William S.; Lee, David J.; Alderwick, Luke J.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Sockett, Elizabeth R.; Lovering, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    Predatory Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus are natural antimicrobial organisms, killing other bacteria by whole-cell invasion. Self-protection against prey-metabolizing enzymes is important for the evolution of predation. Initial prey entry involves the predator's peptidoglycan DD-endopeptidases, which decrosslink cell walls and prevent wasteful entry by a second predator. Here we identify and characterize a self-protection protein from B. bacteriovorus, Bd3460, which displays an ankyrin-based fold common to intracellular pathogens of eukaryotes. Co-crystal structures reveal Bd3460 complexation of dual targets, binding a conserved epitope of each of the Bd3459 and Bd0816 endopeptidases. Complexation inhibits endopeptidase activity and cell wall decrosslinking in vitro. Self-protection is vital — ΔBd3460 Bdellovibrio deleteriously decrosslink self-peptidoglycan upon invasion, adopt a round morphology, and lose predatory capacity and cellular integrity. Our analysis provides the first mechanistic examination of self-protection in Bdellovibrio, documents protection-multiplicity for products of two different genomic loci, and reveals an important evolutionary adaptation to an invasive predatory bacterial lifestyle. PMID:26626559

  4. Ankyrin-mediated self-protection during cell invasion by the bacterial predator Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Carey; Cadby, Ian T; Till, Rob; Bui, Nhat Khai; Lerner, Thomas R; Hughes, William S; Lee, David J; Alderwick, Luke J; Vollmer, Waldemar; Sockett, R Elizabeth; Sockett, Elizabeth R; Lovering, Andrew L

    2015-12-02

    Predatory Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus are natural antimicrobial organisms, killing other bacteria by whole-cell invasion. Self-protection against prey-metabolizing enzymes is important for the evolution of predation. Initial prey entry involves the predator's peptidoglycan DD-endopeptidases, which decrosslink cell walls and prevent wasteful entry by a second predator. Here we identify and characterize a self-protection protein from B. bacteriovorus, Bd3460, which displays an ankyrin-based fold common to intracellular pathogens of eukaryotes. Co-crystal structures reveal Bd3460 complexation of dual targets, binding a conserved epitope of each of the Bd3459 and Bd0816 endopeptidases. Complexation inhibits endopeptidase activity and cell wall decrosslinking in vitro. Self-protection is vital - ΔBd3460 Bdellovibrio deleteriously decrosslink self-peptidoglycan upon invasion, adopt a round morphology, and lose predatory capacity and cellular integrity. Our analysis provides the first mechanistic examination of self-protection in Bdellovibrio, documents protection-multiplicity for products of two different genomic loci, and reveals an important evolutionary adaptation to an invasive predatory bacterial lifestyle.

  5. Effects of methotrexate on intraperiplasmic and axenic growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, M A; Langley, D; Rittenberg, S

    1975-01-01

    The intraperiplasmic growth rate and cell yield of wild-type Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J, growing on Escherichia coli of normal composition as the substrate, were not markedly inhibited by 10-3 M methotrexate (4-amino-N10-methylpteroylglutamic acid). In contrast, the growth rate and cell yield of the mutant 109Ja, growing axenically in 0.5% yeast extract +0.15% peptone, were strongly inhibited by 10-4 and 10-3 M methotrexate. Thymine, thymidine, and thymidine-5'-monophosphate, in increasing order of effectiveness, partially or completely reversed the inhibition. E. coli depleted of tetrahydrofolate and having an abnormally high protein/deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ratio was obtained by growing it in the presence of methotrexate. B. bacteriovourus grew at a normal rate on these depleted E. coli cells but with somewhat reduced cell yield. Mexthotrexate (10-3 M) inhibited intraperiplasmic growth of bdellovibrio on the depleted E. coli somewhat more than it inhibited growth on normal E. coli, but the effects were small compared with inhibition of axenic growth of the mutant. Total bdellovibrio DNA after growth on the depleted E. coli in the presence or absence of methotrexate exceeded the initial quanity of E. coli DNA present. Thymidine-5'-monophosphate (10-3 M) largely reversed the inhibition and increased the amount of net synthesis of DNA. The data are consistent with the prediction that intraperiplasmic growth of B. bacteriovorus should be insensitive to all metabolic inhibitors that act by specifically preventing synthesis of essential monomers. The data also indicate that B. bacteriovorus possesses thymidylate synthetase, thymidine phosphorylase, and thymidine kinase, and has the potential to carry out de novo DNA synthesis from non-DNA precursors during intraperiplasmic growth. The results also suggest that methionyl tRNAfMet is not required for initiation of protein synthesis by B. bacteriovorus. PMID:1090593

  6. Molecular Characterization of Membrane-Associated Soluble Serine Palmitoyltransferases from Sphingobacterium multivorum and Bdellovibrio stolpii▿

    PubMed Central

    Ikushiro, Hiroko; Islam, Mohammad Mainul; Tojo, Hiromasa; Hayashi, Hideyuki

    2007-01-01

    Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) is a key enzyme in sphingolipid biosynthesis and catalyzes the decarboxylative condensation of l-serine and palmitoyl coenzyme A (CoA) to form 3-ketodihydrosphingosine (KDS). Eukaryotic SPTs comprise tightly membrane-associated heterodimers belonging to the pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent α-oxamine synthase family. Sphingomonas paucimobilis, a sphingolipid-containing bacterium, contains an abundant water-soluble homodimeric SPT of the same family (H. Ikushiro et al., J. Biol. Chem. 276:18249-18256, 2001). This enzyme is suitable for the detailed mechanistic studies of SPT, although single crystals appropriate for high-resolution crystallography have not yet been obtained. We have now isolated three novel SPT genes from Sphingobacterium multivorum, Sphingobacterium spiritivorum, and Bdellovibrio stolpii, respectively. Each gene product exhibits an ∼30% sequence identity to both eukaryotic subunits, and the putative catalytic amino acid residues are conserved. All bacterial SPTs were successfully overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified as water-soluble active homodimers. The spectroscopic properties of the purified SPTs are characteristic of PLP-dependent enzymes. The KDS formation by the bacterial SPTs was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The Sphingobacterium SPTs obeyed normal steady-state ordered Bi-Bi kinetics, while the Bdellovibrio SPT underwent a remarkable substrate inhibition at palmitoyl CoA concentrations higher than 100 μM, as does the eukaryotic enzyme. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that unlike the cytosolic Sphingomonas SPT, S. multivorum and Bdellovibrio SPTs were bound to the inner membrane of cells as peripheral membrane proteins, indicating that these enzymes can be a prokaryotic model mimicking the membrane-associated eukaryotic SPT. PMID:17557831

  7. Colonization of lettuce rhizosphere and roots by tagged Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Bonaldi, Maria; Chen, Xiaoyulong; Kunova, Andrea; Pizzatti, Cristina; Saracchi, Marco; Cortesi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial microorganisms are increasingly used in agriculture, but their efficacy often fails due to limited knowledge of their interactions with plants and other microorganisms present in rhizosphere. We studied spatio-temporal colonization dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere by genetically modified Streptomyces spp. Five Streptomyces strains, strongly inhibiting in vitro the major soil-borne pathogen of horticultural crops, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were transformed with pIJ8641 plasmid harboring an enhanced green fluorescent protein marker and resistance to apramycin. The fitness of transformants was compared to the wild-type strains and all of them grew and sporulated at similar rates and retained the production of enzymes and selected secondary metabolites as well as in vitro inhibition of S. sclerotiorum. The tagged ZEA17I strain was selected to study the dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere colonization in non-sterile growth substrate. The transformed strain was able to colonize soil, developing roots, and rhizosphere. When the strain was inoculated directly on the growth substrate, significantly more t-ZEA17I was re-isolated both from the rhizosphere and the roots when compared to the amount obtained after seed coating. The re-isolation from the rhizosphere and the inner tissues of surface-sterilized lettuce roots demonstrated that t-ZEA17I is both rhizospheric and endophytic.

  8. Colonization of lettuce rhizosphere and roots by tagged Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Bonaldi, Maria; Chen, Xiaoyulong; Kunova, Andrea; Pizzatti, Cristina; Saracchi, Marco; Cortesi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial microorganisms are increasingly used in agriculture, but their efficacy often fails due to limited knowledge of their interactions with plants and other microorganisms present in rhizosphere. We studied spatio-temporal colonization dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere by genetically modified Streptomyces spp. Five Streptomyces strains, strongly inhibiting in vitro the major soil-borne pathogen of horticultural crops, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were transformed with pIJ8641 plasmid harboring an enhanced green fluorescent protein marker and resistance to apramycin. The fitness of transformants was compared to the wild-type strains and all of them grew and sporulated at similar rates and retained the production of enzymes and selected secondary metabolites as well as in vitro inhibition of S. sclerotiorum. The tagged ZEA17I strain was selected to study the dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere colonization in non-sterile growth substrate. The transformed strain was able to colonize soil, developing roots, and rhizosphere. When the strain was inoculated directly on the growth substrate, significantly more t-ZEA17I was re-isolated both from the rhizosphere and the roots when compared to the amount obtained after seed coating. The re-isolation from the rhizosphere and the inner tissues of surface-sterilized lettuce roots demonstrated that t-ZEA17I is both rhizospheric and endophytic. PMID:25705206

  9. Effects of Gypsophila saponins on bacterial growth kinetics and on selection of subterranean clover rhizosphere bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fons, F; Amellal, N; Leyval, C; Saint-Martin, N; Henry, M

    2003-06-01

    Plant secondary metabolites, such as saponins, have a considerable impact in agriculture because of their allelopathic effects. They also affect the growth of soil microorganisms, especially fungi. We investigated the influence of saponins on rhizosphere bacteria in vitro and in soil conditions. The effects of gypsophila saponins on the growth kinetics of rhizosphere bacteria were studied by monitoring the absorbance of the cultures in microtiter plates. Gypsophila saponins (1%) increased the lag phase of bacterial growth. The impact of gypsophila saponins on subterranean clover rhizosphere was also investigated in a pot experiment. The addition of gypsophila saponins did not modify clover biomass but significantly increased (twofold with 1% saponins) the weight of adhering soil. The number of culturable heterotrophic bacteria of the clover rhizosphere was not affected by the addition of gypsophila saponins. Nevertheless, the phenotypical characterization of the dominant Gram-negative strains of the clover rhizosphere, using the Biolog system, showed qualitative and quantitative differences induced by 1% saponins. With the addition of saponins, the populations of Chryseomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp., the two dominant culturable genera of control clover, were no longer detectable or were significantly decreased, while that of Aquaspirillum dispar increased and Aquaspirillum spp. became the major genus. Aquaspirillum dispar and Aquaspirillum spp. were also the dominant rhizosphere bacteria of Gypsophila paniculata, which greatly accumulates these saponins in its roots. These results suggest that saponins may control rhizosphere bacteria in soil through rhizodeposition mechanisms.

  10. Serogrouping of Halophilic Bdellovibrios from Chesapeake Bay and Environs by Immunodiffusion and Immunoelectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Schoeffield, Andrew J.; Falkler, William A.; Desai, Darshana; Williams, Henry N.

    1991-01-01

    Little has been reported on the serological relationship of halophilic bdellovibrios (Bd). Immunodiffusion analysis performed with rabbit or mouse Bd antisera developed against eight halophilic Bd isolates and one terrestrial Bd isolate, when reacted with soluble antigen preparations of 45 isolates of halophilic Bd, allowed separation into seven serogroups, which were distinct from the terrestrial isolate. Soluble antigen preparations of prey bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus P-5 (P-5) and Escherichia coli ML 35 (ML 35), exhibited no reactivity with the antisera by immunodiffusion. Immunoelectrophoresis revealed the presence of three distinct antigens in homologous reactions and one shared antigen in heterologous Bd reactions. Shared antigens were noted between halophilic and terrestrial Bd, in addition to between halophilic Bd strains, indicating the possible existence of an antigen(s) which may be shared among all Bd. Again, no shared antigen was noted when P-5 or ML 35 was allowed by immunoelectrophoresis to react with the antisera. Prey susceptibility testing of the seven distinct groups of halophilic Bd, using 20 test prey, produced essentially identical spectra for each group, indicating that this was not a useful technique in delineating the Bd. While immunoelectrophoresis was able to demonstrate an antigen common to all Bd tested, immunodiffusion was able to delineate strains on the basis of a “serogroup specific” antigen. This suggests that immunological tools may serve as important means to study the taxonomy of halophilic Bd, as well as in the formation of a clearer taxonomic picture of the genus Bdellovibrio. Images PMID:16348597

  11. Plastic phenotypic resistance to predation by Bdellovibrio and like organisms in bacterial prey.

    PubMed

    Shemesh, Yair; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2004-01-01

    Predation at the lowest trophic level, i.e. between bacteria, is poorly understood, hindering efforts to assess its impact on the structure of bacterial communities. The interaction of Bdellovibrio and Bacteriovorax (Bdellovibrio and like organisms, BLOs), a group of obligate, ubiquitous predatory bacteria, with their Gram-negative bacterial prey results in the multiplication of the predator and in the lysis, but not in the eradication, of the prey. We show that the residual, surviving populations of prey cells exposed to predation stress differ from the populations before exposure, as they exhibit increased resistance to predation. This resistance was demonstrated in a number of Gram-negative prey. Moreover, predation resistance is not specific for the BLO strain experienced by the prey. The phenomenon does not stem from a mutation but is a plastic response associated with a phenotypic change, and it disappears upon removal of the predator. As resistance to predation is not total, this mechanism can ensure survival of both predator and prey.

  12. Visualizing Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus by Using the tdTomato Fluorescent Protein

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Somdatta; Brothers, Kimberly M.; Shanks, Robert M. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a Gram-negative bacterium that belongs to the delta subgroup of proteobacteria and is characterized by a predatory life cycle. In recent years, work has highlighted the potential use of this predator to control bacteria and biofilms. Traditionally, the reduction in prey cells was used to monitor predation dynamics. In this study, we introduced pMQ414, a plasmid that expresses the tdTomato fluorescent reporter protein, into a host-independent strain and a host-dependent strain of B. bacteriovorus 109J. The new construct was used to conveniently monitor predator proliferation in real time, in different growth conditions, in the presence of lytic enzymes, and on several prey bacteria, replicating previous studies that used plaque analysis to quantify B. bacteriovorus. The new fluorescent plasmid also enabled us to visualize the predator in liquid cultures, in the context of a biofilm, and in association with human epithelial cells. PMID:26712556

  13. Higher Prevalence and Abundance of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus in the Human Gut of Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Iebba, Valerio; Santangelo, Floriana; Totino, Valentina; Nicoletti, Mauro; Gagliardi, Antonella; De Biase, Riccardo Valerio; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Nencioni, Lucia; Conte, Maria Pia; Schippa, Serena

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Members of the human intestinal microbiota are key players in maintaining human health. Alterations in the composition of gut microbial community (dysbiosis) have been linked with important human diseases. Understanding the underlying processes that control community structure, including the bacterial interactions within the microbiota itself, is essential. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a gram-negative bacterium that preys other gram-negative species for survival, acting as a population-balancer. It was found in terrestrial/aquatic ecosystems, and in animal intestines, postulating its presence also in the human gut. Methods The present study was aimed to evaluate, by end-point PCR and qPCR, the presence of B. bacteriovorus in intestinal and faecal biopsy specimens from 92 paediatric healthy subjects and patients, suffering from Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD), Celiac disease and Cystic fibrosis (CF). Results i) B. bacteriovorus was present and abundant only in healthy individuals, while it was heavily reduced in patients, as in the case of IBD and Celiac, while in CF patients and relative controls we observed comparable results; ii) B. bacteriovorus seemed to be mucosa-associated, because all IBD and Celiac biopsies (and related controls) were treated with mucus-removing agents, leaving only the mucosa-attached microflora; iii) B. bacteriovorus abundance was district-dependent, with a major preponderance in duodenum, and gradually decreasing up to rectum; iv) B. bacteriovorus levels significantly dropped in disease status, in duodenum and ileum. Conclusions Results obtained in this study could represent the first step for new therapeutic strategies aimed to restore a balance in the intestinal ecosystem, utilizing Bdellovibrio as a probiotic. PMID:23613881

  14. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizospher...

  15. Activity of Bdellovibrio Hit Locus Proteins, Bd0108 and Bd0109, Links Type IVa Pilus Extrusion/Retraction Status to Prey-Independent Growth Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Lovering, Andrew L.; Till, Rob; Uchida, Kaoru; Chaudhuri, Roy; Alderwick, Luke J.; Lee, David J.; Swarbreck, David; Liddell, Susan; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Sockett, Renee Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus are facultatively predatory bacteria that grow within gram-negative prey, using pili to invade their periplasmic niche. They also grow prey-independently on organic nutrients after undergoing a reversible switch. The nature of the growth switching mechanism has been elusive, but several independent reports suggested mutations in the hit (host-interaction) locus on the Bdellovibrio genome were associated with the transition to prey-independent growth. Pili are essential for prey entry by Bdellovibrio and sequence analysis of the hit locus predicted that it was part of a cluster of Type IVb pilus-associated genes, containing bd0108 and bd0109. In this study we have deleted the whole bd0108 gene, which is unique to Bdellovibrio, and compared its phenotype to strains containing spontaneous mutations in bd0108 and the common natural 42 bp deletion variant of bd0108. We find that deletion of the whole bd0108 gene greatly reduced the extrusion of pili, whereas the 42 bp deletion caused greater pilus extrusion than wild-type. The pili isolated from these strains were comprised of the Type IVa pilin protein; PilA. Attempts to similarly delete gene bd0109, which like bd0108 encodes a periplasmic/secreted protein, were not successful, suggesting that it is likely to be essential for Bdellovibrio viability in any growth mode. Bd0109 has a sugar binding YD- repeat motif and an N-terminus with a putative pilin-like fold and was found to interact directly with Bd0108. These results lead us to propose that the Bd0109/Bd0108 interaction regulates pilus production in Bdellovibrio (possibly by interaction with the pilus fibre at the cell wall), and that the presence (and possibly retraction state) of the pilus feeds back to alter the growth state of the Bdellovibrio cell. We further identify a novel small RNA encoded by the hit locus, the transcription of which is altered in different bd0108 mutation backgrounds. PMID:24224002

  16. Interrupting peptidoglycan deacetylation during Bdellovibrio predator-prey interaction prevents ultimate destruction of prey wall, liberating bacterial-ghosts

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Carey; Lerner, Thomas R.; Bui, Nhat Khai; Somers, Hannah; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Liddell, Susan; Clark, Ana; Vollmer, Waldemar; Lovering, Andrew L.; Sockett, R. Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The peptidoglycan wall, located in the periplasm between the inner and outer membranes of the cell envelope in Gram-negative bacteria, maintains cell shape and endows osmotic robustness. Predatory Bdellovibrio bacteria invade the periplasm of other bacterial prey cells, usually crossing the peptidoglycan layer, forming transient structures called bdelloplasts within which the predators replicate. Prey peptidoglycan remains intact for several hours, but is modified and then degraded by escaping predators. Here we show predation is altered by deleting two Bdellovibrio N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) deacetylases, one of which we show to have a unique two domain structure with a novel regulatory”plug”. Deleting the deacetylases limits peptidoglycan degradation and rounded prey cell “ghosts” persist after mutant-predator exit. Mutant predators can replicate unusually in the periplasmic region between the peptidoglycan wall and the outer membrane rather than between wall and inner-membrane, yet still obtain nutrients from the prey cytoplasm. Deleting two further genes encoding DacB/PBP4 family proteins, known to decrosslink and round prey peptidoglycan, results in a quadruple mutant Bdellovibrio which leaves prey-shaped ghosts upon predation. The resultant bacterial ghosts contain cytoplasmic membrane within bacteria-shaped peptidoglycan surrounded by outer membrane material which could have promise as “bacterial skeletons” for housing artificial chromosomes. PMID:27211869

  17. Microorganisms in the rhizosphere of wheat colonized by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici.

    PubMed

    Bednárová, M; Stanĕk, M; Vancura, V; Veselý, D

    1979-01-01

    The population of microorganisms in wheat rhizosphere changed in the presence of the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici causing the take-all of wheat. In the majority of cases when the soil was artificially contaminated by the fungus, both the number of bacteria in the rhizosphere and the bacteria/fungi ratio temporarily increased. At the beginning bacteria growing in the presence of NH4+ predominated, later bacteria utilizing organic N-substances prevailed. Pseudomonas fluorescens and the related species colonized the rhizosphere and the soil to a greater extent in the presence of G. graminis. The wheat rhizosphere with G. graminis was found to contain a higher level of the slime-producing bacterium Agrobacterium spp.; this microorganism occurred on hyphal surfaces (in hyphosphere) of both G. graminis growing in soil and Mucor spp. Changes in microbial populations in the wheat rhizosphere during the first stage of colonization by G. graminis can be partly explained by a simultaneous rhizosphere colonization by microorganisms which accompany this fungus in soil. In the period of increase in the number of bacteria in rhizosphere a temporary stimulation of wheat growth was observed.

  18. SEAGRASS RHIZOSPHERE MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Devereux, Richard. 2005. Seagrass Rhizosphere Microbial Communities. In: Interactions Between Macro- and Microorganisms in Marine Sediments. E. Kristense, J.E. Kostka and R.H. Haese, Editors. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC. p199-216. (ERL,GB 1213).

    Seagrasses ...

  19. SEAGRASS RHIZOSPHERE MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Devereux, Richard. 2005. Seagrass Rhizosphere Microbial Communities. In: Interactions Between Macro- and Microorganisms in Marine Sediments. E. Kristense, J.E. Kostka and R.H. Haese, Editors. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC. p199-216. (ERL,GB 1213).

    Seagrasses ...

  20. Draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. strain F52, isolated from the rhizosphere of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Maccabi).

    PubMed

    Kolton, Max; Green, Stefan J; Harel, Yael Meller; Sela, Noa; Elad, Yigal; Cytryn, Eddie

    2012-10-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. strain F52, isolated from the rhizosphere of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Maccabi). Flavobacterium spp. are ubiquitous in the rhizospheres of agricultural crops; however, little is known about their physiology. To our knowledge, this is the first published genome of a root-associated Flavobacterium strain.

  1. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus directly attacks Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus Cystic fibrosis isolates.

    PubMed

    Iebba, Valerio; Totino, Valentina; Santangelo, Floriana; Gagliardi, Antonella; Ciotoli, Luana; Virga, Alessandra; Ambrosi, Cecilia; Pompili, Monica; De Biase, Riccardo V; Selan, Laura; Artini, Marco; Pantanella, Fabrizio; Mura, Francesco; Passariello, Claudio; Nicoletti, Mauro; Nencioni, Lucia; Trancassini, Maria; Quattrucci, Serena; Schippa, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a predator bacterial species found in the environment and within the human gut, able to attack Gram-negative prey. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease which usually presents lung colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. Here, we investigated the predatory behavior of B. bacteriovorus against these two pathogenic species with: (1) broth culture; (2) "static" biofilms; (3) field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM); (4) "flow" biofilms; (5) zymographic technique. We had the first evidence of B. bacteriovorus survival with a Gram-positive prey, revealing a direct cell-to-cell contact with S. aureus and a new "epibiotic" foraging strategy imaged with FESEM. Mean attaching time of HD100 to S. aureus cells was 185 s, while "static" and "flow" S. aureus biofilms were reduced by 74 (at 24 h) and 46% (at 20 h), respectively. Furthermore, zymograms showed a differential bacteriolytic activity exerted by the B. bacteriovorus lysates on P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. The dual foraging system against Gram-negative (periplasmic) and Gram-positive (epibiotic) prey could suggest the use of B. bacteriovorus as a "living antibiotic" in CF, even if further studies are required to simulate its in vivo predatory behavior.

  2. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and Invasion into Human Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnappa, Ajay K.; Dwidar, Mohammed; Seo, Jeong Kon; Hur, Jin-Hoe; Mitchell, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 is a predatory bacterium that attacks many Gram-negative human pathogens. A serious drawback of this strain, however, is its ineffectiveness against Gram-positive strains, such as the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Here we demonstrate that the extracellular proteases produced by a host-independent B. bacteriovorus (HIB) effectively degrade/inhibit the formation of S. aureus biofilms and reduce its virulence. A 10% addition of HIB supernatant caused a 75% or greater reduction in S. aureus biofilm formation as well as 75% dispersal of pre-formed biofilms. LC-MS-MS analyses identified various B. bacteriovorus proteases within the supernatant, including the serine proteases Bd2269 and Bd2321. Tests with AEBSF confirmed that serine proteases were active in the supernatant and that they impacted S. aureus biofilm formation. The supernatant also possessed a slight DNAse activity. Furthermore, treatment of planktonic S. aureus with the supernatant diminished its ability to invade MCF-10a epithelial cells by 5-fold but did not affect the MCF-10a viability. In conclusion, this study illustrates the hitherto unknown ability of B. bacteriovorus to disperse Gram-positive pathogenic biofilms and mitigate their virulence.

  3. Structure and Biological Function of the RNA Pyrophosphohydrolase BdRppH from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus

    PubMed Central

    Messing, Simon A.J.; Gabelli, Sandra B.; Liu, Quansheng; Celesnik, Helena; Belasco, Joel G.; Piñeiro, Silvia A.; Amzel, L. Mario

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Until recently, the mechanism of mRNA decay in bacteria was thought to be different from that of eukaryotes. This paradigm changed with the discovery that RppH (ORF176/NudH/YgdP), an Escherichia coli enzyme that belongs to the Nudix superfamily, is an RNA resolution pyrophosphohydrolase that initiates mRNA decay by cleaving pyrophosphate from the 5′-triphosphate. Here we report the 1.9 Å structure of the Nudix hydrolase BdRppH from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, a bacterium that feeds on other Gram-negative bacteria. Based on the structure of the enzyme alone and in complex with GTP-Mg2+, we propose a mode of RNA binding similar to that of the nuclear decapping enzyme from Xenopus laevis, X29. In additional experiments, we show that BdRppH can indeed function in vitro and in vivo as an RNA pyrophosphohydrolase. These findings set the basis for the identification of possible decapping enzymes in other bacteria. PMID:19278661

  4. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus directly attacks Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus Cystic fibrosis isolates

    PubMed Central

    Iebba, Valerio; Totino, Valentina; Santangelo, Floriana; Gagliardi, Antonella; Ciotoli, Luana; Virga, Alessandra; Ambrosi, Cecilia; Pompili, Monica; De Biase, Riccardo V.; Selan, Laura; Artini, Marco; Pantanella, Fabrizio; Mura, Francesco; Passariello, Claudio; Nicoletti, Mauro; Nencioni, Lucia; Trancassini, Maria; Quattrucci, Serena; Schippa, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a predator bacterial species found in the environment and within the human gut, able to attack Gram-negative prey. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease which usually presents lung colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. Here, we investigated the predatory behavior of B. bacteriovorus against these two pathogenic species with: (1) broth culture; (2) “static” biofilms; (3) field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM); (4) “flow” biofilms; (5) zymographic technique. We had the first evidence of B. bacteriovorus survival with a Gram-positive prey, revealing a direct cell-to-cell contact with S. aureus and a new “epibiotic” foraging strategy imaged with FESEM. Mean attaching time of HD100 to S. aureus cells was 185 s, while “static” and “flow” S. aureus biofilms were reduced by 74 (at 24 h) and 46% (at 20 h), respectively. Furthermore, zymograms showed a differential bacteriolytic activity exerted by the B. bacteriovorus lysates on P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. The dual foraging system against Gram-negative (periplasmic) and Gram-positive (epibiotic) prey could suggest the use of B. bacteriovorus as a “living antibiotic” in CF, even if further studies are required to simulate its in vivo predatory behavior. PMID:24926292

  5. [Diversity of Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms from shrimp mariculture ponds in Zhanjiang].

    PubMed

    Wen, Chongqing; Xue, Ming; Liang, Huafang; Zhou, Shining

    2015-10-04

    Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALOs) are small-sized, parasitic bacteria that rely on other Gram-negative bacteria for survival. Our work aimed to characterize the community diversity of BALOs associated with tropical shrimp ponds. We collected water samples from eight shrimp ponds culturing Litopenaeus vannamei, in Zhanjiang, China, and extracted total DNA of the samples. Then the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed following PCR amplification with BALOs family-specific primers. The community composition and structure of BALOs were further analyzed based on phylogenetic analysis. A total of 726 and 664 valid clones were obtained from the 16S rRNA gene libraries of families Halobacteriovoracaceae and Peredibacteraceae, respectively. Subsequently, they were respectively grouped into 68 and 44 OTUs (operational taxonomic units) at 99.5% sequence similarity, and assigned into 37 and 28 clusters at 97% similarity. For the Halobacteriovoracaceae libraries, most clusters were so far uncultured with the exception of 5 members, which accounting for 43.5% clones. And the cultivable cluster IX and the uncultured cluster B28 were the first and second dominant ones respectively. For the Peredibacteraceae libraries, the cluster pa12 and the only cultivable cluster A3.12 were the first and second dominant ones respectively. Notably, the values of Shannon diversity indices of Halobacteriovoracaceae and Peredibacteraceae tend to be reversed with the change of salinity, but the total BALOs diversities among the eight shrimp ponds were similar. Shrimp mariculture ponds in Zhanjinag harbor a high diversity of BALOs comprising of Halobacteriovoracaceae and Peredibacteraceae, and salinity affect their community structure and composition greatly.

  6. [Factors affecting the participation of bacteria of the genus Bdellovibrio in the self-purification processes in the Syr Darya River].

    PubMed

    Lambina, V A; Ledova, L A; Kutliev, D K

    1983-01-01

    The effect of season, temperature and abundance of microflora on the interrelations between bdellovibrions and host-bacteria in the syr Daryo river compared with the Oka has been studied. These factors and composition of allochthonic gram-negative bacteria in the river influence on the abundance of Bdellovibrio and extent its participation in the self-purification of basins.

  7. Distribution of Rhizosphere and Endosphere Fungi on the First-Class Endangered Plant Cypripedium japonicum.

    PubMed

    Gang, Geun-Hye; Cho, Gyeongjun; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Park, Eun-Hee

    2017-06-01

    Endangered native plant habitats and populations are rapidly disappearing because of climate and environmental changes. As a representative, the abundance of the first-class endangered wild plant, Cypripedium japonicum, has been rapidly decreasing in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution of rhizosphere and endophytic fungi on C. japonicum in its native habitat. A total of 440 rhizosphere and 79 endosphere fungi isolates were isolated and identified on the basis of their molecular characteristics. Sixty-five genera and 119 fungi species were identified in this study. The genus Trichoderma showed the highest abundance among both rhizosphere and endosphere fungi. Mortierella, Hypocrea, and Penicillium spp. were also relatively dominant species on C. japonicum. The community structures of rhizosphere and endosphere fungi were similar, but endosphere fungi showed greater diversity.

  8. BspK, a Serine Protease from the Predatory Bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus with Utility for Analysis of Therapeutic Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bratanis, Eleni; Molina, Henrik; Naegeli, Andreas; Collin, Mattias; Lood, Rolf

    2017-02-15

    The development of therapeutic and diagnostic antibodies is a rapidly growing field of research, being the fastest expanding group of products on the pharmaceutical market, and appropriate quality controls are crucial for their application. We have identified and characterized the serine protease termed BspK (Bdellovibrio serine protease K) from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and here show its activity on antibodies. Mutation of the serine residue at position 230 rendered the protease inactive. Further investigations of BspK enzymatic characteristics revealed autoproteolytic activity, resulting in numerous cleavage products. Two of the autoproteolytic cleavage sites in the BspK fusion protein were investigated in more detail and corresponded to cleavage after K28 and K210 in the N- and C-terminal parts of BspK, respectively. Further, BspK displayed stable enzymatic activity on IgG within the pH range of 6.0 to 9.5 and was inhibited in the presence of ZnCl2 BspK demonstrated preferential hydrolysis of human IgG1 compared to other immunoglobulins and isotypes, with hydrolysis of the heavy chain at position K226 generating two separate Fab fragments and an intact IgG Fc domain. Finally, we show that BspK preferentially cleaves its substrates C-terminally to lysines similar to the protease LysC. However, BspK displays a unique cleavage profile compared to several currently used proteases on the market.

  9. Intraperiplasmic growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J: attachment of long-chain fatty acids to escherichia coli peptidoglycan.

    PubMed Central

    Thomashow, M F; Rittenberg, S C

    1978-01-01

    During the initial stages of intraperiplasmic growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus on Escherichia coli, the peptidoglycan of the E. coli becomes acylated with long-chain fatty acids, primarily palmitic acid (60%) and oleic acid (20%). The attachment of the fatty acids to the peptidoglycan involves a carboxylic-ester bond, i.e., they were removed by treatment with alkaline hydroxylamine. Their linkage to the peptidoglycan does not involve a protein molecule. When the bdelloplast peptidoglycan was digested with lysozyme, the fatty acid-containing split products behaved as lipopeptidoglycan, i.e., they were extracted into the organic phase of 1-butanol:acetic acid:water (4:15) two-phase system; all of the lysozyme split products generated from normal E. coli peptidoglycan were extracted into the water phase. It is suggested that the function of the acylation reaction is to help stabilize the bdelloplast outer membrane against osmotic forces. In addition, a model is presented to explain how a bdellovibrio penetrates, stabilizes, and lyses a substrate cell. PMID:357411

  10. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 guards against Pseudomonas tolaasii brown-blotch lesions on the surface of post-harvest Agaricus bisporus supermarket mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Saxon, Emma B; Jackson, Robert W; Bhumbra, Shobita; Smith, Tim; Sockett, R Elizabeth

    2014-06-20

    Pseudomonas tolaasii is a problematic pathogen of cultured mushrooms, forming dark brown 'blotches' on mushroom surfaces and causing spoilage during crop growth and post-harvest . Treating P. tolaasii infection is difficult, as other, commensal bacterial species such as Pseudomonas putida are necessary for mushroom growth, so treatments must be relatively specific. We have found that P. tolaasii is susceptible to predation in vitro by the δ-proteobacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. This effect also occurred in funga, where B. bacteriovorus was administered to post-harvest mushroom caps before and after administration of the P. tolaasii pathogen. A significant, visible improvement in blotch appearance, after incubation, was observed on administration of Bdellovibrio. A significant reduction in viable P. tolaasii cell numbers, recovered from the mushroom tissue, was detected. This was accompanied by a more marked reduction in blotch severity on Bdellovibrio administration. We found that there was in some cases an accompanying overgrowth of presumed-commensal, non-Pseudomonas bacteria on post-harvest mushroom caps after Bdellovibrio-treatment. These bacteria were identified (by 16SrRNA gene sequencing) as Enterobacter species, which were seemingly resistant to predation. We visualised predatory interactions occuring between B. bacteriovorus and P. tolaasii on the post-harvest mushroom cap surface by Scanning Electron Microscopy, seeing predatory invasion of P. tolaasii by B. bacteriovorus in funga. This anti-P. tolaasii effect worked well in post-harvest supermarket mushrooms, thus Bdellovibrio was not affected by any pre-treatment of mushrooms for commercial/consumer purposes. The soil-dwelling B. bacteriovorus HD100 preys upon and kills P. tolaasii, on mushroom surfaces, and could therefore be applied to prevent spoilage in post-harvest situations where mushrooms are stored and packaged for sale.

  11. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 guards against Pseudomonas tolaasii brown-blotch lesions on the surface of post-harvest Agaricus bisporus supermarket mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas tolaasii is a problematic pathogen of cultured mushrooms, forming dark brown ‘blotches’ on mushroom surfaces and causing spoilage during crop growth and post-harvest . Treating P. tolaasii infection is difficult, as other, commensal bacterial species such as Pseudomonas putida are necessary for mushroom growth, so treatments must be relatively specific. Results We have found that P. tolaasii is susceptible to predation in vitro by the δ-proteobacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. This effect also occurred in funga, where B. bacteriovorus was administered to post-harvest mushroom caps before and after administration of the P. tolaasii pathogen. A significant, visible improvement in blotch appearance, after incubation, was observed on administration of Bdellovibrio. A significant reduction in viable P. tolaasii cell numbers, recovered from the mushroom tissue, was detected. This was accompanied by a more marked reduction in blotch severity on Bdellovibrio administration. We found that there was in some cases an accompanying overgrowth of presumed-commensal, non-Pseudomonas bacteria on post-harvest mushroom caps after Bdellovibrio-treatment. These bacteria were identified (by 16SrRNA gene sequencing) as Enterobacter species, which were seemingly resistant to predation. We visualised predatory interactions occuring between B. bacteriovorus and P. tolaasii on the post-harvest mushroom cap surface by Scanning Electron Microscopy, seeing predatory invasion of P. tolaasii by B. bacteriovorus in funga. This anti-P. tolaasii effect worked well in post-harvest supermarket mushrooms, thus Bdellovibrio was not affected by any pre-treatment of mushrooms for commercial/consumer purposes. Conclusions The soil-dwelling B. bacteriovorus HD100 preys upon and kills P. tolaasii, on mushroom surfaces, and could therefore be applied to prevent spoilage in post-harvest situations where mushrooms are stored and packaged for sale. PMID:24946855

  12. Climate and edaphic controllers influence rhizosphere community assembly for a wild annual grass

    SciTech Connect

    Nuccio, Erin E.; Anderson-Furgeson, James; Estera, Katerina Y.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; de Valpine, Perry; Brodie, Eoin L.; Firestone, Mary K.

    2016-05-09

    The interface between roots and soil, known as the rhizosphere, is a dynamic habitat in the soil ecosystem. Unraveling the factors that control rhizosphere community assembly is a key starting point for understanding the diversity of plant-microbial interactions that occur in soil. The goals of this study were to determine how environmental factors shape rhizosphere microbial communities, such as local soil characteristics and the regional climate, and to determine the relative influence of the rhizosphere on microbial community assembly compared to the pressures imposed by the local and regional environment. We identified the bacteria present in the soil immediately adjacent to the roots of wild oat (Avena spp.) in three California grasslands using deep Illumina 16S sequencing. Rhizosphere communities were more similar to each other than to the surrounding soil communities from which they were derived, despite the fact that the grasslands studied were separated by hundreds of kilometers. The rhizosphere was the dominant factor structuring bacterial community composition (38% variance explained), and was comparable in magnitude to the combined local and regional effects (22% and 21%, respectively). Rhizosphere communities were most influenced by factors related to the regional climate (soil moisture and temperature), while background soil communities were more influenced by soil characteristics (pH, CEC, exchangeable cations, clay content). The Avena core microbiome was strongly phylogenetically clustered according to the metrics NRI and NTI, which indicates that selective processes likely shaped these communities. Furthermore, 17% of these taxa were not detectable in the background soil, even with a robust sequencing depth of approximately 70,000 sequences per sample. In conclusion, these results support the hypothesis that roots select less abundant or possibly rare populations in the soil microbial community, which appear to be lineages of bacteria that have

  13. Climate and edaphic controllers influence rhizosphere community assembly for a wild annual grass

    DOE PAGES

    Nuccio, Erin E.; Anderson-Furgeson, James; Estera, Katerina Y.; ...

    2016-05-09

    The interface between roots and soil, known as the rhizosphere, is a dynamic habitat in the soil ecosystem. Unraveling the factors that control rhizosphere community assembly is a key starting point for understanding the diversity of plant-microbial interactions that occur in soil. The goals of this study were to determine how environmental factors shape rhizosphere microbial communities, such as local soil characteristics and the regional climate, and to determine the relative influence of the rhizosphere on microbial community assembly compared to the pressures imposed by the local and regional environment. We identified the bacteria present in the soil immediately adjacentmore » to the roots of wild oat (Avena spp.) in three California grasslands using deep Illumina 16S sequencing. Rhizosphere communities were more similar to each other than to the surrounding soil communities from which they were derived, despite the fact that the grasslands studied were separated by hundreds of kilometers. The rhizosphere was the dominant factor structuring bacterial community composition (38% variance explained), and was comparable in magnitude to the combined local and regional effects (22% and 21%, respectively). Rhizosphere communities were most influenced by factors related to the regional climate (soil moisture and temperature), while background soil communities were more influenced by soil characteristics (pH, CEC, exchangeable cations, clay content). The Avena core microbiome was strongly phylogenetically clustered according to the metrics NRI and NTI, which indicates that selective processes likely shaped these communities. Furthermore, 17% of these taxa were not detectable in the background soil, even with a robust sequencing depth of approximately 70,000 sequences per sample. In conclusion, these results support the hypothesis that roots select less abundant or possibly rare populations in the soil microbial community, which appear to be lineages of bacteria that

  14. Climate and edaphic controllers influence rhizosphere community assembly for a wild annual grass

    SciTech Connect

    Nuccio, Erin E.; Anderson-Furgeson, James; Estera, Katerina Y.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; de Valpine, Perry; Brodie, Eoin L.; Firestone, Mary K.

    2016-05-09

    The interface between roots and soil, known as the rhizosphere, is a dynamic habitat in the soil ecosystem. Unraveling the factors that control rhizosphere community assembly is a key starting point for understanding the diversity of plant-microbial interactions that occur in soil. The goals of this study were to determine how environmental factors shape rhizosphere microbial communities, such as local soil characteristics and the regional climate, and to determine the relative influence of the rhizosphere on microbial community assembly compared to the pressures imposed by the local and regional environment. We identified the bacteria present in the soil immediately adjacent to the roots of wild oat (Avena spp.) in three California grasslands using deep Illumina 16S sequencing. Rhizosphere communities were more similar to each other than to the surrounding soil communities from which they were derived, despite the fact that the grasslands studied were separated by hundreds of kilometers. The rhizosphere was the dominant factor structuring bacterial community composition (38% variance explained), and was comparable in magnitude to the combined local and regional effects (22% and 21%, respectively). Rhizosphere communities were most influenced by factors related to the regional climate (soil moisture and temperature), while background soil communities were more influenced by soil characteristics (pH, CEC, exchangeable cations, clay content). The Avena core microbiome was strongly phylogenetically clustered according to the metrics NRI and NTI, which indicates that selective processes likely shaped these communities. Furthermore, 17% of these taxa were not detectable in the background soil, even with a robust sequencing depth of approximately 70,000 sequences per sample. In conclusion, these results support the hypothesis that roots select less abundant or possibly rare populations in the soil microbial community, which appear to be lineages of bacteria that have

  15. An Extended Cyclic Di-GMP Network in the Predatory Bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus

    PubMed Central

    Rotem, Or; Nesper, Jutta; Borovok, Ilya; Gorovits, Rena; Kolot, Mikhail; Pasternak, Zohar; Shin, Irina; Glatter, Timo; Pietrokovski, Shmuel; Jenal, Urs

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Over the course of the last 3 decades the role of the second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) as a master regulator of bacterial physiology was determined. Although the control over c-di-GMP levels via synthesis and breakdown and the allosteric regulation of c-di-GMP over receptor proteins (effectors) and riboswitches have been extensively studied, relatively few effectors have been identified and most are of unknown functions. The obligate predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus has a peculiar dimorphic life cycle, in which a phenotypic transition from a free-living attack phase (AP) to a sessile, intracellular predatory growth phase (GP) is tightly regulated by specific c-di-GMP diguanylate cyclases. B. bacteriovorus also bears one of the largest complement of defined effectors, almost none of known functions, suggesting that additional proteins may be involved in c-di-GMP signaling. In order to uncover novel c-di-GMP effectors, a c-di-GMP capture-compound mass-spectroscopy experiment was performed on wild-type AP and host-independent (HI) mutant cultures, the latter serving as a proxy for wild-type GP cells. Eighty-four proteins were identified as candidate c-di-GMP binders. Of these proteins, 65 did not include any recognized c-di-GMP binding site, and 3 carried known unorthodox binding sites. Putative functions could be assigned to 59 proteins. These proteins are included in metabolic pathways, regulatory circuits, cell transport, and motility, thereby creating a potentially large c-di-GMP network. False candidate effectors may include members of protein complexes, as well as proteins binding nucleotides or other cofactors that were, respectively, carried over or unspecifically interacted with the capture compound during the pulldown. Of the 84 candidates, 62 were found to specifically bind the c-di-GMP capture compound in AP or in HI cultures, suggesting c-di-GMP control over the whole-cell cycle of the bacterium. High affinity and

  16. The rhizosphere revisited: root microbiomics

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Peter A. H. M.; Berendsen, Roeland L.; Doornbos, Rogier F.; Wintermans, Paul C. A.; Pieterse, Corné M. J.

    2013-01-01

    The rhizosphere was defined over 100 years ago as the zone around the root where microorganisms and processes important for plant growth and health are located. Recent studies show that the diversity of microorganisms associated with the root system is enormous. This rhizosphere microbiome extends the functional repertoire of the plant beyond imagination. The rhizosphere microbiome of Arabidopsis thaliana is currently being studied for the obvious reason that it allows the use of the extensive toolbox that comes with this model plant. Deciphering plant traits that drive selection and activities of the microbiome is now a major challenge in which Arabidopsis will undoubtedly be a major research object. Here we review recent microbiome studies and discuss future research directions and applicability of the generated knowledge. PMID:23755059

  17. Metarhizium robertsii Produces an Extracellular Invertase (MrINV) That Plays a Pivotal Role in Rhizospheric Interactions and Root Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xinggang; Fang, Weiguo; Lin, Liangcai; Lu, Hsiao-Ling; Leger, Raymond J. St.

    2013-01-01

    As well as killing pest insects, the rhizosphere competent insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii also boosts plant growth by providing nitrogenous nutrients and increasing resistance to plant pathogens. Plant roots secrete abundant nutrients but little is known about their utilization by Metarhizium spp. and the mechanistic basis of Metarhizium-plant associations. We report here that M. robertsii produces an extracellular invertase (MrInv) on plant roots. Deletion of MrInv (⊿MrInv) reduced M. robertsii growth on sucrose and rhizospheric exudates but increased colonization of Panicum virgatum and Arabidopsis thaliana roots. This could be accounted for by a reduction in carbon catabolite repression in ⊿MrInv increasing production of plant cell wall-degrading depolymerases. A non-rhizosphere competent scarab beetle specialist Metarhizium majus lacks invertase which suggests that rhizospheric competence may be related to the sugar metabolism of different Metarhizium species. PMID:24205119

  18. Metarhizium robertsii produces an extracellular invertase (MrINV) that plays a pivotal role in rhizospheric interactions and root colonization.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xinggang; Fang, Weiguo; Lin, Liangcai; Lu, Hsiao-Ling; St Leger, Raymond J

    2013-01-01

    As well as killing pest insects, the rhizosphere competent insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii also boosts plant growth by providing nitrogenous nutrients and increasing resistance to plant pathogens. Plant roots secrete abundant nutrients but little is known about their utilization by Metarhizium spp. and the mechanistic basis of Metarhizium-plant associations. We report here that M. robertsii produces an extracellular invertase (MrInv) on plant roots. Deletion of MrInv (ΔMrInv) reduced M. robertsii growth on sucrose and rhizospheric exudates but increased colonization of Panicum virgatum and Arabidopsis thaliana roots. This could be accounted for by a reduction in carbon catabolite repression in ΔMrInv increasing production of plant cell wall-degrading depolymerases. A non-rhizosphere competent scarab beetle specialist Metarhizium majus lacks invertase which suggests that rhizospheric competence may be related to the sugar metabolism of different Metarhizium species.

  19. Specific rhizosphere bacterial and fungal groups respond differently to elevated atmospheric CO(2).

    PubMed

    Drigo, Barbara; van Veen, Johannes A; Kowalchuk, George A

    2009-10-01

    Soil community responses to increased atmospheric CO(2) concentrations are expected to occur mostly through interactions with changing vegetation patterns and plant physiology. To gain insight into the effects of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on the composition and functioning of microbial communities in the rhizosphere, Carex arenaria (a non-mycorrhizal plant species) and Festuca rubra (a mycorrhizal plant species) were grown under defined atmospheric conditions with either ambient (350 p.p.m.) or elevated (700 p.p.m.) CO(2) concentrations. PCR-DGGE (PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and quantitative-PCR were carried out to analyze, respectively, the structure and abundance of the communities of actinomycetes, Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., Pseudomonas spp., Burkholderia spp. and Bacillus spp. Responses of specific functional groups, such as phloroglucinol, phenazine and pyrrolnitrin producers, were also examined by quantitative-PCR, and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) was employed to assess changes in exuded sugars in the rhizosphere. Multivariate analysis of group-specific community profiles showed disparate responses to elevated CO(2) for the different bacterial and fungal groups examined, and these responses were dependent on plant type and soil nutrient availability. Within the bacterial community, the genera Burkholderia and Pseudomonas, typically known as successful rhizosphere colonizers, were significantly influenced by elevated CO(2), whereas the genus Bacillus and actinomycetes, typically more dominant in bulk soil, were not. Total sugar concentrations in the rhizosphere also increased in both plants in response to elevated CO(2). The abundances of phloroglucinol-, phenazine- and pyrrolnitrin-producing bacterial communities were also influenced by elevated CO(2), as was the abundance of the fungal genera Fusarium and Trichoderma.

  20. BspK, a Serine Protease from the Predatory Bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus with Utility for Analysis of Therapeutic Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Henrik; Naegeli, Andreas; Collin, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The development of therapeutic and diagnostic antibodies is a rapidly growing field of research, being the fastest expanding group of products on the pharmaceutical market, and appropriate quality controls are crucial for their application. We have identified and characterized the serine protease termed BspK (Bdellovibrio serine protease K) from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and here show its activity on antibodies. Mutation of the serine residue at position 230 rendered the protease inactive. Further investigations of BspK enzymatic characteristics revealed autoproteolytic activity, resulting in numerous cleavage products. Two of the autoproteolytic cleavage sites in the BspK fusion protein were investigated in more detail and corresponded to cleavage after K28 and K210 in the N- and C-terminal parts of BspK, respectively. Further, BspK displayed stable enzymatic activity on IgG within the pH range of 6.0 to 9.5 and was inhibited in the presence of ZnCl2. BspK demonstrated preferential hydrolysis of human IgG1 compared to other immunoglobulins and isotypes, with hydrolysis of the heavy chain at position K226 generating two separate Fab fragments and an intact IgG Fc domain. Finally, we show that BspK preferentially cleaves its substrates C-terminally to lysines similar to the protease LysC. However, BspK displays a unique cleavage profile compared to several currently used proteases on the market. IMPORTANCE The rapid development of novel therapeutic antibodies is partly hindered by difficulties in assessing their quality and safety. The lack of tools and methods facilitating such quality controls obstructs and delays the process of product approval, eventually affecting the patients in need of treatment. These difficulties in product evaluations indicate a need for new and comprehensive tools for such analysis. Additionally, recent concerns raised regarding the limitations of established products on the market (e.g., trypsin) further highlight a general

  1. Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using rhizosphere technology

    PubMed Central

    Bisht, Sandeep; Pandey, Piyush; Bhargava, Bhavya; Sharma, Shivesh; Kumar, Vivek; Sharma, Krishan D.

    2015-01-01

    The remediation of polluted sites has become a priority for society because of increase in quality of life standards and the awareness of environmental issues. Over the past few decades there has been avid interest in developing in situ strategies for remediation of environmental contaminants, because of the high economic cost of physicochemical strategies, the biological tools for remediation of these persistent pollutants is the better option. Major foci have been considered on persistent organic chemicals i.e. polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity. Rhizoremediation, a specific type of phytoremediation that involves both plants and their associated rhizospheric microbes is the creative biotechnological approach that has been explored in this review. Moreover, in this review we showed the significance of rhizoremediation of PAHs from other bioremediation strategies i.e. natural attenuation, bioaugmentation and phytoremediation and also analyze certain environmental factor that may influence the rhizoremediation technique. Numerous bacterial species were reported to degrade variety of PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil, however few reports are available from non contaminated soil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomons fluoresens , Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Finally, exploring the molecular communication between plants and microbes, and exploiting this communication to achieve better results in the elimination of contaminants, is a fascinating area of research for future perspective. PMID:26221084

  2. Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using rhizosphere technology.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Sandeep; Pandey, Piyush; Bhargava, Bhavya; Sharma, Shivesh; Kumar, Vivek; Sharma, Krishan D

    2015-03-01

    The remediation of polluted sites has become a priority for society because of increase in quality of life standards and the awareness of environmental issues. Over the past few decades there has been avid interest in developing in situ strategies for remediation of environmental contaminants, because of the high economic cost of physicochemical strategies, the biological tools for remediation of these persistent pollutants is the better option. Major foci have been considered on persistent organic chemicals i.e. polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity. Rhizoremediation, a specific type of phytoremediation that involves both plants and their associated rhizospheric microbes is the creative biotechnological approach that has been explored in this review. Moreover, in this review we showed the significance of rhizoremediation of PAHs from other bioremediation strategies i.e. natural attenuation, bioaugmentation and phytoremediation and also analyze certain environmental factor that may influence the rhizoremediation technique. Numerous bacterial species were reported to degrade variety of PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil, however few reports are available from non contaminated soil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomons fluoresens , Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Finally, exploring the molecular communication between plants and microbes, and exploiting this communication to achieve better results in the elimination of contaminants, is a fascinating area of research for future perspective.

  3. Measuring and modelling the response of Klebsiella pneumoniae KPC prey to Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus predation, in human serum and defined buffer.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michelle; Negus, David; Raghunathan, Dhaarini; Radford, Paul; Moore, Chris; Clark, Gemma; Diggle, Mathew; Tyson, Jess; Twycross, Jamie; Sockett, R Elizabeth

    2017-08-21

    In worldwide conditions of increasingly antibiotic-resistant hospital infections, it is important to research alternative therapies. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus bacteria naturally prey on Gram-negative pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant strains and so B. bacteriovorus have been proposed as "living antibiotics" to combat antimicrobially-resistant pathogens. Predator-prey interactions are complex and can be altered by environmental components. To be effective B. bacteriovorus predation needs to work in human body fluids such as serum where predation dynamics may differ to that studied in laboratory media. Here we combine mathematical modelling and lab experimentation to investigate the predation of an important carbapenem-resistant human pathogen, Klebsiella pneumoniae, by B. bacteriovorus in human serum versus buffer. We show experimentally that B. bacteriovorus is able to reduce prey numbers in each environment, on different timescales. Our mathematical model captures the underlying dynamics of the experimentation, including an initial predation-delay at the predator-prey-serum interface. Our research shows differences between predation in buffer and serum and highlights both the potential and limitations of B. bacteriovorus acting therapeutically against K. pneumoniae in serum, informing future research into the medicinal behaviours and dosing of this living antibacterial.

  4. Vibrio cholerae pathogen from the freshwater-cultured whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei and control with Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haipeng; An, Jian; Zheng, Weidong; He, Shan

    2015-09-01

    Vibriosis has become a major global economic problem in freshwater-farmed whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). The prevention and control of vibriosis are now priority research topics. In this study, a pathogenic strain (QH) was isolated from vibriosis-infected freshwater-farmed P. vannamei that resulted in leg yellowing and was identified as a Vibrio cholerae isolate through phylogenetic analysis and the API 32GN system. A phylogenetic tree that was constructed using the neighbor-joining method further confirmed the QH isolate as a V. cholerae strain. A virulent outer membrane protein (ompU) gene was found to be present in the QH isolate, which further confirmed its pathogenicity. In addition, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus conferred significant protection against V. cholerae: B. bacteriovorus exhibited significant bacteriolytic effects on the V. cholerae pathogen, possessed a wide prey range that included Vibrio pathogens, and displayed a positive protective efficacy against experimental V. cholerae infection in P. vannamei. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the control of shrimp pathogen V. cholerae with B. bacteriovorus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of plant genotype on the cultivable fungi associated to tomato rhizosphere and roots in different soils.

    PubMed

    Poli, Anna; Lazzari, Alexandra; Prigione, Valeria; Voyron, Samuele; Spadaro, Davide; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Rhizosphere and root-associated microbiota are crucial in determining plant health and in increasing productivity of agricultural crops. To date, research has mainly focused on the bacterial dimension of the microbiota. However, interest in the mycobiota is increasing, since fungi play a key role in soil ecosystems. We examined the effect of plant genotype, soil, and of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) on the cultivable component of rhizosphere and root-associated mycobiota of tomato. Resistant and susceptible varieties were cultivated on two different soils (A and B), under glasshouse conditions. Isolated fungi were identified by morphological and molecular approaches. Differences were found between the rhizosphere and the roots, which in general displayed a lower number of species. The structure of the mycobiota was significantly affected by the soil type in the rhizosphere as well as by the plant genotype within the roots (NPERMANOVA, p < 0.05). The addition of Fol changed the community structure, particularly in soil A, where Penicillium spp. and Fusarium spp. were the dominant responding fungi. Overall, the results indicated that i) soil type and plant genotype affect the fungal communities; ii) plant roots select few species from the rhizosphere; and iii) the fungal community structure is influenced by Fol. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rhizosphere engineering: Enhancing sustainable plant ecosystem productivity

    DOE PAGES

    Ahkami, Amir H.; White, III, Richard Allen; Handakumbura, Pubudu P.; ...

    2017-04-21

    Here, the rhizosphere is arguably the most complex microbial habitat on earth, comprising an integrated network of plant roots, soil and a diverse microbial consortium of bacteria, archaea, viruses, and microeukaryotes. Understanding, predicting and controlling the structure and function of the rhizosphere will allow us to harness plant-microbe interactions and other rhizosphere activities as a means to increase or restore plant ecosystem productivity, improve plant responses to a wide range of environmental perturbations, and mitigate effects of climate change by designing ecosystems for long-term soil carbon storage. Here, we review critical knowledge gaps in rhizosphere science, and how mechanistic understandingmore » of rhizosphere interactions can be leveraged in rhizosphere engineering efforts with the goal of maintaining sustainable plant ecosystem services for food and bioenergy production in an ever changing global climate.« less

  7. Metabolic potential and community structure of endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria associated with the roots of the halophyte Aster tripolium L.

    PubMed

    Szymańska, Sonia; Płociniczak, Tomasz; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia; Złoch, Michał; Ruppel, Silke; Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The submitted work assumes that the abundance and diversity of endophytic and rhizosphere microorganisms co-existing with the halophytic plant Aster tripolium L. growing in a salty meadow in the vicinity of a soda factory (central Poland) represent unique populations of cultivable bacterial strains. Endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria were (i) isolated and identified based on 16S rDNA sequences; (ii) screened for nifH and acdS genes; and (iii) analyzed based on selected metabolic properties. Moreover, total microbial biomass and community structures of the roots (endophytes), rhizosphere and soil were evaluated using a cultivation-independent technique (PLFA) to characterize plant-microbial interactions under natural salt conditions. The identification of the isolated strains showed domination by Gram-positive bacteria (mostly Bacillus spp.) both in the rhizosphere (90.9%) and roots (72.7%) of A. tripolium. Rhizosphere bacterial strains exhibited broader metabolic capacities, while endophytes exhibited higher specificities for metabolic activity. The PLFA analysis showed that the total bacterial biomass decreased in the following order (rhizosphere

  8. Efficacy of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J for the treatment of dairy calves with experimentally induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Boileau, Mélanie J; Mani, Rinosh; Breshears, Melanie A; Gilmour, Margi; Taylor, Jared D; Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J for the treatment of calves with experimentally induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). ANIMALS 12 healthy dairy calves. PROCEDURES For each calf, a grid keratotomy was performed on both eyes immediately before inoculation with Moraxella bovis hemolytic strain Epp63-300 (n = 11 calves) or nonhemolytic strain 12040577 (1 calf). For each calf inoculated with M bovis Epp63-300, the eyes were randomly assigned to receive an artificial tear solution with (treatment group) or without (control group) lyophilized B bacteriovorus 109J. Six doses of the assigned treatment (0.2 mL/eye, topically, q 48 h) were administered to each eye. On nontreatment days, eyes were assessed and corneal swab specimens and tear samples were collected for bacterial culture. Calves were euthanized 12 days after M bovis inoculation. The eyes were harvested for gross and histologic evaluation and bacterial culture. RESULTS The calf inoculated with M bovis 12040577 did not develop corneal ulcers. Of the 22 eyes inoculated with M bovis Epp63-300, 18 developed corneal ulcers consistent with IBK within 48 hours after inoculation; 4 of those eyes developed secondary corneal ulcers that were not consistent with IBK. Corneal ulcer size and severity and the time required for ulcer healing did not differ between the treatment and control groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that B bacteriovorus 109J was not effective for the treatment of IBK; however, the experimental model used produced lesions that did not completely mimic naturally occurring IBK.

  9. Bdellovibrio and Like Organisms Enhanced Growth and Survival of Penaeus monodon and Altered Bacterial Community Structures in Its Rearing Water

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Qiuping; Liu, Renliang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain BDHSH06 (GenBank accession no. EF011103) as the test strain for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. The results showed that BDHSH06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. An 85-day black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. The shrimp survival rate, body length, and weight in the test tanks were 48.1% ± 1.2%, 99.8 ± 10.0 mm, and 6.36 ± 1.50 g, respectively, which were values significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those for the control, viz., 31.0% ± 2.1%, 86.0 ± 11.1 mm, and 4.21 ± 1.56 g, respectively. With the addition of BDHSH06, total bacterial and Vibrio numbers were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 1.3 to 4.5 log CFU · ml−1 and CFU · g−1 in both water and shrimp intestines, respectively, compared to those in the control. The effect of BDHSH06 on bacterial community structures in the rearing water was also examined using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of rearing water samples from the control and test tanks revealed that the amounts of 44% of the bacterial species were reduced when BDHSH06 was added to the rearing water over the 85-day rearing period, and among these, approximately 57.1% were nonculturable. The results of this study demonstrated that BDHSH06 can be used as a biocontrol/probiotic agent in P. monodon culture. PMID:25107962

  10. The Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus twin-arginine transport system has roles in predatory and prey-independent growth.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chien-Yi; Hobley, Laura; Till, Rob; Capeness, Michael; Kanna, Machi; Burtt, William; Jagtap, Pratik; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Sockett, R Elizabeth

    2011-11-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus grows in one of two ways: either (i) predatorily [in a host-dependent (HD) manner], when it invades the periplasm of another Gram-negative bacterium, exporting into the prey co-ordinated waves of soluble enzymes using the prey cell contents for growth; or (ii) in a host-independent (HI) manner, when it grows (slowly) axenically in rich media. Periplasmic invasion potentially exposes B. bacteriovorus to extremes of pH and exposes the need to scavenge electron donors from prey electron transport components by synthesis of metalloenzymes. The twin-arginine transport system (Tat) in other bacteria transports folded metalloenzymes and the B. bacteriovorus genome encodes 21 potential Tat-transported substrates and Tat transporter proteins TatA1, TatA2 and TatBC. GFP tagging of the Tat signal peptide from Bd1802, a high-potential iron-sulfur protein (HiPIP), revealed it to be exported into the prey bacterium during predatory growth. Mutagenesis showed that the B. bacteriovorus tatA2 and tatC gene products are essential for both HI and HD growth, despite the fact that they partially complement (in SDS resistance assays) the corresponding mutations in Escherichia coli where neither TatA nor TatC are essential for life. The essentiality of B. bacteriovorus TatA2 was surprising given that the B. bacteriovorus genome encodes a second tatA homologue, tatA1. Transcription of tatA1 was found to be induced upon entry to the bdelloplast, and insertional inactivation of tatA1 showed that it significantly slowed the rates of both HI and HD growth. B. bacteriovorus is one of a few bacterial species that are reliant on a functional Tat system and where deletion of a single tatA1 gene causes a significant growth defect(s), despite the presence of its tatA2 homologue.

  11. Identification and Biochemical Evidence of a Medium-Chain-Length Polyhydroxyalkanoate Depolymerase in the Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus Predatory Hydrolytic Arsenal

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Virginia; de la Peña, Fernando; García-Hidalgo, Javier; de la Mata, Isabel; García, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    The obligate predator Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 shows a large set of proteases and other hydrolases as part of its hydrolytic arsenal needed for its predatory life cycle. We present genetic and biochemical evidence that open reading frame (ORF) Bd3709 of B. bacteriovorus HD100 encodes a novel medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) depolymerase (PhaZBd). The primary structure of PhaZBd suggests that this enzyme belongs to the α/β-hydrolase fold family and has a typical serine hydrolase catalytic triad (serine-histidine-aspartic acid) in agreement with other PHA depolymerases and lipases. PhaZBd has been extracellularly produced using different hypersecretor Tol-pal mutants of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida as recombinant hosts. The recombinant PhaZBd has been characterized, and its biochemical properties have been compared to those of other PHA depolymerases. The enzyme behaves as a serine hydrolase that is inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. It is also affected by the reducing agent dithiothreitol and nonionic detergents like Tween 80. PhaZBd is an endoexohydrolase that cleaves both large and small PHA molecules, producing mainly dimers but also monomers and trimers. The enzyme specifically degrades mcl-PHA and is inactive toward short-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (scl-PHA) like polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). These studies shed light on the potentiality of these predators as sources of new biocatalysts, such as an mcl-PHA depolymerase, for the production of enantiopure hydroxyalkanoic acids and oligomers as building blocks for the synthesis of biobased polymers. PMID:22706067

  12. Accumulation of the Antibiotic Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid in the Rhizosphere of Dryland Cereals

    PubMed Central

    Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Mavrodi, Olga V.; Parejko, James A.; Bonsall, Robert F.; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Paulitz, Timothy C.; Weller, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Natural antibiotics are thought to function in the defense, fitness, competitiveness, biocontrol activity, communication, and gene regulation of microorganisms. However, the scale and quantitative aspects of antibiotic production in natural settings are poorly understood. We addressed these fundamental questions by assessing the geographic distribution of indigenous phenazine-producing (Phz+) Pseudomonas spp. and the accumulation of the broad-spectrum antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) in the rhizosphere of wheat grown in the low-precipitation zone (<350 mm) of the Columbia Plateau and in adjacent, higher-precipitation areas. Plants were collected from 61 commercial wheat fields located within an area of about 22,000 km2. Phz+ Pseudomonas spp. were detected in all sampled fields, with mean population sizes ranging from log 3.2 to log 7.1 g−1 (fresh weight) of roots. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant inverse relationship between annual precipitation and the proportion of plants colonized by Phz+ Pseudomonas spp. (r2 = 0.36, P = 0.0001). PCA was detected at up to nanomolar concentrations in the rhizosphere of plants from 26 of 29 fields that were selected for antibiotic quantitation. There was a direct relationship between the amount of PCA extracted from the rhizosphere and the population density of Phz+ pseudomonads (r2 = 0.46, P = 0.0006). This is the first demonstration of accumulation of significant quantities of a natural antibiotic across a terrestrial ecosystem. Our results strongly suggest that natural antibiotics can transiently accumulate in the plant rhizosphere in amounts sufficient not only for inter- and intraspecies signaling but also for the direct inhibition of sensitive organisms. PMID:22138981

  13. Rhizosphere engineering: Enhancing sustainable plant ecosystem productivity

    DOE PAGES

    Ahkami, Amir H.; White, III, Richard Allen; Handakumbura, Pubudu P.; ...

    2017-04-21

    The rhizosphere is arguably the most complex microbial habitat on earth, comprising an integrated network of plant roots, the soil and a diverse microbial consortium of bacteria, archaea, viruses, and microeukaryotes. Understanding, predicting and controlling the structure and function of the rhizosphere will allow us to harness plant-microbe interactions and other rhizosphere activities as a means to increase plant ecosystem productivity, improve plant responses to a wide range of environmental perturbations, and mitigate effects of climate change by designing ecosystems for long-term soil carbon storage. Furthermore, we review critical knowledge gaps in rhizosphere science, and how mechanistic understanding of rhizospheremore » interactions can be leveraged in rhizosphere engineering efforts with the goal of maintaining sustainable plant ecosystem services for food and bioenergy production in an ever changing global climate.« less

  14. Influence of an Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Content on Soil and Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities Beneath Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Marilley; Hartwig; Aragno

    1999-07-01

    > Abstract The increase in atmospheric CO2 content alters C3 plant photosynthetic rate, leading to changes in rhizodeposition and other root activities. This may influence the activity, the biomass, and the structure of soil and rhizosphere microbial communities and therefore the nutrient cycling rates and the plant growth. The present paper focuses on bacterial numbers and on community structure. The rhizospheres of two grassland plants, Lolium perenne (ryegrass) and Trifolium repens (white clover), were divided into three fractions: the bulk soil, the rhizospheric soil, and the rhizoplane-endorhizosphere. The elevated atmospheric CO2 content increased the most probable numbers of heterotrophic bacteria in the rhizosphere of L. perenne. However, this effect lasted only at the beginning of the vegetation period for T. repens. Community structure was assessed after isolation of DNA, PCR amplification, and construction of cloned 16S rDNA libraries. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and colony hybridization with an oligonucleotide probe designed to detect Pseudomonas spp. showed under elevated atmospheric CO2 content an increased dominance of pseudomonads in the rhizosphere of L. perenne and a decreased dominance in the rhizosphere of T. repens. This work provides evidence for a CO2-induced alteration in the structure of the rhizosphere bacterial populations, suggesting a possible alteration of the plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacterial (PGPR) effect.http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00248/bibs/38n1p39.html

  15. Rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere bacterial community composition of the wild medicinal plant Rumex patientia.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaojuan; Wang, Ensi; Xing, Ming; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Xia

    2012-05-01

    To investigate bacterial communities between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of the wild medicinal plant Rumex patientia of Jilin, China, small subunit rRNAs (16S rDNA) from soil metagenome were amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primers specific to the domain bacteria and analysed by cloning and sequencing. The relative proportion of bacterial communities in rhizosphere soils was similar to non-rhizosphere soils in five phylogenetic groups (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and Planctomycetes). But there were differences in five other phylogenetic groups (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Verrucomicrobia and Unclassified bacteria). Over 97.24 % of the sequenced clones were found to be unique to rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils, while 2.76 % were shared by both of them. Our results indicate that there are differences in the composition and proportion of bacterial communities between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils. Furthermore, the unique bacterial clones between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of the wild medicinal plant R. patientia have obvious differences.

  16. Structure and activity of bacterial community inhabiting rice roots and the rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yahai; Rosencrantz, Dirk; Liesack, Werner; Conrad, Ralf

    2006-08-01

    Root-derived carbon provides a major source for microbial production and emission of CH4 from rice field soils. Therefore, we characterized the structure and activity of the bacterial community inhabiting rice roots and the rhizosphere. In the first experiment, DNA retrieved from rice roots was analysed for bacterial 16S rRNA genes using cloning, sequencing and in situ hybridization. In the second experiment, rice plants were pulse-labelled with 13CO2 (99% of atom 13C) for 7 days, and the bacterial RNA was isolated from rhizosphere soil and subjected to density gradient centrifugation. RNA samples from density fractions were analysed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting, cloning and sequencing. The experiments showed that the dominant bacteria inhabiting rice roots and the rhizosphere particularly belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. The RNA stable isotope probing revealed that the bacteria actively assimilating C derived from the pulse-labelled rice plants were Azospirillum spp. (Alphaproteobacteria) and members of Burkholderiaceae (Betaproteobacteria). Both anaerobic (e.g. Clostridia) and aerobic (e.g. Comamonas) degraders were present at high abundance, indicating that root environments and degradation processes were highly heterogeneous. The relative importance of iron and sulfate reducers suggested that cycling of iron and sulfur is active in the rhizosphere.

  17. Plant-microbe rhizosphere interactions mediated by Rehmannia glutinosa root exudates under consecutive monoculture

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Linkun; Wang, Juanying; Huang, Weimin; Wu, Hongmiao; Chen, Jun; Yang, Yanqiu; Zhang, Zhongyi; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-01-01

    Under consecutive monoculture, the biomass and quality of Rehmannia glutinosa declines significantly. Consecutive monoculture of R. glutinosa in a four-year field trial led to significant growth inhibition. Most phenolic acids in root exudates had cumulative effects over time under sterile conditions, but these effects were not observed in the rhizosphere under monoculture conditions. It suggested soil microbes might be involved in the degradation and conversion of phenolic acids from the monocultured plants. T-RFLP and qPCR analysis demonstrated differences in both soil bacterial and fungal communities during monoculture. Prolonged monoculture significantly increased levels of Fusarium oxysporum, but decreased levels of Pseudomonas spp. Abundance of beneficial Pseudomonas spp. with antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum was lower in extended monoculture soils. Phenolic acid mixture at a ratio similar to that found in the rhizosphere could promote mycelial growth, sporulation, and toxin (3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-O-Acetyl-4-deoxynivalenol) production of pathogenic F. oxysporum while inhibiting growth of the beneficial Pseudomonas sp. W12. This study demonstrates that extended monoculture can alter the microbial community of the rhizosphere, leading to relatively fewer beneficial microorganisms and relatively more pathogenic and toxin-producing microorganisms, which is mediated by the root exudates. PMID:26515244

  18. Plant-microbe rhizosphere interactions mediated by Rehmannia glutinosa root exudates under consecutive monoculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Linkun; Wang, Juanying; Huang, Weimin; Wu, Hongmiao; Chen, Jun; Yang, Yanqiu; Zhang, Zhongyi; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-10-01

    Under consecutive monoculture, the biomass and quality of Rehmannia glutinosa declines significantly. Consecutive monoculture of R. glutinosa in a four-year field trial led to significant growth inhibition. Most phenolic acids in root exudates had cumulative effects over time under sterile conditions, but these effects were not observed in the rhizosphere under monoculture conditions. It suggested soil microbes might be involved in the degradation and conversion of phenolic acids from the monocultured plants. T-RFLP and qPCR analysis demonstrated differences in both soil bacterial and fungal communities during monoculture. Prolonged monoculture significantly increased levels of Fusarium oxysporum, but decreased levels of Pseudomonas spp. Abundance of beneficial Pseudomonas spp. with antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum was lower in extended monoculture soils. Phenolic acid mixture at a ratio similar to that found in the rhizosphere could promote mycelial growth, sporulation, and toxin (3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-O-Acetyl-4-deoxynivalenol) production of pathogenic F. oxysporum while inhibiting growth of the beneficial Pseudomonas sp. W12. This study demonstrates that extended monoculture can alter the microbial community of the rhizosphere, leading to relatively fewer beneficial microorganisms and relatively more pathogenic and toxin-producing microorganisms, which is mediated by the root exudates.

  19. [Acinetobacter spp].

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Naohisa

    2012-02-01

    Acinetobacter species are aerobic, glucose non-fermenting gram-negative rods, and ubiquitous in the environment. Acinetobacter spp. can survive for months on dry surfaces. Acinetobacter spp. have been grown from skin, pharynx, sputum, urine and feces. The most common Acinetobacter infection is pneumonia. According to Japan Nosocomial Infection Surveillance, 0.34% of the Acinetobacter spp. was multidrug-resistant in 2010. In Japan, Acinetobacter spp. whose imipenem MICs were > or = 16 microg/mL, amikacin > or = 32 microg/mL, and ciprofloxacin > or = 4 microg/mL were defined as multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter species (MDRA) in 2011 in the amended Infectious Diseases Control Law. Break-point Checkerboard Plate can help to infer an effective combination antimicrobial therapy. A selective medium for the isolation of MDRA is a great tool for active surveillance cultures. Treatment options for MDRA infections in Japan are very limited, because colistin, polymyxin B, or tigecycline is not approved. Keys to control MDRA are high levels of compliance with standard and contact precautions, appropriate cleaning and disinfection of the environment, and judicious antimicrobial use.

  20. Isolation of Acanthamoeba from the rhizosphere of maize and lucerne plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orosz, Erika; Farkas, Ágnes; Ködöböcz, László; Becsak, Péter; Danka, József; Kucsera, István; Füleky, György

    2013-04-01

    Acanthamoeba species are free-living amoebae that can be found in almost every range of environments. Within this genus, a number of species are recognized as human pathogens, potentially causing Acanthamoeba keratitis, granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, and chronic granulomatous lesions. Soil and water samples were taken from experimental station at Julianna Major of Plant Protection Institute of Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences. We detected living Acanthamoeba spp. based on culture- confirmed detection combined with the molecular taxonomic identification method. Living Acanthamoeba spp. were detected in thirteen (65%) samples. The presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in the samples depends significantly on the rhizosphere plants. The most frequently identified living Acanthamoeba genotype was T4 followed by T11, T2/T6 and T17. Genotypes T4 and T11 of Acanthamoeba, are responsible for Acanthamoeba keratitis as well as granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, and should therefore be considered as a potential health risk associated with human activities in the environment.

  1. Resilience of the rhizosphere Pseudomonas and ammonia-oxidizing bacterial populations during phytoextraction of heavy metal polluted soil with poplar.

    PubMed

    Frey, Beat; Pesaro, Manuel; Rüdt, Andreas; Widmer, Franco

    2008-06-01

    We assessed the effects of phytoextraction on the dynamics of Pseudomonas spp. and ammonia-oxidizing bacterial populations in a heavy metal (HM) polluted soil. Hybrid poplars were grown in two-compartment root containers with a medium history (> 4 years) of HM pollution for 13 weeks. Bulk and poplar rhizosphere soils were analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of Pseudomonas (sensu stricto) 16S rRNA and amoA gene fragments. DGGE patterns revealed that Pseudomonas and amoA-containing populations in the contaminated soils were markedly different from those in the uncontaminated soils. Pseudomonas and amoA profiles appeared to be stable over time in the bulk soils. In contrast, contaminated rhizosphere soils revealed a clear shift of populations with removal of HM becoming similar or at least shifted to the populations of the uncontaminated soils. The effect of phytoextraction was, however, not evident in the bulk samples, which still contained large amounts of HM. Cloning and sequencing of dominant DGGE bands revealed that Pseudomonas were phylogenetically related to the Pseudomonas fluorescens cluster and the amoA sequences to Nitrosospira spp. At the last sampling, major prominent band sequences from contaminated rhizosphere soils were identical to sequences obtained from uncontaminated rhizosphere soils, indicating that the populations were dominated by the same phylotypes. This study suggests that two taxonomically different populations are able to recover after the relief of HM stress by phytoextraction practices, whereas bulk microbial activities still remained depressed.

  2. Effect of Genetically Modified Pseudomonas putida WCS358r on the Fungal Rhizosphere Microflora of Field-Grown Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Glandorf, Debora C. M.; Verheggen, Patrick; Jansen, Timo; Jorritsma, Jan-Willem; Smit, Eric; Leeflang, Paula; Wernars, Karel; Thomashow, Linda S.; Laureijs, Eric; Thomas-Oates, Jane E.; Bakker, Peter A. H. M.; van Loon, Leendert C.

    2001-01-01

    We released genetically modified Pseudomonas putida WCS358r into the rhizospheres of wheat plants. The two genetically modified derivatives, genetically modified microorganism (GMM) 2 and GMM 8, carried the phz biosynthetic gene locus of strain P. fluorescens 2-79 and constitutively produced the antifungal compound phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). In the springs of 1997 and 1998 we sowed wheat seeds treated with either GMM 2, GMM 8, or WCS358r (approximately 107 CFU per seed), and measured the numbers, composition, and activities of the rhizosphere microbial populations. During both growing seasons, all three bacterial strains decreased from 107 CFU per g of rhizosphere sample to below the limit of detection (102 CFU per g) 1 month after harvest of the wheat plants. The phz genes were stably maintained, and PCA was detected in rhizosphere extracts of GMM-treated plants. In 1997, but not in 1998, fungal numbers in the rhizosphere, quantified on 2% malt extract agar (total filamentous fungi) and on Komada's medium (mainly Fusarium spp.), were transiently suppressed in GMM 8-treated plants. We also analyzed the effects of the GMMs on the rhizosphere fungi by using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. Introduction of any of the three bacterial strains transiently changed the composition of the rhizosphere fungal microflora. However, in both 1997 and 1998, GMM-induced effects were distinct from those of WCS358r and lasted for 40 days in 1997 and for 89 days after sowing in 1998, whereas effects induced by WCS358r were detectable for 12 (1997) or 40 (1998) days. None of the strains affected the metabolic activity of the soil microbial population (substrate-induced respiration), soil nitrification potential, cellulose decomposition, plant height, or plant yield. The results indicate that application of GMMs engineered to have improved antifungal activity can exert nontarget effects on the natural fungal microflora. PMID:11472906

  3. Effect of genetically modified Pseudomonas putida WCS358r on the fungal rhizosphere microflora of field-grown wheat.

    PubMed

    Glandorf, D C; Verheggen, P; Jansen, T; Jorritsma, J W; Smit, E; Leeflang, P; Wernars, K; Thomashow, L S; Laureijs, E; Thomas-Oates, J E; Bakker, P A; van Loon, L C

    2001-08-01

    We released genetically modified Pseudomonas putida WCS358r into the rhizospheres of wheat plants. The two genetically modified derivatives, genetically modified microorganism (GMM) 2 and GMM 8, carried the phz biosynthetic gene locus of strain P. fluorescens 2-79 and constitutively produced the antifungal compound phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). In the springs of 1997 and 1998 we sowed wheat seeds treated with either GMM 2, GMM 8, or WCS358r (approximately 10(7) CFU per seed), and measured the numbers, composition, and activities of the rhizosphere microbial populations. During both growing seasons, all three bacterial strains decreased from 10(7) CFU per g of rhizosphere sample to below the limit of detection (10(2) CFU per g) 1 month after harvest of the wheat plants. The phz genes were stably maintained, and PCA was detected in rhizosphere extracts of GMM-treated plants. In 1997, but not in 1998, fungal numbers in the rhizosphere, quantified on 2% malt extract agar (total filamentous fungi) and on Komada's medium (mainly Fusarium spp.), were transiently suppressed in GMM 8-treated plants. We also analyzed the effects of the GMMs on the rhizosphere fungi by using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. Introduction of any of the three bacterial strains transiently changed the composition of the rhizosphere fungal microflora. However, in both 1997 and 1998, GMM-induced effects were distinct from those of WCS358r and lasted for 40 days in 1997 and for 89 days after sowing in 1998, whereas effects induced by WCS358r were detectable for 12 (1997) or 40 (1998) days. None of the strains affected the metabolic activity of the soil microbial population (substrate-induced respiration), soil nitrification potential, cellulose decomposition, plant height, or plant yield. The results indicate that application of GMMs engineered to have improved antifungal activity can exert nontarget effects on the natural fungal microflora.

  4. Reconciling Mechanistic Hypotheses About Rhizosphere Priming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, W.

    2016-12-01

    Rhizosphere priming on soil organic matter decomposition has emerged as a key mechanism regulating biogeochemnical cycling of carbon, nitrogen and other elements from local to global scales. The level of the rhizosphere priming effect on decomposition rates can be comparable to the levels of controls from soil temperature and moisture conditions. However, our understanding on mechanisms responsible for rhizosphere priming remains rudimentary and controversial. The following individual hypotheses have been postulated in the published literature: (1) microbial activation, (2) microbial community succession, (3) aggregate turnover, (4) nitrogen mining, (5) nutrient competition, (6) preferential substrate utilization, and (7) drying-rewetting. Meshing these hypotheses with existing empirical evidence tends to support a general conclusion: each of these 7 hypotheses represents an aspect of the overall rhizosphere priming complex while the relative contribution by each individual aspect varies depending on the actual plant-soil conditions across time and space.

  5. Identification of a Proteus penneri isolate as the causal agent of red body disease of the cultured white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and its control with Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haipeng; He, Shan; Lu, Liqun; Yang, Xianle; Chen, Baiyao

    2014-02-01

    Bacteriosis has become a major economic problem in the farming of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei. However, no definitive data are available about Proteus penneri infection in cultured P. vannamei and its control. In this study, a virulent strain NC was isolated from diseased P. vannamei suffering from red body disease and identified as a P. penneri isolate through phylogenetic analysis and ATB 32GN system. A phylogenetic constructed tree using the neighbour-joining method identified the NC isolate as a P. penneri strain. In addition, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus conferred significant protection against P. penneri: it exhibited significant bacteriolytic effects on the pathogenic P. penneri, had a wide prey range towards Proteus pathogens, and displayed a good protective efficacy on experimental P. penneri infection in P. vannamei. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of farmed P. vannamei infected with P. penneri and its control with B. bacteriovorus.

  6. Aggregation of the rhizospheric bacterium Azospirillum brasilense in response to oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdoun, Hamid; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Azospirillum brasilense spp. have ecological, scientific and agricultural importance. As model plant growth promoting rhizobacteria they interact with a large variety of plants, including important food and cash crops. Azospirillum strains are known for their production of plant growth hormones that enhance root systems and for their ability to fix nitrogen. Azospirillum cells transform in response to environmental cues. The production of exopolysaccharides and cell aggregation during cellular transformation are important steps in the attachment of Azospirillum to roots. We investigate signals that induce cellular transformation and aggregation in the Azospirillum and report on the importance of oxygen to the process of aggregation in this rhizospheric bacterium.

  7. Application of rhizosphere interaction of hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens to remediate cadmium-contaminated agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Jiang, Rong-Feng; Wang, Wei; Li, Hua-Fen

    2011-10-01

    There is an urgent requirement for selecting appropriate technologies to solve food safety problems due to soil contamination. In this study, the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens and a high Cd accumulator pakchoi cultivar (Brassica rapa L. spp. Chinenesis cv.) were grown in a moderately Cd-contaminated soil with three planting systems (monocrop, inter-crop, and crop-rotation) and three growing durations (25, 50, and 75 days) to study the role of rhizosphere interaction of both species on the uptake of Cd. The Cd accumulations in the shoot of pakchoi were significantly reduced in the inter-crop treatment, also the decreased percentage increased with rhizosphere interaction between the two species. In the inter-crop systems of 75 days, the Cd concentration and amount in the shoot of pakchoi represented 54% and 83% reduction, respectively, while the total depletion of Cd decreased by approximate 19%. Although the Cd concentration and amount in the shoot of pakchoi were significantly reduced by 52% and 44%, respectively, in the crop-rotation treatment, the decreased percentage were markedly lower than in the inter-crop treatment. Therefore, the rhizosphere interaction of hyperaccumulator with non-hyperaccumulator may reduce the risk of vegetable contamination during making full use of or remediating the contaminated soil.

  8. Diversity of Rhizosphere Soil Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Soybean Cultivars under Different Continuous Cropping Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Jie, Weiguang; Liu, Xiaorui; Cai, Baiyan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that continuous cropping in soybean causes substantial changes to the microbial community in rhizosphere soil. In this study, we investigated the effects of continuous cropping for various time periods on the diversity of rhizosphere soil arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in various soybean cultivars at the branching stage. The soybean cultivars Heinong 37 (an intermediate cultivar), Heinong 44 (a high-fat cultivar) and Heinong 48 (a high-protein cultivar) were seeded in a field and continuously cropped for two or three years. We analyzed the diversity of rhizosphere soil AM fungi of these soybean plants at the branching stage using morphological and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. The clustering analysis of unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) was then used to investigate the AM fungal community shifts. The results showed that increasing the number of years of continuous cropping can improve the colonization rate of AM fungi in different soybean cultivars at the branching stage. The dominant AM fungi in the experimental fields were Funneliformismosseae and Glomus spp. The number of years of continuous cropping and the soybean cultivar both had obvious effects on the diversity of AM fungi, which was consistent with the results of colonization rate analysis. This study establishes a basis for screening dominant AM fungi of soybean. In addition, the results of this study may be useful for the development of AM fungal inoculants. PMID:23977368

  9. Dominance of Lysobacter sp. in the rhizosphere of two coastal sand dune plant species, Calystegia soldanella and Elymus mollis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoung Sook; Do, Jin Ok; Park, Myung Soo; Jung, Sera; Lee, Kang Hyun; Bae, Kyung Sook; Park, Seong Joo; Kim, Seung Bum

    2006-07-01

    Bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere of beach morning glory (Calystegia soldanella) and wild rye (Elymus mollis), two of the major plant species inhabiting the coastal sane dune in Tae-An, Korea, was studied by the analysis of community 16S rRNA gene clones. The amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) of the clones using HaeIII exhibited significant differences in the community composition between the two plant species as well as regional differences, but also identified a specific ARDRA pattern that was most common among the clones regardless of plant species. Subsequent sequence analysis indicated that the pattern was that of Lysobacter spp., which is a member of the family Xanthomonadaceae, class Gamma proteobacteria. The Lysobacter clones comprised 50.6% of the clones derived from C. soldanella and 62.5% of those from E. mollis. Other minor patterns included those of Pseudomonas spp., species of Rhizobium, Chryseobacterium spp. and Pantoea spp. among C. soldanella clones, and Pseudomonas sp. and Aeromonas hydrophila among E. mollis clones. It is not yet clear what kind of roles Lysobacter plays in association with sand dune plants, but its universal presence in the rhizosphere, together with the potential of this taxon for antagonistic activity against plant pathogens, suggests that Lysobacter might form a symbiotic relationship with its host plants.

  10. Genome analysis of a simultaneously predatory and prey-independent, novel Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus from the River Tiber, supports in silico predictions of both ancient and recent lateral gene transfer from diverse bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evolution equipped Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus predatory bacteria to invade other bacteria, digesting and replicating, sealed within them thus preventing nutrient-sharing with organisms in the surrounding environment. Bdellovibrio were previously described as “obligate predators” because only by mutations, often in gene bd0108, are 1 in ~1x107 of predatory lab strains of Bdellovibrio converted to prey-independent growth. A previous genomic analysis of B. bacteriovorus strain HD100 suggested that predatory consumption of prey DNA by lytic enzymes made Bdellovibrio less likely than other bacteria to acquire DNA by lateral gene transfer (LGT). However the Doolittle and Pan groups predicted, in silico, both ancient and recent lateral gene transfer into the B. bacteriovorus HD100 genome. Results To test these predictions, we isolated a predatory bacterium from the River Tiber- a good potential source of LGT as it is rich in diverse bacteria and organic pollutants- by enrichment culturing with E. coli prey cells. The isolate was identified as B. bacteriovorus and named as strain Tiberius. Unusually, this Tiberius strain showed simultaneous prey-independent growth on organic nutrients and predatory growth on live prey. Despite the prey-independent growth, the homolog of bd0108 did not have typical prey-independent-type mutations. The dual growth mode may reflect the high carbon content of the river, and gives B. bacteriovorus Tiberius extended non-predatory contact with the other bacteria present. The HD100 and Tiberius genomes were extensively syntenic despite their different cultured-terrestrial/freshly-isolated aquatic histories; but there were significant differences in gene content indicative of genomic flux and LGT. Gene content comparisons support previously published in silico predictions for LGT in strain HD100 with substantial conservation of genes predicted to have ancient LGT origins but little conservation of AT-rich genes predicted to be

  11. Acceleration of nonylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol degradation in sediment by Phragmites australis and associated rhizosphere bacteria.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Tadashi; Murashita, Manabu; Kobayashi, Kazutaka; Kikuchi, Shintaro; Sei, Kazunari; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Ike, Michihiko; Mori, Kazuhiro

    2011-08-01

    We investigated biodegradation of technical nonylphenol (tNP) in Phragmites australis rhizosphere sediment by conducting degradation experiments using sediments spiked with tNP. Accelerated tNP removal was observed in P. australis rhizosphere sediment, whereas tNP persisted in unvegetated sediment without plants and in autoclaved sediment with sterile plants, suggesting that the accelerated tNP removal resulted largely from tNP biodegradation by rhizosphere bacteria. Three bacterial strains, Stenotrophomonas sp. strain IT-1 and Sphingobium spp. strains IT-4 and IT-5, isolated from the rhizosphere were capable of utilizing tNP and 4-tert-octylphenol as a sole carbon source via type II ipso-substitution. Oxygen from P. australis roots, by creating highly oxygenated conditions in the sediment, stimulated cell growth and the tNP-degrading activity of the three strains. Moreover, organic compounds from P. australis roots functioned as carbon and energy sources for two strains, IT-4 and IT-5, supporting cell growth and tNP-degrading activity. Thus, P. australis roots elevated the cell growth and tNP-degrading activity of the three bacterial strains, leading to accelerated tNP removal. These results demonstrate that rhizoremediation of tNP-contaminated sediments using P. australis can be an effective strategy.

  12. Characterization of Bacillus isolates of potato rhizosphere from andean soils of Peru and their potential PGPR characteristics.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Pamela; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Zúñiga, Doris

    2010-10-01

    Bacillus spp. are well known rhizosphere residents of many crops and usually show plant growth promoting (PGP) activities that include biocontrol capacity against some phytopatogenic fungi. Potato crops in the Andean Highlands of Peru face many nutritional and phytophatogenic problems that have a significant impact on production. In this context is important to investigate the natural presence of these microorganisms in the potato rhizosphere and propose a selective screening to find promising PGP strains. In this study, sixty three Bacillus strains isolated from the rhizosphere of native potato varieties growing in the Andean highlands of Peru were screened for in vitro antagonism against Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani. A high prevalence (68%) of antagonists against R. solani was found. Ninety one percent of those strains also inhibited the growth of F. solani. The antagonistic strains were also tested for other plant growth promotion activities. Eighty one percent produced some level of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid, and 58% solubilized tricalcium phosphate. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of the strains belonged to the B. amyloliquefaciens species, while strains Bac17M11, Bac20M1 and Bac20M2 may correspond to a putative new Bacillus species. The results suggested that the rhizosphere of native potatoes growing in their natural habitat in the Andes is a rich source of Bacillus fungal antagonists, which have a potential to be used in the future as PGP inoculants to improve potato crop.

  13. Characterization of Bacillus isolates of potato rhizosphere from andean soils of Peru and their potential PGPR characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Pamela; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Zúñiga, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus spp. are well known rhizosphere residents of many crops and usually show plant growth promoting (PGP) activities that include biocontrol capacity against some phytopatogenic fungi. Potato crops in the Andean Highlands of Peru face many nutritional and phytophatogenic problems that have a significant impact on production. In this context is important to investigate the natural presence of these microorganisms in the potato rhizosphere and propose a selective screening to find promising PGP strains. In this study, sixty three Bacillus strains isolated from the rhizosphere of native potato varieties growing in the Andean highlands of Peru were screened for in vitro antagonism against Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani. A high prevalence (68%) of antagonists against R. solani was found. Ninety one percent of those strains also inhibited the growth of F. solani. The antagonistic strains were also tested for other plant growth promotion activities. Eighty one percent produced some level of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid, and 58% solubilized tricalcium phosphate. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of the strains belonged to the B. amyloliquefaciens species, while strains Bac17M11, Bac20M1 and Bac20M2 may correspond to a putative new Bacillus species. The results suggested that the rhizosphere of native potatoes growing in their natural habitat in the Andes is a rich source of Bacillus fungal antagonists, which have a potential to be used in the future as PGP inoculants to improve potato crop. PMID:24031569

  14. Comparative analysis of cyanobacteria in the rhizosphere and as endosymbionts of cycads in drought-affected soils.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, William S; Neilan, Brett A; Gehringer, Michelle M

    2012-04-01

    Does the diversity of cyanobacteria in the cycad rhizosphere relate to the cyanobiont species found in the coralloid roots of these ancient plants? The aim of this study was to identify the diversity of soil cyanobacteria occurring in the immediate vicinity of 22 colonized coralloid roots belonging to members of the cycad genera: Macrozamia, Lepidozamia, Bowenia and Cycas. The majority of coralloid roots were sampled at depths > 10 cm below the soil surface. A total of 32 cyanobacterial isolates were cultured and their 16S rRNA gene partially sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed nine operational taxonomic units of soil cyanobacteria comprising 30 Nostoc spp., a Tolypothrix sp. and a Leptolyngbya sp. Microscopy indicated that all isolates were unialgal and confirmed their genus identity. Rhizospheric diversity was compared to existing data on cyanobionts isolated at the same time from the cycad coralloid root. The same isolate was present in both the cycad coralloid root and rhizosphere at only six sites. Phylogenetic evidence indicates that most rhizosphere isolates were distinct from root cyanobionts. This weak relationship between the soil cyanobacteria and cycad cyanobionts might indicate that changes in the soil community composition are due to environmental factors.

  15. Buffet hypothesis for microbial nutrition at the rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    López-Guerrero, Martha G.; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rosenblueth, Mónica; Martinez-Romero, Julio; Martïnez-Romero, Esperanza

    2013-01-01

    An emphasis is made on the diversity of nutrients that rhizosphere bacteria may encounter derived from roots, soil, decaying organic matter, seeds, or the microbial community. This nutrient diversity may be considered analogous to a buffet and is contrasting to the hypothesis of oligotrophy at the rhizosphere. Different rhizosphere bacteria may have preferences for some substrates and this would allow a complex community to be established at the rhizosphere. To profit from diverse nutrients, root-associated bacteria should have large degrading capabilities and many transporters (seemingly inducible) that may be encoded in a significant proportion of the large genomes that root-associated bacteria have. Rhizosphere microbes may have a tendency to evolve toward generalists. We propose that many genes with unknown function may encode enzymes that participate in degrading diverse rhizosphere substrates. Knowledge of bacterial genes required for nutrition at the rhizosphere will help to make better use of bacteria as plant-growth promoters in agriculture. PMID:23785373

  16. Pyrosequencing assessment of rhizosphere fungal communities from a soybean field.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Ueda, Yoshikatsu; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2014-10-01

    Soil fungal communities play essential roles in soil ecosystems, affecting plant growth and health. Rhizosphere bacterial communities have been shown to undergo dynamic changes during plant growth. This study utilized 454 pyrosequencing to analyze rhizosphere fungal communities during soybean growth. Members of the Ascomycota and Basiodiomycota dominated in all soils. There were no statistically significant changes at the phylum level among growth stages or between bulk and rhizosphere soils. In contrast, the relative abundance of small numbers of operational taxonomic units, 4 during growth and 28 between bulk and rhizosphere soils, differed significantly. Clustering analysis revealed that rhizosphere fungal communities were different from bulk fungal communities during growth stages of soybeans. Taken together, these results suggest that in contrast to rhizosphere bacterial communities, most constituents of rhizosphere fungal communities remained stable during soybean growth.

  17. Methane Oxidation and the Competition for Oxygen in the Rice Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    van Bodegom, Peter; Stams, Fons; Mollema, Liesbeth; Boeke, Sara; Leffelaar, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A mechanistic approach is presented to describe oxidation of the greenhouse gas methane in the rice rhizosphere of flooded paddies by obligate methanotrophic bacteria. In flooded rice paddies these methanotrophs compete for available O2 with other types of bacteria. Soil incubation studies and most-probable-number (MPN) counts of oxygen consumers show that microbial oxygen consumption rates were dominated by heterotrophic and methanotrophic respiration. MPN counts of methanotrophs showed large spatial and temporal variability. The most abundant methanotrophs (a Methylocystis sp.) and heterotrophs (a Pseudomonas sp. and a Rhodococcus sp.) were isolated and characterized. Growth dynamics of these bacteria under carbon and oxygen limitations are presented. Theoretical calculations based on measured growth dynamics show that methanotrophs were only able to outcompete heterotrophs at low oxygen concentrations (frequently <5 μM). The oxygen concentration at which methanotrophs won the competition from heterotrophs did not depend on methane concentration, but it was highly affected by organic carbon concentrations in the paddy soil. Methane oxidation was severely inhibited at high acetate concentrations. This is in accordance with competition experiments between Pseudomonas spp. and Methylocystis spp. carried out at different oxygen and carbon concentrations. Likely, methane oxidation mainly occurs at microaerophilic and low-acetate conditions and thus not directly at the root surface. Acetate and oxygen concentrations in the rice rhizosphere are in the critical range for methane oxidation, and a high variability in methane oxidation rates is thus expected. PMID:11472935

  18. Rice Bran Amendment Suppresses Potato Common Scab by Increasing Antagonistic Bacterial Community Levels in the Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Tomihama, Tsuyoshi; Nishi, Yatsuka; Mori, Kiyofumi; Shirao, Tsukasa; Iida, Toshiya; Uzuhashi, Shihomi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Ikeda, Seishi

    2016-07-01

    Potato common scab (PCS), caused by pathogenic Streptomyces spp., is a serious disease in potato production worldwide. Cultural practices, such as optimizing the soil pH and irrigation, are recommended but it is often difficult to establish stable disease reductions using these methods. Traditionally, local farmers in southwest Japan have amended soils with rice bran (RB) to suppress PCS. However, the scientific mechanism underlying disease suppression by RB has not been elucidated. The present study showed that RB amendment reduced PCS by repressing the pathogenic Streptomyces population in young tubers. Amplicon sequencing analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA genes from the rhizosphere microbiome revealed that RB amendment dramatically changed bacterial composition and led to an increase in the relative abundance of gram-positive bacteria such as Streptomyces spp., and this was negatively correlated with PCS disease severity. Most actinomycete isolates derived from the RB-amended soil showed antagonistic activity against pathogenic Streptomyces scabiei and S. turgidiscabies on R2A medium. Some of the Streptomyces isolates suppressed PCS when they were inoculated onto potato plants in a field experiment. These results suggest that RB amendment increases the levels of antagonistic bacteria against PCS pathogens in the potato rhizosphere.

  19. Does a rhizospheric microorganism enhance K⁺ availability in agricultural soils?

    PubMed

    Meena, Vijay Singh; Maurya, B R; Verma, Jay Prakash

    2014-01-01

    The potassium solubilizing microorganisms (KSMs) are a rhizospheric microorganism which solubilizes the insoluble potassium (K) to soluble forms of K for plant growth and yield. K-solubilization is carried out by a large number of saprophytic bacteria (Bacillus mucilaginosus, Bacillus edaphicus, Bacillus circulans, Acidothiobacillus ferrooxidans, Paenibacillus spp.) and fungal strains (Aspergillus spp. and Aspergillus terreus). Major amounts of K containing minerals (muscovite, orthoclase, biotite, feldspar, illite, mica) are present in the soil as a fixed form which is not directly taken up by the plant. Nowadays most of the farmers use injudicious application of chemical fertilizers for achieving maximum productivity. However, the KSMs are most important microorganisms for solubilizing of fixed form of K in soil system. The KSMs are an indigenous rhizospheric microorganism which shows effective interaction between soil and plant systems. The main mechanism of KSMs is acidolysis, chelation, exchange reactions, complexolysis and production of organic acid. According to literature, currently negligible use of potassium fertilizer as a chemical form has been recorded in agriculture for enhancing crop yield. Most of the farmers use only nitrogen and phosphorus and not use the K fertilizer due to unawareness so that the problem of K deficiency occurs in rhizospheric soils. The K fertilizer is also costly as compared to other chemical fertilizers. Therefore, the efficient KSMs should be applied for solubilization of a fixed form of K to an available form of K in the soils. This available K can be easily taken up by the plant for growth and development. Our aim of this review is to elaborate on the studies of indigenous K-solubilizing microbes to develop efficient microbial consortia for solubilization of K in soil which enhances the plant growth and yield of crops. This review highlights the future need for research on potassium (K) in agriculture.

  20. The structure of an unconventional HD-GYP protein from Bdellovibrio reveals the roles of conserved residues in this class of cyclic-di-GMP phosphodiesterases.

    PubMed

    Lovering, Andrew L; Capeness, Michael J; Lambert, Carey; Hobley, Laura; Sockett, R Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Cyclic-di-GMP is a near-ubiquitous bacterial second messenger that is important in localized signal transmission during the control of various processes, including virulence and switching between planktonic and biofilm-based lifestyles. Cyclic-di-GMP is synthesized by GGDEF diguanylate cyclases and hydrolyzed by EAL or HD-GYP phosphodiesterases, with each functional domain often appended to distinct sensory modules. HD-GYP domain proteins have resisted structural analysis, but here we present the first structural representative of this family (1.28 Å), obtained using the unusual Bd1817 HD-GYP protein from the predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. Bd1817 lacks the active-site tyrosine present in most HD-GYP family members yet remains an excellent model of their features, sharing 48% sequence similarity with the archetype RpfG. The protein structure is highly modular and thus provides a basis for delineating domain boundaries in other stimulus-dependent homologues. Conserved residues in the HD-GYP family cluster around a binuclear metal center, which is observed complexed to a molecule of phosphate, providing information on the mode of hydroxide ion attack on substrate. The fold and active site of the HD-GYP domain are different from those of EAL proteins, and restricted access to the active-site cleft is indicative of a different mode of activity regulation. The region encompassing the GYP motif has a novel conformation and is surface exposed and available for complexation with binding partners, including GGDEF proteins. It is becoming apparent that many bacteria use the signaling molecule cyclic-di-GMP to regulate a variety of processes, most notably, transitions between motility and sessility. Importantly, this regulation is central to several traits implicated in chronic disease (adhesion, biofilm formation, and virulence gene expression). The mechanisms of cyclic-di-GMP synthesis via GGDEF enzymes and hydrolysis via EAL enzymes have been suggested by

  1. Biological characterization of two marine Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms isolated from Daya bay of Shenzhen, China and their application in the elimination of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oyster.

    PubMed

    Li, Huanhuan; Liu, Chunjiao; Chen, Liyun; Zhang, Xuemei; Cai, Junpeng

    2011-11-15

    Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALOs) are a group of highly motile delta-proteobacteria that prey on other gram-negative bacteria. However, nothing is known of the application potential of marine BALOs in safeguarding seafood safety. Here, biological characterization of two marine BALOs strains and their application in the elimination of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oyster (Crassostrea ariakensis) at the laboratory scale were investigated. BALOs strains BDH12 and BDHSH06 were isolated from sediment of Daya bay in Shenzhen of China, with Shewanella putrefaciens strain 12 and V. parahaemolyticus strain SH06 as preys, respectively, when using double layer agar technique. They were identified as BALOs morphologically by transmission electron microscopy, while partial 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed that they showed no close relationships with members of the known genera Bdellovibrio, Bacteriolyticum, Bacteriovorax, or Peredibacter. Biological characterizations revealed that both strains had the optimal pH, salinity and temperature at 7.2, 3% and 30 °C, correspondingly. They could not utilize autoclaved, dead cells as hosts. Prey range analysis revealed that individually, BDH12 and BDHSH06 lysed 82.5% (47 strains) and 84.2% (48 strains) of the total 57 preys tested respectively. In combination, they lysed 98.2% (56 of 57) strains. All strains of V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio alginolyticus tested could be lysed by both strains. A 7-day laboratory-scale V. parahaemolyticus elimination experiment in oyster showed that in the control, the cell counts of total vibrios and V. parahaemolyticus strain Vp plus in water and in oyster intestines were on the rise, whereas in the BALOs treated groups, their numbers were down from 8.09±0.05 log CFU/ml and 8.02±0.04 log CFU/ml to 2.39±0.01 log CFU/ml and 2.33±0.01 log CFU/ml, respectively. The same patterns could also be observed in oyster intestines. Results of this study indicate the feasibility of using

  2. Different responses of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil microbial communities to consecutive Piper nigrum L. monoculture

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhigang; Zu, Chao; Wang, Can; Yang, Jianfeng; Yu, Huan; Wu, Huasong

    2016-01-01

    Soil microorganisms have important influences on plant growth and health. In this study, four black pepper fields consecutively monocultured for 12, 18, 28 and 38 years were selected for investigating the effect of planting age on rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil microbial communities and soil physicochemical properties. The results revealed that the relative abundance of the dominant bacterial phyla in rhizosphere soil increased considerably with long-term consecutive monoculture but decreased in non-rhizosphere soil with a significant decline in Firmicutes. For fungi, an increasing trend over time was observed in both rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils, with the abundance of the pathogenic fungi Fusarium increasing significantly accompanied by a decrease in the bacteria Pseudomonas and Bacillus that is beneficial for black pepper. Consecutive monoculture, especially for 38 years, considerably decreased soil microbial diversity. Additionally, the rhizosphere soil pH and organic matter and available K contents decreased with increasing planting duration, though available N and P increased. All soil nutrient contents and microbial diversity indices were higher in rhizosphere soil compared to non-rhizosphere soil. The results suggest that long-term consecutive monoculture leads to variations in soil microbial community composition and physicochemical properties in both rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils, thus inhibiting the black pepper growth. PMID:27775000

  3. Different responses of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil microbial communities to consecutive Piper nigrum L. monoculture.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Zu, Chao; Wang, Can; Yang, Jianfeng; Yu, Huan; Wu, Huasong

    2016-10-24

    Soil microorganisms have important influences on plant growth and health. In this study, four black pepper fields consecutively monocultured for 12, 18, 28 and 38 years were selected for investigating the effect of planting age on rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil microbial communities and soil physicochemical properties. The results revealed that the relative abundance of the dominant bacterial phyla in rhizosphere soil increased considerably with long-term consecutive monoculture but decreased in non-rhizosphere soil with a significant decline in Firmicutes. For fungi, an increasing trend over time was observed in both rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils, with the abundance of the pathogenic fungi Fusarium increasing significantly accompanied by a decrease in the bacteria Pseudomonas and Bacillus that is beneficial for black pepper. Consecutive monoculture, especially for 38 years, considerably decreased soil microbial diversity. Additionally, the rhizosphere soil pH and organic matter and available K contents decreased with increasing planting duration, though available N and P increased. All soil nutrient contents and microbial diversity indices were higher in rhizosphere soil compared to non-rhizosphere soil. The results suggest that long-term consecutive monoculture leads to variations in soil microbial community composition and physicochemical properties in both rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils, thus inhibiting the black pepper growth.

  4. Peudomonas fluorescens diversity and abundance in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amina, Melinai; Ahmed, Bensoltane; Khaladi, Mederbel

    2010-05-01

    It is now over 30 years since that a several plant associated strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. are known to produce antimicrobial metabolites, playing a significant role in the biological control of a lot of plant diseases. For that, the interest in the use of these bacteria for biocontrol of plant pathogenic agents has increased. However, few comprehensive studies have described the abundance of this soil borne bacteria in the region of Mascara (Northern-Algerian West). In the connection of this problem, this work was done by monitoring the number of indigenous Pseudomonas fluorescens organisms in three stations characterizing different ecosystems, to document their abundance, diversity and investigate the relationship between P. fluorescens abundance and soil properties. Our quantitative plate counting results hence the conception of their ecology in the rhizosphere. Thus, quantitative results has confirmed that P. fluorescens are successful root colonizers with strong predominance and competed for many ecological niche, where their distribution were correlated significantly (P<0.05) with the majority of soil properties. Keywords: P. Fluorescens, Ecosystems, Abundance, Diversity, Correlated, Soil Properties.

  5. Rhizosphere biophysics and root water uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carminati, Andrea; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Ahmed, Mutez A.; Passioura, John

    2016-04-01

    The flow of water into the roots and the (putative) presence of a large resistance at the root-soil interface have attracted the attention of plant and soil scientists for decades. Such resistance has been attributed to a partial contact between roots and soil, large gradients in soil matric potential around the roots, or accumulation of solutes at the root surface creating a negative osmotic potential. Our hypothesis is that roots are capable of altering the biophysical properties of the soil around the roots, the rhizosphere, facilitating root water uptake in dry soils. In particular, we expect that root hairs and mucilage optimally connect the roots to the soil maintaining the hydraulic continuity across the rhizosphere. Using a pressure chamber apparatus we measured the relation between transpiration rate and the water potential difference between soil and leaf xylem during drying cycles in barley mutants with and without root hairs. The samples were grown in well structured soils. At low soil moistures and high transpiration rates, large drops in water potential developed around the roots. These drops in water potential recovered very slowly, even after transpiration was severely decreased. The drops in water potential were much bigger in barley mutants without root hairs. These mutants failed to sustain high transpiration rates in dry conditions. To explain the nature of such drops in water potential across the rhizosphere we performed high resolution neutron tomography of the rhizosphere of the barleys with and without root hairs growing in the same soil described above. The tomograms suggested that the hydraulic contact between the soil structures was the highest resistance for the water flow in dry conditions. The tomograms also indicate that root hairs and mucilage improved the hydraulic contact between roots and soil structures. At high transpiration rates and low water contents, roots extracted water from the rhizosphere, while the bulk soil, due its

  6. New Methods To Unravel Rhizosphere Processes.

    PubMed

    Oburger, Eva; Schmidt, Hannes

    2016-03-01

    Root-triggered processes (growth, uptake and release of solutes) vary in space and time, and interact with heterogeneous soil microenvironments that provide habitats for (micro)biota on various scales. Despite tremendous progress in method development in the past decades, finding a suitable experimental set-up to investigate processes occurring at the dynamic conjunction of biosphere, hydrosphere, and pedosphere in the close vicinity of active plant roots still represents a major challenge. We discuss recent methodological developments in rhizosphere research with a focus on imaging techniques. We further review established concepts that have been updated with novel techniques, highlighting the need for combinatorial approaches to disentangle rhizosphere processes on relevant scales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dissipation gradients of phenanthrene and pyrene in the Rice rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y; Wu, S C; Yu, X Z; Wong, M H

    2010-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to reveal the effects of rice cultivation as well as polycyclic aromatic carbohydrates (PAHs) degrading bacterium (Acinetobacter sp.) on the dissipation gradients of two PAHs (PHE and PYR) in the rhizosphere. The results showed that the presence of rice root and bacteria significantly accelerated the dissipation rate of PHE and PYR. The root exudates contributed to the formation of dissipation gradients of PHE and PYR along the vertical direction of roots, with a higher dissipation rate in the rhizosphere and near rhizosphere zone than the soil far away the rhizosphere.

  8. Functional Potential of Soil Microbial Communities in the Maize Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jingbo; Li, Jiabao; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Yannarell, Anthony C.; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities in the rhizosphere make significant contributions to crop health and nutrient cycling. However, their ability to perform important biogeochemical processes remains uncharacterized. Here, we identified important functional genes that characterize the rhizosphere microbial community to understand metabolic capabilities in the maize rhizosphere using the GeoChip-based functional gene array method. Significant differences in functional gene structure were apparent between rhizosphere and bulk soil microbial communities. Approximately half of the detected gene families were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the rhizosphere. Based on the detected gyrB genes, Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria were most enriched in the rhizosphere compared to those in the bulk soil. The rhizosphere niche also supported greater functional diversity in catabolic pathways. The maize rhizosphere had significantly enriched genes involved in carbon fixation and degradation (especially for hemicelluloses, aromatics and lignin), nitrogen fixation, ammonification, denitrification, polyphosphate biosynthesis and degradation, sulfur reduction and oxidation. This research demonstrates that the maize rhizosphere is a hotspot of genes, mostly originating from dominant soil microbial groups such as Proteobacteria, providing functional capacity for the transformation of labile and recalcitrant organic C, N, P and S compounds. PMID:25383887

  9. Taxonomical and functional microbial community selection in soybean rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Lucas W; Kuramae, Eiko E; Navarrete, Acácio A; van Veen, Johannes A; Tsai, Siu M

    2014-08-01

    This study addressed the selection of the rhizospheric microbial community from the bulk soil reservoir under agricultural management of soybean in Amazon forest soils. We used a shotgun metagenomics approach to investigate the taxonomic and functional diversities of microbial communities in the bulk soil and in the rhizosphere of soybean plants and tested the validity of neutral and niche theories to explain the rhizosphere community assembly processes. Our results showed a clear selection at both taxonomic and functional levels operating in the assembly of the soybean rhizosphere community. The taxonomic analysis revealed that the rhizosphere community is a subset of the bulk soil community. Species abundance in rhizosphere fits the log-normal distribution model, which is an indicator of the occurrence of niche-based processes. In addition, the data indicate that the rhizosphere community is selected based on functional cores related to the metabolisms of nitrogen, iron, phosphorus and potassium, which are related to benefits to the plant, such as growth promotion and nutrition. The network analysis including bacterial groups and functions was less complex in rhizosphere, suggesting the specialization of some specific metabolic pathways. We conclude that the assembly of the microbial community in the rhizosphere is based on niche-based processes as a result of the selection power of the plant and other environmental factors.

  10. Taxonomical and functional microbial community selection in soybean rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Lucas W; Kuramae, Eiko E; Navarrete, Acácio A; van Veen, Johannes A; Tsai, Siu M

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed the selection of the rhizospheric microbial community from the bulk soil reservoir under agricultural management of soybean in Amazon forest soils. We used a shotgun metagenomics approach to investigate the taxonomic and functional diversities of microbial communities in the bulk soil and in the rhizosphere of soybean plants and tested the validity of neutral and niche theories to explain the rhizosphere community assembly processes. Our results showed a clear selection at both taxonomic and functional levels operating in the assembly of the soybean rhizosphere community. The taxonomic analysis revealed that the rhizosphere community is a subset of the bulk soil community. Species abundance in rhizosphere fits the log-normal distribution model, which is an indicator of the occurrence of niche-based processes. In addition, the data indicate that the rhizosphere community is selected based on functional cores related to the metabolisms of nitrogen, iron, phosphorus and potassium, which are related to benefits to the plant, such as growth promotion and nutrition. The network analysis including bacterial groups and functions was less complex in rhizosphere, suggesting the specialization of some specific metabolic pathways. We conclude that the assembly of the microbial community in the rhizosphere is based on niche-based processes as a result of the selection power of the plant and other environmental factors. PMID:24553468

  11. Functional potential of soil microbial communities in the maize rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangzhen; Rui, Junpeng; Xiong, Jingbo; Li, Jiabao; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Yannarell, Anthony C; Mackie, Roderick I

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities in the rhizosphere make significant contributions to crop health and nutrient cycling. However, their ability to perform important biogeochemical processes remains uncharacterized. Here, we identified important functional genes that characterize the rhizosphere microbial community to understand metabolic capabilities in the maize rhizosphere using the GeoChip-based functional gene array method. Significant differences in functional gene structure were apparent between rhizosphere and bulk soil microbial communities. Approximately half of the detected gene families were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the rhizosphere. Based on the detected gyrB genes, Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria were most enriched in the rhizosphere compared to those in the bulk soil. The rhizosphere niche also supported greater functional diversity in catabolic pathways. The maize rhizosphere had significantly enriched genes involved in carbon fixation and degradation (especially for hemicelluloses, aromatics and lignin), nitrogen fixation, ammonification, denitrification, polyphosphate biosynthesis and degradation, sulfur reduction and oxidation. This research demonstrates that the maize rhizosphere is a hotspot of genes, mostly originating from dominant soil microbial groups such as Proteobacteria, providing functional capacity for the transformation of labile and recalcitrant organic C, N, P and S compounds.

  12. Isolation of Acanthamoeba from the rhizosphere of maize and lucerne plants.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Erika; Farkas, Agnes; Ködöböcz, László; Becságh, Péter; Danka, József; Kucsera, István; Füleky, György

    2013-03-01

    Acanthamoeba species are free-living amoebae that can be found in almost every range of environments. Within this genus, a number of species are recognized as human pathogens, potentially causing Acanthamoeba keratitis, granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, and chronic granulomatous lesions. Soil and water samples were taken from experimental station at Julianna Major of Plant Protection Institute of Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (CAR HAS). We detected living Acanthamoeba spp. based on culture-confirmed detection combined with the molecular taxonomic identification method. Living Acanthamoeba spp. were detected in thirteen (65%) samples. The presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in the samples depends significantly on the rhizosphere plants. The most frequently identified living Acanthamoeba genotype was T4 followed by T11, T2/T6 and T17. Genotypes T4 and T11 of Acanthamoeba, are responsible for Acanthamoeba keratitis as well as granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, and should therefore be considered as a potential health risk associated with human activities in the environment.

  13. Geochemical control of microbial Fe(III) reduction potential in wetlands: Comparison of the rhizosphere to non-rhizosphere soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiss, J.V.; Emerson, D.; Megonigal, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    We compared the reactivity and microbial reduction potential of Fe(III) minerals in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil to test the hypothesis that rapid Fe(III) reduction rates in wetland soils are explained by rhizosphere processes. The rhizosphere was defined as the area immediately adjacent to a root encrusted with Fe(III)-oxides or Fe plaque, and non-rhizosphere soil was 0.5 cm from the root surface. The rhizosphere had a significantly higher percentage of poorly crystalline Fe (66??7%) than non-rhizosphere soil (23??7%); conversely, non-rhizosphere soil had a significantly higher proportion of crystalline Fe (50??7%) than the rhizosphere (18??7%, P<0.05 in all cases). The percentage of poorly crystalline Fe(III) was significantly correlated with the percentage of FeRB (r=0.76), reflecting the fact that poorly crystalline Fe(III) minerals are labile with respect to microbial reduction. Abiotic reductive dissolution consumed about 75% of the rhizosphere Fe(III)-oxide pool in 4 h compared to 23% of the soil Fe(III)-oxide pool. Similarly, microbial reduction consumed 75-80% of the rhizosphere pool in 10 days compared to 30-40% of the non-rhizosphere soil pool. Differences between the two pools persisted when samples were amended with an electron-shuttling compound (AQDS), an Fe(III)-reducing bacterium (Geobacter metallireducens), and organic carbon. Thus, Fe(III)-oxide mineralogy contributed strongly to differences in the Fe(III) reduction potential of the two pools. Higher amounts of poorly crystalline Fe(III) and possibly humic substances, and a higher Fe(III) reduction potential in the rhizosphere compared to the non-rhizosphere soil, suggested the rhizosphere is a site of unusually active microbial Fe cycling. The results were consistent with previous speculation that rapid Fe cycling in wetlands is due to the activity of wetland plant roots. ?? 2004 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bacterial quorum sensing and nitrogen cycling in rhizosphere soil

    SciTech Connect

    DeAngelis, K.M.; Lindow, S.E.; Firestone, M.K.

    2008-10-01

    Plant photosynthate fuels carbon-limited microbial growth and activity, resulting in increased rhizosphere nitrogen (N)-mineralization. Most soil organic N is macromolecular (chitin, protein, nucleotides); enzymatic depolymerization is likely rate-limiting for plant N accumulation. Analyzing Avena (wild oat) planted in microcosms containing sieved field soil, we observed increased rhizosphere chitinase and protease specific activities, bacterial cell densities, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compared to bulk soil. Low-molecular weight DON (<3000 Da) was undetectable in bulk soil but comprised 15% of rhizosphere DON. Extracellular enzyme production in many bacteria requires quorum sensing (QS), cell-density dependent group behavior. Because proteobacteria are considered major rhizosphere colonizers, we assayed the proteobacterial QS signals acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), which were significantly increased in the rhizosphere. To investigate the linkage between soil signaling and N cycling, we characterized 533 bacterial isolates from Avena rhizosphere: 24% had chitinase or protease activity and AHL production; disruption of QS in 7 of 8 eight isolates disrupted enzyme activity. Many {alpha}-Proteobacteria were newly found with QS-controlled extracellular enzyme activity. Enhanced specific activities of N-cycling enzymes accompanied by bacterial density-dependent behaviors in rhizosphere soil gives rise to the hypothesis that QS could be a control point in the complex process of rhizosphere N-mineralization.

  15. Bacterial Abilities and Adaptation Toward the Rhizosphere Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Lucas D.; Pereira e Silva, Michele de Cássia; Andreote, Fernando D.

    2016-01-01

    The rhizosphere harbors one of the most complex, diverse, and active plant-associated microbial communities. This community can be recruited by the plant host to either supply it with nutrients or to help in the survival under stressful conditions. Although selection for the rhizosphere community is evident, the specific bacterial traits that make them able to colonize this environment are still poorly understood. Thus, here we used a combination of community level physiological profile (CLPP) analysis and 16S rRNA gene quantification and sequencing (coupled with in silico analysis and metagenome prediction), to get insights on bacterial features and processes involved in rhizosphere colonization of sugarcane. CLPP revealed a higher metabolic activity in the rhizosphere compared to bulk soil, and suggested that D-galacturonic acid plays a role in bacterial selection by the plant roots (supported by results of metagenome prediction). Quantification of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed the higher abundance of bacteria in the rhizosphere. Sequence analysis showed that of the 252 classified families sampled, 24 were significantly more abundant in the bulk soil and 29 were more abundant in the rhizosphere. Furthermore, metagenomes predicted from the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a significant higher abundance of predicted genes associated with biofilm formation and with horizontal gene transfer (HGT) processes. In sum, this study identified major bacterial groups and their potential abilities to occupy the sugarcane rhizosphere, and indicated that polygalacturonase activity and HGT events may be important features for rhizosphere colonization. PMID:27610108

  16. Arsenic in the rhizosphere soil solution of ferns.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chaoyang; Zheng, Huan; Yu, Jiangping

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the evidence of arsenic hyperaccumulation in plant rhizosphere solutions. Six common fern plants were selected and grown in three types of substrate: arsenic (As) -tailings, As-spiked soil, and soil-As-tailing composites. A rhizobox was designed with an in-situ collection of soil solutions to analyze changes in the As concentration and valence as well as the pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total nitrogen (TN). Arsenite composed less than 20% of the total As, and As depletion was consistent with N depletion in the rhizosphere solutions of the various treatments. The As concentrations in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere solutions in the presence of plants were lower than in the respective controls without plants, except for in the As-spiked soils. The DOC concentrations were invariably higher in the rhizosphere versus non-rhizosphere solutions from the various plants; however, no significant increase in the DOC content was observed in Pteris vittata, in which only a slight decrease in pH appeared in the rhizosphere compared to non-rhizosphere solutions. The results showed that As reduction by plant roots was limited, acidification-induced solubilization was not the mechanism for As hyperaccumulation.

  17. Enhancement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in the rhizosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.C.; Banks, M.K.; Schwab, A.P.

    1994-12-31

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of potentially hazardous chemicals that exhibit toxic, mutagenic or carcinogenic properties. Microbial degradation is the major route through which PAHs are removed from contaminated environments although other mechanisms such as volatilization, leaching and photodegradation may also be effective. The rhizosphere contains a diversity of microorganisms that contribute to plant health and soil homeostasis. Recent studies indicate that microorganisms in the rhizosphere can degrade toxicants of concern to human health and the environment. The increased density and diversity of rhizosphere microflora may be an important factor for enhanced microbial degradation of PAHs. The objective of this study is to evaluate degradation of a number of different PAHs in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil. It has been shown that the biodegradation rates of PAHs increase as the number of PAH rings decrease, but there is little information about the biodegradation in rhizosphere soil. The study will provide results from a microcosm experiment designed to evaluate degradation of PAHs in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere. Also, kinetic models will be developed to represent data collected.

  18. Microbial Community Structure in the Rhizosphere of Rice Plants

    PubMed Central

    Breidenbach, Björn; Pump, Judith; Dumont, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    The microbial community in the rhizosphere environment is critical for the health of land plants and the processing of soil organic matter. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which rice plants shape the microbial community in rice field soil over the course of a growing season. Rice (Oryza sativa) was cultivated under greenhouse conditions in rice field soil from Vercelli, Italy and the microbial community in the rhizosphere of planted soil microcosms was characterized at four plant growth stages using quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analysis and compared to that of unplanted bulk soil. The abundances of 16S rRNA genes in the rice rhizosphere were on average twice that of unplanted bulk soil, indicating a stimulation of microbial growth in the rhizosphere. Soil environment type (i.e., rhizosphere versus bulk soil) had a greater effect on the community structure than did time (e.g., plant growth stage). Numerous phyla were affected by the presence of rice plants, but the strongest effects were observed for Gemmatimonadetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. With respect to functional groups of microorganisms, potential iron reducers (e.g., Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter) and fermenters (e.g., Clostridiaceae, Opitutaceae) were notably enriched in the rhizosphere environment. A Herbaspirillum species was always more abundant in the rhizosphere than bulk soil and was enriched in the rhizosphere during the early stage of plant growth. PMID:26793175

  19. Biological control of potato black scurf by rhizosphere associated bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Mohsin; Yasmin, Sumera; Hafeez, Fauzia Y.

    2010-01-01

    The present work was carried out to study the potential of plant rhizosphere associated bacteria for the biocontrol of potato black scurf disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Khun AG-3. A total of twenty-eight bacteria isolated from diseased and healthy potato plants grown in the soil of Naran and Faisalabad, Pakistan were evaluated for their antagonistic potential. Nine bacterial strains were found to be antagonistic in vitro, reduced the fungal growth and caused the lysis of sclerotia of R. solani in dual culture assay as well as in extracellular metabolite efficacy test. The selected antagonistic strains were further tested for the production and efficacy of volatile and diffusible antibiotics, lytic enzymes and siderophores against R. solani. Selected antagonistic bacteria were also characterized for growth promoting attributes i.e., phosphate solubilization, nitrogen fixation and indole acetic acid production. Biocontrol efficacy and percent yield increase by these antagonists was estimated in greenhouse experiment. Statistical analysis showed that two Pseudomonas spp. StT2 and StS3 were the most effective with 65.1 and 73.9 percent biocontrol efficacy, as well as 87.3 and 98.3 percent yield increase, respectively. Potential antagonistic bacterial strain StS3 showed maximum homology to Pseudomonas sp. as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These results suggest that bacterial isolates StS3 and StT2 have excellent potential to be used as effective biocontrol agents promoting plant growth with reduced disease incidence. PMID:24031515

  20. Early rhizosphere microbiome composition is related to the growth and Zn uptake of willows introduced to a former landfill.

    PubMed

    Bell, Terrence H; Cloutier-Hurteau, Benoît; Al-Otaibi, Fahad; Turmel, Marie-Claude; Yergeau, Etienne; Courchesne, François; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2015-08-01

    Although plants introduced for site restoration are pre-selected for specific traits (e.g. trace element bioaccumulation, rapid growth in poor soils), the in situ success of these plants likely depends on the recruitment of appropriate rhizosphere microorganisms from their new environment. We introduced three willow (Salix spp.) cultivars to a contaminated landfill, and performed soil chemical analyses, plant measurements, and Ion Torrent sequencing of rhizospheric fungal and bacterial communities at 4 and 16 months post-planting. The abundance of certain dominant fungi was linked to willow accumulation of Zn, the most abundant trace element at the site. Interestingly, total Zn accumulation was better explained by fungal community structure 4 months post-planting than 16 months post-planting, suggesting that initial microbial recruitment may be critical. In addition, when the putative ectomycorrhizal fungi Sphaerosporella brunnea and Inocybe sp. dominated the rhizosphere 4 months post-planting, Zn accumulation efficiency was negatively correlated with fungal diversity. Although field studies such as this rely on correlation, these results suggest that the soil microbiome may have the greatest impact on plant function during the early stages of growth, and that plant-fungus specificity may be essential.

  1. Effect of Root Agglutinin on Microbial Activities in the Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Wei-Liang; Li, Ren-Ki; Chang, Wen-Teh

    1988-01-01

    A total of 220 bacterial isolates were obtained from pea rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere samples. Of these samples, 100 isolates were chosen randomly to test for their agglutinative reaction against pea root exudate. The percentage of positive agglutination of bacteria isolated from the nonrhizosphere sample was significantly lower than that of bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere sample. Moreover, this agglutinative reaction could not be blocked either by treating the bacterial cells or root exudate with different carbohydrates before they were mixed or by boiling the root exudate first. Bacteria that could be agglutinated by pea root exudate followed the downward growth of the pea root through the soil profile. The greater abilities of such bacteria to colonize the pea rhizosphere were indicated by their higher rhizosphere-colonizing (rhizosphere/nonrhizosphere) ratios, whether the bacteria were added alone or together with nonagglutinating bacteria. However, bacteria did show different agglutinative reactions toward root exudates obtained from different plants. PMID:16347694

  2. Phosphate Solubilization Potential of Rhizosphere Fungi Isolated from Plants in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Firew

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the major bioelements limiting agricultural production. Phosphate solubilizing fungi play a noteworthy role in increasing the bioavailability of soil phosphates for plants. The present study was aimed at isolating and characterizing phosphate solubilizing fungi from different rhizospheres using both solid and liquid Pikovskaya (PVK) medium. A total of 359 fungal isolates were obtained from 150 rhizosphere soil samples of haricot bean, faba bean, cabbage, tomato, and sugarcane. Among the isolates, 167 (46.52%) solubilized inorganic phosphate. The isolated phosphate solubilizing fungi belonged to genera of Aspergillus (55.69%), Penicillium spp. (23.35%), and Fusarium (9.58%). Solubilization index (SI) ranged from 1.10 to 3.05. Isolates designated as JUHbF95 (Aspergillus sp.) and JUFbF59 (Penicillium sp.) solubilized maximum amount of P 728.77 μg·mL−1 and 514.44 μg mL−1, respectively, from TCP (tricalcium phosphate) after 15 days of incubation. The highest (363 μg mL−1) soluble-P was released from RP with the inoculation of JUHbF95 in the PVK broth after 10 days of incubation. The present study indicated the presence of diverse plant associated P-solubilizing fungi that may serve as potential biofertilizers. PMID:27688771

  3. Phosphate Solubilization Potential of Rhizosphere Fungi Isolated from Plants in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Elias, Firew; Woyessa, Delelegn; Muleta, Diriba

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the major bioelements limiting agricultural production. Phosphate solubilizing fungi play a noteworthy role in increasing the bioavailability of soil phosphates for plants. The present study was aimed at isolating and characterizing phosphate solubilizing fungi from different rhizospheres using both solid and liquid Pikovskaya (PVK) medium. A total of 359 fungal isolates were obtained from 150 rhizosphere soil samples of haricot bean, faba bean, cabbage, tomato, and sugarcane. Among the isolates, 167 (46.52%) solubilized inorganic phosphate. The isolated phosphate solubilizing fungi belonged to genera of Aspergillus (55.69%), Penicillium spp. (23.35%), and Fusarium (9.58%). Solubilization index (SI) ranged from 1.10 to 3.05. Isolates designated as JUHbF95 (Aspergillus sp.) and JUFbF59 (Penicillium sp.) solubilized maximum amount of P 728.77 μg·mL(-1) and 514.44 μg mL(-1), respectively, from TCP (tricalcium phosphate) after 15 days of incubation. The highest (363 μg mL(-1)) soluble-P was released from RP with the inoculation of JUHbF95 in the PVK broth after 10 days of incubation. The present study indicated the presence of diverse plant associated P-solubilizing fungi that may serve as potential biofertilizers.

  4. Diversity of rhizosphere associated entomopathogenic fungi of perennial herbs, shrubs and coniferous trees.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Joanna J; Rehner, Stephen A; Bruck, Denny J

    2011-02-01

    Understanding habitat selection of fungal entomopathogens is critical to improve the efficacy, persistence and cost of these fungi as microbial insecticides. This study sought to determine the prevalence of Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. isolated from the rhizosphere of strawberry, blueberry, grape and Christmas tree crops in the Willamette Valley of Oregon. Entomopathogenic fungi were assigned to thirteen species based on molecular phylogenetic criteria. Four species of Metarhizium were isolated including Metarhizium brunneum, Metarhizium guizhouense, Metarhizium robertsii, and Metarhizium flavoviride var. pemphigi. Nine Beauveria species were isolated including, Beauveria brongniartii, an undescribed species referred to as Clade C and seven phylogenetic species of Beauveria bassiana. Strawberries and blueberries were significantly associated with M. brunneum and Christmas trees with M. guizhouense and M. robertsii. Grapes were significantly associated with B. bassiana phylogenetic species Bbas-16. All of the Metarhizium isolates screened were pathogenic to Otiorhynchus sulcatus larvae in laboratory bioassays but only M. brunneum and M. robertsii caused significant levels of infection. The study results suggest that certain species of Metarhizium and Beauveria are significantly associated with the strawberry, blueberry and Christmas tree rhizosphere and could potentially provide better control of O. sulcatus.

  5. Effects of glyphosate and foliar amendments on activity of microorganisms in the soybean rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Means, Nathan E; Kremer, Robert J; Ramsier, Clifford

    2007-02-01

    A field study was conducted to determine the effects of glyphosate on microbial activity in the rhizosphere of glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean and to evaluate interactions with foliar amendments. Glyphosate at 0.84 kg ae ha(-1) was applied GR soybean at the V4-V5 development stages. Check treatments included a conventional herbicide tank mix (2003 study only) and no herbicides (hand-weeded). Ten days after herbicide application, a commercially available biostimulant and a urea solution (21.0% N) were applied to soybean foliage at 33.5 mL ha(-1) and 9.2 kg ha(-1), respectively. Soil and plant samples were taken 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days after herbicide application then assayed for enzyme and respiration activities. Soil respiration and enzyme activity increased with glyphosate and foliar amendment applications during the 2002 growing season; however, similar increases were not observed in 2003. Contrasting cumulative rainfall between 2002 and 2003 likely accounted for differences in soil microbial activities. Increases in soil microbial activity in 2002 suggest that adequate soil water and glyphosate application acted together to increase microbial activity. Our study suggests that general soil microbial properties including those involving C and N transformations are not sensitive enough to detect effects of glyphosate on rhizosphere microbial activity. Measurements of soil-plant-microbe relationships including specific microbial groups (i.e., root-associated Fusarium spp.) are likely better indicators of impacts of glyphosate on soil microbial ecology.

  6. Characterization of Pseudomonas species isolated from the rhizosphere of plants grown in serozem soil, semi arid region of Uzbekistan.

    PubMed

    Egamberdiyeva, Dilfuza

    2005-07-08

    Collections of native Pseudomonas spp. are kept at the NCAM of Uzbekistan. Some of those organisms were isolated from the rhizosphere of cotton, wheat, corn, melon, alfalfa, and tomato grown in field locations within a semi-arid region of Uzbekistan. Strains used for this study were Pseudomonas alcaligenes, P. aurantiaca, P. aureofaciens, P. denitrificans, P. mendocina, P. rathonis, and P. stutzeri. Some of the pseudomonads have been characterized in this report. These strains produced enzymes, phytohormone auxin (IAA), and were antagonist against plant pathogenic fungi in in vitro experiments. Most of the strains were salt tolerant and temperature resistant. Some of the Pseudomonas spp. isolated in this study have been found to increase the growth of wheat, corn, and tomato in pot experiments.

  7. Violet-Pigmented Pseudomonads With Antifungal Activity From the Rhizosphere of Beans

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, W. A.; Papavizas, G. C.

    1963-01-01

    Bean rhizosphere bacteria antagonistic to four root-infecting fungi and an antibiotic produced by these bacteria were studied. The bacteria were violet-pigmented gram-negative rods, probably belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. The antibiotic, which was localized largely in the bacterial cell mass, was easily extracted with acetone. It was selectively active against a wide variety of plant-pathogenic and saprophytic fungi tested in vitro but was relatively inactive against bacteria. The compound, partially purified by chromatography, was soluble in all organic solvents tried, but nearly insoluble in water. It demonstrated no characteristic ultraviolet- or visible-absorption spectrum and was chemically unidentified. The antagonistic bacteria or crude antibiotic applied to buried buckwheat segments suppressed the colonization of this substrate by Rhizoctonia spp. The data suggested that the bacteria or the antibiotic may play a role in the suppression of root-infecting fungi in soil. PMID:16349643

  8. Endophytic and rhizospheric bacterial communities isolated from the medicinal plants Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Chiellini, Carolina; Maida, Isabel; Emiliani, Giovanni; Mengoni, Alessio; Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Biffi, Sauro; Maggini, Valentina; Gori, Luigi; Vannacci, Alfredo; Gallo, Eugenia; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2014-09-01

    In this work we analyzed the composition and structure of cultivable bacterial communities isolated from the stem/leaf and root compartments of two medicinal plants, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell, grown in the same soil, as well as the bacterial community from their rhizospheric soils. Molecular PCR-based techniques were applied to cultivable bacteria isolated from the three compartments of the two plants. The results showed that the two plants and their respective compartments were characterized by different communities, indicating a low degree of strain sharing and a strong selective pressure within plant tissues. Pseudomonas was the most highly represented genus, together with Actinobacteria and Bacillus spp. The presence of distinct bacterial communities in different plant species and among compartments of the same plant species could account for the differences in the medicinal properties of the two plants. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  9. Rhizosphere Nightlife: Going with the Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardon, Z. G.; Espeleta, J. F.; Neumann, R. B.; Rastetter, E. B.; Scheibe, T. D.; Serres, M.; Vallino, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    Of the 60,000 km3of water moving from soils to the atmosphere each year, approximately half passes through the bodies of plants and is transpired from leaves. All of that water was first drawn into plants through the rhizospheres of innumerable plant roots, where an active microbial community influences nutrient availability to plants. Fueled in large part by carbon from plant roots, the rhizosphere microbial community is embedded in soils of various 3D structures, saturations, and chemistries. The complex result is a rhizosphere commodities exchange supporting productivity and carbon cycling in ecosystems, where integrated operation is influenced by advection and diffusion of resources critical for plant and microbial growth, by the extent and dynamics of soil saturation linked to root water uptake and release, by local biogeochemical reaction catalyzed by roots and microbes, and by soil chemistry. Our previous field work showed hydraulic redistribution (HR) by plant roots during drought in northern Utah nearly doubled gross mineralization rates (decomposition and microbial release of N from soil organic matter) in upper soil layers. Whether this stimulation was solely caused by the fleeting, nighttime, HR-linked enhancement of water availability in upper soil layers, or by the oscillation in soil water content driven by daytime transpiration and nighttime HR, or both, remains unclear. To examine potential mechanisms, we are developing 3D models at pore (tens of micrometer) scales to predict dynamic, local conditions and resources around microbes at various levels of soil saturation, as influenced by coupled advection, diffusion, and biogeochemical reactions catalyzed by the microbes themselves. At root scales, we are using single-root models at mm scales to explore how oscillating water flow to (and from) roots on the diel cycle promotes disequilibrium between dissolved and sorbed nutrient concentrations around plant roots, releasing cations from soil at distinct

  10. Successional trajectories of rhizosphere bacterial communities over consecutive seasons

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, Shengjing; Nuccio, Erin; Herman, Donald J.; ...

    2015-08-04

    It is well known that rhizosphere microbiomes differ from those of surrounding soil, and yet we know little about how these root-associated microbial communities change through the growing season and between seasons. We analyzed the response of soil bacteria to roots of the common annual grass Avena fatua over two growing seasons using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Over the two periods of growth, the rhizosphere bacterial communities followed consistent successional patterns as plants grew, although the starting communities were distinct. Succession in the rhizosphere was characterized by a significant decrease in both taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity relative tomore » background soil communities, driven by reductions in both richness and evenness of the bacterial communities. Plant roots selectively stimulated the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes but reduced the abundance of Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxa that increased in relative abundance in the rhizosphere soil displayed phylogenetic clustering, suggesting some conservation and an evolutionary basis for the response of complex soil bacterial communities to the presence of plant roots. The reproducibility of rhizosphere succession and the apparent phylogenetic conservation of rhizosphere competence traits suggest adaptation of the indigenous bacterial community to this common grass over the many decades of its presence. We document the successional patterns of rhizosphere bacterial communities associated with a “wild” annual grass, Avena fatua, which is commonly a dominant plant in Mediterranean-type annual grasslands around the world; the plant was grown in its grassland soil. Most studies documenting rhizosphere microbiomes address “domesticated” plants growing in soils to which they are introduced. Rhizosphere bacterial communities exhibited a pattern of temporal succession that was consistent and repeatable

  11. Successional Trajectories of Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities over Consecutive Seasons.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shengjing; Nuccio, Erin; Herman, Donald J; Rijkers, Ruud; Estera, Katerina; Li, Jiabao; da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; He, Zhili; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Brodie, Eoin L; Zhou, Jizhong; Firestone, Mary

    2015-08-04

    It is well known that rhizosphere microbiomes differ from those of surrounding soil, and yet we know little about how these root-associated microbial communities change through the growing season and between seasons. We analyzed the response of soil bacteria to roots of the common annual grass Avena fatua over two growing seasons using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Over the two periods of growth, the rhizosphere bacterial communities followed consistent successional patterns as plants grew, although the starting communities were distinct. Succession in the rhizosphere was characterized by a significant decrease in both taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity relative to background soil communities, driven by reductions in both richness and evenness of the bacterial communities. Plant roots selectively stimulated the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes but reduced the abundance of Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxa that increased in relative abundance in the rhizosphere soil displayed phylogenetic clustering, suggesting some conservation and an evolutionary basis for the response of complex soil bacterial communities to the presence of plant roots. The reproducibility of rhizosphere succession and the apparent phylogenetic conservation of rhizosphere competence traits suggest adaptation of the indigenous bacterial community to this common grass over the many decades of its presence. We document the successional patterns of rhizosphere bacterial communities associated with a "wild" annual grass, Avena fatua, which is commonly a dominant plant in Mediterranean-type annual grasslands around the world; the plant was grown in its grassland soil. Most studies documenting rhizosphere microbiomes address "domesticated" plants growing in soils to which they are introduced. Rhizosphere bacterial communities exhibited a pattern of temporal succession that was consistent and repeatable over two growing

  12. Successional trajectories of rhizosphere bacterial communities over consecutive seasons

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Shengjing; Nuccio, Erin; Herman, Donald J.; Rijkers, Ruud; Estera, Katerina; Li, Jiabao; da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; He, Zhili; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Brodie, Eoin L.; Zhou, Jizhong; Firestone, Mary

    2015-08-04

    It is well known that rhizosphere microbiomes differ from those of surrounding soil, and yet we know little about how these root-associated microbial communities change through the growing season and between seasons. We analyzed the response of soil bacteria to roots of the common annual grass Avena fatua over two growing seasons using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Over the two periods of growth, the rhizosphere bacterial communities followed consistent successional patterns as plants grew, although the starting communities were distinct. Succession in the rhizosphere was characterized by a significant decrease in both taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity relative to background soil communities, driven by reductions in both richness and evenness of the bacterial communities. Plant roots selectively stimulated the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes but reduced the abundance of Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxa that increased in relative abundance in the rhizosphere soil displayed phylogenetic clustering, suggesting some conservation and an evolutionary basis for the response of complex soil bacterial communities to the presence of plant roots. The reproducibility of rhizosphere succession and the apparent phylogenetic conservation of rhizosphere competence traits suggest adaptation of the indigenous bacterial community to this common grass over the many decades of its presence. We document the successional patterns of rhizosphere bacterial communities associated with a “wild” annual grass, Avena fatua, which is commonly a dominant plant in Mediterranean-type annual grasslands around the world; the plant was grown in its grassland soil. Most studies documenting rhizosphere microbiomes address “domesticated” plants growing in soils to which they are introduced. Rhizosphere bacterial communities exhibited a pattern of temporal

  13. Insights into the Regulation of Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities by Application of Bio-organic Fertilizer in Pseudostellaria heterophylla Monoculture Regime.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linkun; Chen, Jun; Wu, Hongmiao; Qin, Xianjin; Wang, Juanying; Wu, Yanhong; Khan, Muhammad U; Lin, Sheng; Xiao, Zhigang; Luo, Xiaomian; Zhang, Zhongyi; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    The biomass and quality of Pseudostellariae heterophylla suffers a significant decline under monoculture. Since rhizosphere miobiome plays crucial roles in soil health, deep pyrosequencing combined with qPCR was applied to characterize the composition and structure of soil bacterial community under monoculture and different amendments. The results showed compared with the 1st-year planted (FP), 2nd-year monoculture of P. heterophylla (SP) led to a significant decline in yield and resulted in a significant increase in Fusarium oxysporum but a decline in Burkholderia spp. Bio-organic fertilizer (MT) formulated by combining antagonistic bacteria with organic matter could significantly promote the yield by regulating rhizosphere bacterial community. However, organic fertilizer (MO) without antagonistic bacteria could not suppress Fusarium wilt. Multivariate statistics analysis showed a distinct separation between the healthy samples (FP and MT) and the unhealthy samples (SP and MO), suggesting a strong relationship between soil microbial community and plant performance. Furthermore, we found the application of bio-organic fertilizer MT could significantly increase the bacterial community diversity and restructure microbial community with relatively fewer pathogenic F. oxysporum and more beneficial Burkholderia spp. In conclusion, the application of novel bio-organic fertilizer could effectively suppress Fusarium wilt by enriching the antagonistic bacteria and enhancing the bacterial diversity.

  14. Insights into the Regulation of Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities by Application of Bio-organic Fertilizer in Pseudostellaria heterophylla Monoculture Regime

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Linkun; Chen, Jun; Wu, Hongmiao; Qin, Xianjin; Wang, Juanying; Wu, Yanhong; Khan, Muhammad U.; Lin, Sheng; Xiao, Zhigang; Luo, Xiaomian; Zhang, Zhongyi; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    The biomass and quality of Pseudostellariae heterophylla suffers a significant decline under monoculture. Since rhizosphere miobiome plays crucial roles in soil health, deep pyrosequencing combined with qPCR was applied to characterize the composition and structure of soil bacterial community under monoculture and different amendments. The results showed compared with the 1st-year planted (FP), 2nd-year monoculture of P. heterophylla (SP) led to a significant decline in yield and resulted in a significant increase in Fusarium oxysporum but a decline in Burkholderia spp. Bio-organic fertilizer (MT) formulated by combining antagonistic bacteria with organic matter could significantly promote the yield by regulating rhizosphere bacterial community. However, organic fertilizer (MO) without antagonistic bacteria could not suppress Fusarium wilt. Multivariate statistics analysis showed a distinct separation between the healthy samples (FP and MT) and the unhealthy samples (SP and MO), suggesting a strong relationship between soil microbial community and plant performance. Furthermore, we found the application of bio-organic fertilizer MT could significantly increase the bacterial community diversity and restructure microbial community with relatively fewer pathogenic F. oxysporum and more beneficial Burkholderia spp. In conclusion, the application of novel bio-organic fertilizer could effectively suppress Fusarium wilt by enriching the antagonistic bacteria and enhancing the bacterial diversity. PMID:27899917

  15. Relevance of extracellular DNA in rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietramellara, Giacomo; Ascher, Judith; Baraniya, Divyashri; Arfaioli, Paola; Ceccherini, Maria Teresa; Hawes, Martha

    2013-04-01

    One of the most promising areas for future development is the manipulation of the rhizosphere to produce sustainable and efficient agriculture production systems. Using Omics approaches, to define the distinctive features of eDNA systems and structures, will facilitate progress in rhizo-enforcement and biocontrol studies. The relevance of these studies results clear when we consider the plethora of ecological functions in which eDNA is involved. This fraction can be actively extruded by living cells or discharged during cellular lysis and may exert a key role in the stability and variability of the soil bacterial genome, resulting also a source of nitrogen and phosphorus for plants due to the root's capacity to directly uptake short DNA fragments. The adhesive properties of the DNA molecule confer to eDNA the capacity to inhibit or kill pathogenic bacteria by cation limitation induction, and to facilitate formation of biofilm and extracellular traps (ETs), that may protect microorganisms inhabiting biofilm and plant roots against pathogens and allelopathic substances. The ETs are actively extruded by root border cells when they are dispersed in the rhizosphere, conferring to plants the capacity to extend an endogenous pathogen defence system outside the organism. Moreover, eDNA could be involved in rhizoremediation in heavy metal polluted soil acting as a bioflotation reagent.

  16. Disentangling the influence of earthworms in sugarcane rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Lucas P. P.; Yoshiura, Caio A.; Borges, Clovis D.; Horn, Marcus A.; Brown, George G.; Drake, Harold L.; Tsai, Siu M.

    2016-01-01

    For the last 150 years many studies have shown the importance of earthworms for plant growth, but the exact mechanisms involved in the process are still poorly understood. Many important functions required for plant growth can be performed by soil microbes in the rhizosphere. To investigate earthworm influence on the rhizosphere microbial community, we performed a macrocosm experiment with and without Pontoscolex corethrurus (EW+ and EW−, respectively) and followed various soil and rhizosphere processes for 217 days with sugarcane. In EW+ treatments, N2O concentrations belowground (15 cm depth) and relative abundances of nitrous oxide genes (nosZ) were higher in bulk soil and rhizosphere, suggesting that soil microbes were able to consume earthworm-induced N2O. Shotgun sequencing (total DNA) revealed that around 70 microbial functions in bulk soil and rhizosphere differed between EW+ and EW− treatments. Overall, genes indicative of biosynthetic pathways and cell proliferation processes were enriched in EW+ treatments, suggesting a positive influence of worms. In EW+ rhizosphere, functions associated with plant-microbe symbiosis were enriched relative to EW− rhizosphere. Ecological networks inferred from the datasets revealed decreased niche diversification and increased keystone functions as an earthworm-derived effect. Plant biomass was improved in EW+ and worm population proliferated. PMID:27976685

  17. Nitrogen loss by anaerobic oxidation of ammonium in rice rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Nie, San'an; Li, Hu; Yang, Xiaoru; Zhang, Zhaoji; Weng, Bosen; Huang, Fuyi; Zhu, Gui-Bing; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-09-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of ammonium (anammox) is recognized as an important process for nitrogen (N) cycling, yet its role in agricultural ecosystems, which are intensively fertilized, remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the presence, activity, functional gene abundance and role of anammox bacteria in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere paddy soils using catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization, isotope-tracing technique, quantitative PCR assay and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Results showed that rhizosphere anammox contributed to 31-41% N2 production with activities of 0.33-0.64 nmol N2 g(-1) soil h(-1), whereas the non-rhizosphere anammox bacteria contributed to only 2-3% N2 production with lower activities of 0.08-0.26 nmol N2 g(-1) soil h(-1). Higher anammox bacterial cells were observed (0.75-1.4 × 10(7) copies g(-1) soil) in the rhizosphere, which were twofold higher compared with the non-rhizosphere soil (3.7-5.9 × 10(6) copies g(-1) soil). Phylogenetic analysis of the anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that two genera of 'Candidatus Kuenenia' and 'Candidatus Brocadia' and the family of Planctomycetaceae were identified. We suggest the rhizosphere provides a favorable niche for anammox bacteria, which are important to N cycling, but were previously largely overlooked.

  18. PERN: an EU-Russia initiative for rhizosphere microbial resources.

    PubMed

    Declerck, Stéphane; Willems, Anne; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Varese, Giovanna Cristina; Turkovskaya, Olga; Evtushenko, Lyudmila; Ivshina, Irena; Desmeth, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Millions of microbial taxa inhabit the rhizosphere and could be used as biofertilizers, biopesticides, and/or for bioremediation. Only a fraction of these microbes have been described and/or are being utilized. Most are dispersed in collections, but coordination of their accessibility and availability is challenging. Here, we present the Pan-European Rhizosphere Resource Network (PERN), which is a transnational repository of microorganisms whose objectives are to facilitate access to rhizosphere resources and information and help users with technical and legal issues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biphenyl-Metabolizing Bacteria in the Rhizosphere of Horseradish and Bulk Soil Contaminated by Polychlorinated Biphenyls as Revealed by Stable Isotope Probing▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Uhlik, Ondrej; Jecna, Katerina; Mackova, Martina; Vlcek, Cestmir; Hroudova, Miluse; Demnerova, Katerina; Paces, Vaclav; Macek, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    DNA-based stable isotope probing in combination with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism was used in order to identify members of the microbial community that metabolize biphenyl in the rhizosphere of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) cultivated in soil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) compared to members of the microbial community in initial, uncultivated bulk soil. On the basis of early and recurrent detection of their 16S rRNA genes in clone libraries constructed from [13C]DNA, Hydrogenophaga spp. appeared to dominate biphenyl catabolism in the horseradish rhizosphere soil, whereas Paenibacillus spp. were the predominant biphenyl-utilizing bacteria in the initial bulk soil. Other bacteria found to derive carbon from biphenyl in this nutrient-amended microcosm-based study belonged mostly to the class Betaproteobacteria and were identified as Achromobacter spp., Variovorax spp., Methylovorus spp., or Methylophilus spp. Some bacteria that were unclassified at the genus level were also detected, and these bacteria may be members of undescribed genera. The deduced amino acid sequences of the biphenyl dioxygenase α subunits (BphA) from bacteria that incorporated [13C]into DNA in 3-day incubations of the soils with [13C]biphenyl are almost identical to that of Pseudomonas alcaligenes B-357. This suggests that the spectrum of the PCB congeners that can be degraded by these enzymes may be similar to that of strain B-357. These results demonstrate that altering the soil environment can result in the participation of different bacteria in the metabolism of biphenyl. PMID:19700551

  20. Interaction between rhizosphere microorganisms and plant roots: 13C fluxes in the rhizosphere after pulse labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevdokimov, I. V.; Ruser, R.; Buegger, F.; Marx, M.; Munch, J. C.

    2007-07-01

    The input dynamics of labeled C into pools of soil organic matter and CO2 fluxes from soil were studied in a pot experiment with the pulse labeling of oats and corn under a 13CO2 atmosphere, and the contribution of the root and microbial respiration to the emission of CO2 from the soil was determined from the fluxes of labeled C in the microbial biomass and the evolved carbon dioxide. A considerable amount of 13C (up to 96% of the total amount of the label found in the rhizosphere soil) was incorporated into the biomass of the rhizosphere microorganisms. The diurnal fluctuations of the labeled C pools in the microbial biomass, dissolved organic carbon, and CO2 released in the rhizosphere of oats and corn were related to the day/night changes, i.e., to the on and off periods of the photosynthetic activity of the plants. The average contribution of the corn root respiration (70% of the total CO2 emission from the soil surface) was higher than that of the oats roots (44%), which was related to the lower incorporation of rhizodeposit carbon into the microbial biomass in the soil under the corn plants than in the soil under the oats plants.

  1. Emergence of plant and rhizospheric microbiota as stable interactomes.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Bhuyan, Soubhagya Kumar; Yadava, Pramod Kumar; Varma, Ajit; Tuteja, Narendra

    2017-03-01

    The growing human population and depletion of resources have necessitated development of sustainable agriculture. Beneficial plant-microbe associations have been known for quite some time now. To maintain sustainability, one could show better reliance upon beneficial attributes of the rhizosphere microbiome. To harness the best agronomic traits, understanding the entire process of recruitment, establishment, and maintenance of microbiota as stable interactome within the rhizosphere is important. In this article, we highlight the process of recruitment and establishment of microbiota within rhizosphere. Further, we have discussed the interlinkages and the ability of multiple (microbial and plant) partners to interact with one another forming a stable plant holobiont system. Lastly, we address the possibility of exploring the knowledge gained from the holobiont system to tailor the rhizosphere microbiome for better productivity and maintenance of agroecosystems. The article provide new insights into the broad principles of stable plant-microbe interactions which could be useful for sustaining agriculture and food security.

  2. Quantifying rhizosphere respiration for two cool-season perennial forages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the regulation of ecosystem carbon dioxide flux from forage production systems requires knowledge of component fluxes, including photosynthetic uptake and respiratory loss. Experimental separation of soil respiration into its heterotrophic (free-living soil organisms) and rhizosphere c...

  3. Enhanced biodegradation of xenobiotics in the rhizosphere: Potential for bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Rigot, J.; Matsumura, F.

    1994-12-31

    Recently, contamination levels of vegetated soil in polluted areas were found to be lower than contamination levels of non-vegetated soil in the same area. The greater mineralization of pollutants observed in vegetated soils may be a result of the higher microbial and metabolic activities observed in the plant`s rhizosphere environment which may lead to enhanced biodegradation of xenobiotics in contaminated vegetated soils. After determining the different factors affecting the fate and the metabolic activity of microorganisms in the rhizosphere, the authors plan to study the possibility of introducing specialized organisms in the rhizosphere in order to enhance the biodegradation of target compounds. The purpose is to develop a soil bioremediation technology based on stimulating synergistic interactions existing between the rhizosphere environment and selected microorganisms to enhance the biodegradation of organic pollutants in contaminated soil. If effective, this technology could be used worldwide over large areas to effectively and inexpensively treat contaminated soil.

  4. Actinomycetes in the rhizosphere of semidesert soils of Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norovsuren, Zh.; Zenova, G. M.; Mosina, L. V.

    2007-04-01

    The population density of actinomycetes in the desert-steppe soil, rhizosphere, and the above-ground parts of plants varies from tens to hundreds of thousands of colony-forming units (CFU) per gram of substrate. The actinomycetal complexes of the brown desert-steppe soil without plant roots are more diverse in their taxonomic composition than the actinomycetal complexes in the rhizosphere and the aboveground parts of plants. Additionally to representatives of the Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera, actinomycetes from the Nocardia, Saccharopolyspora, Thermomonospora, and Actinomadura genera were identified in the soil. The population density of actinomycetes in the rhizosphere and in the soil reached hundreds of thousand CFU/g; it considerably exceeded the population density of actinomycetes in the aboveground parts of plants. The maximum population density of actinomycetes was determined in the rhizosphere of Asparagus gobicus, Salsola pestifera, and Cleistogenes songorica.

  5. Engineering rhizosphere hydraulics: pathways to improve plant adaptation to drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mutez; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Ahmadi, Katayoun; Kroener, Eva; Kostka, Stanley; Carminati, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Developing new technologies to optimize the use of water in irrigated croplands is of increasing importance. Recent studies have drawn attention to the role of mucilage in shaping rhizosphere hydraulic properties and regulating root water uptake. During drying mucilage keeps the rhizosphere wet and conductive, but upon drying it turns hydrophobic limiting root water uptake. Here we introduced the concept of rhizoligands, defined as additives that 1) rewet the rhizosphere and 2) reduce mucilage swelling hereby reducing the rhizosphere conductivity. We then tested its effect on rhizosphere water dynamics and transpiration. The following experiments were carried out to test if selected surfactants behave as a rhizoligand. We used neutron radiography to monitor water redistribution in the rhizosphere of lupine and maize irrigated with water and rhizoligand solution. In a parallel experiment, we tested the effect of rhizoligand on the transpiration rate of lupine and maize subjected to repeated drying and wetting cycles. We also measured the effect of rhizoligand on the maximum swelling of mucilage and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil mixed with various mucilage concentrations. The results were then simulated using a root water uptake model. Rhizoligand treatment quickly and uniformly rewetted the rhizosphere of maize and lupine. Interestingly, rhizoligand also reduced transpiration during drying/wetting cycles. Evaporation from the bare soil was of minor importance. Our hypothesis is that the reduction in transpiration was triggered by the interaction between rhizoligand and mucilage exuded by roots. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that rhizoligand reduced the maximum swelling of mucilage, increased its viscosity, and decreased the hydraulic conductivity of soil-mucilage mixtures. The reduced conductivity of the rhizosphere induced a moderate stress to the plants reducing transpiration. Simulation with a reduced hydraulic conductivity of the

  6. Rhizosphere priming effects in two contrasting soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Davidson; Kirk, Guy; Ritz, Karl

    2015-04-01

    Inputs of fresh plant-derived carbon may stimulate the turnover of existing soil organic matter by so-called priming effects. Priming may occur directly, as a result of nutrient 'mining' by existing microbial communities, or indirectly via population adjustments. However the mechanisms are poorly understood. We planted C4 Kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) in pots with two contrasting C3 soils (clayey, fertile TB and sandy, acid SH), and followed the soil CO2 efflux and its δ13C. The extent of C deposition in the rhizosphere was altered by intermittently clipping the grass in half the pots; there were also unplanted controls. At intervals, pots were destructively sampled for root and shoot biomass. Total soil CO2 efflux was measured using a gas-tight PVC chamber fitted over bare soil, and connected to an infra-red gas analyser; the δ13C of efflux was measured in air sub-samples withdrawn by syringe. The extent of priming was inferred from the δ13C of efflux and the δ13C of the plant and soil end-members. In unclipped treatments, in both soils, increased total soil respiration and rhizosphere priming effects (RPE) were apparent compared to the unplanted controls. The TB soil had greater RPE overall. The total respiration in clipped TB soil was significantly greater than in the unplanted controls, but in the clipped SH soil it was not significantly different from the controls. Clipping affected plant C partitioning with greater allocation to shoot regrowth from about 4 weeks after planting. Total plant biomass decreased in the order TB unclipped > SH unclipped >TB clipped > SH clipped. The results are consistent with priming driven by microbial activation stimulated by rhizodeposits and by nitrogen demand from the growing plants under N limited conditions. Our data suggest that photosynthesis drives RPE and soil differences may alter the rate and intensity of RPE but not the direction.

  7. Metaproteomic analysis of ratoon sugarcane rhizospheric soil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism of yield decline in ratoon sugarcane using soil metaproteomics combined with community level physiological profiles (CLPP) analysis. Results The available stalk number, stalk diameter, single stalk weight and theoretical yield of ratoon cane (RS) were found to be significantly lower than those of plant cane (NS). The activities of several carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus processing enzymes, including invertase, peroxidase, urease and phosphomonoesterase were found to be significantly lower in RS soil than in NS soil. BIOLOG analysis indicated a significant decline in average well-color development (AWCD), Shannon’s diversity and evenness indices in RS soil as compared to NS soil. To profile the rhizospheric metaproteome, 109 soil protein spots with high resolution and repeatability were successfully identified. These proteins were found to be involved in carbohydrate/energy, amino acid, protein, nucleotide, auxin and secondary metabolisms, membrane transport, signal transduction and resistance, etc. Comparative metaproteomics analysis revealed that 38 proteins were differentially expressed in the RS soil as compared to the control soil or NS soil. Among these, most of the plant proteins related to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and stress response were up-regulated in RS soil. Furthermore, several microbial proteins related to membrane transport and signal transduction were up-regulated in RS soil. These proteins were speculated to function in root colonization by microbes. Conclusions Our experiments revealed that sugarcane ratooning practice induced significant changes in the soil enzyme activities, the catabolic diversity of microbial community, and the expression level of soil proteins. They influenced the biochemical processes in the rhizosphere ecosystem and mediated the interactions between plants and soil microbes. PMID:23773576

  8. Plant growth promoting bacteria from Crocus sativus rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Ambardar, Sheetal; Vakhlu, Jyoti

    2013-12-01

    Present study deals with the isolation of rhizobacteria and selection of plant growth promoting bacteria from Crocus sativus (Saffron) rhizosphere during its flowering period (October-November). Bacterial load was compared between rhizosphere and bulk soil by counting CFU/gm of roots and soil respectively, and was found to be ~40 times more in rhizosphere. In total 100 bacterial isolates were selected randomly from rhizosphere and bulk soil (50 each) and screened for in-vitro and in vivo plant growth promoting properties. The randomly isolated bacteria were identified by microscopy, biochemical tests and sequence homology of V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA gene. Polyphasic identification categorized Saffron rhizobacteria and bulk soil bacteria into sixteen different bacterial species with Bacillus aryabhattai (WRF5-rhizosphere; WBF3, WBF4A and WBF4B-bulk soil) common to both rhizosphere as well as bulk soil. Pseudomonas sp. in rhizosphere and Bacillus and Brevibacterium sp. in the bulk soil were the predominant genera respectively. The isolated rhizobacteria were screened for plant growth promotion activity like phosphate solubilization, siderophore and indole acetic acid production. 50 % produced siderophore and 33 % were able to solubilize phosphate whereas all the rhizobacterial isolates produced indole acetic acid. The six potential PGPR showing in vitro activities were used in pot trial to check their efficacy in vivo. These bacteria consortia demonstrated in vivo PGP activity and can be used as PGPR in Saffron as biofertilizers.This is the first report on the isolation of rhizobacteria from the Saffron rhizosphere, screening for plant growth promoting bacteria and their effect on the growth of Saffron plant.

  9. The rhizosphere selects for particular groups of acidobacteria and verrucomicrobia.

    PubMed

    Nunes da Rocha, Ulisses; Plugge, Caroline M; George, Isabelle; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; van Overbeek, Leonard Simon

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack in our current understanding on the putative interactions of species of the phyla of Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia with plants. Moreover, progress in this area is seriously hampered by the recalcitrance of members of these phyla to grow as pure cultures. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether particular members of Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia are avid colonizers of the rhizosphere. Based on previous work, rhizosphere competence was demonstrated for the Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 groups of Luteolibacter and Candidatus genus Rhizospheria and it was hypothesized that the rhizosphere is a common habitat for Acidobacteria subdivision 8 (class Holophagae). We assessed the population densities of Bacteria, Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 groups Luteolibacter and Candidatus genus Rhizospheria and Acidobacteria subdivisions 1, 3, 4, 6 and Holophagae in bulk soil and in the rhizospheres of grass, potato and leek in the same field at different points in time using real-time quantitative PCR. Primers of all seven verrucomicrobial, acidobacterial and holophagal PCR systems were based on 16S rRNA gene sequences of cultivable representatives of the different groups. Luteolibacter, Candidatus genus Rhizospheria, subdivision 6 acidobacteria and Holophaga showed preferences for one or more rhizospheres. In particular, the Holophaga 16S rRNA gene number were more abundant in the leek rhizosphere than in bulk soil and the rhizospheres of grass and potato. Attraction to, and colonization of, leek roots by Holophagae strain CHC25 was further shown in an experimental microcosm set-up. In the light of this remarkable capacity, we propose to coin strain CHC25 Candidatus Porrumbacterium oxyphilus (class Holophagae, Phylum Acidobacteria), the first cultured representative with rhizosphere competence.

  10. The Rhizosphere Selects for Particular Groups of Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia

    PubMed Central

    Plugge, Caroline M.; George, Isabelle; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack in our current understanding on the putative interactions of species of the phyla of Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia with plants. Moreover, progress in this area is seriously hampered by the recalcitrance of members of these phyla to grow as pure cultures. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether particular members of Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia are avid colonizers of the rhizosphere. Based on previous work, rhizosphere competence was demonstrated for the Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 groups of Luteolibacter and Candidatus genus Rhizospheria and it was hypothesized that the rhizosphere is a common habitat for Acidobacteria subdivision 8 (class Holophagae). We assessed the population densities of Bacteria, Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 groups Luteolibacter and Candidatus genus Rhizospheria and Acidobacteria subdivisions 1, 3, 4, 6 and Holophagae in bulk soil and in the rhizospheres of grass, potato and leek in the same field at different points in time using real-time quantitative PCR. Primers of all seven verrucomicrobial, acidobacterial and holophagal PCR systems were based on 16S rRNA gene sequences of cultivable representatives of the different groups. Luteolibacter, Candidatus genus Rhizospheria, subdivision 6 acidobacteria and Holophaga showed preferences for one or more rhizospheres. In particular, the Holophaga 16S rRNA gene number were more abundant in the leek rhizosphere than in bulk soil and the rhizospheres of grass and potato. Attraction to, and colonization of, leek roots by Holophagae strain CHC25 was further shown in an experimental microcosm set-up. In the light of this remarkable capacity, we propose to coin strain CHC25 Candidatus Porrumbacterium oxyphilus (class Holophagae, Phylum Acidobacteria), the first cultured representative with rhizosphere competence. PMID:24349285

  11. Successional Trajectories of Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities over Consecutive Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shengjing; Nuccio, Erin; Herman, Donald J.; Rijkers, Ruud; Estera, Katerina; Li, Jiabao; da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; He, Zhili; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Brodie, Eoin L.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT It is well known that rhizosphere microbiomes differ from those of surrounding soil, and yet we know little about how these root-associated microbial communities change through the growing season and between seasons. We analyzed the response of soil bacteria to roots of the common annual grass Avena fatua over two growing seasons using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Over the two periods of growth, the rhizosphere bacterial communities followed consistent successional patterns as plants grew, although the starting communities were distinct. Succession in the rhizosphere was characterized by a significant decrease in both taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity relative to background soil communities, driven by reductions in both richness and evenness of the bacterial communities. Plant roots selectively stimulated the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes but reduced the abundance of Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxa that increased in relative abundance in the rhizosphere soil displayed phylogenetic clustering, suggesting some conservation and an evolutionary basis for the response of complex soil bacterial communities to the presence of plant roots. The reproducibility of rhizosphere succession and the apparent phylogenetic conservation of rhizosphere competence traits suggest adaptation of the indigenous bacterial community to this common grass over the many decades of its presence. PMID:26242625

  12. Glyphosate effects on soil rhizosphere-associated bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Newman, Molli M; Hoilett, Nigel; Lorenz, Nicola; Dick, Richard P; Liles, Mark R; Ramsier, Cliff; Kloepper, Joseph W

    2016-02-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture with predictions that 1.35 million metric tons will be used annually by 2017. With the advent of glyphosate tolerant (GT) cropping more than 10 years ago, there is now concern for non-target effects on soil microbial communities that has potential to negatively affect soil functions, plant health, and crop productivity. Although extensive research has been done on short-term response to glyphosate, relatively little information is available on long-term effects. Therefore, the overall objective was to investigate shifts in the rhizosphere bacterial community following long-term glyphosate application on GT corn and soybean in the greenhouse. In this study, rhizosphere soil was sampled from rhizoboxes following 4 growth periods, and bacterial community composition was compared between glyphosate treated and untreated rhizospheres using next-generation barcoded sequencing. In the presence or absence of glyphosate, corn and soybean rhizospheres were dominated by members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Proteobacteria (particularly gammaproteobacteria) increased in relative abundance for both crops following glyphosate exposure, and the relative abundance of Acidobacteria decreased in response to glyphosate exposure. Given that some members of the Acidobacteria are involved in biogeochemical processes, a decrease in their abundance could lead to significant changes in nutrient status of the rhizosphere. Our results also highlight the need for applying culture-independent approaches in studying the effects of pesticides on the soil and rhizosphere microbial community.

  13. Isolation and Antimicrobial Testing of Aeromonas spp., Citrobacter spp., Cronobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Klebsiella spp., and Trabulsiella spp. from the Gallbladder of Pigs.

    PubMed

    Evangelopoulou, Grammato; Filioussis, Georgios; Kritas, Spyridon; Kantere, Maria; Burriel, Angeliki R

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Gram-negative bacteria species, other than Salmonella spp., in the gallbladder of pigs was examined. Isolated Gram-negative bacteria were assigned to species using the Microgen™ GnA+B-ID Systems. Of the 64 isolated strains 43 were identified as Escherichia coli, seven as Enterobacter spp., three each as Klebsiella spp., Citrobacterfreundii, Aeromonas hydrophila and Cronobacter sakazakii and one each as Escherichiafergusonii and Trabulsiella guamensis. Their antibiograms showed very high resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. It was concluded that the pigs' gallbladder is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria for pork consumers.

  14. [Transformation and mobility of arsenic in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils at different growth stages of rice].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Tao; Wang, Ying-Jie; Zhou, Hang; Yi, Kai-Xin; Zeng, Min; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2015-02-01

    Speciation and bioavailability of arsenic in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils at different growth stages (tillering stage, jointing stage, booting stage, filling stage and maturing stage) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) were studied using toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and arsenic speciation analysis. Pot experiments were conducted and the soil samples were taken from a certain paddy soil in Hunan Province contaminated by mining industry. The results showed that: (1) With the extension of rice growth period, pH values and TCLP extractable arsenic levels in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils increased gradually. Soil pH and TCLP extractable arsenic levels in non-rhizosphere soils were higher than those in the rhizosphere soils at the same growth stage. (2) At the different growth stages of rice, contents of exchangeable arsenic (AE-As) in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils were lower than those before the rice planting, and increased gradually with the extension of the rice growing period. Contents of Al-bound arsenic (Al-As), Fe-bound arsenic (Fe-As) and Ca-bound arsenic (Ca-As) increased gradually after rice planting, but not significantly. Residual arsenic (O-As) and total arsenic (T-As) decreased gradually after rice planting, by 37.30% and 14.69% in the rhizosphere soils and by 31.38% and 8.67% in the non-rhizosphere soils, respectively. (3) At the different growth stages of rice, contents of various forms of arsenic in the soils were in the following order: residual arsenic (O-As) > Fe-bound arsenic ( Fe-As) > Al-bound arsenic (Al-As) > Ca-bound arsenic (Ca-As) > exchangeable arsenic (AE-As). In the pH range of 5.0- 5.8, significant positive linear correlations were found between most forms of arsenic or TCLP extractable arsenic levels and pH values, while the Ca-bound arsenic was poorly correlated with pH values in the rhizosphere soils.

  15. Mineral Dissolution and Metal Mobility From Rhizosphere and Non-rhizosphere Soils by Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, D. A.; Field, J. B.; Welch, S. A.

    2005-12-01

    This research is part of an ongoing investigation of micro-biogeochemistry in the rhizosphere of co-occurring Eucalyptus mannifera and Acacia falciformis on the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. While there is still considerable controversy in the literature regarding the roles of low molecular weight organic acids in soil processes there is growing evidence suggesting low molecular weight compounds, especially di-carboxylic acids, have large impacts on mineral dissolution and metal mobility in the rhizosphere. Rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere samples from adjacent E. mannifera and A. falciformis trees were subjected to four separate treatments in sets of 3 replicates; +oxalic acid, +malic acid, +citric acid or +NaCl control solution. These three acids were chosen because they are produced by rhizosphere species and they form stable complexes with nutrient elements such as Phosphorus (P), Iron (Fe), and Calcium (Ca). Solution samples were collected at day 1, day 8 and day 15 for pH measurement and analysed for major and trace elements by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. The results of the preliminary dissolution experiments show that milli-molar concentrations of individual organic acids, malate and oxalate, and in particular citrate, greatly increase the release of major and trace metals to solution compared to inorganic controls. Concentrations of Al and Fe in organic acid solutions were up to 10 times greater than in the inorganic controls. Si concentrations were a factor of 2-5 greater in the organic acid solutions, suggesting preferential weathering of Fe and Al oxyhydroxide phases rather than primary silicate minerals. Dissolution of elements such as Si, Al and Fe from rhizosphere soils were about twice that observed from non-rhizosphere soils, further supporting this. Interestingly Ti and Zr, which are usually considered to be immobile during chemical weathering and are not usually taken up by plants, were also mobilised from the rhizosphere soils

  16. Changes in rhizosphere bacterial gene expression following glyphosate treatment.

    PubMed

    Newman, Molli M; Lorenz, Nicola; Hoilett, Nigel; Lee, Nathan R; Dick, Richard P; Liles, Mark R; Ramsier, Cliff; Kloepper, Joseph W

    2016-05-15

    In commercial agriculture, populations and interactions of rhizosphere microflora are potentially affected by the use of specific agrichemicals, possibly by affecting gene expression in these organisms. To investigate this, we examined changes in bacterial gene expression within the rhizosphere of glyphosate-tolerant corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) in response to long-term glyphosate (PowerMAX™, Monsanto Company, MO, USA) treatment. A long-term glyphosate application study was carried out using rhizoboxes under greenhouse conditions with soil previously having no history of glyphosate exposure. Rhizosphere soil was collected from the rhizoboxes after four growing periods. Soil microbial community composition was analyzed using microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Total RNA was extracted from rhizosphere soil, and samples were analyzed using RNA-Seq analysis. A total of 20-28 million bacterial sequences were obtained for each sample. Transcript abundance was compared between control and glyphosate-treated samples using edgeR. Overall rhizosphere bacterial metatranscriptomes were dominated by transcripts related to RNA and carbohydrate metabolism. We identified 67 differentially expressed bacterial transcripts from the rhizosphere. Transcripts downregulated following glyphosate treatment involved carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and upregulated transcripts involved protein metabolism and respiration. Additionally, bacterial transcripts involving nutrients, including iron, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, were also affected by long-term glyphosate application. Overall, most bacterial and all fungal PLFA biomarkers decreased after glyphosate treatment compared to the control. These results demonstrate that long-term glyphosate use can affect rhizosphere bacterial activities and potentially shift bacterial community composition favoring more glyphosate-tolerant bacteria.

  17. Nitrogen loss by anaerobic oxidation of ammonium in rice rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Nie, San'an; Li, Hu; Yang, Xiaoru; Zhang, Zhaoji; Weng, Bosen; Huang, Fuyi; Zhu, Gui-Bing; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of ammonium (anammox) is recognized as an important process for nitrogen (N) cycling, yet its role in agricultural ecosystems, which are intensively fertilized, remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the presence, activity, functional gene abundance and role of anammox bacteria in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere paddy soils using catalyzed reporter deposition–fluorescence in situ hybridization, isotope-tracing technique, quantitative PCR assay and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Results showed that rhizosphere anammox contributed to 31–41% N2 production with activities of 0.33–0.64 nmol N2 g−1 soil h−1, whereas the non-rhizosphere anammox bacteria contributed to only 2–3% N2 production with lower activities of 0.08–0.26 nmol N2 g−1 soil h−1. Higher anammox bacterial cells were observed (0.75–1.4 × 107 copies g−1 soil) in the rhizosphere, which were twofold higher compared with the non-rhizosphere soil (3.7–5.9 × 106 copies g−1 soil). Phylogenetic analysis of the anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that two genera of ‘Candidatus Kuenenia' and ‘Candidatus Brocadia' and the family of Planctomycetaceae were identified. We suggest the rhizosphere provides a favorable niche for anammox bacteria, which are important to N cycling, but were previously largely overlooked. PMID:25689022

  18. Soil bacterial communities associated with natural and commercial Cyclopia spp.

    PubMed

    Postma, Anneke; Slabbert, Etienne; Postma, Ferdinand; Jacobs, Karin

    2016-03-01

    The commercially important plants in the genus Cyclopia spp. are indigenous to the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa and are used to manufacture an herbal tea known as honeybush tea. Growing in the low nutrient fynbos soils, these plants are highly dependent on symbiotic interactions with soil microorganisms for nutrient acquisition. The aim of this study was to investigate the soil bacterial communities associated with two commercially important Cyclopia species, namely C. subternata and C. longifolia. Specific interest was the differences between rhizosphere and bulk soil collected from natural sites and commercially grown plants. Samples were collected on two occasions to include a dry summer and wet winter season. Results showed that the dominant bacterial taxa associated with these plants included Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Commercial and natural as well as rhizosphere and bulk soil samples were highly similar in bacterial diversity and species richness. Significant differences were detected in bacterial community structures and co-occurrence patterns between the wet and dry seasons. The results of this study improved our knowledge on what effect commercial Cyclopia plantations and seasonal changes can have on soil bacterial communities within the endemic fynbos biome.

  19. Visualization of the Dynamic Rhizosphere Environment: Microbial and Biogeochemical Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardon, Z. G.; Forbes, E. S.; Thomas, F.; Herron, P. M.; Gage, D. J.; Thomas, S.; Larsen, M.; Arango Pinedo, C.; Sievert, S. M.; Giblin, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    The rhizosphere is a hotbed of nutrient cycling fueled by carbon from plants and controlled by microbes. Plants also strongly affect the rhizosphere by driving water flow into and out of roots, and by oxygenating saturated soil and sediment. Location and dynamics of plant-spurred microbial growth and activities are impossible to discern with destructive soil assays mixing microbe-scale soil microenvironments in a single"snap-shot" sample. Yet data are needed to inform (and validate) models describing microbial activity and biogeochemistry in the ebb and flow of the dynamic rhizosphere. Dynamics and localization of rapid microbial growth in the rhizosphere can be assessed over time using living soil microbiosensors. We used the bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as host to plasmid pZKH2 containing a fusion between the strong constituitive promoter nptII and luxCDABE(genes coding for light production). High light production by KT2440/pZKH2 correlated with rapid microbial growth supported by high carbon availability. Biosensors were used in clear-sided microcosms filled with non-sterile soil in which corn, black poplar or tomato were growing. KT2440/pZKH2 revealed that root tips are not necessarily the only, or even the dominant, hotspots for rhizosphere microbial growth, and carbon availability is highly variable in space and time around roots. Roots can also be sources of oxygen (O2) to the rhizosphere in saturated soil. We quantified spatial distributions of O2 using planar optodes placed against the face of sediment blocks cut from vegetated salt marsh at Plum Island Ecosystems LTER. Integrated over time, Spartina alterniflora roots were O2 sources to the rhizosphere. However, "sun-up" (light on) did not uniformly enhance rhizosphere O2 concentrations (as stomata opened and O2 production commenced). In some regions, the balance of O2 supply (from roots) and O2 demand (root and microbial) tipped toward demand at sun-up (repeatedly, over days). We speculate that in

  20. Cyanogenic pseudomonads influence multitrophic interactions in the rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Rudrappa, Thimmaraju; Splaine, Robert E; Biedrzycki, Meredith L; Bais, Harsh P

    2008-04-30

    In the rhizosphere, plant roots cope with both pathogenic and beneficial bacterial interactions. The exometabolite production in certain bacterial species may regulate root growth and other root-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere. Here, we elucidated the role of cyanide production in pseudomonad virulence affecting plant root growth and other rhizospheric processes. Exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 seedlings to both direct (with KCN) and indirect forms of cyanide from different pseudomonad strains caused significant inhibition of primary root growth. Further, we report that this growth inhibition was caused by the suppression of an auxin responsive gene, specifically at the root tip region by pseudomonad cyanogenesis. Additionally, pseudomonad cyanogenesis also affected other beneficial rhizospheric processes such as Bacillus subtilis colonization by biofilm formation on A. thaliana Col-0 roots. The effect of cyanogenesis on B. subtilis biofilm formation was further established by the down regulation of important B. subtilis biofilm operons epsA and yqxM. Our results show, the functional significance of pseudomonad cyanogenesis in regulating multitrophic rhizospheric interactions.

  1. Significance of rhizosphere microorganisms in reclaiming water in a CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, C.; Bubenheim, D. L.; Wignarajah, K.

    1997-01-01

    Plant-microbe interactions, such as those of the rhizosphere, may be ideally suited for recycling water in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The primary contaminant of waste hygiene water will be surfactants or soaps. We identified changes in the microbial ecology in the rhizosphere of hydroponically grown lettuce during exposure to surfactant. Six week old lettuce plants were transferred into a chamber with a recirculating hydroponic system. Microbial density and population composition were determined for the nutrient solution prior to introduction of plants and then again with plants prior to surfactant addition. The surfactant Igepon was added to the recirculating nutrient solution to a final concentration of 1.0 g L^-1. Bacteria density and species diversity of the solution were monitored over a 72-h period following introduction of Igepon. Nine distinct bacterial types were identified in the rhisosphere; three species accounted for 87% of the normal rhizosphere population. Microbial cell number increased in the presence of Igepon, however species diversity declined. At the point when Igepon was degraded from solution, diversity was reduced to only two species. Igepon was found to be degraded directly by only one species found in the rhizosphere. Since surfactants are degraded from the waste hygiene water within 24 h, the potential for using rhizosphere bacteria as a waste processor in a CELSS is promising.

  2. Significance of rhizosphere microorganisms in reclaiming water in a CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Plant-microbe interactions, such as those of the rhizosphere, may be ideally suited for recycling water in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The primary contaminant of waste hygiene water will be surfactants or soaps. We identified changes in the microbial ecology in the rhizosphere of hydroponically grown lettuce during exposure to surfactant. Six week old lettuce plants were transferred into a chamber with a recirculating hydroponic system. Microbial density and population composition were determined for the nutrient solution prior to introduction of plants and then again with plants prior to surfactant addition. The surfactant Igepon was added to the recirculating nutrient solution to a final concentration of 1.0 g L-1. Bacteria density and species diversity of the solution were monitored over a 72-h period following introduction of Igepon. Nine distinct bacterial types were identified in the rhisosphere; three species accounted for 87% of the normal rhizosphere population. Microbial cell number increased in the presence of Igepon, however species diversity declined. At the point when Igepon was degraded from solution, diversity was reduced to only two species. Igepon was found to be degraded directly by only one species found in the rhizosphere. Since surfactants are degraded from the waste hygiene water within 24 h, the potential for using rhizosphere bacteria as a waste processor in a CELSS is promising.

  3. Cyanogenic Pseudomonads Influence Multitrophic Interactions in the Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Rudrappa, Thimmaraju; Splaine, Robert E.; Biedrzycki, Meredith L.; Bais, Harsh P.

    2008-01-01

    In the rhizosphere, plant roots cope with both pathogenic and beneficial bacterial interactions. The exometabolite production in certain bacterial species may regulate root growth and other root-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere. Here, we elucidated the role of cyanide production in pseudomonad virulence affecting plant root growth and other rhizospheric processes. Exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 seedlings to both direct (with KCN) and indirect forms of cyanide from different pseudomonad strains caused significant inhibition of primary root growth. Further, we report that this growth inhibition was caused by the suppression of an auxin responsive gene, specifically at the root tip region by pseudomonad cyanogenesis. Additionally, pseudomonad cyanogenesis also affected other beneficial rhizospheric processes such as Bacillus subtilis colonization by biofilm formation on A. thaliana Col-0 roots. The effect of cyanogenesis on B. subtilis biofilm formation was further established by the down regulation of important B. subtilis biofilm operons epsA and yqxM. Our results show, the functional significance of pseudomonad cyanogenesis in regulating multitrophic rhizospheric interactions. PMID:18446201

  4. Significance of rhizosphere microorganisms in reclaiming water in a CELSS.

    PubMed

    Greene, C; Bubenheim, D L; Wignarajah, K

    1997-01-01

    Plant-microbe interactions, such as those of the rhizosphere, may be ideally suited for recycling water in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The primary contaminant of waste hygiene water will be surfactants or soaps. We identified changes in the microbial ecology in the rhizosphere of hydroponical1y grown lettuce during exposure to surfactant. Six week old lettuce plants were transferred into a chamber with a recirculating hydroponic system. Microbial density and population composition were determined for the nutrient solution prior to introduction of plants and then again with plants prior to surfactant addition. The surfactant Igepon was added to the recirculating nutrient solution to a final concentration of 1.0 g L-1. Bacteria density and species diversity of the solution were monitored over a 72-h period following introduction of Igepon. Nine distinct bacterial types were identified in the rhisosphere; three species accounted for 87% of the normal rhizosphere population. Microbial cell number increased in the presence of Igepon, however species diversity declined. At the point when Igepon was degraded from solution, diversity was reduced to only two species. Igepon was found to be degraded directly by only one species found in the rhizosphere. Since surfactants are degraded from the waste hygiene water within 24 h, the potential for using rhizosphere bacteria as a waste processor in a CELSS is promising.

  5. Linkage between bacterial and fungal rhizosphere communities in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is related to plant phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Bell, Terrence H; El-Din Hassan, Saad; Lauron-Moreau, Aurélien; Al-Otaibi, Fahad; Hijri, Mohamed; Yergeau, Etienne; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to excavating and chemically treating contaminated soils. Certain plants can directly bioremediate by sequestering and/or transforming pollutants, but plants may also enhance bioremediation by promoting contaminant-degrading microorganisms in soils. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region to compare the community composition of 66 soil samples from the rhizosphere of planted willows (Salix spp.) and six unplanted control samples at the site of a former petrochemical plant. The Bray-Curtis distance between bacterial communities across willow cultivars was significantly correlated with the distance between fungal communities in uncontaminated and moderately contaminated soils but not in highly contaminated (HC) soils (>2000 mg kg(-1) hydrocarbons). The mean dissimilarity between fungal, but not bacterial, communities from the rhizosphere of different cultivars increased substantially in the HC blocks. This divergence was partly related to high fungal sensitivity to hydrocarbon contaminants, as demonstrated by reduced Shannon diversity, but also to a stronger influence of willows on fungal communities. Abundance of the fungal class Pezizomycetes in HC soils was directly related to willow phylogeny, with Pezizomycetes dominating the rhizosphere of a monophyletic cluster of cultivars, while remaining in low relative abundance in other soils. This has implications for plant selection in phytoremediation, as fungal associations may affect the health of introduced plants and the success of co-inoculated microbial strains. An integrated understanding of the relationships between fungi, bacteria and plants will enable the design of treatments that specifically promote effective bioremediating communities.

  6. Brassica seed meal soil amendments transform the rhizosphere microbiome and improve apple production through resistance to pathogen reinfestation.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Mark; Hewavitharana, Shashika S; Strauss, Sarah L

    2015-04-01

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with preplant 1,3-dichloropropene/chloropicrin (Telone-C17) soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen or parasite reinfestation of organic orchard soils at two sites in Washington State. Preplant soil fumigation and an SM formulation consisting of either Brassica juncea-Sinapis alba or B. juncea-B. napus each provided similar levels of disease control during the initial growing season. Although tree growth was similar in fumigated and SM-amended soil during the initial growing season, tree performance in terms of growth and yield was commonly superior in B. juncea-S. alba SM-amended soil relative to that in fumigated soil at the end of four growing seasons. SM-amended soils were resistant to reinfestation by Pratylenchus penetrans and Pythium spp. relative to fumigated soils and corresponded with enhanced tree performance. Phytotoxic symptoms were observed in response to SM amendment at one of two orchard sites, were dependent upon season of application, and occurred in an SM formulation-specific manner. After 2 years, the rhizosphere microbiome in fumigated soils had reverted to one that was indistinguishable from the no-treatment control. In contrast, rhizosphere soils from the SM treatment possessed unique bacterial and fungal profiles, including specific microbial elements previously associated with suppression of plant-pathogenic fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes. Overall diversity of the microbiome was reduced in the SM treatment rhizosphere, suggesting that enhanced "biodiversity" was not instrumental in achieving system resistance or pathogen suppression.

  7. Linkage between bacterial and fungal rhizosphere communities in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is related to plant phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Terrence H; El-Din Hassan, Saad; Lauron-Moreau, Aurélien; Al-Otaibi, Fahad; Hijri, Mohamed; Yergeau, Etienne; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to excavating and chemically treating contaminated soils. Certain plants can directly bioremediate by sequestering and/or transforming pollutants, but plants may also enhance bioremediation by promoting contaminant-degrading microorganisms in soils. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region to compare the community composition of 66 soil samples from the rhizosphere of planted willows (Salix spp.) and six unplanted control samples at the site of a former petrochemical plant. The Bray–Curtis distance between bacterial communities across willow cultivars was significantly correlated with the distance between fungal communities in uncontaminated and moderately contaminated soils but not in highly contaminated (HC) soils (>2000 mg kg−1 hydrocarbons). The mean dissimilarity between fungal, but not bacterial, communities from the rhizosphere of different cultivars increased substantially in the HC blocks. This divergence was partly related to high fungal sensitivity to hydrocarbon contaminants, as demonstrated by reduced Shannon diversity, but also to a stronger influence of willows on fungal communities. Abundance of the fungal class Pezizomycetes in HC soils was directly related to willow phylogeny, with Pezizomycetes dominating the rhizosphere of a monophyletic cluster of cultivars, while remaining in low relative abundance in other soils. This has implications for plant selection in phytoremediation, as fungal associations may affect the health of introduced plants and the success of co-inoculated microbial strains. An integrated understanding of the relationships between fungi, bacteria and plants will enable the design of treatments that specifically promote effective bioremediating communities. PMID:23985744

  8. [Chemical properties and enzyme activities of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils under six Chinese herbal medicines on Mt. Taibai of Qinling Mountains, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Meng, Ling-Jun; Geng, Zeng-Chao; Yin, Jin-Yan; Wang, Hai-Tao; Ji, Peng-Fei

    2012-10-01

    This paper studied the chemical properties and enzyme activities of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils in different habitats of six Chinese herbal medicines, including Pyrola decorata, Cephalotaxus fortunei, Polygonatum odoratum, Potentilla glabra, Polygonum viviparum, and Potentilla fruticosa, on the Mt. Taibai of Qinling Mountains. In the rhizosphere soils of the herbs, the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, and available phosphorus and the soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) were higher, presenting an obvious rhizosphere aggregation, and the soil enzyme activities also showed an overall stronger characteristics, compared with those in non-rhizosphere soils. The soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus contents in the rhizosphere soils had significant positive correlations with soil neutral phosphatase activity, and the soil CEC had significant positive correlations with the activities of soil neutral phosphatase and acid phosphatase. In the non-rhizosphere soils, the soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents had significant positive correlations with the activities of soil urease, catalase and neutral phosphatase, and the soil CEC showed a significant positive correlation with the activities of soil urease, catalase, neutral phosphatase and acid phosphatase. The comprehensive fertility level of the rhizosphere soils was higher than that of the non-rhizosphere soils, and the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of P. fruticosa, P. viviparum, and P. glabra had higher comprehensive fertility level than those of P. decorata, P. odoratum and C. fortunei. In the evaluation of the fertility levels of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils under the six Chinese herbal medicines, soil organic matter content and CEC played important roles, and soil neutral phosphatase could be the preferred soil enzyme indicator.

  9. Isolation and characterization of rhizosphere bacteria for the biocontrol of the damping-off disease of tomatoes in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Inés; Ben Hsouna, Anis; Hamdi, Naceur; Gdoura, Radhouane; Triki, Mohamed Ali

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp., isolated from tomato and pepper plants rhizosphere soil, was evaluated in vitro as a potential antagonist of fungal pathogens. Pseudomonas strains were tested against the causal agents of tomatoes damping-off (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum), root rot (Fusarium solani), and causal agents of stem canker and leaf blight (Alternaria alternata). For this purpose, dual culture antagonism assays were carried out on 25% tryptic soy agar, King B medium and potato dextrose agar to determine the effect of the strains on mycelial growth of the pathogens. In addition, strains were screened for their ability to produce exoenzymes and siderophores. All the strains significantly inhibited Alternaria alternata, particularly in 25% TSA medium. Antagonistic effect on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Fusarium solani was greater on King B medium. Protease was produced by 30% of the strains, but no strain produced cellulase or chitinase. Finally, the selected Pseudomonas strain, Psf5, was evaluated on tomato seedling development and as a potential candidate for controlling tomato damping-off caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, under growth chamber conditions. In vivo studies resulted in significant increases in plant stand as well as in root dry weight. Psf5 was able to establish and survive in tomato plants rhizosphere after 40days following the planting of bacterized seeds.

  10. Probiotic Diversity Enhances Rhizosphere Microbiome Function and Plant Disease Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jie; Friman, Ville-Petri; Gu, Shao-hua; Wang, Xiao-fang; Eisenhauer, Nico; Yang, Tian-jie; Ma, Jing; Shen, Qi-rong; Jousset, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial communities associated with plant roots play an important role in the suppression of soil-borne pathogens, and multispecies probiotic consortia may enhance disease suppression efficacy. Here we introduced defined Pseudomonas species consortia into naturally complex microbial communities and measured the importance of Pseudomonas community diversity for their survival and the suppression of the bacterial plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum in the tomato rhizosphere microbiome. The survival of introduced Pseudomonas consortia increased with increasing diversity. Further, high Pseudomonas diversity reduced pathogen density in the rhizosphere and decreased the disease incidence due to both intensified resource competition and interference with the pathogen. These results provide novel mechanistic insights into elevated pathogen suppression by diverse probiotic consortia in naturally diverse plant rhizospheres. Ecologically based community assembly rules could thus play a key role in engineering functionally reliable microbiome applications. PMID:27965449

  11. Linking carbon and nitrogen cycles in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggs, E.; Morley, N.; Paterson, E.; Villada, A.; Gougoulias, C.; Shaw, L.

    2013-12-01

    Consideration of links between C and N biogeochemical cycles is essential for advancing knowledge of ecosystem functioning. Plant-derived C is a key driver of rhizosphere processes, but the role of this C in driving components of the N cycle is poorly characterised. Here we demonstrate the role of plant-derived C in regulating nitrous oxide (N2O) production and reduction in the rhizosphere. We use isotope (13C, 14C and 15N) techniques and a new isotope-FISH-FACS approach to verify (i) the link between plant-C and activity of microbial nitrate reducers, (ii) uptake of C compounds into pseudomonads, (iii) the role of both composite rhizodeposits and individual compounds in regulating the magnitude of N2O emission, and (iv) their influence on the N2O:N2 product ratio. We examine the potential these relationships offer to use plants to manipulate the rhizosphere for reduction of N2O emissions.

  12. Dechlorination of PCBs in the rhizosphere of Switchgrass and Poplar

    PubMed Central

    Meggo, Richard E.; Schnoor, Jerald L.; Hu, Dingfei

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB 52, 77, and 153) singly and in mixture were spiked and aged in soil microcosms and subsequently planted with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) or poplar (Populus deltoids x nigra DN34). The planted reactors showed significantly greater reductions in PCB parent compounds when compared to unplanted systems after 32 weeks. There was evidence of reductive dechlorination in both planted and unplanted systems, but the planted microcosms with fully developed roots and rhizospheres showed greater biotransformation than the unplanted reactors. These dechlorination products accounted for approximately all of the molar mass of parent compound lost. Based on the transformation products, reductive dechlorination pathways are proposed for rhizospheric biotransformation of PCB 52, 77, and 153. This is the first report of rhizosphere biotransformation pathways for reductive dechlorination in marginally aerobic, intermittently flooded soil as evidenced by a mass balance on transformation products. PMID:23603468

  13. Biological Control of Lettuce Drop and Host Plant Colonization by Rhizospheric and Endophytic Streptomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoyulong; Pizzatti, Cristina; Bonaldi, Maria; Saracchi, Marco; Erlacher, Armin; Kunova, Andrea; Berg, Gabriele; Cortesi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce drop, caused by the soil borne pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the most common and serious diseases of lettuce worldwide. Increased concerns about the side effects of chemical pesticides have resulted in greater interest in developing biocontrol strategies against S. sclerotiorum. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms of Streptomyces spp. as biological control agents against S. sclerotiorum on lettuce. Two Streptomyces isolates, S. exfoliatus FT05W and S. cyaneus ZEA17I, inhibit mycelial growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by more than 75% in vitro. We evaluated their biocontrol activity against S. sclerotiorum in vivo, and compared them to Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108, isolated from Actinovate®. When Streptomyces spp. (106 CFU/mL) were applied to S. sclerotiorum inoculated substrate in a growth chamber 1 week prior lettuce sowing, they significantly reduced the risk of lettuce drop disease, compared to the inoculated control. Interestingly, under field conditions, S. exfoliatus FT05W and S. cyaneus ZEA17I protected lettuce from drop by 40 and 10% respectively, whereas S. lydicus WYEC 108 did not show any protection. We further labeled S. exfoliatus FT05W and S. cyaneus ZEA17I with the enhanced GFP (EGFP) marker to investigate their rhizosphere competence and ability to colonize lettuce roots using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The abundant colonization of young lettuce seedlings by both strains demonstrated Streptomyces' capability to interact with the host from early stages of seed germination and root development. Moreover, the two strains were detected also on 2-week-old roots, indicating their potential of long-term interactions with lettuce. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations showed EGFP-S. exfoliatus FT05W endophytic colonization of lettuce root cortex tissues. Finally, we determined its viability and persistence in the rhizosphere and endorhiza up to 3 weeks by quantifying its

  14. Biological Control of Lettuce Drop and Host Plant Colonization by Rhizospheric and Endophytic Streptomycetes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyulong; Pizzatti, Cristina; Bonaldi, Maria; Saracchi, Marco; Erlacher, Armin; Kunova, Andrea; Berg, Gabriele; Cortesi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce drop, caused by the soil borne pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the most common and serious diseases of lettuce worldwide. Increased concerns about the side effects of chemical pesticides have resulted in greater interest in developing biocontrol strategies against S. sclerotiorum. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms of Streptomyces spp. as biological control agents against S. sclerotiorum on lettuce. Two Streptomyces isolates, S. exfoliatus FT05W and S. cyaneus ZEA17I, inhibit mycelial growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by more than 75% in vitro. We evaluated their biocontrol activity against S. sclerotiorum in vivo, and compared them to Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108, isolated from Actinovate®. When Streptomyces spp. (10(6) CFU/mL) were applied to S. sclerotiorum inoculated substrate in a growth chamber 1 week prior lettuce sowing, they significantly reduced the risk of lettuce drop disease, compared to the inoculated control. Interestingly, under field conditions, S. exfoliatus FT05W and S. cyaneus ZEA17I protected lettuce from drop by 40 and 10% respectively, whereas S. lydicus WYEC 108 did not show any protection. We further labeled S. exfoliatus FT05W and S. cyaneus ZEA17I with the enhanced GFP (EGFP) marker to investigate their rhizosphere competence and ability to colonize lettuce roots using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The abundant colonization of young lettuce seedlings by both strains demonstrated Streptomyces' capability to interact with the host from early stages of seed germination and root development. Moreover, the two strains were detected also on 2-week-old roots, indicating their potential of long-term interactions with lettuce. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations showed EGFP-S. exfoliatus FT05W endophytic colonization of lettuce root cortex tissues. Finally, we determined its viability and persistence in the rhizosphere and endorhiza up to 3 weeks by quantifying

  15. Water repellency in the rhizosphere of maize: measurements and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mutez; Kroener, Eva; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Although maize roots have been extensively studied, there is limited information on the effect of root exudates on the hydraulic properties of maize rhizosphere. Recent experiments suggested that the mucilaginous fraction of root exudates may cause water repellency of the rhizosphere. Our objectives were: 1) to investigate whether maize rhizosphere turns hydrophobic after drying and subsequent rewetting; 2) to develop a new method to collect root mucilage and test whether maize mucilage is hydrophobic; and 3) to find a quantitative relation between rhizosphere rewetting, particle size, soil matric potential and mucilage concentration. Maize plants were grown in aluminum containers filled with a sandy soil. When the plants were three-weeks-old, the soil was let dry and then it was irrigated. The soil water content during irrigation was imaged using neutron radiography. In a parallel experiment, ten maize plants were grown in sandy soil for five weeks. Mucilage was collected from young brace roots using a new developed method. Mucilage was placed on glass slides and let dry. The contact angle was measured with the sessile drop method for varying mucilage concentration. Additionally, we used neutron radiography to perform capillary rise experiments in soils of varying particle size mixed with maize mucilage. We then used a pore-network model in which mucilage was randomly distributed in a cubic lattice. The general idea was that rewetting of a pore is impeded when the concentration of mucilage on the pore surface (g cm-2) is higher than a given threshold value. The threshold value depended on soil matric potential, pore radius and contact angle. Then, we randomly distributed mucilage in the pore network and we calculated the percolation of water across a cubic lattice for varying soil particle size, mucilage concentration and matric potential. Our results showed that: 1) the rhizosphere of maize stayed temporarily dry after irrigation; 2) mucilage became water

  16. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

    2011-07-01

    To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat-associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans.

  17. Effects of Fungal Root Pathogens on the Population Dynamics of Biocontrol Strains of Fluorescent Pseudomonads in the Wheat Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Mark; Cook, R. James

    1991-01-01

    The influences of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (which causes take-all of wheat), Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 (which causes rhizoctonia root rot of wheat), Pythium irregulare, P. aristosporum, and P. ultimum var. sporangiiferum (which cause pythium root rot of wheat) on the population dynamics of Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79 and Q72a-80 (bicontrol strains active against take-all and pythium root rot of wheat, respectively) in the wheat rhizosphere were examined. Root infection by either G. graminis var. tritici or R. solani resulted in populations of both bacterial strains that were equal to or significantly larger than their respective populations maintained on roots in the absence of these pathogens. In contrast, the population of strain 2-79 was significantly smaller on roots in the presence of any of the three Pythium species than on noninfected roots and was often below the limits of detection (50 CFU/cm of root) on Pythium-infected roots after 40 days of plant growth. In the presence of either P. aristosporum or P. ultimum var. sporangiiferum, the decline in the population of Q72a-80 was similar to that observed on noninfected roots; however, the population of this strain declined more rapidly on roots infected by P. irregulare than on noninfected roots. Application of metalaxyl (which is selectively inhibitory to Pythium spp.) to soil naturally infestated with Pythium spp. resulted in significantly larger rhizosphere populations of the introduced bacteria over time than on plants grown in the same soil without metalaxyl. It is apparent that root infections by fungal pathogens may either enhance or depress the population of fluorescent pseudomonads introduced for their control, with different strains of pseudomonads reacting differentially to different genera and species of the root pathogens. PMID:16348532

  18. From data to knowledge: The future of multi-omics data analysis for the rhizosphere

    DOE PAGES

    Allen White III, Richard; Borkum, Mark I.; Rivas-Ubach, Albert; ...

    2017-05-04

    The rhizosphere is the interface between the root system of a plant and its surrounding soil. The microbiome of the rhizosphere, which is the totality of all microbes present there, represents a complex microbial ecosystem that nourishes the terrestrial biosphere. In order to untangle the complexity of the rhizosphere, and of the rhizospheric microbiome in particular, an integrated multi-omics approach can be applied to reveal the composition of the rhizospheric microbiome (through 16S ribosomal amplicons and metagenomics), the functional properties of the microbiome (through metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics), and the signaling network within the rhizosphere (through metametabolomics). The successful application ofmore » integrated multi-omics to rhizospheric science depends on the availability of rhizosphere-specific data and on the appropriate software used to analyze omics data from the rhizosphere. Here, we analyze the availability of software suites that are normally applied to surrogate disciplines (e.g., soil and plants) but which can be used for rhizospheric science. We also identify potential issues, challenges, and opportunities for rhizosphere science.« less

  19. Comparative metatranscriptomics reveals kingdom level changes in the rhizosphere microbiome of plants.

    PubMed

    Turner, Thomas R; Ramakrishnan, Karunakaran; Walshaw, John; Heavens, Darren; Alston, Mark; Swarbreck, David; Osbourn, Anne; Grant, Alastair; Poole, Philip S

    2013-12-01

    Plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere have important roles in biogeochemical cycling, and maintenance of plant health and productivity, yet remain poorly understood. Using RNA-based metatranscriptomics, the global active microbiomes were analysed in soil and rhizospheres of wheat, oat, pea and an oat mutant (sad1) deficient in production of anti-fungal avenacins. Rhizosphere microbiomes differed from bulk soil and between plant species. Pea (a legume) had a much stronger effect on the rhizosphere than wheat and oat (cereals), resulting in a dramatically different rhizosphere community. The relative abundance of eukaryotes in the oat and pea rhizospheres was more than fivefold higher than in the wheat rhizosphere or bulk soil. Nematodes and bacterivorous protozoa were enriched in all rhizospheres, whereas the pea rhizosphere was highly enriched for fungi. Metabolic capabilities for rhizosphere colonisation were selected, including cellulose degradation (cereals), H2 oxidation (pea) and methylotrophy (all plants). Avenacins had little effect on the prokaryotic community of oat, but the eukaryotic community was strongly altered in the sad1 mutant, suggesting that avenacins have a broader role than protecting from fungal pathogens. Profiling microbial communities with metatranscriptomics allows comparison of relative abundance, from multiple samples, across all domains of life, without polymerase chain reaction bias. This revealed profound differences in the rhizosphere microbiome, particularly at the kingdom level between plants.

  20. Comparative metatranscriptomics reveals kingdom level changes in the rhizosphere microbiome of plants

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Thomas R; Ramakrishnan, Karunakaran; Walshaw, John; Heavens, Darren; Alston, Mark; Swarbreck, David; Osbourn, Anne; Grant, Alastair; Poole, Philip S

    2013-01-01

    Plant–microbe interactions in the rhizosphere have important roles in biogeochemical cycling, and maintenance of plant health and productivity, yet remain poorly understood. Using RNA-based metatranscriptomics, the global active microbiomes were analysed in soil and rhizospheres of wheat, oat, pea and an oat mutant (sad1) deficient in production of anti-fungal avenacins. Rhizosphere microbiomes differed from bulk soil and between plant species. Pea (a legume) had a much stronger effect on the rhizosphere than wheat and oat (cereals), resulting in a dramatically different rhizosphere community. The relative abundance of eukaryotes in the oat and pea rhizospheres was more than fivefold higher than in the wheat rhizosphere or bulk soil. Nematodes and bacterivorous protozoa were enriched in all rhizospheres, whereas the pea rhizosphere was highly enriched for fungi. Metabolic capabilities for rhizosphere colonisation were selected, including cellulose degradation (cereals), H2 oxidation (pea) and methylotrophy (all plants). Avenacins had little effect on the prokaryotic community of oat, but the eukaryotic community was strongly altered in the sad1 mutant, suggesting that avenacins have a broader role than protecting from fungal pathogens. Profiling microbial communities with metatranscriptomics allows comparison of relative abundance, from multiple samples, across all domains of life, without polymerase chain reaction bias. This revealed profound differences in the rhizosphere microbiome, particularly at the kingdom level between plants. PMID:23864127

  1. Structural and functional diversity of rhizobacteria associated with Rauwolfia spp. across the Western Ghat regions of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Prasanna Kumar, S P; Hariprasad, P; Brijesh Singh, S; Gowtham, H G; Niranjana, S R

    2014-01-01

    The present study carried out with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of DNA extracted from rhizosphere soils of Rauwolfia spp. collected from Western Ghat (WG) regions of Karnataka indicated that Pseudomonas sp. was prevalently found followed by Methylobacterium sp., Bacillus sp. and uncultured bacteria. A total of 200 rhizobacteria were isolated from 58 rhizosphere soil samples comprising of 15 different bacterial genera. The Shannon Weaver diversity index (H') and Simpson's diversity index (D) were found to be 2.57 and 0.91 for cultivable bacteria, respectively. The total species richness of cultivable rhizobacteria was high in Coorg district comprising 15 bacterial genera while in Mysore district, four bacterial genera were recorded. Rarefaction curve analysis also indicated the presence of higher species richness in samples of Shimoga and Coorg. All the rhizobacteria were screened for their multiple plant growth promotion and disease suppression traits. The results revealed that 70% of the isolates colonized tomato roots, 42% produced indole acetic acid, 55% solubilized phosphorus, while 43, 22, 27, 19, 40, 15 and 44% produced siderophore, salicylic acid, hydrogen cyanide, chitinase, phytase, cellulase and protease, respectively. Rhizobacterial isolates showing antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus flavus were 53 and 33%, respectively. Plant growth promotion studies revealed that most of the isolates increased percent germination with significantly higher vigour index as compared to untreated control. Most predominant rhizobacteria found in the rhizospheres of Rauwolfia spp. of WG regions are potential PGPR which can serve as biofertilizers and biopesticides.

  2. Rhizosphere microbiome assemblage is affected by plant development

    PubMed Central

    Chaparro, Jacqueline M; Badri, Dayakar V; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2014-01-01

    There is a concerted understanding of the ability of root exudates to influence the structure of rhizosphere microbial communities. However, our knowledge of the connection between plant development, root exudation and microbiome assemblage is limited. Here, we analyzed the structure of the rhizospheric bacterial community associated with Arabidopsis at four time points corresponding to distinct stages of plant development: seedling, vegetative, bolting and flowering. Overall, there were no significant differences in bacterial community structure, but we observed that the microbial community at the seedling stage was distinct from the other developmental time points. At a closer level, phylum such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria and specific genera within those phyla followed distinct patterns associated with plant development and root exudation. These results suggested that the plant can select a subset of microbes at different stages of development, presumably for specific functions. Accordingly, metatranscriptomics analysis of the rhizosphere microbiome revealed that 81 unique transcripts were significantly (P<0.05) expressed at different stages of plant development. For instance, genes involved in streptomycin synthesis were significantly induced at bolting and flowering stages, presumably for disease suppression. We surmise that plants secrete blends of compounds and specific phytochemicals in the root exudates that are differentially produced at distinct stages of development to help orchestrate rhizosphere microbiome assemblage. PMID:24196324

  3. Impact of plant domestication on rhizosphere microbiome assembly and functions.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jaramillo, Juan E; Mendes, Rodrigo; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2016-04-01

    The rhizosphere microbiome is pivotal for plant health and growth, providing defence against pests and diseases, facilitating nutrient acquisition and helping plants to withstand abiotic stresses. Plants can actively recruit members of the soil microbial community for positive feedbacks, but the underlying mechanisms and plant traits that drive microbiome assembly and functions are largely unknown. Domestication of plant species has substantially contributed to human civilization, but also caused a strong decrease in the genetic diversity of modern crop cultivars that may have affected the ability of plants to establish beneficial associations with rhizosphere microbes. Here, we review how plants shape the rhizosphere microbiome and how domestication may have impacted rhizosphere microbiome assembly and functions via habitat expansion and via changes in crop management practices, root exudation, root architecture, and plant litter quality. We also propose a "back to the roots" framework that comprises the exploration of the microbiome of indigenous plants and their native habitats for the identification of plant and microbial traits with the ultimate goal to reinstate beneficial associations that may have been undermined during plant domestication.

  4. IMPACT OF SOIL MANAGEMENT ON COTTON RHIZOSPHERE BACTERIA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil dwelling bacteria and fungi are responsible for a number of ecosystem services critical to agriculture. In particular, bacteria living in the rhizosphere (portion of soil directly influenced by plant roots) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have been shown to improve nutrient and water uptake an...

  5. Does the rhizosphere hydrophobicity limit root water uptake?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Mohsen; Ahmed, Mutez; Kroener, Eva; Carminati, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The ability of plants to extract water from the soil is influenced by the hydraulic conductivity of roots and their rhizosphere. Recent experiments showed that the rhizosphere turned hydrophobic after drying and it remained dry after rewetting [1]. Our objective was to investigate whether rhizosphere hydrophobicity is a limit to root water uptake after drying. To quantify the effect of rhizosphere hydrophobicity on root water uptake, we used neutron radiography to trace the transport of deuterated water (D2O) in the roots of lupines experiencing a severe, local soil drying. The plants were grown in aluminum containers (30×30×1 cm) filled with sandy soil. The soil was partitioned into nine compartments using three horizontal and three vertical layers of coarse sand (thickness of 1cm) as capillary barrier. When the plants were 28 days old, we let one of the upper lateral compartments dry to a water content of 2-4%, while keeping the other compartments to a water content of 20%. Then we injected 10 ml of D2O in the dry compartment and 10 ml in the symmetric location. The radiographs showed that root water uptake in the soil region that was let dry and then irrigated was 4-8 times smaller than in the wet soil region[2]. In a parallel experiment, we used neutron radiography to monitor the rehydration of lupine roots that were irrigated after a severe drying experiment. Based on root swelling and additional data on the xylem pressure, we calculated the hydraulic conductivity of the root-rhizosphere continuum. We found that the hydraulic conductivity of the root-rhizosphere continuum was initially 5.75×10-14 m s-1and it increased to 4.26×10-12 m s-1after four hours. Both experiments show that rhizosphere hydrophobicity after drying is associated with a reduction in root water uptake and a big decrease in hydraulic conductivity of the soil-root system. [1] Carminati et al (2010) Plant and Soil. Vol. 332: 163-176. [2] Zarebanadkouki and Carmianti (2013) Journal of Plant

  6. Interaction of Rhizosphere Bacteria, Fertilizer, and Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi with Sea Oats †

    PubMed Central

    Will, M. E.; Sylvia, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    Plants must be established quickly on replenished beaches in order to stabilize the sand and begin the dune-building process. The objective of this research was to determine whether inoculation of sea oats (Uniola paniculata L.) with bacteria (indigenous rhizosphere bacteria and N2 fixers) alone or in combination with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi would enhance plant growth in beach sand. At two fertilizer-N levels, Klebsiella pneumoniae and two Azospirillum spp. did not provide the plants with fixed atmospheric N; however, K. pneumoniae increased root and shoot growth. When a sparingly soluble P source (CaHPO4) was added to two sands, K. pneumoniae increased plant growth in sand with a high P content. The phosphorus content of shoots was not affected by bacterial inoculation, indicating that a mechanism other than bacterially enhanced P availability to plants was responsible for the growth increases. When sea oats were inoculated with either K. pneumoniae or Acaligenes denitrificans and a mixed Glomus inoculum, there was no consistent evidence of a synergistic effect on plant growth. Nonetheless, bacterial inoculation increased root colonization by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi when the fungal inoculum consisted of colonized roots but had no effect on colonization when the inoculum consisted of spores alone. K. pneumoniae was found to increase spore germination and hyphal growth of Glomus deserticola compared with the control. The use of bacterial inoculants to enhance establishment of pioneer dune plants warrants further study. PMID:16348236

  7. Taking Root: Enduring Effect of Rhizosphere Bacterial Colonization in Mangroves

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Fernando N.; Egas, Conceição; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Angela; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda C. S.; Smalla, Kornelia

    2010-01-01

    Background Mangrove forests are of global ecological and economic importance, but are also one of the world's most threatened ecosystems. Here we present a case study examining the influence of the rhizosphere on the structural composition and diversity of mangrove bacterial communities and the implications for mangrove reforestation approaches using nursery-raised plants. Methodology/Principal Findings A barcoded pyrosequencing approach was used to assess bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere of plants in a nursery setting, nursery-raised transplants and native (non-transplanted) plants in the same mangrove habitat. In addition to this, we also assessed bacterial composition in the bulk sediment in order to ascertain if the roots of mangrove plants affect sediment bacterial composition. We found that mangrove roots appear to influence bacterial abundance and composition in the rhizosphere. Due to the sheer abundance of roots in mangrove habitat, such an effect can have an important impact on the maintenance of bacterial guilds involved in nutrient cycling and other key ecosystem functions. Surprisingly, we also noted a marked impact of initial nursery conditions on the rhizosphere bacterial composition of replanted mangrove trees. This result is intriguing because mangroves are periodically inundated with seawater and represent a highly dynamic environment compared to the more controlled nursery environment. Conclusions/Significance In as far as microbial diversity and composition influences plant growth and health, this study indicates that nursery conditions and early microbial colonization patterns of the replants are key factors that should be considered during reforestation projects. In addition to this, our results provide information on the role of the mangrove rhizosphere as a habitat for bacteria from estuarine sediments. PMID:21124923

  8. Soil Type Dependent Rhizosphere Competence and Biocontrol of Two Bacterial Inoculant Strains and Their Effects on the Rhizosphere Microbial Community of Field-Grown Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Schreiter, Susanne; Sandmann, Martin; Smalla, Kornelia; Grosch, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Rhizosphere competence of bacterial inoculants is assumed to be important for successful biocontrol. Knowledge of factors influencing rhizosphere competence under field conditions is largely lacking. The present study is aimed to unravel the effects of soil types on the rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity of the two inoculant strains Pseudomonas jessenii RU47 and Serratia plymuthica 3Re4-18 in field-grown lettuce in soils inoculated with Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB or not. Two independent experiments were carried out in 2011 on an experimental plot system with three soil types sharing the same cropping history and weather conditions for more than 10 years. Rifampicin resistant mutants of the inoculants were used to evaluate their colonization in the rhizosphere of lettuce. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA to get insights into the effects of the inoculants and R. solani on the indigenous rhizosphere bacterial communities. Both inoculants showed a good colonization ability of the rhizosphere of lettuce with more than 106 colony forming units per g root dry mass two weeks after planting. An effect of the soil type on rhizosphere competence was observed for 3Re4-18 but not for RU47. In both experiments a comparable rhizosphere competence was observed and in the presence of the inoculants disease symptoms were either significantly reduced, or at least a non-significant trend was shown. Disease severity was highest in diluvial sand followed by alluvial loam and loess loam suggesting that the soil types differed in their conduciveness for bottom rot disease. Compared to effect of the soil type of the rhizosphere bacterial communities, the effects of the pathogen and the inoculants were less pronounced. The soil types had a surprisingly low influence on rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity while they significantly affected

  9. Soil type dependent rhizosphere competence and biocontrol of two bacterial inoculant strains and their effects on the rhizosphere microbial community of field-grown lettuce.

    PubMed

    Schreiter, Susanne; Sandmann, Martin; Smalla, Kornelia; Grosch, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Rhizosphere competence of bacterial inoculants is assumed to be important for successful biocontrol. Knowledge of factors influencing rhizosphere competence under field conditions is largely lacking. The present study is aimed to unravel the effects of soil types on the rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity of the two inoculant strains Pseudomonas jessenii RU47 and Serratia plymuthica 3Re4-18 in field-grown lettuce in soils inoculated with Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB or not. Two independent experiments were carried out in 2011 on an experimental plot system with three soil types sharing the same cropping history and weather conditions for more than 10 years. Rifampicin resistant mutants of the inoculants were used to evaluate their colonization in the rhizosphere of lettuce. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA to get insights into the effects of the inoculants and R. solani on the indigenous rhizosphere bacterial communities. Both inoculants showed a good colonization ability of the rhizosphere of lettuce with more than 10(6) colony forming units per g root dry mass two weeks after planting. An effect of the soil type on rhizosphere competence was observed for 3Re4-18 but not for RU47. In both experiments a comparable rhizosphere competence was observed and in the presence of the inoculants disease symptoms were either significantly reduced, or at least a non-significant trend was shown. Disease severity was highest in diluvial sand followed by alluvial loam and loess loam suggesting that the soil types differed in their conduciveness for bottom rot disease. Compared to effect of the soil type of the rhizosphere bacterial communities, the effects of the pathogen and the inoculants were less pronounced. The soil types had a surprisingly low influence on rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity while they significantly affected

  10. Fermentation of Foc TR4-infected bananas and Trichoderma spp.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Li, B; Liu, S W; Biswas, M K; Liu, S; Wei, Y R; Zuo, C W; Deng, G M; Kuang, R B; Hu, C H; Yi, G J; Li, C Y

    2016-10-17

    Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive banana diseases, and greatly hampers the global production of bananas. Consequently, it has been very detrimental to the Chinese banana industry. An infected plant is one of the major causes of the spread of Fusarium wilt to nearby regions. It is essential to develop an efficient and environmentally sustainable disease control method to restrict the spread of Fusarium wilt. We isolated Trichoderma spp from the rhizosphere soil, roots, and pseudostems of banana plants that showed Fusarium wilt symptoms in the infected areas. Their cellulase activities were measured by endoglucanase activity, β-glucosidase activity, and filter paper activity assays. Safety analyses of the Trichoderma isolates were conducted by inoculating them into banana plantlets. The antagonistic effects of the Trichoderma spp on the Fusarium pathogen Foc tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) were tested by the dual culture technique. Four isolates that had high cellulase activity, no observable pathogenicity to banana plants, and high antagonistic capability were identified. The isolates were used to biodegrade diseased banana plants infected with GFP-tagged Foc TR4, and the compost was tested for biological control of the infectious agent; the results showed that the fermentation suppressed the incidence of wilt and killed the pathogen. This study indicates that Trichoderma isolates have the potential to eliminate the transmission of Foc TR4, and may be developed into an environmentally sustainable treatment for controlling Fusarium wilt in banana plants.

  11. Colonization of Bacillus spp. on seeds and in plant rhizoplane.

    PubMed

    Ugoji, E O; Laing, M D; Hunter, C H

    2005-07-01

    Seed coating, dipping and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were employed to study bacterial and fungal colonization of the seeds and rhizoplane of maize (Zea mays L.) during the early stages of growth. Isolation of Bacillus spp. entailed screening soil bacteria with potential growth stimulation and plant pathogen suppressive abilities isolated from the rhizospheres and rhizoplanes of vegetable crops. The bacterial colonization of the spermosphere was 90%. When the coated seeds were fully germinated, bacteria moved to the emerging radicle. Virtually no bacteria occurred on the root tip both for the treated and untreated. However, colonization was 20% in the basal portion of the roots close to the seed-root junction. SEM observations showed that the bacterial cells were arranged linearly and laterally on the growing root axis. This phenomenon was more noticeable in the seedlings dipped in the bacterial culture on the 3rd day after germination. The results indicate that attachment to the seed coat and the rhizoplane by the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) is an important factor in the successful colonization of the rhizoplane. The significance of the work is to ascertain that the inoculated Bacillus spp. adhered to and established in the rhizoplane of maize. It can therefore be used as a PGPR and as a biocontrol agent.

  12. Microbial expression profiles in the rhizosphere of willows depend on soil contamination.

    PubMed

    Yergeau, Etienne; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Maynard, Christine; St-Arnaud, Marc; Greer, Charles W

    2014-02-01

    The goal of phytoremediation is to use plants to immobilize, extract or degrade organic and inorganic pollutants. In the case of organic contaminants, plants essentially act indirectly through the stimulation of rhizosphere microorganisms. A detailed understanding of the effect plants have on the activities of rhizosphere microorganisms could help optimize phytoremediation systems and enhance their use. In this study, willows were planted in contaminated and non-contaminated soils in a greenhouse, and the active microbial communities and the expression of functional genes in the rhizosphere and bulk soil were compared. Ion Torrent sequencing of 16S rRNA and Illumina sequencing of mRNA were performed. Genes related to carbon and amino-acid uptake and utilization were upregulated in the willow rhizosphere, providing indirect evidence of the compositional content of the root exudates. Related to this increased nutrient input, several microbial taxa showed a significant increase in activity in the rhizosphere. The extent of the rhizosphere stimulation varied markedly with soil contamination levels. The combined selective pressure of contaminants and rhizosphere resulted in higher expression of genes related to competition (antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation) in the contaminated rhizosphere. Genes related to hydrocarbon degradation were generally more expressed in contaminated soils, but the exact complement of genes induced was different for bulk and rhizosphere soils. Together, these results provide an unprecedented view of microbial gene expression in the plant rhizosphere during phytoremediation.

  13. Microbial expression profiles in the rhizosphere of willows depend on soil contamination

    PubMed Central

    Yergeau, Etienne; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Maynard, Christine; St-Arnaud, Marc; Greer, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    The goal of phytoremediation is to use plants to immobilize, extract or degrade organic and inorganic pollutants. In the case of organic contaminants, plants essentially act indirectly through the stimulation of rhizosphere microorganisms. A detailed understanding of the effect plants have on the activities of rhizosphere microorganisms could help optimize phytoremediation systems and enhance their use. In this study, willows were planted in contaminated and non-contaminated soils in a greenhouse, and the active microbial communities and the expression of functional genes in the rhizosphere and bulk soil were compared. Ion Torrent sequencing of 16S rRNA and Illumina sequencing of mRNA were performed. Genes related to carbon and amino-acid uptake and utilization were upregulated in the willow rhizosphere, providing indirect evidence of the compositional content of the root exudates. Related to this increased nutrient input, several microbial taxa showed a significant increase in activity in the rhizosphere. The extent of the rhizosphere stimulation varied markedly with soil contamination levels. The combined selective pressure of contaminants and rhizosphere resulted in higher expression of genes related to competition (antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation) in the contaminated rhizosphere. Genes related to hydrocarbon degradation were generally more expressed in contaminated soils, but the exact complement of genes induced was different for bulk and rhizosphere soils. Together, these results provide an unprecedented view of microbial gene expression in the plant rhizosphere during phytoremediation. PMID:24067257

  14. [Community diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria of three plants rhizosphere in Ebinur Lake wetland].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cuihua; Wu, Fei; Hu, Wenge; Mo, Chao; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-09-04

    In order to study the community diversity of rhizosphere soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, Halocnemum strobilaceum, Reed and Salicornia in Ebinur Lake Wetland were investigated. The clone libraries of amoA gene were constructed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and phylogenetics were analyzed. To explore the community structure of rhizosphere amomonia-oxidizing bacteria, we combined rhizosphere physicochemical factors of the three plants. Phylogenetic analysis of the amoA gene fragments showed that all of AOB sequences from shrimp of three plants rhizosphere were affiliated with Nitrosomonas or Nitrosomonas-like phyla, Nitrosospira phyla was not discovered. Three plants rhizosphere composition includes 9 OTUs,12 OTUs and 7 OTUs respectively. Coverages of all libraries of the three plants rhizosphere were over 99% and strongly representative. The richness index, chao1 index, ACE index and Shannon index of the three libraries were as follows, Reed rhizosphere AOB was much higher than Halocnemum strobilaceum rhizosphere AOB, and Salicornia rhizosphere AOB was the lowest. This study provides a basis for understanding the community diversity and structure of rhizosphere soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in Ebinur Lake wetland.

  15. Adaptation of Rhizobium leguminosarum to pea, alfalfa and sugar beet rhizospheres investigated by comparative transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The rhizosphere is the microbe-rich zone around plant roots and is a key determinant of the biosphere's productivity. Comparative transcriptomics was used to investigate general and plant-specific adaptations during rhizosphere colonization. Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae was grown in the rhizospheres of pea (its legume nodulation host), alfalfa (a non-host legume) and sugar beet (non-legume). Gene expression data were compared to metabolic and transportome maps to understand adaptation to the rhizosphere. Results Carbon metabolism was dominated by organic acids, with a strong bias towards aromatic amino acids, C1 and C2 compounds. This was confirmed by induction of the glyoxylate cycle required for C2 metabolism and gluconeogenesis in all rhizospheres. Gluconeogenesis is repressed in R. leguminosarum by sugars, suggesting that although numerous sugar and putative complex carbohydrate transport systems are induced in the rhizosphere, they are less important carbon sources than organic acids. A common core of rhizosphere-induced genes was identified, of which 66% are of unknown function. Many genes were induced in the rhizosphere of the legumes, but not sugar beet, and several were plant specific. The plasmid pRL8 can be considered pea rhizosphere specific, enabling adaptation of R. leguminosarum to its host. Mutation of many of the up-regulated genes reduced competitiveness for pea rhizosphere colonization, while two genes specifically up-regulated in the pea rhizosphere reduced colonization of the pea but not alfalfa rhizosphere. Conclusions Comparative transcriptome analysis has enabled differentiation between factors conserved across plants for rhizosphere colonization as well as identification of exquisite specific adaptation to host plants. PMID:22018401

  16. [Effects of different peony cultivars on community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in rhizosphere soil].

    PubMed

    Guo, Shao-Xia; Liu, Run-Jin

    2010-08-01

    This paper studied the community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the rhizosphere soil of different peony (Paeonia suffruticosa) cultivars grown in Zhaolou Peony Garden of Heze in Shandong Province. A number of parameters describing this community structure, e. g., spore density, species- and genera composition, species richness, distribution frequency, species diversity indices, and Sorenson's similarity coefficient, were examined. The species- and genera composition, species richness, and distribution frequency of AM fungi in rhizosphere soil varied with planted peony cultivars. A total of 10 AM fungal species were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of cultivars 'Fengdan' and 'Zhaofen', 9 species from the rhizosphere soil of 'Wulong pengsheng' and 'Luoyang red', and 8 species from the rhizosphere soil of 'Hu red'. The spore density was the highest (59 per 50 g soil) in the rhizosphere soil of 'Fengdan', but the lowest (47 per 50 g soil) in the rhizosphere soil of 'Hu red'; the species diversity index was the highest (1.89) in the rhizosphere soil of 'Zhaofen', but the lowest (1.71) in the rhizosphere soil of 'Hu red'; and the mycorrhizal colonization rate was the highest (63.6%) in rhizosphere soil of 'Fengdan' and 'Hu red', but the lowest (52.7%) in the rhizosphere soil of 'Wulong pengsheng'. The Sorenson's similarity coefficient of AM fungal species composition in the rhizosphere soil among the test cultivars ranged from 0.71 to 0.95, being the highest between 'Wulong pengsheng' and 'Fengdan', and the lowest between 'Luoyang red' and 'Hu red'. It was concluded that the gene type of peony could change the community structure of AM fungi in rhizosphere soil.

  17. Understanding Aquatic Rhizosphere Processes Through Metabolomics and Metagenomics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Jian; Mynampati, Kalyan; Drautz, Daniela; Arumugam, Krithika; Williams, Rohan; Schuster, Stephan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    The aquatic rhizosphere is a region around the roots of aquatic plants. Many studies focusing on terrestrial rhizosphere have led to a good understanding of the interactions between the roots, its exudates and its associated rhizobacteria. The rhizosphere of free-floating roots, however, is a different habitat that poses several additional challenges, including rapid diffusion rates of signals and nutrient molecules, which are further influenced by the hydrodynamic forces. These can lead to rapid diffusion and complicates the studying of diffusible factors from both plant and/or rhizobacterial origins. These plant systems are being increasingly used for self purification of water bodies to provide sustainable solution. A better understanding of these processes will help in improving their performance for ecological engineering of freshwater systems. The same principles can also be used to improve the yield of hydroponic cultures. Novel toolsets and approaches are needed to investigate the processes occurring in the aquatic rhizosphere. We are interested in understanding the interaction between root exudates and the complex microbial communities that are associated with the roots, using a systems biology approach involving metabolomics and metagenomics. With this aim, we have developed a RhizoFlowCell (RFC) system that provides a controlled study of aquatic plants, observed the root biofilms, collect root exudates and subject the rhizosphere system to changes in various chemical or physical perturbations. As proof of concept, we have used RFC to test the response of root exudation patterns of Pandanus amaryllifolius after exposure to the pollutant naphthalene. Complexity of root exudates in the aquatic rhizosphere was captured using this device and analysed using LC-qTOF-MS. The highly complex metabolomic profile allowed us to study the dynamics of the response of roots to varying levels of naphthalene. The metabolic profile changed within 5mins after spiking with

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    PubMed

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  19. Root hairs increase root exudation and rhizosphere extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holz, Maire; Zarebandanadkouki, Mohsen; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Carmintati, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase their access to limited soil resources. An example of such strategies is the production of root hairs. Root hairs extend the root surface and therefore increase the access to nutrients. Additionally, carbon release from root hairs might facilitate nutrient uptake by spreading of carbon in the rhizosphere and enhancing microbial activity. The aim of this study was to test: i) how root hairs change the allocation of carbon in the soil-plant system; ii) whether root hairs exude carbon into the soil and iii) how differences in C release between plants with and without root hairs affect rhizosphere extension. We grew barley plants with and without root hairs (wild type: WT, bald root barley: brb) in rhizoboxes filled with a sandy soil. Root elongation was monitored over time. After 4 weeks of growth, plants were labelled with 14CO2. A filter paper was placed on the soil surface before labelling and was removed after 36 h. 14C imaging of the soil surface and of the filter paper was used to quantify the allocation of 14C into the roots and the exudation of 14C, respectively. Plants were sampled destructively one day after labeling to quantify 14C in the plant-soil system. 14CO2 release from soil over time (17 d) was quantified by trapping CO2 in NaOH with an additional subset of plants. WT and brb plants had a similar aboveground biomass and allocated similar amounts of 14C into shoots (170 KBq for WT; 152 KBq for brb) and roots one day after labelling. Biomass of root, rhizosphere soil as well as root elongation were lower for brb compared to the wild type. WT plants transported more C from the shoots to the roots (22.8% for WT; 13.8% for brb) and from the root into the rhizosphere (8.8% for WT 3.5% for brb). Yet lower amounts of 14CO2 were released from soil over time for WT. Radial and longitudinal rhizosphere extension was increased for WT compared to brb (4.7 vs. 2.6 mm; 5.6 vs. 3.1 cm). The total exudation which was

  20. Genetic Diversity of Nitrogen-Fixing and Plant Growth Promoting Pseudomonas Species Isolated from Sugarcane Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Bi; Singh, Rajesh K; Singh, Pratiksha; Song, Qi-Qi; Xing, Yong-Xiu; Yang, Li-Tao; Li, Yang-Rui

    2017-01-01

    The study was designed to isolate and characterize Pseudomonas spp. from sugarcane rhizosphere, and to evaluate their plant- growth- promoting (PGP) traits and nitrogenase activity. A biological nitrogen-fixing microbe has great potential to replace chemical fertilizers and be used as a targeted biofertilizer in a plant. A total of 100 isolates from sugarcane rhizosphere, belonging to different species, were isolated; from these, 30 isolates were selected on the basis of preliminary screening, for in vitro antagonistic activities against sugarcane pathogens and for various PGP traits, as well as nitrogenase activity. The production of IAA varied from 312.07 to 13.12 μg mL(-1) in tryptophan supplemented medium, with higher production in AN15 and lower in CN20 strain. The estimation of ACC deaminase activity, strains CY4 and BA2 produced maximum and minimum activity of 77.0 and 15.13 μmoL mg(-1) h(-1). For nitrogenase activity among the studied strains, CoA6 fixed higher and AY1 fixed lower in amounts (108.30 and 6.16 μmoL C2H2 h(-1) mL(-1)). All the strains were identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the phylogenetic diversity of the strains was analyzed. The results identified all strains as being similar to Pseudomonas spp. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of nifH and antibiotic genes was suggestive that the amplified strains had the capability to fix nitrogen and possessed biocontrol activities. Genotypic comparisons of the strains were determined by BOX, ERIC, and REP PCR profile analysis. Out of all the screened isolates, CY4 (Pseudomonas koreensis) and CN11 (Pseudomonas entomophila) showed the most prominent PGP traits, as well as nitrogenase activity. Therefore, only these two strains were selected for further studies; Biolog profiling; colonization through green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged bacteria; and nifH gene expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. The Biolog phenotypic

  1. Genetic Diversity of Nitrogen-Fixing and Plant Growth Promoting Pseudomonas Species Isolated from Sugarcane Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai-Bi; Singh, Rajesh K.; Singh, Pratiksha; Song, Qi-Qi; Xing, Yong-Xiu; Yang, Li-Tao; Li, Yang-Rui

    2017-01-01

    The study was designed to isolate and characterize Pseudomonas spp. from sugarcane rhizosphere, and to evaluate their plant- growth- promoting (PGP) traits and nitrogenase activity. A biological nitrogen-fixing microbe has great potential to replace chemical fertilizers and be used as a targeted biofertilizer in a plant. A total of 100 isolates from sugarcane rhizosphere, belonging to different species, were isolated; from these, 30 isolates were selected on the basis of preliminary screening, for in vitro antagonistic activities against sugarcane pathogens and for various PGP traits, as well as nitrogenase activity. The production of IAA varied from 312.07 to 13.12 μg mL−1 in tryptophan supplemented medium, with higher production in AN15 and lower in CN20 strain. The estimation of ACC deaminase activity, strains CY4 and BA2 produced maximum and minimum activity of 77.0 and 15.13 μmoL mg−1 h−1. For nitrogenase activity among the studied strains, CoA6 fixed higher and AY1 fixed lower in amounts (108.30 and 6.16 μmoL C2H2 h−1 mL−1). All the strains were identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the phylogenetic diversity of the strains was analyzed. The results identified all strains as being similar to Pseudomonas spp. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of nifH and antibiotic genes was suggestive that the amplified strains had the capability to fix nitrogen and possessed biocontrol activities. Genotypic comparisons of the strains were determined by BOX, ERIC, and REP PCR profile analysis. Out of all the screened isolates, CY4 (Pseudomonas koreensis) and CN11 (Pseudomonas entomophila) showed the most prominent PGP traits, as well as nitrogenase activity. Therefore, only these two strains were selected for further studies; Biolog profiling; colonization through green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged bacteria; and nifH gene expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. The Biolog phenotypic

  2. The "Biased Rhizosphere" Concept: Bacterial Competitiveness and Persistence in the Rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijn, Frans J.

    2013-04-01

    The association of plant surfaces with microorganisms has been the subject of intense investigations. Numerous processes have been shown to be important in plant-associative bacteria including attachment, motility, chemotaxis, nutrition, and production of signaling molecules and secondary metabolites. One strategy to favor the competitiveness and persistence of bacteria in the plant environment relies upon manipulation of nutritional compounds secreted into the phytosphere, which comprises the rhizosphere (root surface/zone influenced by secretions) and the phyllosphere (leaf surface/zone influenced by secretions). The pattern of plant host exudate can be bred or engineered to establish "biased phytospheres" with bacteria that can naturally, or by engineering, use metabolic resources produced by the host plant. Over the last two decades, natural biases, generated by opine-like molecules of Agrobacterium-plant interactions and by rhizopine-like molecules of the Rhizobium-legume interactions, have provided tactics based on unique metabolites produced by plants to favor the competitiveness and persistence of bacteria that can catabolize the host-produced novel nutrients. An overview of this field or research will be presented.

  3. Microbiological characterization of vegetables and their rhizosphere soil in Eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Kłapeć, Teresa; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Cholewa, Alicja; Cholewa, Grażyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2016-12-23

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bacteriological quality of 5 kinds of vegetables (lettuce, dill, radish, beetroot, carrot) and their rhizosphere soil, originating from conventional farms located in the Lublin Province of Eastern Poland. A total number of 35 samples of fresh vegetables (FV) taken immediately from soil, 35 samples of soil from rhizosphere of these vegetables (SR) and 35 samples of vegetables sold at retail in the markets in Lublin (VR) were examined. The samples were analysed for the content of: aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB) grown at 30°C and 37°C, Gram-negative bacteria of Enterobacteriaceae family, faecal coliform (FC) bacteria, Salmonella spp., and Clostridium perfringens. Median AMB values determined at 30°C for FV, SR and VR were 5.27, 5.00, and 5.00 log10 CFU g(-1) , respectively, being significantly greater compared to those recorded at 37°C. The exceeding of the threshold value of 6.0 log10 CFU g(-1) proposed by Gelosa (1998) was noted only in 5 FV samples grown at 30°C (14.3%), and in 3 FV samples grown at 37°C (8.6%). The threshold value was never exceeded in SR and VR samples. Median concentrations of Enterobacteriaceae determined for FV, SR and VR were 4.03, 3.87, and 3.04 log10 CFU g(-1), respectively. Eleven species of Enterobacteriaceae were identified in the FV, SR and VR samples. The percent of samples containing Escherichia coli was greatest for VR (22.9%), smaller for FV (17.1%) and smallest for SR (5.7%). The median concentrations of the faecal coliform bacteria (FC), determined by culture at 44°C, were low, amounting to 1.000 log10 CFU g(-1) for FV and SR and 0.00 for VR. All examined vegetable and soil samples tested negative for the presence of Salmonella. The median concentrations of Clostridium perfringens were low, amounting to 0.00 log10 CFU g(-1) for all categories of samples. This bacterium was relatively common in soil samples with the prevalence of 40.0%, but very rare in vegetable samples

  4. First isolation of Mycobacterium spp. in Mullus spp. in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sevim, P; Ozer, S; Rad, F

    2015-01-01

    Ichthyozoonotic Mycobacterium spp. poses health risks both to fish and humans. In this study, the presence of ichthyozoonotic Mycobacterium spp. was investigated in red mullet (Mullus barbatus barbatus) and surmullet (Mullus surmuletus), widely caught species in the Mediterranean and the Aegean Sea. A total of 208 fish samples, provided from fishermen of Mersin province (Turkey) were studied. Using conventional methods, Mycobacterium spp. was isolated and identified at the genus level by PCR and at the species level by PCR-RFLP. Thirteen Mycobacterium spp. were detected in 13 (6.25%) fish samples. Four mycobacteria were identified as M. genavense, three as M. fortuitum, three as M. scrofulaceum, one as M. marinum, one as M. vaccae and one as M. aurum. No signs of mycobacteriosis were observed in fish samples. Findings of this study can contribute to future studies of onichthyozoonotic Mycobacterium spp. in seafood. PMID:27175166

  5. Tracing the flow of plant carbohydrates into the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the flow of 13C labeled CO2 from plant sugars in leaves, stems and roots into rhizospheric organisms, respired CO2 and soil organic matter in order to better understand the role of the plant-microorganism-soil-continuum for ecosystem carbon cycling. We compared trees and grassland species that had different sugar transport strategies, storage compartments, community compositions and environmental stresses. We used short but highly enriched 13C pulses at controlled CO2 concentrations and temperatures that avoided non-physiological plant responses. We used compound specific 13C measurements of sugars and phospholipids (PLFA) to calculate the carbon turnover of plant sugars and rhizospheric microorganisms. Our results unexpectedly identified transport limitations in the root-shoot carbohydrate transfer, diurnal variations in label respiration and community effects in the carbon transfer to microbial groups. Our results highlight that sophisticated experimental setups and analytical techniques are necessary to gain new knowledge on ecosystem carbon cycling under climate change.

  6. The Impact of Rhizosphere Processes on Water Flow and Root Water Uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Nimrod; Kroener, Eva; Carminati, Andrea; Javaux, Mathieu

    2015-04-01

    For many years, the rhizosphere, which is the zone of soil in the vicinity of the roots and which is influenced by the roots, is known as a unique soil environment with different physical, biological and chemical properties than those of the bulk soil. Indeed, in recent studies it has been shown that root exudate and especially mucilage alter the hydraulic properties of the soil, and that drying and wetting cycles of mucilage result in non-equilibrium water dynamics in the rhizosphere. While there are experimental evidences and simplified 1D model for those concepts, an integrated model that considers rhizosphere processes with a detailed model for water and roots flow is absent. Therefore, the objective of this work is to develop a 3D physical model of water flow in the soil-plant continuum that take in consideration root architecture and rhizosphere specific properties. Ultimately, this model will enhance our understanding on the impact of processes occurring in the rhizosphere on water flow and root water uptake. To achieve this objective, we coupled R-SWMS, a detailed 3D model for water flow in soil and root system (Javaux et al 2008), with the rhizosphere model developed by Kroener et al (2014). In the new Rhizo-RSWMS model the rhizosphere hydraulic properties differ from those of the bulk soil, and non-equilibrium dynamics between the rhizosphere water content and pressure head is also considered. We simulated a wetting scenario. The soil was initially dry and it was wetted from the top at a constant flow rate. The model predicts that, after infiltration the water content in the rhizosphere remained lower than in the bulk soil (non-equilibrium), but over time water infiltrated into the rhizosphere and eventually the water content in the rhizosphere became higher than in the bulk soil. These results are in qualitative agreement with the available experimental data on water dynamics in the rhizosphere. Additionally, the results show that rhizosphere processes

  7. Comparative analysis of bacterial community structure in the rhizosphere of maize by high-throughput pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Boping

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we designed a microcosm experiment to explore the composition of the bacterial community in the rhizosphere of maize and bulk soil by sequencing the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina system. 978–1239 OTUs (cut off level of 3%) were found in rhizosphere and bulk soil samples. Rhizosphere shared features with the bulk soil, such as predominance of Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes and TM7. At genus level, many of the dominant rhizosphere genera (Chitinophaga, Nitrospira, Flavobacterium, etc.) displayed different patterns of temporal changes in the rhizosphere as opposed to the bulk soil, showing rhizosphere has more impact on soil microorganisms. Besides, we found that significant growth-related dynamic changes in bacterial community structure were mainly associated with phylum Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria (mainly genera Burkholderia, Flavisolibacter and Pseudomonas), indicating that different growth stages affected the bacterial community composition in maize soil. Furthermore, some unique genera in especial Plant-Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Nonomuraea, Thiobacillus and Bradyrhizobium etc., which were beneficial for the plant growth appeared to be more abundant in the rhizosphere than bulk soil, indicating that the selectivity of root to rhizosphere microbial is an important mechanism leading to the differences in the bacteria community structure between rhizosphere and bulk soil. PMID:28542542

  8. Molecular profiling of rhizosphere bacterial communities associated with Prosopis juliflora and Parthenium hysterophorus.

    PubMed

    Jothibasu, K; Chinnadurai, C; Sundaram, Sp; Kumar, K; Balachandar, Dananjeyan

    2012-03-01

    Prosopis juliflora and Parthenium hysterophorus are the two arid, exotic weeds of India that are characterized by distinct, profuse growth even in nutritionally poor soils and environmentally stressed conditions. Owing to the exceptional growth nature of these two plants, they are believed to harbor some novel bacterial communities with wide adaptability in their rhizosphere. Hence, in the present study, the bacterial communities associated with the rhizosphere of Prosopis and Parthenium were characterized by clonal 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The culturable microbial counts in the rhizosphere of these two plants were higher than bulk soils, possibly influenced by the root exudates of these two plants. The phylogenetic analysis of V1_V2 domains of the 16S rRNA gene indicated a wider range of bacterial communities present in the rhizosphere of these two plants than in bulk soils and the predominant genera included Acidobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteriodetes in the rhizosphere of Prosopis, and Acidobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Nitrospirae in the Parthenium rhizosphere. The diversity of bacterial communities was more pronounced in the Parthenium rhizosphere than in the Prosopis rhizosphere. This culture-independent bacterial analysis offered extensive possibilities of unraveling novel microbes in the rhizospheres of Prosopis and Parthenium with genes for diverse functions, which could be exploited for nutrient transformation and stress tolerance in cultivated crops.

  9. Comparative analysis of bacterial community structure in the rhizosphere of maize by high-throughput pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Wang, Na; Guo, Xinyan; Zhang, Yi; Ye, Boping

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we designed a microcosm experiment to explore the composition of the bacterial community in the rhizosphere of maize and bulk soil by sequencing the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina system. 978-1239 OTUs (cut off level of 3%) were found in rhizosphere and bulk soil samples. Rhizosphere shared features with the bulk soil, such as predominance of Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes and TM7. At genus level, many of the dominant rhizosphere genera (Chitinophaga, Nitrospira, Flavobacterium, etc.) displayed different patterns of temporal changes in the rhizosphere as opposed to the bulk soil, showing rhizosphere has more impact on soil microorganisms. Besides, we found that significant growth-related dynamic changes in bacterial community structure were mainly associated with phylum Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria (mainly genera Burkholderia, Flavisolibacter and Pseudomonas), indicating that different growth stages affected the bacterial community composition in maize soil. Furthermore, some unique genera in especial Plant-Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Nonomuraea, Thiobacillus and Bradyrhizobium etc., which were beneficial for the plant growth appeared to be more abundant in the rhizosphere than bulk soil, indicating that the selectivity of root to rhizosphere microbial is an important mechanism leading to the differences in the bacteria community structure between rhizosphere and bulk soil.

  10. The rhizosphere microbiome: significance of plant beneficial, plant pathogenic, and human pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Rodrigo; Garbeva, Paolina; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2013-09-01

    Microbial communities play a pivotal role in the functioning of plants by influencing their physiology and development. While many members of the rhizosphere microbiome are beneficial to plant growth, also plant pathogenic microorganisms colonize the rhizosphere striving to break through the protective microbial shield and to overcome the innate plant defense mechanisms in order to cause disease. A third group of microorganisms that can be found in the rhizosphere are the true and opportunistic human pathogenic bacteria, which can be carried on or in plant tissue and may cause disease when introduced into debilitated humans. Although the importance of the rhizosphere microbiome for plant growth has been widely recognized, for the vast majority of rhizosphere microorganisms no knowledge exists. To enhance plant growth and health, it is essential to know which microorganism is present in the rhizosphere microbiome and what they are doing. Here, we review the main functions of rhizosphere microorganisms and how they impact on health and disease. We discuss the mechanisms involved in the multitrophic interactions and chemical dialogues that occur in the rhizosphere. Finally, we highlight several strategies to redirect or reshape the rhizosphere microbiome in favor of microorganisms that are beneficial to plant growth and health. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial distribution of enzyme activities in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Bahar S.; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    The rhizosphere, the tiny zone of soil surrounding roots, certainly represents one of the most dynamic habitat and interfaces on Earth. Activities of enzymes produced by both plant roots and microbes are the primary biological drivers of organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. That is why there is an urgent need in spatially explicit methods for the determination of the rhizosphere extension and enzyme distribution. Recently, zymography as a new technique based on diffusion of enzymes through the 1 mm gel plate for analysis has been introduced (Spohn & Kuzyakov, 2013). We developed the zymography technique to visualize the enzyme activities with a higher spatial resolution. For the first time, we aimed at quantitative imaging of enzyme activities as a function of distance from the root tip and the root surface in the soil. We visualized the two dimensional distribution of the activity of three enzymes: β-glucosidase, phosphatase and leucine amino peptidase in the rhizosphere of maize using fluorogenically labelled substrates. Spatial-resolution of fluorescent images was improved by direct application of a substrate saturated membrane to the soil-root system. The newly-developed direct zymography visualized heterogeneity of enzyme activities along the roots. The activity of all enzymes was the highest at the apical parts of individual roots. Across the roots, the enzyme activities were higher at immediate vicinity of the roots (1.5 mm) and gradually decreased towards the bulk soil. Spatial patterns of enzyme activities as a function of distance from the root surface were enzyme specific, with highest extension for phosphatase. We conclude that improved zymography is promising in situ technique to analyze, visualize and quantify spatial distribution of enzyme activities in the rhizosphere hotspots. References Spohn, M., Kuzyakov, Y., 2013. Phosphorus mineralization can be driven by microbial need for carbon. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 61: 69-75

  12. The Dynamics of Sediment Oxygenation in Marsh Rhizospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koop-Jakobsen, K.

    2014-12-01

    Many marsh grasses are capable of internal oxygen transport from aboveground sources to belowground roots and rhizomes, where oxygen may leak across the rhizodermis and oxygenate the surrounding sediment. In the field, the extent of sediment oxygenation in marshes was assessed in the rhizosphere of the marsh grass; Spartina anglica, inserting 70 optical fiber oxygen sensors into the rhizosphere. Two locations with S. anglica growing in different sediment types were investigated. No oxygen was detected in the rhizospheres indicating that belowground sediment oxygenation in S. anglica has a limited effect on the bulk anoxic sediment and is restricted to sediment in the immediate vicinity of the roots. In the laboratory, the presence of 1.5mm wide and 16mm long oxic root zones was demonstrated around root tips of S. anglica growing in permeable sandy sediment using planar optodes recording 2D-images of the oxygen distribution. Oxic root zones in S. anglica growing in tidal flat deposits were significantly smaller. The size of oxic roots zones was highly dynamic and affected by tidal inundations as well as light availability. Atmospheric air was the primary oxygen source for belowground sediment oxygenation, whereas photosynthetic oxygen production only played a minor role for the size of the oxic root zones during air-exposure of the aboveground biomass. During tidal inundations (1.5 h) completely submerging the aboveground biomass cutting off access to atmospheric oxygen, the size of oxic root zones were reduced significantly in the light and oxic root zones were completely eliminated in darkness. Sediment oxygenation in the rhizospheres of marsh grasses is of significant importance for marshes ability to retain inorganic nitrogen before it reaches the coastal waters. The presence of oxic roots zones promotes coupled nitrification-denitrification at depth in the sediment, which can account for more than 80% of the total denitrification in marshes.

  13. Uncultured bacterial diversity in tropical maize (Zea mays L.) rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Chaudhry, Vasvi; Mishra, Sandhya; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2011-02-01

    Structure of maize (Zea mays L.) rhizosphere bacteria was evaluated to explore the feasibility of identifying novel rhizosphere bacteria using culture-independent method based on direct amplification and analysis of 16S rRNA gene (rRNA) sequences and especially to obtain a better understanding of bacterial community structure and diversity from maize. A total of 274 sequences were analyzed and assigned 48.00% Proteobacteria, 10.30% Actinobacteria, 9.90% Bacteroidetes, 6.60% Verrucomicrobia, 4.80% Acidobacteria, 1.80% Firmicutes, 1.50% Chloroflexi, 1.50% TM7, 1.10% Deinococcus-Thermus, 0.70% Planctomycetes, 0.70% Gemmatimonadetes and 0.40% Cyanobacteria. Economically important phyla Actinobacteria was second most dominant group after Proteobacteria, in our clone library. It would be interesting to hypothesize that root exudates from maize rhizosphere favors growth of Actinobacteria like microbes to eliminate pathogenic bacteria and decompose plant matter, for enhanced plant and soil health. An additional 12.8% of clone library (35 operational taxonomical units (OTUs) from 43 clones) with less than 94% similarity to any GenBank sequence could not be assigned to any known phylum and may represent unidentified bacterial lineages and suggests that a large amount of the rhizobacterial diversity remains to be characterized by culturing.

  14. Probing the rhizosphere to define mineral organic relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, M. S.; Dohnalkova, A.; Stonestrom, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation and stabilization over time is an important process as soils are a large carbon reservoir in which feedbacks under changing climates are unclear. The association of SOM with poorly crystalline or short-range-ordered secondary minerals has been shown to be important for carbon stabilization. Commonly used soil extraction techniques display correlations of SOM with secondary phases but do not show causation. The fate of root exudates in soils and processes controlling exudate associations with mineral phases are as yet structurally undefined. Sub-micron exploration of in-situ relations provides valuable information on SOM-mineral interactions. Soils of the Santa Cruz (California) marine terrace chronosequence are used to illustrate changes in deep (> 1 m) rhizosphere through time. Cracks and soil ped faces are sites of high root density and organic matter (biofilm or mucilage) deposition. We employ a variety of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) techniques for high resolution imaging and elemental analyses of deep rhizosphere and associated carbon mineral interactions. In these coastal prairie soils microscopy reveals secondary clay minerals associated with and possibly forming from organic-rich mucilage that occurs along the aforementioned rooting networks on fracture surfaces. We hypothesize that the production of secondary clays in the rhizosphere is an important mode of C incorporation into secondary minerals.

  15. Microbial community analysis of apple rhizosphere around Bohai Gulf.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jihang; Song, Zhen; Yang, Xiaotong; Mao, Zhiquan; Nie, Xiaohong; Guo, Hui; Peng, Xiawei

    2017-08-21

    Bohai Gulf is the main area for apple tree cultivation in China. Consecutive replanting significantly affects the yield and quality of apple trees in this area. Microecological imbalance in apple trees' rhizospheres caused by variation in the soil microbial community is considered the primary cause of apple replant disease (ARD). This study analysed the microbial communities of the rhizospheres of perennial apple trees (PAT) and apple tree saplings under replanting (ATS) around Bohai Gulf using high-throughput sequencing. The results revealed increased populations of typical pathogenic fungi Verticillium and bacteria Xanthomonadaceae, and decreased populations of beneficial bacterial populations Pseudomonas and Bacillus with replanting, suggesting that competition between pathogens and beneficial microbes varies according to the ratio of pathogens to beneficial microbes in rhizosphere soil under the replanting system. Meanwhile, replanting was accompanied by an increase in the antagonistic bacteria Arthrobacter and fungus Chaetomium, suggesting that increased numbers of pathogens can lead to more instances of antagonism. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed site position and the main soil properties (pH, organic matter, available N, available K, available P, and moisture) affected the microbial community composition. It found clear differences in soil microbial communities and demonstrated a better understanding of the causes for ARD.

  16. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rhizosphere soil

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.P.; Banks, M.K.; Arunachalam, M.

    1995-12-31

    Increased contaminant biodegradation in soil in the presence of plants has been demonstrated for several classes of organic compounds. Although enhanced dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was observed previously in the rhizosphere of several plant species, the mechanism of this effect has not been assessed. A laboratory experiment was conducted to test the importance of cometabolism and the presence of common rhizosphere organic acids on the loss of PAHs (pyrene and phenanthrene) from soil. The role of cometabolism in the mineralization of pyrene was tested by observing the impact of adding phenanthrene to soil containing {sup 14}C-pyrene and observing the effects on {sup 14}CO{sub 2} generation. Adding phenanthrene apparently induced cometabolism of pyrene, particularly in the presence of organic acids. In a subsequent experiment, mineralization of pyrene to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was significantly greater in soil from the rhizospheres of warm-season grasses, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L.), compared to soil from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), which did not differ from sterilized control soil. A highly branched, fine root system appears to be more effective in enhancing biodegradation than taproots, and the presence of organic acids increases rates of PAH mineralization.

  17. The influence of nitrogen fertilization on the magnitude of rhizosphere effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, B.; Panke-Buisse, K.; Kao-Kniffin, J.

    2012-12-01

    The labile carbon released from roots to the rhizosphere enhances soil microbial activity and nutrient availability, but factors that regulate such "rhizosphere effects" are poorly understood. Nitrogen fertilization may suppress rhizosphere effects by reducing plant carbon allocation belowground. Here we investigated the impact of nitrogen fertilization (+100 mg NH4NO3-N kg soil-1) on the magnitude of rhizosphere effects of two grass species (Bermuda grass Cynodon dactylon and smooth crabgrass Digitaria ischaemum) grown in a nutrient-poor soil for 80-100 days inside a growth chamber. Rhizosphere effects were estimated by the percentage difference between the planted soil (rhizosphere soil) and the unplanted soil (bulk soil) for several assays. We found that the rhizosphere soil of both plants had higher pH (+ 0.5~0.7 units), similar microbial biomass carbon, but lower microbial biomass nitrogen (- 27~37%) compared to the bulk soil. The rate of net N mineralization and the activity of three soil enzymes that degrade chitin (NAG), protein (LAP) and lignin (peroxidase) and produce mineral nitrogen were generally enhanced by the rhizosphere effects (up to 80%). Although nitrogen fertilization significantly increased plant biomass, it generally affected microbial biomass, activity and net N mineralization rate to a similar extent between rhizosphere soil and bulk soil, and thus did not significantly impact the magnitude of rhizosphere effects. Moreover, the community structure of soil bacteria (indicated by T-RFLP) showed remarkable divergence between the planted and unplanted soils, but not between the control and fertilized soils. Collectively, these results suggest that grass roots affects soil microbial activity and community structure, but short-term nitrogen fertilization may not significantly influence these rhizosphere effects.

  18. Rice rhizosphere soil and root surface bacterial community response to water management changes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Different water management practices could affect microbial populations in the rice rhizosphere. A field-scale study was conducted to evaluate microbial populations in the root plaque and rhizosphere of rice in response to continuous and intermittent flooding conditions. Microbial populations in rhi...

  19. Book Review: "The Rhizosphere: Biochemistry and Organic Substances at the Soil-Plant Interface, Second Edition"

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The complexity of the biological, chemical, and physical interactions occurring in the volume of soil surrounding the root of a growing plant dictates that a multidisciplinary approach must be taken to improve our understanding of this rhizosphere. Hence, "The Rhizosphere: Biochemistry and Organic S...

  20. Tree Species Composition Influences Enzyme Activities and Microbial Biomass in the Rhizosphere: A Rhizobox Approach

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shengzuo; Liu, Dong; Tian, Ye; Deng, Shiping; Shang, Xulan

    2013-01-01

    Monoculture causes nutrient losses and leads to declines in soil fertility and biomass production over successive cultivation. The rhizosphere, a zone of usually high microbial activities and clearly distinct from bulk soil, is defined as the volume of soil around living roots and influenced by root activities. Here we investigated enzyme activities and microbial biomass in the rhizosphere under different tree compositions. Six treatments with poplar, willow, and alder mono- or mixed seedlings were grown in rhizoboxes. Enzyme activities associated with nitrogen cycling and microbial biomass were measured in all rhizosphere and bulk soils. Both enzyme activities and microbial biomass in the rhizosphere differed significantly tree compositions. Microbial biomass contents were more sensitive to the changes of the rhizosphere environment than enzyme activities. Tree species coexistence did not consistently increase tested enzyme activities and microbial biomass, but varied depending on the complementarities of species traits. In general, impacts of tree species and coexistence were more pronounced on microbial composition than total biomass, evidenced by differences in microbial biomass C/N ratios stratified across the rhizosphere soils. Compared to poplar clone monoculture, other tree species addition obviously increased rhizosphere urease activity, but greatly reduced rhizosphere L-asparaginase activity. Poplar growth was enhanced only when coexisted with alder. Our results suggested that a highly productive or keystone plant species in a community had greater influence over soil functions than the contribution of diversity. PMID:23637838

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus Strain Mor30.16, Isolated from the Bean Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Ríos, José Antonio; Ramírez-Trujillo, José Augusto; Nova-Franco, Bárbara; Lozano-Aguirre Beltrán, Luis Fernando; Iturriaga, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Arthrobacter are commonly found in the soil and plant rhizosphere. In this study we report the draft genome of Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus strain Mor30.16 that was isolated from rhizosphere of beans grown in Cuernavaca Morelos, Mexico. This strain promotes growth and ameliorates drought stress in bean plants. PMID:25953176

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus Strain Mor30.16, Isolated from the Bean Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Ríos, José Antonio; Ramírez-Trujillo, José Augusto; Nova-Franco, Bárbara; Lozano-Aguirre Beltrán, Luis Fernando; Iturriaga, Gabriel; Suárez-Rodríguez, Ramón

    2015-05-07

    Bacteria of the genus Arthrobacter are commonly found in the soil and plant rhizosphere. In this study we report the draft genome of Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus strain Mor30.16 that was isolated from rhizosphere of beans grown in Cuernavaca Morelos, Mexico. This strain promotes growth and ameliorates drought stress in bean plants. Copyright © 2015 Miranda-Ríos et al.

  3. Functional traits dominate the diversity-related selection of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Kuramae, Eiko E; de Hollander, Mattias; Klinkhamer, Peter G L; van Veen, Johannes A

    2017-01-01

    We studied the impact of community diversity on the selection of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere by comparing the composition and the functional traits of these communities in soil and rhizosphere. Differences in diversity were established by inoculating into sterilized soils diluted suspensions of the same soil. We used 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon sequencing to determine the taxonomical structure of the bacterial communities and a shotgun metagenomics approach to investigate the potential functional diversity of the communities. By comparing the bacterial communities in soil and rhizosphere, the selective power of the plant was observed both at the taxonomic and functional level, although the diversity indices of soil and rhizosphere samples showed a highly variable, irregular pattern. Lesser variation, that is, more homogenization, was found for both the taxonomic structure and the functional profile of the rhizosphere communities as compared to the communities of the bulk soil. Network analysis revealed stronger interactions among bacterial operational taxonomic units in the rhizosphere than in the soil. The enrichment processes in the rhizosphere selected microbes with particular functional genes related to transporters, the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway and hydrogen metabolism. This selection was not random across bacteria with these functional traits, but it was species specific. Overall, this suggests that functional traits are a key to the assembly of bacterial rhizosphere communities.

  4. Population Densities of Rhizobium japonicum Strain 123 Estimated Directly in Soil and Rhizospheres

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, V. G.; Schmidt, E. L.

    1979-01-01

    Rhizobium japonicum serotype 123 was enumerated in soil and rhizospheres by fluorescent antibody techniques. Counting efficiency was estimated to be about 30%. Indigenous populations of strain 123 ranged from a few hundred to a few thousand per gram of field soil before planting. Rhizosphere effects from field-grown soybean plants were modest, reaching a maximum of about 2 × 104 cells of strain 123 per g of inner rhizosphere soil in young (16-day-old) plants. Comparably slight rhizosphere stimulation was observed with field corn. High populations of strain 123 (2 × 106 to 3 × 106 cells per g) were found only in the disintegrating taproot rhizospheres of mature soybeans at harvest, and these populations declined rapidly after harvest. Pot experiments with the same soil provided data similar to those derived from the field experiments. Populations of strain 123 reached a maximum of about 105 cells per g of soybean rhizosphere soil, but most values were lower and were only slightly higher than values in wheat rhizosphere soil. Nitrogen treatments had little effect on strain 123 densities in legume and nonlegume rhizospheres or on the nodulation success of strain 123. No evidence was obtained for the widely accepted theory of specific stimulation, which has been proposed to account for the initiation of the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. PMID:16345383

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Beneficial Rice Rhizosphere Isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PUPa3

    PubMed Central

    Uzelac, Gordana; Bertani, Iris; Kojic, Milan; Paszkiewicz, Konrad H.; Studholme, David J.; Passos da Silva, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PUPa3 is a rhizosphere-colonizing and plant growth-promoting strain isolated from the rhizosphere of rice. This strain has, however, been shown to be pathogenic in two nonmammalian infection models. Here we report the draft genome sequence of P. aeruginosa PUPa3. PMID:24994800

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Beneficial Rice Rhizosphere Isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PUPa3.

    PubMed

    Uzelac, Gordana; Bertani, Iris; Kojic, Milan; Paszkiewicz, Konrad H; Studholme, David J; Passos da Silva, Daniel; Venturi, Vittorio

    2014-07-03

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PUPa3 is a rhizosphere-colonizing and plant growth-promoting strain isolated from the rhizosphere of rice. This strain has, however, been shown to be pathogenic in two nonmammalian infection models. Here we report the draft genome sequence of P. aeruginosa PUPa3.

  7. Cucumber rhizosphere microbial community response to biocontrol agent Bacillus subtilis B068150

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis B068150 has been used as a biocontrol agent against the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum. However, their survival ability in cucumber rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere as well as their influence on native microbial communities has not been fully i...

  8. Elevated CO2 and nitrogen addition have minimal influence on the rhizospheric effects of Bothriochloa ischaemum.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lie; Liu, Guobin; Li, Peng; Xue, Sha

    2017-07-26

    The influence of elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition on soil microbial communities and the rhizospheric effects of Bothriochloa ischaemum were investigated. A pot-cultivation experiment was conducted in climate-controlled chambers under two levels of CO2 (400 and 800 μmol mol(-1)) and three levels of N addition (0, 2.5, and 5 g N m(-2) y(-1)). Soil samples (rhizospheric and bulk soil) were collected for the assessment of soil organic carbon (SOC), total N (TN), total phosphorus (TP), basal respiration (BR), and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) 106 days after treatments were conducted. Elevated CO2 significantly increased total and fungal PLFAs in the rhizosphere when combined with N addition, and N addition significantly increased BR in the rhizosphere and total, bacterial, fungal, Gram-positive (G(+)), and Gram-negative (G(-)) PLFAs in both rhizospheric and bulk soil. BR and total, bacterial, G(+), and G(+)/G(-) PLFAs were significantly higher in rhizospheric than bulk soil, but neither elevated CO2 nor N addition affected the positive rhizospheric effects on bacterial, G(+), or G(+)/G(-) PLFAs. N addition had a greater effect on soil microbial communities than elevated CO2, and elevated CO2 and N addition had minor contributions to the changes in the magnitude of the rhizospheric effects in B. ischaemum.

  9. Alleviated toxicity of cadmium by the rhizosphere of Kandelia obovata (S., L.) Yong.

    PubMed

    Weng, Bosen; Huang, Yong; Liu, Jingchun; Lu, Haoliang; Yan, Chongling

    2014-11-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the Cadmium (Cd) toxicity alleviated by the rhizosphere of Kandelia obovata (S., L.) Yong (K. obovata), using a rhizobox with Cd concentrations of 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) soil. The rhizobox used to plant K. obovata was divided into five sections by nylon cloth (S2-S5). Our results showed that pH was lower in rhizosphere than in non-rhizosphere soil. Microbial biomass C (Cmic) and N (Nmic) was stimulated in rhizosphere zone, but inhibited by Cd additions. Soil enzyme activities were significantly higher in rhizosphere (S2) than in non-rhizosphere soil (S5) (p < 0.05). In addition, DTPA-extractable Cd in different rhizosphere zone soil (S2-S5) was influenced directly under different rates of Cd supply. Moreover, Cd treatments could induce the enhancement of DTPA-extractable Cd. This study suggests that Cd toxicity can be alleviated in the rhizosphere even under high Cd supply.

  10. Transient nature of rhizosphere carbon elucidated by supercritical freon-22 extraction and 13C NMR analysis

    Treesearch

    Filipe G. Sanchez; Maurice M. Bursey

    2002-01-01

    The region immediately adjacent to established roots of mature trees has been termed the "reoccurring rhizosphere" and it has been hypothesized that organic matter input from fine root turnover, root exudates and sloughing may result in a build up of the soil carbon in this region. The "reoccurring rhizosphere" for first-, second- and third-order...

  11. Nitrogen fertilizer rate affects root exudation, the rhizosphere microbiome and nitrogen-use-efficiency of maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The composition and function of microbial communities present in the rhizosphere of crops has been linked to edaphic factors and root exudate composition. In this paper, we examined the effect of N fertilizer rate on maize root exudation, the associated rhizosphere community, and nitrogen-use-effici...

  12. Isolation and characterization of bacteria from the rhizosphere and bulk soil of Stellera chamaejasme L.

    PubMed

    Cui, Haiyan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Lu, Dengxue; Jin, Hui; Yan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jixiang; Li, Xiuzhuang; Qin, Bo

    2015-03-01

    This study is the first to describe the composition and characteristics of culturable bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere and bulk soil of the medicinal plant Stellera chamaejasme L. at different growth stages. Using a cultivation-dependent approach, a total of 148 isolates showing different phenotypic properties were obtained from the rhizosphere and bulk soil. Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were the major bacterial groups in both the rhizosphere and bulk soil at all 4 growth stages of S. chamaejasme. The diversity of the bacterial community in the rhizosphere was higher than that in bulk soil in flowering and fruiting stages. The abundance of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere changed with the growth stages and had a major shift at the fruiting stage. Dynamic changes of bacterial abundance and many bacterial groups in the rhizosphere were similar to those in bulk soil. Furthermore, most bacterial isolates exhibited single or multiple biochemical activities associated with S. chamaejasme growth, which revealed that bacteria with multiple physiological functions were abundant and widespread in the rhizosphere and bulk soil. These results are essential (i) for understanding the ecological roles of bacteria in the rhizosphere and bulk soil and (ii) as a foundation for further evaluating their efficacy as effective S. chamaejasme growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

  13. Cultural conditions on the production of extracellular enzymes by Trichoderma isolates from tobacco rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Mallikharjuna Rao, K.L.N.; Siva Raju, K.; Ravisankar, H.

    2016-01-01

    Twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. isolated from tobacco rhizosphere were evaluated for their ability to produce chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2, out of 12 isolates, produced maximum activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, respectively. In vitro production of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase by isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 was tested under different cultural conditions. The enzyme activities were significantly influenced by acidic pH and the optimum temperature was 30 °C. The chitin and cell walls of Sclerotium rolfsii, as carbon sources, supported the maximum and significantly higher chitinase activity by both isolates. The chitinase activity of isolate ThJt1 was suppressed significantly by fructose (80.28%), followed by glucose (77.42%), whereas the β-1,3-glucanase activity of ThJt1 and both enzymes of isolate TvHt2 were significantly suppressed by fructose, followed by sucrose. Ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source supported the maximum activity of chitinase in both isolates, whereas urea was a poor nitrogen source. Production of both enzymes by the isolates was significantly influenced by the cultural conditions. Thus, the isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 showed higher levels of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities and were capable of hydrolyzing the mycelium of S. rolfsii infecting tobacco. These organisms can be used therefore for assessment of their synergism in biomass production and biocontrol efficacy and for their field biocontrol ability against S. rolfsii and Pythium aphanidermatum infecting tobacco. PMID:26887223

  14. Molecular Phylogenetic and Biogeochemical Studies of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in the Rhizosphere of Spartina alterniflora

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Mark E.; Evans, Robert S.; Sharak Genthner, Barbara R.; Willis, Stephanie G.; Friedman, Stephanie; Rooney-Varga, Juliette N.; Devereux, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The population composition and biogeochemistry of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the rhizosphere of the marsh grass Spartina alterniflora was investigated over two growing seasons by molecular probing, enumerations of culturable SRB, and measurements of SO42− reduction rates and geochemical parameters. SO42− reduction was rapid in marsh sediments with rates up to 3.5 μmol ml−1 day−1. Rates increased greatly when plant growth began in April and decreased again when plants flowered in late July. Results with nucleic acid probes revealed that SRB rRNA accounted for up to 43% of the rRNA from members of the domain Bacteria in marsh sediments, with the highest percentages occurring in bacteria physically associated with root surfaces. The relative abundance (RA) of SRB rRNA in whole-sediment samples compared to that of Bacteria rRNA did not vary greatly throughout the year, despite large temporal changes in SO42− reduction activity. However, the RA of root-associated SRB did increase from <10 to >30% when plants were actively growing. rRNA from members of the family Desulfobacteriaceae comprised the majority of the SRB rRNA at 3 to 34% of Bacteria rRNA, with Desulfobulbus spp. accounting for 1 to 16%. The RA of Desulfovibrio rRNA generally comprised from <1 to 3% of the Bacteria rRNA. The highest Desulfobacteriaceae RA in whole sediments was 26% and was found in the deepest sediment samples (6 to 8 cm). Culturable SRB abundance, determined by most-probable-number analyses, was high at >107 ml−1. Ethanol utilizers were most abundant, followed by acetate utilizers. The high numbers of culturable SRB and the high RA of SRB rRNA compared to that of Bacteria rRNA may be due to the release of SRB substrates in plant root exudates, creating a microbial food web that circumvents fermentation. PMID:10224021

  15. Cultural conditions on the production of extracellular enzymes by Trichoderma isolates from tobacco rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Mallikharjuna Rao, K L N; Siva Raju, K; Ravisankar, H

    2016-01-01

    Twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. isolated from tobacco rhizosphere were evaluated for their ability to produce chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2, out of 12 isolates, produced maximum activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, respectively. In vitro production of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase by isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 was tested under different cultural conditions. The enzyme activities were significantly influenced by acidic pH and the optimum temperature was 30°C. The chitin and cell walls of Sclerotium rolfsii, as carbon sources, supported the maximum and significantly higher chitinase activity by both isolates. The chitinase activity of isolate ThJt1 was suppressed significantly by fructose (80.28%), followed by glucose (77.42%), whereas the β-1,3-glucanase activity of ThJt1 and both enzymes of isolate TvHt2 were significantly suppressed by fructose, followed by sucrose. Ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source supported the maximum activity of chitinase in both isolates, whereas urea was a poor nitrogen source. Production of both enzymes by the isolates was significantly influenced by the cultural conditions. Thus, the isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 showed higher levels of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities and were capable of hydrolyzing the mycelium of S. rolfsii infecting tobacco. These organisms can be used therefore for assessment of their synergism in biomass production and biocontrol efficacy and for their field biocontrol ability against S. rolfsii and Pythium aphanidermatum infecting tobacco.

  16. Nicotiana Roots Recruit Rare Rhizosphere Taxa as Major Root-Inhabiting Microbes.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Muhammad; Law, Audrey D; Moe, Luke A

    2016-02-01

    Root-associated microbes have a profound impact on plant health, yet little is known about the distribution of root-associated microbes among different root morphologies or between rhizosphere and root environments. We explore these issues here with two commercial varieties of burley tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing from rhizosphere soil, as well as from primary, secondary, and fine roots. While rhizosphere soils exhibited a fairly rich and even distribution, root samples were dominated by Proteobacteria. A comparison of abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between rhizosphere and root samples indicated that Nicotiana roots select for rare taxa (predominantly Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria) from their corresponding rhizosphere environments. The majority of root-inhabiting OTUs (~80 %) exhibited habitat generalism across the different root morphological habitats, although habitat specialists were noted. These results suggest a specific process whereby roots select rare taxa from a larger community.

  17. Complementarity among plant growth promoting traits in rhizospheric bacterial communities promotes plant growth.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mangal; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Soni, Sumit K; Singh, Rakshapal; Verma, Rajesh K; Kalra, Alok

    2015-10-27

    An assessment of roles of rhizospheric microbial diversity in plant growth is helpful in understanding plant-microbe interactions. Using random combinations of rhizospheric bacterial species at different richness levels, we analysed the contribution of species richness, compositions, interactions and identity on soil microbial respiration and plant biomass. We showed that bacterial inoculation in plant rhizosphere enhanced microbial respiration and plant biomass with complementary relationships among bacterial species. Plant growth was found to increase linearly with inoculation of rhizospheric bacterial communities with increasing levels of species or plant growth promoting trait diversity. However, inoculation of diverse bacterial communities having single plant growth promoting trait, i.e., nitrogen fixation could not enhance plant growth over inoculation of single bacteria. Our results indicate that bacterial diversity in rhizosphere affect ecosystem functioning through complementary relationship among plant growth promoting traits and may play significant roles in delivering microbial services to plants.

  18. Metaproteogenomic analysis of microbial communities in the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of rice

    PubMed Central

    Knief, Claudia; Delmotte, Nathanaël; Chaffron, Samuel; Stark, Manuel; Innerebner, Gerd; Wassmann, Reiner; von Mering, Christian; Vorholt, Julia A

    2012-01-01

    The above- and below-ground parts of rice plants create specific habitats for various microorganisms. In this study, we characterized the phyllosphere and rhizosphere microbiota of rice cultivars using a metaproteogenomic approach to get insight into the physiology of the bacteria and archaea that live in association with rice. The metaproteomic datasets gave rise to a total of about 4600 identified proteins and indicated the presence of one-carbon conversion processes in the rhizosphere as well as in the phyllosphere. Proteins involved in methanogenesis and methanotrophy were found in the rhizosphere, whereas methanol-based methylotrophy linked to the genus Methylobacterium dominated within the protein repertoire of the phyllosphere microbiota. Further, physiological traits of differential importance in phyllosphere versus rhizosphere bacteria included transport processes and stress responses, which were more conspicuous in the phyllosphere samples. In contrast, dinitrogenase reductase was exclusively identified in the rhizosphere, despite the presence of nifH genes also in diverse phyllosphere bacteria. PMID:22189496

  19. Biotic Interactions in the Rhizosphere: A Diverse Cooperative Enterprise for Plant Productivity1[C

    PubMed Central

    De-la-Peña, Clelia; Loyola-Vargas, Víctor M.

    2014-01-01

    Microbes and plants have evolved biochemical mechanisms to communicate with each other. The molecules responsible for such communication are secreted during beneficial or harmful interactions. Hundreds of these molecules secreted into the rhizosphere have been identified, and their functions are being studied in order to understand the mechanisms of interaction and communication among the different members of the rhizosphere community. The importance of root and microbe secretion to the underground habitat in improving crop productivity is increasingly recognized, with the discovery and characterization of new secreting compounds found in the rhizosphere. Different omic approaches, such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, have expanded our understanding of the first signals between microbes and plants. In this review, we highlight the more recent discoveries related to molecules secreted into the rhizosphere and how they affect plant productivity, either negatively or positively. In addition, we include a survey of novel approaches to studying the rhizosphere and emerging opportunities to direct future studies. PMID:25118253

  20. Deciphering Community Structure of Methanotrophs Dwelling in Rice Rhizospheres of an Indian Rice Field Using Cultivation and Cultivation-Independent Approaches.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Pranitha S; Rahalkar, Monali C; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K; Ranade, Dilip R; Pore, Soham; Arora, Preeti; Kapse, Neelam

    2016-04-01

    Methanotrophs play a crucial role in filtering out methane from habitats, such as flooded rice fields. India has the largest area under rice cultivation in the world; however, to the best of our knowledge, methanotrophs have not been isolated and characterized from Indian rice fields. A cultivation strategy composing of a modified medium, longer incubation time, and serial dilutions in microtiter plates was used to cultivate methanotrophs from a rice rhizosphere sample from a flooded rice field in Western India. We compared the cultured members with the uncultured community as revealed by three culture-independent methods. A novel type Ia methanotroph (Sn10-6), at the rank of a genus, and a putative novel species of a type II methanotroph (Sn-Cys) were cultivated from the terminal positive dilution (10(-6)). From lower dilution (10(-4)), a strain of Methylomonas spp. was cultivated. All the three culture-independent analyses, i.e., pmoA clone library, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and metagenomics approach, revealed the dominance of type I methanotrophs. Only metagenomic analysis showed significant presence of type II methanotrophs, albeit in lower proportion (37 %). All the three isolates showed relevance to the methanotrophic community as depicted by uncultured methods; however, the cultivated members might not be the most dominant ones. In conclusion, a combined cultivation and cultivation-independent strategy yielded us a broader picture of the methanotrophic community from rice rhizospheres of a flooded rice field in India.

  1. EPA Method 1682: Salmonella spp.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Method 1682 describes procedures for analysis of solid samples (biosolids) and may be adapted for assessment of water, liquid, particulate and aerosol samples contaminated with Salmonella spp. using culture and immunoassay.

  2. Rates of Root and Organism Growth, Soil Conditions, and Temporal and Spatial Development of the Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    WATT, MICHELLE; SILK, WENDY K.; PASSIOURA, JOHN B.

    2006-01-01

    • Background Roots growing in soil encounter physical, chemical and biological environments that influence their rhizospheres and affect plant growth. Exudates from roots can stimulate or inhibit soil organisms that may release nutrients, infect the root, or modify plant growth via signals. These rhizosphere processes are poorly understood in field conditions. • Scope and Aims We characterize roots and their rhizospheres and rates of growth in units of distance and time so that interactions with soil organisms can be better understood in field conditions. We review: (1) distances between components of the soil, including dead roots remnant from previous plants, and the distances between new roots, their rhizospheres and soil components; (2) characteristic times (distance2/diffusivity) for solutes to travel distances between roots and responsive soil organisms; (3) rates of movement and growth of soil organisms; (4) rates of extension of roots, and how these relate to the rates of anatomical and biochemical ageing of root tissues and the development of the rhizosphere within the soil profile; and (5) numbers of micro-organisms in the rhizosphere and the dependence on the site of attachment to the growing tip. We consider temporal and spatial variation within the rhizosphere to understand the distribution of bacteria and fungi on roots in hard, unploughed soil, and the activities of organisms in the overlapping rhizospheres of living and dead roots clustered in gaps in most field soils. • Conclusions Rhizosphere distances, characteristic times for solute diffusion, and rates of root and organism growth must be considered to understand rhizosphere development. Many values used in our analysis were estimates. The paucity of reliable data underlines the rudimentary state of our knowledge of root–organism interactions in the field. PMID:16551700

  3. Is rhizosphere remediation sufficient for sustainable revegetation of mine tailings?

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Longbin; Baumgartl, Thomas; Mulligan, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Revegetation of mine tailings (fine-grained waste material) starts with the reconstruction of root zones, consisting of a rhizosphere horizon (mostly topsoil and/or amended tailings) and the support horizon beneath (i.e. equivalent to subsoil – mostly tailings), which must be physically and hydro-geochemically stable. This review aims to discuss key processes involved in the development of functional root zones within the context of direct revegetation of tailings and introduces a conceptual process of rehabilitating structure and function in the root zones based on a state transition model. Scope Field studies on the revegetation of tailings (from processing base metal ore and bauxite residues) are reviewed. Particular focus is given to tailings' properties that limit remediation effectiveness. Aspects of root zone reconstruction and vegetation responses are also discussed. Conclusions When reconstructing a root zone system, it is critical to restore physical structure and hydraulic functions across the whole root zone system. Only effective and holistically restored systems can control hydro-geochemical mobility of acutely and chronically toxic factors from the underlying horizon and maintain hydro-geochemical stability in the rhizosphere. Thereafter, soil biological capacity and ecological linkages (i.e. carbon and nutrient cycling) may be rehabilitated to integrate the root zones with revegetated plant communities into sustainable plant ecosystems. A conceptual framework of system transitions between the critical states of root zone development has been proposed. This will illustrate the rehabilitation process in root zone reconstruction and development for direct revegetation with sustainable plant communities. Sustainable phytostabilization of tailings requires the systematic consideration of hydro-geochemical interactions between the rhizosphere and the underlying supporting horizon. It further requires effective remediation strategies to

  4. N2 fixation in the rhizosphere of Thalassia testudinum.

    PubMed

    Capone, D G; Taylor, B F

    1980-08-01

    N2 fixation (C2H2 reduction) associated with the roots, rhizomes, and sediments (rhizosphere cores) of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum was measured at sites in South Florida (Soldier Key, Biscayne Bay) and the Bahamas (Bimini Harbor). Rates of C2H2 reduction were higher in anaerobic than in aerobic assays and were linear for several hours after an initial lag period of 1-2h. Nitrogenase activity was proportional to the weight of rhizomes plus roots but showed no correlation with the total weight of the rhizosphere cores. C2H2 reduction occurred to depths of at least 30 cm but the majority (<85%) of the activity was in the 0- to 20-cm fraction; also the ratio of activities for the 0- to 10- and 10- to 20-cm depths was about 2:1. Most investigations were carried out using anaerobic assays of the 0- to 10-cm fractions and rates calculated for the period of 3-6 h after adding C2H2. These rates were not stimulated by organic compounds (glucose, lactate, succinate) but were approximately halved by a decrease in temperature of 10 degrees C. In a seasonal study at Soldier Key the rates of N2 fixation varied about 20-fold with maximal rates in late summer and minimal rates in winter (January). On a diurnal basis, C2H2 reduction increased in the morning but was depressed in midafternoon, probably due to O2 buildup in the rhizosphere. Daily rates of N2 fixation, during the summer months of 1975-1978, varied between 5 and 24 mg N (-2)m and the estimated annual rates of N2 fixation were 10-50 kg N (-1)ha, taking into account seasonal variations and activities to a depth of 20 cm.

  5. Diversity of free-living nitrogen-fixing microorganisms in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere of pioneer plants growing on wastelands of copper mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jing; Sun, Qingye

    2012-03-20

    The composition of free-living nitrogen-fixing microbial communities in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere of pioneer plants growing on wastelands of copper mine tailings was studied by the presence of nifH genes using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denatured Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) approach. Eleven rhizosphere tailing samples and nine non-rhizosphere tailing samples from six plant communities were collected from two wastelands with different discarded periods. The nested PCR method was used to amplify the nifH genes from environmental DNA extracted from tailing samples. Twenty-two of 37 nifH gene sequences retrieved from DGGE gels clustered in Proteobacteria (α-Proteobacteria and β-Proteobacteria) and 15 nifH gene sequences in Cyanobacteria. Most nifH gene fragments sequenced were closely related to uncultured bacteria and cyanobacteria and exhibited less than 90% nucleotide acid identity with bacteria in the database, suggesting that the nifH gene fragments detected in copper mine tailings may represent novel sequences of nitrogen-fixers. Our results indicated that the non-rhizosphere tailings generally presented higher diversity of nitrogen-fixers than rhizosphere tailings and the diversity of free-living nitrogen-fixers in tailing samples was mainly affected by the physico-chemical properties of the wastelands and plant species, especially the changes of nutrient and heavy metal contents caused by the colonization of plant community. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Structure and function of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil microbial community respond differently to elevated ozone in field-planted wheat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhan; Wang, Xiaoke; Shang, He

    2015-06-01

    To assess the responses of the soil microbial community to chronic ozone (O3), wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum Linn.) were planted in the field and exposed to elevated O3 (eO3) concentration. Three treatments were employed: (1) Control treatment (CK), AOT40=0; (2) O3-1, AOT40=1.59 ppm•h; (3) O3-2, AOT40=9.17 ppm•h. Soil samples were collected for the assessment of microbial biomass C, community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs), and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). EO3 concentration significantly reduced soil microbial carbon and changed microbial CLPPs in rhizosphere soil, but not in non-rhizosphere soil. The results of the PLFAs showed that eO3 concentrations had significant effects on soil community structure in both rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils. The relative abundances of fungal and actinomycetous indicator PLFAs decreased in both rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils, while those of bacterial PLFAs increased. Thus the results proved that eO3 concentration significantly changed the soil microbial community function and composition, which would influence the soil nutrient supply and carbon dynamics under O3 exposure. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Prevalence of Eimeria spp., Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in calves in the Van province.

    PubMed

    Gül, Abdurrahman; Ciçek, Mutalip; Kilinç, Ozlem

    2008-01-01

    This research was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia cysts in calves less than 6 months of age in Van province. For this purpose, fecal samples were obtained from the rectum of 182 calves. Fecal samples (n: 182) were examined with the modified acid-fast technique for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. The same samples were examined by zinc sulphate flotation technique for Eimeria oocysts and Giardia cysts. During the laboratory examination of fecal samples, Eimeria spp. oocysts were identified in 22.53% (41/182), Cryptosporidium oocysts in 13.19% (24/182) and Giardia cysts in 9.34 % (17/182) of the dairy calves examined. The rate of infection was 69.78% (127/182). Single infections (45.05%) and mixed infections (24.73%) were identified.

  8. Plasticity of rhizosphere hydraulic properties as a key for efficient utilization of scarce resources

    PubMed Central

    Carminati, Andrea; Vetterlein, Doris

    2013-01-01

    Background It is known that the soil near roots, the so-called rhizosphere, has physical and chemical properties different from those of the bulk soil. Rhizosphere properties are the result of several processes: root and soil shrinking/swelling during drying/wetting cycles, soil compaction by root growth, mucilage exuded by root caps, interaction of mucilage with soil particles, mucilage shrinking/swelling and mucilage biodegradation. These processes may lead to variable rhizosphere properties, i.e. the presence of air-filled gaps between soil and roots; water repellence in the rhizosphere caused by drying of mucilage around the soil particles; or water accumulation in the rhizosphere due to the high water-holding capacity of mucilage. The resulting properties are not constant in time but they change as a function of soil condition, root growth rate and mucilage age. Scope We consider such a variability as an expression of rhizosphere plasticity, which may be a strategy for plants to control which part of the root system will have a facilitated access to water and which roots will be disconnected from the soil, for instance by air-filled gaps or by rhizosphere hydrophobicity. To describe such a dualism, we suggest classifying rhizosphere into two categories: class A refers to a rhizosphere covered with hydrated mucilage that optimally connects roots to soil and facilitates water uptake from dry soils. Class B refers to the case of air-filled gaps and/or hydrophobic rhizosphere, which isolate roots from the soil and may limit water uptake from the soil as well water loss to the soil. The main function of roots covered by class B will be long-distance transport of water. Outlook This concept has implications for soil and plant water relations at the plant scale. Root water uptake in dry conditions is expected to shift to regions covered with rhizosphere class A. On the other hand, hydraulic lift may be limited in regions covered with rhizosphere class B. New

  9. Dynamics in the Strawberry Rhizosphere Microbiome in Response to Biochar and Botrytis cinerea Leaf Infection

    PubMed Central

    De Tender, Caroline; Haegeman, Annelies; Vandecasteele, Bart; Clement, Lieven; Cremelie, Pieter; Dawyndt, Peter; Maes, Martine; Debode, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Adding biochar, the solid coproduct of biofuel production, to peat can enhance strawberry growth, and disease resistance against the airborne fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Additionally, biochar can induce shifts in the strawberry rhizosphere microbiome. However, the moment that this biochar-mediated shift occurs in the rhizosphere is not known. Further, the effect of an above-ground infection on the strawberry rhizosphere microbiome is unknown. In the present study we established two experiments in which strawberry transplants (cv. Elsanta) were planted either in peat or in peat amended with 3% biochar. First, we established a time course experiment to measure the effect of biochar on the rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities over time. In a second experiment, we inoculated the strawberry leaves with B. cinerea, and studied the impact of the infection on the rhizosphere bacterial community. The fungal rhizosphere community was stabilized after 1 week, except for the upcoming Auriculariales, whereas the bacterial community shifted till 6 weeks. An effect of the addition of biochar to the peat on the rhizosphere microbiome was solely measured for the bacterial community from week 6 of plant growth onwards. When scoring the plant development, biochar addition was associated with enhanced root formation, fruit production, and postharvest resistance of the fruits against B. cinerea. We hypothesize that the bacterial rhizosphere microbiome, but also biochar-mediated changes in chemical substrate composition could be involved in these events. Infection of the strawberry leaves with B. cinerea induced shifts in the bacterial rhizosphere community, with an increased bacterial richness. This disease-induced effect was not observed in the rhizospheres of the B. cinerea-infected plants grown in the biochar-amended peat. The results show that an above-ground infection has its effect on the strawberry rhizosphere microbiome, changing the bacterial interactions in the

  10. Plasticity of rhizosphere hydraulic properties as a key for efficient utilization of scarce resources.

    PubMed

    Carminati, Andrea; Vetterlein, Doris

    2013-07-01

    It is known that the soil near roots, the so-called rhizosphere, has physical and chemical properties different from those of the bulk soil. Rhizosphere properties are the result of several processes: root and soil shrinking/swelling during drying/wetting cycles, soil compaction by root growth, mucilage exuded by root caps, interaction of mucilage with soil particles, mucilage shrinking/swelling and mucilage biodegradation. These processes may lead to variable rhizosphere properties, i.e. the presence of air-filled gaps between soil and roots; water repellence in the rhizosphere caused by drying of mucilage around the soil particles; or water accumulation in the rhizosphere due to the high water-holding capacity of mucilage. The resulting properties are not constant in time but they change as a function of soil condition, root growth rate and mucilage age. We consider such a variability as an expression of rhizosphere plasticity, which may be a strategy for plants to control which part of the root system will have a facilitated access to water and which roots will be disconnected from the soil, for instance by air-filled gaps or by rhizosphere hydrophobicity. To describe such a dualism, we suggest classifying rhizosphere into two categories: class A refers to a rhizosphere covered with hydrated mucilage that optimally connects roots to soil and facilitates water uptake from dry soils. Class B refers to the case of air-filled gaps and/or hydrophobic rhizosphere, which isolate roots from the soil and may limit water uptake from the soil as well water loss to the soil. The main function of roots covered by class B will be long-distance transport of water. This concept has implications for soil and plant water relations at the plant scale. Root water uptake in dry conditions is expected to shift to regions covered with rhizosphere class A. On the other hand, hydraulic lift may be limited in regions covered with rhizosphere class B. New experimental methods need to be

  11. Ecological effects of crude oil residues on the functional diversity of soil microorganisms in three weed rhizospheres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian-ru; Zhou, Qi-xing; Ren, Li-ping; Zhu, Yong-guan; Sun, Shu-lan

    2006-01-01

    Ecological effects of crude oil residues on weed rhizospheres are still vague. The quantitative and diversity changes and metabolic responses of soil-bacterial communities in common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), jerusalem artichoke (Silphium perfoliatum L.) and evening primrose (Acalypha australis L.) rhizospheric soils were thus examined using the method of carbon source utilization. The results indicated that there were various toxic effects of crude oil residues on the growth and reproduction of soil bacteria, but the weed rhizospheres could mitigate the toxic effects. Total heterotrophic counting colony-forming units (CFUs) in the rhizospheric soils were significantly higher than those in the non-rhizospheric soils. The culturable soil-bacterial CFUs in the jerusalem artichoke (S. perfoliatum) rhizosphere polluted with 0.50 kg/pot of crude oil residues were almost twice as much as those with 0.25 kg/pot and without the addition of crude oil residues. The addition of crude oil residues increased the difference in substrate evenness, substrate richness, and substrate diversity between non-rhizospheric and rhizospheric soils of T. officinale and A. australis, but there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the Shannon's diversity index between non-rhizospheric and rhizospheric soils of S. perfoliatum. The rhizospheric response of weed species to crude oil residues suggested that S. perfoliatum may be a potential weed species for the effective plant-microorganism bioremediation of contaminated soils by crude oil residues.

  12. Comparative genomics of Fructobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. reveals niche-specific evolution of Fructobacillus spp.

    DOE PAGES

    Endo, Akihito; Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Naoto; ...

    2015-12-29

    In this study, Fructobacillus spp. in fructose-rich niches belong to the family Leuconostocaceae. They were originally classified as Leuconostoc spp., but were later grouped into a novel genus, Fructobacillus , based on their phylogenetic position, morphology and specific biochemical characteristics. The unique characters, so called fructophilic characteristics, had not been reported in the group of lactic acid bacteria, suggesting unique evolution at the genome level. Here we studied four draft genome sequences of Fructobacillus spp. and compared their metabolic properties against those of Leuconostoc spp. As a result, Fructobacillus species possess significantly less protein coding sequences in their small genomes.more » The number of genes was significantly smaller in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Several other metabolic pathways, including TCA cycle, ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis and phosphotransferase systems, were characterized as discriminative pathways between the two genera. The adhE gene for bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase, and genes for subunits of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex were absent in Fructobacillus spp. The two genera also show different levels of GC contents, which are mainly due to the different GC contents at the third codon position. In conclusion, the present genome characteristics in Fructobacillus spp. suggest reductive evolution that took place to adapt to specific niches.« less

  13. Plant species and soil type cooperatively shape the structure and function of microbial communities in the rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Berg, Gabriele; Smalla, Kornelia

    2009-04-01

    The rhizosphere is of central importance not only for plant nutrition, health and quality but also for microorganism-driven carbon sequestration, ecosystem functioning and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. A multitude of biotic and abiotic factors are assumed to influence the structural and functional diversity of microbial communities in the rhizosphere. In this review, recent studies on the influence of the two factors, plant species and soil type, on rhizosphere-associated microbial communities are discussed. Root exudates and the response of microorganisms to the latter as well as to root morphology were shown to shape rhizosphere microbial communities. All studies revealed that soil is the main reservoir for rhizosphere microorganisms. Many secrets of microbial life in the rhizosphere were recently uncovered due to the enormous progress in molecular and microscopic tools. Physiological and molecular data on the factors that drive selection processes in the rhizosphere are presented here. Furthermore, implications for agriculture, nature conservation and biotechnology will also be discussed.

  14. Selection of potential antagonists against asparagus crown and root rot caused by Fusarium spp.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Pérez, E; Molinero-Ruiz, M L; Melero-Vara, J M; Basallote-Ureba, M J

    2008-01-01

    Crown and root rot is one of the most important diseases of asparagus crop worldwide. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. asparagi and F. proliferatum are the two species more frequently associated to this complex and their prevalence depends on the production area. The control of the disease on asparagus crop is difficult to achieve because its perennial condition and the long survival of the pathogen in the soil as chlamydospores or as mycelium in infected plant debris. Furthermore, Fusarium spp. are easily disseminated with asparagus propagation materials. Thus, control measures should aim at obtaining seedlings protection for longer than achieved with conventional pre-planting chemical treatments. The effectiveness of fungal antagonists on the control of diseases caused by soil borne fungi has been reported. The potential of Trichoderma spp. as a biological control agent against diseases caused by Fusarium spp. in tomato and asparagus has been studied . It has been suggested that microorganisms isolated from the root or rhizosphere of a specific crop may be better adapted to that crop and may provide better disease control than organisms originally isolated from other plant species. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the potential of fungal isolates from symptomless asparagus plants as biocontrol agents of Fusarium crown and root rot.

  15. Influence of Bacillus spp. strains on seedling growth and physiological parameters of sorghum under moisture stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Grover, Minakshi; Madhubala, R; Ali, Sk Z; Yadav, S K; Venkateswarlu, B

    2014-09-01

    Microorganisms isolated from stressed ecosystem may prove as ideal candidates for development of bio-inoculants for stressed agricultural production systems. In the present study, moisture stress tolerant rhizobacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of sorghum, pigeonpea, and cowpea grown under semiarid conditions in India. Four isolates KB122, KB129, KB133, and KB142 from sorghum rhizosphere exhibited plant growth promoting traits and tolerance to salinity, high temperature, and moisture stress. These isolates were identified as Bacillus spp. by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The strains were evaluated for growth promotion of sorghum seedlings under two different moisture stress conditions (set-I, continuous 50% soil water holding capacity (WHC) throughout the experiment and set-II, 75% soil WHC for 27 days followed by no irrigation for 5 days) under greenhouse conditions. Plate count and scanning electron microscope studies indicated successful root surface colonization by inoculated bacteria. Plants inoculated with Bacillus spp. strains showed better growth in terms of shoot length and root biomass with dark greenish leaves due to high chlorophyll content while un-inoculated plants showed rolling of the leaves, stunted appearance, and wilting under both stress conditions. Inoculation also improved leaf relative water content and soil moisture content. However, variation in proline and sugar content in the different treatments under two stress conditions indicated differential effect of microbial treatments on plant physiological parameters under stress conditions.

  16. Biological control of take-all by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. from Chinese wheat fields.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Ming; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Mavrodi, Olga V; Bonsall, Robert F; Parejko, James A; Paulitz, Timothy C; Thomashow, Linda S; Yang, He-Tong; Weller, David M; Guo, Jian-Hua

    2011-12-01

    Take-all disease of wheat caused by the soilborne fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici is one of the most important root diseases of wheat worldwide. Bacteria were isolated from winter wheat from irrigated and rainfed fields in Hebei and Jiangsu provinces in China, respectively. Samples from rhizosphere soil, roots, stems, and leaves were plated onto King's medium B agar and 553 isolates were selected. On the basis of in vitro tests, 105 isolates (19% of the total) inhibited G. graminis var. tritici and all were identified as Pseudomonas spp. by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. Based on biocontrol assays, 13 strains were selected for further analysis. All of them aggressively colonized the rhizosphere of wheat and suppressed take-all. Of the 13 strains, 3 (HC9-07, HC13-07, and JC14-07, all stem endophytes) had genes for the biosynthesis of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) but none had genes for the production of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyoluteorin, or pyrrolnitrin. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of 2-day-old cultures confirmed that HC9-07, HC13-07, and JC14-07 produced PCA but no other phenazines were detected. HPLC quantitative time-of-flight 2 mass-spectrometry analysis of extracts from roots of spring wheat colonized by HC9-07, HC13-07, or Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79 demonstrated that all three strains produced PCA in the rhizosphere. Loss of PCA production by strain HC9-07 resulted in a loss of biocontrol activity. Analysis of DNA sequences within the key phenazine biosynthesis gene phzF and of 16S rDNA indicated that strains HC9-07, HC13-07, and JC14-07 were similar to the well-described PCA producer P. fluorescens 2-79. This is the first report of 2-79-like bacteria being isolated from Asia.

  17. Parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coccidioides spp. is the ethiological agent of coccidioidomycosis, an infection that can be fatal. Its diagnosis is complicated, due to that it shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with other pulmonary mycoses. Coccidioides spp. is a dimorphic fungus and, in its saprobic phase, grows as a mycelium, forming a large amount of arthroconidia. In susceptible persons, arthroconidia induce dimorphic changes into spherules/endospores, a typical parasitic form of Coccidioides spp. In addition, the diversity of mycelial parasitic forms has been observed in clinical specimens; they are scarcely known and produce errors in diagnosis. Methods We presented a retrospective study of images from specimens of smears with 15% potassium hydroxide, cytology, and tissue biopsies of a histopathologic collection from patients with coccidioidomycosis seen at a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico City. Results The parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp. observed in the clinical specimens was as follows: i) spherules/endospores in different maturation stages; ii) pleomorphic cells (septate hyphae, hyphae composed of ovoid and spherical cells, and arthroconidia), and iii) fungal ball formation (mycelia with septate hyphae and arthroconidia). Conclusions The parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp. includes the following: spherules/endospores, arthroconidia, and different forms of mycelia. This knowledge is important for the accurate diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis. In earlier studies, we proposed the integration of this diversity of forms in the Coccidioides spp. parasitic cycle. The microhabitat surrounding the fungus into the host would favor the parasitic polymorphism of this fungus, and this environment may assist in the evolution toward parasitism of Coccidioides spp. PMID:24750998

  18. Allelochemicals from the Rhizosphere Soil of Cultivated Astragalus hoantchy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kai; He, Xiaofeng; Yan, Zhiqiang; Li, Xiuzhuang; Ren, Xia; Pan, Le; Qin, Bo

    2016-05-04

    Astragalus hoantchy, a widely cultivated medicinal plant species in traditional Chinese and Mongolian medicine, has been often hampered by replant failure during cultivation, like many other herbs of the genus Astragalus. Root aqueous extracts of Astragalus herbs were reported to exhibit allelopathic activity against other plants and autotoxic activity on their own seedlings, but the allelochemicals released by Astragalus plants have not been specified so far. Ten compounds were isolated from the rhizosphere soil extract of cultivated A. hoantchy and elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-6 observably showed allelopathic activity against Lactuca sativa seedlings and autotoxic activity against A. hoantchy seedlings. The isolated compounds were further confirmed and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the rhizosphere soil, with a total concentration of 9.78 μg/g (dry weight). These results specify and verify the allelochemicals released by cultivated A. hoantchy into the soil environment, which may provide new insights into the allelopathic mechanisms of this medicinal plant and probably assist in clarifying the replant problems of Astragalus plants.

  19. Implications of non-specific strigolactone signaling in the rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Koltai, Hinanit

    2014-08-01

    Strigolactones produced by various plant species are involved in the development of different plant parts. They are also exuded by plant roots to the rhizosphere, where they are involved in the induction of seed germination of the parasitic plants Striga and Orobanche, hyphal branching of the symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), and the symbiotic interaction with Rhizobium. In the present discussion paper, the essentialness of strigolactones as communication signals in these plant interactions is discussed in view of the existence of other plant-derived substances that are able to promote these plant interactions. In addition, the importance of strigolactones for determination of interaction specificity is discussed based on current knowledge on strigolactone composition, perception and delivery. The different activities of strigolactones in plant development and in the rhizosphere suggest their possible use in agriculture. However, despite efforts made in this direction, there is no current, practical implementation. Possible reasons for the encountered difficulties and suggested solutions to promote strigolactone use in agriculture are discussed.

  20. Bacterial stimulation of copper phytoaccumulation by bioaugmentation with rhizosphere bacteria.

    PubMed

    Andreazza, Robson; Okeke, Benedict C; Lambais, Márcio Rodrigues; Bortolon, Leandro; de Melo, George Wellington Bastos; Camargo, Flávio Anastácio de Oliveira

    2010-11-01

    Copper contaminated areas pose environmental health risk to living organisms. Remediation processes are thus required for both crop production and industrial activities. This study employed bioaugmentation with copper resistant bacteria to improve phytoremediation of vineyard soils and copper mining waste contaminated with high copper concentrations. Oatmeal plant (Avena sativa L.) was used for copper phytoextraction. Three copper resistant bacterial isolates from oatmeal rhizosphere (Pseudomonas putida A1; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia A2 and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus A6) were used for the stimulation of copper phytoextraction. Two long-term copper contaminated vineyard soils (Mollisol and Inceptisol) and copper mining waste from Southern Brazil were evaluated. Oatmeal plants substantially extracted copper from vineyard soils and copper mining waste. As much as 1549 mg of Cu kg⁻¹ dry mass was extracted from plants grown in Inceptisol soil. The vineyard Mollisol copper uptake (55 mg Cu kg⁻¹ of dry mass) in the shoots was significantly improved upon inoculation of oatmeal plants with isolate A2 (128 mg of Cu kg⁻¹ of shoot dry mass). Overall oatmeal plant biomass displayed higher potential of copper phytoextraction with inoculation of rhizosphere bacteria in vineyard soil to the extent that 404 and 327 g ha⁻¹ of copper removal were respectively observed in vineyard Mollisol bioaugmented with isolate A2 (S. maltophilia) and isolate A6 (A. calcoaceticus). Results suggest potential application of bacterial stimulation of phytoaccumulation of copper for biological removal of copper from contaminated areas. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. UV-induced momilactone B accumulation in rice rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Kujime, Hiroya; Ino, Takeshi

    2007-11-01

    UV-irradiation increased the concentration of momilactone B in shoots and roots of rice seedlings, and increasing the irradiation increased the concentration. The concentration in 90-min UV-irradiated shoots and roots, respectively, was 31.8- and 3.6-fold higher than that in non-irradiated shoots and roots. After UV-irradiation the concentration of momilactone B in rice shoots decreased. There was, however, an accumulation of momilactone B in the medium in which UV-irradiated seedlings were grown. Five days after UV-irradiation, momilactone B in the medium was at a level 2.5 times greater than on day 0, which was 47% of momilactone B in the seedlings, suggesting that rice may actively secrete momilactone B into medium. Therefore, UV-irradiation increased not only production of momilactone B in rice seedlings but also secretion of momilactone B into rice rhizosphere. As momilactone B acts as an antimicrobial and allelopathic agent, secretion of momilactone B into the rhizosphere may provide a competitive advantage for root establishment through local suppression of soil microorganism and inhibition of the growth of competing plant species.

  2. Secretion of momilactone A from rice roots to the rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Ino, Takeshi; Ota, Katsumi

    2008-05-05

    The secretion levels of momilactone A from rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings of eight cultivars into the rhizosphere were compared with the endogenous momilactone A concentrations in their shoots and roots. All rice cultivars contained momilactone A in the shoots and roots, and concentrations differed among the cultivars. Momilactone A was also found in all culture solutions in which the rice seedlings were grown, and the concentrations differed among the cultivars. The momilactone A concentrations in the culture solutions were reflected in the momilactone A concentrations in the shoots. These results suggest that all rice cultivars may produce momilactome A and secrete momilactone A into the culture solutions. The secretion levels of momilactone A may be more dependent on their capacities for momilactone A production in the shoots than on their capacities for momilactone A transportation from the shoots into the environment via the roots. As momilactone A acts as an antimicrobial and allelopathic agent, the secretion of momilactone A into the rice rhizosphere may provide a competitive advantage for root establishment through local suppression of soil microorganisms and inhibition of the growth of competing plant species.

  3. Host legume-exuded antimetabolites optimize the symbiotic rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tao; Cai, Wentong; Zhang, Jiang; Zheng, Huiming; Tsou, Amy M; Xiao, Lin; Zhong, Zengtao; Zhu, Jun

    2009-08-01

    Rhizobia form symbiotic nodules on host legumes and fix nitrogen for their hosts in exchange for nutrients. In order to establish this mutually beneficial relationship, rhizobia must compete with other soil bacteria in the host legume rhizosphere to colonize plant roots efficiently. A promoter-trap transposon screen in Mesorhizobium tianshanense, a Rhizobium that forms nodules on licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) plants revealed that the expression of msiA, which encodes a putative exporter protein belonging to the LysE family of translocators, is activated by both legume exudates and MsiR, a LysR family transcriptional regulator. Chemical analysis suggests that the msiA-inducing signal in exudates is canavanine, an anti-metabolite present in the seeds and exudates of a variety of legume plants. We show that MsiA serves as a canavanine exporter that is indispensable for canavanine resistance in M. tianshanense. We also show that the expression of MsiA homologues in other rhizobial species is induced by canavanine and is critical for canavanine resistance. Furthermore, rhizobial canavanine resistance is important for root hair adherence as well as for survival in a canavanine-producing legume rhizosphere. Together, these data suggest that host legumes may exude specific antimetabolites into their surroundings to optimize the bacterial population in order to have successful symbiotic events with rhizobia.

  4. Rhizosphere dynamics during phytoremediation of olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bodini, S F; Cicalini, A R; Santori, F

    2011-03-01

    The potential of phytoremediation as a treatment option for olive mill wastewater (OMW) was tested on five perennial tree species. Cupressus sempervirens and Quercus ilex proved tolerant to six-month OMW treatment followed by six-month water irrigation, whereas Salix sp. and Laurus nobilis and, later, Pinus mugo suffered from phytotoxic effects. Test plants were compared to controls after treatment and irrigation, by monitoring biochemical and microbiological variations in the rhizosphere soil. OMW-treated soils were exposed to 50-fold higher phenols concentrations, which, irrespective of whether the respective plants were OMW-resistant or susceptible, were reduced by more than 90% by the end of the irrigation cycle, owing to significantly increased laccase, peroxidase and β-glucosidase activities, recovery/acquisition of bacterial culturability and transitory development of specialized fungal communities sharing the presence of Geotrichum candidum. Of all results, the identification of Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium aurantiogriseum as dominant rhizosphere fungi was distinctive of OMW-tolerant species.

  5. Impact of a Recombinant Biocontrol Bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens pc78, on Microbial Community in Tomato Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hyun Gi; Kim, Nam Hee; Lee, Seung Yeup; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens pc78 is an effective biocontrol agent for soil-borne fungal diseases. We previously constructed a P43-gfp tagged biocontrol bacteria P. fluorescens pc78-48 to investigate bacterial traits in natural ecosystem and the environmental risk of genetically modified biocontrol bacteria in tomato rhizosphere. Fluctuation of culturable bacteria profile, microbial community structure, and potential horizontal gene transfer was investigated over time after the bacteria treatment to the tomato rhizosphere. Tagged gene transfer to other organisms such as tomato plants and bacteria cultured on various media was examined by polymerase chain reaction, using gene specific primers. Transfer of chromosomally integrated P43-gfp from pc78 to other organisms was not apparent. Population and colony types of culturable bacteria were not significantly affected by the introduction of P. fluorescens pc78 or pc78-48 into tomato rhizosphere. Additionally, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles were investigated to estimate the influence on the microbial community structure in tomato rhizosphere between non-treated and pc78-48-treated samples. Interestingly, rhizosphere soil treated with strain pc78-48 exhibited a significantly different bacterial community structure compared to that of non-treated rhizosphere soil. Our results suggest that biocontrol bacteria treatment influences microbial community in tomato rhizosphere, while the chromosomally modified biocontrol bacteria may not pose any specific environmental risk in terms of gene transfer.

  6. Root isoflavonoids and hairy root transformation influence key bacterial taxa in the soybean rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    White, Laura J; Ge, Xijin; Brözel, Volker S; Subramanian, Senthil

    2017-04-01

    Rhizodeposits play a key role in shaping rhizosphere microbial communities. In soybean, isoflavonoids are a key rhizodeposit component that aid in plant defense and enable symbiotic associations with rhizobia. However, it is uncertain if and how they influence rhizosphere microbial communities. Isoflavonoid biosynthesis was silenced via RNA interference of isoflavone synthase in soybean hairy root composite plants. Rhizosphere soil fractions tightly associated with roots were isolated, and PCR amplicons from 16S rRNA gene variable regions V1-V3 and V3-V5 from these fractions were sequenced using 454. The resulting data was resolved using MOTHUR and vegan to identify bacterial taxa and evaluate changes in rhizosphere bacterial communities. The soybean rhizosphere was enriched in Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and had relatively lower levels of Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria compared with bulk soil. Isoflavonoids had a small effect on bacterial community structure, and in particular on the abundance of Xanthomonads and Comamonads. The effect of hairy root transformation on rhizosphere bacterial communities was largely similar to untransformed plant roots with approximately 74% of the bacterial families displaying similar colonization underscoring the suitability of this technique to evaluate the influence of plant roots on rhizosphere bacterial communities. However, hairy root transformation had notable influence on Sphingomonads and Acidobacteria. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Plant nitrogen-use strategy as a driver of rhizosphere archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidiser abundance.

    PubMed

    Thion, Cécile E; Poirel, Jessica D; Cornulier, Thomas; De Vries, Franciska T; Bardgett, Richard D; Prosser, James I

    2016-07-01

    The influence of plants on archaeal (AOA) and bacterial (AOB) ammonia oxidisers (AO) is poorly understood. Higher microbial activity in the rhizosphere, including organic nitrogen (N) mineralisation, may stimulate both groups, while ammonia uptake by plants may favour AOA, considered to prefer lower ammonia concentration. We therefore hypothesised (i) higher AOA and AOB abundances in the rhizosphere than bulk soil and (ii) that AOA are favoured over AOB in the rhizosphere of plants with an exploitative strategy and high N demand, especially (iii) during early growth, when plant N uptake is higher. These hypotheses were tested by growing 20 grassland plants, covering a spectrum of resource-use strategies, and determining AOA and AOB amoA gene abundances, rhizosphere and bulk soil characteristics and plant functional traits. Joint Bayesian mixed models indicated no increase in AO in the rhizosphere, but revealed that AOA were more abundant in the rhizosphere of exploitative plants, mostly grasses, and less abundant under conservative plants. In contrast, AOB abundance in the rhizosphere and bulk soil depended on pH, rather than plant traits. These findings provide a mechanistic basis for plant-ammonia oxidiser interactions and for links between plant functional traits and ammonia oxidiser ecology. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Changes in the Bacterial Community of Soybean Rhizospheres during Growth in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Ueda, Yoshikatsu; Zushi, Takahiro; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2014-01-01

    Highly diverse communities of bacteria inhabiting soybean rhizospheres play pivotal roles in plant growth and crop production; however, little is known about the changes that occur in these communities during growth. We used both culture-dependent physiological profiling and culture independent DNA-based approaches to characterize the bacterial communities of the soybean rhizosphere during growth in the field. The physiological properties of the bacterial communities were analyzed by a community-level substrate utilization assay with BioLog Eco plates, and the composition of the communities was assessed by gene pyrosequencing. Higher metabolic capabilities were found in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil during all stages of the BioLog assay. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that differences between the bacterial communities of rhizosphere and bulk soils at the phylum level; i.e., Proteobacteria were increased, while Acidobacteria and Firmicutes were decreased in rhizosphere soil during growth. Analysis of operational taxonomic units showed that the bacterial communities of the rhizosphere changed significantly during growth, with a higher abundance of potential plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, including Bacillus, Bradyrhizobium, and Rhizobium, in a stage-specific manner. These findings demonstrated that rhizosphere bacterial communities were changed during soybean growth in the field. PMID:24955843

  9. Impact of a Recombinant Biocontrol Bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens pc78, on Microbial Community in Tomato Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hyun Gi; Kim, Nam Hee; Lee, Seung Yeup; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens pc78 is an effective biocontrol agent for soil-borne fungal diseases. We previously constructed a P43-gfp tagged biocontrol bacteria P. fluorescens pc78-48 to investigate bacterial traits in natural ecosystem and the environmental risk of genetically modified biocontrol bacteria in tomato rhizosphere. Fluctuation of culturable bacteria profile, microbial community structure, and potential horizontal gene transfer was investigated over time after the bacteria treatment to the tomato rhizosphere. Tagged gene transfer to other organisms such as tomato plants and bacteria cultured on various media was examined by polymerase chain reaction, using gene specific primers. Transfer of chromosomally integrated P43-gfp from pc78 to other organisms was not apparent. Population and colony types of culturable bacteria were not significantly affected by the introduction of P. fluorescens pc78 or pc78-48 into tomato rhizosphere. Additionally, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles were investigated to estimate the influence on the microbial community structure in tomato rhizosphere between non-treated and pc78-48-treated samples. Interestingly, rhizosphere soil treated with strain pc78-48 exhibited a significantly different bacterial community structure compared to that of non-treated rhizosphere soil. Our results suggest that biocontrol bacteria treatment influences microbial community in tomato rhizosphere, while the chromosomally modified biocontrol bacteria may not pose any specific environmental risk in terms of gene transfer. PMID:27147933

  10. Arsenic uptake by rice is influenced by microbe-mediated arsenic redox changes in the rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yan; Huang, Hai; Chen, Zheng; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2014-01-21

    Arsenic (As) uptake by rice is largely determined by As speciation, which is strongly influenced by microbial activities. However, little is known about interactions between root and rhizosphere microbes, particularly on arsenic oxidation and reduction. In this study, two rice cultivars with different radial oxygen loss (ROL) ability were used to investigate the impact of microbially mediated As redox changes in the rhizosphere on As uptake. Results showed that the cultivar with higher ROL (Yangdao) had lower As uptake than that with lower ROL (Nongken). The enhancement of the rhizospheric effect on the abundance of the arsenite (As(III)) oxidase gene (aroA-like) was greater than on the arsenate (As(V)) reductase gene (arsC), and As(V) respiratory reductase gene (arrA), resulting in As oxidation and sequestration in the rhizosphere, particularly for cultivar Yangdao. The community of As(III)-oxidizing bacteria in the rhizosphere was dominated by α-Proteobacteria and β-Proteobacteria and was influenced by rhizospheric effects, rice straw application, growth stage, and cultivar. Application of rice straw into the soil increased As release and accumulation into rice plants. These results highlighted that uptake of As by rice is influenced by microbial processes, especially As oxidation in the rhizosphere, and these processes are influenced by root ROL and organic matter application.

  11. Occurrence of perchlorate in groundwater, paired farmland soil, lettuce, and rhizosphere soil from Chengdu, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yulu; Zhong, Bifeng; Qu, Bing; Feng, Shujin; Ding, Sanglan; Su, Shijun; Li, Zhi; Gan, Zhiwei

    2017-05-24

    A total of 28 groundwater, paired farmland soil, lettuce, and its rhizosphere soil samples were collected from Chengdu, China to detect perchlorate levels and to evaluate the relationships of perchlorate concentrations among these matrices. The perchlorate concentrations in the groundwater, farmland soil, lettuce, and rhizosphere soil samples ranged from below detection limit to 60.2 μg L(-1), from below detection limit to 249 μg kg(-1) dry weight (dw), from 2.07 to 1010 μg kg(-1) wet weight, and from below detection limit to 314 μg kg(-1) dw, respectively. Significant correlation was found in the perchlorate levels among the farmland soil, lettuce, and rhizosphere soil, suggesting that they have common pollution sources, or perchlorate might transfer from farmland soil-rhizosphere soil-plant. However, there is no significant correlation between groundwater and the other three matrices, indicating that infiltration from perchlorate contaminated farmland soil was not the predominant source for groundwater pollution in Chengdu. The perchlorate concentrations in the farmland soil and lettuce samples were significantly higher than those in the rhizosphere soil, primarily due to uptake of perchlorate through the rhizosphere micro-environment by lettuce, or accelerated degradation by rhizospheric microorganisms, which contributed more needs further investigation.

  12. Changes in the bacterial community of soybean rhizospheres during growth in the field.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Ueda, Yoshikatsu; Zushi, Takahiro; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2014-01-01

    Highly diverse communities of bacteria inhabiting soybean rhizospheres play pivotal roles in plant growth and crop production; however, little is known about the changes that occur in these communities during growth. We used both culture-dependent physiological profiling and culture independent DNA-based approaches to characterize the bacterial communities of the soybean rhizosphere during growth in the field. The physiological properties of the bacterial communities were analyzed by a community-level substrate utilization assay with BioLog Eco plates, and the composition of the communities was assessed by gene pyrosequencing. Higher metabolic capabilities were found in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil during all stages of the BioLog assay. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that differences between the bacterial communities of rhizosphere and bulk soils at the phylum level; i.e., Proteobacteria were increased, while Acidobacteria and Firmicutes were decreased in rhizosphere soil during growth. Analysis of operational taxonomic units showed that the bacterial communities of the rhizosphere changed significantly during growth, with a higher abundance of potential plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, including Bacillus, Bradyrhizobium, and Rhizobium, in a stage-specific manner. These findings demonstrated that rhizosphere bacterial communities were changed during soybean growth in the field.

  13. Distinct Microbial Communities within the Endosphere and Rhizosphere of Populus deltoides Roots across Contrasting Soil Types.

    SciTech Connect

    Gottel, Neil R; Castro Gonzalez, Hector F; Kerley, Marilyn K; Yang, Zamin; Pelletier, Dale A; Podar, Mircea; Karpinets, Tatiana V; Uberbacher, Edward C; Tuskan, Gerald A; Vilgalys, Rytas; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Schadt, Christopher Warren

    2011-01-01

    The root-rhizosphere interface of Populus is the nexus of a variety of associations between bacteria, fungi, and the host plant and an ideal model for studying interactions between plants and microorganisms. However, such studies have generally been confined to greenhouse and plantation systems. Here we analyze microbial communities from the root endophytic and rhizospheric habitats of Populus deltoides in mature natural trees from both upland and bottomland sites in central Tennessee. Community profiling utilized 454 pyrosequencing with separate primers targeting the V4 region for bacterial 16S rRNA and the D1/D2 region for fungal 28S rRNA genes. Rhizosphere bacteria were dominated by Acidobacteria (31%) and Alphaproteobacteria (30%), whereas most endophytes were from the Gammaproteobacteria (54%) as well as Alphaproteobacteria (23%). A single Pseudomonas-like operational taxonomic unit (OTU) accounted for 34% of endophytic bacterial sequences. Endophytic bacterial richness was also highly variable and 10-fold lower than in rhizosphere samples originating from the same roots. Fungal rhizosphere and endophyte samples had approximately equal amounts of the Pezizomycotina (40%), while the Agaricomycotina were more abundant in the rhizosphere (34%) than endosphere (17%). Both fungal and bacterial rhizosphere samples were highly clustered compared to the more variable endophyte samples in a UniFrac principal coordinates analysis, regardless of upland or bottomland site origin. Hierarchical clustering of OTU relative abundance patterns also showed that the most abundant bacterial and fungal OTUs tended to be dominant in either the endophyte or rhizosphere samples but not both. Together, these findings demonstrate that root endophytic communities are distinct assemblages rather than opportunistic subsets of the rhizosphere.

  14. Plant-microbe interactions driven by exometabolite preferences of rhizosphere bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhalnina, K.; Louie, K. B.; Mansoori, N.; Hao, Z.; Gao, J.; Cho, H. J.; Karaoz, U.; Loqué, D.; Bowen, B.; Firestone, M.; Brodie, E.; Northen, T.

    2016-12-01

    It is known that rhizosphere bacteria can impact important processes during plant development. In `return' plants release substantial quantities of soluble C into the soil surrounding its roots, attracting bacteria and other soil organisms. Given the potential beneficial and detrimental consequences of stimulating high densities of organisms adjacent to newly formed root, regulating the chemical composition of exudates would represent a potential means of plant selection for beneficial microorganisms. If exudate resource composition functions to select specific microorganisms, then one would expect that substrate specialization exists within the rhizosphere microbiome. Here we provide evidence that in the rhizosphere of wild oats (Avena barbata), specific metabolites are exuded that are preferentially used by selected bacteria in rhizosphere and this substrate specialization, together with the changing composition of root exudates, drives the observed successional patterns. To investigate the relationship between exudates and rhizosphere bacteria we first analyzed exudate composition of hydroponically grown plants using LC-MS/MS based metabolomics. We then designed a medium to simulate plant exudates and using this medium we examined the substrate preferences of a diversity of rhizosphere bacterial isolates. We then assessed the ability of soil isolates to consume exudate components by LC-MS/MS based metabolomics. These substrate preferences were then related to genomic features and successional patterns of bacteria in the Avena rhizosphere. The major fraction of plant exudates was found to be composed of amino- and carboxylic acids, sugars, nucleosides, quaternary amines and plant hormones. Amino acids, sugars and nucleosides were consumed by all analyzed isolates. However, isolates that were preferentially stimulated by plant growth, revealed substrate utilization preferences towards aromatic organic acids, while those not responding to growing roots did not

  15. Effect of the soil type on the microbiome in the rhizosphere of field-grown lettuce.

    PubMed

    Schreiter, Susanne; Ding, Guo-Chun; Heuer, Holger; Neumann, Günter; Sandmann, Martin; Grosch, Rita; Kropf, Siegfried; Smalla, Kornelia

    2014-01-01

    The complex and enormous diversity of microorganisms associated with plant roots is important for plant health and growth and is shaped by numerous factors. This study aimed to unravel the effects of the soil type on bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of field-grown lettuce. We used an experimental plot system with three different soil types that were stored at the same site for 10 years under the same agricultural management to reveal differences directly linked to the soil type and not influenced by other factors such as climate or cropping history. Bulk soil and rhizosphere samples were collected 3 and 7 weeks after planting. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and pyrosequencing revealed soil type dependent differences in the bacterial community structure of the bulk soils and the corresponding rhizospheres. The rhizosphere effect differed depending on the soil type and the plant growth developmental stage. Despite the soil type dependent differences in the bacterial community composition several genera such as Sphingomonas, Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, and Variovorax were significantly increased in the rhizosphere of lettuce grown in all three soils. The number of rhizosphere responders was highest 3 weeks after planting. Interestingly, in the soil with the highest numbers of responders the highest shoot dry weights were observed. Heatmap analysis revealed that many dominant operational taxonomic units were shared among rhizosphere samples of lettuce grown in diluvial sand, alluvial loam, and loess loam and that only a subset was increased in relative abundance in the rhizosphere compared to the corresponding bulk soil. The findings of the study provide insights into the effect of soil types on the rhizosphere microbiome of lettuce.

  16. Effect of the soil type on the microbiome in the rhizosphere of field-grown lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Schreiter, Susanne; Ding, Guo-Chun; Heuer, Holger; Neumann, Günter; Sandmann, Martin; Grosch, Rita; Kropf, Siegfried; Smalla, Kornelia

    2014-01-01

    The complex and enormous diversity of microorganisms associated with plant roots is important for plant health and growth and is shaped by numerous factors. This study aimed to unravel the effects of the soil type on bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of field-grown lettuce. We used an experimental plot system with three different soil types that were stored at the same site for 10 years under the same agricultural management to reveal differences directly linked to the soil type and not influenced by other factors such as climate or cropping history. Bulk soil and rhizosphere samples were collected 3 and 7 weeks after planting. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and pyrosequencing revealed soil type dependent differences in the bacterial community structure of the bulk soils and the corresponding rhizospheres. The rhizosphere effect differed depending on the soil type and the plant growth developmental stage. Despite the soil type dependent differences in the bacterial community composition several genera such as Sphingomonas, Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, and Variovorax were significantly increased in the rhizosphere of lettuce grown in all three soils. The number of rhizosphere responders was highest 3 weeks after planting. Interestingly, in the soil with the highest numbers of responders the highest shoot dry weights were observed. Heatmap analysis revealed that many dominant operational taxonomic units were shared among rhizosphere samples of lettuce grown in diluvial sand, alluvial loam, and loess loam and that only a subset was increased in relative abundance in the rhizosphere compared to the corresponding bulk soil. The findings of the study provide insights into the effect of soil types on the rhizosphere microbiome of lettuce. PMID:24782839

  17. Infections Caused by Scedosporium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Karoll J.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Quiroz-Telles, Flavio; Meletiadis, Joseph; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Knudsen, Tena; Buchanan, Wendy; Milanovich, Jeffrey; Sutton, Deanna A.; Fothergill, Annette; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Shea, Yvonne R.; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Kottilil, Shyam; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Scedosporium spp. are increasingly recognized as causes of resistant life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Scedosporium spp. also cause a wide spectrum of conditions, including mycetoma, saprobic involvement and colonization of the airways, sinopulmonary infections, extrapulmonary localized infections, and disseminated infections. Invasive scedosporium infections are also associated with central nervous infection following near-drowning accidents. The most common sites of infection are the lungs, sinuses, bones, joints, eyes, and brain. Scedosporium apiospermum and Scedosporium prolificans are the two principal medically important species of this genus. Pseudallescheria boydii, the teleomorph of S. apiospermum, is recognized by the presence of cleistothecia. Recent advances in molecular taxonomy have advanced the understanding of the genus Scedosporium and have demonstrated a wider range of species than heretofore recognized. Studies of the pathogenesis of and immune response to Scedosporium spp. underscore the importance of innate host defenses in protection against these organisms. Microbiological diagnosis of Scedosporium spp. currently depends upon culture and morphological characterization. Molecular tools for clinical microbiological detection of Scedosporium spp. are currently investigational. Infections caused by S. apiospermum and P. boydii in patients and animals may respond to antifungal triazoles. By comparison, infections caused by S. prolificans seldom respond to medical therapy alone. Surgery and reversal of immunosuppression may be the only effective therapeutic options for infections caused by S. prolificans. PMID:18202441

  18. Rhizosphere competent Pantoea agglomerans enhances maize (Zea mays) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) growth, without altering the rhizosphere functional diversity.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Aradhana; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Chaudhry, Vasvi; Tripathi, Manisha; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2011-10-01

    Plant growth promoting Pantoea agglomerans NBRISRM (NBRISRM) was able to produce 60.4 μg/ml indole acetic acid and solubilize 77.5 μg/ml tri-calcium phosphate under in vitro conditions. Addition of 2% NaCl (w/v) in the media induced the IAA production and phosphate solubilization by 11% and 7%, respectively. For evaluating the plant growth promotory effect of NBRISRM inoculation a micro plot trial was conducted using maize and chickpea as host plants. The results revealed significant increase in all growth parameters tested in NBRISRM inoculated maize and chickpea plants, which were further confirmed by higher macronutrients (N, P and K) accumulation as compared to un-inoculated controls. Throughout the growing season of maize and chickpea, rhizosphere population of NBRISRM were in the range 10(7)-10(8) CFU/g soil and competing with 10(7)-10(9) CFU/g soil with heterogeneous bacterial population. Functional richness, diversity, and evenness were found significantly higher in maize rhizosphere as compared to chickpea, whereas NBRISRM inoculation were not able to change it, in both crops as compared to their un-inoculated control. To the best of our knowledge this is first report where we demonstrated the effect of P. agglomerans strain for improving maize and chickpea growth without altering the functional diversity.

  19. [Influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 on rhizosphere microbes and arbuscular mycorrhizae].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Chen, Xin; Tang, Jianjun

    2004-12-01

    The changes of microbial communities in rhizosphere and the formation of mycorrhizae play an important role in affecting the dynamics of plant communities and terrestrial ecosystems. This paper summarized and discussed the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on them. Under elevated atmospheric CO2, the carbohydrates accumulated in root systems increased, and the rhizospheric environment and its microbial communities as well as the formation of mycorrhizae changed. It is suggested that the researches in the future should be focused on the effects of rhizosphere microbes and arbuscular mycorrhizae on regulating the carbon dynamics of plant communities and terrestrial ecosystems under elevated atmospheric CO2.

  20. Increased acidification in the rhizosphere of cactus seedlings induced by Azospirillum brasilense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, Angel; Li, Ching; Bashan, Yoav

    2002-08-01

    Acidification of the rhizosphere of cactus seedlings (giant cardon, Pachycereus pringlei) after inoculation with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Cd, in the presence or absence of ammonium and nitrate, was studied to understand how to increase growth of cardon seedlings in poor desert soils. While ammonium enhanced rhizosphere and liquid culture acidification, inoculation with the bacteria enhanced it further. On the other hand, nitrate increased pH of the rhizosphere, but combined with the bacterial inoculation, increase in pH was significantly smaller. Bacterial inoculation with ammonium enhanced plant growth.

  1. Is the plant-associated microbiota of Thymus spp. adapted to plant essential oil?

    PubMed

    Checcucci, Alice; Maida, Isabel; Bacci, Giovanni; Ninno, Cristina; Bilia, Anna Rita; Biffi, Sauro; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Flamini, Guido; Fani, Renato; Mengoni, Alessio

    2016-11-21

    We examined whether the microbiota of two related aromatic thyme species, Thymus vulgaris and Thymus citriodorus, differs in relation to the composition of the respective essential oil (EO). A total of 576 bacterial isolates were obtained from three districts (leaves, roots and rhizospheric soil). They were taxonomically characterized and inspected for tolerance to the EO from the two thyme species. A district-related taxonomic pattern was found. In particular, high taxonomic diversity among the isolates from leaves was detected. Moreover, data obtained revealed a differential pattern of resistance of the isolates to EOs extracted from T. vulgaris and T. citriodorus, which was interpreted in terms of differing chemical composition of the EO of their respective host plants. In conclusion, we suggest that bacterial colonization of leaves in Thymus spp. is influenced by the EO present in leaf glandular tissue as one of the selective forces shaping endophytic community composition.

  2. Growth response of maize plantlets inoculated with Enterobacter spp., as a model for alternative agriculture.

    PubMed

    Morales-García, Yolanda E; Juárez-Hernández, Dalia; Aragón-Hernández, Celia; Mascarua-Esparza, Miguel A; Bustillos-Cristales, María R; Fuentes-Ramírez, Luis E; Martinez-Contreras, Rebeca D; Munoz-Rojas, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    A maize rhizosphere isolate was phenotypically and genotypically characterized and identified as Enterobacter spp. bacterium. Germinated seeds were inoculated, the plantlets were sown in vermiculite and in soil and grown under laboratory and field conditions, respectively. The adherence, colonization and plant growth promotion capability of Enterobacter sp. UAPS03001 was evaluated in "Rojo-Criollo" maize under laboratory conditions. Twenty days after inoculation, the treated plantlets showed larger biomass than non-inoculated ones. In field grown plants, the kernel biomass was also greater in inoculated than in non-inoculated plants. The inoculation of maize sprouts with plant growth- promoting bacteria before their sowing in the field would be an alternative practice for achieving successful yield in temporal agriculture.

  3. Legionella spp. and Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed

    Diederen, B M W

    2008-01-01

    Infection with Legionella spp. is an important cause of community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia, occurring both sporadically and in outbreaks. Infection with Legionella spp. ranks among the three most common causes of severe pneumonia in the community setting, and is isolated in 1-40% of cases of hospital-acquired pneumonia. There are no clinical features unique to Legionnaires' disease. Macrolides and fluoroquinolones are the most widely used drugs in treatment. The availability of a good diagnostic repertoire, suitable for accurately diagnosing LD, constitutes the basis for the early recognition and treatment of the individual patient as well as for effective measures for prevention and control. This review summarizes the available information regarding the microbiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of LD, with an emphasis on the laboratory diagnosis of infection with Legionella spp.

  4. Somatic Embryogenesis in Pinus spp.

    PubMed

    Montalbán, Itziar Aurora; García-Mendiguren, Olatz; Moncaleán, Paloma

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) has been the most important development for plant tissue culture, not only for mass propagation but also for enabling the implementation of biotechnological tools that can be used to increase the productivity and wood quality of plantation forestry. Development of SE in forest trees started in 1985 and nowadays many studies are focused on the optimization of conifer SE system. However, these advances for many Pinus spp. are not sufficiently refined to be implemented commercially. In this chapter, a summary of the main systems used to achieve SE in Pinus spp. is reported.

  5. Rhizosphere activity and methane oxidation in a temperate forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Catherine S.; Subke, Jens-Arne; Voke, Naomi R.; Holden, Robert D.; Ineson, Phil; Arn Teh, Yit

    2010-05-01

    Methane (CH4) concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere have increased dramatically over recent decades. An abundance of studies indicate that the magnitude of natural methane efflux from wetlands is likely to increase due to climate change. However, the role of vegetation and soils in upland methane oxidation are less well understood. Well-aerated soils are known to be sites of methane oxidation, and amongst a range of abiotic environmental parameters, soil moisture has been identified as critical regulator of the methane oxidation rates. However, the role of microbial activity within the soil, particularly C turnover in the plant rhizosphere, has not been investigated as a means for regulating methanotrophy. We combined a continuous soil CO2 efflux system (Li-Cor Biosciences, LI-8100) with a Cavity-Ringdown-Spectroscopy Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (Los Gatos Research Inc.) to measure soil CH4 oxidation in a pine forest in NE England. The soil has a shallow organic layer overlaying a well-draining sandy gley soil. Fluxes were measured from three different collar treatments: (1) excluding both root and ectomycorrhizal (EM) hyphae by trenching using deep collars, (2) excluding roots but allowing access by EM hyphae, and (3) unmodified forest soil (i.e. including both roots and EM hyphae). All collars were protected from natural throughfall, and received weekly-averaged amounts of throughfall based on collections in the stand. Data from two months in early summer 2009 indicate that CH4 oxidation in collars with an intact rhizosphere is more than twice that of either of the exclusion treatments (averaging approx. 90 g ha-1 d-1 in that period). We observed higher fluxes when soils were dryer (i.e. with increasing time since watering), indicating a significant influence of moisture. Despite the confounding effects of soil moisture associated with root water uptake in the unmodified soil collars, we argue that rhizosphere activity is an overlooked component in

  6. [Characteristics of soil microelements contents in the rhizospheres of different vegetation in hilly-gully region of Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Guo-Bin; Xue, Sha; Zhang, Chang-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    To explore the rhizosphere effect of the microelements in the soils under different vegetation types in Loess Plateau, this paper analyzed the organic C, total N, Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn contents in the rhizosphere soil and bulk soil of six vegetation types in hilly-gully region of Loess Plateau. Among the six vegetation types, Caragana korshinskii, Heteropappus altaicus, and Artemisia capillaries had higher organic C and total N contents in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil. With the exception of C. korshinskii and H. rhamnoides, all the six vegetation types had a significantly lower pH in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil. The six vegetation types had a lower available Mn content in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil, and the C. korshinskii, Astragalus adsurgen, and Panicum virgatum had a significantly higher available Cu content in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil. The six vegetation types except A. adsurgens had a slightly higher available Fe content in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil, and A. adsurgens, P. virgatum, H. altaicus, and A. capillaries had a significant accumulation of available Zn in rhizosphere soil. There existed significant positive correlations between the rhizosphere soil and bulk soil of the six vegetation types in the relationships between the organic C and total N contents and the available Mn and Zn contents and between the contents of available Mn and Zn. In rhizosphere soil, available Mn and Zn contents were significantly negative- ly correlated with pH value. Due to the differences in root growth characteristics, rhizosphere pH value, and microbial structure composition, the microelements contents in the rhizosphere soil of the six vegetation types differed, with the contents of Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn being higher in the rhizosphere soil of H. altaicus than in that of the other vegetation types.

  7. PRODUCTION OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING SUBSTANCES IN BACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM THE SEAGRASS RHIZOSPHERE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plants and rhizosphere bacteria have evolved chemical signals that enable their mutual growth. These relationships have been well investigated with agriculturally important plants, but not in seagrasses, which are important to the stability of estuaries. Seagrasses are rooted in ...

  8. [Status and changes of soil nutrients in rhizosphere of Abelmoschus manihot different planting age].

    PubMed

    Tang, Li-Xia; Tan, Xian-He; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Xiao-Ning

    2013-11-01

    Using soil chemical analysis method and combining with ICP-AES determination of mineral nutrition element content in rhizosphere soil of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla Results show that along with the increase of planting age, the nitrogen (total N), available P and organic matter in rhizosphere soil of Abelmoschus Corolla content declined year by year and the soil got acidification. Heavy metal element content in agricultural land does not exceed national standards, but the content of element mercury (Hg) in rhizosphere soil of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla declined. Request of microelement such as manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) had a increase tendency, but the content of magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na) increased, and other nutrient elements had no changed rules or unchanged apparently. Consequently, exploring the change rules of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla soil in rhizosphere as theoretical guidance of rational fertilization and subducting continuous cropping obstscles.

  9. Specific Microbial Communities Associate with the Rhizosphere of Welwitschia mirabilis, a Living Fossil

    PubMed Central

    De Maayer, Pieter; Oberholster, Tanzelle; Henschel, Joh; Louw, Michele K.; Cowan, Don

    2016-01-01

    Welwitschia mirabilis is an ancient and rare plant distributed along the western coast of Namibia and Angola. Several aspects of Welwitschia biology and ecology have been investigated, but very little is known about the microbial communities associated with this plant. This study reports on the bacterial and fungal communities inhabiting the rhizosphere of W. mirabilis and the surrounding bulk soil. Rhizosphere communities were dominated by sequences of Alphaproteobacteria and Euromycetes, while Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and fungi of the class Dothideomycetes jointly dominated bulk soil communities. Although microbial communities within the rhizosphere and soil samples were highly variable, very few “species” (OTUs defined at a 97% identity cut-off) were shared between these two environments. There was a small ‘core’ rhizosphere bacterial community (formed by Nitratireductor, Steroidobacter, Pseudonocardia and three Phylobacteriaceae) that together with Rhizophagus, an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, and other putative plant growth-promoting microbes may interact synergistically to promote Welwitschia growth. PMID:27064484

  10. Molecular responses in root-associative rhizospheric bacteria to variations in plant exudates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdoun, Hamid; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2015-04-01

    Plant exudates are a major factor in the interface of plant-soil-microbe interactions and it is well documented that the microbial community structure in the rhizosphere is largely influenced by the particular exudates excreted by various plants. Azospirillum brasilense is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium that is known to interact with a large number of plants, including important food crops. The regulatory gene flcA has an important role in this interaction as it controls morphological differentiation of the bacterium that is essential for attachment to root surfaces. Being a response regulatory gene, flcA mediates the response of the bacterial cell to signals from the surrounding rhizosphere. This makes this regulatory gene a good candidate for analysis of the response of bacteria to rhizospheric alterations, in this case, variations in root exudates. We will report on our studies on the response of Azospirillum, an ecologically, scientifically and agriculturally important bacterial genus, to variations in the rhizosphere.

  11. Dynamics of Panax ginseng Rhizospheric Soil Microbial Community and Their Metabolic Function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Ying, YiXin; Ding, WanLong

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial communities of 1- to 6-year ginseng rhizosphere soils were characterized by culture-independent approaches, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). Culture-dependent method (Biolog) was used to investigate the metabolic function variance of microbe living in rhizosphere soil. Results showed that significant genetic and metabolic function variance were detected among soils, and, with the increasing of cultivating years, genetic diversity of bacterial communities in ginseng rhizosphere soil tended to be decreased. Also we found that Verrucomicrobia, Acidobacteria, and Proteobacteria were the dominants in rhizosphere soils, but, with the increasing of cultivating years, plant disease prevention or plant growth promoting bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Bacillus, tended to be rare. PMID:25214872

  12. Specific Microbial Communities Associate with the Rhizosphere of Welwitschia mirabilis, a Living Fossil.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Angel; De Maayer, Pieter; Oberholster, Tanzelle; Henschel, Joh; Louw, Michele K; Cowan, Don

    2016-01-01

    Welwitschia mirabilis is an ancient and rare plant distributed along the western coast of Namibia and Angola. Several aspects of Welwitschia biology and ecology have been investigated, but very little is known about the microbial communities associated with this plant. This study reports on the bacterial and fungal communities inhabiting the rhizosphere of W. mirabilis and the surrounding bulk soil. Rhizosphere communities were dominated by sequences of Alphaproteobacteria and Euromycetes, while Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and fungi of the class Dothideomycetes jointly dominated bulk soil communities. Although microbial communities within the rhizosphere and soil samples were highly variable, very few "species" (OTUs defined at a 97% identity cut-off) were shared between these two environments. There was a small 'core' rhizosphere bacterial community (formed by Nitratireductor, Steroidobacter, Pseudonocardia and three Phylobacteriaceae) that together with Rhizophagus, an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, and other putative plant growth-promoting microbes may interact synergistically to promote Welwitschia growth.

  13. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETIC AND BIOGEOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF SPARTINA ALTERNIFLORA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The population composition and biogeochemistry of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the rhizosphere of the marsh grass Spartina alterniflora was investigated over two growing seasons using molecular probing, enumerations of culturable SRB, and measurements of SO42- reduction rat...

  14. Influence of soil reaction on diversity and antifungal activity of fluorescent pseudomonads in crop rhizospheres.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajni; Naosekpam, Ajit Singh; Kumar, Sanjay; Prasad, Ramdeen; Shanmugam, V

    2007-05-01

    The diversity and antifungal activity of fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from rhizospheres of tea, gladiolus, carnation and black gram grown in acidic soils with similar texture and climatic conditions were studied. Biochemical characterisation including antibiotic resistance assay, RAPD and PCR-RFLP studies revealed a largely homogenous population. At soil pH (5.2), the isolates exhibited growth with varying levels of siderophore production, irrespective of crop rhizospheres. Two isolates with maximum chitinase production showed antagonism. The bacterial populations in general lacked the ability to produce deleterious traits such as cellulase, pectinase and hydrogen cyanide. However, increased pH levels beyond 5.2 caused reduction in metabolite production with reduced antifungal activity. The homogeneity of the bacterial population irrespective of crop rhizospheres together with decreased secondary metabolite production at higher pH levels reinstated the importance of soil over host plant in influencing rhizosphere populations. The studies also yielded acid tolerant chitinase producing antagonistic fluorescent pseudomonads.

  15. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETIC AND BIOGEOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF SPARTINA ALTERNIFLORA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The population composition and biogeochemistry of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the rhizosphere of the marsh grass Spartina alterniflora was investigated over two growing seasons using molecular probing, enumerations of culturable SRB, and measurements of SO42- reduction rat...

  16. PRODUCTION OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING SUBSTANCES IN BACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM THE SEAGRASS RHIZOSPHERE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plants and rhizosphere bacteria have evolved chemical signals that enable their mutual growth. These relationships have been well investigated with agriculturally important plants, but not in seagrasses, which are important to the stability of estuaries. Seagrasses are rooted in ...

  17. Going back to the roots: the microbial ecology of the rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Philippot, Laurent; Raaijmakers, Jos M; Lemanceau, Philippe; van der Putten, Wim H

    2013-11-01

    The rhizosphere is the interface between plant roots and soil where interactions among a myriad of microorganisms and invertebrates affect biogeochemical cycling, plant growth and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. The rhizosphere is intriguingly complex and dynamic, and understanding its ecology and evolution is key to enhancing plant productivity and ecosystem functioning. Novel insights into key factors and evolutionary processes shaping the rhizosphere microbiome will greatly benefit from integrating reductionist and systems-based approaches in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. Here, we discuss recent developments in rhizosphere research in relation to assessing the contribution of the micro- and macroflora to sustainable agriculture, nature conservation, the development of bio-energy crops and the mitigation of climate change.

  18. Plant Rhizosphere Effects on Metal Mobilization and Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Teresa W.-M; Crowley, David; Higashi, Richard M.

    1999-06-01

    A mechanistic understanding of mobilization or immobilization of nutrient and pollutant metal ions by plants is largely lacking. It begins with a lack of knowledge on the chemical nature of rhizosphere components that are reactive with metal ions. This fundamental knowledge is critical to the design and implementation of phytoremediation for metal-contaminated DOE sites. Therefore, the objectives of this project include (1) To obtain a comprehensive composition of major organic components in plant root exudates as a function of different metal ions and plant species; (2) To examine plant metabolic response(s) to these metal ion treatments, with emphasis on production of metal reactive compounds; (3) To investigate the effect(s) of soil microbial (e.g. mycorrhizae) association on (1) and (2).

  19. Effect of Bacteria and Amoebae on Rhizosphere Phosphatase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gould, W. Douglas; Coleman, David C.; Rubink, Amy J.

    1979-01-01

    The contributions of various components of soil microflora and microfauna to rhizosphere phosphatase activity were determined with hydroponic cultures. Three treatments were employed: (i) plants alone (Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag. ex Steud.) (ii) plants plus bacteria (Pseudomonas sp.), and (iii) plants plus bacteria plus amoebae (Acanthamoeba sp.). No alkaline phosphatase was detected, but an appreciable amount of acid phosphatase activity (120 to 500 nmol of p-nitrophenylphosphate hydrolyzed per h per plant) was found in the root culture solutions. The presence of bacteria or bacteria and amoebae increased the amount of acid phosphatase in solution, and properties of additional activity were identical to properties of plant acid phosphatase. The presence of bacteria or bacteria and amoebae increased both solution and root phosphatase activities at most initial phosphate concentrations. PMID:16345390

  20. The development of the rhizosphere: simulation of root exudation for two contrasting exudates: citrate and mucilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Cheng; Bol, Roland; Vetterlein, Doris; Vanderborght, Jan; Schnepf, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Different types of root exudates and their effect on soil/rhizosphere properties have received a lot of attention. Since their influence of rhizosphere properties and processes depends on their concentration in the soil, the assessment of the spatial-temporal exudate concentration distribution around roots is of key importance for understanding the functioning of the rhizosphere. Different root systems have different root architectures. Different types of root exudates diffuse in the rhizosphere with different diffusion coefficient. Both of them are responsible for the dynamics of exudate concentration distribution in the rhizosphere. Hence, simulations of root exudation involving four kinds of plant root systems (Vicia faba, Lupinus albus, Triticum aestivum and Zea mays) and two kinds of root exudates (citrate and mucilage) were conducted. We consider a simplified root architecture where each root is represented by a straight line. Assuming that root tips move at a constant velocity and that mucilage transport is linear, concentration distributions can be obtained from a convolution of the analytical solution of the transport equation in a stationary flow field for an instantaneous point source injection with the spatial-temporal distribution of the source strength. By coupling the analytical equation with a root growth model that delivers the spatial-temporal source term, we simulated exudate concentration distributions for citrate and mucilage with MATLAB. From the simulation results, we inferred the following information about the rhizosphere: (a) the dynamics of the root architecture development is the main effect of exudate distribution in the root zone; (b) a steady rhizosphere with constant width is more likely to develop for individual roots when the diffusion coefficient is small. The simulations suggest that rhizosphere development depends in the following way on the root and exudate properties: the dynamics of the root architecture result in various

  1. Natural rice rhizospheric microbes suppress rice blast infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The natural interactions between plant roots and their rhizospheric microbiome are vital to plant fitness, modulating both growth promotion and disease suppression. In rice (Oryza sativa), a globally important food crop, as much as 30% of yields are lost due to blast disease caused by fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Capitalizing on the abilities of naturally occurring rice soil bacteria to reduce M. oryzae infections could provide a sustainable solution to reduce the amount of crops lost to blast disease. Results Naturally occurring root-associated rhizospheric bacteria were isolated from California field grown rice plants (M-104), eleven of which were taxonomically identified by16S rRNA gene sequencing and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. Bacterial isolates were tested for biocontrol activity against the devastating foliar rice fungal pathogen, M. oryzae pathovar 70–15. In vitro, a Pseudomonas isolate, EA105, displayed antibiosis through reducing appressoria formation by nearly 90% as well as directly inhibiting fungal growth by 76%. Although hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a volatile commonly produced by biocontrol pseudomonads, the activity of EA105 seems to be independent of its HCN production. During in planta experiments, EA105 reduced the number of blast lesions formed by 33% and Pantoea agglomerans isolate, EA106 by 46%. Our data also show both EA105 and EA106 trigger jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) dependent induced systemic resistance (ISR) response in rice. Conclusions Out of 11 bacteria isolated from rice soil, pseudomonad EA105 most effectively inhibited the growth and appressoria formation of M. oryzae through a mechanism that is independent of cyanide production. In addition to direct antagonism, EA105 also appears to trigger ISR in rice plants through a mechanism that is dependent on JA and ET signaling, ultimately resulting in fewer blast lesions. The application of native bacteria as biocontrol agents in combination with

  2. Rhizosphere hydrophobicity: A positive trait in the competition for water

    PubMed Central

    Balkenhol, Niko; Kóvacs, Kristóf; Carminati, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The ability to acquire water from the soil is a major driver in interspecific plant competition and it depends on several root functional traits. One of these traits is the excretion of gel-like compounds (mucilage) that modify physical soil properties. Mucilage secreted by roots becomes hydrophobic upon drying, impedes the rewetting of the soil close to the root, the so called rhizosphere, and reduces water availability to plants. The function of rhizosphere hydrophobicity is not easily understandable when looking at a single plant, but it may constitute a competitive advantage at the ecosystem level. We hypothesize that by making the top soil hydrophobic, deep-rooted plants avoid competititon with shallow-rooted plants. To test this hypothesis we used an individual-based model to simulate water uptake and growth of two virtual plant species, one deep-rooted plant capable of making the soil hydrophobic and a shallow-rooted plant. We ran scenarios with different precipitation regimes ranging from dry to wet (350, 700, and 1400 mm total annual precipitation) and from high to low precipitation frequencies (1, 7, and 14 days). Plant species abundance and biomass were chosen as indicators for competitiveness of plant species. At constant precipitation frequency mucilage hydrophobicity lead to a benefit in biomass and abundance of the tap-rooted population. Under wet conditions this effect diminished and tap-rooted plants were less productive. Without this trait both species coexisted. The effect of root exudation trait remained constant under different precipitation frequencies. This study shows that mucilage secretion is a competitive trait for the acquisition of water. This advantage is achieved by the modification of the soil hydraulic properties and specifically by inducing water repellency in soil regions which are shared with other species. PMID:28753673

  3. Rhizosphere hydrophobicity: A positive trait in the competition for water.

    PubMed

    Zeppenfeld, Thorsten; Balkenhol, Niko; Kóvacs, Kristóf; Carminati, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The ability to acquire water from the soil is a major driver in interspecific plant competition and it depends on several root functional traits. One of these traits is the excretion of gel-like compounds (mucilage) that modify physical soil properties. Mucilage secreted by roots becomes hydrophobic upon drying, impedes the rewetting of the soil close to the root, the so called rhizosphere, and reduces water availability to plants. The function of rhizosphere hydrophobicity is not easily understandable when looking at a single plant, but it may constitute a competitive advantage at the ecosystem level. We hypothesize that by making the top soil hydrophobic, deep-rooted plants avoid competititon with shallow-rooted plants. To test this hypothesis we used an individual-based model to simulate water uptake and growth of two virtual plant species, one deep-rooted plant capable of making the soil hydrophobic and a shallow-rooted plant. We ran scenarios with different precipitation regimes ranging from dry to wet (350, 700, and 1400 mm total annual precipitation) and from high to low precipitation frequencies (1, 7, and 14 days). Plant species abundance and biomass were chosen as indicators for competitiveness of plant species. At constant precipitation frequency mucilage hydrophobicity lead to a benefit in biomass and abundance of the tap-rooted population. Under wet conditions this effect diminished and tap-rooted plants were less productive. Without this trait both species coexisted. The effect of root exudation trait remained constant under different precipitation frequencies. This study shows that mucilage secretion is a competitive trait for the acquisition of water. This advantage is achieved by the modification of the soil hydraulic properties and specifically by inducing water repellency in soil regions which are shared with other species.

  4. Phosphate Solubilization Potentials of Rhizosphere Isolates from Central Anatolia (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogut, M.; Er, F.

    2009-04-01

    Plant available-phosphorus (P) is usually low in Anatolian soils due mainly to the precipitation as calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) phosphates in alkaline conditions. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) can enhance plant P-availability by dissolving the hardly soluble-P within the rhizosphere, which is the zone that surrounds the plant roots. PSM's can be used as seed- or soil-inocula to increase plant P-uptake and the overall growth. A total of 162 PSM's were isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat plants excavated from different fields located along a 75 km part of a highway in Turkey. The mean, the standart deviation, and the median for solubilized-P (ppm) in a 24 h culture in a tricalcium phosphate broth were 681, 427, and 400 for glucose; 358, 266, and 236 for sucrose; and 102, 117, and 50 for starch, respectively. There was not a linear relationship between the phosphate solubilized in the liquid cultures and the solubilization index obtained in the Pikovskaya's agar. Nine isolates representing both weak and strong solubilizers [Bacillus megaterium (5), Bacillus pumilis (1), Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica (1), Pseudomonas fluorescens (1), Arthrobacter aurescens (1) as determined by the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis] were further studied in a five day incubation. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica solubilized statistically (P<0.05) higher phosphate (409 ppm) than all the other strains did. There was not a statistically significant (P<0.05) difference in solubilized-P among the Bacillus strains. The pH of the medium fell to the levels between 4 and 5 from the initial neutrality. The phosphate solubilizing strains variably produced gluconic, 2-keto-D-gluconic, glycolic, acetic and butyric acids. The organic acids produced by these microorganisms seem to be the major source of phosphate solubilization in vitro.

  5. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: The Rhizosphere Microbiology of Rooted Aquatic Plants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    processes in terrestrial and marine plants. Nature and Properties of the Rhizosphere Sediment environment 4. A great deal of research has been...investigators have studied nitrogen fixation in Halodule wrightii in the marine environment. Smith and Hayasaka (1982a) examined nitrogenase activity associated...few studies on sulfur cycling in the rhizosphere, despite the plethora of information on sulfur biogeochemistry in both fresh- water and marine

  6. Huanglongbing alters the structure and functional diversity of microbial communities associated with citrus rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Pankaj; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Albrigo, Gene; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Nian

    2012-02-01

    The diversity and stability of bacterial communities present in the rhizosphere heavily influence soil and plant quality and ecosystem sustainability. The goal of this study is to understand how 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (known to cause Huanglongbing, HLB) influences the structure and functional potential of microbial communities associated with the citrus rhizosphere. Clone library sequencing and taxon/group-specific quantitative real-time PCR results showed that 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection restructured the native microbial community associated with citrus rhizosphere. Within the bacterial community, phylum Proteobacteria with various genera typically known as successful rhizosphere colonizers were significantly greater in clone libraries from healthy samples, whereas phylum Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, typically more dominant in the bulk soil were higher in 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected samples. A comprehensive functional microarray GeoChip 3.0 was used to determine the effects of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection on the functional diversity of rhizosphere microbial communities. GeoChip analysis showed that HLB disease has significant effects on various functional guilds of bacteria. Many genes involved in key ecological processes such as nitrogen cycling, carbon fixation, phosphorus utilization, metal homeostasis and resistance were significantly greater in healthy than in the 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected citrus rhizosphere. Our results showed that the microbial community of the 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected citrus rhizosphere has shifted away from using more easily degraded sources of carbon to the more recalcitrant forms. Overall, our study provides evidence that the change in plant physiology mediated by 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection could elicit shifts in the composition and functional potential of rhizosphere microbial communities. In the long term, these fluctuations might have important implications for the productivity and sustainability

  7. [Effects of growing time on Panax ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chun-ping; Yang, Li-min; Ma, Feng-min

    2014-12-01

    Using the field sampling and indoor soil cultivation methods, the dynamic of ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass with three cultivated ages was studied to provide a theory basis for illustrating mechanism of continuous cropping obstacles of ginseng. The results showed that ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass accumulation were inhibited observably by growing time. The soil respiration, soil cellulose decomposition and soil nitrification of ginseng rhizosphere soil microorganism were inhibited significantly (P <0.05), in contrast to the control soil uncultivated ginseng (R0). And the inhibition was gradual augmentation with the number of growing years. The soil microbial activity of 3a ginseng soil (R3) was the lowest, and its activity of soil respiration, soil cellulose decomposition, soil ammonification and soil nitrification was lower than that in R0 with 56.31%, 86.71% and 90. 53% , respectively. The soil ammonification of ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial was significantly promoted compared with R0. The promotion was improved during the early growing time, while the promotion was decreased with the number of growing years. The soil ammonification of R1, R2 and R3 were lower than that in R0 with 32.43%, 80.54% and 66.64% separately. The SMB-C and SMB-N in ginseng rhizosphere soil had a decreased tendency with the number of growing years. The SMB-C difference among 3 cultivated ages was significant, while the SMB-N was not. The SMB of R3 was the lowest. Compared with R0, the SMB-C and the SMB-N were significantly reduced 77.30% and 69.36%. It was considered by integrated analysis that the leading factor of continuous cropping obstacle in ginseng was the changes of the rhizosphere soil microbial species, number and activity as well as the micro-ecological imbalance of rhizosphere soil caused by the accumulation of ginseng rhizosphere secretions.

  8. Bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under distinct agricultural practices in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Vega-Avila, A D; Gumiere, T; Andrade, P A M; Lima-Perim, J E; Durrer, A; Baigori, M; Vazquez, F; Andreote, F D

    2015-02-01

    Plants interact with a myriad of microbial cells in the rhizosphere, an environment that is considered to be important for plant development. However, the differential structuring of rhizosphere microbial communities due to plant cultivation under differential agricultural practices remains to be described for most plant species. Here we describe the rhizosphere microbiome of grapevine cultivated under conventional and organic practices, using a combination of cultivation-independent approaches. The quantification of bacterial 16S rRNA and nifH genes, by quantitative PCR (qPCR), revealed similar amounts of these genes in the rhizosphere in both vineyards. PCR-DGGE was used to detect differences in the structure of bacterial communities, including both the complete whole communities and specific fractions, such as Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and those harboring the nitrogen-fixing related gene nifH. When analyzed by a multivariate approach (redundancy analysis), the shifts observed in the bacterial communities were poorly explained by variations in the physical and chemical characteristics of the rhizosphere. These approaches were complemented by high-throughput sequencing (67,830 sequences) based on the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene, identifying the major bacterial groups present in the rhizosphere of grapevines: Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes, Acidobacteria, Cloroflexi, Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes, which occur in distinct proportions in the rhizosphere from each vineyard. The differences might be related to the selection of plant metabolism upon distinct reservoirs of microbial cells found in each vineyard. The results fill a gap in the knowledge of the rhizosphere of grapevines and also show distinctions in these bacterial communities due to agricultural practices.

  9. [Chemical characteristics of the rhizosphere soil of water spinach cultivars differing in Cd accumulation].

    PubMed

    Gong, Yu-Lian; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2014-08-01

    A rhizobox experiment was conducted to investigate the chemical characteristics of the rhizosphere soils of two water spinach cultivars differing in Cd accumulation, QLQ (a low-Cd cultivar) and T308 (a high-Cd cultivar). The results showed that the diethylenetriamine pentacetate acid extractable Cd (DTPA-Cd) concentration in the rhizos-phere soil of QLQ was significantly higher than that of T308 (P < 0.05). pH and Eh in the rhizosphere soil of QLQ were significantly higher than those of T308 (P < 0.05), while EC was opposite. Contents of organic matter and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the rhizosphere soil of QLQ were both higher than those of T308. In contaminated soil, the composition and concentration of low molecular weight organic acids in the rhizosphere between the two cultivars were both different. Acetic, propionic, citric and fumaric acids were detected in the rhizosphere soil of T308, and only citric and fumaric acids were detected in that of QLQ. The total concentration of low molecular weight organic acids in the rhizosphere soil of QLQ (1.93 nmol x g(-1) DM) was lower than that of T308 (15.11 nmol x g(-1) DM) (P < 0.01). Compared with the high-Cd cultivar (T308), the chemical characteristics of the rhizosphere soil of the low-Cd cultivar (QLQ) were obviously distinct, i. e., the relatively higher content of organic matter, the lower content of low molecular weight organic acids with a specific composition, less acidification of soil, and a lower ability in reduction, correspondingly lowering the mobility of Cd in soil and reducing Cd accumulation by plant.

  10. Antifungal Rhizosphere Bacteria Can increase as Response to the Presence of Saprotrophic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Wietse; Hundscheid, Maria P. J.; Klein Gunnewiek, Paulien J. A.; de Ridder-Duine, Annelies S.; Thion, Cecile; van Veen, Johannes A.; van der Wal, Annemieke

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on the factors that determine the composition of bacterial communities in the vicinity of roots (rhizosphere) is essential to understand plant-soil interactions. Plant species identity, plant growth stage and soil properties have been indicated as major determinants of rhizosphere bacterial community composition. Here we show that the presence of saprotrophic fungi can be an additional factor steering rhizosphere bacterial community composition and functioning. We studied the impact of presence of two common fungal rhizosphere inhabitants (Mucor hiemalis and Trichoderma harzianum) on the composition of cultivable bacterial communities developing in the rhizosphere of Carex arenaria (sand sedge) in sand microcosms. Identification and phenotypic characterization of bacterial isolates revealed clear shifts in the rhizosphere bacterial community composition by the presence of two fungal strains (M. hiemalis BHB1 and T. harzianum PvdG2), whereas another M. hiemalis strain did not show this effect. Presence of both M. hiemalis BHB1 and T. harzianum PvdG2 resulted in a significant increase of chitinolytic and (in vitro) antifungal bacteria. The latter was most pronounced for M. hiemalis BHB1, an isolate from Carex roots, which stimulated the development of the bacterial genera Achromobacter and Stenotrophomonas. In vitro tests showed that these genera were strongly antagonistic against M. hiemalis but also against the plant-pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. The most likely explanation for fungal-induced shifts in the composition of rhizosphere bacteria is that bacteria are being selected which are successful in competing with fungi for root exudates. Based on the results we propose that measures increasing saprotrophic fungi in agricultural soils should be explored as an alternative approach to enhance natural biocontrol against soil-borne plant-pathogenic fungi, namely by stimulating indigenous antifungal rhizosphere bacteria. PMID:26393509

  11. Antifungal Rhizosphere Bacteria Can increase as Response to the Presence of Saprotrophic Fungi.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Wietse; Hundscheid, Maria P J; Klein Gunnewiek, Paulien J A; de Ridder-Duine, Annelies S; Thion, Cecile; van Veen, Johannes A; van der Wal, Annemieke

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on the factors that determine the composition of bacterial communities in the vicinity of roots (rhizosphere) is essential to understand plant-soil interactions. Plant species identity, plant growth stage and soil properties have been indicated as major determinants of rhizosphere bacterial community composition. Here we show that the presence of saprotrophic fungi can be an additional factor steering rhizosphere bacterial community composition and functioning. We studied the impact of presence of two common fungal rhizosphere inhabitants (Mucor hiemalis and Trichoderma harzianum) on the composition of cultivable bacterial communities developing in the rhizosphere of Carex arenaria (sand sedge) in sand microcosms. Identification and phenotypic characterization of bacterial isolates revealed clear shifts in the rhizosphere bacterial community composition by the presence of two fungal strains (M. hiemalis BHB1 and T. harzianum PvdG2), whereas another M. hiemalis strain did not show this effect. Presence of both M. hiemalis BHB1 and T. harzianum PvdG2 resulted in a significant increase of chitinolytic and (in vitro) antifungal bacteria. The latter was most pronounced for M. hiemalis BHB1, an isolate from Carex roots, which stimulated the development of the bacterial genera Achromobacter and Stenotrophomonas. In vitro tests showed that these genera were strongly antagonistic against M. hiemalis but also against the plant-pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. The most likely explanation for fungal-induced shifts in the composition of rhizosphere bacteria is that bacteria are being selected which are successful in competing with fungi for root exudates. Based on the results we propose that measures increasing saprotrophic fungi in agricultural soils should be explored as an alternative approach to enhance natural biocontrol against soil-borne plant-pathogenic fungi, namely by stimulating indigenous antifungal rhizosphere bacteria.

  12. Huanglongbing alters the structure and functional diversity of microbial communities associated with citrus rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Pankaj; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Albrigo, Gene; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Nian

    2012-01-01

    The diversity and stability of bacterial communities present in the rhizosphere heavily influence soil and plant quality and ecosystem sustainability. The goal of this study is to understand how ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (known to cause Huanglongbing, HLB) influences the structure and functional potential of microbial communities associated with the citrus rhizosphere. Clone library sequencing and taxon/group-specific quantitative real-time PCR results showed that ‘Ca. L. asiaticus' infection restructured the native microbial community associated with citrus rhizosphere. Within the bacterial community, phylum Proteobacteria with various genera typically known as successful rhizosphere colonizers were significantly greater in clone libraries from healthy samples, whereas phylum Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, typically more dominant in the bulk soil were higher in ‘Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected samples. A comprehensive functional microarray GeoChip 3.0 was used to determine the effects of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus' infection on the functional diversity of rhizosphere microbial communities. GeoChip analysis showed that HLB disease has significant effects on various functional guilds of bacteria. Many genes involved in key ecological processes such as nitrogen cycling, carbon fixation, phosphorus utilization, metal homeostasis and resistance were significantly greater in healthy than in the ‘Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected citrus rhizosphere. Our results showed that the microbial community of the ‘Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected citrus rhizosphere has shifted away from using more easily degraded sources of carbon to the more recalcitrant forms. Overall, our study provides evidence that the change in plant physiology mediated by ‘Ca. L. asiaticus' infection could elicit shifts in the composition and functional potential of rhizosphere microbial communities. In the long term, these fluctuations might have important implications for the productivity and

  13. Plant Fe status affects the composition of siderophore-secreting microbes in the rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chong Wei; Li, Gui Xin; Yu, Xue Hui; Zheng, Shao Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Soil microbes have been demonstrated to play an important role in favouring plant iron (Fe) uptake under Fe-limiting conditions. However, the mechanisms involved are still unclear. This present study reported the effects of plant Fe status on the composition of siderophore-secreting microbes in the rhizosphere, and their potential function in improving plant Fe nutrition. Methods An Fe-efficient plant, red clover (Trifolium pratense ‘Kenland’) was cultured in a calcareous soil to obtain rhizosphere soils with (Fe-sufficient) or without (Fe-stressed) foliar FeEDTA spraying. The siderophore-producing ability of rhizospheric microbes was measured. The bioavailability of the siderophore-solubilized Fe from iron oxides/hydroxides was tested in hydroponic culture. Key Results In rhizosphere soil, the number of microbes that secreted siderophores quickly was more in the Fe-stressed treatment than in the Fe-sufficient one, while the number of microbes that did not secret siderophores was the opposite. A significantly higher concentration of phenolics was detected in the rhizosphere soil of Fe-stressed plants. Moreover, after the soil was incubated with phenolic root exudates, the composition of the siderophore-secreting microbial community was similar with that of the rhizosphere of Fe-stressed plant. Additionally, the siderophores produced by a rhizospheric microbe isolated from the Fe-stressed treatment can well solubilize iron oxides/hydroxides, and the utilization of the siderophore-solubilized Fe by plant was even more efficient than EDTA-Fe. Conclusions Iron-deficiency stress of red clover would alter the composition of siderophore-secreting microbes in the rhizosphere, which is probably due to the phenolics secretion of the root, and may in turn help to improve the solubility of Fe in soils and plant Fe nutrition via elevated microbial siderophore secretion. PMID:20356952

  14. [Detection of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp. in food by multiplex PCR].

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Chen, Fusheng; Wang, Xiaohong; Shao, Yanchun

    2008-07-01

    To establish a multiplex PCR method for simultaneous detection of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp. in food. Staphylococcus aureus was enriched by 7.5% NaCl broth while Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. were enriched by GN medium . The primers were designed according to the gene nuc of Staphylococcus aureus, the gene ipaH of Shigella spp. and the gene invA of Salmonella spp. The target genes of these pathogens in food were amplified by multiplex PCR, which reaction conditions were optimized specifically. The multiplex PCR method established in this experment was of high specificity, which detection limit was 1 cfu/ml of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. when the milk samples contaminated with these pathogens. The multiplex PCR method, which was rapid, convenient, and with high sensitivity, could be suitable for rapid detection of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp. in food, and could have a great prospect.

  15. Microbiome and Exudates of the Root and Rhizosphere of Brachypodium distachyon, a Model for Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Akitomo; Donn, Suzanne; Ryan, Peter R.; Mathesius, Ulrike; Devilla, Rosangela; Jones, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The rhizosphere microbiome is regulated by plant genotype, root exudates and environment. There is substantial interest in breeding and managing crops that host root microbial communities that increase productivity. The eudicot model species Arabidopsis has been used to investigate these processes, however a model for monocotyledons is also required. We characterized the rhizosphere microbiome and root exudates of Brachypodium distachyon, to develop it as a rhizosphere model for cereal species like wheat. The Brachypodium rhizosphere microbial community was dominated by Burkholderiales. However, these communities were also dependent on how tightly they were bound to roots, the root type they were associated with (nodal or seminal roots), and their location along the roots. Moreover, the functional gene categories detected in microorganisms isolated from around root tips differed from those isolated from bases of roots. The Brachypodium rhizosphere microbiota and root exudate profiles were similar to those reported for wheat rhizospheres, and different to Arabidopsis. The differences in root system development and cell wall chemistry between monocotyledons and eudicots may also influence the microorganism composition of these major plant types. Brachypodium is a promising model for investigating the microbiome of wheat. PMID:27727301

  16. Plant-microbe Cross-talk in the Rhizosphere: Insight and Biotechnological Potential.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Shyamalina; Sengupta, Sanghamitra

    2015-01-01

    Rhizosphere, the interface between soil and plant roots, is a chemically complex environment which supports the development and growth of diverse microbial communities. The composition of the rhizosphere microbiome is dynamic and controlled by multiple biotic and abiotic factors that include environmental parameters, physiochemical properties of the soil, biological activities of the plants and chemical signals from the plants and bacteria which inhabit the soil adherent to root-system. Recent advancement in molecular and microbiological techniques has unravelled the interactions among rhizosphere residents at different levels. In this review, we elaborate on various factors that determine plant-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere, with an emphasis on the impact of host genotype and developmental stages which together play pivotal role in shaping the nature and diversity of root exudations. We also discuss about the coherent functional groups of microorganisms that colonize rhizosphere and enhance plant growth and development by several direct and indirect mechanisms. Insights into the underlying structural principles of indigenous microbial population and the key determinants governing rhizosphere ecology will provide directions for developing techniques for profitable applicability of beneficial microorganisms in sustainable agriculture and nature restoration.

  17. Rhizosphere microbiome metagenomics of gray mangroves (Avicennia marina) in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Alzubaidy, Hanin; Essack, Magbubah; Malas, Tareq B; Bokhari, Ameerah; Motwalli, Olaa; Kamanu, Frederick Kinyua; Jamhor, Suhaiza Ahmad; Mokhtar, Noor Azlin; Antunes, André; Simões, Marta Filipa; Alam, Intikhab; Bougouffa, Salim; Lafi, Feras F; Bajic, Vladimir B; Archer, John A C

    2016-02-01

    Mangroves are unique, and endangered, coastal ecosystems that play a vital role in the tropical and subtropical environments. A comprehensive description of the microbial communities in these ecosystems is currently lacking, and additional studies are required to have a complete understanding of the functioning and resilience of mangroves worldwide. In this work, we carried out a metagenomic study by comparing the microbial community of mangrove sediment with the rhizosphere microbiome of Avicennia marina, in northern Red Sea mangroves, along the coast of Saudi Arabia. Our results revealed that rhizosphere samples presented similar profiles at the taxonomic and functional levels and differentiated from the microbiome of bulk soil controls. Overall, samples showed predominance by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, with high abundance of sulfate reducers and methanogens, although specific groups were selectively enriched in the rhizosphere. Functional analysis showed significant enrichment in 'metabolism of aromatic compounds', 'mobile genetic elements', 'potassium metabolism' and 'pathways that utilize osmolytes' in the rhizosphere microbiomes. To our knowledge, this is the first metagenomic study on the microbiome of mangroves in the Red Sea, and the first application of unbiased 454-pyrosequencing to study the rhizosphere microbiome associated with A. marina. Our results provide the first insights into the range of functions and microbial diversity in the rhizosphere and soil sediments of gray mangrove (A. marina) in the Red Sea.

  18. Simulation of root water uptake under consideration of nonequilibrium dynamics in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroener, Eva; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Bittelli, Marco; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The narrow region of soil around roots, the so-called rhizosphere, defers in its hydraulic properties from the bulk soil. The rhizosphere hydraulic properties primarily depend on the drying and wetting rate of mucilage, a polymeric gel exuded by plant roots. Under equilibrium conditions mucilage increases the water holding capacity. Upon drying mucilage turns hydrophobic and makes the rhizosphere temporarily water repellent. There are several models of root water uptake, from analytical models of water flow to a single root to complex numerical models that consider the root architecture. Most of these models, however, do not account for the specific hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere. Here we describe a single-root model that includes the altered hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere due to mucilage exudation. We use the model to reproduce existing experiments reporting unexpected and puzzling hysteresis in the rhizosphere, which could not be explained under the assumption of homogeneous hydraulic properties. In our model the hydraulic properties depend on the concentration of mucilage. This enables a continuous transition from the bulk soil to the root surface. We assumed that: (a) mucilage increases the water holding capacity in equilibrium conditions, (b) hydrophobicity, swelling and shrinking of mucilage cause a nonequilibrium relation between water content and water potential and (c) mucilage reduces the mobility of water molecules in the liquid phase resulting in a lower hydraulic conductivity at a given water content. Our model reproduces well the experiments and suggests that mucilage softens drought stress in plants during severe drying events.

  19. Impact of plant species and site on rhizosphere-associated fungi antagonistic to Verticillium dahliae kleb.

    PubMed

    Berg, Gabriele; Zachow, Christin; Lottmann, Jana; Götz, Monika; Costa, Rodrigo; Smalla, Kornelia

    2005-08-01

    Fungi with antagonistic activity toward plant pathogens play an essential role in plant growth and health. To analyze the effects of the plant species and the site on the abundance and composition of fungi with antagonistic activity toward Verticillium dahliae, fungi were isolated from oilseed rape and strawberry rhizosphere and bulk soil from three different locations in Germany over two growing seasons. A total of 4,320 microfungi screened for in vitro antagonism toward Verticillium resulted in 911 active isolates. This high proportion of fungi antagonistic toward the pathogen V. dahliae was found for bulk and rhizosphere soil at all sites. A plant- and site-dependent specificity of the composition of antagonistic morphotypes and their genotypic diversity was found. The strawberry rhizosphere was characterized by preferential occurrence of Penicillium and Paecilomyces isolates and low numbers of morphotypes (n = 31) and species (n = 13), while Monographella isolates were most frequently obtained from the rhizosphere of oilseed rape, for which higher numbers of morphotypes (n = 41) and species (n = 17) were found. Trichoderma strains displayed high diversity in all soils, but a high degree of plant specificity was shown by BOX-PCR fingerprints. The diversity of rhizosphere-associated antagonists was lower than that of antagonists in bulk soil, suggesting that some fungi were specifically enriched in each rhizosphere. A broad spectrum of new Verticillium antagonists was identified, and the implications of the data for biocontrol applications are discussed.

  20. Unique Organic Matter and Microbial Properties in the Rhizosphere of a Wetland Soil.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Daniel I; Xu, Chen; Huang, Shan; Lin, Youmin; Tolić, Nikola; Roscioli-Johnson, Kristyn M; Santschi, Peter H; Jaffé, Peter R

    2016-04-19

    Wetlands attenuate the migration of many contaminants through a wide range of biogeochemical reactions. Recent research has shown that the rhizosphere, the zone near plant roots, in wetlands is especially effective at promoting contaminant attenuation. The objective of this study was to compare the soil organic matter (OM) composition and microbial communities of a rhizosphere soil (primarily an oxidized environment) to that of the bulk wetland soil (primarily a reduced environment). The rhizosphere had elevated C, N, Mn, and Fe concentrations and total bacteria, including Anaeromyxobacter, counts (as identified by qPCR). Furthermore, the rhizosphere contained several organic molecules that were not identified in the nonrhizosphere soil (54% of the >2200 ESI-FTICR-MS identified compounds). The rhizosphere OM molecules generally had (1) greater overall molecular weights, (2) less aromaticity, (3) more carboxylate and N-containing COO functional groups, and (4) a greater hydrophilic character. These latter two OM properties typically promote metal binding. This study showed for the first time that not only the amount but also the molecular characteristics of OM in the rhizosphere may in part be responsible for the enhanced immobilization of contaminants in wetlands. These finding have implications on the stewardship and long-term management of contaminated wetlands.

  1. Plant-microbe Cross-talk in the Rhizosphere: Insight and Biotechnological Potential

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Shyamalina; Sengupta, Sanghamitra

    2015-01-01

    Rhizosphere, the interface between soil and plant roots, is a chemically complex environment which supports the development and growth of diverse microbial communities. The composition of the rhizosphere microbiome is dynamic and controlled by multiple biotic and abiotic factors that include environmental parameters, physiochemical properties of the soil, biological activities of the plants and chemical signals from the plants and bacteria which inhabit the soil adherent to root-system. Recent advancement in molecular and microbiological techniques has unravelled the interactions among rhizosphere residents at different levels. In this review, we elaborate on various factors that determine plant-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere, with an emphasis on the impact of host genotype and developmental stages which together play pivotal role in shaping the nature and diversity of root exudations. We also discuss about the coherent functional groups of microorganisms that colonize rhizosphere and enhance plant growth and development by several direct and indirect mechanisms. Insights into the underlying structural principles of indigenous microbial population and the key determinants governing rhizosphere ecology will provide directions for developing techniques for profitable applicability of beneficial microorganisms in sustainable agriculture and nature restoration. PMID:25926899

  2. Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 strains display a difference in the colonization of the leek (Allium porrum) rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; van Overbeek, Leonard Simon

    2011-11-01

    Strains CHC12 and CHC8, belonging to, respectively, Luteolibacter and Candidatus genus Rhizospheria (Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1), were recently isolated from the leek rhizosphere. The key question addressed in this study was: does attraction to and colonization of the rhizosphere occur in the same way for both strains? Therefore, the fate of the two strains was studied near in vitro-grown leek roots and in soil zones proximate to and at a further distance from roots in a model plant-soil microcosm set-up. Quantitative PCR detection with specific primers was used, as the cultivation of these bacteria from soil is extremely fastidious. The data indicated that natural populations of Luteolibacter (akin to strain CHC12) had lower numbers in the rhizosphere than in the corresponding bulk soil. On the other hand, the populations of Candidatus genus Rhizospheria, i.e. strain CHC8, showed higher numbers in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil. Increased strain CHC8 cell-equivalent numbers in the rhizosphere were not only the result of in situ cell multiplication, but also of the migration of cells towards the roots. Luteolibacter and Candidatus genus Rhizospheria cells displayed differences in attraction to the rhizosphere and colonization thereof, irrespective of the fact that both belonged to Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Diazotrophic diversity in the rhizosphere of two exotic weed plants, Prosopis juliflora and Parthenium hysterophorus.

    PubMed

    Cibichakravarthy, B; Preetha, R; Sundaram, S P; Kumar, K; Balachandar, D

    2012-02-01

    This study is aimed at assessing culturable diazotrophic bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere of Prosopis juliflora and Parthenium hysterophorus, which grow profusely in nutritionally-poor soils and environmentally-stress conditions so as to identify some novel strains for bioinoculant technology. Diazotrophic isolates from Prosopis and Parthenium rhizosphere were characterized for nitrogenase activity by Acetylene Reduction Assay (ARA) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Further, the culture-independent quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to compare the abundance of diazotrophs in rhizosphere with bulk soils. The proportion of diazotrophs in total heterotrophs was higher in rhizosphere than bulk soils and 32 putative diazotrophs from rhizosphere of two plants were identified by nifH gene amplification. The ARA activity of the isolates ranged from 40 to 95 nmol ethylene h(-1) mg protein(-1). The 16S rRNA gene analysis identified the isolates to be members of alpha, beta and gamma Proteobacteria and firmicutes. The qPCR assay also confirmed that abundance of nif gene in rhizosphere of these two plants was 10-fold higher than bulk soil.

  4. Unique Organic Matter and Microbial Properties in the Rhizosphere of a Wetland Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Xu, Chen; Huang, Shan; Lin, Youmin; Tolic, Nikola; Roscioli, Kristyn M.; Santschi, Peter H.; Jaffe, Peter R.

    2016-04-19

    Wetlands attenuate the migration of many contaminants through a wide range of biogeochemical reactions. Recent research has shown that the rhizosphere, the zone near plant roots, in wetlands is especially effective at promoting contaminant attenuation. The objective of this study was to compare the soil organic matter (OM) composition and microbial communities of a rhizosphere soil (primarily an oxidized environment) to that of the bulk wetland soil (primarily a reduced environment). The rhizosphere had elevated C, N, Mn, and Fe concentrations and total bacteria, including Anaeromyxobacter, counts (as identified by qPCR). Furthermore, the rhizosphere contained several organic molecules that were not identified in the nonrhizosphere soil (54% of the >2200 ESI-FTICR-MS identified compounds). The rhizosphere OM molecules generally had (1) greater overall molecular weights, (2) less aromaticity, (3) more carboxylate and N-containing COO functional groups, and (4) a greater hydrophilic character. These latter two OM properties typically promote metal binding. This study showed for the first time that not only the amount but also the molecular characteristics of OM in the rhizosphere may in part be responsible for the enhanced immobilization of contaminants in wetlands. These finding have implications on the stewardship and long-term management of contaminated wetlands

  5. New understanding of rhizosphere processes enabled by advances in molecular and spatially resolved techniques

    DOE PAGES

    Hess, Nancy J.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Bailey, Vanessa L.; ...

    2017-04-12

    Understanding the role played by microorganisms within soil systems is challenged by the unique intersection of physics, chemistry, mineralogy and biology in fostering habitat for soil microbial communities. To address these challenges will require observations across multiple spatial and temporal scales to capture the dynamics and emergent behavior from complex and interdependent processes. The heterogeneity and complexity of the rhizosphere require advanced techniques that press the simultaneous frontiers of spatial resolution, analyte sensitivity and specificity, reproducibility, large dynamic range, and high throughput. Fortunately many exciting technical advancements are now available to inform and guide the development of new hypotheses. Themore » aim of this Special issue is to provide a holistic view of the rhizosphere in the perspective of modern molecular biology methodologies that enabled a highly-focused, detailed view on the processes in the rhizosphere, including numerous, strong and complex interactions between plant roots, soil constituents and microorganisms. We discuss the current rhizosphere research challenges and knowledge gaps, as well as perspectives and approaches using newly available state-of-the-art toolboxes. These new approaches and methodologies allow the study of rhizosphere processes and properties, and rhizosphere as a central component of ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles.« less

  6. [Isolation and identification of root endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria of rice landraces in Yuanyang Terrace, China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan; Liu, Tao; Pan, Lei; Jin, Bai-hui; Zhao, Dan; Chen, Chen; Zhu, You-yong; He, Xia-hong

    2015-12-01

    To reveal root endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria constitution of rice landraces in Yuanyang Terrace, isolation was carried out by tissue isolation method and soil dilution plate method for two landraces of Yuelianggu and Hongjiaolaojing. A total of 399 bacterial strains isolated were identified by morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical identification. The results showed that there were 8 genera isolated from the root of Yuelianggu and 5 genera from its rhizosphere soil, and 5 genera were same. For Hongjiaolaojing, there were 10 genera isolated from its root and 7 genera from its rhizosphere soil, and 6 genera were same. By molecular biology, identification, a total of 11 species and 5 genera were isolated from the root of Yuelianggu, 8 species and 4 genera from its rhizosphere soil, and 5 species and 4 genera were same. As for Hongjiaolaojing, there were 9 species and 5 genera isolated from its root, and 10 species and 3 genera from its rhizosphere soil, and 4 species and 2 genera were same. The results of physiological and biochemical characteristics identification method and molecular identification method were basically same at the genus level, while most of the strains could be identified to species by molecular identification. There were certain species homology and specificity in the root endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria of Yuanyang rice landraces.

  7. Diversity and heritability of the maize rhizosphere microbiome under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Peiffer, Jason A.; Spor, Aymé; Koren, Omry; Jin, Zhao; Tringe, Susannah Green; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Buckler, Edward S.; Ley, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    The rhizosphere is a critical interface supporting the exchange of resources between plants and their associated soil environment. Rhizosphere microbial diversity is influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the rhizosphere, some of which are determined by the genetics of the host plant. However, within a plant species, the impact of genetic variation on the composition of the microbiota is poorly understood. Here, we characterized the rhizosphere bacterial diversity of 27 modern maize inbreds possessing exceptional genetic diversity grown under field conditions. Randomized and replicated plots of the inbreds were planted in five field environments in three states, each with unique soils and management conditions. Using pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes, we observed substantial variation in bacterial richness, diversity, and relative abundances of taxa between bulk soil and the maize rhizosphere, as well as between fields. The rhizospheres from maize inbreds exhibited both a small but significant proportion of heritable variation in total bacterial diversity across fields, and substantially more heritable variation between replicates of the inbreds within each field. The results of this study should facilitate expanded studies to identify robust heritable plant–microbe interactions at the level of individual polymorphisms by genome wide association, so that plant-microbiome interactions can ultimately be incorporated into plant breeding. PMID:23576752

  8. Microbiome and Exudates of the Root and Rhizosphere of Brachypodium distachyon, a Model for Wheat.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Akitomo; Donn, Suzanne; Ryan, Peter R; Mathesius, Ulrike; Devilla, Rosangela; Jones, Amanda; Watt, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    The rhizosphere microbiome is regulated by plant genotype, root exudates and environment. There is substantial interest in breeding and managing crops that host root microbial communities that increase productivity. The eudicot model species Arabidopsis has been used to investigate these processes, however a model for monocotyledons is also required. We characterized the rhizosphere microbiome and root exudates of Brachypodium distachyon, to develop it as a rhizosphere model for cereal species like wheat. The Brachypodium rhizosphere microbial community was dominated by Burkholderiales. However, these communities were also dependent on how tightly they were bound to roots, the root type they were associated with (nodal or seminal roots), and their location along the roots. Moreover, the functional gene categories detected in microorganisms isolated from around root tips differed from those isolated from bases of roots. The Brachypodium rhizosphere microbiota and root exudate profiles were similar to those reported for wheat rhizospheres, and different to Arabidopsis. The differences in root system development and cell wall chemistry between monocotyledons and eudicots may also influence the microorganism composition of these major plant types. Brachypodium is a promising model for investigating the microbiome of wheat.

  9. Microbial growth and carbon use efficiency in the rhizosphere and root-free soil.

    PubMed

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Anderson, Traute-Heidi; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-01-01

    Plant-microbial interactions alter C and N balance in the rhizosphere and affect the microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE)-the fundamental characteristic of microbial metabolism. Estimation of CUE in microbial hotspots with high dynamics of activity and changes of microbial physiological state from dormancy to activity is a challenge in soil microbiology. We analyzed respiratory activity, microbial DNA content and CUE by manipulation the C and nutrients availability in the soil under Beta vulgaris. All measurements were done in root-free and rhizosphere soil under steady-state conditions and during microbial growth induced by addition of glucose. Microorganisms in the rhizosphere and root-free soil differed in their CUE dynamics due to varying time delays between respiration burst and DNA increase. Constant CUE in an exponentially-growing microbial community in rhizosphere demonstrated the balanced growth. In contrast, the CUE in the root-free soil increased more than three times at the end of exponential growth and was 1.5 times higher than in the rhizosphere. Plants alter the dynamics of microbial CUE by balancing the catabolic and anabolic processes, which were decoupled in the root-free soil. The effects of N and C availability on CUE in rhizosphere and root-free soil are discussed.

  10. Chemical speciation and bioavailability of selenium in the rhizosphere of Symphyotrichum eatonii from reclaimed mine soils.

    PubMed

    Oram, Libbie L; Strawn, Daniel G; Möller, Gregory

    2011-02-01

    Knowledge of rhizosphere influences on Se speciation and bioavailability is required to predict Se bioavailability to plants. In the present study, plant-availability of Se to aster (Symphyotrichum eatonii (A. Gray) G.L. Nesom) was compared in rhizosphere soils and nonrhizosphere (bulk) soils collected from a reclaimed mine site in southeastern Idaho, U.S. X-ray spectroscopy was used to characterize the oxidation state and elemental distribution of Se in aster roots, rhizosphere soils, and bulk soils. Percent extractable Se in aster rhizosphere soil was greater than extractable Se in corresponding bulk soils in all samples (n = 4, p = 0.042, 0.051, and 0.052 for three extractions). Selenium oxidation state mapping of 28 regions within the samples and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra from 26 points within the samples indicated that the rhizosphere and bulk soil Se species was predominantly reduced Se(-II,0), while in the aster roots, high concentrations of Se(VI) were present. Results show that within the rhizosphere, enhanced Se bioavailability is occurring via oxidation of reduced soil Se to more soluble Se(VI) species.

  11. Microbial Growth and Carbon Use Efficiency in the Rhizosphere and Root-Free Soil

    PubMed Central

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Anderson, Traute-Heidi; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-01-01

    Plant-microbial interactions alter C and N balance in the rhizosphere and affect the microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE)–the fundamental characteristic of microbial metabolism. Estimation of CUE in microbial hotspots with high dynamics of activity and changes of microbial physiological state from dormancy to activity is a challenge in soil microbiology. We analyzed respiratory activity, microbial DNA content and CUE by manipulation the C and nutrients availability in the soil under Beta vulgaris. All measurements were done in root-free and rhizosphere soil under steady-state conditions and during microbial growth induced by addition of glucose. Microorganisms in the rhizosphere and root-free soil differed in their CUE dynamics due to varying time delays between respiration burst and DNA increase. Constant CUE in an exponentially-growing microbial community in rhizosphere demonstrated the balanced growth. In contrast, the CUE in the root-free soil increased more than three times at the end of exponential growth and was 1.5 times higher than in the rhizosphere. Plants alter the dynamics of microbial CUE by balancing the catabolic and anabolic processes, which were decoupled in the root-free soil. The effects of N and C availability on CUE in rhizosphere and root-free soil are discussed. PMID:24722409

  12. The state of rhizospheric science in the era of multi-omics: A practical guide to omics technologies

    DOE PAGES

    White, Richard Allen; Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Borkum, Mark I.; ...

    2017-05-06

    Over the past century, the significance of the rhizosphere has been increasingly recognized by the scientific community. Furthermore, this complex biological system is comprised of vast interconnected networks of microbial organisms that interact directly with their plant hosts, including archaea, bacteria, fungi, picoeukaryotes, and viruses. The rhizosphere provides a nutritional base to the terrestrial biosphere, and is integral to plant growth, crop production, and ecosystem health. There is little mechanistic understanding of the rhizosphere, but, and that constitutes a critical knowledge gap. It inhibits our ability to predict and control the terrestrial ecosystem to achieve desirable outcomes, such as bioenergymore » production, crop yield maximization, and soil-based carbon sequestration. Multi-omics have the potential to significantly advance our knowledge of rhizospheric science. Our review covers multi-omic techniques and technologies; methods and protocols for specific rhizospheric science questions; and the challenges to be addressed during this century of rhizospheric science.« less

  13. Accelerated biodegradation of pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in the Phragmites australis rhizosphere by bacteria-root exudate interactions.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Tadashi; Furukawa, Tetsuya; Maeda, Noritaka; Inoue, Daisuke; Sei, Kazunari; Mori, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Shintaro; Ike, Michihiko

    2011-02-01

    We investigated the biodegradation of pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in Phragmites australis rhizosphere sediment. We collected P. australis plants, rhizosphere sediments, and unvegetated sediments from natural aquatic sites and conducted degradation experiments using sediments spiked with pyrene or benzo[a]pyrene. Accelerated removal of pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene was observed in P. australis rhizosphere sediments with plants, whereas both compounds persisted in unvegetated sediments without plants and in autoclaved rhizosphere sediments with sterilized plants, suggesting that the accelerated removal resulted largely from biodegradation by rhizosphere bacteria. Initial densities of pyrene-utilizing bacteria were substantially higher in the rhizosphere than in unvegetated sediments, but benzo[a]pyrene-utilizing bacteria were not detected in rhizosphere sediments. Mycobacterium gilvum strains isolated from rhizosphere sediments utilized pyrene aerobically as a sole carbon source and were able to degrade benzo[a]pyrene when induced with pyrene. Phragmites australis root exudates containing phenolic compounds supported growth as a carbon source for the one Mycobacterium strain tested, and induced benzo[a]pyrene-degrading activity of the strain. The stimulatory effect on benzo[a]pyrene biodegradation and the amounts of phenolic compounds in root exudates increased when P. australis was exposed to pyrene. Our results show that Mycobacterium-root exudate interactions can accelerate biodegradation of pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in P. australis rhizosphere sediments. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Čitavičius, Donaldas

    2015-04-01

    Members of the genus Geobacillus are thermophiles that are of great biotechnological importance, since they are sources of many thermostable enzymes. Because of their metabolic versatility, geobacilli can be used as whole-cell catalysts in processes such as bioconversion and bioremediation. The effective employment of Geobacillus spp. requires the development of reliable methods for genetic engineering of these bacteria. Currently, genetic manipulation tools and protocols are under rapid development. However, there are several convenient cloning vectors, some of which replicate autonomously, while others are suitable for the genetic modification of chromosomal genes. Gene expression systems are also intensively studied. Combining these tools together with proper techniques for DNA transfer, some Geobacillus strains were shown to be valuable producers of recombinant proteins and industrially important biochemicals, such as ethanol or isobutanol. This review encompasses the progress made in the genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp. and surveys the vectors and transformation methods that are available for this genus.

  15. The biology of Giardia spp.

    PubMed Central

    Adam, R D

    1991-01-01

    Gardia spp. are flagellated protozoans that parasitize the small intestines of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. The infectious cysts begin excysting in the acidic environment of the stomach and become trophozoites (the vegetative form). The trophozoites attach to the intestinal mucosa through the suction generated by a ventral disk and cause diarrhea and malabsorption by mechanisms that are not well understood. Giardia spp. have a number of unique features, including a predominantly anaerobic metabolism, complete dependence on salvage of exogenous nucleotides, a limited ability to synthesize and degrade carbohydrates and lipids, and two nuclei that are equal by all criteria that have been tested. The small size and unique sequence of G. lamblia rRNA molecules have led to the proposal that Giardia is the most primitive eukaryotic organism. Three Giardia spp. have been identified by light lamblia, G. muris, and G. agilis, but electron microscopy has allowed further species to be described within the G. lamblia group, some of which have been substantiated by differences in the rDNA. Animal models and human infections have led to the conclusion that intestinal infection is controlled primarily through the humoral immune system (T-cell dependent in the mouse model). A major immunogenic cysteine-rich surface antigen is able to vary in vitro and in vivo in the course of an infection and may provide a means of evading the host immune response or perhaps a means of adapting to different intestinal environments. Images PMID:1779932

  16. Plant-Microbial Interactions Define Potential Mechanisms of Organic Matter Priming in the Rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhalnina, K.; Cho, H. J.; Hao, Z.; Mansoori, N.; Karaoz, U.; Jenkins, S.; White, R. A., III; Lipton, M. S.; Deng, K.; Zhou, J.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Northen, T.; Firestone, M. K.; Brodie, E.

    2015-12-01

    In the rhizosphere, metabolic processes of plants and microorganisms are closely coupled, and together with soil minerals, their interactions regulate the turnover of soil organic C (SOC). Plants provide readily assimilable metabolites for microorganisms through exudation, and it has been hypothesized that increasing concentrations of exudate C may either stimulate or suppress rates of SOC mineralization (rhizosphere priming). Both positive and negative rhizosphere priming has been widely observed, however the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. To begin to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying rhizosphere priming, we isolated a broad range of soil bacteria from a Mediterranean grassland dominated by annual grass. Thirty-nine heterotrophic bacteria were selected for genome sequencing and both rRNA gene analysis and metagenome coverage suggest that these isolates represent naturally abundant strain variants. We analyzed their genomes for potential metabolic traits related to life in the rhizosphere and the decomposition of polymeric SOC. While the two dominant groups, Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, were enriched in polymer degrading enzymes, Alphaproteobacterial isolates contained greater gene copies of transporters related to amino acid, organic acid and auxin uptake or export, suggesting an enhanced metabolic potential for life in the root zone. To verify this metabolic potential, we determined the enzymatic activities of these isolates and revealed preferences of strains to degrade certain polymers (xylan, cellulose or lignin). Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy is being used to determine which polymeric components of plant roots are targeted by specific strains and how exudates may impact their degradation. To verify the potential of isolates to assimilate root exudates and export key metabolites we are using LC-MS/MS based exometabolomic profiling. The traits hypothesized and verified here (transporters, enzymes, exudate uptake

  17. Rhizosphere pH responses to simulated acid rain as measured with glass microelectrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Conkling, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a useful experimental system for studying the rhizosphere of growing roots, and to investigate the effects of bulk soil pH and foliar acid rain application on the rhizosphere pH of alfalfa, corn and soybeans. First, a study was done to compare soil pH measurements made with a standard glass pH electrode with those made using an antimony (Sb) microelectrode. Because of uncertainty with the Sb microelectrodes' response, glass pH-sensitive microelectrodes were made and tested for rhizosphere pH measurements. The influence of soil water pressure gradients in the range of {minus}10 to {minus}1500 kPa in the proximity of the pH and reference electrodes on pH measurements made with microelectrodes was studied. The effect of foliar acid rain application on the rhizosphere pH of alfalfa, corn, and soybean as a function of soil pH were studied. Alfalfa, corn, and soybean were grown into minirhizotrons containing reformed samples of both Seymour A and Bt soil horizons, and the rhizosphere pH measured. The measured in situ bulk soil pH ranged from 4.9 to 6.2 in the A horizon and from 4.0 to 5.7 in the Bt horizon. Plants received acid or non-acid foliar rain applications. Rhizosphere pH was measured using a glass pH-sensitive microelectrode. Acid rain applications caused foliar damage, but had little effect on the rhizosphere pH. The general trend was for the lateral root pH values to be slightly higher than the main root values.

  18. Potential Abiotic Functions of Root Exudates in Rhizosphere Cycling of Soil Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pett-Ridge, J.; Keiluweit, M.; Bougoure, J.; Kleber, M.; Nico, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon cycling in the rhizosphere is a nexus of biophysical interactions between plant roots, microorganisms and the soil organo-mineral matrix. Plant roots are the primary source of C in mineral horizons and can significantly accelerate the rate of soil organic matter mineralization in rhizosphere soils. While a portion of this acceleration results from stimulation of microbial enzymatic capacities (the 'priming effect') - abiotic responses also play a significant role in rhizosphere cycling of soil organic matter (SOM). For example, exudate-stimulated mobilization and dissolution of metal species may release previously complexed SOM, or could affect Fe mobility via redox changes associated with microbially-driven O2 depletion. We have investigated the abiotic response of rhizosphere microenvironments, using additions of several 13C-enriched low molecular weight (LMW) root exudates and 13C-plant detritus to controlled microcosms. We hypothesized that certain abiotic effects are triggered by specific exudate compounds and that the magnitude of the effect depends on the soil physiochemical properties. Using a combination of microsensor measurements, solid-phase extractions, X-ray and IR spectroscopy, we measured how root exudates differ in their potential to create reducing microenvironments, alter metal chemisty and mineralogy, and influence the availability of SOM in the rhizosphere. High resolution X-ray microscopy (STXM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) analyses illustrate the physical fate of the added isotope tracers in both pore water and on mineral surfaces. Our results suggest that certain root exudates facilitate abiotic reactions that increase the pool of bioavailable SOM and stimulate its microbial decomposition in the rhizosphere. In particular, the contrasting ecological functions of LMW organic acids and simple sugars in facilitating SOM breakdown in the rhizosphere will be discussed.

  19. Seasonal induced changes in spinach rhizosphere microbial community structure with varying salinity and drought.

    PubMed

    Mark Ibekwe, A; Ors, Selda; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Liu, Xuan; Suarez, Donald L

    2017-02-01

    Salinity is a common problem under irrigated agriculture, especially in low rainfall and high evaporative demand areas of southwestern United States and other semi-arid regions around the world. However, studies on salinity effects on soil microbial communities are relatively few while the effects of irrigation-induced salinity on soil chemical and physical properties and plant growth are well documented. In this study, we examined the effects of salinity, temperature, and temporal variability on soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in sand tanks irrigated with prepared solutions designed to simulate saline wastewater. Three sets of experiments with spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Racoon) were conducted under saline water during different time periods (early winter, late spring, and early summer). Bacterial 16S V4 rDNA region was amplified utilizing fusion primers designed against the surrounding conserved regions using MiSeq® Illumina sequencing platform. Across the two sample types, bacteria were relatively dominant among three phyla-the Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes-accounted for 77.1% of taxa detected in the rhizosphere, while Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria accounted for 55.1% of taxa detected in soil. The results were analyzed using UniFrac coupled with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) to compare diversity, abundance, community structure, and specific bacterial groups in soil and rhizosphere samples. Permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) analysis showed that soil temperature (P=0.001), rhizosphere temperature (P=0.001), rhizosphere salinity (P=0.032), and evapotranspiration (P=0.002) significantly affected beta diversity of soil and rhizosphere microbial communities. Furthermore, salinity had marginal effects (P=0.078) on soil beta diversity. However, temporal variability differentially affected rhizosphere microbial communities irrigated with saline wastewater. Therefore, microbial communities in

  20. Arsenic dynamics in the rhizosphere and its sequestration on rice roots as affected by root oxidation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Weisong; Wu, Chuan; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William

    2014-04-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of root oxidation on arsenic (As) dynamics in the rhizosphere and As sequestration on rice roots. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in pH values between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils, with pH 5.68-6.16 in the rhizosphere and 6.30-6.37 in non-rhizosphere soils as well as differences in redox potentials (P < 0.05). Percentage arsenite was lower (4%-16%) in rhizosphere soil solutions from rice genotypes with higher radial oxygen loss (ROL) compared with genotypes with lower ROL (P < 0.05). Arsenic concentrations in iron plaque and rice straw were significantly negatively correlated (R = -0.60, P < 0.05). Genotypes with higher ROL (TD71 and Yinjingruanzhan) had significantly (P < 0.001) lower total As in rice grains (1.35 and 0.96 mg/kg, respectively) compared with genotypes with lower ROL (IAPAR9, 1.68 mg/kg; Nanyangzhan 2.24 mg/kg) in the As treatment, as well as lower inorganic As (P < 0.05). The present study showed that genotypes with higher ROL could oxidize more arsenite in rhizosphere soils, and induce more Fe plaque formation, which subsequently sequestered more As. This reduced As uptake in aboveground plant tissues and also reduced inorganic As accumulation in rice grains. The study has contributed to further understanding the mechanisms whereby ROL influences As uptake and accumulation in rice.

  1. Spatio-Temporal Patterns in Rhizosphere Oxygen Profiles in the Emergent Plant Species Acorus calamus

    PubMed Central

    Wenlin, Wang; Ruiming, Han; Yinjing, Wan; Bo, Liu; Xiaoyan, Tang; Bin, Liang; Guoxiang, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Rhizosphere oxygen profiles are the key to understanding the role of wetland plants in ecological remediation. Though in situ determination of the rhizosphere oxygen profiles has been performed occasionally at certain growing stages within days, comprehensive study on individual roots during weeks is still missing. Seedlings of Acorus calamus, a wetland monocot, were cultivated in silty sediment and the rhizosphere oxygen profiles were characterized at regular intervals, using micro-optodes to examine the same root at four positions along the root axis. The rhizosphere oxygen saturation culminated at 42.9% around the middle part of the root and was at its lowest level, 3.3%, at the basal part of the root near the aboveground portion. As the plant grew, the oxygen saturation at the four positions remained nearly constant until shoot height reached 15 cm. When shoot height reached 60 cm, oxygen saturation was greatest at the point halfway along the root, followed by the point three-quarters of the way down the root, the tip of the root, and the point one-quarter of the way down. Both the internal and rhizosphere oxygen saturation steadily increased, as did the thickness of stably oxidized microzones, which ranged from 20 µm in younger seedlings to a maximum of 320 µm in older seedlings. The spatial patterns of rhizosphere oxygen profiles in sediment contrast with those from previous studies on radial oxygen loss in A. calamus that used conventional approaches. Rhizosphere oxygen saturation peaked around the middle part of roots and the thickness of stably oxidized zones increased as the roots grew. PMID:24866504

  2. Preliminary investigations of the rhizosphere nature of hydroponically grown lettuces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, Inês; Paille, Christel; Lasseur, Christophe

    Due to capabilities of current launchers, future manned exploration beyond the Earth orbit will imply long journeys and extended stays on planet surfaces. For this reason, it is of a great importance to develop a Regenerative Life Support System that enables the crew to be, to a very large extent, metabolic consumables self-sufficient. In this context, the European Space Agency, associated with a scientific and engineering con-sortium, initiated in 1989 the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project. This concept, inspired on a terrestrial ecosystem (i.e. a lake), comprises five intercon-nected compartments inhabited by micro-organisms and higher-plants aiming to produce food, fresh water, and oxygen from organic waste, carbon dioxide, and minerals. Given the important role of the higher-plant compartment for the consumption of carbon dioxide and the production of oxygen, potable water, and food, it was decided to study the microbial communities present in the root zone of the plants (i.e. the rhizosphere), and their synergistic and antagonistic influences in the plant growth. This understanding is important for later investigations concerning the technology involved in the higher plant compartment, since the final goal is to integrate this compartment inside the MELiSSA loop and to guarantee a healthy and controlled environment for the plants to grow under reduced-gravity conditions. To perform a preliminary assessment of the microbial populations of the root zone, lettuces were grown in a hydroponic system and their growth was characterized in terms of nutrient uptake, plant diameter, and plant wet and dry weights. In parallel, the microbial population, bacteria and fungi, present in the hydroponic medium and also inside and outside the roots were analyzed in terms of quantity and nature. The goal of this presentation is to give a preliminary review in the plant root zone of the micro-organisms communities and as well their proportions

  3. Microbial carbon turnover in the plant-rhizosphere-soil continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Ashish; Dannert, Helena; Griffiths, Robert; Thomson, Bruce; Gleixner, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    Soil microbial biomass contributes significantly to maintenance of soil organic matter (SOM). It is well known that biochemical fractions of soil microorganisms have varying turnover and therefore contribute differentially to soil C storage. Here we compare the turnover rates of different microbial biochemical fractions using a pulse chase 13CO2 plant labelling experiment. The isotope signal was temporally traced into rhizosphere soil microorganisms using the following biomarkers: DNA, RNA, fatty acids and chloroform fumigation extraction derived microbial biomass size classes. C flow into soil microbial functional groups was assessed through phospholipid and neutral lipid fatty acid (PLFA/NLFA) analyses. Highest 13C enrichment was seen in the low molecular weight (LMW) size class of microbial biomass (Δδ13C =151) and in nucleic acids (DNA: 38o RNA: 66) immediately after the pulse followed by a sharp drop. The amount of 13C in the high molecular weight (HMW) microbial biomass (17-81) and total fatty acids (32-54) was lower initially and stayed relatively steady over the 4 weeks experimental period. We found significant differences in turnover rates of different microbial biochemical and size fractions. We infer that LMW cytosolic soluble compounds are rapidly metabolized and linked to respiratory C fluxes, whereas mid-sized products of microbial degradation and HMW polymeric compounds have lower renewal rate in that order. The turnover of cell wall fatty acids was also very slow. DNA and RNA showed faster turnover rate; and as expected RNA renewal was the fastest due to its rapid production by active microorganisms independent of cell replication. 13C incorporation into different functional groups confirmed that mutualistic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi rely on root C and are important in the initial plant C flux. We substantiated through measurements of isotope incorporation into bacterial RNA that rhizosphere bacteria are also important in the initial C conduit

  4. Sensitivity of Rhizoctonia Isolates to Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid and Biological Control by Phenazine-Producing Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Jaaffar, Ahmad Kamil Mohd; Parejko, James A; Paulitz, Timothy C; Weller, David M; Thomashow, Linda S

    2017-04-04

    Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis groups (AG)-8 and AG-2-1 and R. oryzae are ubiquitous in cereal-based cropping systems of the Columbia Plateau of the Inland Pacific Northwest and commonly infect wheat. AG-8 and R. oryzae, causal agents of Rhizoctonia root rot and bare patch, are most commonly found in fields in the low-precipitation zone, whereas R. solani AG-2-1 is much less virulent on wheat and is distributed in fields throughout the low-, intermediate-, and high-precipitation zones. Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. that produce the antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) also are abundant in the rhizosphere of crops grown in the low-precipitation zone but their broader geographic distribution and effect on populations of Rhizoctonia is unknown. To address these questions, we surveyed the distribution of PCA producers (Phz(+)) in 59 fields in cereal-based cropping systems throughout the Columbia Plateau. Phz(+) Pseudomonas spp. were detected in 37 of 59 samples and comprised from 0 to 12.5% of the total culturable heterotrophic aerobic rhizosphere bacteria. The frequency with which individual plants were colonized by Phz(+) pseudomonads ranged from 0 to 100%. High and moderate colonization frequencies of Phz(+) pseudomonads were associated with roots from fields located in the driest areas whereas only moderate and low colonization frequencies were associated with crops where higher annual precipitation occurs. Thus, the geographic distribution of Phz(+) pseudomonads overlaps closely with the distribution of R. solani AG-8 but not with that of R. oryzae or R. solani AG-2-1. Moreover, linear regression analysis demonstrated a highly significant inverse relationship between annual precipitation and the frequency of rhizospheres colonized by Phz(+) pseudomonads. Phz(+) pseudomonads representative of the four major indigenous species (P. aridus, P. cerealis, P. orientalis, and P. synxantha) suppressed Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat when applied as seed treatments. In

  5. Distributions and compositions of old and emerging flame retardants in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil in an e-waste contaminated area of South China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaorui; Wang, Yan; Song, Mengke; Luo, Chunling; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated rhizosphere effects on the distributions and compositions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), and dechlorane plus (DPs) in rhizosphere soils (RS) and non-rhizosphere soils (NRS) in an e-waste recycling area in South China. The concentrations of PBDEs, NBFRs, and DPs ranged from 13.9 to 351, 11.6 to 70.8, and 0.64 to 8.74 ng g(-1) in RS and 7.56 to 127, 8.98 to 144, and 0.38 to 8.45 ng g(-1) in NRS, respectively. BDE-209 and DBDPE were the dominant congeners of PBDEs and NBFRs, respectively. PBDEs, NBFRs, and DPs were more enriched in RS than NRS in most vegetables species. Further analysis suggested that the differentiation of the rhizosphere effect on halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) was not solely controlled by the octanol-water coefficients. This difference was also reflected by the correlations between total organic carbon (TOC) and PBDEs, NBFRs, or DPs, which indicated that organic carbon was a more pivotal controlling factor for PBDEs and DPs than for NBFRs in soil. We also found significant positive correlations between PBDEs and their replacement products, which indicated a similar emission pattern and environmental behaviour.

  6. Diversity studies of Azotobacter spp. from cotton-wheat cropping systems of India.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Ranjana; Ruppel, Silke; Narula, Neeru

    2008-12-01

    Azotobacter are the favored bioinoculants being promoted for cotton crop in India. In order to develop bioinoculants, both metabolic fingerprinting and genetic fingerprinting have been used to study the diversity among Azotobacter spp. isolated from four different cotton-wheat cropping regions of India. On the basis of acetylene reduction, indole acetic acid production and ammonia excretion, from 76 free-living diazotrophs isolated from the rhizospheric soil of cotton, 20 efficient isolates were selected for further studies. Morphological characterization indicated a close resemblance of these isolates to Azotobacter spp. BIOLOG cataloguing divided them into two main groups, but amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis clustered the isolates from the four regions having different soil types into four separate sub-clusters. Metabolic fingerprinting was not able to detect subtle differences among the isolates as achieved with genetic fingerprinting. However, 16S rRNA is a highly conserved locus. Variations observed could be due to domestication of the isolates in different agro-ecological niches.

  7. Impact of Biocontrol Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and a Genetically Modified Derivative on the Diversity of Culturable Fungi in the Cucumber Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Girlanda, M.; Perotto, S.; Moenne-Loccoz, Y.; Bergero, R.; Lazzari, A.; Defago, G.; Bonfante, P.; Luppi, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of Pseudomonas biocontrol inoculants on nontarget rhizosphere fungi. This issue was addressed using the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0-Rif, which produces the antimicrobial polyketides 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl) and pyoluteorin (Plt) and protects cucumber from several fungal pathogens, including Pythium spp., as well as the genetically modified derivative CHA0-Rif(pME3424). Strain CHA0-Rif(pME3424) overproduces Phl and Plt and displays improved biocontrol efficacy compared with CHA0-Rif. Cucumber was grown repeatedly in the same soil, which was left uninoculated, was inoculated with CHA0-Rif or CHA0-Rif(pME3424), or was treated with the fungicide metalaxyl (Ridomil). Treatments were applied to soil at the start of each 32-day-long cucumber growth cycle, and their effects on the diversity of the rhizosphere populations of culturable fungi were assessed at the end of the first and fifth cycles. Over 11,000 colonies were studied and assigned to 105 fungal species (plus several sterile morphotypes). The most frequently isolated fungal species (mainly belonging to the genera Paecilomyces, Phialocephala, Fusarium, Gliocladium, Penicillium, Mortierella, Verticillium, Trichoderma, Staphylotrichum, Coniothyrium, Cylindrocarpon, Myrothecium, and Monocillium) were common in the four treatments, and no fungal species was totally suppressed or found exclusively following one particular treatment. However, in each of the two growth cycles studied, significant differences were found between treatments (e.g., between the control and the other treatments and/or between the two inoculation treatments) using discriminant analysis. Despite these differences in the composition and/or relative abundance of species in the fungal community, treatments had no effect on species diversity indices, and species abundance distributions fit the truncated lognormal function in most cases. In addition, the impact of treatments at the 32-day

  8. Rhizosphere wettability decreases with root age: a problem or a strategy to increase water uptake of young roots?

    PubMed Central

    Carminati, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    As plant roots take up water and the soil dries, water depletion is expected to occur in the vicinity of roots, the so called rhizosphere. However, recent experiments showed that the rhizosphere of lupines was wetter than the bulk soil during the drying period. Surprisingly, the rhizosphere remained temporarily dry after irrigation. Such water dynamics in the rhizosphere can be explained by the drying/wetting dynamics of mucilage exuded by roots. The capacity of mucilage to hold large volumes of water at negative water potential may favor root water uptake. However, mucilage hydrophobicity after drying may temporarily limit the local water uptake after irrigation. The effects of such rhizosphere dynamics are not yet understood. In particular, it is not known how the rhizosphere dynamics vary along roots and as a function of soil water content. My hypothesis was that the rewetting rate of the rhizosphere is primarily function of root age. Neutron radiography was used to monitor how the rhizosphere water dynamics vary along the root systems of lupines during drying/wetting cycles of different duration. The radiographs showed a fast and almost immediate rewetting of the rhizosphere of the distal root segments, in contrast to a slow rewetting of the rhizosphere of the proximal segments. The rewetting rate of the rhizosphere was not function of the water content before irrigation, but it was function of time. It is concluded that rhizosphere hydrophobicity is not uniform along roots, but it covers only the older and proximal root segments, while the young root segments are hydraulically well-connected to the soil. I included these rhizosphere dynamics in a microscopic model of root water uptake. In the model, the relation between water content and water potential in the rhizosphere is not unique and it varies over time, and the rewetting rate of the rhizosphere decreases with time. The rhisosphere variability seems an optimal adaptation strategy to increase the water

  9. Maximizing root/rhizosphere efficiency to improve crop productivity and nutrient use efficiency in intensive agriculture of China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianbo; Li, Chunjian; Mi, Guohua; Li, Long; Yuan, Lixing; Jiang, Rongfeng; Zhang, Fusuo

    2013-03-01

    Root and rhizosphere research has been conducted for many decades, but the underlying strategy of root/rhizosphere processes and management in intensive cropping systems remain largely to be determined. Improved grain production to meet the food demand of an increasing population has been highly dependent on chemical fertilizer input based on the traditionally assumed notion of 'high input, high output', which results in overuse of fertilizers but ignores the biological potential of roots or rhizosphere for efficient mobilization and acquisition of soil nutrients. Root exploration in soil nutrient resources and root-induced rhizosphere processes plays an important role in controlling nutrient transformation, efficient nutrient acquisition and use, and thus crop productivity. The efficiency of root/rhizosphere in terms of improved nutrient mobilization, acquisition, and use can be fully exploited by: (1) manipulating root growth (i.e. root development and size, root system architecture, and distribution); (2) regulating rhizosphere processes (i.e. rhizosphere acidification, organic anion and acid phosphatase exudation, localized application of nutrients, rhizosphere interactions, and use of efficient crop genotypes); and (3) optimizing root zone management to synchronize root growth and soil nutrient supply with demand of nutrients in cropping systems. Experiments have shown that root/rhizosphere management is an effective approach to increase both nutrient use efficiency and crop productivity for sustainable crop production. The objectives of this paper are to summarize the principles of root/rhizosphere management and provide an overview of some successful case studies on how to exploit the biological potential of root system and rhizosphere processes to improve crop productivity and nutrient use efficiency.

  10. Response of N₂O emissions to elevated water depth regulation: comparison of rhizosphere versus non-rhizosphere of Phragmites australis in a field-scale study.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiao-Zhi; Chen, Kai-Ning; Wang, Zhao-de

    2016-03-01

    Emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from wetland ecosystems are globally significant and have recently received increased attention. However, relatively few direct studies of these emissions in response to water depth-related changes in sediment ecosystems have been conducted, despite the likely role they play as hotspots of N2O production. We investigated depth-related differential responses of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen distribution in Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. rhizosphere versus non-rhizosphere sediments to determine if they accelerated N2O emissions and the release of inorganic nitrogen. Changes in static water depth and P. australis growth both had the potential to disrupt the distribution of porewater dissolved NH4 (+), NO3 (-), and NO2 (-) in profiles, and NO3 (-) had strong surface aggregation tendency and decreased significantly with depth. Conversely, the highest NO2 (-) contents were observed in deep water and the lowest in shallow water in the P. australis rhizosphere. When compared with NO3 (-), NH4 (+), and NO2 (-), fluxes from the rhizosphere were more sensitive to the effects of water depth, and both fluxes increased significantly at a depth of more than 1 m. Similarly, N2O emissions were obviously accelerated with increasing depth, although those from the rhizosphere were more readily controlled by P. australis. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that water depth was significantly related to N2O emission and NO2 (-) fluxes, and N2O emissions were also strongly dependent on NO2 (-) fluxes (r = 0.491, p < 0.05). The results presented herein provide new insights into inorganic nitrogen biogeochemical cycles in freshwater sediment ecosystems.

  11. Plant rhizosphere species-specific stoichiometry and regulation of extracellular enzyme and microbial community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, C. W.; Calderon, F.; Pendall, E.; Wallenstein, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Plant communities affect the activity and composition of soil microbial communities through alteration of the soil environment during root growth; substrate availability through root exudation; nutrient availability through plant uptake; and moisture regimes through transpiration. As a result, positive feedbacks in soil properties can result from alterations in microbial community composition and function in the rhizosphere zone. At the ecosystem-scale, many properties of soil microbial communities can vary between forest stands dominated by different species, including community composition and stoichiometry. However, the influence of smaller individual plants on grassland soils and microbial communities is less well documented. There is evidence to suggest that some plants can modify their soil environment in a manner that favors their persistence. For example, when Bromus tectorum plants invade, soil microbial communities tend to have higher N mineralization rates (in the rhizosphere zone) relative to native plants. If tight linkages between individual plant species and microbial communities inhabiting the rhizosphere exist, we hypothesized that any differences among plant species specific rhizosphere zones could be observed by shifts in: 1) soil -rhizosphere microbial community structure, 2) enzymatic C:N:P acquisition activities, 3) alterations in the soil C chemistry composition in the rhizosphere, and 4) plant - soil - microbial C:N:P elemental stoichiometry. We selected and grew 4 different C3 grasses species including three species native to the Shortgrass Steppe region (Pascopyrum smithii, Koeleria macrantha, and Vulpia octoflora) and one exotic invasive plant species (B. tectorum) in root-boxes that are designed to allow for easy access to the rhizosphere. The field soil was homogenized using a 4mm sieve and mixed 1:1 with sterile sand and seeded as monocultures (24 replicate root - boxes for each species). Plant and soil samples (along with no - plant

  12. Rhizosphere: a leverage for tolerance to water deficits of soil microflora ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérard, Annette; Ruy, Stéphane; Coronel, Anaïs; Toussaint, Bruce; Czarnes, Sonia; Legendre, Laurent; Doussan, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Microbial soil communities play a fundamental role in soil organic matter mineralization, which is a key process for plant nutrition, growth and production in agro-ecosystems. A number of these microbial processes take place in the rhizosphere: the soil zone influenced by plant roots activity, which is a "hotspot " of biological and physico-chemical activity, transfers and biomass production. The knowledge of rhizosphere processes is however still scanty, especially regarding the interactions between physico-chemical processes occurring there and soil microorganisms. The rhizosphere is a place where soil aggregates are more stable, and where bulk density, porosity, water and nutrients transfer are modified with respect to the bulk soil (e.g. because of production of mucilage, of which exo-polysaccharides (EPS) produced by roots and microorganisms. During a maize field experiment, rhizospheric soil (i.e. soil strongly adhering to maize roots) and bulk soil were sampled twice in spring and summer. These soil samples were characterized for physicochemical parameters (water retention curves and analysis of exopolysaccarides) and microflora (microbial biomass, catabolic capacities of the microbial communities assessed with the MicroRespTM technique, stability of soil microbial respiration faced to a heat-drought disturbance). We observed differences between rhizospheric and bulk soils for all parameters studied: Rhizospheric soils showed higher microbial biomasses, higher quantities of exopolysaccarides and a higher water retention capacity compared to bulk soil measurements. Moreover, microbial soil respiration showed a higher stability confronted to heat-drought stress in the rhizospheric soils compared to bulk soils. Results were more pronounced during summer compared to spring. Globally these data obtained from field suggest that in a changing climate conditions, the specific physico-biological conditions in the rhizosphere partially linked to exopolysaccarides

  13. Paenibacillus rhizoryzae sp. nov., isolated from rice rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Gao, Ju-Sheng; Zhang, Shuang; Ali Sheirdil, Rizwan; Wang, Xiu-Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-Xia

    2015-09-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated 1ZS3-5(T), was isolated from rice rhizosphere in Hunan Province, PR China. The isolate was identified as a member of the genus Paenibacillus on the basis of phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic inference analysis. The 16S rRNA and rpoB gene (β-subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase) sequences were closely related to those of Paenibacillus taihuensis CGMCC 1.10966(T) with similarities of 97.2% and 89.7%, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between 1ZS3-5(T) and P. taihuensis CGMCC 1.10966(T) was 33.4%. The DNA G+C content of 1ZS3-5(T) was 47.5 mol%. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, unidentified aminophospholipid and unknown phospholipid. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. Based on these results, 1ZS3-5(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus rhizoryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1ZS3-5(T) ( = ACCC 19782(T) = DSM 29322(T)).

  14. Different Ancestries of R Tailocins in Rhizospheric Pseudomonas Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ghequire, Maarten G.K.; Dillen, Yörg; Lambrichts, Ivo; Proost, Paul; Wattiez, Ruddy; De Mot, René

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial genomes accommodate a variety of mobile genetic elements, including bacteriophage-related clusters that encode phage tail-like protein complexes playing a role in interactions with eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells. Such tailocins are unable to replicate inside target cells due to the lack of a phage head with associated DNA. A subset of tailocins mediate antagonistic activities with bacteriocin-like specificity. Functional characterization of bactericidal tailocins of two Pseudomonas putida rhizosphere isolates revealed not only extensive similarity with the tail assembly module of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa R-type pyocins but also differences in genomic integration site, regulatory genes, and lytic release modules. Conversely, these three features are quite similar between strains of the P. putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens clades, although phylogenetic analysis of tail genes suggests them to have evolved separately. Unlike P. aeruginosa R pyocin elements, the tailocin gene clusters of other pseudomonads frequently carry cargo genes, including bacteriocins. Compared with P. aeruginosa, the tailocin tail fiber sequences that act as specificity determinants have diverged much more extensively among the other pseudomonad species, mostly isolates from soil and plant environments. Activity of the P. putida antibacterial particles requires a functional lipopolysaccharide layer on target cells, but contrary to R pyocins from P. aeruginosa, strain susceptibilities surpass species boundaries. PMID:26412856

  15. [Soil microbial community composition and diversity in Panax quinquefolius rhizosphere].

    PubMed

    Qi, Jianjun; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Zhou, Lilii; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Xuesong; Li, Xianen

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this work was to analyze the soil microbial community diversity and structure in Panax quinquefolius rhizosphere and elucidated the rules of the ecology shift. Two community-based microbiological measurements, community level physiological profiling (CLPP) using Biolog sole C source utilization tests and phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid (PLFA) profiles, were used to evaluate soil microbial community function and composition of different Panax quinquefolius cropping soils. The properties, pH, N, P, K and organic matter were analyzed also. There were many differences in soil properties such as lower pH (5.82) in Jilin soil but higher pH (8.27) in Beijing soil and there were significant higher content of organic matter, available N, P, K in Jilin soil than those in Beijing soil. The analysis of soil microbial ecology showed a similar result in AWCD, Biolog and PLFA pattern. According to the PC1 score in principal analysis of Biolog and PLFA, the soils in 2, 3 and 4 years cultivated P. quinquefolius rhizophere were distinguished from the control and 1 year soils. The result indicated that the metabolism function reduced and the structure shifted in rhizophere soil microbial community after P. quinquefolius cropping. These may be the primary reason of the disease occur severely in P. quinquefolius field.

  16. Allelochemicals in the rhizosphere soil of Euphorbia himalayensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan; Lu, Dengxue; Jin, Hui; Yan, Zhiqiang; Li, Xiuzhuang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Guo, Hongru; Qin, Bo

    2014-08-27

    Weed infestation has been known to cause considerable reductions in crop yields, thereby hindering sustainable agriculture. Many plants in genus Euphorbia affect neighboring plants and other organisms by releasing chemicals into the environment. In view of the serious threat of weeds to agriculture, the allelochemicals of Euphorbia himalayensis and their allelopathic effects were investigated. The extract of root exudates from rhizosphere soil exhibited allelopathic activities against crops (wheat, rape, and lettuce) and grasses (Poa annua, Festuca rubra, and red clover). Bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation from the root extract of E. himalayensis led to the characterization of two ellagic acid derivatives and a jatrophane diterpene, which observably showed phytotoxic activities against lettuce, Festuca arundinacea, and F. rubra. They were further confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to have concentrations of 3.6, 3.8, and 8.99 nmol/g in the rhizospere soil, respectively. Bioassay indicated that the combination of the allelochemicals could be selective plant growth regulator in agriculture.

  17. Devosia elaeis sp. nov., isolated from oil palm rhizospheric soil.

    PubMed

    Mohd Nor, Muhammad Nuruddin; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Tan, Geok Yuan Annie

    2017-04-01

    A bacterial isolate, designated strain S37T, was isolated from the rhizosphere of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Strain S37T was found to be Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, motile and rod shaped. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain S37T was most closely related to Devosia albogilva IPL15T (97.3 %), Devosia chinhatensis IPL18T (96.8 %) and Devosia subaequoris HST3-14T (96.5 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 63.0 mol%, and dominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c), 11-methyl C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone-10 (Q-10), and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, glycolipid and phospholipids. Based on the polyphasic taxonomic data, it is clear that strain S37T represents a novel species of the genus Devosia within the family Hyphomicrobiaceae, for which we propose the name Devosia elaeis sp. nov., with strain S37T (=TBRC 5145T=LMG 29420T) as the type strain.

  18. Ecosystem-level controls on root-rhizosphere respiration.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Francesca; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A; Flower, Charles E; Lynch, Douglas J; Czimczik, Claudia; Tang, Jianwu; Subke, Jens-Arne

    2013-07-01

    Recent advances in the partitioning of autotrophic from heterotrophic respiration processes in soils in conjunction with new high temporal resolution soil respiration data sets offer insights into biotic and environmental controls of respiration. Besides temperature, many emerging controlling factors have not yet been incorporated into ecosystem-scale models. We synthesize recent research that has partitioned soil respiration into its process components to evaluate effects of nitrogen, temperature and photosynthesis on autotrophic flux from soils at the ecosystem level. Despite the widely used temperature dependence of root respiration, gross primary productivity (GPP) can explain most patterns of ecosystem root respiration (and to some extent heterotrophic respiration) at within-season time-scales. Specifically, heterotrophi crespiration is influenced by a seasonally variable supply of recent photosynthetic products in the rhizosphere. The contribution of stored root carbon (C) to root respiratory fluxes also varied seasonally, partially decoupling the proportion of photosynthetic C driving root respiration. In order to reflect recent insights, new hierarchical models, which incorporate root respiration as a primary function of GPP and which respond to environmental variables by modifying Callocation belowground, are needed for better prediction of future ecosystem C sequestration.

  19. Rhizosphere bacteria mobilize Zn for hyperaccumulation by Thlaspi caerulescens.

    PubMed

    Whiting, S N; de Souza, M P; Terry, N

    2001-08-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens has a remarkable ability to hyperaccumulate Zn from soils containing mostly nonlabile Zn. The present study shows that rhizosphere microbes play an important role in increasing the availability of water-soluble Zn in soil, thus enhancing Zn accumulation by T. caerulescens. The addition of bacteria to surface-sterilized seeds of T. caerulescens sown in autoclaved soil increased the Zn concentration in shoots 2-fold as compared to axenic controls; the total accumulation of Zn was enhanced 4-fold. When the same experiment was conducted with Thlaspi arvense, a nonaccumulator, bacteria had no effect on shoot Zn accumulation although they increased water-soluble Zn concentrations available to both Thlaspi species by 22-67% as compared to the axenic controls. Further evidence that bacteria increase the availability of water-soluble Zn in soil was obtained when liquid media that had supported bacterial growth mobilized 1.3-1.8-fold more Zn from soil as compared to axenic media. Other experiments with agar media showed that bacteria did not facilitate an increase in the rate of soluble Zn transport into the root nor did they enlarge the surface area of the roots of either Thlaspi species. Thus, the bacterially mediated increase in the dissolution of Zn from the nonlabile phase in soil may enhance Zn accumulation in T. caerulescens shoots.

  20. Comparative bioremediation potential of four rhizospheric microbial species against lindane.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, P C; Srivastava, Shubhi; Singh, Nandita

    2011-01-01

    Four microbial species (Kocuria rhizophila, Microbacterium resistens, Staphylococcus equorum and Staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticus) were isolated from the rhizospheric zone of selected plants growing in a lindane contaminated environment and acclimatized in lindane spiked media (5-100 μg mL⁻¹). The isolated species were inoculated with soil containing 5, 50 and 100 mg kg⁻¹ of lindane and incubated at room temperature. Soil samples were collected periodically to evaluate the microbial dissipation kinetics, dissipation rate, residual lindane concentration and microbial biomass carbon (MBC). There was a marked difference (p < 0.05) in the MBC content and lindane dissipation rate of microbial isolates cultured in three different lindane concentrations. Further, the dissipation rate tended to decrease with increasing lindane concentrations. After 45 d, the residual lindane concentrations in three different spiked soils were reduced to 0%, 41% and 33%, respectively. Among the four species, S. cohnii subspecies urealyticus exhibited maximum dissipation (41.65 mg kg⁻¹) and can be exploited for the in situ remediation of low to medium level lindane contaminated soils.

  1. Enrichment and genotypic diversity of phlD-containing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. in two soils after a century of wheat and flax monoculture.

    PubMed

    Landa, Blanca B; Mavrodi, Olga V; Schroeder, Kurtis L; Allende-Molar, Raul; Weller, David M

    2006-03-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. producing the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) play a key role in the suppressiveness of some soils to take-all of wheat and other diseases caused by soilborne pathogens. Soils from side-by-side fields on the campus of North Dakota State University, Fargo, USA, which have undergone continuous wheat, continuous flax or crop rotation for over 100 years, were assayed for the presence of 2,4-DAPG producers. Flax and wheat monoculture, but not crop rotation, enriched for 2,4-DAPG producers, and population sizes of log 5.0 CFU g root(-1) or higher were detected in the rhizospheres of wheat and flax grown in the two monoculture soils. The composition of the genotypes enriched by the two crops differed. Four BOX-PCR genotypes (D, F, G, and J) and a new genotype (T) were detected among the 2,4-DAPG producers in the continuous flax soil, with F- and J-genotype isolates dominating (41 and 39% of the total, respectively). In contrast, two genotypes (D and I) were detected in the soil with continuous wheat, with D-genotype isolates comprising 77% of the total. In the crop-rotation soil, populations of 2,4-DAPG producers generally were below the detection limit, and only one genotype (J) was detected. Under growth-chamber and field conditions, D and I genotypes (enriched by wheat monoculture) colonized the wheat rhizosphere significantly better than isolates of other genotypes, while a J-genotype isolate colonized wheat and flax rhizospheres to the same extent. This study suggests that, over many years of monoculture, the crop species grown in a field enriches for genotypes of 2,4-DAPG producers from the reservoir of genotypes naturally present in the soil that are especially adapted to colonizing the rhizosphere of the crop grown.

  2. Importance of serological cross-reactivity among Toxoplasma gondii, Hammondia spp., Neospora spp., Sarcocystis spp. and Besnoitia besnoiti.

    PubMed

    Gondim, Luís F P; Mineo, José R; Schares, Gereon

    2017-02-28

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora spp., Sarcocystis spp., Hammondia spp. and Besnoitia besnoiti are genetically related cyst-forming coccidia. Serology is frequently used for the identification of T. gondii, Neospora spp. and B. besnoiti-exposed individuals. Serologic cross-reactions occur in different tests among animals infected with T. gondii and H. hammondi, as well as among animals infected by T. gondii and N. caninum. Infections caused by N. caninum and N. hughesi are almost indistinguishable by serology. Neospora caninum, B. besnoiti and Sarcocystis spp. infections in cattle show some degree of serologic cross-reactivity. Antibody cross-reactivity between Neospora spp. and H. heydorni-infected animals is suspected, but not proven to occur. We review serologic cross-reactivity among animals and/or humans infected with T. gondii, Neospora spp., Sarcocystis spp., Hammondia spp. and B. besnoiti. Emphasis is laid upon antigens and serological methods for N. caninum diagnosis which were tested for cross-reactivity with related protozoa. Species-specific antigens, as well as stage-specific proteins have been identified in some of these parasites and have promising use for diagnosis and epidemiological surveys.

  3. Acyl-homoserine lactone production is more common among plant-associated Pseudomonas spp. than among soilborne Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Elasri, M; Delorme, S; Lemanceau, P; Stewart, G; Laue, B; Glickmann, E; Oger, P M; Dessaux, Y

    2001-03-01

    A total of 137 soilborne and plant-associated bacterial strains belonging to different Pseudomonas species were tested for their ability to synthesize N-acyl-homoserine lactones (NAHL). Fifty-four strains synthesized NAHL. Interestingly, NAHL production appears to be more common among plant-associated than among soilborne Pseudomonas spp. Indeed, 40% of the analyzed Pseudomonas syringae strains produced NAHL which were identified most often as the short-chain NAHL, N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-homoserine lactone, and N-(3-oxo-octanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (no absolute correlation between genomospecies of P. syringae and their ability to produce NAHL could be found). Six strains of fluorescent pseudomonads, belonging to the species P. chlororaphis, P. fluorescens, and P. putida, isolated from the plant rhizosphere produced different types of NAHL. In contrast, none of the strains isolated from soil samples were shown to produce NAHL. The gene encoding the NAHL synthase in P. syringae pv. maculicola was isolated by complementation of an NAHL-deficient Chromobacterium mutant. Sequence analysis revealed the existence of a luxI homologue that we named psmI. This gene is sufficient to confer NAHL synthesis upon its bacterial host and has strong homology to psyI and ahlI, two genes involved in NAHL production in P. syringae pv. tabaci and P. syringae pv. syringae, respectively. We identified another open reading frame that we termed psmR, transcribed convergently in relation to psmI and partly overlapping psmI; this gene encodes a putative LuxR regulatory protein. This gene organization, with luxI and luxR homologues facing each other and overlapping, has been found so far only in the enteric bacteria Erwinia and Pantoea and in the related species P. syringae pv. tabaci.

  4. Rhizosphere bacteriome of the medicinal plant Sapindus saponaria L. revealed by pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Garcia, A; Polonio, J C; Polli, A D; Santos, C M; Rhoden, S A; Quecine, M C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2016-11-03

    Sapindus saponaria L. of Sapindaceae family is popularly known as soldier soap and is found in Central and South America. A study of such medicinal plants might reveal a more complex diversity of microorganisms as compared to non-medicinal plants, considering their metabolic potential and the chemical communication between their natural microbiota. Rhizosphere is a highly diverse microbial habitat with respect to both the diversity of species and the size of the community. Rhizosphere bacteriome associated with medicinal plant S. saponaria is still poorly known. The objective of this study was to assess the rhizosphere microbiome of the medicinal plant S. saponaria using pyrosequencing, a culture-independent approach that is increasingly being used to estimate the number of bacterial species present in different environments. In their rhizosphere microbiome, 26 phyla were identified from 5089 sequences of 16S rRNA gene, with a predominance of Actinobacteria (33.54%), Acidobacteria (22.62%), and Proteobacteria (24.72%). The rarefaction curve showed a linear increase, with 2660 operational taxonomic units at 3% distance sequence dissimilarity, indicating that the rhizosphere microbiome associated with S. saponaria was highly diverse with groups of bacteria important for soil management, which could be further exploited for agricultural and biotechnological purposes.

  5. Diclofop-methyl affects microbial rhizosphere community and induces systemic acquired resistance in rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; Li, Xingxing; Lavoie, Michel; Jin, Yujian; Xu, Jiahui; Fu, Zhengwei; Qian, Haifeng

    2017-01-01

    Diclofop-methyl (DM), a widely used herbicide in food crops, may partly contaminate the soil surface of natural ecosystems in agricultural area and exert toxic effects at low dose to nontarget plants. Even though rhizosphere microorganisms strongly interact with root cells, little is known regarding their potential modulating effect on herbicide toxicity in plants. Here we exposed rice seedlings (Xiushui 63) to 100μg/L DM for 2 to 8days and studied the effects of DM on rice rhizosphere microorganisms, rice systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and rice-microorganisms interactions. The results of metagenomic 16S rDNA Illumina tags show that DM increases bacterial biomass and affects their community structure in the rice rhizosphere. After DM treatment, the relative abundance of the bacterium genera Massilia and Anderseniella increased the most relative to the control. In parallel, malate and oxalate exudation by rice roots increased, potentially acting as a carbon source for several rhizosphere bacteria. Transcriptomic analyses suggest that DM induced SAR in rice seedlings through the salicylic acid (but not the jasmonic acid) signal pathway. This response to DM stress conferred resistance to infection by a pathogenic bacterium, but was not influenced by the presence of bacteria in the rhizosphere since SAR transcripts did not change significantly in xenic and axenic plant roots exposed to DM. The present study provides new insights on the response of rice and its associated microorganisms to DM stress.

  6. [Effects of Chinese onion' s root exudates on cucumber seedlings growth and rhizosphere soil microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Shou-wei; Pan, Kai; Wu, Feng-zhi

    2013-04-01

    Taking the Chinese onion cultivars with different allelopathy potentials as the donor and cucumber as the accepter, this paper studied the effects of Chinese onion' s root exudates on the seedlings growth of cucumber and the culturable microbial number and bacterial community structure in the seedlings rhizosphere soil. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars could promote the growth of cucumber seedlings, and the stimulatory effect increased with the increasing concentration of the root exudates. However, at the same concentrations of root exudates, the stimulatory effect had no significant differences between the Chinese onion cultivars with strong and weak allelopathy potential. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars increased the individual numbers of bacteria and actinomyces but decreased those of fungi and Fusarium in rhizosphere soil, being more significant for the Chinese onion cultivar with high allelopathy potential (L-06). The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars also increased the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil. The cloning and sequencing results indicated that the differential bacteria bands were affiliated with Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Anaerolineaceae, and Anaerolineaceae only occurred in the rhizosphere soil in the treatment of high allelopathy potential Chinese onion (L-06). It was suggested that high concentration (10 mL per plant) of root exudates from high allelopathy potential Chinese onion (L-06) could benefit the increase of bacterial community diversity in cucumber seedlings rhizosphere soil.

  7. Rhizosphere Bacteria Enhance Selenium Accumulation and Volatilization by Indian Mustard1

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Mark P.; Chu, Dara; Zhao, May; Zayed, Adel M.; Ruzin, Steven E.; Schichnes, Denise; Terry, Norman

    1999-01-01

    Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) accumulates high tissue Se concentrations and volatilizes Se in relatively nontoxic forms, such as dimethylselenide. This study showed that the presence of bacteria in the rhizosphere of Indian mustard was necessary to achieve the best rates of plant Se accumulation and volatilization of selenate. Experiments with the antibiotic ampicillin showed that bacteria facilitated 35% of plant Se volatilization and 70% of plant tissue accumulation. These results were confirmed by inoculating axenic plants with rhizosphere bacteria. Compared with axenic controls, plants inoculated with rhizosphere bacteria had 5-fold higher Se concentrations in roots (the site of volatilization) and 4-fold higher rates of Se volatilization. Plants with bacteria contained a heat-labile compound in their root exudate; when this compound was added to the rhizosphere of axenic plants, Se accumulation in plant tissues increased. Plants with bacteria had an increased root surface area compared with axenic plants; the increased area was unlikely to have caused their increased tissue Se accumulation because they did not accumulate more Se when supplied with selenite or selenomethionine. Rhizosphere bacteria also possibly increased plant Se volatilization because they enabled plants to overcome a rate-limiting step in the Se volatilization pathway, i.e. Se accumulation in plant tissues. PMID:9952452

  8. [Effects of different organic fertilizers on the microbes in rhizospheric soil of flue-cured tobacco].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun-Wei; Xu, Zhi; Tang, Li; Li, Yan-Hong; Song, Jian-Qun; Xu, Jian-Qin

    2013-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying different organic fertilizers (refined organic fertilizer and bio-organic fertilizer) and their combination with 20% reduced chemical fertilizers on the microbes in rhizospheric soil of flue-cured tobacco, the resistance of the tobacco against bacterial wilt, and the tobacco yield and quality. As compared with conventional chemical fertilization (CK), applying refined organic fertilizer (ROF) or bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization increased the bacterial number and the total microbial number in the rhizospheric soil significantly. Applying BIO in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization also increased the actinomyces number in the rhizospheric soil significantly, with an increment of 44.3% as compared with that under the application of ROF in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization, but decreased the fungal number. As compared with CK, the ROF and BIO increased the carbon use capacity of rhizospheric microbes significantly, and the BIO also increased the capacity of rhizospheric microbes in using phenols significantly. Under the application of ROF and BIO, the disease incidence and the disease index of bacterial wilt were decreased by 4% and 8%, and 23% and 15.9%, and the proportions of high grade tobacco leaves increased significantly by 10.5% and 9.7%, respectively, as compared with those in CK. BIO increased the tobacco yield and its output value by 17.1% and 18.9% , respectively, as compared with ROF.

  9. Root growth and exudate production define the frequency of horizontal plasmid transfer in the Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Mølbak, Lars; Molin, Søren; Kroer, Niels

    2007-01-01

    To identify the main drivers of plasmid transfer in the rhizosphere, conjugal transfer was studied in the rhizospheres of pea and barley. The donor Pseudomonas putida KT2442, containing plasmid pKJK5::gfp, was coated onto the seeds, while the recipient P. putida LM24, having a chromosomal insertion of dsRed, was inoculated into the growth medium. Mean transconjugant-to-donor ratios in vermiculite were 4.0+/-0.8 x 10(-2) in the pea and 5.9+/-1.4 x 10(-3) in the barley rhizospheres. In soil, transfer ratios were about 10 times lower. As a result of a 2-times higher root exudation rate in pea, donor densities in pea (1 x 10(6)-2 x 10(9) CFU g(-1) root) were about 10 times higher than in barley. No difference in recipient densities was observed. In situ visualization of single cells on the rhizoplane and macroscopic visualization of the colonization pattern showed that donors and transconjugants were ubiquitously distributed in the pea rhizosphere, while they were only located on the upper parts of the barley roots. Because the barley root elongated about 10 times faster than the pea root, donors were probably outgrown by the elongating barley root. Thus by affecting the cell density and distribution, exudation and root growth appear to be key parameters controlling plasmid transfer in the rhizosphere.

  10. Rhizosphere effect of Scirpus triqueter on soil microbial structure during phytoremediation of diesel-contaminated wetland.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xinying; Chen, Xueping; Liu, Shanshan; Chen, Lisha

    2014-01-01

    Though phytoremediation has been widely used to restore various contaminated sites, it is still unclear how soil microbial communities respond microecologically to plants and pollutants during the process. In this paper, batch microcosms imitating in situ phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated wetland by Scirpus triqueter were set up to monitor the influence of plant rhizosphere effect on soil microbes. Palmitic acid, one of the main root exudates of S. triqueter, was added to strengthen rhizosphere effect. Abundances of certain microbial subgroups were quantified by phospholipid fatty acid profiles. Results showed that diesel removal extents were significantly higher in the rhizosphere (57.6 +/-4.2-65.5 +/- 6.9%) than those in bulk soil (27.8 +/-6.5-36.3 +/- 3.2%). In addition, abundances of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in planted soil than those in the bulk soil. When it was less than 15,000 mg diesel kg soil-1, increasing diesel concentration led to higher abundances of fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The addition of palmitic acid amplified the rhizosphere effect on soil microbial populations and diesel removal. Principal component analysis revealed that plant rhizosphere effect was the dominant factor affecting microbial structure. These results provided new insights into plant-microbe-pollutant coactions responsible for diesel degradation, and they were valuable to facilitate phytoremediation of diesel contamination in wetland habitats.

  11. Evidence of antagonistic interactions between rhizosphere microorganisms and mycorrhizal fungi associated with birch ( Betula pubescens)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Sari; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2005-09-01

    We studied the role of carbon availability in the relationship between soil rhizosphere microorganisms and mycorrhizal fungi (Basidiomycetes) associated with birch ( Betula pubescens L.) seedlings in a greenhouse experiment through artificial herbivory (clipping), glucose addition and microbial toxin treatments. Artificial herbivory significantly decreased the amount of ergosterol, a fungus-specific sterol, in the birch roots and microbial respiration in the soil. Reduction in plant's photosynthetic ability thus reduced availability of carbon for both mycorrhizal fungi and rhizosphere microorganisms. Adding glucose, a carbon source easily assimilable by soil microorganisms, significantly enhanced microbial respiration, and counteracted the negative effects of clipping on microbial respiration. At the same time, the amount of ergosterol in the birch roots was decreased, indicating that enhanced activity of rhizosphere microorganisms had a negative impact on the mycorrhizal fungi. The outcome of glucose addition on mycorrhizal fungi did not interact with the clipping treatment. A fungal and bacterial toxin treatment did not affect microbial respiration, but significantly increased the birch root growth and amount of ergosterol in the treatment without the glucose addition. Our results show that rhizosphere microorganisms may have antagonistic effects on mycorrhizal fungi associated with the birch. We suggest that the antagonistic interactions between rhizosphere microorganisms and mycorrhizal fungi may have an important role in the functions of mycorrhizal systems and its significance in natural systems should be further investigated.

  12. Phenanthrene-degrader community dynamics in rhizosphere soil from a common annual grass

    SciTech Connect

    Miya, R.K.; Firestone, M.K.

    2000-04-01

    Enhanced rates of phenanthrene biodegradation were observed in rhizosphere soils planted with slender oat (Avena barbata Pott ex Link) compared with unplanted bulk soil controls. Soil microbial populations were characterized using a modified most probable number (MPN) method to determine quantitative shifts in heterotrophic and phenanthrene degrader communities while principal component analysis (PCA) of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) data from isolated phenanthrene degraders was used to identify qualitative differences and degrader community diversity. The average heterotrophic bacterial population over time was about three times larger in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil while phenanthrene degrading populations increased by as much as an order of magnitude between 24 and 28 days after planting (DAP). Thus, phenanthrene degraders were selectively enriched in rhizosphere soil compared with bulk soil. The greatest selection for degraders occurred during the later stages of plant development from 24 to 32 DAP. A PCA plot of the FAME data from phenanthrene degrader isolates indicated that the rhizosphere degraders were less diverse than bulk soil degraders. These results give some insight into the mechanisms responsible for enhanced biodegradation and selective degrader enrichment in Rhizosphere soils.

  13. Genetic and functional diversities of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of Arachis hypogaea.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Shyamalina; Choudhury, Susanta Roy; Sengupta, Sanghamitra

    2011-06-01

    Bioinoculants are environmentally friendly, energy efficient and economically viable resources in sustainable agriculture. Knowledge of the structure and activities of microbial population in the rhizosphere of a plant is essential to formulate an effective bioinoculant. In this study, the bacterial community present in the rhizosphere of an important oilseed legume, Arachis hypogaea (L.) was described with respect to adjoining bulk soil as a baseline control using a 16S rDNA based metagenomic approach. Significantly higher abundance of Gamma-proteobacteria, a prevalence of Bacillus and the Cytophaga-Flavobacteria group of Bacteroidetes and absence of the Rhizobiaceae family of Alpha-proteobacteria were the major features observed in the matured Arachis-rhizosphere. The functional characterization of the rhizosphere-competent bacteria was performed using culture-dependent determination of phenotypes. Most bacterial isolates from the groundnut-rhizosphere exhibited multiple biochemical activities associated with plant growth and disease control. Validation of the beneficial traits in candidate bioinoculants in pot-cultures and field trials is necessary before their targeted application in the groundnut production system.

  14. Water dynamics in the rhizosphere - a new model of coupled water uptake and mucilage exudation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroener, Eva; Holz, Maire; Ahmed, Mutez; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Bittelli, Marco; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The flow of water from soil to plant roots is affected by the narrow region of soil close to the roots, the so-called rhizosphere. The rhizosphere is influenced by mucilage, a polymeric gel exuded by roots that alters the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere. Here we present a model that accounts for: (a) an increase in equilibrium water retention curve caused by the water holding capacity of mucilage, (b) a reduction of hydraulic conductivity at a given water content due to the higher viscosity of mucilage and (c) the swelling and shrinking dynamics by decoupling water content and water potential and introducing a non-equilibrium water retention curve. The model has been tested for mixtures of soil and mucilage and we applied it to simulate observations of previous experiments with real plants growing in soil that show evidences of altered hydraulic dynamics in the rhizosphere. Furthermore we present results about how the parameters of the model depend on soil texture and root age. Finally we couple our hydraulic model to a diffusion model of mucilage into the soil. Opposed to classical solute transport models here the water flow in the rhizosphere is affected by the concentration distribution of mucilage.

  15. Rhizosphere Processes Are Quantitatively Important Components of Terrestrial Biogeochemical Cycles: Data & Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finzi, A.

    2016-12-01

    The rhizosphere is a hot spot and hot moment for biogeochemical cycles. Microbial activity, extracellular enzyme activity and element cycles are greatly enhanced by root derived carbon inputs. As such the rhizosphere may be an important driver of ecosystem responses to global changes such as rising temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Empirical research on the rhizosphere is extensive but extrapolation of rhizosphere processes to large spatial and temporal scales is largely uninterrogated. Using a combination of field studies, meta-analysis and numerical models we have found good reason to think that scaling is possible. In this talk I discuss the results of this research and focus on the results of a new modeling effort that explicitly links root distribution and architecture with a model of microbial physiology to assess the extent to which rhizosphere processes may affect ecosystem responses to global change. Results to date suggest that root inputs of C and possibly nutrients (ie, nitrogen) impact the fate of new C inputs to the soil (ie, accumulation or loss) in response to warming and enhanced productivity at elevated CO2. The model also provides qualitative guidance on incorporating the known effects of ectomycorrhizal fungi on decomposition and rates of soil C and N cycling.

  16. Impact of the lavender rhizosphere on the mercury uptake in field conditions.

    PubMed

    Sierra, M J; Rodríguez-Alonso, J; Millán, R

    2012-11-01

    Lavender plants as well as their rhizosphere and bulk soil were sampled on a wide range of soils with different land use within the Almadén mercury mining district. The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of the rhizosphere on mercury behavior in soil-lavender plant system including chemometric analysis. The edaphic parameters that significantly differed between lavender rhizosphere and bulk soil were: total Hg; easily available Hg; electrical conductivity; organic matter; cation exchange capacity; soluble ions (Cl(-); SO(4)(2-); PO(4)(3-); NO(3)(-); Al(+); Mn(2+); Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)). The most important variable in the differentiation is electrical conductivity. Furthermore, both organic matter and Mn(2+) in rhizosphere soil seem to block Hg availability to plant. However, the presence of sulfates seems to favor it. Regarding other relationships, Hg seems to block Pb uptake by lavender plants and, on the other hand, the presence of Mn(2+) seems to favor it. Furthermore, Hg root uptake by lavender and its distribution throughout the plant have been studied. The more available Hg in rhizosphere soil, the more Hg is translocated to aerial part and less Hg is retained by root. In all cases, the Hg concentration in the root was higher than in the aerial part.

  17. Effects of preconditioning the rhizosphere of different plant species on biotic methane oxidation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ndanga, Éliane M; Lopera, Carolina B; Bradley, Robert L; Cabral, Alexandre R

    2016-09-01

    The rhizosphere is known as the most active biogeochemical layer of the soil. Therefore, it could be a beneficial environment for biotic methane oxidation. The aim of this study was to document - by means of batch incubation tests - the kinetics of CH4 oxidation in rhizosphere soils that were previously exposed to methane. Soils from three pre-exposure to CH4 zones were sampled: the never-before pre-exposed (NEX), the moderately pre-exposed (MEX) and the very pre-exposed (VEX). For each pre-exposure zone, the rhizosphere of several plant species was collected, pre-incubated, placed in glass vials and submitted to CH4 concentrations varying from 0.5% to 10%. The time to the beginning of CH4 consumption and the CH4 oxidation rate were recorded. The results showed that the fastest CH4 consumption occurred for the very pre-exposed rhizosphere. Specifically, a statistically significant difference in CH4 oxidation half-life was found between the rhizosphere of the VEX vegetated with a mixture of different plants and the NEX vegetated with ryegrass. This difference was attributed to the combined effect of the preconditioning level and plant species as well as to the organic matter content. Regardless of the preconditioning level, the oxidation rate values obtained in this study were comparable to those reported in the reviewed literature for mature compost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Different Bacterial Populations Associated with the Roots and Rhizosphere of Rice Incorporate Plant-Derived Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Marcela; Yuan, Quan; Conrad, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with the roots of plants have an important function in plant growth and in soil carbon sequestration. Rice cultivation is the second largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric CH4, which is a significant greenhouse gas. Up to 60% of fixed carbon formed by photosynthesis in plants is transported below ground, much of it as root exudates that are consumed by microorganisms. A stable isotope probing (SIP) approach was used to identify microorganisms using plant carbon in association with the roots and rhizosphere of rice plants. Rice plants grown in Italian paddy soil were labeled with 13CO2 for 10 days. RNA was extracted from root material and rhizosphere soil and subjected to cesium gradient centrifugation followed by 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing to identify microorganisms enriched with 13C. Thirty operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were labeled and mostly corresponded to Proteobacteria (13 OTUs) and Verrucomicrobia (8 OTUs). These OTUs were affiliated with the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria classes of Proteobacteria and the “Spartobacteria” and Opitutae classes of Verrucomicrobia. In general, different bacterial groups were labeled in the root and rhizosphere, reflecting different physicochemical characteristics of these locations. The labeled OTUs in the root compartment corresponded to a greater proportion of the 16S rRNA sequences (∼20%) than did those in the rhizosphere (∼4%), indicating that a proportion of the active microbial community on the roots greater than that in the rhizosphere incorporated plant-derived carbon within the time frame of the experiment. PMID:25616793

  19. A Greenhouse Assay on the Effect of Applied Urea Amount on the Rhizospheric Soil Bacterial Communities.

    PubMed

    Shang, Shuanghua; Yi, Yanli

    2015-12-01

    The rhizospheric bacteria play key role in plant nutrition and growth promotion. The effects of increased nitrogen inputs on plant rhizospheric soils also have impacted on whole soil microbial communities. In this study, we analyzed the effects of applied nitrogen (urea) on rhizospheric bacterial composition and diversity in a greenhouse assay using the high-throughput sequencing technique. To explore the environmental factors driving the abundance, diversity and composition of soil bacterial communities, the relationship between soil variables and the bacterial communities were also analyzed using the mantel test as well as the redundancy analysis. The results revealed significant bacterial diversity changes at different amounts of applied urea, especially between the control treatment and the N fertilized treatments. Mantel tests showed that the bacterial communities were significantly correlated with the soil nitrate nitrogen, available nitrogen, soil pH, ammonium nitrogen and total organic carbon. The present study deepened the understanding about the rhizospheric soil microbial communities under different amounts of applied urea in greenhouse conditions, and our work revealed the environmental factors affecting the abundance, diversity and composition of rhizospheric bacterial communities.

  20. Molecular Analysis of Diazotroph Diversity in the Rhizosphere of the Smooth Cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora

    PubMed Central

    Lovell, Charles R.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Quattro, Joseph M.; Bagwell, Christopher E.

    2000-01-01

    N2 fixation by diazotrophic bacteria associated with the roots of the smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, is an important source of new nitrogen in many salt marsh ecosystems. However, the diversity and phylogenetic affiliations of these rhizosphere diazotrophs are unknown. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified nifH sequence segments was used in previous studies to examine the stability and dynamics of the Spartina rhizosphere diazotroph assemblages in the North Inlet salt marsh, near Georgetown, S.C. In this study, plugs were taken from gel bands from representative DGGE gels, the nifH amplimers were recovered and cloned, and their sequences were determined. A total of 59 sequences were recovered, and the amino acid sequences predicted from them were aligned with sequences from known and unknown diazotrophs in order to determine the types of organisms present in the Spartina rhizosphere. We recovered numerous sequences from diazotrophs in the γ subdivision of the division Proteobacteria (γ-Proteobacteria) and from various anaerobic diazotrophs. Diazotrophs in the α-Proteobacteria were poorly represented. None of the Spartina rhizosphere DGGE band sequences were identical to any known or previously recovered environmental nifH sequences. The Spartina rhizosphere diazotroph assemblage is very diverse and apparently consists mainly of unknown organisms. PMID:10966395

  1. Development of novel Alicyclobacillus spp. isolation medium.

    PubMed

    Chang, S; Kang, D-H

    2005-01-01

    To develop a new isolation medium with higher recovery rates of Alicyclobacillus spp. SK agar was developed with optimized incubation temperature, pH, acidulant, Tween 80 concentration and divalent cation addition. Results indicate that detection of Alicyclobacillus spp. by SK agar was significantly higher (P > 0.05) than those obtained by K agar, orange serum agar, and potato dextrose agar. Current media used for Alicyclobacillus spp. isolation still resulted in high numbers of false negative products. The sensitivity of SK agar to Alicyclobacillus spp. allows detection of low numbers of Alicyclobacillus spp. and also provides a more higher isolation results compared with currently used media. SK agar will be useful to the fruit juice industry to obtain more accurate numbers of contaminant Alicyclobacillus spp. With this media, false negative samples can be reduced, and the likelihood of exported products being rejected can be greatly reduced.

  2. Phermonal Control of Biting Midges (Culicoides SPP).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-28

    AD-A113 915 FLORIDA MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY LAB VERO BEACH F/G 6/3 PHERMONAL CONTROL OF BITING MIDGES ( CULICOIDES SPP ).(U) APR 82 J R LINLEY» D A...BITING MIDGES ( CULICOIDES SPP .) By Dr. 0. R. Linley, co-principal investigator, Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, Institute of Food and...CONTROL OF BITING MIDGES ( CULICOIDES SPP .) Annual ’ 35/01/81-04/30/82 7. AUTHORS J. R. Unley 0. A. Carlson » PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME

  3. Bacterial community structure in the rhizosphere of three cactus species from semi-arid highlands in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Garrido, J Félix; Montiel-Lugo, Daniel; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Torres-Cortes, Gloria; Millán, Vicenta; Toro, Nicolás; Martínez-Abarca, Francisco; Ramírez-Saad, Hugo C

    2012-05-01

    The nature reserve of Tehuacan-Cuicatlan in central Mexico is known for its diversity and endemism mainly in cactus plants. Although the xerophytic flora is reasonably documented, the bacterial communities associated with these species have been largely neglected. We assessed the diversity and composition of bacterial communities in bulk (non-rhizospheric) soil and the rhizosphere of three cactus plant species: Mammillaria carnea, Opuntia pilifera and Stenocereus stellatus, approached using cultivation and molecular techniques, considering the possible effect of dry and rainy seasons. Cultivation-dependent methods were focused on putative N(2)-fixers and heterotrophic aerobic bacteria, in the two media tested the values obtained for dry season samples grouped together regardless of the sample type (rhizospheric or non-rhizospheric), these groups also included the non-rhizospheric sample for rainy season, on each medium. These CFU values were smaller and significantly different from those obtained on rhizospheric samples from rainy season. Genera composition among isolates of the rhizospheric samples was very similar for each season, the most abundant taxa being α-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Interestingly, the genus Ochrobactrum was highly represented among rhizospheric samples, when cultured in N-free medium. The structure of the bacterial communities was approached with molecular techniques targeting partial 16S rRNA sequences such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and serial analysis of ribosomal sequence tags. Under these approaches, the most represented bacterial phyla were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria. The first two were also highly represented when using isolation techniques.

  4. Rhizosphere stoichiometry: are C : N : P ratios of plants, soils, and enzymes conserved at the plant species-level?

    PubMed

    Bell, Colin; Carrillo, Yolima; Boot, Claudia M; Rocca, Jennifer D; Pendall, Elise; Wallenstein, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of the tight linkages among soils, plants and microbes inhabiting the rhizosphere, we hypothesized that soil nutrient and microbial stoichiometry would differ among plant species and be correlated within plant rhizospheres. We assessed plant tissue carbon (C) : nitrogen (N) : phosphorus (P) ratios for eight species representing four different plant functional groups in a semiarid grassland during near-peak biomass. Using intact plant species-specific rhizospheres, we examined soil C : N : P, microbial biomass C : N, and soil enzyme C : N : P nutrient acquisition activities. We found that few of the plant species' rhizospheres demonstrated distinct stoichiometric properties from other plant species and unvegetated soil. Plant tissue nutrient ratios and components of below-ground rhizosphere stoichiometry predominantly differed between the C4 plant species Buchloe dactyloides and the legume Astragalus laxmannii. The rhizospheres under the C4 grass B. dactyloides exhibited relatively higher microbial C and lower soil N, indicative of distinct soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and nutrient mineralization activities. Assessing the ecological stoichiometry among plant species' rhizospheres is a high-resolution tool useful for linking plant community composition to below-ground soil microbial and nutrient characteristics. By identifying how rhizospheres differ among plant species, we can better assess how plant-microbial interactions associated with ecosystem-level processes may be influenced by plant community shifts.

  5. Responses of soil microbial communities in the rhizosphere of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) to exogenously applied p-hydroxybenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xingang; Yu, Gaobo; Wu, Fengzhi

    2012-08-01

    Changes in soil biological properties have been implicated as one of the causes of soil sickness, a phenomenon that occurs in continuous monocropping systems. However, the causes for these changes are not yet clear. The aim of this work was to elucidate the role of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), an autotoxin of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), in changing soil microbial communities. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was applied to soil every other day for 10 days in cucumber pot assays. Then, the structures and sizes of bacterial and fungal communities, dehydrogenase activity, and microbial carbon biomass (MCB) were assessed in the rhizosphere soil. Structures and sizes of rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR, respectively. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid inhibited cucumber seedling growth and stimulated rhizosphere dehydrogenase activity, MBC content, and bacterial and fungal community sizes. Rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities responded differently to exogenously applied PHBA. The PHBA decreased the Shannon-Wiener index for the rhizosphere bacterial community but increased that for the rhizosphere fungal community. In addition, the response of the rhizosphere fungal community structure to PHBA acid was concentration dependent, but was not for the rhizosphere bacterial community structure. Our results indicate that PHBA plays a significant role in the chemical interactions between cucumber and soil microorganisms and could account for the changes in soil microbial communities in the continuously monocropped cucumber system.

  6. [Characteristics of available P in the rhizosphere soil in pure Juglans mandshurica and Larix gmelinii and their mixed plantation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongliang; Han, Shijie; Zhou, Yumei; Zou, Chunjing; Zhang, Junhui

    2002-07-01

    The rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils were sampled in the pure and mixed plantations of Juglans mandshurica and Larix gmelinii by peeling the adhering soil of the roots, and the available P content were analyzed. The results showed that the available P content in the rhizosphere soil in the pure Larix gmelinii was 55.8% higher than that in the non-rhizosphere soil, while the available P content in the pure Juglans mandshurica was higher than that in the non-rhizosphere soil by 10.1%. The roots of Larix gmelinii had important effect on mobilizing P in the rhizosphere soil. The available P content in rhizosphere soil of Juglans mandshurica in the mixed plantation was higher than that in the pure plantation by 45.2% due to the effects of the roots of Larix gmelinii. The mechanism by which the available P content in the rhizosphere soil of Larix gmelinii was much higher was elucidated by means of P absorption, P desorption, and inorganic P gradation.

  7. Isolation and characterization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from wheat rhizosphere and their effect on plant growth promotion.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Afshan; Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Rahim, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the native plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria from wheat rhizosphere and root-endosphere in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. Nine bacterial isolates were purified, screened in vitro for PGP characteristics and evaluated for their beneficial effects on the early growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Among nine bacterial isolates, seven were able to produce indole-3- acetic acid in tryptophan-supplemented medium; seven were nitrogen fixer, and four were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate in vitro. Four different morphotypes were genotypically identified based on IGS-RFLP fingerprinting and representative of each morphotype was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis except Gram-positive putative Bacillus sp. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, bacterial isolates AJK-3 and AJK-9 showing multiple PGP-traits were identified as Stenotrophomonas spp. while AJK-7 showed equal homologies to Acetobacter pasteurianus and Stenotrophomonas specie. Plant inoculation studies indicated that these Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains provided a significant increase in shoot and root length, and shoot and root biomass. A significant increase in shoot N contents (up to 76%) and root N contents (up to 32%) was observed over the un-inoculated control. The study indicates the potential of these PGPR for inoculums production or biofertilizers for enhancing growth and nutrient content of wheat and other crops under field conditions. The study is the first report of wheat associated bacterial diversity in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, AJK.

  8. Isolation and characterization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from wheat rhizosphere and their effect on plant growth promotion

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Afshan; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Rahim, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the native plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria from wheat rhizosphere and root-endosphere in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. Nine bacterial isolates were purified, screened in vitro for PGP characteristics and evaluated for their beneficial effects on the early growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Among nine bacterial isolates, seven were able to produce indole-3- acetic acid in tryptophan-supplemented medium; seven were nitrogen fixer, and four were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate in vitro. Four different morphotypes were genotypically identified based on IGS-RFLP fingerprinting and representative of each morphotype was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis except Gram-positive putative Bacillus sp. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, bacterial isolates AJK-3 and AJK-9 showing multiple PGP-traits were identified as Stenotrophomonas spp. while AJK-7 showed equal homologies to Acetobacter pasteurianus and Stenotrophomonas specie. Plant inoculation studies indicated that these Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains provided a significant increase in shoot and root length, and shoot and root biomass. A significant increase in shoot N contents (up to 76%) and root N contents (up to 32%) was observed over the un-inoculated control. The study indicates the potential of these PGPR for inoculums production or biofertilizers for enhancing growth and nutrient content of wheat and other crops under field conditions. The study is the first report of wheat associated bacterial diversity in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, AJK. PMID:25852661

  9. [Mycoses and zoonoses: Cryptococcus spp].

    PubMed

    Cabañes, F Javier

    2008-03-01

    The term "zoonosis" is difficult to delimit because different authors have various definitions for this term. Few mycoses are usually considered zoonoses. However, the role that animals play in the epidemiology of the main human mycoses is still not well known. Moreover, the environmental niches for these fungal agents have not yet been completely determined. This special issue of the "Revista Iberoamericana de Micología" deals with the talks and round table presented at the VIII Spanish Mycological Congress held in October 2006 in Barcelona, Spain on "Cryptococcus spp. and zoonoses".

  10. Osteosarcoma in Baboons (Papio spp).

    PubMed

    Mezzles, Marguerite J; Dick, Edward J; Owston, Michael A; Bauer, Cassondra

    2015-04-01

    Bone neoplasms in baboons (Papio spp) are rare, with only one confirmed case of osteosarcoma previously described in the literature. Over a 12-y period, 6 baboons at a national primate research center presented with naturally occurring osteosarcoma; 3 lesions affected the appendicular skeleton, and the remaining 3 were in the head (skull and mandible). The 6 cases presented were identified in members of a large outdoor-housed breeding colony. The subjects were not genetically related or exposed to the same research conditions. Diagnoses were made based on the presentation and radiographic findings, with histologic confirmation.

  11. Osteosarcoma in Baboons (Papio spp)

    PubMed Central

    Mezzles, Marguerite J; Dick, Edward J; Owston, Michael A; Bauer, Cassondra

    2015-01-01

    Bone neoplasms in baboons (Papio spp) are rare, with only one confirmed case of osteosarcoma previously described in the literature. Over a 12-y period, 6 baboons at a national primate research center presented with naturally occurring osteosarcoma; 3 lesions affected the appendicular skeleton, and the remaining 3 were in the head (skull and mandible). The 6 cases presented were identified in members of a large outdoor-housed breeding colony. The subjects were not genetically related or exposed to the same research conditions. Diagnoses were made based on the presentation and radiographic findings, with histologic confirmation. PMID:25926401

  12. Nitrogen fertilizer dose alters fungal communities in sugarcane soil and rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Yeoh, Yun Kit; Kasinadhuni, Naga Rup Pinaki; Lonhienne, Thierry G. A.; Robinson, Nicole; Hugenholtz, Philip; Ragan, Mark A.; Schmidt, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Fungi play important roles as decomposers, plant symbionts and pathogens in soils. The structure of fungal communities in the rhizosphere is the result of complex interactions among selection factors that may favour beneficial or detrimental relationships. Using culture-independent fungal community profiling, we have investigated the effects of nitrogen fertilizer dosage on fungal communities in soil and rhizosphere of field-grown sugarcane. The results show that the concentration of nitrogen fertilizer strongly modifies the composition but not the taxon richness of fungal communities in soil and rhizosphere. Increased nitrogen fertilizer dosage has a potential negative impact on carbon cycling in soil and promotes fungal genera with known pathogenic traits, uncovering a negative effect of intensive fertilization. PMID:25728892

  13. Purple Phototrophic Bacterium Enhances Stevioside Yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via Foliar Spray and Rhizosphere Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Yiming; Lin, Xiangui

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) on growth and stevioside (ST) yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield plant -1 by 69.2% as compared to the control. The soil dehydrogenase activity, S. rebaudiana shoot biomass, chlorophyll content in new leaves, and soluble sugar in old leaves were affected significantly by S+I treatment, too. The PPB probably works in the rhizosphere by activating the metabolic activity of soil bacteria, and on leaves by excreting phytohormones or enhancing the activity of phyllosphere microorganisms. PMID:23825677

  14. Activation of the Jasmonic Acid Plant Defence Pathway Alters the Composition of Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Carvalhais, Lilia C.; Dennis, Paul G.; Badri, Dayakar V.; Tyson, Gene W.; Vivanco, Jorge M.; Schenk, Peer M.

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) signalling plays a central role in plant defences against necrotrophic pathogens and herbivorous insects, which afflict both roots and shoots. This pathway is also activated following the interaction with beneficial microbes that may lead to induced systemic resistance. Activation of the JA signalling pathway via application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) alters the composition of carbon containing compounds released by roots, which are implicated as key determinants of rhizosphere microbial community structure. In this study, we investigated the influence of the JA defence signalling pathway activation in Arabidopsis thaliana on the structure of associated rhizosphere bacterial communities using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing. Application of MeJA did not directly influence bulk soil microbial communities but significant changes in rhizosphere community composition were observed upon activation of the jasmonate signalling pathway. Our results suggest that JA signalling may mediate plant-bacteria interactions in the soil upon necrotrophic pathogen and herbivorous insect attacks. PMID:23424661

  15. The seasonal dynamics of yeast communities in the rhizosphere of soddy-podzolic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubtsova, Yu. V.; Glushakova, A. M.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2007-08-01

    The annual dynamics of the number and taxonomic composition of yeast was studied in the rhizosphere of two plant species (Ajuga reptans L. and Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) in a forb-birch forest on soddy-podzolic soil. Eurybiont phyllobasidial cryptococci and red-pigmented phytobionts Rhodotorula glutinis were found to predominate in the phyllosphere of these plants, whereas the typical pedobionts Cryptococcus terricola and Cr. podzolicus occurred on the surface of roots and in the rhizosphere. The seasonal changes in the number and species composition of the yeast communities in the rhizosphere were more smooth as compared to those in the phyllosphere. In the period of active vegetation of the plants, the phytobiont yeasts develop over their whole surface, including the rhizoplane. Their number on the aboveground parts of the plants was significantly lower than that of the pedobiont forms. Thus, the above-and underground parts of the plants significantly differed in the composition of the dominant species of epiphytic yeasts.

  16. [Experimental and mathematical modeling of population dynamics of rhizospheric bacteria under conditions of cadmium stress].

    PubMed

    Pishchik, V N; Vorob'ev, N I; Provorov, N A

    2005-01-01

    The method of membrane filters was used to study the population dynamics of bacteria belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Flavobacterium, and Klebsiella in barley (Hordeum vulgare) rhizosphere under conditions of cadmium stress (5-15 mg Cd/g soil). Mathematical modeling allowed us to demonstrate that the phytoprotective effect is implemented via the following succession of events: the bacteria synthesize phytohormones (IAA and ethylene)-->root excretory activity increases-->the number of the bacteria in the rhizoplane grows-->the flux of bacteria migrating from the rhizoplane to the rhizosphere increases-->the number of bacteria binding cadmium ions in the rhizosphere grows-->the amount of free ions entering the plant decreases. Among the bacteria studied, K. mobilis 880 displayed the highest migration and immobilization activity and the best survival rate under conditions of cadmium stress. Consequently, K. mobilis 880 is recommended for use in biopreparations for stimulating plant growth under conditions of heavy metal pollution.

  17. A novel sediment microbial fuel cell with a biocathode in the rice rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng; Huang, Yan-chao; Liang, Jian-hong; Zhao, Feng; Zhu, Yong-guan

    2012-03-01

    Wetland plants possess the unique ability to release oxygen as well as organic matter into the rhizosphere. It is understood that microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can use organic matter from plants as key electron donors, but the effect of root excreted oxygen on MFCs is presently unknown. In this study, a novel biocathode was buried in the rice rhizosphere and found to be capable of delivering electrons to root excreted oxygen for oxygen reduction reactions. The voltages between electrodes in the rhizosphere and bulk soil were found to increase initially, but dissipate after approximately 1 month. Results from the MFC and oxygen microelectrode experiments indicated that the oxygen efflux rate from rice roots was dependent on the root maturity. Furthermore, the excreted oxygen from wetland plant roots could be used for the construction of highly efficient biocathodes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of selected groups of microorganisms occurring in soil rhizosphere and phyllosphere of oats.

    PubMed

    Rekosz-Burlaga, Hanna; Garbolińska, Magdalena

    2006-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the microflora of phyllosphere and soil rhizosphere of hulled (Chwat variety) and naked (Akt variety) oats. The material taken for study embraced samples of leaves and soil rhizosphere taken from cultivations differing in extent of nitrogen fertilization. The studies involved determination of total number of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudomonas and microscopic hyphal fungi. Qualitative determinations focused on bacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter and Azospirillum were also made. Our results point to differences in number of microscopic hyphal fungi in the phyllosphere of both varieties of oats, depending on nitrogen fertilization dose. However, there were no significant differences in the number of bacteria of the different genera determined in the phyllosphere and rhizosphere. Strains of oligonitrophilic and diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from samples of the phyllosphere of oats and their N2-fixing activity was determined by the acetylene reduction method using gas chromatography.

  19. Purple phototrophic bacterium enhances stevioside yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Yiming; Lin, Xiangui

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) on growth and stevioside (ST) yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield plant (-1) by 69.2% as compared to the control. The soil dehydrogenase activity, S. rebaudiana shoot biomass, chlorophyll content in new leaves, and soluble sugar in old leaves were affected significantly by S+I treatment, too. The PPB probably works in the rhizosphere by activating the metabolic activity of soil bacteria, and on leaves by excreting phytohormones or enhancing the activity of phyllosphere microorganisms.

  20. Rhizosphere Priming is as Crucial as Temperature and Water in Regulating Soil C-N Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, W.

    2012-12-01

    When rootless soils are used in our experiments, we normally assume that rootless soils function in the same way as soils with roots. However, this assumption has become a major issue, as the rhizosphere priming effect (defined as the stimulation or suppression of soil organic matter decomposition by live roots) is increasingly recognized as a key mechanism regulating C release and N mineralization. Results from CO2-enrichment experiments suggest that the rhizosphere priming effect is crucial in regulating soil organic C storage and N mobilization. There has been a major surprise in some recent studies of the effects of elevated CO2 on soil C and N storage. Based on commonly reported findings of higher net primary production and greater organic C inputs belowground under elevated CO2, a significant increase in soil organic carbon storage has been widely expected. However, several studies provide opposing evidence, where soil organic C storage declined when ecosystems were exposed to elevated CO2. All these studies point to the rhizosphere priming effect as a key mechanism causing soil C loss. Based on laboratory investigations, many biotic and abiotic variables can alter the degree of rhizosphere priming. These variables include plant species, plant phenology, aboveground plant biomass, photosynthetic activity, nutrient level, soil water content, elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, root nitrogen content, and soil warming. The rhizosphere priming effect can reduce the rate of SOM decomposition by 50% or accelerate it up to four-fold, depending on plant-soil couplings and experimental conditions. Overall, the magnitude of the rhizosphere priming effect on soil organic matter decomposition is similar to the effects of temperature and soil moisture, therefore should be considered in all major global models with the same level of attention.

  1. [Effects of transgenic Bt + CpTI cotton on rhizosphere bacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria population].

    PubMed

    Dong, Lianhua; Meng, Ying; Wang, Jing

    2014-03-04

    The effect of transgenic cotton on the rhizosphere bacteria can be important to the risk assessment for the genetically modified crops. We studied the rhizosphere microbial community with cultivating genetically modified cotton. The effects of transgenic Bt + CpTI Cotton (SGK321) and its receptor cotton (SY321) on rhizosphere total bacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria population size were studied by using droplet digital PCR. We collected rhizosphere soil before cotton planting and along with the cotton growth stage (squaring stage, flowering stage, belling stage and boll opening stage). There was no significant change on the total bacterial population between the transgenic cotton and the receptor cotton along with the growth stage. However, the abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in both type of cottons showed significant difference between different growth stages, and the variation tendency was different. In squaring stage, the numbers of AOB in rhizosphere of SY321 and SGK321 increased 4 and 2 times, respectively. In flowering stage, AOB number in rhizosphere of SY321 significantly decreased to be 5.96 x 10(5) copies/g dry soil, however, that of SGK321 increased to be 1.25 x 10(6) copies/g dry soil. In belling stage, AOB number of SY321 greatly increased to be 1.49 x 10(6) copies/g dry soil, but no significant change was observed for AOB number of SGK321. In boll opening stage, both AOB number of SY321 and SGK321 clearly decreased and they were significantly different from each other. Compared to the non-genetically modified cotton, the change in abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria was slightly smooth in the transgenic cotton. Not only the cotton growth stage but also the cotton type caused this difference. The transgenic cotton can slow down the speed of ammonia transformation through impacting the number of AOB, which is advantageous for plant growth.

  2. Fungal Communities in Rhizosphere Soil under Conservation Tillage Shift in Response to Plant Growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziting; Li, Tong; Wen, Xiaoxia; Liu, Yang; Han, Juan; Liao, Yuncheng; DeBruyn, Jennifer M

    2017-01-01

    Conservation tillage is an extensively used agricultural practice in northern China that alters soil texture and nutrient conditions, causing changes in the soil microbial community. However, how conservation tillage affects rhizosphere and bulk soil fungal communities during plant growth remains unclear. The present study investigated the effect of long-term (6 years) conservation (chisel plow, zero) and conventional (plow) tillage during wheat growth on the rhizosphere fungal community, using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene and quantitative PCR. During tillering, fungal alpha diversity in both rhizosphere and bulk soil were significantly higher under zero tillage compared to other methods. Although tillage had no significant effect during the flowering stage, fungal alpha diversity at this stage was significantly different between rhizosphere and bulk soils, with bulk soil presenting the highest diversity. This was also reflected in the phylogenetic structure of the communities, as rhizosphere soil communities underwent a greater shift from tillering to flowering compared to bulk soil communities. In general, less variation in community structure was observed under zero tillage compared to plow and chisel plow treatments. Changes in the relative abundance of the fungal orders Capnodiales, Pleosporales, and Xylariales contributed the highest to the dissimilarities observed. Structural equation models revealed that the soil fungal communities under the three tillage regimes were likely influenced by the changes in soil properties associated with plant growth. This study suggested that: (1) differences in nutrient resources between rhizosphere and bulk soils can select for different types of fungi thereby increasing community variation during plant growth; (2) tillage can alter fungal communities' variability, with zero tillage promoting more stable communities. This work suggests that long-term changes in tillage regimes may

  3. Dynamics of fungal communities in bulk and maize rhizosphere soil in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Newton C Marcial; Fagbola, Olajire; Costa, Rodrigo; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvea; Buchner, Arno; Mendona-Hagler, Leda; Smalla, Kornelia

    2003-07-01

    The fungal population dynamics in soil and in the rhizospheres of two maize cultivars grown in tropical soils were studied by a cultivation-independent analysis of directly extracted DNA to provide baseline data. Soil and rhizosphere samples were taken from six plots 20, 40, and 90 days after planting in two consecutive years. A 1.65-kb fragment of the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplified from the total community DNA was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and by cloning and sequencing. A rhizosphere effect was observed for fungal populations at all stages of plant development. In addition, pronounced changes in the composition of fungal communities during plant growth development were found by DGGE. Similar types of fingerprints were observed in two consecutive growth periods. No major differences were detected in the fungal patterns of the two cultivars. Direct cloning of 18S rDNA fragments amplified from soil or rhizosphere DNA resulted in 75 clones matching 12 dominant DGGE bands. The clones were characterized by their HinfI restriction patterns, and 39 different clones representing each group of restriction patterns were sequenced. The cloning and sequencing approach provided information on the phylogeny of dominant amplifiable fungal populations and allowed us to determine a number of fungal phylotypes that contribute to each of the dominant DGGE bands. Based on the sequence similarity of the 18S rDNA fragment with existing fungal isolates in the database, it was shown that the rhizospheres of young maize plants seemed to select the Ascomycetes order Pleosporales, while different members of the Ascomycetes and basidiomycetic yeast were detected in the rhizospheres of senescent maize plants.

  4. [Fungal population structure and its biological effect in rhizosphere soil of continuously cropped potato].

    PubMed

    Meng, Pin-Pin; Liu, Xing; Qiu, Hui-Zhen; Zhang, Wen-Ming; Zhang, Chun-Hong; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Shen, Qi-Rong

    2012-11-01

    Continuous cropping obstacle is one of the main restriction factors in potato industry. In order to explore the mechanisms of potato's continuous cropping obstacle and to reduce the impact on potato's tuber yield, a field experiment combined with PCR-DGGE molecular fingerprinting was conducted to investigate the fungal population structure and its biological effect in rhizosphere soil of continuously cropped potato. With the increasing year of potato' s continuous cropping, the numbers of visible bands in rhizosphere fungal DGGE profiles increased obviously. As compared with that of CK (rotation cropping), the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) in treatments of one to five years continuous cropping was increased by 38.5%, 38.5%, 30.8%, 46.2%, and 76.9% respectively, indicating that potato's continuous cropping caused an obvious increase in the individual numbers of dominant fungal populations in rhizosphere soil. Also with the increasing year of potato's continuous cropping, the similarity of the fungal population structure among the treatments had a gradual decrease. The sequencing of the fungal DGGE bands showed that with the increasing year of continuous cropping, the numbers of the potato's rhizosphere soil-borne pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani increased obviously, while the number of Chaetomium globosum, as a biocontrol species, had a marked decrease in the fifth year of continuous cropping. It was suggested that potato' s continuous cropping caused the pathogen fungal populations become the dominant microbial populations in rhizosphere soil, and the rhizosphere micro-ecological environment deteriorated, which in turn affected the root system, making the root vigor and its absorption area reduced, and ultimately, the tuber yield decreased markedly.

  5. Bioaugmentation and rhizosphere-assisted biodegradation as strategies for optimization of the dissipation capacity of biobeds.

    PubMed

    Campos, M; Perruchon, C; Karas, P A; Karavasilis, D; Diez, M C; Karpouzas, D G

    2017-02-01

    Biobeds are on-farm biodepuration systems whose efficiency rely on their high pesticide biodegradation capacity. We evaluated two optimization strategies, bioaugmentation and/or rhizosphere-assisted biodegradation, to maximize the dissipation capacity of biobeds. Iprodione was used as a model pesticide. Its dissipation and metabolism was determined in a biobed packing material inoculated with an iprodione-degrading Arthrobacter strain C1 (bioaugmentation, treatments B+C1) and/or seeded with ryegrass (rhizosphere-assisted biodegradation, treatments B+P). The impact of those strategies on the activity and composition of the microbial community was determined. Bioaugmentation accelerated the dissipation of iprodione which was further enhanced in the bioaugmented, rhizosphere-assisted treatment (treatment B+P+C1, Half-life (DT50) = 3.4 d), compared to the non-bioaugmented, non rhizosphere-assisted control (DT50 = 9.5 d, treatment B). Bioaugmentation resulted in the earlier formation of intermediate formation of metabolites I (3,5-dichlorophenyl-carboxamide), II (3,5-dichlorophenylurea acetate) and 3,5-dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA). The latter was further dissipated by the indigenous microbial community. Acid phosphatase (AP) and β-glucosidase (GLU) were temporarily stimulated in rhizosphere-assisted treatments, whereas a stimulation of the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolytic activity in the bioaugmented treatments coincided with the hydrolysis of iprodione. q-PCR showed that changes in the abundance of alpha-proteobacteria and firmicutes was driven by the presence of rhizosphere while bioaugmentation had no significant effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The speciation of water-soluble Al and Zn in the rhizosphere of forest soils.

    PubMed

    Cloutier-Hurteau, Benoît; Turmel, Marie-Claude; Sauvé, Sébastien; Courchesne, François

    2010-06-01

    This study focuses on the relationships of dissolved Al and Zn speciation with microbial and chemical soil properties in the bulk and rhizosphere of forest soils. The soil components were sampled under Populus tremuloides Michx. at six sites located close to industrial facilities. Total water-soluble (Al(WS), Zn(WS)) and reactive (Al(R), Zn(R)) Al and Zn concentrations measured in soil water extracts, speciation data modeled by WHAM 6, chemical properties (pH, DOC, major cations and anions) and microbial properties (microbial biomass and enzyme activities) were measured on all soils. Enrichment in Al(R) and Zn(R) was observed in the rhizosphere compared to bulk soils. In a given soil material, the speciation of Al and Zn varied according to solution pH and Al-organic as well as Zn-organic complexes or Zn(2+) were generally the dominant species. The factors controlling the Al(WS), Zn(WS), Al(R) and Zn(R) concentrations differed between soil components, shifting from strictly chemical in the bulk (78%) to interactions among microbial and chemical variables in the rhizosphere (87%). Results further indicate that organic matter and pH were significantly linked to these response variables in the rhizosphere. Involvement of rhizospheric microorganisms occurred via pH changes induced by either the microbial assimilation of nitrogen or through the release of metals during the mineralization of roots. Our results therefore suggest that microbial activity is an important component of the biogeochemistry of Al and Zn in the rhizosphere. The study further provides key information to improve the assessment of ecological risk associated to Al and Zn in forest soils.

  7. Dynamics of Fungal Communities in Bulk and Maize Rhizosphere Soil in the Tropics

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Newton C. Marcial; Fagbola, Olajire; Costa, Rodrigo; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvea; Buchner, Arno; Mendona-Hagler, Leda; Smalla, Kornelia

    2003-01-01

    The fungal population dynamics in soil and in the rhizospheres of two maize cultivars grown in tropical soils were studied by a cultivation-independent analysis of directly extracted DNA to provide baseline data. Soil and rhizosphere samples were taken from six plots 20, 40, and 90 days after planting in two consecutive years. A 1.65-kb fragment of the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplified from the total community DNA was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and by cloning and sequencing. A rhizosphere effect was observed for fungal populations at all stages of plant development. In addition, pronounced changes in the composition of fungal communities during plant growth development were found by DGGE. Similar types of fingerprints were observed in two consecutive growth periods. No major differences were detected in the fungal patterns of the two cultivars. Direct cloning of 18S rDNA fragments amplified from soil or rhizosphere DNA resulted in 75 clones matching 12 dominant DGGE bands. The clones were characterized by their HinfI restriction patterns, and 39 different clones representing each group of restriction patterns were sequenced. The cloning and sequencing approach provided information on the phylogeny of dominant amplifiable fungal populations and allowed us to determine a number of fungal phylotypes that contribute to each of the dominant DGGE bands. Based on the sequence similarity of the 18S rDNA fragment with existing fungal isolates in the database, it was shown that the rhizospheres of young maize plants seemed to select the Ascomycetes order Pleosporales, while different members of the Ascomycetes and basidiomycetic yeast were detected in the rhizospheres of senescent maize plants. PMID:12839741

  8. [Effects of tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping on tobacco yield and rhizosphere soil phosphorus fractions].

    PubMed

    Tang, Biao; Zhang, Xi-zhou; Yang, Xian-bin

    2015-07-01

    A field plot experiment was conducted to investigate the tobacco yield and different forms of soil phosphorus under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping patterns. The results showed that compared with tobacco monoculture, the tobacco yield and proportion of middle/high class of tobacco leaves to total leaves were significantly increased in tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping, and the rhizosphere soil available phosphorus contents were 1.3 and 1.7 times as high as that of tobacco monoculture at mature stage of lower leaf. For the inorganic phosphorus in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil in different treatments, the contents of O-P and Fe-P were the highest, followed by Ca2-P and Al-P, and Ca8-P and Ca10-P were the lowest. Compared with tobacco monoculture and tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the Ca2-P concentration in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation at mature stage of upper leaf, the Ca8-P concentration at mature stage of lower leaf, and the Ca10-P concentration at mature stage of middle leaf were lowest. The Al-P concentrations under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were 1.6 and 1.9 times, and 1.2 and 1.9 times as much as that under tobacco monoculture in rhizosphere soil at mature stages of lower leaf and middle leaf, respectively. The O-P concentrations in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were significantly lower than that under tobacco monoculture. Compared with tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the tobacco garlic crop rotation could better improve tobacco yield and the proportion of high and middle class leaf by activating O-P, Ca10-P and resistant organic phosphorus in soil.

  9. Rhizosphere impacts on peat decomposition and nutrient cycling across a natural water table gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, A. L.; Finzi, A.

    2014-12-01

    High latitude forest and peatland soils represent a major terrestrial carbon store sensitive to climate change. Warming temperatures and increased growing-season evapotranspiration are projected to reduce water table (WT) height in continental peatlands. WT reduction increases peat aerobicity and facilitates vascular plant and root growth. Root-associated microbial communities are exposed to a different physical and chemical environment than microbial communities in non-root associated "bulk" peat, and therefore have distinct composition and function within the soil system. As the size of the peatland rhizosphere impacts resources available to the microbial communities, transitions from a root-free high water table peatland to a root-dominated low WT peatland may alter seasonal patterns of microbial community dynamics, enzyme production, and carbon storage within the system. We used a natural water table gradient in Caribou Bog near Orono, ME to explore the influence of species composition, root biomass, and rhizosphere size on seasonal patterns in microbial community structure, enzyme production, and carbon mineralization. We quantified root biomass across the water table gradient and measured microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, C mineralization, N mineralization, and exoenzyme activity in root-associated and bulk peat samples throughout the 2013 growing season. Microbial biomass was consistently higher in rhizosphere-associated soils and peaked in the spring. Microbial biomass CN and enzyme activity was higher in rhizosphere-associated soil, likely due to increased mycorrhizal abundance. Exoenzyme activity peaked in the fall, with a larger relative increase in enzyme activity in rhizosphere peat, while carbon mineralization rates did not demonstrate a strong seasonal pattern. The results suggest that rhizosphere-associated peat sustains higher and more variable rates of enzyme activity throughout the growing season, which results in higher rates of carbon

  10. Studies on rhizosphere microbial diversity of some commercially important medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, B; Jaleel, C Abdul; Lakshmanan, G M A; Deiveekasundaram, M

    2008-03-15

    A preliminary study was made on four medicinal plants viz., Ocimum sanctum L., Coleus forskholii Briq, Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. and Aloe vera in order to identify and enumerate the rhizosphere, non-rhizosphere and diazotrophic microorganisms in soil. The diazotrophic bacterial population studied includes Azospirillum, Azotobacter and Pseudomonas. The rhizosphere bacterial populations were 23.33 x 10(6)g(-1) in O. sanctum followed by C. roseus (20.46 x 10(6)g(-1)), A. vera (18.44 x 10(6)g(-1)) and C. forskholii (16.64 x 10(6)g(-1)). The fungi populations were 19.44 x 10(4)g(-1) in C. roseus, 18.66 x 10(4)g(-1) in O. sanctum, 16.44 x 10(4)g(-1) in A. vera and 14.22 x 10(4)g(-1) in C. forskholii. The actinomycetes population was 12.22 x 10(5)g(-1) in O. sanctum, 10.44 x 10(5)g(-1) in C. roseus, 8.44 x 10(5)g(-1) in A. vera and 6.22 x 10(5)g(-1) in C. forskholii. The diazotrophic bacterial population of Azospirillum, Azotobacter and Pseudomonas is 8.2 x 10(4)g(-1), 12 x 10(4)g(-1), 6 x 10(4)g(-1) in the rhizosphere soil. In all the four medicinal plants the microbial population is more in the rhizosphere soil, when compared to non-rhizosphere soil. These results are helpful in developing a biofertilizer consortium for these commercially grown medicinal plants.

  11. Genotypic diversity among rhizospheric bacteria of three legumes assessed by cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent techniques.

    PubMed

    Pongsilp, Neelawan; Nimnoi, Pongrawee; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2012-02-01

    The genotypic diversity of rhizospheric bacteria of 3 legumes including Vigna radiata, Arachis hypogaea and Acacia mangium was compared by using cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods. For cultivation-dependent method, Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles revealed that the bacterial genetic diversity of V. radiata and A. mangium rhizospheres was higher than that of A. hypogaea rhizosphere. For cultivation-independent method, Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes revealed the difference in bacterial community and diversity of rhizospheres collected from 3 legumes. The ribotype richness which indicates species diversity, was highest in V. radiata rhizosphere, followed by A. hypogaea and A. mangium rhizospheres, respectively. Three kinds of media were used to cultivate different target groups of bacteria. The result indicates that the communities of cultivable bacteria in 3 rhizospheres recovered from nutrient agar (NA) medium were mostly different from each other, while Bradyrhizobium selective medium (BJSM) and nitrogen-free medium shaped the communities of cultivable bacteria. Nine isolates grown on BJSM were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. These isolates were very closely related (with 96% to 99% identities) to either one of the three groups including Cupriavidus-Ralstonia group, Bacillus group and Bradyrhizobium-Bosea-Afipia group. The rhizospheres were also examined for their enzymatic patterns. Of 19 enzymes tested, 3 rhizospheres were distinguishable by the presence or the absence of leucine acrylamidase and acid phosphatase. The selected cultivable bacteria recovered from NA varied in their abilities to produce indole-acetic acid and ammnonia. The resistance to 10 antibiotics was indistinguishable among bacteria isolated from different rhizospheres.

  12. Community composition and activity of anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria in the rhizosphere of salt-marsh grass Spartina alterniflora.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanling; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Yin, Guoyu; Gao, Juan; Jiang, Xiaofen; Lin, Xianbiao; Li, Xiaofei; Yu, Chendi; Wang, Rong

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) as an important nitrogen removal pathway has been investigated in intertidal marshes. However, the rhizosphere-driven anammox process in these ecosystems is largely overlooked so far. In this study, the community dynamics and activities of anammox bacteria in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere sediments of salt-marsh grass Spartina alterniflora (a widely distributed plant in estuaries and intertidal ecosystems) were investigated using clone library analysis, quantitative PCR assay, and isotope-tracing technique. Phylogenetic analysis showed that anammox bacterial diversity was higher in the non-rhizosphere sediments (Scalindua and Kuenenia) compared with the rhizosphere zone (only Scalindua genus). Higher abundance of anammox bacteria was detected in the rhizosphere (6.46 × 10(6)-1.56 × 10(7) copies g(-1)), which was about 1.5-fold higher in comparison with that in the non-rhizosphere zone (4.22 × 10(6)-1.12 × 10(7) copies g(-1)). Nitrogen isotope-tracing experiments indicated that the anammox process in the rhizosphere contributed to 12-14 % N2 generation with rates of 0.43-1.58 nmol N g(-1) h(-1), while anammox activity in the non-rhizosphere zone contributed to only 4-7 % N2 production with significantly lower activities (0.28-0.83 nmol N g(-1) h(-1)). Overall, we propose that the rhizosphere microenvironment in intertidal marshes might provide a favorable niche for anammox bacteria and thus plays an important role in nitrogen cycling.

  13. Genetic diversity of siderophore-producing bacteria of tobacco rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fang; Ding, Yanqin; Zhu, Hui; Yao, Liangtong; Du, Binghai

    2009-01-01

    The genetic diversity of siderophore-producing bacteria of tobacco rhizosphere was studied by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), 16S rRNA sequence homology and phylogenetics analysis methods. Studies demonstrated that 85% of the total 354 isolates produced siderophores in iron limited liquid medium. A total of 28 ARDRA patterns were identified among the 299 siderophore-producing bacterial isolates. The 28 ARDRA patterns represented bacteria of 14 different genera belonging to six bacterial divisions, namely β-, γ-, α-Proteobacteria, Sphingobacteria, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria. Especially, γ-Proteobacteria consisting of Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Serratia, Pantoea, Erwinia and Stenotrophomonas genus encountered 18 different ARDRA groups. Results also showed a greater siderophore-producing bacterial diversity than previous researches. For example, Sphingobacterium (isolates G-2-21-1 and G-2-27-2), Pseudomonas poae (isolate G-2-1-1), Enterobacter endosymbiont (isolates G-2-10-2 and N-5-10), Delftia acidovorans (isolate G-1-15), and Achromobacter xylosoxidans (isolates N-46-11HH and N-5-20) were reported to be able to produce siderophores under low-iron conditions for the first time. Gram-negative isolates were more frequently encountered, with more than 95% total frequency. For Gram-positive bacteria, the Bacillus and Rhodococcus were the only two genera, with 1.7% total frequency. Furthermore, the Pseudomonas and Enterobacter were dominant in this environment, with 44.5% and 24.7% total frequency, respectively. It was also found that 75 percent of the isolates that had the high percentages of siderophore units (% between 40 and 60) belonged to Pseudomonas. Pseudomonas sp. G-229-21 screened out in this study may have potential to apply to low-iron soil to prevent plant soil-borne fungal pathogen diseases. PMID:24031358

  14. Rhizobium helianthi sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of sunflower.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xuexin; Yan, Shouwei; Li, Dai; Pang, Huancheng; Li, Yuyi; Zhang, Jianli

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped and aerobic bacterium, designated Xi19T, was isolated from a soil sample collected from the rhizosphere of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Wuyuan county of Inner Mongolia, China and was characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the novel isolate was related to species of the genus Rhizobium, sharing the greatest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Rhizobium rhizoryzae J3-AN59T (98.4 %), followed by Rhizobium pseudoryzae J3-A127T (97.4 %). There were low similarities ( < 91 %) between the atpD, recA and glnII gene sequences of the novel strain and those of members of the genus Rhizobium. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain Xi19T and the most related strain Rhizobium rhizoryzae J3-AN59T were low. The major cellular fatty acids of strain Xi19T were C16 : 0, summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c) and C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c. Q-10 was identified as the predominant ubiquinone and the major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. The DNA G+C content of strain Xi19T was 60.2 mol%. On the basis of physiological and biochemical characteristics, coupled with genotypic data obtained in this work, strain Xi19T represents a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium helianthi is proposed. The type strain is Xi19T ( = CGMCC 1.12192T = KCTC 23879T).

  15. Micromonospora rhizosphaerae sp. nov., isolated from mangrove rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Xu, Xiao-Xiong; Qu, Zhi; Wang, Hai-Long; Lin, Hai-Peng; Xie, Qing-Yi; Ruan, Ji-Sheng; Hong, Kui

    2011-02-01

    Strain 211018(T) was isolated from mangrove Excocaria agallocha rhizosphere soil. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed the highest similarity to the type strains of Micromonospora olivasterospora DSM 43868(T) (98.6 %) and Micromonospora pattaloongensis TJ2-2(T) (98.4 %). gyrB gene sequence analysis also indicated that strain 211018(T) should be assigned to the genus Micromonospora. The characteristic whole-cell sugars are xylose, mannose and arabinose. The predominant menaquinone is MK-9(H(4)) and the major fatty acids are iso-C(15 : 0) (27.5 %), 10-methyl C(17 : 0) (14.2 %), C(17 : 1)ω8c (12.8 %), iso-C(16 : 0) (12.6 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (6.1 %), iso-C(17 : 0) (4.1 %) and anteiso-C(17 : 0) (4.0 %). The phospholipid profile comprises phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The DNA G+C content is 70.8 mol%. The chemotaxonomic data of the strain coincided with those of the genus Micromonospora. Furthermore, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridization results and some physiological and biochemical properties indicated that the novel strain could be readily distinguished from the closest phylogenetic relatives. On the basis of these phenotypic and genotypic data, strain 211018(T) represents a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora rhizosphaerae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 211018(T) (=CGMCC 4.5599(T) =DSM 45431(T)).

  16. Visualizing rhizosphere chemistry of legumes with mid-IRsynchrotronradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, Theodore K.; Martin, Michael C.

    2000-09-12

    A bright synchrotron light source operated by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory served as an external source for infrared (IR) microscopy of plant root microcosms. Mid-IR light from synchrotrons is 2-3 orders of magnitude brighter than conventional sources, allowing mapping based on the chemical information in the reflected signal with a spatial resolution near the diffraction limit of 3-10 microns. The IR microscope's computer-controlled x-y stage allows acquisition of spatially resolved maps of reflectance or transmittance versus position. In an experiment using plant root microcosms fitted with 50 x 20 x 1 mm ZnSe IR-transmissive windows, we describe chemical differences and similarities within the root zone of mung beam (Vigna radiata L.), grown with or without phosphorus revealed by reflectance microspectroscopy. Comparative root and root-exudate profiles are described in sand/silt culture over the wavelength range of 2.5 to 16 microns (4000 to 650 cm-1) in the mid-IR, the wavelength range most useful for the analytic identification of small organic molecules. Root epidermal tissue of plants grows with low-phosphorus showed greater lipid contribution and less lignin than nutrient-sufficient plants. In the zone 200 microns from the root axis, control plants were enriched with simple sugars and monomeric lignin precursors. In low-phosphorus plants, the rhizosphere possessed IR signatures from protein and sugars. Individual soil particles could be easily discriminated from biological material. Synchrotron IR spectromicroscopy complements existing root imaging techniques.

  17. Bacillus oryzisoli sp. nov., isolated from rice rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Gao, Ju-Sheng; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Cai-Wen; Ma, Xiao-Tong; Zhang, Jun

    2016-09-01

    The taxonomy of strain 1DS3-10T, a Gram-staining-positive, endospore-forming bacterium isolated from rice rhizosphere, was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the novel strain was grouped with established members of the genus Bacillus and appeared to be closely related to the type strains Bacillus benzoevorans DSM 5391T (97.9 %), Bacillus circulans DSM 11T (97.7 %), Bacillus novalis JCM 21709T (97.3 %), Bacillus soli JCM 21710T (97.3 %), Bacillus oceanisediminis CGMCC 1.10115T (97.3 %) and BacillusnealsoniiFO-92T (97.1 %). The fatty acid profile of strain 1DS3-10T, which showed a predominance of iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0, supported the allocation of the strain to the genus Bacillus. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7 (100 %). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and unknown aminolipids. Cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain 1DS3-10T and the type strains of closely related species were 25-33 %, which supported that 1DS3-10T represented a novel species in the genus Bacillus. The results of some physiological and biochemical tests also allowed the phenotypic differentiation of strain 1DS3-10T from the most closely related recognized species. On the basis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, strain 1DS3-10T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus oryzisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the novel species is 1DS3-10T (=ACCC 19781T=DSM 29761T).

  18. Legumes increase rhizosphere carbon and nitrogen relative to cereals in California agricultural plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, R.; Maltais-landry, G.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient to plant growth, therefore a sufficient supply is needed for high yields. By using N-fixing plants like legumes in crop rotation, we can increase soil N and yields of following crops. Furthermore, legumes also affect soil carbon (C) and C:N ratios, which impacts nutrient cycling in soils. We assessed the effects of two legumes (vetch, fava bean) and a cereal mixture (oats and wheat) on soil N and C by comparing both rhizosphere and bulk soils. We studied the impacts of these plants with different management types (organic, low-input conventional, unfertilized) to see if plant effects on soil C and N changed across management. We used plots from the Long-Term Research on Agricultural Systems (LTRAS) experiment (Davis, CA) to conduct this experiment, where three plots were under each management type. Within each of these plots, we sampled three micro-plots, where we collected rhizosphere soil from fava bean, vetch, and cereals as well as bulk soil, i.e. non-rhizosphere soil. We collected 108 samples, each of which were dried and ball-milled into a fine, uniform powder. Tin capsules with 15-30mg of soil were then analyzed with a Carlo Erba Elemental analyzer to measure how much N and C was present in each of the samples. The different management types didn't affect the relationship among plants, but soil C and N were highest in organic and lowest in unfertilized plots. We found that N was significantly higher in legume rhizosphere than cereal rhizosphere and bulk soils. Soil C was also higher in legumes vs. cereals and bulk soils, but the only significant difference was with the bulk soils. This ultimately resulted in lower C:N ratios in the rhizosphere of legumes, only vetch, however, had significantly lower soil C:N than cereals. Vetch had higher N, and lower C and C:N than fava bean, but the difference between the two legumes was never significant. Similarly, cereals had higher C and N and lower C:N than bulk soils, although

  19. [Effect of reed rhizosphere on nitrogen and COD removal efficiency in subsurface flow constructed wetlands].

    PubMed

    Dai, Yuan-yuan; Yang, Xin-ping; Zhou, Li-xiang

    2008-12-01

    Nitrogen removal efficiency was investigated in three subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs) with and without reed. Root bag made of nylon sieve with 300 mesh was used to enwrap the reed root in one of reed CWs to distinguish reed rhizosphere from non-rhizosphere. The CWs with root bag enwrapped reed root (hereinafter called as mesh CWs) and other CWs were fed with artificial ammonium-rich wastewater. The results indicated that the COD and N removal occurred mainly in the front of CWs, and C and nitrogen removal occurred concurrently along the stream way. When C/N ratio of influent was 5, the removal efficiencies of NH4+ -N in control CWs, reed CWs and mesh CWs were 66.2%, 94.2% and 82.2%, respectively. TN removal efficiencies were 67.2%, 90.7% and 76.1% respectively. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification phenomenon in this study was also observed. The removal efficiency of organic carbon was different from nitrogen removal efficiency, mesh CWs showed the highest COD removal efficiency with 80.9%, while control CWs and reed CWs were 72.2% and 56.2%, respectively. C/N ratio of wastewater throughout the bed was more than 5 in three CWs, which indicated carbon source supply was enough for denitrification. The oxidation-reduction position (ORP) and concentration of total organic carbon in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere were detected. The ORP in the front of mesh CWs's rhizosphere was much higher than that in control CWs and non-rhizosphere in mesh CWs, which were 11-311 mV and 62-261 mV, respectively. Root exudates also showed the difference between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere in mesh CWs, the TOC of them were 21.3-54.6 mg x L(-1) and 6.65-12.0 mg x L(-1). Due to the higher ORP and concentration of TOC, the nitrogen removal efficiency in plant CWs was much higher than that in control CWs.

  20. Rewetting Rate of Dry Rhizosphere Limited by Mucilage Viscosity and Mucilage Hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeder, S.; Zarebanadkouki, M.; Kroener, E.; Ahmed, M. A.; Carminati, A.; Kostka, S.

    2014-12-01

    During root water uptake from dry soils, the highly nonlinear relation between hydraulic conductivity and water content as well as the radial root geometry result in steep water potential gradients close to the root surface. The hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere - the interface between root and soil - are one of the most important and least understood components in controlling root water uptake. Previous research using young lupine plants revealed that after irrigation it took 1-2 days for the water content of the dry rhizosphere to increase. How can this delay be explained? Our hypotheses: a) mucilage - a polymeric plant exudate - alters rhizosphere hydraulic properties, b) its hydrophobic moieties make the rhizosphere water repellent when dry, c) mucilage is a highly viscous, gelatinous material, the dryer it gets the more viscous it becomes, d) mucilage viscosity reduces rhizosphere hydraulic conductivity. To test our hypotheses we used mucilage extracted from chia seed as an analogue for root mucilage. We measured: 1) the contact angle between water and pure dry and wet mucilage, dry soil treated with various concentrations of mucilage, 2) mucilage viscosity as function of concentration and shear rate, 3) saturated hydraulic conductivity as function of mucilage concentration, 4) swelling of dry mucilage in water. Finally, to mimic flow of water across the rhizosphere, we measured the capillary rise in soils treated with different mucilage concentrations. The results showed that: 1) dry mucilage has a contact angle >90° while it loses its water repellency when it gets wet, 2) viscosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity can change several orders of magnitude with a small change in mucilage concentration, 3) 1g of dry mucilage absorbs 300g water in its fully swollen state, 4) the swelling rate of mucilage showed an exponential behavior with half time of 5 hours. Capillary rise became slower in soils with higher mucilage concentration, while the final

  1. Rewetting Rate of Dry Rhizosphere Limited by Mucilage Viscosity and Mucilage Hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeder, Stacey; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kroener, Eva; Ahmed, Mutez Ali; Carminati, Andrea; Kostka, Stanley

    2015-04-01

    During root water uptake from dry soils, the highly nonlinear relation between hydraulic conductivity and water content as well as the radial root geometry result in steep water potential gradients close to the root surface. The hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere - the interface between root and soil - are one of the most important and least understood components in controlling root water uptake. Previous research using young lupine plants revealed that after irrigation it took 1-2 days for the water content of the dry rhizosphere to increase. How can this delay be explained? Our hypotheses are that: a) mucilage - a polymeric plant exudate - alters rhizosphere hydraulic properties, b) its hydrophobic moieties make the rhizosphere water repellent when dry, c) mucilage is a highly viscous, gelatinous material, the dryer it gets the more viscous it becomes, d) mucilage viscosity reduces rhizosphere hydraulic conductivity. To test our hypotheses we used mucilage extracted from chia seed as an analogue for root mucilage. We measured: 1) the contact angle between water and pure dry and wet mucilage, dry soil treated with various concentrations of mucilage, 2) mucilage viscosity as function of concentration and shear rate, 3) saturated hydraulic conductivity as function of mucilage concentration, 4) swelling of dry mucilage in water. Finally, to mimic flow of water across the rhizosphere, we measured the capillary rise in soils treated with different mucilage concentrations. The results showed that: 1) dry mucilage has a contact angle > 90° while it loses its water repellency when it gets wet, 2) viscosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity can change several orders of magnitude with a small change in mucilage concentration, 3) 1g of dry mucilage absorbs 300g water in its fully swollen state, 4) the swelling rate of mucilage showed an exponential behavior with half time of 5 hours. Capillary rise became slower in soils with higher mucilage concentration, while the