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Sample records for rhizosphere denitrifier activity

  1. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  2. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  3. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

    PubMed

    Smart, D R; Ritchie, K; Stark, J M; Bugbee, B

    1997-11-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  4. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

    PubMed Central

    Smart, D R; Ritchie, K; Stark, J M; Bugbee, B

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity. PMID:11536820

  5. Effect of nitrogen and waterlogging on denitrifier gene abundance, community structure and activity in the rhizosphere of wheat.

    PubMed

    Hamonts, Kelly; Clough, Tim J; Stewart, Alison; Clinton, Peter W; Richardson, Alan E; Wakelin, Steven A; O'Callaghan, Maureen; Condron, Leo M

    2013-03-01

    Microbial denitrification plays a key role in determining the availability of soil nitrogen (N) to plants. However, factors influencing the structure and function of denitrifier communities in the rhizosphere remain unclear. Waterlogging can result in root anoxia and increased denitrification, leading to significant N loss from soil and potential nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions. This study investigated denitrifier gene abundance, community structure and activity in the rhizosphere of wheat in response to anoxia and N limitation. Denitrifier community structure in the rhizosphere differed from that in bulk soil, and denitrifier gene copy numbers (nirS, nirK, nosZ) and potential denitrification activity were greater in the rhizosphere. Anoxia and N limitation, and in particular a combination of both, reduced the magnitude of this effect on gene abundance (in particular nirS) and activity, with N limitation having greater impact than waterlogging in rhizosphere soil, in contrast to bulk soil where the impact of waterlogging was greater. Increased N supply to anoxic plants improved plant health and increased rhizosphere soil pH, which resulted in enhanced reduction of N(2)O. Both anoxia and N limitation significantly influenced the structure and function of denitrifier communities in the rhizosphere, with reduced root-derived carbon postulated to play an important role.

  6. [Effects of planting transgenic Bt + CpTI cotton on rhizosphere denitrifier abundance and diversity].

    PubMed

    Dong, Lianhua; Meng, Ying; Wang, Jing

    2015-03-04

    To evaluate the effect of planting genetically modified cotton on soil denitrifer. The impact of transgenic Bt + CpTI cotton (SGK321) and its receptor cotton (SY321) on rhizosphere denitrifier abundance and diversity were investigated by using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). We collected rhizosphere soil before cotton planting (Pre) and along with the cotton growth stage (budding, flowering, belling and boll opening). The abundance of denitrifier in both cottons changed significantly across the growth stage, but the variation tendency was different. In the rhizosphere of transgenic cotton, the denitrifier abundance increased from 3.12 x 10(6) copies/g dry soil (Pre) to 2.81 x 10(7) copies/g dry soil (belling). The denitrifier abundance in non-transgenic cotton was significantly affected by the growth stage: increased at budding, decreased at flowering, and then increased at belling. Canonical correspondence analysis and partial canonical correspondence analysis show that the denitrifier diversity was more correlated with pH, concentration of NO3- and budding and flowering. Additionally, cotton genotype was an important factor of influencing the diversity of denitrifier. This indicates the abundance and diversity were influenced by both the cotton growth stage and the cotton genotype by adjusting the soil pH and concentration of NO3-. Planting of transgenic Bt + CpTI cotton leads an increase in the soil pH, which results in an increase in abundance and diversity of denitrifier.

  7. The role of plant type and salinity in the selection for the denitrifying community structure in the rhizosphere of wetland vegetation.

    PubMed

    Bañeras, Luís; Ruiz-Rueda, Olaya; López-Flores, Rocío; Quintana, Xavier D; Hallin, Sara

    2012-06-01

    Coastal wetlands, as transient links from terrestrial to marine environments, are important for nitrogen removal by denitrification. Denitrification strongly depends on both the presence of emergent plants and the denitrifier communities selected by different plant species. In this study, the effects of vegetation and habitat heterogeneity on the community of denitrifying bacteria were investigated in nine coastal wetlands in two preserved areas of Spain. Sampling locations were selected to cover a range of salinity (0.81 to 31.3 mS/cm) and nitrate concentrations (0.1 to 303 μM NO3-), allowing the evaluation of environmental variables that select for denitrifier communities in the rhizosphere of Phragmites sp., Ruppia sp., and Paspalum sp. Potential nitrate reduction rates were found to be dependent on the sampling time and plant species and related to the denitrifier community structure, which was assessed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the functional genes nirS, nirK and nosZ. The results showed that denitrifier community structure was also governed by plant species and salinity, with significant influences of other variables, such as sampling time and location. Ruppia sp. and Phragmites sp. selected for certain communities, whereas this was not the case for Paspalum sp. The plant species effect was strongest on nirK-type denitrifiers, whereas water carbon content was a significant factor defining the structure of the nosZ-harboring community. The differences recognized using the three functional gene markers indicated that different drivers act on denitrifying populations capable of complete denitrification, compared to the overall denitrifier community. This finding may have implications for emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide.

  8. Diversity and Activity of Denitrifiers of Chilean Arid Soil Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, Julieta; Carú, Margarita; Pommerenke, Bianca; Braker, Gesche

    2012-01-01

    The Chilean sclerophyllous matorral is a Mediterranean semiarid ecosystem affected by erosion, with low soil fertility, and limited by nitrogen. However, limitation of resources is even more severe for desert soils such as from the Atacama Desert, one of the most extreme arid deserts on Earth. Topsoil organic matter, nitrogen and moisture content were significantly higher in the semiarid soil compared to the desert soil. Although the most significant loss of biologically preferred nitrogen from terrestrial ecosystems occurs via denitrification, virtually nothing is known on the activity and composition of denitrifier communities thriving in arid soils. In this study we explored denitrifier communities from two soils with profoundly distinct edaphic factors. While denitrification activity in the desert soil was below detection limit, the semiarid soil sustained denitrification activity. To elucidate the genetic potential of the soils to sustain denitrification processes we performed community analysis of denitrifiers based on nitrite reductase (nirK and nirS) genes as functional marker genes for this physiological group. Presence of nirK-type denitrifiers in both soils was demonstrated but failure to amplify nirS from the desert soil suggests very low abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers shedding light on the lack of denitrification activity. Phylogenetic analysis showed a very low diversity of nirK with only three distinct genotypes in the desert soil which conditions presumably exert a high selection pressure. While nirK diversity was also limited to only few, albeit distinct genotypes, the semiarid matorral soil showed a surprisingly broad genetic variability of the nirS gene. The Chilean matorral is a shrub land plant community which form vegetational patches stabilizing the soil and increasing its nitrogen and carbon content. These islands of fertility may sustain the development and activity of the overall microbial community and of denitrifiers in particular

  9. Diversity and activity of denitrifiers of chilean arid soil ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Julieta; Carú, Margarita; Pommerenke, Bianca; Braker, Gesche

    2012-01-01

    The Chilean sclerophyllous matorral is a Mediterranean semiarid ecosystem affected by erosion, with low soil fertility, and limited by nitrogen. However, limitation of resources is even more severe for desert soils such as from the Atacama Desert, one of the most extreme arid deserts on Earth. Topsoil organic matter, nitrogen and moisture content were significantly higher in the semiarid soil compared to the desert soil. Although the most significant loss of biologically preferred nitrogen from terrestrial ecosystems occurs via denitrification, virtually nothing is known on the activity and composition of denitrifier communities thriving in arid soils. In this study we explored denitrifier communities from two soils with profoundly distinct edaphic factors. While denitrification activity in the desert soil was below detection limit, the semiarid soil sustained denitrification activity. To elucidate the genetic potential of the soils to sustain denitrification processes we performed community analysis of denitrifiers based on nitrite reductase (nirK and nirS) genes as functional marker genes for this physiological group. Presence of nirK-type denitrifiers in both soils was demonstrated but failure to amplify nirS from the desert soil suggests very low abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers shedding light on the lack of denitrification activity. Phylogenetic analysis showed a very low diversity of nirK with only three distinct genotypes in the desert soil which conditions presumably exert a high selection pressure. While nirK diversity was also limited to only few, albeit distinct genotypes, the semiarid matorral soil showed a surprisingly broad genetic variability of the nirS gene. The Chilean matorral is a shrub land plant community which form vegetational patches stabilizing the soil and increasing its nitrogen and carbon content. These islands of fertility may sustain the development and activity of the overall microbial community and of denitrifiers in particular.

  10. Concurrent activity of anammox and denitrifying bacteria in the Black Sea

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, John B.; Fuchsman, Clara A.; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Staley, James T.; Murray, James W.

    2012-01-01

    After the discovery of ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation (anammox) in the environment, the role of heterotrophic denitrification as the main marine pathway for fixed N loss has been questioned. A 3 part, 15 month time series investigating nitrite reductase (nirS) mRNA transcripts at a single location in the Black Sea was conducted in order to better understand the activity of anammox and denitrifying bacteria. Here we show that both of these groups were active, as well as being concurrent in the lower suboxic zone over this time span. Their distributions, however, differed in that only expression of denitrification-type nirS was seen in the upper suboxic zone, where geochemistry was variable. Depth profiles covering the suboxic zone showed that the four groups of anammox-type sequences were expressed consistently in the lower suboxic zone, and were consistent with anammox 16 S rDNA gene profiles. By contrast, denitrifier-type nirS sequence groups were mixed; some groups exhibited consistent expression in the lower suboxic zone, while others appeared less consistent. Co-occurrence of both anammox and denitrifier expression was common and ongoing. Both types of transcripts were also found in samples with low concentrations of sulfide (>2 μM). Six major groups of denitrifier-type nirS transcripts were identified, and several groups of denitrifier-type nirS transcripts were closely related to sequences from the Baltic Sea. An increase in denitrifier-type nirS transcript diversity and depth range in October 2007 corresponded to a small increase in mixed layer net community productivity (NCP) as measured by O2/Ar gas ratios, as well as to an increase in N2 concentrations in the suboxic zone. Taken together, the variations in expression patterns between anammox and denitrification provide one possible explanation as to how near instantaneous rate measurements, such as isotope spike experiments, may regularly detect anammox activity but underreport denitrification. PMID

  11. Soil properties impacting denitrifier community size, structure, and activity in New Zealand dairy-grazed pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Neha; Saggar, Surinder; Giltrap, Donna; Tillman, Russ; Deslippe, Julie

    2017-09-01

    Denitrification is an anaerobic respiration process that is the primary contributor of the nitrous oxide (N2O) produced from grassland soils. Our objective was to gain insight into the relationships between denitrifier community size, structure, and activity for a range of pasture soils. We collected 10 dairy pasture soils with contrasting soil textures, drainage classes, management strategies (effluent irrigation or non-irrigation), and geographic locations in New Zealand, and measured their physicochemical characteristics. We measured denitrifier abundance by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and assessed denitrifier diversity and community structure by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of the nitrite reductase (nirS, nirK) and N2O reductase (nosZ) genes. We quantified denitrifier enzyme activity (DEA) using an acetylene inhibition technique. We investigated whether varied soil conditions lead to different denitrifier communities in soils, and if so, whether they are associated with different denitrification activities and are likely to generate different N2O emissions. Differences in the physicochemical characteristics of the soils were driven mainly by soil mineralogy and the management practices of the farms. We found that nirS and nirK communities were strongly structured along gradients of soil water and phosphorus (P) contents. By contrast, the size and structure of the nosZ community was unrelated to any of the measured soil characteristics. In soils with high water content, the richnesses and abundances of nirS, nirK, and nosZ genes were all significantly positively correlated with DEA. Our data suggest that management strategies to limit N2O emissions through denitrification are likely to be most important for dairy farms on fertile or allophanic soils during wetter periods. Finally, our data suggest that new techniques that would selectively target nirS denitrifiers may be the most effective for limiting N2O

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Gamma-irradiated Chitosan Against Denitrifying Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilcáez, Javier; Watanabe, Tomohide

    2010-11-01

    In order to find an environmentally benign substitute to hazardous inhibitory agents, the inhibitory effect of γ-irradiated chitosans against a mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria was experimentally evaluated. Unlike other studies using pure aerobic cultures, the observed effect was not a complete inhibition but a transient inhibition reflected by prolonged lag phases and reduced growth rates. Raw chitosan under acid conditions (pH 6.3) exerted the strongest inhibition followed by the 100 kGy and 500 kGy irradiated chitosans respectively. Therefore because the molecular weight of chitosan decreases with the degree of γ-irradiation, the inhibitory properties of chitosan due to its high molecular weight were more relevant than the inhibitory properties gained due to the modification of the surface charge and/or chemical structure by γ-irradiation. High dosage of γ-irradiated appeared to increase the growth of mixed denitrifying bacteria in acid pH media. However, in neutral pH media, high dosage of γ-irradiation appeared to enhance the inhibitory effect of chitosan.

  13. Effect of pH on the denitrifying enzyme activity in pasture soils in relation to the intrinsic differences in denitrifier communities.

    PubMed

    Cuhel, J; Simek, M

    2011-05-01

    The effects of pH on denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) and on the ratio of the denitrification products, N(2)O and N(2), were determined in three pasture soils differing in cattle impact. The linkage between intrinsic differences in the denitrifying communities and pH effects on relative N(2)O production was also assessed. Soil pH values were adjusted just before DEA determination to obtain soil slurries with a range of pH values. The intrinsic differences in the denitrifier communities were assessed by measuring the kinetic constants of NO(3)(-) and N(2)O reductions. DEA for all three soils was highest at pH 8.4, regardless of native soil pH. Because DEA has typically been measured at native soil pH, our results suggest that DEA might have been underestimated in many previous studies. Further, relative N(2)O production at different pH values did not differ among the soils, even though the denitrifier communities differed in their intrinsic capability to reduce NO(3)(-) all the way to N(2), suggesting that the ratio of denitrification products (N(2)O and N(2)) is pH-specific rather than soil-specific. This suggests that manipulations of soil pH will alter N(2)O fluxes from agricultural soils.

  14. Microbial community composition and denitrifying enzyme activities in salt marsh sediments.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yiping; Green, Peter G; Holden, Patricia A

    2008-12-01

    Denitrifying microbial communities and denitrification in salt marsh sediments may be affected by many factors, including environmental conditions, nutrient availability, and levels of pollutants. The objective of this study was to examine how microbial community composition and denitrification enzyme activities (DEA) at a California salt marsh with high nutrient loading vary with such factors. Sediments were sampled from three elevations, each with different inundation and vegetation patterns, across 12 stations representing various salinity and nutrient conditions. Analyses included determination of cell abundance, total and denitrifier community compositions (by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism), DEA, nutrients, and eluted metals. Total bacterial (16S rRNA) and denitrifier (nirS) community compositions and DEA were analyzed for their relationships to environmental variables and metal concentrations via multivariate direct gradient and regression analyses, respectively. Community composition and DEA were highly variable within the dynamic salt marsh system, but each was strongly affected by elevation (i.e., degree of inundation) and carbon content as well as by selected metals. Carbon content was highly related to elevation, and the relationships between DEA and carbon content were found to be elevation specific when evaluated across the entire marsh. There were also lateral gradients in the marsh, as evidenced by an even stronger association between community composition and elevation for a marsh subsystem. Lastly, though correlated with similar environmental factors and selected metals, denitrifier community composition and function appeared uncoupled in the marsh.

  15. Effect of temperature on denitrifying methanotrophic activity of 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera'.

    PubMed

    Kampman, Christel; Piai, Laura; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Temmink, Hardy; Zeeman, Grietje; Buisman, Cees J N

    2014-01-01

    The activity of denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria at 11-30 °C was assessed in short-term experiments. The aim was to determine the feasibility of applying denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria in low-temperature anaerobic wastewater treatment. This study showed that biomass enriched at 21 °C had an optimum temperature of 20-25 °C and that activity dropped as temperature was increased to 30 °C. Biomass enriched at 30 °C had an optimum temperature of 25-30 °C. These results indicated that biomass from low-temperature inocula adjusted to the enrichment temperature and that low-temperature enrichment is suitable for applications in low-temperature wastewater treatment. Biomass growth at ≤20 °C still needs to be studied.

  16. Mapping field-scale spatial patterns of size and activity of the denitrifier community.

    PubMed

    Philippot, Laurent; Cuhel, Jiri; Saby, Nicolas P A; Chèneby, Dominique; Chronáková, Alicia; Bru, David; Arrouays, Dominique; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Simek, Miloslav

    2009-06-01

    There is ample evidence that microbial processes can exhibit large variations in activity on a field scale. However, very little is known about the spatial distribution of the microbial communities mediating these processes. Here we used geostatistical modelling to explore spatial patterns of size and activity of the denitrifying community, a functional guild involved in N-cycling, in a grassland field subjected to different cattle grazing regimes. We observed a non-random distribution pattern of the size of the denitrifier community estimated by quantification of the denitrification genes copy numbers with a macro-scale spatial dependence (6-16 m) and mapped the distribution of this functional guild in the field. The spatial patterns of soil properties, which were strongly affected by presence of cattle, imposed significant control on potential denitrification activity, potential N(2)O production and relative abundance of some denitrification genes but not on the size of the denitrifier community. Absolute abundance of most denitrification genes was not correlated with the distribution patterns of potential denitrification activity or potential N(2)O production. However, the relative abundance of bacteria possessing the nosZ gene encoding the N(2)O reductase in the total bacterial community was a strong predictor of the N(2)O/(N(2) + N(2)O) ratio, which provides evidence for a relationship between bacterial community composition based on the relative abundance of denitrifiers in the total bacterial community and ecosystem processes. More generally, the presented geostatistical approach allows integrated mapping of microbial communities, and hence can facilitate our understanding of relationships between the ecology of microbial communities and microbial processes along environmental gradients.

  17. Fertilization Results in a Dramatic Decrease in Diversity of Active Denitrifying Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, J. L.; Kearns, P.

    2016-02-01

    Salt marsh sediments are sites where some of the highest rates of denitrification have ever been reported and similarly, they have among the highest reported diversity of key genes in the denitrification pathway. Although salt marsh sediments are hot spots for denitrification, they are also habitats under threat from both rising seas and increased anthropogenic nutrients. Previous work indicated that increased nutrient supply to marsh creeks resulted in increased rates of denitrification, which, when coupled with decreased belowground plant biomass, resulted in a collapse of the marsh creek bank and a restructuring of marsh geomorphology. The genetic response of marsh sediment denitrifying communities to increase in nitrogen, however, has been modest. Recent data from our laboratory suggests that the disconnect between the minor change in denitrifier community composition and the denitrification rates may be due to high rates of microbial dormancy observed in salt marsh sediments. Our results, via analysis of coupled 16S rRNA and the 16S rRNA gene demonstrate that fertilization results in a loss of active microbial diversity. Here we report, for the first time, the role that fertilization plays in structuring the active portion of the denitrifying bacterial community. We sequenced nirS DNA and mRNA transcripts from sediments underlying tall Spartina alterniflora from four salt marsh creeks in the Plum Island salt marsh complex. Two of the four marshes have received artificial nutrient enrichment for up to 10 years. Our results indicate that fertilization reduces the genetic diversity of denitrifiers, favoring only a small subset of those bacteria capable of this critically important process

  18. Abundance, composition and activity of denitrifier communities in metal polluted paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yongzhuo; Zhou, Huimin; Li, Lianqing; Zheng, Jinwei; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jufeng; Pan, Genxing

    2016-01-07

    Denitrification is one of the most important soil microbial processes leading to the production of nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential changes with metal pollution in soil microbial community for N2O production and reduction are not well addressed. In this study, topsoil samples were collected both from polluted and non-polluted rice paddy fields and denitrifier communities were characterized with molecular fingerprinting procedures. All the retrieved nirK sequences could be grouped into neither α- nor β- proteobacteria, while most of the nosZ sequences were affiliated with α-proteobacteria. The abundances of the nirK and nosZ genes were reduced significantly in the two polluted soils. Thus, metal pollution markedly affected composition of both nirK and nosZ denitrifiers. While the total denitrifying activity and N2O production rate were both reduced under heavy metal pollution of the two sites, the N2O reduction rate showed no significant change. These findings suggest that N2O production activity could be sensitive to heavy metal pollution, which could potentially lead to a decrease in N2O emission in polluted paddies. Therefore, metal pollution could have potential impacts on soil N transformation and thus on N2O emission from paddy soils.

  19. Abundance, composition and activity of denitrifier communities in metal polluted paddy soils

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yongzhuo; Zhou, Huimin; Li, Lianqing; Zheng, Jinwei; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jufeng; Pan, Genxing

    2016-01-01

    Denitrification is one of the most important soil microbial processes leading to the production of nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential changes with metal pollution in soil microbial community for N2O production and reduction are not well addressed. In this study, topsoil samples were collected both from polluted and non-polluted rice paddy fields and denitrifier communities were characterized with molecular fingerprinting procedures. All the retrieved nirK sequences could be grouped into neither α- nor β- proteobacteria, while most of the nosZ sequences were affiliated with α-proteobacteria. The abundances of the nirK and nosZ genes were reduced significantly in the two polluted soils. Thus, metal pollution markedly affected composition of both nirK and nosZ denitrifiers. While the total denitrifying activity and N2O production rate were both reduced under heavy metal pollution of the two sites, the N2O reduction rate showed no significant change. These findings suggest that N2O production activity could be sensitive to heavy metal pollution, which could potentially lead to a decrease in N2O emission in polluted paddies. Therefore, metal pollution could have potential impacts on soil N transformation and thus on N2O emission from paddy soils. PMID:26739424

  20. Abundance, composition and activity of denitrifier communities in metal polluted paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yongzhuo; Zhou, Huimin; Li, Lianqing; Zheng, Jinwei; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jufeng; Pan, Genxing

    2016-01-01

    Denitrification is one of the most important soil microbial processes leading to the production of nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential changes with metal pollution in soil microbial community for N2O production and reduction are not well addressed. In this study, topsoil samples were collected both from polluted and non-polluted rice paddy fields and denitrifier communities were characterized with molecular fingerprinting procedures. All the retrieved nirK sequences could be grouped into neither α- nor β- proteobacteria, while most of the nosZ sequences were affiliated with α-proteobacteria. The abundances of the nirK and nosZ genes were reduced significantly in the two polluted soils. Thus, metal pollution markedly affected composition of both nirK and nosZ denitrifiers. While the total denitrifying activity and N2O production rate were both reduced under heavy metal pollution of the two sites, the N2O reduction rate showed no significant change. These findings suggest that N2O production activity could be sensitive to heavy metal pollution, which could potentially lead to a decrease in N2O emission in polluted paddies. Therefore, metal pollution could have potential impacts on soil N transformation and thus on N2O emission from paddy soils.

  1. Spatial distribution of enzyme activities in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Bahar S.; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    The rhizosphere, the tiny zone of soil surrounding roots, certainly represents one of the most dynamic habitat and interfaces on Earth. Activities of enzymes produced by both plant roots and microbes are the primary biological drivers of organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. That is why there is an urgent need in spatially explicit methods for the determination of the rhizosphere extension and enzyme distribution. Recently, zymography as a new technique based on diffusion of enzymes through the 1 mm gel plate for analysis has been introduced (Spohn & Kuzyakov, 2013). We developed the zymography technique to visualize the enzyme activities with a higher spatial resolution. For the first time, we aimed at quantitative imaging of enzyme activities as a function of distance from the root tip and the root surface in the soil. We visualized the two dimensional distribution of the activity of three enzymes: β-glucosidase, phosphatase and leucine amino peptidase in the rhizosphere of maize using fluorogenically labelled substrates. Spatial-resolution of fluorescent images was improved by direct application of a substrate saturated membrane to the soil-root system. The newly-developed direct zymography visualized heterogeneity of enzyme activities along the roots. The activity of all enzymes was the highest at the apical parts of individual roots. Across the roots, the enzyme activities were higher at immediate vicinity of the roots (1.5 mm) and gradually decreased towards the bulk soil. Spatial patterns of enzyme activities as a function of distance from the root surface were enzyme specific, with highest extension for phosphatase. We conclude that improved zymography is promising in situ technique to analyze, visualize and quantify spatial distribution of enzyme activities in the rhizosphere hotspots. References Spohn, M., Kuzyakov, Y., 2013. Phosphorus mineralization can be driven by microbial need for carbon. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 61: 69-75

  2. Habitat Distribution of Denitrifier and Denitrification Activity in the Tidal Flat of the Interior Parts of the Ariake Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Akane; Seguchi, Masahiro; Koriyama, Masumi

    The spatial distributions of denitrifier numbers in the tidal sediment (0∼4cm depth) in the interior parts of the Ariake Sea changed largely with the properties of tidal flat and seasons. The denitrifier numbers in summer were many in the muddy tidal flat in the interior parts of this bay and about 18,000MPNs/g-dry on the average. But, its numbers were few in the sandy and mud-sandy tidal flats in the east and west coast areas and about 1,700MPN/g-dry on the average. A close relation between the denitrifier numbers in the tidal sediment (0∼4cm depth) and its mud (clay and silt) content was found and its numbers rose with the increase of mud content. The vertical distribution of denitrifier numbers in the muddy tidal flat was high near the surface layer (0∼2cm depth) where Eh was almost zero in summer, but its distribution decreased in other season. The denitrification rate in the muddy tidal flat changed largely with time (0.35-13.86mg-N·m-2·d-1). The denitrification activity in the muddy tidal flat was assumed to be affected by the environmental factors and substrate concentration other than the denitrifier numbers.

  3. Effect of organic toxicants on the activity of denitrifying granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zonghe; Zheng, Ping; Li, Wei; Wang, Ru; Ghulam, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Denitrification plays a key role in the biological nitrogen removal from the wastewater using granular sludge as the integral part of a high-rate denitrification technology. It is helpful to evaluate the effect of typical organic toxicants on the activity of denitrifying granular sludge for the application of denitrification technology. In this study, four typical organic toxicants, namely, penicillin, chloramphenicol, 2,4-dinitrophenol and polymyxin B sulphate were used to assess the effect of organic toxicants on the activity of denitrifying granular sludge. The results of individual toxicity indicated that penicillin, chloramphenicol and 2,4-dinitrophenol had significant inhibition, whose half-inhibitory concentrations were 0.534, 0.162 and 0.474 g/L with respective inhibitory magnitudes of 90.79%/(g/L), 282.5%/(g/L) and 138.83%/(g/L). Polymyxin B sulphate showed no significant inhibition. The results of combined toxicity indicated that the binary mixture of penicillin and chloramphenicol had an antagonistic effect, both the binary mixture of penicillin and 2,4-dinitrophenol and the binary mixture of chloramphenicol and 2,4-dinitrophenol had additive effects. The ternary mixture of penicillin, chloramphenicol and 2,4-dinitrophenol had a partial additive effect.

  4. [Chemical properties and enzyme activities of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils under six Chinese herbal medicines on Mt. Taibai of Qinling Mountains, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Meng, Ling-Jun; Geng, Zeng-Chao; Yin, Jin-Yan; Wang, Hai-Tao; Ji, Peng-Fei

    2012-10-01

    This paper studied the chemical properties and enzyme activities of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils in different habitats of six Chinese herbal medicines, including Pyrola decorata, Cephalotaxus fortunei, Polygonatum odoratum, Potentilla glabra, Polygonum viviparum, and Potentilla fruticosa, on the Mt. Taibai of Qinling Mountains. In the rhizosphere soils of the herbs, the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, and available phosphorus and the soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) were higher, presenting an obvious rhizosphere aggregation, and the soil enzyme activities also showed an overall stronger characteristics, compared with those in non-rhizosphere soils. The soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus contents in the rhizosphere soils had significant positive correlations with soil neutral phosphatase activity, and the soil CEC had significant positive correlations with the activities of soil neutral phosphatase and acid phosphatase. In the non-rhizosphere soils, the soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents had significant positive correlations with the activities of soil urease, catalase and neutral phosphatase, and the soil CEC showed a significant positive correlation with the activities of soil urease, catalase, neutral phosphatase and acid phosphatase. The comprehensive fertility level of the rhizosphere soils was higher than that of the non-rhizosphere soils, and the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of P. fruticosa, P. viviparum, and P. glabra had higher comprehensive fertility level than those of P. decorata, P. odoratum and C. fortunei. In the evaluation of the fertility levels of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils under the six Chinese herbal medicines, soil organic matter content and CEC played important roles, and soil neutral phosphatase could be the preferred soil enzyme indicator.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas hussainii Strain MB3, a Denitrifying Aerobic Bacterium Isolated from the Rhizospheric Region of Mangrove Trees in the Andaman Islands, India

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Shubham K.; Saxena, Rituja; Mittal, Parul; Gupta, Ankit

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genome sequence of Pseudomonas hussainii MB3, isolated from the rhizospheric region of mangroves in the Andaman Islands, is comprised of 3,644,788 bp and 3,159 protein coding genes. Draft genome analysis indicates that MB3 is an aerobic bacterium capable of performing assimilatory sulfate reduction, dissimilatory nitrate reduction, and denitrification. PMID:28153890

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus Strain STW2, a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading and Denitrifying Bacterium from the Rhizosphere of Seagrass Enhalus acodoides

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Juan; Lin, Liyun; Zhang, Yanying; Lin, Xiancheng; Ahamad, Manzoor; Zhou, Weiguo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus strain STW2, which was isolated from the rhizosphere of seagrass Enhalus acodoides. This study will facilitate future studies on the genetic pathways of marine microbes capable of both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation and nitrate reduction. PMID:28232431

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas hussainii Strain MB3, a Denitrifying Aerobic Bacterium Isolated from the Rhizospheric Region of Mangrove Trees in the Andaman Islands, India.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Shubham K; Saxena, Rituja; Mittal, Parul; Gupta, Ankit; Sharma, Vineet K

    2017-02-02

    The genome sequence of Pseudomonas hussainii MB3, isolated from the rhizospheric region of mangroves in the Andaman Islands, is comprised of 3,644,788 bp and 3,159 protein coding genes. Draft genome analysis indicates that MB3 is an aerobic bacterium capable of performing assimilatory sulfate reduction, dissimilatory nitrate reduction, and denitrification.

  8. Quantity-activity relationship of denitrifying bacteria and environmental scaling in streams of a forested watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, B.L.; Hondzo, Miki; Dobraca, D.; LaPara, T.M.; Finlay, J.A.; Brezonik, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial variability of subreach denitrification rates in streams was evaluated with respect to controlling environmental conditions, molecular examination of denitrifying bacteria, and dimensional analysis. Denitrification activities ranged from 0 and 800 ng-N gsed-1 d-1 with large variations observed within short distances (<50 m) along stream reaches. A log-normal probability distribution described the range in denitrification activities and was used to define low (16% of the probability distributibn), medium (68%), and high (16%) denitrification potential groups. Denitrifying bacteria were quantified using a competitive polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) technique that amplified the nirK gene that encodes for nitrite reductase. Results showed a range of nirK quantities from 103 to 107 gene-copy-number gsed.-1 A nonparametric statistical test showed no significant difference in nirK quantifies among stream reaches, but revealed that samples with a high denitrification potential had significantly higher nirK quantities. Denitrification activity was positively correlated with nirK quantities with scatter in the data that can be attributed to varying environmental conditions along stream reaches. Dimensional analysis was used to evaluate denitrification activities according to environmental variables that describe fluid-flow properties, nitrate and organic material quantities, and dissolved oxygen flux. Buckingham's pi theorem was used to generate dimensionless groupings and field data were used to determine scaling parameters. The resulting expressions between dimensionless NO3- flux and dimensionless groupings of environmental variables showed consistent scaling, which indicates that the subreach variability in denitrification rates can be predicted by the controlling physical, chemical, and microbiological conditions. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Tree Species Composition Influences Enzyme Activities and Microbial Biomass in the Rhizosphere: A Rhizobox Approach

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shengzuo; Liu, Dong; Tian, Ye; Deng, Shiping; Shang, Xulan

    2013-01-01

    Monoculture causes nutrient losses and leads to declines in soil fertility and biomass production over successive cultivation. The rhizosphere, a zone of usually high microbial activities and clearly distinct from bulk soil, is defined as the volume of soil around living roots and influenced by root activities. Here we investigated enzyme activities and microbial biomass in the rhizosphere under different tree compositions. Six treatments with poplar, willow, and alder mono- or mixed seedlings were grown in rhizoboxes. Enzyme activities associated with nitrogen cycling and microbial biomass were measured in all rhizosphere and bulk soils. Both enzyme activities and microbial biomass in the rhizosphere differed significantly tree compositions. Microbial biomass contents were more sensitive to the changes of the rhizosphere environment than enzyme activities. Tree species coexistence did not consistently increase tested enzyme activities and microbial biomass, but varied depending on the complementarities of species traits. In general, impacts of tree species and coexistence were more pronounced on microbial composition than total biomass, evidenced by differences in microbial biomass C/N ratios stratified across the rhizosphere soils. Compared to poplar clone monoculture, other tree species addition obviously increased rhizosphere urease activity, but greatly reduced rhizosphere L-asparaginase activity. Poplar growth was enhanced only when coexisted with alder. Our results suggested that a highly productive or keystone plant species in a community had greater influence over soil functions than the contribution of diversity. PMID:23637838

  10. Reduced nitrate leaching and enhanced denitrifier activity and efficiency in organically fertilized soils

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Sasha B.; Reganold, John P.; Glover, Jerry D.; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.; Mooney, Harold A.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional agriculture has improved in crop yield but at large costs to the environment, particularly off-site pollution from mineral N fertilizers. In response to environmental concerns, organic agriculture has become an increasingly popular option. One component of organic agriculture that remains in question is whether it can reduce agricultural N losses to groundwater and the atmosphere relative to conventional agriculture. Here we report reduced N pollution from organic and integrated farming systems compared with a conventional farming system. We evaluated differences in denitrification potential and a suite of other soil biological and chemical properties in soil samples taken from organic, integrated, and conventional treatments in an experimental apple orchard. Organically farmed soils exhibited higher potential denitrification rates, greater denitrification efficiency, higher organic matter, and greater microbial activity than conventionally farmed soils. The observed differences in denitrifier function were then assessed under field conditions after fertilization. N2O emissions were not significantly different among treatments; however, N2 emissions were highest in organic plots. Annual nitrate leaching was 4.4–5.6 times higher in conventional plots than in organic plots, with the integrated plots in between. This study demonstrates that organic and integrated fertilization practices support more active and efficient denitrifier communities, shift the balance of N2 emissions and nitrate losses, and reduce environmentally damaging nitrate losses. Although this study specifically examines a perennial orchard system, the ecological and biogeochemical processes we evaluated are present in all agroecosystems, and the reductions in nitrate loss in this study could also be achievable in other cropping systems. PMID:16537377

  11. Effect of Bacteria and Amoebae on Rhizosphere Phosphatase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gould, W. Douglas; Coleman, David C.; Rubink, Amy J.

    1979-01-01

    The contributions of various components of soil microflora and microfauna to rhizosphere phosphatase activity were determined with hydroponic cultures. Three treatments were employed: (i) plants alone (Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag. ex Steud.) (ii) plants plus bacteria (Pseudomonas sp.), and (iii) plants plus bacteria plus amoebae (Acanthamoeba sp.). No alkaline phosphatase was detected, but an appreciable amount of acid phosphatase activity (120 to 500 nmol of p-nitrophenylphosphate hydrolyzed per h per plant) was found in the root culture solutions. The presence of bacteria or bacteria and amoebae increased the amount of acid phosphatase in solution, and properties of additional activity were identical to properties of plant acid phosphatase. The presence of bacteria or bacteria and amoebae increased both solution and root phosphatase activities at most initial phosphate concentrations. PMID:16345390

  12. Rhizosphere activity and methane oxidation in a temperate forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Catherine S.; Subke, Jens-Arne; Voke, Naomi R.; Holden, Robert D.; Ineson, Phil; Arn Teh, Yit

    2010-05-01

    Methane (CH4) concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere have increased dramatically over recent decades. An abundance of studies indicate that the magnitude of natural methane efflux from wetlands is likely to increase due to climate change. However, the role of vegetation and soils in upland methane oxidation are less well understood. Well-aerated soils are known to be sites of methane oxidation, and amongst a range of abiotic environmental parameters, soil moisture has been identified as critical regulator of the methane oxidation rates. However, the role of microbial activity within the soil, particularly C turnover in the plant rhizosphere, has not been investigated as a means for regulating methanotrophy. We combined a continuous soil CO2 efflux system (Li-Cor Biosciences, LI-8100) with a Cavity-Ringdown-Spectroscopy Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (Los Gatos Research Inc.) to measure soil CH4 oxidation in a pine forest in NE England. The soil has a shallow organic layer overlaying a well-draining sandy gley soil. Fluxes were measured from three different collar treatments: (1) excluding both root and ectomycorrhizal (EM) hyphae by trenching using deep collars, (2) excluding roots but allowing access by EM hyphae, and (3) unmodified forest soil (i.e. including both roots and EM hyphae). All collars were protected from natural throughfall, and received weekly-averaged amounts of throughfall based on collections in the stand. Data from two months in early summer 2009 indicate that CH4 oxidation in collars with an intact rhizosphere is more than twice that of either of the exclusion treatments (averaging approx. 90 g ha-1 d-1 in that period). We observed higher fluxes when soils were dryer (i.e. with increasing time since watering), indicating a significant influence of moisture. Despite the confounding effects of soil moisture associated with root water uptake in the unmodified soil collars, we argue that rhizosphere activity is an overlooked component in

  13. Drying-Rewetting and Flooding Impact Denitrifier Activity Rather than Community Structure in a Moderately Acidic Fen.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Katharina; Köpp, Julia; Gebauer, Gerhard; Horn, Marcus A

    2016-01-01

    Wetlands represent sources or sinks of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). The acidic fen Schlöppnerbrunnen emits denitrification derived N2O and is also capable of N2O consumption. Global warming is predicted to cause more extreme weather events in future years, including prolonged drought periods as well as heavy rainfall events, which may result in flooding. Thus, the effects of prolonged drought and flooding events on the abundance, community composition, and activity of fen denitrifiers were investigated in manipulation experiments. The water table in the fen was experimentally lowered for 8 weeks in 2008 and raised for 5.5 months in 2009 on three treatment plots, while three plots were left untreated and served as controls. In situ N2O fluxes were rather unaffected by the drought treatment and were marginally increased by the flooding treatment. Samples were taken before and after treatment in both years. The structural gene markers narG and nosZ were used to assess possible changes in the nitrate reducer and denitrifier community in response to water table manipulations. Detected copy numbers of narG and nosZ were essentially unaffected by the experimental drought and flooding. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) patterns of narG and nosZ were similar before and after experimental drought or experimental flooding, indicating a stable nitrate reducer and denitrifier community in the fen. However, certain TRFs of narG and nosZ transcripts responded to experimental drought or flooding. Nitrate-dependent Michaelis-Menten kinetics were assessed in anoxic microcosms with peat samples taken before and 6 months after the onset of experimental flooding. Maximal reaction velocities v max were higher after than before flooding in samples from treament but not in those from control plots taken at the same time. The ratio of N2O to N2O + N2 was lower in soil from treatment plots after flooding than in soil from control plots, suggesting

  14. Drying-Rewetting and Flooding Impact Denitrifier Activity Rather than Community Structure in a Moderately Acidic Fen

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Katharina; Köpp, Julia; Gebauer, Gerhard; Horn, Marcus A.

    2016-01-01

    Wetlands represent sources or sinks of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). The acidic fen Schlöppnerbrunnen emits denitrification derived N2O and is also capable of N2O consumption. Global warming is predicted to cause more extreme weather events in future years, including prolonged drought periods as well as heavy rainfall events, which may result in flooding. Thus, the effects of prolonged drought and flooding events on the abundance, community composition, and activity of fen denitrifiers were investigated in manipulation experiments. The water table in the fen was experimentally lowered for 8 weeks in 2008 and raised for 5.5 months in 2009 on three treatment plots, while three plots were left untreated and served as controls. In situ N2O fluxes were rather unaffected by the drought treatment and were marginally increased by the flooding treatment. Samples were taken before and after treatment in both years. The structural gene markers narG and nosZ were used to assess possible changes in the nitrate reducer and denitrifier community in response to water table manipulations. Detected copy numbers of narG and nosZ were essentially unaffected by the experimental drought and flooding. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) patterns of narG and nosZ were similar before and after experimental drought or experimental flooding, indicating a stable nitrate reducer and denitrifier community in the fen. However, certain TRFs of narG and nosZ transcripts responded to experimental drought or flooding. Nitrate-dependent Michaelis-Menten kinetics were assessed in anoxic microcosms with peat samples taken before and 6 months after the onset of experimental flooding. Maximal reaction velocities vmax were higher after than before flooding in samples from treament but not in those from control plots taken at the same time. The ratio of N2O to N2O + N2 was lower in soil from treatment plots after flooding than in soil from control plots, suggesting

  15. Effect of Root Agglutinin on Microbial Activities in the Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Wei-Liang; Li, Ren-Ki; Chang, Wen-Teh

    1988-01-01

    A total of 220 bacterial isolates were obtained from pea rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere samples. Of these samples, 100 isolates were chosen randomly to test for their agglutinative reaction against pea root exudate. The percentage of positive agglutination of bacteria isolated from the nonrhizosphere sample was significantly lower than that of bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere sample. Moreover, this agglutinative reaction could not be blocked either by treating the bacterial cells or root exudate with different carbohydrates before they were mixed or by boiling the root exudate first. Bacteria that could be agglutinated by pea root exudate followed the downward growth of the pea root through the soil profile. The greater abilities of such bacteria to colonize the pea rhizosphere were indicated by their higher rhizosphere-colonizing (rhizosphere/nonrhizosphere) ratios, whether the bacteria were added alone or together with nonagglutinating bacteria. However, bacteria did show different agglutinative reactions toward root exudates obtained from different plants. PMID:16347694

  16. Calibration of denitrifying activity of polyphosphate accumulating organisms in an extended ASM2d model.

    PubMed

    García-Usach, F; Ribes, J; Ferrer, J; Seco, A

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study for the modelling and calibration of denitrifying activity of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in full-scale WWTPs that incorporate simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The convenience of using different yields under aerobic and anoxic conditions for modelling biological phosphorus removal processes with the ASM2d has been demonstrated. Thus, parameter η(PAO) in the model is given a physical meaning and represents the fraction of PAOs that are able to follow the DPAO metabolism. Using stoichiometric relationships, which are based on assumed biochemical pathways, the anoxic yields considered in the extended ASM2d can be obtained as a function of their respective aerobic yields. Thus, this modification does not mean an extra calibration effort to obtain the new parameters. In this work, an off-line calibration methodology has been applied to validate the model, where general relationships among stoichiometric parameters are proposed to avoid increasing the number of parameters to calibrate. The results have been validated through a UCT scheme pilot plant that is fed with municipal wastewater. The good concordance obtained between experimental and simulated values validates the use of anoxic yields as well as the calibration methodology. Deterministic modelling approaches, together with off-line calibration methodologies, are proposed to assist in decision-making about further process optimization in biological phosphate removal, since parameter values obtained by off-line calibration give valuable information about the activated sludge process such as the amount of DPAOs in the system.

  17. Influence of soil reaction on diversity and antifungal activity of fluorescent pseudomonads in crop rhizospheres.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajni; Naosekpam, Ajit Singh; Kumar, Sanjay; Prasad, Ramdeen; Shanmugam, V

    2007-05-01

    The diversity and antifungal activity of fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from rhizospheres of tea, gladiolus, carnation and black gram grown in acidic soils with similar texture and climatic conditions were studied. Biochemical characterisation including antibiotic resistance assay, RAPD and PCR-RFLP studies revealed a largely homogenous population. At soil pH (5.2), the isolates exhibited growth with varying levels of siderophore production, irrespective of crop rhizospheres. Two isolates with maximum chitinase production showed antagonism. The bacterial populations in general lacked the ability to produce deleterious traits such as cellulase, pectinase and hydrogen cyanide. However, increased pH levels beyond 5.2 caused reduction in metabolite production with reduced antifungal activity. The homogeneity of the bacterial population irrespective of crop rhizospheres together with decreased secondary metabolite production at higher pH levels reinstated the importance of soil over host plant in influencing rhizosphere populations. The studies also yielded acid tolerant chitinase producing antagonistic fluorescent pseudomonads.

  18. [Effects of growing time on Panax ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chun-ping; Yang, Li-min; Ma, Feng-min

    2014-12-01

    Using the field sampling and indoor soil cultivation methods, the dynamic of ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass with three cultivated ages was studied to provide a theory basis for illustrating mechanism of continuous cropping obstacles of ginseng. The results showed that ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass accumulation were inhibited observably by growing time. The soil respiration, soil cellulose decomposition and soil nitrification of ginseng rhizosphere soil microorganism were inhibited significantly (P <0.05), in contrast to the control soil uncultivated ginseng (R0). And the inhibition was gradual augmentation with the number of growing years. The soil microbial activity of 3a ginseng soil (R3) was the lowest, and its activity of soil respiration, soil cellulose decomposition, soil ammonification and soil nitrification was lower than that in R0 with 56.31%, 86.71% and 90. 53% , respectively. The soil ammonification of ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial was significantly promoted compared with R0. The promotion was improved during the early growing time, while the promotion was decreased with the number of growing years. The soil ammonification of R1, R2 and R3 were lower than that in R0 with 32.43%, 80.54% and 66.64% separately. The SMB-C and SMB-N in ginseng rhizosphere soil had a decreased tendency with the number of growing years. The SMB-C difference among 3 cultivated ages was significant, while the SMB-N was not. The SMB of R3 was the lowest. Compared with R0, the SMB-C and the SMB-N were significantly reduced 77.30% and 69.36%. It was considered by integrated analysis that the leading factor of continuous cropping obstacle in ginseng was the changes of the rhizosphere soil microbial species, number and activity as well as the micro-ecological imbalance of rhizosphere soil caused by the accumulation of ginseng rhizosphere secretions.

  19. Abundance, composition and activity of ammonia oxidizer and denitrifier communities in metal polluted rice paddies from South China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yongzhuo; Ding, Yuanjun; Zheng, Jinwei; Zhou, Tong; Pan, Genxing; Crowley, David; Li, Lianqing; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Yu, Xinyan; Wang, Jiafang

    2014-01-01

    While microbial nitrogen transformations in soils had been known to be affected by heavy metal pollution, changes in abundance and community structure of the mediating microbial populations had been not yet well characterized in polluted rice soils. Here, by using the prevailing molecular fingerprinting and enzyme activity assays and comparisons to adjacent non-polluted soils, we examined changes in the abundance and activity of ammonia oxidizing and denitrifying communities of rice paddies in two sites with different metal accumulation situation under long-term pollution from metal mining and smelter activities. Potential nitrifying activity was significantly reduced in polluted paddies in both sites while potential denitrifying activity reduced only in the soils with high Cu accumulation up to 1300 mg kg-1. Copy numbers of amoA (AOA and AOB genes) were lower in both polluted paddies, following the trend with the enzyme assays, whereas that of nirK was not significantly affected. Analysis of the DGGE profiles revealed a shift in the community structure of AOA, and to a lesser extent, differences in the community structure of AOB and denitrifier between soils from the two sites with different pollution intensity and metal composition. All of the retrieved AOB sequences belonged to the genus Nitrosospira, among which species Cluster 4 appeared more sensitive to metal pollution. In contrast, nirK genes were widely distributed among different bacterial genera that were represented differentially between the polluted and unpolluted paddies. This could suggest either a possible non-specific target of the primers conventionally used in soil study or complex interactions between soil properties and metal contents on the observed community and activity changes, and thus on the N transformation in the polluted rice soils.

  20. Abundance, Composition and Activity of Ammonia Oxidizer and Denitrifier Communities in Metal Polluted Rice Paddies from South China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yongzhuo; Ding, Yuanjun; Zheng, Jinwei; Zhou, Tong; Pan, Genxing; Crowley, David; Li, Lianqing; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Yu, Xinyan; Wang, Jiafang

    2014-01-01

    While microbial nitrogen transformations in soils had been known to be affected by heavy metal pollution, changes in abundance and community structure of the mediating microbial populations had been not yet well characterized in polluted rice soils. Here, by using the prevailing molecular fingerprinting and enzyme activity assays and comparisons to adjacent non-polluted soils, we examined changes in the abundance and activity of ammonia oxidizing and denitrifying communities of rice paddies in two sites with different metal accumulation situation under long-term pollution from metal mining and smelter activities. Potential nitrifying activity was significantly reduced in polluted paddies in both sites while potential denitrifying activity reduced only in the soils with high Cu accumulation up to 1300 mg kg−1. Copy numbers of amoA (AOA and AOB genes) were lower in both polluted paddies, following the trend with the enzyme assays, whereas that of nirK was not significantly affected. Analysis of the DGGE profiles revealed a shift in the community structure of AOA, and to a lesser extent, differences in the community structure of AOB and denitrifier between soils from the two sites with different pollution intensity and metal composition. All of the retrieved AOB sequences belonged to the genus Nitrosospira, among which species Cluster 4 appeared more sensitive to metal pollution. In contrast, nirK genes were widely distributed among different bacterial genera that were represented differentially between the polluted and unpolluted paddies. This could suggest either a possible non-specific target of the primers conventionally used in soil study or complex interactions between soil properties and metal contents on the observed community and activity changes, and thus on the N transformation in the polluted rice soils. PMID:25058658

  1. Anaerobic Activation of p-Cymene in Denitrifying Betaproteobacteria: Methyl Group Hydroxylation versus Addition to Fumarate

    PubMed Central

    Strijkstra, Annemieke; Trautwein, Kathleen; Jarling, René; Wöhlbrand, Lars; Dörries, Marvin; Reinhardt, Richard; Drozdowska, Marta; Golding, Bernard T.; Wilkes, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The betaproteobacteria “Aromatoleum aromaticum” pCyN1 and “Thauera” sp. strain pCyN2 anaerobically degrade the plant-derived aromatic hydrocarbon p-cymene (4-isopropyltoluene) under nitrate-reducing conditions. Metabolite analysis of p-cymene-adapted “A. aromaticum” pCyN1 cells demonstrated the specific formation of 4-isopropylbenzyl alcohol and 4-isopropylbenzaldehyde, whereas with “Thauera” sp. pCyN2, exclusively 4-isopropylbenzylsuccinate and tentatively identified (4-isopropylphenyl)itaconate were observed. 4-Isopropylbenzoate in contrast was detected with both strains. Proteogenomic investigation of p-cymene- versus succinate-adapted cells of the two strains revealed distinct protein profiles agreeing with the different metabolites formed from p-cymene. “A. aromaticum” pCyN1 specifically produced (i) a putative p-cymene dehydrogenase (CmdABC) expected to hydroxylate the benzylic methyl group of p-cymene, (ii) two dehydrogenases putatively oxidizing 4-isopropylbenzyl alcohol (Iod) and 4-isopropylbenzaldehyde (Iad), and (iii) the putative 4-isopropylbenzoate-coenzyme A (CoA) ligase (Ibl). The p-cymene-specific protein profile of “Thauera” sp. pCyN2, on the other hand, encompassed proteins homologous to subunits of toluene-activating benzylsuccinate synthase (termed [4-isopropylbenzyl]succinate synthase IbsABCDEF; identified subunits, IbsAE) and protein homologs of the benzylsuccinate β-oxidation (Bbs) pathway (termed BisABCDEFGH; all identified except for BisEF). This study reveals that two related denitrifying bacteria employ fundamentally different peripheral degradation routes for one and the same substrate, p-cymene, with the two pathways apparently converging at the level of 4-isopropylbenzoyl-CoA. PMID:25261521

  2. Co-effects of pyrene and nitrate on the activity and abundance of soil denitrifiers under anaerobic condition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi-Feng; Yao, Yan-Hong; Wang, Ming-Xia; Zuo, Xiao-Hu

    2017-04-18

    It has previously been confirmed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) could be degraded by soil microbes coupling with denitrification, but the relationships among soil denitrifiers, PAHs, and nitrate under obligate anaerobic condition are still unclear. Here, co-effects of pyrene and nitrate on the activity and abundance of soil denitrifiers were investigated through a 45-day incubation experiment. Two groups of soil treatments with (N30) and without (N0) nitrate (30 mg kg(-1) dry soil) amendment were conducted, and each group contained three treatments with different pyrene concentrations (0, 30, and 60 mg kg(-1) dry soil denoted as P0, P30, and P60, respectively). The pyrene content, abundances of denitrification concerning genes (narG, periplasmic nitrate reductase gene; nirS, cd 1-nitrite reductase gene; nirK, copper-containing nitrite reductase gene), and productions of N2O and CO2 were measured at day 3, 14, 28, and 45, and the bacterial community structures in four represented treatments (N0P0, N0P60, N30P0, and N30P60) were analyzed at day 45. The results indicated that the treatments with higher pyrene concentration had higher final pyrene removal rates than the treatments with lower pyrene concentration. Additionally, intensive emission of N2O was detected in all treatments only at day 3, but a continuous production of CO2 was measured in each treatment during the incubation. Nitrate amendment could enhance the activity of soil denitrifiers, and be helpful for soil microbes to sustain their activity. While pyrene seemed had no influence on the productions of N2O and CO2, and amendment with pyrene or nitrate both had no obvious effect on abundances of denitrification concerning genes. Furthermore, it was nitrate but not pyrene had an obvious influence on the community structure of soil bacteria. These results revealed that, under anaerobic condition, the activity and abundance of soil denitrifiers both were insensitive to pyrene, but nitrate

  3. Activation of the Jasmonic Acid Plant Defence Pathway Alters the Composition of Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Carvalhais, Lilia C.; Dennis, Paul G.; Badri, Dayakar V.; Tyson, Gene W.; Vivanco, Jorge M.; Schenk, Peer M.

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) signalling plays a central role in plant defences against necrotrophic pathogens and herbivorous insects, which afflict both roots and shoots. This pathway is also activated following the interaction with beneficial microbes that may lead to induced systemic resistance. Activation of the JA signalling pathway via application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) alters the composition of carbon containing compounds released by roots, which are implicated as key determinants of rhizosphere microbial community structure. In this study, we investigated the influence of the JA defence signalling pathway activation in Arabidopsis thaliana on the structure of associated rhizosphere bacterial communities using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing. Application of MeJA did not directly influence bulk soil microbial communities but significant changes in rhizosphere community composition were observed upon activation of the jasmonate signalling pathway. Our results suggest that JA signalling may mediate plant-bacteria interactions in the soil upon necrotrophic pathogen and herbivorous insect attacks. PMID:23424661

  4. pH-driven shifts in overall and transcriptionally active denitrifiers control gaseous product stoichiometry in growth experiments with extracted bacteria from soil.

    PubMed

    Brenzinger, Kristof; Dörsch, Peter; Braker, Gesche

    2015-01-01

    Soil pH is a strong regulator for activity as well as for size and composition of denitrifier communities. Low pH not only lowers overall denitrification rates but also influences denitrification kinetics and gaseous product stoichiometry. N2O reductase is particularly sensitive to low pH which seems to impair its activity post-transcriptionally, leading to higher net N2O production. Little is known about how complex soil denitrifier communities respond to pH change and whether their ability to maintain denitrification over a wider pH range relies on phenotypic redundancy. In the present study, we followed the abundance and composition of an overall and transcriptionally active denitrifier community extracted from a farmed organic soil in Sweden (pH H2O = 7.1) when exposed to pH 5.4 and drifting back to pH 6.6. The soil was previously shown to retain much of its functioning (low N2O/N2 ratios) over a wide pH range, suggesting a high functional versatility of the underlying community. We found that denitrifier community composition, abundance and transcription changed throughout incubation concomitant with pH change in the medium, allowing for complete reduction of nitrate to N2 with little accumulation of intermediates. When exposed to pH 5.4, the denitrifier community was able to grow but reduced N2O to N2 only when near-neutral pH was reestablished by the alkalizing metabolic activity of an acid-tolerant part of the community. The genotypes proliferating under these conditions differed from those dominant in the control experiment run at neutral pH. Denitrifiers of the nirS-type appeared to be severely suppressed by low pH and nirK-type and nosZ-containing denitrifiers showed strongly reduced transcriptional activity and growth, even after restoration of neutral pH. Our study suggests that low pH episodes alter transcriptionally active populations which shape denitrifier communities and determine their gas kinetics.

  5. pH-driven shifts in overall and transcriptionally active denitrifiers control gaseous product stoichiometry in growth experiments with extracted bacteria from soil

    PubMed Central

    Brenzinger, Kristof; Dörsch, Peter; Braker, Gesche

    2015-01-01

    Soil pH is a strong regulator for activity as well as for size and composition of denitrifier communities. Low pH not only lowers overall denitrification rates but also influences denitrification kinetics and gaseous product stoichiometry. N2O reductase is particularly sensitive to low pH which seems to impair its activity post-transcriptionally, leading to higher net N2O production. Little is known about how complex soil denitrifier communities respond to pH change and whether their ability to maintain denitrification over a wider pH range relies on phenotypic redundancy. In the present study, we followed the abundance and composition of an overall and transcriptionally active denitrifier community extracted from a farmed organic soil in Sweden (pHH2O = 7.1) when exposed to pH 5.4 and drifting back to pH 6.6. The soil was previously shown to retain much of its functioning (low N2O/N2 ratios) over a wide pH range, suggesting a high functional versatility of the underlying community. We found that denitrifier community composition, abundance and transcription changed throughout incubation concomitant with pH change in the medium, allowing for complete reduction of nitrate to N2 with little accumulation of intermediates. When exposed to pH 5.4, the denitrifier community was able to grow but reduced N2O to N2 only when near-neutral pH was reestablished by the alkalizing metabolic activity of an acid-tolerant part of the community. The genotypes proliferating under these conditions differed from those dominant in the control experiment run at neutral pH. Denitrifiers of the nirS-type appeared to be severely suppressed by low pH and nirK-type and nosZ-containing denitrifiers showed strongly reduced transcriptional activity and growth, even after restoration of neutral pH. Our study suggests that low pH episodes alter transcriptionally active populations which shape denitrifier communities and determine their gas kinetics. PMID:26441895

  6. Comparative Analysis of Denitrifying Activities of Hyphomicrobium nitrativorans, Hyphomicrobium denitrificans, and Hyphomicrobium zavarzinii

    PubMed Central

    Martineau, Christine; Mauffrey, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Hyphomicrobium spp. are commonly identified as major players in denitrification systems supplied with methanol as a carbon source. However, denitrifying Hyphomicrobium species are poorly characterized, and very few studies have provided information on the genetic and physiological aspects of denitrification in pure cultures of these bacteria. This is a comparative study of three denitrifying Hyphomicrobium species, H. denitrificans ATCC 51888, H. zavarzinii ZV622, and a newly described species, H. nitrativorans NL23, which was isolated from a denitrification system treating seawater. Whole-genome sequence analyses revealed that although they share numerous orthologous genes, these three species differ greatly in their nitrate reductases, with gene clusters encoding a periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) in H. nitrativorans, a membrane-bound nitrate reductase (Nar) in H. denitrificans, and one Nap and two Nar enzymes in H. zavarzinii. Concurrently with these differences observed at the genetic level, important differences in the denitrification capacities of these Hyphomicrobium species were determined. H. nitrativorans grew and denitrified at higher nitrate and NaCl concentrations than did the two other species, without significant nitrite accumulation. Significant increases in the relative gene expression levels of the nitrate (napA) and nitrite (nirK) reductase genes were also noted for H. nitrativorans at higher nitrate and NaCl concentrations. Oxygen was also found to be a strong regulator of denitrification gene expression in both H. nitrativorans and H. zavarzinii, although individual genes responded differently in these two species. Taken together, the results presented in this study highlight the potential of H. nitrativorans as an efficient and adaptable bacterium that is able to perform complete denitrification under various conditions. PMID:25979892

  7. Denitrifying kinetics and nitrous oxide emission under different copper concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guangxue; Zhai, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Chengai; Guan, Yuntao

    2014-01-01

    Denitrifying activities and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission during denitrification can be affected by copper concentrations. Different denitrifiers were acclimated in sequencing batch reactors with acetate or methanol as the electron donor and nitrate as the electron acceptor. The effect of copper concentrations on the denitrifying activity and N2O emission for the acclimated denitrifiers was examined in batch experiments. Denitrifying activities of the acclimated denitrifiers declined with increasing copper concentrations, and the copper concentration exhibited a higher effect on denitrifiers acclimated with acetate than those acclimated with methanol. Compared with the control without the addition of copper, at the copper concentration of 1 mg/L, the acetate utilization rate reduced by 89% for acetate-acclimated denitrifiers, while the methanol utilization rate only reduced by 15% for methanol-acclimated denitrifiers. Copper also had different effects on N2O emission during denitrification carried out by various types of denitrifiers. For the acetate-acclimated denitrifiers, N2O emission initially increased and then decreased with increasing copper concentrations, while for the methanol-acclimated denitrifiers, N2O emission decreased with increasing copper concentrations.

  8. Heterotrophic nitrification among denitrifiers.

    PubMed Central

    Castignetti, D; Hollocher, T C

    1984-01-01

    Twelve denitrifying bacteria representing six genera were tested for an ability to nitrify pyruvic oxime heterotrophically. Six of these bacteria exhibited appreciable nitrification activity, yielding as much as 5.8 mM nitrite and little or no nitrate when grown in a mineral salts medium containing 7 mM pyruvic oxime and 0.05% yeast extract. Of the six active bacteria, four (Pseudomonas denitrificans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and two strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens) could grow on yeast extract but not pyruvic oxime, one (Pseudomonas aureofaciens) could grow slowly on pyruvic oxime, and one (Alcaligenes faecalis) could apparently grow on pyruvic oxime in the presence of yeast extract but not in its absence. Eight of the twelve bacteria in the resting state could oxidize hydroxylamine to nitrite, and P. aureofaciens was remarkably active in this regard. In general, those denitrifiers active in the nitrification of pyruvic oxime or hydroxylamine or both are abundant in soils. A possible advantage of having nitrification and denitrification capabilities in the same organism is discussed. PMID:6721486

  9. Community structures and activity of denitrifying microbes in a forested catchment in central Japan: survey using nitrite reductase genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohte, N.; Aoki, M.; Katsuyama, C.; Suwa, Y.; Tange, T.

    2012-12-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms of denitrification processes in the forested catchment, microbial ecological approaches have been applied in an experimental watershed that has previously investigated its hydrological processes. The study catchment is located in the Chiba prefecture in central Japan under the temperate Asian monsoon climate. Potential activities of denitrification of soil samples were measured by incubation experiments under anoxic condition associated with Na15NO3 addition. Existence and variety of microbes having nitrite reductase genes were investigated by PCR amplification, cloning and sequencings of nirK and nirS fragments after DNA extraction. Contrary to our early expectation that the potential denitrification activity was higher at deeper soil horizon with consistent groundwater residence than that in the surface soil, denitrification potential was higher in shallower soil horizons than deeper soils. This suggested that the deficiency of NO3- as a respiratory substrate for denitrifier occurred in deeper soils especially in the summer. However, high denitrification activity and presence of microbes having nirK and nirS in surface soils usually under aerobic condition was explainable by the fact that the majority of denitrifying bacteria have been recognized as a facultative anaerobic bacterium. This also suggests the possibility of that denitrification occurs even in the surface soils if the wet condition is provided by rainwater during and after a storm event. Community structures of microbes having nirK were different between near surface and deeper soil horizons, and ones having nirS was different between saturated zone (under groundwater table) and unsaturated soil horizons. These imply that microbial communities with nisK are sensitive to the concentration of soil organic matters and ones with nirS is sensitive to soil moisture contents.

  10. Insights into the effect of soil pH on N(2)O and N(2) emissions and denitrifier community size and activity.

    PubMed

    Cuhel, Jirí; Simek, Miloslav; Laughlin, Ronnie J; Bru, David; Chèneby, Dominique; Watson, Catherine J; Philippot, Laurent

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how changes in soil pH affect the N(2)O and N(2) emissions, denitrification activity, and size of a denitrifier community. We established a field experiment, situated in a grassland area, which consisted of three treatments which were repeatedly amended with a KOH solution (alkaline soil), an H(2)SO(4) solution (acidic soil), or water (natural pH soil) over 10 months. At the site, we determined field N(2)O and N(2) emissions using the (15)N gas flux method and collected soil samples for the measurement of potential denitrification activity and quantification of the size of the denitrifying community by quantitative PCR of the narG, napA, nirS, nirK, and nosZ denitrification genes. Overall, our results indicate that soil pH is of importance in determining the nature of denitrification end products. Thus, we found that the N(2)O/(N(2)O + N(2)) ratio increased with decreasing pH due to changes in the total denitrification activity, while no changes in N(2)O production were observed. Denitrification activity and N(2)O emissions measured under laboratory conditions were correlated with N fluxes in situ and therefore reflected treatment differences in the field. The size of the denitrifying community was uncoupled from in situ N fluxes, but potential denitrification was correlated with the count of NirS denitrifiers. Significant relationships were observed between nirS, napA, and narG gene copy numbers and the N(2)O/(N(2)O + N(2)) ratio, which are difficult to explain. However, this highlights the need for further studies combining analysis of denitrifier ecology and quantification of denitrification end products for a comprehensive understanding of the regulation of N fluxes by denitrification.

  11. Transitions in nirS-type denitrifier diversity, community composition, and biogeochemical activity along the Chesapeake Bay estuary

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Christopher A.; O'Mullan, Gregory D.; Cornwell, Jeffrey C.; Ward, Bess B.

    2013-01-01

    Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in North America, can be characterized as having steep and opposing gradients in salinity and dissolved inorganic nitrogen along the main axis of the Bay. In this study, the diversity of nirS gene fragments (encoding cytochrome cd1-type nitrite reductase), physical/chemical parameters, and benthic N2-fluxes were analyzed in order to determine how denitrifier communities and biogeochemical activity vary along the estuary salinity gradient. The nirS gene fragments were PCR-amplified, cloned, and sequenced from sediment cores collected at five stations. Sequence analysis of 96–123 nirS clones from each station revealed extensive overall diversity in this estuary, as well as distinct spatial structure in the nirS sequence distributions. Both nirS-based richness and community composition varied among stations, with the most dramatic shifts occurring between low-salinity (oligohaline) and moderate-salinity (mesohaline) sites. For four samples collected in April, the nirS-based richness, nitrate concentrations, and N2-fluxes all decreased in parallel along the salinity gradient from the oligohaline northernmost station to the highest salinity (polyhaline) station near the mouth of the Bay. The vast majority of the 550 nirS sequences were distinct from cultivated denitrifiers, although many were closely related to environmental clones from other coastal and estuarine systems. Interestingly, 8 of the 172 OTUs identified accounted for 42% of the total nirS clones, implying the presence of a few dominant and many rare genotypes, which were distributed in a non-random manner along the salinity gradient of Chesapeake Bay. These data, comprising the largest dataset to investigate nirS clone sequence diversity from an estuarine environment, also provided information that was required for the development of nirS microarrays to investigate the interaction of microbial diversity, environmental gradients, and biogeochemical activity. PMID

  12. Transitions in nirS-type denitrifier diversity, community composition, and biogeochemical activity along the Chesapeake Bay estuary.

    PubMed

    Francis, Christopher A; O'Mullan, Gregory D; Cornwell, Jeffrey C; Ward, Bess B

    2013-01-01

    Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in North America, can be characterized as having steep and opposing gradients in salinity and dissolved inorganic nitrogen along the main axis of the Bay. In this study, the diversity of nirS gene fragments (encoding cytochrome cd 1-type nitrite reductase), physical/chemical parameters, and benthic N2-fluxes were analyzed in order to determine how denitrifier communities and biogeochemical activity vary along the estuary salinity gradient. The nirS gene fragments were PCR-amplified, cloned, and sequenced from sediment cores collected at five stations. Sequence analysis of 96-123 nirS clones from each station revealed extensive overall diversity in this estuary, as well as distinct spatial structure in the nirS sequence distributions. Both nirS-based richness and community composition varied among stations, with the most dramatic shifts occurring between low-salinity (oligohaline) and moderate-salinity (mesohaline) sites. For four samples collected in April, the nirS-based richness, nitrate concentrations, and N2-fluxes all decreased in parallel along the salinity gradient from the oligohaline northernmost station to the highest salinity (polyhaline) station near the mouth of the Bay. The vast majority of the 550 nirS sequences were distinct from cultivated denitrifiers, although many were closely related to environmental clones from other coastal and estuarine systems. Interestingly, 8 of the 172 OTUs identified accounted for 42% of the total nirS clones, implying the presence of a few dominant and many rare genotypes, which were distributed in a non-random manner along the salinity gradient of Chesapeake Bay. These data, comprising the largest dataset to investigate nirS clone sequence diversity from an estuarine environment, also provided information that was required for the development of nirS microarrays to investigate the interaction of microbial diversity, environmental gradients, and biogeochemical activity.

  13. Spatiotemporal relationships between the abundance, distribution, and potential activities of ammonia-oxidizing and denitrifying microorganisms in intertidal sediments.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jason M; Mosier, Annika C; Francis, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to gain an understanding of how key microbial communities involved in nitrogen cycling in estuarine sediments vary over a 12-month period. Furthermore, we sought to determine whether changes in the size of these communities are related to, or indicative of, seasonal patterns in fixed nitrogen dynamics in Elkhorn Slough--a small, agriculturally impacted estuary with a direct connection to Monterey Bay. We assessed sediment and pore water characteristics, abundance of functional genes for nitrification (bacterial and archaeal amoA, encoding ammonia monooxygenase subunit A) and denitrification (nirS and nirK, encoding nitrite reductase), and measurements of potential nitrification and denitrification activities at six sites. No seasonality in the abundance of denitrifier or ammonia oxidizer genes was observed. A strong association between potential nitrification activity and the size of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial communities was observed across the estuary. In contrast, ammonia-oxidizing archaeal abundances remained relatively constant in space and time. Unlike many other estuaries, salinity does not appear to regulate the distribution of ammonia-oxidizing communities in Elkhorn Slough. Instead, their distributions appear to be governed over two different time scales. Long-term niche characteristics selected for the gross size of archaeal and bacterial ammonia-oxidizing communities, yet covariation in their abundances between monthly samples suggests that they respond in a similar manner to short-term changes in their environment. Abundances of denitrifier and ammonia oxidizer genes also covaried, but site-specific differences in this relationship suggest differing levels of interaction (or coupling) between nitrification and denitrification.

  14. Structure and activity of bacterial community inhabiting rice roots and the rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yahai; Rosencrantz, Dirk; Liesack, Werner; Conrad, Ralf

    2006-08-01

    Root-derived carbon provides a major source for microbial production and emission of CH4 from rice field soils. Therefore, we characterized the structure and activity of the bacterial community inhabiting rice roots and the rhizosphere. In the first experiment, DNA retrieved from rice roots was analysed for bacterial 16S rRNA genes using cloning, sequencing and in situ hybridization. In the second experiment, rice plants were pulse-labelled with 13CO2 (99% of atom 13C) for 7 days, and the bacterial RNA was isolated from rhizosphere soil and subjected to density gradient centrifugation. RNA samples from density fractions were analysed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting, cloning and sequencing. The experiments showed that the dominant bacteria inhabiting rice roots and the rhizosphere particularly belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. The RNA stable isotope probing revealed that the bacteria actively assimilating C derived from the pulse-labelled rice plants were Azospirillum spp. (Alphaproteobacteria) and members of Burkholderiaceae (Betaproteobacteria). Both anaerobic (e.g. Clostridia) and aerobic (e.g. Comamonas) degraders were present at high abundance, indicating that root environments and degradation processes were highly heterogeneous. The relative importance of iron and sulfate reducers suggested that cycling of iron and sulfur is active in the rhizosphere.

  15. [Effects of allelopathic rice on rhizosphere microbial flora and enzyme activity].

    PubMed

    Hu, Kaihui; Luo, Qingguo; Wang, Shihua; Lin, Xuan; Lin, Wenxiong

    2006-06-01

    This paper studied the dynamics of microbial flora and enzyme activity in the rhizosphere of allelopathic rice PI312777 (PI) and non-allelopathic rice Lemont (LE) at the growth stage of 3 - 7 leaves. The results showed that in the rhizosphere of PI, the amounts of bacteria, actinomycetes and azotobacter were 11.2% - 28.3%, 40% - 78.6% and 111.5% - 173.9%, respectively, while that of fungi was lower, with the maximum being 25.5% of that in the rhizosphere of LE, suggesting that allelopathic rice PI promoted the growth of bacteria, actinomycetes and azotobacter, but inhibited that of fungi. Further analysis on the physiological groups of microbial flora showed that PI favored the growth of ammonifier, aerobic azotobacter, aerobic cellulose - decomposer, sulphate - reducer, nitrite - bacteria and nitrate - bacteria, among which, ammonifier and aerobic azotobacter increased by 53.7% and 57.6%, respectively, while inhibited the growth of desulphate bacteria and denitrifyier. Moreover, PI increased the activities of urease, phosphatase and sucrase, but decreased the catalase activity in its rhizosphere.

  16. Community composition and activity of anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria in the rhizosphere of salt-marsh grass Spartina alterniflora.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanling; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Yin, Guoyu; Gao, Juan; Jiang, Xiaofen; Lin, Xianbiao; Li, Xiaofei; Yu, Chendi; Wang, Rong

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) as an important nitrogen removal pathway has been investigated in intertidal marshes. However, the rhizosphere-driven anammox process in these ecosystems is largely overlooked so far. In this study, the community dynamics and activities of anammox bacteria in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere sediments of salt-marsh grass Spartina alterniflora (a widely distributed plant in estuaries and intertidal ecosystems) were investigated using clone library analysis, quantitative PCR assay, and isotope-tracing technique. Phylogenetic analysis showed that anammox bacterial diversity was higher in the non-rhizosphere sediments (Scalindua and Kuenenia) compared with the rhizosphere zone (only Scalindua genus). Higher abundance of anammox bacteria was detected in the rhizosphere (6.46 × 10(6)-1.56 × 10(7) copies g(-1)), which was about 1.5-fold higher in comparison with that in the non-rhizosphere zone (4.22 × 10(6)-1.12 × 10(7) copies g(-1)). Nitrogen isotope-tracing experiments indicated that the anammox process in the rhizosphere contributed to 12-14 % N2 generation with rates of 0.43-1.58 nmol N g(-1) h(-1), while anammox activity in the non-rhizosphere zone contributed to only 4-7 % N2 production with significantly lower activities (0.28-0.83 nmol N g(-1) h(-1)). Overall, we propose that the rhizosphere microenvironment in intertidal marshes might provide a favorable niche for anammox bacteria and thus plays an important role in nitrogen cycling.

  17. The effects of different disease-resistant cultivars of banana on rhizosphere microbial communities and enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianbo; Peng, Ming; Wang, Yuguang; Li, Wenbin; Xia, Qiyu

    2013-08-01

    To understand the mechanism of soil microbial ecosystem and biochemical properties in suppressing soilborne plant diseases, the relationship between the soil rhizosphere microbial communities, hydrolase activities, and different disease-resistant cultivars was investigated. There were statistically significant differences in microbial diversity in the rhizosphere soil between the disease-tolerant cultivar Fj01 and susceptible cultivar Baxi. The rhizosphere soil of Fj01 showed a trend of higher microbial diversity than that of Baxi. At the same growth stage, the similar trends of variation in microbial community diversity between the two different cultivars were observed. The bacterial community abundance in rhizosphere soil from the two banana cultivars was quantified by real-time PCR assays. The size of the rhizosphere bacterial population from the Fj01 was significantly larger than that from the Baxi during the growing stage from July to September. The activities of urease and phosphatase were analyzed to study the effects of the two banana cultivars to soil ecosystem functioning. Urease activity was significantly higher in the rhizosphere soil of Fj01 than that of Baxi in the period from July to September. However, phosphatase activity showed no significant difference between the two different rhizosphere soils.

  18. Rhizosphere size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov; Razavi, Bahar

    2017-04-01

    Estimation of the soil volume affected by roots - the rhizosphere - is crucial to assess the effects of plants on properties and processes in soils and dynamics of nutrients, water, microorganisms and soil organic matter. The challenges to assess the rhizosphere size are: 1) the continuum of properties between the root surface and root-free soil, 2) differences in the distributions of various properties (carbon, microorganisms and their activities, various nutrients, enzymes, etc.) along and across the roots, 3) temporal changes of properties and processes. Thus, to describe the rhizosphere size and root effects, a holistic approach is necessary. We collected literature and own data on the rhizosphere gradients of a broad range of physico-chemical and biological properties: pH, CO2, oxygen, redox potential, water uptake, various nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Fe), organic compounds (glucose, carboxylic acids, amino acids), activities of enzymes of C, N, P and S cycles. The collected data were obtained based on the destructive approaches (thin layer slicing), rhizotron studies and in situ visualization techniques: optodes, zymography, sensitive gels, 14C and neutron imaging. The root effects were pronounced from less than 0.5 mm (nutrients with slow diffusion) up to more than 50 mm (for gases). However, the most common effects were between 1 - 10 mm. Sharp gradients (e.g. for P, carboxylic acids, enzyme activities) allowed to calculate clear rhizosphere boundaries and so, the soil volume affected by roots. The first analyses were done to assess the effects of soil texture and moisture as well as root system and age on these gradients. The most properties can be described by two curve types: exponential saturation and S curve, each with increasing and decreasing concentration profiles from the root surface. The gradient based distribution functions were calculated and used to extrapolate on the whole soil depending on the root density and rooting intensity. We

  19. Soil environmental conditions and microbial build-up mediate the effect of plant diversity on soil nitrifying and denitrifying enzyme activities in temperate grasslands.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Xavier; Schmid, Bernhard; Poly, Franck; Barnard, Romain L; Niklaus, Pascal A; Guillaumaud, Nadine; Habekost, Maike; Oelmann, Yvonne; Philippot, Laurent; Salles, Joana Falcao; Schloter, Michael; Steinbeiss, Sibylle; Weigelt, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Random reductions in plant diversity can affect ecosystem functioning, but it is still unclear which components of plant diversity (species number - namely richness, presence of particular plant functional groups, or particular combinations of these) and associated biotic and abiotic drivers explain the observed relationships, particularly for soil processes. We assembled grassland communities including 1 to 16 plant species with a factorial separation of the effects of richness and functional group composition to analyze how plant diversity components influence soil nitrifying and denitrifying enzyme activities (NEA and DEA, respectively), the abundance of nitrifiers (bacterial and archaeal amoA gene number) and denitrifiers (nirK, nirS and nosZ gene number), and key soil environmental conditions. Plant diversity effects were largely due to differences in functional group composition between communities of identical richness (number of sown species), though richness also had an effect per se. NEA was positively related to the percentage of legumes in terms of sown species number, the additional effect of richness at any given legume percentage being negative. DEA was higher in plots with legumes, decreased with increasing percentage of grasses, and increased with richness. No correlation was observed between DEA and denitrifier abundance. NEA increased with the abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria. The effect of richness on NEA was entirely due to the build-up of nitrifying organisms, while legume effect was partly linked to modified ammonium availability and nitrifier abundance. Richness effect on DEA was entirely due to changes in soil moisture, while the effects of legumes and grasses were partly due to modified nitrate availability, which influenced the specific activity of denitrifiers. These results suggest that plant diversity-induced changes in microbial specific activity are important for facultative activities such as denitrification, whereas changes

  20. Soil Environmental Conditions and Microbial Build-Up Mediate the Effect of Plant Diversity on Soil Nitrifying and Denitrifying Enzyme Activities in Temperate Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Le Roux, Xavier; Schmid, Bernhard; Poly, Franck; Barnard, Romain L.; Niklaus, Pascal A.; Guillaumaud, Nadine; Habekost, Maike; Oelmann, Yvonne; Philippot, Laurent; Salles, Joana Falcao; Schloter, Michael; Steinbeiss, Sibylle; Weigelt, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Random reductions in plant diversity can affect ecosystem functioning, but it is still unclear which components of plant diversity (species number – namely richness, presence of particular plant functional groups, or particular combinations of these) and associated biotic and abiotic drivers explain the observed relationships, particularly for soil processes. We assembled grassland communities including 1 to 16 plant species with a factorial separation of the effects of richness and functional group composition to analyze how plant diversity components influence soil nitrifying and denitrifying enzyme activities (NEA and DEA, respectively), the abundance of nitrifiers (bacterial and archaeal amoA gene number) and denitrifiers (nirK, nirS and nosZ gene number), and key soil environmental conditions. Plant diversity effects were largely due to differences in functional group composition between communities of identical richness (number of sown species), though richness also had an effect per se. NEA was positively related to the percentage of legumes in terms of sown species number, the additional effect of richness at any given legume percentage being negative. DEA was higher in plots with legumes, decreased with increasing percentage of grasses, and increased with richness. No correlation was observed between DEA and denitrifier abundance. NEA increased with the abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria. The effect of richness on NEA was entirely due to the build-up of nitrifying organisms, while legume effect was partly linked to modified ammonium availability and nitrifier abundance. Richness effect on DEA was entirely due to changes in soil moisture, while the effects of legumes and grasses were partly due to modified nitrate availability, which influenced the specific activity of denitrifiers. These results suggest that plant diversity-induced changes in microbial specific activity are important for facultative activities such as denitrification, whereas

  1. Rhizosphere bacterial community composition responds to arbuscular mycorrhiza, but not to reductions in microbial activity induced by foliar cutting.

    PubMed

    Vestergård, Mette; Henry, Frédéric; Rangel-Castro, Juan Ignacio; Michelsen, Anders; Prosser, James I; Christensen, Søren

    2008-04-01

    Differences in bacterial community composition (BCC) between bulk and rhizosphere soil and between rhizospheres of different plant species are assumed to be strongly governed by quantitative and qualitative rhizodeposit differences. However, data on the relationship between rhizodeposit amounts and BCC are lacking. Other soil microorganisms, e.g. arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), may also influence BCC. We simulated foliar herbivory (cutting) to reduce belowground carbon allocation and rhizodeposition of pea plants grown either with or without AMF. This reduced soil respiration, rhizosphere microbial biomass and bacteriovorous protozoan abundance, whereas none of these were affected by AMF. After labelling plants with (13)CO(2), root and rhizosphere soil (13)C enrichment of cut plants were reduced to a higher extent (24-46%) than shoot (13)C enrichment (10-24%). AMF did not affect (13)C enrichment. Despite these clear indications of reduced rhizosphere carbon-input, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA genes PCR-amplified targeting DNA and RNA from rhizosphere soil did not reveal any effects of cutting on banding patterns. In contrast, AMF induced consistent differences in both DNA- and RNA-based DGGE profiles. These results show that a reduction in rhizosphere microbial activity is not necessarily accompanied by changes in BCC, whereas AMF presence inhibits proliferation of some bacterial taxa while stimulating others.

  2. The activity and community structure of total bacteria and denitrifying bacteria across soil depths and biological gradients in estuary ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kang, Hojeong

    2016-02-01

    The distribution of soil microorganisms often shows variations along soil depth, and even in the same soil layer, each microbial group has a specific niche. In particular, the estuary soil is intermittently flooded, and the characteristics of the surface soil layer are different from those of other terrestrial soils. We investigated the microbial community structure and activity across soil depths and biological gradients composed of invasive and native plants in the shallow surface layer of an estuary ecosystem by using molecular approaches. Our results showed that the total and denitrifying bacterial community structures of the estuarine wetland soil differed according to the short depth gradient. In growing season, gene copy number of 16S rRNA were 1.52(±0.23) × 10(11), 1.10(±0.06) × 10(11), and 4.33(±0.16) × 10(10) g(-1) soil; nirS were 5.41(±1.25) × 10(8), 4.93(±0.94) × 10(8), and 2.61(±0.28) × 10(8) g(-1) soil; and nirK were 9.67(±2.37) × 10(6), 3.42(±0.55) × 10(6), and 2.12(±0.19) × 10(6) g(-1) soil in 0 cm, 5 cm, and 10 cm depth layer, respectively. The depth-based difference was distinct in the vegetated sample and in the growing season, evidencing the important role of plants in structuring the microbial community. In comparison with other studies, we observed differences in the microbial community and functions even across very short depth gradients. In conclusion, our results suggested that (i) in the estuary ecosystem, the denitrifying bacterial community could maintain its abundance and function within shallow surface soil layers through facultative anaerobiosis, while the total bacterial community would be both quantitatively and qualitatively affected by the soil depth, (ii) the nirS gene community, rather than the nirK one, should be the first candidate used as an indicator of the microbial denitrification process in the estuary system, and (iii) as the microbial community is distributed and plays a certain niche role according to

  3. Rhizosphere heterogeneity shapes abundance and activity of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in vegetated salt marsh sediments

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, François; Giblin, Anne E.; Cardon, Zoe G.; Sievert, Stefan M.

    2014-01-01

    Salt marshes are highly productive ecosystems hosting an intense sulfur (S) cycle, yet little is known about S-oxidizing microorganisms in these ecosystems. Here, we studied the diversity and transcriptional activity of S-oxidizers in salt marsh sediments colonized by the plant Spartina alterniflora, and assessed variations with sediment depth and small-scale compartments within the rhizosphere. We combined next-generation amplicon sequencing of 16S rDNA and rRNA libraries with phylogenetic analyses of marker genes for two S-oxidation pathways (soxB and rdsrAB). Gene and transcript numbers of soxB and rdsrAB phylotypes were quantified simultaneously, using newly designed (RT)-qPCR assays. We identified a diverse assemblage of S-oxidizers, with Chromatiales and Thiotrichales being dominant. The detection of transcripts from S-oxidizers was mostly confined to the upper 5 cm sediments, following the expected distribution of root biomass. A common pool of species dominated by Gammaproteobacteria transcribed S-oxidation genes across roots, rhizosphere, and surrounding sediment compartments, with rdsrAB transcripts prevailing over soxB. However, the root environment fine-tuned the abundance and transcriptional activity of the S-oxidizing community. In particular, the global transcription of soxB was higher on the roots compared to mix and rhizosphere samples. Furthermore, the contribution of Epsilonproteobacteria-related S-oxidizers tended to increase on Spartina roots compared to surrounding sediments. These data shed light on the under-studied oxidative part of the sulfur cycle in salt marsh sediments and indicate small-scale heterogeneities are important factors shaping abundance and potential activity of S-oxidizers in the rhizosphere. PMID:25009538

  4. Pyruvic Oxime Nitrification and Copper and Nickel Resistance by a Cupriavidus pauculus, an Active Heterotrophic Nitrifier-Denitrifier

    PubMed Central

    Linchangco, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrophic nitrifiers synthesize nitrogenous gasses when nitrifying ammonium ion. A Cupriavidus pauculus, previously thought an Alcaligenes sp. and noted as an active heterotrophic nitrifier-denitrifier, was examined for its ability to produce nitrogen gas (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) while heterotrophically nitrifying the organic substrate pyruvic oxime [CH3–C(NOH)–COOH]. Neither N2 nor N2O were produced. Nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the organism is a member of a genus (Cupriavidus) known for its resistance to metals and its metabolism of xenobiotics. The microbe (a Cupriavidus pauculus designated as C. pauculus strain UM1) was examined for its ability to perform heterotrophic nitrification in the presence of Cu2+ and Ni2+ and to metabolize the xenobiotic phenol. The bacterium heterotrophically nitrified well when either 1 mM Cu2+ or 0.5 mM Ni2+ was present in either enriched or minimal medium. The organism also used phenol as a sole carbon source in either the presence or absence of 1 mM Cu2+ or 0.5 mM Ni2+. The ability of this isolate to perform a number of different metabolisms, its noteworthy resistance to copper and nickel, and its potential use as a bioremediation agent are discussed. PMID:25580463

  5. [Characteristics of soil denitrifying enzyme activity in riparian zones with different land use types in Chongming Island, Shanghai of China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang-Liang; Li, Jian-Hua; Yang, Chang-Ming

    2013-10-01

    By using acetylene inhibition method, this paper studied the soil denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) and its affecting factors in the riparian zone with different land use types (cropland riparian, forested riparian, and grassy riparian zones) in Chongming Island, Shanghai of China. The riparian soil DEA was (0.69 +/- 0.11)--(134.93 +/- 33.72) microg N x kg(-1) x h(-1), which differed obviously among different land types, with a decreasing trend of forested riparian zone > cropland riparian zone > grassy riparian zone. The soil DEA was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in 0-10 cm in 10-30, 30-50, and 50-70 cm layers. There were significant positive relationships between soil DEA and soil TOC, TN, and NO(3-)-N (P < 0.01). Land use change mainly altered the soil natural structure and soil physical and chemical properties, decreased the accumulation of soil organic carbon, and affected the soil nitrogen transformation, and thus, inhibited the occurrence of riparian soil denitrification.

  6. Effects of P and C inputs on microbial activities in P limiting bulk and rhizosphere soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilyera, Nataliya

    2017-04-01

    Keywords: phosphorus, soil ATP, phosphatase, microbial biomass, Cambisol. Phosphorus (P) is the second important nutrient for plants and limiting element in many ecosystems. P is a non-renewable resource, and based on its current rate of use, it has been estimated that the worlds known reserves of P rocks may be depleted within the current century. Soils with high-sorption P capacity require higher P additions, but, do not provide plants with sufficient available P. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce P application rates, but facilitate soil microbiological activity to maintain good P availability for plants. We aimed to study soil adenosine triphosphate (ATP), microbial biomass (MBC) and phosphatase activity as microbial response to contrasting P input in a low P Cambisol in a 5 days incubation experiment. The treatments were i) bulk soil (no C), ii) rhizosphere soil (10 μg C g-1 soil day-1 - root exudates imitation) and iii) glucose addition to soil (50 μg C g-1 soil - for microbial activation). Three rates of P as KH2PO4 were applied at each C treatments: i) no P (P0) - for P severe limitation; ii) 10% P from initial extractable soil P (P10) - low P input; and iii) 50% P from initial extractable soil P (P50) - high P input. We tested the following hypotheses: 1) the better response of MBC and ATP to P is expected to be in the rhizosphere soil, as continuous C input resulted in gradual microbial activation; 2) phosphatase activity will decrease with increasing P rates in all soils. Microbial biomass grew linear (R2=0.99) and simultaneously with incremental P addition in bulk soil. In rhizosphere and C-amended soils, on contrary, the MBC response to P level was represented by quadratic model (y=-0.06x2+2.84x+37.03; R2=0.93). This model shows the highest MBC value at P23, which indicates optimal and the most effective application rate for this soil type. The correlation between soil ATP content and P rates ascended in the order bulk soil (R2=0.34) > C

  7. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizospher...

  8. Real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous quantification of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Geets, Joke; de Cooman, Michaël; Wittebolle, Lieven; Heylen, Kim; Vanparys, Bram; De Vos, Paul; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2007-05-01

    In order to improve wastewater treatment processes, a need exists for tools that rapidly give detailed insight into the community structure of activated sludge, supplementary to chemical and physical data. In this study, the advantages of microarrays and quantitative polymerase chin reaction (PCR) methods were combined into a real-time PCR assay that allows the simultaneous quantification of phylogenetic and functional genes involved in nitrification and denitrification processes. Simultaneous quantification was possible along a 5-log dynamic range and with high linear correlation (R (2) > 0.98). The specificity of the assay was confirmed by cloning and sequencing analyses of PCR amplicons obtained from activated sludge. The real-time assay was validated on mixed liquid samples of different treatment plants, which varied in nitrogen removal rate. The abundance of ammonia oxidizers was in the order of magnitude of 10(6) down to 10(4) ml(-1), whereas nitrite oxidizers were less abundant (10(3)-10(1) order of magnitude). The results were in correspondence with the nitrite oxidation rate in the sludge types. As for the nirS, nirK, and nosZ gene copy numbers, their abundance was generally in the order of magnitude of 10(8)-10(5). When sludge samples were subjected to lab-scale perturbations, a decrease in nitrification rate was reflected within 18 h in the copy numbers of nitrifier genes (decrease with 1 to 5 log units), whereas denitrification genes remained rather unaffected. These results demonstrate that the method is a fast and accurate tool for the analysis of the (de)nitrifying community structure and size in both natural and engineered environmental samples.

  9. [Effects of bio-mulching on rhizosphere soil microbial population, enzyme activity and tree growth in poplar plantation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiu-Jun; Fang, Sheng-Zuo; Xie, Bao-Dong; Hao, Juan-Juan

    2008-06-01

    Coriaria nepalensis, Pteridium aquilinum var. latiuscukum, Imperata cylindrical var. major, and Quercus fabric were used as mulching materials to study their effects on the rhizosphere soil microbial population and enzyme activity and the tree growth in poplar plantation. The results showed that after mulching with test materials, the populations of both bacteria and fungi in rhizosphere soil were more than those of the control. Of the mulching materials, I. cylindrical and Q. fabric had the best effect, with the numbers of bacteria and fungi being 23.56 and 1.43 times higher than the control, respectively. The bacterial and fungal populations in rhizosphere soil increased with increasing mulching amount. When the mulching amount was 7.5 kg m(-2), the numbers of bacteria and fungi in rhizosphere soil were 0.5 and 5.14 times higher than the control, respectively. Under bio-mulching, the bacterial and fungal populations in rhizosphere soil had a similar annual variation trend, which was accorded with the annual fluctuation of soil temperature and got to the maximum in July and the minimum in December. The urease and phosphatase activities in rhizosphere soil also increased with increasing mulching amount. As for the effects of different mulching materials on the enzyme activities, they were in the order of C. nepalensis > P. aquilinum > I. cylindrical > Q. fabric. The annual variation of urease and phosphatase activities in rhizosphere soil was similar to that of bacterial and fungal populations, being the highest in July and the lowest in December. Bio-mulching promoted the tree height, DBH, and biomass of poplar trees significantly.

  10. Effects of glyphosate and foliar amendments on activity of microorganisms in the soybean rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Means, Nathan E; Kremer, Robert J; Ramsier, Clifford

    2007-02-01

    A field study was conducted to determine the effects of glyphosate on microbial activity in the rhizosphere of glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean and to evaluate interactions with foliar amendments. Glyphosate at 0.84 kg ae ha(-1) was applied GR soybean at the V4-V5 development stages. Check treatments included a conventional herbicide tank mix (2003 study only) and no herbicides (hand-weeded). Ten days after herbicide application, a commercially available biostimulant and a urea solution (21.0% N) were applied to soybean foliage at 33.5 mL ha(-1) and 9.2 kg ha(-1), respectively. Soil and plant samples were taken 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days after herbicide application then assayed for enzyme and respiration activities. Soil respiration and enzyme activity increased with glyphosate and foliar amendment applications during the 2002 growing season; however, similar increases were not observed in 2003. Contrasting cumulative rainfall between 2002 and 2003 likely accounted for differences in soil microbial activities. Increases in soil microbial activity in 2002 suggest that adequate soil water and glyphosate application acted together to increase microbial activity. Our study suggests that general soil microbial properties including those involving C and N transformations are not sensitive enough to detect effects of glyphosate on rhizosphere microbial activity. Measurements of soil-plant-microbe relationships including specific microbial groups (i.e., root-associated Fusarium spp.) are likely better indicators of impacts of glyphosate on soil microbial ecology.

  11. [Microbial activity and functional diversity in rhizosphere of cucumber under different subsurface drip irrigation scheduling].

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; He, Hong-Jun; Li, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Zi-Kun

    2014-08-01

    The effects of subsurface drip irrigation scheduling on microbial activity and functional diversity in rhizosphere of cucumber in solar greenhouse were studied in this paper. The results showed that the soil microbial biomass C and N, basal respiration, metabolic quotient and values of AWCD, Shannon and McIntosh indexes were increased at first and then decreased with the increase of irrigation water amount. The values of microbial C and N, basal respiration and metabolic quotient in I2 treatments were significantly higher than those in I1 treatments at the 0.8E(p) irrigation level. The numbers of bacteria, actinomyces and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and the activities of urease, phosphatase, sucrase, catalase and polyhenoloxidase were significantly higher in the 0.8E(p) treatment than in the other treatments. The numbers of bacteria and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, the activities of urease, phosphatase and sucrase in I2 treatments were significantly higher than in I1 treatment, the actinomyces number and activities of catalase and polyhenoloxidase had no significant difference between I1 and I2 treatments, however, the fungi number in I2 treatments were significantly lower than in I2 treaments at the 0.8E(p) irrigation level. The microbial activity and functional diversity in rhizosphere of cucumber were strengthened in the I20.8E(p) treatment, meanwhile, the soil microflora was improved and the soil enzymes activities were enhanced, therefore, the cucumber growth was promoted as well.

  12. Contributions of available substrates and activities of trophic microbial community to methanogenesis in vegetative and reproductive rice rhizospheric soil.

    PubMed

    Chawanakul, Sansanee; Chaiprasert, Pawinee; Towprayoon, Sirintornthep; Tanticharoen, Morakot

    2009-01-01

    Potential of methane production and trophic microbial activities at rhizospheric soil during rice cv. Supanbunri 1 cultivation were determined by laboratory anaerobic diluents vials. The methane production was higher from rhizospheric than non-rhizospheric soil, with the noticeable peaks during reproductive phase (RP) than vegetative phase (VP). Glucose, ethanol and acetate were the dominant available substrates found in rhizospheric soil during methane production at both phases. The predominance activities of trophic microbial consortium in methanogenesis, namely fermentative bacteria (FB), acetogenic bacteria (AGB), acetate utilizing bacteria (AB) and acetoclastic methanogens (AM) were also determined. At RP, these microbial groups were enhanced in the higher of methane production than VP. This correlates with our finding that methane production was greater at the rhizospheric soil with the noticeable peaks during RP (1,150 +/- 60 nmol g dw(-1) d(-1)) compared with VP (510 +/- 30 nmol g dw(-1) d(-1)). The high number of AM showed the abundant (1.1x10(4) cell g dw(-1)) with its high activity at RP, compared to the less activity with AM number at VP (9.8x10(2) cell g dw(-1)). Levels of AM are low in the total microbial population, being less than 1% of AB. These evidences revealed that the microbial consortium of these two phases were different.

  13. Soil Rhizosphere Microbial Communities and Enzyme Activities under Organic Farming

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated the activities of ß-glucosidase (C cycling, ß-glucosaminidase (C and N cycling), acid phosphatase (P cycling) and arylsulfatase (S cycling) under lettuce (Lactuca sativa), potato (Solanum Tuberosum), onion (Allium cepa L), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Tall f...

  14. Microbial respiration and kinetics of extracellular enzymes activities through rhizosphere and detritusphere at agricultural site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löppmann, Sebastian; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    Rhizosphere and detritusphere are soil microsites with very high resource availability for microorganisms affecting their biomass, composition and functions. In the rhizosphere low molecular compounds occur with root exudates and low available polymeric compounds, as belowground plant senescence. In detritusphere the substrate for decomposition is mainly a polymeric material of low availability. We hypothesized that microorganisms adapted to contrasting quality and availability of substrates in the rhizosphere and detritusphere are strongly different in affinity of hydrolytic enzymes responsible for decomposition of organic compounds. According to common ecological principles easily available substrates are quickly consumed by microorganisms with enzymes of low substrate affinity (i.e. r-strategists). The slow-growing K-strategists with enzymes of high substrate affinity are better adapted for growth on substrates of low availability. Estimation of affinity of enzyme systems to the substrate is based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics, reflecting the dependency of decomposition rates on substrate amount. As enzymes-mediated reactions are substrate-dependent, we further hypothesized that the largest differences in hydrolytic activity between the rhizosphere and detritusphere occur at substrate saturation and that these differences are smoothed with increasing limitation of substrate. Affected by substrate limitation, microbial species follow a certain adaptation strategy. To achieve different depth gradients of substrate availability 12 plots on an agricultural field were established in the north-west of Göttingen, Germany: 1) 4 plots planted with maize, reflecting lower substrate availability with depth; 2) 4 unplanted plots with maize litter input (0.8 kg m-2 dry maize residues), corresponding to detritusphere; 3) 4 bare fallow plots as control. Maize litter was grubbed homogenously into the soil at the first 5 cm to ensure comparable conditions for the herbivore and

  15. Diagnosis and quantification of glycerol assimilating denitrifying bacteria in an integrated fixed-film activated sludge reactor via 13C DNA stable-isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huijie; Chandran, Kartik

    2010-12-01

    Glycerol, a byproduct of biodiesel and oleo-chemical manufacturing operations, represents an attractive alternate to methanol as a carbon and electron donor for enhanced denitrification. However, unlike methanol, little is known about the diversity and activity of glycerol assimilating bacteria in activated sludge. In this study, the microbial ecology of glycerol assimilating denitrifying bacteria in a sequencing batch integrated fixed film activated sludge (SB-IFAS) reactor was investigated using (13)C-DNA stable isotope probing (SIP). During steady state SB-IFAS reactor operation, near complete nitrate removal (92.7 ± 5.8%) was achieved. Based on (13)C DNA clone libraries obtained after 360 days of SB-IFAS reactor operation, bacteria related to Comamonas spp. and Diaphorobacter spp. dominated in the suspended phase communities. (13)C assimilating members in the biofilm community were phylogenetically more diverse and were related to Comamonas spp., Bradyrhizobium spp., and Tessaracoccus spp. Possibly owing to greater substrate availability in the suspended phase, the glycerol-assimilating denitrifying populations (quantified by real-time PCR) were more abundant therein than in the biofilm phase. The biomass in the suspended phase also had a higher specific denitrification rate than the biofilm phase (p = 4.33e-4), and contributed to 69.7 ± 4.5% of the overall N-removal on a mass basis. The kinetics of glycerol based denitrification by suspended phase biomass were approximately 3 times higher than with methanol. Previously identified methanol assimilating denitrifying bacteria were not associated with glycerol assimilation, thereby suggesting limited cross-utilization of these two substrates for denitrification in the system tested.

  16. Effect of salinity tolerant PDH45 transgenic rice on physicochemical properties, enzymatic activities and microbial communities of rhizosphere soils

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    The effect of genetically modified (GM) plants on environment is now major concern worldwide. The plant roots of rhizosphere soil interact with variety of bacteria which could be influenced by the transgene in GM plants. The antibiotic resistance genes in GM plants may be transferred to soil microbes. In this study we have examined the effect of overexpression of salinity tolerant pea DNA helicase 45 (PDH45) gene on microbes and enzymatic activities in the rhizosphere soil of transgenic rice IR64 in presence and absence of salt stress in two different rhizospheric soils (New Delhi and Odisha, India). The diversity of the microbial community and soil enzymes viz., dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, urease and nitrate reductase was assessed. The results revealed that there was no significant effect of transgene expression on rhizosphere soil of the rice plants. The isolated bacteria were phenotyped both in absence and presence of salt and no significant changes were found in their phenotypic characters as well as in their population. Overall, the overexpression of PDH45 in rice did not cause detectable changes in the microbial population, soil enzymatic activities and functional diversity of the rhizosphere soil microbial community. PMID:23733066

  17. Effect of salinity tolerant PDH45 transgenic rice on physicochemical properties, enzymatic activities and microbial communities of rhizosphere soils.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-08-01

    The effect of genetically modified (GM) plants on environment is now major concern worldwide. The plant roots of rhizosphere soil interact with variety of bacteria which could be influenced by the transgene in GM plants. The antibiotic resistance genes in GM plants may be transferred to soil microbes. In this study we have examined the effect of overexpression of salinity tolerant pea DNA helicase 45 (PDH45) gene on microbes and enzymatic activities in the rhizosphere soil of transgenic rice IR64 in presence and absence of salt stress in two different rhizospheric soils (New Delhi and Odisha, India). The diversity of the microbial community and soil enzymes viz., dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, urease and nitrate reductase was assessed. The results revealed that there was no significant effect of transgene expression on rhizosphere soil of the rice plants. The isolated bacteria were phenotyped both in absence and presence of salt and no significant changes were found in their phenotypic characters as well as in their population. Overall, the overexpression of PDH45 in rice did not cause detectable changes in the microbial population, soil enzymatic activities and functional diversity of the rhizosphere soil microbial community.

  18. Metabolic activity and genetic diversity of microbial communities inhabiting the rhizosphere of halophyton plants.

    PubMed

    Bárány, Agnes; Szili-Kovács, Tibor; Krett, Gergely; Füzy, Anna; Márialigeti, Károly; Borsodi, Andrea K

    2014-09-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to compare the community level physiological profile (CLPP) and genetic diversity of rhizosphere microbial communities of four plant species growing nearby Kiskunság soda ponds, namely Böddi-szék, Kelemen-szék and Zab-szék. CLPP was assessed by MicroResp method using 15 different substrates while Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to analyse genetic diversity of bacterial communities. The soil physical and chemical properties were quite different at the three sampling sites. Multivariate statistics (PCA and UPGMA) revealed that Zab-szék samples could be separated according to their genetic profile from the two others which might be attributed to the geographical location and perhaps the differences in soil physical properties. Böddi-szék samples could be separated from the two others considering the metabolic activity which could be explained by their high salt and low humus contents. The number of bands in DGGE gels was related to the metabolic activity, and positively correlated with soil humus content, but negatively with soil salt content. The main finding was that geographical location, soil physical and chemical properties and the type of vegetation were all important factors influencing the metabolic activity and genetic diversity of rhizosphere microbial communities.

  19. Biomass of active microorganisms is not limited only by available carbon in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmullina, Aliia

    2017-04-01

    Microbial activity is generally limited by carbon (C) availability. The easily available substrate release by roots creates so called "hotspots" in the rhizosphere that drives microbial activity removing C limitation. We simulated a gradient of root exudates by glucose addition at different concentrations to stimulate the activation of microbial biomass (MB). Glucose was added at the rates lower than MB (5, 10, 25 and 50%) and at the rates similar or higher than MB (100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 400%). During incubation CO2 efflux was measured by conductometry, the size of active MB and specific growth rate were estimated by substrate-induced growth response method. We tested a hypothesis that glucose addition exceeding 100% MB is able to activate major fraction of soil microbial community. Addition of glucose at concentrations higher than 5% decreased specific growth rate, demonstrating the shift of microbial community from r-strategy to K-strategy. The percentage of active MB grew up by the increase of glucose concentration. The treatment with glucose at 100% presented a dramatic shift in the activation of MB up to 14%. Contrary to our hypothesis, further increase in glucose rate caused moderate stimulation of active MB up to 22% of total MB. Furthermore, glucose addition above 200% did not increase the fraction of active biomass indicating glucose oversaturation and possible limitation by other nutrients. The results suggest that despite the fact that C is the most important limitation factor, limitless C supply is not able to activate MB up to 100%. Thus, if the rhizosphere is limited by nutrients, the fraction of active biomass remains at low level despite an excess of available C.

  20. Enzymatic activity in the rhizosphere of Spartina maritima: potential contribution for phytoremediation of metals.

    PubMed

    Reboreda, Rosa; Caçador, Isabel

    2008-02-01

    Extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA) of five enzymes (peroxidase, phenol oxidase, beta-glucosidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase and acid phosphatase) was analysed in sediments colonised by Spartina maritima in two salt marshes (Rosário and Pancas) of the Tagus estuary (Portugal) with different characteristics such as sediment parameters and metal contaminant levels. Our aim was a better understanding of the influence of the halophyte on microbial activity in the rhizosphere under different site conditions, and its potential consequences for metal cycling and phytoremediation in salt marshes. Acid phosphatase and beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase presented significantly higher EEA in Rosário than in Pancas, whereas the opposite occurred for peroxidase. This was mainly attributed to differences in organic matter between the two sites. A positive correlation between root biomass and EEA of hydrolases (beta-glucosidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase and acid phosphatase) was found, indicating a possible influence of the halophyte in sediment microbial function. This would potentially affect metal cycling in the rhizosphere through microbial reactions.

  1. Elevated atmospheric CO2 affected photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xia; Liu, Tuo; Zhao, Yonghua; He, Yunhua; Yang, Mingyan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated CO2 (700 ± 23 μmol mol(-1)) on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated CO2 was associated with decreased quantities of reducing sugars, starch, and soluble amino acids, and with increased quantities of soluble sugars, total sugars, and soluble proteins in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. The contents of total soluble sugars, total free amino acids, total soluble phenolic acids, and total organic acids in the rhizosphere soil under Cd stress were improved by elevated CO2. Compared to Cd stress alone, the activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, urease, L-asparaginase, β-glucosidase, neutral phosphatase, and fluorescein diacetate increased under elevated CO2 in combination with Cd stress; only cellulase activity decreased. Bacterial abundance in rhizosphere soil was stimulated by elevated CO2 at low Cd concentrations (1.31-5.31 mg Cd kg(-1) dry soil). Actinomycetes, total microbial abundance, and fungi decreased under the combined conditions at 5.31-10.31 mg Cd kg(-1) dry soil. In conclusion, increased production of soluble sugars, total sugars, and proteins in wheat seedlings under elevated CO2 + Cd stress led to greater quantities of organic compounds in the rhizosphere soil relative to seedlings grown under Cd stress only. Elevated CO2 concentrations could moderate the effects of heavy metal pollution on enzyme activity and microorganism abundance in rhizosphere soils, thus improving soil fertility and the microecological rhizosphere environment of wheat under Cd stress.

  2. Denitrification Activity of a Remarkably Diverse Fen Denitrifier Community in Finnish Lapland Is N-Oxide Limited

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Katharina; Horn, Marcus A.

    2015-01-01

    Peatlands cover more than 30% of the Finnish land area and impact N2O fluxes. Denitrifiers release N2O as an intermediate or end product. In situ N2O emissions of a near pH neutral pristine fen soil in Finnish Lapland were marginal during gas chamber measurements. However, nitrate and ammonium fertilization significantly stimulated in situ N2O emissions. Stimulation with nitrate was stronger than with ammonium. N2O was produced and subsequently consumed in gas chambers. In unsupplemented anoxic microcosms, fen soil produced N2O only when acetylene was added to block nitrous oxide reductase, suggesting complete denitrification. Nitrate and nitrite stimulated denitrification in fen soil, and maximal reaction velocities (vmax) of nitrate or nitrite dependent denitrification where 18 and 52 nmol N2O h-1 gDW-1, respectively. N2O was below 30% of total produced N gases in fen soil when concentrations of nitrate and nitrite were <500 μM. vmax for N2O consumption was up to 36 nmol N2O h-1 gDW-1. Denitrifier diversity was assessed by analyses of narG, nirK/nirS, and nosZ (encoding nitrate-, nitrite-, and nitrous oxide reductases, respectively) by barcoded amplicon pyrosequencing. Analyses of ~14,000 quality filtered sequences indicated up to 25 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and up to 359 OTUs at 97% sequence similarity, suggesting diverse denitrifiers. Phylogenetic analyses revealed clusters distantly related to publicly available sequences, suggesting hitherto unknown denitrifiers. Representatives of species-level OTUs were affiliated with sequences of unknown soil bacteria and Actinobacterial, Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, and Delta-Proteobacterial sequences. Comparison of the 4 gene markers at 97% similarity indicated a higher diversity of narG than for the other gene markers based on Shannon indices and observed number of OTUs. The collective data indicate (i) a high denitrification and N2O consumption potential, and (ii) a highly diverse, nitrate limited

  3. Increased Activity of Rhizosphere and Hyphosphere Enzymes under Elevated CO2 in a Loblolly Pine Stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, I.; Phillips, R.

    2012-12-01

    The stimulatory effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 under global climate change on forest productivity has been predicted to decrease over time as pools of available N in soil become depleted, but empirical support for such progressive N limitation has been lacking. Increased N acquisition from soil depleted in inorganic nitrogen requires stimulation of the microbial processing of organic N, possibly through increasing C supply to soil by plant roots or mycorrhizal hyphae. Increases in (mycorr)rhizosphere C fluxes could stimulate microbes to produce extra-cellular enzymes that release N from SOM, feeding back from soil microsites to ecosystem-scale processes. We investigated the influence of elevated CO2 on root exudation and soil enzyme activity at the Duke Forest FACE site, USA, where loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands have been exposed to elevated CO2 for 14 years and N fertilization for five years. In each plot, root boxes containing acetate windows were installed in 2008. Two years after installation, we collected soils adjacent to root tips (the rhizosphere), hyphal tips (the hyphosphere) and bulk soil. We measured in situ root exudation rates from intact pine roots. Study objectives were to analyze (i) the influence of atmospheric CO2 on root exudation and extra-cellular enzyme activities, (ii) the influence of soil N availability in regulating these activities, and (iii) the relationship between the activities of enzymes involved in N cycling in soils and gross N transformations at soil microsites. Elevated atmospheric CO2 significantly increased the activity of β-1-4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) in the rhizosphere by almost 2.5 times (39 to 95 nmol h-1 g-1), and 1.6fold in the hyphosphere relative to ambient plots. NAG is an enzyme involved in the degradation of chitin from the cell walls of soil organisms, releasing absorbable forms of nitrogen. The activity of peroxidase, which degrades aromatic C compounds of SOM, increased significantly in the

  4. Site-specific variability in BTEX biodegradation under denitrifying conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, C.M.; Borden, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    Laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, and o-xylene (BTEX) biodegradation under denitrifying conditions. Nine different sources of inocula, including contaminated and uncontaminated soil cores from four different sites and activated sludge, were used to establish microcosms. BTEX was not degraded under denitrifying conditions in microcosms inoculated with aquifer material from Rocky Point and Traverse City. However, rapid depletion of glucose under denitrifying conditions was observed in microcosms containing Rocky Point aquifer material. TEX degradation was observed in microcosms containing Rocky Point aquifer material. TEX degradation was observed in microcosms containing aquifer material from Fort Bragg and Sleeping Bear Dunes and sewage sludge. Benzene was recalcitrant in all microcosms tested. The degradation of o-xylene ceased after toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene were depleted in the Fort Bragg and sludge microcosms, but o-xylene continued to degrade in microcosms with contaminated Sleeping Bear Dunes soil. The most probable number (MPN) of denitrifiers in these nine different inocula were measured using a microtiter technique. There was no correlation between the MPN of denitrifiers and the TEX degradation rate under denitrifying conditions. Experimental results indicate that the degradation sequence and TEX degradation rate under denitrifying conditions may differ among sites. Results also indicate that denitrification alone may not be a suitable bioremediation technology for gasoline-contaminated aquifers because of the inability of denitrifiers to degrade benzene.

  5. Impact of Faba Bean-Seed Rhizobial Inoculation on Microbial Activity in the Rhizosphere Soil during Growing Season

    PubMed Central

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Inoculation of legume seeds with Rhizobium affects soil microbial community and processes, especially in the rhizosphere. This study aimed at assessing the effect of Rhizobium inoculation on microbial activity in the faba bean rhizosphere during the growing season in a field experiment on a Haplic Luvisol derived from loess. Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds were non-inoculated (NI) or inoculated (I) with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and sown. The rhizosphere soil was analyzed for the enzymatic activities of dehydrogenases, urease, protease and acid phosphomonoesterase, and functional diversity (catabolic potential) using the Average Well Color Development, Shannon-Weaver, and Richness indices following the community level physiological profiling from Biolog EcoPlate™. The analyses were done on three occasions corresponding to the growth stages of: 5–6 leaf, flowering, and pod formation. The enzymatic activities were higher in I than NI (p < 0.05) throughout the growing season. However, none of the functional diversity indices differed significantly under both treatments, regardless of the growth stage. This work showed that the functional diversity of the microbial communities was a less sensitive tool than enzyme activities in assessment of rhizobial inoculation effects on rhizosphere microbial activity. PMID:27213363

  6. Impact of Faba Bean-Seed Rhizobial Inoculation on Microbial Activity in the Rhizosphere Soil during Growing Season.

    PubMed

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2016-05-20

    Inoculation of legume seeds with Rhizobium affects soil microbial community and processes, especially in the rhizosphere. This study aimed at assessing the effect of Rhizobium inoculation on microbial activity in the faba bean rhizosphere during the growing season in a field experiment on a Haplic Luvisol derived from loess. Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds were non-inoculated (NI) or inoculated (I) with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and sown. The rhizosphere soil was analyzed for the enzymatic activities of dehydrogenases, urease, protease and acid phosphomonoesterase, and functional diversity (catabolic potential) using the Average Well Color Development, Shannon-Weaver, and Richness indices following the community level physiological profiling from Biolog EcoPlate™. The analyses were done on three occasions corresponding to the growth stages of: 5-6 leaf, flowering, and pod formation. The enzymatic activities were higher in I than NI (p < 0.05) throughout the growing season. However, none of the functional diversity indices differed significantly under both treatments, regardless of the growth stage. This work showed that the functional diversity of the microbial communities was a less sensitive tool than enzyme activities in assessment of rhizobial inoculation effects on rhizosphere microbial activity.

  7. Selection pressure, cropping system and rhizosphere proximity affect atrazine degrader populations and activity in s-triazine adapted soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Atrazine degrader populations and activity in s-triazine adapted soils are likely affected by interactions among and (or) between s-triazine application frequency, crop production system, and proximity to the rhizosphere. A field study was conducted on an s-triazine adapted soil to determine the ef...

  8. Soil zymography - A novel technique for mapping enzyme activity in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spohn, Marie

    2014-05-01

    The effect plant roots on microbial activity in soil at the millimeter scale is poorly understood. One reason for this is that spatially explicit methods for the study of microbial activity in soil are limited. Here we present a quantitative in situ technique for mapping the distribution of exoenzymes in soil along with some results about the effects of roots on exoenzyme activity in soil. In the first study we showed that both acid and alkaline phosphatase activity were up to 5.4-times larger in the rhizosphere of Lupinus albus than in the bulk soil. While acid phosphatase activity (produced by roots and microorganisms) was closely associated with roots, alkaline phosphatase activity (produced only by microorganisms) was more widely distributed, leading to a 2.5-times larger area of activity of alkaline than of acid phosphatase. These results indicate a spatial differentiation of different ecophysiological groups of organic phosphorus mineralizing organisms in the rhizosphere which might alleviate a potential competition for phosphorus between them. In a second study cellulase, chitinase and phosphatase activities were analyzed in the presence of living Lupinus polyphyllus roots and dead/dying roots (in the same soils 10, 20 and 30 days after cutting the L. polyphyllus shoots). The activity of all three enzymes was 9.0 to 13.9-times higher at the living roots compared to the bulk soil. Microhotspots of cellulase, chitinase and phosphatase activity in the soil were found up to 60 mm away from the living roots. 10 days after shoot cutting, the areas of high activities of cellulase and phosphatase activity were extend up to 55 mm away from the next root, while the extension of the area of chitinase activity did not change significantly. At the root, cellulase and chitinase activity increased first at the root tips after shoot cutting and showed maximal activity 20 days after shoot cutting. The number and activity of microhotspots of chitinase activity was maximal 10

  9. The Amplitude of Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles Influences Dynamics of N2O Emissions and Denitrifier Transcriptional Activity and Community Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyer, C.; Wertz, S.; Tatti, E.; Zebarth, B.; Burton, D.; Chantigny, M.; Filion, M.

    2016-12-01

    In agricultural fields at high and mid latitudes, a large percentage of the annual emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) can occur during freeze-thaw (FT) cycles. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of FT cycles of different amplitudes on N2O emissions, denitrifier transcriptional activity and the abundance and composition of present and active denitrifier communities. Soil microcosms amended with NO3- (N) and/or NO3- plus organic C i.e. red clover residues (N+RC) were subjected to freezing at -5°C followed by thawing at either +4°C or +15°C. Peaks of N2O emission rates following FT were 2 fold greater in N+RC than in N amended soils. In N+RC amended soils, the maximum rates following FT were similar at +4°C and +15°C. However, thawing at +4oC resulted in a delay in the peak of emissions, suggesting that denitrification enzymatic activity was reduced at colder temperatures. In general, the abundance and the number of transcripts per gene copies of nirS and nirK were similar over time and among treatments with a few exceptions, including, for example, fewer nirS transcripts under the cooler thawing temperature. Temperature regimes had a significant effect on the compositions of the present and active nirS and present nirK denitrifier communities during FT. Changes in these community compositions were correlated with changes in temperature and N2O emissions, and these variables explained 3.7 to 4.9 % of the changes in community composition. Results indicated that addition of electron donor i.e. organic C increased N2O emissions. Furthermore, the composition of active nirS community changed during the peak of N2O emissions following FT events but not the active nirK community. This finding indicated that active nirS community better adapted to the changes in conditions has established suggesting a greater role of this group in N2O production.

  10. Impacts of nitrogen application rates on the activity and diversity of denitrifying bacteria in the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ian M.; Buchkina, Natalya; Jhurreea, Deveraj; Goulding, Keith W. T.; Hirsch, Penny R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial denitrification results in the loss of fertilizer nitrogen and greenhouse gas emissions as nitrous oxides, but ecological factors in soil influencing denitrifier communities are not well understood, impeding the potential for mitigation by land management. Communities vary in the relative abundance of the alternative dissimilatory nitrite reductase genes nirK and nirS, and the nitrous oxide reductase gene nosZ; however, the significance for nitrous oxide emissions is unclear. We assessed the influence of different long-term fertilization and cultivation treatments in a 160-year-old field experiment, comparing the potential for denitrification by soil samples with the size and diversity of their denitrifier communities. Denitrification potential was much higher in soil from an area left to develop from arable into woodland than from a farmyard manure-fertilized arable treatment, which in turn was significantly higher than inorganic nitrogen-fertilized and unfertilized arable plots. This correlated with abundance of nirK but not nirS, the least abundant of the genes tested in all soils, showing an inverse relationship with nirK. Most genetic variation was seen in nirK, where sequences resolved into separate groups according to soil treatment. We conclude that bacteria containing nirK are most probably responsible for the increased denitrification potential associated with nitrogen and organic carbon in this soil. PMID:22451109

  11. Violet-Pigmented Pseudomonads With Antifungal Activity From the Rhizosphere of Beans

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, W. A.; Papavizas, G. C.

    1963-01-01

    Bean rhizosphere bacteria antagonistic to four root-infecting fungi and an antibiotic produced by these bacteria were studied. The bacteria were violet-pigmented gram-negative rods, probably belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. The antibiotic, which was localized largely in the bacterial cell mass, was easily extracted with acetone. It was selectively active against a wide variety of plant-pathogenic and saprophytic fungi tested in vitro but was relatively inactive against bacteria. The compound, partially purified by chromatography, was soluble in all organic solvents tried, but nearly insoluble in water. It demonstrated no characteristic ultraviolet- or visible-absorption spectrum and was chemically unidentified. The antagonistic bacteria or crude antibiotic applied to buried buckwheat segments suppressed the colonization of this substrate by Rhizoctonia spp. The data suggested that the bacteria or the antibiotic may play a role in the suppression of root-infecting fungi in soil. PMID:16349643

  12. Characterization of Pseudomonas chlororaphis from Theobroma cacao L. rhizosphere with antagonistic activity against Phytophthora palmivora (Butler).

    PubMed

    Acebo-Guerrero, Y; Hernández-Rodríguez, A; Vandeputte, O; Miguélez-Sierra, Y; Heydrich-Pérez, M; Ye, L; Cornelis, P; Bertin, P; El Jaziri, M

    2015-10-01

    To isolate and characterize rhizobacteria from Theobroma cacao with antagonistic activity against Phytophthora palmivora, the causal agent of the black pod rot, which is one of the most important diseases of T. cacao. Among 127 rhizobacteria isolated from cacao rhizosphere, three isolates (CP07, CP24 and CP30) identified as Pseudomonas chlororaphis, showed in vitro antagonistic activity against P. palmivora. Direct antagonism tested in cacao detached leaves revealed that the isolated rhizobacteria were able to reduce symptom severity upon infection with P. palmivora Mab1, with Ps. chlororaphis CP07 standing out as a potential biocontrol agent. Besides, reduced symptom severity on leaves was also observed in planta where cacao root system was pretreated with the isolated rhizobacteria followed by leaf infection with P. palmivora Mab1. The production of lytic enzymes, siderophores, biosurfactants and HCN, as well as the detection of genes encoding antibiotics, the formation of biofilm, and bacterial motility were also assessed for all three rhizobacterial strains. By using a mutant impaired in viscosin production, derived from CP07, it was found that this particular biosurfactant turned out to be crucial for both motility and biofilm formation, but not for the in vitro antagonism against Phytophthora, although it may contribute to the bioprotection of T. cacao. In the rhizosphere of T. cacao, there are rhizobacteria, such as Ps. chlororaphis, able to protect plants against P. palmivora. This study provides a theoretical basis for the potential use of Ps. chlororaphis CP07 as a biocontrol agent for the protection of cacao plants from P. palmivora infection. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Community shifts and carbon translocation within metabolically-active rhizosphere microorganisms in grasslands under elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denef, K.; Bubenheim, H.; Lenhart, K.; Vermeulen, J.; van Cleemput, O.; Boeckx, P.; Müller, C.

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the microbial communities that are actively involved in the assimilation of rhizosphere-C and are most sensitive in their activity to elevated atmospheric CO2 in grassland ecosystems. For this, we analyzed 13C signatures in microbial biomarker phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) from an in situ 13CO2 pulse-labeling experiment in the Gießen Free-Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment grasslands (GiFACE, Germany) exposed to ambient and elevated (i.e. 50% above ambient) CO2 concentrations. Carbon-13 PLFA measurements at 3 h, 10 h and 11 months after the pulse-labeling indicated a much faster transfer of newly produced rhizosphere-C to fungal compared to bacterial PLFA. After 11 months, the proportion of 13C had decreased in fungal PLFA but had increased in bacterial PLFA compared to a few hours after the pulse-labeling. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of the rapidly assimilated rhizosphere-C was still present in fungal PLFA after 11 months. These results demonstrate the dominant role of fungi in the immediate assimilation of rhizodeposits in grassland ecosystems, while also suggesting a long-term retention of rhizosphere-C in the fungal mycelium as well as a possible translocation of the rhizosphere-C from the fungal to bacterial biomass. Elevated CO2 caused an increase in the relative abundance of root-derived PLFA-C in the saprotrophic fungal PLFA 18:2ω6,9 as well as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal PLFA 16:1ω5, but a decrease in the saprotrophic fungal biomarker PLFA 18:1ω9. This suggests enhanced rhizodeposit-C assimilation only by selected fungal communities under elevated CO2.

  14. The Rhizosphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiro, Arthur D.

    1978-01-01

    The rhizosphere is the area directly surrounding the roots of a plant and an area of tremendous microbial growth. This article described techniques for studying this soil biome. Illustrations are included. (MA)

  15. The Rhizosphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiro, Arthur D.

    1978-01-01

    The rhizosphere is the area directly surrounding the roots of a plant and an area of tremendous microbial growth. This article described techniques for studying this soil biome. Illustrations are included. (MA)

  16. Impact of transgenic wheat with wheat yellow mosaic virus resistance on microbial community diversity and enzyme activity in rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jirong; Yu, Mingzheng; Xu, Jianhong; Du, Juan; Ji, Fang; Dong, Fei; Li, Xinhai; Shi, Jianrong

    2014-01-01

    The transgenic wheat line N12-1 containing the WYMV-Nib8 gene was obtained previously through particle bombardment, and it can effectively control the wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) disease transmitted by Polymyxa graminis at turngreen stage. Due to insertion of an exogenous gene, the transcriptome of wheat may be altered and affect root exudates. Thus, it is important to investigate the potential environmental risk of transgenic wheat before commercial release because of potential undesirable ecological side effects. Our 2-year study at two different experimental locations was performed to analyze the impact of transgenic wheat N12-1 on bacterial and fungal community diversity in rhizosphere soil using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) at four growth stages (seeding stage, turngreen stage, grain-filling stage, and maturing stage). We also explored the activities of urease, sucrase and dehydrogenase in rhizosphere soil. The results showed that there was little difference in bacterial and fungal community diversity in rhizosphere soil between N12-1 and its recipient Y158 by comparing Shannon's, Simpson's diversity index and evenness (except at one or two growth stages). Regarding enzyme activity, only one significant difference was found during the maturing stage at Xinxiang in 2011 for dehydrogenase. Significant growth stage variation was observed during 2 years at two experimental locations for both soil microbial community diversity and enzyme activity. Analysis of bands from the gel for fungal community diversity showed that the majority of fungi were uncultured. The results of this study suggested that virus-resistant transgenic wheat had no adverse impact on microbial community diversity and enzyme activity in rhizosphere soil during 2 continuous years at two different experimental locations. This study provides a theoretical basis for environmental impact monitoring of transgenic wheat when the introduced gene is

  17. Impact of Transgenic Wheat with wheat yellow mosaic virus Resistance on Microbial Community Diversity and Enzyme Activity in Rhizosphere Soil

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianhong; Du, Juan; Ji, Fang; Dong, Fei; Li, Xinhai; Shi, Jianrong

    2014-01-01

    The transgenic wheat line N12-1 containing the WYMV-Nib8 gene was obtained previously through particle bombardment, and it can effectively control the wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) disease transmitted by Polymyxa graminis at turngreen stage. Due to insertion of an exogenous gene, the transcriptome of wheat may be altered and affect root exudates. Thus, it is important to investigate the potential environmental risk of transgenic wheat before commercial release because of potential undesirable ecological side effects. Our 2-year study at two different experimental locations was performed to analyze the impact of transgenic wheat N12-1 on bacterial and fungal community diversity in rhizosphere soil using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) at four growth stages (seeding stage, turngreen stage, grain-filling stage, and maturing stage). We also explored the activities of urease, sucrase and dehydrogenase in rhizosphere soil. The results showed that there was little difference in bacterial and fungal community diversity in rhizosphere soil between N12-1 and its recipient Y158 by comparing Shannon's, Simpson's diversity index and evenness (except at one or two growth stages). Regarding enzyme activity, only one significant difference was found during the maturing stage at Xinxiang in 2011 for dehydrogenase. Significant growth stage variation was observed during 2 years at two experimental locations for both soil microbial community diversity and enzyme activity. Analysis of bands from the gel for fungal community diversity showed that the majority of fungi were uncultured. The results of this study suggested that virus-resistant transgenic wheat had no adverse impact on microbial community diversity and enzyme activity in rhizosphere soil during 2 continuous years at two different experimental locations. This study provides a theoretical basis for environmental impact monitoring of transgenic wheat when the introduced gene is

  18. Carbon and nitrogen limitation explain the contrasting responses of rhizospheric N-cycling microbial communities to maize inoculation by Azospirillum lipoferum CRT1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florio, Alessandro; Pommier, Thomas; Gervaix, Jonathan; Bréfort, Caroline; Bérard, Annette; Le Roux, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Introduction Maize inoculation with the plant-growth promoting rhizobacterium Azospirillum stimulates root growth and carbon, C, exudation, thereby enabling a better exploitation of soil and enhancing plant uptake of nitrogen, N. This can modulate the availability of N in the rhizosphere, by enhancing plant-microbe competition for N and modifying rhizosphere environmental variables important for N-cycling microbial communities, i.e. the amount of soil mineral N and oxygen availability. We tested the hypothesis that inoculation-induced stimulation of root N uptake and C exudation would enhance plant competition over microorganisms for N while increasing C availability for heterotrophs, thus leading to (i) a decrease of nitrifier abundance and activity, and (ii) a decrease or increase of denitrifier abundance and activity depending on the level of denitrifier limitation by N and C. Methods The extent of inoculation-induced changes in microbial activities (potential nitrification and denitrification), abundances and diversity of (de)nitrifiers as well as in root functional traits was assessed at 4 dates over two consecutive years in a multi-site field trial. Measurements were performed for the 6- and 12-leaves maize stages. In a second experiment, we artificially altered the level of denitrifier limitation by N and C in a greenhouse pot experiment by applying synthetic root exudates to inoculated and non-inoculated maize plants. Inoculation-induced response to nutrient limitation on microbial N-related activities and abundances was assessed for the 6-leaves stage maizeplants. Results Inoculation resulted in an idiosyncratic response of nitrification and nitrifier (AOA, AOB) abundance, which varied from one sampling date to another at a given site, and between sites and treatments at a given date. Modifications of water balance and soil moisture rather than increased plant-nitrifiers competition for soil NH4+ were the main drivers of nitrification. Conversely

  19. Melanogenic actinomycetes from rhizosphere soil-antagonistic activity against Xanthomonas oryzae and plant-growth-promoting traits.

    PubMed

    Muangham, Supattra; Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Duangmal, Kannika

    2015-02-01

    A total of 210 melanogenic actinomycetes were isolated from 75 rhizospheric soils using ISP6 and ISP7 agar supplemented with antifungal and antibacterial agents. Their morphological characteristics and the presence of ll-diaminopimelic acid in whole-cell hydrolyzates revealed that all isolates belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Their ability to inhibit the growth of 2 pathogenic rice bacteria, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, was observed using the agar overlay method. The results indicated that 61.9% of the isolates could inhibit at least one of the tested rice pathogens. Among these, isolate TY68-3 showed the highest antibacterial activity and siderophore production. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of 46 representative isolates revealed that isolates with high similarity to Streptomyces bungoensis were frequently found. The present study indicated the potential of melanogenic actinomycetes for use as biocontrol agents against X. oryzae as well as their diversity in rhizospheric soils.

  20. Role of chemotaxis in the ecology of denitrifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, M. J.; Lawless, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    It has been recognized that the process of denitrification represents a major sequence in the nitrogen cycle. It involves the anaerobic reduction of nitrate or nitrite to nitrous oxide or elemental nitrogen. This process is responsible for significant losses of nitrogen from agricultural soils. Up to now, little attention has been paid to the ecology of the organisms responsible for denitrification. It is pointed out that chemotaxis would probably offer a strong competitive mechanism for denitrifiers, since chemotaxis would allow denitrifiers to actively reach nitrate by directed motility, rather than by random movement or diffusion of nitrate. The present investigation was initiated to examine the chemotactic responses of several denitrifiers to nitrate and nitrite. Attention is given to bacterial strains, culture media and cell preparation, chemotaxis assays, and competition experiments. It was found that several denitrifiers, including P. aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, and P. Stutzeri, were strongly attracted to NO3(-) and NO2(-).

  1. Rhizospheric pseudomonads

    PubMed Central

    Rudrappa, Thimmaraju

    2008-01-01

    Of the different groups of soil microorganisms, pseudomonads are one of the important class, playing various roles in the plants growth and development. Although they have been reported to inflict both beneficial and harmful effect on plants, they act through various mechanisms. Among the different mechanisms, cyanogenesis is one of the important factors used by pseudomonads to cause positive and less studied negative effects in the rhizosphere. By employing a bioassay driven approach, we dissected the direct effect of pseudomonad cyanogenesis on host plants and also its indirect effect through the inhibition of beneficial biofilm formation by B. subtilis. This study may further our understanding on the multi-tropic rhizospheric interactions mediated by rhizospheric pseudomonads. PMID:19704457

  2. Quantitative molecular biology and gas flux measurements demonstrate soil treatment and depth affects on the distribution and activity of denitrifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, M. M.; Jahangir, M.; Cardenas, L.; Khalil, M.; Richards, K. R.; O'Flaherty, V.

    2010-12-01

    The growing industrialisation of agriculture has led to a dramatic increase in organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) fertiliser inputs to agro-ecosystems. This increase has had negative effects on the quality of water ecosystems and greenhouse gas emissions.The study objective was to quantify denitrification and denitrifying microorganisms, using real-time PCR assays of the nitrite reductase(nir) and nitrous oxide reductase(nos) functional gene copy concentrations (GCC g[soil]-1) in Irish agricultural surface and subsoils. Soil cores from 3 soil horizons (A:0-10 cm; B:45-55 cm; C:120-130cm) were amended with 3 alternate N- and C-source amendments (NO3-; NO3-+glucose-C; NO3-+Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC). Real-time production of N2O and N2 was recorded by gas chromatography in a specialized He/O2 environment. N2O and Total Denitrification (TDN) (N2O+N2) production was generally greater in surface soil (2.052 mg/kg/d TDN) than in subsoils (0.120 mg/kg/d TDN). The abundance of denitrifying nirS, nirK (nir) and nos genes was higher in the surface soil, decreasing with soil depth, except in incubations amended with NO3- and DOC, where the carbon source directly positively affected gene copy numbers and fluxes of N2O and N2 production. C addition increased soil denitrification rates, and resulted in higher N2O/(N2O+N2) ratios in surface soil (0.39) than subsoils (0.005), indicating that the subsoil had higher potential for complete reduction of N2O to N2. In the subsoils, complete reduction of NO3- due to glucose-C and DOC addition was observed. Interestingly, at all 3 soil depths, lower nirK abundance (2.78 105 GCC) was recorded, compared to nirS (1.45 107 GCC), but the overall abundance of nir (S+K) i.e. (1.54 107GCC), corresponded with N2O emission fluxes (3.34 mg/kg/d) Statistical analysis indicates negative correlation between nirK GCC and N2O production, but a strong positive correlation was observed between nirS GCC and N2O. We therefore hypothesize that the

  3. Activity and diversity of methanotrophs in the soil-water interface and rhizospheric soil from a flooded temperate rice field.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, L; Tarlera, S

    2009-01-01

    To combine molecular and cultivation techniques to characterize the methanotrophic community in the soil-water interface (SWI) and rhizospheric soil from flooded rice fields in Uruguay, a temperate region in South America. A novel type I, related to the genus Methylococcus, and three type II methanotrophs were isolated from the highest positive dilution steps from the most probable number (MPN) counts. Potential methane oxidation activities measured in slurried samples were higher in the rhizospheric soil compared to the SWI and were stimulated by N-fertilization. PmoA (particulate methane monooxygenase) clone libraries were constructed for both rice microsites. SWI clones clustered in six groups related to cultivated and uncultivated members from different ecosystems of the genera Methylobacter, Methylomonas, Methylococcus and a novel type I sublineage while cultivation and T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis confirmed the presence of type II methanotrophs. Cultivation techniques, cloning analysis and T-RFLP fingerprinting of the pmoA gene revealed a diverse methanotrophic community in the rice rhizospheric soil and SWI. This study reports, for the first time, the analysis of the methanotrophic diversity in rice SWI and this diversity may be exploited in reducing methane emissions.

  4. Spatial distribution of enzyme activities along the root and in the rhizosphere of different plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Bahar S.; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    spatial distribution of enzyme activities in the rhizosphere hotspots. References Spohn, M., Kuzyakov, Y., 2013. Phosphorus mineralization can be driven by microbial need for carbon. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 61: 69-75

  5. Antimicrobial Activities of Some Actinomycetes Isolated from Different Rhizospheric Soils in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Ines; Oves, Daniel; Manteca, Angel; Genilloud, Olga; Altalhi, Abdullah; Nour, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Fifty four isolates of actinomycetes were collected from four different rhizospheric soils: 18 strains from palm tree bark and soil, 12 strains from an olive field soil, 9 strains from a coastal forest, and 15 strains from an agriculture soil situated in the Algerian-Tunisian border (Oum Tboul). Based on morphological and cultural characters, the isolates were classified as Streptomyces (42 strains), Micromonospora (4 strains), Pseudonocardia (1 strain), Actinomadura (1 strain), Nocardia (1 strain), and non-Streptomyces (5 strains). More than half of the isolates inhibited at least one tested pathogenic microorganisms in liquid culture. In addition, antimicrobial activities of some strains were tested on solid culture. Several bioactive compounds were identified by liquid chromatography joined with low-resolution mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) and analysed by MEDINA's database and by the dictionary of natural products Chapman & Hall. An interesting chlorinated compound with the molecular formula C20H37ClN2O4, produced by three different strains (SF1, SF2, and SF5), was subject of an attempted purification. However, it was demonstrated using confocal microscopy and LC/MS high resolution that this compound is produced only on solid culture. These three potential antimicrobial isolates showed high similarity with Streptomyces thinghirensis and Streptomyces lienomycini, in terms of morphological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequences (bootstrap 97 %). All these findings prove the high antimicrobial diversity of the studied soils. The potential of the selected and other relatively unexplored extreme environments constitute a source of interesting actinomycete strains producing several biologically active secondary metabolites.

  6. Role of Respiratory Nitrate Reductase in Ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens YT101 To Colonize the Rhizosphere of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Ghiglione, Jean-François; Gourbiere, François; Potier, Patrick; Philippot, Laurent; Lensi, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Selection of the denitrifying community by plant roots (i.e., increase in the denitrifier/total heterotroph ratio in the rhizosphere) has been reported by several authors. However, very few studies to evaluate the role of the denitrifying function itself in the selection of microorganisms in the rhizosphere have been performed. In the present study, we compared the rhizosphere survival of the denitrifying Pseudomonas fluorescens YT101 strain with that of its isogenic mutant deficient in the ability to synthesize the respiratory nitrate reductase, coinoculated in nonplanted or planted soil. We demonstrated that under nonlimiting nitrate conditions, the denitrifying wild-type strain had an advantage in the ability to colonize the rhizosphere of maize. Investigations of the effect of the inoculum characteristics (density of the total inoculum and relative proportions of mutant and wild-type strains) on the outcome of the selection demonstrated that the selective effect of the plant was expressed only during the phase of bacterial multiplication and that the intensity of selection was dependent on the magnitude of this phase. Moreover, application of the de Wit replacement series technique to our results suggests that the advantage of the wild-type strain was maximal when the ratio between the two strains in the inoculum was close to 1:1. This work constitutes the first direct demonstration that the presence of a functional structural gene encoding the respiratory nitrate reductase confers higher rhizosphere competence to a microorganism. PMID:10966422

  7. Natural attenuation of perchlorate in denitrified groundwater.

    PubMed

    Robertson, William D; Roy, James W; Brown, Susan J; Van Stempvoort, Dale R; Bickerton, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring of a well-defined septic system groundwater plume and groundwater discharging to two urban streams located in southern Ontario, Canada, provided evidence of natural attenuation of background low level (ng/L) perchlorate (ClO4⁻) under denitrifying conditions in the field. The septic system site at Long Point contains ClO4⁻ from a mix of waste water, atmospheric deposition, and periodic use of fireworks, while the nitrate plume indicates active denitrification. Plume nitrate (NO3⁻ -N) concentrations of up to 103 mg/L declined with depth and downgradient of the tile bed due to denitrification and anammox activity, and the plume was almost completely denitrified beyond 35 m from the tile bed. The ClO4⁻ natural attenuation occurs at the site only when NO3⁻ -N concentrations are <0.3 mg/L, after which ClO4⁻ concentrations decline abruptly from 187 ± 202 to 11 ± 15 ng/L. A similar pattern between NO3⁻ -N and ClO4⁻ was found in groundwater discharging to the two urban streams. These findings suggest that natural attenuation (i.e., biodegradation) of ClO4⁻ may be commonplace in denitrified aquifers with appropriate electron donors present, and thus, should be considered as a remediation option for ClO4⁻ contaminated groundwater.

  8. Water management impacts on arsenic behavior and rhizosphere bacterial communities and activities in a rice agro-ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Das, Suvendu; Chou, Mon-Lin; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Yang, Huai-Jen

    2016-01-15

    Although rice cultivated under water-saturated conditions as opposed to submerged conditions has received considerable attention with regard to reducing As levels in rice grain, the rhizosphere microbiome potentially influencing As-biotransformation and bioavailability in a rice ecosystem has rarely been studied. In this study, the impacts of flooded, non-flooded and alternate wetting and drying (AWD) practices on rhizosphere bacterial composition and activities that could potentially impact As speciation and accumulation in rhizosphere soil and pore water, As fractions in rhizosphere soil and As speciation and distribution in plant parts were assessed. The results revealed that in addition to pore water As concentration, non-specifically sorbed As fraction, specifically sorbed As fraction and amorphous iron oxide bound As fraction in soil were bio-available to rice plants. In the flooded treatment, As(III) in the pore water was the predominant As species, accounting for 87.3-93.6% of the total As, whereas in the non-flooded and AWD treatments, As(V) was the dominant As species, accounting for 89.6-96.2% and 73.0-83.0%, respectively. The genera Ohtaekwangia, Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter, Desulfuromonas, Desulfocapsa, Desulfobulbus, and Lacibacter were found in relatively high abundance in the flooded soil, whereas the genera Acinetobacter, Ignavibacterium, Thiobacillus, and Lysobacter were detected in relatively high abundance in the non-flooded soil. Admittedly, the decrease in As level in rice cultivated under the non-flooded and AWD conditions was mostly linked to a relatively high soil redox potential, low As(III) concentration in the soil pore water, a decrease in the relative abundance of As-, Fe- and sulfur-reducing bacteria and an increase in the relative abundance of As-, Fe- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the rhizosphere soil of the rice. This study demonstrated that with substantial reduction in grain As levels and higher water productivity, AWD

  9. [Effects of combined application of biogas slurry and chemical fertilizer on winter wheat rhizosphere soil microorganisms and enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Guan, Tao; Wang, Xiao-yu; Zhu, Yun-ji; Guo, Tian-cai

    2011-04-01

    This paper studied the effects of combined application of biogas slurry and chemical fertilizer under same N application rate on the quantities of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi as well as the activities of urease, protease and catalase in winter wheat rhizosphere soil. With the growth of winter wheat, the quantities of test microorganisms and the activities of urease and catalase showed a trend of increasing after an initial decrease, while the protease activity showed an S-type change. Combined application of biogas slurry and chemical fertilizer increased the quantities of test microorganisms significantly, and improved the activities of soil urease and protease. Applying 50% biogas slurry N as basal plus 50% chemical N as topdressing and applying 25% biogas slurry N as basal plus 75% chemical N as topdressing had the best effect, while applying single conventional urea or biogas slurry had the worst effect. At all growth stages, the activity of soil catalase was the highest in treatments 25% biogas slurry N as basal plus 75% chemical N as topdressing and single biogas slurry, but had greater differences in other treatments among the growth stages. The results suggested that proper biogas slurry application combined with chemical fertilization could increase the microbial quantity and enzyme activities in winter wheat rhizosphere soil.

  10. Tissue-specific changes of glutamine synthetase activity in oats after rhizosphere infestation by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, T.J.; Temple, S.; Sengupta-Gopalan, C.

    1996-05-15

    Oats (Avena sativa L. lodi) tolerant of rhizosphere infestation by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci when challenged by the pathogen experience tissue-specific alterations of ammonia assimilatory capabilities. Altered ammonia assimilatory potentials between root and leaf tissue result from selective inactivation of glutamine synthetase (GS) by the toxin Tabtoxinine-B-lactam (TBL). Root GS is sensitive and leaf GSs are resistant to TBL inactivation. With prolonged challenge by the pathogen root GS activity decreases but leaf GS specific activity increase. Higher leaf GS activity is due to decreased rates of degradation rather than increased GS synthesis. Higher leaf GS activity and elevated levels of GS polypeptide appear to result from a limited interaction between GS and TBL leading to the accumulation of a less active but more stable GS holoenzyme. Tolerant challenged oats besides surviving rhizosphere infestation, experience enhanced growth. A strong correlation exists between leaf GS activity and whole plant fresh weight, suggesting that tissue-specific changes in ammonia assimilatory capability provides the plant a more efficient mechanism for uptake and utilization of nitrogen.

  11. Numerically Dominant Denitrifying Bacteria from World Soils 1

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Thomas N.; Betlach, Michael R.; Tiedje, James M.

    1977-01-01

    Nineteen soils, three freshwater lake sediments, and oxidized poultry manure were examined to determine the dominant denitrifier populations. The samples, most shown or expected to support active denitrification, were from eight countries and included rice paddy, temperate agricultural, rain forest, organic, and waste-treated soils. Over 1,500 organisms that could grow anaerobically on nitrate agar were isolated. After purification, 146 denitrifiers were obtained, as verified by production of N2 from NO3-. These isolates were characterized by 52 properties appropriate for the Pseudomonas-Alcaligenes group. Numerical taxonomic procedures were used to group the isolates and compare them with nine known denitrifier species. The major group isolated was representative of Pseudonomas fluorescens biotype II. The second most prevalent group was representative of Alcaligenes. Other Pseudomonas species as well as members of the genus Flavobacterium, the latter previously not known to denitrify, also were identified. One-third of the isolates could not utilize glucose or other carbohydrates as sole carbon sources. Significantly, none of the numerically dominant denitrifiers we isolated resembled the most studied species: Pseudomonas denitrificans, Pseudomonas perfectomarinus, and Paracoccus denitrificans. Denitrification appears to be a property of a very diverse group of gram-negative, motile bacteria, as shown by the large number (22.6%) of ungrouped organisms. The diversity of denitrifiers from a given sample was usually high, with at least two groups present. Denitrifiers, nitrite accumulators, and organisms capable of anaerobic growth were present in the ratio of 0.20±0.23:0.81±0.23:1. There were few correlations between their numbers and the sample characteristics measured. However, the temperatures at which isolates could grow were significantly related to the temperatures of the environments from which they were isolated. Regression analysis revealed few

  12. [Effect of presowing treatment of spring wheat seeds with wheat germ agglutinin on the chlorophyll content, lectin activity in leaves and nitrogen-fixing capacity of rhizospheric microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Kyrychenko, O V

    2008-01-01

    The response of spring wheat and rhizospheric nitrogen-fixing micro-organisms to the presowing treatment of seeds by wheat germ agglutinin was investigated in conditions of green house experiments. It was shown, that exogenous lectin induced the metabolic changes in plants and caused an increase in chlorophyll content and activity of endogenous lectins in the leaves, as well as enhanced accumulation of plants biomass and nitrogen-fixing capacity of the rhizospheric micro-organisms. These results evidence for the considerable role of exogenous lectin as a regulator of growth and development of plants and activity of the nitrogen-fixing microorganisms.

  13. Effects of inorganic salts on denitrifying granular sludge: The acute toxicity and working mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ru; Zheng, Ping; Ding, A-qiang; Zhang, Meng; Ghulam, Abbas; Yang, Cheng; Zhao, He-Ping

    2016-03-01

    It is highly significant to investigate the toxicity of inorganic salts to denitrifying granular sludge (DGS) and its mechanism since the application of high-rate denitrification is seriously limited in the treatment of saline nitrogen-rich wastewaters. The batch experiments showed that the IC50 (half inhibition concentration) and LC50 (half lethal concentration) of NaCl, Na2SO4 and Na3PO4 on DGS were 11.46, 21.72, 7.46 g/L and 77.35, 100.58, 67.92 g/L respectively. Based on the analysis of specific denitrifying activity, the live cell percentage, the cell structure, and the DNA leakage, the toxicity of low salinity was ascribed to the inhibition of denitrifying activity and the toxicity of high salinity was ascribed to both the inhibition of denitrifying activity and the lethality of denitrifying cell.

  14. Connecting Taxon-Specific Microbial Activities to Carbon Cycling in the Rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hungate, B. A.; Morrissey, E.; Schwartz, E.; Dijkstra, P.; Blazewicz, S.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Koch, G. W.; Marks, J.; Koch, B.; McHugh, T. A.; Mau, R. L.; Hayer, M.

    2016-12-01

    Plant carbon inputs influence microbial growth in the rhizosphere, but the quantitative details of these effects are not well understood, nor are their consequences for carbon cycling in the rhizosphere. With a new pulse of carbon input to soil, which microbial taxa increase their growth rates, and by how much? Do any microbial taxa respond negatively? And how does the extra carbon addition alter the utilization of other resources, including other carbon sources, as well as inorganic nitrogen? This talk will present new research using quantitative stable isotope probing that reveals the distribution of growth responses among microbial taxa, from positive to neutral to negative, and how these growth responses are associated with various substrates. For example, decomposition of soil C in response to added labile carbon occurred as a phylogenetically-diverse majority of taxa shifted toward soil C use for growth. In contrast, bacteria with suppressed growth or that relied directly on glucose for growth clustered strongly by phylogeny. These results suggest that priming is a prototypical response of bacteria to sustained labile C addition, consistent with the widespread occurrence of the priming effect in nature. These results also illustrate the potential power of molecular tools and models that seek to estimate metrics directly relevant to quantitative ecology and biogeochemistry, moreso than is the standard currently in microbial ecology. Tools that estimate growth rate, mortality rate, and rates of substrate use - all quantified with the taxonomic precision afforded by modern sequencing - provide a foundation for quantifying the biogeochemical significance of microbial biodiversity, and a more complete understanding of the rich ecosystem of the rhizosphere.

  15. Rhizosphere engineering: Enhancing sustainable plant ecosystem productivity

    DOE PAGES

    Ahkami, Amir H.; White, III, Richard Allen; Handakumbura, Pubudu P.; ...

    2017-04-21

    Here, the rhizosphere is arguably the most complex microbial habitat on earth, comprising an integrated network of plant roots, soil and a diverse microbial consortium of bacteria, archaea, viruses, and microeukaryotes. Understanding, predicting and controlling the structure and function of the rhizosphere will allow us to harness plant-microbe interactions and other rhizosphere activities as a means to increase or restore plant ecosystem productivity, improve plant responses to a wide range of environmental perturbations, and mitigate effects of climate change by designing ecosystems for long-term soil carbon storage. Here, we review critical knowledge gaps in rhizosphere science, and how mechanistic understandingmore » of rhizosphere interactions can be leveraged in rhizosphere engineering efforts with the goal of maintaining sustainable plant ecosystem services for food and bioenergy production in an ever changing global climate.« less

  16. Screening and identification of aerobic denitrifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, K.; Deng, H. M.; Chen, Y. T.; Zhou, H. J.; Yan, G. X.

    2016-08-01

    With the standards of the effluent quality more stringent, it becomes a quite serious problem for municipalities and industries to remove nitrogen from wastewater. Bioremediation is a potential method for the removal of nitrogen and other pollutants because of its high efficiency and low cost. Seven predominant aerobic denitrifiers were screened and characterized from the activated sludge in the CAST unit. Some of these strains removed 87% nitrate nitrogen at least. Based on their phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the isolates were identified as the genera of Ralstonia, Achromobacter, Aeromonas and Enterobacter.

  17. Effect of the nitrogen fertilizer type on the enzyme activity in the rhizosphere of calcic chernozem and soybean production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emnova, E. E.; Daraban, O. V.; Bizgan, Ya. V.; Toma, S. I.; Vozian, V. I.; Iacobuta, M. D.

    2015-05-01

    Three varieties (Aura, Magie, and Indra) of soybean ( Glycine max [L.] Merr.) were grown in a small-plot experiment on a calcic chernozem with the application of two types of nitrogen fertilizers: ammonium nitrate (Nan) or carbamide (Nc). These fertilizers at the rate of 20 kg N/ha were applied before sowing together with potassium phosphate (60 kg P2O5/ha). The microbial nitrification capacity and the activity of enzymes related to the nitrogen cycle (urease and nitrate reductase) were measured in the rhizosphere (0-20 cm) at the stage of soybean flowering. It was determined that the biological (enzyme) activity of the calcic chernozem in the soybean rhizosphere was more intense on the plots with the Nan fertilizer than on the plots with the Nc fertilizer. The urease activity depended on the type of nitrogen fertilizer (Nan or Nc) under the conditions of soil water deficiency. In the soil under the Aura variety, the urease activity was significantly lower in the treatments with Nc application, and this was accompanied by a decrease in the crop yield. The nitrification capacity of the calcic chernozem was generally low; in the case of the Nc fertilizer, it was significantly lower than in the case of the Nan fertilizer. The nitrate reductase activity of the soil was also lower in the case of the Nc fertilizer. Each of the three soybean varieties had its own response to changes in the nitrogen nutrition aimed at improving the soybean tolerance to fluctuations in the soil water content during the growing season.

  18. New strigolactone analogs as plant hormones with low activities in the rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Boyer, François-Didier; de Saint Germain, Alexandre; Pouvreau, Jean-Bernard; Clavé, Guillaume; Pillot, Jean-Paul; Roux, Amélie; Rasmussen, Amanda; Depuydt, Stephen; Lauressergues, Dominique; Frei Dit Frey, Nicolas; Heugebaert, Thomas S A; Stevens, Christian V; Geelen, Danny; Goormachtig, Sofie; Rameau, Catherine

    2014-04-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are known not only as plant hormones, but also as rhizosphere signals for establishing symbiotic and parasitic interactions. The design of new specific SL analogs is a challenging goal in understanding the basic plant biology and is also useful to control plant architectures without favoring the development of parasitic plants. Two different molecules (23 (3'-methyl-GR24), 31 (thia-3'-methyl-debranone-like molecule)) already described, and a new one (AR36), for which the synthesis is presented, are biologically compared with the well-known GR24 and the recently identified CISA-1. These different structures emphasize the wide range of parts attached to the D-ring for the bioactivity as a plant hormone. These new compounds possess a common dimethylbutenolide motif but their structure varies in the ABC part of the molecules: 23 has the same ABC part as GR24, while 31 and AR36 carry, respectively, an aromatic ring and an acyclic carbon chain. Detailed information is given for the bioactivity of such derivatives in strigolactone synthesis or in perception mutant plants (pea rms1 and rms4, Arabidopsis max2 and, max4) for different hormonal functions along with their action in the rhizosphere on arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphal growth and parasitic weed germination.

  19. Antimicrobial activities of rhizobacterial strains of Pseudomonas and Bacillus strains isolated from rhizosphere soil of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Sunrise).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sapna; Kaur, Mohinder

    2010-06-01

    Under the present study, an attempt was made to characterize rhizobacteria i.e. Pseudomonas and Bacillus species isolated from rhizosphere of carnation to evaluate their growth promoting effect on carnation so as to select and develop more efficient indigenous plant growth promoting and disease suppressing bioagents of specific soil type and specific plant type. Maximum strains of Pseudomonas and Bacillus sp. showed significant antimicrobial activities against most of the microorganisms tested. On the basis of in vitro antagonistic activities, the best strains were selected and used in field trial to study the influence of these strains on the growth of carnation. Results have shown marked effect on growth parameters and disease incidence has also been reduced significantly.

  20. The Rhizosphere Zone: A Hot Spot of Microbial Activity and Methylmercury Production in Saltmarsh Sediments of San Francisco Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windham-Myers, L.; Marvin-Dipasquale, M.; Voytek, M.; Kirshtein, J.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Agee, J. L.; Cox, M.; Kakouros, E.; Collins, J. N.; Yee, D.

    2008-12-01

    Tidal marshes of varying hydrology and salinity have been shown to have high rates of microbial methylmercury (MeHg) production, especially the periodically flooded, higher elevations which are densely vegetated with shallowly rooted plants. The specific influence of emergent wetland plants and their active rhizosphere (root zone) on mercury (Hg) biogeochemistry, however, is poorly understood. Seasonal and spatial patterns of Hg biogeochemistry were examined in 2005 and 2006 at three marshes along a salinity gradient of the Petaluma River, in Northern San Francisco Bay, California. In addition, to directly examine the influence of rhizosphere activity on MeHg production, a suite of devegetation experiments was conducted in 2006 within each marsh using paired vegetated and devegetated plots in two marsh subhabitats: poorly- drained interior sites and well-drained "edge" sites near slough channels. Surface sediment (0-2cm) was sampled in both April and August from these plots, as well as from 1st and 3rd order slough channels that were naturally free of vegetation. Vegetated marsh sites produced 3- to19-fold more MeHg than did slough sites, and MeHg production rates were greater in marsh interior sites compared to more oxic marsh "edge" sites. Microbial biomass (ng DNA gdrysed) was greater in vegetated marsh settings, compared to slough channels, and increased significantly between April and August at all marsh sites. Despite this seasonal increase in microbial biomass, MeHg concentrations and production rates decreased from April to August in vegetated surface sediments. Microbial indicators of methylation also decreased from April to August, including rates of microbial sulfate reduction and the abundance of iron- and sulfate- reducing bacterial DNA. Results from the devegetated plots suggest that root exudation of fermentative labile carbon to surface soils is responsible for the higher microbial biomass, and the higher relative abundance of iron- and sulfate

  1. Plant roots can actively regulate hydraulic redistribution by modifying the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere using exudates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzehei, Teamrat; Bogie, Nathaniel; Albalasmeh, Ammar

    2015-04-01

    The phenomenon of hydraulic lift by roots of plants has been observed in many arid and semi-arid regions. The process involves water transfer from moist deep soil zone to shallow and dry layers, typically at night when transpiration is shut off. The widely held explanation is that hydraulic lift receives the strong water potential gradient created during the day when the plants are actively transpiring. However, it is not fully understood whether hydraulic lift is actively controlled by plants or it is a spontaneous response to the occurrence of pressure gradient. Here, we will present modeling study that demonstrates that plant roots can exert significant control on hydraulic redistribution via exudation and formation of rhizospheath. The model is based on results of potted experiments conducted by Nambiar in 1976 (Plant and Soil, 44:267-271), which have shown that plants are able to acquire essential micronutrients from very dry soil so long as water is available to the root system in sufficient quantity elsewhere. He also observed that the roots in the water-depleted zones exhibited evidence of substantial root exudation, which suggests that exudates are needed in order to provide moisture for mobilization and diffusion of nutrients in the dry regions. In addition, our own recent model-based research demonstrated that exudates play important role in facilitating water flow in otherwise dry rhizosphere region. Our models show that exudates facilitate the release of hydraulically lifted water to the rhizosphere by ensuring hydraulic continuity between the root walls and the surrounding dry soil. In addition, the high water retention capacity of root exudates permits the hydraulic conductivity to remain elevated even at low potential conditions. The results of this modeling study suggest that hydraulic lift is an actively controlled adaptation mechanism that allows plants to remain active during long dry spells by acquiring nutrients from the dry near surface soils

  2. Effect of phosphoric fertilizer and starter rates of nitrogen fertilizers on the phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere soil and nonlignified soybean roots under drought conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emnova, E. E.; Daraban, O. V.; Bizgan, I. V.; Toma, S. I.

    2014-02-01

    In a small-plot field experiment, two soybean ( Glycine max L.) cultivars were grown on a calcareous chernozem under the drought conditions of 2012 with the preplanting application of simple superphosphate (Ps) at 60 kg/ha, urea (Nu) at 10 and 20 kg/ha, and ammonium nitrate (Nan) at 20 kg/ha. The phosphatase activity was measured in the rhizosphere soil (0- to 20-cm layer) and the fine nonlignified roots of soybean plants at the blossoming and pod-formation stages (the soil water content was 19 and 33% of the total water capacity, respectively). The maximum content of available phosphorus in the rhizosphere of both soybean cultivars (4.3-4.8 mg/100 g dry soil) was found at the simultaneous application of Ps and Nu20. Higher activities of the predominant phosphatases (alkaline phosphatase in the rhizosphere and acid phosphatase in the roots) were observed in the root-inhabited zone of the soil under the Indra cultivar compared to the Aura cultivar, which correlated with the lower content of available phosphorus in the rhizosphere soil (especially at the simultaneous application of Ps and Nu20) and the higher productivity of this cultivar in this treatment.

  3. A Rhizosphere-Associated Symbiont, Photobacterium spp. Strain MELD1, and Its Targeted Synergistic Activity for Phytoprotection against Mercury

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Dony Chacko; Ho, Ying-Ning; Gicana, Ronnie Gicaraya; Mathew, Gincy Marina; Chien, Mei-Chieh; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Though heavy metal such as mercury is toxic to plants and microorganisms, the synergistic activity between them may offer benefit for surviving. In this study, a mercury-reducing bacterium, Photobacterium spp. strain MELD1, with an MIC of 33 mg . kg-1 mercury was isolated from a severely mercury and dioxin contaminated rhizosphere soil of reed (Phragmites australis). While the whole genome sequencing of MELD1 confirmed the presence of a mer operon, the mercury reductase MerA gene showed 99% sequence identity to Vibrio shilloni AK1 and implicates its route resulted from the event of horizontal gene transfer. The efficiency of MELD1 to vaporize mercury (25 mg . kg-1, 24 h) and its tolerance to toxic metals and xenobiotics such as lead, cadmium, pentachlorophenol, pentachloroethylene, 3-chlorobenzoic acid, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is promising. Combination of a long yard bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. Sesquipedalis) and strain MELD1 proved beneficial in the phytoprotection of mercury in vivo. The effect of mercury (Hg) on growth, distribution and tolerance was examined in root, shoot, leaves and pod of yard long bean with and without the inoculation of strain MELD1. The model plant inoculated with MELD1 had significant increases in biomass, root length, seed number, and increased mercury uptake limited to roots. Biolog plate assay were used to assess the sole-carbon source utilization pattern of the isolate and Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) productivity was analyzed to examine if the strain could contribute to plant growth. The results of this study suggest that, as a rhizosphere-associated symbiont, the synergistic activity between the plant and MELD1 can improve the efficiency for phytoprotection, phytostabilization and phytoremediation of mercury. PMID:25816328

  4. [Identification and function test of an alkali-tolerant denitrifying bacterium].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ru; Zheng, Ping; Li, Wei; Chen, Hui; Chen, Tingting; Ghulam, Abbas

    2013-04-04

    We obtained an alkali-tolerant denitrifying bacterium, and determined its denitrifying activity and alkali-tolerance. An alkali-tolerant denitrifying bacterial strain was obtained by isolation and purification. We identified the bacterial strain by morphological observation, physiological test and 16S rRNA analysis. We determined the denitrifying activity and alkali-tolerance by effects of initial nitrate concentration and initial pH on denitrification. An alkali-tolerant denitrifier strain R9 was isolated from the lab-scale high-rate denitrifying reactor, and it was identified as Diaphorobater nitroreducens. The strain R9 grew heterotrophically with methanol as the electron donor and nitrate as the electron acceptor. The nitrate conversion was 93.25% when strain R9 was cultivated for 288 h with initial nitrate concentration 50 mg/L and initial pH 9.0. The denitrification activity could be inhibited at high nitrate concentration with a half inhibition constant of 202.73 mg N/L. Strain R9 showed a good alkali tolerance with the nitrate removal rate at pH 11.0 remained 86% of that at pH 9.0. Strain R9 was identified as Diaphorobater nitroreducens, and it was an alkali-tolerant denitrifying bacterium with optimum pH value of 9.0.

  5. Inhibition of alkylbenzene biodegradation under denitrifying conditions by using the acetylene block technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, S.R. )

    1992-10-01

    Addition of acetylene to microcosms simultaneously amended with nitrate and alkylbenzenes resulted in inhibition of the rate of alkylbenzene biodegradation under denitrifying conditions. Toluene, xylenes, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were recalcitrant, whereas ethylbenzene was degraded at a slower rate than usual. Benzene was not degraded in either case. Addition of acetylene to microcosms preexposed to nitrate and alkylbenzenes produced similar inhibition. These data indicate that the activities of microorganisms that degrade alkylbenzenes under denitrifying conditions may be suppressed if the standard acetylene block technique is used to verify denitrifying activity.

  6. Identification of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soils with inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum spp., the causative agent of anthracnose disease.

    PubMed

    Intra, Bungonsiri; Mungsuntisuk, Isada; Nihira, Takuya; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2011-04-01

    Colletotrichum is one of the most widespread and important genus of plant pathogenic fungi worldwide. Various species of Colletotrichum are the causative agents of anthracnose disease in plants, which is a severe problem to agricultural crops particularly in Thailand. These phytopathogens are usually controlled using chemicals; however, the use of these agents can lead to environmental pollution. Potential non-chemical control strategies for anthracnose disease include the use of bacteria capable of producing anti-fungal compounds such as actinomycetes spp., that comprise a large group of filamentous, Gram positive bacteria from soil. The aim of this study was to isolate actinomycetes capable of inhibiting the growth of Colletotrichum spp, and to analyze the diversity of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soil. A total of 304 actinomycetes were isolated and tested for their inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides strains DoA d0762 and DoA c1060 and Colletotrichum capsici strain DoA c1511 which cause anthracnose disease as well as the non-pathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain IFO 10217. Most isolates (222 out of 304, 73.0%) were active against at least one indicator fungus or yeast. Fifty four (17.8%) were active against three anthracnose fungi and 17 (5.6%) could inhibit the growth of all three fungi and S. cerevisiae used in the test. Detailed analysis on 30 selected isolates from an orchard at Chanthaburi using the comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that most of the isolates (87%) belong to the genus Streptomyces sp., while one each belongs to Saccharopolyspora (strain SB-2) and Nocardiopsis (strain CM-2) and two to Nocardia (strains BP-3 and LK-1). Strains LC-1, LC-4, JF-1, SC-1 and MG-1 exerted high inhibitory activity against all three anthracnose fungi and yeast. In addition, the organic solvent extracts prepared from these five strains inhibited conidial growth of the three indicator fungi. Preliminary analysis of crude

  7. Isolation and molecular characterization of a novel strain of Bacillus with antifungal activity from the sorghum rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Absalon, S C; del C Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma; Martinez-Pacheco, M M; Farias-Rodriguez, R; Govindappa, M; Santoyo, G

    2012-08-16

    We looked for bacterial strains with antifungal activity in the sorghum rhizosphere. A prescreening procedure to search for hemolytic activity among the isolated strains allowed us to detect good fungitoxic activity in a bacterial isolate that we named UM96. This bacterial isolate showed strong growth inhibition in bioassays against the pathogens Diaporthe phaseolorum, Colletotrichum acutatum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum. The supernatant of isolate UM96 also showed strong hemolytic activity, which was not observed in the protease-treated supernatant. However, the supernatant that was treated with protease had similar antagonistic effects to those exhibited by the supernatant that was not treated with this enzyme. These results suggest that a bacteriocin-like compound is responsible for the hemolytic activity; whereas, as far as antifungal effect is concerned, an antibiotic of nonribosomal origin, such as a lipopeptide, might be acting. Further molecular characterization by partial 16S rDNA sequencing placed isolate UM96 in a cluster with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; however, the highest identity match found in databases of Bacillus species was 91% identity. This suggests that Bacillus sp UM96 might be a novel species.

  8. Regulation of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone-Dependent Glucose Dehydrogenase Activity in the Model Rhizosphere-Dwelling Bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    PubMed Central

    An, Ran

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Soil-dwelling microbes solubilize mineral phosphates by secreting gluconic acid, which is produced from glucose by a periplasmic glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) that requires pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) as a redox coenzyme. While GDH-dependent phosphate solubilization has been observed in numerous bacteria, little is known concerning the mechanism by which this process is regulated. Here we use the model rhizosphere-dwelling bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 to explore GDH activity and PQQ synthesis, as well as gene expression of the GDH-encoding gene (gcd) and PQQ biosynthesis genes (pqq operon) while under different growth conditions. We also use reverse transcription-PCR to identify transcripts from the pqq operon to more accurately map the operon structure. GDH specific activity and PQQ levels vary according to growth condition, with the highest levels of both occurring when glucose is used as the sole carbon source and under conditions of low soluble phosphate. Under these conditions, however, PQQ levels limit in vitro phosphate solubilization. GDH specific activity data correlate well with gcd gene expression data, and the levels of expression of the pqqF and pqqB genes mirror the levels of PQQ synthesized, suggesting that one or both of these genes may serve to modulate PQQ levels according to the growth conditions. The pqq gene cluster (pqqFABCDEG) encodes at least two independent transcripts, and expression of the pqqF gene appears to be under the control of an independent promoter and terminator. IMPORTANCE Plant growth promotion can be enhanced by soil- and rhizosphere-dwelling bacteria by a number of different methods. One method is by promoting nutrient acquisition from soil. Phosphorus is an essential nutrient that plants obtain through soil, but in many cases it is locked up in forms that are not available for plant uptake. Bacteria such as the model bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 can solubilize insoluble soil phosphates by secreting

  9. Rhizosphere engineering: Enhancing sustainable plant ecosystem productivity

    DOE PAGES

    Ahkami, Amir H.; White, III, Richard Allen; Handakumbura, Pubudu P.; ...

    2017-04-21

    The rhizosphere is arguably the most complex microbial habitat on earth, comprising an integrated network of plant roots, the soil and a diverse microbial consortium of bacteria, archaea, viruses, and microeukaryotes. Understanding, predicting and controlling the structure and function of the rhizosphere will allow us to harness plant-microbe interactions and other rhizosphere activities as a means to increase plant ecosystem productivity, improve plant responses to a wide range of environmental perturbations, and mitigate effects of climate change by designing ecosystems for long-term soil carbon storage. Furthermore, we review critical knowledge gaps in rhizosphere science, and how mechanistic understanding of rhizospheremore » interactions can be leveraged in rhizosphere engineering efforts with the goal of maintaining sustainable plant ecosystem services for food and bioenergy production in an ever changing global climate.« less

  10. Habitat specialization along a wetland moisture gradient differs between ammonia-oxidizing and denitrifying microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Ariane L; Matthews, Jeffrey W; Kent, Angela D

    2014-08-01

    Gradients in abiotic parameters, such as soil moisture,can strongly influence microbial community structure and function. Denitrifying and ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms,in particular, have contrasting physiological responses to abiotic factors such as oxygen concentration and soil moisture. Identifying abiotic factors that govern the composition and activity of denitrifying and ammonia-oxidizing communities is critical for understanding the nitrogen cycle.The objectives of this study were to (i) examine denitrifier andarchaeal ammonia oxidizer community composition and (ii) assess the taxa occurring within each functional group related to soil conditions along an environmental gradient. Soil was sampled across four transects at four locations along a dry to saturated environmental gradient at a restored wetland. Soil pH and soil organic matter content increased from dry to saturated plots. Composition of soil denitrifier and ammonia oxidizer functional groups was assessed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) community analysis, and local soil factors were also characterized. Microbial community composition of denitrifiers and ammonia oxidizers differed along the moisture gradient (denitrifier:ANOSIM R = 0.739, P < 0.001; ammonia oxidizers: ANOSIMR = 0.760, P < 0.001). Individual denitrifier taxa were observed over a larger range of moisture levels than individual archaeal ammonia oxidizer taxa (Wilcoxon rank sum, W = 2413, P value = 0.0002). Together, our data suggest that variation in environmental tolerance of microbial taxa have potential to influence nitrogen cycling in terrestrial ecosystems.

  11. Cis-9-octadecenoic acid from the rhizospheric bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia BJ01 shows quorum quenching and anti-biofilm activities.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay Kumar; Kavita, Kumari; Prabhakaran, Rathish; Jha, Bhavanath

    2013-01-01

    Quorum quenching (QQ) is an effective approach for the prevention of bacterial infections involving biofilms. This study reports the QQ and anti-biofilm activities of a rhizospheric bacterium identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia BJ01. The QQ activity was demonstrated using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 as a biosensor. A maximum of 95% reduction in violacein production, a quorum sensing-regulated behavior, was observed. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy of the extract showed that the active compound was cis-9-octadecenoic acid, which was confirmed by electronspray ionization-mass spectroscopy data. The extract also inhibited biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 without affecting its growth. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopy showed architectural disruption of the biofilm when treated with the extract. This is the first report of the QQ and anti-biofilm activities of cis-9-octadecenoic acid isolated from any bacterium. It may have the potential to combat detrimental infections with P. aeruginosa. Further validation is required for any possible medical application.

  12. The rhizosphere revisited: root microbiomics

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Peter A. H. M.; Berendsen, Roeland L.; Doornbos, Rogier F.; Wintermans, Paul C. A.; Pieterse, Corné M. J.

    2013-01-01

    The rhizosphere was defined over 100 years ago as the zone around the root where microorganisms and processes important for plant growth and health are located. Recent studies show that the diversity of microorganisms associated with the root system is enormous. This rhizosphere microbiome extends the functional repertoire of the plant beyond imagination. The rhizosphere microbiome of Arabidopsis thaliana is currently being studied for the obvious reason that it allows the use of the extensive toolbox that comes with this model plant. Deciphering plant traits that drive selection and activities of the microbiome is now a major challenge in which Arabidopsis will undoubtedly be a major research object. Here we review recent microbiome studies and discuss future research directions and applicability of the generated knowledge. PMID:23755059

  13. Impact of Transgenic Brassica napus Harboring the Antifungal Synthetic Chitinase (NiC) Gene on Rhizosphere Microbial Diversity and Enzyme Activities.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad S; Sadat, Syed U; Jan, Asad; Munir, Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic Brassica napus harboring the synthetic chitinase (NiC) gene exhibits broad-spectrum antifungal resistance. As the rhizosphere microorganisms play an important role in element cycling and nutrient transformation, therefore, biosafety assessment of NiC containing transgenic plants on soil ecosystem is a regulatory requirement. The current study is designed to evaluate the impact of NiC gene on the rhizosphere enzyme activities and microbial community structure. The transgenic lines with the synthetic chitinase gene (NiC) showed resistance to Alternaria brassicicola, a common disease causing fungal pathogen. The rhizosphere enzyme analysis showed no significant difference in the activities of fivesoil enzymes: alkalyine phosphomonoestarase, arylsulphatase, β-glucosidase, urease and sucrase between the transgenic and non-transgenic lines of B. napus varieties, Durr-e-NIFA (DN) and Abasyne-95 (AB-95). However, varietal differences were observed based on the analysis of molecular variance. Some individual enzymes were significantly different in the transgenic lines from those of non-transgenic but the results were not reproducible in the second trail and thus were considered as environmental effect. Genotypic diversity of soil microbes through 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region amplification was conducted to evaluate the potential impact of the transgene. No significant diversity (4% for bacteria and 12% for fungal) between soil microbes of NiC B. napus and the non-transgenic lines was found. However, significant varietal differences were observed between DN and AB-95 with 79% for bacterial and 54% for fungal diversity. We conclude that the NiC B. napus lines may not affect the microbial enzyme activities and community structure of the rhizosphere soil. Varietal differences might be responsible for minor changes in the tested parameters.

  14. Impact of Transgenic Brassica napus Harboring the Antifungal Synthetic Chitinase (NiC) Gene on Rhizosphere Microbial Diversity and Enzyme Activities

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad S.; Sadat, Syed U.; Jan, Asad; Munir, Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic Brassica napus harboring the synthetic chitinase (NiC) gene exhibits broad-spectrum antifungal resistance. As the rhizosphere microorganisms play an important role in element cycling and nutrient transformation, therefore, biosafety assessment of NiC containing transgenic plants on soil ecosystem is a regulatory requirement. The current study is designed to evaluate the impact of NiC gene on the rhizosphere enzyme activities and microbial community structure. The transgenic lines with the synthetic chitinase gene (NiC) showed resistance to Alternaria brassicicola, a common disease causing fungal pathogen. The rhizosphere enzyme analysis showed no significant difference in the activities of fivesoil enzymes: alkalyine phosphomonoestarase, arylsulphatase, β-glucosidase, urease and sucrase between the transgenic and non-transgenic lines of B. napus varieties, Durr-e-NIFA (DN) and Abasyne-95 (AB-95). However, varietal differences were observed based on the analysis of molecular variance. Some individual enzymes were significantly different in the transgenic lines from those of non-transgenic but the results were not reproducible in the second trail and thus were considered as environmental effect. Genotypic diversity of soil microbes through 16S–23S rRNA intergenic spacer region amplification was conducted to evaluate the potential impact of the transgene. No significant diversity (4% for bacteria and 12% for fungal) between soil microbes of NiC B. napus and the non-transgenic lines was found. However, significant varietal differences were observed between DN and AB-95 with 79% for bacterial and 54% for fungal diversity. We conclude that the NiC B. napus lines may not affect the microbial enzyme activities and community structure of the rhizosphere soil. Varietal differences might be responsible for minor changes in the tested parameters. PMID:28791039

  15. The effect of D123 wheat as a companion crop on soil enzyme activities, microbial biomass and microbial communities in the rhizosphere of watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weihui; Wang, Zhigang; Wu, Fengzhi

    2015-01-01

    The growth of watermelon is often threatened by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) in successively monocultured soil, which results in economic loss. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of D123 wheat as a companion crop on soil enzyme activities, microbial biomass and microbial communities in the rhizosphere of watermelon and to explore the relationship between the effect and the incidence of wilt caused by Fon. The results showed that the activities of soil polyphenol oxidase, urease and invertase were increased, the microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and microbial biomass phosphorus (MBP) were significantly increased, and the ratio of MBC/MBN was decreased (P < 0.05). Real-time PCR analysis showed that the Fon population declined significantly in the watermelon/wheat companion system compared with the monoculture system (P < 0.05). The analysis of microbial communities showed that the relative abundance of microbial communities was changed in the rhizosphere of watermelon. Compared with the monoculture system, the relative abundances of Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and Sordariomycetes were increased, and the relative abundances of Gammaproteobacteria, Sphingobacteria, Cytophagia, Pezizomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes were decreased in the rhizosphere of watermelon in the watermelon/wheat companion system; importantly, the incidence of Fusarium wilt was also decreased in the watermelon/wheat companion system. In conclusion, this study indicated that D123 wheat as a companion crop increased soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass, decreased the Fon population, and changed the relative abundance of microbial communities in the rhizosphere of watermelon, which may be related to the reduction of Fusarium wilt in the watermelon/wheat companion system. PMID:26388851

  16. Methyl t-Butyl Ether Mineralization in Surface-Water Sediment Microcosms under Denitrifying Conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.; Landmeyer, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    Mineralization of [U-14C] methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) to 14CO2 without accumulation of t-butyl alcohol (TBA) was observed in surface-water sediment microcosms under denitrifying conditions. Methanogenic activity and limited transformation of MTBE to TBA were observed in the absence of denitrification. Results indicate that bed sediment microorganisms can effectively degrade MTBE to nontoxic products under denitrifying conditions.

  17. Phylogenetic and functional diversity of denitrifying bacteria isolated from various rice paddy and rice-soybean rotation fields.

    PubMed

    Tago, Kanako; Ishii, Satoshi; Nishizawa, Tomoyasu; Otsuka, Shigeto; Senoo, Keishi

    2011-01-01

    Denitrifiers can produce and consume nitrous oxide (N(2)O). While little N(2)O is emitted from rice paddy soil, the same soil produces N(2)O when the land is drained and used for upland crop cultivation. In this study, we collected soils from two types of fields each at three locations in Japan; one type of field had been used for continuous cultivation of rice and the other for rotational cultivation of rice and soybean. Active denitrifiers were isolated from these soils using a functional single-cell isolation method, and their taxonomy and denitrifying properties were examined. A total of 110 denitrifiers were obtained, including those previously detected by a culture-independent analysis. Strains belonging to the genus Pseudogulbenkiania were dominant at all locations, suggesting that Pseudogulbenkiania denitrifiers are ubiquitous in various rice paddy soils. Potential denitrifying activity was similar among the strains, regardless of the differences in taxonomic position and soil of origin. However, relative amounts of N(2) in denitrification end products varied among strains isolated from different locations. Our results also showed that crop rotation had minimal impact on the functional diversity of the denitrifying strains. These results indicate that soil and other environmental factors, excluding cropping systems, could select for N(2)-producing denitrifiers.

  18. Soil microflora and enzyme activities in rhizosphere of Transgenic Bt cotton hybrid under different intercropping systems and plant protection schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biradar, D. P.; Alagawadi, A. R.; Basavanneppa, M. A.; Udikeri, S. S.

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted over three rainy seasons of 2005-06 to 2007-08 on a Vertisol at Dharwad, Karnataka, India to study the effect of intercropping and plant protection schedules on productivity, soil microflora and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton hybrid. The experiment consisted of four intercropping systems namely, Bt cotton + okra, Bt cotton + chilli, Bt cotton + onion + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram with four plant protection schedules (zero protection, protection for Bt cotton, protection for intercrop and protection for both crops). Observations on microbial populations and enzyme activities were recorded at 45, 90, 135 and 185 (at harvest) days after sowing (DAS). Averaged over years, Bt cotton + okra intercropping had significantly higher total productivity than Bt cotton + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram intercropping system and was similar to Bt cotton + chilli + onion intercropping system. With respect to plant protection schedules for bollworms, protection for both cotton and intercrops recorded significantly higher yield than the rest of the treatments. Population of total bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, P-solubilizers, free-living N2 fixers as well as urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities increased up to 135 days of crop growth followed by a decline. Among the intercropping systems, Bt cotton + chilli recorded significantly higher population of microorganisms and enzyme activities than other cropping systems. While Bt cotton with okra as intercrop recorded the least population of total bacteria and free-living N2 fixers as well as urease activity. Intercropping with redgram resulted in the least population of actinomycetes, fungi and P-solubilizers, whereas Bt cotton with chilli and onion recorded least activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase. Among the plant protection schedules, zero protection recorded maximum population of microorganisms and enzyme activities. This was followed by the

  19. Nitrous oxide emission and denitrifier communities in drip-irrigated calcareous soil as affected by chemical and organic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Tao, Rui; Wakelin, Steven A; Liang, Yongchao; Hu, Baowei; Chu, Guixin

    2017-08-31

    The effects of consecutive application of chemical fertilizer with or without organic fertilizer on soil N2O emissions and denitrifying community structure in a drip-irrigated field were determined. The four fertilizer treatments were (i) unfertilized, (ii) chemical fertilizer, (iii) 60% chemical fertilizer plus cattle manure, and (iv) 60% chemical fertilizer plus biofertilizer. The treatments with organic amendments (i.e. cattle manure and biofertilizer) reduced cumulative N2O emissions by 4.9-9.9%, reduced the N2O emission factor by 1.3-42%, and increased denitrifying enzyme activities by 14.3-56.2%. The nirK gene copy numbers were greatest in soil which received only chemical fertilizer. In contrast, nirS- and nosZ-copy numbers were greatest in soil amended with chemical fertilizer plus biofertilizer. Chemical fertilizer application with or without organic fertilizer significantly changed the community structure of nirK-type denitrifiers relative to the unfertilized soil. In comparison, the nirS- and nosZ-type denitrifier genotypes varied in treatments receiving organic fertilizer but not chemical fertilizer alone. The changes in the denitrifier communities were closely associated with soil organic carbon (SOC), NO3(-), NH4(+), water holding capacity, and soil pH. Modeling indicated that N2O emissions in this soil were primarily associated with the abundance of nirS type denitrifying bacteria, SOC, and NO3(-). Overall, our findings indicate that (i) the organic fertilizers increased denitrifying enzyme activity, increased denitrifying-bacteria gene copy numbers, but reduced N2O emissions, and (ii) nirS- and nosZ-type denitrifiers were more sensitive than nirK-type denitrifiers to the organic fertilizers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. nirS-Encoding denitrifier community composition, distribution, and abundance along the coastal wetlands of China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Juan; Hou, Lijun; Zheng, Yanling; Liu, Min; Yin, Guoyu; Li, Xiaofei; Lin, Xianbiao; Yu, Chendi; Wang, Rong; Jiang, Xiaofen; Sun, Xiuru

    2016-10-01

    For the past few decades, human activities have intensively increased the reactive nitrogen enrichment in China's coastal wetlands. Although denitrification is a critical pathway of nitrogen removal, the understanding of denitrifier community dynamics driving denitrification remains limited in the coastal wetlands. In this study, the diversity, abundance, and community composition of nirS-encoding denitrifiers were analyzed to reveal their variations in China's coastal wetlands. Diverse nirS sequences were obtained and more than 98 % of them shared considerable phylogenetic similarity with sequences obtained from aquatic systems (marine/estuarine/coastal sediments and hypoxia sea water). Clone library analysis revealed that the distribution and composition of nirS-harboring denitrifiers had a significant latitudinal differentiation, but without a seasonal shift. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the community structure of nirS-encoding denitrifiers was significantly related to temperature and ammonium concentration. The nirS gene abundance ranged from 4.3 × 10(5) to 3.7 × 10(7) copies g(-1) dry sediment, with a significant spatial heterogeneity. Among all detected environmental factors, temperature was a key factor affecting not only the nirS gene abundance but also the community structure of nirS-type denitrifiers. Overall, this study significantly enhances our understanding of the structure and dynamics of denitrifying communities in the coastal wetlands of China.

  1. OPTIMIZING BTEX BIODEGRADATION UNDER DENITRIFYING CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory tests were conducted to determine optimum conditions for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (collectively known as BTEX) biodegradation by aquifer microorganisms under denitrifying conditions. Microcosms, constructed with aquifer samples from Traverse City, Mic...

  2. Lysobacter capsici sp. nov., with antimicrobial activity, isolated from the rhizosphere of pepper, and emended description of the genus Lysobacter.

    PubMed

    Park, Joo Hwang; Kim, Rumi; Aslam, Zubair; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

    2008-02-01

    The taxonomic position of a novel bacterial strain, YC5194(T), with antimicrobial activity, isolated from the rhizosphere of pepper in Jinju, South Korea, was studied using a polyphasic approach. Cells of the strain were Gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultative anaerobes. It grew at a temperature of 15-37 degrees C (optimum 28 degrees C). Growth of the strain occurred between pH 5.5 and 8.5, with an optimum of pH 7.0-7.5. The strain inhibited mycelial growth of Pythium ultimum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani and Botryosphaeria dothidea and growth of Bacillus subtilis. The G+C content of the total DNA was 65.4 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the strain was most closely related to species of the genus Lysobacter (<94.0 to >99.0 % sequence similarity). Chemotaxonomic data (major quinone, Q-8; major polar lipids, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine; major fatty acids, iso-C(15 : 0), summed feature 3, C(16 : 0), iso-C(17 : 1)omega9c and C(18 : 1)omega7c) supported the affiliation of strain YC5194(T) to the genus Lysobacter. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, DNA-DNA hybridization data and biochemical and physiological characteristics strongly supported the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain YC5194(T) from species of Lysobacter with validly published names. Strain YC5194(T) therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Lysobacter capsici sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC5194(T) (=KCTC 22007(T) =DSM 19286(T)).

  3. Reconciling Mechanistic Hypotheses About Rhizosphere Priming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, W.

    2016-12-01

    Rhizosphere priming on soil organic matter decomposition has emerged as a key mechanism regulating biogeochemnical cycling of carbon, nitrogen and other elements from local to global scales. The level of the rhizosphere priming effect on decomposition rates can be comparable to the levels of controls from soil temperature and moisture conditions. However, our understanding on mechanisms responsible for rhizosphere priming remains rudimentary and controversial. The following individual hypotheses have been postulated in the published literature: (1) microbial activation, (2) microbial community succession, (3) aggregate turnover, (4) nitrogen mining, (5) nutrient competition, (6) preferential substrate utilization, and (7) drying-rewetting. Meshing these hypotheses with existing empirical evidence tends to support a general conclusion: each of these 7 hypotheses represents an aspect of the overall rhizosphere priming complex while the relative contribution by each individual aspect varies depending on the actual plant-soil conditions across time and space.

  4. Stimulation of nitrogen removal in the rhizosphere of aquatic duckweed by root exudate components.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yufang; Zhou, Yingru; Nakai, Satoshi; Hosomi, Masaaki; Zhang, Hailin; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2014-03-01

    Plants can stimulate bacterial nitrogen (N) removal by secretion of root exudates that may serve as carbon sources as well as non-nutrient signals for denitrification. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the specific non-nutrient compounds involved in this stimulation. Here, we use a continuous root exudate-trapping system in two common aquatic duckweed species, Spirodela polyrrhiza (HZ1) and Lemna minor (WX3), under natural and aseptic conditions. An activity-guided bioassay using denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens showed that crude root exudates of the two species strongly enhanced the nitrogen-removal efficiency (NRE) of P. fluorescens (P < 0.05) under both conditions. Water-insoluble fractions (F) obtained under natural conditions stimulated NRE to a significant extent, promoting rates by about 30%. Among acidic, neutral and basic fractions, a pronounced stimulatory effect was also observed for the neutral fractions from HZ1 and WX3 under both conditions, whereas the acidic fractions from WX3 displayed an inhibitory effect. Analysis of the active fractions using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed that duckweed released fatty acid methyl esters and fatty acid amides, specifically: methyl hexadecanoate, methyl (Z)-7-hexadecenoate, methyl dodecanoate, methyl-12-hydroxystearate, oleamide, and erucamide. Methyl (Z)-7-hexadecenoate and erucamide emerged as the effective N-removal stimulants (maximum stimulation of 25.9 and 33.4%, respectively), while none of the other tested compounds showed stimulatory effects. These findings provide the first evidence for a function of fatty acid methyl esters and fatty acid amides in stimulating N removal of denitrifying bacteria, affording insight into the "crosstalk" between aquatic plants and bacteria in the rhizosphere.

  5. Impact of Land Use Management and Soil Properties on Denitrifier Communities of Namibian Savannas.

    PubMed

    Braker, Gesche; Matthies, Diethart; Hannig, Michael; Brandt, Franziska Barbara; Brenzinger, Kristof; Gröngröft, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    We studied potential denitrification activity and the underlying denitrifier communities in soils from a semiarid savanna ecosystem of the Kavango region in NE Namibia to help in predicting future changes in N(2)O emissions due to continuing changes of land use in this region. Soil type and land use (pristine, fallow, and cultivated soils) influenced physicochemical characteristics of the soils that are relevant to denitrification activity and N(2)O fluxes from soils and affected potential denitrification activity. Potential denitrification activity was assessed by using the denitrifier enzyme activity (DEA) assay as a proxy for denitrification activity in the soil. Soil type and land use influenced C and N contents of the soils. Pristine soils that had never been cultivated had a particularly high C content. Cultivation reduced soil C content and the abundance of denitrifiers and changed the composition of the denitrifier communities. DEA was strongly and positively correlated with soil C content and was higher in pristine than in fallow or recently cultivated soils. Soil type and the composition of both the nirK- and nirS-type denitrifier communities also influenced DEA. In contrast, other soil characteristics like N content, C:N ratio, and pH did not predict DEA. These findings suggest that due to greater availability of soil organic matter, and hence a more effective N cycling, the natural semiarid grasslands emit more N(2)O than managed lands in Namibia.

  6. Abundance and Diversity of Denitrifying and Anammox Bacteria in Seasonally Hypoxic and Sulfidic Sediments of the Saline Lake Grevelingen

    PubMed Central

    Lipsewers, Yvonne A.; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Meysman, Filip J. R.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Villanueva, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Denitrifying and anammox bacteria are involved in the nitrogen cycling in marine sediments but the environmental factors that regulate the relative importance of these processes are not well constrained. Here, we evaluated the abundance, diversity, and potential activity of denitrifying, anammox, and sulfide-dependent denitrifying bacteria in the sediments of the seasonally hypoxic saline Lake Grevelingen, known to harbor an active microbial community involved in sulfur oxidation pathways. Depth distributions of 16S rRNA gene, nirS gene of denitrifying and anammox bacteria, aprA gene of sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria, and ladderane lipids of anammox bacteria were studied in sediments impacted by seasonally hypoxic bottom waters. Samples were collected down to 5 cm depth (1 cm resolution) at three different locations before (March) and during summer hypoxia (August). The abundance of denitrifying bacteria did not vary despite of differences in oxygen and sulfide availability in the sediments, whereas anammox bacteria were more abundant in the summer hypoxia but in those sediments with lower sulfide concentrations. The potential activity of denitrifying and anammox bacteria as well as of sulfur-oxidizing, including sulfide-dependent denitrifiers and sulfate-reducing bacteria, was potentially inhibited by the competition for nitrate and nitrite with cable and/or Beggiatoa-like bacteria in March and by the accumulation of sulfide in the summer hypoxia. The simultaneous presence and activity of organoheterotrophic denitrifying bacteria, sulfide-dependent denitrifiers, and anammox bacteria suggests a tight network of bacteria coupling carbon-, nitrogen-, and sulfur cycling in Lake Grevelingen sediments. PMID:27812355

  7. Diversity of denitrifying bacteria isolated from Daejeon Sewage Treatment Plant.

    PubMed

    Lim, Young-Woon; Lee, Soon-Ae; Kim, Seung Bum; Yong, Hae-Young; Yeon, Seon-Hee; Park, Yong-Keun; Jeong, Dong-Woo; Park, Jin-Sook

    2005-10-01

    The diversity of the denitrifying bacterial populations in Daejeon Sewage Treatment Plant was examined using a culture-dependent approach. Of the three hundred and seventy six bacterial colonies selected randomly from agar plates, thirty-nine strains that showed denitrifying activity were selected and subjected to further analysis. According to the morphological and biochemical properties, the thirty nine isolates were divided into seven groups. This grouping was supported by an unweighted pair group method, using an arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis with fatty acid profiles. Restriction pattern analysis of 16S rDNA with four endonucleases (AluI, BstUI, MspI and RsaI) again revealed seven distinct groups, consistent with those defined from the morphological and biochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. Through the phylogenetic analysis using the 16S rDNA partial sequences, the main denitrifying microbial populations were found to be members of the phylum, Proteobacteria; in particular, classes Gamma proteobacteria (Aeromonas, Klebsiella and Enterobacter) and Beta proteobacteria (Acidovorax, Burkholderia and Comamonas), with Firmicutes, represented by Bacillus, also comprised a major group.

  8. Rhizosphere bacteria affected by transgenic potatoes with antibacterial activities compared with the effects of soil, wild-type potatoes, vegetation stage and pathogen exposure.

    PubMed

    Rasche, Frank; Hödl, Verania; Poll, Christian; Kandeler, Ellen; Gerzabek, Martin H; van Elsas, Jan D; Sessitsch, Angela

    2006-05-01

    A greenhouse experiment was performed to analyze a potential effect of genetically modified potatoes expressing antibacterial compounds (attacin/cecropin, T4 lysozyme) and their nearly isogenic, nontransformed parental wild types on rhizosphere bacterial communities. To compare plant transformation-related variations with commonly accepted impacts caused by altered environmental conditions, potatoes were cultivated under different environmental conditions, for example using contrasting soil types. Further, plants were challenged with the blackleg pathogen Erwinia carotovora ssp. atroseptica. Rhizosphere soil samples were obtained at the stem elongation and early flowering stages. The activities of various extracellular rhizosphere enzymes involved in the C-, P- and N-nutrient cycles were determined as the rates of fluorescence of enzymatically hydrolyzed substrates containing the highly fluorescent compounds 4-methylumbelliferone or 7-amino-4-methyl coumarin. The structural diversity of the bacterial communities was assessed by 16S rRNA-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were established for the flowering conventional and T4 lysozyme-expressing Desirée lines grown on the chernozem soil, each line treated with and without E. carotovora ssp. atroseptica. Both genetic transformation events induced a differentiation in the activity rates and structures of associated bacterial communities. In general, T4 lysozyme had a stronger effect than attacin/cecropin. In comparison with the other factors, the impact of the genetic modification was only transient and minor, or comparable to the dominant variations caused by soil type, plant genotype, vegetation stage and pathogen exposure.

  9. Effects of Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-Transgenic Soybean on Phosphatase Activities and Rhizospheric Bacterial Community of the Saline-Alkali Soil

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Da-qing; Yu, Song

    2016-01-01

    The development of transgenic soybean has produced numerous economic benefits; however the potential impact of root exudates upon soil ecological systems and rhizospheric soil microbial diversity has also received intensive attention. In the present study, the influence of saline-alkali tolerant transgenic soybean of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase on bacterial community structure and soil phosphatase during growth stages was investigated. The results showed that, compared with nontransgenic soybean as a control, the rhizospheric soil pH of transgenic soybean significantly decreased at the seedling stage. Compared to HN35, organic P content was 13.5% and 25.4% greater at the pod-filling stage and maturity, respectively. The acid phosphatase activity of SRTS was significantly better than HN35 by 12.74% at seedling, 14.03% at flowering, and 59.29% at podding, while alkaline phosphatase achieved maximum activity in the flowering stage and was markedly lower than HN35 by 13.25% at pod-filling. The 454 pyrosequencing technique was employed to investigate bacterial diversity, with a total of 25,499 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) obtained from the 10 samples. Notably, the effect of SRTS on microbial richness and diversity of rhizospheric soil was marked at the stage of podding and pod-filling. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla among all samples. Compared with HN35, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria was lower by 2.01%, 2.06%, and 5.28% at the stage of seedling, at pod-bearing, and at maturity. In genus level, the relative abundance of Gp6, Sphingomonas sp., and GP4 was significantly inhibited by SRTS at the stage of pod-bearing and pod-filling. PMID:27689079

  10. Ammonium concentrations in produced waters from a mesothermic oil field subjected to nitrate injection decrease through formation of denitrifying biomass and anammox activity.

    PubMed

    Shartau, Sabrina L Cornish; Yurkiw, Marcy; Lin, Shiping; Grigoryan, Aleksandr A; Lambo, Adewale; Park, Hyung-Soo; Lomans, Bart P; van der Biezen, Erwin; Jetten, Mike S M; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2010-08-01

    Community analysis of a mesothermic oil field, subjected to continuous field-wide injection of nitrate to remove sulfide, with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of heterotrophic and sulfide-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB and soNRB). These reduce nitrate by dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (e.g., Sulfurospirillum and Denitrovibrio) or by denitrification (e.g., Sulfurimonas, Arcobacter, and Thauera). Monitoring of ammonium concentrations in producing wells (PWs) indicated that denitrification was the main pathway for nitrate reduction in the field: breakthrough of nitrate and nitrite in two PWs was not associated with an increase in the ammonium concentration, and no increase in the ammonium concentration was seen in any of 11 producing wells during periods of increased nitrate injection. Instead, ammonium concentrations in produced waters decreased on average from 0.3 to 0.2 mM during 2 years of nitrate injection. Physiological studies with produced water-derived hNRB microcosms indicated increased biomass formation associated with denitrification as a possible cause for decreasing ammonium concentrations. Use of anammox-specific primers and cloning of the resulting PCR product gave clones affiliated with the known anammox genera "Candidatus Brocadia" and "Candidatus Kuenenia," indicating that the anammox reaction may also contribute to declining ammonium concentrations. Overall, the results indicate the following: (i) that nitrate injected into an oil field to oxidize sulfide is primarily reduced by denitrifying bacteria, of which many genera have been identified by DGGE, and (ii) that perhaps counterintuitively, nitrate injection leads to decreasing ammonium concentrations in produced waters.

  11. Denitrifier Community in the Oxygen Minimum Zone of a Subtropical Deep Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zheng; Yang, Jun; Liu, Lemian

    2014-01-01

    Denitrification is an important pathway for nitrogen removal from aquatic systems and this could benefit water quality. However, little is known about the denitrifier community composition and key steps of denitrification in the freshwater environments, and whether different bacteria have a role in multiple processes of denitrification reduction. In this study, quantitative PCR, quantitative RT-PCR, clone library and 454 pyrosequencing were used together to investigate the bacterial and denitrifier community in a subtropical deep reservoir during the strongly stratified period. Our results indicated that the narG gene recorded the highest abundance among the denitrifying genes (2.76×109 copies L−1 for DNA and 4.19×108 copies L−1 for RNA), and the lowest value was nosZ gene (7.56×105 copies L−1 for DNA and undetected for RNA). The RNA: DNA ratios indicated that narG gene was the most active denitrifying gene in the oxygen minimum zone of Dongzhen Reservoir. Further, α-, β- and γ- Proteobacteria were the overwhelmingly dominant classes of denitrifier communities. Each functional gene had its own dominant groups which were different at the genus level: the narG gene was dominated by Albidiferax, while nirS gene was dominated by Dechloromonas. The main OTU of nirK gene was Rhodopseudomonas palustris, but for norB and nosZ genes, they were Bacillus and Bradyrhizobium, respectively. These results contribute to the understanding of linkages between denitrifier community, function and how they work together to complete the denitrification process. Studies on denitrifier community and activity may be useful in managing stratified reservoirs for the ecosystem services and aiding in constructing nitrogen budgets. PMID:24664112

  12. Comparison of the catabolic activity and catabolic profiles of rhizospheric, gravel-associated and interstitial microbial communities in treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kela P; Legge, Raymond L

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communities play a critical role in degrading organic contaminants in treatment wetlands; however, an understanding of the different roles played by rhizospheric, gravel-associated and interstitial microbial communities is deficient due to a lack of data directly comparing these microbial communities. Community level physiological profiling (CLPP) was used to compare the catabolic capabilities of rhizospheric, gravel-associated and interstitial microbial communities in vertical-flow planted and unplanted wetland mesocosms. Wetland mesocosms were decommissioned to gather microbial community samples associated with the roots and gravel bed media taken from the top (10 cm depth), middle (30 cm depth) and bottom (60 cm depth). The catabolic capabilities of the rhizospheric microbial communities were seen to be much greater than those of the gravel-associated communities. A decrease in catabolic capability was seen with increasing depth, suggesting that communities near the surface play a larger role in the degradation of carbon-based compounds. A general difference in catabolic profiles based on plant presence/absence was observed for the interstitial water and all gravel-associated samples at all depths, suggesting that the presence of roots within part of the mesocosm not only has a localized effect on the attached microbial population, but also on gravel-associated microbial communities throughout the mesocosms.

  13. Isolation of rhizospheric and roots endophytic actinomycetes from Leguminosae plant and their activities to inhibit soybean pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycine.

    PubMed

    Mingma, Ratchanee; Pathom-aree, Wasu; Trakulnaleamsai, Savitr; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip; Duangmal, Kannika

    2014-01-01

    In this study, actinomycetes from roots and rhizospheric soils of leguminous plants were isolated using starch casein agar supplemented with antifungal and antibacterial antibiotics. Three hundred and seventeen actinomycetes were isolated with 77 isolates obtained from plant roots and 240 isolates from rhizospheric soils. Analysis of whole-organism hydrolysates showed that 289 strains were rich in the LL-isomer of diaminopimelic acid, a result consistent with their assignment to the streptomycetes. The remaining 28 strains were assigned to non-streptomycetes based on the presence of meso-isomer of diaminopimelic acid in cell wall. Sixty-four isolates (20.2%) showed antagonistic activity against soybean pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycine by agar overlay method. Isolate RM 365 showed the highest activity with an inhibition ratio of 3.79, with no inhibitory activity on the growth of Rhizobium japonicum TISTR 079, Rhizobium sp. TISTR 061 and Rhizobium sp. TISTR 063. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that isolate RM 365 shared 99.28% similarity to Streptomyces caeruleatus GIMN4(T) (GQ329712). In addition, isolates which contained meso-DAP were also identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The results showed that they were members of the genus Amycolatopsis, Isoptericola, Micromonospora, Microbispora, Nocardia, Nonomuraea, Promicromonospora and Pseudonocardia.

  14. GacS-dependent regulation of enzymic and antifungal activities and synthesis of N-acylhomoserine lactones in rhizospheric strain Pseudomonas chlororaphis 449.

    PubMed

    Veselova, M; Lipasova, V; Protsenko, M A; Buza, N; Khmel, I A

    2009-09-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain 449 isolated from the rhizosphere of maize suppresses numerous plant pathogens in vitro. The strain produces phenazine antibiotics and synthesizes at least three types of quorum sensing signaling molecules, N-acylhomoserine lactones. Here we have shown that the rhizospheric P. chlororaphis strains 449, well known strain 30-84 as well as two other P. chlororaphis strains exhibit polygalacturonase activity. Using mini-Tn5 transposon mutagenesis, four independent mutants of strain P. chlororaphis 449 with insertion of mini-Tn5 Km2 in gene gacS of two-component GacA-GacS system of global regulation were selected. All these mutant strains were deficient in production of extracellular proteinase(s), phenazines, N-acylhomoserine lactones synthesis, and did not inhibit the growth of G(+) bacteria in comparison with the wild type strain. The P. chlororaphis 449-06 gacS (-) mutant studied in greater detail was deficient in polygalacturonase, pectin methylesterase activities, swarming motility and antifungal activity. It is the first time the involvement of GacA-GacS system in the regulation of enzymes of pectin metabolism, polygalacturonase and pectin methylesterase, was demonstrated in fluorescent pseudomonads.

  15. Antifungal Activity of Selected Indigenous Pseudomonas and Bacillus from the Soybean Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    León, M.; Yaryura, P. M.; Montecchia, M. S.; Hernández, A. I.; Correa, O. S.; Pucheu, N. L.; Kerber, N. L.; García, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate and select indigenous soil Pseudomonas and Bacillus bacteria capable of developing multiple mechanisms of action related to the biocontrol of phytopathogenic fungi affecting soybean crops. The screening procedure consisted of antagonism tests against a panel of phytopathogenic fungi, taxonomic identification, detection by PCR of several genes related to antifungal activity, in vitro detection of the antifungal products, and root colonization assays. Two isolates, identified and designated as Pseudomonas fluorescens BNM296 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BNM340, were selected for further studies. These isolates protected plants against the damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum and were able to increase the seedling emergence rate after inoculation of soybean seeds with each bacterium. Also, the shoot nitrogen content was higher in plants when seeds were inoculated with BNM296. The polyphasic approach of this work allowed us to select two indigenous bacterial strains that promoted the early development of soybean plants. PMID:20016811

  16. Bacterial quorum sensing and nitrogen cycling in rhizosphere soil

    SciTech Connect

    DeAngelis, K.M.; Lindow, S.E.; Firestone, M.K.

    2008-10-01

    Plant photosynthate fuels carbon-limited microbial growth and activity, resulting in increased rhizosphere nitrogen (N)-mineralization. Most soil organic N is macromolecular (chitin, protein, nucleotides); enzymatic depolymerization is likely rate-limiting for plant N accumulation. Analyzing Avena (wild oat) planted in microcosms containing sieved field soil, we observed increased rhizosphere chitinase and protease specific activities, bacterial cell densities, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compared to bulk soil. Low-molecular weight DON (<3000 Da) was undetectable in bulk soil but comprised 15% of rhizosphere DON. Extracellular enzyme production in many bacteria requires quorum sensing (QS), cell-density dependent group behavior. Because proteobacteria are considered major rhizosphere colonizers, we assayed the proteobacterial QS signals acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), which were significantly increased in the rhizosphere. To investigate the linkage between soil signaling and N cycling, we characterized 533 bacterial isolates from Avena rhizosphere: 24% had chitinase or protease activity and AHL production; disruption of QS in 7 of 8 eight isolates disrupted enzyme activity. Many {alpha}-Proteobacteria were newly found with QS-controlled extracellular enzyme activity. Enhanced specific activities of N-cycling enzymes accompanied by bacterial density-dependent behaviors in rhizosphere soil gives rise to the hypothesis that QS could be a control point in the complex process of rhizosphere N-mineralization.

  17. Cry1Ac Transgenic Sugarcane Does Not Affect the Diversity of Microbial Communities and Has No Significant Effect on Enzyme Activities in Rhizosphere Soil within One Crop Season

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dinggang; Xu, Liping; Gao, Shiwu; Guo, Jinlong; Luo, Jun; You, Qian; Que, Youxiong

    2016-01-01

    Cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane provides a promising way to control stem-borer pests. Biosafety assessment of soil ecosystem for cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane is urgently needed because of the important role of soil microorganisms in nutrient transformations and element cycling, however little is known. This study aimed to explore the potential impact of cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane on rhizosphere soil enzyme activities and microbial community diversity, and also to investigate whether the gene flow occurs through horizontal gene transfer. We found no horizontal gene flow from cry1Ac sugarcane to soil. No significant difference in the population of culturable microorganisms between the non-GM and cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane was observed, and there were no significant interactions between the sugarcane lines and the growth stages. A relatively consistent trend at community-level, represented by the functional diversity index, was found between the cry1Ac sugarcane and the non-transgenic lines. Most soil samples showed no significant difference in the activities of four soil enzymes: urease, protease, sucrose, and acid phosphate monoester between the non-transgenic and cry1Ac sugarcane lines. We conclude, based on one crop season, that the cry1Ac sugarcane lines may not affect the microbial community structure and functional diversity of the rhizosphere soil and have few negative effects on soil enzymes. PMID:27014291

  18. Cry1Ac Transgenic Sugarcane Does Not Affect the Diversity of Microbial Communities and Has No Significant Effect on Enzyme Activities in Rhizosphere Soil within One Crop Season.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dinggang; Xu, Liping; Gao, Shiwu; Guo, Jinlong; Luo, Jun; You, Qian; Que, Youxiong

    2016-01-01

    Cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane provides a promising way to control stem-borer pests. Biosafety assessment of soil ecosystem for cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane is urgently needed because of the important role of soil microorganisms in nutrient transformations and element cycling, however little is known. This study aimed to explore the potential impact of cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane on rhizosphere soil enzyme activities and microbial community diversity, and also to investigate whether the gene flow occurs through horizontal gene transfer. We found no horizontal gene flow from cry1Ac sugarcane to soil. No significant difference in the population of culturable microorganisms between the non-GM and cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane was observed, and there were no significant interactions between the sugarcane lines and the growth stages. A relatively consistent trend at community-level, represented by the functional diversity index, was found between the cry1Ac sugarcane and the non-transgenic lines. Most soil samples showed no significant difference in the activities of four soil enzymes: urease, protease, sucrose, and acid phosphate monoester between the non-transgenic and cry1Ac sugarcane lines. We conclude, based on one crop season, that the cry1Ac sugarcane lines may not affect the microbial community structure and functional diversity of the rhizosphere soil and have few negative effects on soil enzymes.

  19. Complete genome sequence of the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus subterraneus KCTC 3922(T) as a potential denitrifier.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Jik; Park, Min-Kyu; Park, Gun-Seok; Lee, Sang-Jae; Lee, Sang Jun; Kim, Bradley Seokhan; Shin, Jae-Ho; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2017-06-10

    Denitrification is a crucial process for the global nitrogen cycle through the reduction of nitrates by heterotrophic bacteria. Denitrifying microorganisms play an important role in eliminating fixed nitrogen pollutants from the ecosystem, concomitant with N2O emission. Although many microbial denitrifiers have been identified, little is known about the denitrifying ability of the genus Geobacillus. Here, we report the first complete genome sequences of Geobacillus subterraneus KCTC 3922(T), isolated from Liaohe oil field in China, and G. thermodenitrificans KCTC 3902(T). The strain KCTC 3922(T) contains a complete set of genes involved in denitrification, cofactor biogenesis, and transport systems, which is consistent with a denitrifying activity. On the other hand, G. thermodenitrificans KCTC 3902(T) exhibited no denitrifying activity probably due to the lack of molybdnumtransferase (moeA) and nitrite transporter (nirC) genes. Therefore, comparative genome analysis of Geobacillus strains highlights the potential impact on treatment of nitrate-contaminated environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of copper on expression of nirS, norB and nosZ and the transcription and activity of NIR, NOR and N2 OR in the denitrifying soil bacteria Pseudomonas stutzeri.

    PubMed

    Black, Amanda; Hsu, Pei-Chun L; Hamonts, Kelly E; Clough, Tim J; Condron, Leo M

    2016-05-01

    Reduction of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N(2)O) occurs in soil environments by the action of denitrifying bacteria possessing nitrous oxide reductase (N(2)OR), a dimeric copper (Cu)-dependent enzyme producing environmentally benign dinitrogen (N(2)). We examined the effects of increasing Cu concentrations on the transcription and activity of nitrite reductase (NIR), nitric oxide reductase (NOR) and N2 OR in Pseudomonas stutzeri grown anaerobically in solution over a 10-day period. Gas samples were taken on a daily basis and after 6 days, bacterial RNA was recovered to determine the expression of nirS, norB and nosZ encoding NIR, NOR and N(2)OR respectively. Results revealed that 0.05 mM Cu caused maximum conversion of N(2)O to N(2) via bacterial reduction of N(2)O. As soluble Cu generally makes up less than 0.001% of total soil Cu, extrapolation of 0.05 mg l(-l) soluble Cu would require soils to have a total concentration of Cu in the range of, 150-200 μg g(-1) to maximize the proportion of N(2)O reduced to N(2). Given that many intensively farmed agricultural soils are deficient in Cu in terms of plant nutrition, providing a sufficient concentration of biologically accessible Cu could provide a potentially useful microbial-based strategy of reducing agricultural N(2)O emissions.

  1. Inhibition of alkylbenzene biodegradation under denitrifying conditions by using acetylene block technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    Aquifers contaminated with gasoline and other fuels often exhibit levels of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in excess of regulatory limits mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Addition of acetylene to microcosms simultaneously amended with nitrate and alkylbenzenes resulted in inhibition of the rate of alkylbenzene biodegradation under denitrifying conditions. Toluene, xylenes, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were recalcitrant, whereas ethylbenzene was degraded at a slower rate than usual. Benzene was not degraded in either case. Addition of acetylene to microcosms preexposed to nitrate and alkylbenzenes produced similar inhibition. These data indicate that the activities of microorganisms that degrade alkylbenzenes under denitrifying conditions may be suppressed if the standard acetylene block technique is used to verify denitrifying activity.

  2. The Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Cadmium Fractionation and Enzyme Activities in the Rhizosphere of Two Radish Cultivars (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Xin, Juan; Zhao, Xiaohu; Tan, Qiling; Sun, Xuecheng; Wen, Xin; Qin, Shiyu; Hu, Chengxiao

    2017-02-01

    The effects of increasing Cd additions on plant growth and Cd fractionation and enzyme activities in rhizosphere soil of two radish cultivars were investigated. The results showed that Cd concentrations in shoot and root of cultivar 4 were both higher than for cultivar 19 under different Cd levels. Compared with cultivar 19, the total, shoot and root biomasses of cultivar 4 were significantly reduced with increasing Cd levels. A decrease in soil pH was observed for cultivar 4. The exchangeable Cd concentration of soil from cultivar 4 was significantly higher than for soil from cultivar 19, while the carbonate-bound Cd concentration of soil from cultivar 4 was significantly lower than for cultivar 19. Enzyme activities, especially acid phosphatase activity, were more susceptible to Cd in soil from cultivar 4. These results indicated that cultivar 19 exhibits a stronger ability to adapt to Cd stress than cultivar 4.

  3. Isolation and characterization of genetic variability in bacteria with β-hemolytic and antifungal activity isolated from the rhizosphere of Medicago truncatula plants.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Salmerón, J E; Prieto-Barajas, C M; Valencia-Cantero, E; Moreno-Hagelsieb, G; Santoyo, G

    2014-07-04

    In the present study, we analyzed the frequency of hemolytic and antifungal activities in bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of Medicago truncatula plants. Of the 2000 bacterial colonies, 96 showed β-hemolytic activities (frequency, 4.8 x 10(-2)). Hemolytic isolates were analyzed for their genetic diversity by using random amplification of polymorphic DNA, yielding 88 haplotypes. The similarity coefficient of Nei and Li showed a polymorphic diversity ranging from 0.3 to 1. Additionally, 8 of the hemolytic isolates showed antifungal activity toward plant pathogens, Diaporthe phaseolorum, Colletotrichum acutatum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum. The 16S ribosomal sequencing analysis showed that antagonistic bacterial isolates corresponded to Bacillus subtilis (UM15, UM33, UM42, UM49, UM52, and UM91), Bacillus pumilus (UM24), and Bacillus licheniformis (UM88). The present results revealed a higher genetic diversity among hemolytic isolates compared to that of isolates with antifungal action.

  4. Bacterial Abilities and Adaptation Toward the Rhizosphere Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Lucas D.; Pereira e Silva, Michele de Cássia; Andreote, Fernando D.

    2016-01-01

    The rhizosphere harbors one of the most complex, diverse, and active plant-associated microbial communities. This community can be recruited by the plant host to either supply it with nutrients or to help in the survival under stressful conditions. Although selection for the rhizosphere community is evident, the specific bacterial traits that make them able to colonize this environment are still poorly understood. Thus, here we used a combination of community level physiological profile (CLPP) analysis and 16S rRNA gene quantification and sequencing (coupled with in silico analysis and metagenome prediction), to get insights on bacterial features and processes involved in rhizosphere colonization of sugarcane. CLPP revealed a higher metabolic activity in the rhizosphere compared to bulk soil, and suggested that D-galacturonic acid plays a role in bacterial selection by the plant roots (supported by results of metagenome prediction). Quantification of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed the higher abundance of bacteria in the rhizosphere. Sequence analysis showed that of the 252 classified families sampled, 24 were significantly more abundant in the bulk soil and 29 were more abundant in the rhizosphere. Furthermore, metagenomes predicted from the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a significant higher abundance of predicted genes associated with biofilm formation and with horizontal gene transfer (HGT) processes. In sum, this study identified major bacterial groups and their potential abilities to occupy the sugarcane rhizosphere, and indicated that polygalacturonase activity and HGT events may be important features for rhizosphere colonization. PMID:27610108

  5. Geochemical control of microbial Fe(III) reduction potential in wetlands: Comparison of the rhizosphere to non-rhizosphere soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiss, J.V.; Emerson, D.; Megonigal, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    We compared the reactivity and microbial reduction potential of Fe(III) minerals in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil to test the hypothesis that rapid Fe(III) reduction rates in wetland soils are explained by rhizosphere processes. The rhizosphere was defined as the area immediately adjacent to a root encrusted with Fe(III)-oxides or Fe plaque, and non-rhizosphere soil was 0.5 cm from the root surface. The rhizosphere had a significantly higher percentage of poorly crystalline Fe (66??7%) than non-rhizosphere soil (23??7%); conversely, non-rhizosphere soil had a significantly higher proportion of crystalline Fe (50??7%) than the rhizosphere (18??7%, P<0.05 in all cases). The percentage of poorly crystalline Fe(III) was significantly correlated with the percentage of FeRB (r=0.76), reflecting the fact that poorly crystalline Fe(III) minerals are labile with respect to microbial reduction. Abiotic reductive dissolution consumed about 75% of the rhizosphere Fe(III)-oxide pool in 4 h compared to 23% of the soil Fe(III)-oxide pool. Similarly, microbial reduction consumed 75-80% of the rhizosphere pool in 10 days compared to 30-40% of the non-rhizosphere soil pool. Differences between the two pools persisted when samples were amended with an electron-shuttling compound (AQDS), an Fe(III)-reducing bacterium (Geobacter metallireducens), and organic carbon. Thus, Fe(III)-oxide mineralogy contributed strongly to differences in the Fe(III) reduction potential of the two pools. Higher amounts of poorly crystalline Fe(III) and possibly humic substances, and a higher Fe(III) reduction potential in the rhizosphere compared to the non-rhizosphere soil, suggested the rhizosphere is a site of unusually active microbial Fe cycling. The results were consistent with previous speculation that rapid Fe cycling in wetlands is due to the activity of wetland plant roots. ?? 2004 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nitrification and denitrifying phosphorus removal in an upright continuous flow reactor.

    PubMed

    Reza, Maryam; Alvarez Cuenca, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous nitrification and denitrifying phosphorus removal was achieved in a single-sludge continuous flow bioreactor. The upright bioreactor was aligned with a biomass fermenter (BF) and operated continuously for over 350 days. This study revealed that unknown bacteria of the Saprospiraceae class may have been responsible for the successful nutrient removal in this bioreactor. The successive anoxic-aerobic stages of the bioreactor with upright alignment along with a 60 L BF created a unique ecosystem for the growth of nitrifier, denitrifiers, phosphorus accumulating organisms and denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms. Furthermore, total nitrogen to chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratio and total phosphorus to COD ratio of 0.6 and 0.034, respectively, confirmed the comparative advantages of this advanced nutrient removal process relative to both sequencing batch reactors and activated sludge processes. The process yielded 95% nitrogen removal and over 90% phosphorus removal efficiencies.

  7. Phosphorus removal and N₂O production in anaerobic/anoxic denitrifying phosphorus removal process: long-term impact of influent phosphorus concentration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Meng, Yuan; Fan, Ting; Du, Yuneng; Tang, Jie; Fan, Shisuo

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the long-term impact of influent phosphorus concentration on denitrifying phosphorus removal and N2O production during denitrifying phosphorous removal process. The results showed that, denitrifying phosphate accumulating organisms (DPAOs) could become dominant populations quickly in anaerobic/anoxic SBR by providing optimum cultivating conditions, and the reactor performed well for denitrifying phosphorus removal. The influent phosphorus concentration significantly affected anaerobic poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) synthesis, denitrifying phosphorus removal, and N2O production during the denitrifying phosphorus removal process. As the influent phosphorus concentration was more than 20 mg L(-1), the activity of DPAOs began to be inhibited due to the transformation of the available carbon source type. Meanwhile, N2O production was inhibited with the mitigation of anoxic NO2(-)-N accumulation. Adoption of a modified feeding could enhance denitrifying phosphorus removal and inhibit N2O production during denitrifying phosphorous removal processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Archaeal ammonia oxidizers and nirS-type denitrifiers dominate sediment nitrifying and denitrifying populations in a subtropical macrotidal estuary.

    PubMed

    Abell, Guy C J; Revill, Andrew T; Smith, Craig; Bissett, Andrew P; Volkman, John K; Robert, Stanley S

    2010-02-01

    Nitrification and denitrification are key steps in nitrogen (N) cycling. The coupling of these processes, which affects the flow of N in ecosystems, requires close interaction of nitrifying and denitrifying microorganisms, both spatially and temporally. The diversity, temporal and spatial variations in the microbial communities affecting these processes was examined, in relation to N cycling, across 12 sites in the Fitzroy river estuary, which is a turbid subtropical estuary in central Queensland. The estuary is a major source of nutrients discharged to the Great Barrier Reef near-shore zone. Measurement of nitrogen fluxes showed an active denitrifying community during all sampling months. Archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA of AOA, functional marker for nitrification) was significantly more abundant than Betaproteobacterial (beta-AOB) amoA. Nitrite reductase genes, functional markers for denitrification, were dominated by nirS and not nirK types at all sites during the year. AOA communities were dominated by the soil/sediment cluster of Crenarchaeota, with sequences found in estuarine sediment, marine and terrestrial environments, whereas nirS sequences were significantly more diverse (where operational taxonomic units were defined at both the threshold of 5% and 15% sequence similarity) and were closely related to sequences originating from estuarine sediments. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis revealed that AOA population compositions varied spatially along the estuary, whereas nirS populations changed temporally. Statistical analysis of individual T-RF dominance suggested that salinity and C:N were associated with the community succession of AOA, whereas the nirS-type denitrifier communities were related to salinity and chlorophyll-alpha in the Fitzroy river estuary.

  9. SEAGRASS RHIZOSPHERE MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Devereux, Richard. 2005. Seagrass Rhizosphere Microbial Communities. In: Interactions Between Macro- and Microorganisms in Marine Sediments. E. Kristense, J.E. Kostka and R.H. Haese, Editors. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC. p199-216. (ERL,GB 1213).

    Seagrasses ...

  10. SEAGRASS RHIZOSPHERE MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Devereux, Richard. 2005. Seagrass Rhizosphere Microbial Communities. In: Interactions Between Macro- and Microorganisms in Marine Sediments. E. Kristense, J.E. Kostka and R.H. Haese, Editors. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC. p199-216. (ERL,GB 1213).

    Seagrasses ...

  11. Nitrogen loss by anaerobic oxidation of ammonium in rice rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Nie, San'an; Li, Hu; Yang, Xiaoru; Zhang, Zhaoji; Weng, Bosen; Huang, Fuyi; Zhu, Gui-Bing; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-09-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of ammonium (anammox) is recognized as an important process for nitrogen (N) cycling, yet its role in agricultural ecosystems, which are intensively fertilized, remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the presence, activity, functional gene abundance and role of anammox bacteria in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere paddy soils using catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization, isotope-tracing technique, quantitative PCR assay and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Results showed that rhizosphere anammox contributed to 31-41% N2 production with activities of 0.33-0.64 nmol N2 g(-1) soil h(-1), whereas the non-rhizosphere anammox bacteria contributed to only 2-3% N2 production with lower activities of 0.08-0.26 nmol N2 g(-1) soil h(-1). Higher anammox bacterial cells were observed (0.75-1.4 × 10(7) copies g(-1) soil) in the rhizosphere, which were twofold higher compared with the non-rhizosphere soil (3.7-5.9 × 10(6) copies g(-1) soil). Phylogenetic analysis of the anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that two genera of 'Candidatus Kuenenia' and 'Candidatus Brocadia' and the family of Planctomycetaceae were identified. We suggest the rhizosphere provides a favorable niche for anammox bacteria, which are important to N cycling, but were previously largely overlooked.

  12. Dynamic Metabolic Modeling of Denitrifying Bacterial Growth: The Cybernetic Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Hyun-Seob; Liu, Chongxuan

    2015-06-29

    Denitrification is a multistage reduction process converting nitrate ultimately to nitrogen gas, carried out mostly by facultative bacteria. Modeling of the denitrification process is challenging due to the complex metabolic regulation that modulates sequential formation and consumption of a series of nitrogen oxide intermediates, which serve as the final electron acceptors for denitrifying bacteria. In this work, we examined the effectiveness and accuracy of the cybernetic modeling framework in simulating the growth dynamics of denitrifying bacteria in comparison with kinetic models. In four different case studies using the literature data, we successfully simulated diauxic and triauxic growth patterns observed in anoxic and aerobic conditions, only by tuning two or three parameters. In order to understand the regulatory structure of the cybernetic model, we systematically analyzed the effect of cybernetic control variables on simulation accuracy. The results showed that the consideration of both enzyme synthesis and activity control through u- and v-variables is necessary and relevant and that uvariables are of greater importance in comparison to v-variables. In contrast, simple kinetic models were unable to accurately capture dynamic metabolic shifts across alternative electron acceptors, unless an inhibition term was additionally incorporated. Therefore, the denitrification process represents a reasonable example highlighting the criticality of considering dynamic regulation for successful metabolic modeling.

  13. Effects of low molecular-weight organic acids and dehydrogenase activity in rhizosphere sediments of mangrove plants on phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Fang, Ling; Lin, Li; Luan, Tiangang; Tam, Nora F Y

    2014-03-01

    This work evaluated the roles of the low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) from root exudates and the dehydrogenase activity in the rhizosphere sediments of three mangrove plant species on the removal of mixed PAHs. The results showed that the concentrations of LMWOAs and dehydrogenase activity changed species-specifically with the levels of PAH contamination. In all plant species, the concentration of citric acid was the highest, followed by succinic acid. For these acids, succinic acid was positively related to the removal of all the PAHs except Chr. Positive correlations were also found between the removal percentages of 4-and 5-ring PAHs and all LMWOAs, except citric acid. LMWOAs enhanced dehydrogenase activity, which positively related to PAH removal percentages. These findings suggested that LMWOAs and dehydrogenase activity promoted the removal of PAHs. Among three mangrove plants, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, the plant with the highest root biomass, dehydrogenase activity and concentrations of LMWOAs, was most efficient in removing PAHs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative metatranscriptomics reveals kingdom level changes in the rhizosphere microbiome of plants.

    PubMed

    Turner, Thomas R; Ramakrishnan, Karunakaran; Walshaw, John; Heavens, Darren; Alston, Mark; Swarbreck, David; Osbourn, Anne; Grant, Alastair; Poole, Philip S

    2013-12-01

    Plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere have important roles in biogeochemical cycling, and maintenance of plant health and productivity, yet remain poorly understood. Using RNA-based metatranscriptomics, the global active microbiomes were analysed in soil and rhizospheres of wheat, oat, pea and an oat mutant (sad1) deficient in production of anti-fungal avenacins. Rhizosphere microbiomes differed from bulk soil and between plant species. Pea (a legume) had a much stronger effect on the rhizosphere than wheat and oat (cereals), resulting in a dramatically different rhizosphere community. The relative abundance of eukaryotes in the oat and pea rhizospheres was more than fivefold higher than in the wheat rhizosphere or bulk soil. Nematodes and bacterivorous protozoa were enriched in all rhizospheres, whereas the pea rhizosphere was highly enriched for fungi. Metabolic capabilities for rhizosphere colonisation were selected, including cellulose degradation (cereals), H2 oxidation (pea) and methylotrophy (all plants). Avenacins had little effect on the prokaryotic community of oat, but the eukaryotic community was strongly altered in the sad1 mutant, suggesting that avenacins have a broader role than protecting from fungal pathogens. Profiling microbial communities with metatranscriptomics allows comparison of relative abundance, from multiple samples, across all domains of life, without polymerase chain reaction bias. This revealed profound differences in the rhizosphere microbiome, particularly at the kingdom level between plants.

  15. Comparative metatranscriptomics reveals kingdom level changes in the rhizosphere microbiome of plants

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Thomas R; Ramakrishnan, Karunakaran; Walshaw, John; Heavens, Darren; Alston, Mark; Swarbreck, David; Osbourn, Anne; Grant, Alastair; Poole, Philip S

    2013-01-01

    Plant–microbe interactions in the rhizosphere have important roles in biogeochemical cycling, and maintenance of plant health and productivity, yet remain poorly understood. Using RNA-based metatranscriptomics, the global active microbiomes were analysed in soil and rhizospheres of wheat, oat, pea and an oat mutant (sad1) deficient in production of anti-fungal avenacins. Rhizosphere microbiomes differed from bulk soil and between plant species. Pea (a legume) had a much stronger effect on the rhizosphere than wheat and oat (cereals), resulting in a dramatically different rhizosphere community. The relative abundance of eukaryotes in the oat and pea rhizospheres was more than fivefold higher than in the wheat rhizosphere or bulk soil. Nematodes and bacterivorous protozoa were enriched in all rhizospheres, whereas the pea rhizosphere was highly enriched for fungi. Metabolic capabilities for rhizosphere colonisation were selected, including cellulose degradation (cereals), H2 oxidation (pea) and methylotrophy (all plants). Avenacins had little effect on the prokaryotic community of oat, but the eukaryotic community was strongly altered in the sad1 mutant, suggesting that avenacins have a broader role than protecting from fungal pathogens. Profiling microbial communities with metatranscriptomics allows comparison of relative abundance, from multiple samples, across all domains of life, without polymerase chain reaction bias. This revealed profound differences in the rhizosphere microbiome, particularly at the kingdom level between plants. PMID:23864127

  16. Optimization, kinetics and antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharide produced from rhizosphere isolate, Pseudomonas fluorescens CrN6.

    PubMed

    Sirajunnisa, Abdul Razack; Vijayagopal, Velayutham; Sivaprakash, Bhaskar; Viruthagiri, Thangavelu; Surendhiran, Duraiarasan

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens, isolated from rhizosphere soil, was exploited for the production of exopolysaccharide (EPS). A medium was constituted to enhance the yield of EPS. This study involved an agro waste as carbon substrate, rice bran, a replacement of glucose. Plackett-Burman statistical design was applied to evaluate the selected sixteen components from which, rice bran, peptone, NaCl and MnCl2 were found to be effective and significant on the fermentation process. To study the concentration of each component, central composite design was carried out and response surface plots indicated that the following concentrations significantly enhanced the production - rice bran 5.02%, peptone 0.35%, NaCl 0.51%, MnCl2 0.074%. Kinetic modeling was also performed to simulate the process parameters. Logistic model for microbial growth and Luedeking-Piret equation for product formation and substrate utilization were found to fit the experiment. The present investigation resulted in a maximum yield of 4.62g of EPS/L at 48h. High DPPH scavenging ability was a positive indication to use EPS as an antioxidant. The extracted polysaccharide could thus be ecofriendly due to its biodegradability and nontoxicity, and subjected to various industrial and pharmaceutical applications.

  17. Streptomyces bambusae sp. nov., Showing Antifungal and Antibacterial Activities, Isolated from Bamboo (Bambuseae) Rhizosphere Soil Using a Modified Culture Method.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuan Manh; Kim, Jaisoo

    2015-12-01

    Strain T110(T) was isolated from a bamboo rhizosphere soil sample in the Republic of Korea and was found to produce antibiotics and secondary metabolites against a broad range of bacterial and fungal pathogens. It is a gram-positive actinobacterium with a straight and smooth, spore chain morphology. Morphological, physiological, and biochemical characterization suggest that T110(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces. The predominant menaquinones of strain T110(T) were MK-9 (H6), MK-9 (H8), and MK-10 (H4). The cell wall peptidoglycan contained L L-diaminopimelic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, and glycine. Ribose and glucose were detected as whole-cell hydrolysates. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylinositol. The main fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(17:0), C(16:0), and iso-C(16:0). Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene (GenBank accession no. KM229361) combined with multiple alignment tools revealed that T110(T) shared the highest degree of similarity with Streptomyces albosporeus subsp. labilomyceticus NBRC 15387(T) (97.9%). However, DNA-DNA hybridization and phylogenetic analysis indicate that strain T110(T) is distinct from its most closely related species. Therefore, we conclude that strain T110(T) is a novel species of the genus Streptomyces and propose naming it Streptomyces bambusae. The type strain is T110(T) (=KEMB 9005-214(T) = KACC 18225(T) = NBRC 110903(T)).

  18. Expression of Bradyrhizobium japonicum cbb(3) terminal oxidase under denitrifying conditions is subjected to redox control.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Emilio; Richardson, David J; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Delgado, María J

    2009-09-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum utilizes cytochrome cbb(3) oxidase encoded by the fixNOQP operon to support microaerobic respiration under free-living and symbiotic conditions. It has been previously shown that, under denitrifying conditions, inactivation of the cycA gene encoding cytochrome c(550), the electron donor to the Cu-containing nitrite reductase, reduces cbb(3) expression. In order to establish the role of c(550) in electron transport to the cbb(3) oxidase, in this work, we have analyzed cbb(3) expression and activity in the cycA mutant grown under microaerobic or denitrifying conditions. Under denitrifying conditions, mutation of cycA had a negative effect on cytochrome c oxidase activity, heme c (FixP and FixO) and heme b cytochromes as well as expression of a fixP'-'lacZ fusion. Similarly, cbb(3) oxidase was expressed very weakly in a napC mutant lacking the c-type cytochrome, which transfers electrons to the NapAB structural subunit of the periplasmic nitrate reductase. These results suggest that a change in the electron flow through the denitrification pathway may affect the cellular redox state, leading to alterations in cbb(3) expression. In fact, levels of fixP'-'lacZ expression were largely dependent on the oxidized or reduced nature of the carbon source in the medium. Maximal expression observed in cells grown under denitrifying conditions with an oxidized carbon source required the regulatory protein RegR.

  19. Denitrifying phosphorus removal in a step-feed CAST with alternating anoxic-oxic operational strategy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Juan; Peng, Yongzhen; Wang, Shuying; Wang, Li; Liu, Yang; Ma, Ningping

    2009-01-01

    A bench-scale cyclic activated sludge technology (CAST) was operated to study the biological phosphorus removal performance and a series of batch tests was carried out to demonstrate the accumulation of denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (DNPAOs) in CAST system. Under all operating conditions, step-feed CAST with enough carbon sources in influent had the highest nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency as well as good sludge settling performance. The average removal rate of COD, NH4+-N, PO4(3-)-P and total nitrogen (TN) was 88.2%, 98.7%, 97.5% and 92.1%, respectively. The average sludge volume index (SVI) was 133 mL/g. The optimum anaerobic/aerobic/anoxic (AOA) conditions for the cultivation of DNPAOs could be achieved by alternating anoxic/oxic operational strategy, thus a significant denitrifying phosphorus removal occurred in step-feed CAST. The denitrification of NOx(-)-N completed quickly due to step-feed operation and enough carbon sources, which could enhance phosphorus release and further phosphorus uptake capability of the system. Batch tests also proved that polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in the step-feed process had strong denitrifying phosphorus removal capacity. Both nitrate and nitrite could be used as electron acceptors in denitrifying phosphorus removal. Low COD supply with step-feed operation strategy would favor DNPAOs accumulation.

  20. Anaerobic and aerobic degradation of pyridine by a newly isolated denitrifying bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, S K; Lee, G M; Yoon, J H; Park, Y H; Bae, H S; Lee, S T

    1997-01-01

    New denitrifying bacteria that could degrade pyridine under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions were isolated from industrial wastewater. The successful enrichment and isolation of these strains required selenite as a trace element. These isolates appeared to be closely related to Azoarcus species according to the results of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. An isolated strain, pF6, metabolized pyridine through the same pathway under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Since pyridine induced NAD-linked glutarate-dialdehyde dehydrogenase and isocitratase activities, it is likely that the mechanism of pyridine degradation in strain pF6 involves N-C-2 ring cleavage. Strain pF6 could degrade pyridine in the presence of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrous oxide as electron acceptors. In a batch culture with 6 mM nitrate, degradation of pyridine and denitrification were not sensitively affected by the redox potential, which gradually decreased from 150 to -200 mV. In a batch culture with the nitrate concentration higher than 6 mM, nitrite transiently accumulated during denitrification significantly inhibited cell growth and pyridine degradation. Growth yield on pyridine decreased slightly under denitrifying conditions from that under aerobic conditions. Furthermore, when the pyridine concentration used was above 12 mM, the specific growth rate under denitrifying conditions was higher than that under aerobic conditions. Considering these characteristics, a newly isolated denitrifying bacterium, strain pF6, has advantages over strictly aerobic bacteria in field applications. PMID:9212408

  1. Short-Term Rhizosphere Effect on Available Carbon Sources, Phenanthrene Degradation, and Active Microbiome in an Aged-Contaminated Industrial Soil

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, François; Cébron, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, understanding of the effects of plants on soil microbiomes has greatly advanced. However, knowledge on the assembly of rhizospheric communities in aged-contaminated industrial soils is still limited, especially with regard to transcriptionally active microbiomes and their link to the quality or quantity of carbon sources. We compared the short-term (2–10 days) dynamics of bacterial communities and potential PAH-degrading bacteria in bare or ryegrass-planted aged-contaminated soil spiked with phenanthrene, put in relation with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) sources and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution. Both resident and active bacterial communities (analyzed from DNA and RNA, respectively) showed higher species richness and smaller dispersion between replicates in planted soils. Root development strongly favored the activity of Pseudomonadales within the first 2 days, and of members of Actinobacteria, Caulobacterales, Rhizobiales, and Xanthomonadales within 6–10 days. Plants slowed down the dissipation of phenanthrene, while root exudation provided a cocktail of labile substrates that might preferentially fuel microbial growth. Although the abundance of PAH-degrading genes increased in planted soil, their transcription level stayed similar to bare soil. In addition, network analysis revealed that plants induced an early shift in the identity of potential phenanthrene degraders, which might influence PAH dissipation on the long-term. PMID:26903971

  2. Microbial expression profiles in the rhizosphere of willows depend on soil contamination.

    PubMed

    Yergeau, Etienne; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Maynard, Christine; St-Arnaud, Marc; Greer, Charles W

    2014-02-01

    The goal of phytoremediation is to use plants to immobilize, extract or degrade organic and inorganic pollutants. In the case of organic contaminants, plants essentially act indirectly through the stimulation of rhizosphere microorganisms. A detailed understanding of the effect plants have on the activities of rhizosphere microorganisms could help optimize phytoremediation systems and enhance their use. In this study, willows were planted in contaminated and non-contaminated soils in a greenhouse, and the active microbial communities and the expression of functional genes in the rhizosphere and bulk soil were compared. Ion Torrent sequencing of 16S rRNA and Illumina sequencing of mRNA were performed. Genes related to carbon and amino-acid uptake and utilization were upregulated in the willow rhizosphere, providing indirect evidence of the compositional content of the root exudates. Related to this increased nutrient input, several microbial taxa showed a significant increase in activity in the rhizosphere. The extent of the rhizosphere stimulation varied markedly with soil contamination levels. The combined selective pressure of contaminants and rhizosphere resulted in higher expression of genes related to competition (antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation) in the contaminated rhizosphere. Genes related to hydrocarbon degradation were generally more expressed in contaminated soils, but the exact complement of genes induced was different for bulk and rhizosphere soils. Together, these results provide an unprecedented view of microbial gene expression in the plant rhizosphere during phytoremediation.

  3. Microbial expression profiles in the rhizosphere of willows depend on soil contamination

    PubMed Central

    Yergeau, Etienne; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Maynard, Christine; St-Arnaud, Marc; Greer, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    The goal of phytoremediation is to use plants to immobilize, extract or degrade organic and inorganic pollutants. In the case of organic contaminants, plants essentially act indirectly through the stimulation of rhizosphere microorganisms. A detailed understanding of the effect plants have on the activities of rhizosphere microorganisms could help optimize phytoremediation systems and enhance their use. In this study, willows were planted in contaminated and non-contaminated soils in a greenhouse, and the active microbial communities and the expression of functional genes in the rhizosphere and bulk soil were compared. Ion Torrent sequencing of 16S rRNA and Illumina sequencing of mRNA were performed. Genes related to carbon and amino-acid uptake and utilization were upregulated in the willow rhizosphere, providing indirect evidence of the compositional content of the root exudates. Related to this increased nutrient input, several microbial taxa showed a significant increase in activity in the rhizosphere. The extent of the rhizosphere stimulation varied markedly with soil contamination levels. The combined selective pressure of contaminants and rhizosphere resulted in higher expression of genes related to competition (antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation) in the contaminated rhizosphere. Genes related to hydrocarbon degradation were generally more expressed in contaminated soils, but the exact complement of genes induced was different for bulk and rhizosphere soils. Together, these results provide an unprecedented view of microbial gene expression in the plant rhizosphere during phytoremediation. PMID:24067257

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhiza mediates glomalin-related soil protein production and soil enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of trifoliate orange grown under different P levels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Li, Yan; Zou, Ying-Ning; He, Xin-Hua

    2015-02-01

    Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) is beneficial to soil and plants and is affected by various factors. To address whether mycorrhizal-induced GRSP and relevant soil enzymes depend on external P levels, a pot study evaluated effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Funneliformis mosseae on GRSP production and soil enzyme activities. Three GRSP categories, as easily-extractable GRSP (EE-GRSP), difficultly-extractable GRSP (DE-GRSP), and total (EE-GRSP + DE-GRSP) GRSP (T-GRSP), were analyzed, together with five enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, catalase, peroxidase, phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase) in the rhizosphere of trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) grown under 0, 3, and 30 mM KH2PO4 in a sand substrate. After 4 months, root AM colonization and substrate hyphal length decreased with increasing P levels. Shoot, root, and total biomass production was significantly increased by AM colonization, regardless of P levels, but more profound under 0 mM P than under 30 mM KH2PO4. In general, production of these three GRSP categories under 0 or 30 mM KH2PO4 was similar in non-mycorrhizosphere but decreased in mycorrhizosphere. Mycorrhization significantly increased the production of EE-GRSP, DE-GRSP and T-GRSP, soil organic carbon (SOC), and activity of substrate β-glucosidase, catalase, peroxidase, and phosphatase, but decreased polyphenol oxidase activity, irrespective of P levels. Production of EE-GRSP, DE-GRSP, and T-GRSP significantly positively correlated with SOC and β-glucosidase, catalase, and peroxidase activity, negatively with polyphenol oxidase activity, but not with hyphal length or phosphatase activity. These results indicate that AM-mediated production of GRSP and relevant soil enzyme activities may not depend on external P concentrations.

  5. Enhanced biodegradation of xenobiotics in the rhizosphere: Potential for bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Rigot, J.; Matsumura, F.

    1994-12-31

    Recently, contamination levels of vegetated soil in polluted areas were found to be lower than contamination levels of non-vegetated soil in the same area. The greater mineralization of pollutants observed in vegetated soils may be a result of the higher microbial and metabolic activities observed in the plant`s rhizosphere environment which may lead to enhanced biodegradation of xenobiotics in contaminated vegetated soils. After determining the different factors affecting the fate and the metabolic activity of microorganisms in the rhizosphere, the authors plan to study the possibility of introducing specialized organisms in the rhizosphere in order to enhance the biodegradation of target compounds. The purpose is to develop a soil bioremediation technology based on stimulating synergistic interactions existing between the rhizosphere environment and selected microorganisms to enhance the biodegradation of organic pollutants in contaminated soil. If effective, this technology could be used worldwide over large areas to effectively and inexpensively treat contaminated soil.

  6. Occurrence and potential activity of denitrifiers and methanogens in groundwater at 140 m depth in Pliocene diatomaceous mudstone of northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Katsuyama, Chie; Nashimoto, Hiroaki; Nagaosa, Kazuyo; Ishibashi, Tomotaka; Furuta, Kazuki; Kinoshita, Takeshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Asano, Takahiro; Sasaki, Yoshito; Sohrin, Rumi; Komatsu, Daisuke D; Tsunogai, Urumu; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Suwa, Yuichi; Kato, Kenji

    2013-12-01

    Anaerobic microbial activity has a major influence on the subsurface environment. We investigated the denitrification and methanogenesis in anoxic groundwater at a depth of 140 m in two boreholes drilled in a sedimentary geological setting, where the redox potential fluctuated. The average maximum potential denitrification rates, measured under anaerobic conditions in the two boreholes using an (15) N tracer, were 0.060 and 0.085 nmol (30) N2  mL(-1)  h(-1) . The deduced NirS amino acid sequences obtained from in situ samples were similar to those of isolates belonging to the α-, β-, and γ-Proteobacteria, and the Firmicutes (72-100% similarity). Based on the nirS gene, the same operational taxonomic unit dominated incubated samples from each borehole. Methanogenesis candidates were detected by 16S rRNA gene analysis, but no sequence was detected using primers for the functional methanogenesis gene mcrA. Although the stable isotope signatures suggested that some of the dissolved methane was of biogenic origin, no potential for methane production was evident during the incubations. The groundwater at 140 m depth did not contain oxygen, had an Eh ranging from -144 to 6.8 mV, and was found to be a potential field for denitrification.

  7. Changes of microbial activities and soil aggregation in rhizosphere soil of lettuce plants by drought and the possible influence of inoculation with AM fungi and/or PGPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, J.; Caravaca, F.; Roldán, A.

    2009-04-01

    The effect of different arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, Glomus intraradices (Schenk & Smith) or Glomus mosseae (Nicol & Gerd.) Gerd. & Trappe, and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) (Pseudomonas mendocina Palleroni), alone or in combination, on structural stability and microbial activity in the rhizosphere soil of Lactuca sativa L. was assessed under well-watered conditions and two levels of drought. Desiccation caused an increase in aggregate stability and water-soluble and total carbohydrates but there were no significant differences among treated soils and the control soil. The glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) levels in both the <2 mm and 0.2-4 mm soil fractions increased with medium water stress, whereas under severe water stress they did not differ with respect to those of well-watered soils. The values of GRSP in soils inoculated with PGPR and AM fungi were higher than in the control or fertilised soil under well-watered and severe-drought conditions, while under medium-drought conditions all soils showed similar GRSP values. Soils inoculated with AM fungi and PGPR generally presented higher dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities than the control soil, independent of the water regime.

  8. Plant growth promoting bacteria from Crocus sativus rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Ambardar, Sheetal; Vakhlu, Jyoti

    2013-12-01

    Present study deals with the isolation of rhizobacteria and selection of plant growth promoting bacteria from Crocus sativus (Saffron) rhizosphere during its flowering period (October-November). Bacterial load was compared between rhizosphere and bulk soil by counting CFU/gm of roots and soil respectively, and was found to be ~40 times more in rhizosphere. In total 100 bacterial isolates were selected randomly from rhizosphere and bulk soil (50 each) and screened for in-vitro and in vivo plant growth promoting properties. The randomly isolated bacteria were identified by microscopy, biochemical tests and sequence homology of V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA gene. Polyphasic identification categorized Saffron rhizobacteria and bulk soil bacteria into sixteen different bacterial species with Bacillus aryabhattai (WRF5-rhizosphere; WBF3, WBF4A and WBF4B-bulk soil) common to both rhizosphere as well as bulk soil. Pseudomonas sp. in rhizosphere and Bacillus and Brevibacterium sp. in the bulk soil were the predominant genera respectively. The isolated rhizobacteria were screened for plant growth promotion activity like phosphate solubilization, siderophore and indole acetic acid production. 50 % produced siderophore and 33 % were able to solubilize phosphate whereas all the rhizobacterial isolates produced indole acetic acid. The six potential PGPR showing in vitro activities were used in pot trial to check their efficacy in vivo. These bacteria consortia demonstrated in vivo PGP activity and can be used as PGPR in Saffron as biofertilizers.This is the first report on the isolation of rhizobacteria from the Saffron rhizosphere, screening for plant growth promoting bacteria and their effect on the growth of Saffron plant.

  9. Selenium reduction by a denitrifying consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Rege, M.A.; Yonge, D.R.; Mendoza, D.P.; Petersen, J.N.; Bereded-Samuel, Y.; Johnstone, D.L.; Apel, W.A.; Barnes, J.M.

    1999-02-20

    A denitrifying bacterial consortium obtained from the Pullman, Washington wastewater treatment facility was enriched under denitrifying conditions and its ability to reduce selenite and selenate was studied. Replicate experiments at two different experimental conditions were performed. All experiments were performed under electron-acceptor limiting conditions, with acetate as the carbon source and nitrate the electron acceptor, in the first set of experiments, selenite was present, whereas, in the second set, selenate was added. A significant lag period of approximately 150 h was necessary before selenite or selenate reduction was observed. During this lag period, nitrate and nitrite use was observed. Once selenite or selenate reduction had started, nitrate and nitrite reduction was concomitant with selenium species reduction. Trace amounts of selenite were detected during the selenate reduction study. Analysis of the data indicates that, once selenium species reduction was induced, the rate of reduction was proportional to the selenium species concentration and to the biomass concentration. Furthermore, at similar biomass and contaminant concentrations, selenite reduction is approximately four times faster than selenate reduction.

  10. Low molecular carbon compounds present in the rhizosphere control denitrification kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, M.; Morley, N.; Baggs, E.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen and carbon cycles play key roles in plant-microbe interactions in soils. Carbon is supplied by plants to microbes in the form of root exudates which includes both high and low molecular compounds. Nitrogen in turn is taken up by plants and rhizosphere microbes metabolise nitrogen compounds in several biochemical pathways. The conversion of nitrogen compounds to volatile products in the process of denitrification leads to increasing amounts of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the atmosphere. Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas and increasing emissions of N2O through intense agriculture have lead to intensified research to find possible mitigation strategies to reduce N2O production from soil. In our study we show the effect of low molecular carbon compounds, typically found in root exudates, on the dynamics of denitrification as well as the dose response effect of the single compounds. The hypothesis was tested that different compound groups change the kinetics of the different reduction steps in the biochemical pathway of denitrification, which results in lower N2O production. Experiments were performed in soil-microcosms using 15N labelling approaches to monitor denitrification products . Microcosms were maintained as slurries in order to create oxygen limiting conditions, which favours denitrification. Carbon dioxide and N2O were monitored throughout the experiments and on three destructive sampling days NO3, NO2, NO and 15N-N2 were measured. Results showed that the denitrification process was differently affected by amino acids and organic acids with higher denitrification activity observed in the presence of organic acids. The dynamics of the single reduction steps were time dependent which indicates that substrate availability plays an important role in soil microbial activity. We concluded that the activity of denitrifiers are significantly influenced by different carbon compounds, and that further studies on the effects of the composition of root

  11. Effects of earthworms and substrate on diversity and abundance of denitrifying genes (nirS and nirK) and denitrifying rate during rural domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Longmian; Zhang, Yimin; Luo, Xingzhang; Zhang, Jibiao; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the performance of an ecological filter (EF) and vermifiltration (VF) system, the effects of substrate and earthworms on the diversity and abundance of denitrifying genes coding for nitrite (nirS and nirK) reductases and on denitrifying rate, and the factors influencing denitrification. The majority of organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen from sewage was removed by the soil layer in both reactors, and their total removal efficiencies increased in VF compared with those in EF. Additionally, substrate in the reactors significantly influenced the Shannon diversity index and abundance of nirS and nirK, as well as the denitrifying rate. However, the earthworms only significantly influenced nirS diversity. Furthermore, evaluation of the factors controlling denitrification implied that increasing NH3-N availability, diversity and abundance of nirS and nirK or decreasing available NO3-N might be responsible for the enhanced denitrification activity obtained using VF for rural domestic wastewater treatment.

  12. Allelopathic effects of volatile organic compounds from Eucalyptus grandis rhizosphere soil on Eisenia fetida assessed using avoidance bioassays, enzyme activity, and comet assays.

    PubMed

    Zhiqun, Tang; Jian, Zhang; Junli, Yu; Chunzi, Wang; Danju, Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Allelopathy has been identified as an underlying mechanism of detrimental environmental impacts within commercial plantations. Eucalyptus spp. are known to generate huge amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can function as phytotoxins and thus inhibit other plants. In the present study, biochemical markers, including activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and oxidative stress enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were assayed to assess changes in Eisenia fetida at the physiological level induced by different doses of VOCs as part of an acute toxicity test over 7 and 14-day exposures. In addition, the toxicities of VOCs were investigated using a soil avoidance test and comet assay. The results revealed that E. fetida exhibited significant avoidance behavior towards the highest concentrations of undecane, decane, 2,4-dimethyl heptane, and 2,2,4,6,6-pentametyl heptane. The tail DNA percentages were significantly increased for all experimental treatments relative to control. However, under the treatments of VOCs, Olive tail moment content and comet tail length also display an obvious increase compared to control, except for that of octane, undecane and decane treatments. As VOC concentrations and durations increased in the soil, activities of AChE, SOD, and GST were either stimulated or inhibited. Among the VOCs, decane, 2,4-dimethyl heptane, 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethyl heptane, and 2,4-di tert buyl phenol exerted stronger effects on enzymatic activities. In summary, VOCs in rhizosphere soils of E. grandis might exert a toxic impact on E. fetida, among which 2,4-dimethyl heptane, 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethyl heptane, and 2,4-di tert buyl phenol have the strongest effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Warming-induced changes in denitrifier community structure modulate the ability of phototrophic river biofilms to denitrify.

    PubMed

    Boulêtreau, Stéphanie; Lyautey, Emilie; Dubois, Sophie; Compin, Arthur; Delattre, Cécile; Touron-Bodilis, Aurélie; Mastrorillo, Sylvain; Garabetian, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Microbial denitrification is the main nitrogen removing process in freshwater ecosystems. The aim of this study was to show whether and how water warming (+2.5 °C) drives bacterial diversity and structuring and how bacterial diversity affects denitrification enzymatic activity in phototrophic river biofilms (PRB). We used water warming associated to the immediate thermal release of a nuclear power plant cooling circuit to produce natural PRB assemblages on glass slides while testing 2 temperatures (mean temperature of 17 °C versus 19.5 °C). PRB were sampled at 2 sampling times during PRB accretion (6 and 21days) in both temperatures. Bacterial community composition was assessed using ARISA. Denitrifier community abundance and denitrification gene mRNA levels were estimated by q-PCR and qRT-PCR, respectively, of 5 genes encoding catalytic subunits of the denitrification key enzymes. Denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) was measured by the acetylene-block assay at 20 °C. A mean water warming of 2.5 °C was sufficient to produce contrasted total bacterial and denitrifier communities and, therefore, to affect DEA. Indirect temperature effect on DEA may have varied between sampling time, increasing by up to 10 the denitrification rate of 6-day-old PRB and decreasing by up to 5 the denitrification rate of 21-day-old PRB. The present results suggest that indirect effects of warming through changes in bacterial community composition, coupled to the strong direct effect of temperature on DEA already demonstrated in PRB, could modulate dissolved nitrogen removal by denitrification in rivers and streams. © 2013.

  14. Optimum O2:CH4 Ratio Promotes the Synergy between Aerobic Methanotrophs and Denitrifiers to Enhance Nitrogen Removal

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jing; Xu, Xingkun; Yuan, Mengdong; Wu, Hanghang; Ma, Zhuang; Wu, Weixiang

    2017-01-01

    The O2:CH4 ratio significantly effects nitrogen removal in mixed cultures where aerobic methane oxidation is coupled with denitrification (AME-D). The goal of this study was to investigate nitrogen removal of the AME-D process at four different O2:CH4 ratios [0, 0.05, 0.25, and 1 (v/v)]. In batch tests, the highest denitrifying activity was observed when the O2:CH4 ratio was 0.25. At this ratio, the methanotrophs produced sufficient carbon sources for denitrifiers and the oxygen level did not inhibit nitrite removal. The results indicated that the synergy between methanotrophs and denitrifiers was significantly improved, thereby achieving a greater capacity of nitrogen removal. Based on thermodynamic and chemical analyses, methanol, butyrate, and formaldehyde could be the main trophic links of AME-D process in our study. Our research provides valuable information for improving the practical application of the AME-D systems. PMID:28670305

  15. Optimum O2:CH4 Ratio Promotes the Synergy between Aerobic Methanotrophs and Denitrifiers to Enhance Nitrogen Removal.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Xu, Xingkun; Yuan, Mengdong; Wu, Hanghang; Ma, Zhuang; Wu, Weixiang

    2017-01-01

    The O2:CH4 ratio significantly effects nitrogen removal in mixed cultures where aerobic methane oxidation is coupled with denitrification (AME-D). The goal of this study was to investigate nitrogen removal of the AME-D process at four different O2:CH4 ratios [0, 0.05, 0.25, and 1 (v/v)]. In batch tests, the highest denitrifying activity was observed when the O2:CH4 ratio was 0.25. At this ratio, the methanotrophs produced sufficient carbon sources for denitrifiers and the oxygen level did not inhibit nitrite removal. The results indicated that the synergy between methanotrophs and denitrifiers was significantly improved, thereby achieving a greater capacity of nitrogen removal. Based on thermodynamic and chemical analyses, methanol, butyrate, and formaldehyde could be the main trophic links of AME-D process in our study. Our research provides valuable information for improving the practical application of the AME-D systems.

  16. Soil Type Dependent Rhizosphere Competence and Biocontrol of Two Bacterial Inoculant Strains and Their Effects on the Rhizosphere Microbial Community of Field-Grown Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Schreiter, Susanne; Sandmann, Martin; Smalla, Kornelia; Grosch, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Rhizosphere competence of bacterial inoculants is assumed to be important for successful biocontrol. Knowledge of factors influencing rhizosphere competence under field conditions is largely lacking. The present study is aimed to unravel the effects of soil types on the rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity of the two inoculant strains Pseudomonas jessenii RU47 and Serratia plymuthica 3Re4-18 in field-grown lettuce in soils inoculated with Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB or not. Two independent experiments were carried out in 2011 on an experimental plot system with three soil types sharing the same cropping history and weather conditions for more than 10 years. Rifampicin resistant mutants of the inoculants were used to evaluate their colonization in the rhizosphere of lettuce. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA to get insights into the effects of the inoculants and R. solani on the indigenous rhizosphere bacterial communities. Both inoculants showed a good colonization ability of the rhizosphere of lettuce with more than 106 colony forming units per g root dry mass two weeks after planting. An effect of the soil type on rhizosphere competence was observed for 3Re4-18 but not for RU47. In both experiments a comparable rhizosphere competence was observed and in the presence of the inoculants disease symptoms were either significantly reduced, or at least a non-significant trend was shown. Disease severity was highest in diluvial sand followed by alluvial loam and loess loam suggesting that the soil types differed in their conduciveness for bottom rot disease. Compared to effect of the soil type of the rhizosphere bacterial communities, the effects of the pathogen and the inoculants were less pronounced. The soil types had a surprisingly low influence on rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity while they significantly affected

  17. Soil type dependent rhizosphere competence and biocontrol of two bacterial inoculant strains and their effects on the rhizosphere microbial community of field-grown lettuce.

    PubMed

    Schreiter, Susanne; Sandmann, Martin; Smalla, Kornelia; Grosch, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Rhizosphere competence of bacterial inoculants is assumed to be important for successful biocontrol. Knowledge of factors influencing rhizosphere competence under field conditions is largely lacking. The present study is aimed to unravel the effects of soil types on the rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity of the two inoculant strains Pseudomonas jessenii RU47 and Serratia plymuthica 3Re4-18 in field-grown lettuce in soils inoculated with Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB or not. Two independent experiments were carried out in 2011 on an experimental plot system with three soil types sharing the same cropping history and weather conditions for more than 10 years. Rifampicin resistant mutants of the inoculants were used to evaluate their colonization in the rhizosphere of lettuce. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA to get insights into the effects of the inoculants and R. solani on the indigenous rhizosphere bacterial communities. Both inoculants showed a good colonization ability of the rhizosphere of lettuce with more than 10(6) colony forming units per g root dry mass two weeks after planting. An effect of the soil type on rhizosphere competence was observed for 3Re4-18 but not for RU47. In both experiments a comparable rhizosphere competence was observed and in the presence of the inoculants disease symptoms were either significantly reduced, or at least a non-significant trend was shown. Disease severity was highest in diluvial sand followed by alluvial loam and loess loam suggesting that the soil types differed in their conduciveness for bottom rot disease. Compared to effect of the soil type of the rhizosphere bacterial communities, the effects of the pathogen and the inoculants were less pronounced. The soil types had a surprisingly low influence on rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity while they significantly affected

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Achromobacter sp.: nitrifying aerobic denitrifiers have a plasmid encoding for denitrifying functional genes.

    PubMed

    Kathiravan, V; Krishnani, K K

    2014-04-01

    In the present work, novel heterotrophic nitrifying and aerobic denitrifying bacteria have been isolated from greenwater system of coastal aquaculture. Based on the 16S rRNA gene, FAME analysis and biochemical test, the isolates have been identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Achromobacter sp. These have been named as P. aeruginosa strain DBT1BNH3 and Achromobacter sp. strain DBTN3. Denitrifying functional genes such as nitrite reductase (nirS), nitric oxide reductase (qnorB) and nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) genes have been identified. These strains found to have a 27 kb plasmid coding for nirS and nosZ. The possibility of horizontal transfer of plasmid among Pseudomonadaceae and Alcaligenaceae families in coastal aquaculture has been explored. Further, we have studied combined nitrification and oxygen tolerant denitrification potential in the same isolates.

  19. Effect of different plant species on nutrient removal and rhizospheric microorganisms distribution in horizontal-flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Meng, Panpan; Hu, Wenrong; Pei, Haiyan; Hou, Qingjie; Ji, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Three macrophyte species, Phragmites australis, Arundo donax L., and Typha latifolia L. have been separately grown in a horizontal-flow (HF) constructed wetland (CW) fed with domestic wastewater to investigate effects of plant species on nutrient removal and rhizospheric microorganisms. All the three mesocosms have been in operation for eight months under the loading rates of 1.14 g Nm(-2) d(-1) and 0.014gP m(-2) d(-1). Appropriately 34-43% phosphorus (P) was removed in HF CWs, and no distinct difference was found among the plants. In the growing season, A. donax L. removed 31.19 gm(-2) of nitrogen (N), followed by P. australis (29.96 g m(-2)), both of which were significantly higher than T. latifolia L. (7.21 g m(-2). Depending on the species, plants absorbed 1.73-7.15% of the overall N, and 0.06-0.56% of the P input. At least 10 common dominant microorganisms were found in the rhizosphere of all the three plants, and 6 of the 10 kinds of bacteria had close relationship with denitrifying bacteria, implying that denitrifiers were dominant microorganism distributed in rhizosphere of wetland plants.

  20. New Methods To Unravel Rhizosphere Processes.

    PubMed

    Oburger, Eva; Schmidt, Hannes

    2016-03-01

    Root-triggered processes (growth, uptake and release of solutes) vary in space and time, and interact with heterogeneous soil microenvironments that provide habitats for (micro)biota on various scales. Despite tremendous progress in method development in the past decades, finding a suitable experimental set-up to investigate processes occurring at the dynamic conjunction of biosphere, hydrosphere, and pedosphere in the close vicinity of active plant roots still represents a major challenge. We discuss recent methodological developments in rhizosphere research with a focus on imaging techniques. We further review established concepts that have been updated with novel techniques, highlighting the need for combinatorial approaches to disentangle rhizosphere processes on relevant scales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of Denitrifying and Nitrifying Bacteria and Their Co-occurrence in Newly Created Biofilms in Urban Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaessen, T. N.; Martí Roca, E.; Pinay, G.; Merbt, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    Biofilms play a pivotal role on nutrient cycling in streams, which ultimately dictates the export of nutrients to downstream ecosystems. The extent to which biofilms influence the concentration of dissolved nutrients, oxygen and pH in the water column may be determined by the composition of the microbial assemblages and their activity. Evidence of biological interactions among bacteria and algae are well documented. However, the development, succession and co-occurence of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria remain poorly understood. These bacteria play a relevant role on the biogeochemical process associated to N cycling, and their relative abundance can dictate the fate of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in streams. In particular, previous studies indicated that nitrifiers are enhanced in streams receiving inputs from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents due to both increases in ammonium concentration and inputs of nitrifiers. However, less is known about the development of denitrifiers in receiving streams, although environmental conditions seem to favor it. We conducted an in situ colonization experiment in a stream receiving effluent from a WWTP to examine how this input influences the development and co-occurrence of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. We placed artificial substrata at different locations relative to the effluent and sampled them over time to characterize the developed biofilm in terms of bulk measurements (organic matter content and algae) as well as in terms of abundance of nitrifiers and denitrifiers (using qPCR). The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the temporal dynamics of denitrifiers and nitrifiers in relation to the developed organic matter, dissolved oxygen and pH and the biomass accrual in stream biofilms under the influence of nutrients inputs from WWTP effluent. Ultimately, the results provide insights on the potential role of nitrifiers and denitrifiers on N cycling in WWTP effluent receiving

  2. Nitrogen Redox Metabolism of a Heterotrophic, Nitrifying-Denitrifying Alcaligenes sp. from Soil

    PubMed Central

    Castignetti, Domenic; Hollocher, Thomas C.

    1982-01-01

    Metabolic characteristics of a heterotrophic, nitrifier-denitrifier Alcaligenes sp. isolated from soil were further characterized. Pyruvic oxime and hydroxylamine were oxidized to nitrite aerobically by nitrification-adapted cells with specific activities (Vmax) of 0.066 and 0.003 μmol of N × min−1 × mg of protein−1, respectively, at 22°C. Km values were 15 and 42 μM for pyruvic oxime and hydroxylamine, respectively. The greater pyruvic oxime oxidation activity relative to hydroxylamine oxidation activity indicates that pyruvic oxime was a specific substrate and was not oxidized appreciably via its hydrolysis product, hydroxylamine. When grown as a denitrifier on nitrate, the bacterium could not aerobically oxidize pyruvic oxime or hydroxylamine to nitrite. However, hydroxylamine was converted to nearly equimolar amounts of ammonium ion and nitrous oxide, and the nature of this reaction is discussed. Cells grown as heterotrophic nitrifiers on pyruvic oxime contained two enzymes of denitrification, nitrate reductase and nitric oxide reductase. The nitrate reductase was the dissimilatory type, as evidenced by its extreme sensitivity to inhibition by azide and by its ability to be reversibly inhibited by oxygen. Cells grown aerobically on organic carbon sources other than pyruvic oxime contained none of the denitrifying enzymes surveyed but were able to oxidize pyruvic oxime to nitrite and reduce hydroxylamine to ammonium ion. PMID:16346117

  3. Fertilization stimulates anaerobic fuel degradation of antarctic soils by denitrifying microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Powell, Shane M; Ferguson, Susan H; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven D

    2006-03-15

    Human activities in the Antarctic have resulted in hydrocarbon contamination of these fragile polar soils. Bioremediation is one of the options for remediation of these sites. However, little is known about anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation in polar soils and the influence of bioremediation practices on these processes. Using a field trial at Old Casey Station, Antarctica, we assessed the influence of fertilization on the anaerobic degradation of a 20-year old fuel spill. Fertilization increased hydrocarbon degradation in both anaerobic and aerobic soils when compared to controls, but was of most benefit for anaerobic soils where evaporation was negligible. This increased biodegradation in the anaerobic soils corresponded with a shift in the denitrifier community composition and an increased abundance of denitrifiers and benzoyl-CoA reductase. A microcosm study using toluene and hexadecane confirmed the degradative capacity within these soils under anaerobic conditions. It was observed that fertilized anaerobic soil degraded more of this hydrocarbon spike when incubated anaerobically than when incubated aerobically. We conclude that denitrifiers are actively involved in hydrocarbon degradation in Antarctic soils and that fertilization is an effective means of stimulating their activity. Further, when communities stimulated to degrade hydrocarbons under anaerobic conditions are exposed to oxygen, hydrocarbon degradation is suppressed. The commonly accepted belief that remediation of polar soils requires aeration needs to be reevaluated in light of this new data.

  4. Nitrogen loss by anaerobic oxidation of ammonium in rice rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Nie, San'an; Li, Hu; Yang, Xiaoru; Zhang, Zhaoji; Weng, Bosen; Huang, Fuyi; Zhu, Gui-Bing; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of ammonium (anammox) is recognized as an important process for nitrogen (N) cycling, yet its role in agricultural ecosystems, which are intensively fertilized, remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the presence, activity, functional gene abundance and role of anammox bacteria in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere paddy soils using catalyzed reporter deposition–fluorescence in situ hybridization, isotope-tracing technique, quantitative PCR assay and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Results showed that rhizosphere anammox contributed to 31–41% N2 production with activities of 0.33–0.64 nmol N2 g−1 soil h−1, whereas the non-rhizosphere anammox bacteria contributed to only 2–3% N2 production with lower activities of 0.08–0.26 nmol N2 g−1 soil h−1. Higher anammox bacterial cells were observed (0.75–1.4 × 107 copies g−1 soil) in the rhizosphere, which were twofold higher compared with the non-rhizosphere soil (3.7–5.9 × 106 copies g−1 soil). Phylogenetic analysis of the anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that two genera of ‘Candidatus Kuenenia' and ‘Candidatus Brocadia' and the family of Planctomycetaceae were identified. We suggest the rhizosphere provides a favorable niche for anammox bacteria, which are important to N cycling, but were previously largely overlooked. PMID:25689022

  5. Relative rates of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide production by nitrifiers, denitrifiers, and nitrate respirers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, I. C.; Levine, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of the atmospheric chemical and photochemical effects of biogenic nitric and nitrous oxide emissions. The magnitude of the biogenic emission of NO is noted to remain uncertain. Possible soil sources of NO and N2O encompass nitrification by autotropic and heterotropic nitrifiers, denitrification by nitrifiers and denitrifiers, nitrate respiration by fermenters, and chemodenitrification. Oxygen availability is the primary determinant of these organisms' relative rates of activity. The characteristics of this major influence are presently investigated in light of the effect of oxygen partial pressure on NO and N2O production by a wide variety of common soil-nitrifying, denitrifying, and nitrate-respiring bacteria under laboratory conditions. The results obtained indicate that aerobic soils are primary sources only when there is sufficient moisture to furnish anaerobic microsites for denitrification.

  6. Relative rates of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide production by nitrifiers, denitrifiers, and nitrate respirers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, I. C.; Levine, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of the atmospheric chemical and photochemical effects of biogenic nitric and nitrous oxide emissions. The magnitude of the biogenic emission of NO is noted to remain uncertain. Possible soil sources of NO and N2O encompass nitrification by autotropic and heterotropic nitrifiers, denitrification by nitrifiers and denitrifiers, nitrate respiration by fermenters, and chemodenitrification. Oxygen availability is the primary determinant of these organisms' relative rates of activity. The characteristics of this major influence are presently investigated in light of the effect of oxygen partial pressure on NO and N2O production by a wide variety of common soil-nitrifying, denitrifying, and nitrate-respiring bacteria under laboratory conditions. The results obtained indicate that aerobic soils are primary sources only when there is sufficient moisture to furnish anaerobic microsites for denitrification.

  7. The influence of nitrogen fertilization on the magnitude of rhizosphere effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, B.; Panke-Buisse, K.; Kao-Kniffin, J.

    2012-12-01

    The labile carbon released from roots to the rhizosphere enhances soil microbial activity and nutrient availability, but factors that regulate such "rhizosphere effects" are poorly understood. Nitrogen fertilization may suppress rhizosphere effects by reducing plant carbon allocation belowground. Here we investigated the impact of nitrogen fertilization (+100 mg NH4NO3-N kg soil-1) on the magnitude of rhizosphere effects of two grass species (Bermuda grass Cynodon dactylon and smooth crabgrass Digitaria ischaemum) grown in a nutrient-poor soil for 80-100 days inside a growth chamber. Rhizosphere effects were estimated by the percentage difference between the planted soil (rhizosphere soil) and the unplanted soil (bulk soil) for several assays. We found that the rhizosphere soil of both plants had higher pH (+ 0.5~0.7 units), similar microbial biomass carbon, but lower microbial biomass nitrogen (- 27~37%) compared to the bulk soil. The rate of net N mineralization and the activity of three soil enzymes that degrade chitin (NAG), protein (LAP) and lignin (peroxidase) and produce mineral nitrogen were generally enhanced by the rhizosphere effects (up to 80%). Although nitrogen fertilization significantly increased plant biomass, it generally affected microbial biomass, activity and net N mineralization rate to a similar extent between rhizosphere soil and bulk soil, and thus did not significantly impact the magnitude of rhizosphere effects. Moreover, the community structure of soil bacteria (indicated by T-RFLP) showed remarkable divergence between the planted and unplanted soils, but not between the control and fertilized soils. Collectively, these results suggest that grass roots affects soil microbial activity and community structure, but short-term nitrogen fertilization may not significantly influence these rhizosphere effects.

  8. Biotransformation and mineralization of alkylbenzenes under denitrifying conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    Previous laboratory studies have shown that alkylbenzenes could be degraded under denitrifying conditions by indigenous subsurface microbial populations in a shallow water table aquifer at Traverse City (MI) that was contaminated with JP-4 jet fuel. The objective of these tests, was to evaluate the extent of BTEX biodegradation by acclimated and nonacclimated aquifer microorganisms under denitrifying conditions, using radiolabeled compounds either as sole source substrates or in mixtures.

  9. Soil nitrifying and denitrifying capacities are altered by global change factors in a California annual grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niboyet, A.; Le Roux, X.; Barthes, L.; Hungate, B.; Dijkstra, P.; Blankinship, J. C.; Brown, J. R.; Field, C. B.; Leadley, P. W.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrification and denitrification are key mediators of nitrogen (N) cycling, especially N losses, in terrestrial ecosystems, yet little is known about the long-term, in situ responses of these two microbial processes to the simultaneous and interacting global changes likely to occur this century. We investigated the responses of the two steps of nitrification - ammonia oxidation and nitrite oxidation - and of denitrification to the interactive effects of elevated CO2, warming, increased precipitation and N deposition as part of the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment. We followed these responses over two growing seasons of the experiment using measures of potential rates of ammonia oxidation, nitrite oxidation, and denitrification, along with key correlates of these activities (gross N mineralization, gross nitrification, soil moisture, soil NH4+ and NO3- concentrations, soil pH, soil temperature, soil CO2 and N2O effluxes, and root and shoot biomass). Across all dates, soil ammonia and nitrite oxidizing capacities responded very differently to global change treatments: soil ammonia oxidizing capacities were increased by 59% in the high N deposition treatment (likely as a result of higher substrate availability for ammonia-oxidizers), while soil nitrite oxidizing capacities did not respond to the N deposition treatment but were reduced by 10% in the increased precipitation treatment. Soil denitrifying capacities were increased by 26% in the high N deposition treatment (likely as a result of higher substrate availability for denitrifiers) and by 15% in the increased precipitation treatment (likely as a result of higher soil water content). Overall, elevated CO2 and warming were found to have little effects on soil nitrifying and denitrifying capacities, and interactive effects between global change components were rare when analyzed across multiple sampling dates. Thus, our results suggest that increased atmospheric N deposition and changes in precipitation

  10. Molecular Characterization of Diazotrophic and Denitrifying Bacteria Associated with Mangrove Roots▿

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Mireles, Ana L.; Winans, Stephen C.; Holguin, Gina

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of the molecular diversity of N2 fixers and denitrifiers associated with mangrove roots was performed using terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of nifH (N2 fixation) and nirS and nirK (denitrification), and the compositions and structures of these communities among three sites were compared. The number of operational taxonomic units (OTU) for nifH was higher than that for nirK or nirS at all three sites. Site 3, which had the highest organic matter and sand content in the rhizosphere sediment, as well as the lowest pore water oxygen concentration, had the highest nifH diversity. Principal component analysis of biogeochemical parameters identified soil texture, organic matter content, pore water oxygen concentration, and salinity as the main variables that differentiated the sites. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses of the T-RFLP data using the Bray-Curtis coefficient, group analyses, and pairwise comparisons between the sites clearly separated the OTU of site 3 from those of sites 1 and 2. For nirS, there were statistically significant differences in the composition of OTU among the sites, but the variability was less than for nifH. OTU defined on the basis of nirK were highly similar, and the three sites were not clearly separated on the basis of these sequences. The phylogenetic trees of nifH, nirK, and nirS showed that most of the cloned sequences were more similar to sequences from the rhizosphere isolates than to those from known strains or from other environments. PMID:17827324

  11. Algal exudates and stream organic matter influence the structure and function of denitrifying bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Kalscheur, Kathryn N; Rojas, Miguel; Peterson, Christopher G; Kelly, John J; Gray, Kimberly A

    2012-11-01

    Within aquatic ecosystems, periphytic biofilms can be hot spots of denitrification, and previous work has suggested that algal taxa within periphyton can influence the species composition and activity of resident denitrifying bacteria. This study tested the hypothesis that algal species composition within biofilms influences the structure and function of associated denitrifying bacterial communities through the composition of organic exudates. A mixed population of bacteria was incubated with organic carbon isolated from one of seven algal species or from one of two streams that differed in anthropogenic inputs. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) revealed differences in the organic composition of algal exudates and stream waters, which, in turn, selected for distinct bacterial communities. Organic carbon source had a significant effect on potential denitrification rates (DNP) of the communities, with organics isolated from a stream with high anthropogenic inputs resulting in a bacterial community with the highest DNP. There was no correlation between DNP and numbers of denitrifiers (based on nirS copy numbers), but there was a strong relationship between the species composition of denitrifier communities (as indicated by tag pyrosequencing of nosZ genes) and DNP. Specifically, the relative abundance of Pseudomonas stutzeri-like nosZ sequences across treatments correlated significantly with DNP, and bacterial communities incubated with organic carbon from the stream with high anthropogenic inputs had the highest relative abundance of P. stutzeri-like nosZ sequences. These results demonstrate a significant relationship between bacterial community composition and function and provide evidence of the potential impacts of anthropogenic inputs on the structure and function of stream microbial communities.

  12. Changes in rhizosphere bacterial gene expression following glyphosate treatment.

    PubMed

    Newman, Molli M; Lorenz, Nicola; Hoilett, Nigel; Lee, Nathan R; Dick, Richard P; Liles, Mark R; Ramsier, Cliff; Kloepper, Joseph W

    2016-05-15

    In commercial agriculture, populations and interactions of rhizosphere microflora are potentially affected by the use of specific agrichemicals, possibly by affecting gene expression in these organisms. To investigate this, we examined changes in bacterial gene expression within the rhizosphere of glyphosate-tolerant corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) in response to long-term glyphosate (PowerMAX™, Monsanto Company, MO, USA) treatment. A long-term glyphosate application study was carried out using rhizoboxes under greenhouse conditions with soil previously having no history of glyphosate exposure. Rhizosphere soil was collected from the rhizoboxes after four growing periods. Soil microbial community composition was analyzed using microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Total RNA was extracted from rhizosphere soil, and samples were analyzed using RNA-Seq analysis. A total of 20-28 million bacterial sequences were obtained for each sample. Transcript abundance was compared between control and glyphosate-treated samples using edgeR. Overall rhizosphere bacterial metatranscriptomes were dominated by transcripts related to RNA and carbohydrate metabolism. We identified 67 differentially expressed bacterial transcripts from the rhizosphere. Transcripts downregulated following glyphosate treatment involved carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and upregulated transcripts involved protein metabolism and respiration. Additionally, bacterial transcripts involving nutrients, including iron, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, were also affected by long-term glyphosate application. Overall, most bacterial and all fungal PLFA biomarkers decreased after glyphosate treatment compared to the control. These results demonstrate that long-term glyphosate use can affect rhizosphere bacterial activities and potentially shift bacterial community composition favoring more glyphosate-tolerant bacteria.

  13. Biodegradation of three- and four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under aerobic and denitrifying conditions

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, D.L.; Mihelcic, J.R.; Lueking, D.R.

    1998-09-01

    PAHs are thought to be particularly persistent in environments where anaerobic conditions exist. This study presents evidence for the biodegradation of three- and four-ringed PAHs (anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) under strict anaerobic, denitrifying conditions. Three pseudomonad strains, isolated from contrasting environments, were used in this study. All three strains were known PAH degraders and denitrifiers. Degradation proceeded to nondetectable levels in 12--80 h for anthracene, 12--44 h for phenanthrene, and 24--72 h for pyrene. The rates of anaerobic degradation were typically slower than under aerobic conditions in almost all cases, except for strain SAG-R which had similar removal rates for all three and four-ring PAHs. Denitrification activity was verified by monitoring nitrate utilization and nitrous oxide production. Although none of the pseudomonads were adapted to the denitrifying conditions, only the pseudomonad isolated from a noncontaminated site consistently exhibited an adaptation period which approximated 12 h. This study supports growing evidence that the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons coupled to denitrification may be an important factor affecting the fate of these compounds in natural and engineered systems.

  14. Bulk soil and rhizosphere bacterial community PCR-DGGE profiles and beta-galactosidase activity as indicators of biological quality in soils contaminated by heavy metals and cultivated with Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Iñigo, M J; Pérez-Sanz, A; Ortiz, I; Alonso, J; Alarcón, R; García, P; Lobo, M C

    2009-06-01

    The biological quality of two heavy metal contaminated soils (soil C: Typic Calcixerept, pH 8.3 and soil H: Typic Haploxeraf, pH 7.3) was investigated after growing the metal-tolerant plant Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke for two vegetative periods. The activity of the enzyme beta-galactosidase, which is sensitive to the presence of contaminants in soil, and the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles of 16S rRNA gene fragments of culturable bacteria from bulk soil and rhizosphere were determined. The microbial enzymatic activity was higher in planted soils than in bare soils at the contamination level of 600 mg of total heavy metals kg(-1) soil. After growing S. vulgaris, beta-galactosidase activity was almost recovered in the calcareous soil. In this soil new bands appeared in the PCR-DGGE profiles of the rhizosphere bacterial community as a response to the exposure to heavy metals.

  15. Visualization of the Dynamic Rhizosphere Environment: Microbial and Biogeochemical Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardon, Z. G.; Forbes, E. S.; Thomas, F.; Herron, P. M.; Gage, D. J.; Thomas, S.; Larsen, M.; Arango Pinedo, C.; Sievert, S. M.; Giblin, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    The rhizosphere is a hotbed of nutrient cycling fueled by carbon from plants and controlled by microbes. Plants also strongly affect the rhizosphere by driving water flow into and out of roots, and by oxygenating saturated soil and sediment. Location and dynamics of plant-spurred microbial growth and activities are impossible to discern with destructive soil assays mixing microbe-scale soil microenvironments in a single"snap-shot" sample. Yet data are needed to inform (and validate) models describing microbial activity and biogeochemistry in the ebb and flow of the dynamic rhizosphere. Dynamics and localization of rapid microbial growth in the rhizosphere can be assessed over time using living soil microbiosensors. We used the bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as host to plasmid pZKH2 containing a fusion between the strong constituitive promoter nptII and luxCDABE(genes coding for light production). High light production by KT2440/pZKH2 correlated with rapid microbial growth supported by high carbon availability. Biosensors were used in clear-sided microcosms filled with non-sterile soil in which corn, black poplar or tomato were growing. KT2440/pZKH2 revealed that root tips are not necessarily the only, or even the dominant, hotspots for rhizosphere microbial growth, and carbon availability is highly variable in space and time around roots. Roots can also be sources of oxygen (O2) to the rhizosphere in saturated soil. We quantified spatial distributions of O2 using planar optodes placed against the face of sediment blocks cut from vegetated salt marsh at Plum Island Ecosystems LTER. Integrated over time, Spartina alterniflora roots were O2 sources to the rhizosphere. However, "sun-up" (light on) did not uniformly enhance rhizosphere O2 concentrations (as stomata opened and O2 production commenced). In some regions, the balance of O2 supply (from roots) and O2 demand (root and microbial) tipped toward demand at sun-up (repeatedly, over days). We speculate that in

  16. Accumulation of nitrite in denitrifying barriers when phosphate is limiting.

    PubMed

    Hunter, W J

    2003-10-01

    Permeable in situ denitrifying barriers can remove nitrate from groundwater. Barriers may be constructed by filling an excavated area with a porous mixture of sand, fine gravel, and substrate or by the injection of a nonaqueous phase substrate into an aquifer. The substrate stimulates the development of a denitrifying microbial community by providing an electron donor. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of denitrifying barriers to function under low-phosphate conditions. Sand columns injected with a soybean oil emulsion were used as laboratory models of denitrifying barriers. When a natural groundwater containing 17 mg l(-1) nitrate-N and 0.009 mg l(-1) phosphate-P was pumped through the columns, only a small amount of nitrate was removed from the water and, in some effluent fractions, 52% to 88% of the influent nitrate had converted to nitrite. Nitrite also accumulated when the phosphate concentration of the groundwater was increased to 0.040 or 0.080 mg l(-1) phosphate-P. Only when a 0.160 mg l(-1) phosphate-P supplement was added to the groundwater was there a loss of nitrate without a large accumulation of nitrite. The addition of solid calcium phosphate or rock phosphate to the sand columns was found to provide adequate phosphate for denitrification in short-term studies. These studies point out the need to ensure that adequate phosphate is present in denitrifying barriers especially when such barriers are used beneath phosphate-binding soils.

  17. Alleviated toxicity of cadmium by the rhizosphere of Kandelia obovata (S., L.) Yong.

    PubMed

    Weng, Bosen; Huang, Yong; Liu, Jingchun; Lu, Haoliang; Yan, Chongling

    2014-11-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the Cadmium (Cd) toxicity alleviated by the rhizosphere of Kandelia obovata (S., L.) Yong (K. obovata), using a rhizobox with Cd concentrations of 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) soil. The rhizobox used to plant K. obovata was divided into five sections by nylon cloth (S2-S5). Our results showed that pH was lower in rhizosphere than in non-rhizosphere soil. Microbial biomass C (Cmic) and N (Nmic) was stimulated in rhizosphere zone, but inhibited by Cd additions. Soil enzyme activities were significantly higher in rhizosphere (S2) than in non-rhizosphere soil (S5) (p < 0.05). In addition, DTPA-extractable Cd in different rhizosphere zone soil (S2-S5) was influenced directly under different rates of Cd supply. Moreover, Cd treatments could induce the enhancement of DTPA-extractable Cd. This study suggests that Cd toxicity can be alleviated in the rhizosphere even under high Cd supply.

  18. Isolation and characterization of bacteria from the rhizosphere and bulk soil of Stellera chamaejasme L.

    PubMed

    Cui, Haiyan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Lu, Dengxue; Jin, Hui; Yan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jixiang; Li, Xiuzhuang; Qin, Bo

    2015-03-01

    This study is the first to describe the composition and characteristics of culturable bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere and bulk soil of the medicinal plant Stellera chamaejasme L. at different growth stages. Using a cultivation-dependent approach, a total of 148 isolates showing different phenotypic properties were obtained from the rhizosphere and bulk soil. Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were the major bacterial groups in both the rhizosphere and bulk soil at all 4 growth stages of S. chamaejasme. The diversity of the bacterial community in the rhizosphere was higher than that in bulk soil in flowering and fruiting stages. The abundance of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere changed with the growth stages and had a major shift at the fruiting stage. Dynamic changes of bacterial abundance and many bacterial groups in the rhizosphere were similar to those in bulk soil. Furthermore, most bacterial isolates exhibited single or multiple biochemical activities associated with S. chamaejasme growth, which revealed that bacteria with multiple physiological functions were abundant and widespread in the rhizosphere and bulk soil. These results are essential (i) for understanding the ecological roles of bacteria in the rhizosphere and bulk soil and (ii) as a foundation for further evaluating their efficacy as effective S. chamaejasme growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

  19. Linking carbon and nitrogen cycles in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggs, E.; Morley, N.; Paterson, E.; Villada, A.; Gougoulias, C.; Shaw, L.

    2013-12-01

    Consideration of links between C and N biogeochemical cycles is essential for advancing knowledge of ecosystem functioning. Plant-derived C is a key driver of rhizosphere processes, but the role of this C in driving components of the N cycle is poorly characterised. Here we demonstrate the role of plant-derived C in regulating nitrous oxide (N2O) production and reduction in the rhizosphere. We use isotope (13C, 14C and 15N) techniques and a new isotope-FISH-FACS approach to verify (i) the link between plant-C and activity of microbial nitrate reducers, (ii) uptake of C compounds into pseudomonads, (iii) the role of both composite rhizodeposits and individual compounds in regulating the magnitude of N2O emission, and (iv) their influence on the N2O:N2 product ratio. We examine the potential these relationships offer to use plants to manipulate the rhizosphere for reduction of N2O emissions.

  20. Biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons by aquifer microorganisms under denitrifying conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, S.R.; Sewell, G.W.; Kovacs, D.A.; Smith, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate whether denitrification would be a suitable alternative for biorestoration of an aquifer contaminated with JP-4 jet fuel. Microcosms were prepared from uncontaminated and contaminated aquifer material, amended with nitrate, nutrients, and aromatic hydrocarbons, and incubated under a nitrogen atmosphere at 12 C. With uncontaminated core material, there was no observable lag period prior to removal of toluene whereas 30 days was required before biodegradation commenced for xylenes, ethylbenzene, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. An identical test with contaminated aquifer material exhibited not only much longer lag periods but decreased rates of biodegradation; benzene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene were not significantly degraded within the 6-month time period even though active denitrification occurred at this time. First-order biodegradation rate constants ranged from 0.016 to 0.38/day for uncontaminated core material and from 0.022 to 0.067/day for contaminated core material. Tests with individual compounds in uncontaminated core indicated that benzene and m-xylene inhibited the basal rate of denitrification. These data demonstrate that several aromatic compounds are degraded under denitrifying conditions, but rates of biodegradation may be lower in material contaminated with JP-4 jet fuel.

  1. 13C pulse-labeling assessment of the community structure of active fungi in the rhizosphere of a genetically starch-modified potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivar and its parental isoline.

    PubMed

    Hannula, S E; Boschker, H T S; de Boer, W; van Veen, J A

    2012-05-01

    • The aim of this study was to gain understanding of the carbon flow from the roots of a genetically modified (GM) amylopectin-accumulating potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivar and its parental isoline to the soil fungal community using stable isotope probing (SIP). • The microbes receiving (13)C from the plant were assessed through RNA/phospholipid fatty acid analysis with stable isotope probing (PLFA-SIP) at three time-points (1, 5 and 12 d after the start of labeling). The communities of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Glomeromycota were analysed separately with RT-qPCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). • Ascomycetes and glomeromycetes received carbon from the plant as early as 1 and 5 d after labeling, while basidiomycetes were slower in accumulating the labeled carbon. The rate of carbon allocation in the GM variety differed from that in its parental variety, thereby affecting soil fungal communities. • We conclude that both saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi rapidly metabolize organic substrates flowing from the root into the rhizosphere, that there are large differences in utilization of root-derived compounds at a lower phylogenetic level within investigated fungal phyla, and that active communities in the rhizosphere differ between the GM plant and its parental cultivar through effects of differential carbon flow from the plant. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Acidophilic denitrifiers dominate the N2O production in a 100-year-old tea orchard soil.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Long, Xi-En; Chapman, Stephen J; Yao, Huaiying

    2015-03-01

    Aerobic denitrification is the main process for high N2O production in acid tea field soil. However, the biological mechanisms for the high emission are not fully understood. In this study, we examined N2O emission and denitrifier communities in 100-year-old tea soils with four pH levels (3.71, 5.11, 6.19, and 7.41) and four nitrate concentration (0, 50, 200, and 1000 mg kg(-1) of NO3 (-)-N) addition. Results showed the highest N2O emission (10.1 mg kg(-1) over 21 days) from the soil at pH 3.71 with 1000 mg kg(-1) NO3 (-) addition. The N2O reduction and denitrification enzyme activity in the acid soils (pH <7.0) were significantly higher than that of soils at pH 7.41. Moreover, TRF 78 of nirS and TRF 187 of nosZ dominated in soils of pH 3.71, suggesting an important role of acidophilic denitrifiers in N2O production and reduction. CCA analysis also showed a negative correlation between the dominant denitrifier ecotypes (nirS TRF 78, nosZ TRF 187) and soil pH. The representative sequences were identical to those of cultivated denitrifiers from acidic soils via phylogenetic tree analysis. Our results showed that the acidophilic denitrifier adaptation to the acid environment results in high N2O emission in this highly acidic tea soil.

  3. Interaction between rhizosphere microorganisms and plant roots: 13C fluxes in the rhizosphere after pulse labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevdokimov, I. V.; Ruser, R.; Buegger, F.; Marx, M.; Munch, J. C.

    2007-07-01

    The input dynamics of labeled C into pools of soil organic matter and CO2 fluxes from soil were studied in a pot experiment with the pulse labeling of oats and corn under a 13CO2 atmosphere, and the contribution of the root and microbial respiration to the emission of CO2 from the soil was determined from the fluxes of labeled C in the microbial biomass and the evolved carbon dioxide. A considerable amount of 13C (up to 96% of the total amount of the label found in the rhizosphere soil) was incorporated into the biomass of the rhizosphere microorganisms. The diurnal fluctuations of the labeled C pools in the microbial biomass, dissolved organic carbon, and CO2 released in the rhizosphere of oats and corn were related to the day/night changes, i.e., to the on and off periods of the photosynthetic activity of the plants. The average contribution of the corn root respiration (70% of the total CO2 emission from the soil surface) was higher than that of the oats roots (44%), which was related to the lower incorporation of rhizodeposit carbon into the microbial biomass in the soil under the corn plants than in the soil under the oats plants.

  4. Rhizosphere Nightlife: Going with the Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardon, Z. G.; Espeleta, J. F.; Neumann, R. B.; Rastetter, E. B.; Scheibe, T. D.; Serres, M.; Vallino, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    Of the 60,000 km3of water moving from soils to the atmosphere each year, approximately half passes through the bodies of plants and is transpired from leaves. All of that water was first drawn into plants through the rhizospheres of innumerable plant roots, where an active microbial community influences nutrient availability to plants. Fueled in large part by carbon from plant roots, the rhizosphere microbial community is embedded in soils of various 3D structures, saturations, and chemistries. The complex result is a rhizosphere commodities exchange supporting productivity and carbon cycling in ecosystems, where integrated operation is influenced by advection and diffusion of resources critical for plant and microbial growth, by the extent and dynamics of soil saturation linked to root water uptake and release, by local biogeochemical reaction catalyzed by roots and microbes, and by soil chemistry. Our previous field work showed hydraulic redistribution (HR) by plant roots during drought in northern Utah nearly doubled gross mineralization rates (decomposition and microbial release of N from soil organic matter) in upper soil layers. Whether this stimulation was solely caused by the fleeting, nighttime, HR-linked enhancement of water availability in upper soil layers, or by the oscillation in soil water content driven by daytime transpiration and nighttime HR, or both, remains unclear. To examine potential mechanisms, we are developing 3D models at pore (tens of micrometer) scales to predict dynamic, local conditions and resources around microbes at various levels of soil saturation, as influenced by coupled advection, diffusion, and biogeochemical reactions catalyzed by the microbes themselves. At root scales, we are using single-root models at mm scales to explore how oscillating water flow to (and from) roots on the diel cycle promotes disequilibrium between dissolved and sorbed nutrient concentrations around plant roots, releasing cations from soil at distinct

  5. Rates of Root and Organism Growth, Soil Conditions, and Temporal and Spatial Development of the Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    WATT, MICHELLE; SILK, WENDY K.; PASSIOURA, JOHN B.

    2006-01-01

    • Background Roots growing in soil encounter physical, chemical and biological environments that influence their rhizospheres and affect plant growth. Exudates from roots can stimulate or inhibit soil organisms that may release nutrients, infect the root, or modify plant growth via signals. These rhizosphere processes are poorly understood in field conditions. • Scope and Aims We characterize roots and their rhizospheres and rates of growth in units of distance and time so that interactions with soil organisms can be better understood in field conditions. We review: (1) distances between components of the soil, including dead roots remnant from previous plants, and the distances between new roots, their rhizospheres and soil components; (2) characteristic times (distance2/diffusivity) for solutes to travel distances between roots and responsive soil organisms; (3) rates of movement and growth of soil organisms; (4) rates of extension of roots, and how these relate to the rates of anatomical and biochemical ageing of root tissues and the development of the rhizosphere within the soil profile; and (5) numbers of micro-organisms in the rhizosphere and the dependence on the site of attachment to the growing tip. We consider temporal and spatial variation within the rhizosphere to understand the distribution of bacteria and fungi on roots in hard, unploughed soil, and the activities of organisms in the overlapping rhizospheres of living and dead roots clustered in gaps in most field soils. • Conclusions Rhizosphere distances, characteristic times for solute diffusion, and rates of root and organism growth must be considered to understand rhizosphere development. Many values used in our analysis were estimates. The paucity of reliable data underlines the rudimentary state of our knowledge of root–organism interactions in the field. PMID:16551700

  6. Selective Pressure of Temperature on Competition and Cross-Feeding within Denitrifying and Fermentative Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Hanke, Anna; Berg, Jasmine; Hargesheimer, Theresa; Tegetmeyer, Halina E.; Sharp, Christine E.; Strous, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In coastal marine sediments, denitrification and fermentation are important processes in the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter. Microbial communities performing these two processes were enriched from tidal marine sediments in replicated, long term chemostat incubations at 10 and 25°C. Whereas denitrification rates at 25°C were more or less stable over time, at 10°C denitrification activity was unstable and could only be sustained either by repeatedly increasing the amount of carbon substrates provided or by repeatedly decreasing the dilution rate. Metagenomic and transcriptomic sequencing was performed at different time points and provisional whole genome sequences (WGS) and gene activities of abundant populations were compared across incubations. These analyses suggested that a temperature of 10°C selected for populations related to Vibrionales/Photobacterium that contributed to both fermentation (via pyruvate/formate lyase) and nitrous oxide reduction. At 25°C, denitrifying populations affiliated with Rhodobacteraceae were more abundant. The latter performed complete denitrification, and may have used carbon substrates produced by fermentative populations (cross-feeding). Overall, our results suggest that a mixture of competition—for substrates between fermentative and denitrifying populations, and for electrons between both pathways active within a single population –, and cross feeding—between fermentative and denitrifying populations—controlled the overall rate of denitrification. Temperature was shown to have a strong selective effect, not only on the populations performing either process, but also on the nature of their ecological interactions. Future research will show whether these results can be extrapolated to the natural environment. PMID:26779132

  7. Selective Pressure of Temperature on Competition and Cross-Feeding within Denitrifying and Fermentative Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Hanke, Anna; Berg, Jasmine; Hargesheimer, Theresa; Tegetmeyer, Halina E; Sharp, Christine E; Strous, Marc

    2015-01-01

    In coastal marine sediments, denitrification and fermentation are important processes in the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter. Microbial communities performing these two processes were enriched from tidal marine sediments in replicated, long term chemostat incubations at 10 and 25°C. Whereas denitrification rates at 25°C were more or less stable over time, at 10°C denitrification activity was unstable and could only be sustained either by repeatedly increasing the amount of carbon substrates provided or by repeatedly decreasing the dilution rate. Metagenomic and transcriptomic sequencing was performed at different time points and provisional whole genome sequences (WGS) and gene activities of abundant populations were compared across incubations. These analyses suggested that a temperature of 10°C selected for populations related to Vibrionales/Photobacterium that contributed to both fermentation (via pyruvate/formate lyase) and nitrous oxide reduction. At 25°C, denitrifying populations affiliated with Rhodobacteraceae were more abundant. The latter performed complete denitrification, and may have used carbon substrates produced by fermentative populations (cross-feeding). Overall, our results suggest that a mixture of competition-for substrates between fermentative and denitrifying populations, and for electrons between both pathways active within a single population -, and cross feeding-between fermentative and denitrifying populations-controlled the overall rate of denitrification. Temperature was shown to have a strong selective effect, not only on the populations performing either process, but also on the nature of their ecological interactions. Future research will show whether these results can be extrapolated to the natural environment.

  8. Relevance of extracellular DNA in rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietramellara, Giacomo; Ascher, Judith; Baraniya, Divyashri; Arfaioli, Paola; Ceccherini, Maria Teresa; Hawes, Martha

    2013-04-01

    One of the most promising areas for future development is the manipulation of the rhizosphere to produce sustainable and efficient agriculture production systems. Using Omics approaches, to define the distinctive features of eDNA systems and structures, will facilitate progress in rhizo-enforcement and biocontrol studies. The relevance of these studies results clear when we consider the plethora of ecological functions in which eDNA is involved. This fraction can be actively extruded by living cells or discharged during cellular lysis and may exert a key role in the stability and variability of the soil bacterial genome, resulting also a source of nitrogen and phosphorus for plants due to the root's capacity to directly uptake short DNA fragments. The adhesive properties of the DNA molecule confer to eDNA the capacity to inhibit or kill pathogenic bacteria by cation limitation induction, and to facilitate formation of biofilm and extracellular traps (ETs), that may protect microorganisms inhabiting biofilm and plant roots against pathogens and allelopathic substances. The ETs are actively extruded by root border cells when they are dispersed in the rhizosphere, conferring to plants the capacity to extend an endogenous pathogen defence system outside the organism. Moreover, eDNA could be involved in rhizoremediation in heavy metal polluted soil acting as a bioflotation reagent.

  9. Accelerated biodegradation of pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in the Phragmites australis rhizosphere by bacteria-root exudate interactions.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Tadashi; Furukawa, Tetsuya; Maeda, Noritaka; Inoue, Daisuke; Sei, Kazunari; Mori, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Shintaro; Ike, Michihiko

    2011-02-01

    We investigated the biodegradation of pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in Phragmites australis rhizosphere sediment. We collected P. australis plants, rhizosphere sediments, and unvegetated sediments from natural aquatic sites and conducted degradation experiments using sediments spiked with pyrene or benzo[a]pyrene. Accelerated removal of pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene was observed in P. australis rhizosphere sediments with plants, whereas both compounds persisted in unvegetated sediments without plants and in autoclaved rhizosphere sediments with sterilized plants, suggesting that the accelerated removal resulted largely from biodegradation by rhizosphere bacteria. Initial densities of pyrene-utilizing bacteria were substantially higher in the rhizosphere than in unvegetated sediments, but benzo[a]pyrene-utilizing bacteria were not detected in rhizosphere sediments. Mycobacterium gilvum strains isolated from rhizosphere sediments utilized pyrene aerobically as a sole carbon source and were able to degrade benzo[a]pyrene when induced with pyrene. Phragmites australis root exudates containing phenolic compounds supported growth as a carbon source for the one Mycobacterium strain tested, and induced benzo[a]pyrene-degrading activity of the strain. The stimulatory effect on benzo[a]pyrene biodegradation and the amounts of phenolic compounds in root exudates increased when P. australis was exposed to pyrene. Our results show that Mycobacterium-root exudate interactions can accelerate biodegradation of pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in P. australis rhizosphere sediments. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of earthworm-denitrifier interactions with increased emission of nitrous oxide from soil mesocosms amended with crop residue.

    PubMed

    Nebert, Lucas D; Bloem, Jaap; Lubbers, Ingrid M; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

    2011-06-01

    Earthworm activity is known to increase emissions of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) from arable soils. Earthworm gut, casts, and burrows have exhibited higher denitrification activities than the bulk soil, implicating priming of denitrifying organisms as a possible mechanism for this effect. Furthermore, the earthworm feeding strategy may drive N(2)O emissions, as it determines access to fresh organic matter for denitrification. Here, we determined whether interactions between earthworm feeding strategy and the soil denitrifier community can predict N(2)O emissions from the soil. We set up a 90-day mesocosm experiment in which (15)N-labeled maize (Zea mays L.) was either mixed in or applied on top of the soil in the presence or absence of the epigeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus and/or the endogeic earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa. We measured N(2)O fluxes and tested the bulk soil for denitrification enzyme activity and the abundance of 16S rRNA and denitrifier genes nirS and nosZ through real-time quantitative PCR. Compared to the control, L. rubellus increased denitrification enzyme activity and N(2)O emissions on days 21 and 90 (day 21, P = 0.034 and P = 0.002, respectively; day 90, P = 0.001 and P = 0.007, respectively), as well as cumulative N(2)O emissions (76%; P = 0.014). A. caliginosa activity led to a transient increase of N(2)O emissions on days 8 to 18 of the experiment. Abundance of nosZ was significantly increased (100%) on day 90 in the treatment mixture containing L. rubellus alone. We conclude that L. rubellus increased cumulative N(2)O emissions by affecting denitrifier community activity via incorporation of fresh residue into the soil and supplying a steady, labile carbon source.

  11. Denitrifying bioreactors for nitrate removal from tile drained cropland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Denitrification bioreactors are a promising technology for mitigation of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) losses in subsurface drainage water. Bioreactors are constructed with carbon substrates, typically wood chips, to provide a substrate for denitrifying microorganisms. Researchers in Iowa found that for ...

  12. Hydraulic flow characteristics of agricultural residues for denitrifying bioreactor media

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Denitrifying bioreactors are a promising technology to mitigate agricultural subsurface drainage nitrate-nitrogen losses, a critical water quality goal for the Upper Mississippi River Basin. This study was conducted to evaluate the hydraulic properties of agricultural residues that are potential bio...

  13. Trace Gas Emission from in-Situ Denitrifying Bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluer, W.; Walter, M. T.; Geohring, L.

    2014-12-01

    Despite decades of concerted effort to mitigate nonpoint source nitrate (NO3-) pollution from agricultural lands, these efforts have not been sufficient to arrest eutrophication. A primary process for removing excess NO3- from water is denitrification, where denitrifying bacteria use NO3- for respiration in the absence of oxygen. Denitrification results in reduced forms of nitrogen, often dinitrogen gas (N2) but also nitrous oxide (N2O), an aggressive greenhouse gas. A promising solution to NO3- pollution is to intercept agricultural discharges with denitrifying bioreactors (DNBRs). DNBRs provide conditions ideal for denitrifiers: an anaerobic environment, sufficient organic matter, and excess NO3-. These conditions are also ideal for methanogens, which produce methane (CH4), another harmful trace gas. While initial results from bioreactor studies show that they can cost-effectively remove NO3-, trace gas emissions are an unintended consequence. This study's goal was to determine how bioreactor design promotes denitrification while limiting trace gas production. Reactor inflow and outflow water samples were tested for nutrients, including NO3-, and dissolved inflow and outflow gas samples were tested for N2O and CH4. NO3- reduction and trace gas production were evaluated at various residence times, pHs, and inflow NO3- concentrations in field and lab-scale reactors. Low NO3- reduction indicated conditions that stressed denitrifying bacteria while high reductions indicated designs that optimized pollutant treatment for water quality. Several factors influenced high N2O, suggesting non-ideal conditions for the final step of complete denitrification. High CH4 emissions pointed to reactor media choice for discouraging methanogens, which may remove competition with denitrifiers. It is critical to understand all of potential impacts that DNBRs may have, which means identifying processes and design specifications that may affect them.

  14. Are Isotopologue Signatures of N2O from Bacterial Denitrifiers Indicative of NOR Type?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Well, R.; Braker, G.; Giesemann, A.; Flessa, H.

    2010-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from soils result from its production by nitrification and denitrification and reduction during denitrification. The structure of the denitrifying microbial community contributes to the control of net N2O fluxes. Although molecular techniques are promising for identifying the active community of N2O producers, there are few data until now because methods to explore gene expression of N2O production are laborious and disregard regulation of activity at the enzyme level. The isotopologue signatures of N2O including δ18O, average δ15N (δ15Nbulk) and 15N site preference (SP = difference in δ15N between the central and peripheral N positions of the asymmetric N2O molecule) have been used to estimate the contribution of partial processes to net N2O fluxes to the atmosphere. However, the use of this approach to study N2O dynamics in soils requires knowledge of isotopic signatures of N2O precursors and isotopologue fractionation factors (ɛ) of all processes of N2O production and consumption. In contrast to δ18O and δ15Nbulk, SP is independent of precursor signatures and hence is a promising parameter here. It is assumed that SP of produced N2O is almost exclusively controlled by the enzymatic isotope effects of NO reductases (NOR). These enzymes are known to be structurally different between certain classes of N2O producers with each class causing different isotope effects (Schmidt et al., 2004). The NH2OH-to-N2O step of nitrifiers and the NO3-to-N2O step of fungal denitrifiers are associated with large site-specific 15N effects with SP of 33 to 37 ‰ (Sutka et al., 2006, 2008) while the few tested species of gram-negative bacterial denitrifiers (cNOR group) exhibited low SP of -5 to 0‰ (Sutka et al., 2006; Toyoda et al., 2005). The aim of our study was to determine site-specific fractionation factors of the NO3-to-N2O step (ɛSP) for several species of denitrifiers representing each of the known NOR-types of bacteria, i.e. cNOR, q

  15. Physiological factors affecting carbon tetrachloride dehalogenation by the denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain KC.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, T A; Crawford, R L

    1993-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain KC was grown on a medium with a low content of transition metals in order to examine the conditions for carbon tetrachloride (CT) transformation. Several carbon sources, including acetate, glucose, glycerol, and glutamate, were able to support CT transformation. The chelators 2,2'-dipyridyl and 1,10-phenanthroline stimulated CT transformation in a rich medium that otherwise did not support this activity. Low (< 10 microM) additions of dissolved iron(II), iron(III), and cobalt(II), as well as an insoluble iron(III) compound, ferric oxyhydroxide, inhibited CT transformation. The addition of 50 microM iron to actively growing cultures resulted in delayed inhibition of CT transformation. CT transformation was seen in aerobic cultures of KC, but with reduced efficiency compared with denitrifying cultures. Inhibition of CT transformation by iron was also seen in aerobically grown cultures. Optimal conditions were used in searching for effective CT transformation activity among denitrifying enrichments grown from samples of aquifer material. No activity comparable to that of Pseudomonas sp. strain KC was found among 16 samples tested. PMID:8517754

  16. Plant nitrogen-use strategy as a driver of rhizosphere archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidiser abundance.

    PubMed

    Thion, Cécile E; Poirel, Jessica D; Cornulier, Thomas; De Vries, Franciska T; Bardgett, Richard D; Prosser, James I

    2016-07-01

    The influence of plants on archaeal (AOA) and bacterial (AOB) ammonia oxidisers (AO) is poorly understood. Higher microbial activity in the rhizosphere, including organic nitrogen (N) mineralisation, may stimulate both groups, while ammonia uptake by plants may favour AOA, considered to prefer lower ammonia concentration. We therefore hypothesised (i) higher AOA and AOB abundances in the rhizosphere than bulk soil and (ii) that AOA are favoured over AOB in the rhizosphere of plants with an exploitative strategy and high N demand, especially (iii) during early growth, when plant N uptake is higher. These hypotheses were tested by growing 20 grassland plants, covering a spectrum of resource-use strategies, and determining AOA and AOB amoA gene abundances, rhizosphere and bulk soil characteristics and plant functional traits. Joint Bayesian mixed models indicated no increase in AO in the rhizosphere, but revealed that AOA were more abundant in the rhizosphere of exploitative plants, mostly grasses, and less abundant under conservative plants. In contrast, AOB abundance in the rhizosphere and bulk soil depended on pH, rather than plant traits. These findings provide a mechanistic basis for plant-ammonia oxidiser interactions and for links between plant functional traits and ammonia oxidiser ecology. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Arsenic uptake by rice is influenced by microbe-mediated arsenic redox changes in the rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yan; Huang, Hai; Chen, Zheng; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2014-01-21

    Arsenic (As) uptake by rice is largely determined by As speciation, which is strongly influenced by microbial activities. However, little is known about interactions between root and rhizosphere microbes, particularly on arsenic oxidation and reduction. In this study, two rice cultivars with different radial oxygen loss (ROL) ability were used to investigate the impact of microbially mediated As redox changes in the rhizosphere on As uptake. Results showed that the cultivar with higher ROL (Yangdao) had lower As uptake than that with lower ROL (Nongken). The enhancement of the rhizospheric effect on the abundance of the arsenite (As(III)) oxidase gene (aroA-like) was greater than on the arsenate (As(V)) reductase gene (arsC), and As(V) respiratory reductase gene (arrA), resulting in As oxidation and sequestration in the rhizosphere, particularly for cultivar Yangdao. The community of As(III)-oxidizing bacteria in the rhizosphere was dominated by α-Proteobacteria and β-Proteobacteria and was influenced by rhizospheric effects, rice straw application, growth stage, and cultivar. Application of rice straw into the soil increased As release and accumulation into rice plants. These results highlighted that uptake of As by rice is influenced by microbial processes, especially As oxidation in the rhizosphere, and these processes are influenced by root ROL and organic matter application.

  18. Impact of plant domestication on rhizosphere microbiome assembly and functions.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jaramillo, Juan E; Mendes, Rodrigo; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2016-04-01

    The rhizosphere microbiome is pivotal for plant health and growth, providing defence against pests and diseases, facilitating nutrient acquisition and helping plants to withstand abiotic stresses. Plants can actively recruit members of the soil microbial community for positive feedbacks, but the underlying mechanisms and plant traits that drive microbiome assembly and functions are largely unknown. Domestication of plant species has substantially contributed to human civilization, but also caused a strong decrease in the genetic diversity of modern crop cultivars that may have affected the ability of plants to establish beneficial associations with rhizosphere microbes. Here, we review how plants shape the rhizosphere microbiome and how domestication may have impacted rhizosphere microbiome assembly and functions via habitat expansion and via changes in crop management practices, root exudation, root architecture, and plant litter quality. We also propose a "back to the roots" framework that comprises the exploration of the microbiome of indigenous plants and their native habitats for the identification of plant and microbial traits with the ultimate goal to reinstate beneficial associations that may have been undermined during plant domestication.

  19. Kinetics of microbial bromate reduction in a hydrogen-oxidizing, denitrifying biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Downing, Leon S; Nerenberg, Robert

    2007-10-15

    Bromate (BrO(3)(-)) is an oxidized contaminant produced from bromide (Br(-)) during ozonation and advanced oxidation of drinking water. Previous research shows that denitrifying bioreactors can reduce bromate to innocuous bromide. We studied a hydrogen-based, denitrifying membrane-biofilm reactor (MBfR) for bromate reduction, and report the first kinetics for a hydrogen-based bromate reduction process. A mixed-culture MBfR reduced up to 1,500 microg/L bromate to below 10 microg/L with a 50-min hydraulic residence time. Kinetics were determined using short-term tests on a completely mixed MBfR at steady state with an influent of 5 mg N/L nitrate plus 100 microg/L bromate. Short-term tests examined the impact of pH, nitrite, nitrate, and bromate on bromate reduction rates in the MBfR. Kinetic parameters for the process were estimated based on the short-term bromate tests. The q(max) for bromate reduction was 0.12 mg BrO(3)(-) x mg(x)(-1) x day(-1), and the K was 1.2 mg BrO(3)(-)/L. This q(max) is 2-3 times higher than reported for heterotrophic enrichments, and the K is the first reported in the literature. Nitrite and nitrate partially inhibited bromate reduction, with nitrite exerting a stronger inhibitory effect. Bromate was self-inhibitory at concentrations above 15 mg/L, but up to 50 mg/L of bromate had no inhibitory effect on denitrification. The optimum pH was approximately 7. We also examined the performance of an MBfR containing pure culture of the denitrifying bacterium Ralstonia eutropha. Under conditions similar to the mixed-culture tests, no bromate reduction was detected, showing that not all denitrifying bacteria are active in bromate reduction. Our results suggest the presence of specialized, dissimilatory bromate-reducing bacteria in the mixed-culture MBfR. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: The Rhizosphere Microbiology of Rooted Aquatic Plants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    processes in terrestrial and marine plants. Nature and Properties of the Rhizosphere Sediment environment 4. A great deal of research has been...investigators have studied nitrogen fixation in Halodule wrightii in the marine environment. Smith and Hayasaka (1982a) examined nitrogenase activity associated...few studies on sulfur cycling in the rhizosphere, despite the plethora of information on sulfur biogeochemistry in both fresh- water and marine

  1. Rhizosphere stoichiometry: are C : N : P ratios of plants, soils, and enzymes conserved at the plant species-level?

    PubMed

    Bell, Colin; Carrillo, Yolima; Boot, Claudia M; Rocca, Jennifer D; Pendall, Elise; Wallenstein, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of the tight linkages among soils, plants and microbes inhabiting the rhizosphere, we hypothesized that soil nutrient and microbial stoichiometry would differ among plant species and be correlated within plant rhizospheres. We assessed plant tissue carbon (C) : nitrogen (N) : phosphorus (P) ratios for eight species representing four different plant functional groups in a semiarid grassland during near-peak biomass. Using intact plant species-specific rhizospheres, we examined soil C : N : P, microbial biomass C : N, and soil enzyme C : N : P nutrient acquisition activities. We found that few of the plant species' rhizospheres demonstrated distinct stoichiometric properties from other plant species and unvegetated soil. Plant tissue nutrient ratios and components of below-ground rhizosphere stoichiometry predominantly differed between the C4 plant species Buchloe dactyloides and the legume Astragalus laxmannii. The rhizospheres under the C4 grass B. dactyloides exhibited relatively higher microbial C and lower soil N, indicative of distinct soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and nutrient mineralization activities. Assessing the ecological stoichiometry among plant species' rhizospheres is a high-resolution tool useful for linking plant community composition to below-ground soil microbial and nutrient characteristics. By identifying how rhizospheres differ among plant species, we can better assess how plant-microbial interactions associated with ecosystem-level processes may be influenced by plant community shifts.

  2. Responses of soil microbial communities in the rhizosphere of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) to exogenously applied p-hydroxybenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xingang; Yu, Gaobo; Wu, Fengzhi

    2012-08-01

    Changes in soil biological properties have been implicated as one of the causes of soil sickness, a phenomenon that occurs in continuous monocropping systems. However, the causes for these changes are not yet clear. The aim of this work was to elucidate the role of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), an autotoxin of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), in changing soil microbial communities. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was applied to soil every other day for 10 days in cucumber pot assays. Then, the structures and sizes of bacterial and fungal communities, dehydrogenase activity, and microbial carbon biomass (MCB) were assessed in the rhizosphere soil. Structures and sizes of rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR, respectively. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid inhibited cucumber seedling growth and stimulated rhizosphere dehydrogenase activity, MBC content, and bacterial and fungal community sizes. Rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities responded differently to exogenously applied PHBA. The PHBA decreased the Shannon-Wiener index for the rhizosphere bacterial community but increased that for the rhizosphere fungal community. In addition, the response of the rhizosphere fungal community structure to PHBA acid was concentration dependent, but was not for the rhizosphere bacterial community structure. Our results indicate that PHBA plays a significant role in the chemical interactions between cucumber and soil microorganisms and could account for the changes in soil microbial communities in the continuously monocropped cucumber system.

  3. Quantification of Key Genes Steering the Microbial Nitrogen Cycle in the Rhizosphere of Sorghum Cultivars in Tropical Agroecosystems ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hai, Brigitte; Diallo, Ndeye Hélène; Sall, Saidou; Haesler, Felix; Schauss, Kristina; Bonzi, Moussa; Assigbetse, Komi; Chotte, Jean-Luc; Munch, Jean Charles; Schloter, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The effect of agricultural management practices on geochemical cycles in moderate ecosystems is by far better understood than in semiarid regions, where fertilizer availability and climatic conditions are less favorable. We studied the impact of different fertilizer regimens in an agricultural long-term observatory in Burkina Faso at three different plant development stages (early leaf development, flowering, and senescence) of sorghum cultivars. Using real-time PCR, we investigated functional microbial communities involved in key processes of the nitrogen cycle (nitrogen fixation, ammonia oxidation, and denitrification) in the rhizosphere. The results indicate that fertilizer treatments and plant development stages combined with environmental factors affected the abundance of the targeted functional genes in the rhizosphere. While nitrogen-fixing populations dominated the investigated communities when organic fertilizers (manure and straw) were applied, their numbers were comparatively reduced in urea-treated plots. In contrast, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) increased not only in absolute numbers but also in relation to the other bacterial groups investigated in the urea-amended plots. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea exhibited higher numbers compared to AOB independent of fertilizer application. Similarly, denitrifiers were also more abundant in the urea-treated plots. Our data imply as well that, more than in moderate regions, water availability might shape microbial communities in the rhizosphere, since low gene abundance data were obtained for all tested genes at the flowering stage, when water availability was very limited. PMID:19502431

  4. Impact of plant species and site on rhizosphere-associated fungi antagonistic to Verticillium dahliae kleb.

    PubMed

    Berg, Gabriele; Zachow, Christin; Lottmann, Jana; Götz, Monika; Costa, Rodrigo; Smalla, Kornelia

    2005-08-01

    Fungi with antagonistic activity toward plant pathogens play an essential role in plant growth and health. To analyze the effects of the plant species and the site on the abundance and composition of fungi with antagonistic activity toward Verticillium dahliae, fungi were isolated from oilseed rape and strawberry rhizosphere and bulk soil from three different locations in Germany over two growing seasons. A total of 4,320 microfungi screened for in vitro antagonism toward Verticillium resulted in 911 active isolates. This high proportion of fungi antagonistic toward the pathogen V. dahliae was found for bulk and rhizosphere soil at all sites. A plant- and site-dependent specificity of the composition of antagonistic morphotypes and their genotypic diversity was found. The strawberry rhizosphere was characterized by preferential occurrence of Penicillium and Paecilomyces isolates and low numbers of morphotypes (n = 31) and species (n = 13), while Monographella isolates were most frequently obtained from the rhizosphere of oilseed rape, for which higher numbers of morphotypes (n = 41) and species (n = 17) were found. Trichoderma strains displayed high diversity in all soils, but a high degree of plant specificity was shown by BOX-PCR fingerprints. The diversity of rhizosphere-associated antagonists was lower than that of antagonists in bulk soil, suggesting that some fungi were specifically enriched in each rhizosphere. A broad spectrum of new Verticillium antagonists was identified, and the implications of the data for biocontrol applications are discussed.

  5. Microbial growth and carbon use efficiency in the rhizosphere and root-free soil.

    PubMed

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Anderson, Traute-Heidi; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-01-01

    Plant-microbial interactions alter C and N balance in the rhizosphere and affect the microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE)-the fundamental characteristic of microbial metabolism. Estimation of CUE in microbial hotspots with high dynamics of activity and changes of microbial physiological state from dormancy to activity is a challenge in soil microbiology. We analyzed respiratory activity, microbial DNA content and CUE by manipulation the C and nutrients availability in the soil under Beta vulgaris. All measurements were done in root-free and rhizosphere soil under steady-state conditions and during microbial growth induced by addition of glucose. Microorganisms in the rhizosphere and root-free soil differed in their CUE dynamics due to varying time delays between respiration burst and DNA increase. Constant CUE in an exponentially-growing microbial community in rhizosphere demonstrated the balanced growth. In contrast, the CUE in the root-free soil increased more than three times at the end of exponential growth and was 1.5 times higher than in the rhizosphere. Plants alter the dynamics of microbial CUE by balancing the catabolic and anabolic processes, which were decoupled in the root-free soil. The effects of N and C availability on CUE in rhizosphere and root-free soil are discussed.

  6. Microbial Growth and Carbon Use Efficiency in the Rhizosphere and Root-Free Soil

    PubMed Central

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Anderson, Traute-Heidi; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-01-01

    Plant-microbial interactions alter C and N balance in the rhizosphere and affect the microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE)–the fundamental characteristic of microbial metabolism. Estimation of CUE in microbial hotspots with high dynamics of activity and changes of microbial physiological state from dormancy to activity is a challenge in soil microbiology. We analyzed respiratory activity, microbial DNA content and CUE by manipulation the C and nutrients availability in the soil under Beta vulgaris. All measurements were done in root-free and rhizosphere soil under steady-state conditions and during microbial growth induced by addition of glucose. Microorganisms in the rhizosphere and root-free soil differed in their CUE dynamics due to varying time delays between respiration burst and DNA increase. Constant CUE in an exponentially-growing microbial community in rhizosphere demonstrated the balanced growth. In contrast, the CUE in the root-free soil increased more than three times at the end of exponential growth and was 1.5 times higher than in the rhizosphere. Plants alter the dynamics of microbial CUE by balancing the catabolic and anabolic processes, which were decoupled in the root-free soil. The effects of N and C availability on CUE in rhizosphere and root-free soil are discussed. PMID:24722409

  7. Bacillus species (BT42) isolated from Coffea arabica L. rhizosphere antagonizes Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Fusarium oxysporum and also exhibits multiple plant growth promoting activity.

    PubMed

    Kejela, Tekalign; Thakkar, Vasudev R; Thakor, Parth

    2016-11-18

    Colletotrichum and Fusarium species are among pathogenic fungi widely affecting Coffea arabica L., resulting in major yield loss. In the present study, we aimed to isolate bacteria from root rhizosphere of the same plant that is capable of antagonizing Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Fusarium oxysporum as well as promotes plant growth. A total of 42 Bacillus species were isolated, one of the isolates named BT42 showed maximum radial mycelial growth inhibition against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (78%) and Fusarium oxysporum (86%). BT42 increased germination of Coffee arabica L. seeds by 38.89%, decreased disease incidence due to infection of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides to 2.77% and due to infection of Fusarium oxysporum to 0 (p < 0.001). The isolate BT42 showed multiple growth-promoting traits. The isolate showed maximum similarity with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Bacillus species (BT42), isolated in the present work was found to be capable of antagonizing the pathogenic effects of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Fusarium oxysporum. The mechanism of action of inhibition of the pathogenic fungi found to be synergistic effects of secondary metabolites, lytic enzymes, and siderophores. The major inhibitory secondary metabolite identified as harmine (β-carboline alkaloids).

  8. Role of Chemotaxis in the Ecology of Denitrifiers

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Michael J.; Lawless, James G.

    1985-01-01

    A modification of the Adler capillary assay was used to evaluate the chemotactic responses of several denitrifiers to nitrate and nitrite. Strong positive chemotaxis was observed to NO3− and NO2− by soil isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas stutzeri, with the peak response occurring at 10−3 M for both attractants. In addition, a strong chemoattraction to serine (peak response at 10−2 M), tryptone, and a soil extract, but not to NH4+, was observed for all denitrifiers tested. Chemotaxis was not dependent on a previous growth on NO3−, NO2−, or a soil extract, and the chemoattraction to NO3− occurred when the bacteria were grown aerobically or anaerobically. However, the best response to NO3− was usually observed when the cells were grown aerobically with 10 mM NO3− in the growth medium. Capillary tubes containing 10−3 M NO3− submerged into soil-water mixtures elicited a significant chemotactic response to NO3− by the indigenous soil microflora, the majority of which were Pseudomonas spp. A chemotactic strain of P. fluorescens also was shown to survive significantly better in aerobic and anaerobic soils than was a nonmotile strain of the same species. Both strains had equal growth rates in liquid cultures. Thus, chemotaxis may be one mechanism by which denitrifiers successfully compete for available NO3− and NO2−, and which may facilitate the survival of naturally occurring populations of some denitrifiers. PMID:16346690

  9. Autotrophic, Hydrogen-Oxidizing, Denitrifying Bacteria in Groundwater, Potential Agents for Bioremediation of Nitrate Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard L.; Ceazan, Marnie L.; Brooks, Myron H.

    1994-01-01

    Addition of hydrogen or formate significantly enhanced the rate of consumption of nitrate in slurried core samples obtained from an active zone of denitrification in a nitrate-contaminated sand and gravel aquifer (Cape Cod, Mass.). Hydrogen uptake by the core material was immediate and rapid, with an apparent Km of 0.45 to 0.60 μM and a Vmax of 18.7 nmol cm-3 h-1 at 30°C. Nine strains of hydrogen-oxidizing denitrifying bacteria were subsequently isolated from the aquifer. Eight of the strains grew autotrophically on hydrogen with either oxygen or nitrate as the electron acceptor. One strain grew mixotrophically. All of the isolates were capable of heterotrophic growth, but none were similar to Paracoccus denitrificans, a well-characterized hydrogen-oxidizing denitrifier. The kinetics for hydrogen uptake during denitrification were determined for each isolate with substrate depletion progress curves; the Kms ranged from 0.30 to 3.32 μM, with Vmaxs of 1.85 to 13.29 fmol cell-1 h-1. Because these organisms appear to be common constituents of the in situ population of the aquifer, produce innocuous end products, and could be manipulated to sequentially consume oxygen and then nitrate when both were present, these results suggest that these organisms may have significant potential for in situ bioremediation of nitrate contamination in groundwater. PMID:16349284

  10. Denitrifying community in coastal sediments performs aerobic and anaerobic respiration simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Hannah K; Ahmerkamp, Soeren; Lavik, Gaute; Tegetmeyer, Halina E; Graf, Jon; Klatt, Judith M; Holtappels, Moritz; Walpersdorf, Eva; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2017-08-01

    Nitrogen (N) input to the coastal oceans has increased considerably because of anthropogenic activities, however, concurrent increases have not occurred in open oceans. It has been suggested that benthic denitrification in sandy coastal sediments is a sink for this N. Sandy sediments are dynamic permeable environments, where electron acceptor and donor concentrations fluctuate over short temporal and spatial scales. The response of denitrifiers to these fluctuations are largely unknown, although previous observations suggest they may denitrify under aerobic conditions. We examined the response of benthic denitrification to fluctuating oxygen concentrations, finding that denitrification not only occurred at high O2 concentrations but was stimulated by frequent switches between oxic and anoxic conditions. Throughout a tidal cycle, in situtranscription of genes for aerobic respiration and denitrification were positively correlated within diverse bacterial classes, regardless of O2 concentrations, indicating that denitrification gene transcription is not strongly regulated by O2 in sandy sediments. This allows microbes to respond rapidly to changing environmental conditions, but also means that denitrification is utilized as an auxiliary respiration under aerobic conditions when imbalances occur in electron donor and acceptor supply. Aerobic denitrification therefore contributes significantly to N-loss in permeable sediments making the process an important sink for anthropogenic N-inputs.

  11. Autotrophic, hydrogen-oxidizing, denitrifying bacteria in groundwater, potential agents for bioremediation of nitrate contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Ceazan, M.L.; Brooks, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    Addition of hydrogen or formate significantly enhanced the rate of consumption of nitrate in slurried core samples obtained from an active zone of denitrification in a nitrate-contaminated sand and gravel aquifer (Cape Cod, Mass.). Hydrogen uptake by the core material was immediate and rapid, with an apparent K(m) of 0.45 to 0.60 ??M and a V(max) of 18.7 nmol cm-3 h-1 at 30??C. Nine strains of hydrogen-oxidizing denitrifying bacteria were subsequently isolated from the aquifer. Eight of the strains grew autotrophically on hydrogen with either oxygen or nitrate as the electron acceptor. One strain grew mixotrophically. All of the isolates were capable of heterotrophic growth, but none were similar to Paracoccus denitrificans, a well-characterized hydrogen-oxidizing denitrifier. The kinetics for hydrogen uptake during denitrification were determined for each isolate with substrate depletion progress curves; the K(m)s ranged from 0.30 to 3.32 ??M, with V(max)s of 1.85 to 13.29 fmol cell-1 h-1. Because these organisms appear to be common constituents of the in situ population of the aquifer, produce innocuous end products, and could be manipulated to sequentially consume oxygen and then nitrate when both were present, these results suggest that these organisms may have significant potential for in situ bioremediation of nitrate contamination in groundwater.

  12. Community size and composition of ammonia oxidizers and denitrifiers in an alluvial intertidal wetland ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ziye; Meng, Han; Shi, Jin-Huan; Bu, Nai-Shun; Fang, Chang-Ming; Quan, Zhe-Xue

    2014-01-01

    Global nitrogen cycling is mainly mediated by the activity of microorganisms. Nitrogen cycle processes are mediated by functional groups of microorganisms that are affected by constantly changing environmental conditions and substrate availability. In this study, we investigated the temporal and spatial patterns of nitrifier and denitrifier communities in an intertidal wetland. Soil samples were collected over four distinct seasons from three locations with different vegetative cover. Multiple environmental factors and process rates were measured and analyzed together with the community size and composition profiles. We observed that the community size and composition of the nitrifiers and denitrifiers are affected significantly by seasonal factors, while vegetative cover affected the community composition. The seasonal impacts on the community size of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) are much higher than that of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The seasonal change was a more important indicator for AOA community composition patterns, while vegetation was more important for the AOB community patterns. The microbial process rates were correlated with both the community size and composition. PMID:25101072

  13. Molecular characterization of denitrifying bacteria isolated from the anoxic reactor of a modified DEPHANOX plant performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Zafiriadis, Ilias; Ntougias, Spyridon; Mirelis, Paraskevi; Kapagiannidis, Anastasios G; Aivasidis, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) under anoxic conditions was achieved using a Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) system based on a modification of the DEPHANOX configuration. Double-probe Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) revealed that Polyphosphate Accumulating Organisms (PAOs) comprised 12.3 +/- 3.2% of the total bacterial population in the modified DEPHANOX plant. The growing bacterial population on blood agar and Casitone Glycerol Yeast Autolysate agar (CGYA) medium was 16.7 +/- 0.9 x 10(5) and 3.0 +/- 0.6 x 10(5) colony forming units (cfu) mL(-1) activated sludge, respectively. A total of 121 bacterial isolates were characterized according to their denitrification ability, with 26 bacterial strains being capable of reducing nitrate to gas. All denitrifying isolates were placed within the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-subdivisions of Proteobacteria and the family Flavobacteriaceae. Furthermore, a novel denitrifying bacterium within the genus Pseudomonas was identified. This is the first report on the isolation and molecular characterization of denitrifying bacteria from EBPR sludge using a DEPHANOX-type plant.

  14. Aerobic and anoxic growth and nitrate removal capacity of a marine denitrifying bacterium isolated from a recirculation aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Borges, Maria-Teresa; Sousa, André; De Marco, Paolo; Matos, Ana; Hönigová, Petra; Castro, Paula M L

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial biofilters used in marine recirculation aquaculture systems need improvements to enhance nitrogen removal efficiency. Relatively little is known about biofilter autochthonous population structure and function. The present study was aimed at isolating and characterizing an autochthonous denitrifying bacterium from a marine biofilter installed at a recirculation aquaculture system. Colonization of four different media in a marine fish farm was followed by isolation of various denitrifying strains and molecular classification of the most promising one, strain T2, as a novel member of the Pseudomonas fluorescens cluster. This strain exhibits high metabolic versatility regarding N and C source utilization and environmental conditions for growth. It removed nitrate through aerobic assimilatory metabolism at a specific rate of 116.2 mg NO(3)-N g dw(-1) h(-1). Dissimilatory NO(3)-N removal was observed under oxic conditions at a limited rate, where transient NO(2)-N formed represented 22% (0.17 mg L(-1)) of the maximum transient NO(2)-N observed under anoxic conditions. Dissimilatory NO(3)-N removal under anoxic conditions occurred at a specific rate of 53.5 mg NO(3)-N g dw(-1) h(-1). The isolated denitrifying strain was able to colonize different materials, such as granular activated carbon (GAC), Filtralite and Bioflow plastic rings, which allow the development of a prototype bioreactor for strain characterization under dynamic conditions and mimicking fish-farm operating conditions.

  15. Enhanced performance of denitrifying sulfide removal process at high carbon to nitrogen ratios under micro-aerobic condition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuan; Zhang, Ruo-Chen; Xu, Xi-Jun; Fang, Ning; Wang, Ai-Jie; Ren, Nan-Qi; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2017-05-01

    The success of denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) processes, which simultaneously degrade sulfide, nitrate and organic carbon in the same reactor, counts on synergetic growths of autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrifiers. Feeding wastewaters at high C/N ratio would stimulate overgrowth of heterotrophic bacteria in the DSR reactor so deteriorating the growth of autotrophic denitrifiers. The DSR tests at C/N=1.26:1, 2:1 or 3:1 and S/N =5:6 or 5:8 under anaerobic (control) or micro-aerobic conditions were conducted. Anaerobic DSR process has <50% sulfide removal with no elemental sulfur transformation. Under micro-aerobic condition to remove <5% sulfide by chemical oxidation pathway, 100% sulfide removal is achieved by the DSR consortia. Continuous-flow tests under micro-aerobic condition have 70% sulfide removal and 55% elemental sulfur recovery. Trace oxygen enhances activity of sulfide-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing bacteria to accommodate properly the wastewater with high C/N ratios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Denitrifying capability and community dynamics of glycogen accumulating organisms during sludge granulation in an anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor

    PubMed Central

    Bin, Zhang; Bin, Xue; Zhigang, Qiu; Zhiqiang, Chen; Junwen, Li; Taishi, Gong; Wenci, Zou; Jingfeng, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Denitrifying capability of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) has received great attention in environmental science and microbial ecology. Combining this ability with granule processes would be an interesting attempt. Here, a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated to enrich GAOs and enable sludge granulation. The results showed that the GAO granules were cultivated successfully and the granules had denitrifying capability. The batch experiments demonstrated that all NO3−-N could be removed or reduced, some amount of NO2−-N were accumulated in the reactor, and N2 was the main gaseous product. SEM analysis suggested that the granules were tightly packed with a large amount of tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs); filamentous bacteria served as the supporting structures for the granules. The microbial community structure of GAO granules was differed substantially from the inoculant conventional activated sludge. Most of the bacteria in the seed sludge grouped with members of Proteobacterium. FISH analysis confirmed that GAOs were the predominant members in the granules and were distributed evenly throughout the granular space. In contrast, PAOs were severely inhibited. Overall, cultivation of the GAO granules and utilizing their denitrifying capability can provide us with a new approach of nitrogen removal and saving more energy. PMID:26257096

  17. Denitrifying capability and community dynamics of glycogen accumulating organisms during sludge granulation in an anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Bin, Zhang; Bin, Xue; Zhigang, Qiu; Zhiqiang, Chen; Junwen, Li; Taishi, Gong; Wenci, Zou; Jingfeng, Wang

    2015-08-10

    Denitrifying capability of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) has received great attention in environmental science and microbial ecology. Combining this ability with granule processes would be an interesting attempt. Here, a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated to enrich GAOs and enable sludge granulation. The results showed that the GAO granules were cultivated successfully and the granules had denitrifying capability. The batch experiments demonstrated that all NO3(-)-N could be removed or reduced, some amount of NO2(-)-N were accumulated in the reactor, and N2 was the main gaseous product. SEM analysis suggested that the granules were tightly packed with a large amount of tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs); filamentous bacteria served as the supporting structures for the granules. The microbial community structure of GAO granules was differed substantially from the inoculant conventional activated sludge. Most of the bacteria in the seed sludge grouped with members of Proteobacterium. FISH analysis confirmed that GAOs were the predominant members in the granules and were distributed evenly throughout the granular space. In contrast, PAOs were severely inhibited. Overall, cultivation of the GAO granules and utilizing their denitrifying capability can provide us with a new approach of nitrogen removal and saving more energy.

  18. Ampicillin Mineralization by Denitrifying Process: Kinetic and Metabolic Effects.

    PubMed

    Islas-García, Irasema; Romo-Gómez, Claudia; de María Cuervo-López, Flor

    2017-04-29

    The impact of the antibiotic ampicillin (AMP) on the metabolic and kinetics of denitrification process as well as the sludge ability for oxidizing it was evaluated in batch assays. Denitrifying reference assays with acetate-C and nitrate-N (C/N ratio of 1.1) were conducted for establishing the metabolic and kinetic performance of the denitrifying sludge. Assays amended with 10 mg AMP-C L(-1) were also performed. In reference assays, acetate and nitrate consumption efficiencies of 100% with a total conversion to HCO3(-) and N2 were achieved within 1.5 h. When 10 mg AMP-C L(-1) was added, total and simultaneous consumption of nitrate-N, acetate-C, and AMP-C was achieved within 12 h. The substrates were completely reduced to N2 and oxidized to HCO3(-), respectively. No nitrite-N was registered at the end of culture. AMP caused a reversible inhibitory effect on specific nitrate and acetate consumption and N2 production rates. Complete consumption and mineralization of AMP associated to nitrate reduction to N2 were achieved. This work provides the first evidences on the metabolic and kinetic performance of a denitrifying sludge exposed to AMP. These results might be considered for proposing useful wastewater treatments where β-Lactam antibiotics can be present.

  19. Diversity of Denitrifying Bacteria in the San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atluri, A.; Lee, J.; Francis, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    We compared the diversity of communities of denitrifying bacteria from the San Francisco Bay to investigate whether environmental factors affect diversity. To do this, we studied the sequence diversity of the marker gene nirK. nirK codes for the enzyme nitrite reductase which helps reduce nitrite to nitric oxide, an important step in denitrification. Sediment samples were collected spatially from five different locations and temporally during the four different seasons along a salinity gradient in the bay. After collecting samples and extracting DNA from them, we used PCR to amplify our gene of interest, created clone libraries for sequencing, and compared phylogenetic trees from the different communities. Based on several phylogenetic analyses on our tree and environments, we saw that denitrifying bacteria from the North and Central Bay form distinct spatial clusters; Central Bay communities are very similar to each other, while communities from the North Bay are more distinct from each other and from communities in the Central Bay. Bacteria from site 8.1M (Carquinez Strait) showed the most cm-scale spatial diversity, and there was the most species richness during the winter. All this suggests that diversity of communities of denitrifying bacteria may be affected by spatial and temporal environmental factors.

  20. Competition between Two Isolates of Denitrifying Bacteria Added to Soil

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Robert E.; Parsons, Laura L.; Smith, M. Scott

    1992-01-01

    We examined the competitive relationship between two isolates of denitrifying bacteria, both of which grow well under aerobic conditions but differ in their ability to grow under denitrifying conditions. The growth and persistence of the two isolates, added to sterile soil or added to soil previously colonized by the other isolate, were monitored under aerobic and denitrifying (anaerobic) conditions. When isolates were added together to sterile soil, the isolate added at the higher density reduced the growth of the isolate added at the lower density. The magnitude of the growth reduction varied depending on the competitive abilities of the individual isolates and the aeration state of the soil. Prior colonization of soil with one of the isolates conferred a competitive advantage on the colonized isolate but did not lead to the disappearance of the challenging isolate. Fluctuations in aeration state caused large changes in the population density of one isolate and altered the competitive relationship between the two isolates. The competitive effectiveness of each isolate varied with cell density, the degree of prior colonization of the soil by the other isolate, and the aeration state of the soil. PMID:16348820

  1. Metaproteomic analysis of ratoon sugarcane rhizospheric soil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism of yield decline in ratoon sugarcane using soil metaproteomics combined with community level physiological profiles (CLPP) analysis. Results The available stalk number, stalk diameter, single stalk weight and theoretical yield of ratoon cane (RS) were found to be significantly lower than those of plant cane (NS). The activities of several carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus processing enzymes, including invertase, peroxidase, urease and phosphomonoesterase were found to be significantly lower in RS soil than in NS soil. BIOLOG analysis indicated a significant decline in average well-color development (AWCD), Shannon’s diversity and evenness indices in RS soil as compared to NS soil. To profile the rhizospheric metaproteome, 109 soil protein spots with high resolution and repeatability were successfully identified. These proteins were found to be involved in carbohydrate/energy, amino acid, protein, nucleotide, auxin and secondary metabolisms, membrane transport, signal transduction and resistance, etc. Comparative metaproteomics analysis revealed that 38 proteins were differentially expressed in the RS soil as compared to the control soil or NS soil. Among these, most of the plant proteins related to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and stress response were up-regulated in RS soil. Furthermore, several microbial proteins related to membrane transport and signal transduction were up-regulated in RS soil. These proteins were speculated to function in root colonization by microbes. Conclusions Our experiments revealed that sugarcane ratooning practice induced significant changes in the soil enzyme activities, the catabolic diversity of microbial community, and the expression level of soil proteins. They influenced the biochemical processes in the rhizosphere ecosystem and mediated the interactions between plants and soil microbes. PMID:23773576

  2. Improvement of rice seedling growth and nitrogen use efficiency by seed inoculation with endophytic denitrifiers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenfeng; Zhai, Yanyan; Cao, Lixiang; Tan, Hongming; Zhang, Renduo

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of seed inoculation with endophytic denitrifiers on rice seedling growth and nitrogen use efficiency under low- and high-urea conditions. Pseudomonas sp. B2, Streptomyces sp. A9, and Fusarium sp. F3 were isolated from rice plant tissues. Rice seeds inoculated with the denitrifiers were sown in soil fertilized with 100 and 300 mg/kg urea concentrations, respectively. The denitrifiers increased soil ammonia concentrations or kept high ammonia concentration for a longer time in soils. However, soil nitrate concentrations with the denitrifier treatments were lower than that of the control. All the denitrifier treatments increased the chlorophyll content by more than 200% under the low urea condition. Compared to the control, the denitrifier inoculation treatments significantly increased shoot length, fresh weight, and dry weight of rice seedlings under the low- and high-urea conditions (P < 0.05). The chlorophyll concentrations, shoot length, wet weight, and dry weight of all the denitrifier treatments under the low urea fertilization were significantly higher than those of the control under the high-urea fertilization (P < 0.05). The nitrogen use efficiency of rice seedlings might be attributable to nitrate reductases of the denitrifiers, acting as the rice nitrate reductase. The treatment of endophytic denitrifiers significantly improved rice seedling growth and nitrogen use efficiency under both low- and high-urea conditions.

  3. Diazotrophic diversity in the rhizosphere of two exotic weed plants, Prosopis juliflora and Parthenium hysterophorus.

    PubMed

    Cibichakravarthy, B; Preetha, R; Sundaram, S P; Kumar, K; Balachandar, D

    2012-02-01

    This study is aimed at assessing culturable diazotrophic bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere of Prosopis juliflora and Parthenium hysterophorus, which grow profusely in nutritionally-poor soils and environmentally-stress conditions so as to identify some novel strains for bioinoculant technology. Diazotrophic isolates from Prosopis and Parthenium rhizosphere were characterized for nitrogenase activity by Acetylene Reduction Assay (ARA) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Further, the culture-independent quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to compare the abundance of diazotrophs in rhizosphere with bulk soils. The proportion of diazotrophs in total heterotrophs was higher in rhizosphere than bulk soils and 32 putative diazotrophs from rhizosphere of two plants were identified by nifH gene amplification. The ARA activity of the isolates ranged from 40 to 95 nmol ethylene h(-1) mg protein(-1). The 16S rRNA gene analysis identified the isolates to be members of alpha, beta and gamma Proteobacteria and firmicutes. The qPCR assay also confirmed that abundance of nif gene in rhizosphere of these two plants was 10-fold higher than bulk soil.

  4. Rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere bacterial community composition of the wild medicinal plant Rumex patientia.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaojuan; Wang, Ensi; Xing, Ming; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Xia

    2012-05-01

    To investigate bacterial communities between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of the wild medicinal plant Rumex patientia of Jilin, China, small subunit rRNAs (16S rDNA) from soil metagenome were amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primers specific to the domain bacteria and analysed by cloning and sequencing. The relative proportion of bacterial communities in rhizosphere soils was similar to non-rhizosphere soils in five phylogenetic groups (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and Planctomycetes). But there were differences in five other phylogenetic groups (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Verrucomicrobia and Unclassified bacteria). Over 97.24 % of the sequenced clones were found to be unique to rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils, while 2.76 % were shared by both of them. Our results indicate that there are differences in the composition and proportion of bacterial communities between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils. Furthermore, the unique bacterial clones between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of the wild medicinal plant R. patientia have obvious differences.

  5. Understanding Aquatic Rhizosphere Processes Through Metabolomics and Metagenomics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Jian; Mynampati, Kalyan; Drautz, Daniela; Arumugam, Krithika; Williams, Rohan; Schuster, Stephan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    20mg/L of naphthalene and reached a new steady state within 72 hours. An active microbial biofilm was formed during this process, which was imaged by light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy and showed active changes in the biofilm. We have begun to unravel the complexity of rhizobacterial communities associated with aquatic plants. Using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and Illumina Miseq Next Generation Sequencing of metagenomic DNA, we investigated the root-associated microbial community of P. amaryllifolius grown in two different water sources. The community structure of rhizobacteria from plants grown in freshwater lake or rainwater stored in tanks are highly similar. The top three phyla in both setups belonged to Proteobacteria, Bacteriocedes and Actinobacteria, as validated by FISH analyses. This suggests that the rhizosphere have an innate ability to attract and recruit rhizobacterial communities, possibly through the metabolic compounds secreted through root exudation. The selection pressure through plant host is higher compared to environmental pressures that are different between the two water sources. In comparison with the terrestrial rhizosphere, the aquatic rhizosphere microbiome seems more specialised and has a high influence by the host. We are using these findings to further understand the role of microbes in the performance of freshwater aquatic plants.

  6. [Denitrifying and phosphorus accumulating mechanisms of denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) for wastewater treatment--a review].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongting; Li, Min

    2015-03-04

    Eutrophication has raised increasing concerns due to its adverse effects on creatures. It is widely accepted that microbes are capable of removing nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P) via denitrification and P accumulation. So far, several strains can do this work. Therefore, more studies are focused on looking for micro-organisms that have both denitrification and P accumulation ability. Whether exposed to aerobic or anaerobic environment, microbial N and P removal mechanisms differ. Proton Motive Force and Electron Acceptor Theory are involved in the chemical process, whereas denitrifying enzymes polyphosphate kinases are regarded as the leading participators in the enzymatic systems. Studies have shown the influences of N on P accumulation, but further investigation should identify the influences of P on N removal. Here we reviewed the aspects of N and P removal mechanisms in denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) and their potential to remove N and P from water system. Moreover, future works on clarifying denitrifying phosphorus accumulating mechanisms in depth and improving efficiency of removing N and P by DPAOs are provided.

  7. Rhizosphere priming effects in two contrasting soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Davidson; Kirk, Guy; Ritz, Karl

    2015-04-01

    Inputs of fresh plant-derived carbon may stimulate the turnover of existing soil organic matter by so-called priming effects. Priming may occur directly, as a result of nutrient 'mining' by existing microbial communities, or indirectly via population adjustments. However the mechanisms are poorly understood. We planted C4 Kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) in pots with two contrasting C3 soils (clayey, fertile TB and sandy, acid SH), and followed the soil CO2 efflux and its δ13C. The extent of C deposition in the rhizosphere was altered by intermittently clipping the grass in half the pots; there were also unplanted controls. At intervals, pots were destructively sampled for root and shoot biomass. Total soil CO2 efflux was measured using a gas-tight PVC chamber fitted over bare soil, and connected to an infra-red gas analyser; the δ13C of efflux was measured in air sub-samples withdrawn by syringe. The extent of priming was inferred from the δ13C of efflux and the δ13C of the plant and soil end-members. In unclipped treatments, in both soils, increased total soil respiration and rhizosphere priming effects (RPE) were apparent compared to the unplanted controls. The TB soil had greater RPE overall. The total respiration in clipped TB soil was significantly greater than in the unplanted controls, but in the clipped SH soil it was not significantly different from the controls. Clipping affected plant C partitioning with greater allocation to shoot regrowth from about 4 weeks after planting. Total plant biomass decreased in the order TB unclipped > SH unclipped >TB clipped > SH clipped. The results are consistent with priming driven by microbial activation stimulated by rhizodeposits and by nitrogen demand from the growing plants under N limited conditions. Our data suggest that photosynthesis drives RPE and soil differences may alter the rate and intensity of RPE but not the direction.

  8. Plant-microbe Cross-talk in the Rhizosphere: Insight and Biotechnological Potential.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Shyamalina; Sengupta, Sanghamitra

    2015-01-01

    Rhizosphere, the interface between soil and plant roots, is a chemically complex environment which supports the development and growth of diverse microbial communities. The composition of the rhizosphere microbiome is dynamic and controlled by multiple biotic and abiotic factors that include environmental parameters, physiochemical properties of the soil, biological activities of the plants and chemical signals from the plants and bacteria which inhabit the soil adherent to root-system. Recent advancement in molecular and microbiological techniques has unravelled the interactions among rhizosphere residents at different levels. In this review, we elaborate on various factors that determine plant-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere, with an emphasis on the impact of host genotype and developmental stages which together play pivotal role in shaping the nature and diversity of root exudations. We also discuss about the coherent functional groups of microorganisms that colonize rhizosphere and enhance plant growth and development by several direct and indirect mechanisms. Insights into the underlying structural principles of indigenous microbial population and the key determinants governing rhizosphere ecology will provide directions for developing techniques for profitable applicability of beneficial microorganisms in sustainable agriculture and nature restoration.

  9. Plant-microbe Cross-talk in the Rhizosphere: Insight and Biotechnological Potential

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Shyamalina; Sengupta, Sanghamitra

    2015-01-01

    Rhizosphere, the interface between soil and plant roots, is a chemically complex environment which supports the development and growth of diverse microbial communities. The composition of the rhizosphere microbiome is dynamic and controlled by multiple biotic and abiotic factors that include environmental parameters, physiochemical properties of the soil, biological activities of the plants and chemical signals from the plants and bacteria which inhabit the soil adherent to root-system. Recent advancement in molecular and microbiological techniques has unravelled the interactions among rhizosphere residents at different levels. In this review, we elaborate on various factors that determine plant-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere, with an emphasis on the impact of host genotype and developmental stages which together play pivotal role in shaping the nature and diversity of root exudations. We also discuss about the coherent functional groups of microorganisms that colonize rhizosphere and enhance plant growth and development by several direct and indirect mechanisms. Insights into the underlying structural principles of indigenous microbial population and the key determinants governing rhizosphere ecology will provide directions for developing techniques for profitable applicability of beneficial microorganisms in sustainable agriculture and nature restoration. PMID:25926899

  10. Root hairs increase root exudation and rhizosphere extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holz, Maire; Zarebandanadkouki, Mohsen; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Carmintati, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase their access to limited soil resources. An example of such strategies is the production of root hairs. Root hairs extend the root surface and therefore increase the access to nutrients. Additionally, carbon release from root hairs might facilitate nutrient uptake by spreading of carbon in the rhizosphere and enhancing microbial activity. The aim of this study was to test: i) how root hairs change the allocation of carbon in the soil-plant system; ii) whether root hairs exude carbon into the soil and iii) how differences in C release between plants with and without root hairs affect rhizosphere extension. We grew barley plants with and without root hairs (wild type: WT, bald root barley: brb) in rhizoboxes filled with a sandy soil. Root elongation was monitored over time. After 4 weeks of growth, plants were labelled with 14CO2. A filter paper was placed on the soil surface before labelling and was removed after 36 h. 14C imaging of the soil surface and of the filter paper was used to quantify the allocation of 14C into the roots and the exudation of 14C, respectively. Plants were sampled destructively one day after labeling to quantify 14C in the plant-soil system. 14CO2 release from soil over time (17 d) was quantified by trapping CO2 in NaOH with an additional subset of plants. WT and brb plants had a similar aboveground biomass and allocated similar amounts of 14C into shoots (170 KBq for WT; 152 KBq for brb) and roots one day after labelling. Biomass of root, rhizosphere soil as well as root elongation were lower for brb compared to the wild type. WT plants transported more C from the shoots to the roots (22.8% for WT; 13.8% for brb) and from the root into the rhizosphere (8.8% for WT 3.5% for brb). Yet lower amounts of 14CO2 were released from soil over time for WT. Radial and longitudinal rhizosphere extension was increased for WT compared to brb (4.7 vs. 2.6 mm; 5.6 vs. 3.1 cm). The total exudation which was

  11. Performance of agricultural residue media in laboratory denitrifying bioreactors at low temperatures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Woodchip denitrifying bioreactors can remove a substantial fraction of nitrate from agricultural tile drainage; however, questions about cold springtime performance persist. The objectives of this study were to improve the nitrate removal rate of denitrifying bioreactors at warm and cold temperature...

  12. Detection and quantification of copper-denitrifying bacteria by quantitative competitive PCR.

    PubMed

    Qiu, X-Y; Hurt, R A; Wu, L-Y; Chen, C-H; Tiedje, J M; Zhou, J-Z

    2004-11-01

    We developed a quantitative competitive PCR (QC-PCR) system to detect and quantify copper-denitrifying bacteria in environmental samples. The primers were specific to copper-dependent nitrite reductase gene (nirK). We were able to detect about 200 copeis of nirK in the presence of abundant non-specific target DNA and about 1.2 x 10(3)Pseudomonas sp. G-179 cells from one gram of sterilized soil by PCR amplification. A 312-bp nirK internal standard (IS) was constructed, which showed very similar amplification efficiency with the target nirKfragment (349 bp) over 4 orders of magnitude (10(3)-10(6)). The accuracy of this system was evaluated by quantifying various known amount of nirK DNA. The linear regressions were obtained with a R(2) of 0.9867 for 10(3)copies of nirK, 0.9917 for 10(4) copies of nirK, 0.9899 for 10(5) copies of nirK and 0.9846 for 10(6) copies of nirK. A high correlation between measured nirK and calculated nirK (slope of 1.0398, R(2)=0.9992) demonstrated that an accurate measurement could be achieved with this system. Using this method, we quantified nirK in several A-horizon and stream sediment samples from eastern Tennessee. In general, the abundance of nirK was in the range of 10(8)-10(9) copies g soil(-1) dry weight. The nirK content in the soil samples appeared correlated with NH(4)(N) content in the soil. The activities of copper-denitrifying bacteria were evaluated by quantifying cDNA of nirK. In most of sample examined, the content of nirK cDNA was less than 10(5) copies g soil(-1) dry weight. Higher nirK cDNA content (>10(6) copies g soil(-1) dry weight) was detected from both sediment samples at Rattlebox Creek and the Walker Branch West Ridge. Although the stream sediment samples at the Walker Branch West Ridge contained less half of the nirK gene content as compared to A-horizon sample, the activities of copper-denitrifying bacteria were almost 600 times higher than in the A-horizon sample.

  13. Functional gene pyrosequencing reveals core proteobacterial denitrifiers in boreal lakes

    PubMed Central

    Saarenheimo, Jatta; Tiirola, Marja Annika; Rissanen, Antti J.

    2015-01-01

    Denitrification is an important microbial process in aquatic ecosystems that can reduce the effects of eutrophication. Here, quantification and pyrosequencing of nirS, nirK, and nosZ genes encoding for nitrite and nitrous oxide reductases was performed in sediment samples from four boreal lakes to determine the structure and seasonal stability of denitrifying microbial populations. Sediment quality and nitrate concentrations were linked to the quantity and diversity of denitrification genes, the abundance of denitrifying populations (nirS and nosZ genes) correlated with coupled nitrification-denitrification (Dn), and the denitrification of the overlying water NO3- (Dw) correlated with the nirS/nirK ratio. The number of core nirS, nirK, and nosZ operational taxonomical units (OTUs) was low (6, 7, and 3, respectively), and most of these core OTUs were shared among the lakes. Dominant nirK sequences matched best with those of the order Rhizobiales, which was one of the main bacterial orders present in the sediment microbiomes, whereas the dominant nirS sequences were affiliated with the order Burkholderiales. Over half of the nosZ sequences belonged to a single OTU of the order Burkholderiales, but coupled nitrification–denitrification rate correlated with another dominant nosZ OTU assigned to the order Rhodospirillales. The study indicates that a few core proteobacterial clusters may drive denitrification in boreal lake sediments, as the same Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria denitrifier clusters were present in different lakes and seasons. PMID:26191058

  14. Halobacterium denitrificans sp. nov., an extremely halophilic denitrifying bacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlinson, G. A.; Jahnke, L. L.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1986-01-01

    Halobacterium denitrificans was one of several carbohydrate-utilizing, denitrifying, extremely halophilic bacteria isolated by anaerobic enrichment in the presence of nitrate. Anaerobic growth took place only when nitrate (or nitrite) was present and was accompanied by the production of dinitrogen. In the presence of high concentrations of nitrate (i.e., 0.5 percent), nitrous oxide and nitrite were also detected. When grown aerobically in a mineral-salts medium containing 0.005 percent yeast extract, H. denitrificans utilized a variety of carbohydrates as sources of carbon and energy. In every case, carbohydrate utilization was accompanied by acid production.

  15. Halobacterium denitrificans sp. nov. - an extremely halophilic denitrifying bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, G.A.; Jahnke, L.L.; Hochstein, L.I.

    1986-01-01

    Halobacterium denitrificans was one of several carbohydrate-utilizing, denitrifying, extremely halophilic bacteria isolated by anaerobic enrichment in the presence of nitrate. Anaerobic growth took place only when nitrate (or nitrite) was present and was accompanied by the production of dinitrogen. In the presence of high concentrations of nitrate (i.e., 0.5 percent), nitrous oxide and nitrite were also detected. When grown aerobically in a mineral-salts medium containing 0.005 percent yeast extract, H. denitrificans utilized a variety of carbohydrates as sources of carbon and energy. In every case, carbohydrate utilization was accompanied by acid production. 33 references.

  16. Halobacterium denitrificans sp. nov. - An extremely halophilic denitrifying bacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlinson, G. A.; Jahnke, L. L.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1986-01-01

    Halobacterium denitrificans was one of several carbohydrate-utilizing, denitrifying, extremely halophilic bacteria isolated by anaerobic enrichment in the presence of nitrate. Anaerobic growth took place only when nitrate (or nitrite) was present and was accompanied by the production of dinitrogen. In the presence of high concentrations of nitrate (i.e., 0.5 percent), nitrous oxide and nitrite were also detected. When grown aerobically in a mineral-salts medium containing 0.005 percent yeast extract, H. denitrificans utilized a variety of carbohydrates as sources of carbon and energy. In every case, carbohydrate utilization was accompanied by acid production.

  17. Halobacterium denitrificans sp. nov. - An extremely halophilic denitrifying bacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlinson, G. A.; Jahnke, L. L.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1986-01-01

    Halobacterium denitrificans was one of several carbohydrate-utilizing, denitrifying, extremely halophilic bacteria isolated by anaerobic enrichment in the presence of nitrate. Anaerobic growth took place only when nitrate (or nitrite) was present and was accompanied by the production of dinitrogen. In the presence of high concentrations of nitrate (i.e., 0.5 percent), nitrous oxide and nitrite were also detected. When grown aerobically in a mineral-salts medium containing 0.005 percent yeast extract, H. denitrificans utilized a variety of carbohydrates as sources of carbon and energy. In every case, carbohydrate utilization was accompanied by acid production.

  18. Halobacterium denitrificans sp. nov., an extremely halophilic denitrifying bacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlinson, G. A.; Jahnke, L. L.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1986-01-01

    Halobacterium denitrificans was one of several carbohydrate-utilizing, denitrifying, extremely halophilic bacteria isolated by anaerobic enrichment in the presence of nitrate. Anaerobic growth took place only when nitrate (or nitrite) was present and was accompanied by the production of dinitrogen. In the presence of high concentrations of nitrate (i.e., 0.5 percent), nitrous oxide and nitrite were also detected. When grown aerobically in a mineral-salts medium containing 0.005 percent yeast extract, H. denitrificans utilized a variety of carbohydrates as sources of carbon and energy. In every case, carbohydrate utilization was accompanied by acid production.

  19. Purple Phototrophic Bacterium Enhances Stevioside Yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via Foliar Spray and Rhizosphere Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Yiming; Lin, Xiangui

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) on growth and stevioside (ST) yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield plant -1 by 69.2% as compared to the control. The soil dehydrogenase activity, S. rebaudiana shoot biomass, chlorophyll content in new leaves, and soluble sugar in old leaves were affected significantly by S+I treatment, too. The PPB probably works in the rhizosphere by activating the metabolic activity of soil bacteria, and on leaves by excreting phytohormones or enhancing the activity of phyllosphere microorganisms. PMID:23825677

  20. Purple phototrophic bacterium enhances stevioside yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Yiming; Lin, Xiangui

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) on growth and stevioside (ST) yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield plant (-1) by 69.2% as compared to the control. The soil dehydrogenase activity, S. rebaudiana shoot biomass, chlorophyll content in new leaves, and soluble sugar in old leaves were affected significantly by S+I treatment, too. The PPB probably works in the rhizosphere by activating the metabolic activity of soil bacteria, and on leaves by excreting phytohormones or enhancing the activity of phyllosphere microorganisms.

  1. Characterization of the denitrifying bacterial community in a full-scale rockwool biofilter for compost waste-gas treatment.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Tomoko; Waki, Miyoko; Fukumoto, Yasuyuki; Hanajima, Dai; Kuroda, Kazutaka; Suzuki, Kazuyoshi

    2017-07-07

    The potential denitrification activity and the composition of the denitrifying bacterial community in a full-scale rockwool biofilter used for treating livestock manure composting emissions were analyzed. Packing material sampled from the rockwool biofilter was anoxically batch-incubated with (15)N-labeled nitrate in the presence of different electron donors (compost extract, ammonium, hydrogen sulfide, propionate, and acetate), and responses were compared with those of activated sludge from a livestock wastewater treatment facility. Overnight batch-incubation showed that potential denitrification activity for the rockwool samples was higher with added compost extract than with other potential electron donors. The number of 16S rRNA and nosZ genes in the rockwool samples were in the range of 1.64-3.27 × 10(9) and 0.28-2.27 × 10(8) copies/g dry, respectively. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis targeting nirK, nirS, and nosZ genes indicated that the distribution of nir genes was spread in a vertical direction and the distribution of nosZ genes was spread horizontally within the biofilter. The corresponding denitrifying enzymes were mainly related to those from Phyllobacteriaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae, and Alcaligenaceae bacteria and to environmental clones retrieved from agricultural soil, activated sludge, freshwater environments, and guts of earthworms or other invertebrates. A nosZ gene fragment having 99% nucleotide sequence identity with that of Oligotropha carboxidovorans was also detected. Some nirK fragments were related to NirK from micro-aerobic environments. Thus, denitrification in this full-scale rockwool biofilter might be achieved by a consortium of denitrifying bacteria adapted to the intensely aerated ecosystem and utilizing mainly organic matter supplied by the livestock manure composting waste-gas stream.

  2. Isolation and functional analysis of denitrifiers in an aquifer with high potential for denitrification.

    PubMed

    Bellini, M Inés; Gutiérrez, Lucía; Tarlera, Silvana; Scavino, Ana Fernández

    2013-10-01

    Aquifers are among the main freshwater sources. The Raigón aquifer is susceptible to contamination, mainly by nitrate and pesticides, such as atrazine, due to increasing agricultural activities in the area. The capacity of indigenous bacteria to attenuate nitrate contamination in different wells of this aquifer was assessed by measuring denitrification rates with either acetate plus succinate or nitrate amendments. Denitrification activity in nitrate-amended assays was significantly higher than in unamended assays, particularly in groundwater from wells where nitrate concentration was 33.5 mg L(-1) or lower. Furthermore, groundwater denitrifiers capable of using acetate or succinate as electron donors were isolated, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and evaluated for functional denitrification genes (nirS, nirK and nosZ). Phylogenetic affiliation of 54 isolates showed that all members belonged to nine different genera within the Proteobacteria (Bosea, Ochrobactrum, Azospira, Zoogloea, Acidovorax, Achromobacter, Vogesella, Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas). In addition, isolate AR28 that clustered separately from validly described species could potentially belong to a new genus. The majority of the isolates were related to species belonging to previously reported denitrifying genera. However, the phylogeny of the nirS and nosZ genes revealed new sequences of these functional genes. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation and sequencing of the nirS gene from the genus Vogesella, as well as the nosZ gene from the genera Acidovorax and Zoogloea. The results indicated that indigenous bacteria in the Raigón aquifer had the capacity to overcome high nitrate contamination and exhibited functional gene diversity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Plant-Microbial Interactions Define Potential Mechanisms of Organic Matter Priming in the Rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhalnina, K.; Cho, H. J.; Hao, Z.; Mansoori, N.; Karaoz, U.; Jenkins, S.; White, R. A., III; Lipton, M. S.; Deng, K.; Zhou, J.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Northen, T.; Firestone, M. K.; Brodie, E.

    2015-12-01

    In the rhizosphere, metabolic processes of plants and microorganisms are closely coupled, and together with soil minerals, their interactions regulate the turnover of soil organic C (SOC). Plants provide readily assimilable metabolites for microorganisms through exudation, and it has been hypothesized that increasing concentrations of exudate C may either stimulate or suppress rates of SOC mineralization (rhizosphere priming). Both positive and negative rhizosphere priming has been widely observed, however the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. To begin to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying rhizosphere priming, we isolated a broad range of soil bacteria from a Mediterranean grassland dominated by annual grass. Thirty-nine heterotrophic bacteria were selected for genome sequencing and both rRNA gene analysis and metagenome coverage suggest that these isolates represent naturally abundant strain variants. We analyzed their genomes for potential metabolic traits related to life in the rhizosphere and the decomposition of polymeric SOC. While the two dominant groups, Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, were enriched in polymer degrading enzymes, Alphaproteobacterial isolates contained greater gene copies of transporters related to amino acid, organic acid and auxin uptake or export, suggesting an enhanced metabolic potential for life in the root zone. To verify this metabolic potential, we determined the enzymatic activities of these isolates and revealed preferences of strains to degrade certain polymers (xylan, cellulose or lignin). Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy is being used to determine which polymeric components of plant roots are targeted by specific strains and how exudates may impact their degradation. To verify the potential of isolates to assimilate root exudates and export key metabolites we are using LC-MS/MS based exometabolomic profiling. The traits hypothesized and verified here (transporters, enzymes, exudate uptake

  4. Genetic and functional diversities of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of Arachis hypogaea.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Shyamalina; Choudhury, Susanta Roy; Sengupta, Sanghamitra

    2011-06-01

    Bioinoculants are environmentally friendly, energy efficient and economically viable resources in sustainable agriculture. Knowledge of the structure and activities of microbial population in the rhizosphere of a plant is essential to formulate an effective bioinoculant. In this study, the bacterial community present in the rhizosphere of an important oilseed legume, Arachis hypogaea (L.) was described with respect to adjoining bulk soil as a baseline control using a 16S rDNA based metagenomic approach. Significantly higher abundance of Gamma-proteobacteria, a prevalence of Bacillus and the Cytophaga-Flavobacteria group of Bacteroidetes and absence of the Rhizobiaceae family of Alpha-proteobacteria were the major features observed in the matured Arachis-rhizosphere. The functional characterization of the rhizosphere-competent bacteria was performed using culture-dependent determination of phenotypes. Most bacterial isolates from the groundnut-rhizosphere exhibited multiple biochemical activities associated with plant growth and disease control. Validation of the beneficial traits in candidate bioinoculants in pot-cultures and field trials is necessary before their targeted application in the groundnut production system.

  5. Rhizosphere Processes Are Quantitatively Important Components of Terrestrial Biogeochemical Cycles: Data & Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finzi, A.

    2016-12-01

    The rhizosphere is a hot spot and hot moment for biogeochemical cycles. Microbial activity, extracellular enzyme activity and element cycles are greatly enhanced by root derived carbon inputs. As such the rhizosphere may be an important driver of ecosystem responses to global changes such as rising temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Empirical research on the rhizosphere is extensive but extrapolation of rhizosphere processes to large spatial and temporal scales is largely uninterrogated. Using a combination of field studies, meta-analysis and numerical models we have found good reason to think that scaling is possible. In this talk I discuss the results of this research and focus on the results of a new modeling effort that explicitly links root distribution and architecture with a model of microbial physiology to assess the extent to which rhizosphere processes may affect ecosystem responses to global change. Results to date suggest that root inputs of C and possibly nutrients (ie, nitrogen) impact the fate of new C inputs to the soil (ie, accumulation or loss) in response to warming and enhanced productivity at elevated CO2. The model also provides qualitative guidance on incorporating the known effects of ectomycorrhizal fungi on decomposition and rates of soil C and N cycling.

  6. [Allelopathy autotoxicity effects of aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil on rooting and growth of stem cuttings in Pogostemon cablin].

    PubMed

    Tang, Kun; Li, Ming; Dong, Shan; Li, Yun-qi; Huang, Jie-wen; Li, Long-ming

    2014-06-01

    To study the allelopathy effects of aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil on the rooting and growth of stem cutting in Pogostemon cablin, and to reveal its mechanism initially. The changes of rhizogenesis characteristics and physic-biochemical during cutting seedlings were observed when using different concentration of aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil. Aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil had significant inhibitory effects on rooting rate, root number, root length, root activity, growth rate of cutting with increasing concentrations of tissue extracts; The chlorophyll content of cutting seedlings were decreased, but content of MDA were increased, and activities of POD, PPO and IAAO in cutting seedlings were affected. Aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil of Pogostemon cablin have varying degrees of inhibitory effects on the normal rooting and growth of stem cuttings.

  7. Denitrifying Bacterial Communities Affect Current Production and Nitrous Oxide Accumulation in a Microbial Fuel Cell

    PubMed Central

    Vilar-Sanz, Ariadna; Puig, Sebastià; García-Lledó, Arantzazu; Trias, Rosalia; Balaguer, M. Dolors; Colprim, Jesús; Bañeras, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    The biocathodic reduction of nitrate in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) is an alternative to remove nitrogen in low carbon to nitrogen wastewater and relies entirely on microbial activity. In this paper the community composition of denitrifiers in the cathode of a MFC is analysed in relation to added electron acceptors (nitrate and nitrite) and organic matter in the cathode. Nitrate reducers and nitrite reducers were highly affected by the operational conditions and displayed high diversity. The number of retrieved species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for narG, napA, nirS and nirK genes was 11, 10, 31 and 22, respectively. In contrast, nitrous oxide reducers remained virtually unchanged at all conditions. About 90% of the retrieved nosZ sequences grouped in a single OTU with a high similarity with Oligotropha carboxidovorans nosZ gene. nirS-containing denitrifiers were dominant at all conditions and accounted for a significant amount of the total bacterial density. Current production decreased from 15.0 A·m−3 NCC (Net Cathodic Compartment), when nitrate was used as an electron acceptor, to 14.1 A·m−3 NCC in the case of nitrite. Contrarily, nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation in the MFC was higher when nitrite was used as the main electron acceptor and accounted for 70% of gaseous nitrogen. Relative abundance of nitrite to nitrous oxide reducers, calculated as (qnirS+qnirK)/qnosZ, correlated positively with N2O emissions. Collectively, data indicate that bacteria catalysing the initial denitrification steps in a MFC are highly influenced by main electron acceptors and have a major influence on current production and N2O accumulation. PMID:23717427

  8. Denitratisoma oestradiolicum gen. nov., sp. nov., a 17beta-oestradiol-degrading, denitrifying betaproteobacterium.

    PubMed

    Fahrbach, Michael; Kuever, Jan; Meinke, Ruth; Kämpfer, Peter; Hollender, Juliane

    2006-07-01

    A Gram-negative, motile, denitrifying bacterium (strain AcBE2-1(T)) was isolated from activated sludge of a municipal wastewater treatment plant using 17beta-oestradiol (E2) as sole source of carbon and energy. Cells were curved rods, 0.4-0.8 x 0.8-2.0 microm in size, non-fermentative, non-spore-forming, oxidase-positive and catalase-negative. E2 was oxidized completely to carbon dioxide and water by reduction of nitrate to a mixture of dinitrogen monoxide and dinitrogen, with the intermediate accumulation of nitrite. Electron recoveries were between 90 and 100 %, taking assimilated E2 into account. With nitrate as the electron acceptor, the bacterium also grew on fatty acids (C(2) to C(6)), isobutyrate, crotonate, dl-lactate, pyruvate, fumarate and succinate. Phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain AcBE2-1(T) represents a separate line of descent within the family Rhodocyclaceae (Betaproteobacteria). The closest relatives are the cholesterol-degrading, denitrifying bacteria Sterolibacterium denitrificans DSM 13999(T) and strain 72Chol (=DSM 12783), with <93.9 % sequence similarity. The G+C content of the DNA was 61.4 mol%. Detection of a quinone system with ubiquinone Q-8 as the predominant compound and a fatty acid profile that included high concentrations of C(16 : 1)omega7c/iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and C(16 : 0), in addition to C(18 : 1)omega7c and small amounts of C(8 : 0) 3-OH, supported the results of the phylogenetic analysis. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence data in combination with chemotaxonomic and physiological data, strain AcBE2-1(T) (=DSM 16959(T)=JCM 12830(T)) is placed in a new genus Denitratisoma gen. nov. as the type strain of the type species Denitratisoma oestradiolicum gen. nov., sp. nov.

  9. Rate of denitrification and the accumulation of intermediates in a denitrifying bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsignault, D. R.; Gursky, H.; Kellogg, E. M.; Matilsky, T.; Murray, S.; Schreier, E.; Tananbaum, H.; Giacconi, R.; Brinkman, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    Denitrifying bioreactors (DNBRs) are an emerging mechanism to mitigate the impact of excess reactive nitrogen by harnessing the activity of ubiquitous denitrifying soil microbes. DNBRs fundamentally consist of an organic carbon energy source sufficiently saturated to develop anaerobic conditions and support heterotrophic reduction of nitrate to dinitrogen. Although recent research has well established achievable nitrate removal in DNBRs upwards of 90%, few studies experimentally determine the fate of nitrogen in these systems. This study differentiates between denitrification to inert nitrogen gas, which permanently removes reactive nitrogen from an enriched ecosystem, and transformation of nitrate to another bioavailable form (such as N2O or NOX, powerful greenhouse gases). Previous research has failed to make this distinction and as both are perceived as a reduction in nitrate concentration at the outlet, the utility of DNBRs in reducing downstream reactive nitrogen has not been sufficiently established. In order to quantify the rate of nitrate removal and the products produced, dissolved gas samples are collected from the DNBR with passive diffusion gas samplers while the influent and effluent nitrate concentration and chemical oxygen demand are monitored in real time with spectrometer probes. Nitrate removal is compared with the denitrification rate and the ratio of dinitrogen to nitrous oxide is reported. Denitrification is quantified from the proportion of nitrogen gas products produced from the nitrate pool, indicated by the negative congruence of the regression of 15N enrichment in the nitrate pool and temporal depletion in the gaseous products. The proportion of nitrous oxide to dinitrogen is examined with respect to saturation and redox potential. This research informs the interpretation of previous studies as well as advises the focus of long-term system level monitoring that will provide further information on the design and application of DNBRs to

  10. Denitrifying bacterial communities affect current production and nitrous oxide accumulation in a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Vilar-Sanz, Ariadna; Puig, Sebastià; García-Lledó, Arantzazu; Trias, Rosalia; Balaguer, M Dolors; Colprim, Jesús; Bañeras, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    The biocathodic reduction of nitrate in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) is an alternative to remove nitrogen in low carbon to nitrogen wastewater and relies entirely on microbial activity. In this paper the community composition of denitrifiers in the cathode of a MFC is analysed in relation to added electron acceptors (nitrate and nitrite) and organic matter in the cathode. Nitrate reducers and nitrite reducers were highly affected by the operational conditions and displayed high diversity. The number of retrieved species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for narG, napA, nirS and nirK genes was 11, 10, 31 and 22, respectively. In contrast, nitrous oxide reducers remained virtually unchanged at all conditions. About 90% of the retrieved nosZ sequences grouped in a single OTU with a high similarity with Oligotropha carboxidovorans nosZ gene. nirS-containing denitrifiers were dominant at all conditions and accounted for a significant amount of the total bacterial density. Current production decreased from 15.0 A · m(-3) NCC (Net Cathodic Compartment), when nitrate was used as an electron acceptor, to 14.1 A · m(-3) NCC in the case of nitrite. Contrarily, nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation in the MFC was higher when nitrite was used as the main electron acceptor and accounted for 70% of gaseous nitrogen. Relative abundance of nitrite to nitrous oxide reducers, calculated as (qnirS+qnirK)/qnosZ, correlated positively with N2O emissions. Collectively, data indicate that bacteria catalysing the initial denitrification steps in a MFC are highly influenced by main electron acceptors and have a major influence on current production and N2O accumulation.

  11. Multi-scale factors affecting composition, diversity, and abundance of sediment denitrifying microorganisms in Yangtze lakes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoliang; Yao, Lu; Guo, Laodong; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Wenzhi

    2017-09-27

    Sediment denitrification is the dominant nitrogen removal pathway in many aquatic habitats and can be regulated by local-, landscape-, and regional-scale factors. However, the mechanisms for how these multiple scale factors and their interactions affect the sediment denitrifying communities remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the community composition, diversity, and abundance of nitrite reductase genes (nirK and nirS)-encoding denitrifiers in 74 sediment samples from 22 Yangtze lakes using clone library and quantitative PCR techniques. Information of location, climate, catchment land use, water quality, sediment properties, and plant communities at each sampling site was analyzed to elucidate the effects of regional, landscape, and local factors on the characteristics of sediment denitrifying communities. Results of canonical correspondence analysis indicated that local factors were the key determinants of denitrifying community composition, accounting for over 20% of the total variation. Additionally, certain regional and landscape factors, including elevation and catchment built-up land, were also significantly related to the composition of denitrifying communities. Variance partitioning analyses revealed that diversity and abundance in the nirK denitrifier community were largely influenced by local factors, while those in the nirS community were controlled by both local and regional factors. Our findings highlight the importance of using different scale factors to explain adequately the composition and structure of denitrifying communities in aquatic environments.

  12. Vertical profiles of water and sediment denitrifiers in two plateau freshwater lakes.

    PubMed

    Mao, Guozhu; Chen, Ling; Yang, Yuyin; Wu, Zhen; Tong, Tianli; Liu, Yong; Xie, Shuguang

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the abundance, richness, diversity, and community composition of denitrifiers (based on nirS and nosZ genes) in the stratified water columns and sediments in eutrophic Dianchi Lake and mesotrophic Erhai Lake using quantitative PCR assay and high-throughput sequencing analysis. Both nirS- and nosZ denitrifiers were detected in waters of these two lakes. Surface water showed higher nosZ gene density than bottom water, and Dianchi Lake waters had larger nirS gene abundance than Erhai Lake waters. The abundance of sediment nirS- and nosZ denitrifiers in Dianchi Lake was larger than that in Erhai Lake. nirS richness and diversity and nosZ richness tended to increase with increasing sediment layer depth in both lakes. The distinct structure difference of sediment nirS- and nosZ denitrifier communities was found between in Dianchi Lake and Erhai Lake. These two lakes also differed greatly in water denitrifier community structure. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis indicated the presence of several different groups of nirS- or nosZ denitrifiers in both lakes. The novel nirS denitrifiers were abundant in both Dianchi Lake and Erhai Lake, while most of the obtained nosZ sequences could be affiliated with known genera.

  13. Rhizosphere impacts on peat decomposition and nutrient cycling across a natural water table gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, A. L.; Finzi, A.

    2014-12-01

    High latitude forest and peatland soils represent a major terrestrial carbon store sensitive to climate change. Warming temperatures and increased growing-season evapotranspiration are projected to reduce water table (WT) height in continental peatlands. WT reduction increases peat aerobicity and facilitates vascular plant and root growth. Root-associated microbial communities are exposed to a different physical and chemical environment than microbial communities in non-root associated "bulk" peat, and therefore have distinct composition and function within the soil system. As the size of the peatland rhizosphere impacts resources available to the microbial communities, transitions from a root-free high water table peatland to a root-dominated low WT peatland may alter seasonal patterns of microbial community dynamics, enzyme production, and carbon storage within the system. We used a natural water table gradient in Caribou Bog near Orono, ME to explore the influence of species composition, root biomass, and rhizosphere size on seasonal patterns in microbial community structure, enzyme production, and carbon mineralization. We quantified root biomass across the water table gradient and measured microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, C mineralization, N mineralization, and exoenzyme activity in root-associated and bulk peat samples throughout the 2013 growing season. Microbial biomass was consistently higher in rhizosphere-associated soils and peaked in the spring. Microbial biomass CN and enzyme activity was higher in rhizosphere-associated soil, likely due to increased mycorrhizal abundance. Exoenzyme activity peaked in the fall, with a larger relative increase in enzyme activity in rhizosphere peat, while carbon mineralization rates did not demonstrate a strong seasonal pattern. The results suggest that rhizosphere-associated peat sustains higher and more variable rates of enzyme activity throughout the growing season, which results in higher rates of carbon

  14. Plant rhizosphere species-specific stoichiometry and regulation of extracellular enzyme and microbial community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, C. W.; Calderon, F.; Pendall, E.; Wallenstein, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Plant communities affect the activity and composition of soil microbial communities through alteration of the soil environment during root growth; substrate availability through root exudation; nutrient availability through plant uptake; and moisture regimes through transpiration. As a result, positive feedbacks in soil properties can result from alterations in microbial community composition and function in the rhizosphere zone. At the ecosystem-scale, many properties of soil microbial communities can vary between forest stands dominated by different species, including community composition and stoichiometry. However, the influence of smaller individual plants on grassland soils and microbial communities is less well documented. There is evidence to suggest that some plants can modify their soil environment in a manner that favors their persistence. For example, when Bromus tectorum plants invade, soil microbial communities tend to have higher N mineralization rates (in the rhizosphere zone) relative to native plants. If tight linkages between individual plant species and microbial communities inhabiting the rhizosphere exist, we hypothesized that any differences among plant species specific rhizosphere zones could be observed by shifts in: 1) soil -rhizosphere microbial community structure, 2) enzymatic C:N:P acquisition activities, 3) alterations in the soil C chemistry composition in the rhizosphere, and 4) plant - soil - microbial C:N:P elemental stoichiometry. We selected and grew 4 different C3 grasses species including three species native to the Shortgrass Steppe region (Pascopyrum smithii, Koeleria macrantha, and Vulpia octoflora) and one exotic invasive plant species (B. tectorum) in root-boxes that are designed to allow for easy access to the rhizosphere. The field soil was homogenized using a 4mm sieve and mixed 1:1 with sterile sand and seeded as monocultures (24 replicate root - boxes for each species). Plant and soil samples (along with no - plant

  15. [Experimental and mathematical modeling of population dynamics of rhizospheric bacteria under conditions of cadmium stress].

    PubMed

    Pishchik, V N; Vorob'ev, N I; Provorov, N A

    2005-01-01

    The method of membrane filters was used to study the population dynamics of bacteria belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Flavobacterium, and Klebsiella in barley (Hordeum vulgare) rhizosphere under conditions of cadmium stress (5-15 mg Cd/g soil). Mathematical modeling allowed us to demonstrate that the phytoprotective effect is implemented via the following succession of events: the bacteria synthesize phytohormones (IAA and ethylene)-->root excretory activity increases-->the number of the bacteria in the rhizoplane grows-->the flux of bacteria migrating from the rhizoplane to the rhizosphere increases-->the number of bacteria binding cadmium ions in the rhizosphere grows-->the amount of free ions entering the plant decreases. Among the bacteria studied, K. mobilis 880 displayed the highest migration and immobilization activity and the best survival rate under conditions of cadmium stress. Consequently, K. mobilis 880 is recommended for use in biopreparations for stimulating plant growth under conditions of heavy metal pollution.

  16. Rhizosphere: a leverage for tolerance to water deficits of soil microflora ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérard, Annette; Ruy, Stéphane; Coronel, Anaïs; Toussaint, Bruce; Czarnes, Sonia; Legendre, Laurent; Doussan, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Microbial soil communities play a fundamental role in soil organic matter mineralization, which is a key process for plant nutrition, growth and production in agro-ecosystems. A number of these microbial processes take place in the rhizosphere: the soil zone influenced by plant roots activity, which is a "hotspot " of biological and physico-chemical activity, transfers and biomass production. The knowledge of rhizosphere processes is however still scanty, especially regarding the interactions between physico-chemical processes occurring there and soil microorganisms. The rhizosphere is a place where soil aggregates are more stable, and where bulk density, porosity, water and nutrients transfer are modified with respect to the bulk soil (e.g. because of production of mucilage, of which exo-polysaccharides (EPS) produced by roots and microorganisms. During a maize field experiment, rhizospheric soil (i.e. soil strongly adhering to maize roots) and bulk soil were sampled twice in spring and summer. These soil samples were characterized for physicochemical parameters (water retention curves and analysis of exopolysaccarides) and microflora (microbial biomass, catabolic capacities of the microbial communities assessed with the MicroRespTM technique, stability of soil microbial respiration faced to a heat-drought disturbance). We observed differences between rhizospheric and bulk soils for all parameters studied: Rhizospheric soils showed higher microbial biomasses, higher quantities of exopolysaccarides and a higher water retention capacity compared to bulk soil measurements. Moreover, microbial soil respiration showed a higher stability confronted to heat-drought stress in the rhizospheric soils compared to bulk soils. Results were more pronounced during summer compared to spring. Globally these data obtained from field suggest that in a changing climate conditions, the specific physico-biological conditions in the rhizosphere partially linked to exopolysaccarides

  17. Effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on denitrifying and nitrifying popualtions at terrestrial CO2 leakeage analogous sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christine, Dictor Marie; Catherine, Joulian; Valerie, Laperche; Stephanie, Coulon; Dominique, Breeze

    2010-05-01

    CO2 capture and geological storage (CCS) is recognized to be an important option for carbon abatement in Europe. One of the risks of CCS is the leakage from storage site. A laboratory was conducted on soil samples sampled near-surface from a CO2 leakage analogous site (Latera, Italy) in order to evaluate the impact of an elevated soil CO2 concentration on terrestrial bacterial ecosystems form near surface terrestrial environments and to determine a potential bacterial indicator of CO2 leakage from storage site. Surveys were conducted along a 50m long transect across the vent centre, providing a spectrum of CO2 flux rates, soil gas concentrations and compositions (Beaubien et al., 2007). A bacterial diversity studies, performed by CE-SSCP technique, on a soil profile with increasing CO2 soil concentrations (from 0.3% to 100%) showed that a change on bacterial diversity was noted when CO2 concentration was above 50 % of CO2. From this result, 3 soil samples were taken at 70 cm depth in 3 distinct zones (background soil CO2 content, soil CO2 content of 20% and soil CO2 content of 50%). Then theses soil samples were incubated under closed jars flushed with different air atmospheres (20, 50 and 90 % of CO2) during 18 months. At initial, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months, some soil samples were collected in order to estimate the denitrifying, nitrifying activities as a function of CO2 concentration content and times. Theses enzymatic activities were chosen because one occurs under anaerobic conditions (denitrification) and the other occurs under aerobic conditions (nitrification). Both of them were involved in the nitrogen cycle and are major actors of soil function and groundwater quality preservation. Metabolic diversity using BIOLOG Ecoplates was determined on every soil samples. Physico-chemical parameters (e.g. pH, bulk chemistry, mineralogy) were analyzed to have some information about the evolution of the soil during the incubation with increasing soil CO2 concentrations

  18. Greenhouse Gas Emission from In-situ Denitrifying Bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluer, W.; Walter, M. T.; Geohring, L.

    2013-12-01

    Despite decades of concerted effort to mitigate nonpoint source nitrate (NO3-) pollution from agricultural lands, these efforts have not been sufficient to arrest eutrophication, which continues to be a serious and chronic problem. Two primary processes for removing excess NO3- from water are biological assimilation and denitrification. Denitrifying bacteria use NO3- as the electron acceptor for respiration in the absence of oxygen. Denitrification results in reduced forms of nitrogen, often dinitrogen gas (N2) but also nitrous oxide (N2O), an aggressive greenhouse gas (GHG). A promising solution to NO3- pollution is to intercept agricultural discharges with denitrifying bioreactors (DNBRs), though research has been limited to NO3- level reduction and omitted process mechanisms. DNBRs work by providing an anaerobic environment with plenty of organic matter (commonly woodchips) for denitrifying bacteria to flourish. While, initial results from bioreactor studies show that they can cost-effectively remove NO3-, GHG emission could be an unintended consequence. The study's goal is to determine how bioreactor design promotes microbial denitrification while limiting N2O production. It specifically focuses on expanding the body of knowledge concerning DNBRs in the areas of design implications and internal processes by measuring intermediate compounds and not solely NO3-. Nutrient samples are collected at inflow and outflow structures and tested for NO3- and nitrite (NO2-). Dissolved and headspace gas samples are collected and tested for N2O. Additional gas samples will be analyzed for naturally-occurring isotopic N2 to support proposed pathways. Designs will be analyzed both through the N2O/N2 production ratio and NO2- production caused by various residence times and inflow NO3- concentrations. High GHG ratios and NO2- production suggest non-ideal conditions or flow patterns for complete denitrification. NO3- reduction is used for comparison with previous studies. Few

  19. Evidence of antagonistic interactions between rhizosphere microorganisms and mycorrhizal fungi associated with birch ( Betula pubescens)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Sari; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2005-09-01

    We studied the role of carbon availability in the relationship between soil rhizosphere microorganisms and mycorrhizal fungi (Basidiomycetes) associated with birch ( Betula pubescens L.) seedlings in a greenhouse experiment through artificial herbivory (clipping), glucose addition and microbial toxin treatments. Artificial herbivory significantly decreased the amount of ergosterol, a fungus-specific sterol, in the birch roots and microbial respiration in the soil. Reduction in plant's photosynthetic ability thus reduced availability of carbon for both mycorrhizal fungi and rhizosphere microorganisms. Adding glucose, a carbon source easily assimilable by soil microorganisms, significantly enhanced microbial respiration, and counteracted the negative effects of clipping on microbial respiration. At the same time, the amount of ergosterol in the birch roots was decreased, indicating that enhanced activity of rhizosphere microorganisms had a negative impact on the mycorrhizal fungi. The outcome of glucose addition on mycorrhizal fungi did not interact with the clipping treatment. A fungal and bacterial toxin treatment did not affect microbial respiration, but significantly increased the birch root growth and amount of ergosterol in the treatment without the glucose addition. Our results show that rhizosphere microorganisms may have antagonistic effects on mycorrhizal fungi associated with the birch. We suggest that the antagonistic interactions between rhizosphere microorganisms and mycorrhizal fungi may have an important role in the functions of mycorrhizal systems and its significance in natural systems should be further investigated.

  20. Effects of preconditioning the rhizosphere of different plant species on biotic methane oxidation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ndanga, Éliane M; Lopera, Carolina B; Bradley, Robert L; Cabral, Alexandre R

    2016-09-01

    The rhizosphere is known as the most active biogeochemical layer of the soil. Therefore, it could be a beneficial environment for biotic methane oxidation. The aim of this study was to document - by means of batch incubation tests - the kinetics of CH4 oxidation in rhizosphere soils that were previously exposed to methane. Soils from three pre-exposure to CH4 zones were sampled: the never-before pre-exposed (NEX), the moderately pre-exposed (MEX) and the very pre-exposed (VEX). For each pre-exposure zone, the rhizosphere of several plant species was collected, pre-incubated, placed in glass vials and submitted to CH4 concentrations varying from 0.5% to 10%. The time to the beginning of CH4 consumption and the CH4 oxidation rate were recorded. The results showed that the fastest CH4 consumption occurred for the very pre-exposed rhizosphere. Specifically, a statistically significant difference in CH4 oxidation half-life was found between the rhizosphere of the VEX vegetated with a mixture of different plants and the NEX vegetated with ryegrass. This difference was attributed to the combined effect of the preconditioning level and plant species as well as to the organic matter content. Regardless of the preconditioning level, the oxidation rate values obtained in this study were comparable to those reported in the reviewed literature for mature compost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Different Bacterial Populations Associated with the Roots and Rhizosphere of Rice Incorporate Plant-Derived Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Marcela; Yuan, Quan; Conrad, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with the roots of plants have an important function in plant growth and in soil carbon sequestration. Rice cultivation is the second largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric CH4, which is a significant greenhouse gas. Up to 60% of fixed carbon formed by photosynthesis in plants is transported below ground, much of it as root exudates that are consumed by microorganisms. A stable isotope probing (SIP) approach was used to identify microorganisms using plant carbon in association with the roots and rhizosphere of rice plants. Rice plants grown in Italian paddy soil were labeled with 13CO2 for 10 days. RNA was extracted from root material and rhizosphere soil and subjected to cesium gradient centrifugation followed by 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing to identify microorganisms enriched with 13C. Thirty operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were labeled and mostly corresponded to Proteobacteria (13 OTUs) and Verrucomicrobia (8 OTUs). These OTUs were affiliated with the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria classes of Proteobacteria and the “Spartobacteria” and Opitutae classes of Verrucomicrobia. In general, different bacterial groups were labeled in the root and rhizosphere, reflecting different physicochemical characteristics of these locations. The labeled OTUs in the root compartment corresponded to a greater proportion of the 16S rRNA sequences (∼20%) than did those in the rhizosphere (∼4%), indicating that a proportion of the active microbial community on the roots greater than that in the rhizosphere incorporated plant-derived carbon within the time frame of the experiment. PMID:25616793

  2. N2 fixation in the rhizosphere of Thalassia testudinum.

    PubMed

    Capone, D G; Taylor, B F

    1980-08-01

    N2 fixation (C2H2 reduction) associated with the roots, rhizomes, and sediments (rhizosphere cores) of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum was measured at sites in South Florida (Soldier Key, Biscayne Bay) and the Bahamas (Bimini Harbor). Rates of C2H2 reduction were higher in anaerobic than in aerobic assays and were linear for several hours after an initial lag period of 1-2h. Nitrogenase activity was proportional to the weight of rhizomes plus roots but showed no correlation with the total weight of the rhizosphere cores. C2H2 reduction occurred to depths of at least 30 cm but the majority (<85%) of the activity was in the 0- to 20-cm fraction; also the ratio of activities for the 0- to 10- and 10- to 20-cm depths was about 2:1. Most investigations were carried out using anaerobic assays of the 0- to 10-cm fractions and rates calculated for the period of 3-6 h after adding C2H2. These rates were not stimulated by organic compounds (glucose, lactate, succinate) but were approximately halved by a decrease in temperature of 10 degrees C. In a seasonal study at Soldier Key the rates of N2 fixation varied about 20-fold with maximal rates in late summer and minimal rates in winter (January). On a diurnal basis, C2H2 reduction increased in the morning but was depressed in midafternoon, probably due to O2 buildup in the rhizosphere. Daily rates of N2 fixation, during the summer months of 1975-1978, varied between 5 and 24 mg N (-2)m and the estimated annual rates of N2 fixation were 10-50 kg N (-1)ha, taking into account seasonal variations and activities to a depth of 20 cm.

  3. Draft genome sequence of the antagonistic rhizosphere bacterium Serratia plymuthica strain PRI-2C.

    PubMed

    Garbeva, P; van Elsas, J D; de Boer, W

    2012-08-01

    Serratia plymuthica strain PRI-2C is a rhizosphere bacterial strain with antagonistic activity against different plant pathogens. Here we present the 5.39-Mb (G+C content, 55.67%) draft genome sequence of S. plymuthica strain PRI-2C with the aim of providing insight into the genomic basis of its antagonistic activity.

  4. Performance of Denitrifying Microbial Fuel Cell with Biocathode over Nitrite

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huimin; Zhao, Jianqiang; Li, Fenghai; Li, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) with nitrite as an electron acceptor in cathode provided a new technology for nitrogen removal and electricity production simultaneously. The influences of influent nitrite concentration and external resistance on the performance of denitrifying MFC were investigated. The optimal effectiveness were obtained with the maximum total nitrogen (TN) removal rate of 54.80 ± 0.01 g m−3 d−1. It would be rather desirable for the TN removal than electricity generation at lower external resistance. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum, accounting for 35.72%. Thiobacillus and Afipia might benefit to nitrite removal. The presence of nitrifying Devosia indicated that nitrite was oxidized to nitrate via a biochemical mechanism in the cathode. Ignavibacterium and Anaerolineaceae was found in the cathode as a heterotrophic bacterium with sodium acetate as substrate, which illustrated that sodium acetate in anode was likely permeated through proton exchange membrane to the cathode. PMID:27047462

  5. Optical sorting and cultivation of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation archaea

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xiaoqiong; Carberry, David M.; Cai, Chen; Hu, Shihu; Yuan, Zhiguo; Dunlop, Halin Rubinsztein; Guo, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidizing (DAMO) microorganisms play an important role in the global carbon and nitrogen cycles as they are able to mediate methane oxidation using nitrite/nitrate under anoxic conditions. However, the physiological properties of DAMO microorganisms remain poorly understood, partially since the organisms are difficult to isolate or cultivate in pure culture and partially because of their long cultivation time. In this study, DAMO cell sorting has been conducted by integrating optical tweezers within enclosed microfluidic chips. This integrated cell sorting method has high purity, low infection rates, and causes no discernable harm to cell viability. The purity of the sorted cells was controlled by the microfluidic chip structure design and operation, while the cell viability was verified by imaging the cultured DAMO archaea after 420 days. PMID:28270994

  6. Imprint of denitrifying bacteria on the global terrestrial biosphere.

    PubMed

    Houlton, Benjamin Z; Bai, Edith

    2009-12-22

    Loss of nitrogen (N) from land limits the uptake and storage of atmospheric CO(2) by the biosphere, influencing Earth's climate system and myriads of the global ecological functions and services on which humans rely. Nitrogen can be lost in both dissolved and gaseous phases; however, the partitioning of these vectors remains controversial. Particularly uncertain is whether the bacterial conversion of plant available N to gaseous forms (denitrification) plays a major role in structuring global N supplies in the nonagrarian centers of Earth. Here, we use the isotope composition of N ((15)N/(14)N) to constrain the transfer of this nutrient from the land to the water and atmosphere. We report that the integrated (15)N/(14)N of the natural terrestrial biosphere is elevated with respect to that of atmospheric N inputs. This cannot be explained by preferential loss of (14)N to waterways; rather, it reflects a history of low (15)N/(14)N gaseous N emissions to the atmosphere owing to denitrifying bacteria in the soil. Parameterizing a simple model with global N isotope data, we estimate that soil denitrification (including N(2)) accounts for approximately 1/3 of the total N lost from the unmanaged terrestrial biosphere. Applying this fraction to estimates of N inputs, N(2)O and NO(x) fluxes, we calculate that approximately 28 Tg of N are lost annually via N(2) efflux from the natural soil. These results place isotopic constraints on the widely held belief that denitrifying bacteria account for a significant fraction of the missing N in the global N cycle.

  7. Kinetics of Denitrifying Growth by Fast-Growing Cowpea Rhizobia

    PubMed Central

    El Hassan, G. A.; Zablotowicz, R. M.; Focht, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    Two fast-growing strains of cowpea rhizobia (A26 and A28) were found to grow anaerobically at the expense of NO3−, NO2−, and N2O as terminal electron acceptors. The two major differences between aerobic and denitrifying growth were lower yield coefficients (Y) and higher saturation constants (Ks) with nitrogenous oxides as electron acceptors. When grown aerobically, A26 and A28 adhered to Monod kinetics, respectively, as follows: Ks, 3.4 and 3.8 μM; Y, 16.0 and 14.0 g · cells eq−1; μmax, 0.41 and 0.33 h−1. Yield coefficients for denitrifying growth ranged from 40 to 70% of those for aerobic growth. Only A26 adhered to Monod kinetics with respect to growth on all three nitrogenous oxides. The apparent Ks values were 41, 270, and 460 μM for nitrous oxide, nitrate, and nitrite, respectively; the Ks for A28 grown on nitrate was 250 μM. The results are kinetically and thermodynamically consistent in explaining why O2 is the preferred electron acceptor. Although no definitive conclusions could be drawn regarding preferential utilization of nitrogenous oxides, nitrite was inhibitory to both strains and effected slower growth. However, growth rates were identical (μmax, 0.41 h−1) when A26 was grown with either O2 or NO3− as an electron acceptor and were only slightly reduced when A28 was grown with NO3− (0.25 h−1) as opposed to O2 (0.33 h−1). PMID:16346745

  8. Imprint of denitrifying bacteria on the global terrestrial biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Houlton, Benjamin Z.; Bai, Edith

    2009-01-01

    Loss of nitrogen (N) from land limits the uptake and storage of atmospheric CO2 by the biosphere, influencing Earth's climate system and myriads of the global ecological functions and services on which humans rely. Nitrogen can be lost in both dissolved and gaseous phases; however, the partitioning of these vectors remains controversial. Particularly uncertain is whether the bacterial conversion of plant available N to gaseous forms (denitrification) plays a major role in structuring global N supplies in the nonagrarian centers of Earth. Here, we use the isotope composition of N (15N/14N) to constrain the transfer of this nutrient from the land to the water and atmosphere. We report that the integrated 15N/14N of the natural terrestrial biosphere is elevated with respect to that of atmospheric N inputs. This cannot be explained by preferential loss of 14N to waterways; rather, it reflects a history of low 15N/14N gaseous N emissions to the atmosphere owing to denitrifying bacteria in the soil. Parameterizing a simple model with global N isotope data, we estimate that soil denitrification (including N2) accounts for ≈1/3 of the total N lost from the unmanaged terrestrial biosphere. Applying this fraction to estimates of N inputs, N2O and NOx fluxes, we calculate that ≈28 Tg of N are lost annually via N2 efflux from the natural soil. These results place isotopic constraints on the widely held belief that denitrifying bacteria account for a significant fraction of the missing N in the global N cycle. PMID:19995974

  9. The seasonal dynamics of yeast communities in the rhizosphere of soddy-podzolic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubtsova, Yu. V.; Glushakova, A. M.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2007-08-01

    The annual dynamics of the number and taxonomic composition of yeast was studied in the rhizosphere of two plant species (Ajuga reptans L. and Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) in a forb-birch forest on soddy-podzolic soil. Eurybiont phyllobasidial cryptococci and red-pigmented phytobionts Rhodotorula glutinis were found to predominate in the phyllosphere of these plants, whereas the typical pedobionts Cryptococcus terricola and Cr. podzolicus occurred on the surface of roots and in the rhizosphere. The seasonal changes in the number and species composition of the yeast communities in the rhizosphere were more smooth as compared to those in the phyllosphere. In the period of active vegetation of the plants, the phytobiont yeasts develop over their whole surface, including the rhizoplane. Their number on the aboveground parts of the plants was significantly lower than that of the pedobiont forms. Thus, the above-and underground parts of the plants significantly differed in the composition of the dominant species of epiphytic yeasts.

  10. Characterization of selected groups of microorganisms occurring in soil rhizosphere and phyllosphere of oats.

    PubMed

    Rekosz-Burlaga, Hanna; Garbolińska, Magdalena

    2006-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the microflora of phyllosphere and soil rhizosphere of hulled (Chwat variety) and naked (Akt variety) oats. The material taken for study embraced samples of leaves and soil rhizosphere taken from cultivations differing in extent of nitrogen fertilization. The studies involved determination of total number of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudomonas and microscopic hyphal fungi. Qualitative determinations focused on bacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter and Azospirillum were also made. Our results point to differences in number of microscopic hyphal fungi in the phyllosphere of both varieties of oats, depending on nitrogen fertilization dose. However, there were no significant differences in the number of bacteria of the different genera determined in the phyllosphere and rhizosphere. Strains of oligonitrophilic and diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from samples of the phyllosphere of oats and their N2-fixing activity was determined by the acetylene reduction method using gas chromatography.

  11. Mapping the Centimeter-Scale Spatial Variability of PAHs and Microbial Populations in the Rhizosphere of Two Plants

    PubMed Central

    Bourceret, Amélia; Leyval, Corinne; de Fouquet, Chantal; Cébron, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    Rhizoremediation uses root development and exudation to favor microbial activity. Thus it can enhance polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biodegradation in contaminated soils. Spatial heterogeneity of rhizosphere processes, mainly linked to the root development stage and to the plant species, could explain the contrasted rhizoremediation efficiency levels reported in the literature. Aim of the present study was to test if spatial variability in the whole plant rhizosphere, explored at the centimetre-scale, would influence the abundance of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi), and the abundance and activity of PAH-degrading bacteria, leading to spatial variability in PAH concentrations. Two contrasted rhizospheres were compared after 37 days of alfalfa or ryegrass growth in independent rhizotron devices. Almost all spiked PAHs were degraded, and the density of the PAH-degrading bacterial populations increased in both rhizospheres during the incubation period. Mapping of multiparametric data through geostatistical estimation (kriging) revealed that although root biomass was spatially structured, PAH distribution was not. However a greater variability of the PAH content was observed in the rhizosphere of alfalfa. Yet, in the ryegrass-planted rhizotron, the Gram-positive PAH-degraders followed a reverse depth gradient to root biomass, but were positively correlated to the soil pH and carbohydrate concentrations. The two rhizospheres structured the microbial community differently: a fungus-to-bacterium depth gradient similar to the root biomass gradient only formed in the alfalfa rhizotron. PMID:26599438

  12. BIODEGRADATION OF AROMATIC COMPOUNDS UNDER MIXED OXYGEN/DENITRIFYING CONDITIONS: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons in groundwater and sediments is often limited by dissolved oxygen. Many aromatic hydrocarbons degrade very slowly or not at all under anaerobic conditions. Nitrate is a good alternative electron acceptor to oxygen, and denitrifying bacteria...

  13. INHIBITION OF ALKYLBENZENE BIODEGRADATION UNDER DENITRIFYING CONDITIONS BY USING THE ACETYLENE BLOCK TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Addition of acetylene to microcosms simultaneously amended with nitrate and alkylbenzenes resulted in inhibition of the rate of alkylbenzene biodegradation under denitrifying conditions. Toluene, xylenes, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were recalcitrant, whereas ethylbenzene was degr...

  14. BIODEGRADATION OF AROMATIC COMPOUNDS UNDER MIXED OXYGEN/DENITRIFYING CONDITIONS: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons in groundwater and sediments is often limited by dissolved oxygen. Many aromatic hydrocarbons degrade very slowly or not at all under anaerobic conditions. Nitrate is a good alternative electron acceptor to oxygen, and denitrifying bacteria...

  15. Rhizospheric soil enzyme activities and phytominimg potential of Aeluropus lagopoides and Cyperus conglomeratus growing in contaminated soils at the banks of artificial lake of reclaimed wastewater.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Zahid Khorshid

    2017-04-24

    This work investigates the phytoremediation potential of Aeluropus lagopoides and Cyperus conglomeratus, growing indigenously in the vicinity of artificial lake of reclaimed water in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. The sampling sites were located at different distance from the waste water treatment plants. Trace metal contents were higher in roots than shoots in both these plants. Soil urease activity in rhizophere increased linearly along the sampling sites, however, soil alkaline phosphatase and β-glucosidase activities was greater at site 2 but were declined at site 3. Significant correlations were observed between soil urease activity and BCF of Cd, Cu, Pb and As in A. lagopoides and TF for all metals in both these plants. Soil β-glucosidase activity was negatively correlated with the TF of Cd, Cu, Pb and As in A. lagopoides and positively in C. conglomeratus, respectively. A. lagopoides growing at all three sampling locations have highest BCF of Cd, Cu and Pb and suitable for phytostabilization while C. conglomeratus showed better phytostabilization efficiency for As at site 3. On the basis of metal accumulation pattern and soil urease and β-glucosidase activities, A. lagopoides species proved to be a better option for application in phytostabilization strategy than C. conglomeratus plants.

  16. Bioaugmentation and rhizosphere-assisted biodegradation as strategies for optimization of the dissipation capacity of biobeds.

    PubMed

    Campos, M; Perruchon, C; Karas, P A; Karavasilis, D; Diez, M C; Karpouzas, D G

    2017-02-01

    Biobeds are on-farm biodepuration systems whose efficiency rely on their high pesticide biodegradation capacity. We evaluated two optimization strategies, bioaugmentation and/or rhizosphere-assisted biodegradation, to maximize the dissipation capacity of biobeds. Iprodione was used as a model pesticide. Its dissipation and metabolism was determined in a biobed packing material inoculated with an iprodione-degrading Arthrobacter strain C1 (bioaugmentation, treatments B+C1) and/or seeded with ryegrass (rhizosphere-assisted biodegradation, treatments B+P). The impact of those strategies on the activity and composition of the microbial community was determined. Bioaugmentation accelerated the dissipation of iprodione which was further enhanced in the bioaugmented, rhizosphere-assisted treatment (treatment B+P+C1, Half-life (DT50) = 3.4 d), compared to the non-bioaugmented, non rhizosphere-assisted control (DT50 = 9.5 d, treatment B). Bioaugmentation resulted in the earlier formation of intermediate formation of metabolites I (3,5-dichlorophenyl-carboxamide), II (3,5-dichlorophenylurea acetate) and 3,5-dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA). The latter was further dissipated by the indigenous microbial community. Acid phosphatase (AP) and β-glucosidase (GLU) were temporarily stimulated in rhizosphere-assisted treatments, whereas a stimulation of the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolytic activity in the bioaugmented treatments coincided with the hydrolysis of iprodione. q-PCR showed that changes in the abundance of alpha-proteobacteria and firmicutes was driven by the presence of rhizosphere while bioaugmentation had no significant effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The speciation of water-soluble Al and Zn in the rhizosphere of forest soils.

    PubMed

    Cloutier-Hurteau, Benoît; Turmel, Marie-Claude; Sauvé, Sébastien; Courchesne, François

    2010-06-01

    This study focuses on the relationships of dissolved Al and Zn speciation with microbial and chemical soil properties in the bulk and rhizosphere of forest soils. The soil components were sampled under Populus tremuloides Michx. at six sites located close to industrial facilities. Total water-soluble (Al(WS), Zn(WS)) and reactive (Al(R), Zn(R)) Al and Zn concentrations measured in soil water extracts, speciation data modeled by WHAM 6, chemical properties (pH, DOC, major cations and anions) and microbial properties (microbial biomass and enzyme activities) were measured on all soils. Enrichment in Al(R) and Zn(R) was observed in the rhizosphere compared to bulk soils. In a given soil material, the speciation of Al and Zn varied according to solution pH and Al-organic as well as Zn-organic complexes or Zn(2+) were generally the dominant species. The factors controlling the Al(WS), Zn(WS), Al(R) and Zn(R) concentrations differed between soil components, shifting from strictly chemical in the bulk (78%) to interactions among microbial and chemical variables in the rhizosphere (87%). Results further indicate that organic matter and pH were significantly linked to these response variables in the rhizosphere. Involvement of rhizospheric microorganisms occurred via pH changes induced by either the microbial assimilation of nitrogen or through the release of metals during the mineralization of roots. Our results therefore suggest that microbial activity is an important component of the biogeochemistry of Al and Zn in the rhizosphere. The study further provides key information to improve the assessment of ecological risk associated to Al and Zn in forest soils.

  18. Quantitative response of nitrifying and denitrifying communities to environmental variables in a full-scale membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Silván, C; Vílchez-Vargas, R; Arévalo, J; Gómez, M A; González-López, J; Pieper, D H; Rodelas, B

    2014-10-01

    The abundance and transcription levels of specific gene markers of total bacteria, ammonia-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrospira-like) and denitrifiers (N2O-reducers) were analyzed using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and reverse-transcription qPCR during 9 months in a full-scale membrane bioreactor treating urban wastewater. A stable community of N-removal key players was developed; however, the abundance of active populations experienced sharper shifts, demonstrating their fast adaptation to changing conditions. Despite constituting a small percentage of the total bacterial community, the larger abundances of active populations of nitrifiers explained the high N-removal accomplished by the MBR. Multivariate analyses revealed that temperature, accumulation of volatile suspended solids in the sludge, BOD5, NH4(+) concentration and C/N ratio of the wastewater contributed significantly (23-38%) to explain changes in the abundance of nitrifiers and denitrifiers. However, each targeted group showed different responses to shifts in these parameters, evidencing the complexity of the balance among them for successful biological N-removal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Allelochemicals from the Rhizosphere Soil of Cultivated Astragalus hoantchy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kai; He, Xiaofeng; Yan, Zhiqiang; Li, Xiuzhuang; Ren, Xia; Pan, Le; Qin, Bo

    2016-05-04

    Astragalus hoantchy, a widely cultivated medicinal plant species in traditional Chinese and Mongolian medicine, has been often hampered by replant failure during cultivation, like many other herbs of the genus Astragalus. Root aqueous extracts of Astragalus herbs were reported to exhibit allelopathic activity against other plants and autotoxic activity on their own seedlings, but the allelochemicals released by Astragalus plants have not been specified so far. Ten compounds were isolated from the rhizosphere soil extract of cultivated A. hoantchy and elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-6 observably showed allelopathic activity against Lactuca sativa seedlings and autotoxic activity against A. hoantchy seedlings. The isolated compounds were further confirmed and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the rhizosphere soil, with a total concentration of 9.78 μg/g (dry weight). These results specify and verify the allelochemicals released by cultivated A. hoantchy into the soil environment, which may provide new insights into the allelopathic mechanisms of this medicinal plant and probably assist in clarifying the replant problems of Astragalus plants.

  20. Identification of the autotrophic denitrifying community in nitrate removal reactors by DNA-stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Xing, Wei; Li, Jinlong; Cong, Yuan; Gao, Wei; Jia, Zhongjun; Li, Desheng

    2017-04-01

    Autotrophic denitrification has attracted increasing attention for wastewater with insufficient organic carbon sources. Nevertheless, in situ identification of autotrophic denitrifying communities in reactors remains challenging. Here, a process combining micro-electrolysis and autotrophic denitrification with high nitrate removal efficiency was presented. Two batch reactors were fed organic-free nitrate influent, with H(13)CO3(-) and H(12)CO3(-) as inorganic carbon sources. DNA-based stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) was used to obtain molecular evidence for autotrophic denitrifying communities. The results showed that the nirS gene was strongly labeled by H(13)CO3(-), demonstrating that the inorganic carbon source was assimilated by autotrophic denitrifiers. High-throughput sequencing and clone library analysis identified Thiobacillus-like bacteria as the most dominant autotrophic denitrifiers. However, 88% of nirS genes cloned from the (13)C-labeled "heavy" DNA fraction showed low similarity with all culturable denitrifiers. These findings provided functional and taxonomical identification of autotrophic denitrifying communities, facilitating application of autotrophic denitrification process for wastewater treatment.

  1. Buffet hypothesis for microbial nutrition at the rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    López-Guerrero, Martha G.; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rosenblueth, Mónica; Martinez-Romero, Julio; Martïnez-Romero, Esperanza

    2013-01-01

    An emphasis is made on the diversity of nutrients that rhizosphere bacteria may encounter derived from roots, soil, decaying organic matter, seeds, or the microbial community. This nutrient diversity may be considered analogous to a buffet and is contrasting to the hypothesis of oligotrophy at the rhizosphere. Different rhizosphere bacteria may have preferences for some substrates and this would allow a complex community to be established at the rhizosphere. To profit from diverse nutrients, root-associated bacteria should have large degrading capabilities and many transporters (seemingly inducible) that may be encoded in a significant proportion of the large genomes that root-associated bacteria have. Rhizosphere microbes may have a tendency to evolve toward generalists. We propose that many genes with unknown function may encode enzymes that participate in degrading diverse rhizosphere substrates. Knowledge of bacterial genes required for nutrition at the rhizosphere will help to make better use of bacteria as plant-growth promoters in agriculture. PMID:23785373

  2. Pyrosequencing assessment of rhizosphere fungal communities from a soybean field.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Ueda, Yoshikatsu; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2014-10-01

    Soil fungal communities play essential roles in soil ecosystems, affecting plant growth and health. Rhizosphere bacterial communities have been shown to undergo dynamic changes during plant growth. This study utilized 454 pyrosequencing to analyze rhizosphere fungal communities during soybean growth. Members of the Ascomycota and Basiodiomycota dominated in all soils. There were no statistically significant changes at the phylum level among growth stages or between bulk and rhizosphere soils. In contrast, the relative abundance of small numbers of operational taxonomic units, 4 during growth and 28 between bulk and rhizosphere soils, differed significantly. Clustering analysis revealed that rhizosphere fungal communities were different from bulk fungal communities during growth stages of soybeans. Taken together, these results suggest that in contrast to rhizosphere bacterial communities, most constituents of rhizosphere fungal communities remained stable during soybean growth.

  3. A Small Number of Low-abundance Bacteria Dominate Plant Species-specific Responses during Rhizosphere Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Wayne; Hör, Jens; Egert, Markus; van Kleunen, Mark; Pester, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Plant growth can be affected by soil bacteria. In turn, plants are known to influence soil bacteria through rhizodeposits and changes in abiotic conditions. We aimed to quantify the phylotype richness and relative abundance of rhizosphere bacteria that are actually influenced in a plant species-specific manner and to determine the role of the disproportionately large diversity of low-abundance bacteria belonging to the rare biosphere (<0.1 relative abundance) in this process. In addition, we aimed to determine whether plant phylogeny has an influence on the plant species-specific rhizosphere bacterial community. For this purpose, 19 herbaceous plant species from five different plant orders were grown in a common soil substrate. Bacterial communities in the initial soil substrate and the established rhizosphere soils were compared by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Only a small number of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 97% sequence identity) responded either positively (ca. 1%) or negatively (ca. 1%) to a specific plant species. On average, 91% of plant-specific positive response OTUs comprised bacteria belonging to the rare biosphere, highlighting that low-abundance populations are metabolically active in the rhizosphere. In addition, low-abundance OTUs were in terms of their summed relative abundance major drivers of the bacterial phyla composition across the rhizosphere of all tested plant species. However, no effect of plant phylogeny could be observed on the established rhizosphere bacterial communities, neither when considering differences in the overall established rhizosphere communities nor when considering plant species-specific responders only. Our study provides a quantitative assessment of the effect of plants on their rhizosphere bacteria across multiple plant orders. Plant species-specific effects on soil bacterial communities involved only 18–111 bacterial OTUs out of several 1000s; this minority may potentially impact plant growth

  4. A Small Number of Low-abundance Bacteria Dominate Plant Species-specific Responses during Rhizosphere Colonization.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Wayne; Hör, Jens; Egert, Markus; van Kleunen, Mark; Pester, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Plant growth can be affected by soil bacteria. In turn, plants are known to influence soil bacteria through rhizodeposits and changes in abiotic conditions. We aimed to quantify the phylotype richness and relative abundance of rhizosphere bacteria that are actually influenced in a plant species-specific manner and to determine the role of the disproportionately large diversity of low-abundance bacteria belonging to the rare biosphere (<0.1 relative abundance) in this process. In addition, we aimed to determine whether plant phylogeny has an influence on the plant species-specific rhizosphere bacterial community. For this purpose, 19 herbaceous plant species from five different plant orders were grown in a common soil substrate. Bacterial communities in the initial soil substrate and the established rhizosphere soils were compared by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Only a small number of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 97% sequence identity) responded either positively (ca. 1%) or negatively (ca. 1%) to a specific plant species. On average, 91% of plant-specific positive response OTUs comprised bacteria belonging to the rare biosphere, highlighting that low-abundance populations are metabolically active in the rhizosphere. In addition, low-abundance OTUs were in terms of their summed relative abundance major drivers of the bacterial phyla composition across the rhizosphere of all tested plant species. However, no effect of plant phylogeny could be observed on the established rhizosphere bacterial communities, neither when considering differences in the overall established rhizosphere communities nor when considering plant species-specific responders only. Our study provides a quantitative assessment of the effect of plants on their rhizosphere bacteria across multiple plant orders. Plant species-specific effects on soil bacterial communities involved only 18-111 bacterial OTUs out of several 1000s; this minority may potentially impact plant growth in

  5. Coexistence of nitrifying, anammox and denitrifying bacteria in a sequencing batch reactor

    PubMed Central

    Langone, Michela; Yan, Jia; Haaijer, Suzanne C. M.; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Andreottola, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen removal efficiencies from ammonium-rich wastewaters have been demonstrated by several applications, that combine nitritation and anammox processes. Denitrification will occur simultaneously when organic carbon is also present. In this study, the activity of aerobic ammonia oxidizing, anammox and denitrifying bacteria in a full scale sequencing batch reactor, treating digester supernatants, was studied by means of batch-assays. AOB and anammox activities were maximum at pH of 8.0 and 7.8–8.0, respectively. Short term effect of nitrite on anammox activity was studied, showing nitrite up to 42 mg/L did not result in inhibition. Both denitrification via nitrate and nitrite were measured. To reduce nitrite-oxidizing activity, high NH3-N (1.9–10 mg NH3-N/L) and low nitrite (3–8 mg TNN/L) are required conditions during the whole SBR cycle. Molecular analysis showed the nitritation-anammox sludge harbored a high microbial diversity, where each microorganism has a specific role. Using ammonia monooxygenase α–subunit (amoA) gene as a marker, our analyses suggested different macro- and micro-environments in the reactor strongly affect the AOB community, allowing the development of different AOB species, such as N. europaea/eutropha and N. oligotropha groups, which improve the stability of nitritation process. A specific PCR primer set, used to target the 16S rRNA gene of anammox bacteria, confirmed the presence of the “Ca. Brocadia fulgida” type, able to grow in presence of organic matter and to tolerate high nitrite concentrations. The diversity of denitrifiers was assessed by using dissimilatory nitrite reductase (nirS) gene-based analyses, who showed denitifiers were related to different betaproteobacterial genera, such as Thauera, Pseudomonas, Dechloromonas and Aromatoleum, able to assist in forming microbial aggregates. Concerning possible secondary processes, no n-damo bacteria were found while NOB from the genus Nitrobacter was detected

  6. Metabolic potential and community structure of endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria associated with the roots of the halophyte Aster tripolium L.

    PubMed

    Szymańska, Sonia; Płociniczak, Tomasz; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia; Złoch, Michał; Ruppel, Silke; Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The submitted work assumes that the abundance and diversity of endophytic and rhizosphere microorganisms co-existing with the halophytic plant Aster tripolium L. growing in a salty meadow in the vicinity of a soda factory (central Poland) represent unique populations of cultivable bacterial strains. Endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria were (i) isolated and identified based on 16S rDNA sequences; (ii) screened for nifH and acdS genes; and (iii) analyzed based on selected metabolic properties. Moreover, total microbial biomass and community structures of the roots (endophytes), rhizosphere and soil were evaluated using a cultivation-independent technique (PLFA) to characterize plant-microbial interactions under natural salt conditions. The identification of the isolated strains showed domination by Gram-positive bacteria (mostly Bacillus spp.) both in the rhizosphere (90.9%) and roots (72.7%) of A. tripolium. Rhizosphere bacterial strains exhibited broader metabolic capacities, while endophytes exhibited higher specificities for metabolic activity. The PLFA analysis showed that the total bacterial biomass decreased in the following order (rhizosphere

  7. Teaching Plant-Soil Relationships with Color Images of Rhizosphere pH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckman, J. R.; Strick, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise that uses a simple imaging technique to illustrate the profound effects that living roots exert on the pH of the surrounding soil environment. Achieves visually stimulating results that can be used to reinforce lectures on rhizosphere pH, nutrient availability, plant tolerance of soil acidity, microbial activity, and…

  8. Enhanced degradation of Herbicide Isoproturon in wheat rhizosphere by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi Chen; Zhang, Shuang; Miao, Shan Shan; Jiang, Chen; Huang, Meng Tian; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-14

    This study investigated the herbicide isoproturon (IPU) residues in soil, where wheat was cultivated and sprayed with salicylic acid (SA). Provision of SA led to a lower level of IPU residues in rhizosphere soil compared to IPU treatment alone. Root exudation of tartaric acid, malic acid, and oxalic acids was enhanced in rhizosphere soil with SA-treated wheat. We examined the microbial population (e.g., biomass and phospholipid fatty acid), microbial structure, and soil enzyme (catalase, phenol oxidase, and dehydrogenase) activities, all of which are associated with soil activity and were activated in rhizosphere soil of SA-treated wheat roots. We further assessed the correlation matrix and principal component to figure out the association between the IPU degradation and soil activity. Finally, six IPU degraded products (derivatives) in rhizosphere soil were characterized using ultraperformance liquid chromatography with a quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS). A relatively higher level of IPU derivatives was identified in soil with SA-treated wheat than in soil without SA-treated wheat plants.

  9. Teaching Plant-Soil Relationships with Color Images of Rhizosphere pH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckman, J. R.; Strick, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise that uses a simple imaging technique to illustrate the profound effects that living roots exert on the pH of the surrounding soil environment. Achieves visually stimulating results that can be used to reinforce lectures on rhizosphere pH, nutrient availability, plant tolerance of soil acidity, microbial activity, and…

  10. Rhizosphere Priming is as Crucial as Temperature and Water in Regulating Soil C-N Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, W.

    2012-12-01

    When rootless soils are used in our experiments, we normally assume that rootless soils function in the same way as soils with roots. However, this assumption has become a major issue, as the rhizosphere priming effect (defined as the stimulation or suppression of soil organic matter decomposition by live roots) is increasingly recognized as a key mechanism regulating C release and N mineralization. Results from CO2-enrichment experiments suggest that the rhizosphere priming effect is crucial in regulating soil organic C storage and N mobilization. There has been a major surprise in some recent studies of the effects of elevated CO2 on soil C and N storage. Based on commonly reported findings of higher net primary production and greater organic C inputs belowground under elevated CO2, a significant increase in soil organic carbon storage has been widely expected. However, several studies provide opposing evidence, where soil organic C storage declined when ecosystems were exposed to elevated CO2. All these studies point to the rhizosphere priming effect as a key mechanism causing soil C loss. Based on laboratory investigations, many biotic and abiotic variables can alter the degree of rhizosphere priming. These variables include plant species, plant phenology, aboveground plant biomass, photosynthetic activity, nutrient level, soil water content, elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, root nitrogen content, and soil warming. The rhizosphere priming effect can reduce the rate of SOM decomposition by 50% or accelerate it up to four-fold, depending on plant-soil couplings and experimental conditions. Overall, the magnitude of the rhizosphere priming effect on soil organic matter decomposition is similar to the effects of temperature and soil moisture, therefore should be considered in all major global models with the same level of attention.

  11. [Effects of tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping on tobacco yield and rhizosphere soil phosphorus fractions].

    PubMed

    Tang, Biao; Zhang, Xi-zhou; Yang, Xian-bin

    2015-07-01

    A field plot experiment was conducted to investigate the tobacco yield and different forms of soil phosphorus under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping patterns. The results showed that compared with tobacco monoculture, the tobacco yield and proportion of middle/high class of tobacco leaves to total leaves were significantly increased in tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping, and the rhizosphere soil available phosphorus contents were 1.3 and 1.7 times as high as that of tobacco monoculture at mature stage of lower leaf. For the inorganic phosphorus in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil in different treatments, the contents of O-P and Fe-P were the highest, followed by Ca2-P and Al-P, and Ca8-P and Ca10-P were the lowest. Compared with tobacco monoculture and tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the Ca2-P concentration in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation at mature stage of upper leaf, the Ca8-P concentration at mature stage of lower leaf, and the Ca10-P concentration at mature stage of middle leaf were lowest. The Al-P concentrations under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were 1.6 and 1.9 times, and 1.2 and 1.9 times as much as that under tobacco monoculture in rhizosphere soil at mature stages of lower leaf and middle leaf, respectively. The O-P concentrations in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were significantly lower than that under tobacco monoculture. Compared with tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the tobacco garlic crop rotation could better improve tobacco yield and the proportion of high and middle class leaf by activating O-P, Ca10-P and resistant organic phosphorus in soil.

  12. Different responses of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil microbial communities to consecutive Piper nigrum L. monoculture

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhigang; Zu, Chao; Wang, Can; Yang, Jianfeng; Yu, Huan; Wu, Huasong

    2016-01-01

    Soil microorganisms have important influences on plant growth and health. In this study, four black pepper fields consecutively monocultured for 12, 18, 28 and 38 years were selected for investigating the effect of planting age on rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil microbial communities and soil physicochemical properties. The results revealed that the relative abundance of the dominant bacterial phyla in rhizosphere soil increased considerably with long-term consecutive monoculture but decreased in non-rhizosphere soil with a significant decline in Firmicutes. For fungi, an increasing trend over time was observed in both rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils, with the abundance of the pathogenic fungi Fusarium increasing significantly accompanied by a decrease in the bacteria Pseudomonas and Bacillus that is beneficial for black pepper. Consecutive monoculture, especially for 38 years, considerably decreased soil microbial diversity. Additionally, the rhizosphere soil pH and organic matter and available K contents decreased with increasing planting duration, though available N and P increased. All soil nutrient contents and microbial diversity indices were higher in rhizosphere soil compared to non-rhizosphere soil. The results suggest that long-term consecutive monoculture leads to variations in soil microbial community composition and physicochemical properties in both rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils, thus inhibiting the black pepper growth. PMID:27775000

  13. Different responses of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil microbial communities to consecutive Piper nigrum L. monoculture.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Zu, Chao; Wang, Can; Yang, Jianfeng; Yu, Huan; Wu, Huasong

    2016-10-24

    Soil microorganisms have important influences on plant growth and health. In this study, four black pepper fields consecutively monocultured for 12, 18, 28 and 38 years were selected for investigating the effect of planting age on rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil microbial communities and soil physicochemical properties. The results revealed that the relative abundance of the dominant bacterial phyla in rhizosphere soil increased considerably with long-term consecutive monoculture but decreased in non-rhizosphere soil with a significant decline in Firmicutes. For fungi, an increasing trend over time was observed in both rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils, with the abundance of the pathogenic fungi Fusarium increasing significantly accompanied by a decrease in the bacteria Pseudomonas and Bacillus that is beneficial for black pepper. Consecutive monoculture, especially for 38 years, considerably decreased soil microbial diversity. Additionally, the rhizosphere soil pH and organic matter and available K contents decreased with increasing planting duration, though available N and P increased. All soil nutrient contents and microbial diversity indices were higher in rhizosphere soil compared to non-rhizosphere soil. The results suggest that long-term consecutive monoculture leads to variations in soil microbial community composition and physicochemical properties in both rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils, thus inhibiting the black pepper growth.

  14. Denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter dominate bacterial communities in the highly contaminated subsurface of a nuclear legacy waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Stefan; Prakash, Om; Jasrotia, Puja; Overholt, Will; Cardenas, Erick; Hubbard, Daniela; Tiedje, James M.; Watson, David B; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Brooks, Scott C; Kostka, Joel

    2011-01-01

    The effect of long-term mixed-waste contamination, particularly uranium and nitrate, on the microbial community in the terrestrial subsurface was investigated at the field scale at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site in Oak Ridge, TN. The abundance, community composition, and distribution of groundwater microorganisms were examined across the site during two seasonal sampling events. At representative locations, subsurface sediment was also examined from two boreholes, one sampled from the most heavily contaminated area of the site and another from an area with low contamination. A suite of DNA- and RNA-based molecular tools were employed for community characterization, including quantitative PCR of ribosomal RNA and nitrite reductase genes, community composition fingerprinting analysis, and high-throughput pyrotag sequencing of rRNA genes. The results demonstrate that pH is a major driver of the subsurface microbial community structure, and denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter (class Gammaproteobacteria) dominate at low pH. The relative abundance of bacteria from this genus was positively correlated with lower pH conditions, and these bacteria were abundant and active in the most highly contaminated areas. Other factors, such as concentration of nitrogen species, oxygen and sampling season did not appear to strongly influence the distribution of Rhodanobacter. Results indicate that these organisms are acid-tolerant denitrifiers, well suited to the acidic, nitrate-rich subsurface conditions, and pH is confirmed as a dominant driver of bacterial community structure in this contaminated subsurface environment.

  15. Effect of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate as inorganic carbon sources on growth and adaptation of autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ghafari, Shahin; Hasan, Masitah; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine

    2009-03-15

    Acclimation of autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria using inorganic carbon source (CO(2) and bicarbonate) and hydrogen gas as electron donor was performed in this study. In this regard, activated sludge was used as the seed source and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technique was applied for accomplishing the acclimatization. Three distinct strategies in feeding of carbon sources were applied: (I) continuous sparging of CO(2), (II) bicarbonate plus continuous sparging of CO(2), and (III) only bicarbonate. The pH-reducing nature of CO(2) showed an unfavorable impact on denitrification rate; however bicarbonate resulted in a buffered environment in the mixed liquor and provided a suitable mean to maintain the pH in the desirable range of 7-8.2. As a result, bicarbonate as the only carbon source showed a faster adaptation, while carbon dioxide as the only carbon source as well as a complementary carbon source added to bicarbonate resulted in longer acclimation period. Adapted hydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria, using bicarbonate and hydrogen gas in the aforementioned pH range, caused denitrification at a rate of 13.33 mg NO(3)(-)-N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 20 and 30 mg NO(3)(-)-N/L and 9.09 mg NO(3)(-)-N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 50mg NO(3)(-)-N/L.

  16. Influence of bio-fertilizer containing beneficial fungi and rhizospheric bacteria on health promoting compounds and antioxidant activity of Spinacia oleracea L.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Muhammad; Hassani, Danial; Bilal, Muhammad; Asad, Fayaz; Huang, Danfeng

    2017-08-16

    This study evaluates the influences of bio fertilizers containing mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus fasciculatum, Glomus mosseae) individually or in combination with N-fixer (Azotobacter chroococcum), K solubilizer (Bacillus mucilaginous) and P solubilizer (Bacillus megaterium) on soil fertility and phytochemical levels of spinach. Root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi was increased in the presence of bacterial inoculation in comparison to individual inoculation treatments. Inoculation of bio fertilizer containing mycorrhizal fungi and bacterial species considerably augmented the concentration of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and phenolic acid contents. The 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity of spinach was found to be positively coincided with flavonoid contents, while partially correlated with total phenolic compounds and phenolic acids. Further, the HPLC analysis showed that significantly higher antioxidant activity of spinach was correlated with quercetin contents and chlorogenic acid. Chlorophyll contents were also increased following the bio fertilization treatments. Results revealed that these microbes are useful tool for improving health promoting compounds in spinach.

  17. The influence of phosphorus availability and Laccaria bicolor symbiosis on phosphate acquisition, antioxidant enzyme activity, and rhizospheric carbon flux in Populus tremuloides.

    PubMed

    Desai, Shalaka; Naik, Dhiraj; Cumming, Jonathan R

    2014-07-01

    Many forest tree species are dependent on their symbiotic interaction with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi for phosphorus (P) uptake from forest soils where P availability is often limited. The ECM fungal association benefits the host plant under P limitation through enhanced soil exploration and increased P acquisition by mycorrhizas. To study the P starvation response (PSR) and its modification by ECM fungi in Populus tremuloides, a comparison was made between nonmycorrhizal (NM) and mycorrhizal with Laccaria bicolor (Myc) seedlings grown under different concentrations of phosphate (Pi) in sand culture. Although differences in growth between NM and Myc plants were small, Myc plants were more effective at acquiring P from low Pi treatments, with significantly lower k m values for root and leaf P accumulation. Pi limitation significantly increased the activity of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and guaiacol-dependent peroxidase in leaves and roots to greater extents in NM than Myc P. tremuloides. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity also increased in NM plants under P limitation, but was unchanged in Myc plants. Formate, citrate, malonate, lactate, malate, and oxalate and total organic carbon exudation by roots was stimulated by P limitation to a greater extent in NM than Myc plants. Colonization by L. bicolor reduced the solution Pi concentration thresholds where PSR physiological changes occurred, indicating that enhanced Pi acquisition by P. tremuloides colonized by L. bicolor altered host P homeostasis and plant stress responses to P limitation. Understanding these plant-symbiont interactions facilitates the selection of more P-efficient forest trees and strategies for tree plantation production on marginal soils.

  18. Effects of warming and drought on potential N2O emissions and denitrifying bacteria abundance in grasslands with different land-use.

    PubMed

    Keil, Daniel; Niklaus, Pascal A; von Riedmatten, Lars R; Boeddinghaus, Runa S; Dormann, Carsten F; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Kandeler, Ellen; Marhan, Sven

    2015-07-01

    Increased warming in spring and prolonged summer drought may alter soil microbial denitrification. We measured potential denitrification activity and denitrifier marker gene abundances (nirK, nirS, nosZ) in grasslands soils in three geographic regions characterized by site-specific land-use indices (LUI) after warming in spring, at an intermediate sampling and after summer drought. Potential denitrification was significantly increased by warming, but did not persist over the intermediate sampling. At the intermediate sampling, the relevance of grassland land-use intensity was reflected by increased potential N2O production at sites with higher LUI. Abundances of total bacteria did not respond to experimental warming or drought treatments, displaying resilience to minor and short-term effects of climate change. In contrast, nirS- and nirK-type denitrifiers were more influenced by drought in combination with LUI and pH, while the nosZ abundance responded to the summer drought manipulation. Land-use was a strong driver for potential denitrification as grasslands with higher LUI also had greater potentials for N2O emissions. We conclude that both warming and drought affected the denitrifying communities and the potential denitrification in grassland soils. However, these effects are overruled by regional and site-specific differences in soil chemical and physical properties which are also related to grassland land-use intensity. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Emission of nitrous oxide and dinitrogen by diverse earthworm families from Brazil and resolution of associated denitrifying and nitrate-dissimilating taxa.

    PubMed

    Depkat-Jakob, Peter S; Brown, George G; Tsai, Siu M; Horn, Marcus A; Drake, Harold L

    2013-02-01

    The anoxic earthworm gut augments the activity of ingested microorganisms capable of anaerobiosis. Small earthworms (Lumbricidae) emit denitrification-derived N(2)O, whereas the large Octochaetus multiporus (Megascolecidae) does not. To examine this paradox, differently sized species of the families Glossoscolecidae (Rhinodrilus, Glossoscolex, Pontoscolex), Megascolecidae (Amynthas, Perionyx), Acanthodrilidae (Dichogaster), and Eudrilidae (Eudrilus) from Brazil were analyzed. Small species and the large Rhinodrilus alatus emitted N(2)O, whereas the large Glossoscolex paulistus did not, even though its gut could denitrify. N(2) and N(2)O were emitted concomitantly, and R. alatus emitted the highest amount of N(2). Denitrifiers and dissimilatory nitrate reducers were analyzed by barcoded amplicon pyrosequencing of narG, nirK, and nosZ. Gene sequences in gut and soil of the large G. paulistus were similar, whereas sequences in gut and soil of the small Amynthas gracilis were different and were also different compared with those of the gut and soil of G. paulistus. However, the denitrifying gut microbiota for both earthworms appeared to be soil-derived and dominated by Rhizobiales. The results demonstrated that (1) the emission of denitrification-derived N(2)O is widespread in different earthworm families, (2) large earthworms can also emit nitrogenous gases, and (3) ingested members of Rhizobiales are associated with this emission.

  20. [Effects of root-knot nematodes on cucumber leaf N and P contents, soil pH, and soil enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua; Ruan, Wei-Bin; Gao, Yu-Bao; Song, Xiao-Yan; Wei, Yu-Kun

    2010-08-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of inoculation with root-knot nematodes on the cucumber leaf N and P contents, and the rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil pH and enzyme activities. The rhizospheric soil pH didn't have a significant decrease until the inoculation rate reached 6000 eggs per plant. With the increase of inoculation rate, the leaf N and P contents, rhizospheric soil peroxidase activity, and rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil polyphenol oxidase activity all decreased gradually, rhizospheric soil catalase activity was in adverse, non-rhizospheric soil pH decreased after an initial increase, and non-rhizospheric soil catalase activity had no regular change. After inoculation, rhizospheric soil urease activity decreased significantly, but rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil phosphatase activity and non-rhizospheric soil peroxidase activity only had a significant decrease under high inoculation rate. In most cases, there existed significant correlations between rhizospheric soil pH, enzyme activities, and leaf N and P contents; and in some cases, there existed significant correlations between non-rhizospheric soil pH, enzyme activities, and leaf N and P contents.

  1. Mechanism of insoluble phosphate solubilization by Pseudomonas fluorescens RAF15 isolated from ginseng rhizosphere and its plant growth-promoting activities.

    PubMed

    Park, K-H; Lee, C-Y; Son, H-J

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the mechanism of insoluble phosphate (P) solubilization and plant growth-promoting activity by Pseudomonas fluorescens RAF15. We investigated the ability of Ps. fluorescens RAF15 to solubilize insoluble P via two possible mechanisms: proton excretion by ammonium assimilation and organic acid production. There were no clear differences in pH and P solubilization between glucose-ammonium and glucose-nitrate media. P solubilization was significantly promoted with glucose compared to fructose. Regardless of nitrogen sources used, Ps. fluorescens RAF15 solubilized little insoluble P with fructose. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that Ps. fluorescens RAF15 produced mainly gluconic and tartaric acids with small amounts of 2-ketogluconic, formic and acetic acids. During the culture, the pH was reduced with increase in gluconic acid concentration and was inversely correlated with soluble P concentration. Ps. fluorescens RAF1 showed the properties related to plant growth promotion: pectinase, protease, lipase, siderophore, hydrogen cyanide, and indoleacetic acid. This study indicated that the P solubility was directly correlated with the organic acids produced. Pseudomonas fluorescens RAF15 possessed different traits related to plant growth promotion. Therefore, Ps. fluorescens RAF15 could be a potential candidate for the development of biofertilizer or biocontrol agent.

  2. Biological denitrification of high strength nitrate waste using preadapted denitrifying sludge.

    PubMed

    Nair, Rashmi R; Dhamole, Pradip B; Lele, S S; D'Souza, Stanislaus F

    2007-04-01

    Denitrification of synthetic high nitrate waste containing 9032 ppm NO(3)-N (40,000 ppm NO(3)) in a time period of only 6h has been achieved in our previous study using activated sludge. The activated sludge culture was acclimatized by a stepwise increase in the nitrate concentration of synthetic waste. In the present work, studies were carried out on the changing microbial population of the sludge and the physiology of nitrate metabolism during the various stages of adaptation process to high strength synthetic nitrate waste. During the course of adaptation, with an increase in the nitrate concentration, a sharp increase in the number of denitrifiers was found with an equally rapid decrease in the nitrifying community. Two key enzymes involved in the first two steps of the denitrification process were also studied during this period. The results of the study suggest that specific enzyme levels increase as the activated sludge adapts itself to higher nitrate concentrations. Biological denitrification of high nitrate waste is a slow process and to increase the rate of denitrification, parameters such as pH, temperature, C:N and biomass concentration of the process were optimized using orthogonal array method. Optimized conditions increased the specific nitrate reduction rate by 54% and specific nitrite reduction rate by 45%.

  3. Adaptation of a phenol-degrading denitrifying bacteria to high concentration of phenol in the medium.

    PubMed

    Son, T T; Błaszczyk, M; Mycielski, R

    1998-01-01

    The growth and uptake of phenol by 8 strains isolated from wastewater sediments in stationary cultures in medium with increasing concentrations of phenol (from 100 to 600 mg/L) under denitrifying conditions were studied. All the strains grew in media containing 250 mg phenol/L and only strains 101/1, 83/2 and 21/1/ in consecutive passages visibly increased both specific growth rate (mu day-1) as well as phenol-degrading activity (mg/L x day). Consecutive passages of the culture in medium containing 400 mg phenol/L resulted in the elimination of 3 out of the 5 strains growing in the medium in the first passage. Only strain 101/1 demonstrated high specific growth rate and phenol-degrading activity in medium containing 600 mg phenol/L. In consecutive passages in medium containing 250, 400 and 600 mg phenol/L the specific growth (mu day-1) and phenol-degrading activity (mg/L x day) of P. aeruginosa 101/1 were 0.38 and 36; 0.12 and 19; 0.09 and 20, respectively.

  4. Halomonas campisalis sp. nov., a denitrifying, moderately haloalkaliphilic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Mormile, M R; Romine, M F; Garcia, M T; Ventosa, A; Bailey, T J; Peyton, B M

    1999-12-01

    The isolation and characterization of a denitrifying bacterium that is both moderately halophilic and alkaliphilic is described. The organism was isolated for use in the development of a bioprocess that could potentially reduce the costs of ion exchange resin regenerant disposal. The process of ion exchange, after resin regeneration, produces a briny, alkaline waste that is difficult and expensive to dispose. The biological removal of nitrate and subsequent reuse of these brines can potentially provide a cost-saving alternative to disposing of this waste product. To achieve our objective, a moderately halophilic, alkaliphilic bacterium was isolated from sediment samples taken from the salt plain of Alkali Lake in Washington State (USA). The haloalkaliphilic bacterium, designated strain 4A, is motile with rod-shaped cells that are 3 to 5 microm long and 1 microm wide. Electron acceptors used include oxygen, nitrate, and nitrite. In addition, it has similar specific nitrate reduction rates and biomass yields as non-halophilic denitrifying bacteria. It is capable of using a variety of electron donors. This organism can grow at NaCl concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 4.5 M with optimum growth occurring at 1.5 M and pH values ranging from 6 to 12 with 9.5 being the optimum pH. The temperature range for growth of strain 4A is 4-50 degrees C with optimal growth occurring at 30 degrees C. The G + C content is 66 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based upon 16S rDNA gene sequence placed isolate 4A in the genus Halomonas. In addition, DNA-DNA hybridization experiments clearly indicate that it is a unique species. Phenotypic and phylogenetic studies indicate that isolate 4A represents a new species. We propose the name Halomonas campisalis for this species and strain 4A (ATCC 700597) as the type strain. Due to its denitrification ability, broad carbon utilization range and its high salinity and pH tolerance this organism, and similar ones, hold promise for the treatment of saline

  5. The effect of soil type and plant age on the population size of rhizospheric methanotrophs and their activities in tropical rice soils.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Pranjali; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

    2007-08-01

    A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted in tropical rain-fed (red soil) and irrigated (black soil) rice agroecosystem during the crop growing season to determine the effect of the type of soil, cultivation practices and the age of plant on MOB (methane oxidizing bacteria) population size and their activities. The average value of MOB population size was 11.7 +/- 4.5 x 10(5) cells g(-1) soil, with a range of 3.1 +/- 0.4 to 21.2 +/- 1.0 x 10(5) cells g(-1) soil for red soil, which was lower in comparison to black soil where population size varied between 84.2 +/- 3.8 and 289.4 +/- 7.0 x 10(5) cells g(-1) soil with an average of 182.8 +/- 53.5 x 10(5) cells g(-1) soil. The highest population size was recorded during the grain maturation stage which gradually declined during the grain filling, flowering and tillering stages of the rice plants. The HSD test indicated a significant variation in the MOB population size with the varying ages of the plant. CH4 oxidizing capacity was higher in black soil as compared to red soil. The highest CH4 oxidizing capacity was found at the grain-filling stage in both the soil types. The differences in soil types and cultivation practices, pattern of variation in MOB population size and methane oxidation were found similar in both the sites under the influence of plant age, even though the detected values differed significantly.

  6. Shifts in rhizosphere fungal community during secondary succession following abandonment from agriculture.

    PubMed

    Hannula, S Emilia; Morriën, Elly; de Hollander, Mattias; van der Putten, Wim H; van Veen, Johannes A; de Boer, Wietse

    2017-10-01

    Activities of rhizosphere microbes are key to the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. It is commonly believed that bacteria are the major consumers of root exudates and that the role of fungi in the rhizosphere is mostly limited to plant-associated taxa, such as mycorrhizal fungi, pathogens and endophytes, whereas less is known about the role of saprotrophs. In order to test the hypothesis that the role of saprotrophic fungi in rhizosphere processes increases with increased time after abandonment from agriculture, we determined the composition of fungi that are active in the rhizosphere along a chronosequence of ex-arable fields in the Netherlands. Intact soil cores were collected from nine fields that represent three stages of land abandonment and pulse labeled with (13)CO2. The fungal contribution to metabolization of plant-derived carbon was evaluated using phospholipid analysis combined with stable isotope probing (SIP), whereas fungal diversity was analyzed using DNA-SIP combined with 454-sequencing. We show that in recently abandoned fields most of the root-derived (13)C was taken up by bacteria but that in long-term abandoned fields most of the root-derived (13)C was found in fungal biomass. Furthermore, the composition of the active functional fungal community changed from one composed of fast-growing and pathogenic fungal species to one consisting of beneficial and slower-growing fungal species, which may have essential consequences for the carbon flow through the soil food web and consequently nutrient cycling and plant succession.

  7. The rhizosphere and hyphosphere differ in their impacts on carbon and nitrogen cycling in forests exposed to elevated CO₂.

    PubMed

    Meier, Ina C; Pritchard, Seth G; Brzostek, Edward R; McCormack, M Luke; Phillips, Richard P

    2015-02-01

    While multiple experiments have demonstrated that trees exposed to elevated CO₂ can stimulate microbes to release nutrients from soil organic matter, the importance of root- versus mycorrhizal-induced changes in soil processes are presently unknown. We analyzed the contribution of roots and mycorrhizal activities to carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) turnover in a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forest exposed to elevated CO₂ by measuring extracellular enzyme activities at soil microsites accessed via root windows. Specifically, we quantified enzyme activity from soil adjacent to root tips (rhizosphere), soil adjacent to hyphal tips (hyphosphere), and bulk soil. During the peak growing season, CO₂ enrichment induced a greater increase of N-releasing enzymes in the rhizosphere (215% increase) than in the hyphosphere (36% increase), but a greater increase of recalcitrant C-degrading enzymes in the hyphosphere (118%) than in the rhizosphere (19%). Nitrogen fertilization influenced the magnitude of CO₂ effects on enzyme activities in the rhizosphere only. At the ecosystem scale, the rhizosphere accounted for c. 50% and 40% of the total activity of N- and C-releasing enzymes, respectively. Collectively, our results suggest that root exudates may contribute more to accelerated N cycling under elevated CO₂ at this site, while mycorrhizal fungi may contribute more to soil C degradation. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Influence of an Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Content on Soil and Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities Beneath Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Marilley; Hartwig; Aragno

    1999-07-01

    > Abstract The increase in atmospheric CO2 content alters C3 plant photosynthetic rate, leading to changes in rhizodeposition and other root activities. This may influence the activity, the biomass, and the structure of soil and rhizosphere microbial communities and therefore the nutrient cycling rates and the plant growth. The present paper focuses on bacterial numbers and on community structure. The rhizospheres of two grassland plants, Lolium perenne (ryegrass) and Trifolium repens (white clover), were divided into three fractions: the bulk soil, the rhizospheric soil, and the rhizoplane-endorhizosphere. The elevated atmospheric CO2 content increased the most probable numbers of heterotrophic bacteria in the rhizosphere of L. perenne. However, this effect lasted only at the beginning of the vegetation period for T. repens. Community structure was assessed after isolation of DNA, PCR amplification, and construction of cloned 16S rDNA libraries. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and colony hybridization with an oligonucleotide probe designed to detect Pseudomonas spp. showed under elevated atmospheric CO2 content an increased dominance of pseudomonads in the rhizosphere of L. perenne and a decreased dominance in the rhizosphere of T. repens. This work provides evidence for a CO2-induced alteration in the structure of the rhizosphere bacterial populations, suggesting a possible alteration of the plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacterial (PGPR) effect.http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00248/bibs/38n1p39.html

  9. Denitrifying bacteria isolated from terrestrial subsurface sediments exposed to mixed-waste contamination.

    PubMed

    Green, Stefan J; Prakash, Om; Gihring, Thomas M; Akob, Denise M; Jasrotia, Puja; Jardine, Philip M; Watson, David B; Brown, Steven D; Palumbo, Anthony V; Kostka, Joel E

    2010-05-01

    In terrestrial subsurface environments where nitrate is a critical groundwater contaminant, few cultivated representatives are available to verify the metabolism of organisms that catalyze denitrification. In this study, five species of denitrifying bacteria from three phyla were isolated from subsurface sediments exposed to metal radionuclide and nitrate contamination as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (OR-IFRC). Isolates belonged to the genera Afipia and Hyphomicrobium (Alphaproteobacteria), Rhodanobacter (Gammaproteobacteria), Intrasporangium (Actinobacteria), and Bacillus (Firmicutes). Isolates from the phylum Proteobacteria were complete denitrifiers, whereas the Gram-positive isolates reduced nitrate to nitrous oxide. rRNA gene analyses coupled with physiological and genomic analyses suggest that bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter are a diverse population of denitrifiers that are circumneutral to moderately acidophilic, with a high relative abundance in areas of the acidic source zone at the OR-IFRC site. Based on genome analysis, Rhodanobacter species contain two nitrite reductase genes and have not been detected in functional-gene surveys of denitrifying bacteria at the OR-IFRC site. Nitrite and nitrous oxide reductase gene sequences were recovered from the isolates and from the terrestrial subsurface by designing primer sets mined from genomic and metagenomic data and from draft genomes of two of the isolates. We demonstrate that a combination of cultivation and genomic and metagenomic data is essential to the in situ characterization of denitrifiers and that current PCR-based approaches are not suitable for deep coverage of denitrifiers. Our results indicate that the diversity of denitrifiers is significantly underestimated in the terrestrial subsurface.

  10. Denitrifying Bacteria Isolated from Terrestrial Subsurface Sediments Exposed to Mixed-Waste Contamination▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Green, Stefan J.; Prakash, Om; Gihring, Thomas M.; Akob, Denise M.; Jasrotia, Puja; Jardine, Philip M.; Watson, David B.; Brown, Steven D.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Kostka, Joel E.

    2010-01-01

    In terrestrial subsurface environments where nitrate is a critical groundwater contaminant, few cultivated representatives are available to verify the metabolism of organisms that catalyze denitrification. In this study, five species of denitrifying bacteria from three phyla were isolated from subsurface sediments exposed to metal radionuclide and nitrate contamination as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (OR-IFRC). Isolates belonged to the genera Afipia and Hyphomicrobium (Alphaproteobacteria), Rhodanobacter (Gammaproteobacteria), Intrasporangium (Actinobacteria), and Bacillus (Firmicutes). Isolates from the phylum Proteobacteria were complete denitrifiers, whereas the Gram-positive isolates reduced nitrate to nitrous oxide. rRNA gene analyses coupled with physiological and genomic analyses suggest that bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter are a diverse population of denitrifiers that are circumneutral to moderately acidophilic, with a high relative abundance in areas of the acidic source zone at the OR-IFRC site. Based on genome analysis, Rhodanobacter species contain two nitrite reductase genes and have not been detected in functional-gene surveys of denitrifying bacteria at the OR-IFRC site. Nitrite and nitrous oxide reductase gene sequences were recovered from the isolates and from the terrestrial subsurface by designing primer sets mined from genomic and metagenomic data and from draft genomes of two of the isolates. We demonstrate that a combination of cultivation and genomic and metagenomic data is essential to the in situ characterization of denitrifiers and that current PCR-based approaches are not suitable for deep coverage of denitrifiers. Our results indicate that the diversity of denitrifiers is significantly underestimated in the terrestrial subsurface. PMID:20305024

  11. Denitrifying bacteria from the terrestrial subsurface exposed to mixed waste contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Stefan; Prakash, Om; Gihring, Thomas; Akob, Denise M.; Jasrotia, Puja; Jardine, Philip M; Watson, David B; Brown, Steven D; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Kostka, Joel

    2010-01-01

    In terrestrial subsurface environments where nitrate is a critical groundwater contaminant, few cultivated representatives are available with which to verify the metabolism of organisms that catalyze denitrification. In this study, five species of denitrifying bacteria from three phyla were isolated from subsurface sediments exposed to metal radionuclide and nitrate contamination as part of the U.S. Department of Energy s Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (OR-IFRC). Isolates belonged to the genera Afipia and Hyphomicrobium (Alphaproteobacteria), Rhodanobacter (Gammaproteobacteria), Intrasporangium (Actinobacteria) and Bacillus (Firmicutes). Isolates from the phylum Proteobacteria were confirmed as complete denitrifiers, whereas the Gram-positive isolates reduced nitrate to nitrous oxide. Ribosomal RNA gene analyses reveal that bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter comprise a diverse population of circumneutral to moderately acidophilic denitrifiers at the ORIFRC site, with a high relative abundance in areas of the acidic source zone. Rhodanobacter species do not contain a periplasmic nitrite reductase and have not been previously detected in functional gene surveys of denitrifying bacteria at the OR-IFRC site. Sequences of nitrite and nitrous oxide reductase genes were recovered from the isolates and from the terrestrial subsurface by designing primer sets mined from genomic and metagenomic data and from draft genomes of two of the isolates. We demonstrate that a combination of cultivation, genomic and metagenomic data are essential to the in situ characterization of denitrifiers and that current PCR-based approaches are not suitable for deep coverage of denitrifying microorganisms. Our results indicate that the diversity of denitrifiers is significantly underestimated in the terrestrial subsurface.

  12. Effect of Genetically Modified Pseudomonas putida WCS358r on the Fungal Rhizosphere Microflora of Field-Grown Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Glandorf, Debora C. M.; Verheggen, Patrick; Jansen, Timo; Jorritsma, Jan-Willem; Smit, Eric; Leeflang, Paula; Wernars, Karel; Thomashow, Linda S.; Laureijs, Eric; Thomas-Oates, Jane E.; Bakker, Peter A. H. M.; van Loon, Leendert C.

    2001-01-01

    We released genetically modified Pseudomonas putida WCS358r into the rhizospheres of wheat plants. The two genetically modified derivatives, genetically modified microorganism (GMM) 2 and GMM 8, carried the phz biosynthetic gene locus of strain P. fluorescens 2-79 and constitutively produced the antifungal compound phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). In the springs of 1997 and 1998 we sowed wheat seeds treated with either GMM 2, GMM 8, or WCS358r (approximately 107 CFU per seed), and measured the numbers, composition, and activities of the rhizosphere microbial populations. During both growing seasons, all three bacterial strains decreased from 107 CFU per g of rhizosphere sample to below the limit of detection (102 CFU per g) 1 month after harvest of the wheat plants. The phz genes were stably maintained, and PCA was detected in rhizosphere extracts of GMM-treated plants. In 1997, but not in 1998, fungal numbers in the rhizosphere, quantified on 2% malt extract agar (total filamentous fungi) and on Komada's medium (mainly Fusarium spp.), were transiently suppressed in GMM 8-treated plants. We also analyzed the effects of the GMMs on the rhizosphere fungi by using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. Introduction of any of the three bacterial strains transiently changed the composition of the rhizosphere fungal microflora. However, in both 1997 and 1998, GMM-induced effects were distinct from those of WCS358r and lasted for 40 days in 1997 and for 89 days after sowing in 1998, whereas effects induced by WCS358r were detectable for 12 (1997) or 40 (1998) days. None of the strains affected the metabolic activity of the soil microbial population (substrate-induced respiration), soil nitrification potential, cellulose decomposition, plant height, or plant yield. The results indicate that application of GMMs engineered to have improved antifungal activity can exert nontarget effects on the natural fungal microflora. PMID:11472906

  13. Effect of genetically modified Pseudomonas putida WCS358r on the fungal rhizosphere microflora of field-grown wheat.

    PubMed

    Glandorf, D C; Verheggen, P; Jansen, T; Jorritsma, J W; Smit, E; Leeflang, P; Wernars, K; Thomashow, L S; Laureijs, E; Thomas-Oates, J E; Bakker, P A; van Loon, L C

    2001-08-01

    We released genetically modified Pseudomonas putida WCS358r into the rhizospheres of wheat plants. The two genetically modified derivatives, genetically modified microorganism (GMM) 2 and GMM 8, carried the phz biosynthetic gene locus of strain P. fluorescens 2-79 and constitutively produced the antifungal compound phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). In the springs of 1997 and 1998 we sowed wheat seeds treated with either GMM 2, GMM 8, or WCS358r (approximately 10(7) CFU per seed), and measured the numbers, composition, and activities of the rhizosphere microbial populations. During both growing seasons, all three bacterial strains decreased from 10(7) CFU per g of rhizosphere sample to below the limit of detection (10(2) CFU per g) 1 month after harvest of the wheat plants. The phz genes were stably maintained, and PCA was detected in rhizosphere extracts of GMM-treated plants. In 1997, but not in 1998, fungal numbers in the rhizosphere, quantified on 2% malt extract agar (total filamentous fungi) and on Komada's medium (mainly Fusarium spp.), were transiently suppressed in GMM 8-treated plants. We also analyzed the effects of the GMMs on the rhizosphere fungi by using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. Introduction of any of the three bacterial strains transiently changed the composition of the rhizosphere fungal microflora. However, in both 1997 and 1998, GMM-induced effects were distinct from those of WCS358r and lasted for 40 days in 1997 and for 89 days after sowing in 1998, whereas effects induced by WCS358r were detectable for 12 (1997) or 40 (1998) days. None of the strains affected the metabolic activity of the soil microbial population (substrate-induced respiration), soil nitrification potential, cellulose decomposition, plant height, or plant yield. The results indicate that application of GMMs engineered to have improved antifungal activity can exert nontarget effects on the natural fungal microflora.

  14. [Screening of wild barley genotypes with high phosphorus use efficiency and their rhizosphere soil inorganic phosphorus fractions].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Li, Ting-Xuan; Yu, Hai-Ying; Ji, Lin

    2013-10-01

    -P concentration presented an opposite trend. Under no P supply, the Al-P, Fe-P, and O-P concentrations in high P use efficiency genotypes rhizosphere soils were significantly lower than those in low P use efficiency genotype rhizosphere soil. It was suggested that under low P stress, the capabilities of high P use efficiency genotypes in activating and absorbing soil A1-P and Ca2-P were stronger than those of low P use efficiency genotype.

  15. Nutrient removal efficiency in a rice-straw denitrifying bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xinqiang; Lin, Limin; Ye, Yushi; Gu, Jiatao; Wang, Zhibo; Xu, Lixian; Jin, Yi; Ru, Qiukai; Tian, Guangming

    2015-12-01

    Rice straw was used as a carbon source in a denitrifying bioreactor, for the removal of nutrients from agricultural drainage. Nutrient removal efficiency was evaluated by: (a) nutrient loading rates (low, medium, and high); (b) hydraulic retention time, and (c) comparison with another carbon source (woodchip). The results show that concentrations of nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N), ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), total nitrogen (TN), and orthophosphate phosphorus (PO4(3-)-P) in the rice-straw bioreactor effluents were reduced by 53%, 25%, 40%, and 35%, respectively, compared with influents at the medium nutrient loading rate (NO3(-)-N: 10-15 mg N L(-1), NH4(+)-N: 10-15 mg N L(-1), PO4(3-)-P: 1.0-1.5 mg P L(-1)) and long hydraulic retention time (HRT, 24h), with a corresponding denitrification rate (DR) of 0.40 mg N L(-1)h(-1). Moreover, the rice-straw bioreactor showed significantly higher (p<0.05) nutrient removal efficiency than the woodchip bioreactor at the medium nutrient loading rate and 24h HRT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anaerobic degradation of toluene by a denitrifying bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, P J; Mang, D T; Kim, K S; Young, L Y

    1991-01-01

    A denitrifying bacterium, designated strain T1, that grew with toluene as the sole source of carbon under anaerobic conditions was isolated. The type of agar used in solid media and the toxicity of toluene were determinative factors in the successful isolation of strain T1. Greater than 50% of the toluene carbon was oxidized to CO2, and 29% was assimilated into biomass. The oxidation of toluene to CO2 was stoichiometrically coupled to nitrate reduction and denitrification. Strain T1 was tolerant of and grew on 3 mM toluene after a lag phase. The rate of toluene degradation was 1.8 mumol min-1 liter-1 (56 nmol min-1 mg of protein-1) in a cell suspension. Strain T1 was distinct from other bacteria that oxidize toluene anaerobically, but it may utilize a similar biochemical pathway of oxidation. In addition, o-xylene was transformed to a metabolite in the presence of toluene but did not serve as the sole source of carbon for growth of strain T1. This transformation was dependent on the degradation of toluene. Images PMID:2059037

  17. Characteristics of a Novel Aerobic Denitrifying Bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae Strain HNR.

    PubMed

    Guo, Long-Jie; Zhao, Bin; An, Qiang; Tian, Meng

    2016-03-01

    A novel aerobic denitrifier strain HNR, isolated from activated sludge, was identified as Enterobacter cloacae by16S rRNA sequencing analysis. Glucose was considered as the most favorable C-source for strain HNR. The logistic equation well described the bacterial growth, yielding a maximum growth rate (μmax) of 0.283 h(-1) with an initial NO3 (-)-N concentration of 110 mg/L. Almost all NO3 (-)-N was removed aerobically within 30 h with an average removal rate of 4.58 mg N L(-1) h(-1). Nitrogen balance analysis revealed that proximately 70.8 % of NO3 (-)-N was removed as gas products and only 20.7 % was transformed into biomass. GC-MS result indicates that N2 was the end product of aerobic denitrification. The enzyme activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, which are related to the process of aerobic denitrification, were 0.0688 and 0.0054 U/mg protein, respectively. Thus, the aerobic denitrification of reducing NO3 (-) to N2 by strain HNR was demonstrated. The optimal conditions for nitrate removal were C/N ratio 13, pH value 8, shaking speed 127 rpm and temperature 30 °C. These findings show that E. cloacae strain HNR has a potential application on wastewater treatment to achieve nitrate removal under aerobic conditions.

  18. Rhizosphere priming effects on soil N availability in forests exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. P.; Bernhardt, E. S.

    2008-12-01

    The progressive nitrogen (N) limitation hypothesis suggests that the uptake of N due to rapid tree growth under elevated CO2 depletes pools of available N resulting in short-term increases in productivity under elevated CO2. To date however, a down-regulation of forest productivity under elevated CO2 has not been observed among the four forest FACE experiments suggesting that our understanding of the mechanisms by which trees influence soil N cycling needs further refinement. We sought to test the hypothesis that trees exposed to elevated CO2 increase soil N availability by 'priming' rhizosphere microbes via the release of root exudates. At the Duke Forest FACTS-1 site, NC, we collected exudates bi-monthly from intact fine roots of 25 year-old loblolly pine Pinus taeda trees exposed to elevated CO2 and N fertilization. In addition, we collected rhizosphere and bulk soil from the same plots in order to develop a time-integrated estimate of the plant- microbial response to the CO2 and N treatments. In general, there were strong interactive effects between CO2 and N fertilization on exudation and rhizosphere microbial activity. In non-fertilized plots, mass-specific exudation rates were 15% greater with CO2 enrichment. In fertilized soils the opposite patterns were detected, as CO2 decreased mass specific rates by 40% (relative to the ambient rates). In the soil, treatment effects on rhizosphere microbial activity were similar: elevated CO2 increased microbial activity in non-fertilized plots (29%) but decreased it in fertilized plots (15%). However, we found no differences in net N mineralization rates in the rhizosphere in response to either CO2 or N fertilization. Collectively, these results suggest that although changes in exudation and microbial activity are likely mediated by soil N availability, the degree to which such processes are responsible for increased soil N cycling in forests exposed to elevated CO2 remains unclear.

  19. Rhizosphere biophysics and root water uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carminati, Andrea; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Ahmed, Mutez A.; Passioura, John

    2016-04-01

    The flow of water into the roots and the (putative) presence of a large resistance at the root-soil interface have attracted the attention of plant and soil scientists for decades. Such resistance has been attributed to a partial contact between roots and soil, large gradients in soil matric potential around the roots, or accumulation of solutes at the root surface creating a negative osmotic potential. Our hypothesis is that roots are capable of altering the biophysical properties of the soil around the roots, the rhizosphere, facilitating root water uptake in dry soils. In particular, we expect that root hairs and mucilage optimally connect the roots to the soil maintaining the hydraulic continuity across the rhizosphere. Using a pressure chamber apparatus we measured the relation between transpiration rate and the water potential difference between soil and leaf xylem during drying cycles in barley mutants with and without root hairs. The samples were grown in well structured soils. At low soil moistures and high transpiration rates, large drops in water potential developed around the roots. These drops in water potential recovered very slowly, even after transpiration was severely decreased. The drops in water potential were much bigger in barley mutants without root hairs. These mutants failed to sustain high transpiration rates in dry conditions. To explain the nature of such drops in water potential across the rhizosphere we performed high resolution neutron tomography of the rhizosphere of the barleys with and without root hairs growing in the same soil described above. The tomograms suggested that the hydraulic contact between the soil structures was the highest resistance for the water flow in dry conditions. The tomograms also indicate that root hairs and mucilage improved the hydraulic contact between roots and soil structures. At high transpiration rates and low water contents, roots extracted water from the rhizosphere, while the bulk soil, due its

  20. Implications of non-specific strigolactone signaling in the rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Koltai, Hinanit

    2014-08-01

    Strigolactones produced by various plant species are involved in the development of different plant parts. They are also exuded by plant roots to the rhizosphere, where they are involved in the induction of seed germination of the parasitic plants Striga and Orobanche, hyphal branching of the symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), and the symbiotic interaction with Rhizobium. In the present discussion paper, the essentialness of strigolactones as communication signals in these plant interactions is discussed in view of the existence of other plant-derived substances that are able to promote these plant interactions. In addition, the importance of strigolactones for determination of interaction specificity is discussed based on current knowledge on strigolactone composition, perception and delivery. The different activities of strigolactones in plant development and in the rhizosphere suggest their possible use in agriculture. However, despite efforts made in this direction, there is no current, practical implementation. Possible reasons for the encountered difficulties and suggested solutions to promote strigolactone use in agriculture are discussed.

  1. Bacterial stimulation of copper phytoaccumulation by bioaugmentation with rhizosphere bacteria.

    PubMed

    Andreazza, Robson; Okeke, Benedict C; Lambais, Márcio Rodrigues; Bortolon, Leandro; de Melo, George Wellington Bastos; Camargo, Flávio Anastácio de Oliveira

    2010-11-01

    Copper contaminated areas pose environmental health risk to living organisms. Remediation processes are thus required for both crop production and industrial activities. This study employed bioaugmentation with copper resistant bacteria to improve phytoremediation of vineyard soils and copper mining waste contaminated with high copper concentrations. Oatmeal plant (Avena sativa L.) was used for copper phytoextraction. Three copper resistant bacterial isolates from oatmeal rhizosphere (Pseudomonas putida A1; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia A2 and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus A6) were used for the stimulation of copper phytoextraction. Two long-term copper contaminated vineyard soils (Mollisol and Inceptisol) and copper mining waste from Southern Brazil were evaluated. Oatmeal plants substantially extracted copper from vineyard soils and copper mining waste. As much as 1549 mg of Cu kg⁻¹ dry mass was extracted from plants grown in Inceptisol soil. The vineyard Mollisol copper uptake (55 mg Cu kg⁻¹ of dry mass) in the shoots was significantly improved upon inoculation of oatmeal plants with isolate A2 (128 mg of Cu kg⁻¹ of shoot dry mass). Overall oatmeal plant biomass displayed higher potential of copper phytoextraction with inoculation of rhizosphere bacteria in vineyard soil to the extent that 404 and 327 g ha⁻¹ of copper removal were respectively observed in vineyard Mollisol bioaugmented with isolate A2 (S. maltophilia) and isolate A6 (A. calcoaceticus). Results suggest potential application of bacterial stimulation of phytoaccumulation of copper for biological removal of copper from contaminated areas. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. UV-induced momilactone B accumulation in rice rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Kujime, Hiroya; Ino, Takeshi

    2007-11-01

    UV-irradiation increased the concentration of momilactone B in shoots and roots of rice seedlings, and increasing the irradiation increased the concentration. The concentration in 90-min UV-irradiated shoots and roots, respectively, was 31.8- and 3.6-fold higher than that in non-irradiated shoots and roots. After UV-irradiation the concentration of momilactone B in rice shoots decreased. There was, however, an accumulation of momilactone B in the medium in which UV-irradiated seedlings were grown. Five days after UV-irradiation, momilactone B in the medium was at a level 2.5 times greater than on day 0, which was 47% of momilactone B in the seedlings, suggesting that rice may actively secrete momilactone B into medium. Therefore, UV-irradiation increased not only production of momilactone B in rice seedlings but also secretion of momilactone B into rice rhizosphere. As momilactone B acts as an antimicrobial and allelopathic agent, secretion of momilactone B into the rhizosphere may provide a competitive advantage for root establishment through local suppression of soil microorganism and inhibition of the growth of competing plant species.

  3. Host legume-exuded antimetabolites optimize the symbiotic rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tao; Cai, Wentong; Zhang, Jiang; Zheng, Huiming; Tsou, Amy M; Xiao, Lin; Zhong, Zengtao; Zhu, Jun

    2009-08-01

    Rhizobia form symbiotic nodules on host legumes and fix nitrogen for their hosts in exchange for nutrients. In order to establish this mutually beneficial relationship, rhizobia must compete with other soil bacteria in the host legume rhizosphere to colonize plant roots efficiently. A promoter-trap transposon screen in Mesorhizobium tianshanense, a Rhizobium that forms nodules on licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) plants revealed that the expression of msiA, which encodes a putative exporter protein belonging to the LysE family of translocators, is activated by both legume exudates and MsiR, a LysR family transcriptional regulator. Chemical analysis suggests that the msiA-inducing signal in exudates is canavanine, an anti-metabolite present in the seeds and exudates of a variety of legume plants. We show that MsiA serves as a canavanine exporter that is indispensable for canavanine resistance in M. tianshanense. We also show that the expression of MsiA homologues in other rhizobial species is induced by canavanine and is critical for canavanine resistance. Furthermore, rhizobial canavanine resistance is important for root hair adherence as well as for survival in a canavanine-producing legume rhizosphere. Together, these data suggest that host legumes may exude specific antimetabolites into their surroundings to optimize the bacterial population in order to have successful symbiotic events with rhizobia.

  4. Rhizosphere dynamics during phytoremediation of olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bodini, S F; Cicalini, A R; Santori, F

    2011-03-01

    The potential of phytoremediation as a treatment option for olive mill wastewater (OMW) was tested on five perennial tree species. Cupressus sempervirens and Quercus ilex proved tolerant to six-month OMW treatment followed by six-month water irrigation, whereas Salix sp. and Laurus nobilis and, later, Pinus mugo suffered from phytotoxic effects. Test plants were compared to controls after treatment and irrigation, by monitoring biochemical and microbiological variations in the rhizosphere soil. OMW-treated soils were exposed to 50-fold higher phenols concentrations, which, irrespective of whether the respective plants were OMW-resistant or susceptible, were reduced by more than 90% by the end of the irrigation cycle, owing to significantly increased laccase, peroxidase and β-glucosidase activities, recovery/acquisition of bacterial culturability and transitory development of specialized fungal communities sharing the presence of Geotrichum candidum. Of all results, the identification of Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium aurantiogriseum as dominant rhizosphere fungi was distinctive of OMW-tolerant species.

  5. Seasonal Patterns in Microbial Community Composition in Denitrifying Bioreactors Treating Subsurface Agricultural Drainage.

    PubMed

    Porter, Matthew D; Andrus, J Malia; Bartolerio, Nicholas A; Rodriguez, Luis F; Zhang, Yuanhui; Zilles, Julie L; Kent, Angela D

    2015-10-01

    Denitrifying bioreactors, consisting of water flow control structures and a woodchip-filled trench, are a promising approach for removing nitrate from agricultural subsurface or tile drainage systems. To better understand the seasonal dynamics and the ecological drivers of the microbial communities responsible for denitrification in these bioreactors, we employed microbial community "fingerprinting" techniques in a time-series examination of three denitrifying bioreactors over 2 years, looking at bacteria, fungi, and the denitrifier functional group responsible for the final step of complete denitrification. Our analysis revealed that microbial community composition responds to depth and seasonal variation in moisture content and inundation of the bioreactor media, as well as temperature. Using a geostatistical analysis approach, we observed recurring temporal patterns in bacterial and denitrifying bacterial community composition in these bioreactors, consistent with annual cycling. The fungal communities were more stable, having longer temporal autocorrelations, and did not show significant annual cycling. These results suggest a recurring seasonal cycle in the denitrifying bioreactor microbial community, likely due to seasonal variation in moisture content.

  6. Dynamics of rhizosphere properties and antioxidative responses in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghua; Wang, Li; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Hairong

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we performed a rhizobox experiment to examine the dynamic changes in the rhizosphere properties and antioxidant enzyme responses of Triticum aestivum L. under three levels of cadmium stress. A set of micro-techniques (i.e., Rhizobox and Rhizon SMS) were applied for the dynamically non-destructive collection of the rhizosphere soil solution to enable the observation at a high temporal resolution. The dynamics of soluble cadmium and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the rhizosphere soil solutions of the Triticum aestivum L. were characterised by the sequence week 0 after sowing (WAS0)<3 weeks after sowing (WAS3)<10 weeks after sowing (WAS10), whereas the soil solution pH was found to follow an opposite distribution pattern. Systematically, both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in the leaves of the Triticum aestivum L. increased concomitantly with increasing cadmium levels (p>0.05) and growth duration (p<0.05), whilst ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity was induced to an elevated level at moderate cadmium stress with a decrease at high cadmium stress (p>0.05). These results suggested the enhancement of DOC production and the greater antioxidant enzyme activities were two important protective mechanisms of Triticum aestivum L. under cadmium stress, whereas rhizosphere acidification might be an important mechanism for the mobilisation of soil cadmium. The results also revealed that plant-soil interactions strongly influence the soil solution chemistry in the rhizosphere of Triticum aestivum L., that, in turn, can stimulate chemical and biochemical responses in the plants. In most cases, these responses to cadmium stress were sensitive and might allow us to develop strategies for reducing the risks of the cadmium contamination to crop production.

  7. Differential composition of bacterial communities as influenced by phenanthrene and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

    PubMed

    Corgié, S C; Beguiristain, T; Leyval, C

    2006-12-01

    Bioremediation technologies of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) are often limited by the recalcitrance to biodegradation of high molecular weight (HMW) PAH. Rhizosphere is known to increase the biodegradation of PAH but little is known about the biodegradability of these HMW compounds by rhizosphere bacteria. This study compared the effects of a 3 and a 5-ring PAH, phenanthrene (PHE) and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (dBA) respectively, on the composition of bacterial community, the bacterial density and the biodegradation activity. Compartmentalized devices were designed to harvest three consecutive sections of the rhizosphere. Rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere compartments were filled with PHE or dBA spiked or unspiked sand and inoculated with a soil bacterial inoculum. Different bacterial communities and degradation values were found 5 weeks after spiking with PHE (41-76% biodegradation) and dBA (12-51% biodegradation). In sections closer to the root surface, bacterial populations differed as a function of the distance to roots and the PAH added, whereas in further rhizosphere sections, communities were closer to those of the non-planted treatments. Biodegradation of PHE was also a function of the distance to roots, and decreased from 76 to 42% within 9 mm from the roots. However, biodegradation of dBA was significantly higher in the middle section (3-6 mm from roots) than the others. Rhizosphere degradation of PAH varies with the nature of the PAH, and C fluxes from roots could limit the degradation of dBA.

  8. Achieving partial denitrification through control of biofilm structure during biofilm growth in denitrifying biofilter.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bin; Liu, Xiuhong; Yang, Qing; Li, Jianmin; Zhou, Xueyang; Peng, Yongzhen

    2017-08-01

    Partial denitrification was one of most effective ways to provide nitrite for annamox; whereas very limited research has been done to achieve nitrite accumulation in biofilm system. In this study, partial denitrification was studied in a lab-scale denitrifying biofilter (DNBF). The results showed biofilm structure variations caused the differences between nitrate specific reduction rate (NaSRR) and nitrite specific reduction rate (NiSRR), which led to nitrite accumulation in different degree at different biofilm formation phases. Hydrodynamic conditions also significantly influenced biofilm structure, nitrate and nitrite reduction activities. At the filtration velocity of 3.86mh(-1), not only biofilm structure, NaSRR and NiSRR kept relatively stable, but also 60% of nitrite accumulation and no nitrate in the effluent were achieved. Furthermore, Thauera genus bacteria, benefited for nitrite accumulation, became the dominant communities in high nitrite accumulation conditions. The partial denitrification combine with anammox in biofilter have the great potential applied in WWTPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of urban landfill leachate characteristics on the coexistence of anammox bacteria and heterotrophic denitrifiers.

    PubMed

    Ruscalleda, M; Puig, S; Mora, X; López, H; Ganigué, R; Balaguer, M D; Colprim, J

    2010-01-01

    Heterotrophic denitrification coexists with the anammox process contributing to N removal owing to the biodegradable organic matter supply from urban landfill leachate and the decay of microorganisms. Both biomasses consumed nitrite increasing the nitrite requirements of the system. The aim of this paper is the study of the causes which induce the system to decrease nitrogen removal efficiency. In this study, urban landfill leachate has been treated in an anammox Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) for 360 days. The anammox reactor treated on average 0.24 kgN m(-3) d(-1) obtaining nitrogen removal efficiencies up to 89%. The results demonstrated that i) a suitable influent nitrite to ammonium molar ratio is a crucial factor to avoid troubles in the anammox reactor performance; ii) an excess of nitrite implied nitrite accumulation in the reactor; iii) a lower nitrite supply than the necessary for the system could force a loss of specific anammox activity due to nitrite competition with denitrifiers. These results pointed out the importance of the previous partial-nitritation process control in order to obtain a correct influent nitrite to ammonium molar ratio for the anammox reactor. In addition, sudden variation of the leachate characteristics must be avoided.

  10. Enrichment of denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria for application after direct low-temperature anaerobic sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Kampman, Christel; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Luesken, Francisca A; van Alen, Theo A; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M; Zeeman, Grietje; Buisman, Cees J N; Temmink, Hardy

    2012-08-15

    Despite many advantages of anaerobic sewage treatment over conventional activated sludge treatment, it has not yet been applied in temperate zones. This is especially because effluent from low-temperature anaerobic treatment contains nitrogen and dissolved methane. The presence of nitrogen and methane offers the opportunity to develop a reactor in which methane is used as electron donor for denitrification. Such a reactor could be used in a new concept for low-temperature anaerobic sewage treatment, consisting of a UASB-digester system, a reactor for denitrification coupled to anaerobic methane oxidation, and a nitritation reactor. In the present study denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria similar to 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera' were enriched. Maximum volumetric nitrite consumption rates were 33.5 mg NO(2)(-)-N/Ld (using synthetic medium) and 37.8 mg NO(2)(-)-N/Ld (using medium containing effluent from a sewage treatment plant), which are similar to the maximum rate reported so far. Though the goal was to increase the rates, in both reactors, after reaching these maximum rates, volumetric nitrite consumption rates decreased in time. Results indicate biomass washout may have significantly decelerated enrichment. Therefore, to obtain higher volumetric consumption rates, further research should focus on systems with complete biomass retention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of organochlorines on microbial diversity and community structure in Phragmites australis rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, Angélique; Roy, Julien; Gury, Jérôme; Monier, Armelle; Coissac, Eric; Ravanel, Patrick; Geremia, Roberto A; Raveton, Muriel

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the impacts of an organochlorine (OC, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane and chlorobenzenes) mixture on microbial communities associated to Phragmites australis rhizosphere. Seventy-eight distinct colony morphotypes were isolated, cultivated and analysed by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Toxicity tests confirmed sensitivity (e.g. Hevizibacter, Acidovorax) or tolerance (e.g. Bacillus, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas) of isolates. Rhizosphere analysis by pyrosequencing showed the microbial adaptation induced by OC exposure. Among the most abundant molecular operational taxonomic units, 80 % appeared to be tolerant (55 % opportunist, 25 % unaffected) and 20 % sensitive. P. australis rhizosphere exposed to OCs was dominated by phylotypes related to α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria. Specific genera were identified which were previously described as chlorinated organic pollutant degraders: Sphingomonas sp., Pseudomonas sp., Devosia sp. and Sphingobium sp. P. australis could be suitable plants to maintain their rhizosphere active microbial population which can tolerate OCs and potentially improve the OC remediation process in part by biodegradation.

  12. Fertilization effects on fineroot biomass, rhizosphere microbes and respiratory fluxes in hardwood forest soils.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Richard P; Fahey, Timothy J

    2007-01-01

    Fertilizer-induced reductions in CO(2) flux from soil ((F)CO(2)) in forests have previously been attributed to decreased carbon allocation to roots, and decreased decomposition as a result of nitrogen suppression of fungal activity. Here, we present evidence that decreased microbial respiration in the rhizosphere may also contribute to (F)CO(2) reductions in fertilized forest soils. Fertilization reduced (F)CO(2) by 16-19% in 65-yr-old plantations of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and in a natural 85-yr-old yellow birch (Betula allegheniensis) stand. In oak plots, fertilization had no effects on fine root biomass but reduced mycorrhizal colonization by 18% and microbial respiration by 43%. In maple plots, fertilization reduced root biomass, mycorrhizal colonization and microbial respiration by 22, 16 and 46%, respectively. In birch plots, fertilization reduced microbial respiration by 36%, but had variable effects on root biomass and mycorrhizal colonization. In plots of all three species, fertilization effects on microbial respiration were greater in rhizosphere than in bulk soil, possibly as a result of decreased rhizosphere carbon flux from these species in fertile soils. Because rhizosphere processes may influence nutrient availability and carbon storage in forest ecosystems, future research is needed to better quantify rhizo-microbial contributions to (F)CO(2).

  13. Salt tolerant SUV3 overexpressing transgenic rice plants conserve physicochemical properties and microbial communities of rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Ranjan K; Ansari, Mohammad W; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Key concerns in the ecological evaluation of GM crops are undesirably spread, gene flow, other environmental impacts, and consequences on soil microorganism's biodiversity. Numerous reports have highlighted the effects of transgenic plants on the physiology of non-targeted rhizospheric microbes and the food chain via causing adverse effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop transgenics with insignificant toxic on environmental health. In the present study, SUV3 overexpressing salt tolerant transgenic rice evaluated in New Delhi and Cuttack soil conditions for their effects on physicochemical and biological properties of rhizosphere. Its cultivation does not affect soil properties viz., pH, Eh, organic C, P, K, N, Ca, Mg, S, Na and Fe(2+). Additionally, SUV3 rice plants do not cause any change in the phenotype, species characteristics and antibiotic sensitivity of rhizospheric bacteria. The population and/or number of soil organisms such as bacteria, fungi and nematodes were unchanged in the soil. Also, the activity of bacterial enzymes viz., dehydrogenase, invertase, phenol oxidases, acid phosphatases, ureases and proteases was not significantly affected. Further, plant growth promotion (PGP) functions of bacteria such as siderophore, HCN, salicylic acid, IAA, GA, zeatin, ABA, NH3, phosphorus metabolism, ACC deaminase and iron tolerance were, considerably, not influenced. The present findings suggest ecologically pertinent of salt tolerant SUV3 rice to sustain the health and usual functions of the rhizospheric organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterizing and handling different kinds of AM fungal spores in the rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xueguang; Hu, Wentao; Tang, Ming; Chen, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Spores are important propagules as well as the most reliable species-distinguishing traits of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. During surveys of AM fungal communities, spore enumeration and spore identification are frequently conducted, but generally little attention is given to the age and viability of the spores. In this study, AM fungal spores in the rhizosphere were characterized as live or dead by vital staining and by performing a germination assay. A considerable proportion of the spores in the rhizosphere were dead despite their intact appearance. Furthermore, morphological and molecular analyses of spores to determine species identity revealed that both viable spores and dead spores with contents were identified. The accurate identification of spores at different developmental stages on the basis of morphology requires considerable experience. Our findings suggest that surveys of AM fungal communities based on spore enumeration and morphological and molecular identification are likely to be inaccurate, primarily because of the large proportion of dead spores in the rhizosphere. A viability check is recommended prior to spore molecular identification, and the use of trap cultures would give more reliable morphological identification results. We show that the abundance and activity of AM fungi in the rhizosphere can be determined by calculating the density of viable spores and the density of spores that could germinate. The adoption of these methods should provide a more reliable basis for further AM fungal community analysis.

  15. Dissipation gradients of phenanthrene and pyrene in the Rice rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y; Wu, S C; Yu, X Z; Wong, M H

    2010-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to reveal the effects of rice cultivation as well as polycyclic aromatic carbohydrates (PAHs) degrading bacterium (Acinetobacter sp.) on the dissipation gradients of two PAHs (PHE and PYR) in the rhizosphere. The results showed that the presence of rice root and bacteria significantly accelerated the dissipation rate of PHE and PYR. The root exudates contributed to the formation of dissipation gradients of PHE and PYR along the vertical direction of roots, with a higher dissipation rate in the rhizosphere and near rhizosphere zone than the soil far away the rhizosphere.

  16. Functional Potential of Soil Microbial Communities in the Maize Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jingbo; Li, Jiabao; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Yannarell, Anthony C.; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities in the rhizosphere make significant contributions to crop health and nutrient cycling. However, their ability to perform important biogeochemical processes remains uncharacterized. Here, we identified important functional genes that characterize the rhizosphere microbial community to understand metabolic capabilities in the maize rhizosphere using the GeoChip-based functional gene array method. Significant differences in functional gene structure were apparent between rhizosphere and bulk soil microbial communities. Approximately half of the detected gene families were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the rhizosphere. Based on the detected gyrB genes, Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria were most enriched in the rhizosphere compared to those in the bulk soil. The rhizosphere niche also supported greater functional diversity in catabolic pathways. The maize rhizosphere had significantly enriched genes involved in carbon fixation and degradation (especially for hemicelluloses, aromatics and lignin), nitrogen fixation, ammonification, denitrification, polyphosphate biosynthesis and degradation, sulfur reduction and oxidation. This research demonstrates that the maize rhizosphere is a hotspot of genes, mostly originating from dominant soil microbial groups such as Proteobacteria, providing functional capacity for the transformation of labile and recalcitrant organic C, N, P and S compounds. PMID:25383887

  17. Taxonomical and functional microbial community selection in soybean rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Lucas W; Kuramae, Eiko E; Navarrete, Acácio A; van Veen, Johannes A; Tsai, Siu M

    2014-08-01

    This study addressed the selection of the rhizospheric microbial community from the bulk soil reservoir under agricultural management of soybean in Amazon forest soils. We used a shotgun metagenomics approach to investigate the taxonomic and functional diversities of microbial communities in the bulk soil and in the rhizosphere of soybean plants and tested the validity of neutral and niche theories to explain the rhizosphere community assembly processes. Our results showed a clear selection at both taxonomic and functional levels operating in the assembly of the soybean rhizosphere community. The taxonomic analysis revealed that the rhizosphere community is a subset of the bulk soil community. Species abundance in rhizosphere fits the log-normal distribution model, which is an indicator of the occurrence of niche-based processes. In addition, the data indicate that the rhizosphere community is selected based on functional cores related to the metabolisms of nitrogen, iron, phosphorus and potassium, which are related to benefits to the plant, such as growth promotion and nutrition. The network analysis including bacterial groups and functions was less complex in rhizosphere, suggesting the specialization of some specific metabolic pathways. We conclude that the assembly of the microbial community in the rhizosphere is based on niche-based processes as a result of the selection power of the plant and other environmental factors.

  18. Taxonomical and functional microbial community selection in soybean rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Lucas W; Kuramae, Eiko E; Navarrete, Acácio A; van Veen, Johannes A; Tsai, Siu M

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed the selection of the rhizospheric microbial community from the bulk soil reservoir under agricultural management of soybean in Amazon forest soils. We used a shotgun metagenomics approach to investigate the taxonomic and functional diversities of microbial communities in the bulk soil and in the rhizosphere of soybean plants and tested the validity of neutral and niche theories to explain the rhizosphere community assembly processes. Our results showed a clear selection at both taxonomic and functional levels operating in the assembly of the soybean rhizosphere community. The taxonomic analysis revealed that the rhizosphere community is a subset of the bulk soil community. Species abundance in rhizosphere fits the log-normal distribution model, which is an indicator of the occurrence of niche-based processes. In addition, the data indicate that the rhizosphere community is selected based on functional cores related to the metabolisms of nitrogen, iron, phosphorus and potassium, which are related to benefits to the plant, such as growth promotion and nutrition. The network analysis including bacterial groups and functions was less complex in rhizosphere, suggesting the specialization of some specific metabolic pathways. We conclude that the assembly of the microbial community in the rhizosphere is based on niche-based processes as a result of the selection power of the plant and other environmental factors. PMID:24553468

  19. Functional potential of soil microbial communities in the maize rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangzhen; Rui, Junpeng; Xiong, Jingbo; Li, Jiabao; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Yannarell, Anthony C; Mackie, Roderick I

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities in the rhizosphere make significant contributions to crop health and nutrient cycling. However, their ability to perform important biogeochemical processes remains uncharacterized. Here, we identified important functional genes that characterize the rhizosphere microbial community to understand metabolic capabilities in the maize rhizosphere using the GeoChip-based functional gene array method. Significant differences in functional gene structure were apparent between rhizosphere and bulk soil microbial communities. Approximately half of the detected gene families were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the rhizosphere. Based on the detected gyrB genes, Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria were most enriched in the rhizosphere compared to those in the bulk soil. The rhizosphere niche also supported greater functional diversity in catabolic pathways. The maize rhizosphere had significantly enriched genes involved in carbon fixation and degradation (especially for hemicelluloses, aromatics and lignin), nitrogen fixation, ammonification, denitrification, polyphosphate biosynthesis and degradation, sulfur reduction and oxidation. This research demonstrates that the maize rhizosphere is a hotspot of genes, mostly originating from dominant soil microbial groups such as Proteobacteria, providing functional capacity for the transformation of labile and recalcitrant organic C, N, P and S compounds.

  20. Elevated CO2 benefits the soil microenvironment in the rhizosphere of Robinia pseudoacacia L. seedlings in Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuping; Jia, Xia; Zhao, Yonghua; Bai, Bo; Chang, Yafei

    2017-02-01

    Soil contamination by heavy metals in combination with elevated atmospheric CO2 has important effects on the rhizosphere microenvironment by influencing plant growth. Here, we investigated the response of the R. pseudoacacia rhizosphere microenvironment to elevated CO2 in combination with cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contamination. Organic compounds (total soluble sugars, soluble phenolic acids, free amino acids, and organic acids), microbial abundance and activity, and enzyme activity (urease, dehydrogenase, invertase, and β-glucosidase) in rhizosphere soils increased significantly (p < 0.05) under elevated CO2 relative to ambient CO2; however, l-asparaginase activity decreased. Addionally, elevated CO2 alone affected soil microbial community in the rhizosphere. Heavy metals alone resulted in an increase in total soluble sugars, free amino acids, and organic acids, a decrease in phenolic acids, microbial populations and biomass, and enzyme activity, and a change in microbial community in rhizosphere soils. Elevated CO2 led to an increase in organic compounds, microbial populations, biomass, and activity, and enzyme activity (except for l-asparaginase), and changes in microbial community under Cd, Pb, or Cd + Pb treatments relative to ambient CO2. In addition, elevated CO2 significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the removal ratio of Cd and Pb in rhizosphere soils. Overall, elevated CO2 benefited the rhizosphere microenvironment of R. pseudoacacia seedlings under heavy metal stress, which suggests that increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations could have positive effects on soil fertility and rhizosphere microenvironment under heavy metals.

  1. Use of stable-isotope probing, full-cycle rRNA analysis, and fluorescence in situ hybridization-microautoradiography to study a methanol-fed denitrifying microbial community.

    PubMed

    Ginige, Maneesha P; Hugenholtz, Philip; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael; Keller, Jürg; Blackall, Linda L

    2004-01-01

    A denitrifying microbial consortium was enriched in an anoxically operated, methanol-fed sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with a mineral salts medium containing methanol as the sole carbon source and nitrate as the electron acceptor. The SBR was inoculated with sludge from a biological nutrient removal activated sludge plant exhibiting good denitrification. The SBR denitrification rate improved from less than 0.02 mg of NO(3)(-)-N mg of mixed-liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS)(-1) h(-1) to a steady-state value of 0.06 mg of NO(3)(-)-N mg of MLVSS(-1) h(-1) over a 7-month operational period. At this time, the enriched microbial community was subjected to stable-isotope probing (SIP) with [(13)C]methanol to biomark the DNA of the denitrifiers. The extracted [(13)C]DNA and [(12)C]DNA from the SIP experiment were separately subjected to full-cycle rRNA analysis. The dominant 16S rRNA gene phylotype (group A clones) in the [(13)C]DNA clone library was closely related to those of the obligate methylotrophs Methylobacillus and Methylophilus in the order Methylophilales of the Betaproteobacteria (96 to 97% sequence identities), while the most abundant clone groups in the [(12)C]DNA clone library mostly belonged to the family Saprospiraceae in the Bacteroidetes phylum. Oligonucleotide probes for use in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were designed to specifically target the group A clones and Methylophilales (probes DEN67 and MET1216, respectively) and the Saprospiraceae clones (probe SAP553). Application of these probes to the SBR biomass over the enrichment period demonstrated a strong correlation between the level of SBR denitrification and relative abundance of DEN67-targeted bacteria in the SBR community. By contrast, there was no correlation between the denitrification rate and the relative abundances of the well-known denitrifying genera Hyphomicrobium and Paracoccus or the Saprospiraceae clones visualized by FISH in the SBR biomass. FISH combined

  2. Differential Isotopic Fractionation during Cr(VI) Reduction by an Aquifer-Derived Bacterium under Aerobic versus Denitrifying Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Han, R.; Qin, L.; Brown, S. T.; Christensen, J. N.; Beller, H. R.

    2012-01-27

    We studied Cr isotopic fractionation during Cr(VI) reduction by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain RCH2. Finally, despite the fact that strain RCH2 reduces Cr(VI) cometabolically under both aerobic and denitrifying conditions and at similar specific rates, fractionation was markedly different under these two conditions (ε was ~2‰ aerobically and ~0.4‰ under denitrifying conditions).

  3. Growth rates of rhizosphere microorganisms depend on competitive abilities of plants for nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Littschwager, Johanna; Lauerer, Marianna; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2010-05-01

    Rhizosphere - one of the most important ‘hot spots' in soil - is characterized not only by accelerated turnover of microbial biomass and nutrients but also by strong intra- and inter-specific competition. Intra-specific competition occurs between individual plants of the same species, while inter-specific competition can occur both at population level (plant species-specific, microbial species-specific interactions) and at community level (plant - microbial interactions). Such plant - microbial interactions are mainly governed by competition for available N sources, since N is one of the main growth limiting nutrients in natural ecosystems. Functional structure and activity of microbial community in rhizosphere is not uniform and is dependent on quantity and quality of root exudates which are plant specific. It is still unclear how microbial growth and turnover in the rhizosphere are dependent on the features and competitive abilities of plants for N. Depending on C and N availability, acceleration and even retardation of microbial activity and carbon mineralization can be expected in the rhizosphere of plants with high competitive abilities for N. We hypothesized slower microbial growth rates in the rhizosphere of plants with smaller roots, as they usually produce less exudates compared to plants with small shoot-to-root ratio. As the first hypothesis is based solely on C availability, we also expected the greater effect of N availability on microbial growth in rhizosphere of plants with smaller root mass. These hypothesis were tested for two plant species of strawberry: Fragaria vesca L. (native species), and Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Focke (an invasive plant in central Europe) growing in intraspecific and interspecific competition. Microbial biomass and the kinetic parameters of microbial growth in the rhizosphere were estimated by dynamics of CO2 emission from the soil amended with glucose and nutrients. Specific growth rate (µ) of soil microorganisms was

  4. Population analysis in a denitrifying sand filter: conventional and in situ identification of Paracoccus spp. in methanol-fed biofilms.

    PubMed Central

    Neef, A; Zaglauer, A; Meier, H; Amann, R; Lemmer, H; Schleifer, K H

    1996-01-01

    The microbial community of a denitrifying sand filter in a municipal wastewater treatment plant was examined by conventional and molecular techniques to identify the bacteria actively involved in the removal of nitrate. In this system, denitrification is carried out as the last step of water treatment by biofilms growing on quartz grains with methanol as a supplemented carbon source. The biofilms are quite irregular, having a median thickness of 13 to 20 microns. Fatty acid analysis of 56 denitrifying isolates indicated the occurrence of Paracoccus spp. in the sand filter. 16S rRNA-targeted probes were designed for this genus and the species cluster Paracoccus denitrificans-Paracoccus versutus and tested for specificity by whole-cell hybridization. Stringency requirements for the probes were adjusted by use of a formamide concentration gradient to achieve complete discrimination of even highly similar target sequences. Whole-cell hybridization confirmed that members of the genus Paracoccus were abundant among the isolates. Twenty-seven of the 56 isolates hybridized with the genus-specific probes. In situ hybridization identified dense aggregates of paracocci in detached biofilms. Probes complementary to the type strains of P. denitrificans and P. versutus did not hybridize to cells in the biofilms, suggesting the presence of a new Paracoccus species in the sand filter. Analysis using confocal laser scanning microscopy detected spherical aggregates of morphologically identical cells exhibiting a uniform fluorescence. Cell quantification was performed after thorough disruption of the biofilms and filtration onto polycarbonate filters. An average of 3.5% of total cell counts corresponded to a Paracoccus sp., whereas in a parallel sand filter with no supplemented methanol, and no measurable denitrification, only very few paracocci (0.07% of cells stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) could be detected. Hyphomicrobium spp. constituted approximately 2% of all cells

  5. Population analysis in a denitrifying sand filter: conventional and in situ identification of Paracoccus spp. in methanol-fed biofilms.

    PubMed

    Neef, A; Zaglauer, A; Meier, H; Amann, R; Lemmer, H; Schleifer, K H

    1996-12-01

    The microbial community of a denitrifying sand filter in a municipal wastewater treatment plant was examined by conventional and molecular techniques to identify the bacteria actively involved in the removal of nitrate. In this system, denitrification is carried out as the last step of water treatment by biofilms growing on quartz grains with methanol as a supplemented carbon source. The biofilms are quite irregular, having a median thickness of 13 to 20 microns. Fatty acid analysis of 56 denitrifying isolates indicated the occurrence of Paracoccus spp. in the sand filter. 16S rRNA-targeted probes were designed for this genus and the species cluster Paracoccus denitrificans-Paracoccus versutus and tested for specificity by whole-cell hybridization. Stringency requirements for the probes were adjusted by use of a formamide concentration gradient to achieve complete discrimination of even highly similar target sequences. Whole-cell hybridization confirmed that members of the genus Paracoccus were abundant among the isolates. Twenty-seven of the 56 isolates hybridized with the genus-specific probes. In situ hybridization identified dense aggregates of paracocci in detached biofilms. Probes complementary to the type strains of P. denitrificans and P. versutus did not hybridize to cells in the biofilms, suggesting the presence of a new Paracoccus species in the sand filter. Analysis using confocal laser scanning microscopy detected spherical aggregates of morphologically identical cells exhibiting a uniform fluorescence. Cell quantification was performed after thorough disruption of the biofilms and filtration onto polycarbonate filters. An average of 3.5% of total cell counts corresponded to a Paracoccus sp., whereas in a parallel sand filter with no supplemented methanol, and no measurable denitrification, only very few paracocci (0.07% of cells stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) could be detected. Hyphomicrobium spp. constituted approximately 2% of all cells

  6. Effects of plant biomass on denitrifying genes in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Zhou, Qi; Vymazal, Jan

    2014-04-01

    The effect of Typha latifolia and its litter on density and abundance of three denitrifying genes (nirS, nirK and nosZ) were investigated in six laboratory-scale SSF CW microcosms. Results showed that the copy numbers of nirS, nirK and nosZ in wetland microcosms were ranged between 10(8)-10(9), 10(6)-10(7) and 10(7)-10(8) copies g(-1), respectively. The presence of T. latifolia encouraged the growth of nirK containing bacteria. Addition of cattail litter could greatly stimulate the growth of bacteria containing nirS and nosZ gene. Path analysis illustrated that the presence of plants and litters had no significant direct impact on denitrifying genes, while it affected the denitrifying genes via alteration of dissolved oxygen and carbon sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental controls on denitrifying communities and denitrification rates--Insights from molecular methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Myrold, David D.; Firestone, Mary; Voytek, Mary

    2006-01-01

    The advent of molecular techniques has improved our understanding of the microbial communities responsible for denitrification and is beginning to address their role in controlling denitrification processes. There is a large diversity of bacteria, archaea, and fungi capable of denitrification, and their community composition is structured by long-term environmental drivers. The range of temperature and moisture conditions, substrate availability, competition, and disturbances have long-lasting legacies on denitrifier community structure. These communities may differ in physiology, environmental tolerances to pH and O2, growth rate, and enzyme kinetics. Although factors such as O2, pH, C availability, and NO3− pools affect instantaneous rates, these drivers act through the biotic community. This review summarizes the results of molecular investigations of denitrifier communities in natural environments and provides a framework for developing future research for addressing connections between denitrifier community structure and function.

  8. Environmental controls on denitrifying communities and denitrification rates: insights from molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Wallenstein, Matthew D; Myrold, David D; Firestone, Mary; Voytek, Mary

    2006-12-01

    The advent of molecular techniques has improved our understanding of the microbial communities responsible for denitrification and is beginning to address their role in controlling denitrification processes. There is a large diversity of bacteria, archaea, and fungi capable of denitrification, and their community composition is structured by long-term environmental drivers. The range of temperature and moisture conditions, substrate availability, competition, and disturbances have long-lasting legacies on denitrifier community structure. These communities may differ in physiology, environmental tolerances to pH and O2, growth rate, and enzyme kinetics. Although factors such as O2, pH, C availability, and NO3- pools affect instantaneous rates, these drivers act through the biotic community. This review summarizes the results of molecular investigations of denitrifier communities in natural environments and provides a framework for developing future research for addressing connections between denitrifier community structure and function.

  9. [Biological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of a denitrifying photosynthetic bacterium].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Zhang, Demin; Wang, Longgang; Pan, Zhichong

    2011-02-01

    Nitrite accumulation in aquaculture water is toxic to reared animals. One of the solutions to this problem is to apply denitrifying bacteria. This paper is intended to get a strain of phototrophic bacteria for efficient removal of nitrite from aquaculture water. We used soft agar to isolate and purify phototrophic bacteria. We investigated biological characteristics of the isolate by means of light and electronic observations, physical and chemical tests. We analyzed its phylogenetical position based on the sequences of 16S rDNA and the gene that codes for photosynthetic reaction center subunit M (pufM). A photosynthetic bacterial strain, named wps, showing high removal efficiency of nitrite, was isolated from the freshwater ponds. Cells were Gram-negative, rod-shaped, slightly curved, 0.4 - 0.6 x 1.5 - 4.0 microm, motile by means of polar multiple flagella. Intracellular membranes were of the lamellar type. It grew under facultative anaerobic conditions in the light with bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoid of sppirilloxanthin series as photosynthetic pigment. The optimum growth was obtained at pH 5.5 - 8.5, in a range of 0 - 2% salinity and at 25 - 38 degrees C. The similarity of 16S rDNA between strain wps and Rhodopseudomonas palustris was 98.9% and 94.9% for pufM gene. However, there are significant differences between them in the morphological and physiological characteristics, i. e. grew at pH 5.5; no growth photoautotrophicaly with sodium hydrogen carbonate; could not utilize citrate or formate as only carbon source; required thiamine hydrochloride and calcium pantothenate as growth factors. Strain wps may represent a novel species in genus Rhodopseudomonas and possibly find its application in the bioremediation of polluted aquaculture water.

  10. Column studies on BTEX biodegradation under microaerophilic and denitrifying conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, S.R.; Moolenaar, S.W.; Rhodes, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Two column tests were conducted using aquifer material to simulate the nitrate field demonstration project carried out earlier at Traverse City, Michigan. The objectives were to better define the effect nitrate addition had on biodegradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes (BTEX) in the field study, and to determine whether BTEX removal can be enhanced by supplying a limited amount of oxygen as a supplemental electron acceptor. Columns were operated using limited oxygen, limited oxygen plus nitrate, and nitrate alone. In the first column study, benzene was generally recalcitrant compared to the alkylbenzenes (TEX), although some removal did occur. The average benzene breakthroughs were 74.3 + or - 5.8%, 75.9 + or - 12.1%, and 63.1 + or - 9.6% in the columns with limited oxygen, limited oxygen plus nitrate, and nitrate alone, respectively, whereas the corresponding average effluent TEX breakthroughs were 22.9 + or - 2.3%, 2.9 + or - 1.1%, and 4.3 + or - 3.3%. In the second column study, nitrate was deleted from the feed to the column originally receiving nitrate alone and added to the feed of the column originally receiving limited oxygen alone. Benzene breakthrough was similar for each column. Breakthrough of TEX decreased by an order of magnitude once nitrate was added to the microaerophilic column, whereas TEX breakthrough increased by 50-fold once nitrate as removed from the denitrifying column. Although the requirement for nitrate for optimum TEX removal was clearly demonstrated in these columns, there were significant contributions by biotic and abiotic processes other than denitrification which could not be quantified.

  11. The role of paraffin oil on the interaction between denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation and Anammox processes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Liang; Ding, Zhao-Wei; Ding, Jing; Zhang, Fang; Zeng, Raymond J

    2015-10-01

    Methane is sparingly soluble in water, resulting in a slow reaction rate in the denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) process. The slow rate limits the feasibility of research to examine the interaction between the DAMO and the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process. In this study, optimized 5 % (v/v) paraffin oil was added as a second liquid phase to improve methane solubility in a reactor containing DAMO and Anammox microbes. After just addition, methane solubility was found to increase by 25 % and DAMO activity was enhanced. After a 100-day cultivation, the paraffin reactor showed almost two times higher consumption rates of NO3 (-) (0.2268 mmol/day) and NH4 (+) (0.1403 mmol/day), compared to the control reactor without paraffin oil. The microbes tended to distribute in the oil-water interface. The quantitative (q) PCR result showed the abundance of gene copies of DAMO archaea, DAMO bacteria, and Anammox bacteria in the paraffin reactor were higher than those in the control reactor after 1 month. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that the percentages of the three microbes were 55.5 and 77.6 % in the control and paraffin reactors after 100 days, respectively. A simple model of mass balance was developed to describe the interactions between DAMO and Anammox microbes and validate the activity results. A mechanism was proposed to describe the possible way that paraffin oil enhanced DAMO activity. It is quite clear that paraffin oil enhances not only DAMO activity but also Anammox activity via the interaction between them; both NO3 (-) and NH4 (+) consumption rates were about two times those of the control.

  12. [Influences of long-term application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the composition and abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers in black soil].

    PubMed

    Yin, Chang; Fan, Fen-Liang; Li, Zhao-Jun; Song, A-Lin; Zhu, Ping; Peng, Chang; Liang, Yong-Chao

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of long-term organic and inorganic fertilizations on the composition and abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers in black soil. Soil samples were collected from 4 treatments (i. e. no fertilizer treatment, CK; organic manure treatment, OM; chemical fertilizer treatment (NPK) and combination of organic and chemical fertilizers treatment (MNPK)) in Gongzhuling Long-term Fertilization Experiment Station. Composition and abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers were analyzed with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), respectively. Denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) and soil properties were also measured. Application of organic fertilizers (OM and MNPK) significantly increased the DEAs of black soil, with the DEAs in OM and MNPK being 5.92 and 6.03 times higher than that in CK treatment, respectively, whereas there was no significant difference between NPK and CK. OM and MNPK treatments increased the abundances of nirS-type denitrifiers by 2.73 and 3.83 times relative to that of CK treatment, respectively. The abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers in NPK treatment was not significantly different from that of CK. The T-RFLP analysis of nirS genes showed significant differences in community composition between organic and inorganic treatments, with the emergence of a 79 bp T-RF, a significant decrease in relative abundance of the 84 bp T-RF and a loss of the 99 bp T-RF in all organic treatments. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the airS-type denitrifiers in the black soil were mainly composed of alpha, beta and gamma-Proteobacteria. The 79 bp-type denitrifiers inhabiting exclusively in organic treatments (OM and MNPK) were affiliated to Pseudomonadaceae in gamma-Proteobacteria and Burkholderiales in beta-Proteobacteria. The 84 bp-types were related to Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales. Correlation analysis indicated that pH, concentrations of total nitrogen

  13. Carbon amendment and soil depth affect the distribution and abundance of denitrifiers in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Barrett, M; Khalil, M I; Jahangir, M M R; Lee, C; Cardenas, L M; Collins, G; Richards, K G; O'Flaherty, V

    2016-04-01

    The nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK) and nitrous oxide reductase-encoding (nosZ) genes of denitrifying populations present in an agricultural grassland soil were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Samples from three separate pedological depths at the chosen site were investigated: horizon A (0-10 cm), horizon B (45-55 cm), and horizon C (120-130 cm). The effect of carbon addition (treatment 1, control; treatment 2, glucose-C; treatment 3, dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) on denitrifier gene abundance and N2O and N2 fluxes was determined. In general, denitrifier abundance correlated well with flux measurements; nirS was positively correlated with N2O, and nosZ was positively correlated with N2 (P < 0.03). Denitrifier gene copy concentrations per gram of soil (GCC) varied in response to carbon type amendment (P < 0.01). Denitrifier GCCs were high (ca. 10(7)) and the bac:nirK, bac:nirS, bac:nir (T) , and bac:nosZ ratios were low (ca. 10(-1)/10) in horizon A in all three respective treatments. Glucose-C amendment favored partial denitrification, resulting in higher nir abundance and higher N2O fluxes compared to the control. DOC amendment, by contrast, resulted in relatively higher nosZ abundance and N2 emissions, thus favoring complete denitrification. We also noted soil depth directly affected bacterial, archaeal, and denitrifier abundance, possibly due to changes in soil carbon availability with depth.

  14. Mycological composition in the rhizosphere of winter wheat in different crop production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frac, Magdalena; Lipiec, Jerzy; Usowicz, Boguslaw

    2010-05-01

    Fungi play an important role in the soil ecosystem as decomposers of plant residues, releasing nutrients that sustain and stimulate processes of plant growth. Some fungi possess antagonistic properties towards plant pathogens. The structure of plant and soil communities is influenced by the interactions among its component species and also by anthropogenic pressure. In the study of soil fungi, particular attention is given to the rhizosphere. Knowledge of the structure and diversity of the fungal community in the rhizosphere lead to the better understanding of pathogen-antagonist interactions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mycological composition of the winter wheat rhizosphere in two different crop production systems. The study was based on a field experiment established in 1994 year at the Experimental Station in South-East Poland. The experiment was conducted on grey-brown podzolic soil. In this experiment winter wheat were grown in two crop production systems: ecological and conventional - monoculture. The research of fungi composition was conducted in 15th year of experiment. Rhizosphere was collected two times during growing season, in different development stage: shooting phase and full ripeness phase. Martin medium and the dilutions 10-3 and 10-4 were used to calculate the total number cfu (colony forming units) of fungi occurring in the rhizosphere of winter wheat. The fungi were identified using Czapeka-Doxa medium for Penicillium, potato dextrose agar for all fungi and agar Nirenberga (SNA) for Fusarium. High number of antagonistic fungi (Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp.) was recorded in the rhizosphere of wheat in ecological system. The presence of these fungi can testify to considerable biological activity, which contributes to the improvement of the phytosanitary condition of the soil. However, the decrease of the antagonistic microorganism number in the crop wheat in monoculture can be responsible for appearance higher number of the

  15. Rhizospheric fungi of Panax notoginseng: diversity and antagonism to host phytopathogens

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Cui-Ping; Mi, Qi-Li; Qiao, Xin-Guo; Zheng, You-Kun; Chen, You-Wei; Xu, Li-Hua; Guan, Hui-Lin; Zhao, Li-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Background Rhizospheric fungi play an essential role in the plant–soil ecosystem, affecting plant growth and health. In this study, we evaluated the fungal diversity in the rhizosphere soil of 2-yr-old healthy Panax notoginseng cultivated in Wenshan, China. Methods Culture-independent Illumina MiSeq and culture-dependent techniques, combining molecular and morphological characteristics, were used to analyze the rhizospheric fungal diversity. A diffusion test was used to challenge the phytopathogens of P. notoginseng. Results A total of 16,130 paired-end reads of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 were generated and clustered into 860 operational taxonomic units at 97% sequence similarity. All the operational taxonomic units were assigned to five phyla and 79 genera. Zygomycota (46.2%) and Ascomycota (37.8%) were the dominant taxa; Mortierella and unclassified Mortierellales accounted for a large proportion (44.9%) at genus level. The relative abundance of Fusarium and Phoma sequences was high, accounting for 12.9% and 5.5%, respectively. In total, 113 fungal isolates were isolated from rhizosphere soil. They were assigned to five classes, eight orders (except for an Incertae sedis), 26 genera, and 43 species based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer. Fusarium was the most isolated genus with six species (24 isolates, 21.2%). The abundance of Phoma was also relatively high (8.0%). Thirteen isolates displayed antimicrobial activity against at least one test fungus. Conclusion Our results suggest that diverse fungi including potential pathogenic ones exist in the rhizosphere soil of 2-yr-old P. notoginseng and that antagonistic isolates may be useful for biological control of pathogens. PMID:27158233

  16. Rhizosphere selection of highly motile phenotypic variants of Pseudomonas fluorescens with enhanced competitive colonization ability.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Granero, Francisco; Rivilla, Rafael; Martín, Marta

    2006-05-01

    Phenotypic variants of Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 showing a translucent and diffuse colony morphology show enhanced colonization of the alfalfa rhizosphere. We have previously shown that in the biocontrol agent P. fluorescens F113, phenotypic variation is mediated by the activity of two site-specific recombinases, Sss and XerD. By overexpressing the genes encoding either of the recombinases, we have now generated a large number of variants (mutants) after selection either by prolonged laboratory cultivation or by rhizosphere passage. All the isolated variants were more motile than the wild-type strain and appear to contain mutations in the gacA and/or gacS gene. By disrupting these genes and complementation analysis, we have observed that the Gac system regulates swimming motility by a repression pathway. Variants isolated after selection by prolonged cultivation formed a single population with a swimming motility that was equal to the motility of gac mutants, being 150% more motile than the wild type. The motility phenotype of these variants was complemented by the cloned gac genes. Variants isolated after rhizosphere selection belonged to two different populations: one identical to the population isolated after prolonged cultivation and the other comprising variants that besides a gac mutation harbored additional mutations conferring higher motility. Our results show that gac mutations are selected both in the stationary phase and during rhizosphere colonization. The enhanced motility phenotype is in turn selected during rhizosphere colonization. Several of these highly motile variants were more competitive than the wild-type strain, displacing it from the root tip within 2 weeks.

  17. Different bacterial populations associated with the roots and rhizosphere of rice incorporate plant-derived carbon.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Marcela; Dumont, Marc G; Yuan, Quan; Conrad, Ralf

    2015-03-01

    Microorganisms associated with the roots of plants have an important function in plant growth and in soil carbon sequestration. Rice cultivation is the second largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric CH4, which is a significant greenhouse gas. Up to 60% of fixed carbon formed by photosynthesis in plants is transported below ground, much of it as root exudates that are consumed by microorganisms. A stable isotope probing (SIP) approach was used to identify microorganisms using plant carbon in association with the roots and rhizosphere of rice plants. Rice plants grown in Italian paddy soil were labeled with (13)CO2 for 10 days. RNA was extracted from root material and rhizosphere soil and subjected to cesium gradient centrifugation followed by 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing to identify microorganisms enriched with (13)C. Thirty operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were labeled and mostly corresponded to Proteobacteria (13 OTUs) and Verrucomicrobia (8 OTUs). These OTUs were affiliated with the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria classes of Proteobacteria and the "Spartobacteria" and Opitutae classes of Verrucomicrobia. In general, different bacterial groups were labeled in the root and rhizosphere, reflecting different physicochemical characteristics of these locations. The labeled OTUs in the root compartment corresponded to a greater proportion of the 16S rRNA sequences (∼20%) than did those in the rhizosphere (∼4%), indicating that a proportion of the active microbial community on the roots greater than that in the rhizosphere incorporated plant-derived carbon within the time frame of the experiment. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Salicornia strobilacea (Synonym of Halocnemum strobilaceum) Grown under Different Tidal Regimes Selects Rhizosphere Bacteria Capable of Promoting Plant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Marasco, Ramona; Mapelli, Francesca; Rolli, Eleonora; Mosqueira, Maria J.; Fusi, Marco; Bariselli, Paola; Reddy, Muppala; Cherif, Ameur; Tsiamis, George; Borin, Sara; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Halophytes classified under the common name of salicornia colonize salty and coastal environments across tidal inundation gradients. To unravel the role of tide-related regimes on the structure and functionality of root associated bacteria, the rhizospheric soil of Salicornia strobilacea (synonym of Halocnemum strobilaceum) plants was studied in a tidal zone of the coastline of Southern Tunisia. Although total counts of cultivable bacteria did not change in the rhizosphere of plants grown along a tidal gradient, significant differences were observed in the diversity of both the cultivable and uncultivable bacterial communities. This observation indicates that the tidal regime is contributing to the bacterial species selection in the rhizosphere. Despite the observed diversity in the bacterial community structure, the plant growth promoting (PGP) potential of cultivable rhizospheric bacteria, assessed through in vitro and in vivo tests, was equally distributed along the tidal gradient. Root colonization tests with selected strains proved that halophyte rhizospheric bacteria (i) stably colonize S. strobilacea rhizoplane and the plant shoot suggesting that they move from the root to the shoot and (ii) are capable of improving plant growth. The versatility in the root colonization, the overall PGP traits and the in vivo plant growth promotion under saline condition suggest that such beneficial activities likely take place naturally under a range of tidal regimes. PMID:27597846

  19. Cropping practices modulate the impact of glyphosate on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizosphere bacteria in agroecosystems of the semiarid prairie.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Min; Hamel, Chantal; Fernandez, Myriam R

    2012-08-01

    A growing body of evidence obtained from studies performed under controlled conditions suggests that glyphosate use can modify microbial community assemblages. However, few studies have examined the influence of glyphosate in agroecosystems. We examined 4 wheat-based production systems typical of the Canadian prairie over 2 years to answer the following question: Does preseeding of glyphosate impact soil rhizosphere microorganisms? If so, do cropping practices influence this impact? Glyphosate caused a shift in the species dominating the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community in the rhizosphere, possibly through the modification of host plant physiology. Glyphosate stimulated rhizobacterial growth while having no influence on saprotrophic fungi, suggesting a greater abundance of glyphosate-tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) in bacteria than in fungi. Glyphosate stimulated rhizosphere bacteria in pea but not in urea-fertilized durum wheat, which is consistent with inhibition of EPSPS tolerance to residual glyphosate through high ammonium levels. Mitigation of the effects of glyphosate on rhizosphere bacteria through tillage suggests a reduction in residual glyphosate activity through increased adsorption to soil binding sites upon soil mixing. The influence of glyphosate on Gram-negative bacteria was mitigated under drought conditions in 2007. Our experiment suggests that interactions between soil fertility, tillage, and cropping practices shape the influence of glyphosate use on rhizosphere microorganisms.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa YC0136, a Plant Growth–Promoting Rhizobacterium Isolated from Tobacco Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hu; Liu, Kai; Li, Yuhuan; Wang, Chengqiang; Hou, Qihui; Xu, Wenfeng; Fan, Lingchao; Zhao, Jian; Gou, Jianyu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Paenibacillus polymyxa strain YC0136 is a plant growth–promoting rhizobacterium with antimicrobial activity, which was isolated from tobacco rhizosphere. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of P. polymyxa YC0136. Several genes with antifungal and antibacterial activity were discovered. PMID:28183774

  1. Arsenic in the rhizosphere soil solution of ferns.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chaoyang; Zheng, Huan; Yu, Jiangping

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the evidence of arsenic hyperaccumulation in plant rhizosphere solutions. Six common fern plants were selected and grown in three types of substrate: arsenic (As) -tailings, As-spiked soil, and soil-As-tailing composites. A rhizobox was designed with an in-situ collection of soil solutions to analyze changes in the As concentration and valence as well as the pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total nitrogen (TN). Arsenite composed less than 20% of the total As, and As depletion was consistent with N depletion in the rhizosphere solutions of the various treatments. The As concentrations in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere solutions in the presence of plants were lower than in the respective controls without plants, except for in the As-spiked soils. The DOC concentrations were invariably higher in the rhizosphere versus non-rhizosphere solutions from the various plants; however, no significant increase in the DOC content was observed in Pteris vittata, in which only a slight decrease in pH appeared in the rhizosphere compared to non-rhizosphere solutions. The results showed that As reduction by plant roots was limited, acidification-induced solubilization was not the mechanism for As hyperaccumulation.

  2. Enhancement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in the rhizosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.C.; Banks, M.K.; Schwab, A.P.

    1994-12-31

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of potentially hazardous chemicals that exhibit toxic, mutagenic or carcinogenic properties. Microbial degradation is the major route through which PAHs are removed from contaminated environments although other mechanisms such as volatilization, leaching and photodegradation may also be effective. The rhizosphere contains a diversity of microorganisms that contribute to plant health and soil homeostasis. Recent studies indicate that microorganisms in the rhizosphere can degrade toxicants of concern to human health and the environment. The increased density and diversity of rhizosphere microflora may be an important factor for enhanced microbial degradation of PAHs. The objective of this study is to evaluate degradation of a number of different PAHs in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil. It has been shown that the biodegradation rates of PAHs increase as the number of PAH rings decrease, but there is little information about the biodegradation in rhizosphere soil. The study will provide results from a microcosm experiment designed to evaluate degradation of PAHs in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere. Also, kinetic models will be developed to represent data collected.

  3. Microbial Community Structure in the Rhizosphere of Rice Plants

    PubMed Central

    Breidenbach, Björn; Pump, Judith; Dumont, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    The microbial community in the rhizosphere environment is critical for the health of land plants and the processing of soil organic matter. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which rice plants shape the microbial community in rice field soil over the course of a growing season. Rice (Oryza sativa) was cultivated under greenhouse conditions in rice field soil from Vercelli, Italy and the microbial community in the rhizosphere of planted soil microcosms was characterized at four plant growth stages using quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analysis and compared to that of unplanted bulk soil. The abundances of 16S rRNA genes in the rice rhizosphere were on average twice that of unplanted bulk soil, indicating a stimulation of microbial growth in the rhizosphere. Soil environment type (i.e., rhizosphere versus bulk soil) had a greater effect on the community structure than did time (e.g., plant growth stage). Numerous phyla were affected by the presence of rice plants, but the strongest effects were observed for Gemmatimonadetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. With respect to functional groups of microorganisms, potential iron reducers (e.g., Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter) and fermenters (e.g., Clostridiaceae, Opitutaceae) were notably enriched in the rhizosphere environment. A Herbaspirillum species was always more abundant in the rhizosphere than bulk soil and was enriched in the rhizosphere during the early stage of plant growth. PMID:26793175

  4. Characterization of the microbial community in the rhizosphere of Phragmites australis (cav.) trin ex. steudel growing in the Sun Island Wetland.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fang; Wu, Jieting; Wang, Li; Yang, Jixian; Li, Shiyang; Li, Zhe; Zhag, Xue

    2014-03-01

    Rhizospheric microorganisms are important for environmental conservancy. The constancy and variability of the microorganisms in the rhizosphere of Phragmites australis in relation to the spatiotemporal variations in wetland ecosystems were studied. During the peak and trough of the vegetative period of the Phragmites australis growing across the hydrologic gradients of the Sun Island Wetland, Biolog and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to investigate the rhizospheric microbial characteristics. Both methods demonstrated that the microbial activity, richness, and diversity decreased from summer to autumn. However, these properties did not show significant correlation with hydrologic gradient, except that the genetic richness and diversity of the fungi decreased with it. Cluster analysis also demonstrated that the rhizospheric microbial community seemed to be largely affected by a vegetative period. In addition, this research was extended to a broader range of determining the universal microorganisms, which showed notable adaptability.

  5. Influence of humic substances on plant-microbes interactions in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Edoardo; Pascazio, Silvia; Spaccini, Riccardo; Crecchio, Carmine; Trevisan, Marco; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Humic substances are known to play a wide range of effects on the physiology of plant and microbes. This is of particular relevance in the rhizosphere of terrestrial environments, where the reciprocal interactions between plants roots, soil constituents and microorganisms strongly influence the plants acquisition of nutrients. Chemical advances are constantly improving our knowledge on humic substances: their supra-molecular architecture, as well as the moltitude of their chemical constituents, many of which are biologically active. An approach for linking the structure of humic substances with their biological activity in the rhizosphere is the use of rhizoboxes, which allow applying a treatment (e.g., an amendment with humic substances) in an upper soil-plant compartment and take measurements in a lower isolated rhizosphere compartment that can be sampled at desired distances from the rhizoplane. This approach can be adopted to assess the effects of several humic substances, as well as composted materials, on maize plants rhizodeposition of carbon, and in turn on the structure and activity of rhizosphere microbial communities. In order to gain a complete understanding of processes occurring in the complex soil-plant-microorganisms tripartite system, rhizobox experiments can be coupled with bacterial biosensors for the detection and quantification of bioavailable nutrients, chemical analyses of main rhizodeposits constituents, advanced chemical characterizations of humic substances, DNA-fingerprinting of microbial communities, and multivariate statistical approaches to manage the dataset produced and to infer general conclusions. By such an approach it was found that humic substances are significantly affecting the amount of carbon deposited by plant roots. This induction effect is more evident for substances with more hydrophobic and complex structure, thus supporting the scientific hypothesis of the "microbial loop model", which assumes that plants feed

  6. Natural rice rhizospheric microbes suppress rice blast infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The natural interactions between plant roots and their rhizospheric microbiome are vital to plant fitness, modulating both growth promotion and disease suppression. In rice (Oryza sativa), a globally important food crop, as much as 30% of yields are lost due to blast disease caused by fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Capitalizing on the abilities of naturally occurring rice soil bacteria to reduce M. oryzae infections could provide a sustainable solution to reduce the amount of crops lost to blast disease. Results Naturally occurring root-associated rhizospheric bacteria were isolated from California field grown rice plants (M-104), eleven of which were taxonomically identified by16S rRNA gene sequencing and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. Bacterial isolates were tested for biocontrol activity against the devastating foliar rice fungal pathogen, M. oryzae pathovar 70–15. In vitro, a Pseudomonas isolate, EA105, displayed antibiosis through reducing appressoria formation by nearly 90% as well as directly inhibiting fungal growth by 76%. Although hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a volatile commonly produced by biocontrol pseudomonads, the activity of EA105 seems to be independent of its HCN production. During in planta experiments, EA105 reduced the number of blast lesions formed by 33% and Pantoea agglomerans isolate, EA106 by 46%. Our data also show both EA105 and EA106 trigger jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) dependent induced systemic resistance (ISR) response in rice. Conclusions Out of 11 bacteria isolated from rice soil, pseudomonad EA105 most effectively inhibited the growth and appressoria formation of M. oryzae through a mechanism that is independent of cyanide production. In addition to direct antagonism, EA105 also appears to trigger ISR in rice plants through a mechanism that is dependent on JA and ET signaling, ultimately resulting in fewer blast lesions. The application of native bacteria as biocontrol agents in combination with

  7. Denitrifying Bacteria from the Genus Rhodanobacter Dominate Bacterial Communities in the Highly Contaminated Subsurface of a Nuclear Legacy Waste Site

    PubMed Central

    Green, Stefan J.; Prakash, Om; Jasrotia, Puja; Overholt, Will A.; Cardenas, Erick; Hubbard, Daniela; Tiedje, James M.; Watson, David B.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Brooks, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of long-term mixed-waste contamination, particularly uranium and nitrate, on the microbial community in the terrestrial subsurface was investigated at the field scale at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site in Oak Ridge, TN. The abundance, community composition, and distribution of groundwater microorganisms were examined across the site during two seasonal sampling events. At representative locations, subsurface sediment was also examined from two boreholes, one sampled from the most heavily contaminated area of the site and another from an area with low contamination. A suite of DNA- and RNA-based molecular tools were employed for community characterization, including quantitative PCR of rRNA and nitrite reductase genes, community composition fingerprinting analysis, and high-throughput pyrotag sequencing of rRNA genes. The results demonstrate that pH is a major driver of the subsurface microbial community structure and that denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter (class Gammaproteobacteria) dominate at low pH. The relative abundance of bacteria from this genus was positively correlated with lower-pH conditions, and these bacteria were abundant and active in the most highly contaminated areas. Other factors, such as the concentration of nitrogen species, oxygen level, and sampling season, did not appear to strongly influence the distribution of Rhodanobacter bacteria. The results indicate that these organisms are acid-tolerant denitrifiers, well suited to the acidic, nitrate-rich subsurface conditions, and pH is confirmed as a dominant driver of bacterial community structure in this contaminated subsurface environment. PMID:22179233

  8. Comparison of endogenous metabolism during long-term anaerobic starvation of nitrite/nitrate cultivated denitrifying phosphorus removal sludges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yayi; Zhou, Shuai; Wang, Hong; Ye, Liu; Qin, Jian; Lin, Ximao

    2015-01-01

    Denitrifying phosphorus removal (DPR) by denitrifying phosphorus-accumulating organisms (DPAOs) is a promising approach for reducing energy and carbon usage. However, influent fluctuations or interruptions frequently expose the DPAOs biomass to starvation conditions, reducing biomass activity and amount, and ultimately degrading the performance of DPR. Therefore, a better understanding of the endogenous metabolism and recovery ability of DPAOs is urgently required. In the present study, anaerobic starvation (12 days) and recovery were investigated in nitrite- and nitrate-cultivated DPAOs at 20 ± 1 °C. The cell decay rates in nitrite-DPAOs sludges from the end of the anaerobic and aerobic phase were 0.008 day⁻¹ and 0.007 day⁻¹, respectively, being 64% and 68% lower than those of nitrate-DPAOs sludges. Nitrite-DPAOs sludges also recovered more rapidly than nitrate-DPAOs sludge after 12 days of starvation. The maintenance energy of nitrite-DPAOs sludges from the end of the anaerobic and aerobic phase were approximately 31% and 34% lower, respectively, than those of nitrate-DPAOs sludges. Glycogen and polyphosphate (poly-P) sequentially served as the main maintenance energy sources in both nitrite-and nitrate-DPAOs sludges. However, the transformation pathway of the intracellular polymers during starvation differed between them. Nitrate-DPAOs sludge used extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) (mainly polysaccharides) as an additional maintenance energy source during the first 3 days of starvation. During this phase, EPS appeared to contribute to 19-27% of the ATP production in nitrate-DPAOs, but considerably less to the cell maintenance of nitrite-DPAOs. The high resistance of nitrite-DPAOs to starvation might be attributable to frequent short-term starvation and exposure to toxic substances such as nitrite/free nitrous acids in the parent nitrite-fed reactor. The strong resistance of nitrite-DPAOs sludge to anaerobic starvation may be exploited in P removal

  9. Denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter dominate bacterial communities in the highly contaminated subsurface of a nuclear legacy waste site.

    PubMed

    Green, Stefan J; Prakash, Om; Jasrotia, Puja; Overholt, Will A; Cardenas, Erick; Hubbard, Daniela; Tiedje, James M; Watson, David B; Schadt, Christopher W; Brooks, Scott C; Kostka, Joel E

    2012-02-01

    The effect of long-term mixed-waste contamination, particularly uranium and nitrate, on the microbial community in the terrestrial subsurface was investigated at the field scale at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site in Oak Ridge, TN. The abundance, community composition, and distribution of groundwater microorganisms were examined across the site during two seasonal sampling events. At representative locations, subsurface sediment was also examined from two boreholes, one sampled from the most heavily contaminated area of the site and another from an area with low contamination. A suite of DNA- and RNA-based molecular tools were employed for community characterization, including quantitative PCR of rRNA and nitrite reductase genes, community composition fingerprinting analysis, and high-throughput pyrotag sequencing of rRNA genes. The results demonstrate that pH is a major driver of the subsurface microbial community structure and that denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter (class Gammaproteobacteria) dominate at low pH. The relative abundance of bacteria from this genus was positively correlated with lower-pH conditions, and these bacteria were abundant and active in the most highly contaminated areas. Other factors, such as the concentration of nitrogen species, oxygen level, and sampling season, did not appear to strongly influence the distribution of Rhodanobacter bacteria. The results indicate that these organisms are acid-tolerant denitrifiers, well suited to the acidic, nitrate-rich subsurface conditions, and pH is confirmed as a dominant driver of bacterial community structure in this contaminated subsurface environment.

  10. EFFECTS OF MICROCOSM PREPARATION ON RATES OF TOLUENE BIODEGRADATION UNDER DENITRIFYING CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microcosms were prepared with subsurface material from two aquifers to examine the effects of preparation methods on rates of toluene biodegradation under denitrifying conditions. In both cases, the data fit a zero-order kinetics plot. However, rates of removal were generally pro...

  11. Plastic biofilm carrier after corn cobs reduces nitrate loading in laboratory denitrifying bioreactors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitrate-nitrogen removal rates can be increased substantially in denitrifying bioreactors with a corn cob bed medium compared to woodchips; however, additional organic carbon (C) is released into the effluent. This laboratory column experiment was conducted to test the performance of a post-bed cha...

  12. EFFECTS OF MICROCOSM PREPARATION ON RATES OF TOLUENE BIODEGRADATION UNDER DENITRIFYING CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microcosms were prepared with subsurface material from two aquifers to examine the effects of preparation methods on rates of toluene biodegradation under denitrifying conditions. In both cases, the data fit a zero-order kinetics plot. However, rates of removal were generally pro...

  13. Optimization of denitrifying bioreactor performance with agricultural residue-based filter media

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Denitrification bioreactors are a promising technology for mitigation of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) losses in subsurface drainage water. Bioreactors are constructed with carbon substrates, typically wood chips, to provide a substrate for denitrifying microorganisms. Columns were packed with wood chips...

  14. Optimizing hydraulic retention times in denitrifying woodchip bioreactors treating recirculating aquaculture system wastewater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The performance of wood-based denitrifying bioreactors to treat high-nitrate wastewaters from aquaculture systems has not previously been demonstrated. Four pilot-scale woodchip bioreactors (approximately 1:10 scale) were constructed and operated for 268 d to determine the optimal range of design hy...

  15. Denitrifying woodchip bioreactor and phosphorus filter pairing to minimize pollution swapping

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pairing denitrifying woodchip bioreactors and phosphorus-sorbing filters provides a unique, engineered approach for dual nutrient removal from waters impaired with both nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). This column study aimed to test placement of two P-filter media (acid mine drainage treatment resi...

  16. Denitrifying Bioreactors – An Approach for Reducing Nitrate Loads to Receiving Waters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low-cost and simple technologies are needed to reduce watershed export of excess nitrogen to sensitive aquatic ecosystems. Denitrifying bioreactors are an approach where solid carbon substrates are added into the flow path of contaminated water. These carbon substrates (often fragmented wood-product...

  17. nirS-type denitrifying bacterial assemblages respond to environmental conditions of a shallow estuary.

    PubMed

    Lisa, Jessica A; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B; Song, Bongkeun

    2017-09-15

    Molecular analysis of dissimilatory nitrite reductase genes (nirS) was conducted using a customized microarray containing 165 nirS probes (archetypes) to identify members of sedimentary denitrifying communities. The goal of this study was to examine denitrifying community responses to changing environmental variables over spatial and temporal scales in the New River Estuary (NRE), NC, USA. Multivariate statistical analyses revealed three denitrifier assemblages and uncovered "generalist" and "specialist" archetypes based on the distribution of archetypes within these assemblages. Generalists, archetypes detected in all samples during at least one season, were commonly world-wide found in estuarine and marine ecosystems, comprised 8-29% of the abundant NRE archetypes. Archetypes found in a particular site, "specialists", were found to co-vary based on site specific conditions. Archetypes specific to the lower estuary in winter were designated Cluster I and significantly correlated by sediment Chl a and porewater Fe(2+) . A combination of specialist and more widely distributed archetypes formed Clusters II and III, which separated based on salinity and porewater H2 S, respectively. The co-occurrence of archetypes correlated with different environmental conditions highlights the importance of habitat type and niche differentiation among nirS-type denitrifying communities and supports the essential role of individual community members in overall ecosystem function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Metagenomic analysis of the sludge microbial community in a lab-scale denitrifying phosphorus removal reactor.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiao-Mei; Shao, Ming-Fei; Li, Ji; Li, Chao-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Denitrifying phosphorus removal is an attractive wastewater treatment process due to its reduced carbon source demand and sludge minimization potential. In the present study, the metagenome of denitrifying phosphorus removal sludge from a lab-scale anaerobic-anoxic SBR was generated by Illumina sequencing to study the microbial community. Compared with the aerobic phosphorus removal sludge, the denitrifying phosphorus removal sludge demonstrated quite similar microbial community profile and microbial diversity with sludge from Aalborg East EBPR WWTP. Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum; within Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria was the most dominant class, followed by α-, γ-, δ-, and ε-Proteobacteria. The genes involved in phosphate metabolism and biofilm formation reflected the selective pressure of the phosphorus removal process. Moreover, ppk sequence from DPAO was outside the Accumulibacter clusters, which suggested different core phosphorus removal bacteria in denitrifying and aerobic phosphorus removal systems. In a summary, putative DPAO might be a novel genus that is closely related between Accumulibacter and Dechloromonas within Rhodocyclus. The microbial community and metabolic profiles achieved in this study will eventually help to improve the understanding of key microorganisms and the entire community in order to improve the phosphorus removal efficiency of EBPR processes.

  19. Characterization of rhizosphere colonization by luminescent Enterobacter cloacae at the population and single-cell levels.

    PubMed Central

    Rattray, E A; Prosser, J I; Glover, L A; Killham, K

    1995-01-01

    A bioluminescence marker system was used to characterized colonization of the rhizosphere by a bacterial inoculum, both in terms of population activity and at the single-cell level. Plasmid pQF70/44, which contains luxAB genes under the control of a strong constitutive phage promoter, was introduced into the rhizobacterium and model biocontrol agent Enterobacter cloacae. Light output from the lux-modified strain was detected by luminometry of samples from growing cultures of E. cloacae and from inoculated soil and wheat root samples. The minimum detection limits for fully active cells under optimum conditions were 90 and 445 cells g-1 for liquid culture and soil, respectively. The metabolic activities of the lux-marked population of E. cloacae, characterized by luminometry, contrasted in rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere soil. Cells in the rhizosphere were active, and there was a linear relationship between light output and cell concentration. The activity of cells in nonrhizosphere coil could not be detected unless the soil was supplied with substrate. Novel use of a charge-coupled device is reported for the spatial characterization of rhizosphere colonization by E. cloacae (pQF70/44) at the single-cell and population levels. Used macroscopically, the charge-coupled device identified differences in colonization due to competition from indigenous soil organisms. The lux-marked bacterium was able to colonize all depths of roots in the absence of competition but was restricted tot he spermosphere in the presence of competition (nonsterile soil).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7487027

  20. Rhizosphere effects of PAH-contaminated soil phytoremediation using a special plant named Fire Phoenix.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Xiao, Nan; Wei, Shuhe; Zhao, Lixing; An, Jing

    2014-03-01

    The rhizosphere effect of a special phytoremediating species known as Fire Phoenix on the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated, including changes of the enzymatic activity and microbial communities in rhizosphere soil. The study showed that the degradation rate of Σ8PAHs by Fire Phoenix was up to 99.40% after a 150-day culture. The activity of dehydrogenase (DHO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) increased greatly, especially after a 60-day culture, followed by a gradual reduction with an increase in the planting time. The activity of these enzymes was strongly correlated to the higher degradation performance of Fire Phoenix growing in PAH-contaminated soils, although it was also affected by the basic characteristics of the plant species itself, such as the excessive, fibrous root systems, strong disease resistance, drought resistance, heat resistance, and resistance to barren soil. The activity of polyphenoloxidase (PPO) decreased during the whole growing period in this study, and the degradation rate of Σ8PAHs in the rhizosphere soil after having planted Fire Phoenix plants had a significant (R(2)=0.947) negative correlation with the change in the activity of PPO. Using an analysis of the microbial communities, the results indicated that the structure of microorganisms in the rhizosphere soil could be changed by planting Fire Phoenix plants, namely, there was an increase in microbial diversity compared with the unplanted soil. In addition, the primary advantage of Fire Phoenix was to promote the growth of flora genus Gordonia sp. as the major bacteria that can effectively degrade PAHs.

  1. Investigation of an acetate-fed denitrifying microbial community by stable isotope probing, full-cycle rRNA analysis, and fluorescent in situ hybridization-microautoradiography.

    PubMed

    Ginige, Maneesha P; Keller, Jürg; Blackall, Linda L

    2005-12-01

    The acetate-utilizing microbial consortium in a full-scale activated sludge process was investigated without prior enrichment using stable isotope probing (SIP). [13C]acetate was used in SIP to label the DNA of the denitrifiers. The [13C]DNA fraction that was extracted was subjected to a full-cycle rRNA analysis. The dominant 16S rRNA gene phylotypes in the 13C library were closely related to the bacterial families Comamonadaceae and Rhodocyclaceae in the class Betaproteobacteria. Seven oligonucleotide probes for use in fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were designed to specifically target these clones. Application of these probes to the sludge of a continuously fed denitrifying sequencing batch reactor (CFDSBR) operated for 16 days revealed that there was a significant positive correlation between the CFDSBR denitrification rate and the relative abundance of all probe-targeted bacteria in the CFDSBR community. FISH-microautoradiography demonstrated that the DEN581 and DEN124 probe-targeted cells that dominated the CFDSBR were capable of taking up [14C]acetate under anoxic conditions. Initially, DEN444 and DEN1454 probe-targeted bacteria also dominated the CFDSBR biomass, but eventually DEN581 and DEN124 probe-targeted bacteria were the dominant bacterial groups. All probe-targeted bacteria assessed in this study were denitrifiers capable of utilizing acetate as a source of carbon. The rapid increase in the number of organisms positively correlated with the immediate increase in denitrification rates observed by plant operators when acetate is used as an external source of carbon to enhance denitrification. We suggest that the impact of bacteria on activated sludge subjected to intermittent acetate supplementation should be assessed prior to the widespread use of acetate in the wastewater industry to enhance denitrification.

  2. Comparative study of microflora in Rhizospheric soils of Argania spinosa and Acacia raddiana of the arid zone from Oued El Ma (Tindouf)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissouras, Fatiha; Habib, Semira; Missoum, Malika; Louacini, Braim Kamel

    2016-04-01

    Desert soils occupy a large area in Algeria (80Moreover, exploitation of the Saharan soil microorganisms has several interests and especially in maintaining the ecological equilibrium of ecosystems. Unfortunately, few of microbiological studies have been conducted so far about the Saharan soil Algerian, with the exception of some work done on the desert soils in the region of Beni Ounif. This work falls within the framework of Project CNEPRU F02320100009. The study focuses on an evaluation of the main germs rhizosphere soils from Argania spinosa and Acacia raddiana of the region of Oued El-ma (wilaya of Tindouf), located in southwest Algeria, followed by physicochemical analysis of some parameters (soil texture, pH, moisture content, organic matter). The results reveal that both rhizosphere soils have a sandy silt texture of alkali pH, with very low water content slightly different. Organic material of the rate varies from 0.2 to 1The type of vegetation influences positively the quantity and the dynamics of microbial population. Indeed, the two soils have an interesting microbial diversity, with densities of azotobacters, fungi, aerobic bacteria and actinomycetes are very high, followed germs ammonifiants, nitrifying and denitrifying. In the presence of Argania spinosa the microbial growth is most important (6.53 × 107 germs /g soil), compared with Acacia raddiana (3.13 × 107 germs /g). This shows the stimulating effect of the vegetation on the increase in the rate of these microorganisms in the soil. Well as the strong Fitness of adaptation the microbial biomass to drought. Keywords: Argania spinoza; Acacia raddiana; rhizospheric soil; microbiology evaluation.

  3. Flavonoids: their structure, biosynthesis and role in the rhizosphere, including allelopathy.

    PubMed

    Weston, Leslie A; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2013-02-01

    Flavonoids are biologically active low molecular weight secondary metabolites that are produced by plants, with over 10,000 structural variants now reported. Due to their physical and biochemical properties, they interact with many diverse targets in subcellular locations to elicit various activities in microbes, plants, and animals. In plants, flavonoids play important roles in transport of auxin, root and shoot development, pollination, modulation of reactive oxygen species, and signalling of symbiotic bacteria in the legume Rhizobium symbiosis. In addition, they possess antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anticancer activities. In the plant, flavonoids are transported within and between plant tissues and cells, and are specifically released into the rhizosphere by roots where they are involved in plant/plant interactions or allelopathy. Released by root exudation or tissue degradation over time, both aglycones and glycosides of flavonoids are found in soil solutions and root exudates. Although the relative role of flavonoids in allelopathic interference has been less well-characterized than that of some secondary metabolites, we present classic examples of their involvement in autotoxicity and allelopathy. We also describe their activity and fate in the soil rhizosphere in selected examples involving pasture legumes, cereal crops, and ferns. Potential research directions for further elucidation of the specific role of flavonoids in soil rhizosphere interactions are considered.

  4. Successional trajectories of rhizosphere bacterial communities over consecutive seasons

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, Shengjing; Nuccio, Erin; Herman, Donald J.; ...

    2015-08-04

    It is well known that rhizosphere microbiomes differ from those of surrounding soil, and yet we know little about how these root-associated microbial communities change through the growing season and between seasons. We analyzed the response of soil bacteria to roots of the common annual grass Avena fatua over two growing seasons using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Over the two periods of growth, the rhizosphere bacterial communities followed consistent successional patterns as plants grew, although the starting communities were distinct. Succession in the rhizosphere was characterized by a significant decrease in both taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity relative tomore » background soil communities, driven by reductions in both richness and evenness of the bacterial communities. Plant roots selectively stimulated the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes but reduced the abundance of Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxa that increased in relative abundance in the rhizosphere soil displayed phylogenetic clustering, suggesting some conservation and an evolutionary basis for the response of complex soil bacterial communities to the presence of plant roots. The reproducibility of rhizosphere succession and the apparent phylogenetic conservation of rhizosphere competence traits suggest adaptation of the indigenous bacterial community to this common grass over the many decades of its presence. We document the successional patterns of rhizosphere bacterial communities associated with a “wild” annual grass, Avena fatua, which is commonly a dominant plant in Mediterranean-type annual grasslands around the world; the plant was grown in its grassland soil. Most studies documenting rhizosphere microbiomes address “domesticated” plants growing in soils to which they are introduced. Rhizosphere bacterial communities exhibited a pattern of temporal succession that was consistent and repeatable

  5. Successional Trajectories of Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities over Consecutive Seasons.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shengjing; Nuccio, Erin; Herman, Donald J; Rijkers, Ruud; Estera, Katerina; Li, Jiabao; da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; He, Zhili; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Brodie, Eoin L; Zhou, Jizhong; Firestone, Mary

    2015-08-04

    It is well known that rhizosphere microbiomes differ from those of surrounding soil, and yet we know little about how these root-associated microbial communities change through the growing season and between seasons. We analyzed the response of soil bacteria to roots of the common annual grass Avena fatua over two growing seasons using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Over the two periods of growth, the rhizosphere bacterial communities followed consistent successional patterns as plants grew, although the starting communities were distinct. Succession in the rhizosphere was characterized by a significant decrease in both taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity relative to background soil communities, driven by reductions in both richness and evenness of the bacterial communities. Plant roots selectively stimulated the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes but reduced the abundance of Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxa that increased in relative abundance in the rhizosphere soil displayed phylogenetic clustering, suggesting some conservation and an evolutionary basis for the response of complex soil bacterial communities to the presence of plant roots. The reproducibility of rhizosphere succession and the apparent phylogenetic conservation of rhizosphere competence traits suggest adaptation of the indigenous bacterial community to this common grass over the many decades of its presence. We document the successional patterns of rhizosphere bacterial communities associated with a "wild" annual grass, Avena fatua, which is commonly a dominant plant in Mediterranean-type annual grasslands around the world; the plant was grown in its grassland soil. Most studies documenting rhizosphere microbiomes address "domesticated" plants growing in soils to which they are introduced. Rhizosphere bacterial communities exhibited a pattern of temporal succession that was consistent and repeatable over two growing

  6. Successional trajectories of rhizosphere bacterial communities over consecutive seasons

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Shengjing; Nuccio, Erin; Herman, Donald J.; Rijkers, Ruud; Estera, Katerina; Li, Jiabao; da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; He, Zhili; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Brodie, Eoin L.; Zhou, Jizhong; Firestone, Mary

    2015-08-04

    It is well known that rhizosphere microbiomes differ from those of surrounding soil, and yet we know little about how these root-associated microbial communities change through the growing season and between seasons. We analyzed the response of soil bacteria to roots of the common annual grass Avena fatua over two growing seasons using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Over the two periods of growth, the rhizosphere bacterial communities followed consistent successional patterns as plants grew, although the starting communities were distinct. Succession in the rhizosphere was characterized by a significant decrease in both taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity relative to background soil communities, driven by reductions in both richness and evenness of the bacterial communities. Plant roots selectively stimulated the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes but reduced the abundance of Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxa that increased in relative abundance in the rhizosphere soil displayed phylogenetic clustering, suggesting some conservation and an evolutionary basis for the response of complex soil bacterial communities to the presence of plant roots. The reproducibility of rhizosphere succession and the apparent phylogenetic conservation of rhizosphere competence traits suggest adaptation of the indigenous bacterial community to this common grass over the many decades of its presence. We document the successional patterns of rhizosphere bacterial communities associated with a “wild” annual grass, Avena fatua, which is commonly a dominant plant in Mediterranean-type annual grasslands around the world; the plant was grown in its grassland soil. Most studies documenting rhizosphere microbiomes address “domesticated” plants growing in soils to which they are introduced. Rhizosphere bacterial communities exhibited a pattern of temporal

  7. Soil denitrifier community size changes with land use change to perennial bioenergy cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Karen A.; Deen, Bill; Dunfield, Kari E.

    2016-10-01

    Dedicated biomass crops are required for future bioenergy production. However, the effects of large-scale land use change (LUC) from traditional annual crops, such as corn-soybean rotations to the perennial grasses (PGs) switchgrass and miscanthus, on soil microbial community functioning is largely unknown. Specifically, ecologically significant denitrifying communities, which regulate N2O production and consumption in soils, may respond differently to LUC due to differences in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) inputs between crop types and management systems. Our objective was to quantify bacterial denitrifying gene abundances as influenced by corn-soybean crop production compared to PG biomass production. A field trial was established in 2008 at the Elora Research Station in Ontario, Canada (n  =  30), with miscanthus and switchgrass grown alongside corn-soybean rotations at different N rates (0 and 160 kg N ha-1) and biomass harvest dates within PG plots. Soil was collected on four dates from 2011 to 2012 and quantitative PCR was used to enumerate the total bacterial community (16S rRNA) and communities of bacterial denitrifiers by targeting nitrite reductase (nirS) and N2O reductase (nosZ) genes. Miscanthus produced significantly larger yields and supported larger nosZ denitrifying communities than corn-soybean rotations regardless of management, indicating large-scale LUC from corn-soybean to miscanthus may be suitable in variable Ontario climatic conditions and under varied management, while potentially mitigating soil N2O emissions. Harvesting switchgrass in the spring decreased yields in N-fertilized plots, but did not affect gene abundances. Standing miscanthus overwinter resulted in higher 16S rRNA and nirS gene copies than in fall-harvested crops. However, the size of the total (16S rRNA) and denitrifying bacterial communities changed differently over time and in response to LUC, indicating varying controls on these communities.

  8. Denitrifying and diazotrophic community responses to artificial warming in permafrost and tallgrass prairie soils

    SciTech Connect

    Penton, Christopher R.; St. Louis, Derek; Pham, Amanda; Cole, James R.; Wu, Liyou; Luo, Yiqi; Schuur, E. A. G.; Zhou, Jizhong; Tiedje, James M.

    2015-07-21

    Increasing temperatures have been shown to impact soil biogeochemical processes, although the corresponding changes to the underlying microbial functional communities are not well understood. Alterations in the nitrogen (N) cycling functional component are particularly important as N availability can affect microbial decomposition rates of soil organic matter and influence plant productivity. To assess changes in the microbial component responsible for these changes, the composition of the N-fixing (nifH), and denitrifying (nirS, nirK, nosZ) soil microbial communities was assessed by targeted pyrosequencing of functional genes involved in N cycling in two major biomes where the experimental effect of climate warming is under investigation, a tallgrass prairie in Oklahoma (OK) and the active layer above permafrost in Alaska (AK). Raw reads were processed for quality, translated with frameshift correction, and a total of 313,842 amino acid sequences were clustered and linked to a nearest neighbor using reference datasets. The number of OTUs recovered ranged from 231 (NifH) to 862 (NirK). The N functional microbial communities of the prairie, which had experienced a decade of experimental warming were the most affected with changes in the richness and/or overall structure of NifH, NirS, NirK and NosZ. In contrast, the AK permafrost communities, which had experienced only 1 year of warming, showed decreased richness and a structural change only with the nirK-harboring bacterial community. A highly divergent nirK-harboring bacterial community was identified in the permafrost soils, suggesting much novelty, while other N functional communities exhibited similar relatedness to the reference databases, regardless of site. Lastly, prairie and permafrost soils also harbored highly divergent communities due mostly to differing major populations.

  9. Denitrifying and diazotrophic community responses to artificial warming in permafrost and tallgrass prairie soils

    PubMed Central

    Penton, Christopher R.; St. Louis, Derek; Pham, Amanda; Cole, James R.; Wu, Liyou; Luo, Yiqi; Schuur, E. A. G.; Zhou, Jizhong; Tiedje, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing temperatures have been shown to impact soil biogeochemical processes, although the corresponding changes to the underlying microbial functional communities are not well understood. Alterations in the nitrogen (N) cycling functional component are particularly important as N availability can affect microbial decomposition rates of soil organic matter and influence plant productivity. To assess changes in the microbial component responsible for these changes, the composition of the N-fixing (nifH), and denitrifying (nirS, nirK, nosZ) soil microbial communities was assessed by targeted pyrosequencing of functional genes involved in N cycling in two major biomes where the experimental effect of climate warming is under investigation, a tallgrass prairie in Oklahoma (OK) and the active layer above permafrost in Alaska (AK). Raw reads were processed for quality, translated with frameshift correction, and a total of 313,842 amino acid sequences were clustered and linked to a nearest neighbor using reference datasets. The number of OTUs recovered ranged from 231 (NifH) to 862 (NirK). The N functional microbial communities of the prairie, which had experienced a decade of experimental warming were the most affected with changes in the richness and/or overall structure of NifH, NirS, NirK and NosZ. In contrast, the AK permafrost communities, which had experienced only 1 year of warming, showed decreased richness and a structural change only with the nirK-harboring bacterial community. A highly divergent nirK-harboring bacterial community was identified in the permafrost soils, suggesting much novelty, while other N functional communities exhibited similar relatedness to the reference databases, regardless of site. Prairie and permafrost soils also harbored highly divergent communities due mostly to differing major populations. PMID:26284038

  10. Ecology of Nitrogen Fixing, Nitrifying, and Denitrifying Microorganisms in Tropical Forest Soils

    PubMed Central

    Pajares, Silvia; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil microorganisms play important roles in nitrogen cycling within forest ecosystems. Current research has revealed that a wider variety of microorganisms, with unexpected diversity in their functions and phylogenies, are involved in the nitrogen cycle than previously thought, including nitrogen-fixing bacteria, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea, heterotrophic nitrifying microorganisms, and anammox bacteria, as well as denitrifying bacteria, archaea, and fungi. However, the vast majority of this research has been focused in temperate regions, and relatively little is known regarding the ecology of nitrogen-cycling microorganisms within tropical and subtropical ecosystems. Tropical forests are characterized by relatively high precipitation, low annual temperature fluctuation, high heterogeneity in plant diversity, large amounts of plant litter, and unique soil chemistry. For these reasons, regulation of the nitrogen cycle in tropical forests may be very different from that of temperate ecosystems. This is of great importance because of growing concerns regarding the effect of land use change and chronic-elevated nitrogen deposition on nitrogen-cycling processes in tropical forests. In the context of global change, it is crucial to understand how environmental factors and land use changes in tropical ecosystems influence the composition, abundance and activity of key players in the nitrogen cycle. In this review, we synthesize the limited currently available information regarding the microbial communities involved in nitrogen fixation, nitrification and denitrification, to provide deeper insight into the mechanisms regulating nitrogen cycling in tropical forest ecosystems. We also highlight the large gaps in our understanding of microbially mediated nitrogen processes in tropical forest soils and identify important areas for future research. PMID:27468277

  11. [Identification and denitrification characteristics of a psychrotolerant facultative basophilic aerobic denitrifier].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-Yang; Chen, Guo-Yao; Jiang, Ke; Xu, Pei-Ya

    2014-06-01

    An aerobic denitrifier was isolated from the activated sludge of landfill leachate through traditional microbiological methods. Based on its morphological feature, physiological and biochemical properties, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, this strain was identified as Pseudomonas sp., named as GL19 with an accession number of KC710974 in GenBank. Its aerobic denitrification characteristics and nitrification function were studied to show that the factors including carbon source, C/N, pH and cultivation temperature were important for denitrification. The optimized condition for aerobic denitrification was as follows: sodium citrate as the carbon resource, C/N no less than 15, pH of 6-10, DO of 4.8-7.7 mg x L(-1), culture temperature of 15-34 degrees C and the initial nitrate nitrogen of 140 mg x L(-1). Combining these conditions, the removal rate of nitrate nitrogen and average removal rate of TN reached 100% and 96.5%, respectively, without the accumulation of nitrite nitrogen. The strain had the capability to utilize nitrite nitrogen or ammonia nitrogen to achieve high nitrogen removal efficiency: the nitrite nitrogen removal rate reached 100% in 20 hours with an initial nitrite nitrogen of 140 mg x L(-1); the ammonia nitrogen was efficiently removed from 280 mg x L(-1) to 3.11 mg x L(-1) in 28 hours with the removal rate of up to 98.9%. These results suggested that strain GL19 with the function of cold resistance and highly effective aerobic denitrification could achieve simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. Hence, GL19 could have high potential in practical wastewater treatment in winter of south area.

  12. Denitrifying and diazotrophic community responses to artificial warming in permafrost and tallgrass prairie soils

    DOE PAGES

    Penton, Christopher R.; St. Louis, Derek; Pham, Amanda; ...

    2015-07-21

    Increasing temperatures have been shown to impact soil biogeochemical processes, although the corresponding changes to the underlying microbial functional communities are not well understood. Alterations in the nitrogen (N) cycling functional component are particularly important as N availability can affect microbial decomposition rates of soil organic matter and influence plant productivity. To assess changes in the microbial component responsible for these changes, the composition of the N-fixing (nifH), and denitrifying (nirS, nirK, nosZ) soil microbial communities was assessed by targeted pyrosequencing of functional genes involved in N cycling in two major biomes where the experimental effect of climate warming ismore » under investigation, a tallgrass prairie in Oklahoma (OK) and the active layer above permafrost in Alaska (AK). Raw reads were processed for quality, translated with frameshift correction, and a total of 313,842 amino acid sequences were clustered and linked to a nearest neighbor using reference datasets. The number of OTUs recovered ranged from 231 (NifH) to 862 (NirK). The N functional microbial communities of the prairie, which had experienced a decade of experimental warming were the most affected with changes in the richness and/or overall structure of NifH, NirS, NirK and NosZ. In contrast, the AK permafrost communities, which had experienced only 1 year of warming, showed decreased richness and a structural change only with the nirK-harboring bacterial community. A highly divergent nirK-harboring bacterial community was identified in the permafrost soils, suggesting much novelty, while other N functional communities exhibited similar relatedness to the reference databases, regardless of site. Lastly, prairie and permafrost soils also harbored highly divergent communities due mostly to differing major populations.« less

  13. Nitrate reduction by denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidizing microorganisms can reach a practically useful rate.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chen; Hu, Shihu; Guo, Jianhua; Shi, Ying; Xie, Guo-Jun; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-12-15

    Methane in biogas has been proposed to be an electron donor to facilitate complete nitrogen removal using denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidizing (DAMO) microorganisms in an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) reactor, by reducing the nitrate produced. However, the slow growth and the low activity of DAMO microorganisms cast a serious doubt about the practical usefulness of such a process. In this study, a previously established lab-scale membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR), with biofilms consisting of a coculture of DAMO and anammox microorganisms, was operated to answer if the DAMO reactor can achieve a nitrate reduction rate that can potentially be applied for wastewater treatment. Through progressively increasing nitrate and ammonium loading rates to the reactor, a nitrate removal rate of 684 ± 10 mg-N L(-1) d(-1) was achieved after 453 days of operation. This rate is, to our knowledge, by far the highest reported for DAMO reactors, and far exceeds what is predicted to be required for nitrate removal in a sidestream (5.6-135 mg-N L(-1) d(-1)) or mainstream anammox reactor (3.2-124 mg-N L(-1) d(-1)). Mass balance analysis showed that the nitrite produced by nitrate reduction was jointly reduced by anammox bacteria at a rate of 354 ± 3 mg-N L(-1) d(-1), accompanied by an ammonium removal rate of 268 ± 2 mg-N L(-1) d(-1), and DAMO bacteria at a rate of 330 ± 9 mg-N L(-1) d(-1). This study shows that the nitrate reduction rate achieved by the DAMO process can be high enough for removing nitrate produced by anammox process, which would enable complete nitrogen removal from wastewater.

  14. Denitrifying and diazotrophic community responses to artificial warming in permafrost and tallgrass prairie soils.

    PubMed

    Penton, Christopher R; St Louis, Derek; Pham, Amanda; Cole, James R; Wu, Liyou; Luo, Yiqi; Schuur, E A G; Zhou, Jizhong; Tiedje, James M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing temperatures have been shown to impact soil biogeochemical processes, although the corresponding changes to the underlying microbial functional communities are not well understood. Alterations in the nitrogen (N) cycling functional component are particularly important as N availability can affect microbial decomposition rates of soil organic matter and influence plant productivity. To assess changes in the microbial component responsible for these changes, the composition of the N-fixing (nifH), and denitrifying (nirS, nirK, nosZ) soil microbial communities was assessed by targeted pyrosequencing of functional genes involved in N cycling in two major biomes where the experimental effect of climate warming is under investigation, a tallgrass prairie in Oklahoma (OK) and the active layer above permafrost in Alaska (AK). Raw reads were processed for quality, translated with frameshift correction, and a total of 313,842 amino acid sequences were clustered and linked to a nearest neighbor using reference datasets. The number of OTUs recovered ranged from 231 (NifH) to 862 (NirK). The N functional microbial communities of the prairie, which had experienced a decade of experimental warming were the most affected with changes in the richness and/or overall structure of NifH, NirS, NirK and NosZ. In contrast, the AK permafrost communities, which had experienced only 1 year of warming, showed decreased richness and a structural change only with the nirK-harboring bacterial community. A highly divergent nirK-harboring bacterial community was identified in the permafrost soils, suggesting much novelty, while other N functional communities exhibited similar relatedness to the reference databases, regardless of site. Prairie and permafrost soils also harbored highly divergent communities due mostly to differing major populations.

  15. Ecology of Nitrogen Fixing, Nitrifying, and Denitrifying Microorganisms in Tropical Forest Soils.

    PubMed

    Pajares, Silvia; Bohannan, Brendan J M

    2016-01-01

    Soil microorganisms play important roles in nitrogen cycling within forest ecosystems. Current research has revealed that a wider variety of microorganisms, with unexpected diversity in their functions and phylogenies, are involved in the nitrogen cycle than previously thought, including nitrogen-fixing bacteria, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea, heterotrophic nitrifying microorganisms, and anammox bacteria, as well as denitrifying bacteria, archaea, and fungi. However, the vast majority of this research has been focused in temperate regions, and relatively little is known regarding the ecology of nitrogen-cycling microorganisms within tropical and subtropical ecosystems. Tropical forests are characterized by relatively high precipitation, low annual temperature fluctuation, high heterogeneity in plant diversity, large amounts of plant litter, and unique soil chemistry. For these reasons, regulation of the nitrogen cycle in tropical forests may be very different from that of temperate ecosystems. This is of great importance because of growing concerns regarding the effect of land use change and chronic-elevated nitrogen deposition on nitrogen-cycling processes in tropical forests. In the context of global change, it is crucial to understand how environmental factors and land use changes in tropical ecosystems influence the composition, abundance and activity of key players in the nitrogen cycle. In this review, we synthesize the limited currently available information regarding the microbial communities involved in nitrogen fixation, nitrification and denitrification, to provide deeper insight into the mechanisms regulating nitrogen cycling in tropical forest ecosystems. We also highlight the large gaps in our understanding of microbially mediated nitrogen processes in tropical forest soils and identify important areas for future research.

  16. Anthropogenic impact on diazotrophic diversity in the mangrove rhizosphere revealed by nifH pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hongmei; Xia, Xiaomin; Liu, Hongbin; Zhou, Zhi; Wu, Chen; Nagarajan, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Diazotrophs in the mangrove rhizosphere play a major role in providing new nitrogen to the mangrove ecosystem and their composition and activity are strongly influenced by anthropogenic activity and ecological conditions. In this study, the diversity of the diazotroph communities in the rhizosphere sediment of five tropical mangrove sites with different levels of pollution along the north and south c