Science.gov

Sample records for rhoa-gtp loading organization

  1. Organic matter loading affects lodgepole pine seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M J; Armleder, H M

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability.

  2. Organic Matter Loading Affects Lodgepole Pine Seedling Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M. J.; Armleder, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability.

  3. Metal-loaded organic scintillators for neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Christian; Yeh, Minfang

    2016-09-01

    Organic liquid scintillators are used in many neutrino physics experiments of the past and present. In particular for low energy neutrinos when realtime and energy information are required, liquid scintillators have several advantages compared to other technologies. In many cases the organic liquid needs to be loaded with metal to enhance the neutrino signal over background events. Several metal loaded scintillators of the past suffered from chemical and optical instabilities, limiting the performance of these neutrino detectors. Different ways of metal loading are described in the article with a focus on recent techniques providing metal loaded scintillators that can be used under stable conditions for many years even in ton scale experiments. Applications of metal loaded scintillators in neutrino experiments are reviewed and the performance as well as the prospects of different scintillator types are compared.

  4. Metal-loaded organic scintillators for neutrino physics

    DOE PAGES

    Buck, Christian; Yeh, Minfang

    2016-08-03

    Organic liquid scintillators are used in many neutrino physics experiments of the past and present. In particular for low energy neutrinos when realtime and energy information are required, liquid scintillators have several advantages compared to other technologies. In many cases the organic liquid needs to be loaded with metal to enhance the neutrino signal over background events. Several metal loaded scintillators of the past suffered from chemical and optical instabilities, limiting the performance of these neutrino detectors. Different ways of metal loading are described in the article with a focus on recent techniques providing metal loaded scintillators that can bemore » used under stable conditions for many years even in ton scale experiments. Lastly, we review applications of metal loaded scintillators in neutrino experiments and compare the performance as well as the prospects of different scintillator types.« less

  5. Metal-loaded organic scintillators for neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, Christian; Yeh, Minfang

    2016-08-03

    Organic liquid scintillators are used in many neutrino physics experiments of the past and present. In particular for low energy neutrinos when realtime and energy information are required, liquid scintillators have several advantages compared to other technologies. In many cases the organic liquid needs to be loaded with metal to enhance the neutrino signal over background events. Several metal loaded scintillators of the past suffered from chemical and optical instabilities, limiting the performance of these neutrino detectors. Different ways of metal loading are described in the article with a focus on recent techniques providing metal loaded scintillators that can be used under stable conditions for many years even in ton scale experiments. Lastly, we review applications of metal loaded scintillators in neutrino experiments and compare the performance as well as the prospects of different scintillator types.

  6. Sediment Bioaccumulation Test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of Organism Loading

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed on seven sediments with a series of ratios of total organic carbon in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) that spanned the recommendation of no less than 50:1. With increasing loading of organi...

  7. Sediment Bioaccumulation Test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of Organism Loading.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Lawrence P; Hubin-Barrows, Dylan; Billa, Nanditha; Highland, Terry L; Hockett, James R; Mount, David R; Norberg-King, Teresa J

    2016-07-01

    At contaminated sediment sites, the bioavailability of contaminants in sediments is assessed using sediment-bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegates (Lv). The testing protocols recommend that ratio of total organic carbon (TOC) in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) should be no less than 50:1. Occasionally, this recommendation is not followed, especially with sediments having low TOC, e.g., <1 %. This study evaluated the impacts and resulting biases in the testing results when the recommendation of "no less than 50:1" is not followed. In the study, seven sediments were tested with a series of TOC/Lv ratios that spanned the recommendation. With increasing loading of organisms, growth of the organisms decreased in six of the seven sediments tested. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the L. variegatus were measured in six of the seven sediments tested, and differences in PCB residues among loading ratios across all sediments were small, i.e., ±50 %, from those measured at the minimum recommended ratio of 50:1 TOC/Lv. In all sediment, PCB residues increased with increasing loading of the organisms for the mono-, di-, and tri-chloro-PCBs. For tetra-chloro and heavier PCBs, residues increased with increasing loading of organisms for only two of the six sediments. PCB residues were not significantly different between TOC/Lv loadings of 50:1 and mid-20:1 ratios indicating that equivalent results can be obtained with TOC/Lv ratios into the mid-20:1 ratios. Overall, the testing results suggest that when testing recommendation of 50:1 TOC/Lv is not followed, potential biases in the biota-sediment accumulations factors from the sediment-bioaccumulation test will be small.

  8. System and method employing a self-organizing map load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Bin; Harley, Ronald G.; Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K.; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A.

    2014-06-17

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a self-organizing map load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types and a plurality of neurons, each of the load types corresponding to a number of the neurons; employing a weight vector for each of the neurons; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the loads; determining a load feature vector including at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the loads; and identifying by a processor one of the load types by relating the load feature vector to the neurons of the database by identifying the weight vector of one of the neurons corresponding to the one of the load types that is a minimal distance to the load feature vector.

  9. The extraction of uranium using graphene aerogel loading organic solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mumei; Li, Zheng; Li, Jihao; Li, Jingye; Li, Qingnuan; Zhang, Lan

    2017-05-01

    A new approach for uranium extraction employing graphene aerogel (GA) as a skeleton loading organic solution (GA-LOS) is proposed and investigated. Firstly, the GA with super-hydrophobicity and high organic solution absorption capacity was fabricated by one-step reduction and self-assembly of graphene oxide with ethylenediamine. By adsorbing Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/n-dodecane solution to prepare GA-LOS, the extraction of U(VI) from nitric acid medium using GA-LOS was investigated and compared with conventional solvent extraction. It is found that the GA-LOS method can provide several advantages over conventional solvent extraction and adsorption due to the elimination of aqueous-organic mixing-separation procedures and easy solid-liquid separation. Furthermore, it also possesses higher extraction capacity (the saturated extraction capacity of GA loading TBP for U(VI) was 316.3mgg(-1) ) and lower consumption of organic diluents, leading to less organic waste. Moreover, the stability of GA-LOS in aqueous solution and cycling test were also studied, and it shows a remarkable regeneration capability, making it an ideal candidate for metal extraction from aqueous solution.

  10. Combined effects of organic aerosol loading and fog processing on organic aerosols oxidation, composition, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Abhishek; Gupta, Tarun; Tripathi, S N

    2016-12-15

    Chemical characterization of ambient non-refractory submicron aerosols (NR-PM1) was carried out in real time at Kanpur, India. The measurements were performed during the winter (December 2014 to February 2015), and comprised of two very distinct high and low aerosol loading periods coupled with prevalent foggy conditions. The average non-refractory submicron aerosol loading varied significantly from high (HL, ~240μg/m(3)) to low loading (LL, ~100μg/m(3)) period and was dominated by organic aerosols (OA) which contributed more than half (~60%) of the measured aerosol mass. OA source apportionment via positive matrix factorization (PMF) showed drastic changes in the composition of OA from HL to LL period. Overall, O/C (oxygen to carbon) ratios also varied significantly from HL (=0.59) to LL (=0.69) period. Fog episodes (n=17) studied here seem to be reducing the magnitude of the negative impact of OA loading on O/C ratio (OA loading and O/C ratio are anti-correlated, as higher OA loading allows gas to particle partitioning of relatively less oxidized organics) by 60% via aqueous processing. This study provided new insights into the combined effects of OA loading and fog aqueous processing on the evolution of ambient organic aerosols (OA) for the first time.

  11. Organic nanotubes for drug loading and cellular delivery.

    PubMed

    Wakasugi, Ai; Asakawa, Masumi; Kogiso, Masaki; Shimizu, Toshimi; Sato, Mamiko; Maitani, Yoshie

    2011-07-15

    Organic nanotubes made of synthetic amphiphilic molecules are novel materials that form by self-assembly. In this study, organic nanotubes with a carboxyl group (ONTs) at the surface were used as a carrier for the anticancer drug doxorubicin, which has a weak amine group. The IC(50) values of ONT for cells were higher than that of conventional liposomes, suggesting that ONTs are safe. The results showed that the drug loading of ONTs was susceptible to the effect of ionic strength and H(+) concentration in the medium, and drug release from ONTs was promoted at lower pH, which is favorable for the release of drugs in the endosome after cellular uptake. ONTs loaded with the drug were internalized, and the drug was released quickly in the cells, as demonstrated on transmission electron microscopy images of ONTs and the detection of a 0.05% dose of ONT chelating gadolinium in the cells. Moreover, ONT could be modified chemically with folate by simply mixing with a folate-conjugate lipid. Therefore, these novel, biodegradable organic nanotubes have the potential to be used as drug carriers for controlled and targeting drug delivery.

  12. Combined effects of organic aerosol loading and fog processing on organic aerosols oxidation and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhishek; Tripathi, Sachchida; Gupta, Tarun

    2016-04-01

    Fog is a natural meteorological phenomenon that occurs throughout the world, it contains substantial quantity of liquid water and generally seen as a natural cleansing agent but it also has the potential to form highly oxidized secondary organic aerosols (SOA) via aqueous processing of ambient aerosols. On the other hand higher organic aerosols (OA) loading tend to decrease the overall oxidation level (O/C) of the particle phase organics, due to enhanced partitioning of less oxidized organics from gas to particle phase. However, combined impact of these two parameters; aqueous oxidation and OA loading, on the overall oxidation ratio (O/C) of ambient OA has never been studied. To assess this, real time ambient sampling using HR-ToF-AMS was carried out at Kanpur, India from 15 December 2014 - 10 February 2015. In first 3 weeks of this campaign, very high OA loading is (134 ± 42 μg/m3) observed (termed as high loading or HL period) while loading is substantially reduced from 2nd January, 2016 (56 ± 20 μg/m3, termed as low loading or LL period) . However, both the loading period was affected by several fog episodes (10 in HL and 7 in LL), thus providing the opportunity of studying the combined effects of fog and OA loading on OA oxidation. It is found that O/C ratio is very strongly anti-correlated with OA loading in both the loading period, however, slope of this ant-correlation is much steep during HL period than in LL period. Source apportionment of OA revealed that there is drastic change in the types of OA from HL to LL period, clearly indicating difference in OA composition from HL to LL period. During foggy night continuous oxidation of OA is observed from early evening to early morning with 15-20% enhancement in O/C ratio, while the same is absent during non-foggy period, clearly indicating the efficient fog processing of ambient OA. It is also found that night time fog aqueous oxidation can be as effective as daytime photo chemistry in oxidation of OA. Fog

  13. Superexchange Charge Transport in Loaded Metal Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Tobias; Liu, Jianxi; Wächter, Tobias; Friederich, Pascal; Symalla, Franz; Welle, Alexander; Mugnaini, Veronica; Meded, Velimir; Zharnikov, Michael; Wöll, Christof; Wenzel, Wolfgang

    2016-07-26

    In the past, nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been mostly studied for their huge potential with regard to gas storage and separation. More recently, the discovery that the electrical conductivity of a widely studied, highly insulating MOF, HKUST-1, improves dramatically when loaded with guest molecules has triggered a huge interest in the charge carrier transport properties of MOFs. The observed high conductivity, however, is difficult to reconcile with conventional transport mechanisms: neither simple hopping nor band transport models are consistent with the available experimental data. Here, we combine theoretical results and new experimental data to demonstrate that the observed conductivity can be explained by an extended hopping transport model including virtual hops through localized MOF states or molecular superexchange. Predictions of this model agree well with precise conductivity measurements, where experimental artifacts and the influence of defects are largely avoided by using well-defined samples and the Hg-drop junction approach.

  14. The effect of shock loading on the performance of a thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor at constant organic loading rate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The influences of organic loading disturbances on the process performance of a thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor treating potato-processing wastewater were investigated. For this purpose, while the reactor was operated at steady state conditions with organic loading rate of 5.5 kg COD/m3 · day, an instant acetate concentration increase (1 g/L) was introduced to the reactor. During the shock loading test of acetate, it was observed that the overall process performance was adversely affected by all the shock loading, however, the system reached steady state conditions less than 24 hours of operation indicating that thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor is resistant to shock loading and be capable of returning its normal conditions within a short time period. PMID:24872886

  15. Chondrocyte intracellular calcium, cytoskeletal organization, and gene expression responses to dynamic osmotic loading.

    PubMed

    Chao, Pen-Hsiu Grace; West, Alan C; Hung, Clark T

    2006-10-01

    While chondrocytes in articular cartilage experience dynamic stimuli from joint loading activities, few studies have examined the effects of dynamic osmotic loading on their signaling and biosynthetic activities. We hypothesize that dynamic osmotic loading modulates chondrocyte signaling and gene expression differently than static osmotic loading. With the use of a novel microfluidic device developed in our laboratory, dynamic hypotonic loading (-200 mosM) was applied up to 0.1 Hz and chondrocyte calcium signaling, cytoskeleton organization, and gene expression responses were examined. Chondrocytes exhibited decreasing volume and calcium responses with increasing loading frequency. Phalloidin staining showed osmotic loading-induced changes to the actin cytoskeleton in chondrocytes. Real-time PCR analysis revealed a stimulatory effect of dynamic osmotic loading compared with static osmotic loading. These studies illustrate the utility of the microfluidic device in cell signaling investigations, and their potential role in helping to elucidate mechanisms that mediate chondrocyte mechanotransduction to dynamic stimuli.

  16. The Effects of Algal Turf Sediments and Organic Loads on Feeding by Coral Reef Surgeonfishes

    PubMed Central

    Goatley, Christopher H. R.; Bellwood, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Herbivorous and detritivorous fishes interact closely with the epilithic algal matrix (EAM) on coral reefs. While sediment and organic detrital loads within the EAM might influence this interaction, the responses of functionally distinct fishes to changing sediment and organic loads have not been investigated. Aquarium based feeding trials were performed to assess how different sediment and organic loads affected feeding by the highly abundant surgeonfishes, Ctenochaetus striatus, a detritivore, and Acanthurus nigrofuscus, a herbivore. C. striatus were highly sensitive to even small increases in sediment loads (of just 75 g m-2), displaying a significant decline in feeding rates as sediment loads increased. Although C. striatus is a specialised detritivore, changing organic loads had no effect and suggests that selection of feeding surfaces is primarily mediated by total sediment loads rather than organic loads. By contrast, A. nigrofuscus displayed no changes to its feeding behaviour regardless of sediment or organic load. These findings highlight the complex, species-specific way that sediments may mediate key ecological processes on coral reefs. PMID:28046102

  17. Behavior of an aerated submerged fixed-film reactor (ASFFR) under simultaneous organic and ammonium loading.

    PubMed

    Nabizadeh, R; Mesdaghinia, A

    2006-01-01

    The performance of an aerated submerged fixed-film reactor (ASFFR) under simultaneous organic and ammonium loading and its effect on nitrification was studied. Organic loadings varied in the range of 1.93 to 5.29 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) m-2 d-1 and NH4-N loadings were in the range of 116 to 318 mg NH4-N m-2 d-1. Increments of loading rates were obtained both by increasing the flow rate and increasing the influent substrate in individual pilot runs. Results showed that with organic loading rates up to 3.97 g COD m-2 d-1, complete nitrification was achievable. Although high organic loading such as 5.29 g COD m-2 d-1 could cause nitrification to stop, shifting to lower organic loadings made nitrification start and set rapidly to its previous steady-state concentrations. Comparison of results showed that in the ASFFR, nitrification would be severely affected by an organic loading rate of 5.29 g COD m-2 d-1 by increasing either the flow or the influent substrate. It should be noted that the average value of dissolved oxygen was 3.4 mg L-1 with an air supply of 15 L min-1, and there was no indication of oxygen limitation. The results of this study show the flexibility of ASFFRs under changing organic loads. Furthermore, for achieving complete nitrification and optimum application of these reactors for protecting receiving water from the environmental hazards of ammonium, the maximum organic loading that would present complete nitrification should be considered.

  18. Biodegradation and kinetics of aerobic granules under high organic loading rates in sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Jiang, Wenju; Liang, David Tee; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2008-05-01

    Biodegradation, kinetics, and microbial diversity of aerobic granules were investigated under a high range of organic loading rate 6.0 to 12.0 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) m(-3) day(-1) in a sequencing batch reactor. The selection and enriching of different bacterial species under different organic loading rates had an important effect on the characteristics and performance of the mature aerobic granules and caused the difference on granular biodegradation and kinetic behaviors. Good granular characteristics and performance were presented at steady state under various organic loading rates. Larger and denser aerobic granules were developed and stabilized at relatively higher organic loading rates with decreased bioactivity in terms of specific oxygen utilization rate and specific growth rate (muoverall) or solid retention time. The decrease of bioactivity was helpful to maintain granule stability under high organic loading rates and improve reactor operation. The corresponding biokinetic coefficients of endogenous decay rate (kd), observed yield (Yobs), and theoretical yield (Y) were measured and calculated in this study. As the increase of organic loading rate, a decreased net sludge production (Yobs) is associated with an increased solid retention time, while kd and Y changed insignificantly and can be regarded as constants under different organic loading rates.

  19. Loading-Induced Heat-Shock Response in Bovine Intervertebral Disc Organ Culture

    PubMed Central

    Chooi, Wai Hon; Chan, Samantha Chun Wai; Gantenbein, Benjamin; Chan, Barbara Pui

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical loading has been shown to affect cell viability and matrix maintenance in the intervertebral disc (IVD) but there is no investigation on how cells survive mechanical stress and whether the IVD cells perceive mechanical loading as stress and respond by expression of heat shock proteins. This study investigates the stress response in the IVD in response to compressive loading. Bovine caudal disc organ culture was used to study the effect of physiological range static loading and dynamic loading. Cell activity, gene expression and immunofluorescence staining were used to analyze the cell response. Cell activity and cytoskeleton of the cells did not change significantly after loading. In gene expression analysis, significant up-regulation of heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) was observed in nucleus pulposus after two hours of loading. However, the expression of the matrix remodeling genes did not change significantly after loading. Similarly, expressions of stress response and matrix remodeling genes changed with application and removal of the dynamic loading. The results suggest that stress response was induced by physiological range loading without significantly changing cell activity and upregulating matrix remodeling. This study provides direct evidence on loading induced stress response in IVD cells and contributes to our understanding in the mechanoregulation of intervertebral disc cells. PMID:27580124

  20. Beta-papillomavirus DNA loads in hair follicles of immunocompetent people and organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Weissenborn, Sönke; Neale, Rachel E; Waterboer, Tim; Abeni, Damiano; Bavinck, Jan Nico Bouwes; Green, Adele C; Harwood, Catherine A; Euvrard, Sylvie; Feltkamp, Mariet C W; de Koning, Maurits N C; Naldi, Luigi; Quint, Wim G V; Tessari, Gianpaolo; Proby, Charlotte M; Wieland, Ulrike; Pfister, Herbert

    2012-05-01

    There is increasing evidence of an association between human papillomaviruses (HPV) of the beta-genus (beta-PV) and the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The viral DNA load may be an important determinant of pathogenicity, but there are currently no baseline epidemiological data relating to load in people without SCC. We investigated DNA-loads of eight beta-PV types previously associated with risk of SCC. We collected eyebrow hairs from immunocompetent people (ICP) and organ transplant recipients (OTR), determined load by quantitative PCR and obtained demographic, phenotypic, and sun exposure information. Viral loads for ICP from Australia (n = 241) and Italy (n = 223) and OTR from across Europe (n = 318) spanned seven orders of magnitude. The median loads for all types were below one viral DNA copy per 60 cells and were highest for HPV5, HPV8 and HPV20. None of the populations had consistently higher viral loads for all 8 types. However, a higher proportion of OTR were in the top deciles of viral load distributions for six of the eight beta-PV types examined. In a nested analysis of Italian OTR and ICP, this finding was significant for six beta-PV types and cumulative load. Increasing age was significantly associated with higher viral loads in Australia, and there was a weak trend for higher loads with the time elapsed since transplantation in the OTR. We observed a wide distribution of beta-PV loads with OTR significantly more likely to have the highest viral loads. Thus, viral loads may be an important contributor to the higher risk of SCC in OTR.

  1. Effect of organic loading rate and feedstock composition on foaming in manure-based biogas reactors.

    PubMed

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; Angelidaki, I

    2013-09-01

    Foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occur in biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. In the present study, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) and feedstock composition on foaming was elucidated in continuous reactor experiments. By stepwise increasing the OLR and the concentration of proteins or lipids in the substrate, foaming in biogas reactors was investigated. No foam formation was observed at the OLR of 3.5 g volatile solids/(L-reactor·day). Organic loading was the main factor affecting foam formation in manure digester, while the organic composition, such as content of proteins or lipids were factors that in combination with the organic loading were triggering foaming. More specifically, gelatine could initiate foam formation at a lower OLR than sodium oleate. Moreover, the volume of foam produced by gelatine was relatively stable and was not increased when further increasing either OLR or gelatine concentration in the feed.

  2. Effect of organic carbon shock loading on endogenous denitrification in sequential batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Mora, F; Ferrara de Giner, G; Rodríguez Andara, A; Lomas Esteban, J

    2003-07-01

    This work was focused on the performance evaluation of sequential batch reactors (SBR) treating sewage, through a process of endogenous biological denitrification. Different operational conditions were carried out, and the behaviour under the effects of organic shock loading was examined. Three laboratory scale reactors were operated simultaneously and fed with similar wastewater. The substratum was molasses and nitrate, as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The three reactors were operated during different aeration periods (0, 15 and 30 min). Sudden changes (shock loading) in organic matter concentration were performed during the experiment. Thus, influent load was quickly increased threefold in relation to the original concentration. Results indicated that SBR reactors withstand adequately moderate shock loading. With regard to substratum degradation, nitrate elimination achieved was approximately 80%, while denitrification rate was approximately 0.87 mgg(-1)h(-1).

  3. Growing season surface water loading of fecal indicator organisms within a rural watershed.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, A; Hebb, D; Jamieson, R; Gordon, R; Benedict, K; Fuller, K; Stratton, G W; Madani, A

    2009-03-01

    The loading of microbial contaminants was examined within the Thomas Brook watershed, a 784 ha mixed land-use catchment located in the headwaters of the Cornwallis River drainage basin (Nova Scotia, Canada). The objectives were to: (i) examine spatial and temporal characteristics of fecal bacteria loading during the growing season from five subwatersheds, and (ii) develop areal fecal indicator organism export coefficients for rural landscapes. Fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations and stream flow were monitored at five locations in the watershed over six consecutive growing seasons (May-Oct, 2001-2006). A nested watershed monitoring approach was used to determine bacterial loading from distinct source types (residential vs. agricultural) during both baseflow and stormflow periods. Areal bacterial loading rates increased in each nested watershed moving downstream through the watershed and were highest in the three subcatchments dominated by agricultural activities. Upper watershed bacterial loading throughout the growing season from an agricultural subcatchment (Growing Season Avg 8.92 x 10(10) CFU ha(-1)) was consistently higher than a residential subcatchment (Growing Season Avg 8.43 x 10(9) CFU ha(-1)). As expected, annual average stormflow bacterial loads were higher than baseflow loads, however baseflow loads still comprised between 14 and 35% of the growing season bacterial loads in the five subwatersheds. Fecal bacteria loads were greater during years with higher annual precipitation. A positive linear relationship was observed between E. coli and TSS loading during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons when both parameters were monitored, indicating that the processes of sediment transport and bacterial transport are linked. It is anticipated that computed areal microbial loading coefficients will be useful in developing watershed management plans. More intensive sampling during stormflow events is recommended for

  4. Higher organism load associated with failure of azithromycin to treat rectal chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Kong, F Y S; Tabrizi, S N; Fairley, C K; Phillips, S; Fehler, G; Law, M; Vodstrcil, L A; Chen, M; Bradshaw, C S; Hocking, J S

    2016-09-01

    Repeat rectal chlamydia infection is common in men who have sex with men (MSM) following treatment with 1 g azithromycin. This study describes the association between organism load and repeat rectal chlamydia infection, genovar distribution, and efficacy of azithromycin in asymptomatic MSM. Stored rectal chlamydia-positive samples from MSM were analysed for organism load and genotyped to assist differentiation between reinfection and treatment failure. Included men had follow-up tests within 100 days of index infection. Lymphogranuloma venereum and proctitis diagnosed symptomatically were excluded. Factors associated with repeat infection, treatment failure and reinfection were investigated. In total, 227 MSM were included - 64 with repeat infections [28·2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 22·4-34·5]. Repeat positivity was associated with increased pre-treatment organism load [odds ratio (OR) 1·7, 95% CI 1·4-2·2]. Of 64 repeat infections, 29 (12·8%, 95% CI 8·7-17·8) were treatment failures and 35 (15·4%, 95% CI 11·0-20·8) were reinfections, 11 (17·2%, 95% CI 8·9-28·7) of which were definite reinfections. Treatment failure and reinfection were both associated with increased load (OR 2·0, 95% CI 1·4-2·7 and 1·6, 95% CI 1·2-2·2, respectively). The most prevalent genovars were G, D and J. Treatment efficacy for 1 g azithromycin was 83·6% (95% CI 77·2-88·8). Repeat positivity was associated with high pre-treatment organism load. Randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to evaluate azithromycin's efficacy and whether extended doses can overcome rectal infections with high organism load.

  5. Characteristics of DO, organic matter, and ammonium profile for practical scale DHS reactor under various organic load and temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, Naoki; Ali, Muntjeer; Jayaswal, Komal; Iguchi, Akinori; Hatamoto, Masashi; Okubo, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Masanobu; Kubota, Kengo; Tagawa, Tadashi; Uemura, Shigeki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki

    2017-04-07

    Profile analysis of the down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor was conducted under various temperature and organic load conditions to understand the organic removal and nitrification process for sewage treatment . Under high organic load conditions (3.21~7.89 kg-COD m(-3) day(-1)), dissolved oxygen (DO) on the upper layer of the reactor was affected by organic matter concentration and water temperature and some time become around zero. Almost half of the CODCr was removed by the first layer, which could be attributed to the adsorption of organic matter on sponge media. After the first layer, organic removal proceeded along the first-order reaction equation from the second to the fourth layers. The ammonium nitrogen removal ratio decreased under high organic matter concentration (above 100 mg L(-1)) and low DO (less than 1 mg L(-1)) condition. Ammonium nitrogen removal proceeded via a zero-order reaction equation along the reactor height. In addition, profile results of DO, CODCr, and NH3-N were different in horizontal direction. Thus, it is thought the concentration of these item and microbial activities were not a uniform state even in the same sponge layer of the DHS reactor.

  6. Organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations and annual organic carbon load of six selected rivers of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malcolm, R.L.; Durum, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    The organic carbon load during 1969-70 of each of the six rivers in this study is substantial. The 3.4-billion-kilogram (3.7-million-ton) and 47-million-kilogram (52-thousandton) annual organic carbon loads of the Mississippi River and the Brazos River (Tex.), respectively, were approximately equally distributed between dissolved and suspended phases, whereas the 725-million-kilogram (79.8-million-ton) organic load of the Missouri River was primarily in the suspended phase. The major portion of the 6.4-million-kilogram (7.3 thousand-ton) and the 19-million-kilogram (21-thousand-ton) organic carbon loads of the Sopchoppy River (Fla.) and the Neuse River (N.C.), respectively, was in the dissolved phase. DOC (dissolved organic carbon) concentrations in most rivers were usually less than 8 milligrams per litre. SOC (suspended organic carbon) concentrations fluctuated markedly with discharge, ranging between 1 and 14 percent, by weight, in sediment of most rivers. DOC concentrations were found to be independent of discharge, whereas SOC and SIC (suspended inorganic carbon) concentrations were positively correlated with discharge. Seasonal fluctuations in DOC and SOC were exhibited by the Missouri, Neuse, Ohio, and Brazos Rivers, but both SOC and DOC concentrations were relatively constant throughout the year in the Mississippi and Sopchoppy Rivers. The carbon-nitrogen ratio in the sediment phase of all river waters averaged less than 8 1 as compared with 12:1 or greater for most soils. This high nitrogen content shows a nitrogen enrichment of the stream sediment over that in adjacent soils, which suggests that different decomposition and humification processes are operating in streams than in the soils. The abundance of organic material in the dissolved and suspended phase of all river waters in this study indicate a large capacity factor for various types of organic reactivity within all streams and the quantitative importance of organic constituents in relation to the

  7. On-demand droplet loading for automated organic chemistry on digital microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Shah, Gaurav J; Ding, Huijiang; Sadeghi, Saman; Chen, Supin; Kim, Chang-Jin C J; van Dam, R Michael

    2013-07-21

    Organic chemistry applications on digital microfluidic devices often involve reagents that are volatile or sensitive and must be introduced to the chip immediately before use. We present a new technique for automated, on-demand loading of ~1 μL droplets from large (~1 mL), sealed, off-chip reservoirs to a digital microfluidic chip in order to address this challenge. Unlike aqueous liquids which generally are non-wetting to the hydrophobic surface and must be actively drawn into the electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) chip by electrode activation, organic liquids tend to be wetting and can spontaneously flood the chip, and hence require a retracting force for controlled liquid delivery. Using a combination of compressed inert gas and gravity to exert driving and retracting forces on the liquid, the simple loading technique enables precise loading of droplets of both wetting and non-wetting liquids in a reliable manner. A key feature from a practical point of view is that all of the wetted parts are inexpensive and potentially disposable, thus avoiding cross-contamination in chemical and biochemical applications. We provide a theoretical treatment of the underlying physics, discuss the effect of geometry and liquid properties on its performance, and show repeatable reagent loading using the technique. Its versatility is demonstrated with the loading of several aqueous and non-aqueous liquids on an EWOD digital microfluidic device.

  8. The Relationship between Organic Loading and Effects on Fish Reproduction for Pulp Mill Effluents across Canada.

    PubMed

    Martel, Pierre H; O'Connor, Brian I; Kovacs, Tibor G; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Parrott, Joanne L; McMaster, Mark E; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Hewitt, L Mark

    2017-03-09

    This study builds upon the work of a multiagency consortium tasked with determining cost-effective solutions for the effects of pulp mill effluents on fish reproduction. A laboratory fathead minnow egg production test and chemical characterization tools were used to benchmark 81 effluents from 20 mills across Canada, representing the major pulping, bleaching, and effluent treatment technologies. For Kraft and mechanical pulp mills, effluents containing less than 20 mg/L BOD5 were found to have the greatest probability of having no effects. Organic loading, expressed as the total detected solvent-extractable components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), also correlated with decreased egg laying. Exceptions were found for specific Kraft, mechanical, and sulfite mills, suggesting yet unidentified causative agents are involved. Recycled fiber mill effluents, tested for the first time, were found to have little potential for reproductive effects despite large variations in BOD5 and GC/MS profiles. Effluent treatment systems across all production types were generally efficient, achieving a combined 82-98% BOD5 removal. Further reductions of final effluent organic loadings toward the target of less than 20 mg/L are recommended and can be realized through biotreatment optimization, the reduction of organic losses associated with production upsets and selecting best available technologies that reduce organic loadings to biotreatment.

  9. Genital chlamydial infection: association between clinical features, organism genotype and load.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Hamid; Verlander, Neville Q; Kumar, Navin; Bentley, Neil; Carne, Christopher; Sonnex, Christopher

    2011-07-01

    The association between the clinical features of genital chlamydial infection and organism genotype and load was evaluated. Chlamydial DNA was detected and quantified in genital swabs from 233 (7 %) of 3384 consecutive patients attending a genitourinary medicine clinic. The chlamydia-positive subcohort comprised 132 (57 %) females and 101 (43 %) males. Clinical features were present in 33 % women and 72 % men. The chlamydial load was found to be higher in women (median load: 5.6 log) than men (median load: 3.5 log). Single variable analysis failed to show a significant association between chlamydial load and clinical features (P value = 0.3). Owing to the limited amount of clinical material, information on chlamydial genotypes was available for 70 % (n = 162) of chlamydia-positive patients. However, multivariable analysis of these samples did show a significant association between chlamydial load and clinical features (P value = 0.02). This discrepancy is most probably due to the difference in the amount of data analysed by single variable (data from 233 patients) and multivariable (data from 162 patients) analysis. The distribution of chlamydia genotypes was as follows: type E (46 %), F (22 %), D (8 %), K (8 %), G (7 %), J (4 %), I (1 %) and H (0.6 %). No statistically significant association was observed between chlamydial genotype and clinical features in either single variable (P value = 0.6) or multivariable (P value = 0.4) analysis. These findings suggest that chlamydial load and diversity in the ompA gene plays little, if any, role in the pathogenesis of genital chlamydial infection.

  10. Detonating Cords Loaded with Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) Recrystallized from Acid or Organic Solvents.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-02

    L/TR 75-142 INW 57W AIAo TEEEHAVIC L 3<j\\ I~ VV z WHITE OAK LABORATORY DETONATING CORDS LOADED WITH HEXANITROSTILBEiNJE ( HNS ) RECRYSTALLIZED FROM...mid identify by block number) Hexanitrostilbene ( HNS ) Thermally StabDle Explosives Detonating Cords 20. ASSTRACT (Conlinue on reverse side it nece..auy...describes the results of experimental wo•.k with detonating cords fabricated with the explosive, Hexanitrostilbene ( HNS ), recrystallized from the organic

  11. Thermal Stability of Goethite-Bound Natural Organic Matter Is Impacted by Carbon Loading.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenting; Klaminder, Jonatan; Boily, Jean-François

    2015-12-24

    Dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) sorption at mineral surfaces can significantly affect the persistence of organic carbon in soils and sediments. Consequently, determining the mechanisms that stabilize sorbed NOM is crucial for predicting the persistence of carbon in nature. This study determined the effects of loadings and pH on the thermal stability of NOM associated with synthetic goethite (α-FeOOH) particle surfaces, as a proxy for NOM-mineral interactions taking place in nature. NOM thermal stability was investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) in the 30-700 °C range to collect vibration spectra of thermally decomposing goethite-NOM assemblages, and to concomitantly analyze evolved gases using mass spectrometry. Results showed that NOM thermal stability, indicated by the range of temperatures in which CO2 evolved during thermal decomposition, was greatest in unbound NOM and lowest when NOM was bound to goethite. NOM thermal stability was also loading dependent. It decreased when loadings were in increased the 0.01 to 0.42 mg C m(-2) range, where the upper value corresponds to a Langmuirian adsorption maximum. Concomitant Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurement showed that these lowered stabilities could be ascribed to direct NOM-goethite interactions that dominated the NOM binding environment. Mineral surface interactions at larger loadings involved, on the contrary, a smaller fraction of the sorbed NOM, thus increasing thermal stability toward that of its unbound counterpart. This study thus identifies a sorption threshold below which NOM sorption to goethite decreases NOM thermal stability, and above which no strong effects are manifested. This should likely influence the fate of organic carbon exposed to thermal gradients in natural environments.

  12. Maximum organic loading rate for the single-stage wet anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Norio; Tajima, Nobuyuki; Kawai, Minako; Niwa, Chiaki; Kurosawa, Norio; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Toda, Tatsuki

    2012-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion of food waste was conducted at high OLR from 3.7 to 12.9 kg-VS m(-3) day(-1) for 225 days. Periods without organic loading were arranged between the each loading period. Stable operation at an OLR of 9.2 kg-VS (15.0 kg-COD) m(-3) day(-1) was achieved with a high VS reduction (91.8%) and high methane yield (455 mL g-VS-1). The cell density increased in the periods without organic loading, and reached to 10.9×10(10) cells mL(-1) on day 187, which was around 15 times higher than that of the seed sludge. There was a significant correlation between OLR and saturated TSS in the sludge (y=17.3e(0.1679×), r(2)=0.996, P<0.05). A theoretical maximum OLR of 10.5 kg-VS (17.0 kg-COD) m(-3) day(-1) was obtained for mesophilic single-stage wet anaerobic digestion that is able to maintain a stable operation with high methane yield and VS reduction.

  13. Sediment bioaccumulation test with Lumbriculus variegatus (EPA test method 100.3) effects of feeding and organism loading rate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation test methodology of USEPA and ASTM in 2000 specifies that the Lumbriculus variegatus should not be fed during the 28-day exposure and recommends an organism loading rate of total organic carbon in sediment to organism dry weight of no less than 50:1. It ...

  14. Effects of feeding and organism loading rate on PCB accumulation by Lumbriculus variegatus in sediment bioaccumulation testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation test methods published by USEPA and ASTM in 2000 specify that the Lumbriculus variegatus, a freshwater oligochaete, should not be fed during the 28-day exposure and recommends an organism loading rate of total organic carbon in sediment to organism dry we...

  15. Loaded Ce-Ag organic-inorganic hybrids and their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Truffault, Laurianne; Rodrigues, Danilo Fernando; Salgado, Hérida Regida Nunes; Santilli, Celso Valentim; Pulcinelli, Sandra Helena

    2016-11-01

    There are requirements for surfaces with antibacterial properties in various technological fields. U-PEO hybrids with antibacterial properties were synthesized by the sol-gel process, incorporating combinations of cerium and silver salts at different silver molar fractions (0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.10, and 1) relative to the total amount of doped cations. The loaded hybrids were characterized by TGA, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy. Release tests were performed using UV-vis spectroscopy, and the antibacterial properties of the hybrids were studied in agar tests and turbidimetry assays. The nanostructural evolution of the hybrids during the release of the antibacterial agents was investigated by in situ SAXS. XRD results showed the presence of the AgCl crystalline phase in the loaded hybrids from a silver molar fraction of 0.05. Raman spectroscopy evidenced the interaction of silver cations with the polymeric part of the hybrid. SAXS results confirmed these interactions and showed that cerium species interacted with both organic and inorganic parts of the hybrids. The loaded U-PEO hybrids were found to release all the incorporated cerium in 1h, while the hybrid containing 100% of silver released only 78% of the incorporated silver. All the loaded hybrids displayed antibacterial activity against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterium. The antibacterial activity was found to increase with silver molar fraction. Due to its high antibacterial activity and low silver molar fraction, the loaded hybrid with silver molar fraction of 0.10 seemed to be a good compromise between efficiency, esthetic transparency, and photostability.

  16. Nitrogen removal from high organic loading wastewater in modified Ludzack-Ettinger configuration MBBR system.

    PubMed

    Torkaman, Mojtaba; Borghei, Seyed Mehdi; Tahmasebian, Sepehr; Andalibi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    A moving bed biofilm reactor with pre-denitrification configuration was fed with a synthetic wastewater containing high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia. By changing different variables including ammonium and COD loading, nitrification rate in the aerobic reactor and denitrification rate in the anoxic reactor were monitored. Changing the influent loading was achieved via adjusting the inlet COD (956-2,096 mg/L), inlet ammonium (183-438 mg/L), and hydraulic retention time of the aerobic reactor (8, 12, and 18 hours). The overall organic loading rate was in the range of 3.60-17.37 gCOD/m2·day, of which 18.5-91% was removed in the anoxic reactor depending on the operational conditions. Considering the complementary role of the aerobic reactor, the overall COD removal was in the range 87.3-98.8%. In addition, nitrification rate increased with influent ammonium loading, the maximum rate reaching 3.05 gNH4/m2·day. One of the most important factors affecting nitrification rate was influent C:N entering the aerobic reactor, by increasing which nitrification rate decreased asymptotically. Nitrate removal efficiency in the anoxic reactor was also controlled by the inlet nitrate level entering the anoxic reactor. Furthermore, by increasing the nitrate loading rate from 0.91 to 3.49 gNO/m3·day, denitrification rate increased from 0.496 to 2.47 gNO/m3·day.

  17. Organic micropollutants in the Yangtze River: seasonal occurrence and annual loads.

    PubMed

    Qi, Weixiao; Müller, Beat; Pernet-Coudrier, Benoit; Singer, Heinz; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Berg, Michael

    2014-02-15

    Twenty percent of the water run-off from China's land surface drains into the Yangtze River and carries the sewage of approximately 400 million people out to sea. The lower stretch of the Yangtze therefore offers the opportunity to assess the pollutant discharge of a huge population. To establish a comprehensive assessment of micropollutants, river water samples were collected monthly from May 2009 to June 2010 along a cross-section at the lowermost hydrological station of the Yangtze River not influenced by the tide (Datong Station, Anhui province). Following a prescreening of 268 target compounds, we examined the occurrence, seasonal variation, and annual loads of 117 organic micropollutants, including 51 pesticides, 43 pharmaceuticals, 7 household and industrial chemicals, and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). During the 14-month study, the maximum concentrations of particulate PAHs (1-5 μg/g), pesticides (11-284 ng/L), pharmaceuticals (5-224 ng/L), and household and industrial chemicals (4-430 ng/L) were generally lower than in other Chinese rivers due to the dilution caused of the Yangtze River's average water discharge of approximately 30,000 m(3)/s. The loads of most pesticides, anti-infectives, and PAHs were higher in the wet season compared to the dry season, which was attributed to the increased agricultural application of chemicals in the summer, an elevated water discharge through the sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) as a result of high hydraulic loads and the related lower treatment efficiency, and seasonally increased deposition from the atmosphere and runoff from the catchment. The estimated annual load of PAHs in the river accounted for some 4% of the total emission of PAHs in the whole Yangtze Basin. Furthermore, by using sucralose as a tracer for domestic wastewater, we estimate a daily disposal of approximately 47 million m(3) of sewage into the river, corresponding to 1.8% of its average hydraulic load. In summary

  18. High organic loading treatment for industrial molasses wastewater and microbial community shifts corresponding to system development.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Kyohei; Chosei, Tomoaki; Nakahara, Nozomi; Hatamoto, Masashi; Wakabayashi, Takashi; Kawai, Toshikazu; Araki, Nobuo; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Molasses wastewater contains high levels of organic compounds, cations, and anions, causing operational problems for anaerobic biological treatment. To establish a high organic loading treatment system for industrial molasses wastewater, this study designed a combined system comprising an acidification tank, a thermophilic multi-stage (MS)-upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, mesophilic UASB reactor, and down-flow hanging sponge reactor. The average total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand removal rates were 85%±3% and 95%±2%, respectively, at an organic loading rate of 42kgCODcrm(-3)d(-1) in the MS-UASB reactor. By installation of the acidification tank, the MS-UASB reactor achieved low H2-partial pressure. The abundance of syntrophs such as fatty acid-degrading bacteria increased in the MS-UASB and 2nd-UASB reactors. Thus, the acidification tank contributed to maintaining a favorable environment for syntrophic associations. This study provides new information regarding microbial community composition in a molasses wastewater treatment system.

  19. Concentrations, loads, and yields of organic carbon in streams of agricultural watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kronholm, Scott; Capel, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Carbon is cycled to and from large reservoirs in the atmosphere, on land, and in the ocean. Movement of organic carbon from the terrestrial reservoir to the ocean plays an important role in the global cycling of carbon. The transition from natural to agricultural vegetation can change the storage and movement of organic carbon in and from a watershed. Samples were collected from 13 streams located in hydrologically and agriculturally diverse watersheds, to better understand the variability in the concentrations and loads of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) in the streams, and the variability in watershed yields. The overall annual median concentrations of DOC and POC were 4.9 (range: 2.1–6.8) and 1.1 (range: 0.4–3.8) mg C L−1, respectively. The mean DOC watershed yield (± SE) was 25 ± 6.8 kg C ha−1 yr−1. The yields of DOC from these agricultural watersheds were not substantially different than the DOC yield from naturally vegetated watersheds in equivalent biomes, but were at the low end of the range for most biomes. Total organic carbon (DOC + POC) annually exported from the agricultural watersheds was found to average 0.03% of the organic carbon that is contained in the labile plant matter and top 1 m of soil in the watershed. Since the total organic carbon exported from agricultural watersheds is a relatively small portion of the sequestered carbon within the watershed, there is the great potential to store additional carbon in plants and soils of the watershed, offsetting some anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

  20. Concentrations, loads, and yields of organic carbon in streams of agricultural watersheds.

    PubMed

    Kronholm, Scott; Capel, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Carbon is cycled to and from large reservoirs in the atmosphere, on land, and in the ocean. Movement of organic carbon from the terrestrial reservoir to the ocean plays an important role in the global cycling of carbon. The transition from natural to agricultural vegetation can change the storage and movement of organic carbon in and from a watershed. Samples were collected from 13 streams located in hydrologically and agriculturally diverse watersheds, to better understand the variability in the concentrations and loads of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) in the streams, and the variability in watershed yields. The overall annual median concentrations of DOC and POC were 4.9 (range: 2.1-6.8) and 1.1 (range: 0.4-3.8) mg C L, respectively. The mean DOC watershed yield (± SE) was 25 ± 6.8 kg C ha yr. The yields of DOC from these agricultural watersheds were not substantially different than the DOC yield from naturally vegetated watersheds in equivalent biomes, but were at the low end of the range for most biomes. Total organic carbon (DOC + POC) annually exported from the agricultural watersheds was found to average 0.03% of the organic carbon that is contained in the labile plant matter and top 1 m of soil in the watershed. Since the total organic carbon exported from agricultural watersheds is a relatively small portion of the sequestered carbon within the watershed, there is the great potential to store additional carbon in plants and soils of the watershed, offsetting some anthropogenic CO emissions.

  1. Effect of organic loading rate during anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Hiya; Kumar, Pradeep; Kumar, Sunil; Mukherjee, Somnath; Vaidya, Atul N

    2016-10-01

    The effect of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile solids (VS) on subsequent methane (CH4) production during anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was studied in a laboratory-scale digester. The experiment was performed in 2L anaerobic digester under different experimental conditions using different input mass co-digested with inoculum and organic loading rate (OLR) for 27days at 38±2°C. Three digesters (digesters 1, 2 and 3) were operated at initial loading of 5.1, 10.4 and 15.2g/L CODS per batch which were reduced to 77.9% and 84.2%, respectively. Cumulative biogas productions were 9.3, 10.7 and 17.7L in which CH4 yields were 84.3, 101.0 and 168.4mL/gVS removal in digesters 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The observed COD removal was found to be influenced on variation in CH4 production. Co-efficient of determination (R(2)) was 0.67 and 0.74 in digesters 1 and 2, respectively.

  2. Hygienic quality of artificial greywater subjected to aerobic treatment: a comparison of three filter media at increasing organic loading rates

    PubMed Central

    Lalander, Cecilia; Dalahmeh, Sahar; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population, the lack of reliable water sources is becoming an increasing problem. Reusing greywater could alleviate this problem. When reusing greywater for crop irrigation it is paramount to ensure the removal of pathogenic organisms. This study compared the pathogen removal efficiency of pine bark and activated charcoal filters with that of conventional sand filters at three organic loading rates. The removal efficiency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 decreased drastically when the organic loading rate increased fivefold in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. The reduction in the virus model organism coliphage ΦX174 remained unchanged with increasing organic loading in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. Thus, bark was demonstrated to be the most promising material for greywater treatment in terms of pathogen removal. PMID:24527627

  3. Hygienic quality of artificial greywater subjected to aerobic treatment: a comparison of three filter media at increasing organic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Lalander, Cecilia; Dalahmeh, Sahar; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population, the lack of reliable water sources is becoming an increasing problem. Reusing greywater could alleviate this problem. When reusing greywater for crop irrigation it is paramount to ensure the removal of pathogenic organisms. This study compared the pathogen removal efficiency of pine bark and activated charcoal filters with that of conventional sand filters at three organic loading rates. The removal efficiency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 decreased drastically when the organic loading rate increased fivefold in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. The reduction in the virus model organism coliphage phiX174 remained unchanged with increasing organic loading in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. Thus, bark was demonstrated to be the most promising material for greywater treatment in terms of pathogen removal.

  4. Influence of feed time and sulfate load on the organic and sulfate removal in an ASBR.

    PubMed

    Mockaitis, Gustavo; Friedl, Gregor F; Rodrigues, José A D; Ratusznei, Suzana M; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugênio

    2010-09-01

    The removal of sulfate and organic matter was assessed in an ASBR, which treated wastewater containing 500 mg CODL(-1) (3 g CODL(-1)d(-1)) in 8h-cycles at 30 degrees C. The wastewater was enriched with sulfate at [COD/SO(4)(2-)] ratios of 1.34, 0.67 and 0.34 (8.8,4.5 and 2.2 gSO(4)(2-)L(-1)d(-1)). For each COD/[SO(4)(2-)] ratio fill times used were: 10 min (batch), 3 and 6h (fed-batch), achieving sulfate reduction of 30%, 72% and 72% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 1.34); 25%, 58% and 55% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 0.67) and 23%, 37% and 27% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 0.34), respectively, and organic matter removal of 87%, 68% and 80% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 1.34); 78%, 75% and 69% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 0.67) and 85%, 84% and 83% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 0.34), respectively. The results showed that fed-batch operation improved sulfate reduction, whereas organic matter removals were similar for batch and fed-batch operation. In addition, increase in sulfate loading in the fed-batch operation improved organic matter removal.

  5. Organic matter compositions and loadings in soils and sediments along the Fly River, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goñi, Miguel A.; Moore, Eric; Kurtz, Andrew; Portier, Evan; Alleau, Yvan; Merrell, David

    2014-09-01

    The compositions and loadings of organic matter in soils and sediments from a diverse range of environments along the Fly River system were determined to investigate carbon transport and sequestration in this region. Soil horizons from highland sites representative of upland sources have organic carbon contents (%OC) that range from 0.3 to 25 wt%, carbon:nitrogen ratios (OC/N) that range from 7 to 25 mol/mol, highly negative stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13Corg < -26‰) and variable concentrations of lignin phenols (1 < LP < 5 mg/100 mg OC). These compositions reflect inputs from local vegetation, with contributions from bedrock carbon in the deeper mineral horizons. Soils developed on the levees of active floodplains receive inputs of allochthonous materials by overbank deposition as well as autochthonous inputs from local vegetation. In the forested upper floodplain reaches, %OC contents are lower than upland soils (0.8-1.5 wt%) as are OC/N ratios (9-15 mol/mol) while δ13Corg (-25 to -28‰) and LP (2-6 mg/100 mg OC) values are comparable to upland soils. These results indicate that organic matter present in these active floodplain soils reflect local (primarily C3) vegetation inputs mixed with allochthonous organic matter derived from eroded bedrock. In the lower reaches of the floodplain, which are dominated by swamp grass vegetation, isotopic compositions were less negative (δ13Corg > -25‰) and non-woody vegetation biomarkers (cinnamyl phenols and cutin acids) more abundant relative to upper floodplain sites. Soils developed on relict Pleistocene floodplain terraces, which are typically not flooded and receive little sediment from the river, were characterized by low %OC contents (<0.6 wt%), low OC/N ratios (<9 mol/mol), more positive δ13Corg signatures (>-21‰) and low LP concentrations (∼3 mg/100 mg OC). These relict floodplain soils contain modern carbon that reflects primarily local (C3 or C4) vegetation sources. Total suspended solids

  6. Land Cover and Nutrient Loads Explain Changes in Enzymatic Processing of Stream Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosen, J. D.; Febria, C.; McDonough, O.; Palmer, M.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic land use has been shown to alter organic matter composition as well as its processing, export, and retention in headwater streams. Human activities also increase stream nutrient loading and in turn organic matter processing by heterotrophic microbial communities. Using microbial extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) assays combined with dissolved organic matter (DOM) fluorescence spectroscopy, we investigated the interaction between catchment land use, nutrient limitation, heterotrophic microbial communities, and carbon processing in five forested and three urbanized Coastal Plain headwater streams (Maryland, USA). EEA measures microbial production of heterotrophic extracellular enzymes, including aminopeptidase, which facilitates the breakdown of organic nitrogen and phosphatase which facilitates breakdown of organic phosphate. DOM fluorescence spectroscopy enables rapid quantification of different organic matter fluorophores (e.g., amino acid-, humic acid-, and fulvic acid-like). Excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) of DOM fluorescence can be coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) for detailed quantitative analysis. Samples were collected quarterly from May 2011 to July 2012 and characterized using both EEA and EEM. We show that significant differences in stream EEA are explained by DOM fluorescence, land cover, and inorganic nutrient inputs. Specifically, urbanized sites were characterized by relatively low ortho-phosphate concentrations, high inorganic nitrogen concentrations, high phosphatase EEA, and greater amino acid-like DOM fluorescence. Aminopeptidase activity increased with increasing amino acid-like DOM fluorescence (i.e., a labile form of DOM for microbes) in forested streams. By contrast aminopeptidase activity did not respond to increasing amino acid-like fluorescence in urbanized streams. This points to a difference in limitation in inorganic nutrients between stream types. Thus, we hypothesize that stream microbial communities

  7. Effect of organic load on phosphorus and bacteria removal from wastewater using alkaline filter materials.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Charlotte; Renman, Gunno; Westholm, Lena Johansson; Renman, Agnieszka; Drizo, Aleksandra

    2013-10-15

    The organic matter released from septic tanks can disturb the subsequent step in on-site wastewater treatment such as the innovative filters for phosphorus removal. This study investigated the effect of organic load on phosphorus (P) and bacteria removal by reactive filter materials under real-life treatment conditions. Two long-term column experiments were conducted at very short hydraulic residence times (average ~5.5 h), using wastewater with high (mean ~120 mg L(-1)) and low (mean ~20 mg L(-1)) BOD7 values. Two alkaline filter materials, the calcium-silicate material Polonite and blast furnace slag (BFS), were tested for the removal capacity of total P, total organic carbon (TOC) and Enterococci. Both experiments showed that Polonite removed P significantly (p < 0.01) better than BFS. An increase in P removal efficiency of 29.3% was observed for the Polonite filter at the lower concentration of BOD7 (p < 0.05). Polonite was also better than BFS with regard to removal of TOC, but there were no significant differences between the two filter materials with regard to removal of Enterococci. The reduction in Enterococci was greater in the experiment using wastewater with high BOD7, an effect attributable to the higher concentration of bacteria in that wastewater. Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of extensive pre-treatment of wastewater to achieve good phosphorus removal in reactive bed filters and prolonged filter life.

  8. Permissible radionuclide loading for organic ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Lin, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1983-10-01

    A questionnaire on the use of ion exchange resins in nuclear power plants was sent to all operating reactors in the US. Responses were received from 23 of the 48 utilities approached. Information was sought concerning the amounts of radionuclides held by the resins, and the effects of its radiation on the resins both during operation and after removal from service. Relevant information from the questionnaires is summarized and discussed. Available literature on the effects of ionizing radiation on organic ion exchange resins has been reviewed. On the basis of published data on damage to resins by radiation, the technical rationale is given to support NRC's draft branch technical position on a maximum permissible radionuclide loading. It is considered advisable to formulate the rule in terms of a delivered dose rather than a curie loading. A maximum permissible dose of 10/sup 8/ rad is chosen because, while it is large enough that a measurable amount of damage will be done to the resin, it is small enough that the damage will be negligible at a power plant or disposal site. A test procedure has been written which a generator could use to qualify a specific resin for service at a higher dose than permitted by the general rule.

  9. Activation of peroxymonosulfate by graphitic carbon nitride loaded on activated carbon for organic pollutants degradation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mingyu; Gao, Long; Li, Jun; Fang, Jia; Cai, Wenxuan; Li, Xiaoxia; Xu, Aihua

    2016-10-05

    Graphitic carbon nitride supported on activated carbon (g-C3N4/AC) was prepared through an in situ thermal approach and used as a metal free catalyst for pollutants degradation in the presence of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) without light irradiation. It was found that g-C3N4 was highly dispersed on the surface of AC with the increase of surface area and the exposition of more edges and defects. The much easier oxidation of C species in g-C3N4 to CO was also observed from XPS spectra. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and other organic pollutants could be completely degraded by the g-C3N4/AC catalyst within 20min with PMS, while g-C3N4+PMS and AC+PMS showed no significant activity for the reaction. The performance of the catalyst was significantly influenced by the amount of g-C3N4 loaded on AC; but was nearly not affected by the initial solution pH and reaction temperature. In addition, the catalysts presented good stability. A nonradical mechanism accompanied by radical generation (HO and SO4(-)) in AO7 oxidation was proposed in the system. The CO groups play a key role in the process; while the exposure of more N-(C)3 group can further increase its electron density and basicity. This study can contribute to the development of green materials for sustainable remediation of aqueous organic pollutants.

  10. The fate of fixed nitrogen in marine sediments with low organic loading: an in situ study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaglia, Stefano; Hylén, Astrid; Rattray, Jayne E.; Kononets, Mikhail Y.; Ekeroth, Nils; Roos, Per; Thamdrup, Bo; Brüchert, Volker; Hall, Per O. J.

    2017-01-01

    -oxygenated sediments with low organic carbon loading. However, the mechanisms behind the variability in DNRA rates between our sites were not resolved. The GOB sediments were a major source (237 kt yr-1, which corresponds to 184 % of the external N load) of fixed N to the water column through recycling mechanisms. To our knowledge, our study is the first to document the simultaneous contribution of denitrification, DNRA, anammox, and TDN recycling combined with in situ measurements.

  11. Reducing the 137Cs-load in the organism of "Chernobyl" children with apple-pectin.

    PubMed

    Nesterenko, V B; Nesterenko, A V; Babenko, V I; Yerkovich, T V; Babenko, I V

    2004-01-10

    As a complement of standard radioprotective measures, apple-pectin preparations are given, especially in the Ukraine, to reduce the 137Cs uptake in the organism of children. The question has been raised: is oral pectin also useful when children receive radiologically clean food, or does this polysaccharide only act in binding 137Cs in the gut, blocking its intestinal absorption? In this case, pectin would be useless if radiologically clean food could be given. The study was a randomised, double blind placebo-controlled trial comparing the efficacy of a dry and milled apple-extract containing 15-16% pectin with a similar placebo-powder, in 64 children originating from the same group of contaminated villages of the Gomel oblast. The average 137Cs load was of about 30 Bq/kg bodyweight (BW). The trial was conducted during the simultaneous one-month stay in the sanatorium Silver Spring. In this clean radiological environment only radiologically "clean" food is given to the children. The average reduction of the 137Cs levels in children receiving oral pectin powder was 62.6%, the reduction with "clean" food and placebo was 13.9%, the difference being statistically significant (p <0.01). The reduction of the 137Cs load is medically relevant, as no child in the placebo group reached values below 20 Bq/kg BW (which is considered by Bandazhevsky as potentially associated with specific pathological tissue damages), with an average value of 25.8 +/- 0.8 Bq/kg. The highest value in the apple-pectin group was 15.4 Bq/kg, the average value being 11.3 +/- 0.6 Bq/kg BW.

  12. Removal of high organic loads from winery wastewater by aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Zimmels, Y; Kirzhner, F; Schreiber, J

    2008-09-01

    Laboratory- and field-scale purification tests of raw and diluted winery wastewater (WWW) were carried out using aquatic plants at high organic loads. The laboratory tests were performed using artificial light at 1800 to 1900 lux. The objective of the current study was to define the potential of floating and emergent aquatic macrophytes and the microorganisms attached to their roots, to reduce high organic loads that characterize WWW, thereby providing, for these effluents, an effective treatment and management system. These microorganisms are believed to have a major role in the treatment process. In this context, the potential of floating and emergent macrophytes to improve the water quality of raw compared with diluted WWW was evaluated. In raw WWW (chemical oxygen demand [COD] 5.6 g/L),growth inhibition of both water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water pennywort (Hydrocotyle umbellata) was observed. A 1:1 dilution of WWW with fresh (tap) water facilitated growth of these plants. At this dilution level, growth of pennywort was limited, while that of water hyacinth was robust. In terms of reductions in biochemical oxygen demand, COD, and total suspended solids, both water hyacinth and pennywort performed better in diluted compared with raw WWW. At 1:1 and 1:3 dilution, 95.9 to 97% of the COD was removed after 23 days, in the presence of Hydrocotyle and Eichhornia plants and aeration. The capacity of new emergent plants to remove high organic loads from WWW, at enhanced kinetics, was demonstrated. This unique property was tested and compared with the role of the gravel media that support growth of the high-capacity emergent plants. In the presence of reed and salt marsh plants, 83 to 99% of the COD was removed within a period of 24 to 29 days, at 1.5:1 dilution. The new emergent plants proved to be effective, even at record high levels of COD. At an initial level of 16,460 mg/L, the COD was brought down to 2870 mg/L after 24 days (82.6% removal), while 12

  13. Influence of temperature and organic load on chemical disinfection of Geobacillus steareothermophilus spores, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jiewen; Chan, Maria; Brooks, Brian W; Rohonczy, Liz

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of temperature and organic load on the effectiveness of domestic bleach (DB), Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF), and Virkon in inactivating Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores, which are a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis spores. The spores were suspended in light or heavy organic preparations and the suspension was applied to stainless steel carrier disks. The dried spore inoculum was covered with the disinfectants and the disks were then incubated at various temperatures. At -20°C, the 3 disinfectants caused less than a 2.0 log10 reduction of spores in both organic preparations during a 24-h test period. At 4°C, the DB caused a 4.4 log10 reduction of spores in light organic preparations within 2 h, which was about 3 log10 higher than what was achieved with SDF or Virkon. In heavy organic preparations, after 24 h at 4°C the SDF had reduced the spore count by 4.5 log10, which was about 2 log10 higher than for DB or Virkon. In general, the disinfectants were most effective at 23°C but a 24-h contact time was required for SDF and Virkon to reduce spore counts in both organic preparations by at least 5.5 log10. Comparable disinfecting activity with DB only occurred with the light organic load. In summary, at temperatures as low as 4°C, DB was the most effective disinfectant, inactivating spores within 2 h on surfaces with a light organic load, whereas SDF produced the greatest reduction of spores within 24 h on surfaces with a heavy organic load.

  14. Effect of Static Load on the Nucleus Pulposus of Rabbit Intervertebral Disc Motion Segment in Ex vivo Organ Culture

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li-Guo; Feng, Min-Shan; Zhan, Jia-Wen; Zhang, Ping; Yu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background: The development of mechanically active culture systems helps increase the understanding of the role of mechanical stress in intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Motion segment cultures allow for preservation of the native IVD structure, and adjacent vertebral bodies facilitate the application and control of mechanical loads. The purpose of this study was to establish loading and organ culture methods for rabbit IVD motion segments to study the effect of static load on the whole disc organ. Methods: IVD motion segments were harvested from rabbit lumbar spines and cultured in no-loading 6-well plates (control conditions) or custom-made apparatuses under a constant, compressive load (3 kg, 0.5 MPa) for up to 14 days. Tissue integrity, matrix synthesis, and the matrix gene expression profile were assessed after 3, 7, and 14 days of culturing and compared with those of fresh tissues. Results: The results showed that ex vivo culturing of motion segments preserved tissue integrity under no-loading conditions for 14 days whereas the static load gradually destroyed the morphology after 3 days. Proteoglycan contents were decreased under both conditions, with a more obvious decrease under static load, and proteoglycan gene expression was also downregulated. However, under static load, immunohistochemical staining intensity and collagen Type II alpha 1 (COL2A1) gene expression were significantly enhanced (61.54 ± 5.91, P = 0.035) and upregulated (1.195 ± 0.040, P = 0.000), respectively, compared with those in the controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, under constant compression, these trends were reversed. Our initial results indicated that short-term static load stimulated the synthesis of collagen Type II alpha 1; however, sustained constant compression led to progressive degeneration and specifically to a decreased proteoglycan content. Conclusions: A loading and organ culture system for ex vivo rabbit IVD motion segments was developed. Using this system, we

  15. The effect of organic loading on bacterial community composition of membrane biofilms in a submerged polyvinyl chloride membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Xia, Siqing; Li, Jixiang; He, Shuying; Xie, Kang; Wang, Xiaojia; Zhang, Yanhao; Duan, Liang; Zhang, Zhiqiang

    2010-09-01

    The effect of organic loading on bacterial community composition of membrane biofilms was investigated using a submerged polyvinyl chloride membrane bioreactor. The low and high loadings were set at 0.33 and 0.52 gCOD/(gVSSd), respectively. The results showed that membrane fouling occurred earlier and faster under the high loading conditions. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that the similarity of bacterial community in the membrane biofilms between the two loadings was 0.67, higher than that in the mixed liquors (0.52-0.55), which indicated that some specific bacteria were selected preferentially on the membranes. Clone library analysis of the membrane biofilms indicated that Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes under the high loading were 54.72% and 19.81%, respectively. Microarray results further confirmed that the two bacteria were the dominant microorganisms in the high loading biofilm. The severe membrane fouling may be aroused mainly by the enrichment of the two bacteria under the high loading.

  16. Salmon contributions to dissolved organic matter and nutrient loads in a coastal stream in Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, E.; Fellman, J. B.; Edwards, R. T.

    2005-12-01

    In southeastern Alaska, spawning salmon can have a substantial effect on the water quality of coastal watersheds because salmon move large quantities of marine nutrients into terrestrial freshwater streams. We are measuring the effects of salmon on loads of inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in Peterson Creek near Juneau, Alaska. Peterson Creek receives sizable runs of pink (Oncorhynchus gorbushca) and chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon during the late summer (mid-August through mid-September). To test the effects of salmon on water quality, samples were collected above and below a barrier waterfall on Peterson Creek. During salmon spawning, concentrations of ammonium (NH4+) were up to two orders of magnitude higher at the downstream salmon-influenced site, while soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) increased by more than an order of magnitude at the downstream site. For the entire salmon spawning period, concentrations of NH4+, SRP, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were significantly higher at the downstream site compared to the upstream site, however nitrate (NO3-) concentrations were not significantly different between sites. Characterization of DOC samples using fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the DOC leached from salmon had a large protein component compared to DOC at the upstream site which was dominated by humic material. These results suggest that salmon provide a pulse of inorganic N and P as well as labile DOC to surface waters during the spawning period. Concurrent measurements of discharge will allow us to assess the importance of salmon-derived nutrients in the seasonal nutrient budget of Peterson Creek.

  17. Effects of organic loading rate on biogas production from macroalgae: Performance and microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meng-Ting; Fan, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Xiao-Xian; Fu, Shan-Fei; He, Shuai; Manasa, M R K; Guo, Rong-Bo

    2017-03-15

    Macroalgae biomass has been considered as a promising feedstock for biogas production. In order to improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion (AD) of macroalgae, semi-continuous fermentation was conducted to examine the effects of organic loading rate (OLR) on biogas production from Macrocystis pyrifer. Results showed that, under OLRs of 1.37, 2.74, 4.12 and 6.85kgVSsubstrate/(m(3)·d), the average unit biogas yields were 438.9, 477.3, 480.1 and 188.7mL/(gVSsubstrated), respectively. It indicated that biogas production was promoted by the increased OLR in an appropriate range while inhibited by the OLR beyond the appropriate range. The investigation on physical-chemical parameters revealed that unfavorable VFAs concentration, pH and salinity might be the main causes for system failure due to the overrange OLR, while the total phenols failed to reach the inhibitory concentration. Microbial community analysis demonstrated that several bacterial and archaeal phyla altered with increase in OLR apparently.

  18. Effect of the organic loading rate on biogas composition in continuous fermentative hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Spagni, Alessandro; Casu, Stefania; Farina, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    Some systems did not select for hydrogen-producing microorganisms and an unexpected growth of hydrogenotrophic methanogens was observed, although the reactors were operated under well-defined operating conditions that could result in biohydrogen production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the organic loading rate (OLR) on the hydrogen and methane composition of the biogas produced in dark fermentative processes. The study was carried out using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor in order to evaluate the OLR effect in systems with sludge retention. During continuous operation, the UASB reactor showed the slow development of methanogenic activity, related to the applied OLR. The results demonstrate that operating an UASB reactor at pH 5.5 is not enough to prevent the acclimation of methanogens to the acidic pH and therefore long-term biohydrogen production cannot be achieved. Moreover, this study demonstrates that OLR also has an effect on the biogas composition, where the higher the OLR the greater the biogas H2 content.

  19. The effect of organic loading rate and retention time on hydrogen production from a methanogenic CSTR.

    PubMed

    Pakarinen, O; Kaparaju, P; Rintala, J

    2011-10-01

    The possibility of shifting a methanogenic process for hydrogen production by changing the process parameters viz., organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) was evaluated. At first, two parallel semi-continuously fed continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were operated as methanogenic reactors (M1 and M2) for 78 days. Results showed that a methane yield of 198-218 L/kg volatile solids fed (VS(fed)) was obtained when fed with grass silage at an OLR of 2 kgVS/m³/d and HRT of 30 days. After 78 days of operation, hydrogen production was induced in M2 by increasing the OLR from 2 to 10 kgVS/m³/d and shortening the HRT from 30 to 6 days. The highest H₂ yield of 42 L/kgVS(fed) was obtained with a maximum H₂ content of 24%. The present results thus demonstrate that methanogenic process can be shifted towards hydrogen production by increasing the OLR and decreasing HRT.

  20. Ecological correlates of variable organ sizes and fat loads in the most northerly-wintering shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, R.E.; Summers, R.W.; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Shorebirds at northern latitudes during the nonbreeding season typically carry relatively large lipid stores and exhibit an up-regulation of lean tissues associated with digestion and thermogenesis. Intraspecific variation in these tissues across sites primarily reflects differences in environmental conditions. Rock (Calidris ptilocnemis (Coues, 1873)) and Purple (Calidris maritima (Brünnich, 1764)) sandpipers are closely related species having the most northerly nonbreeding distributions among shorebirds, living at latitudes up to 61°N in Cook Inlet, Alaska, and up to 71°N in northern Norway, respectively. Cook Inlet is the coldest known site used by nonbreeding shorebirds, and the region’s mudflats annually experience extensive coverage of foraging sites by sea and shore-fast ice. Accordingly, Rock Sandpipers increase their fat stores to nearly 20% of body mass during winter. In contrast, Purple Sandpipers exploit predictably ice-free rocky intertidal foraging sites and maintain low (<6.5%) fat stores. Rock Sandpipers increase the mass of lean tissues from fall to winter, including contour feathers, stomach, and liver components. They also have greater lean pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscle and liver and kidney tissues compared with Purple Sandpipers in winter. This demonstrates a combined emphasis on digestive processes and thermogenesis, whereas Purple Sandpipers primarily augment organs associated with digestive processes. The high winter fat loads and increased lean tissues of Rock Sandpipers in Cook Inlet reflect the region’s persistent cold and abundant but sporadically unavailable food resources.

  1. Enhanced proton conductivity of Nafion composite membrane by incorporating phosphoric acid-loaded covalent organic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yongheng; Li, Zhen; Yang, Xin; Cao, Li; Wang, Chongbin; Zhang, Bei; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2016-11-01

    Design and fabrication of efficient proton transport channels within solid electrolytes is crucial and challenging to new energy-relevant devices such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this study, the phosphoric acid (H3PO4) molecules are impregnated into SNW-1-type covalent organic frameworks (COFs) via vacuum assisted method. High loading of H3PO4 in SNW-1 and low guest leaching rate are achieved due to the similar diameter between H3PO4 and micropores in SNW-1. Then the COF-based composite membranes are fabricated for the first time with impregnated COFs (H3PO4@SNW-1) and Nafion matrix. For the composite membranes, the acid-base pairs formed between H3PO4@SNW-1 networks and Nafion optimize the interfacial interactions and hydrophilic domains. The acidic -PO3H2 groups in pores of H3PO4@SNW-1 provide abundant proton transfer sites. As a result, the continuous proton transfer channels with low energy barrier are created. At the filler content of 15 wt%, the composite membrane exhibits a superior proton conductivity of 0.0604 S cm-1 at 51% relative humidity and 80 °C. At the same time, the maximum power density of single fuel cell is 60.3% higher than that of the recast Nafion membrane.

  2. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems.

    PubMed

    Bucs, Sz S; Valladares Linares, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Kruithof, J C; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2014-12-15

    The influence of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation (biofouling) and pressure drop development in membrane filtration systems was investigated. Nutrient load is the product of nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity. Biofouling - excessive growth of microbial biomass in membrane systems - hampers membrane performance. The influence of biodegradable organic nutrient load on biofouling was investigated at varying (i) crossflow velocity, (ii) nutrient concentration, (iii) shear, and (iv) feed spacer thickness. Experimental studies were performed with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) containing a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and a 31 mil thick feed spacer, commonly applied in practice in RO and nanofiltration (NF) spiral-wound membrane modules. Numerical modeling studies were done with identical feed spacer geometry differing in thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil). Additionally, experiments were done applying a forward osmosis (FO) membrane with varying spacer thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil), addressing the permeate flux decline and biofilm development. Assessed were the development of feed channel pressure drop (MFS studies), permeate flux (FO studies) and accumulated biomass amount measured by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC). Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer thickness. The impact of the same amount of accumulated biomass on feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux was influenced by membrane process design and operational conditions. Reducing the nutrient load by pretreatment slowed-down the biofilm formation. The impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance was reduced by applying a lower crossflow velocity and/or a thicker and/or a modified geometry feed spacer. The results indicate that cleanings can be delayed

  3. Effect of Static Load on the Nucleus Pulposus of Rabbit Intervertebral Disc Motion Segment in an Organ Culture

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Min-Shan; Zhang, Ping; Yu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The development of mechanically active culture systems helps in understanding of the role of mechanical stress in intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Motion segment cultures facilitate the application and control of mechanical loads. The purpose of this study was to establish a culturing method for rabbit IVD motion segments to observe the effect of static load on the whole disc organ. Segments were cultured in custom-made apparatuses under a constant, compressive load (3 kg) for 2 weeks. Tissue integrity, matrix synthesis, and matrix gene expression profile were assessed and compared with fresh one. The results showed ex vivo culturing of samples gradually destroyed the morphology. Proteoglycan contents and gene expression were decreased and downregulated obviously. However, immunohistochemical staining intensity and collagen type II gene expression were significantly enhanced and upregulated. In contrast, these trends were reversed under constant compression. These results indicated short-term static load stimulated the synthesis of type II collagen; however, constant compression led to progressive degeneration and specifically to proteoglycan. Through this study a loading and organ-culturing system for ex vivo rabbit IVD motion segments was developed, which can be used to study the effects of mechanical stimulation on the biology of IVDs and the pathomechanics of IVD degeneration. PMID:27872846

  4. Oceanic loading of wildfire-derived organic compounds from a small mountainous river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunsinger, G.B.; Mitra, Siddhartha; Warrick, J.A.; Alexander, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Small mountainous rivers (SMRs) export substantial amounts of sediment into the world's oceans. The concomitant yield of organic carbon (OC) associated with this class of rivers has also been shown to be significant and compositionally unique. We report here excessively high loadings of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lignin, and levoglucosan, discharged from the Santa Clara River into the Santa Barbara Channel. The abundance of PAHs, levoglucosan, and lignin in Santa Barbara Channel sediments ranged from 201.7 to 1232.3 ng gdw-1, 1.3 to 6.9 ??g gdw-1, and 0.3 to 2.2 mg per 100 mg of the sedimentary OC, respectively. Assuming a constant rate of sediment accumulation, the annual fluxes of PAHs, levoglucosan, and lignin, to the Santa Barbara Channel were respectively, 885.5 ?? 170.2 ng cm-2 a-1, 3.5 ?? 1.9 ??g cm-2 a-1 and 1.4 ?? 0.3 mg per 100 mg OC cm-2 a-1, over ???30 years. The close agreement between PAHs, levoglucosan, and lignin abundance suggests that the depositional flux of these compounds is largely biomass combustion-derived. To that end, use of the Santa Clara River as a model for SMRs suggests this class of rivers may be one of the largest contributors of pyrolyzed carbon to coastal systems and the open ocean. Wildfire associated carbon discharged from other high yield fluvial systems, when considered collectively, may be a significant source of lignin, pyrolytic PAHs, and other pyrogenic compounds to the ocean. Extrapolating these methods over geologic time may offer useful historical information about carbon sequestration and burial in coastal sediments and affect coastal carbon budgets. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. The Effect of Increased Loads of Dissolved Organic Matter on Estuarine Microbial Community Composition and Function

    PubMed Central

    Traving, Sachia J.; Rowe, Owen; Jakobsen, Nina M.; Sørensen, Helle; Dinasquet, Julie; Stedmon, Colin A.; Andersson, Agneta; Riemann, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    Increased river loads are projected as one of the major consequences of climate change in the northern hemisphere, leading to elevated inputs of riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) and inorganic nutrients to coastal ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated DOM on a coastal pelagic food web from the coastal northern Baltic Sea, in a 32-day mesocosm experiment. In particular, the study addresses the response of bacterioplankton to differences in character and composition of supplied DOM. The supplied DOM differed in stoichiometry and quality and had pronounced effects on the recipient bacterioplankton, driving compositional changes in response to DOM type. The shifts in bacterioplankton community composition were especially driven by the proliferation of Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, and Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria populations. The DOM additions stimulated protease activity and a release of inorganic nutrients, suggesting that DOM was actively processed. However, no difference between DOM types was detected in these functions despite different community compositions. Extensive release of re-mineralized carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus was associated with the bacterial processing, corresponding to 25–85% of the supplied DOM. The DOM additions had a negative effect on phytoplankton with decreased Chl a and biomass, particularly during the first half of the experiment. However, the accumulating nutrients likely stimulated phytoplankton biomass which was observed to increase towards the end of the experiment. This suggests that the nutrient access partially outweighed the negative effect of increased light attenuation by accumulating DOM. Taken together, our experimental data suggest that parts of the future elevated riverine DOM supply to the Baltic Sea will be efficiently mineralized by microbes. This will have consequences for bacterioplankton and phytoplankton community composition and function, and

  6. Evaluation of drug loading capabilities of γ-cyclodextrin-metal organic frameworks by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaonan; Wang, Caifen; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xue; Liu, Botao; Singh, Vikramjeet; Wang, Shuxia; Sun, Lixin; Gref, Ruxandra; Zhang, Jiwen

    2017-03-10

    Drug loading into γ-cyclodextrin-metal organic frameworks (γ-CD-MOFs) using the impregnation approach is a laborious process. In this study, a γ-CD-MOF construct (2-5μm particle diameter) was used as the stationary phase under HPLC conditions with the aim to correlate retention properties and drug loading capability of the CD-based structure. Ketoprofen, fenbufen and diazepam were chosen as model drugs with m-xylene as a control analyte to investigate the correlation of drug loading and their chromatographic behaviour in the γ-CD-MOF column. Furthermore, γ-CD itself was also prepared as the stationary phase by coupling with silica in the column to illustrate the enhanced interaction between drugs and γ-CD-MOF as a reference. The retention and loading efficiency of the drugs were determined with different ratios of hexane and ethanol (10:90, 20:80, 50:50, 80:20, 90:10, v/v) at temperatures of 20, 25, 30 and 37°C. With the increment in hexane content, the loading efficiency of ketoprofen and fenbufen increased from 2.39±0.06% to 4.38±0.04% and from 5.82±0.94% to 6.37±0.29%, respectively. The retention time and loading efficiency of ketoprofen and diazepam were the lowest at 30°C while those of fenbufen had the different tendency. The excellent relation between the retention and loading efficiency onto γ-CD-MOF could be clearly observed through mobile phase and temperature investigation. In conclusion, a highly efficient chromatographic method has been established to evaluate the drug loading capability of γ-CD-MOF.

  7. [Characterization and analysis of direction extraction and precipitation of cerium loading organic phase by oxalic acid solution].

    PubMed

    Mei, Yan; Xia, Chuan; Chen, Xiao-Li; Sun, He; Nie, Zuo-Ren

    2011-11-01

    In the condition of sodium hydroxide saponification, the test results using direction extraction and precipitation of cerium from P507 loading organic phase by oxalic acid solution were studied. Infared (IR) spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and thermogravimetry (TG-DSC) were used to study and characterize organic cerium precipitates and the final calcined products. The results showed that organic cerium precipitates and final calcined products were spheric organic cerium coordination and spheric cube CeO2 crystal, respectively, showing their morphologies were successive. IR made out that the structures of organic cerium precipitates and final calcined products were different. TG-DSC indicated that the final calcined products weightlessness was 3.5% and chemical composing was CeO2 x 1/3H2O.

  8. Response of removal rates to various organic carbon and ammonium loads in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands treating artificial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shubiao; Kuschk, Peter; Wiessner, Arndt; Kästner, Matthias; Pang, Changle; Dong, Renjie

    2013-01-01

    High levels (92 and 91%) of organic carbon were successfully removed from artificial wastewater by a laboratory-scale constructed wetland under inflow loads of 670 mg/m2 x d (100 mg/d) and 1600 mg/m2d (240 mg/d), respectively. Acidification to pH 3.0 was observed at the low organic carbon load, which further inhibited the denitrification process. An increase in carbon load, however, was associated with a significant elevation of pH to 6.0. In general, sulfate and nitrate reduction were relatively high, with mean levels of 87 and 90%, respectively. However, inhibition of nitrification was initiated with an increase in carbon loads. This effect was probably a result of competition for oxygen by heterotrophic bacteria and an inhibitory effect of sulfide (S2) toxicity (concentration approximately 3 mg/L). In addition, numbers of healthy stalks of Juncus effusus (common rush) decreased from 14 000 to 10 000/m2 with an increase of sulfide concentration, indicating the negative effect of sulfide toxicity on the wetland plants.

  9. Incorporation of amoxicillin-loaded organic montmorillonite into poly(ester-urethane) urea nanofibers as a functional tissue engineering scaffold.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kui; Zhu, Tonghe; Wu, Yu; Zhou, Xiangxiang; Yang, Xingxing; Wang, Juan; Fang, Jun; El-Hamshary, Hany; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Mo, Xiumei

    2017-03-01

    A dual drug-loaded system is a promising alternative for the sustained drug release system and skin tissue engineering. In this study, a natural sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT) modified by cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was prepared as a carrier to load a model drug - amoxicillin (AMX), the modified organic montmorillonite (CTAB-OMMT) loaded with AMX was marked as AMX@CTAB-OMMT and was subsequently incorporated into poly(ester-urethane) urea (PEUU) and gelatin hybrid nanofibers via electrospinning, resulting in a new drug-loaded nanofibrous scaffold (AMX@CTAB-OMMT-PU75). The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) result showed that the fiber morphology did not change after the embedding of AMX@CTAB-OMMT. Meanwhile, there was a significant increase of mechanical properties for PEUU/Gelatin hybrid nanofibers (PU75) after the incorporation of AMX@CTAB-OMMT and CTAB-OMMT. Importantly, AMX@CTAB-OMMT-PU75 nanofibers showed a kind of sustained drug release property which could be justified reasonably for the controlled release of AMX depending on the various application. The sustained release property could be identified roughly by the result of antibacterial test. The anaphylactic reaction test proved that there was no any anaphylactic reaction or inflammation on the back of rat for AMX@CTAB-OMMT-PU75 nanofibers. Consequently, the prepared drug-loaded AMX@CTAB-OMMT-PU75 nanofibrous scaffold is a promising candidate for application in the skin tissue engineering field and controlled drug release system.

  10. Hydropedological hotspots for dissolved organic carbon loading to streams along the perhumid temperate rainforest coastal margin of Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amore, D. V.; Edwards, R.; Herendeen, P. A.; Fellman, J.; Hood, E. W.

    2015-12-01

    Integrating terrestrial and aquatic biogeochemical research is essential for understanding the amount of material exported from terrestrial systems to streams and coastal margins. Integrated models are needed to elucidate how shifts in vegetation communities driven by soil moisture can predict plant community composition and biomass changes that alter the balance of carbon cycling and export to aquatic systems. Soil saturation has long been recognized as an important control on many ecological and biogeochemical relationships in coastal rainforests. However, the lack of working models for soil drainage with enough precision to provide accurate site assessments has limited interpretations of biogeochemical fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems to coastal zones. We have established a hydropedological model that can be used to identify the spatial distribution and seasonal fluctuations of soil saturation and associated anaerobic conditions in soils. Periods of critical DOC loading and peak export associated with these conditions highlight the ability of rainforest soils to produce copious quantities of dissolved organic carbon export to streams. The loading of dissolved organic carbon to streams is closely coupled to seasonal temperature cycles, but constrained by the flow of water through the soil matrix. Episodic storm surges produce varying amounts of dissolved organic carbon flow depending on antecedent conditions. The largest amount of dissolved organic carbon loading to streams occurs after peak temperature and coincident with higher storm surges. Dissolved organic carbon flows more frequently and in higher quantities from wetland soils, but is also produced in large quantities from upland soils. These advances in modeling hydropedologic functions and dissolved organic carbon export establish a framework for climate change vulnerability assessments in rainforest soils.

  11. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure: effects of food waste particle size and organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Agyeman, Fred O; Tao, Wendong

    2014-01-15

    This study was to comprehensively evaluate the effects of food waste particle size on co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure at organic loading rates increased stepwise from 0.67 to 3 g/L/d of volatile solids (VS). Three anaerobic digesters were fed semi-continuously with equal VS amounts of food waste and dairy manure. Food waste was ground to 2.5 mm (fine), 4 mm (medium), and 8 mm (coarse) for the three digesters, respectively. Methane production rate and specific methane yield were significantly higher in the digester with fine food waste. Digestate dewaterability was improved significantly by reducing food waste particle size. Specific methane yield was highest at the organic loading rate of 2g VS/L/d, being 0.63, 0.56, and 0.47 L CH4/g VS with fine, medium, and coarse food waste, respectively. Methane production rate was highest (1.40-1.53 L CH4/L/d) at the organic loading rate of 3 g VS/L/d. The energy used to grind food waste was minor compared with the heating value of the methane produced.

  12. Influence of Organic Load on Biohydrogen Production in an AnSBBR Treating Glucose-Based Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Souza, L P; Lullio, T G; Ratusznei, S M; Rodrigues, J A D; Zaiat, M

    2015-06-01

    An anaerobic sequencing batch reactor with immobilized biomass (AnSBBR) was applied to the production of biohydrogen treating a glucose-based wastewater. The influence of the applied volumetric organic load was studied by varying the concentration of influent at 3600 and 5250 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1) and cycle lengths of 4, 3, and 2 h resulting in volumetric organic loads of 10.5 to 31.1 g COD L(-1). The results revealed system stability in the production of biohydrogen and substrate consumption. The best performance was an organic removal (COD) of 24 % and carbohydrate removal (glucose) of 99 %. Volumetric and specific molar productivity were 60.9 mol H2 m(-3) day(-1) and 5.8 mol H2 kg SVT(-1) day(-1) (biogas containing 40 % H2 and no CH4) at 20.0 g COD L(-1) day(-1) (5250 mg COD L(-1) and 3 h). The yield between produced hydrogen and removed organic matter in terms of carbohydrates was 0.94 mol H2 Mol GLU(-1) (biogas containing 52 % H2 and no CH4) at 10.5 g COD L(-1) day(-1) (3600 mg COD L(-1) and 4 h), corresponding to 23 and 47 % of the theoretical values of the acetic and butyric acid metabolic routes, respectively. Metabolites present at significant amounts were ethanol, acetic acid, and butyric acid. The conditions with higher influent concentration and intermediate cycle length, and the condition with lower influent concentration and longer cycle showed the best results in terms of productivity and yield, respectively. This indicates that the best productivity tends to occur at higher organic loads, as this parameter involves the biogas production, and the best yield tends to occur at lower and/or intermediate organic loads, as this parameter also involves substrate consumption.

  13. The link between organic aerosol mass loading and degree of oxygenation: an α-pinene photooxidation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaffenberger, L.; Barmet, P.; Slowik, J. G.; Praplan, A. P.; Dommen, J.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2012-09-01

    A series of smog chamber (SC) experiments was conducted to identify driving factors responsible for the discrepancy between ambient and SC aerosol degree of oxygenation. An Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer is used to compare mass spectra from α-pinene photooxidation with ambient aerosol. Composition is compared in terms of the fraction of organic mass measured at m/z 44 (f44), a surrogate for carboxylic/organic acids as well as the atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O : C), vs. f43, a surrogate for aldehydes, alcohols and ketones. Low (near-ambient) organic mass concentrations were found to be necessary to obtain oxygenation levels similar to those of low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) commonly identified in ambient measurements. The effects of organic mass loading and OH (hydroxyl radical) exposure were decoupled by inter-experiment comparisons at the same integrated OH concentration. On average, an OH exposure of 2.9 ± 1.3 × 107 cm-3 h is needed to increase f44 by 1% during aerosol aging. For the first time, LV-OOA-like aerosol from the abundant biogenic precursor α-pinene was produced in a smog chamber by oxidation at typical atmospheric OH concentrations. Significant correlation between measured secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and reference LV-OOA mass spectra is shown by Pearson's R2 values larger than 0.90 for experiments with low organic mass concentrations between 1.5 and 15 μg m-3 at an OH exposure of 4 × 107 cm-3 h, corresponding to about two days oxidation time in the atmosphere, based on a global mean OH concentration of ∼1 × 106 cm-3. Not only is the α-pinene SOA more oxygenated at low organic mass loadings, but the functional dependence of oxygenation on mass loading is enhanced at atmospherically-relevant precursor concentrations. Since the degree of oxygenation influences the chemical, volatility and hygroscopic properties of ambient aerosol, smog chamber studies must be performed at near

  14. Emerging organic contaminants in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands: influence of media size, loading frequency and use of active aeration.

    PubMed

    Avila, Cristina; Nivala, Jaime; Olsson, Linda; Kassa, Kinfe; Headley, Tom; Mueller, Roland A; Bayona, Josep Maria; García, Joan

    2014-10-01

    Four side-by-side pilot-scale vertical flow (VF) constructed wetlands of different designs were evaluated for the removal of eight widely used emerging organic contaminants from municipal wastewater (i.e. ibuprofen, acetaminophen, diclofenac, tonalide, oxybenzone, triclosan, ethinylestradiol, bisphenol A). Three of the systems were free-draining, with one containing a gravel substrate (VGp), while the other two contained sand substrate (VS1p and VS2p). The fourth system had a saturated gravel substrate and active aeration supplied across the bottom of the bed (VAp). All beds were pulse-loaded on an hourly basis, except VS2p, which was pulse-loaded every 2h. Each system had a surface area of 6.2m(2), received a hydraulic loading rate of 95 mm/day and was planted with Phragmites australis. The beds received an organic loading rate of 7-16 gTOC/m(2)d. The sand-based VF (VS1p) performed significantly better (p<0.05) than the gravel-based wetland (VGp) both in the removal of conventional water quality parameters (TSS, TOC, NH4-N) and studied emerging organic contaminants except for diclofenac (85 ± 17% vs. 74 ± 15% average emerging organic contaminant removal for VS1p and VGp, respectively). Although loading frequency (hourly vs. bi-hourly) was not observed to affect the removal efficiency of the cited conventional water quality parameters, significantly lower removal efficiencies were found for tonalide and bisphenol A for the VF wetland that received bi-hourly dosing (VS2p) (higher volume per pulse), probably due to the more reducing conditions observed in that system. However, diclofenac was the only contaminant showing an opposite trend to the rest of the compounds, achieving higher elimination rates in the wetlands that exhibited less-oxidizing conditions (VS2p and VGp). The use of active aeration in the saturated gravel bed (VAp) generally improved the treatment performance compared to the free-draining gravel bed (VGp) and achieved a similar performance to the

  15. Simultaneous nitrate and organic matter removal from salmon industry wastewater: the effect of C/N ratio, nitrate concentration and organic load rate on batch and continuous process.

    PubMed

    Huiliñir, C; Hernández, S; Aspé, E; Roeckel, M

    2012-06-30

    Although simultaneous denitrification-anaerobic digestion has been studied extensively, the use of salmon effluents as organic matter source has received little attention. This study evaluated the effect of C/N ratio, nitrate concentration, and organic load rate (OLR) on simultaneous nitrate and organic matter removal using salmon effluents. The study was carried out in a batch reactor with suspended biomass at 37 °C and pH 7.5, and in continuous biofilm tubular reactors at 37 °C fed with a mixture of a synthetic substrate and a saline protein-rich salmon-plant effluent. The results of the batch and continuous experiments showed that nitrate abatement was greater than 95% at all the studied C/N ratios, without effect of the C/N ratio on NO(3)(-)-N transformation and ammonia production. An increase of nitrate concentration increased organic matter consumption as well as the hydrolytic rate. The organic matter reduction varied between 88% and 40% in the continuous process. For a continuous process, the increase of the OLR decreases the removal of organic matter.

  16. Method of loading organic materials with group III plus lanthanide and actinide elements

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Zane W.; Huei-Ho, Chuen; Brown, Gilbert M.; Hurlbut, Charles

    2003-04-08

    Disclosed is a composition of matter comprising a tributyl phosphate complex of a group 3, lanthanide, actinide, or group 13 salt in an organic carrier and a method of making the complex. These materials are suitable for use in solid or liquid organic scintillators, as in x-ray absorption standards, x-ray fluorescence standards, and neutron detector calibration standards.

  17. Reduced temperature hydrolysis at 134 °C before thermophilic anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge at increasing organic load.

    PubMed

    Gianico, A; Braguglia, C M; Cesarini, R; Mininni, G

    2013-09-01

    The performance of thermophilic digestion of waste activated sludge, either untreated or thermal pretreated, was evaluated through semi-continuous tests carried out at organic loading rates in the range of 1-3.7 kg VS/m(3)d. Although the thermal pretreatment at T=134 °C proved to be effective in solubilizing organic matter, no significant gain in organics degradation was observed. However, the digestion of pretreated sludge showed significant soluble COD removal (more than 55%) whereas no removal occurred in control reactors. The lower the initial sludge biodegradability, the higher the efficiency of thermal pretreated digestion was observed, in particular as regards higher biogas and methane production rates with respect to the parallel untreated sludge digestion. Heat balance of the combined thermal hydrolysis/thermophilic digestion process, applied on full-scale scenarios, showed positive values for direct combustion of methane. In case of combined heat and power generation, attractive electric energy recoveries were obtained, with a positive heat balance at high load.

  18. Influence of organic carbon and nitrate loading on partitioning between dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and N2 production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardison, Amber K.; Algar, Christopher K.; Giblin, Anne E.; Rich, Jeremy J.

    2015-09-01

    Biologically available nitrogen is removed from ecosystems through the microbial processes of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) or denitrification, while dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) retains it. A mechanistic understanding of controls on partitioning among these pathways is currently lacking. The objective of this study was to conduct a manipulative experiment to determine the influence of organic C and NO3- loading on partitioning. Sediment was collected from a location on the southern New England shelf (78 m water depth) and sieved. Half of the sediment was mixed with freeze-dried phytoplankton and the other half was not. Sediment was then spread into 1.5 mm, "thin discs" closed at the bottom and placed in large aquarium tanks with filtered, N2/CO2 sparged seawater to maintain O2 limited conditions. Half of the discs received high NO3- loading, while the other half received low NO3- loading, resulting in a multifactorial design with four treatments: no C addition, low NO3- (-C-N); C addition, low NO3- (+C-N); no C addition, high NO3- (-C+N); and C addition, high NO3- (+C+N). Sediment discs were incubated in the tanks for 7 weeks, during which time inorganic N (NH4+, NO3-, and NO2-) was monitored, and sediment discs were periodically removed from the tanks to conduct 15N isotope labeling experiments in vials to measure potential rates of anammox, denitrification, and DNRA. Temporal dynamics of inorganic N concentrations in the tanks were indicative of anoxic N metabolism, with strong response of the build up or consumption of the intermediate NO2-, depending on treatments. Vial incubation experiments with added 15NO2- + 14NH4+ indicated significant denitrification and DNRA activity in sediment thin discs, but incubations with added 15NH4+ + 14NO2- indicated anammox was not at all significant. Inorganic N concentrations in the tanks were fit to a reactive transport model assuming different N transformations. Organic C decomposition rates

  19. Methyl red removal from water by iron based metal-organic frameworks loaded onto iron oxide nanoparticle adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadfarnia, S.; Haji Shabani, A. M.; Moradi, S. E.; Emami, S.

    2015-03-01

    The objective followed by this research is the synthesis of iron based metal organic framework loaded on iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4@MIL-100(Fe)) and the study of its capability for the removal of methyl red. Effective parameters in the selection of a new adsorbent, i.e. adsorption capacity, thermodynamics, and kinetics were investigated. All the studies were carried out in batch experiments. Removal of methyl red from aqueous solutions varied with the amount of adsorbent, methyl red contact time, initial concentration of dye, adsorbent dosage, and solution pH. The capability of the synthesized adsorbent in the removal of methyl red was compared with the metal organic framework (MIL-100(Fe)) and iron oxide nanoparticles. The results show that Fe3O4@MIL-100(Fe) nanocomposite exhibits an enhanced adsorption capacity.

  20. Sensor Deployment for Geographic, Load Balanced Hierarchical Organization in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Amit Kr.; Gautam, Ajay Kr.; Patel, R. B.

    2010-11-01

    In order to provide load balancing in clustered sensor deployment, the upstream clusters (near the BS) are kept smaller in size as compared to downstream ones (away from BS). Moreover, geographic awareness is also desirable in order to further enhance energy efficiency. But, this must be cost effective, since most of current location awareness strategies are either cost and weight inefficient (GPS) or are complex, inaccurate and unreliable in operation. This paper presents design and implementation of a Geographic LOad BALanced (GLOBAL) Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. A mathematical formulation is provided for determining the number of sensor nodes in each cluster. This enables uniform energy consumption after the multi-hop data transmission towards BS. Either the sensors can be manually deployed or the clusters be so formed that the sensor are efficiently distributed as per formulation. The latter strategy is elaborated in this contribution. Methods to provide static clustering and custom cluster sizes with location awareness are also provided in the given work. Finally, low mobility node applications can also implement the proposed work.

  1. Organic Matter Loading Modifies the Microbial Community Responsible for Nitrogen Loss in Estuarine Sediments.

    PubMed

    Babbin, Andrew R; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B

    2016-04-01

    Coastal marine sediments, as locations of substantial fixed nitrogen loss, are very important to the nitrogen budget and to the primary productivity of the oceans. Coastal sediment systems are also highly dynamic and subject to periodic natural and anthropogenic organic substrate additions. The response to organic matter by the microbial community involved in nitrogen loss processes was evaluated using mesocosms of Chesapeake Bay sediments. Over the course of a 50-day incubation, rates of anammox and denitrification were measured weekly using (15)N tracer incubations, and samples were collected for genetic analysis. Rates of both nitrogen loss processes and gene abundances associated with them corresponded loosely, probably because heterogeneities in sediments obscured a clear relationship. The rates of denitrification were stimulated more, and the fraction of nitrogen loss attributed to anammox slightly reduced, by the higher organic matter addition. Furthermore, the large organic matter pulse drove a significant and rapid shift in the denitrifier community composition as determined using a nirS microarray, indicating that the diversity of these organisms plays an essential role in responding to anthropogenic inputs. We also suggest that the proportion of nitrogen loss due to anammox in these coastal estuarine sediments may be underestimated due to temporal dynamics as well as from methodological artifacts related to conventional sediment slurry incubation approaches.

  2. The role of irrigation runoff and winter rainfall on dissolved organic carbon loads in an agricultural watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oh, Neung-Hwan; Pellerin, Brian A.; Bachand, Philip A.M.; Hernes, Peter J.; Bachand, Sandra M.; Ohara, Noriaki; Kavvas, M. Levent; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Horwath, William R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of land use/land cover and agriculture practices on stream dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics in the Willow Slough watershed (WSW) from 2006 to 2008. The 415 km2watershed in the northern Central Valley, California is covered by 31% of native vegetation and the remaining 69% of agricultural fields (primarily alfalfa, tomatoes, and rice). Stream discharge and weekly DOC concentrations were measured at eight nested subwatersheds to estimate the DOC loads and yields (loads/area) using the USGS developed stream load estimation model, LOADEST. Stream DOC concentrations peaked at 18.9 mg L−1 during summer irrigation in the subwatershed with the highest percentage of agricultural land use, demonstrating the strong influence of agricultural activities on summer DOC dynamics. These high concentrations contributed to DOC yields increasing up to 1.29 g m−2 during the 6 month period of intensive agricultural activity. The high DOC yields from the most agricultural subwatershed during the summer irrigation period was similar throughout the study, suggesting that summer DOC loads from irrigation runoff would not change significantly in the absence of major changes in crops or irrigation practices. In contrast, annual DOC yields varied from 0.89 to 1.68 g m−2 yr−1 for the most agricultural watershed due to differences in winter precipitation. This suggests that variability in the annual DOC yields will be largely determined by the winter precipitation, which can vary significantly from year to year. Changes in precipitation patterns and intensities as well as agricultural practices have potential to considerably alter the DOC dynamics.

  3. Impact of organic loading rate on biohydrogen production in an up-flow anaerobic packed bed reactor (UAnPBR).

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Antônio Djalma Nunes; Zaiat, Marcelo; Gupta, Medhavi; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Hafez, Hisham; Nakhla, George

    2014-07-01

    This study assesses the impact of organic loading rate on biohydrogen production from glucose in an up-flow anaerobic packed bed reactor (UAnPBR). Two mesophilic UAPBRs (UAnPBR1 and 2) were tested at organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 6.5 to 51.4 g COD L(-1)d(-1). To overcome biomass washout, design modifications were made in the UAnPBR2 to include a settling zone to capture the detached biomass. The design modifications in UAnPBR2 increased the average hydrogen yield from 0.98 to 2.0 mol-H2 mol(-1)-glucose at an OLR of 25.7 g COD L(-1)d(-1). Although, a maximum hydrogen production rate of 23.4 ± 0.9 L H2 L(-1)d(-1) was achieved in the UAnPBR2 at an OLR of 51.4 g COD L(-1)d(-1), the hydrogen yield dropped by 50% to around 1 mol-H2 mol(-1)-glucose. The microbiological analysis (PCR/DGGE) showed that the biohydrogen production was due to the presence of the hydrogen and volatile acid producers such as Clostridium beijerinckii, Clostridium butyricum, Megasphaera elsdenii and Propionispira arboris.

  4. Linking Load, Fuel, and Emission Controls to Photochemical Production of Secondary Organic Aerosol from a Diesel Engine.

    PubMed

    Jathar, Shantanu H; Friedman, Beth; Galang, Abril A; Link, Michael F; Brophy, Patrick; Volckens, John; Eluri, Sailaja; Farmer, Delphine K

    2017-02-07

    Diesel engines are important sources of fine particle pollution in urban environments, but their contribution to the atmospheric formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is not well constrained. We investigated direct emissions of primary organic aerosol (POA) and photochemical production of SOA from a diesel engine using an oxidation flow reactor (OFR). In less than a day of simulated atmospheric aging, SOA production exceeded POA emissions by an order of magnitude or more. Efficient combustion at higher engine loads coupled to the removal of SOA precursors and particle emissions by aftertreatment systems reduced POA emission factors by an order of magnitude and SOA production factors by factors of 2-10. The only exception was that the retrofitted aftertreatment did not reduce SOA production at idle loads where exhaust temperatures were low enough to limit removal of SOA precursors in the oxidation catalyst. Use of biodiesel resulted in nearly identical POA and SOA compared to diesel. The effective SOA yield of diesel exhaust was similar to that of unburned diesel fuel. While OFRs can help study the multiday evolution, at low particle concentrations OFRs may not allow for complete gas/particle partitioning and bias the potential of precursors to form SOA.

  5. Effect of organic loading on nitrification and denitrification in a marine sediment microcosm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caffrey, J.M.; Sloth, N.P.; Kaspar, H.F.; Blackburn, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of organic additions on nitrification and denitrification were examined in sediment microcosms. The organic material, heat killed yeast, had a C/N ratio of 7.5 and was added to sieved, homogenized sediments. Four treatments were compared: no addition (control, 30 g dry weight (dw) m-2 mixed throughout the 10 cm sediment column (30 M), 100 g dw m-2 mixed throughout sediments (100M), and 100 g dw m-2 mixed into top 1 cm (100S). After the microcosms had been established for 7-11 days, depth of O2 penetration, sediment-water fluxes and nitrification rates were measured. Nitrification rates were measured using three different techniques: N-serve and acetylene inhibition in intact cores, and nitrification potentials in slurries. Increased organic additions decreased O2 penetration from 2.7 to 0.2 mm while increasing both O2 consumption, from 30 to 70 mmol O2 m-2 d-1, and NO3- flux into sediments. Nitrification rates in intact cores were similar for the two methods. Highest rates occurred in the 30 M treatment, while the lowest rate was measured in the 100S treatment. Total denitrification rates (estimated from nitrification and nitrate fluxes) increased with increased organic addition, because of the high concentrations of NO3- (40 ??M) in the overlying water. The ratio of nitrification: denitrification was used as an indication of the importance of nitrification as the NO3- supply for denitrification. This ratio decreased from 1.55 to 0.05 with increased organic addition.

  6. Bioenergy conversion studies of organic fraction of MSW: kinetic studies and gas yield--organic loading relationships for process optimisation.

    PubMed

    Rao, M S; Singh, S P

    2004-11-01

    Batch digestion of municipal garbage was carried out for 100 days at room temperature (26+/-4 degrees C; average temperature 25 degrees C) and at ambient temperature (32+/-10 degrees C; average temperature 29 degrees C) conditions for total solids concentrations varying between 45 and 135 g/l. A first order model based on the availability of substrate as the limiting factor was used to perform the kinetic studies of batch anaerobic digestion system. Effect of organic solids concentration and digestion time on biogas yield was studied and mass and energy balance analysis was conducted for batch digestion. The net bioenergy yield from municipal garbage and corresponding bioprocess conversion efficiency over the length of the digestion time were observed to be 12,528 kJ/kg volatile solids and 84.51% respectively. The methane content of the biogas generated from the reactors was in the range of 62-72% with the overall average methane content of the biogas, computed over the total digestion period was 65 vol%.

  7. The link between organic aerosol mass loading and degree of oxygenation: an α-pinene photooxidation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaffenberger, L.; Barmet, P.; Slowik, J. G.; Praplan, A. P.; Dommen, J.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2013-07-01

    A series of smog chamber (SC) experiments was conducted to identify factors responsible for the discrepancy between ambient and SC aerosol degree of oxygenation. An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer is used to compare mass spectra from α-pinene photooxidation with ambient aerosol. Composition is compared in terms of the fraction of particulate CO2+, a surrogate for carboxylic acids, vs. the fraction of C2H3O+, a surrogate for aldehydes, alcohols and ketones, as well as in the Van Krevelen space, where the evolution of the atomic hydrogen-to-carbon ratio (H : C) vs. the atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O : C) is investigated. Low (near-ambient) organic mass concentrations were found to be necessary to obtain oxygenation levels similar to those of low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) commonly identified in ambient measurements. The effects of organic mass loading and OH (hydroxyl radical) exposure were decoupled by inter-experiment comparisons at the same integrated OH concentration. An OH exposure between 3 and 25 × 107 cm-3 h is needed to increase O : C by 0.05 during aerosol aging. For the first time, LV-OOA-like aerosol from the abundant biogenic precursor α-pinene was produced in a smog chamber by oxidation at typical atmospheric OH concentrations. Significant correlation between measured secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and reference LV-OOA mass spectra is shown by Pearson's R2 values larger than 0.90 for experiments with low organic mass concentrations between 1.2 and 18 μg m-3 at an OH exposure of 4 × 107 cm-3 h, corresponding to about two days of oxidation time in the atmosphere, based on a global mean OH concentration of ~ 1 × 106 cm-3. α-Pinene SOA is more oxygenated at low organic mass loadings. Because the degree of oxygenation influences the chemical, volatility and hygroscopic properties of ambient aerosol, smog chamber studies must be performed at near-ambient concentrations to accurately simulate

  8. AnSBBR applied to the treatment of metalworking fluid wastewater: effect of organic and shock load.

    PubMed

    Carvalhinha, Pedro P; Flôres, Anderson; Rodrigues, José A D; Ratusznei, Suzana M; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugenio

    2010-11-01

    An investigation was performed regarding the application of a mechanically stirred anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor containing immobilized biomass on inert polyurethane foam (AnSBBR) to the treatment of soluble metalworking fluids to remove organic matter and produce methane. The effect of increasing organic matter and reactor fill time, as well as shock load, on reactor stability and efficiency have been analyzed. The 5-L AnSBBR was operated at 30 degrees C in 8-h cycles, agitation of 400 rpm, and treated 2.0 L effluent per cycle. Organic matter was increased by increasing the influent concentration (500, 1,000, 2,000, and 3,000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L). Fill times investigated were in the batch mode (fill time 10 min) and fed-batch followed by batch (fill time 4 h). In the batch mode, organic matter removal efficiencies were 87%, 86%, and 80% for influent concentrations of 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mgCOD/L (1.50, 3.12, and 6.08 gCOD/L.d), respectively. At 3,000 mgCOD/L (9.38 gCOD/L.d), operational stability could not be achieved. The reactor managed to maintain stability when a shock load twice as high the feed concentration was applied, evidencing the robustness of the reactor to potential concentration variations in the wastewater being treated. Increasing the fill time to 4 h did not improve removal efficiency, which was 72% for 2,000 mgCOD/L. Thus, gradual feeding did not improve organic matter removal. The concentration of methane formed at 6.08 gCOD/L was 5.20 mmolCH(4), which corresponded to 78% of the biogas composition. The behavior of the reactor during batch and fed-batch feeding could be explained by a kinetic model that considers organic matter consumption, production, and consumption of total volatile acids and methane production.

  9. Effects of changing hydraulic and organic loading rates on pollutant reduction in bark, charcoal and sand filters treating greywater.

    PubMed

    Dalahmeh, Sahar S; Pell, Mikael; Hylander, Lars D; Lalander, Cecilia; Vinnerås, Björn; Jönsson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Greywater flows and concentrations vary greatly, thus evaluation and prediction of the response of on-site treatment filters to variable loading regimes is challenging. The performance of 0.6 m × 0.2 m (height × diameter) filters of bark, activated charcoal and sand in reduction of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (Tot-N) and total phosphorus (Tot-P) under variable loading regimes was investigated and modelled. During seven runs, the filters were fed with synthetic greywater at hydraulic loading rates (HLR) of 32-128 L m(-2) day(-1) and organic loading rates (OLR) of 13-76 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1). Based on the changes in HLR and OLR, the reduction in pollutants was modelled using multiple linear regression. The models showed that increasing the HLR from 32 to 128 L m(-2) day(-1) decreased COD reduction in the bark filters from 74 to 40%, but increased COD reduction in the charcoal and sand filters from 76 to 90% and 65 to 83%, respectively. Moreover, the models showed that increasing the OLR from 13 to 76 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1) enhanced the pollutant reduction in all filters except for Tot-P in the bark filters, which decreased slightly from 81 to 73%. Decreasing the HLR from 128 to 32 L m(-2) day(-1) enhanced the pollutant reduction in all filters, but decreasing the OLR from 76 to 14 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1) detached biofilm and decreased the Tot-N and Tot-P reduction in the bark and sand filters. Overall, the bark filters had the capacity to treat high OLR, while the charcoal filters had the capacity to treat high HLR and high OLR. Both bark and charcoal filters had higher capacity than sand filters in dealing with high and variable loads. Bark seems to be an attractive substitute for sand filters in settings short in water and its effluent would be valuable for irrigation, while charcoal filters should be an attractive alternative for settings both rich and short in water supply and when

  10. Development and Validation of a Bioreactor System for Dynamic Loading and Mechanical Characterization of Whole Human Intervertebral Discs in Organ Culture

    PubMed Central

    Walter, BA; Illien-Junger, S; Nasser, P; Hecht, AC; Iatridis, JC

    2014-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a common cause of back pain, and attempts to develop therapies are frustrated by lack of model systems that mimic the human condition. Human IVD organ culture models can address this gap, yet current models are limited since vertebral endplates are removed to maintain cell viability, physiological loading is not applied, and mechanical behaviors are not measured. This study aimed to (i) establish a method for isolating human IVDs from autopsy with intact vertebral endplates, and (ii) develop and validate an organ culture loading system for human or bovine IVDs. Human IVDs with intact endplates were isolated from cadavers within 48 hours of death and cultured for up to 21 days. IVDs remained viable with ~80% cell viability in nucleus and annulus regions. A dynamic loading system was designed and built with the capacity to culture 9 bovine or 6 human IVDs simultaneously while applying simulated physiologic loads (maximum force: 4kN) and measuring IVD mechanical behaviors. The loading system accurately applied dynamic loading regimes (RMS error <2.5N and total harmonic distortion <2.45%), and precisely evaluated mechanical behavior of rubber and bovine IVDs. Bovine IVDs maintained their mechanical behavior and retained >85% viable cells throughout the 3 week culture period. This organ culture loading system can closely mimic physiological conditions and be used to investigate response of living human and bovine IVDs to mechanical and chemical challenges and to screen therapeutic repair techniques. PMID:24725441

  11. Development and validation of a bioreactor system for dynamic loading and mechanical characterization of whole human intervertebral discs in organ culture.

    PubMed

    Walter, B A; Illien-Jünger, S; Nasser, P R; Hecht, A C; Iatridis, J C

    2014-06-27

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a common cause of back pain, and attempts to develop therapies are frustrated by lack of model systems that mimic the human condition. Human IVD organ culture models can address this gap, yet current models are limited since vertebral endplates are removed to maintain cell viability, physiological loading is not applied, and mechanical behaviors are not measured. This study aimed to (i) establish a method for isolating human IVDs from autopsy with intact vertebral endplates, and (ii) develop and validate an organ culture loading system for human or bovine IVDs. Human IVDs with intact endplates were isolated from cadavers within 48h of death and cultured for up to 21 days. IVDs remained viable with ~80% cell viability in nucleus and annulus regions. A dynamic loading system was designed and built with the capacity to culture 9 bovine or 6 human IVDs simultaneously while applying simulated physiologic loads (maximum force: 4kN) and measuring IVD mechanical behaviors. The loading system accurately applied dynamic loading regimes (RMS error <2.5N and total harmonic distortion <2.45%), and precisely evaluated mechanical behavior of rubber and bovine IVDs. Bovine IVDs maintained their mechanical behavior and retained >85% viable cells throughout the 3 week culture period. This organ culture loading system can closely mimic physiological conditions and be used to investigate response of living human and bovine IVDs to mechanical and chemical challenges and to screen therapeutic repair techniques.

  12. Organic loading rate impact on biohydrogen production and microbial communities at anaerobic fluidized thermophilic bed reactors treating sugarcane stillage.

    PubMed

    Santos, Samantha Christine; Rosa, Paula Rúbia Ferreira; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio; Silva, Edson Luiz

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of high organic loading rates (OLR) (60.0-480.00 kg COD m(-3)d(-1)) on biohydrogen production at 55°C, from sugarcane stillage for 15,000 and 20,000 mg CODL(-1), in two anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBR1 and AFBR2). It was obtained, for H2 yield and content, a decreasing trend by increasing the OLR. The maximum H2 yield was observed in AFBR1 (2.23 mmol g COD added(-1)). The volumetric H2 production was proportionally related to the applied hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6, 4, 2 and 1h and verified in AFBR1 the highest value (1.49 L H2 h(-1)L(-1)). Among the organic acids obtained, there was a predominance of lactic acid (7.5-22.5%) and butyric acid (9.4-23.8%). The microbial population was set with hydrogen-producing fermenters (Megasphaera sp.) and other organisms (Lactobacillus sp.).

  13. Zeolite-loaded poly(dimethylsiloxane) hybrid films for highly efficient thin-film microextraction of organic volatiles in water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Ansai, Toshihiro; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2017-01-15

    ZSM-5 zeolite-loaded poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) hybrid thin films were demonstrated for efficient thin-film microextraction (TFME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for analyzing organic volatiles in water. The extraction efficiency for a series of aliphatic alcohols and two aromatic compounds was significantly improved owing to the presence of ZSM-5 zeolites. The extraction efficiency of the hybrid films was increased in proportion to the content of ZSM-5 in the PDMS film, with 20wt% of ZSM-5 showing the best results. The 20wt% ZSM-5/PDMS hybrid film exhibited higher volatile organic content extraction compared with the single-component PDMS film or PDMS hybrid films containing other types of zeolite (e.g., SAPO-34). Limits of detection and limits of quantitation for individual analytes were in the range of 0.0034-0.049ppb and of 0.010-0.15 ppb, respectively. The effects of experimental parameters such as extraction time and temperature were optimized, and the molecular dispersion of the zeolites in/on the hybrid film matrix was confirmed with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, the optimized hybrid film was preliminarily tested for the analysis of organic volatiles contained in commercially available soft drinks.

  14. Investigation of increasing organic loading rate in the co-digestion of energy crops and cow manure mix.

    PubMed

    Comino, Elena; Rosso, Maurizio; Riggio, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    The increase of the organic loading rate from 4.45 to 7.78 g-VS/l-d in a one stage, pilot biogas plant was investigated. The experiment was conducted using a co-digestion of cow manure and crop silage mix. The test was divided in three subsequent phases with different feeding ratios. The benefits of optimizing the proportion of crops and loading rate in co-digestion were shown by the fact that during feeding with 70% VS of crop in the feedstock, up to 109% higher specific methane yield was obtained than during the start up phase (only manure). It was also found that further increasing the proportion of crop silage up (to 80%) led to a process breakdown with a decrease of methane proportion down to 48%. On the basis of the present results, it could be possible to obtain an electricity production equal to 15 kwh per 1 t/d. At the end of the monitoring biogas yield was equal to 237 and 249l-CH(4)/kg-VS in the first two phases, and to 61.6l-CH(4)/kg-VS in the third one that led to a process breakdown. The result of this study show, that most agricultural biogas plant have a great potential for a significant capacity increase and technology improvement.

  15. Anaerobic co-digestion of grease sludge and sewage sludge: the effect of organic loading and grease sludge content.

    PubMed

    Noutsopoulos, C; Mamais, D; Antoniou, K; Avramides, C; Oikonomopoulos, P; Fountoulakis, I

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of co-digesting grease sludge (GS) originating from domestic wastewater along with sewage sludge (SS) and to assess the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) and GS content on process performance. Three lab-scale semi-continuous fed mesophilic anaerobic digesters were operated under various OLRs and SS-GS mixtures. According to the results, addition of GS up to 60% of the total VS load of feed resulted in a 55% increase of biogas yield (700 vs. 452m(3)/tVSadded) for an OLR of 3.5kg VS/m(3)/d. A stable and satisfactory operation of anaerobic co-digestion units can be achieved for a GS-OLR up to 2.4kg VSGS/m(3)/d. For such values biogas yield is linearly proportional to the applied GS-OLR, whereas biogas yield is minimal for GS-OLR higher than this limit and acidification of the anaerobic digestion units is taking place.

  16. Ammonia threshold for inhibition of anaerobic digestion of thin stillage and the importance of organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Moestedt, Jan; Müller, Bettina; Westerholm, Maria; Schnürer, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Biogas production from nitrogen-rich feedstock results in release of ammonia (NH3), causing inhibition of the microbial process. The reported threshold ammonia value for stable biogas production varies greatly between studies, probably because of differences in operating conditions. Moreover, it is often difficult to separate the effect of ammonia inhibition from that of organic loading rate (OLR), as these two factors are often interrelated. This study attempted to distinguish the effects of ammonia and OLR by analysis of two laboratory-scale biogas reactors operating with thin stillage and subjected to an increase in free ammonia (from 0.30 to 1.1 g L(-1)) either by addition of an external nitrogen source (urea) or by increasing the OLR (3.2-6.0 g volatile solids L(-1) d(-1)). The results showed that ammonia concentration was detrimental for process performance, with the threshold for stability in both processes identified as being about 1 g NH3-N L(-1), irrespective of OLR. Analysis of the methanogenic community showed limited differences between the two reactors on order level and a clear increase in the abundance of Methanomicrobiales, particularly Methanoculleus sp., in response to increasing ammonia concentration. Further comprehensive molecular analysis revealed that diverse Methanoculleus species dominated in the reactors at a given ammonia level at different OLR. The acetogenic community was clearly affected by both ammonia concentration and OLR, suggesting that the volatile fatty acid load in relation to the higher OLR was important for the dynamics of this community.

  17. Investigation of Anion-Exchange and Immunoaffinity Particle-Loaded Membranes for the Isolation of Charged Organic Analytes from Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dombrowski, T.R.; Wilson, G.S.; Thurman, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    Anion-exchange and immunoaffinity particle loaded membranes (PLMs) were investigated as a mechanism for the isolation of charged organic analytes from water. Kinetic properties determined theoretically included dynamic capacity, pressure drop (??P), residence and diffusion times (Tr, Td), and total membrane porosity (???T). These properties were confirmed through experimental evaluation, and the PLM method showed significant improvement over conventional solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ion-exchange formats. Recoveries of more than 90% were observed for a variety of test compounds at flow rates up to 70 mL/min (equipment-limited maximum flow rate). A fast-flow immunoaffinity column was developed using antibodies (Abs) attached to the PLMs. Reproducible recoveries (88% ?? 4%) were observed at flow rates up to 70 mL/min for the antibody (Ab)-loaded PLMs. Findings indicate increased selectivity over anion-exchange PLMs and conventional SPE or ion-exchange methods and rapid Ab-antigen binding rates given the excellent mass-transfer characteristics of the PLMs.

  18. The effect of trace element addition to mono-digestion of grass silage at high organic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Wall, David M; Allen, Eoin; Straccialini, Barbara; O'Kiely, Padraig; Murphy, Jerry D

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of trace element addition to mono-digestion of grass silage at high organic loading rates. Two continuous reactors were compared. The first mono-digested grass silage whilst the second operated in co-digestion, 80% grass silage with 20% dairy slurry (VS basis). The reactors were run for 65weeks with a further 5weeks taken for trace element supplementation for the mono-digestion of grass silage. The co-digestion reactor reported a higher biomethane efficiency (1.01) than mono-digestion (0.90) at an OLR of 4.0kgVSm(-3)d(-1) prior to addition of trace elements. Addition of cobalt, iron and nickel, led to an increase in the SMY in mono-digestion of grass silage by 12% to 404LCH4kg(-1)VS and attained a biomethane efficiency of 1.01.

  19. Phosphoric acid loaded azo (-N═N-) based covalent organic framework for proton conduction.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Suman; Kundu, Tanay; Kandambeth, Sharath; Babarao, Ravichandar; Marathe, Yogesh; Kunjir, Shrikant M; Banerjee, Rahul

    2014-05-07

    Two new chemically stable functional crystalline covalent organic frameworkds (COFs) (Tp-Azo and Tp-Stb) were synthesized using the Schiff base reaction between triformylphloroglucinol (Tp) and 4,4'-azodianiline (Azo) or 4,4'-diaminostilbene (Stb), respectively. Both COFs show the expected keto-enamine form, and high stability toward boiling water, strong acidic, and basic media. H3PO4 doping in Tp-Azo leads to immobilization of the acid within the porous framework, which facilitates proton conduction in both the hydrous (σ = 9.9 × 10(-4) S cm(-1)) and anhydrous state (σ = 6.7 × 10(-5) S cm(-1)). This report constitutes the first emergence of COFs as proton conducting materials.

  20. Concentrations and Loads of Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in Tributaries to Newark and Raritan Bays, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Timothy P.; Bonin, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    throughout each event for trace-element analysis, and multiple samples were collected for suspended sediment (SS), particulate carbon (POC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis. The suspended sediment and exchange resin were analyzed for 114 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, by US EPA method 1668A, modified), seven 2,3,7,8-substituted chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDD) and 10 dibenzo-p-difurans (CDF) (by US EPA method 1613), 24 PAHs (by low-resolution isotope dilution/mass-spectral methods), 27 organo-chlorine pesticides (OCPs) (by high resolution isotope dilution/mass-spectral methods), and the trace elements mercury (Hg), methyl-mercury (MeHg), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Isotope dilution methods using gas chromatography and high-and low-resolution mass spectral (GC/MS) detection were used to accurately identify and quantify organic compounds in the sediment and water phases. Trace elements were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry methods. The loads of sediment, carbon, and chemicals were calculated for each storm and low-flow event sampled. Because only a few storm events were sampled, yearly loads of sediment were calculated from rating curves developed using historical SS and POC data. The average annual loads of sediment and carbon were calculated for the period 1975-2000, along with the loads for the selected water years being modeled as part of the New York New Jersey Harbor Estuary Program CARP. Comparison of loads calculated using the rating curve method to loads measured during the sampled storm events indicated that the rating curve method likely underpredicts annual loads. Average annual loads of suspended sediment in the tributaries were estimated to be 395,000 kilograms per year (kg/yr) in the Hackensack River, 417,000 kg/yr in the Elizabeth River, 882,000 kg/yr in the Rahway River, 22,700,000 kg/yr in the Passaic River, and 93,100,000 kg/yr in the Raritan River. Averag

  1. Seagrasses are negatively affected by organic matter loading and Arenicola marina activity in a laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Govers, Laura L; Pieck, Timon; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Suykerbuyk, Wouter; Smolders, Alfons J P; van Katwijk, Marieke M

    2014-06-01

    When two ecosystem engineers share the same natural environment, the outcome of their interaction will be unclear if they have contrasting habitat-modifying effects (e.g., sediment stabilization vs. sediment destabilization). The outcome of the interaction may depend on local environmental conditions such as season or sediment type, which may affect the extent and type of habitat modification by the ecosystem engineers involved. We mechanistically studied the interaction between the sediment-stabilizing seagrass Zostera noltii and the bioturbating and sediment-destabilizing lugworm Arenicola marina, which sometimes co-occur for prolonged periods. We investigated (1) if the negative sediment destabilization effect of A. marina on Z. noltii might be counteracted by positive biogeochemical effects of bioirrigation (burrow flushing) by A. marina in sulfide-rich sediments, and (2) if previously observed nutrient release by A. marina bioirrigation could affect seagrasses. We tested the individual and combined effects of A. marina presence and high porewater sulfide concentrations (induced by organic matter addition) on seagrass biomass in a full factorial lab experiment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find an effect of A. marina on porewater sulfide concentrations. A. marina activities affected the seagrass physically as well as by pumping nutrients, mainly ammonium and phosphate, from the porewater to the surface water, which promoted epiphyte growth on seagrass leaves in our experimental set-up. We conclude that A. marina bioirrigation did not alleviate sulfide stress to seagrasses. Instead, we found synergistic negative effects of the presence of A. marina and high sediment sulfide levels on seagrass biomass.

  2. The study of organic removal efficiency and halophilic bacterial mixed liquor characteristics in a membrane bioreactor treating hypersaline produced water at varying organic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Sharghi, Elham Abdollahzadeh; Bonakdarpour, Babak

    2013-12-01

    In this study the organic pollutant removal performance and the mixed liquor characteristics of a membrane bioreactor (MBR), employing a halophilic bacterial consortium, for the treatment of hypersaline synthetic produced water - at varying organic loading rates (OLR) from 0.3 to 2.6 kg CODm(-3)d(-1) - were considered. The oil and grease (O&G) and COD removal efficiency were 95-99% and 83-93%, respectively with only transient O&G (mainly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and soluble microbial products accumulation being observed. With increasing OLR, in the range 0.9-2.6 kg COD m(-3)d(-1), as a result of change in both extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and zeta potential, bioflocculating ability improved but the compressibility of the flocs decreased resulting in the occurrence of EPS bulking at the highest OLR studied. The latter resulted in a change in the rheology of the mixed liquor from Newtonian to non-Newtonian and the occurrence of significant membrane fouling.

  3. Locating Gases in Porous Materials: Cryogenic Loading of Fuel-Related Gases Into a Sc-based Metal-Organic Framework under Extreme Pressures.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, Jorge; Woodall, Christopher H; Allan, Dave R; Gregoryanz, Eugene; Howie, Ross T; Kamenev, Konstantin V; Probert, Michael R; Wright, Paul A; Moggach, Stephen A

    2015-11-02

    An alternative approach to loading metal organic frameworks with gas molecules at high (kbar) pressures is reported. The technique, which uses liquefied gases as pressure transmitting media within a diamond anvil cell along with a single-crystal of a porous metal-organic framework, is demonstrated to have considerable advantages over other gas-loading methods when investigating host-guest interactions. Specifically, loading the metal-organic framework Sc2BDC3 with liquefied CO2 at 2 kbar reveals the presence of three adsorption sites, one previously unreported, and resolves previous inconsistencies between structural data and adsorption isotherms. A further study with supercritical CH4 at 3-25 kbar demonstrates hyperfilling of the Sc2 BDC3 and two high-pressure displacive and reversible phase transitions are induced as the filled MOF adapts to reduce the volume of the system.

  4. Simple model of dissolved oxygen consumption in a bay within high organic loading: an applied remediation tool.

    PubMed

    Ahumada, Ramón; Vargas, José; Pagliero, Liliana

    2006-07-01

    San Vicente Bay is a coastal shallow embayment in Central Chile with multiple uses, one of which is receiving wastewater from industrial fisheries, steel mill effluents, and domestic sewage. A simulation model was developed and applied to dissolved oxygen consumption by organic residues released into this embayment. Three compartments were established as function of: depth, circulation and outfall location. The model compartments had different volumes, and their oxygen saturation value was used as baseline. The parameters: (a) BOD5 of the industrial and urban effluents, (b) oxygen demand by organic sediments, (c) respiration, (d) photosynthesis and (e) re-aeration were included in the model. Iteration results of the model showed severe alterations in Compartment 1, with a decrease of 65% in the oxygen below saturation. Compartment 2 showed a small decline (10%) and compartment 3 did not show apparent changes in oxygen values. Measures recommended for remediation were to decrease the BOD5 loading by 30% in the affected sector. Iteration of the model for 200 h following recommendations derived from the preceding results produced an increase in saturation of 60% (5 ml O2 L(-1)), which suggested an improvement of the environmental conditions.

  5. Effect of feeding strategy on the stability of anaerobic sequencing batch reactor responses to organic loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Dae-Yeol; Hansen, Conly L

    2008-07-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the effect of feeding strategy on the capability for treatment and the stability of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) under increasing organic loading. The lab-scale ASBR systems were operated at 35 degrees C using synthetic organic wastewater under both batch and fed-batch operational modes with different feed to cycle time (F:C) ratios. Experimental studies were conducted over a wide range of volumetric organic loading rates (VOLRs) (1.524 g COD/l/d) by varying the hydraulic retention time (HRT) (1.25, 2.5, and 5d) and the feed wastewater's COD (3750-30,000 mg/l). With an F:C ratio greater than or equal to 0.42, the fed-batch mode operation showed higher system efficiency in COD removal, volumetric methane production rate (VMPR), and specific methane production rate (SMPR) as compared to those in the batch mode with identical VOLR and HRT. In the fed-batch mode, the COD removals reached 86-95% with VOLR up to 12 g COD/l/d. The maximums for VMPR of 3.17 l CH4/l/d and for SMPR of 1.63 g CH4-COD/g VSS/d were achieved with a VOLR of 12 g COD/l/d at HRTs of 2.5 and 1.25 d, respectively. The fed-batch operation presented a lower concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) than those in the batch operation. A lower concentration of VFAs confirmed the stability and efficiency of the fed-batch mode operation. The specific methanogenic activity (SMA) analysis showed that the VFA-degrading activity of the biomass in the fed-batch mode was higher for acetate and butyrate, and lower for propionate. Determined biomass yield and bacterial decay coefficients in the fed-batch operational mode were 0.05 g VSS/g COD rem and 0.001 d(-1), respectively.

  6. Effects of Organic-Loading-Rate Reduction on Sludge Biomass and Microbial Community in a Deteriorated Pilot-Scale Membrane Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuya; Hori, Tomoyuki; Navarro, Ronald R.; Naganawa, Ryuichi; Habe, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    The effects of a precipitous decrease in the inlet organic loading rate on sludge reductions and the microbial community in a membrane bioreactor were investigated. The sludge biomass was markedly reduced to 47.4% of the initial concentration (approximately 15,000 mg L−1) within 7 d after the organic loading rate was decreased by half (450 to 225 mg chemical oxygen demand L−1 d−1). An analysis of the microbial community structure using high-throughput sequencing revealed an increase in the abundance of facultative predatory bacteria-related operational taxonomic units as well as microorganisms tolerant to environmental stress belonging to the classes Deinococci and Betaproteobacteria. PMID:27431196

  7. Sediment redox tracers in Strait of Georgia sediments--can they inform us of the loadings of organic carbon from municipal wastewater?

    PubMed

    Macdonald, R W; Johannessen, S C; Gobeil, C; Wright, C; Burd, B; van Roodselaar, A; Pedersen, T F

    2008-12-01

    Organic carbon composition and redox element (Mn, Cd, U, Re, Mo, SigmaS, AVS) distributions are examined in seven 210Pb-dated box cores collected from the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia to evaluate the potential for redox elements to reveal impacts of anthropogenic loadings of labile organic carbon to sediments. In particular, the cores have been collected widely including regions far from local anthropogenic inputs and from locations within the zone of influence of two municipal outfalls where sediments are exposed to enhanced organic loadings from outfalls. We find a wide natural range in organic carbon forcing within the basin sediments generally reflected as Mn enrichments near the surface in cores exhibiting slow organic oxidation and sulphide, Cd, Mo, U and Re enrichments in cores exhibiting higher organic oxidation rates. Concentration profiles for redox elements or organic carbon are misleading by themselves, as they are influenced strongly by sediment porosity and sedimentation rate, and the organic matter remaining in sediment cores is predominantly recalcitrant. Fluxes of redox elements together with rates of organic metabolism estimated from sedimentation rates provide a better picture of the organic forcing. One core, GVRD-3, collected within the zone of influence of the Iona municipal outfall (0.5 km away), exhibits the highest organic carbon oxidation rates, enhanced Ag fluxes in the sediment surface mixed layer and altered delta15N composition, all of which implicate outfall particulates. Cd is also elevated in the GVRD-3 surface sediments, but evidence points to contamination and not redox forcing supporting this observation. Uranium also shows enrichment at sites near the outfalls, possibly in response to enhanced microbial metabolism. Predominantly these cores exhibit a wide natural range of organic carbon fluxes and organic carbon oxidation rates, supported by fluxes of marine and terrigenous organic carbon, within which it is difficult to

  8. Dry anaerobic digestion of high solids content dairy manure at high organic loading rates in psychrophilic sequence batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Massé, Daniel I; Saady, Noori M Cata

    2015-05-01

    Cow manure with bedding is renewable organic biomass available around the year on dairy farms. Developing efficient and cost-effective psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD) processes could contribute to solving farm-related environmental, energy, and manure management problems in cold-climate regions. This study was to increase the organic loading rate (OLR), fed to a novel psychrophilic (20 °C) dry anaerobic digestion of 27% total solid dairy manure (cow feces and wheat straw) in sequence batch reactor (PDAD-SBR), by 133 to 160%. The PDAD-SBR process operated at treatment cycle length of 21 days and OLR of 7.0 and 8.0 g total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) kg(-1) inoculum day(-1) (5.2 ± 0.1 and 5.8 ± 0.0 g volatile solids (VS) kg(-1) inoculum day(-1)) for four successive cycles (84 days) produced average specific methane yields (SMYs) of 147.1 ± 17.2 and 143.2 ± 11.7 normalized liters (NL) CH4 kg(-1) VS fed, respectively. PDAD of cow feces and wheat straw is possible with VS-based inoculum-to-substrate ratio of 1.45 at OLR of 8.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum day(-1). Hydrolysis was the limiting step reaction. The VS removal averaged around 57.4 ± 0.5 and 60.5 ± 5.7% at OLR 7.0 and 8.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum day(-1), respectively.

  9. Towards a quasi-complete reconstruction of past atmospheric aerosol load and composition (organic and inorganic) over Europe since 1920 inferred from Alpine ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preunkert, S.; Legrand, M.

    2013-07-01

    Seasonally resolved chemical ice core records available from the Col du Dôme glacier (4250 m elevation, French Alps), are here used to reconstruct past aerosol load and composition of the free European troposphere from before World War II to present. Available ice core records include inorganic (Na+, Ca2+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, and SO42-) and organic (carboxylates, HCHO, humic-like substances, dissolved organic carbon, water-insoluble organic carbon, and black carbon) compounds and fractions that permit reconstructing the key aerosol components and their changes over the past. It is shown that the atmospheric load of submicron aerosol has been increased by a factor of 3 from the 1921-1951 to 1971-1988 years, mainly as a result of a large increase of sulfate (a factor of 5), ammonium and water-soluble organic aerosol (a factor of 3). Thus, not only growing anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide and ammonia have caused the enhancement of the atmospheric aerosol load but also biogenic emissions producing water-soluble organic aerosol. This unexpected change of biospheric source of organic aerosol after 1950 needs to be considered and further investigated in scenarios dealing with climate forcing by atmospheric aerosol.

  10. Towards a quasi-complete reconstruction of past atmospheric aerosol load and composition (organic and inorganic) over Europe since 1920 inferred from Alpine ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preunkert, S.; Legrand, M.

    2013-02-01

    Seasonally resolved chemical ice core records available from the Col du Dôme glacier (4250 m elevation, French Alps) are here revisited in view to reconstruct past aerosol load of the free European troposphere from prior World War II to present. The extended array of inorganic (Na+, Ca2+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, and SO42-) and organic (carboxylates, HCHO, HUmic LIke Substances, dissolved organic carbon, water insoluble organic carbon, and black carbon) compounds and fractions already investigated permit to examine the overall aerosol composition and its change over the past. It is shown that the atmospheric load of submicron aerosol has been increased by a factor of 3 from the 1921-1951 to 1971-1988 years, mainly as a result of a large increase of sulfate (a factor of 5), ammonium and water-soluble organic aerosol (a factor of 3). It is shown that not only growing anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide and ammonia have caused the enhancement of the atmospheric aerosol load but also biogenic emissions producing water soluble organic aerosol. This unexpected change of biospheric source of organic aerosol after 1950 needs to be considered and further investigated in scenarii dealing with climate forcing by atmospheric aerosol.

  11. Biogas-pH automation control strategy for optimizing organic loading rate of anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating high COD wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dawei; Liu, Jibao; Sui, Qianwen; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-03-01

    Control of organic loading rate (OLR) is essential for anaerobic digestion treating high COD wastewater, which would cause operation failure by overload or less efficiency by underload. A novel biogas-pH automation control strategy using the combined gas-liquor phase monitoring was developed for an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating high COD (27.53 g·L(-1)) starch wastewater. The biogas-pH strategy was proceeded with threshold between biogas production rate >98 Nml·h(-1) preventing overload and pH>7.4 preventing underload, which were determined by methane production kinetics and pH titration of methanogenesis slurry, respectively. The OLR and the effluent COD were doubled as 11.81 kgCOD·kgVSS(-1)·d(-1) and halved as 253.4 mg·L(-1), respectively, comparing with a constant OLR control strategy. Meanwhile COD removal rate, biogas yield and methane concentration were synchronously improved to 99.1%, 312 Nml·gCODin(-1) and 74%, respectively. Using the biogas-pH strategy, AnMBR formed a "pH self-regulation ternary buffer system" which seizes carbon dioxide and hence provides sufficient buffering capacity.

  12. Limitation of sludge biotic index application for control of a wastewater treatment plant working with shock organic and ammonium loadings.

    PubMed

    Drzewicki, Adam; Kulikowska, Dorota

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between activated sludge microfauna, the sludge biotic index (SBI) and the effluent quality of a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) working with shock organic and ammonium loadings caused by periodic wastewater delivery from septic tanks. Irrespective of high/low effluent quality in terms of COD, BOD5, ammonium and suspended solids, high SBI values (8-10), which correspond to the first quality class of sludge, were observed. High SBI values were connected with abundant taxonomic composition and the domination of crawling ciliates with shelled amoebae and attached ciliates. High SBI values, even at a low effluent quality, limit the usefulness of the index for monitoring the status of an activated sludge system and the effluent quality in municipal WWTP-treated wastewater from septic tanks. It was shown that a more sensitive indicator of effluent quality was a change in the abundance of attached ciliates with a narrow peristome (Vorticella infusionum and Opercularia coarctata), small flagellates and crawling ciliates (Acineria uncinata) feeding on flagellates.

  13. Effects of organic loading rate and effluent recirculation on the performance of two-stage anaerobic digestion of vegetable waste.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zhuang; Wu, Shubiao; Zhang, Wanqin; Dong, Renjie

    2013-10-01

    The effects of organic loading rates (OLR) and effluent recirculation on dynamics of acidogenic and methanogenic processes in two-stage anaerobic digestion of vegetable waste were investigated. Two systems were performed at OLRs of 1.3, 1.7, 2.1 and 2.6 g VS/L/d. One system recirculated the effluent from the methanogenic reactor to acidogenic reactor. With increasing OLRs, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration increased to approximately 8500 mg/L in acidogenic digester, where pH decreased from 6.4 to 5.2. Daily biogas production and methane content in methanogenic reactor increased from 1.2 to 4.4 L/d and from 27.4% to 60.5%, respectively. However, inhibition of hydrolysis in acidogenic reactor was demonstrated under the OLR of 2.6 g VS/L/d without recirculation, thus indicating system overloading. Effluent recirculation shown a considerable positive effect on alleviating VFA inhibition and improving biogas production in acidogenic reactor because of the effect of dilution and pH adjustment, particularly at high OLRs.

  14. Influence of organic loading rate on methane production in a CSTR from physicochemical sludge generated in a poultry slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    López-Escobar, Luis A; Martínez-Hernández, Sergio; Corte-Cano, Grisel; Méndez-Contreras, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) on methane production in a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) from physicochemical sludge generated in a poultry slaughterhouse was evaluated. Total solid (TS) to obtain OLR of 1, 5, 10 and 15 g VS L(-1) day(-1), with hydraulic retention times of 29, 6, 6 and 4, respectively, were conditioned. The results showed a decrease in pH levels and an increase in the theoretical volatile fatty acids (VFA). While the yield of methane production decreased from 0.48 to 0.10 LCH4/g VSremoved, respectively, the OLR-10 managed on average 38% removal of volatile solids (VS) and a yield biogas production of 0.81 Lbiogas g(-1) VSremoved and 1.35 L day(-1). This suggests that the OLR increases in an anaerobic system from physicochemical sludge only inhibits the methanogenic metabolism, because there is still substrate consumption and biogas production.

  15. Effects of Extensive Beetle-Induced Forest Mortality on Aromatic Organic Carbon Loading and Disinfection Byproduct Formation Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouillard, B.; Mikkelson, K. M.; Dickenson, E.; Sharp, J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent drought and warmer temperatures associated with climate change have caused increased pest-induced forest mortality with impacts on biogeochemical and hydrologic processes. To better understand the seasonal impacts of bark beetle infestation on water quality, samples were collected regularly over two overlapping snow free seasons at surface water intakes of six water treatment facilities in the Rocky Mountain region of Colorado displaying varying levels of bark beetle infestation (high >40%, moderate 20-40%, and low <20%). Organic carbon concentrations were typically 3 to 6 times higher in waters sourced from high beetle-impacted watersheds compared to moderate and low impact watersheds, revealing elevated specific ultraviolet absorbance, fluorescence, and humic-like intensity indicative of elevated aromatic carbon signatures. Accordingly, an increase in disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation potential of 400 to 600% was quantified when contrasted with watersheds containing less tree mortality. Beetle impact exasperated seasonal increases in carbon loading and DBP formation potential following both runoff and precipitation events indicating windows when enhanced water treatment may be utilized by water providers in highly infested regions. Additionally, elevated carbon concentrations throughout the summer and fall along with peaks following precipitation events provide evidence of shifting hydrologic flow paths in areas experiencing high forest mortality from decreased tree water uptake and interception. Collectively, these results demonstrate the need for continued watershed protection and monitoring with a changing climate as the resultant perturbations can have adverse effects on biogeochemistry and water quality in heavily impacted areas.

  16. Preparation and evaluation of raloxifene-loaded solid dispersion nanoparticle by spray-drying technique without an organic solvent.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tuan Hiep; Poudel, Bijay K; Marasini, Nirmal; Chi, Sang-Cheol; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2013-02-25

    The aim of this study was to improve the physicochemical properties and bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble drug, raloxifene by solid dispersion (SD) nanoparticles using the spray-drying technique. These spray-dried SD nanoparticles were prepared with raloxifene (RXF), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Tween 20 in water. Reconstitution of optimized RXF-loaded SD nanoparticles in pH 1.2 medium showed a mean particle size of approximately 180 nm. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry indicated that RXF existed in an amorphous form within spray-dried nanoparticles. The optimized formulation showed an enhanced dissolution rate of RXF at pH 1.2, 4.0, 6.8 and distilled water as compared to pure RXF powder. The improved dissolution of raloxifene from spray-dried SD nanoparticles appeared to be well correlated with enhanced oral bioavailability of raloxifene in rats. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic parameters of the spray-dried SD nanoparticles showed increased AUC(0-∞) and C(max) of RXF by approximately 3.3-fold and 2.3-fold, respectively. These results suggest that the preparation of RXF-SD nanoparticles using the spray drying technique without organic solvents might be a promising approach for improving the oral bioavailability of RXF.

  17. Volatile fatty acids production from food waste: effects of pH, temperature, and organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Kaimin; Wang, Quan; Gong, Changxiu; Li, Menglu

    2013-09-01

    The effects of pH, temperature, and organic loading rate (OLR) on the acidogenesis of food waste have been determined. The present study investigated their effects on soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), volatile solids (VS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N). Both the concentration and yield of VFAs were highest at pH 6.0, acetate and butyrate accounted for 77% of total VFAs. VFAs concentration and the VFA/SCOD ratio were highest, and VS levels were lowest, at 45 °C, but the differences compared to the values at 35 °C were slight. The concentrations of VFAs, SCOD, and NH4(+)-N increased as OLR increased, whereas the yield of VFAs decreased from 0.504 at 5 g/Ld to 0.306 at 16 g/Ld. Acetate and butyrate accounted for 60% of total VFAs. The percentage of acetate and valerate increased as OLR increased, whereas a high OLR produced a lower percentage of propionate and butyrate.

  18. Encapsulation of curcumin in cyclodextrin-metal organic frameworks: Dissociation of loaded CD-MOFs enhances stability of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Zeinab; Hmadeh, Mohamad; Abiad, Mohamad G; Dib, Omar H; Patra, Digambara

    2016-12-01

    Curcumin has been successfully encapsulated in cyclodextrin-metal organic frameworks (CD-MOFs) without altering their crystallinity. The interaction between curcumin and CD-MOFs is strong through hydrogen bond type interaction between the OH group of cyclodextrin of CD-MOFs and the phenolic hydroxyl group of the curcumin. Interestingly, dissolving the curcumin loaded CD-MOFs crystals in water results in formation of a unique complex between curcumin, γCD and potassium cations. In fact, the initial interaction between curcumin and CD-MOF is crucial for the formation of the latter. This new complex formed in alkaline media at pH 11.5 has maximum absorbance at 520nm and emittance at 600nm. Most importantly, the stability of curcumin in this complex was enhanced by at least 3 orders of magnitude compared to free curcumin and curcumin:γ-CD at pH 11.5. These results suggest a promising benign system of CD-MOFs, which can be used to store and stabilize curcumin for food applications.

  19. Effects of feedstock carbon to nitrogen ratio and organic loading on foaming potential in mesophilic food waste anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Tanimu, Musa Idris; Mohd Ghazi, Tinia Idaty; Harun, Mohd Razif; Idris, Azni

    2015-05-01

    Foaming problem which occurred occasionally during food waste (FW) anaerobic digestion (AD) was investigated with the Malaysian FW by stepwise increase in organic loading (OL) from 0.5 to 7.5 g VS/L. The FW feedstock with carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 17 was upgraded to C/N ratio of 26 and 30 by mixing with other wastes. The digestion which was carried out at 37 °C in 1-L batch reactors showed that foam formation initiated at OL of 1.5 g VS/L and was further enhanced as OL of feedstock was increased. The digestion foaming reached its maximum at OL of 5.5 g VS/L and did not increase further even when OL was increased to 7.5 g VS/Ld. Increase in the C/N ratio of feedstock significantly enhanced the microbial degradation activity, leading to better removal of foam causing intermediates and reduced foaming in the reactor by up to 60%.

  20. Solid-base loaded WO{sub 3} photocatalyst for decomposition of harmful organics under visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kako, Tetsuya; Meng, Xianguang; Ye, Jinhua

    2015-10-01

    Composite of NaBiO{sub 3}-loaded WO{sub 3} with a mixing ratio of 10:100 was prepared for photocatalytic harmful-organic-contaminant decomposition. The composite properties were measured using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis), and valence band-X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (VB-XPS). The results exhibited that the potentials for top of the valence band and bottom of conduction band for NaBiO{sub 3} can be estimated, respectively, as +2.5 V and -0.1 to 0 V. Furthermore, WO{sub 3}, NaBiO{sub 3}, and the composite showed IPA oxidation properties under visible-light irradiation. Results show that the composite exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity about 2-propanol (IPA) decomposition into CO{sub 2} than individual WO{sub 3} or NaBiO{sub 3} because of charge separation promotion and the base effect of NaBiO{sub 3}.

  1. Sustainable organic loading rate and energy recovery potential of mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chun-Hai; Harb, Moustapha; Amy, Gary; Hong, Pei-Ying; Leiknes, TorOve

    2014-08-01

    The overall performance of a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for synthetic municipal wastewater treatment was investigated under a range of organic loading rate (OLR). A very steady and high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (around 98%) was achieved over a broad range of volumetric OLR of 0.8-10 gCOD/L/d. The sustainable volumetric and sludge OLR satisfying a permeate COD below 50 mg/L for general reuse was 6 gCOD/L/d and 0.63 gCOD/gMLVSS (mixed liquor volatile suspended solids)/d, respectively. At a high sludge OLR of over 0.6 gCOD/gMLVSS/d, the AnMBR achieved high methane production of over 300 ml/gCOD (even approaching the theoretical value of 382 ml/gCOD). A low biomass production of 0.015-0.026 gMLVSS/gCOD and a sustainable flux of 6L/m(2)/h were observed. The integration of a heat pump and forward osmosis into the mesophilic AnMBR process would be a promising way for net energy recovery from typical municipal wastewater in a temperate area.

  2. The effects of free chlorine concentration, organic load, and exposure time on the inactivation of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effects of free chlorine (FC) concentration, contact time, and organic load on the inactivation of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC in suspension. Four strains each of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, or non-O157 STEC cells were inoculated separately or as a multi-...

  3. Fine-scale monitoring of shifts in microbial community composition after high organic loading in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuya; Hori, Tomoyuki; Navarro, Ronald R; Habe, Hiroshi; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    In biological wastewater treatment, municipal wastewater sometimes undergoes unexpected changes in physicochemical parameters, such as organic carbon concentration. The aim of this study was to understand how microbial communities in activated sludge in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) adapt to high organic loading and maintain their degradation ability during reactor operation. A pilot-scale MBR was operated for 19 days. On day 8, the concentration of organic matter in the synthetic wastewater increased from 450 to 900 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L. Even under conditions of high organic loading, COD removal rates were high, ranging from 85.3 to 91.4%. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that microbial communities changed drastically with increased organic loading. After day 8, Aquabacterium- and Azospira-related operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the class β-proteobacteria became dominant; this potentially enhanced the degradation of organic substances and decreased activated sludge microbial diversity. Due to the use of dissolved oxygen (DO) for degradation of organic substances, DO levels in the reactor decreased. This led to an increase in a subset of OTUs related to not only aerobic but also anaerobic bacteria, e.g., those in the class Clostridia. During this period, anaerobic microorganisms may have contributed to the degradation of organic substances to maintain MBR performance. On the other hand, high-throughput sequencing also made it possible to identify yet-to-be cultured or minor microorganisms affiliated with the candidate phylogenetic division SR1 and ammonia-oxidizing archaea in activated sludge.

  4. Epstein-Barr viral load in whole blood of adults with posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder after solid organ transplantation does not correlate with clinical course.

    PubMed

    Oertel, Stephan; Trappe, Ralf Ulrich; Zeidler, Kristin; Babel, Nina; Reinke, Petra; Hummel, Manfred; Jonas, Sven; Papp-Vary, Matthias; Subklewe, Marion; Dörken, Bernd; Riess, Hanno; Gärtner, Barbara

    2006-07-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is closely linked to primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. A defect of EBV specific cellular immunity is postulated to play a pivotal role in the etiology of PTLD, but there is some debate as to whether EBV load in the peripheral blood of transplant patients predicts onset of PTLD or relapse after treatment. The current prospective, single-center study was undertaken to investigate the impact of therapy on EBV load in adult patients with PTLD. Fifteen patients with PTLD after solid organ transplantation were included and of these, seven had EBV-associated PTLD. All 15 patients received Rituximab as primary therapy. In cases of treatment failure or relapse after Rituximab treatment, patients received polychemotherapy according to the cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and prednisone regimen. At onset of PTLD, the median EBV load in the peripheral blood of patients was higher in EBV-associated PTLD than PTLD with no associated EBV infection. After Rituximab therapy, four of seven patients with EBV-associated PTLD achieved long-lasting complete remissions. However, in two of these patients, EBV load increased to reach levels as high as those recorded at onset of PTLD. Another patient showed a dramatic decline of EBV load after the first dose of Rituximab while suffering from progressive disease. The other patient relapsed after Rituximab monotherapy, but his viral load stayed low. In total, discordance in EBV load and clinical course was observed in five of the seven patients with EBV-associated PTLD. We conclude that in adult patients with PTLD, EBV load does not correlate with treatment response and is not suitable as a predictive marker for PTLD relapse.

  5. Influence of high organic loads during the summer period on the performance of hybrid constructed wetlands (VSSF + HSSF) treating domestic wastewater in the Alps region.

    PubMed

    Foladori, P; Ortigara, A R C; Ruaben, J; Andreottola, G

    2012-01-01

    One of the limits for the application of constructed wetlands (CWs) in mountain regions (such as the Alps) is associated with the considerable land area requirements. In some mountain areas, the treatment of domestic wastewater at popular tourist destinations is particularly difficult during the summer, when the presence of visitors increases hydraulic and organic loads. This paper aims to evaluate whether a hybrid CW plant designed on the basis of the resident population only, can treat also the additional load produced by the floating population during the tourist period (summer, when temperatures are favourable for biological treatment), without a drastic decrease of efficiency and without clogging problems. The research was carried out by considering two operational periods: the first one was based on literature indications (3.2 m(2)/PE in the VSSF unit) and the second one assumed higher hydraulic and organic loads (1.3 m(2)/PE in the VSSF unit). The removal efficiency in the hybrid CW system decreased slightly from 94 to 88% for COD removal and from 78 to 75% for total N removal, even after applying a double hydraulic (from 55 to 123 L m(-2) d(-1)) and organic load (from 37 to 87 g COD m(-2) d(-1) and from 4.4 to 10.3 g TKN m(-2) d(-1)). The results showed that in the summer period the application of high loads did not affect the efficiency of the hybrid CW plant significantly, suggesting that it is possible to refer the CW design to the resident population only, with subsequent considerable savings in superficial area.

  6. Effects of organic loading, influent concentration, and feed time on biohydrogen production in a mechanically stirred AnSBBR treating sucrose-based wastewater.

    PubMed

    Manssouri, M; Rodrigues, J A D; Ratusznei, S M; Zaiat, M

    2013-12-01

    An anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR-total volume 7.5 L; liquid volume 3.6 L; treated volume per cycle 1.5 L) treated sucrose-based wastewater to produce biohydrogen (at 30 °C). Different applied volumetric organic loads (AVOL of 9.0, 12.0, 13.5, 18.0, and 27.0 kg COD m(-3) day(-1)), which were varied according to the influent concentration (3,600 and 5,400 mg COD L(-1)) and cycle length (4, 3, and 2 h), have been used to assess the following parameters: productivity and yield of biohydrogen per applied and removed load, reactor stability, and efficiency. The removed organic matter (COD) remained stable and close to 18 % and carbohydrates (sucrose) uptake rate remained between 83 and 97 % during operation. The decrease in removal performance of the reactor with increasing AVOL, by increasing the influent concentration (at constant cycle length) and decreasing the cycle lengths (at constant influent concentrations), resulted in lower conversion efficiencies. Under all conditions, when organic load increased there was a predominance of acetic, propionic, and butyric acid as well as ethanol. The highest concentration of biohydrogen in the biogas (24-25 %) was achieved at conditions with AVOL of 12.0 and 13.5 kg COD m(-3) day(-1), the highest daily production rate (0.139 mol H2 day(-1)) was achieved at AVOL of 18.0 kg COD m(-3) day(-1), and the highest production yields per removed and applied load were 2.83 and 3.04 mol H2 kg SUC(-1), respectively, at AVOL of 13.5 kg COD m(-3) day(-1). The results indicated that the best productivity tends to occur at higher organic loads, as this parameter involves the "biochemical generation" of biogas, and the best yield tends to occur at lower and/or intermediate organic loads, as this parameter involves "biochemical consumption" of the substrate.

  7. Effect of earthworm loads on organic matter and nutrient removal efficiencies in synthetic domestic wastewater, and on bacterial community structure and diversity in vermifiltration.

    PubMed

    Wang, L M; Luo, X Z; Zhang, Y M; Lian, J J; Gao, Y X; Zheng, Z

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the effect of earthworm loads on the removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), total nitrogen, and total phosphorus from synthetic domestic sewage and on the bacterial community structure and diversity of substrates in earthworm packing beds. The different vermifiltrations (VFs), including the control, are successful in removing both organic matter (OM) and nutrients. The removal rate of NH3-N at 12.5 g of earthworm/L of soil VF is higher compared with that at 0 and 4.5 earthworm load VFs. The highest Shannon index, in the earthworm packing bed, occurred at 16.5 earthworm load VF. Furthermore, the COD removal rate is significantly correlated with the Shannon index, which reveals that OM removal for synthetic domestic sewage treatment at VF might be more dependent on bacterial diversity at the earthworm packing bed. The band distributions and diversities of the bacterial community for samples from different earthworm loads in VFs suggest that the bacterial community structure was only affected within the earthworm packing bed when the earthworm load reached a certain level. The present study adds to the current understanding of OM and nutrient degradation processes in VF domestic wastewater treatment.

  8. Impact of organic load on Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival during pilot-scale processing of iceberg lettuce with acidified sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Gordon R; Kaminski, Chelsea N; Ryser, Elliot T

    2014-10-01

    Chemical sanitizers are routinely used during commercial flume washing of fresh-cut leafy greens to minimize cross-contamination from the water. This study assessed the efficacy of three chlorine treatments against Escherichia coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce, in wash water, and on surfaces of a pilot-scale processing line using flume water containing various organic loads. Iceberg lettuce (5.4 kg) was inoculated to contain 10(6) CFU/g of a 4-strain cocktail of nontoxigenic, green fluorescent protein-labeled, ampicillin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 and held for 24 h at 4°C before processing. Lettuce was shredded using a Urschel TransSlicer, step conveyed to a flume tank, washed for 90 s using water alone or one of three different sanitizing treatments (50 ppm of total chlorine either alone or acidified to pH 6.5 with citric acid or T-128) in water containing organic loads of 0, 2.5, 5, or 10% (wt/vol) blended iceberg lettuce, and then dried using a shaker table and centrifugal dryer. Next, three 5.4-kg batches of uninoculated iceberg lettuce were processed identically. Various product (25 g), water (50 ml), and equipment surface swab (100 cm(2)) samples were homogenized in neutralizing buffer, diluted appropriately, and plated on tryptic soy agar containing 0.6% (wt/vol) yeast extract and 100 ppm of ampicillin without prior 0.45- m m membrane filtration to quantify E. coli O157:H7. Organic load negatively impacted the efficacy of all three chlorine treatments (P < 0.05) at the end of processing, with typical E. coli O157:H7 reductions of >5 and 0.9 to 3.7 log CFU/ml for organic loads of 0 and 10%, respectively. Organic load rarely had a significant impact (P < 0.05) on the efficacy of chlorine, chlorine plus citric acid, or chlorine plus T-128 against E. coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce. Reduced sanitizer efficacy generally corresponded to changes in total solids, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and maximum filterable volume, indicating that these tests may be

  9. High organic loading rate on thermophilic hydrogen production and metagenomic study at an anaerobic packed-bed reactor treating a residual liquid stream of a Brazilian biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Júnior, Antônio Djalma Nunes; Etchebehere, Claudia; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the influence of a high organic loading rate (OLR) on thermophilic hydrogen production at an up-flow anaerobic packed-bed reactor (APBR) treating a residual liquid stream of a Brazilian biorefinery. The APBR, filled with low-density polyethylene, was operated at an OLR of 84.2 kg-COD m(-3) d(-1). This value was determined in a previous study. The maximum values of hydrogen production and yield were 5,252.6 mL-H2 d(-1) and 3.7 mol-H2 mol(-1)(total carbohydrates), respectively. However, whereas the OLR remained constant, the specific organic load rate (sOLR) decreased throughout operation from 1.38 to 0.72 g-Total carbohydratesg-VS(-1) h(-1), this decrease negatively affected hydrogen production. A sOLR of 0.98 g-Total carbohydratesg-VS(-1) h(-1) was optimal for hydrogen production. The microbial community was studied using 454-pyrosequencing analysis. Organisms belonging to the genera Caloramator, Clostridium, Megasphaera, Oxobacter, Thermoanaerobacterium, and Thermohydrogenium were detected in samples taken from the reactor at operation days 30 and 60, suggesting that these organisms contribute to hydrogen production.

  10. Climate Change and Nutrient Loading: Controls on Phytoplankton Growth and Dissolved Organic Matter Quality in Lakes in Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, D. M.; Khan, A. L.; Hohner, A.; Rosario, F.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding connection between DOM quality and reactivity is important for evaluating processes driving recent increases in DOC. One potential driver may be greater phytoplankton growth associated with earlier ice-out and concomitant increases in nitrogen loading in mountain lakes. This study examined DOM patterns in 30 lakes and reservoirs which were sampled during the summer algal bloom peak in Colorado. Algal species identified using a FlowCAM imaging microscope and DOM quality was characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy. The results showed that the DOM quality was indicative of microbial sources in lakes with greater algal abundance and higher DOC concentrations. In low DOC lakes the fluorescence signature suggested that photo-bleaching was also an influence. These results indicate that further development and application of a recent model for algal DOM production could be used in concert with climate and nutrient loading scenarios to predict DOM concentrations and quality in CO lakes and reservoirs.

  11. Electrochemical wastewater treatment: influence of the type of carbon and of nitrogen on the organic load removal.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Annabel; Coelho, João; Ciríaco, Lurdes; Pacheco, Maria José; Lopes, Ana

    2016-12-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) and Ti/Pt/PbO2 anodes were utilized to perform the electrodegradation of synthetic samples containing humic acid in the presence of different organic and inorganic carbon-containing and nitrogen-containing compounds. The influence of the chloride ion in the degradation process of the different synthetic samples was also assessed. The results showed that the anodic oxidation process can efficiently degrade recalcitrant compounds such as humic acid. The presence of carbonate in solution enhances the nitrogen removal, whereas it hinders the oxidation of the organic compounds. When organic nitrogen is present, it is converted to NH4(+), which in turn is oxidized to nitrate and to volatile nitrogen compounds. Hydroxyl radicals are more prone to oxidize the organic nitrogen than the ammonium nitrogen. The presence of chloride enhances the organic matter and nitrogen removal rates, BDD being the anode material that yields the highest removals.

  12. LOADED WAVEGUIDES

    DOEpatents

    Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

    1958-06-24

    >Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

  13. AnSBBR applied to a personal care industry wastewater treatment: effects of fill time, volume treated per cycle, and organic load.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, José Alberto Domingues; Oliveira, Ricardo Polisaitis; Ratusznei, Suzana Maria; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    A study was performed regarding the effect of the relation between fill time, volume treated per cycle, and influent concentration at different applied organic loadings on the stability and efficiency of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor containing immobilized biomass on polyurethane foam with recirculation of the liquid phase (AnSBBR) applied to the treatment of wastewater from a personal care industry. Total cycle length of the reactor was 8 h (480 min). Fill times were 10 min in the batch operation, 4 h in the fed-batch operation, and a 10-min batch followed by a 4-h fed batch in the mixed operation. Settling time was not necessary since the biomass was immobilized and decant time was 10 min. Volume of liquid medium in the reactor was 2.5 L, whereas volume treated per cycle ranged from 0.88 to 2.5 L in accordance with fill time. Influent concentration varied from 300 to 1,425 mg COD/L, resulting in an applied volumetric organic load of 0.9 and 1.5 g COD/L.d. Recirculation flow rate was 20 L/h, and the reactor was maintained at 30 °C. Values of organic matter removal efficiency of filtered effluent samples were below 71% in the batch operations and above 74% in the operations of fed batch followed by batch. Feeding wastewater during part of the operational cycle was beneficial to the system, as it resulted in indirect control over the conversion of substrate into intermediates that would negatively interfere with the biochemical reactions regarding the degradation of organic matter. As a result, the average substrate consumption increased, leading to higher organic removal efficiencies in the fed-batch operations.

  14. Application of immobilized and granular dried anaerobic biomass for stabilizing and increasing anaerobic bio-systems tolerance for high organic loads and phenol shocks.

    PubMed

    Massalha, Nedal; Brenner, Asher; Sheindorf, Chaim; Sabbah, Isam

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on the stability and tolerance of continuous-flow bioreactors inoculated with anaerobic methanogens in three different configurations: (R1) dried granular biomass immobilized in PAC-enriched hydrophilic polyurethane foam, (R2) dried granular biomass, and (R3) wet granular biomass. These systems were tested under two different organic loading rates (OLR) of 6.25 and 10.94 (gCOD/(Lreactor∗d)), using a glucose-based synthetic mixture. The effect of an instantaneous shock load of phenol (5g/L for three days), and of phenol inclusion in the feed (0.5g/L) were also tested. At the lower OLR, all reactors performed similarly, however, increasing the OLR lead to a significant biomass washout and failure of R3. Biomass in R1 was more tolerant to phenol shock load than R2, though activity was recovered in both systems after about one month. PAC provided protection and shortened the adaptation time for 0.5g/L phenol that continuously was fed.

  15. Regional in-situ optical water quality sensor network quantifies influence of land use and seasonality on storm event nitrate and dissolved organic carbon loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, M.; Schroth, A. W.; Bowden, W. B.; Shanley, J. B.; Vermilyea, A.; Sleeper, R.; Gold, A.; Pradhanang, S. M.; Addy, K.; Inamdar, S. P.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Rowland, R. D.; Winters, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    High frequency optical water quality sensors were used to determine the influence of land use and seasonality on storm nutrient loads at nine stream sites in the North East Water Resources Network (NEWRnet). S::can spectrolysersTM were used to measure UV-Visible absorbance spectra at sub-hourly intervals in streams with primarily forested, urban, and agricultural watersheds. Calibrations for nitrate (NO3) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were developed for in-situ spectrophotometer measurements using multivariate statistical techniques applied to absorbance spectra and laboratory measurements. Calibrations were evaluated for predictive power and compared to assess applicability across multiple land uses and geographical areas. Calibrations were applied to sub-hourly absorbance spectra to determine NO3 and DOC loads for all storms in 2014 and 2015 for which data were available. Hydrographs were partitioned into direct runoff and baseflow components using a digital filter technique. In addition, the amount of biodegradable DOC (BDOC) was determined for a subset of samples and related to spectrophotometer measurements to determine influences of land use on BDOC content during storms. Comparing NO3 and DOC export per watershed area to storm runoff shows that storm severity, storm frequency, and land use have strong influences on regional NO3 and DOC storm export. This study highlights the value of high frequency continuous stream monitoring for land use and watershed management, particularly in the context of storm event loading.

  16. Effects of organic loading rates on reactor performance and microbial community changes during thermophilic aerobic digestion process of high-strength food wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Lee, Jae Won; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the applicability of single-stage thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) process treating high-strength food wastewater (FWW), TAD process was operated at four organic loading rates (OLRs) from 9.2 to 37.2 kg COD/m(3)d. The effects of OLRs on microbial community changes were also examined. The highest volumetric removal rate (13.3 kg COD/m(3)d) and the highest thermo-stable protease activity (0.95 unit/mL) were detected at OLR=18.6 kg COD/m(3)d. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles and quantitative PCR (qPCR) results showed significant microbial community shifts in response to changes in OLR. In particular, DGGE and phylogenetic analysis demonstrate that the presence of Bacillus sp. (phylum of Firmicutes) was strongly correlated with efficient removal of organic particulates from high-strength food wastewater.

  17. Impact of organic loading rate on the performance of psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of dairy manure and wheat straw: long-term operation.

    PubMed

    Saady, Noori M Cata; Massé, Daniel I

    2015-04-01

    Development of efficient processes for valorising animal wastes would be a major advancement in cold-climate regions. This paper reports the results of long term (315 days experiment) of novel psychrophilic (20°C) dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD) of cow feces and wheat straw in laboratory scale sequence batch reactor operated at increasing organic loading rate. The PDAD process fed with a mixture of feces and straw (TS of 27%) over a treatment cycle length of 21 days at organic loading rate (OLR) 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum d(-1) (of 2.9 ± 0.1, 3.7 ± 0.1, and 4.4 ± 0.1g VS kg(-1) inoculum d(-1), respectively) resulted in average specific methane yield (SMY) of 187.3 ± 18.1, 163.6 ± 39.5, 150.8 ± 32.9 N L CH4 kg(-1)VS fed, respectively. PDAD of cow feces and wheat straw is possible with VS-based inoculum-to-substrate ratio of 1.4 at OLR of 6.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum d(-1). Hydrolysis was the limiting step reaction.

  18. Impact of temperature, microwave radiation and organic loading rate on methanogenic community and biogas production during fermentation of dairy wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Magdalena; Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zieliński, Marcin; Dębowski, Marcin

    2013-02-01

    This study analyzed dairy wastewater fermentation in convection- and microwave-heated hybrid reactors at loadings of 1 and 2 kg COD/(m3 d) and temperatures of 35 and 55 °C. The biomass was investigated at a molecular level to determine the links between the operational parameters of anaerobic digestion and methanogenic Archaea structure. The highest production of biogas with methane content of ca. 67% was noted in the mesophilic microwave-heated reactors. The production of methane-rich biogas and the overall diversity of Archaea was determined by Methanosarcinaceae presence. The temperature and the application of microwaves were the main factors explaining the variations in the methanogen community. At 35 °C, the microwave heating stimulated the growth of highly diverse methanogen assemblages, promoting Methanosarcina barkeri presence and excluding Methanosarcina harudinacea from the biomass. A temperature increase to 55 °C lowered Methanosarcinaceae abundance and induced a replacement of Methanoculleus palmolei by Methanosarcina thermophila.

  19. Predicting total organic carbon load with El Nino southern oscillation phase using hybrid and fuzzy logic approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During drinking water treatment chlorine reacts with total organic carbon (TOC) to form disinfection byproducts (DBP), some of which can be carcinogenic. Additional treatment required to remove TOC before chlorination significantly increases treatment cost. There are two main sources of TOC in a wat...

  20. Dissolved and Particulate Organic Carbon Transport, Loads and Relationships from Catchments in the Dryland Agricultural Region of the Inland Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boylan, R. D.; Brooks, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    It has long been understood that soil organic matter (SOM) plays important role in the chemistry of agricultural soils. Promoting both cation exchange capacity and water retention, SOM also has the ability to sequester atmospheric carbon adding to a soils organic carbon content. Increasing soil organic carbon in the dryland agricultural region of the Inland Pacific Northwest is not only good for soil health, but also has the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Implementing strategies that minimizing the loss of soil carbon thus promoting carbon sequestration require a fundamental understanding of the dominant hydrologic flow paths and runoff generating processes in this landscape. Global fluxes of organic carbon from catchments range from 0.4-73,979 kg C km-2 year-1 for particulate organic carbon and 1.2-56,946 kg C km-2 year-1 for dissolved organic carbon (Alvarez-Cobelas, 2010). This small component of the global carbon cycle has been relatively well studied but there have yet to be any studies that focus on the dryland agricultural region of the Inland Pacific Northwest. In this study event based samples were taken at 5 sites across the Palouse Basin varying in land use and management type as well as catchment size, ranging from 1km2 to 7000 km2. Data collection includes streamflow, suspended sediment, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), particulate organic carbon (POC), dissolved organic nitrogen (TN), and nitrate concentrations as well as soil organic carbon (SOC) from distributed source areas. It is predicted that management type and streamflow will be the main drivers for DOC and POC concentrations. Relationships generated and historic data will then be used in conjunction with the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) to simulate field scale variability in the soil moisture, temperature, surface saturation, and soil erosion. Model assessment will be based on both surface runoff and sediment load measured at the

  1. The anthropogenic contribution to the organic load of the Lippe River (Germany). Part I: Qualitative characterisation of low-molecular weight organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Kronimus, Alexander; Littke, Ralf

    2004-12-01

    GC/MS-screening analyses of water samples from the Lippe River, Germany, revealed the presence of a wide spectrum of low-molecular weight organic compounds ranging from non-polar constituents like aliphatic hydrocarbons to polar constituents like n-carboxylic acids and phenols. Most of the identified compounds could be attributed to anthropogenic input and are used as plasticizers, flame retardants, pharmaceutical drugs or fragrances. Some of them had rarely been noticed as organic pollutants of aquatic environments before. These are, among others, 9-methylacridine, the plasticizer 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentandioldiisobutyrate (TXIB), the surfactant 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (TMDD), triphenylphosphinoxide and the flame retardant tris(chloropropyl)phosphate. On the other hand, most of the identified trialkyl phosphates, pharmaceutical drugs and synthetic fragrances have been reported in surface waters by several authors so far. Input pathways of the detected compounds were traced back by sampling various input sources of organic matter such as discharges of wastewater and Lippe River tributaries. Several contaminants were ubiquitous in Lippe River water and also occurred in sewage effluent from a municipal sewage treatment plant and in samples from the tributaries. This observation suggests that they are typical sewage derived contaminants and have the potential to be used as anthropogenic molecular markers.

  2. High loaded MBRs for organic matter recovery from sewage: effect of solids retention time on bioflocculation and on the role of extracellular polymers.

    PubMed

    Faust, L; Temmink, H; Zwijnenburg, A; Kemperman, A J B; Rijnaarts, H H M

    2014-06-01

    High loaded MBRs (HL-MBR) can concentrate sewage organic matter by aerobic bioflocculation for subsequent anaerobic conversion to methane or volatile fatty acids. In the range of very short solid retention times (SRT), the effect of SRT on bioflocculation and EPS production in HL-MBR was investigated. This short SRT range was selected to find an optimum SRT maximising recovery of organics by aerobic bioflocculation and minimizing losses of organics by aerobic mineralization. Bioflocculation was studied in five HL-MBRs operated at SRTs of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 5 d. The extent of flocculation, defined as the fraction of suspended COD in the concentrate, increased from 59% at an SRT of 0.125 d to 98% at an SRT of 5 d. The loss of sewage organic matter by biological oxidation was 1, 2, 4, 11 and 32% at SRT of 0.125-5 d. An SRT of 0.5-1 d gave best combination of bioflocculation and organic matter recovery. Bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) concentrations, in particular EPS-protein concentrations, increased when the SRT was prolonged from 0.125 to 1 d. This suggests that these EPS-proteins govern the bioflocculation process. A redistribution took place from free (supernatant) EPS to bound (floc associated) EPS when the SRT was prolonged from 0.125 to 1 d, further supporting the fact that the EPS play a dominant role in the flocculation process. Membrane fouling was most severe at the shortest SRTs of 0.125 d. No positive correlation was detected between the concentration of free EPS and membrane fouling, but the concentration of submicron (45-450 nm) particles proved to be a good indicator for this fouling.

  3. The influence of reservoirs, climate, land use and hydrologic conditions on loads and chemical quality of dissolved organic carbon in the Colorado River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Matthew P.

    2012-09-01

    Longitudinal patterns in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loads and chemical quality were identified in the Colorado River from the headwaters in the Rocky Mountains to the United States-Mexico border from 1994 to 2011. Watershed- and reach-scale climate, land use, river discharge and hydrologic modification conditions that contribute to patterns in DOC were also identified. Principal components analysis (PCA) identified site-specific precipitation and reach-scale discharge as being correlated with sites in the upper basin, where there were increases in DOC load from the upstream to downstream direction. In the lower basin, where DOC load decreased from upstream to downstream, sites were correlated with site-specific temperature and reach-scale population, urban land use and hydrologic modification. In the reaches containing Lakes Powell and Mead, the two largest reservoirs in the United States, DOC quantity decreased, terrestrially derived aromatic DOC was degraded and/or autochthonous less aromatic DOC was produced. Taken together, these results suggest that longitudinal patterns in the relatively unregulated upper basin are influenced by watershed inputs of water and DOC, whereas DOC patterns in the lower basin are reflective of a balance between watershed contribution of water and DOC to the river and loss of water and DOC due to hydrologic modification and/or biogeochemical processes. These findings suggest that alteration of constituent fluxes in rivers that are highly regulated may overshadow watershed processes that would control fluxes in comparable unregulated rivers. Further, these results provide a foundation for detailed assessments of factors controlling the transport and chemical quality of DOC in the Colorado River.

  4. The influence of reservoirs, climate, land use and hydrologic conditions on loads and chemical quality of dissolved organic carbon in the Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal patterns in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loads and chemical quality were identified in the Colorado River from the headwaters in the Rocky Mountains to the United States-Mexico border from 1994 to 2011. Watershed- and reach-scale climate, land use, river discharge and hydrologic modification conditions that contribute to patterns in DOC were also identified. Principal components analysis (PCA) identified site-specific precipitation and reach-scale discharge as being correlated with sites in the upper basin, where there were increases in DOC load from the upstream to downstream direction. In the lower basin, where DOC load decreased from upstream to downstream, sites were correlated with site-specific temperature and reach-scale population, urban land use and hydrologic modification. In the reaches containing Lakes Powell and Mead, the two largest reservoirs in the United States, DOC quantity decreased, terrestrially derived aromatic DOC was degraded and/or autochthonous less aromatic DOC was produced. Taken together, these results suggest that longitudinal patterns in the relatively unregulated upper basin are influenced by watershed inputs of water and DOC, whereas DOC patterns in the lower basin are reflective of a balance between watershed contribution of water and DOC to the river and loss of water and DOC due to hydrologic modification and/or biogeochemical processes. These findings suggest that alteration of constituent fluxes in rivers that are highly regulated may overshadow watershed processes that would control fluxes in comparable unregulated rivers. Further, these results provide a foundation for detailed assessments of factors controlling the transport and chemical quality of DOC in the Colorado River.

  5. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

  6. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  7. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

  8. Reversible near-infrared light directed reflection in a self-organized helical superstructure loaded with upconversion nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Dong, Hao; Li, Yannian; Xue, Chenming; Sun, Ling-Dong; Yan, Chun-Hua; Li, Quan

    2014-03-26

    Adding external, dynamic control to self-organized superstructures with desired functionalities is an important leap necessary in leveraging the fascinating molecular systems for applications. Here, the new light-driven chiral molecular switch and upconversion nanoparticles, doped in a liquid crystal media, were able to self-organize into an optically tunable helical superstructure. The resulting nanoparticle impregnated helical superstructure was found to exhibit unprecedented reversible near-infrared (NIR) light-guided tunable behavior only by modulating the excitation power density of a continuous-wave NIR laser (980 nm). Upon irradiation by the NIR laser at the high power density, the reflection wavelength of the photonic superstructure red-shifted, whereas its reverse process occurred upon irradiation by the same laser but with the lower power density. Furthermore, reversible dynamic NIR-light-driven red, green, and blue reflections in a single thin film, achieved only by varying the power density of the NIR light, were for the first time demonstrated.

  9. The effect of organic load and feed strategy on biohydrogen production in an AnSBBR treating glycerin-based wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lovato, G; Moncayo Bravo, I S; Ratusznei, S M; Rodrigues, J A D; Zaiat, M

    2015-05-01

    An anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR) with recirculation of the liquid phase (at 30 °C with 3.5 L of working volume and treating 1.5 L per cycle) treating pure glycerin-based wastewater was applied to biohydrogen production. The applied volumetric organic load (AVOL) ranged from 7.7 to 17.1 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), combining different influent concentrations (3000, 4000 and 5000 mgCOD L(-1)) and cycle lengths (4 and 3 h). The feed strategy used was to maintain the feeding time equal to half of the cycle time. The increase in the influent concentration and the decrease in cycle length improved the molar yield and molar productivity of hydrogen. The highest productivity (100.8 molH2 m(-3) d(-1)) and highest yield of hydrogen per load removed (20.0 molH2 kgCOD(-1)) were reached when the reactor operated with an AVOL of 17.1 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), with 68% of H2 and only 3% of CH4 in its biogas. It was also found that pretreatment of the sludge/inoculum does not influence the productivity/yield of the process and the use of crude industrial glycerin-based wastewater in relation to the pure glycerol-based wastewater substantially decreased the production and composition of the hydrogen produced.

  10. Attenuation of emerging organic contaminants in a hybrid constructed wetland system under different hydraulic loading rates and their associated toxicological effects in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Avila, Cristina; Matamoros, Víctor; Reyes-Contreras, Carolina; Piña, Benjamí; Casado, Marta; Mita, Luigi; Rivetti, Claudia; Barata, Carlos; García, Joan; Bayona, Josep Maria

    2014-02-01

    The capacity of a hybrid constructed wetland (CW) system consisting of two vertical flow (VF) CWs working alternatively (3m(2)), one horizontal flow (HF) CW (2m(2)) and one surface flow (FWS) CW (2m(2)) in series to eliminate 13 emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) under three different hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) (0.06, 0.13 and 0.18 m d(-1) considering the area of the two VF beds) was studied through a continuous injection experiment. General toxicity, dioxin-like activity, antimicrobial activity and estrogenicity were also measured under the highest hydraulic loading rate. The hybrid system was highly efficient on the removal of total injected EOCs (except for antibiotics, 43 ± 32%) at all three HLRs (87 ± 10%). The removal efficiency in the hybrid CW system showed to decrease as the HLR increased for most compounds. The VF wetlands removed most of the injected EOCs more efficiently than the other two CWs, which was attributable to the predominant aerobic degradation pathways of the VF beds (70 ± 21%). General toxicity was reduced up to 90% by the VF beds. Estrogenicity and dioxin-like activity were similarly reduced by the VF and the HF wetlands, whereas antimicrobial activity was mainly removed by the FWS wetland. Bearing this in mind, this injection study has demonstrated that the use of hybrid CW systems is a suitable wastewater technology for removing EOCs and toxicity even at high HLRs.

  11. Metal-Organic Framework Templated Synthesis of Ultrasmall Catalyst Loaded ZnO/ZnCo2O4 Hollow Spheres for Enhanced Gas Sensing Properties

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Won-Tae; Choi, Seon-Jin; Jang, Ji-Soo; Kim, Il-Doo

    2017-01-01

    To achieve the rational design of nanostructures for superior gas sensors, the ultrasmall nanoparticles (NPs) loaded on ternary metal oxide (TMO) hollow spheres (HS) were synthesized by using the polystyrene (PS) sphere template and bimetallic metal-organic framework (BM-MOFs) mold. The zinc and cobalt based zeolite imidazole frameworks (BM-ZIFs) encapsulating ultrasmall Pd NPs (2–3 nm) were assembled on PS spheres at room temperature. After calcination at 450 °C, these nanoscale Pd particles were effectively infiltrated on the surface of ZnO/ZnCo2O4 HSs. In addition, the heterojunctions of Pd-ZnO, Pd-ZnCo2O4, and ZnO-ZnCo2O4 were formed on each phase. The synthesized Pd-ZnO/ZnCo2O4 HSs exhibited extremely high selectivity toward acetone gas with notable sensitivity (S = 69% to 5 ppm at 250 °C). The results demonstrate that MOF driven ultrasmall catalyst loaded TMO HSs were highly effective platform for high performance chemical gas sensors. PMID:28327599

  12. Effects of temperature and organic loading rate on the performance and microbial community of anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and food waste.

    PubMed

    Gou, Chengliu; Yang, Zhaohui; Huang, Jing; Wang, Huiling; Xu, Haiyin; Wang, Like

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and food waste was investigated semi-continuously using continuously stirred tank reactors. Results showed that the performance of co-digestion system was distinctly influenced by temperature and organic loading rate (OLR) in terms of gas production rate (GPR), methane yield, volatile solids (VS) removal efficiency and the system stability. The highest GPR at 55 °C was 1.6 and 1.3 times higher than that at 35 and 45 °C with the OLR of 1 g VSL(-1)d(-1), and the corresponding average CH₄ yields were 0.40, 0.26 and 0.30 L CH₄ g(-1)VSadded, respectively. The thermophilic system exhibited the best load bearing capacity at extremely high OLR of 7 g VSL(-1)d(-1), while the mesophilic system showed the best process stability at low OLRs (< 5 g VSL(-1)d(-1)). Temperature had a more remarkable effect on the richness and diversity of microbial populations than the OLR.

  13. Metal-Organic Framework Templated Synthesis of Ultrasmall Catalyst Loaded ZnO/ZnCo2O4 Hollow Spheres for Enhanced Gas Sensing Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Won-Tae; Choi, Seon-Jin; Jang, Ji-Soo; Kim, Il-Doo

    2017-03-01

    To achieve the rational design of nanostructures for superior gas sensors, the ultrasmall nanoparticles (NPs) loaded on ternary metal oxide (TMO) hollow spheres (HS) were synthesized by using the polystyrene (PS) sphere template and bimetallic metal-organic framework (BM-MOFs) mold. The zinc and cobalt based zeolite imidazole frameworks (BM-ZIFs) encapsulating ultrasmall Pd NPs (2–3 nm) were assembled on PS spheres at room temperature. After calcination at 450 °C, these nanoscale Pd particles were effectively infiltrated on the surface of ZnO/ZnCo2O4 HSs. In addition, the heterojunctions of Pd-ZnO, Pd-ZnCo2O4, and ZnO-ZnCo2O4 were formed on each phase. The synthesized Pd-ZnO/ZnCo2O4 HSs exhibited extremely high selectivity toward acetone gas with notable sensitivity (S = 69% to 5 ppm at 250 °C). The results demonstrate that MOF driven ultrasmall catalyst loaded TMO HSs were highly effective platform for high performance chemical gas sensors.

  14. Adsorption and kinetic studies of seven different organic dyes onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste and removal of them from wastewater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas; Ahmadi, Mazaher

    2012-12-01

    Adsorption of seven different organic dyes from aqueous solutions onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste (MNLTW) was studied. MNLTW was prepared via a simple method and was fully characterized. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Adsorption characteristics of the MNLTW adsorbent was examined using Janus green, methylene blue, thionine, crystal violet, Congo red, neutral red and reactive blue 19 as adsorbates. Dyes adsorption process was thoroughly studied from both kinetic and equilibrium points of view for all adsorbents. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, Redlich-Peterson, Brouers-Sotolongo and Temkin isotherms. The results from Langmuir isotherm indicated that the capacity of MNLTW for the adsorption of cationic dyes was higher than that for anionic dyes. The adsorption kinetics was tested for the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models at different experimental conditions.

  15. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiO{sub x} nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xin-Ling; Wang, Rong; Yuan, Yu-Peng E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg; Zhang, Ming-Yi; Xue, Can E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg

    2015-10-01

    The Ni/NiO{sub x} particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H{sub 2} generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H{sub 2} production rate of 125 μmol h{sup −1} was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg) and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiO{sub x} catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H{sub 2} generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiO{sub x} particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H{sub 2} generation.

  16. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiOx nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin-Ling; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Ming-Yi; Yuan, Yu-Peng; Xue, Can

    2015-10-01

    The Ni/NiOx particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H2 generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H2 production rate of 125 μmol h-1 was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg) and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiOx catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H2 generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiOx particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H2 generation.

  17. Effect of electron beam irradiation on bacterial and Ascaris ova loads and volatile organic compounds in municipal sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engohang-Ndong, Jean; Uribe, R. M.; Gregory, Roger; Gangoda, Mahinda; Nickelsen, Mike G.; Loar, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of biosolids that can be utilized for land applications. However, prior to their use, these biosolids must be treated to eliminate risks of infections and to reduce upsetting odors. In this study, microbiological and chemical analyzes were performed before and after treatment of sewage sludge with 3 MeV of an electron beam accelerator in a pilot processing plant. Thus, we determined that dose 4.5 kGy was required to reduce fecal coliform counts to safe levels for land applications of sludge while, 14.5 kGy was necessary to decrease Ascaris ova counts to safe levels. Furthermore, at low doses, electron beam irradiation showed little effect on the concentrations of volatile organic compounds, while some increase were recorded at high doses. The concentration of dimethyl sulfide was reduced by 50-70% at irradiation doses of 25.7 kGy and 30.7 kGy respectively. By contrast, electron beam irradiation increased dimethyl disulfide concentrations. We also showed that electron beam treatment was less energy-consuming with shorter processing times than conventional techniques used to decontaminate sludge. Hence opening new avenues for large urban agglomerations to save money and time when treating biosolids for land application.

  18. Improved Monitoring of Semi-Continuous Anaerobic Digestion of Sugarcane Waste: Effects of Increasing Organic Loading Rate on Methanogenic Community Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Athaydes Francisco; Janke, Leandro; Lv, Zuopeng; Harms, Hauke; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of filter cake and its co-digestion with bagasse, and the effect of gradual increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) from start-up to overload were investigated. Understanding the influence of environmental and technical parameters on the development of particular methanogenic pathway in the biogas process was an important aim for the prediction and prevention of process failure. The rapid accumulation of volatile organic acids at high OLR of 3.0 to 4.0 gvs·L−1·day−1 indicated strong process inhibition. Methanogenic community dynamics of the reactors was monitored by stable isotope composition of biogas and molecular biological analysis. A potential shift toward the aceticlastic methanogenesis was observed along with the OLR increase under stable reactor operating conditions. Reactor overloading and process failure were indicated by the tendency to return to a predominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis with rising abundances of the orders Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales and drop of the genus Methanosarcina abundance. PMID:26404240

  19. Effects of organic loading rates on the continuous electricity generation from fermented wastewater using a single-chamber microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Nam, Joo-Youn; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lim, Kyeong-Ho; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2010-01-01

    Novel coupling of single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with granular activated carbon anodes were constructed, and their ability to produce electricity from fermented wastewater operating in continuous mode was investigated. MFCs treating real fermented wastewater can generate a power density of approximately 1884 mW/m(3), which is equivalent to approximately 51.5% of that obtained from the MFCs (3664 mW/m(3)) using acetate at the same organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.92 g/Ld. As the OLR was increased in a stepwise fashion, power density increased to 2981 mW/m(3) at an OLR of 3.84 g/Ld. The corresponding energy production was 268 kJ/m(3)d. The decrease in the power density was mainly due to the higher internal resistance resulted from complex substrate. Based on the electrode characteristics, it was verified that colloidal particulates and complex organics in the real fermented wastewater not only lowered power density but also played a role as rate-limiting factors in the continuous generation of electricity.

  20. Processing and Performance of MOF (Metal Organic Framework)-Loaded PAN Nanofibrous Membrane for CO2 Adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahiduzzaman; Khan, Mujibur R.; Harp, Spencer; Neumann, Jeffrey; Sultana, Quazi Nahida

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to produce a nanofibrous membrane functionalized with adsorbent particles called metal organic framework (MOF) in order to adsorb CO2 from a gas source. Therefore, Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was chosen as the precursor for nanofibers and HKUST-1, a Cu-based MOF, was chosen as adsorbent. The experimental process consists of electrospinning PAN solution blended with HKUST-1 to produce a nanofibrous mat as working substrates. The fibers were collected in a cylindrical canister model. SEM image of this mat showed nanofibers with the presence of small adsorbent particles, impregnated into the as-spun fibers discretely. To increase the amount of MOF particles for effectual gas adsorption, a secondary solvothermal process of producing MOF particles on the fibers was required. This process consists of multiple growth cycles of HKUST-1 particles by using a sol-gel precursor. SEM images showed uniform distribution of porous MOF particles of 2-4 µm in size on the fiber surface. Energy dispersive spectroscopy report of the fiber confirmed the presence of MOF particles through the identification of characteristic Copper elemental peaks of HKUST-1. To determine the thermal stability of the fibrous membrane, Thermogravimetric analysis of HKUST-1 consisting of PAN fiber was performed where a total weight loss of 40% between 210 and 360 °C was observed, hence proving the high-temperature durability of the synthesized membrane. BET surface area of the fiber membrane was measured as 540.73 m2/g. The fiber membrane was then placed into an experimental test bench containing a mixed gas inflow of CO2 and N2. Using non-dispersive infrared CO2 sensors connected to the inlet and outlet port of the bench, significant reduction of CO2 in concentration was measured. Comparative IR spectroscopic analysis between the gas-treated and gas untreated fiber samples showed the presence of characteristic peak in the vicinity of 2300 and 2400 cm-1 which

  1. Bio-oil production and removal of organic load by microalga Scenedesmus sp. using culture medium contaminated with different sugars, cheese whey and whey permeate.

    PubMed

    Borges, Wesley da Silva; Araújo, Breno Severiano Alves; Moura, Lucas Gomes; Coutinho Filho, Ubirajara; de Resende, Miriam Maria; Cardoso, Vicelma Luiz

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the bio-oil production and the organic load removal using the microalga Scenedesmus sp. The cultivation was carried out in reactors with a total volume of 3 L and 0.7 vvm aeration, with illumination in photoperiods of 12 h light/12 h dark for 12 days. The following sugar concentrations were tested: 2.5, 5.0 and 10 g/L of glucose, lactose, fructose and galactose with 10% inoculum volume. After experiments were performed with cheese whey in natura and cheese whey permeate with different lactose concentrations (1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 5.0 g/L). In these experiments the inoculum concentrations were 10, 15, 20 and 30% (v/v). The results showed that this microalga was effective for the production of lipids when it was cultivated in medium with cheese whey in natura with 2.5 g/L of lactose and 20% inoculum (v/v). Using cheese whey in natura at the concentration of 3.5 g/L of lactose and 30% (v/v) of inoculum obtained 77.9% of TOC removal and 38.447 mg of TOC removed/mg oil produced. It was also observed that when there is increased production of bio-oil, there is less removal of organic matter. The addition of glucose, fructose or galactose in the medium did not enhance the production of bio-oil by Scenedesmus sp. when compared to lactose, but increased the organic matter removal.

  2. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xiao; Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei; Gao Xingbao; Qiao Wei; Zhou Yingjun

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  3. Effect of the organic loading rate on the performance of anaerobic acidogenic fermentation of two-phase olive mill solid residue.

    PubMed

    Rincón, B; Sánchez, E; Raposo, F; Borja, R; Travieso, L; Martín, M A; Martín, A

    2008-01-01

    A study of the effect of the organic loading rate (OLR) on the anaerobic acidogenic fermentation of two-phase olive mill solid residue (OMSR) derived from fruits with a low ripening index was carried out in a laboratory-scale completely stirred tank reactor at mesophilic temperature (35 degrees C). Eight experimental runs were carried out at OLRs of 3.2, 5.6, 7.4, 9.6, 11.0, 12.9, 14.0 and 15.1g T-COD/ld, which were equivalent to hydraulic retention times of 50.0, 28.8, 21.8, 16.9, 14.7, 12.4, 11.5 and 10.7d, respectively. The experimental results obtained demonstrated that the optimum value of OLR for the acidogenic fermentation process was 12.9 g T-COD/ld, for which a maximum production of acetic acid was achieved. It was found that inhibition of the process occurred at OLRs higher than 12.9 g T-COD/ld. This was characterized by a significant decrease in the acetic acid concentration in the effluent and an increase in the concentration of other volatile acids that may affect the methanogenic step. The process inhibition was also characterized by the plateau in the curves of the effluent substrate concentration versus the OLR applied. It was found that a first-order kinetics satisfactorily described the influence of non-acetic acid soluble organic matter concentration (S-COD( *)) on the rate of soluble organic matter conversion to acetic acid (R(S-COD)( *)), and the influence of acetic acid concentration (AcH) on the rate of acetic acid production (R(AcH)), while a potential equation type adequately described the influence of acetic acid concentration on the volumetric hydrogen production (R(ACH) ). The kinetic constant for soluble organic matter removal was 0.145 d(-1), while the constant for acetic acid formation was found to be 0.075 d(-1).

  4. Organics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Organizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  6. Prediction of diffuse organic micropollutant loads in streams under changing climatic, socio-economic and technical boundary conditions with an integrated transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honti, Mark; Schuwirth, Nele; Rieckermann, Jörg; Ghielmetti, Nico; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Catchments are complex systems where water quantity, quality and the ecological services provided are determined by interacting physical, chemical, biological, economical and social factors. The realization of these interactions led to the prevailing catchment management paradigm: Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). IWRM requires considering all these aspects during the design of sustainable resource utilization. Due to the complexity of this task, mathematical modeling plays a key role in IWRM, namely in the evaluation of the impacts of hypothetical scenarios and management measures. Toxicity is a key determinant of the ecological state and as such a focal point in IWRM, but we still have significant knowledge gaps about the diffuse loads of organic micropollutants (OMP) that leak from both urban and agricultural areas. Most European catchments possess mixed land use, containing rural (natural and agricultural) landscapes and settlements in varying proportions. Thus, a catchment model supporting IWRM must be able to cope with both classes. However, the majority of existing catchment models is dedicated to either rural or urban areas, while the minority capable of simulating both contain overly simplified descriptions for either land use category. We applied a conceptual model that describes all major land use classes for assessing the impacts of climate change, socio-economic development and management alternatives on diffuse OMP loads. We simulated the loads of 12 compounds (agricultural and urban pesticides and urban biocides) with daily resolution at 11 locations in the stream network of a small catchment (46 km2) in Switzerland. The model considers all important diffuse transport pathways separately, but each with a simple empirical process rate. Consequently, some site-specific observations were required to calibrate rate parameters. We assessed uncertainty during both calibration and prediction phases. Predictions indicated that future OMP loads

  7. Impact of hydraulic loading rate and media type on removal of bulk organic matter and nitrogen from primary effluent in a laboratory-scale soil aquifer treatment system.

    PubMed

    Abel, Chol D T; Sharma, Saroj K; Buçpapaj, Ervin; Kennedy, Maria D

    2013-01-01

    The effect of hydraulic loading rate (HLR) and media type on the removal of bulk organic matter and nitrogen from primary effluent during soil aquifer treatment was investigated by conducting laboratory-scale soil column studies. Two soil columns packed with silica sand were operated at HLRs of 0.625 and 1.25 m/d, while a third column was packed with dune filtering material and operated at HLR of 1.25 m/d. Bulk organic matter was effectively removed by 47.5 ± 1.2% and 45.1 ± 1.2% in silica sand columns operated at 0.625 and 1.25 m/d, respectively and 57.3 ± 7.6% in dune filtering material column operated at 1.25 m/d. Ammonium-nitrogen reduction of 74.5 ± 18.0% was achieved at 0.625 m/d compared to 39.1 ± 4.3% at 1.25 m/d in silica sand columns, whereas 49.2 ± 5.2% ammonium-nitrogen reduction was attained at 1.25 m/d in the dune filtering material column. Ammonium-nitrogen reduction in the first 3 m was assumed to be dominated by nitrification process evidenced by corresponding increase in nitrate. Part of the ammonium-nitrogen was adsorbed onto the media, which was observed at higher rates between 3 and 5 m in silica sand column operated at HLR of 0.625 m/d and dune filtering material column operated at 1.25 m/d compared to 1.25 m/d silica.

  8. Effects of feedstock ratio and organic loading rate on the anaerobic mesophilic co-digestion of rice straw and cow manure.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Liu, Shengchu; Mi, Li; Li, Zhidong; Yuan, Yuexiang; Yan, Zhiying; Liu, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of feedstock ratio and organic loading rate (OLR) on the anaerobic mesophilic co-digestion of rice straw (RS) and cow manure (CM), batch tests (2.5L) were carried out at volatile solid (VS) ratios of 0:1, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1, and 1:0 (RS/CM), and continuous bench experiments (40 L) were carried out at OLRs of 3.0, 3.6, 4.2, 4.8, 6.0, 8.0, and 12.0 kg VS/(m(3) d) with optimal VS ratio. The optimal VS ratio was found to be 1:1. Stable and efficient co-digestion with average specific biogas production of 383.5L/kg VS and volumetric biogas production rate of 2.30 m(3)/(m(3) d) was obtained at an OLR of 6 kg VS/(m(3) d). Anaerobic co-digestion was severely inhibited by the accumulation of volatile fatty acids instead of ammonia when the OLR was 12 kg VS/(m(3) d). Further, significant foaming was observed at OLR ⩾ 8 kg VS/(m(3) d).

  9. Performance, carotenoids yield and microbial population dynamics in a photobioreactor system treating acidic wastewater: Effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuli; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Jie; Li, Xiangkun; Li, Jianzheng

    2016-01-01

    Effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and influent organic loading rate (OLR) were investigated in a photobioreactor containing PNSB (Rhodopseudomonas palustris)-chemoheterotrophic bacteria to treat volatile fatty acid wastewater. Pollutants removal, biomass production and carotenoids yield in different phases were investigated in together with functional microbial population dynamics. The results indicated that properly decreasing HRT and increasing OLR improved the nutrient removal performance as well as the biomass and carotenoids productions. 85.7% COD, 89.9% TN and 91.8% TP removals were achieved under the optimal HRT of 48h and OLR of 2.51g/L/d. Meanwhile, the highest biomass production and carotenoids yield were 2719.3mg/L and 3.91mg/g-biomass respectively. In addition, HRT and OLR have obvious impacts on PNSB and total bacteria dynamics. Statistical analyses indicated that the COD removal exhibited a positive relationship with OLR, biomass and carotenoids production. PNSB/total bacteria ratio had a positive correlation with the carotenoids yield.

  10. Effect of the organic loading rate on the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates in a multi-stage process aimed at the valorization of olive oil mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Campanari, Sabrina; e Silva, Francisca A; Bertin, Lorenzo; Villano, Marianna; Majone, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Mixed microbial culture polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production has been investigated by using olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) as no-cost feedstock in a multi-stage process, also involving phenols removal and recovery. The selection of PHA-storing microorganisms occurred in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), fed with dephenolized and fermented OMW and operated at different organic loading rates (OLR), ranging from 2.40 to 8.40gCOD/Ld. The optimal operating condition was observed at an OLR of 4.70gCOD/Ld, which showed the highest values of storage rate and yield (339±48mgCOD/gCODh and 0.56±0.05 COD/COD, respectively). The OLR applied to the SBR largely affected the performance of the PHA-accumulating reactor, which was fed through multiple pulsed additions of pretreated OMW. From an overall mass balance, involving all the stages of the process, an abatement of about 85% of the OMW initial COD (chemical oxygen demand) was estimated whereas the conversion of the influent COD into PHA was about 10% (or 22% by taking into account only the COD contained in the pretreated OMW, which is directly fed to the PHA production stages). Overall, polymer volumetric productivity (calculated from the combination of both the SBR and the accumulation reactor) accounted for 1.50gPHA/Ld.

  11. Optimisation of digester performance with increasing organic loading rate for mono- and co-digestion of grass silage and dairy slurry.

    PubMed

    Wall, David M; Allen, Eoin; Straccialini, Barbara; O'Kiely, Padraig; Murphy, Jerry D

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of mono-digesting grass silage, dairy slurry and the co-digestion of the two substrates at a range of concentrations with a specific focus on digester performance while increasing organic loading rate (OLR). The results show that the higher the proportion of grass silage in the substrate mix the higher the specific methane yield (SMY) achieved. Optimum conditions were assessed for 100% grass silage at an OLR of 3.5 kg VS m(-3) d(-1) generating a SMY of 398 L CH4 kg(-1) VS equating to a biomethane efficiency of 1.0. For co-digestion of grass silage with 20% dairy slurry the optimum condition was noted at an OLR of 4.0 kg VS m(-3) d(-1) generating a SMY of 349L CH4 kg(-1) VS and a biomethane efficiency of 1.01. Hydraulic retention times of less than 20 days proved to be a limiting factor in the operation of farm digesters.

  12. Optimization of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) degradation in UASB reactors by varying bioavailability of LAS, hydraulic retention time and specific organic load rate.

    PubMed

    Okada, Dagoberto Y; Delforno, Tiago P; Esteves, Andressa S; Sakamoto, Isabel K; Duarte, Iolanda C S; Varesche, Maria B A

    2013-01-01

    Degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in UASB reactors was optimized by varying the bioavailability of LAS based on the concentration of biomass in the system (1.3-16 g TS/L), the hydraulic retention time (HRT), which was operated at 6, 35 or 80 h, and the concentration of co-substrates as specific organic loading rates (SOLR) ranging from 0.03-0.18 g COD/g TVS.d. The highest degradation rate of LAS (76%) was related to the lowest SOLR (0.03 g COD/g TVS.d). Variation of the HRT between 6 and 80 h resulted in degradation rates of LAS ranging from 18% to 55%. Variation in the bioavailability of LAS resulted in discrete changes in the degradation rates (ranging from 37-53%). According to the DGGE profiles, the archaeal communities exhibited greater changes than the bacterial communities, especially in biomass samples that were obtained from the phase separator. The parameters that exhibited more influence on LAS degradation were the SOLR followed by the HRT.

  13. The application of an innovative continuous multiple tube reactor as a strategy to control the specific organic loading rate for biohydrogen production by dark fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Simone D; Fuess, Lucas T; Penteado, Eduardo D; Lucas, Shaiane D M; Gotardo, Jackeline T; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    Biohydrogen production in fixed-bed reactors often leads to unstable and decreasing patterns because the excessive accumulation of biomass in the bed negatively affects the specific organic loading rate (SOLR) applied to the reactor. In this context, an innovative reactor configuration, i.e., the continuous multiple tube reactor (CMTR), was assessed in an attempt to better control the SOLR for biohydrogen production. The CMTR provides a continuous discharge of biomass, preventing the accumulation of solids in the long-term. Sucrose was used as the carbon source and mesophilic temperature conditions (25°C) were applied in three continuous assays. The reactor showed better performance when support material was placed in the outlet chamber to enhance biomass retention within the reactor. Although the SOLR could not be effectively controlled, reaching values usually higher than 10gsucroseg(-1)VSSd(-1), the volumetric hydrogen production and molar hydrogen production rates peaked, respectively, at 1470mLH2L(-1)d(-1) and 45mmolH2d(-1), indicating that the CMTR was a suitable configuration for biohydrogen production.

  14. Effect of organic loading rate on dark fermentative hydrogen production in the continuous stirred tank reactor and continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor from waste pastry hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Hu, Yunyi; Li, Shiyi; Nie, Qiulin; Zhao, Hongting; Tang, Junhong

    2016-12-01

    Waste pastry (6%, w/v) was hydrolyzed by the produced glucoamylase and protease to obtain the glucose (19.8g/L) and free amino nitrogen (179mg/L) solution. Then, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) (8-40kgCOD/(m(3)d)) on dark fermentative hydrogen production in the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor (CMISR) from waste pastry hydrolysate was investigated and compared. The maximum hydrogen production rate of CSTR (277.76mL/(hL)) and CMISR (320.2mL/(hL)) were achieved at OLR of 24kgCOD/(m(3)d) and 32kgCOD/(m(3)d), respectively. Carbon recovery ranged from 75.2-84.1% in the CSTR and CMISR with the balance assumed to be converted to biomass. One gram waste pastry could produce 0.33g (1.83mmol) glucose which could be further converted to 79.24mL (3.54mmol) hydrogen in the CMISR or 91.66mL (4.09mmol) hydrogen in the CSTR. This is the first study which reports dark fermentative hydrogen production from waste pastry.

  15. Influence of digestion temperature and organic loading rate on the continuous anaerobic treatment of process liquor from hydrothermal carbonization of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Benjamin; Reza, Toufiq; Mumme, Jan

    2015-12-01

    This experimental study investigates the use of process liquor from hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of sewage sludge as sole substrate for anaerobic digestion (AD). The process performance at 37°C (mesophilic) and 55°C (thermophilic) was determined based on two identical continuously-fed anaerobic filters (26 L each) operated for 20 weeks. During operation, the organic loading rate was stepwise increased from 1 to 5 gCOD L(-1)d(-)(1). This decreased the hydraulic retention time from 34 to 5 days. Significant differences in methane production were not observed as both reactors yielded up to 0.18 LCH4 gCOD(-)(1). Increased temperature had no effect on the steady-state COD removal efficiency with both reactors stabilized at 68-75%. Macro- and micronutrients were provided by HTC liquor in sufficient concentrations throughout the experiment. Methanogenesis was identified as the speed-limiting step in anaerobic digestion of HTC liquor. Hydrolysis was of an order of magnitude faster than methanogenesis.

  16. Influence of organic loading rate on the anaerobic treatment of sugarcane vinasse and biogás production in fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Laura M; Damiano, Elisabeth S G; Silva, Edson L

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) that contained polystyrene particles as a support material for the treatment of vinasse that resulted from the alcoholic fermentation of sugarcane molasses. The AFBR was inoculated with sludge from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor that treated poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. The AFBR was operated with a hydraulic retention time of 24 h at a temperature of 30°C with influent vinasse concentrations that ranged from 2273 to 20,073 mg COD L(-1). The reactor was subjected to increased organic loading rates (OLR) that ranged from 3.33 to 26.19 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), with COD removal efficiencies that ranged from 51% to 70% and maximum removal at an OLR of 13.93 ± 2.18 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). The maximum biogas productivity was 5.37 m(3) CH4 m(-3) d(-1) for an OLR of 25.32 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) (average removal of 51%)..

  17. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of sugar beet byproduct and pig manure: Effect of the organic loading rate (OLR) on process performance.

    PubMed

    Aboudi, Kaoutar; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos José; Romero-García, Luis Isidoro

    2015-10-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of dried pellet of exhausted sugar beet cossettes (ESBC-DP) with pig manure (PM) was investigated in a semi-continuous stirred tank reactor (SSTR) under mesophilic conditions. Seven hydraulic retention times (HRT) from 20 to 5 days were tested with the aim to evaluate the methane productivities and volatile solids (VS) removal. The corresponding organic loading rates (OLR) ranged from 4.2 to 12.8 gVS/L(reactor) d. The findings revealed that highest system efficiency was achieved at an OLR of 11.2 gVS/L(reactor) d (6 days-HRT) with a methane production rate (MPR) and volatile solids (VS) reduction of 2.91 LCH4/L(reactor) d and 57.5%, respectively. The HRT of 5 days was found critical for the studied process, which leads to volatile fatty acids (VFA) accumulation and sharp drop in pH. However, the increase of HRT permits the recovery of system.

  18. Effects of increasing organic loading rate on performance and microbial community shift of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating diluted pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Wang, Yuguang; Li, Kai; Zhou, Hongbo

    2014-09-01

    The performance of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was investigated in the treatment of diluted pharmaceutical fermentation wastewater for a continuous operation of 140 days. The dynamics and compositions of the microbial community were monitored using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) from 2.7 kg COD/m(3) d to 7.2 COD/m(3) d led to an increase in the COD removal efficiency from 83% to 91%. The dominant bacteria shifted from Proteobacteria (23.8%), Chloroflexi (14.5%) and Firmicutes (4.0%) to Firmicutes (48.4%), Bacteroidetes (9.5%) and Proteobacteria (5.4%). For archeaon, the dominant groups changed from Thermoplasmata (24.4%), Thermoprotei (18.0%) and Methanobacteria (30.8%) to Thermoplasmata (70.4%) and Methanomicrobia (16.8%). Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Thermoplasmata and Methanobacteria could outcompete other species and dominated in the reactor under higher OLR. The results indicated that, to some extent, microbial community shift could reflect the performance of the reactor and a significant community shift corresponded to a considerable process event.

  19. Effect of the Organic Loading Rate Increase and the Presence of Zeolite on Microbial Community Composition and Process Stability During Anaerobic Digestion of Chicken Wastes.

    PubMed

    Ziganshina, Elvira E; Belostotskiy, Dmitry E; Ilinskaya, Olga N; Boulygina, Eugenia A; Grigoryeva, Tatiana V; Ziganshin, Ayrat M

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the effect of the organic loading rate (OLR) increase from 1.0 to 3.5 g VS L(-1) day(-1) at constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 35 days on anaerobic reactors' performance and microbial diversity during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich chicken wastes in the absence/presence of zeolite. The effects of anaerobic process parameters on microbial community structure and dynamics were evaluated using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based pyrosequencing approach. Maximum 12 % of the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was efficiently removed by zeolite in the fixed zeolite reactor (day 87). In addition, volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the fixed zeolite reactor accumulated in lower concentrations at high OLR of 3.2-3.5 g VS L(-1) day(-1). Microbial communities in the fixed zeolite reactor and reactor without zeolite were dominated by various members of Bacteroidales and Methanobacterium sp. at moderate TAN and VFA levels. The increase of the OLR accompanied by TAN and VFA accumulation and increase in pH led to the predominance of representatives of the family Erysipelotrichaceae and genera Clostridium and Methanosarcina. Methanosarcina sp. reached relative abundances of 94 and 57 % in the fixed zeolite reactor and reactor without zeolite at the end of the experimental period, respectively. In addition, the diminution of Synergistaceae and Crenarchaeota and increase in the abundance of Acholeplasmataceae in parallel with the increase of TAN, VFA, and pH values were observed.

  20. Anaerobic co-digestion of meat-processing by-products and sewage sludge - effect of hygienization and organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Luste, Sami; Luostarinen, Sari

    2010-04-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of a mixture of animal by-products (ABP) from meat-processing industry and of sewage sludge was studied at 35 degrees Celsius for co-digesting such by-products in digesters at wastewater treatment plants. The three reactors were fed with ABP mixture and sewage sludge (1) in a ratio of 1:7 (v/v), (2) in the same ratio but with hygienization (70 degrees Celsius, 60 min) and (3) in a ratio of 1:3 (v/v). Hydraulic retention time (HRT) was decreased from 25 to 20 days and finally to 14 days, while organic loading rates (OLR) ranged from 1.8 to 4.0 kg VS/m(3) day. The highest specific methane yields were achieved with 20-days-HRT (1) 400 + or - 30, (2) 430 + or - 40, (3) 410 + or - 30 m(3) CH(4)/t VS. Hygienization improved methane production to a level above the highest OLR applied (feed ratio 1:3 (3)), while the quality of the digestate remained similar to the other reactors.

  1. Interaction effects of organic load and cycle time in an AsBr applied to a personal care industry wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ricardo Polisaitis; Ratusznei, Suzana Maria; Rodrigues, José Alberto Domingues; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugenio

    2010-12-01

    A mechanically stirred anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) containing granular biomass was applied to the treatment of a wastewater simulating the effluent from a personal care industry. The ASBR was operated with cycle lengths (t(C)) of 8, 12 and 24 h and applied volumetric organic loads (AVOL) of 0.75, 0.50 and 0.25 gCOD/L.d, treating 2.0 L liquid medium per cycle. Stirring frequency was 150 rpm and the reactor was kept in an isothermal chamber at 30 °C. Increase in t(C) resulted in efficiency increase at constant AVOL, reaching 77% at t(C) of 24 h versus 69% at t(C) of 8 h. However, efficiency decreased when AVOL decreased as a function of increasing t(C), due to the lack of substrate in the reaction medium. Moreover, replacing part of the wastewater by a chemically balanced synthetic one did not yield the expected effect and system efficiency dropped.

  2. Organic loading rate and food-to-microorganism ratio shape prokaryotic diversity in a demo-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cardinali-Rezende, Juliana; Araújo, Juliana C; Almeida, Paulo G S; Chernicharo, Carlos A L; Sanz, José L; Chartone-Souza, Edmar; Nascimento, Andréa M A

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the microbial community in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating domestic wastewater (DW) during two different periods of organic loading rate (OLR) and food-to-microorganism (F/M) ratio. 16S rDNA clone libraries were generated, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analyses were performed. Fluctuations in the OLR and F/M ratio affected the abundance and the composition of the UASB prokaryotic community, mainly at the species level, as well as the performance of the UASB reactor. The qPCR analysis suggested that there was a decrease in the bacterial cell number during the rainy season, when the OLR and F/M ratio were lower. However, the bacterial diversity was higher during this time, suggesting that the community degraded more diversified substrates. The diversity and the abundance of the archaeal community were higher when the F/M ratio was lower. Shifts in the methanogenic community composition might have influenced the route of methane production, with methane produced by acetotrophic methanogens (dry season), and by hydrogenotrophic, methylotrophic and acetotrophic methanogens (rainy season). This study revealed higher levels of bacterial diversity, metabolic specialization and chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of the DW UASB reactor during the rainy season.

  3. AnSBBR applied to the treatment of wastewater from a personal care industry: effect of organic load and fill time.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Daniela Sotirchos; Prinholato, Ana Claudia; Ratusznei, Suzana Maria; Rodrigues, José Alberto Domingues; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugênio

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the technological feasibility of treating wastewater from a personal care industry (PCI-WW) in a mechanically stirred anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR) containing immobilized biomass on polyurethane foam. An assessment was made on how system efficiency and stability would be affected by: increasing organic load; supplementation of nutrients and alkalinity; and different feed strategies. The AnSBBR operated with 8-h cycles, stirring speed of 400 rpm, temperature of 30 degrees C, and treated with 2.0 L wastewater per cycle. First the efficiency and stability of the AnSBBR were studied when submitted to an organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.1-9.4 gCOD/(L d), and when the PCI-WW was supplemented with nutrients (sucrose, urea, trace metals) and alkalinity. The AnSBBR was shown to be robust and presented stability and removal efficiency exceeding 90%. At an OLR of 12.0 gCOD/(L d) efficiency became difficult to maintain due to the presence of commercial cleansers and disinfectants in the wastewater lots. In a subsequent stage the AnSBBR treated the wastewater supplemented with alkalinity, but with no nutrients at varying feed strategies and maintaining an OLR of approximately 9.0 gCOD/(L d). The first strategy consists of feeding 2.0 L of the influent batchwise [OLR of 9.4 gCOD/(L d)]. In the second 1.0 L of influent was fed-batchwise and an additional 1.0 L was fed fed-batchwise [OLR of 9.2 gCOD/(L d)], i.e., in relation to the first strategy the feed volume was maintained but supplied in different periods. In the third strategy 1.0 L of treated effluent was maintained in the reactor and 1.0 L of influent was fed fed-batchwise [OLR of 9.0 gCOD/(L d)], i.e., in relation to the first strategy the feed volume was different but the feed period was the same and the OLR was maintained by increasing the influent concentration. Comparison of the first and second strategies revealed that organic matter removal efficiency was

  4. Effect of Organic Loading Rates on biodegradation of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate, oil and grease in greywater by Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge (IFAS).

    PubMed

    Eslami, Hadi; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi; Mokhtari, Mehdi; Ebrahimi, Aliasghar

    2017-05-15

    In this study, performance of Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge (IFAS) system in treatment of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS), and oil & grease in synthetic greywater and effect of Organic Loading Rates (OLRs) on removal efficiency within a period of 105 days were investigated. Present study was carried out in a pilot scale under such conditions as temperature of 30 ± 1 °C, dissolved oxygen of 2.32 ± 0.91 mg/l, pH of 8.01 ± 0.95 and OLRs of 0.11-1.3gCOD/L.d. Also, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images were employed to specify rate of the biofilm formed on the media inside the reactor IFAS. The best removal efficiency for COD, LAS and oil and grease were respectively obtained as 92.52%, 94.24% and 90.07% in OLR 0.44gCOD/L.d. The assessment of loading rate indicated that with increased OLR to 0.44gCOD/L.d, removal efficiency of COD, oil and grease was increased while with increased OLR, removal efficiency was decreased. In doing so, based on the statistical test ANOVA, such a difference between removal efficiencies in diverse OLRs was significant for COD (p = 0.003), oil and grease (p = 0.01). However, in terms of LAS, with increased value of OLR to 0.44gCOD/L.d, the removal efficiency was increased and then with higher OLRs, removal efficiency was slightly decreased that is insignificant (p = 0.35) based on the statistical test ANOVA. The SEM images also showed that the biofilm formed on the media inside IFAS reactor plays a considerable role in adsorption and biodegradation of LAS, and oil & grease in greywater. The linear relation between inlet COD values and rate of removed LAS indicated that the ratio of inlet COD (mg/L) to removed LAS (mg/L) was 0.4. Therefore, use of IFAS system for biodegradation of LAS, oil and grease in greywater can be an applicable option.

  5. Effect of organic loading rate and fill time on the biohydrogen production in a mechanically stirred AnSBBR treating synthetic sucrose-based wastewater.

    PubMed

    Inoue, R K; Lima, D M F; Rodrigues, J A D; Ratusznei, S M; Zaiat, M

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility to produce biohydrogen of a mechanically stirred anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR) treating sucrose-based synthetic wastewater. The bioreactor performance (30 °C) was evaluated as to the combined effect of fill time (2, 1.5, and 1 h), cycle length (4, 3, and 2 h), influent concentration (3,500 and 5,250 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1)) and applied volumetric organic load (AVOLCT from 9.0 to 27.0 g COD L(-1) d(-1)). AVOLs were varied according to influent concentration and cycle length (t C). The results showed that increasing AVOLCT resulted in a decrease in sucrose removal from 99 to 86 % and in improvement of molar yield per removed load (MYRLS.n) from 1.02 mol H2 mol carbohydrate(-1) at AVOLCT of 9.0 g COD L(-1) d(-1) to maximum value of 1.48 mol H2 mol carbohydrate(-1), at AVOLCT of 18.0 g COD L(-1) d(-1), with subsequent decrease. Increasing AVOLCT improved the daily molar productivity of hydrogen (MPr) from 15.28 to 49.22 mol H2 m(-3) d(-1). The highest daily specific molar productivity of hydrogen (SMPr) obtained was 8.71 mol H2 kg TVS(-1) d(-1) at an AVOLCT of 18.0 g COD L(-1) d(-1). Decreasing t C from 4 to 3 h decreased sucrose removal, increased MPr, and improved SMPr. Increasing influent concentration decreased sucrose removal only at t C of 2 h, improved MYRLS,n and MPr at all t C, and also improved SMPr at t C of 4 and 3 h. Feeding strategy had a significant effect on biohydrogen production; increasing fill time improved sucrose removal, MPr, SMPr, and MYRLS,n for all investigated AVOLCT. At all operational conditions, the main intermediate metabolic was acetic acid followed by ethanol, butyric, and propionic acids. Increasing fill time resulted in a decrease in ethanol concentration.

  6. Influence of the organic loading rate on the performance and the granular sludge characteristics of an EGSB reactor used for treating traditional Chinese medicine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiguang; Su, Chengyuan; Liu, Xingzhe; Zhang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the organic loading rate (OLR) on the performance and the granular sludge characteristics of an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor used for treating real traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wastewater were investigated. Over 90% of the COD removal by the EGSB reactor was observed at the OLRs of 4 to 13 kg COD/(m(3) day). However, increasing the OLR to 20 kg COD/(m(3) day) by reducing the hydraulic retention time (HRT 6 h) reduced the COD removal efficiency to 78%. The volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration was 512.22 mg/L, resulting in an accumulation of VFAs, and propionic acid was the main acidification product, accounting for 66.51% of the total VFAs. When the OLR increased from 10 to 20 kg COD/(m(3) day), the average size of the granule sludge decreased from 469 to 258 μm. There was an obvious reduction in the concentration of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in the granular sludge. The visible humic acid-like peak was identified in the three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra of the soluble microbial products (SMPs). The fatty acid bond, amide II bond, amide III bond, and C-H bond bending were also observed in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the SMPs. Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanococcus, and Bacteria populations exhibited significant shifts, and these changes were accompanied by an increase in VFA production. The results indicated that a short HRT and high OLR in the EGSB reactor caused the accumulation of polysaccharides, protein, and VFAs, thereby inhibiting the activity of methanogenic bacteria and causing granular sludge corruption.

  7. Quantifying Water Flow within Aquatic Ecosystems Using Load Cell Sensors: A Profile of Currents Experienced by Coral Reef Organisms around Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Jacob L.

    2014-01-01

    Current velocity in aquatic environments has major implications for the diversity, abundance and ecology of aquatic organisms, but quantifying these currents has proven difficult. This study utilises a simple and inexpensive instrument (<$150) to provide a detailed current velocity profile of the coral-reef system around Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) at a spatial and temporal scale relevant to the ecology of individual benthos and fish. The instrument uses load-cell sensors to provide a correlation between sensor output and ambient current velocity of 99%. Each instrument is able to continuously record current velocities to >500 cms−1 and wave frequency to >100 Hz over several weeks. Sensor data are registered and processed at 16 MHz and 10 bit resolution, with a measuring precision of 0.06±0.04%, and accuracy of 0.51±0.65% (mean ±S.D.). Each instrument is also pressure rated to 120 m and shear stresses ≤20 kNm−2 allowing deployment in harsh environments. The instrument was deployed across 27 coral reef sites covering the crest (3 m), mid-slope (6 m) and deep-slope (9 m depth) of habitats directly exposed, oblique or sheltered from prevailing winds. Measurements demonstrate that currents over the reef slope and crest varies immensely depending on depth and exposure: Currents differ up to 9-fold within habitats only separated by 3 m depth and 15-fold between exposed, oblique and sheltered habitats. Comparisons to ambient weather conditions reveal that currents around Lizard Island are largely wind driven. Zero to 22.5 knot winds correspond directly to currents of 0 to >82 cms−1, while tidal currents rarely exceed 5.5 cms−1. Rather, current velocity increases exponentially as a function of wave height (0 to 1.6 m) and frequency (0.54 to 0.20 Hz), emphasizing the enormous effect of wind and waves on organisms in these shallow coral reef habitats. PMID:24421878

  8. A two-year database of BC measurements at the biggest European crude oil pre-treatment plant: a comparison with organic gaseous compounds and PM10 loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvello, Mariarosaria; Esposito, Francesco; Lorusso, Marina; Pavese, Giulia

    2015-10-01

    A two-year data-set of black carbon (BC) measurements collected in a site in South Italy close to the biggest European pre-treatment plant (COVA) of crude oil has been studied. The area named Val d'Agri, in Basilicata Region, is also crossed by the main road SS598. Data have been collected by using a 7 wavelength aethalometer allowing the measurement of equivalent black carbon (EBC) content, the estimation of Ångström absorption exponent (AAE), and the detection of organic fraction presence through UVPM (UV-absorbing particulate matter) quantity. Data have been analyzed to distinguish seasonal behaviors and characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols. No evident seasonal patterns have been observed for EBC concentrations with a mean value of 643 ± 415 ng/m3 and a large short-term variability, with frequent periods (few days or few weeks) of intense emissions associated to COVA activities. EBC averaged daily trends show two main peaks, one in the morning and one in the evening suggesting a contribution of traffic as a background source of BC on a long-term basis, due to the SS598 passing near the measurement site. On a four month period in 2013, a comparison with co-located PM10 concentrations data has been carried out showing a relevant contribution of EBC to the total particle loading at the site. Unlike EBC, AAE shows higher values (maximum value 1.3 ± 0.3) during cold periods and lower values (minimum value 0.9 ± 0.2) in the warmer seasons. Anti-correlation has been observed when comparing AAE with both solar radiation and temperature. In addition, enhanced values during night time for AAE average daily patterns have been observed despite the seasons, suggesting relevant additional sources of organic carbon other than traffic related to COVA emissions during the year. Moreover a good agreement, on a short-term basis, has been found among UVPM, benzene, toluene.

  9. Quantifying water flow within aquatic ecosystems using load cell sensors: a profile of currents experienced by coral reef organisms around Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Jacob L

    2014-01-01

    Current velocity in aquatic environments has major implications for the diversity, abundance and ecology of aquatic organisms, but quantifying these currents has proven difficult. This study utilises a simple and inexpensive instrument (<$150) to provide a detailed current velocity profile of the coral-reef system around Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) at a spatial and temporal scale relevant to the ecology of individual benthos and fish. The instrument uses load-cell sensors to provide a correlation between sensor output and ambient current velocity of 99%. Each instrument is able to continuously record current velocities to >500 cms⁻¹ and wave frequency to >100 Hz over several weeks. Sensor data are registered and processed at 16 MHz and 10 bit resolution, with a measuring precision of 0.06±0.04%, and accuracy of 0.51±0.65% (mean ±S.D.). Each instrument is also pressure rated to 120 m and shear stresses ≤20 kNm⁻² allowing deployment in harsh environments. The instrument was deployed across 27 coral reef sites covering the crest (3 m), mid-slope (6 m) and deep-slope (9 m depth) of habitats directly exposed, oblique or sheltered from prevailing winds. Measurements demonstrate that currents over the reef slope and crest varies immensely depending on depth and exposure: currents differ up to 9-fold within habitats only separated by 3 m depth and 15-fold between exposed, oblique and sheltered habitats. Comparisons to ambient weather conditions reveal that currents around Lizard Island are largely wind driven. Zero to 22.5 knot winds correspond directly to currents of 0 to >82 cms⁻¹, while tidal currents rarely exceed 5.5 cms⁻¹. Rather, current velocity increases exponentially as a function of wave height (0 to 1.6 m) and frequency (0.54 to 0.20 Hz), emphasizing the enormous effect of wind and waves on organisms in these shallow coral reef habitats.

  10. Responses of stream nitrate and dissolved organic carbon loadings to hydrological forcing and climate change in an upland forest of the northeast USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Shanley, James B.

    2009-01-01

    [1] In coming decades, higher annual temperatures, increased growing season length, and increased dormant season precipitation are expected across the northeastern United States in response to anthropogenic forcing of global climate. We synthesized long-term stream hydrochemical data from the Sleepers River Research Watershed in Vermont, United States, to explore the relationship of catchment wetness to stream nitrate and DOC loadings. We modeled changes in growing season length and precipitation patterns to simulate future climate scenarios and to assess how stream nutrient loadings respond to climate change. Model results for the 2070–2099 time period suggest that stream nutrient loadings during both the dormant and growing seasons will respond to climate change. During a warmer climate, growing season stream fluxes (runoff +20%, nitrate +57%, and DOC +58%) increase as more precipitation (+28%) and quick flow (+39%) occur during a longer growing season (+43 days). During the dormant season, stream water and nutrient loadings decrease. Net annual stream runoff (+8%) and DOC loading (+9%) increases are commensurate with the magnitude of the average increase of net annual precipitation (+7%). Net annual stream water and DOC loadings are primarily affected by increased dormant season precipitation. In contrast, decreased annual loading of stream nitrate (−2%) reflects a larger effect of growing season controls on stream nitrate and the effects of lengthened growing seasons in a warmer climate. Our findings suggest that leaching of nitrate and DOC from catchment soils will be affected by anthropogenic climate forcing, thereby affecting the timing and magnitude of annual stream loadings in the northeastern United States.

  11. Types of biological reactions to the gravitation loads.

    PubMed

    Pestov, I D

    1997-07-01

    The nature of adaptation to gravitational loads is reviewed. Topics include an organism's antigravitation function, exposure to gravitational loads, types of physiological reactions, and results of adaptation.

  12. Extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate during the co-digestion of rapeseed oil and sewage sludge in a CSTR--characterization of granules formed due to CaO addition to maintain process stability.

    PubMed

    Kasina, M; Kleyböcker, A; Michalik, M; Würdemann, H

    2015-01-01

    In a co-digestion system running with rapeseed oil and sewage sludge, an extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate was studied to develop a procedure to allow for flexible and demand-driven energy production. The over-acidification of the digestate was successfully prevented by calcium oxide dosage, which resulted in granule formation. Mineralogical analyses revealed that the granules were composed of insoluble salts of long chain fatty acids and calcium and had a porous structure. Long chain fatty acids and calcium formed the outer cover of granules and offered interfaces on the inside thereby enhancing the growth of biofilms. With granule size and age, the pore size increased and indicated degradation of granular interfaces. A stable biogas production up to the organic loading rate of 10.4 kg volatile solids m(-3) d(-1) was achieved although the hydrogen concentration was not favorable for propionic acid degradation. However, at higher organic loading rates, unbalanced granule formation and degradation were observed. Obviously, the adaption time for biofilm growth was too short to maintain the balance, thereby resulting in a low methane yield.

  13. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during pilot-scale processing of iceberg lettuce using flume water containing peroxyacetic acid-based sanitizers and various organic loads.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Gordon R; Kaminski-Davidson, Chelsea N; Ryser, Elliot T

    2017-05-02

    In order to minimize cross-contamination during leafy green processing, chemical sanitizers are routinely added to the wash water. This study assessed the efficacy of peroxyacetic acid and mixed peracid against E. coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce, in wash water, and on equipment during simulated commercial production in a pilot-scale processing line using flume water containing various organic loads. Iceberg lettuce (5.4kg) inoculated to contain 10(6)CFU/g of a 4-strain cocktail of non-toxigenic, GFP-labeled, ampicillin-resistant E. coli O157:H7, was shredded using a commercial shredder, step-conveyed to a flume tank, washed for 90s using water alone or two different sanitizing treatments (50ppm peroxyacetic acid or mixed peracid) in water containing organic loads of 0, 2.5, 5 or 10% (w/v) blended iceberg lettuce, and then dried using a shaker table and centrifugal dryer. Thereafter, three 5.4-kg batches of uninoculated iceberg lettuce were identically processed. Various product (25g) and water (50ml) samples collected during processing along with equipment surface samples (100cm(2)) from the flume tank, shaker table and centrifugal dryer were then assessed for numbers of E. coli O157:H7. Organic load rarely impacted (P>0.05) the efficacy of either peroxyacetic acid or mixed peracid, with typical reductions of >5logCFU/ml in wash water throughout processing for all organic loads. Increases in organic load in the wash water corresponded to changes in total solids, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, maximum filterable volume, and oxidation/reduction potential. After 90s of exposure to flume water, E. coli O157:H7 reductions on inoculated lettuce ranged from 0.97 to 1.74logCFU/g using peroxyacetic acid, with an average reduction of 1.35logCFU/g for mixed peracid. E. coli O157:H7 persisted on all previously uninoculated lettuce following the inoculated batch, emphasizing the need for improved intervention strategies that can better ensure end-product safety.

  14. Nutrient, organic carbon, and chloride concentrations and loads in selected Long Island Sound tributaries—Four decades of change following the passage of the Federal Clean Water Act

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullaney, John R.

    2016-03-10

    Loads of dissolved silica (DSi; flow-normalized and non-flow-normalized) increased slightly at most stations during the study period and were positively correlated to urbanized land in the basin and negatively correlated to area of open water. Concentrations and loads of chloride increased at 12 of the 14 sites during both periods. Increases likely are the result of an increase in the use of salt for deicing, as well as other factors related to urbanization and population growth, such as increases in wastewater discharge and discharge from septic systems.

  15. Data-based mechanistic modeling of dissolved organic carbon load through storms using continuous 15-minute resolution observations within UK upland watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, T.; Chappell, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    Few watershed modeling studies have addressed DOC dynamics through storm hydrographs (notable exceptions include Boyer et al., 1997 Hydrol Process; Jutras et al., 2011 Ecol Model; Xu et al., 2012 Water Resour Res). In part this has been a consequence of an incomplete understanding of the biogeochemical processes leading to DOC export to streams (Neff & Asner, 2001, Ecosystems) & an insufficient frequency of DOC monitoring to capture sometimes complex time-varying relationships between DOC & storm hydrographs (Kirchner et al., 2004, Hydrol Process). We present the results of a new & ongoing UK study that integrates two components - 1/ New observations of DOC concentrations (& derived load) continuously monitored at 15 minute intervals through multiple seasons for replicated watersheds; & 2/ A dynamic modeling technique that is able to quantify storage-decay effects, plus hysteretic, nonlinear, lagged & non-stationary relationships between DOC & controlling variables (including rainfall, streamflow, temperature & specific biogeochemical variables e.g., pH, nitrate). DOC concentration is being monitored continuously using the latest generation of UV spectrophotometers (i.e. S::CAN spectro::lysers) with in situ calibrations to laboratory analyzed DOC. The controlling variables are recorded simultaneously at the same stream stations. The watersheds selected for study are among the most intensively studied basins in the UK uplands, namely the Plynlimon & Llyn Brianne experimental basins. All contain areas of organic soils, with three having improved grasslands & three conifer afforested. The dynamic response characteristics (DRCs) that describe detailed DOC behaviour through sequences of storms are simulated using the latest identification routines for continuous time transfer function (CT-TF) models within the Matlab-based CAPTAIN toolbox (some incorporating nonlinear components). To our knowledge this is the first application of CT-TFs to modelling DOC processes

  16. Cognitive Load and Learning Effects of Having Students Organize Pictures and Words in Multimedia Environments: The Role of Student Interactivity and Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Roxana; Valdez, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    The cognitive load and learning effects of dual-code and interactivity--two multimedia methods intended to promote meaningful learning--were examined. In Experiment 1, college students learned about the causal chain of events leading to the process of lightning formation with a set of words and corresponding pictures (Group WP), pictures (Group…

  17. LOADING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-10-01

    A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

  18. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  19. Carbohydrate Loading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  20. Air quality and organic compounds in aerosols from a coastal rural area in the Western Iberian Peninsula over a year long period: Characterisation, loads and seasonal trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Tiago; Pio, Casimiro; Alves, Célia; Silvestre, Armando; Evtyugina, Margarita; Afonso, Joana; Caseiro, Alexandre; Legrand, Michel

    Ambient samples of fine organic aerosol collected from a rural area (Moitinhos) in the vicinity of the small coastal Portuguese city of Aveiro over a period of more than one year have been solvent-extracted and quantitatively characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Particles were also analysed with a thermal-optical technique in order to determine their elemental and organic carbon content. In addition, meteorological sensors and real-time black carbon, ozone and carbon monoxide monitors were used. Particulate matter values were higher than background levels in continental Europe. A patent seasonal variation for organic and elemental carbon concentrations was observed, presumably related to stronger local primary emissions and to limited vertical dispersion. The higher levels were most likely a result of residential wood burning, since black carbon and carbon monoxide maximised during late evening hours in wintertime. Of the bulk of elutable organics, more than a half, on average, was present as acidic fraction. Alcohols, aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons represented together, more than 30% of the elutable mass, also showing a marked seasonal pattern with a minimum in summer and a maximum in winter. The winter increase was more evident for resinic acids, phytosterols, n-alkanoic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  1. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOEpatents

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1995-08-22

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  2. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOEpatents

    Hainfeld, James F.

    1997-11-25

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure's contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host's species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes.

  3. Enhanced proton conductivity of Nafion hybrid membrane under different humidities by incorporating metal-organic frameworks with high phytic acid loading.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; He, Guangwei; Zhang, Bei; Cao, Ying; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Zhongyi; Tiantian, Zhou

    2014-06-25

    In this study, phytic acid (myo-inositol hexaphosphonic acid) was first immobilized by MIL101 via vacuum-assisted impregnation method. The obtained phytic@MIL101 was then utilized as a novel filler to incorporate into Nafion to fabricate hybrid proton exchange membrane for application in PEMFC under different relative humidities (RHs), especially under low RHs. High loading and uniform dispersion of phytic acid in MIL 101(Cr) were achieved as demonstrated by ICP, FT-IR, XPS, and EDS-mapping. The phytic@MIL101 was dispersed homogeneously in the Nafion matrix when the filler content was less than 12%. Hybrid membranes were evaluated by proton conductivity, mechanical property, thermal stability, and so forth. Remarkably, the Nafion/phytic@MIL hybrid membranes showed high proton conductivity at different RHs, especially under low RHs, which was up to 0.0608 S cm(-1) and 7.63 × 10(-4) S cm(-1) at 57.4% RH and 10.5% RH (2.8 and 11.0 times higher than that of pristine membrane), respectively. Moreover, the mechanical property of Nafion/phtic@MIL hybrid membranes was substantially enhanced and the thermal stability of membranes was well preserved.

  4. Ultrasonic enhancement of the simultaneous removal of quaternary toxic organic dyes by CuO nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon: Central composite design, kinetic and isotherm study.

    PubMed

    Dashamiri, Somayeh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Dashtian, Kheibar; Rahimi, Mahmood Reza; Goudarzi, Alireza; Jannesar, Ramin

    2016-07-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (CuO-NPs-AC) were prepared and fully analyzed and characterized with FE-SEM, XRD and FT-IR. Subsequently, this novel material was used for simultaneous ultrasound-assisted adsorption of brilliant green (BG), auramine O (AO), methylene blue (MB) and eosin yellow (EY) dyes. Problems regard to dyes spectra overlap in quaternary solution of this dyes were omitted by derivative spectrophotometric method. The best pH in quaternary system was studied by using one at a time method to achieved maximum dyes removal percentage. Subsequently, sonication time, adsorbent dosage and initial dyes concentrations influence on dyes removal was optimized by central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function approach (DFA). Desirability score of 0.978 show optimum conditions set at sonication time (4.2 min), adsorbent mass (0.029 g), initial dyes concentration (4.5 mg L(-1)). Under this optimum condition the removal percentage for MB, AO, EY and BG dyes 97.58, 94.66, 96.22 and 94.93, respectively. The adsorption rate well fitted by pseudo second-order while adsorption capacity according to the Langmuir model as best equilibrium isotherm model for BG, MB, AO and EY was 20.48, 21.26, 22.34 and 21.29 mg g(-1), respectively.

  5. Evaluation of soil sustainability along the Rio Grande in West Texas: changes in salt loading and organic nutrients due to farming practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, C. L.; Ganjegunte, G.; Borrok, D. M.; Lougheed, V.; Ma, L.; Jin, L.

    2011-12-01

    thus have higher salt loading, and that Cotton has a higher clay content. The EC values continuously increase from irrigation water to soil waters, suggesting that as water travels through the soil profile it increases in salinity. Consistent with this observation, cation concentrations in soil waters increased with depth. Therefore, the salts within the soils are mobilized during irrigation. 5TE sensors at all three depths in the field showed spikes in EC, and soil moisture during each period of flood irrigation. Data also suggests a lower bulk EC between irrigation periods which might result from a lower soil moisture content which doesn't solublize the salts. The carbonate- and gypsum- rich soils and surface water in the Rio Grande Basin change with intensity and amount of irrigation, addition of fertilizers, and other agricultural practices. Results from this project contribute to our understanding of salt loading and nutrient cycling in the vulnerable area of the Rio Grande Valley in West Texas.

  6. From greening to browning: Catchment vegetation development and reduced S-deposition promote organic carbon load on decadal time scales in Nordic lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finstad, Anders G.; Andersen, Tom; Larsen, Søren; Tominaga, Koji; Blumentrath, Stefan; de Wit, Heleen A.; Tømmervik, Hans; Hessen, Dag Olav

    2016-08-01

    Increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), often labelled “browning”, is a current trend in northern, particularly boreal, freshwaters. The browning has been attributed to the recent reduction in sulphate (S) deposition during the last 2 to 3 decades. Over the last century, climate and land use change have also caused an increasing trend in vegetation cover (“greening”), and this terrestrially fixed carbon represents another potential source for export of organic carbon to lakes and rivers. The impact of this greening on the observed browning of lakes and rivers on decadal time scales remains poorly investigated, however. Here, we explore time-series both on water chemistry and catchment vegetation cover (using NDVI as proxy) from 70 Norwegian lakes and catchments over a 30-year period. We show that the increase in terrestrial vegetation as well as temperature and runoff significantly adds to the reduced SO4-deposition as a driver of freshwater DOC concentration. Over extended periods (centuries), climate mediated changes in vegetation cover may cause major browning of northern surface waters, with severe impact on ecosystem productivity and functioning.

  7. From greening to browning: Catchment vegetation development and reduced S-deposition promote organic carbon load on decadal time scales in Nordic lakes

    PubMed Central

    Finstad, Anders G.; Andersen, Tom; Larsen, Søren; Tominaga, Koji; Blumentrath, Stefan; de Wit, Heleen A.; Tømmervik, Hans; Hessen, Dag Olav

    2016-01-01

    Increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), often labelled “browning”, is a current trend in northern, particularly boreal, freshwaters. The browning has been attributed to the recent reduction in sulphate (S) deposition during the last 2 to 3 decades. Over the last century, climate and land use change have also caused an increasing trend in vegetation cover (“greening”), and this terrestrially fixed carbon represents another potential source for export of organic carbon to lakes and rivers. The impact of this greening on the observed browning of lakes and rivers on decadal time scales remains poorly investigated, however. Here, we explore time-series both on water chemistry and catchment vegetation cover (using NDVI as proxy) from 70 Norwegian lakes and catchments over a 30-year period. We show that the increase in terrestrial vegetation as well as temperature and runoff significantly adds to the reduced SO4-deposition as a driver of freshwater DOC concentration. Over extended periods (centuries), climate mediated changes in vegetation cover may cause major browning of northern surface waters, with severe impact on ecosystem productivity and functioning. PMID:27554453

  8. Anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure in a single continuously stirred tank reactor process: Limits in co-substrate ratios and organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Rico, Carlos; Muñoz, Noelia; Rico, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure was investigated with the aim of determining the treatment limits in terms of the cheese whey fraction in feed and the organic loading rate. The results of a continuous stirred tank reactor that was operated with a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 days showed that the co-digestion process was possible with a cheese whey fraction as high as 85% in the feed. The efficiency of the process was similar within the range of the 15-85% cheese whey fraction. To study the effect of the increasing loading rate, the HRT was progressively shortened with the 65% cheese whey fraction in the feed. The reactor efficiency dropped as the HRT decreased but enabled a stable operation over 8.7 days of HRT. At these operating conditions, a volumetric methane production rate of 1.37 m(3) CH4 m(-3) d(-1) was achieved.

  9. Preparation of Hollow N-Chloramine-Functionalized Hemispherical Silica Particles with Enhanced Efficacy against Bacteria in the Presence of Organic Load: Synthesis, Characterization, and Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Rahma, Hakim; Asghari, Sogol; Logsetty, Sarvesh; Gu, Xiaochen; Liu, Song

    2015-06-03

    The fabrication of highly effective antimicrobial materials is an important strategy for coping with the growing concern of bacterial resistance. In this study, N-chloramine-functionalized hollow hemispherical structures were designed and prepared to examine possible enhancement of antimicrobial performance. Antimicrobial testing was carried out on Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Baccilus Cereus) bacteria in the presence and absence of biological medium. The efficacy of the hollow hemispherical particles functionalized with various N-chloramines in killing bacteria was compared among themselves with that of small organic molecules and spherical particles to investigate the effect of the surface charge, chemical structure, and shape of the particles. Results demonstrated that quaternary ammonium salt or amine functions in the chemical structure enhanced the antimicrobial activity of the particles and made the particles more effective than the small molecules in the presence of biological medium. The importance of particle shape in the killing tests was also confirmed.

  10. A "ship in a bottle" strategy to load a hydrophilic anticancer drug in porous metal organic framework nanoparticles: efficient encapsulation, matrix stabilization, and photodelivery.

    PubMed

    di Nunzio, Maria Rosaria; Agostoni, Valentina; Cohen, Boiko; Gref, Ruxandra; Douhal, Abderrazzak

    2014-01-23

    An essential challenge in the development of nanosized metal organic framework (nanoMOF) materials in biomedicine is to develop a strategy to stabilize their supramolecular structure in biological media while being able to control drug encapsulation and release. We have developed a method to efficiently encapsulate topotecan (TPT, 1), an important cytotoxic drug, in biodegradable nanoMOFs. Once inside the pores, 1 monomers aggregate in a "ship in a bottle" fashion, thus filling practically all of the nanoMOFs' available free volume and stabilizing their crystalline supramolecular structures. Highly efficient results have been found with the human pancreatic cell line PANC1, in contrast with free 1. We also demonstrate that one- and two-photon light irradiation emerges as a highly promising strategy to promote stimuli-dependent 1 release from the nanoMOFs, hence opening new standpoints for further developments in triggered drug delivery.

  11. Influence of organic carbon loading, sediment associated metal oxide content and sediment grain size distributions upon Cryptosporidium parvum removal during riverbank filtration operations, Sonoma County, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metge, D.W.; Harvey, R.W.; Aiken, G.R.; Anders, R.; Lincoln, G.; Jasperse, J.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the efficacy for removing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts of poorly sorted, Fe- and Al-rich, subsurface sediments collected from 0.9 to 4.9 and 1.7-13.9??m below land surface at an operating riverbank filtration (RBF) site (Russian River, Sonoma County, CA). Both formaldehyde-killed oocysts and oocyst-sized (3????m) microspheres were employed in sediment-packed flow-through and static columns. The degree of surface coverage of metal oxides on sediment grain surfaces correlated strongly with the degrees of oocyst and microsphere removals. In contrast, average grain size (D50) was not a good indicator of either microsphere or oocyst removal, suggesting that the primary mechanism of immobilization within these sediments is sorptive filtration rather than physical straining. A low specific UV absorbance (SUVA) for organic matter isolated from the Russian River, suggested that the modest concentration of the SUVA component (0.8??mg??L-1) of the 2.2??mg??L-1 dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is relatively unreactive. Nevertheless, an amendment of 2.2??mg??L-1 of isolated river DOC to column sediments resulted in up to a 35.7% decrease in sorption of oocysts and (or) oocyst-sized microspheres. Amendments (3.2????M) of the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) also caused substantive decreases (up to 31.9 times) in colloid filtration. Although the grain-surface metal oxides were found to have a high colloid-removal capacity, our study suggested that any major changes within the watershed that would result in long-term alterations in either the quantity and (or) the character of the river's DOC could alter the effectiveness of pathogen removal during RBF operations.

  12. Effect of organic loading on the microbiota in a temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) system co-digesting dairy manure and waste whey.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueh-Fen; Abraham, Christopher; Nelson, Michael C; Chen, Po-Hsu; Graf, Joerg; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-10-01

    Temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) has gained increasing attention because it provides the flexibility to operate digesters under conditions that enhance overall digester performance. However, research on impact of organic overloading rate (OLR) to microbiota of TPAD systems was limited. In this study, we investigated the composition and successions of the microbiota in both the thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters of a laboratory-scale TPAD system co-digesting dairy manure and waste whey before and during organic overloading. The thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters were operated at 50 and 35 °C, respectively, with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days for each digester. High OLR (dairy manure with 5 % total solid and waste whey of ≥60.4 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/l/day) resulted in decrease in pH and in biogas production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the thermophilic digester, while the mesophilic digester remained unchanged except a transient increase in biogas production. Both denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Illumina sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicons showed dramatic change in microbiota composition and profound successions of both bacterial and methanogenic communities. During the overloading, Thermotogae was replaced by Proteobacteria, while Methanobrevibacter and archaeon classified as WCHD3-02 grew in predominance at the expense of Methanoculleus in the thermophilic digester, whereas Methanosarcina dominated the methanogenic community, while Methanobacterium and Methanobrevibacter became less predominant in the mesophilic digester. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that digester temperature and pH were the most influential environmental factors that explained much of the variations of the microbiota in this TPAD system when it was overloaded.

  13. Effect of volumetric organic loading rate (OLR) on H2 and CH4 production by two-stage anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and brown water.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Sachin; Kang, Youngjun; Yoo, Yeong-Seok; Seo, Gyu Tae

    2017-03-01

    Two-stage anaerobic digestion system consisting of two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) operating at mesophillic conditions (37°C) were studied. The aim of this study is to determine optimum Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of the two-stage anaerobic digester system for hydrogen and methane production. This paper also discusses the effect of OLR with change in HRT on the system. Four different HRTs of 48, 24, 12, 8h were monitored for acidogenic reactor, which provided OLR of 17.7, 34.8, 70.8, 106gVS/L·d respectively. Two HRTs of 15days and 20days were studied with OLR of 1.24 and 1.76gVS/L·d respectively in methanogenic reactor. Hydrogen production at higher OLR and shorter HRT seemed favorable 106gVS/L·d (8h) in acidogenic reactor system. In methanogenic reactor system HRT of 20day with OLR of 1.24gVS/L·d was found optimum in terms of methane production and organic removal. The result of this study illustrated the optimum HRT of 8h and 20days in acidogenic stage and methanogenic stage for maximum hydrogen and methane production.

  14. Biogas production from spent rose hips (Rosa canina L.): fraction separation, organic loading and co-digestion with N-rich microbial biomass.

    PubMed

    Osojnik Črnivec, Ilja Gasan; Muri, Petra; Djinović, Petar; Pintar, Albin

    2014-11-01

    Complex waste streams originating from extraction processes containing residual organic solvents and increased C/N ratios have not yet been considered as feedstock for biogas production to a great extent. In this study, spent rosehip (Rosa canina L.) solid residue (64%VS, 22 MJ/kg HHV, 30C/1N) was obtained from an industrial ethanol aided extraction process, and extensively examined in an automated batch bioreactor system for biogas production. Fraction separation of the compact lignocellulosic seeds increased the available sugar and ethanol content, resulting in high biogas potential of the sieved residue (516 NL/kg VS'). In co-digestion of spent rosehip substrate with non-deactivated nitrogen rich microbial co-substrates, methanogenesis was favored (Y(m) > 68%(CH4)). In individual digestion of microbial co-substrates, this was not the case, as biogas with 28 vol.% N2 was produced from activated sludge supplement. Therefore, effective inhibition of exogenous microbiota was achieved in the presence of carbonaceous spent rose hip.

  15. Biogas production performance of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion with fat, oil, and grease in semi-continuous flow digesters: effects of temperature, hydraulic retention time, and organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Champagne, P; Anderson, B C

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestions with fat, oil, and grease (FOG) were investigated in semi-continuous flow digesters under various operating conditions. The effects of hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 12 and 24 days, organic loading rates (OLRs) between 1.19 and 8.97 gTVS/Ld, and digestion temperatures of 37 degrees C and 55 degrees C on biogas production were evaluated. It was proposed that, compared to anaerobic digestion with wastewater treatment plant sludge (primary raw sludge), semi-continuous flow anaerobic co-digestion with FOG could effectively enhance biogas and methane production. Thermophilic (55 degrees C) co-digestions exhibited higher biogas production and degradation of organics than mesophilic co-digestions. The best biogas production rate of 17.4 +/- 0.86 L/d and methane content 67.9 +/- 1.46% was obtained with a thermophilic co-digestion at HRT = 24 days and OLR = 2.43 +/- 0.15 g TVS/Ld. These were 32.8% and 7.10% higher than the respective values from the mesophilic co-digestion under similar operating conditions.

  16. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, Carl W.; Nodine, Robert N.; Wallace, Steven Allen

    1999-01-01

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  17. Load Model Data Tool

    SciTech Connect

    David Chassin, Pavel Etingov

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to be provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.

  18. Load Induced Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005d`) was consistently reduced with high, compared to low, perceptual load but was unaffected by the level of working memory load. Because alternative accounts in terms of expectation, memory, response bias, and goal-neglect due to the more strenuous high load task were ruled out, these experiments clearly demonstrate that high perceptual load determines conscious perception, impairing the ability to merely detect the presence of a stimulus—a phenomenon of load induced blindness. PMID:18823196

  19. Phalange Tactile Load Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A tactile load cell that has particular application for measuring the load on a phalange in a dexterous robot system. The load cell includes a flexible strain element having first and second end portions that can be used to mount the load cell to the phalange and a center portion that can be used to mount a suitable contact surface to the load cell. The strain element also includes a first S-shaped member including at least three sections connected to the first end portion and the center portion and a second S-shaped member including at least three sections coupled to the second end portion and the center portion. The load cell also includes eight strain gauge pairs where each strain gauge pair is mounted to opposing surfaces of one of the sections of the S-shaped members where the strain gauge pairs provide strain measurements in six-degrees of freedom.

  20. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Lawrence M.; Strum, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  1. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  2. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  3. Dynamic localized load balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balandin, Sergey I.; Heiner, Andreas P.

    2003-08-01

    Traditionally dynamic load balancing is applied in resource-reserved connection-oriented networks with a large degree of managed control. Load balancing in connectionless networks is rather rudimentary and is either static or requires network-wide load information. This paper presents a fully automated, traffic driven dynamic load balancing mechanism that uses local load information. The proposed mechanism is easily deployed in a multi-vendor environment in which only a subset of routers supports the function. The Dynamic Localized Load Balancing (DLLB) mechanism distributes traffic based on two sets of weights. The first set is fixed and is inverse proportional to the path cost, typically the sum of reciprocal bandwidths along the path. The second weight reflects the utilization of the link to the first next hop along the path, and is therefore variable. The ratio of static weights defines the ideal load distribution, the ratio of variable weights the node-local load distribution estimate. By minimizing the difference between variable and fixed ratios the traffic distribution, with the available node-local knowledge, is optimal. The above mechanism significantly increases throughput and decreases delay from a network-wide perspective. Optionally the variable weight can include load information of nodes downstream to prevent congestion on those nodes. The latter function further improves network performance, and is easily implemented on top of the standard OSPF signaling. The mechanism does not require many node resources and can be implemented on existing router platforms.

  4. CRITICAL LOADS METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    I summarize the results of an interagency project that 1) defines a generic approach to quantifying and reporting critical loads, and 2) exercises that generic approach by examining a data rich system -- the critical loads of sulfur deposition and it's effect on the chronic acidi...

  5. Strip and load data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The method of taking batch data files and loading these files into the ADABAS data base management system (DBMS) is examined. This strip and load process allows the user to quickly become productive. Techniques for data fields and files definition are also included.

  6. Microbial load monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplin, R. S.; Royer, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    Design analysis of a microbial load monitor system flight engineering model was presented. Checkout of the card taper and media pump system was fabricated as well as the final two incubating reading heads, the sample receiving and card loading device assembly, related sterility testing, and software. Progress in these areas was summarized.

  7. Load induced blindness.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, James S P; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-10-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of perceptual load in a letter-search task and assessed its effect on the conscious perception of a search-irrelevant shape stimulus appearing in the periphery, using a direct measure of awareness (present/absent reports). Detection sensitivity (d') was consistently reduced with high, compared to low, perceptual load but was unaffected by the level of working memory load. Because alternative accounts in terms of expectation, memory, response bias, and goal-neglect due to the more strenuous high load task were ruled out, these experiments clearly demonstrate that high perceptual load determines conscious perception, impairing the ability to merely detect the presence of a stimulus--a phenomenon of load induced blindness.

  8. Load Induced Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of…

  9. Transportation and handling loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrem, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    Criteria and recommended practices are presented for the prediction and verification of transportation and handling loads for the space vehicle structure and for monitoring these loads during transportation and handling of the vehicle or major vehicle segments. Elements of the transportation and handling systems, and the forcing functions and associated loads are described. The forcing functions for common carriers and typical handling devices are assessed, and emphasis is given to the assessment of loads at the points where the space vehicle is supported during transportation and handling. Factors which must be considered when predicting the loads include the transportation and handling medium; type of handling fixture; transport vehicle speed; types of terrain; weather (changes in pressure of temperature, wind, etc.); and dynamics of the transportation modes or handling devices (acceleration, deceleration, and rotations of the transporter or handling device).

  10. The mechanism of phloem loading in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Eom, Joon-Seob; Choi, Sang-Bong; Ward, John M; Jeon, Jong-Seong

    2012-05-01

    Carbohydrates, mainly sucrose, that are synthesized in source organs are transported to sink organs to support growth and development. Phloem loading of sucrose is a crucial step that drives long-distance transport by elevating hydrostatic pressure in the phloem. Three phloem loading strategies have been identified, two active mechanisms, apoplastic loading via sucrose transporters and symplastic polymer trapping, and one passive mechanism. The first two active loading mechanisms require metabolic energy, carbohydrate is loaded into the phloem against a concentration gradient. The passive process, diffusion, involves equilibration of sucrose and other metabolites between cells through plasmodesmata. Many higher plant species including Arabidopsis utilize the active loading mechanisms to increase carbohydrate in the phloem to higher concentrations than that in mesophyll cells. In contrast, recent data revealed that a large number of plants, especially woody species, load sucrose passively by maintaining a high concentration in mesophyll cells. However, it still remains to be determined how the worldwide important cereal crop, rice, loads sucrose into the phloem in source organs. Based on the literature and our results, we propose a potential strategy of phloem loading in rice. Elucidation of the phloem loading mechanism should improve our understanding of rice development and facilitate its manipulation towards the increase of crop productivity.

  11. Cable load sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Beus, Michael J.; McCoy, William G.

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the magnitude of a load on a cable as the cable is employed to support the load includes a beam structure clamped to the cable so that a length of the cable lies along the beam structure. A spacer associated with the beam structure forces a slight curvature in a portion of the length of cable under a cable "no-load" condition so that the portion of the length of cable is spaced from the beam structure to define a cable curved portion. A strain gauge circuit including strain gauges is secured to the beam structure by welding. As the cable is employed to support a load the load causes the cable curved portion to exert a force normal to the cable through the spacer and on the beam structure to deform the beam structure as the cable curved portion attempts to straighten under the load. As this deformation takes place, the resistance of the strain gauges is set to a value proportional to the magnitude of the normal strain on the beam structure during such deformation. The magnitude of the normal strain is manipulated in a control device to generate a value equal to the magnitude or weight of the load supported by the cable.

  12. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  13. Local load shedding

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M.; Thorne, D.K. )

    1988-08-01

    Equipment overloads in an underground transmission network are caused by unscheduled outages. Repairs or replacements of damaged cables and/or transformers in urban areas are inherently difficult and time-consuming. Therefore, for overloads greatly in excess of short-time ratings, speed of load shedding is of paramount importance. Under such conditions, the system operator is faced with: recognizing the problem, determining the course of action and shedding the correct amount of load at the right locations. These tasks are difficult to perform, particularly under pressure of time. Reliance on pre-specified load shedding lists is not satisfactory since the load shedding lists do not necessarily match the amounts and locations of the required loads to be shed. Clearly, there has been a need for a local load shedding scheme, which in the first order of importance, would relieve the overloaded equipment within the time limits imposed by the equipment short-time ratings and in the second order of importance, would ''minimize'' the amount of load to be curtailed. This paper describes an approach which meets the dual objective, providing a practical solution to a difficult engineering/operating problem.

  14. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  15. LOADING MACHINE FOR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Simon, S.L.

    1959-07-01

    An apparatus is described for loading or charging slugs of fissionable material into a nuclear reactor. The apparatus of the invention is a "muzzle loading" type comprising a delivery tube or muzzle designed to be brought into alignment with any one of a plurality of fuel channels. The delivery tube is located within the pressure shell and it is also disposed within shielding barriers while the fuel cantridges or slugs are forced through the delivery tube by an externally driven flexible ram.

  16. 16. UPPER PASSENGER LOADING ZONE, NOTE LOADING ZONE BELOW WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. UPPER PASSENGER LOADING ZONE, NOTE LOADING ZONE BELOW WITH TURN STILES - Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Arch, Mississippi River between Washington & Poplar Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  17. A comparison of measured wind park load histories with the WISPER and WISPERX load spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    The blade-loading histories from two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines are compared with the variable-amplitude test-loading histories known as the WISPER and WISPERX spectra. These standardized loading sequences were developed from blade flapwise load histories taken from nine different horizontal-axis wind turbines operating under a wide range of conditions in Europe. The subject turbines covered a broad spectrum of rotor diameters, materials, and operating environments. The final loading sequences were developed as a joint effort of thirteen different European organizations. The goal was to develop a meaningful loading standard for horizontal-axis wind turbine blades that represents common interaction effects seen in service. In 1990, NREL made extensive load measurements on two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines in simultaneous operation in the very turbulent environment of a large wind park. Further, before and during the collection of the loads data, comprehensive measurements of the statistics of the turbulent environment were obtained at both the turbines under test and at two other locations within the park. The trend to larger but lighter wind turbine structures has made an understanding of the expected lifetime loading history of paramount importance. Experience in the US has shown that the turbulence-induced loads associated with multi-row wind parks in general are much more severe than for turbines operating individually or within widely spaced environments. Multi-row wind parks are much more common in the US than in Europe. In this paper we report on our results in applying the methodology utilized to develop the WISPER and WISPERX standardized loading sequences using the available data from the Micon turbines. While the intended purpose of the WISPER sequences were not to represent a specific operating environment, we believe the exercise is useful, especially when a turbine design is likely to be installed in a multi-row wind park.

  18. A load factor formula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Roy G

    1927-01-01

    The ultimate test of a load factor formula is experience. The chief advantages of a semi rational formula over arbitrary factors are that it fairs in between points of experience and it differentiates according to variables within a type. Structural failure of an airplane apparently safe according to the formula would call for a specific change in the formula. The best class of airplanes with which to check a load factor formula seems to be those which have experienced structural failure. Table I comprises a list of the airplanes which have experienced failure in flight traceable to the wing structure. The load factor by formula is observed to be greater than the designed strength in each case, without a single exception. Table II comprises the load factor by formula with the designed strength of a number of well-known service types. The formula indicates that by far the majority of these have ample structural strength. One case considered here in deriving a suitable formula is that of a heavy load carrier of large size and practically no reserve power.

  19. Truck loading rack blending

    SciTech Connect

    Boubenider, E.

    1995-12-01

    Blending, the combining of two or more components to make a single product, has become widely used in most loading rack applications. Blending should not be confused with additive injection, which is the injection of very small doses of enhancers, detergents and dyes into a product stream. Changes in the environmental protection laws in the early 90`s have put increasing demands on marketing terminals with regards to reformulated fuels and environmental protection concerns. As a result of these new mandates, terminals have turned to blending at the loading rack as an economical and convenient means in meeting these new requirements. This paper will discuss some of these mandates and how loading rack blending is used for different applications. Various types of blending will also be discussed along with considerations for each method.

  20. Elastomeric load sharing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isabelle, Charles J. (Inventor); Kish, Jules G. (Inventor); Stone, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An elastomeric load sharing device, interposed in combination between a driven gear and a central drive shaft to facilitate balanced torque distribution in split power transmission systems, includes a cylindrical elastomeric bearing and a plurality of elastomeric bearing pads. The elastomeric bearing and bearing pads comprise one or more layers, each layer including an elastomer having a metal backing strip secured thereto. The elastomeric bearing is configured to have a high radial stiffness and a low torsional stiffness and is operative to radially center the driven gear and to minimize torque transfer through the elastomeric bearing. The bearing pads are configured to have a low radial and torsional stiffness and a high axial stiffness and are operative to compressively transmit torque from the driven gear to the drive shaft. The elastomeric load sharing device has spring rates that compensate for mechanical deviations in the gear train assembly to provide balanced torque distribution between complementary load paths of split power transmission systems.

  1. Shuttle car loading system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A system is described for loading newly mined material such as coal, into a shuttle car, at a location near the mine face where there is only a limited height available for a loading system. The system includes a storage bin having several telescoping bin sections and a shuttle car having a bottom wall that can move under the bin. With the bin in an extended position and filled with coal the bin sections can be telescoped to allow the coal to drop out of the bin sections and into the shuttle car, to quickly load the car. The bin sections can then be extended, so they can be slowly filled with more while waiting another shuttle car.

  2. Microbial load monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplin, R. S.; Royer, E. R.

    1978-01-01

    Attempts are made to provide a total design of a Microbial Load Monitor (MLM) system flight engineering model. Activities include assembly and testing of Sample Receiving and Card Loading Devices (SRCLDs), operator related software, and testing of biological samples in the MLM. Progress was made in assembling SRCLDs with minimal leaks and which operate reliably in the Sample Loading System. Seven operator commands are used to control various aspects of the MLM such as calibrating and reading the incubating reading head, setting the clock and reading time, and status of Card. Testing of the instrument, both in hardware and biologically, was performed. Hardware testing concentrated on SRCLDs. Biological testing covered 66 clinical and seeded samples. Tentative thresholds were set and media performance listed.

  3. The Effects of Load Distribution and Gradient on Load Carriage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Postural adjustments while standing with two types of loaded backpack. Ergonomics, 30(10), 1425–1430. Bobet, J. & Norman, R. W. (1984). Effects of...Danise, B., Milanese, S., Pirunsan, U., & Trott, P. (2002). Adolescent standing postural response to backpack loads: a randomized controlled...loads are authorized. Numerous studies conclude that backpack loads have a huge impact on soldiers’ load carrying ability. The platoon’s combat

  4. Ocean Tide Loading Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Duncan Carr

    2005-01-01

    September 15,2003 through May 15,2005 This grant funds the maintenance, updating, and distribution of programs for computing ocean tide loading, to enable the corrections for such loading to be more widely applied in space- geodetic and gravity measurements. These programs, developed under funding from the CDP and DOSE programs, incorporate the most recent global tidal models developed from Topex/Poscidon data, and also local tide models for regions around North America; the design of the algorithm and software makes it straightforward to combine local and global models.

  5. Transfer Mechanisms for Heavy Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassisi, V.

    1986-01-01

    Soft hydraulic system gently maneuvers loads. Upper and lower load-transfer mechanisms attach through mounting holes in vertical beam adjustable or gross positioning. Fine positioning of load accomplished by hydraulic cylinders that move trunnion support and trunnion clamp through short distances. Useful in transferring large loads in railroads, agriculture, shipping, manufacturing, and even precision assembly of large items.

  6. LOADING AND UNLOADING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1960-08-16

    A device for loading and unloading fuel rods into and from a reactor tank through an access hole includes parallel links carrying a gripper. These links enable the gripper to go through the access hole and then to be moved laterally from the axis of the access hole to the various locations of the fuel rods in the reactor tank.

  7. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    DOEpatents

    Hendrickson, Bruce A.; Leland, Robert W.

    1996-12-24

    A method of and apparatus for graph partitioning involving the use of a plurality of eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the graph of the problem for which load balancing is desired. The invention is particularly useful for optimizing parallel computer processing of a problem and for minimizing total pathway lengths of integrated circuits in the design stage.

  8. Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  9. Measuring alignment of loading fixture

    DOEpatents

    Scavone, Donald W.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the alignment of a clevis and pin type loading fixture for compact tension specimens include a pair of substantially identical flat loading ligaments. Each loading ligament has two apertures for the reception of a respective pin of the loading fixture and a thickness less than one-half of a width of the clevis opening. The pair of loading ligaments are mounted in the clevis openings at respective sides thereof. The loading ligaments are then loaded by the pins of the loading fixture and the strain in each loading ligament is measured. By comparing the relative strain of each loading ligament, the alignment of the loading fixture is determined. Preferably, a suitable strain gage device is located at each longitudinal edge of a respective loading ligament equidistant from the two apertures in order to determine the strain thereat and hence the strain of each ligament. The loading ligaments are made substantially identical by jig grinding the loading ligaments as a matched set. Each loading ligament can also be individually calibrated prior to the measurement.

  10. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    PubMed

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs.

  11. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    PubMed Central

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. PMID:26802540

  12. Load measurement system with load cell lock-out mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Thang; Carroll, Monty; Liu, Jonathan

    1995-01-01

    In the frame work of the project Shuttle Plume Impingement Flight Experiment (SPIFEX), a Load Measurement System was developed and fabricated to measure the impingement force of Shuttle Reaction Control System (RCS) jets. The Load Measurement System is a force sensing system that measures any combination of normal and shear forces up to 40 N (9 lbf) in the normal direction and 22 N (5 lbf) in the shear direction with an accuracy of +/- 0.04 N (+/- 0.01 lbf) Since high resolution is required for the force measurement, the Load Measurement System is built with highly sensitive load cells. To protect these fragile load cells in the non-operational mode from being damaged due to flight loads such as launch and landing loads of the Shuttle vehicle, a motor driven device known as the Load Cell Lock-Out Mechanism was built. This Lock-Out Mechanism isolates the load cells from flight loads and re-engages the load cells for the force measurement experiment once in space. With this highly effective protection system, the SPIFEX load measurement experiment was successfully conducted on STS-44 in September 1994 with all load cells operating properly and reading impingement forces as expected.

  13. Long-term changes in the effluent loads from pulp and paper mills, the introduction of BAT technology, and their effects on extractable organic halogens concentrations in sediment in part of the Bothnian Bay.

    PubMed

    Pöykiö, R; Nurmesniemi, H; Kivilinna, V A; Kuokkanen, T

    2010-01-01

    The Bothnian Bay at Kemi, which is the northernmost basin of the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea, is affected by effluents from point sources such as pulp and paper mills and municipal sewage plant. During the period 1988-2008, the accumulated values of effluent volume, BOD7, CODCr, Tot-P, Tot-N, TSS and AOX from these point sources fell considerably as follows: 1) effluent volume by 24%, BOD7 by 92%, CODCr by 74%, Tot-P by 79%, Tot-N by 38%, TSS by 76% and AOX by 93%. The decrease in the effluent loadings is due to the introduction of Best Available Techniques (BAT) for the production processes and wastewater treatment at the pulp and paper mills. According to the long-term monitoring program that has been carried out every third year between 1997-2009, the decreasing trend in EOX-concentrations in the top 2 cm of the bottom sediment reflects the decrease in organochlorine discharges (AOX) from the mills. In 1997, the EOX concentrations in bottom sediment varied between 3-70 μg of Cl g(-1) (dry weight), and in 2009 between 1.2-31 μg of Cl g(-1) (dry weight).

  14. Impact of sampling strategy on stream load estimates in till landscape of the Midwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vidon, P.; Hubbard, L.E.; Soyeux, E.

    2009-01-01

    Accurately estimating various solute loads in streams during storms is critical to accurately determine maximum daily loads for regulatory purposes. This study investigates the impact of sampling strategy on solute load estimates in streams in the US Midwest. Three different solute types (nitrate, magnesium, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) and three sampling strategies are assessed. Regardless of the method, the average error on nitrate loads is higher than for magnesium or DOC loads, and all three methods generally underestimate DOC loads and overestimate magnesium loads. Increasing sampling frequency only slightly improves the accuracy of solute load estimates but generally improves the precision of load calculations. This type of investigation is critical for water management and environmental assessment so error on solute load calculations can be taken into account by landscape managers, and sampling strategies optimized as a function of monitoring objectives. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. Electrical Load Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Electricity consumer demand response and load control are playing an increasingly important role in the development of a smart grid. Smart grid load management technologies such as Grid FriendlyTM controls and real-time pricing are making their way into the conventional model of grid planning and operations. However, the behavior of load both affects, and is affected by load control strategies that are designed to support electric grid planning and operations. This chapter discussed the natural behavior of electric loads, how it interacts with various load control and demand response strategies, what the consequences are for new grid operation concepts and the computing issues these new technologies raise.

  16. 32. VAL, DETAIL SHOWING LOADING PLATFORM, PROJECTILE LOADING CAR, LAUNCHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VAL, DETAIL SHOWING LOADING PLATFORM, PROJECTILE LOADING CAR, LAUNCHER SLAB AND UNDERSIDE OF LAUNCHER BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Shot loading trainer analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.K.

    1995-02-15

    This document presents the results from the analysis of the shot loading trainer (SLT). This device will be used to test the procedure for installing shot into the annulus of the Project W-320 shipping container. To ensure that the shot is installed uniformly around the container, vibrators will be used to settle the shot. The SLT was analyzed to ensure that it would not jeopardize worker safety during operation. The results from the static analysis of the SLT under deadweight and vibrator operating loads show that the stresses in the SLT are below code allowables. The results from the modal analysis show that the natural frequencies of the SLT are far below the operating frequencies of the vibrators, provided the SLT is mounted on pneumatic tires. The SLT was also analyzed for wind, seismic, deadweight, and moving/transporting loads. Analysis of the SLT is in accordance with SDC-4.1 for safety class 3 structures (DOE-RL 1993) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction (AISC 1989).

  18. Buffet Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryall, T. G.; Moses, R. W.; Hopkins, M. A.; Henderson, D.; Zimcik, D. G.; Nitzsche, F.

    2004-01-01

    High performance aircraft are, by their very nature, often required to undergo maneuvers involving high angles of attack. Under these conditions unsteady vortices emanating from the wing and the fuselage will impinge on the twin fins (required for directional stability) causing excessive buffet loads, in some circumstances, to be applied to the aircraft. These loads result in oscillatory stresses, which may cause significant amounts of fatigue damage. Active control is a possible solution to this important problem. A full-scale test was carried out on an F/A-18 fuselage and fins using piezoceramic actuators to control the vibrations. Buffet loads were simulated using very powerful electromagnetic shakers. The first phase of this test was concerned with the open loop system identification whereas the second stage involved implementing linear time invariant control laws. This paper looks at some of the problems encountered as well as the corresponding solutions and some results. It is expected that flight trials of a similar control system to alleviate buffet will occur as early as 2001.

  19. Load regulating latch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleberry, W. T. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A load regulating mechanical latch is described that has a pivotally mounted latch element having a hook-shaped end with a strike roller-engaging laterally open hook for engaging a stationary strike roller. The latch element or hook is pivotally mounted in a clevis end of an elongated latch stem that is adapted for axial movement through an opening in a support plate or bracket mounted to a structural member. A coil spring is disposed over and around the extending latch stem and the lower end of the coil spring engages the support bracket. A thrust washer is removably attached to the other end of the latch stem and engages the other end of the coil spring and compresses the coil spring thereby preloading the spring and the latch element carried by the latch stem. The hook-shaped latch element has a limited degree of axial travel for loading caused by structural distortion which may change the relative positions of the latch element hook and the strike roller. Means are also provided to permit limited tilt of the latch element due to loading of the hook.

  20. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOEpatents

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  1. Allostatic load and biological anthropology.

    PubMed

    Edes, Ashley N; Crews, Douglas E

    2017-01-01

    Multiple stressors affect developing and adult organisms, thereby partly structuring their phenotypes. Determining how stressors influence health, well-being, and longevity in human and nonhuman primate populations are major foci within biological anthropology. Although much effort has been devoted to examining responses to multiple environmental and sociocultural stressors, no holistic metric to measure stress-related physiological dysfunction has been widely applied within biological anthropology. Researchers from disciplines outside anthropology are using allostatic load indices (ALIs) to estimate such dysregulation and examine life-long outcomes of stressor exposures, including morbidity and mortality. Following allostasis theory, allostatic load represents accumulated physiological and somatic damage secondary to stressors and senescent processes experienced over the lifespan. ALIs estimate this wear-and-tear using a composite of biomarkers representing neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune systems. Across samples, ALIs are associated significantly with multiple individual characteristics (e.g., age, sex, education, DNA variation) of interest within biological anthropology. They also predict future outcomes, including aspects of life history variation (e.g., survival, lifespan), mental and physical health, morbidity and mortality, and likely health disparities between groups, by stressor exposures, ethnicity, occupations, and degree of departure from local indigenous life ways and integration into external and commodified ones. ALIs also may be applied to similar stress-related research areas among nonhuman primates. Given the reports from multiple research endeavors, here we propose ALIs may be useful for assessing stressors, stress responses, and stress-related dysfunction, current and long-term cognitive function, health and well-being, and risk of early mortality across many research programs within biological anthropology.

  2. Variable loading roller

    DOEpatents

    Williams, D.M.

    1988-01-21

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

  3. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  4. Microbial Load Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, S. F.; Royer, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    The Microbial Load Monitor (MLM) is an automated and computerized system for detection and identification of microorganisms. Additionally, the system is designed to enumerate and provide antimicrobic susceptibility profiles for medically significant bacteria. The system is designed to accomplish these tasks in a time of 13 hours or less versus the traditional time of 24 hours for negatives and 72 hours or more for positives usually required for standard microbiological analysis. The MLM concept differs from other methods of microbial detection in that the system is designed to accept raw untreated clinical samples and to selectively identify each group or species that may be present in a polymicrobic sample.

  5. Plug Loads Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple plug loads inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Vending Machine Misers, Delamp Vending Machine, Desktop to Laptop retrofit, CRT to LCD monitors retrofit, Computer Power Management Settings, and Energy Star Refrigerator retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  6. Variable loading roller

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Daniel M.

    1989-01-01

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves on the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first.

  7. An Investigation of the Inertial Properties of Backpacks Loaded in Various Configurations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    and Richard C. Nelson, Ph.D. S. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Biomechanics ...backpacks loads backpack system load carrying military clothing human backpack system military equipment loading configurations inertial properties 2i04...configuration, a 12.00-kg load, consisting of military clothing and equip- ment, was placed in the packs. The locations of the items were manipulated

  8. Load Control System Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, Daniel

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  9. Collagen network strengthening following cyclic tensile loading.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Monica E; Paten, Jeffrey A; Sander, Edward A; Nguyen, Thao D; Ruberti, Jeffrey W

    2016-02-06

    The bulk mechanical properties of tissues are highly tuned to the physiological loads they experience and reflect the hierarchical structure and mechanical properties of their constituent parts. A thorough understanding of the processes involved in tissue adaptation is required to develop multi-scale computational models of tissue remodelling. While extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling is partly due to the changing cellular metabolic activity, there may also be mechanically directed changes in ECM nano/microscale organization which lead to mechanical tuning. The thermal and enzymatic stability of collagen, which is the principal load-bearing biopolymer in vertebrates, have been shown to be enhanced by force suggesting that collagen has an active role in ECM mechanical properties. Here, we ask how changes in the mechanical properties of a collagen-based material are reflected by alterations in the micro/nanoscale collagen network following cyclic loading. Surprisingly, we observed significantly higher tensile stiffness and ultimate tensile strength, roughly analogous to the effect of work hardening, in the absence of network realignment and alterations to the fibril area fraction. The data suggest that mechanical loading induces stabilizing changes internal to the fibrils themselves or in the fibril-fibril interactions. If such a cell-independent strengthening effect is operational in vivo, then it would be an important consideration in any multiscale computational approach to ECM growth and remodelling.

  10. Cooling loads in laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, C.K.; Cook, M.R.

    1999-07-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system for a laboratory must be designed with consideration for safety, air cleanliness, and space temperature. The primary safety concern is to ensure proper coordination between fume hood exhaust and makeup air supply. Air cleanliness is maintained by properly filtering supply air, by delivering adequate room air changes, and by ensuring proper pressure relationships between the laboratory and adjacent spaces. Space temperature is maintained by supplying enough cooling air to offset the amount of heat generated in the room. Each of these factors must be considered, and the one that results in the largest ventilation rate is used to establish the supply and exhaust airflows. The project described in this paper illustrates a case where cooling load is the determining factor in the sizing of the air systems.

  11. Offshore tanker loading system

    SciTech Connect

    Baan, J. de; Heijst, W.J. van.

    1994-01-04

    The present invention relates to an improved flexible loading system which provides fluid communication between a subsea pipeline and a surface vessel including a hose extending from the subsea pipeline to a first buoyancy tank, a second hose extending from the first buoyancy tank to a central buoyancy tank, a second buoyancy tank, means connecting said second buoyancy tank to the sea floor and to the central buoyancy tank whereby the forces exerted on said central buoyant tank by said second hose and said connecting means are balanced to cause said central buoyancy tank to maintain a preselected position, a riser section extending upwardly from said central buoyancy tank and means on the upper termination for engagement by a vessel on the surface to raise said upper termination onto the vessel to complete the communication for moving fluids between the subsea pipeline and the vessel. In one form the means for connecting between the sea floor to the second buoyancy tank includes an anchor on the sea floor and lines extending from the anchor to the second buoyancy tank and from the second buoyancy tank to the central buoyancy tank. In another form of the invention the means for connecting is a third hose extending from a second subsea pipeline to the second buoyancy tank and a fourth hose extending from the second buoyancy tank to the central buoyancy tank. The central buoyancy tank is preferred to be maintained at a level below the water surface which allows full movement of the vessel while connected to the riser section. A swivel may be positioned in the riser section and a pressure relief system may be included in the loading system to protect it from sudden excess pressures. 17 figs.

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis load at matched anatomic sites: implications for screening strategies.

    PubMed

    Michel, Claude-Edouard C; Sonnex, Christopher; Carne, Christopher A; White, John A; Magbanua, Jose Paolo V; Nadala, Elpidio Cesar B; Lee, Helen H

    2007-05-01

    Urethral and endocervical swabs and self-collected vaginal swabs (SCVSs) and urine specimens are all used as samples for diagnosis of urogenital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. We have now determined chlamydial organism load in matched specimens from different anatomic sites and examined its relation to clinical signs and symptoms in men and women. Organism load was measured with assays based on the ligase chain reaction or real-time PCR analysis. The mean organism loads in 58 infected men were 1,200 and 821 elementary bodies (EBs) per 100 microl of sample for first-void urine (FVU) and urethral swabs, respectively (P>0.05). Organism load in FVU samples or urethral swabs was positively associated with symptoms (P<0.01) and clinical signs (P<0.01) in men. The mean organism loads in 73 infected women were 2,231, 773, 162, and 47 EBs/100 microl for endocervical swabs, SCVSs, urethral swabs, and FVU samples, respectively (P<0.001 for each comparison). Only the presence of multiple symptoms or clinical signs was associated with organism load in women. These results show that FVU is a suitable noninvasive sample type for men, given the fact that its chlamydial load did not differ significantly from that of urethral swabs. Given their higher organism load compared with FVU, SCVSs are the preferred noninvasive sample type for women.

  13. Variable response load limiting device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsmith, Dwight D. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An energy absorbing device used as a load limiting member in a structure to control its response to applied loads is described. It functions by utilizing a spool assembly having flanged ends and an interior cavity of sufficiently large diameter to cause it to deform plastically at a prescribed load. In application, the spool is utilized as a pivot point for the legs of an airplane seat. When properly designed and integrated into the seat arrangement the spool will twist about its axis, deforming plastically when the impact load exceeds the spool yield value. Through this deformation, the spool absorbs the kinetic energy of the movement of the seat at a substantially constant rate, thereby controlling the level of loads transmitted to the seat occupant. By proper sizing and collection of materials, it is possible to control load response in a predictable manner.

  14. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  15. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, Stephen R.

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  16. Structural dynamics payload loads estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engels, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for the prediction of loads on large space structures are discussed. Existing approaches to the problem of loads calculation are surveyed. A full scale version of an alternate numerical integration technique to solve the response part of a load cycle is presented, and a set of short cut versions of the algorithm developed. The implementation of these techniques using the software package developed is discussed.

  17. In vitro loading of apoferritin.

    PubMed

    de Silva, D; Miller, D M; Reif, D W; Aust, S D

    1992-03-01

    This study compared the effect of loading apoferritin either with ferrous ammonium sulfate in various buffers or with ceruloplasmin and chelated ferrous iron. It was shown that loading of apoferritin with ferrous ammonium sulfate was dependent on buffer and pH, and was directly related to the rate of iron autoxidation. The ceruloplasmin-dependent loading of apoferritin, however, was unaffected by these factors. Isoelectric focusing and amino acid analysis of the differently loaded ferritins showed that ferrous ammonium sulfate loading of apoferritin resulted in the depletion of the basic amino acids, lysine and histidine, probably as a result of protein oxidation. No significant differences in amino acid composition was noted for ceruloplasmin-loaded ferritin. Furthermore, ferritin loaded with ferrous ammonium sulfate released more iron than either native or ceruloplasmin-loaded ferritin when either paraquat or EDTA was used as an iron mobilizing agent. We suggest that the loading of apoferritin with ferrous ammonium sulfate occurred as a result of iron autoxidation and may result in oxidation of amino acids and loss of integrity of the protein, and that ceruloplasmin may act as a catalyst for the incorporation of iron into apoferritin in a manner more closely related to that occurring in vivo.

  18. High-Power Rf Load

    DOEpatents

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Vlieks, Arnold E.

    1998-09-01

    A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

  19. Estimating Nitrogen Loads, BMPs, and Target Loads Exceedance Risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Wabash River (WR) watershed, IN, drains two-thirds of the state’s 92 counties and has primarily agricultural land use. The nutrient and sediment loads of the WR significantly increase loads of the Ohio River ultimately polluting the Gulf of Mexico. The objective of this study...

  20. Crane-Load Contact Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Cox, Robert

    2005-01-01

    An electronic instrument has been developed as a prototype of a portable crane-load contact sensor. Such a sensor could be helpful in an application in which the load rests on a base in a horizontal position determined by vertical alignment pins (see Figure 1). If the crane is not positioned to lift the load precisely vertically, then the load can be expected to swing once it has been lifted clear of the pins. If the load is especially heavy, large, and/or fragile, it could hurt workers and/or damage itself and nearby objects. By indicating whether the load remains in contact with the pins when it has been lifted a fraction of the length of the pins, the crane-load contact sensor helps the crane operator determine whether it is safe to lift the load clear of the pins: If there is contact, then the load is resting against the sides of the pins and, hence, it may not be safe to lift; if contact is occasionally broken, then the load is probably not resting against the pins, so it should be safe to lift. It is assumed that the load and base, or at least the pins and the surfaces of the alignment holes in the load, are electrically conductive, so the instrument can use electrical contact to indicate mechanical contact. However, DC resistance cannot be used as an indicator of contact for the following reasons: The load and the base are both electrically grounded through cables (the load is grounded through the lifting cable of the crane) to prevent discharge of static electricity. In other words, the DC resistance between the load and the pins is always low, as though they were always in direct contact. Therefore, instead of DC resistance, the instrument utilizes the AC electrical impedance between the pins and the load. The signal frequency used in the measurement is high enough (.1 MHz) that the impedance contributed by the cables and the electrical ground network of the building in which the crane and the base are situated is significantly greater than the contact

  1. Perceptual Load Alters Visual Excitability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, David; Thorne, Jeremy D.; Rees, Geraint; Lavie, Nilli

    2011-01-01

    Increasing perceptual load reduces the processing of visual stimuli outside the focus of attention, but the mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. Here we tested an account attributing the effects of perceptual load to modulations of visual cortex excitability. In contrast to stimulus competition accounts, which propose that load…

  2. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, Todd A.; White, James P.

    1998-01-01

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece.

  3. Robust Multimodal Cognitive Load Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-26

    dimension, Hurst exponent ) of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to evaluate changes in working memory load during the performance of a cognitive task...dimension, Hurst exponent ) of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to evaluate changes in working memory load during the performance of a cognitive task with...approximate entropies, wavelet-based complexity measures, correlation dimension, Hurst exponent ) of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to evaluate changes

  4. Cerebrovascular Injury in Blast Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    TITLE: Cerebrovascular injury in blast loading PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kenneth L. Monson, PhD...SUBTITLE Cerebrovascular injury in blast loading 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0295 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...and pH control. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Blast brain injury; cerebrovascular injury and dysfunction; shock tube 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  5. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, T.A.; White, J.P.

    1998-03-03

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece. 5 figs.

  6. Umbilical cable recovery load analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shu-wang; Jia, Zhao-lin; Feng, Xiao-wei; Li, Shi-tao

    2013-06-01

    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field. The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work. Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system. Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem. The tension load at the mudline must be known first, and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation. The recovery analysis also involves umbilical-soil interaction and becomes more complicated. Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed. The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  7. Spacecraft loads methodology - Transient vs. shock spectra method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.; Garba, J. A.; Trubert, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    The methodology for the establishment of spacecraft loads is strongly influenced by project constraints which include the cost, schedule and allowable weight. The most rigorous approach is the transient loads analysis which requires a composite mathematical model of the spacecraft and launch vehicle. The structural member loads for the entire composite structure are computed by applying the forcing functions, which represent various dynamic environments during the mission, to the composite model. Although this method ideally leads to a lightweight design, it is costly and time consuming due to complex interfaces involving many organizations. To reduce complexity and cost a shock spectra method has been used to design spacecraft structures. This method utilizes envelopes of shock spectra of launch vehicle accelerations obtained from analysis and/or flight measurements. Since only limited information on the launch vehicle model is involved in this process the design loads iteration cycle can be rapidly performed within the payload organization. In the present paper, these two methods will be evaluated by comparing the loads for several spacecraft. Flight measured loads will also be used in the evaluation.

  8. The effects of ordinal load on incidental temporal learning.

    PubMed

    Silva, Susana; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Castro, São Luís

    2017-04-01

    How can we grasp the temporal structure of events? A few studies have indicated that representations of temporal structure are acquired when there is an intention to learn, but not when learning is incidental. Response-to-stimulus intervals, uncorrelated temporal structures, unpredictable ordinal information, and lack of metrical organization have been pointed out as key obstacles to incidental temporal learning, but the literature includes piecemeal demonstrations of learning under all these circumstances. We suggest that the unacknowledged effects of ordinal load may help reconcile these conflicting findings, ordinal load referring to the cost of identifying the sequence of events (e.g., tones, locations) where a temporal pattern is embedded. In a first experiment, we manipulated ordinal load into simple and complex levels. Participants learned ordinal-simple sequences, despite their uncorrelated temporal structure and lack of metrical organization. They did not learn ordinal-complex sequences, even though there were no response-to-stimulus intervals nor unpredictable ordinal information. In a second experiment, we probed learning of ordinal-complex sequences with strong metrical organization, and again there was no learning. We conclude that ordinal load is a key obstacle to incidental temporal learning. Further analyses showed that the effect of ordinal load is to mask the expression of temporal knowledge, rather than to prevent learning.

  9. Cognitive Load Theory: How Many Types of Load Does It Really Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyuga, Slava

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive load theory has been traditionally described as involving three separate and additive types of load. Germane load is considered as a learning-relevant load complementing extraneous and intrinsic load. This article argues that, in its traditional treatment, germane load is essentially indistinguishable from intrinsic load, and therefore…

  10. Effect of protein load on stability of immobilized enzymes.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Lopez, Laura; Pedrero, Sara G; Lopez-Carrobles, Nerea; Gorines, Beatriz C; Virgen-Ortíz, Jose J; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto

    2017-03-01

    Different lipases have been immobilized on octyl agarose beads at 1mg/g and at maximum loading, via physical interfacial activation versus the octyl layer on the support. The stability of the preparations was analyzed. Most biocatalysts had the expected result: the apparent stability increased using the highly loaded preparations, due to the diffusional limitations that reduced the initial observed activity. However, lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB) was significantly more stable using the lowly loaded preparation than the maximum loaded one. This negative effect of the enzyme crowding on enzyme stability was found in inactivations at pH 5, 7 or 9, but not in inactivations in the presence of organic solvents. The immobilization using ethanol to reduce the immobilization rate had no effect on the stability of the lowly loaded preparation, while the highly loaded enzyme biocatalysts increased their stabilities, becoming very similar to that of the lowly loaded preparation. Results suggested that CALB molecules immobilized on octyl agarose may be closely packed together due to the high immobilization rate and this produced some negative interactions between immobilized enzyme molecules during enzyme thermal inactivation. Slowing-down the immobilization rate may be a solution for this unexpected problem.

  11. Load-detention efficiencies in a dry-pond basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Larry M.; Hess, Larry G.

    1989-01-01

    Inflow and outflow to a dry-pond detention basin in Topeka, Kansas, were monitored for 19 storms during a 14-month period. Samples of runoff were collected automatically at two inflow and one outflow locations. Inflow and outflow constituent loads were computed with subsequent computation of load-detention efficiencies. Three constituents (dissolved solids, ammonia plus organic nitrogen, and total organic carbon) had negative (larger loads out than in) median detention efficiencies (-78.5 percent, -9.0 percent, and -3.0 percent, respectively). Median detention efficiencies for the other constituents were: suspended solids (2.5 percent), chemical oxygen demand (15.5 percent), nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen (20.0 percent), ammonia nitrogen (69.0 percent), total phosphorus (18.5 percent), dissolved phosphorus (0.0 percent), total lead (66.0 percent), and total zinc (65.0 percent).

  12. Space Shuttle fatigue loads spectra for prelaunch and liftoff loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldish, Judith; Ortasse, Raphael

    1994-01-01

    Fatigue loads spectra for the prelaunch and liftoff flight segments of the Space Shuttle were developed. A variety o methods were used to determine the distributions of several important parameters, such as time of exposure on the launch, pad, month of launch, and wind speed. Also, some lessons learned that would be applicable to development of fatigue loads spectra for other reusable space vehicles are presented.

  13. 49 CFR 174.102 - Forbidden mixed loading and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... same rail car. Additionally, they may not be transported or loaded in the same rail car or stored on... NONFLAMMABLE GAS, FLAMMABLE GAS, FLAMMABLE LIQUID, FLAMMABLE SOLID, OXIDIZER, ORGANIC PEROXIDE, RADIOACTIVE or... (explosive) materials or any other material in a placarded and certified car containing a shipment...

  14. Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Laughner, T; Morris, K

    2009-01-01

    As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.

  15. 14 CFR 23.421 - Balancing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Balancing loads. 23.421 Section 23.421... Balancing Surfaces § 23.421 Balancing loads. (a) A horizontal surface balancing load is a load necessary to... balancing surfaces must be designed for the balancing loads occurring at any point on the limit...

  16. 14 CFR 23.421 - Balancing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Balancing loads. 23.421 Section 23.421... Balancing Surfaces § 23.421 Balancing loads. (a) A horizontal surface balancing load is a load necessary to... balancing surfaces must be designed for the balancing loads occurring at any point on the limit...

  17. 14 CFR 23.421 - Balancing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Balancing loads. 23.421 Section 23.421... Balancing Surfaces § 23.421 Balancing loads. (a) A horizontal surface balancing load is a load necessary to... balancing surfaces must be designed for the balancing loads occurring at any point on the limit...

  18. 14 CFR 23.421 - Balancing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Balancing loads. 23.421 Section 23.421... Balancing Surfaces § 23.421 Balancing loads. (a) A horizontal surface balancing load is a load necessary to... balancing surfaces must be designed for the balancing loads occurring at any point on the limit...

  19. 14 CFR 23.421 - Balancing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Balancing loads. 23.421 Section 23.421... Balancing Surfaces § 23.421 Balancing loads. (a) A horizontal surface balancing load is a load necessary to... balancing surfaces must be designed for the balancing loads occurring at any point on the limit...

  20. Maximizing TDRS Command Load Lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Aaron J.

    2002-01-01

    The GNC software onboard ISS utilizes TORS command loads, and a simplistic model of TORS orbital motion to generate onboard TORS state vectors. Each TORS command load contains five "invariant" orbital elements which serve as inputs to the onboard propagation algorithm. These elements include semi-major axis, inclination, time of last ascending node crossing, right ascension of ascending node, and mean motion. Running parallel to the onboard software is the TORS Command Builder Tool application, located in the JSC Mission Control Center. The TORS Command Builder Tool is responsible for building the TORS command loads using a ground TORS state vector, mirroring the onboard propagation algorithm, and assessing the fidelity of current TORS command loads onboard ISS. The tool works by extracting a ground state vector at a given time from a current TORS ephemeris, and then calculating the corresponding "onboard" TORS state vector at the same time using the current onboard TORS command load. The tool then performs a comparison between these two vectors and displays the relative differences in the command builder tool GUI. If the RSS position difference between these two vectors exceeds the tolerable lim its, a new command load is built using the ground state vector and uplinked to ISS. A command load's lifetime is therefore defined as the time from when a command load is built to the time the RSS position difference exceeds the tolerable limit. From the outset of TORS command load operations (STS-98), command load lifetime was limited to approximately one week due to the simplicity of both the onboard propagation algorithm, and the algorithm used by the command builder tool to generate the invariant orbital elements. It was soon desired to extend command load lifetime in order to minimize potential risk due to frequent ISS commanding. Initial studies indicated that command load lifetime was most sensitive to changes in mean motion. Finding a suitable value for mean motion

  1. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.; Rogers, L.; Fiscus, J.; Dyches, G.

    1998-05-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item.

  2. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database is divided into six files, each corresponding to approximately 16 years of simulation. The files are text files with data in columnar format. The 424MB zipped file containing six data files can be downloaded by the public. The files simulate 10-minute maximum loads for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The details of the loads simulations can be found in the paper: “Decades of Wind Turbine Loads Simulations”, M. Barone, J. Paquette, B. Resor, and L. Manuel, AIAA2012-1288 (3.69MB PDF). Note that the site-average wind speed is 10 m/s (class I-B), not the 8.5 m/s reported in the paper.

  3. Structural load control during construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulas, Martin

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: examples of high transient loadings on large space structures; energy absorbing/load limiting strut research objectives; scope of research on energy absorbing struts to date; energy characteristics of cantilevered trusses with a tip load; ten bay long resilient truss example; stored energy characteristics of one meter deep truss; energy absorbing potential for 10-bay 5-meter deep truss; schematic of energy absorbing strut; linear load and motion control actuator; rigid body response of a solar array to the shuttle thruster pressure impingement; solar array piecewise linear response; solar array characteristics; solar array tip deflection and required actuator stroke; solar array response from finite element analysis; 12 bay energy absorbing test bed dynamics; and new AERO-Lab with 12-bay test beam.

  4. Essentials of filoviral load quantification.

    PubMed

    Cnops, Lieselotte; van Griensven, Johan; Honko, Anna N; Bausch, Daniel G; Sprecher, Armand; Hill, Charles E; Colebunders, Robert; Johnson, Joshua C; Griffiths, Anthony; Palacios, Gustavo F; Kraft, Colleen S; Kobinger, Gary; Hewlett, Angela; Norwood, David A; Sabeti, Pardis; Jahrling, Peter B; Formenty, Pierre; Kuhn, Jens H; Ariën, Kevin K

    2016-07-01

    Quantitative measurement of viral load is an important parameter in the management of filovirus disease outbreaks because viral load correlates with severity of disease, survival, and infectivity. During the ongoing Ebola virus disease outbreak in parts of Western Africa, most assays used in the detection of Ebola virus disease by more than 44 diagnostic laboratories yielded qualitative results. Regulatory hurdles involved in validating quantitative assays and the urgent need for a rapid Ebola virus disease diagnosis precluded development of validated quantitative assays during the outbreak. Because of sparse quantitative data obtained from these outbreaks, opportunities for study of correlations between patient outcome, changes in viral load during the course of an outbreak, disease course in asymptomatic individuals, and the potential for virus transmission between infected patients and contacts have been limited. We strongly urge the continued development of quantitative viral load assays to carefully evaluate these parameters in future outbreaks of filovirus disease.

  5. Split torque transmission load sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.

  6. Drug Loading of Mesoporous Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffitt, Anne; Coffer, Jeff; Wang, Mengjia

    2011-03-01

    The nanostructuring of crystalline solids with low aqueous solubilities by their incorporation into mesoporous host materials is one route to improve the bioavailability of such solids. Earlier studies suggest that mesoporous Si (PSi), with pore widths in the range of 5-50 nm, is a candidate for such an approach. In this presentation, we describe efforts to load curcumin into free-standing microparticles of PSi. Curcumin is a compound extracted from turmeric root, which is an ingredient of curry. Curucmin has shown activity against selected cancer cell lines, bacteria, and other medical conditions. However, curcumin has a very low bioavailability due to its extremely low water solubility (0.6 μ g/mL). Incorporation of curcumin was achieved by straightforward loading of the molten solid at 185circ; C. Loading experiments were performed using PSi particles of two different size ranges, 45-75 μ m and 150-250 μ m. Longer loading times and ratio of curcumin to PSi leads to a higher percentage of loaded curcumin in both PSi particle sizes (as determined by weight difference). The extent of curcumin crystallinity was assessed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The solubility and release kinetics of loaded curcumin from the PSi was determined by extraction into water at 37circ; C, with analysis using UV-VIS spectrometry. NSF-REU and TCU.

  7. Structural assessment of accident loads

    SciTech Connect

    Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-28

    Structural assessments were made for specific accident loads for specific catch, receiver, and storage tanks. The evaluation herein represents level-of-effort order-of-magnitude estimates of limiting loads that would lead to collapse or rupture of the tank and unmitigated loss of confinement for the waste. Structural capacities were established using failure criteria. Compliance with codes such as ACI, ASCE, ASME, RCRA, UBC, WAC, and DOE Orders was `NOT` maintained. Normal code practice is to prevent failure with margins consistent with expected variations in loads and strengths and confidence in analysis techniques. The evaluation herein represent estimates of code limits without code load factors or code strength reduction factors, and loading beyond such a limit is considered as an onset of some failure mode. The exact nature of the failure mode and its relation to a safe condition is a judgment of the analyst. Consequently, these `RESULTS SHALL NOT BE USED TO ESTABLISH OPERATING OR SAFETY LOAD LIMITS FOR THESE TANKS`.

  8. 14 CFR 23.511 - Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... coefficient of friction of 0.8 applied to the main gear and its supporting structure. (b) Unequal tire loads... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel...

  9. 14 CFR 23.511 - Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... coefficient of friction of 0.8 applied to the main gear and its supporting structure. (b) Unequal tire loads... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel...

  10. 14 CFR 23.511 - Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... coefficient of friction of 0.8 applied to the main gear and its supporting structure. (b) Unequal tire loads... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel...

  11. 14 CFR 23.511 - Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... coefficient of friction of 0.8 applied to the main gear and its supporting structure. (b) Unequal tire loads... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel...

  12. 14 CFR 23.511 - Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... coefficient of friction of 0.8 applied to the main gear and its supporting structure. (b) Unequal tire loads... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel...

  13. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Vertical-load factor of 1.35 times the static reactions. (2) Fore, aft, and lateral load factors of 0.4 times the vertical static reactions. (b) The horizontal loads at the jack points must be reacted...

  14. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Vertical-load factor of 1.35 times the static reactions. (2) Fore, aft, and lateral load factors of 0.4 times the vertical static reactions. (b) The horizontal loads at the jack points must be reacted...

  15. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Vertical-load factor of 1.35 times the static reactions. (2) Fore, aft, and lateral load factors of 0.4 times the vertical static reactions. (b) The horizontal loads at the jack points must be reacted...

  16. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Vertical-load factor of 1.35 times the static reactions. (2) Fore, aft, and lateral load factors of 0.4 times the vertical static reactions. (b) The horizontal loads at the jack points must be reacted...

  17. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Vertical-load factor of 1.35 times the static reactions. (2) Fore, aft, and lateral load factors of 0.4 times the vertical static reactions. (b) The horizontal loads at the jack points must be reacted...

  18. Rate of loading parameters for vertically loaded piles in clay

    SciTech Connect

    Briaud, J.L.; Felio, G.Y.; Garland, E.

    1984-05-01

    The analysis of 152 laboratory tests and 32 pile load tests confirms that for clays, the faster the rate of loading, the higher the undrained shear strength and the higher the pile capacity. The data shows that the gain in undrained shear strength due to increasing rate of loading increases with increasing water content, plasticity index, liquidity index, overconsolidation ratio but with decreasing undrained shear strength. A simple model is proposed to quantify the rate of loading effects on undrained shear strength. The viscous exponent n which is the main parameter of the model can be measured by conventional laboratory tests or possibly by cone penetrometer testing, or as a last resort by the proposed empirical correlations to index properties. This model is used to develop rate dependent t-z curves and a computer program to predict the response of a pile subjected to a certain rate of vertical loading. The model and the program are checked by comparing the predicted and measured behavior of two piles.

  19. The effects of load drop, uniform load and concentrated loads on waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Marusich, R.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-06

    This document provides the supporting calculations performed by others specifically for the TWRS FSAR and more detailed summaries of the important references issued in the past regarding the effects of various loads.

  20. Effects of Peer-Tutor Competences on Learner Cognitive Load and Learning Performance during Knowledge Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Ya-Ping; Brouns, Francis; van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    In Learning Networks, learners need to share knowledge with others to build knowledge. In particular, when working on complex tasks, they often need to acquire extra cognitive resources from others to process a high task load. However, without support high task load and organizing knowledge sharing themselves might easily overload learners'…

  1. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Michael B.; Epstein, Jonathan S.; Lloyd, W. Randolph

    1994-01-01

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed crosshead, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame.

  2. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOEpatents

    Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

    1994-01-18

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

  3. 29 CFR 1919.29 - Limitations on safe working loads and proof loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitations on safe working loads and proof loads. 1919.29... Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.29 Limitations on safe working loads and proof loads. The proof loads specified by §§ 1919.27 and 1919.28 shall be adjusted as necessary to meet...

  4. Organ Donation

    MedlinePlus

    Organ donation takes healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the ... lungs Skin Bone and bone marrow Cornea Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. But some ...

  5. The DEMO wall load challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenninger, R.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Arbeiter, F.; Aubert, J.; Bachmann, C.; Barbato, L.; Barrett, T.; Beckers, M.; Biel, W.; Boccaccini, L.; Carralero, D.; Coster, D.; Eich, T.; Fasoli, A.; Federici, G.; Firdaouss, M.; Graves, J.; Horacek, J.; Kovari, M.; Lanthaler, S.; Loschiavo, V.; Lowry, C.; Lux, H.; Maddaluno, G.; Maviglia, F.; Mitteau, R.; Neu, R.; Pfefferle, D.; Schmid, K.; Siccinio, M.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, C.; Snicker, A.; Subba, F.; Varje, J.; Zohm, H.

    2017-04-01

    For several reasons the challenge to keep the loads to the first wall within engineering limits is substantially higher in DEMO compared to ITER. Therefore the pre-conceptual design development for DEMO that is currently ongoing in Europe needs to be based on load estimates that are derived employing the most recent plasma edge physics knowledge. An initial assessment of the static wall heat load limit in DEMO infers that the steady state peak heat flux limit on the majority of the DEMO first wall should not be assumed to be higher than 1.0 MW m‑2. This compares to an average wall heat load of 0.29 MW m‑2 for the design {\\tt {EU}}{\\tt {~}}{\\tt {DEMO1}}{\\tt {~2015}} assuming a perfect homogeneous distribution. The main part of this publication concentrates on the development of first DEMO estimates for charged particle, radiation, fast particle (all static) and disruption heat loads. Employing an initial engineering wall design with clear optimization potential in combination with parameters for the flat-top phase (x-point configuration), loads up to 7 MW m‑2 (penalty factor for tolerances etc not applied) have been calculated. Assuming a fraction of power radiated from the x-point region between 1/5 and 1/3, peaks of the total power flux density due to radiation of 0.6–0.8 MW m‑2 are found in the outer baffle region. This first review of wall loads, and the associated limits in DEMO clearly underlines a significant challenge that necessitates substantial engineering efforts as well as a considerable consolidation of the associated physics basis.

  6. Mutation Load under Vegetative Reproduction and Cytoplasmic Inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Kondrashov, A. S.

    1994-01-01

    For reasons that remain unclear, even multicellular organisms usually originate from a single cell. Here I consider the balance between deleterious mutations and selection against them in a population with obligate vegetative reproduction, when every offspring is initiated by more than one cell of a parent. The mutation load depends on the genomic deleterious mutation rate U, strictness of selection, number of cells which initiate an offspring n, and the relatedness among the initial cells. The load grows with increasing U, n and strictness of selection, and declines when an offspring is initiated by more closely related cells. If Un >> 1, the load under obligate vegetative reproduction may be substantially higher than under sexual or asexual reproduction, which may account for its rarity. In nature obligate vegetative reproduction seems to be more common and long term in taxa whose cytological features ensure a relatively low load under it. The same model also describes the mutation load under two other modes of inheritance: (1) uniparental transmission of organelles and (2) reproduction by division of multinuclear cells, where each daughter cell receives many nuclei. The load declines substantially when the deleterious mutation rate per organelle genome gets lower or when the number of nuclei in a cell sometimes drops. This may explain the small sizes of organelle genomes in sexual lineages and the presence of karyonic cycles in asexual unicellular multinuclear eukaryotes. PMID:8056318

  7. Peak load management: Potential options

    SciTech Connect

    Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G.; Schultz, R.W.; Kellogg, M.A.

    1989-10-01

    This report reviews options that may be alternatives to transmission construction (ATT) applicable both generally and at specific locations in the service area of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Some of these options have potential as specific alternatives to the Shelton-Fairmount 230-kV Reinforcement Project, which is the focus of this study. A listing of 31 peak load management (PLM) options is included. Estimated costs and normalized hourly load shapes, corresponding to the respective base load and controlled load cases, are considered for 15 of the above options. A summary page is presented for each of these options, grouped with respect to its applicability in the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The report contains comments on PLM measures for which load shape management characteristics are not yet available. These comments address the potential relevance of the options and the possible difficulty that may be encountered in characterizing their value should be of interest in this investigation. The report also identifies options that could improve the efficiency of the three customer utility distribution systems supplied by the Shelton-Fairmount Reinforcement Project. Potential cogeneration options in the Olympic Peninsula are also discussed. These discussions focus on the options that appear to be most promising on the Olympic Peninsula. Finally, a short list of options is recommended for investigation in the next phase of this study. 9 refs., 24 tabs.

  8. A gravity loading countermeasure skinsuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldie, James M.; Newman, Dava J.

    2011-04-01

    Despite the use of several countermeasures, significant physiological deconditioning still occurs during long duration spaceflight. Bone loss - primarily due to the absence of loading in microgravity - is perhaps the greatest challenge to resolve. This paper describes a conceptual Gravity Loading Countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) that induces loading on the body to mimic standing and - when integrated with other countermeasures - exercising on Earth. Comfort, mobility and other operational issues were explored during a pilot study carried out in parabolic flight for prototype suits worn by three subjects. Compared to the 1- or 2-stage Russian Pingvin Suits, the elastic mesh of the GLCS can create a loading regime that gradually increases in hundreds of stages from the shoulders to the feet, thereby reproducing the weight-bearing regime normally imparted by gravity with much higher resolution. Modelling shows that the skinsuit requires less than 10 mmHg (1.3 kPa) of compression for three subjects of varied gender, height and mass. Negligible mobility restriction and excellent comfort properties were found during the parabolic flights, which suggests that crewmembers should be able to work normally, exercise or sleep while wearing the suit. The suit may also serve as a practical 1 g harness for exercise countermeasures and vibration applications to improve dynamic loading.

  9. Probabilistic load simulation: Code development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, J. F.; Ho, H.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Composite Load Spectra (CLS) project is to develop generic load models to simulate the composite load spectra that are included in space propulsion system components. The probabilistic loads thus generated are part of the probabilistic design analysis (PDA) of a space propulsion system that also includes probabilistic structural analyses, reliability, and risk evaluations. Probabilistic load simulation for space propulsion systems demands sophisticated probabilistic methodology and requires large amounts of load information and engineering data. The CLS approach is to implement a knowledge based system coupled with a probabilistic load simulation module. The knowledge base manages and furnishes load information and expertise and sets up the simulation runs. The load simulation module performs the numerical computation to generate the probabilistic loads with load information supplied from the CLS knowledge base.

  10. Probabilistic load simulation: Code development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, J. F.; Ho, H.

    1991-05-01

    The objective of the Composite Load Spectra (CLS) project is to develop generic load models to simulate the composite load spectra that are included in space propulsion system components. The probabilistic loads thus generated are part of the probabilistic design analysis (PDA) of a space propulsion system that also includes probabilistic structural analyses, reliability, and risk evaluations. Probabilistic load simulation for space propulsion systems demands sophisticated probabilistic methodology and requires large amounts of load information and engineering data. The CLS approach is to implement a knowledge based system coupled with a probabilistic load simulation module. The knowledge base manages and furnishes load information and expertise and sets up the simulation runs. The load simulation module performs the numerical computation to generate the probabilistic loads with load information supplied from the CLS knowledge base.

  11. Determination Of Heat Load By Wet Bulb Globe Temperature In Working Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Králiková, Ružena; Maďoranová, Marieta

    2015-07-01

    Thermal load on people in general depends on the heat production in the human organism as a result of physical activity as well as environmental conditions which are affected by transfer of heat between human and the surrounding area. The resulting effect of metabolic exchanges which occur in work activities is the thermal load of organism. The paper deals with the evaluation of microclimatic conditions of the working environment of workers, who are exposed to the hot environment during their work.

  12. Intra- and inter-annual trends in phosphorus loads and comparison with nitrogen loads to Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Jennifer A.; Scudlark, Joseph R.; Savidge, Karen B.; Andres, A. Scott; Stenger, Robert J.; Ullman, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Monthly phosphorus loads from uplands, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater to Rehoboth Bay (Delaware) were determined from October 1998 to April 2002 to evaluate the relative importance of these three sources of P to the Bay. Loads from a representative subwatershed were determined and used in an areal extrapolation to estimate the upland load from the entire watershed. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and dissolved organic P (DOP) are the predominant forms of P in baseflow and P loads from the watershed are highest during the summer months. Particulate phosphorus (PP) becomes more significant in stormflow and during periods with more frequent or larger storms. Atmospheric deposition of P is only a minor source of P to Rehoboth Bay. During the period of 1998-2002, wastewater was the dominant external source of P to Rehoboth Bay, often exceeding all other P sources combined. Since 2002, however, due to technical improvements to the sole wastewater plant discharging directly to the Bay, the wastewater contribution of P has been significantly reduced and upland waters are now the principal source of P on an annualized basis. Based on comparison of N and P loads, primary productivity and biomass carrying capacity in Rehoboth Bay should be limited by P availability. However, due to the contrasting spatial and temporal patterns of N and P loading and perhaps internal cycling within the ecosystem, spatial and temporal variations in N and P-limitation within Rehoboth Bay are likely.

  13. Intra- and inter-annual trends in phosphorus loads and comparison with nitrogen loads to Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Volk, J.A.; Scudlark, J.R.; Savidge, K.B.; Andres, A.S.; Stenger, R.J.; Ullman, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Monthly phosphorus loads from uplands, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater to Rehoboth Bay (Delaware) were determined from October 1998 to April 2002 to evaluate the relative importance of these three sources of P to the Bay. Loads from a representative subwatershed were determined and used in an areal extrapolation to estimate the upland load from the entire watershed. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and dissolved organic P (DOP) are the predominant forms of P in baseflow and P loads from the watershed are highest during the summer months. Particulate phosphorus (PP) becomes more significant in stormflow and during periods with more frequent or larger storms. Atmospheric deposition of P is only a minor source of P to Rehoboth Bay. During the period of 1998-2002, wastewater was the dominant external source of P to Rehoboth Bay, often exceeding all other P sources combined. Since 2002, however, due to technical improvements to the sole wastewater plant discharging directly to the Bay, the wastewater contribution of P has been significantly reduced and upland waters are now the principal source of P on an annualized basis. Based on comparison of N and P loads, primary productivity and biomass carrying capacity in Rehoboth Bay should be limited by P availability. However, due to the contrasting spatial and temporal patterns of N and P loading and perhaps internal cycling within the ecosystem, spatial and temporal variations in N and P-limitation within Rehoboth Bay are likely. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Fifty years of genetic load

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, B.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses the radiation effects on Drosophila. It was originally thought that irradiating Drosophila would decrease the average fitness of the population, thereby leading to information about the detrimental effects of mutations. Surprisingly, the fitness of the irradiated population turned out to be higher than that of the control population. The original motivation for the experiment was as a test of genetic load theory. The average fitness of a population is depressed by deleterious alleles held in the population by the balance between mutation and natural selection. The depression is called the genetic load of the population. The load dose not depend on the magnitude of the deleterious effect of alleles, but only on the mutation rate.

  15. Load Diffusion in Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horgan, Cornelius O.; Simmonds, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    This research has been concerned with load diffusion in composite structures. Fundamental solid mechanics studies were carried out to provide a basis for assessing the complicated modeling necessary for large scale structures used by NASA. An understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of load diffusion in composite subcomponents is essential in developing primary composite structures. Analytical models of load diffusion behavior are extremely valuable in building an intuitive base for developing refined modeling strategies and assessing results from finite element analyses. The decay behavior of stresses and other field quantities provides a significant aid towards this process. The results are also amendable to parameter study with a large parameter space and should be useful in structural tailoring studies.

  16. Symplastic phloem loading in poplar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cankui; Han, Lu; Slewinski, Thomas L; Sun, Jianlei; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Zeng-Yu; Turgeon, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Sap is driven through phloem sieve tubes by an osmotically generated pressure gradient between source and sink tissues. In many plants, source pressure results from thermodynamically active loading in which energy is used to transfer sucrose (Suc) from mesophyll cells to the phloem of leaf minor veins against a concentration gradient. However, in some species, almost all trees, correlative evidence suggests that sugar migrates passively through plasmodesmata from mesophyll cells into the sieve elements. The possibility of alternate loading mechanisms has important ramifications for the regulation of phloem transport and source-sink interactions. Here, we provide experimental evidence that, in gray poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba), Suc enters the phloem through plasmodesmata. Transgenic plants were generated with yeast invertase in the cell walls to prevent Suc loading by this route. The constructs were driven either by the constitutive 35S promoter or the minor vein-specific galactinol synthase promoter. Transgenic plants grew at the same rate as the wild type without symptoms of loading inhibition, such as accumulation of carbohydrates or leaf chlorosis. Rates of photosynthesis were normal. In contrast, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants, which have limited numbers of plasmodesmata between mesophyll and phloem, displayed typical symptoms of loading inhibition when transformed with the same DNA constructs. The results are consistent with passive loading of Suc through plasmodesmata in poplar. We also noted defense-related symptoms in leaves of transgenic poplar when the plants were abruptly exposed to excessively high temperatures, adding to evidence that hexose is involved in triggering the hypersensitive response.

  17. Load and Rate of Change of Load Detection System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The present invention relates to a system for detecting and recording the level and rate of change of landing loads in the struts of aircraft landing...to a minimum pressure to record the level and rate of change of pressure detected by the sensor.

  18. Analysis of high load dampers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, S. T.; Buono, D. F.; Hibner, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    High load damping requirements for modern jet engines are discussed. The design of damping systems which could satisfy these requirements is also discusseed. In order to evaluate high load damping requirements, engines in three major classes were studied; large transport engines, small general aviation engines, and military engines. Four damper concepts applicable to these engines were evaluated; multi-ring, cartridge, curved beam, and viscous/friction. The most promising damper concept was selected for each engine and performance was assessed relative to conventional dampers and in light of projected damping requirements for advanced jet engines.

  19. Material behavior under complex loading

    SciTech Connect

    Breuer, H.J.; Raule, G.; Rodig, M.

    1984-09-01

    Studies of material behavior under complex loading form a bridge between standard material testing methods and the stress analysis calculations for reactor components at high temperatures. The aim of these studies is to determine the influence of typical load change sequences on material properties, to derive the equations required for stress analyses, to carry out tests under multiaxial conditions, and to investigate the structural deformation mechanisms of creep buckling and ratcheting. The present state of the investigations within the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor materials program is described, with emphasis on the experimental apparatus, the scope of the program, and the initial results obtained.

  20. Method for loading resin beds

    DOEpatents

    Notz, Karl J.; Rainey, Robert H.; Greene, Charles W.; Shockley, William E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved method of preparing nuclear reactor fuel by carbonizing a uranium loaded cation exchange resin provided by contacting a H.sup.+ loaded resin with a uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate, comprises providing the nitrate deficient solution by a method comprising the steps of reacting in a reaction zone maintained between about 145.degree.-200.degree. C, a first aqueous component comprising a uranyl nitrate solution having a boiling point of at least 145.degree. C with a second aqueous component to provide a gaseous phase containing HNO.sub.3 and a reaction product comprising an aqueous uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate.

  1. 46 CFR 122.335 - Loading doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loading doors. 122.335 Section 122.335 Shipping COAST... Requirements § 122.335 Loading doors. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, the master of a vessel fitted with loading doors shall assure that all loading doors are closed and secured during...

  2. 14 CFR 23.537 - Seawing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seawing loads. 23.537 Section 23.537... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.537 Seawing loads. Seawing design loads must be based on applicable test data. Emergency Landing Conditions...

  3. 14 CFR 27.341 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gust loads. 27.341 Section 27.341... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.341 Gust loads. The rotorcraft must be designed to withstand, at each critical airspeed including hovering, the loads resulting from...

  4. 14 CFR 29.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loads. 29.301 Section 29.301 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 29.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are specified in terms of limit loads (the maximum loads to be expected in service) and...

  5. 14 CFR 27.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loads. 27.301 Section 27.301 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 27.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are specified in terms of limit loads (the maximum loads to be expected in service) and...

  6. 14 CFR 23.537 - Seawing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seawing loads. 23.537 Section 23.537... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.537 Seawing loads. Seawing design loads must be based on applicable test data. Emergency Landing Conditions...

  7. 14 CFR 29.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loads. 29.301 Section 29.301 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 29.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are specified in terms of limit loads (the maximum loads to be expected in service) and...

  8. 14 CFR 29.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loads. 29.301 Section 29.301 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 29.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are specified in terms of limit loads (the maximum loads to be expected in service) and...

  9. 14 CFR 27.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loads. 27.301 Section 27.301 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 27.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are specified in terms of limit loads (the maximum loads to be expected in service) and...

  10. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false External loads. 27.865 Section 27.865... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction External Loads § 27.865 External loads. (a) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means...

  11. 14 CFR 27.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loads. 27.301 Section 27.301 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 27.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are specified in terms of limit loads (the maximum loads to be expected in service) and...

  12. 46 CFR 169.689 - Demand loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Demand loads. 169.689 Section 169.689 Shipping COAST... Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.689 Demand loads. Demand loads must meet § 111.60-7 of this chapter except that smaller demand loads for motor feeders...

  13. 14 CFR 23.537 - Seawing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seawing loads. 23.537 Section 23.537... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.537 Seawing loads. Seawing design loads must be based on applicable test data. Emergency Landing Conditions...

  14. 14 CFR 29.341 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Gust loads. 29.341 Section 29.341... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 29.341 Gust loads. Each rotorcraft must be designed to withstand, at each critical airspeed including hovering, the loads...

  15. 14 CFR 23.537 - Seawing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seawing loads. 23.537 Section 23.537... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.537 Seawing loads. Seawing design loads must be based on applicable test data. Emergency Landing Conditions...

  16. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false External loads. 29.865 Section 29.865... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction External Loads § 29.865 External loads. (a) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means...

  17. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false External loads. 29.865 Section 29.865... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction External Loads § 29.865 External loads. (a) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means...

  18. 14 CFR 27.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loads. 27.301 Section 27.301 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 27.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are specified in terms of limit loads (the maximum loads to be expected in service) and...

  19. 14 CFR 29.341 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gust loads. 29.341 Section 29.341... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 29.341 Gust loads. Each rotorcraft must be designed to withstand, at each critical airspeed including hovering, the loads...

  20. 14 CFR 29.341 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gust loads. 29.341 Section 29.341... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 29.341 Gust loads. Each rotorcraft must be designed to withstand, at each critical airspeed including hovering, the loads...

  1. 14 CFR 27.341 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Gust loads. 27.341 Section 27.341... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.341 Gust loads. The rotorcraft must be designed to withstand, at each critical airspeed including hovering, the loads resulting from...

  2. 14 CFR 29.341 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Gust loads. 29.341 Section 29.341... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 29.341 Gust loads. Each rotorcraft must be designed to withstand, at each critical airspeed including hovering, the loads...

  3. 14 CFR 29.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loads. 29.301 Section 29.301 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 29.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are specified in terms of limit loads (the maximum loads to be expected in service) and...

  4. 14 CFR 29.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loads. 29.301 Section 29.301 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 29.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are specified in terms of limit loads (the maximum loads to be expected in service) and...

  5. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false External loads. 29.865 Section 29.865... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction External Loads § 29.865 External loads. (a) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means...

  6. 14 CFR 23.537 - Seawing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seawing loads. 23.537 Section 23.537... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.537 Seawing loads. Seawing design loads must be based on applicable test data. Emergency Landing Conditions...

  7. 14 CFR 27.341 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gust loads. 27.341 Section 27.341... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.341 Gust loads. The rotorcraft must be designed to withstand, at each critical airspeed including hovering, the loads resulting from...

  8. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false External loads. 27.865 Section 27.865... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction External Loads § 27.865 External loads. (a) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means...

  9. 14 CFR 27.341 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Gust loads. 27.341 Section 27.341... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.341 Gust loads. The rotorcraft must be designed to withstand, at each critical airspeed including hovering, the loads resulting from...

  10. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false External loads. 27.865 Section 27.865... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction External Loads § 27.865 External loads. (a) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means...

  11. 46 CFR 169.689 - Demand loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Demand loads. 169.689 Section 169.689 Shipping COAST... Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.689 Demand loads. Demand loads must meet § 111.60-7 of this chapter except that smaller demand loads for motor feeders...

  12. 14 CFR 29.341 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gust loads. 29.341 Section 29.341... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 29.341 Gust loads. Each rotorcraft must be designed to withstand, at each critical airspeed including hovering, the loads...

  13. PRB rail loadings shatter record

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2008-09-15

    Rail transport of coal in the Powder River Basin has expanded, with a record 2,197 trains loaded in a month. Arch Coal's Thunder basin mining complex has expanded by literally bridging the joint line railway. The dry fork mine has also celebrated its safety achievements. 4 photos.

  14. Estimation of Unattenuated Factor Loadings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Todd S.; Hunter, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates that traditional exploratory factor analytic methods, when applied to correlation matrices, cannot be used to estimate unattenuated factor loadings. Presents a mathematical basis for the accurate estimation of such values when the disattenuated correlation matrix or the covariance matrix is used as input. Explains how the equations…

  15. Interactions Between Modality of Working Memory Load and Perceptual Load in Distractor Processing.

    PubMed

    Koshino, Hideya; Olid, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated interactions between working memory load and perceptual load. The load theory (Lavie, Hirst, de Fockert, & Viding, 2004 ) claims that perceptual load decreases distractor interference, whereas working memory load increases interference. However, recent studies showed that effects of working memory might depend on the relationship between modalities of working memory and task stimuli. Here, we examined whether the relationship between working memory load and perceptual load would remain the same across modalities. The results of Experiment 1 showed that verbal working memory load did not affect a compatibility effect for low perceptual load, whereas it increased the compatibility effect for high perceptual load. In Experiment 2, the compatibility effect remained the same regardless of visual working memory load. These results suggest that the effects of working memory load and perceptual load depend on the relationship between the modalities of working memory and stimuli.

  16. 14 CFR 25.511 - Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Loads § 25.511 Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units. (a) General. Multiple-wheel... gear unit using four or more wheels per unit, must be considered; and (2) The ground reactions must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ground load: unsymmetrical loads...

  17. Use of Flexible Body Coupled Loads in Assessment of Day of Launch Flight Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Brett R.; Yunis, Isam; Olds, Aaron D.

    2011-01-01

    A Day of Launch flight loads assessment technique that determines running loads calculated from flexible body coupled loads was developed for the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle. The technique was developed to quantify DOL flight loads in terms of structural load components rather than the typically used q-alpha metric to provide more insight into the DOL loads. In this technique, running loads in the primary structure are determined from the combination of quasi-static aerodynamic loads and dynamic loads. The aerodynamic loads are calculated as a function of time using trajectory parameters passed from the DOL trajectory simulation and are combined with precalculated dynamic loads using a load combination equation. The potential change in aerodynamic load due to wind variability during the countdown is included in the load combination. In the event of a load limit exceedance, the technique allows the identification of what load component is exceeded, a quantification of how much the load limit is exceeded, and where on the vehicle the exceedance occurs. This technique was used to clear the Ares I-X FTV for launch on October 28, 2009. This paper describes the use of coupled loads in the Ares I-X flight loads assessment and summarizes the Ares I-X load assessment results.

  18. 46 CFR 154.1730 - Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. 154.1730... Operating Requirements § 154.1730 Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. (a) The master shall ensure that before ethylene oxide is loaded into a cargo tank: (1) The tank is thoroughly clean, dry, and free...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1730 - Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. 154.1730... Operating Requirements § 154.1730 Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. (a) The master shall ensure that before ethylene oxide is loaded into a cargo tank: (1) The tank is thoroughly clean, dry, and free...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1730 - Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. 154.1730... Operating Requirements § 154.1730 Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. (a) The master shall ensure that before ethylene oxide is loaded into a cargo tank: (1) The tank is thoroughly clean, dry, and free...

  1. Spectral and Spatial Characterization of Protein Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zidan, Ahmed S.; Rahman, Ziyaur; Habib, Muhammad J.; Khan, Mansoor A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and imaging as approaches to assess drug contents in poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) based nanoparticles of a model protein, cyclosporine A (CyA). A 6-factors 12-runs designed set of experiments with Plackett–Burman (PB) screening was applied in order to examine the effects of drug loading (X1), polymer loading (X2), emulsifier concentration (X3), stirring rate (X4), type of organic solvent (X5), and ratio of organic to aqueous phases' volumes (X6), on drug entrapment efficiency (EFF). After omitting the factors with nonsignificant influences on EFF, a reduced mathematical relationship, EFF = 48.34 + 7.3X1 − 29.95X3, was obtained to explain the effect of the significant factors on EFF. Using two different sets for calibration and validation, the developed NIR calibration model was able to assess CyA contents within the 12 PB formulations. NIR spectral imaging was capable of clearly distinguishing the 12 formulations, both qualitatively and quantitatively. A good correlation with a coefficient of 0.9727 was obtained for constructing a quantile-quantile plot for the actual drug loading percentage and the % standard deviation obtained for the drug loading prediction using the hyperspectral images. PMID:19774658

  2. Mutant K-RAS Promotes Invasion and Metastasis in Pancreatic Cancer Through GTPase Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Padavano, Julianna; Henkhaus, Rebecca S; Chen, Hwudaurw; Skovan, Bethany A; Cui, Haiyan; Ignatenko, Natalia A

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive malignancies, characterized by the local invasion into surrounding tissues and early metastasis to distant organs. Oncogenic mutations of the K-RAS gene occur in more than 90% of human pancreatic cancers. The goal of this study was to investigate the functional significance and downstream effectors of mutant K-RAS oncogene in the pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis. We applied the homologous recombination technique to stably disrupt K-RAS oncogene in the human pancreatic cell line MiaPaCa-2, which carries the mutant K-RASG12C oncogene in both alleles. Using in vitro assays, we found that clones with disrupted mutant K-RAS gene exhibited low RAS activity, reduced growth rates, increased sensitivity to the apoptosis inducing agents, and suppressed motility and invasiveness. In vivo assays showed that clones with decreased RAS activity had reduced tumor formation ability in mouse xenograft model and increased survival rates in the mouse orthotopic pancreatic cancer model. We further examined molecular pathways downstream of mutant K-RAS and identified RhoA GTP activating protein 5, caveolin-1, and RAS-like small GTPase A (RalA) as key effector molecules, which control mutant K-RAS-dependent migration and invasion in MiaPaCa-2 cells. Our study provides rational for targeting RhoA and RalA GTPase signaling pathways for inhibition of pancreatic cancer metastasis. PMID:26512205

  3. Increased fibroblast functionality on CNN2-loaded titania nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongbo; Wu, Shuyi; Feng, Zhihong; Zhou, Wei; Dong, Yan; Wu, Guofeng; Bai, Shizhu; Zhao, Yimin

    2012-01-01

    Infection and epithelial downgrowth are major problems associated with maxillofacial percutaneous implants. These complications are mainly due to the improper closure of the implant-skin interface. Therefore, designing a percutaneous implant that better promotes the formation of a stable soft tissue biologic seal around percutaneous sites is highly desirable. Additionally, the fibroblast has been proven to play an important role in the formation of biologic seals. In this study, titania nanotubes were filled with 11.2 kDa C-terminal CCN2 (connective tissue growth factor) fragment, which could exert full CCN2 activity to increase the biological functionality of fibroblasts. This drug delivery system was fabricated on a titanium implant surface. CCN2 was loaded into anodized titania nanotubes using a simplified lyophilization method and the loading efficiency was approximately 80%. Then, the release kinetics of CCN2 from these nanotubes was investigated. Furthermore, the influence of CCN2-loaded titania nanotubes on fibroblast functionality was examined. The results revealed increased fibroblast adhesion at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours, increased fibroblast viability over the course of 5 days, as well as enhanced actin cytoskeleton organization on CCN2-loaded titania nanotubes surfaces compared to uncoated, unmodified counterparts. Therefore, the results from this in vitro study demonstrate that CCN2-loaded titania nanotubes have the ability to increase fibroblast functionality and should be further studied as a method of promoting the formation of a stable soft tissue biologic seal around percutaneous sites.

  4. Transparent bulk-size nanocomposites with high inorganic loading

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shi; Gaume, Romain

    2015-12-14

    With relatively high nanoparticle loading in polymer matrices, hybrid nanocomposites made by colloidal dispersion routes suffer from severe inhomogeneous agglomeration, a phenomenon that deteriorates light transmission even when the refractive indices of the inorganic and organic phases are closely matched. The dispersion of particles in a matrix is of paramount importance to obtain composites of high optical quality. Here, we describe an innovative, yet straightforward method to fabricate monolithic transparent hybrid nanocomposites with very high particle loading and high refractive index mismatch tolerance between the inorganic and organic constituents. We demonstrate 77% transmission at 800 nm in a 2 mm-thick acrylate polymer nanocomposite containing 61 vol. % CaF{sub 2} nanoparticles. Modeling shows that similar performance could easily be obtained with various inorganic phases relevant to a number of photonic applications.

  5. Efficient load measurements using singular value decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Kung; Balakrishnan, A. V.

    1988-01-01

    Various basic research was performed on efficient load measurement estimation techniques for aircraft structure analysis. An overview is presented of the load measurement problem. Two basic equivalent approaches to load measurement evaluations were considered. Under approach 1, the load values are modeled as depending linearly on the measured values. Under approach 2, the measured values depend linearly on the load values. By using the modern Singular Value Decomposition method, it was shown that under all conditions of the number of loads and number of gages, approach 1 is equivalent to approach 2. By using the conventional normal equation (linear regression) approach, approach 1 is only valid when the number of loads is equal to or greater than the number of gages, while approach 2 is the reverse. Furthermore, except for the case of the number of loads equals the number of gages, the load prediction formulas under the two approaches are not equivalent.

  6. Walking with a Backpack using Load Distribution and Dynamic Load Compensation Reduces Metabolic Cost and Adaptations to Loads.

    PubMed

    Park, Joon-Hyuk; Stegall, Paul; Zhang, Haohan; Agrawal, Sunil

    2016-11-09

    In this study, we showed a way of reducing the metabolic cost of walking with a backpack using load distribution and dynamic load compensation, provided by a wearable upper body device. This device distributes the backpack load between the shoulders and the pelvis, senses the vertical motion of the pelvis, and provides gait synchronized compensatory forces to reduce the dynamic loads from a backpack. It was hypothesized that by reducing dynamic loads from a backpack during load carriage, the users gait and postural adaptation, muscular effort and metabolic cost would be reduced. This hypothesis was supported by biomechanical and physiological measurements on a group of young healthy subjects, as they walked on a treadmill under 4 different conditions: unloaded; with a backpack, loaded with 25% of their body weight, supported on the shoulders; with the same load distributed between the shoulders and the pelvis; and with dynamic load compensation in addition to load distribution. The results showed reductions in gait and postural adaptations, muscle activity, vertical and braking ground reaction forces, and metabolic cost while carrying the same backpack load with the device. We conclude that the device can potentially reduce the risk of musculoskeletal injuries and muscle fatigue associated with carrying heavy backpack loads while reducing the metabolic cost of loaded walking.

  7. Optimum Dynamic Design of Nonlinear Plates under Blast Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    1978 PLATES UNDER BLAST LOADING 6. PERFORMING ORG . REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(.) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(.) J. M. Ferritto 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...coordinate unit vectors q =q1,,2, M Fiur 5 Lgc iara frminimizato of 4- +(X). 4- (ELX + Os’) compute initial I F I ’- F(O) 1:4- F(I)TT-, - 1• I2 1: 1

  8. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  9. Thermal loading of natural streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackman, Alan P.; Yotsukura, Nobuhiro

    1977-01-01

    The impact of thermal loading on the temperature regime of natural streams is investigated by mathematical models, which describe both transport (convection-diffusion) and decay (surface dissipation) of waste heat over 1-hour or shorter time intervals. The models are derived from the principle of conservation of thermal energy for application to one- and two-dimensional spaces. The basic concept in these models is to separate water temperature into two parts, (1) excess temperature due to thermal loading and (2) natural (ambient) temperature. This separation allows excess temperature to be calculated from the models without incoming radiation data. Natural temperature may either be measured in prototypes or calculated from the model. If use is made of the model, however, incoming radiation is required as input data. Comparison of observed and calculated temperatures in seven natural streams shows that the models are capable of predicting transient temperature regimes satisfactorily in most cases. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Auditory perceptual load: A review.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sandra; Spence, Charles; Dalton, Polly

    2017-02-08

    Selective attention is a crucial mechanism in everyday life, allowing us to focus on a portion of incoming sensory information at the expense of other less relevant stimuli. The circumstances under which irrelevant stimuli are successfully ignored have been a topic of scientific interest for several decades now. Over the last 20 years, the perceptual load theory (e.g. Lavie, 1995) has provided one robust framework for understanding these effects within the visual modality. The suggestion is that successful selection depends on the perceptual demands imposed by the task-relevant information. However, less research has addressed the question of whether the same principles hold in audition and, to date, the existing literature provides a mixed picture. Here, we review the evidence for and against the applicability of perceptual load theory in hearing, concluding that this question still awaits resolution.

  11. On Combinations of Random Loads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    NPS55-80-006 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL NM ’Monterey, California 00 •2• • TD -E E C AN : JUN 16 1980 i ON COMBINATIONS OF RANDOM LOADS by D. P. Gaver...of MKn is close to that of Mn for K large. PROPOSITION (3.3). Let F and G be as in (3.5), and u be such that (un)-c L(un) n as n ÷ (3.6) Then lim HKn

  12. Efficient Solutions in Load Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    The current load planning capability is achieved through a conference and the use of a trim and stability tool. In order to make this process more...mathematical modelling of combustion processes , especially concentrating on spontaneous ignition. Jane works in the Amphibious and Mine Warfare...directives, (b) amphibious planning process and (c) mounting, embarkation and landing planning. It is with stage (c) that this paper is concerned. "Plans

  13. Structural dynamics payload loads estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engels, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a full scale payload integration method which reduces the cost of a load cycle and is capable of land long very large systems is discussed. The method solves the coupled booster/payload system equations and does not involve additional approximations as compared to the standard transient analysis. The method is cost effective and directly applicable to the shuttle payload design case.

  14. Gulf of Mexico hypoxia: exploring increasing sensitivity to nitrogen loads.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Evans, Mary Anne; Scavia, Donald

    2010-08-01

    Hypoxia is a critical issue in the Gulf of Mexico that has challenged management efforts in recent years by an increase in hypoxia sensitivity to nitrogen loads. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the recent increase in sensitivity. Two commonly cited mechanisms are bottom-water reducing conditions preventing nitrification and thus denitrification, leading to more N recycling and production of oxygen-consuming organic matter, and carryover of organic matter from previous years increasing oxygen demand, making the system more sensitive. We use models informed by these mechanisms and fit with Bayesian inference to explore changes in Gulf of Mexico hypoxia sensitivity. We show that a model including an annually fit parameter representing variation in the fraction of nutrient loading and recycling contributing to bottom water oxygen demand provides a good fit to observations and is not improved by explicit inclusion of organic matter carryover to subsequent years. Both models support two stepwise increases in system sensitivity during the period of record. This change in sensitivity has greatly increased the nutrient reduction needed to achieve the established hypoxia goal. If the Gulf remains at the current state of sensitivity, our analysis suggests a roughly 70% reduction of spring TN loads from the 1988-1996 average of 6083 ton/day may be required.

  15. Control Allocation with Load Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodson, Marc; Frost, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the actuator deflections. The paper discusses the alternative choice of the l(infinity) norm, or sup norm. Minimization of the control effort translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection (min-max optimization). The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are also investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of load balancing, where the load is th desired command and the algorithm balances this load among various actuators. The solution using the l(infinity) norm also results in better robustness to failures and to lower sensitivity to nonlinearities in illustrative examples.

  16. Inducer Hydrodynamic Load Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Stephen E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has demonstrated two measurement devices for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The first - a derivative of the six component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This "rotating balance" was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining both the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The second device - a high frequency response pressure transducer surface mounted on a rotating component - was merely an extension of existing technology for application in water. MSFC has recently completed experimental evaluations of both the rotating balance and surface-mount transducers in a water test loop. The measurement bandwidth of the rotating balance was severely limited by the relative flexibility of the device itself, resulting in an unexpectedly low structural bending mode and invalidating the higher frequency response data. Despite these limitations, measurements confirmed that the integrated loads on the four-bladed inducer respond to both cavitation intensity and cavitation phenomena. Likewise, the surface-mount pressure transducers were subjected to a range of temperatures and flow conditions in a non-rotating environment to record bias shifts and transfer functions between the transducers and a reference device. The pressure transducer static performance was within manufacturer's specifications and dynamic response accurately followed that of the reference.

  17. Inducer Hydrodynamic Load Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Stephen E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has demonstrated two measurement devices for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The first - a derivative of the six-component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This rotating balance was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining both the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The second device - a high frequency response pressure transducer surface mounted on a rotating component - was merely an extension of existing technology for application in water. MSFC has recently completed experimental evaluations of both the rotating balance and surface-mount transducers in a water test loop. The measurement bandwidth of the rotating balance was severely limited by the relative flexibility of the device itself, resulting in an unexpectedly low structural bending mode and invalidating the higher-frequency response data. Despite these limitations, measurements confirmed that the integrated loads on the four-bladed inducer respond to both cavitation intensity and cavitation phenomena. Likewise, the surface-mount pressure transducers were subjected to a range of temperatures and flow conditions in a non-rotating environment to record bias shifts and transfer functions between the transducers and a reference device. The pressure transducer static performance was within manufacturer's specifications and dynamic response accurately followed that of the reference.

  18. Passive detection of vehicle loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Troy R.; Salvaggio, Carl; Faulring, Jason W.; Salvaggio, Philip S.; McKeown, Donald M.; Garrett, Alfred J.; Coleman, David H.; Koffman, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  19. Dielectrically Loaded HTS Spiral Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, J.; Hanna, D.; Vlasov, Y. A.; Larkins, G. L.; Moeckly, B. H.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this work is to fabricate, test, and study a dielectrically loaded high temperature superconductor (HTS) spiral antenna that would operate in the frequency band of 10 MHz to 200 MHz. The antenna is formed by depositing and patterning a YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) thin film on top of 4-inch-diameter sapphire and Yittria Stabilized ZrO2 substrates. The presence of the HTS material guarantees low conductor loss in the antenna. A thick epitaxial layer of strontium titanate (STO) is then deposited on top of the YBCO for high dielectric constant loading. This set-up can be simulated using the Fidelity software routine, a Finite Difference Time Domain based program from Zeland, Inc. We have simulated the performance of this antenna structure, first in free space and then after loading with the dielectric slabs. Important parameters such as feed point impedance and antenna gain are studied for different simulation conditions. The dielectric ensures reduced feed point impedance as well as improvement of the low frequency response of the antenna.

  20. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  1. Organic bioelectronics in medicine.

    PubMed

    Löffler, S; Melican, K; Nilsson, K P R; Richter-Dahlfors, A

    2017-02-09

    A major challenge in the growing field of bioelectronic medicine is the development of tissue interface technologies promoting device integration with biological tissues. Materials based on organic bioelectronics show great promise due to a unique combination of electronic and ionic conductivity properties. In this review, we outline exciting developments in the field of organic bioelectronics and demonstrate the medical importance of these active, electronically controllable materials. Importantly, organic bioelectronics offer a means to control cell-surface attachment as required for many device-tissue applications. Experiments have shown that cells readily attach and proliferate on reduced but not oxidized organic bioelectronic materials. In another application, the active properties of organic bioelectronics were used to develop electronically triggered systems for drug release. After incorporating drugs by advanced loading strategies, small compound drugs were released upon electrochemical trigger, independent of charge. Another type of delivery device was used to achieve well-controlled, spatiotemporal delivery of cationic drugs. Via electrophoretic transport within a polymer, cations were delivered with single-cell precision. Finally, organic bioelectronic materials are commonly used as electrode coatings improving the electrical properties of recording and stimulation electrodes. Because such coatings drastically reduce the electrode impedance, smaller electrodes with improved signal-to-noise ratio can be fabricated. Thus, rapid technological advancement combined with the creation of tiny electronic devices reacting to changes in the tissue environment helps to promote the transition from standard pharmaceutical therapy to treatment based on 'electroceuticals'. Moreover, the widening repertoire of organic bioelectronics will expand the options for true biological interfaces, providing the basis for personalized bioelectronic medicine.

  2. Engine-Operating Load Influences Diesel Exhaust Composition and Cardiopulmonary and Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Campen, Matthew J.; Harrod, Kevin S.; Seagrave, JeanClare; Seilkop, Steven K.; Mauderly, Joe L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The composition of diesel engine exhaust (DEE) varies by engine type and condition, fuel, engine operation, and exhaust after treatment such as particle traps. DEE has been shown to increase inflammation, susceptibility to infection, and cardiovascular responses in experimentally exposed rodents and humans. Engines used in these studies have been operated at idle, at different steady-state loads, or on variable-load cycles, but exposures are often reported only as the mass concentration of particulate matter (PM), and the effects of different engine loads and the resulting differences in DEE composition are unknown. Objectives: We assessed the impacts of load-related differences in DEE composition on models of inflammation, susceptibility to infection, and cardiovascular toxicity. Methods: We assessed inflammation and susceptibility to viral infection in C57BL/6 mice and cardiovascular toxicity in APOE–/– mice after being exposed to DEE generated from a single-cylinder diesel generator operated at partial or full load. Results: At the same PM mass concentration, partial load resulted in higher proportions of particle organic carbon content and a smaller particle size than did high load. Vapor-phase hydrocarbon content was greater at partial load. Compared with high-load DEE, partial-load DEE caused greater responses in heart rate and T-wave morphology, in terms of both magnitude and rapidity of onset of effects, consistent with previous findings that systemic effects may be driven largely by the gas phase of the exposure atmospheres. However, high-load DEE caused more lung inflammation and greater susceptibility to viral infection than did partial load. Conclusions: Differences in engine load, as well as other operating variables, are important determinants of the type and magnitude of responses to inhaled DEE. PM mass concentration alone is not a sufficient basis for comparing or combining results from studies using DEE generated under different

  3. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) When loading boreholes drilled at an angle of 45 degrees or greater from the horizontal in solid rock or loading long holes drilled upward in anthracite mines— (1) The first cartridge in each...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) When loading boreholes drilled at an angle of 45 degrees or greater from the horizontal in solid rock or loading long holes drilled upward in anthracite mines— (1) The first cartridge in each...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) When loading boreholes drilled at an angle of 45 degrees or greater from the horizontal in solid rock or loading long holes drilled upward in anthracite mines— (1) The first cartridge in each...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) When loading boreholes drilled at an angle of 45 degrees or greater from the horizontal in solid rock or loading long holes drilled upward in anthracite mines— (1) The first cartridge in each...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) When loading boreholes drilled at an angle of 45 degrees or greater from the horizontal in solid rock or loading long holes drilled upward in anthracite mines— (1) The first cartridge in each...

  8. 30 CFR 56.6600 - Loading practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Electricity § 56.6600 Loading practices. If extraneous electricity is suspected in an area where electric... levels of extraneous electricity are found, the source shall be determined and no loading shall...

  9. 30 CFR 56.6600 - Loading practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Electricity § 56.6600 Loading practices. If extraneous electricity is suspected in an area where electric... levels of extraneous electricity are found, the source shall be determined and no loading shall...

  10. 30 CFR 56.6600 - Loading practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Electricity § 56.6600 Loading practices. If extraneous electricity is suspected in an area where electric... levels of extraneous electricity are found, the source shall be determined and no loading shall...

  11. 30 CFR 56.6600 - Loading practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Electricity § 56.6600 Loading practices. If extraneous electricity is suspected in an area where electric... levels of extraneous electricity are found, the source shall be determined and no loading shall...

  12. 30 CFR 56.6600 - Loading practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Electricity § 56.6600 Loading practices. If extraneous electricity is suspected in an area where electric... levels of extraneous electricity are found, the source shall be determined and no loading shall...

  13. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study presented herein establishes a picture of how the agency is positioned today in its loads and resources balance. It is a snapshot of expected resource operation, contractual obligations, and rights. This study does not attempt to present or analyze future conservation or generation resource scenarios. What it does provide are base case assumptions from which scenarios encompassing a wide range of uncertainties about BPA`s future may be evaluated. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The Federal system and regional analyses for medium load forecast are presented.

  14. 30 CFR 57.9317 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping...

  15. 30 CFR 57.9317 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping...

  16. 30 CFR 57.9317 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping...

  17. 30 CFR 57.9317 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping...

  18. 30 CFR 57.9317 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping...

  19. 14 CFR 23.427 - Unsymmetrical loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... supporting structure must be designed for unsymmetrical loads arising from yawing and slipstream effects, in... surfaces and supporting structures must be designed for combined vertical and horizontal surface loads... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Horizontal Stabilizing...

  20. 14 CFR 23.427 - Unsymmetrical loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... supporting structure must be designed for unsymmetrical loads arising from yawing and slipstream effects, in... surfaces and supporting structures must be designed for combined vertical and horizontal surface loads... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Horizontal Stabilizing...

  1. 14 CFR 23.427 - Unsymmetrical loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... supporting structure must be designed for unsymmetrical loads arising from yawing and slipstream effects, in... surfaces and supporting structures must be designed for combined vertical and horizontal surface loads... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Horizontal Stabilizing...

  2. 14 CFR 23.427 - Unsymmetrical loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... supporting structure must be designed for unsymmetrical loads arising from yawing and slipstream effects, in... surfaces and supporting structures must be designed for combined vertical and horizontal surface loads... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Horizontal Stabilizing...

  3. 14 CFR 23.427 - Unsymmetrical loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... supporting structure must be designed for unsymmetrical loads arising from yawing and slipstream effects, in... surfaces and supporting structures must be designed for combined vertical and horizontal surface loads... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Horizontal Stabilizing...

  4. 46 CFR 122.335 - Loading doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vessel fitted with loading doors shall assure that all loading doors are closed and secured during the... shell, and the boundaries of enclosed superstructures that are continuous with the shell of the vessel....

  5. 46 CFR 122.335 - Loading doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vessel fitted with loading doors shall assure that all loading doors are closed and secured during the... shell, and the boundaries of enclosed superstructures that are continuous with the shell of the vessel....

  6. 46 CFR 122.335 - Loading doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vessel fitted with loading doors shall assure that all loading doors are closed and secured during the... shell, and the boundaries of enclosed superstructures that are continuous with the shell of the vessel....

  7. 46 CFR 122.335 - Loading doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vessel fitted with loading doors shall assure that all loading doors are closed and secured during the... shell, and the boundaries of enclosed superstructures that are continuous with the shell of the vessel....

  8. 14 CFR 25.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are... equilibrium with inertia forces, considering each item of mass in the airplane. These loads must...

  9. 14 CFR 25.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are... equilibrium with inertia forces, considering each item of mass in the airplane. These loads must...

  10. 14 CFR 25.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are... equilibrium with inertia forces, considering each item of mass in the airplane. These loads must...

  11. 14 CFR 25.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are... equilibrium with inertia forces, considering each item of mass in the airplane. These loads must...

  12. 14 CFR 25.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are... equilibrium with inertia forces, considering each item of mass in the airplane. These loads must...

  13. Acid loading test (pH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003615.htm Acid loading test (pH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the ...

  14. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... authorized external load as demonstrated under § 27.25 and this section. (f) The fatigue evaluation of § 27.... For rotorcraft-load combinations to be used for human external cargo, the fatigue evaluation of §...

  15. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... authorized external load as demonstrated under § 27.25 and this section. (f) The fatigue evaluation of § 27.... For rotorcraft-load combinations to be used for human external cargo, the fatigue evaluation of §...

  16. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  17. Spinning reserve from hotel load response

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Brendan; Kueck, John; Laughner, Theo; Morris, Keith

    2008-12-15

    Even though preliminary tests were not conducted during times of highest system or hotel loading during the summer, they showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22 to 37 percent depending on the outdoor temperature and time of day. Full response occurred in 12 to 60 seconds from when the system operator's command to shed load was issued and the load drop was very rapid. (author)

  18. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  19. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  20. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  1. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  2. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  3. Baby Carriage: Infants Walking with Loads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garciaguirre, Jessie S.; Adolph, Karen E.; Shrout, Patrick E.

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining balance is a central problem for new walkers. To examine how infants cope with the additional balance control problems induced by load carriage, 14-month-olds were loaded with 15% of their body weight in shoulder-packs. Both symmetrical and asymmetrical loads disrupted alternating gait patterns and caused less mature footfall patterns.…

  4. Load Bearing Equipment for Bone and Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Linda; Griffith, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Resistance exercise on ISS has proven effective in maintaining bone mineral density and muscle mass. Exploration missions require exercise with similar high loads using equipment with less mass and volume and greater safety and reliability than resistance exercise equipment used on ISS (iRED, ARED, FWED). Load Bearing Equipment (LBE) uses each exercising person to create and control the load to the partner.

  5. Neuroimaging of Cognitive Load in Instructional Multimedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews research literature on cognitive load measurement in learning and neuroimaging, and describes a mapping between the main elements of cognitive load theory and findings in functional neuroanatomy. It is argued that these findings may lead to the improved measurement of cognitive load using neuroimaging. The paper describes how…

  6. Effects of Cognitive Load on Trust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    27 5. Operational Processes ...the person’s benevolence. 3.1. Cognitive Load and Trust Cognitive load is a key component of the four-stage model of human information processing ...capacity of working memory and processing of novel information (Baddeley, 2003; Paas et al., 2003). It is clear that, like trust, cognitive load plays

  7. 14 CFR 297.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint loading. 297.4 Section 297.4... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and...

  8. 14 CFR 297.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint loading. 297.4 Section 297.4... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and...

  9. 14 CFR 296.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint loading. 296.4 Section 296.4... REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their delivery to a direct air carrier...

  10. 14 CFR 297.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint loading. 297.4 Section 297.4... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and...

  11. 14 CFR 296.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint loading. 296.4 Section 296.4... REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their delivery to a direct air carrier...

  12. 14 CFR 297.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint loading. 297.4 Section 297.4... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and...

  13. 14 CFR 296.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint loading. 296.4 Section 296.4... REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their delivery to a direct air carrier...

  14. 14 CFR 297.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint loading. 297.4 Section 297.4... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and...

  15. 14 CFR 296.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint loading. 296.4 Section 296.4... REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their delivery to a direct air carrier...

  16. 14 CFR 296.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint loading. 296.4 Section 296.4... REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their delivery to a direct air carrier...

  17. 14 CFR 121.665 - Load manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Load manifest. 121.665 Section 121.665..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.665 Load manifest. Each certificate holder is responsible for the preparation and accuracy of a load manifest form before each...

  18. 30 CFR 57.16009 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suspended loads. 57.16009 Section 57.16009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Handling § 57.16009 Suspended loads. Persons shall stay clear of suspended loads....

  19. 14 CFR 23.441 - Maneuvering loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maneuvering loads. 23.441 Section 23.441... Maneuvering loads. (a) At speeds up to V A, the vertical surfaces must be designed to withstand the following conditions. In computing the loads, the yawing velocity may be assumed to be zero: (1) With the airplane...

  20. 14 CFR 25.537 - Seawing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seawing loads. 25.537 Section 25.537 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.537 Seawing loads. Seawing design...

  1. 14 CFR 23.443 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gust loads. 23.443 Section 23.443... Gust loads. (a) Vertical surfaces must be designed to withstand, in unaccelerated flight at speed V C... specified in § 23.333(c)(2)(i). (c) In the absence of a more rational analysis, the gust load must...

  2. 46 CFR 175.122 - Load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Load lines. 175.122 Section 175.122 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 175.122 Load lines. A vessel of 24 meters (79 feet) in length or more, the keel of which was laid or... than a domestic voyage is subject to load line assignment, certification, and marking under suchapter...

  3. 14 CFR 121.665 - Load manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Load manifest. 121.665 Section 121.665..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.665 Load manifest. Each certificate holder is responsible for the preparation and accuracy of a load manifest form before each...

  4. 30 CFR 56.16009 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suspended loads. 56.16009 Section 56.16009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Handling § 56.16009 Suspended loads. Persons shall stay clear of suspended loads....

  5. 30 CFR 57.16009 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suspended loads. 57.16009 Section 57.16009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Handling § 57.16009 Suspended loads. Persons shall stay clear of suspended loads....

  6. 14 CFR 121.665 - Load manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Load manifest. 121.665 Section 121.665..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.665 Load manifest. Each certificate holder is responsible for the preparation and accuracy of a load manifest form before each...

  7. 46 CFR 175.122 - Load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Load lines. 175.122 Section 175.122 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 175.122 Load lines. A vessel of 24 meters (79 feet) in length or more, the keel of which was laid or... than a domestic voyage is subject to load line assignment, certification, and marking under suchapter...

  8. 14 CFR 23.443 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Gust loads. 23.443 Section 23.443... Gust loads. (a) Vertical surfaces must be designed to withstand, in unaccelerated flight at speed V C... specified in § 23.333(c)(2)(i). (c) In the absence of a more rational analysis, the gust load must...

  9. 30 CFR 57.16009 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suspended loads. 57.16009 Section 57.16009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Handling § 57.16009 Suspended loads. Persons shall stay clear of suspended loads....

  10. 46 CFR 175.122 - Load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Load lines. 175.122 Section 175.122 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 175.122 Load lines. A vessel of 24 meters (79 feet) in length or more, the keel of which was laid or... than a domestic voyage is subject to load line assignment, certification, and marking under suchapter...

  11. 30 CFR 56.16009 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspended loads. 56.16009 Section 56.16009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Handling § 56.16009 Suspended loads. Persons shall stay clear of suspended loads....

  12. 14 CFR 23.443 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Gust loads. 23.443 Section 23.443... Gust loads. (a) Vertical surfaces must be designed to withstand, in unaccelerated flight at speed V C... specified in § 23.333(c)(2)(i). (c) In the absence of a more rational analysis, the gust load must...

  13. 14 CFR 25.371 - Gyroscopic loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gyroscopic loads. 25.371 Section 25.371... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.371 Gyroscopic loads. The structure supporting any engine or auxiliary power unit must be designed for the loads including...

  14. 46 CFR 175.122 - Load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Load lines. 175.122 Section 175.122 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 175.122 Load lines. A vessel of 24 meters (79 feet) in length or more, the keel of which was laid or... than a domestic voyage is subject to load line assignment, certification, and marking under suchapter...

  15. 14 CFR 23.443 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gust loads. 23.443 Section 23.443... Gust loads. (a) Vertical surfaces must be designed to withstand, in unaccelerated flight at speed V C... specified in § 23.333(c)(2)(i). (c) In the absence of a more rational analysis, the gust load must...

  16. 14 CFR 25.537 - Seawing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seawing loads. 25.537 Section 25.537 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.537 Seawing loads. Seawing design...

  17. 30 CFR 56.16009 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suspended loads. 56.16009 Section 56.16009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Handling § 56.16009 Suspended loads. Persons shall stay clear of suspended loads....

  18. 30 CFR 56.16009 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suspended loads. 56.16009 Section 56.16009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Handling § 56.16009 Suspended loads. Persons shall stay clear of suspended loads....

  19. 14 CFR 23.443 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gust loads. 23.443 Section 23.443... Gust loads. (a) Vertical surfaces must be designed to withstand, in unaccelerated flight at speed V C... specified in § 23.333(c)(2)(i). (c) In the absence of a more rational analysis, the gust load must...

  20. 30 CFR 57.16009 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspended loads. 57.16009 Section 57.16009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Handling § 57.16009 Suspended loads. Persons shall stay clear of suspended loads....

  1. 14 CFR 25.371 - Gyroscopic loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Gyroscopic loads. 25.371 Section 25.371... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.371 Gyroscopic loads. The structure supporting any engine or auxiliary power unit must be designed for the loads including...

  2. 14 CFR 25.371 - Gyroscopic loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Gyroscopic loads. 25.371 Section 25.371... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.371 Gyroscopic loads. The structure supporting any engine or auxiliary power unit must be designed for the loads including...

  3. 14 CFR 121.665 - Load manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Load manifest. 121.665 Section 121.665..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.665 Load manifest. Each certificate holder is responsible for the preparation and accuracy of a load manifest form before each...

  4. 49 CFR 238.417 - Side loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Side loads. 238.417 Section 238.417 Transportation....417 Side loads. (a) Each passenger car body structure shall be designed to resist an inward transverse load of 80,000 pounds of force applied to the side sill and 10,000 pounds of force applied to the...

  5. 14 CFR 25.537 - Seawing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seawing loads. 25.537 Section 25.537 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.537 Seawing loads. Seawing design...

  6. 30 CFR 57.16009 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspended loads. 57.16009 Section 57.16009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Handling § 57.16009 Suspended loads. Persons shall stay clear of suspended loads....

  7. 14 CFR 25.371 - Gyroscopic loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gyroscopic loads. 25.371 Section 25.371... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.371 Gyroscopic loads. The structure supporting any engine or auxiliary power unit must be designed for the loads including...

  8. 14 CFR 121.665 - Load manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Load manifest. 121.665 Section 121.665..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.665 Load manifest. Each certificate holder is responsible for the preparation and accuracy of a load manifest form before each...

  9. 14 CFR 25.537 - Seawing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seawing loads. 25.537 Section 25.537 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.537 Seawing loads. Seawing design...

  10. 46 CFR 175.122 - Load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Load lines. 175.122 Section 175.122 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 175.122 Load lines. A vessel of 24 meters (79 feet) in length or more, the keel of which was laid or... than a domestic voyage is subject to load line assignment, certification, and marking under...

  11. 14 CFR 25.371 - Gyroscopic loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gyroscopic loads. 25.371 Section 25.371... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.371 Gyroscopic loads. The structure supporting any engine or auxiliary power unit must be designed for the loads including...

  12. 30 CFR 56.16009 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspended loads. 56.16009 Section 56.16009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Handling § 56.16009 Suspended loads. Persons shall stay clear of suspended loads....

  13. 14 CFR 25.537 - Seawing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seawing loads. 25.537 Section 25.537 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.537 Seawing loads. Seawing design...

  14. 14 CFR 27.1589 - Loading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loading information. 27.1589 Section 27.1589 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Manual and Approved Manual Material § 27.1589 Loading information. There must be loading instructions...

  15. 14 CFR 27.1589 - Loading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loading information. 27.1589 Section 27.1589 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Manual and Approved Manual Material § 27.1589 Loading information. There must be loading instructions...

  16. 14 CFR 27.1589 - Loading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loading information. 27.1589 Section 27.1589 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Manual and Approved Manual Material § 27.1589 Loading information. There must be loading instructions...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1589 - Loading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loading information. 27.1589 Section 27.1589 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Manual and Approved Manual Material § 27.1589 Loading information. There must be loading instructions...

  18. 14 CFR 27.1589 - Loading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loading information. 27.1589 Section 27.1589 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Manual and Approved Manual Material § 27.1589 Loading information. There must be loading instructions...

  19. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  20. Properly Evaluating load-following products

    SciTech Connect

    Cavicchi, Joseph; Lemon, Andrew

    2009-01-15

    The authors briefly survey the jurisdictions where load-following products have been successfully used, examine the characteristics of the load-following products, and explain the shortcomings and inaccurate conclusions of previous analyses. A more thorough analysis reveals that the load-following products fulfill the public policy objectives for which they have been designed and do not adversely impact wholesale electricity markets.