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Sample records for rhodogorgonaceae rhodophyta registro

  1. Production of terpenes in the culture of Chlorophyceae and Rhodophyta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, M.; Hashimoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    Terpenes show high reactivity in the troposphere, contributing to organic aerosol reactions with OH radicals. One of the main sources of terpenes in the atmosphere is terrestrial plants. It has been recently reported that marine phytoplankton also produce monoterpenes (Yassaa et al: 2008). Because aerosol production of natural origin affects the cloud cover over the open ocean, it is important to investigate the origin of aerosol generation in the open ocean. In this study, we investigated the production of terpenes and isoprene with a focus on Chlamydomonas (Chlorophyceae) and Rhodella maculata (Rhodophyta). Concentrations of terpenes and isoprene were measured using a dynamic headspace (GERSTEL DHS)—gas chromatograph (Agilent 6890N)—mass spectrometer (Agilent 5975C). In addition, chlorophyll a was measured using a fluorometer (Turner TD-700). The results showed that isoprene, α-pinene, and β-pinene were produced by Chlamydomonas sp. and that isoprene, limonene, and camphene were produced by Rhodella maculata. Chlamydomonas sp. produced α-pinene and β-pinene, similar to land plants. The ratio of the pinene/isoprene concentrations in the atmosphere over seawater where phytoplankton are blooming has been reported as approximately 0.7 (Yassaa et al: 2008). In this experiment, the pinene/isoprene concentration ratios in the cultures were approximately 0.1. This result indicates that marine phytoplankton may not be ignored in the marine atmosphere chemistry of terpenes.

  2. Kalkbohrende Mikrothalli bei Helminthocladia und Scinaia (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornmann, P.; Sahling, P.-H.

    1980-03-01

    Shell-boring microthalli in Helminthocladia and Scinaia (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta). Spores shed from pink mussel shells were shown to develop into branched monosiphonous thalli, their filaments penetrating into shell fragments. Isolates from four single germlings were cultivated. Two of these produced gametophytes of Helminthocladia and Scinaia; the others have so far only reproduced by tetraspores or monospores. Evidently the microthalli of some genera of the Nemaliales — which are, with the exception of Nemalion multifidum, known only from cultures — are shell-inhabiting and have therefore not been found in nature. The adult algae occur mainly on shells and CaCO3 substrates. Until the beginning of the century, Helminthocladia and Scinaia frequently occurred at Helgoland, but they have not been found there for more than 50 years. Their microthalli, however, are still present as shell-boring algae. This study is intended to stimulate similar ones in other genera of the Nemaliales so as to obtain a broader basis for discussion of systematic and phylogenetic relationships.

  3. Insight into glucosidase II from the red marine microalga Porphyridium sp. (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Levy-Ontman, Oshrat; Fisher, Merav; Shotland, Yoram; Tekoah, Yoram; Malis Arad, Shoshana

    2015-12-01

    N-glycosylation of proteins is one of the most important post-translational modifications that occur in various organisms, and is of utmost importance for protein function, stability, secretion, and loca-lization. Although the N-linked glycosylation pathway of proteins has been extensively characterized in mammals and plants, not much information is available regarding the N-glycosylation pathway in algae. We studied the α 1,3-glucosidase glucosidase II (GANAB) glycoenzyme in a red marine microalga Porphyridium sp. (Rhodophyta) using bioinformatic and biochemical approaches. The GANAB-gene was found to be highly conserved evolutionarily (compo-sed of all the common features of α and β subunits) and to exhibit similar motifs consistent with that of homolog eukaryotes GANAB genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its wide distribution across an evolutionarily vast range of organisms; while the α subunit is highly conserved and its phylogenic tree is similar to the taxon evolutionary tree, the β subunit is less conserved and its pattern somewhat differs from the taxon tree. In addition, the activity of the red microalgal GANAB enzyme was studied, including functional and biochemical characterization using a bioassay, indicating that the enzyme is similar to other eukaryotes ortholog GANAB enzymes. A correlation between polysaccharide production and GANAB activity, indicating its involvement in polysaccharide biosynthesis, is also demonstrated. This study represents a valuable contribution toward understanding the N-glycosylation and polysaccharide biosynthesis pathways in red microalgae.

  4. Cloning and analysis of calmodulin gene from Porphyra yezoensis Ueda (Bangiales, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengqiang; Mao, Yunxiang; Zhuang, Yunyun; Kong, Fanna; Sui, Zhenghong

    2009-09-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of signal transduction and anti-desiccation mechanisms of Porphyra yezoensis, cDNA and its genomic sequence of Calmodulin gene (CaM) was cloned by the technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the analysis of P. yezoensis ESTs from dbEST database. The result shows that the full-length cDNA of CaM consists of 603 bps including an ORF encoding for 151 amino acids and a terminate codon UGA, while the length of genomic sequence is 1231 bps including 2 exons and 1 intron. The average GC content of the coding region is 58.77%, while the GC content of the third position of this gene is as high as 82.23%. Four Ca2+ binding sites (EF-hand) are found in this gene. The predicted molecular mass of the deduced peptide is 16688.72 Da and the pI is 4.222. By aligning with known CaM genes, the similarity of CaM gene sequence with homologous genes in Chlamydomonas incerta and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is 72.7% and 72.2% respectively, and the similarity of the deduced amino acid sequence of CaM gene with homologous genes in C. incerta and C. reinhardtii are both 71.5%. This is the first report on CaM from a species of Rhodophyta.

  5. DNA barcode assessment of Ceramiales (Rhodophyta) in the intertidal zone of the northwestern Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guoying; Wu, Feifei; Guo, Hao; Xue, Hongfan; Mao, Yunxiang

    2015-05-01

    A total of 142 specimens of Ceramiales (Rhodophyta) were collected each month from October 2011 to November 2012 in the intertidal zone of the northwestern Yellow Sea. These specimens covered 21 species, 14 genera, and four families. Cluster analyses show that the specimens had a high diversity for the three DNA markers, namely, partial large subunit rRNA gene (LSU), universal plastid amplicon (UPA), and partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). No intraspecific divergence was found in our collection for these markers, except for a 1-3 bp divergence in the COI of Ceramium kondoi, Symphyocladia latiuscula, and Neosiphonia japonica. Because short DNA markers were used, the phylogenetic relationships of higher taxonomic levels were hard to evaluate with poor branch support. More than half species of our collection failed to find their matched sequences owing to shortage information of DNA barcodes for macroalgae in GenBank or BOLD (Barcode of Life Data) Systems. Three specimens were presumed as Heterosiphonia crispella by cluster analyses on DNA barcodes assisted by morphological identification, which was the first record in the investigated area, implying that it might be a cryptic or invasive species in the coastal area of northwestern Yellow Sea. In the neighbor-joining trees of all three DNA markers, Heterosiphonia japonica converged with Dasya spp. and was distant from the other Heterosiphonia spp., implying that H. japonica had affinities to the genus Dasya. The LSU and UPA markers amplified and sequenced easier than the COI marker across the Ceramiales species, but the COI had a higher ability to discriminate between species.

  6. Growth of gametophytes and sporophytes of Grateloupia subpectinata (Rhodophyta) in culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adharini, Ratih Ida; Kim, Hyung Geun

    2016-09-01

    Comparison of growing thalli in alternating haploid and diploid phases of Grateloupia subpectinata (Rhodophyta) was studied. Fertile thalli from gametophyte and tetrasporophyte of G. subpectinata were collected from Yangyang, on the eastern coast of Korea. The size of the released tetraspores and carpospores was measured; the spores were then incubated at the temperature of 20°C, irradiance of 40 μmol photon m-2s-1 and photoperiod of 12L and 12D. Carpospores were also cultivated in the same conditions as the tetraspores culture. The crusts were subsequently transferred to a tank culture after six months. The specific growth rate (SGR) was measured by observing 50 crusts and 30 thalli. The released carpospores had a larger diameter (9.98 μm) than the tetraspores (9.38 μm). The crusts from the carpospores also show a higher specific growth rate (14.04% d-1) than tetraspores (13.39% d-1). After being transferred and cultured in a tank, the upright thalli grew slowly in May-June (13-15°C) and rapidly in July-September (17-22°C). The length of growing thalli of sporophyte from carpospores also revealed a higher specific growth rate (2.83% d-1) than gametophytic thalli (2.38% d-1). The specific growth rate of crusts and thalli developed from carpospores was higher than that of the crusts developed from tetraspores. This result suggests that the cultivation of sporophytes may be more profitable than gametophytes because harvesting can be done more efficiently.

  7. Inhibition of photosynthesis in the microalga Chaetoceros curvisetus (Bacillariophyta) by macroalga Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Changpeng; Zhang, Mengcheng; Yang, Yufeng

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effects of dried macroalga Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) on photosynthesis of the bloom-forming microalga Chaetoceros curvisetus. C. curvisetus was cultured with different amounts of dried G. lemaneiformis under controlled laboratory conditions. We measured the photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate and established the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (OJIP) curve coupled with its specific parameters. We observed concentration-dependent and time-dependent relationships between dried G. lemaneiformis and inhibition of photosynthesis in C. curvisetus. Co-culture with dried G. lemaneiformis also resulted in a decrease in the light-saturated maximum photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate ( P max) in C. curvisetus, and a decrease in the OJIP curve along with its specific parameters; the maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII ( F v / F m), the amount of active PSII reaction centers per excited cross section at t=0 and t= t FM (RC/CS0 and RC/CSm, respectively), the absorption flux per excited cross section at t =0 (ABS/ CS0), and the efficiency with which a trapped exciton moves an electron into the electron transport chain ( ψ 0). The dark respiration rate ( R d) increased in C. curvisetus co-cultured with dried G. lemaneiformis. The JIP-test and the oxygen evolution results indicated that dried G. lemaneiformis decreased the number of active reaction centers, blocked the electron transport chain, and damaged the oxygen-evolving complex of C. curvisetus. This result indicated that dried fragments of G. lemaneiformis could effectively inhibit photosynthesis of C. curvisetus, and thus, could serve as a functional product to control and mitigate C. curvisetus blooms.

  8. Thermal pollution and settlement of new tropical alien species: The case of Grateloupia yinggehaiensis (Rhodophyta) in the Venice Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, M. A.; Sfriso, A.; Moro, I.

    2014-06-01

    The Venice Lagoon has become increasingly affected by the introduction of allochthonous macroalgae mainly coming from the Indo-Pacific area. In consequence to the recent climate changes and temperature increase, such species could simply find numerous habitats suitable for their growth. One local process that contributes to water temperature changes is thermal pollution. In this study we used the DNA barcoding method to identify a new alien macroalgal species, Grateloupia yinggehaiensis Wang et Luan (Rhodophyta), found near the industrial area of Porto Marghera (Venice, Italy) hosting the Fusina thermoelectric power plant. The microclimate of this area has enabled the spread of this species native of the tropical area of the Hainan Province (China) and probably introduced in the Mediterranean Sea via shellfish transfers.

  9. Effects of seawater salinity and temperature on growth and pigment contents in Hypnea cervicornis J. Agardh (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Ding, Lanping; Ma, Yuanyuan; Huang, Bingxin; Chen, Shanwen

    2013-01-01

    This study simulated outdoor environmental living conditions and observed the growth rates and changes of several photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, Car, PE, and PC) in Hypnea cervicornis J. Agardh (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) by setting up different ranges of salinity (25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50) and temperature (15, 20, 25, and 30°C). At conditions of culture, the results are as follows. (1) Changes in salinity and temperature have significant effects on the growth of H. cervicornis. The growth rates first increase then decrease as the temperature increases, while growth tends to decline as salinity increases. The optimum salinity and temperature conditions for growth are 25 and 25°C, respectively. (2) Salinity and temperature have significant or extremely significant effects on photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, Car, PE, and PC) in H. cervicornis. The results of this study are advantageous to ensure propagation and economic development of this species in the southern sea area of China.

  10. Effects of Seawater Salinity and Temperature on Growth and Pigment Contents in Hypnea cervicornis J. Agardh (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lanping; Ma, Yuanyuan; Huang, Bingxin; Chen, Shanwen

    2013-01-01

    This study simulated outdoor environmental living conditions and observed the growth rates and changes of several photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, Car, PE, and PC) in Hypnea cervicornis J. Agardh (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) by setting up different ranges of salinity (25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50) and temperature (15, 20, 25, and 30°C). At conditions of culture, the results are as follows. (1) Changes in salinity and temperature have significant effects on the growth of H. cervicornis. The growth rates first increase then decrease as the temperature increases, while growth tends to decline as salinity increases. The optimum salinity and temperature conditions for growth are 25 and 25°C, respectively. (2) Salinity and temperature have significant or extremely significant effects on photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, Car, PE, and PC) in H. cervicornis. The results of this study are advantageous to ensure propagation and economic development of this species in the southern sea area of China. PMID:24350276

  11. Visualization of DNA-containing structures in various species of Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Cyanophyta using SYBR Green I dye.

    PubMed

    Vítová, M; Hendrychová, J; Cepák, V; Zachleder, V

    2005-01-01

    We developed an alternative method of staining cell nuclei and chloroplast nucleoids of algal cells using SYBR Green I (the fluorescent dye used commonly for detecting dsDNA in agarose and polyacrylamide gels as an alternative to highly mutagenic ethidium bromide and for DNA staining of viruses and bacteria followed by flow cytometry, digital image analysis or real-time PCR), which enabled routine staining in vivo. Cells do not need to be fixed or treated chemically or physically before staining, thus the shape, size and position of DNA-containing structures are not affected. The fluorescence signal is sharp and reproducible. Examples of application of the method are shown in color microphotographs for representatives of eukaryotic algae from the taxa Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and the prokaryotic Cyanophyta. The method is also useful for studying progress of the cell cycle in algal cells dividing by multiple fission, as shown by observation of changes in nuclear number during the cell cycle of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Scenedesmus quadricauda. Staining with SYBR Green I can be recommended as a fast, safe and efficient method for the detection of DNA-containing structures in vivo.

  12. A molecular phylogeny of the marine red algae (Rhodophyta) based on the nuclear small-subunit rRNA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Ragan, M A; Bird, C J; Rice, E L; Gutell, R R; Murphy, C A; Singh, R K

    1994-01-01

    A phylogeny of marine Rhodophyta has been inferred by a number of methods from nucleotide sequences of nuclear genes encoding small subunit rRNA from 39 species in 15 orders. Sequence divergences are relatively large, especially among bangiophytes and even among congeners in this group. Subclass Bangiophycidae appears polyphyletic, encompassing at least three lineages, with Porphyridiales distributed between two of these. Subclass Florideophycidae is monophyletic, with Hildenbrandiales, Corallinales, Ahnfeltiales, and a close association of Nemaliales, Acrochaetiales, and Palmariales forming the four deepest branches. Cermiales may represent a convergence of vegetative and reproductive morphologies, as family Ceramiaceae is at best weakly related to the rest of the order, and one of its members appears to be allied to Gelidiales. Except for Gigartinales, for which more data are required, the other florideophyte orders appear distinct and taxonomically justified. A good correlation was observed with taxonomy based on pit-plug ultrastructure. Tests under maximum-likelihood and parsimony of alternative phylogenies based on structure and chemistry refuted suggestions that Acrochaetiales is the most primitive florideophyte order and that Gelidiales and Hildenbrandiales are sister groups. PMID:8041780

  13. Primer registro para Peru del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae: Cicadellini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    En este articulo se reporta por primera vez para el Peru una especies del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977, de material procedente del Departamento de Tumbes. El genero ha sido reportada anteriormente de Ecuador, como unico registro para Sudamerica, y America Central. El unico especimen hembra encontra...

  14. Prediction of mono-, bi-, and trivalent metal cation relative toxicity to the seaweed Gracilaria domingensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) in synthetic seawater.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Luiz Fernando; Zambotti-Villela, Leonardo; Yokoya, Nair Sumie; Bastos, Erick Leite; Stevani, Cassius Vinicius; Colepicolo, Pio

    2013-11-01

    The present study reports a 48-h aquatic metal-toxicity assay based on daily growth rates of the red seaweed Gracilaria domingensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) in synthetic seawater. The median inhibitory concentration (IC50) for each metal cation was experimentally determined, and the ratios of free ions (aqueous complex) were calculated by software minimization of the total equilibrium activity (MINTEQA2) to determine the free median inhibitory concentration (IC50F). A model for predicting the toxicity of 14 metal cations was developed using the generic function approximation algorithm (GFA) with log IC50F values as the dependent variables and the following properties as independent variables: ionic radius (r), atomic number (AN), electronegativity (Xm ), covalent index (Xm (2) r), first hydrolysis constant (|log KOH |), softness index (σp ), ion charge (Z), ionization potential (ΔIP), electrochemical potential (ΔEo ), atomic number divided by ionization potential (AN/ΔIP), and the cation polarizing power for Z(2) /r and Z/AR. The 3-term independent variables were predicted as the best-fit model (log IC50F: -23.64 + 5.59 Z/AR + 0.99 |log KOH | + 37.05 σp ; adjusted r(2) : 0.88; predicted r(2) : 0.68; Friedman lack-of-fit score: 1.6). This mathematical expression can be used to predict metal-biomolecule interactions, as well as the toxicity of mono-, bi-, and trivalent metal cations, which have not been experimentally tested in seaweed to date. Quantitative ion-character relationships allowed the authors to infer that the mechanism of toxicity might involve an interaction between metals and functional groups of biological species containing sulfur or oxygen.

  15. Variations in morphology and PSII photosynthetic capabilities during the early development of tetraspores of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Red algae are primitive photosynthetic eukaryotes, whose spores are ideal subjects for studies of photosynthesis and development. Although the development of red alga spores has received considerable research attention, few studies have focused on the detailed morphological and photosynthetic changes that occur during the early development of tetraspores of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Herein, we documented these changes in this species of red algae. Results In the tetraspores, we observed two types of division, cruciate and zonate, and both could develop into multicellular bodies (disks). During the first 84 hours, tetraspores divided several times, but the diameter of the disks changed very little; thereafter, the diameter increased significantly. Scanning electron microscopy observations and analysis of histological sections revealed that the natural shape of the disk remains tapered over time, and the erect frond grows from the central protrusion of the disk. Cultivation of tissue from excised disks demonstrated that the central protrusion of the disk is essential for initiation of the erect frond. Photosynthetic (i.e., PSII) activities were measured using chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. The results indicated that freshly released tetraspores retained limited PSII photosynthetic capabilities; when the tetraspores attached to a substrate, those capabilities increased significantly. In the disk, the PSII activity of both marginal and central cells was similar, although some degree of morphological polarity was present; the PSII photosynthetic capabilities in young germling exhibited an apico-basal gradient. Conclusions Attachment of tetraspores to a substrate significantly enhanced their PSII photosynthetic capabilities, and triggered further development. The central protrusion of the disk is the growth point, may have transfer of nutritive material with the marginal cells. Within the young germling, the

  16. Grateloupia ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta), a new species from China based on morphological evidence and comparative rbcL sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Cuicui; Liu, Miao; Guo, Shaoru; Zhao, Dan; Luan, Rixiao; Wang, Hongwei

    2016-03-01

    Grateloupia ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta) is newly described from Hainan Province, southern China. The organism has the following morphological features: (1) purplish red, cartilaginous and lubricous thalli 5-10 cm in height; (2) compressed percurrent axes bearing abundant branches with opposite arrangement; (3) claw-like apices on top, constricted to 2-4 cm at the base; (4) cortex consisting of 3-6 layers of elliptical or anomalous cells and a medulla covered by compact medullary filaments; (5) reproductive structures distributed throughout the thallus, especially centralized at the bottom of the end portion of the branches; and (6) 4-celled Carpogonial branches and 3-celled auxiliary-cell branches, both of the Grateloupia-type. The morphological diff erences were supported by molecular phylogenetics based on ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase ( rbcL) gene sequence analysis. There was only a 1 bp divergence between specimens collected from Wenchang and Lingshui of Hainan province. The new species was embedded in the large Grateloupia clade of the Halymeniaceae. The pairwise distances between G. ramosa and other species within Grateloupia ranged from 26 to 105 bp, within pairwise distances of 13-111 bp between species of the large genus Grateloupia in Halymeniaceae. Thus, we propose this new species as G. ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov.

  17. Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gavio, Brigitte; Reyes-Gómez, Viviana P; Wynne, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350,000 km2. However, recent surveys have shown a diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37 m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta), Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5 mm in length), its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae), its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic) and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions.

  18. Preliminary study on the responses of three marine algae, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta), Gelidium amansii (Rhodophyta) and Sargassum enerve (Phaeophyta), to nitrogen source and its availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongyan; Amy, Pickering; Sun, Jun

    2004-04-01

    An experiment was designed to select economically valuable macroalga species with high nutrient uptake rates. Such species cultured on a large scale could be a potential solution to eutrophication. Three macroalgae species, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta), Gelidium amansii (Rhodophyta) and Sargassum enerve (Phaeophyta), were chosen for the experiment because of their economic values and availability. Control and four nitrogen concentrations were achieved by adding NH{4/+} and NO{3/-}. The results indicate that the fresh weights of all species increase faster than that of control after 5 d culture. The fresh weight of Ulva pertusa increases fastest among the 3 species. However, different species show different responses to nitrogen source and its availability. They also show the advantage of using NH{4/+} than using NO{3/-}. U. pertusa grows best and shows higher capability of removing nitrogen at 200µmolL-1, but it has lower economical value. G. amansii has higher economical value but lower capability of removing nitrogen at 200 µmolL-1. The capability of nitrogen assimilation of S. enerve is higher than that of G. amansii at 200µmolL -1, but the former’s increase of fresh weight is lower than those of other two species. Then present preliminary study demonstrates that it is possible to use macroalgae as biofilters and further development of this approach could provide biologically valuable information on the source, fate, and transport of N in marine ecosystems. Caution is needed should we extrapolate these findings to natural environments.

  19. Increased iron availability resulting from increased CO2 enhances carbon and nitrogen metabolism in the economical marine red macroalga Pyropia haitanensis (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Chen, Binbin; Zou, Dinghui; Yang, Yufeng

    2017-04-01

    Ocean acidification caused by rising CO2 is predicted to increase the concentrations of dissolved species of Fe(II) and Fe(III), leading to the enhanced photosynthetic carbon sequestration in some algal species. In this study, the carbon and nitrogen metabolism in responses to increased iron availability under two CO2 levels (390 μL L(-1) and 1000 μL L(-1)), were investigated in the maricultivated macroalga Pyropia haitanensis (Rhodophyta). The results showed that, elevated CO2 increased soluble carbonhydrate (SC) contents, resulting from enhanced photosynthesis and photosynthetic pigment synthesis in this algae, but declined its soluble protein (SP) contents, resulting in increased ratio of SC/SP. This enhanced photosynthesis performance and carbon accumulation was more significant under iron enrichment condition in seawater, with higher iron uptake rate at high CO2 level. As a key essential biogenic element for algae, Fe-replete functionally contributed to P. haitanensis photosynthesis. Increased SC fundamentally provided carbon skeletons for nitrogen assimilation. The significant increase of carbon and nitrogen assimilation finally contributed to enhanced growth in this alga. This was also intuitively reflected by respiration that provided energy for cellular metabolism and algal growth. We propose that, in the predicted scenario of rising atmospheric CO2, P. haitanensis is capable to adjust its physiology by increasing its carbon and nitrogen metabolism to acclimate the acidified seawater, at the background of global climate change and simultaneously increased iron concentration due to decreased pH levels.

  20. Spreading and autoecology of the invasive species Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) in the lagoons of the north-western Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfriso, A.; Wolf, M. A.; Maistro, S.; Sciuto, K.; Moro, I.

    2012-12-01

    Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss, an invasive Rhodophyta recently recorded in the Po Delta lagoons (May 2008), was also found in the Venice lagoon in March 2009 and successively in Pialassa della Baiona (Emilia-Romagna Region) in May 2009. The species has colonized the eutrophic and confined areas of Venice by pleustophytic tangled populations (5-15 kg fwt m-2), replacing the allochthonous species whereas it is absent in the areas characterized by low nutrient availability and high water exchange. In contrast, in the Po Delta lagoons and in Pialassa della Baiona it is present everywhere, also with high water renewal, because of the eutrophication caused by the Po river and the industrial area of Ravenna. This study presents the autoecology and distribution of G. vermiculophylla in the above environments, according to their different eutrophication status, showing its relationship with physico-chemical parameters and nutrient concentrations in water column, pore-water, surface sediments and particulate matter collected by traps in a station of the Venice lagoon (Teneri) sampled monthly during one year. Furthermore, we give new information on its morphology and the high dimorphism between female and male gametophytes and tetrasporophytes.

  1. Morphological study of the genus Herposiphonia (Rhodophyta, Rhodomelaceae) on the coast of eastern Guangdong, China, with a description of H. pinnata sp. nov.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lanping; Tan, Huaqiang; Zhang, Quanliang; Zeng, Lingzhao; Huang, Bingxin

    2016-03-01

    We present a taxonomic study of taxa of the red algae genus Herposiphonia (Rhodophyta, Rhodomelaceae), collected from the coast of eastern Guangdong, China. We made detailed morphological studies and considered recent taxonomic criteria for species delimitation, and are making the first report of five different species on the coast of Guangdong, including a new species. The species identified were H. caespitosa Tseng, H. hollenbergii Dawson, H. pecten - veneris (Harvey) Falkenberg, H. subdisticha Okamura and H. pinnata Ding and Tan sp. nov. H. pinnata sp. nov. is characterized by bright green thalli; most parts of the feathery thalli are free of the substratum; determinate branches and indeterminate branches are arranged in a chaotic sequence; the primary axis has bare segments; the determinate branch has 9-11 periaxial cells per segment; vegetative trichoblasts are abundant; and tetrasporangia are formed on the middle of the determinate branch with 1-8 successive segments in a single rectilinear series. This paper is also the first record of sporophyte plants of H. pecten-veneris.

  2. Der Lebenszyklus von Porphyrostromium obscurum (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornmann, P.

    1987-06-01

    Studies on the sexuality and the heteromorphous life cycle of Erythrotrichia ciliaris provided decisive criteria for the establishment of the genus Erythrotrichopeltis (Kornmann, 1984). This genus was transferred by Wynne (1986) to Porphyrostromium Trevisan 1848. In the present study Erythrotrichia obscura, the original species of Berthold's (1882) classical observations on the sexuality of this genus, is incorporated to Porphyrostromium. Previously regarded as synonyms, Porphyrostromium ciliare (Carm. ex Harv.) Wynne and P. obscurum (Berth.) nov. comb. proved to be distinct species, differing both in the filamentous and in the peltoid phases of their life cycle. The relationship between P. ciliare and P. boryanum (Montagne) Trevisan, type species of the genus, may only be elucidated by future investigations on the basis of field collected material.

  3. Early development of grateloupia turuturu (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaoge; Jiang, Chunmei; Wang, Shasha; Wei, Xiaojiao; Zhao, Fengjuan

    2012-03-01

    Grateloupia turuturu is a commercial red alga with potential value in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. To supplement information on its life history and verify whether carpospores can be used for seedling culture, early development of G. turuturu was investigated under culture conditions (27°C, 10-13 μol/(m2·s) in irradiance, photoperiod 10:14 h L:D). Three physiological stages were recognized by continuous microscopic observation: division stage, discoid crust stage, and juvenile seedling stage. At the beginning of the division stage, the carpospores developed germ tubes into which the carpospore protoplasm was evacuated, and then the carpospore protoplasm in the germ tubes began to divide continuously until discoid crusts formed. Finally, upright thalli appeared on the discoid crusts and developed into juvenile seedlings. It took about 60 days for carpospores to develop into juvenile seedlings. The growth parameters, including germination rate for carpospores and discoid crust diameter, were recorded. These results contribute more information on the life cycle, and at the same time are of great significance in the scaling-up of artificial seedling cultures of G. turuturu.

  4. Current management of unprotected left main coronary artery disease: run-in survey of the RITMO (Registro Italiano sul Trattamento del tronco coMune non protettO) study.

    PubMed

    Sheiban, Imad; Sillano, Dario; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe G L; De Servi, Stefano; Tamburino, Corrado; Marzocchi, Antonio; Trevi, Gian Paolo; Moretti, Claudio

    2009-09-11

    The optimal approach for a significant unprotected left main coronary stenosis (ULM) is debated, in light of the recent progresses of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is still considered the first choice treatment. Randomized trials comparing PCI and CABG are ongoing, yet patient selection will considerably limit their clinical applicability. We thus designed a prospective multicenter registry which will include patients with ULM disease independently from the subsequent medical, interventional or surgical treatment: the RITMO Study (Registro Italiano sul Trattamento del tronco coMune non protettO). During the RITMO run-in phase, we conducted a systematic survey of Italian catheterization laboratories to define current management strategies for ULM. A total of 240 Italian catheterization laboratory were sent an email questionnaire on current practices for ULM, with 45 (19%) detailed replies, for a total of 61,370 annual coronary angiographies. Data provided from responders showed a 5% (95% interval: 2-16) prevalence of ULM, with 50% (9-99) of ULM treated surgically and 10% (0-81) treated percutaneously. In conclusion, treatment of ULM in Italy remains prevalently surgical, even if PCI is performed in a sizable portion of patients with ULM.

  5. Hypoglossum fujianensis sp. nov. (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta) from Fujian Coast, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi

    1998-12-01

    Hypoglossum fujianensis sp. nov. is an epiphytic alga in the intertidal zone. Plants are light red, 0.9 2 cm high. Margin of branches gives rise to uniseriate hair-like rhizoids, formed outward from the fusion of the second-and third-order cells. Blades are single layered (except the midrib) and uncorticated. Tetrasporangial sori are formed on the middle part of blades. The globular tetrasporangia are developed from lateral pericentral cells.

  6. Transient expression of exogenous gus gene in Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Mei; Wang, Su-Juan; Li, Yao; Shen, Da-Leng; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    Electroporation, PEC, PEG plus electroporation and Biolistics methods were tested in gene transformation of P. yezoensis. The exogenous gus was from plasmid of pBI121 and pCAMBIA1301, both contain the CaMV35S promoter. The receptors included the protoplasts, tissues and free-living conchocelis filaments of P. yezoensis. Several factors, for example, the voltage, capacitance and bivalent cations, etc., were studied. Results show that these four methods are all efficient for gene transformation in P. yezoensis; and that PEG is the best one, with transformation efficiency of up to 4×10-5. GUS activity was detected 26 days after transformation by using PEG method.

  7. Viscous polysaccharide and starch synthesis in Rhodella reticulata (Porphyridiales, Rhodophyta)

    SciTech Connect

    Kroen, W.K.; Ramus, J. )

    1990-06-01

    Rhodella reticulata Deason, Butler and Rhyne produces copious amounts of a viscous polysaccharide (VP) during growth in batch cultures. The VPs accumulated on the cell surface and in the culture medium once cells ceased growth; starch concurrently accumulated within the cells. Light-saturated {sup 14}C-uptake declined steadily as the cells aged. Net synthesis rates for starch and mucilage were two- and four-fold lower, respectively, in non-growing cells than in growing cells, while the relative partitioning of newly-fixed carbon into these materials was not different. These data suggest that total photosynthetic loading, rather than partitioning into one specific pool, controls cellular synthesis rates. No preferential synthesis of VPs occurred during the stationary phase. The findings have important implications for the commercial production of VPs.

  8. Timing of the evolutionary history of Corallinaceae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Rösler, Anja; Perfectti, Francisco; Peña, Viviana; Aguirre, Julio; Braga, Juan Carlos

    2017-02-12

    The temporal dimension of the most recent Corallinaceae (order Corallinales) phylogeny was presented here, based on first occurrence time estimates from the fossil record. Calibration of the molecular clock of the genetic marker SSU entailed a separation of Corallinales from Hapalidiales in the Albian (Early Cretaceous ~ 105 mya). Neither the calibration nor the fossil record resolved the succession of appearance of the first three emerging subfamilies: Mastophoroideae, Corallinoideae, and Neogoniolithoideae. The development of the tetra/bisporangial conceptacle roofs by filaments surrounding and interspersed among the sporangial initials was an evolutionary novelty emerging at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (~ 66 mya). This novelty was shared by the subfamilies Hydrolithoideae, Metagoniolithoideae, and Lithophylloideae, which diverged in the early Paleogene. Subclades within the Metagoniolithoideae and Lithophylloideae diversified in the late Oligocene-middle Miocene (~ 28 to 12 mya). The most common reef corallinaceans (Hydrolithon, Porolithon, Harveylithon, "Pneophyllum" conicum, and subclades within Lithophylloideae) appeared in this interval in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Light acclimation in Porphyridium purpureum (Rhodophyta): Growth, photosynthesis, and phycobilisomes

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, I.; Gantt, E. )

    1988-12-01

    Acclimation to three photon flux densities 10, 35, 180 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} was determined in laboratory cultures of Porphyridium purpureum Bory, Drew and Ross. Cultures grown at low, medium, and high PPFDs had compensation points of <3, 6, and 20 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1}, respectively, and saturating irradiances in the initial log phase of 90, 115, 175 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} and up to 240 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} in late log phase. High light cells had the smallest photosynthetic unit size (phycobiliproteins plus chlorophyll), the highest photosynthetic capacity, and the highest growth rates. Photosystem I reaction centers (P700) per cell remained proportional to chlorophyll at ca. 110 chl/P700. However, phycobiliprotein content decreased as did the phycobilisome number (ca. 50%) in high light cells, whereas the phycobilisome size remained the same as in medium and low light cells. We concluded that acclimation of this red alga to varied PPFDs was manifested by the plasticity of the photosystem II antennae with little, if any, affect noted on photosystem I.

  10. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF THE GENUS SPONGITES (CORALLINALES, RHODOPHYTA) FROM CHILE(1).

    PubMed

    Vidal, Rodrigo; Meneses, Isabel; Smith, Macarena

    2008-02-01

    Both the records and the descriptions of the crustose species of coralline algae on the southeastern coast of South America are from the early 1900s. Unlike other algae species on the coast of Chile, the biogeography and distribution of crustose corallines have not been studied despite their abundance. Through recent studies, it has been determined that the genus Spongites is the most conspicuous genus along the rocky intertidal of the Chilean coasts. It is also common to the entire coast of the Southern Hemisphere; however, the relationship between species and the possible reasons for their distribution is unknown. We used nuclear and mitochondrial genetic markers and SEM observations of morphological characters to examine Spongites samples from the Southern Hemisphere and to establish the phylogeographic relationships of Chilean Spongites with specimens from other southern coasts. The combination of these analyses revealed the following: (i) a monophyletic clade that represents the Chilean Spongites and (ii) a paraphyletic clade for South African, New Zealand, and Argentine samples. Consequently, we postulate two nonexclusive hypotheses regarding the relationship of Spongites species in the Southern Hemisphere: (i) a complex history of extinction, speciation, and recolonization that might have erased original Gondwanan split patterns, and (ii) an Antarctic Peninsula origin for the Chilean Spongites species.

  11. Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta macroalgae: a source of health promoting phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sonia A O; Vilela, Carla; Freire, Carmen S R; Abreu, Maria H; Rocha, Silvia M; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2015-09-15

    A detailed study of the lipophilic composition of Codium tomentosum, Ulva lactuca, Gracilaria vermiculophylla and Chondrus crispus macroalgae cultivated in the Portuguese coast was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry before and after alkaline hydrolysis. Their long-chain aliphatic alcohols and monoglycerides compositions are reported for the first time. Additionally, other new compounds were also identified: phytol and neophytadiene in C. tomentosum, U. lactuca and G. vermiculophylla and stigmasterol, α-tocopherol and 24-methylenecholesterol in C. tomentosum. The lipophilic fraction of the studied macroalgae are mainly constituted by fatty acids (110.1-1030.5mgkg(-1) of dry material) and sterols (14.8-1309.1mgkg(-1) of dry material). C. tomentosum showed to be a valuable source of stigmasterol (1229.0mgkg(-1) of dry material) and α-tocopherol (21.8mgkg(-1) of dry material). These results are a relevant contribution for the valorisation of these macroalgae species as sources of valuable phytochemicals.

  12. Galactans of Gracilaria pudumadamensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) of Indian waters.

    PubMed

    Kondaveeti, Stalin; Kumar, Sanjay; Ganesan, Meenakshi S; Siddhanta, Arup K

    2014-09-01

    Galactans from the Indian agarophyte Gracilaria pudumadamensis were extracted and characterized. The isolated native (GP(Native)) and alkali treated (GP(Alkali)) galactans were characterized by IR, 13C NMR, GC-MS and GPC. It was found that GP(Native) and GP(Alkali) were composed mainly of 3,6-anhydro L-galactose, 6-O-methylated D-galactose and galactose in various mole proportions (15.6:69.9:17.5 mole% for GP(Native) and 20.2:69.8:10.0 mole% for GP(Alkali)). The GP(Native) and GP(Alkali) exhibited low gel strengths (< 100 g/cm2) and high melting points (-76 degrees C), which may be due to the presence of high 6-O-Me-galactose contents. The latter, having low sulfate (2.1%), was by far the greatest 6-O-Me-galactose containing polysaccharide in a Gracilaria spp. reported in the literature. This methylated agar contained very low heavy metal ions estimated by inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometry (ICP). The results of this investigation would be useful in bioprospecting of agarophytes, especially those occurring in Indian waters and would be potentially useful in food, personal care and related domains.

  13. [Stress proteins in the cells of Porphyra purpurea (Rhodophyta) thallus].

    PubMed

    Podlipaeva, Iu I; Ful'da, S; Gudkov, A V

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock proteins have been revealed for the first time by the methods of Western blotting using alkaline phosphatase and ECL in the cells of Porphyra purpurea from Kattegat area of the Baltic Sea in normal and experimental stress conditions. It was demonstrated with application of monoclonal anti-Hsp70 antibodies that a slight band about 70 kDa is present constitutively at the film; additionally the polypeptide of about 40 kDa ("Hsp40") has been detected. After heat shock at 28 degrees C during 1 hr significant "expenditure" of Hsp70 was observed, as well as the pronounced induction of "Hsp40"; the induction was expressed especially strongly in 24 hr after the stress application.

  14. Wilsonosiphonia gen. nov. (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) based on molecular and morpho-anatomical characters.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Danilo E; Won, Boo Yeon; Miller, Kathy Ann; Cho, Tae Oh

    2017-01-12

    Morphological, anatomical, and molecular sequence data were used to assess the establishment and phylogenetic position of the genus Wilsonosiphonia gen. nov. Phylogenies based on rbcL and concatenated rbcL and cox1 loci support recognition of Wilsonosiphonia gen. nov., sister to Herposiphonia. Diagnostic features for Wilsonosiphonia are rhizoids located at distal ends of pericentral cells and taproot-shaped multicellular tips of rhizoids. Wilsonosiphonia includes three species with diagnostic rbcL and cox1 sequences, Wilsonosiphonia fujiae sp. nov. (the generitype), W. howei comb. nov., and W. indica sp. nov. These three species resemble each other in external morphology, but W. fujiae is distinguished by having two tetrasporangia per segment rather than one, W. indica by having abundant and persistent trichoblasts, and W. howei by having few and deciduous trichoblasts.

  15. Phylogeography of the invasive seaweed Asparagopsis (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta) reveals cryptic diversity.

    PubMed

    Andreakis, Nikos; Procaccini, Gabriele; Maggs, Christine; Kooistra, Wiebe H C F

    2007-06-01

    The rhodophyte seaweed Asparagopsis armata Harvey is distributed in the northern and southern temperate zones, and its congener Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan abounds throughout the tropics and subtropics. Here, we determine intraspecific phylogeographic patterns to compare potential causes of the disjunctions in the distributions of both species. We obtained specimens throughout their ranges and inferred phylogenies from the hypervariable domains D1-D3 of the nuclear rDNA LSU, the plastid spacer between the large and small subunits of RuBisCo and the mitochondrial cox 2-3 intergenic spacer. The cox spacer acquired base changes the fastest and the RuBisCo spacer the slowest. Median-joining networks inferred from the sequences revealed the absence of phylogeographic structure in the introduced range of A. armata, corroborating the species' reported recent introduction. A. taxiformis consisted of three nuclear, three plastid and four mitochondrial genetically distinct, lineages (1-4). Mitochondrial lineage 3 is found in the western Atlantic, the Canary Islands and the eastern Mediterranean. Mitochondrial lineages 1, 2, and 4 occur in the Indo-Pacific, but one of them (lineage 2) is also found in the central Mediterranean and southern Portugal. Phylogeographic results suggest separation of Atlantic and Indo-Pacific lineages resulted from the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama, as well as from dispersal events postdating the closure event, such as the invasion of the Mediterranean Sea by mitochondrial lineages 2 and 3. Molecular clock estimates using the Panama closure event as a calibration for the split of lineages 3 and 4 suggest that A. taxiformis diverged into two main cryptic species (1 + 2 and 3 + 4) about 3.2-5.5 million years ago (Ma), and that the separation of the mitochondrial lineages 1 and 2 occurred 1-2.3 Ma.

  16. New Insights on the Terpenome of the Red Seaweed Laurencia dendroidea (Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Louisi Souza; Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; de Oliveira, Aline Santos; Hill, Lilian Jorge; Paradas, Wladimir Costa; Salgado, Leonardo Tavares; Thompson, Cristiane Carneiro; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    The red seaweeds belonging to the genus Laurencia are well known as halogenated secondary metabolites producers, mainly terpenoids and acetogennins. Several of these chemicals exhibit important ecological roles and biotechnological applications. However, knowledge regarding the genes involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds is still very limited. We detected 20 different genes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoid precursors, and 21 different genes coding for terpene synthases that are responsible for the chemical modifications of the terpenoid precursors, resulting in a high diversity of carbon chemical skeletons. In addition, we demonstrate through molecular and cytochemical approaches the occurrence of the mevalonate pathway involved in the biosynthesis of terpenes in L. dendroidea. This is the first report on terpene synthase genes in seaweeds, enabling further studies on possible heterologous biosynthesis of terpenes from L. dendroidea exhibiting ecological or biotechnological interest. PMID:25675000

  17. ORIGIN OF APOMICTIC RED ALGAE: OUTCROSSING STUDIES OF DIFFERENT STRAINS IN CALOGLOSSA MONOSTICHA (CERAMIALES, RHODOPHYTA)(1).

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Mitsunobu; West, John A

    2008-08-01

    Various red algae lack sexual reproduction and propagate by spore recycling, but it is still unknown how apomixis originates. In previous crossing experiments, we obtained an unusual hybrid of Caloglossa monosticha M. Kamiya through the outcrossing between a male from Australia and a female from Indonesia. This hybrid was morphologically identical to a normal tetrasporophyte, but its tetraspores grew into tetrasporophytes and repeated tetraspore recycling. During 5 years of culture, no sexual reproductive structures have formed on the tetrasporelings from this hybrid or its progenies. Further hybridization experiments revealed that all the five female strains from Indonesia successfully crossed with the male strain from the East Alligator River, Australia, and most of the F1 sporophytes demonstrated tetraspore recycling, though the germination rates of these tetraspores were quite low. The ploidy level of the hybrid tetrasporophyte was similar to the normal tetrasporophyte, rather than the parental gametophyte, based on the comparison of relative DNA contents of their nuclei. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region indicated that the alleles from both parents were present in all the hybrid tetrasporophytes examined. These results suggest that this hybrid does not carry out meiosis during sporogenesis, and heterozygous diploid sporophytes arose from tetraspores. Therefore, we believe that obligate apomixis was generated through outcrossing between genetically different entities of C. monosticha.

  18. Application of multigene phylogenetics and site-stripping to resolve intraordinal relationships in the Rhodymeniales (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Filloramo, Gina V; Saunders, Gary W

    2016-06-01

    Previous molecular assessments of the red algal order Rhodymeniales have confirmed its monophyly and distinguished the six currently recognized families (viz. Champiaceae, Faucheaceae, Fryeellaceae, Hymenocladiaceae, Lomentariaceae, and Rhodymeniaceae); however, relationships among most of these families have remained unresolved possibly as a result of substitution saturation at deeper phylogenetic nodes. The objective of the current study was to improve rhodymenialean systematics by increasing taxonomic representation and using a more robust multigene dataset of mitochondrial (COB, COI/COI-5P), nuclear (LSU, EF2) and plastid markers (psbA, rbcL). Additionally, we aimed to prevent phylogenetic inference problems associated with substitution saturation (particularly at the interfamilial nodes) by removing fast-evolving sites and analyzing a series of progressively more conservative alignments. The Rhodymeniales was resolved as two major lineages: (i) the Fryeellaceae as sister to the Faucheaceae and Lomentariaceae; and (ii) the Rhodymeniaceae allied to the Champiaceae and Hymenocladiaceae. Support at the interfamilial nodes was highest when 20% of variable sites were removed. Inclusion of Binghamiopsis, Chamaebotrys, and Minium, which were absent in previous phylogenetic investigations, established their phylogenetic affinities while assessment of two genera consistently polyphyletic in phylogenetic analyses, Erythrymenia and Lomentaria, resulted in the proposition of the novel genera Perbella and Fushitsunagia. The taxonomic position of Drouetia was reinvestigated with re-examination of holotype material of D. coalescens to clarify tetrasporangial development in this genus. In addition, we added three novel Australian species to Drouetia as a result of ongoing DNA barcoding assessments-D. aggregata sp. nov., D. scutellata sp. nov., and D. viridescens sp. nov.

  19. Molecular analysis of physiological responses to changes in nitrogen in a marine macroalga, Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, M; Coury, D A; Nakamoto, C; Sakaguchi, K; Amano, H

    2008-12-01

    The rhodophyte seaweed Porphyra yezoensis, known more commonly world-wide as "nori", is an important commercial crop in Japan. Cultivation of nori in Japan is often affected by outbreaks of "iroochi", a discoloration of the thalli due to a decrease in inorganic nutrients in the culture area that in turn decreases the amount of photosynthetic pigments in the thalli. Treating thalli with inorganic nitrogen can reverse iroochi. In this paper, we report on the characterization of three P. yezoensis genes, a nitrate transporter (PyNRT2) and two urea transporters (PyUT1 and PyUT2), which may be involved in reversing iroochi. The predicted length of the PyNRT2 protein was 479 amino acids (AA), while PyUT1 and PyUT2 were 740 and 680 AA, respectively. PyNRT2 was more similar to NRT2 from a chromophyte than to NRTs from Chlamydomonas and higher plants. The two P. yezoensis UTs had 56% AA identity to each other, and showed the closest relationship to higher plant and yeast DUR3 proteins which formed a subfamily of the sodium-solute symporter protein family. Hydrophobicity plots of the AA sequences showed that the PyNRT2, PyUT1, and PyUT2 included 12, 15, and 16 transmembrane domains, respectively. Southern blot analysis indicated that the P. yezoensis genome has a single NRT2-encoding gene and at least four UT-encoding genes. Expression analysis of PyNRT2 and PyUT genes showed that the messenger RNA level of the PyNRT2 gene reached a maximum after 48 h in the nitrate starvation condition and was then restored to the constitutive level, while expression of the PyUT genes was induced in proportion to treatment times in the nitrate starvation condition. These results suggest that the PyNRT2 and PyUT are responsible for the high-affinity nitrate/urea transport systems that operate under low external nitrate concentrations.

  20. Effects of temperature and irradiance on early development of Chondrus ocellatus Holm (Gigartinaceae, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao; Zhao, Peng; Wang, Gaoge; Li, Dapeng; Wang, Jicheng; Duan, Delin

    2010-05-01

    Chondrus is a type of commercially produced red seaweed that widely used for food and carrageen extraction. Although the natural life history of the alga had been well understood, the factors influencing development of the tetraspore and carpospore remain poorly understood. In the perspective of seedling resources, the regulation of early development is crucial for the seedling nursing; therefore, it is necessary to understand the physiological influences during its early development. In this study, we studied the effects of temperature and irradiance on the early development of Chondrus ocellatus Holm under laboratory conditions. The released tetraspores and carpospores were cultivated at different temperatures (10-28°C) and irradiances (10, 60 μmol photons m-2s-1) with a photoperiod of 12L:12D. The results indicate that both tetraspores and carpospores are tolerant to temperatures of 10-25°C, and have the highest relative growth rate at 20°C. Irradiance variances influenced the growth of the discoid crusts, and the influence was more significant with increasing temperature; 60 μmol photons m-2s-1 was more suitable than 10 μmol photons m-2s-1. The optimum temperature and irradiance for the development of seedlings was 20°C and 60 μmol photons m-2s-1, respectively.

  1. DEMOGRAPHIC CONSEQUENCES OF COALESCENCE IN SPORELING POPULATIONS OF MAZZAELLA LAMINARIOIDES (GIGARTINALES, RHODOPHYTA)(1).

    PubMed

    Santelices, B; Alvarado, J L

    2008-06-01

    Coalescing macroalgae are ecologically important members of intertidal and shallow subtidal communities. However, we still lack quantitative information on the demographic consequences of coalescence. Using demographic models developed for modular invertebrates, we studied the demography of settlement and early recruitment in the coalescing macroalga Mazzaella laminarioides (Bory) Fredericq. Permanently marked microscopic fields on laboratory-incubated and field-incubated plates were monitored regularly (at 15, 30, 45, and 60 d) using image analysis techniques to evaluate the relative importance of settler abundance, mortality, coalescence (fusion), and fission on the changes in size and numbers of recruits. On the plates, spores settled individually or in groups. Over time, spores in close proximity may coalesce, resulting in a mixture of unisporic and multisporic crusts. When new spores arrive, they may or may not coalesce with previously settled crusts. Coalescence and mortality reduce the number of sporelings, but coalescence increases the size of the sporelings, thereby reducing further probability of sporeling mortality. Crust fissions are negligible in frequency, while the frequency of coalescence increases from ∼25% after only 3 d, to ∼75% after 60 d. Thus, as a result of variable settlement, mortality, and coalescence, any area colonized by M. laminarioides would contain a mixture of crusts of different sizes, ages, and genetic constitution. The interactions between the above three processes create a more complex survivorship curve than the ones known for unitary organisms.

  2. Nuclear DNA content variation in life history phases of the Bonnemasoniaceae (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Salvador Soler, Noemi; Gómez Garreta, Amelia; Ribera Siguan, Ma Antonia; Kapraun, Donald F

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear DNA content in gametophytes and sporophytes or the prostrate phases of the following species of Bonnemaisoniaceae (Asparagopsis armata, Asparagopsis taxiformis, Bonnemaisonia asparagoides, Bonnemaisonia clavata and Bonnemaisonia hamifera) were estimated by image analysis and static microspectrophotometry using the DNA-localizing fluorochrome DAPI (4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, dilactate) and the chicken erythrocytes standard. These estimates expand on the Kew database of DNA nuclear content. DNA content values for 1C nuclei in the gametophytes (spermatia and vegetative cells) range from 0.5 pg to 0.8 pg, and for 2C nuclei in the sporophytes or the prostrate phases range from 1.15-1.7 pg. Although only the 2C and 4C values were observed in the sporophyte or the prostrate phase, in the vegetative cells of the gametophyte the values oscillated from 1C to 4C, showing the possible start of endopolyploidy. The results confirm the alternation of nuclear phases in these Bonnemaisoniaceae species, in those that have tetrasporogenesis, as well as those that have somatic meiosis. The availability of a consensus phylogenetic tree for Bonnemaisoniaceae has opened the way to determine evolutionary trends in DNA contents. Both the estimated genome sizes and the published chromosome numbers for Bonnemaisoniaceae suggest a narrow range of values consistent with the conservation of an ancestral genome.

  3. Induction and cultivation of cloned filaments of Polysiphonia urceolata (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinxia; Shao, Kuishuang; Cheng, Bin; Lu, Qinqin; Zhou, Baicheng

    2011-11-01

    A filamentous clone of Polysiphonia urceolata was regenerated from segments cut from the fronds of gametophytes. Unlike wild thalli with short virgate branchlets, the clone was filamentous with few branches. Many transparent trichoblasts arose from pericentral cells during the induction culture, but these were seldom observed during normal growth. The trichoblasts were uniseriate, often colorless, and formed lobed rhizoids rapidly when they came into contact with solid substrates. In addition to morphological characteristics, the photosynthetic properties and growth conditions of the clone differed from those of the mother plant. Cross-gradient light and temperature culture experiments revealed that the most favorable conditions for culture of the filamentous clone were 22°C and 95-120 μE/(m2·s) light intensity. The photosynthetic light saturation value for filaments was approx. 100 μE/(m2·s), which is far lower than that of wild thalli. These results could be used to develop techniques for mass cultures of P. urceolata in photobioreactors for production of seed stock or bioactive products.

  4. Eukaryotic Life Inhabits Rhodolith-forming Coralline Algae (Hapalidiales, Rhodophyta), Remarkable Marine Benthic Microhabitats

    PubMed Central

    Krayesky-Self, Sherry; Schmidt, William E.; Phung, Delena; Henry, Caroline; Sauvage, Thomas; Camacho, Olga; Felgenhauer, Bruce E.; Fredericq, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Rhodoliths are benthic calcium carbonate nodules accreted by crustose coralline red algae which recently have been identified as useful indicators of biomineral changes resulting from global climate change and ocean acidification. This study highlights the discovery that the interior of rhodoliths are marine biodiversity hotspots that function as seedbanks and temporary reservoirs of previously unknown stages in the life history of ecologically important dinoflagellate and haptophyte microalgae. Whereas the studied rhodoliths originated from offshore deep bank pinnacles in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, the present study opens the door to assess the universality of endolithic stages among bloom-forming microalgae spanning different phyla, some of public health concerns (Prorocentrum) in marine ecosystems worldwide. PMID:28368049

  5. New Insights on the terpenome of the red seaweed Laurencia dendroidea (Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Louisi Souza; Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; de Oliveira, Aline Santos; Hill, Lilian Jorge; Paradas, Wladimir Costa; Salgado, Leonardo Tavares; Thompson, Cristiane Carneiro; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-02-10

    The red seaweeds belonging to the genus Laurencia are well known as halogenated secondary metabolites producers, mainly terpenoids and acetogennins. Several of these chemicals exhibit important ecological roles and biotechnological applications. However, knowledge regarding the genes involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds is still very limited. We detected 20 different genes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoid precursors, and 21 different genes coding for terpene synthases that are responsible for the chemical modifications of the terpenoid precursors, resulting in a high diversity of carbon chemical skeletons. In addition, we demonstrate through molecular and cytochemical approaches the occurrence of the mevalonate pathway involved in the biosynthesis of terpenes in L. dendroidea. This is the first report on terpene synthase genes in seaweeds, enabling further studies on possible heterologous biosynthesis of terpenes from L. dendroidea exhibiting ecological or biotechnological interest.

  6. Biomass and carbon storage of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) in Zhanshan Bay, Qingdao, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Sui, Zhenghong; Wang, Jinguo; Hu, Yiyi; Kang, Kyoungho; Oh, Junyeong; Kim, Sangchul; Huang, Jianhui; Wang, Pengyun

    2014-09-01

    Marine macroalgae can absorb carbon and play an important role in carbon sequestration. As an important economic macroalga, Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis has the potential to significantly affect carbon absorption and storage in wave-sheltered intertidal reef systems. However, detailed knowledge on seasonal biomass changes and carbon storage of G. lemaneiformis is lacking, especially in many small and scattered ecosystems. Considering the influence of human activities on wild distribution of G. lemaneiformis, the understanding of seasonal dynamics of an economically important species in nature is necessary. In this study, we first investigated seasonal variations in biomass, coverage area, and carbon storage during low tide from August 2011 to July 2012 in Zhanshan Bay, Qingdao, China. Furthermore, we estimated the carbon storage potential of wild G. lemaneiformis using light use efficiency (LUE). The results show that the standing biomass and coverage area changed significantly with season. However, seasonal variations in carbon content and water content were not obvious, with an average content of 35.1% and 83.64%, respectively. Moreover, carbon storage in individual months varied between 0.67 and 47.03 g C/m2, and the value of carbon storage was the highest in August and June and the lowest in February. In Zhanshan Bay, LUE of G. lemaneiformis was only 0.23%. If it is increased to the theoretical maximum (5%-6%), the carbon storage will have an increase of at least 21 times compared with the current, which suggested that carbon storage of wild G. lemaneiformis had a high enhancement potential. The study will help to assess a potential role of G. lemaneiformis in reducing atmospheric CO2.

  7. Development of photosynthetic activity in Porphyridium purpureum (Rhodophyta) following nitrogen starvation

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, I.; Gantt, E. )

    1990-03-01

    The effects of nitrogen limitation on laboratory cultures of Porphyridium purpureum Bory, Drew and Ross were studied under continuous white light illumination (35 {mu}E {times} m{sup {minus}2} {times} s{sup {minus}1}). Growth ceased, respiration exceeded photosynthesis, chlorophyll content was reduced by 80%, and phycoerythrin content was reduced by 99% over a period of 14 days under nitrogen limitation. Recovery upon addition of nitrogen resulted in increased phycobiliprotein content, appearance of phycobilisomes attached to the thylakoids, increased oxygen evolution, and increased fluorescence emission from photosystem 1 (720 nm) and photosystem 2 (685 nm) upon excitation by green light. Growth resumes after 72 h and was concomitant with an increase of chlorophyll, phycoerythrin and phycobilisomes per thylakoid area. The results suggest that photosystem 1 was less affected by nitrogen starvation than photosystem 2 and that the recovery was largely dependent on the restoration of phycobilisomes and other photosystem components.

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of corallinaceae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta): taxonomic implications for reef-building corallines.

    PubMed

    Rösler, Anja; Perfectti, Francisco; Peña, Viviana; Braga, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-01

    A new, more complete, five-marker (SSU, LSU, psbA, COI, 23S) molecular phylogeny of the family Corallinaceae, order Corallinales, shows a paraphyletic grouping of seven well-supported monophyletic clades. The taxonomic implications included the amendment of two subfamilies, Neogoniolithoideae and Metagoniolithoideae, and the rejection of Porolithoideae as an independent subfamily. Metagoniolithoideae contained Harveylithon gen. nov., with H. rupestre comb. nov. as the generitype, and H. canariense stat. nov., H. munitum comb. nov., and H. samoënse comb. nov. Spongites and Pneophyllum belonged to separate clades. The subfamily Neogoniolithoideae included the generitype of Spongites, S. fruticulosus, for which an epitype was designated. Pneophyllum requires reassesment. The generitype of Hydrolithon, H. reinboldii, was a younger heterotypic synonym of H. boergesenii. The evolutionary novelty of the subfamilies Hydrolithoideae, Metagoniolithoideae, and Lithophylloideae was the development of tetra/bisporangial conceptacle roofs by filaments surrounding and interspersed among the sporangial initials.

  9. Antiviral activities of sulfated polysaccharides isolated from Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (Rhodophytha, Gigartinales) and Boergeseniella thuyoides (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales).

    PubMed

    Bouhlal, Rhimou; Haslin, Camille; Chermann, Jean-Claude; Colliec-Jouault, Sylvia; Sinquin, Corinne; Simon, Gaelle; Cerantola, Stephane; Riadi, Hassane; Bourgougnon, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Water-soluble sulfated polysaccharides isolated from two red algae Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (Gigartinales, Sphaerococcaceae) and Boergeseniella thuyoides (Ceramiales, Rhodomelaceae) collected on the coast of Morocco inhibited in vitro replication of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) at 12.5 μg/mL. In addition, polysaccharides were capable of inhibiting the in vitro replication of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) on Vero cells values of EC₅₀ of 4.1 and 17.2 μg/mL, respectively. The adsorption step of HSV-1 to the host cell seems to be the specific target for polysaccharide action. While for HIV-1, these results suggest a direct inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication by controlling the appearance of the new generations of virus and potential virucidal effect. The polysaccharides from S. coronopifolius (PSC) and B. thuyoides (PBT) were composed of galactose, 3,6-anhydrogalactose, uronics acids, sulfate in ratios of 33.1, 11.0, 7.7 and 24.0% (w/w) and 25.4, 16.0, 3.2, 7.6% (w/w), respectively.

  10. Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales): a Mediterranean red alga with potential and applications in restoration.

    PubMed

    Fratini, Filippo; Rivière, Catherine; Santamaria, Ulderico

    2016-04-25

    Experimental studies conducted on some species of Mediterranean red algae allowed to identify Sphaerococcus coronopifolius Stackhouse as a valid alternative to the Pacific alga Gloiopeltis furcata (Postels & Ruprecht) J. Agardh, for the extraction of a material usable as natural consolidant and adhesive in the field of restoration. Promising results have been observed by comparing the extracts obtained from these two algae after the same extraction procedure. Chemical analysis (FTIR) revealed that S. coronopifolius has qualities similar to G. furcata. Even more promising results for S. coronopifolius compared to G. furcata were observed after the analysis of pH and conductivity, and the adhesion tests carried out on both extracts.

  11. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF BATRACHOSPERMUM MACROSPORUM (BATRACHOSPERMALES, RHODOPHYTA) FROM NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA(1).

    PubMed

    Vis, Morgan L; Cameron Hodge, J; Necchi, Orlando

    2008-08-01

    Phylogeographic trends in Batrachospermum macrosporum Mont. were investigated using the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between the cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 and 3 genes (cox2-3). A total of 11 stream segments were sampled with seven in the coastal plain of North America and four in tropical areas of South America. Fifteen thalli were sampled from seven streams, 14 thalli from two streams, and eight thalli from two streams. There were 16 haplotypes detected using 149 individuals. Of the eight haplotypes from locations in North America, all were 334 base pairs (bp) in length, and of those from South America, five were 344 bp, and three were 348 bp. Two individual networks were produced: one for the haplotypes from North America and another for those from South America, and these could not be joined due to the large number of base pair differences. This split between haplotypes from North and South America was confirmed with sequence data of the rbcL gene. There was very little genetic variation among the haplotypes from the North American locations, leading us to hypothesize that these are fairly recent colonization events along the coastal plain. In contrast, there was high variation among haplotypes from South America, and it would appear that the Amazon serves as a center of diversity. We detected considerable variation in haplotypes among streams, but frequently, a single haplotype in an individual stream segment, which is consistent with data from previous studies of other batrachospermalean taxa, may suggest a single colonization event per stream.

  12. Metal concentration and structural changes in Corallina elongata (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) from hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Couto, Ruben P; Neto, Ana I; Rodrigues, Armindo S

    2010-04-01

    Shallow-water hydrothermal activity is widely present at Azores archipelago. Organisms in such environments present great potential as sentinels of the effects derived from chronically exposure to increased temperature, metal concentrations and reduced pH. This study aimed to evaluate metal concentration in Corallina elongata collected at locations exposed and not exposed to shallow-water hydrothermal activity and evaluate changes in its calcareous structure. Elemental concentration was determined and morphometric analysis was performed by scanning electron microscopy. Thicker cell walls and a bleached appearance were observed on C. elongata specimens from the hydrothermally active location, as well as increased concentrations of elements associated to volcanic activity. This study reports on metal accumulation and morphometric changes in the calcareous structure of C. elongata from a hydrothermally active location, adding new data for further research on such habitats and communities, providing an insight on how coralline algae might be affected by ocean acidification.

  13. Mechanisms of metal tolerance in marine macroalgae, with emphasis on copper tolerance in Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta.

    PubMed

    Moenne, Alejandra; González, Alberto; Sáez, Claudio A

    2016-07-01

    Green and red macroalgae are closely related organisms, and with terrestrial plants, and constitute the base of marine food webs in coastal ecosystems. Green and red seaweeds, as all living organisms, require essential metals, such as copper, iron, zinc, which can act as co-factors for several proteins and enzymes; however, these metals in excess can induce stress and impair cell viability. Most important negative effects of metal excess are related to the induction of an oxidative stress condition, characterized by the over-accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). In this respect, copper, abundant in wastewaters disposed to coastal environments from domestic and industrial activities, has been one of the most studied metals. Different investigations have provided evidence that green and red macroalgae display several defenses against copper excess to prevent, or at least reduce, stress and damage, among which are cellular exclusion mechanisms, synthesis of metal-chelating compounds, and the activation of the antioxidant system. Most important defense mechanisms identified in green and red seaweed involve: metal-binding to cell wall and epibionts; syntheses of metallothioneins and phytochelatins that accumulate in the cytoplasm; and the increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, and greater production of antioxidant metabolites as glutathione and ascorbate in organelles and the cytoplasm. In this review, we go through historical records, latest advances, and pending tasks aiming to expand our current knowledge on defense mechanisms to copper excess in green and red macroalgae, with emphasis on biochemical and molecular aspects.

  14. Tolerance to oxidative stress induced by desiccation in Porphyra columbina (Bangiales, Rhodophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Porcia, Loretto; Thomas, Daniela; Flores, Verónica; Correa, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    Unravelling the mechanisms underlying desiccation tolerance is crucial in order to understand the position of algal species in the intertidal zone. The alga Porphyra columbina lives in the uppermost part of the rocky intertidal zones around the world and was selected as a model for this study. Naturally desiccated plants were collected during low tide and studied for morphological changes, oxidative burst induction, biomolecule oxidation, antioxidant responses, and photosynthetic status. Naturally hydrated plants collected during high tides were used for comparative purposes. In addition, changes induced by desiccation were assessed in vitro and the capacity to recover from desiccation was determined by rehydrating the fronds in seawater. The global results show that desiccation induces morphological and cellular alterations accompanied by a loss of ∼96% of the water content. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced by desiccation and two peaks of H2O2 were detected at 1 and 3 h of desiccation. However, during in vitro rehydration post-desiccation, the ROS quickly returned to the basal levels. At the biomolecular level, only a low production of oxidized proteins was recorded during desiccation, whereas the activity of diverse antioxidant enzymes increased. However, this activity diminished to near basal levels during rehydration. The photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) during desiccation declined by 94–96% of the values recorded in hydrated plants. This reduction was generated by the low levels of trapped energy flux per cross-section (TRo/CS), electron transport flux per CS (ETo/CS), and density of reaction centres (RC/SCo) as well as the chlorophyll content. The inverse pattern was observed for the levels of phycocyanin and phycoerythrin content. Fv/Fm and the photosynthetic indicators were restored to normal levels after only 5 min of rehydration. The results indicate that desiccation in P. columbina causes overproduction of ROS that is efficiently attenuated. The morphological and photosynthetic changes could be operating as tolerance mechanisms due to the fact that these responses principally prevent biomolecular alteration and cellular collapse. Thus, the activation of different physiological mechanisms helps to explain the high tolerance to desiccation of P. columbina and, at least in part, the position of this species at the highest level in the intertidal zone. PMID:21196477

  15. Pyropia plicata sp. nov. (Bangiales, Rhodophyta): naming a common intertidal alga from New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Wendy A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A commonly found red alga of the upper intertidal zone of New Zealand rocky coasts is described for the first time as Pyropia plicata sp. nov. This species has been incorrectly known as Porphyra columbina Mont. (now Pyropia columbina (Mont.) W.A.Nelson) for many years. Pyropia plicata is widespread and common, and it is readily distinguished from other species of bladed Bangiales in New Zealand by its distinctive morphology, with pleated blades attached by a central rhizoidal holdfast. PMID:23794933

  16. Cytochemical characterization and ultrastructural organization in calluses of the agarophyte Gracilariopsis tenuifrons (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Almeida, Ana Carolina de; Yokoya, Nair S; Oliveira, Mariana Cabral de; Chow, Fungyi

    2011-01-01

    The culture and physiology of red macroalgae calluses are well documented. To date, however, no report has either performed a cytochemical analysis or characterized the ultrastructural organization of calluses at different stages of development and under the effect of plant growth regulators. Therefore, to undertake such analyses, this work studied the red seaweed Gracilariopsis tenuifrons (Bird et Oliveira) Fredericq et Hommersand. Morphology studies suggested three types of calluses: a) terminal callus having an irregular amorphous shape and filamentous projections originating from the cortical region of the thallus; b) apical callus growing on apical branches and having an elongated semispherical shape; and c) intercalary callus developing along the intermediary region of the thallus and having the appearance of small declivities with irregular edges. The abundance of intercalary calluses over terminal and apical calluses is most likely a result of a major cortical surface that would support the cellular growth required to generate calluses. Callus development was initially observed as a matrix of cellular disorganization with filamentous projections; then, the cellular mass seemed to become more compact with spherical uncolored aspect. The presence of starch grains in the inner part of the explant could be explained by absorption from the culture medium and by proper biosynthesis during callus development. Cell wall reaction to staining suggested cellulose and agar composition with acidic polysaccharides. Results suggest that none of the three morphological types of calluses showed any significant differences on the basis of either cytochemistry or ultrastructural organization.

  17. Compsopogon cf. coeruleus, a benthic red alga (Rhodophyta) new to the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Wujek, Daniel E.

    1991-01-01

    We found Compsopogon cf. coeruleus for the first time in the Laurentian Great Lakes, growing on limestone rocks at a depth of 21 m on Six Fathom Bank in central Lake Huron. It is the first freshwater red alga to be found in the Great Lakes and the only red alga ever found on an offshore reef in the Great Lakes. However, because this alga usually inhabits water 10–28 °C and has not survived freezing winter temperatures elsewhere, it may not be a permanent member of the flora.

  18. Complete nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence amplification and molecular analyses of Bangia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiajie; Jiang, Bo; Chai, Sanming; He, Yuan; Zhu, Jianyi; Shen, Zonggen; Shen, Songdong

    2016-09-01

    Filamentous Bangia, which are distributed extensively throughout the world, have simple and similar morphological characteristics. Scientists can classify these organisms using molecular markers in combination with morphology. We successfully sequenced the complete nuclear ribosomal DNA, approximately 13 kb in length, from a marine Bangia population. We further analyzed the small subunit ribosomal DNA gene (nrSSU) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence regions along with nine other marine, and two freshwater Bangia samples from China. Pairwise distances of the nrSSU and 5.8S ribosomal DNA gene sequences show the marine samples grouping together with low divergences (00.003; 0-0.006, respectively) from each other, but high divergences (0.123-0.126; 0.198, respectively) from freshwater samples. An exception is the marine sample collected from Weihai, which shows high divergence from both other marine samples (0.063-0.065; 0.129, respectively) and the freshwater samples (0.097; 0.120, respectively). A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree based on a combined SSU-ITS dataset with maximum likelihood method shows the samples divided into three clades, with the two marine sample clades containing Bangia spp. from North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia; and one freshwater clade, containing Bangia atropurpurea from North America and China.

  19. Species diversity of the genus Osmundea (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) in the Macaronesian region.

    PubMed

    Machín-Sánchez, María; Rousseau, Florence; Le Gall, Line; Cassano, Valéria; Neto, Ana I; Sentíes, Abel; T Fujii, Mutue; Gil-Rodríguez, María Candelaria

    2016-08-01

    Species diversity within the genus Osmundea in the Macaronesian region was explored by conducting a comprehensive sampling in the Azores, the Canary, and the Madeira archipelagos. Toward identification, all specimens were first observed alive to verify the absence of corps en cerise, a diagnostic character for the genus and morphometric data were measured (thallus length and width, first-order branches length and width, branchlets length and width, cortical cell length and width in surface view, cortical cell length and width in transverse section). Specimens were sequenced for COI-5P (39 specimens) and three species delimitation methods (Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent, Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery method, and Poisson Tree Processes) were used to assess the threshold between infra- and interspecific relationships. Subsequently, one or several sequences of plastid-encoded large subunit of RuBisCO (21 specimens) per delimited species were generated to assess the phylogenetic relationships among Macaronesian Osmundea. Moreover, for each delineated species, vegetative and reproductive anatomy was thoroughly documented and, when possible, specimens were either assigned to existing taxa or described as novel species. This integrative approach has provided data for (i) the presence of O. oederi, O. pinnatifida, and O. truncata in Macaronesia; (ii) the proposal of two novel species, O. prudhommevanreinei sp. nov. and O. silvae sp. nov.; and (iii) evidence of an additional species referred as "Osmundea sp.1," which is a sister taxon of O. hybrida.

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of the red seaweed Laurencia dendroidea (Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta) and its microbiome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Seaweeds of the Laurencia genus have a broad geographic distribution and are largely recognized as important sources of secondary metabolites, mainly halogenated compounds exhibiting diverse potential pharmacological activities and relevant ecological role as anti-epibiosis. Host-microbe interaction is a driving force for co-evolution in the marine environment, but molecular studies of seaweed-associated microbial communities are still rare. Despite the large amount of research describing the chemical compositions of Laurencia species, the genetic knowledge regarding this genus is currently restricted to taxonomic markers and general genome features. In this work we analyze the transcriptomic profile of L. dendroidea J. Agardh, unveil the genes involved on the biosynthesis of terpenoid compounds in this seaweed and explore the interactions between this host and its associated microbiome. Results A total of 6 transcriptomes were obtained from specimens of L. dendroidea sampled in three different coastal locations of the Rio de Janeiro state. Functional annotations revealed predominantly basic cellular metabolic pathways. Bacteria was the dominant active group in the microbiome of L. dendroidea, standing out nitrogen fixing Cyanobacteria and aerobic heterotrophic Proteobacteria. The analysis of the relative contribution of each domain highlighted bacterial features related to glycolysis, lipid and polysaccharide breakdown, and also recognition of seaweed surface and establishment of biofilm. Eukaryotic transcripts, on the other hand, were associated with photosynthesis, synthesis of carbohydrate reserves, and defense mechanisms, including the biosynthesis of terpenoids through the mevalonate-independent pathway. Conclusions This work describes the first transcriptomic profile of the red seaweed L. dendroidea, increasing the knowledge about ESTs from the Florideophyceae algal class. Our data suggest an important role for L. dendroidea in the primary production of the holobiont and the role of Bacteria as consumers of organic matter and possibly also as nitrogen source. Furthermore, this seaweed expressed sequences related to terpene biosynthesis, including the complete mevalonate-independent pathway, which offers new possibilities for biotechnological applications using secondary metabolites from L. dendroidea. PMID:22985125

  1. Physiological responses of macroalga Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) to UV-B radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Xiao, Hui; Wang, Ying; Jian, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Huanxin; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR) on Gracilaria lemaneiformis, a commercial red macroalga and an important source of agar. To study the in-vitro effect of UVBR on G. lemaneiformis, this plant was cultivated and exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 40 μmol photons/(m2 ·s) and enhanced UVBR (0, 0.36, 0.72, 1.08, 1.44, and 1.80 kJ/(m2 ·d)) for 13 days. The samples were processed for histochemical analysis, and the growth rate, photosynthetic pigment contents, photosynthetic performance, reactive oxygen species levels, membrane permeability, malonyl dialdehyde contents and antioxidant capacity of G. lemaneiformis were investigated. After 13 days of exposure to PAR+UVBR, G. lemaneiformis showed photodamage and photoinhibition of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin), leading to a decreased photosynthetic efficiency. Further, there was a corresponding decrease in the relative growth rates and depigmentation and partial necrosis of the apical segments were noted after exposure to PAR+UVBR. Additionally, UVBR induced excess production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide, eliciting a marked cellular membrane damage and antioxidative response.

  2. UVR defense mechanisms in eurytopic and invasive Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Roleda, Michael Y; Nyberg, Cecilia D; Wulff, Angela

    2012-10-01

    The invasive success of Gracilaria vermiculophylla has been attributed to its wide tolerance range to different abiotic factors, but its response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is yet to be investigated. In the laboratory, carpospores and vegetative thalli of an Atlantic population were exposed to different radiation treatments consisting of high PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) only (P), PAR+UV-A (PA) and PAR+UV-A+UV-B (PAB). Photosynthesis of carpospores was photoinhibited under different radiation treatments but photosystem II (PSII) function was restored after 12 h under dim white light. Growth of vegetative thalli was significantly higher under radiation supplemented with UVR. Decrease in chlorophyll a (Chl a) under daily continuous 16-h exposure to 300 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) of PAR suggests preventive accumulation of excited chlorophyll molecules within the antennae to minimize the generation of dangerous reactive oxygen species. Moreover, an increase in total carotenoids and xanthophyll cycle pigments (i.e. violaxanthin, antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin) further suggests effective photoprotection under UVR. The presence of the ketocarotenoid β-cryptoxanthin also indicates protection against UVR and oxidative stress. The initial concentration of total mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in freshly-released spores increased approximately four times after 8-h laboratory radiation treatments. On the other hand, initial specific MAAs in vegetative thalli changed in composition after 7-day exposure to laboratory radiation conditions without affecting the total concentration. The above responses suggest that G. vermiculophylla have multiple UVR defense mechanisms to cope with the dynamic variation in light quantity and quality encountered in its habitat. Beside being eurytopic, the UVR photoprotective mechanisms likely contribute to the current invasive success of the species in shallow lagoons and estuaries exposed to high solar radiation.

  3. AFLP and SCAR markers associated with the sex in Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Huan, Li; He, Linwen; Zhang, Baoyu; Niu, Jianfeng; Lin, Apeng; Wang, Guangce

    2013-08-01

    Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Bory de Saint-Vincent) Greville, an important marine alga, has great economic and nutritional value. However, during the nonreproductive period, it is difficult to distinguish the sporophyte, male gametophyte, and female gametophyte from each other by appearance. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a multilocus marker technique, which was used in this study to identify markers associated with G. lemaneiformis sex type. By applying 80 primer combinations in the screening process, three fragments were found that were specific to male or female forms of the alga. A 173 bp band and an 89 bp band were found in the sporophyte and the male gametophyte by using primer E-AGG/M-CGT. E-ACC/M-CGG was used to amplify a 118 bp specific fragment in the sporophyte and the female gametophyte. Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers were designed and showed the expected bands at the corresponding stages. This suggested that the SCAR markers that had been developed were successful. The joint use of the three primer pairs allowed us to characterize sex and the G. lemaneiformis developmental phase in the nondescript stages. Rapid gender testing is expected to improve cross-breeding experiments and other genetic research in this economically important seaweed.

  4. Thermal Acclimation of Respiration and Photosynthesis in the Marine Macroalga Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Zou, Dinghui; Gao, Kunshan

    2013-02-01

    The responses of respiration and photosynthesis to temperature fluctuations in marine macroalgae have the potential to significantly affect coastal carbon fluxes and sequestration. In this study, the marine red macroalga Gracilaria lemaneiformis was cultured at three different temperatures (12, 19, and 26°C) and at high- and low-nitrogen (N) availability, to investigate the acclimation potential of respiration and photosynthesis to temperature change. Measurements of respiratory and photosynthetic rates were made at five temperatures (7°C-33°C). An instantaneous change in temperature resulted in a change in the rates of respiration and photosynthesis, and the temperature sensitivities (i.e., the Q10 value) for both the metabolic processes were lower in 26°C-grown algae than 12°C- or 19°C-grown algae. Both respiration and photosynthesis acclimated to long-term changes in temperature, irrespective of the N availability under which the algae were grown; respiration displayed strong acclimation, whereas photosynthesis only exhibited a partial acclimation response to changing growth temperatures. The ratio of respiration to gross photosynthesis was higher in 12°C-grown algae, but displayed little difference between the algae grown at 19°C and 26°C. We propose that it is unlikely that respiration in G. lemaneiformis would increase significantly with global warming, although photosynthesis would increase at moderately elevated temperatures.

  5. Global Transcriptome Analysis of Gracilaria changii (Rhodophyta) in Response to Agarolytic Enzyme and Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ee-Leen; Siow, Rouh-San; Abdul Rahim, Raha; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Many bacterial epiphytes of agar-producing seaweeds secrete agarase that degrade algal cell wall matrix into oligoagars which elicit defense-related responses in the hosts. The molecular defense responses of red seaweeds are largely unknown. In this study, we surveyed the defense-related transcripts of an agarophyte, Gracilaria changii, treated with β-agarase through next generation sequencing (NGS). We also compared the defense responses of seaweed elicited by agarase with those elicited by an agarolytic bacterium isolated from seaweed, by profiling the expression of defense-related genes using quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). NGS detected a total of 391 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with a higher abundance (>2-fold change with a p value <0.001) in the agarase-treated transcriptome compared to that of the non-treated G. changii. Among these DEGs were genes related to signaling, bromoperoxidation, heme peroxidation, production of aromatic amino acids, chorismate, and jasmonic acid. On the other hand, the genes encoding a superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase and related to photosynthesis were downregulated. The expression of these DEGs was further corroborated by qRT-PCR results which showed more than 90 % accuracy. A comprehensive analysis of their gene expression profiles between 1 and 24 h post treatments (hpt) revealed that most of the genes analyzed were consistently upregulated or downregulated by both agarase and agarolytic bacterial treatments, indicating that the defense responses induced by both treatments are highly similar except for genes encoding vanadium bromoperoxidase and animal heme peroxidase. Our study has provided the first glimpse of the molecular defense responses of G. changii to agarase and agarolytic bacterial treatments.

  6. Investigation of the Gracilaria gracilis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) proteome response to nitrogen limitation.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Rene K; Rafudeen, Muhammad S; Coyne, Vernon E

    2016-06-01

    Inorganic nitrogen has been identified as the major growth-limiting nutritional factor affecting Gracilaria gracilis populations in South Africa. Although the physiological mechanisms implemented by G. gracilis for adaption to low nitrogen environments have been investigated, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of these adaptions. This study provides the first investigation of G. gracilis proteome changes in response to nitrogen limitation and subsequent recovery. A differential proteomics approach employing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to investigate G. gracilis proteome changes in response to nitrogen limitation and recovery. The putative identity of 22 proteins that changed significantly (P < 0.05) in abundance in response to nitrogen limitation and recovery was determined. The identified proteins function in a range of biological processes including glycolysis, photosynthesis, ATP synthesis, galactose metabolism, protein-refolding and biosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism and cytoskeleton remodeling. The identity of fructose 1,6 biphosphate (FBP) aldolase was confirmed by western blot analysis and the decreased abundance of FBP aldolase observed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was validated by enzyme assays and western blots. The identification of key proteins and pathways involved in the G. gracilis nitrogen stress response provide a better understanding of G. gracilis proteome responses to varying degrees of nitrogen limitation and is the first step in the identification of biomarkers for monitoring the nitrogen status of cultivated G. gracilis populations.

  7. Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Lipidomic and Biochemical Alterations in the Intertidal Macroalga Gracilaria dura (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Puja; Reddy, C.R.K.; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    The role of exogenously added methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a lipid-derived signaling compound, in inducing oxidative stress in the marine red macroalga Gracilaria dura was investigated. MeJA at a concentration of 1–100 µM was a strong stimulant of reactive oxygen species (H2O2, HO· and O2·−) (P < 0.05) causing considerable oxidative stress in G. dura. This further led to lipid peroxidation and degradation of the pigments Chl a and phycocyanin, with a concomitant increase in phycoerythrin. The MeJA-induced oxidative burst also led to the induction of a fatty acid oxidation cascade, resulting in the synthesis of hydroxy-oxylipins and the up-regulation of the 13-lipoxygenase pathway. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomic analysis revealed that monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (a chloroplastic glycerolipid) and phosphatidylcholine (extrachloroplastidic phopholipid) were the most affected lipid classes. The degradation of 18:3-fatty acid-containing monogalactosyldiacylglycerol inferred that it provided fatty acyl chains for the biosynthesis of 13-hydroperoxylinolenic acid, which was further directed towards either the jasmonate pathway or other alternative pathways of the fatty acid oxidation cascade, analogous to higher plants. Also, G. dura modulated the lipid acyl chains in such a way that no significant change was observed in the fatty acid profile of the treated thalli as compared with those of the control, except for C16:0, C16:1 (n-9), C20:3 (n-6) and C20:4 (n-6) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, MeJA caused the accumulation of phenolic compounds and the up-regulation of enzymes involved in secondary metabolism such as polyphenol oxidase, shikimate dehydrogenase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, indicating a shift towards secondary metabolism as a defense strategy to combat the induced oxidative stress. PMID:26276825

  8. Changes in ultrastructure and cytochemistry of the agarophyte Gracilaria domingensis (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales) treated with cadmium.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Rodrigo W; Schmidt, Éder C; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2013-02-01

    The agarophyte macroalgae Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing) Sonder ex Dickie is widely distributed along the Brazilian coast. While this species produces agarana, it is more important in the human diet. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the biological effects of cadmium on its morphology and cellular organization. To accomplish this, the effects of cadmium in apical segments of G. domingensis were examined in vitro. Over a period of 16 days, the segments were cultivated and exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 80 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), with cadmium treatments in doses of 100, 200 and 300 μM. The samples were processed for light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Histochemical analyses included Toluidine Blue for acidic polysaccharides, Coomassie Brilliant Blue for total protein, and Periodic Acidic Schiff for neutral polysaccharides. In all cadmium treatments, cytochemical analysis showed 1) metachromatic granulation in vacuole and lenticular thickness of the cell wall, 2) a higher concentration of cytoplasmic organelles, and 3) an increase in the number of floridean starch grains. Cadmium also caused changes in the ultrastructure of cortical and subcortical cells, including increased cell wall thickness and vacuole volume, as well as the destruction of chloroplast internal organization and increased number of plastoglobuli. In addition, treated plants showed a gradual increase in surface roughness, apparently the result of cadmium absorption. Taken together, these findings strongly suggested that cadmium negatively affects the agarophyte G. domingensis, posing a threat to the vitality of this plant species as a supplement in the human diet.

  9. Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Lipidomic and Biochemical Alterations in the Intertidal Macroalga Gracilaria dura (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Kumari, Puja; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-10-01

    The role of exogenously added methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a lipid-derived signaling compound, in inducing oxidative stress in the marine red macroalga Gracilaria dura was investigated. MeJA at a concentration of 1-100 µM was a strong stimulant of reactive oxygen species (H(2)O(2), HO· and O(2) (·-)) (P < 0.05) causing considerable oxidative stress in G. dura. This further led to lipid peroxidation and degradation of the pigments Chl a and phycocyanin, with a concomitant increase in phycoerythrin. The MeJA-induced oxidative burst also led to the induction of a fatty acid oxidation cascade, resulting in the synthesis of hydroxy-oxylipins and the up-regulation of the 13-lipoxygenase pathway. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomic analysis revealed that monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (a chloroplastic glycerolipid) and phosphatidylcholine (extrachloroplastidic phopholipid) were the most affected lipid classes. The degradation of 18:3-fatty acid-containing monogalactosyldiacylglycerol inferred that it provided fatty acyl chains for the biosynthesis of 13-hydroperoxylinolenic acid, which was further directed towards either the jasmonate pathway or other alternative pathways of the fatty acid oxidation cascade, analogous to higher plants. Also, G. dura modulated the lipid acyl chains in such a way that no significant change was observed in the fatty acid profile of the treated thalli as compared with those of the control, except for C16:0, C16:1 (n-9), C20:3 (n-6) and C20:4 (n-6) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, MeJA caused the accumulation of phenolic compounds and the up-regulation of enzymes involved in secondary metabolism such as polyphenol oxidase, shikimate dehydrogenase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, indicating a shift towards secondary metabolism as a defense strategy to combat the induced oxidative stress.

  10. Delimitating cryptic species in the Gracilaria domingensis complex (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) using molecular and morphological data.

    PubMed

    Lyra, Goia de M; Gurgel, C Frederico D; Costa, Emmanuelle da S; de Jesus, Priscila B; Oliveira, Mariana C; Oliveira, Eurico C; Davis, Charles C; Nunes, José Marcos de Castro

    2016-12-01

    Species in the genus Gracilaria that display conspicuously flattened vegetative morphologies are a taxonomically challenging group of marine benthic red algae. This is a result of their species richness, morphological similarity, and broad phenotypic plasticity. Within this group, the Gracilaria domingensis complex is one of the most common, conspicuous, and morphologically variable species along the tropical western Atlantic Ocean. Previous research has identified that members of this complex belong to two distantly related clades. However, despite this increased phylogentic resolution, species delimitations within each of these clades remain unclear. Our study assessed the species diversity within this difficult complex using morphological and molecular data from three genetic markers (cox1, UPA, and rbcL). We additionally applied six single-marker species delimitation methods (SDM: ABGD, GMYCs, GMYCm, SPN, bPTP, and PTP) to rbcL, which were largely in agreement regarding species delimitation. These results, combined with our analysis of morphology, indicate that the G. domingensis complex includes seven distinct species, each of which are not all most closely related: G. cervicornis; a ressurected G. ferox; G. apiculata subsp. apiculata; a new species, Gracilaria baiana sp. nov.; G. intermedia subsp. intermedia; G. venezuelensis; and G. domingensis sensu stricto, which includes the later heterotypic synonym, G. yoneshigueana. Our study demonstrates the value of multipronged strategies, including the use of both molecular and morphological approaches, to decipher cryptic species of red algae.

  11. Pyropia plicata sp. nov. (Bangiales, Rhodophyta): naming a common intertidal alga from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Wendy A

    2013-01-01

    A commonly found red alga of the upper intertidal zone of New Zealand rocky coasts is described for the first time as Pyropia plicata sp. nov. This species has been incorrectly known as Porphyra columbina Mont. (now Pyropia columbina (Mont.) W.A.Nelson) for many years. Pyropia plicata is widespread and common, and it is readily distinguished from other species of bladed Bangiales in New Zealand by its distinctive morphology, with pleated blades attached by a central rhizoidal holdfast.

  12. Identification of proteins involved in desiccation tolerance in the red seaweed Pyropia orbicularis (Rhodophyta, Bangiales).

    PubMed

    López-Cristoffanini, Camilo; Zapata, Javier; Gaillard, Fanny; Potin, Philippe; Correa, Juan A; Contreras-Porcia, Loretto

    2015-12-01

    Extreme reduction in cellular water content leads to desiccation, which, if persistent, affects the physiology of organisms, mainly through oxidative stress. Some organisms are highly tolerant to desiccation, including resurrection plants and certain intertidal seaweeds. One such species is Pyropia orbicularis, a rhodophycean that colonizes upper intertidal zones along the Chilean coast. Despite long, daily periods of air exposure due to tides, this alga is highly tolerant to desiccation. The present study examined the proteome of P. orbicularis by 2DE and LC-MS/MS analyses to determine the proteins associated with desiccation tolerance (DT). The results showed that, under natural conditions, there were significant changes in the protein profile during low tide as compared to naturally hydrated plants at high tide. These changes were mainly in newly appeared proteins spots such as chaperones, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and manganese superoxide dismutase, among others. Previously undescribed proteins under desiccation conditions included phycobiliproteins, glyoxalase I, and phosphomannomutase. These changes evidenced that several physiological responses involved in DT are activated during low tide, including decreased photosynthetic activity, increased antioxidant capacity, and the preservation of cell physiology by regulating water content, cell wall structure, and cell volume. Similar responses have been observed in resurrection plants and bryophytes exposed to desiccation. Therefore, the coordinated activation of different desiccation tolerance pathways in P. orbicularis could explain the successful biological performance of this seaweed in the upper intertidal rocky zones.

  13. Coralline algae (Rhodophyta) in a changing world: integrating ecological, physiological, and geochemical responses to global change.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Sophie J; Kamenos, Nicholas A

    2015-02-01

    Coralline algae are globally distributed benthic primary producers that secrete calcium carbonate skeletons. In the context of ocean acidification, they have received much recent attention due to the potential vulnerability of their high-Mg calcite skeletons and their many important ecological roles. Herein, we summarize what is known about coralline algal ecology and physiology, providing context to understand their responses to global climate change. We review the impacts of these changes, including ocean acidification, rising temperatures, and pollution, on coralline algal growth and calcification. We also assess the ongoing use of coralline algae as marine climate proxies via calibration of skeletal morphology and geochemistry to environmental conditions. Finally, we indicate critical gaps in our understanding of coralline algal calcification and physiology and highlight key areas for future research. These include analytical areas that recently have become more accessible, such as resolving phylogenetic relationships at all taxonomic ranks, elucidating the genes regulating algal photosynthesis and calcification, and calibrating skeletal geochemical metrics, as well as research directions that are broadly applicable to global change ecology, such as the importance of community-scale and long-term experiments in stress response.

  14. Toxic effect of metal cation binary mixtures to the seaweed Gracilaria domingensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Mendes, Luiz Fernando; Stevani, Cassius Vinicius; Zambotti-Villela, Leonardo; Yokoya, Nair Sumie; Colepicolo, Pio

    2014-01-01

    The macroalga Gracilaria domingensis is an important resource for the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and biotechnology industries. G. domingensis is at a part of the food web foundation, providing nutrients and microelements to upper levels. As seaweed storage metals in the vacuoles, they are considered the main vectors to magnify these toxic elements. This work describes the evaluation of the toxicity of binary mixtures of available metal cations based on the growth rates of G. domingensis over a 48-h exposure. The interactive effects of each binary mixture were determined using a toxic unit (TU) concept that was the sum of the relative contribution of each toxicant and calculated using the ratio between the toxicant concentration and its endpoint. Mixtures of Cd(II)/Cu(II) and Zn(II)/Ca(II) demonstrated to be additive; Cu(II)/Zn(II), Cu(II)/Mg(II), Cu(II)/Ca(II), Zn(II)/Mg(II), and Ca(II)/Mg(II) mixtures were synergistic, and all interactions studied with Cd(II) were antagonistic. Hypotheses that explain the toxicity of binary mixtures at the molecular level are also suggested. These results represent the first effort to characterize the combined effect of available metal cations, based on the TU concept on seaweed in a total controlled medium. The results presented here are invaluable to the understanding of seaweed metal cation toxicity in the marine environment, the mechanism of toxicity action and how the tolerance of the organism.

  15. The mechanism of adhesion and germination in the carpospores of Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (Rhodophyta, Bangiales).

    PubMed

    Ouriques, Luciane Cristina; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita

    2012-02-01

    Spore release is the primary means of dispersion employed by red algae, and it provides insight into the elements linking the stages of their life history. In most red algae, spores are released within a sheath-like envelope of mucilage, which is responsible for their primary attachment. However, few studies have characterized the polysaccharides involved in the adhesion of seaweed spores. Therefore, in this paper, the process of spore germination and adhesion in Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia is described, as representative of the germination pattern of the Naccaria type. Using FITC-labeled lectins, we discovered high concentrations of α-D-mannose, α-D-glucose and β-D-galactose in the mucilage. The germ tube reacted with RCA-FITC, indicating the presence β-D-galactose, and the rhizoidal cells showed the presence of α-D-mannose, α-D-glucose and β-D-galactose, indicating their importance to substrate adhesion. Using light and transmission electron microscopy, we also conducted an analysis of spore ultrastructure. We found that the differentiation of a vacuole in the spore is one of the most important processes marking the initial stage of germination. Thus, as the degree of vacuolation increases, whole cell contents move towards the germ tube, which undergoes several successive divisions forming the sporophytic phase. Therefore, we can conclude that germination in Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia is characterized by (1) the fixation of carpospores in the substrate by sugars present in the mucilage and (2) the polarization of cell contents by the processes of vacuolization and germ tube formation.

  16. Tolerance to oxidative stress induced by desiccation in Porphyra columbina (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Contreras-Porcia, Loretto; Thomas, Daniela; Flores, Verónica; Correa, Juan A

    2011-03-01

    Unravelling the mechanisms underlying desiccation tolerance is crucial in order to understand the position of algal species in the intertidal zone. The alga Porphyra columbina lives in the uppermost part of the rocky intertidal zones around the world and was selected as a model for this study. Naturally desiccated plants were collected during low tide and studied for morphological changes, oxidative burst induction, biomolecule oxidation, antioxidant responses, and photosynthetic status. Naturally hydrated plants collected during high tides were used for comparative purposes. In addition, changes induced by desiccation were assessed in vitro and the capacity to recover from desiccation was determined by rehydrating the fronds in seawater. The global results show that desiccation induces morphological and cellular alterations accompanied by a loss of ∼96% of the water content. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced by desiccation and two peaks of H(2)O(2) were detected at 1 and 3 h of desiccation. However, during in vitro rehydration post-desiccation, the ROS quickly returned to the basal levels. At the biomolecular level, only a low production of oxidized proteins was recorded during desiccation, whereas the activity of diverse antioxidant enzymes increased. However, this activity diminished to near basal levels during rehydration. The photosynthetic efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) during desiccation declined by 94-96% of the values recorded in hydrated plants. This reduction was generated by the low levels of trapped energy flux per cross-section (TRo/CS), electron transport flux per CS (ETo/CS), and density of reaction centres (RC/SCo) as well as the chlorophyll content. The inverse pattern was observed for the levels of phycocyanin and phycoerythrin content. F(v)/F(m) and the photosynthetic indicators were restored to normal levels after only 5 min of rehydration. The results indicate that desiccation in P. columbina causes overproduction of ROS that is efficiently attenuated. The morphological and photosynthetic changes could be operating as tolerance mechanisms due to the fact that these responses principally prevent biomolecular alteration and cellular collapse. Thus, the activation of different physiological mechanisms helps to explain the high tolerance to desiccation of P. columbina and, at least in part, the position of this species at the highest level in the intertidal zone.

  17. Structural features and gene-expression profiles of actin homologs in Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Kitade, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Michiko; Uji, Toshiki; Fukuda, Satoru; Endo, Hirotoshi; Saga, Naotsune

    2008-10-15

    The marine red alga Porphyra yezoensis contains an actin gene family consisting of at least four isoforms (PyACT1, 2, 3 and 4). The amino acid identity between isoforms exceeds 83%, and each contains a putative nuclear export signal (NES). We scanned the sequences for amino acids in regions homologous to the intermonomeric interface of actin filaments. Few residues expected to engage in cross-linking were conserved between the four isoforms. The results of the sequence analyses suggest that PyACT2 probably functions in the nucleus as a monomer (G-actin) or in other unconventional forms. In addition, the distribution and position of the introns were different from those in florideophycean actin genes. The expression level of PyACT3 in matured gametophytes was significantly higher than in those in a vegetative state, although the mRNA was detected at similar levels in both apical and basal parts of thalli. The expression levels of PyACT2 and 4, on the other hand, did not change significantly between the matured and vegetative gametophytes. The PyACT3 may serve as a molecular marker for monitoring thallus maturation in this species.

  18. Possible sister groups and phylogenetic relationships among selected North Pacific and North Atlantic Rhodophyta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, Sandra C.

    1987-09-01

    Although the cool temperate (boreal) waters of the N. Pacific and N. Atlantic share many similar if not identical species, there have been few studies to test the identity of these species pairs. Whereas such tests are important from a taxonomic perspective, they tell us little if anything about biogeographic relationships. A more useful approach is one employing phylogenetic systematics (cladistics). The interpretation of phylogenetic diagrams (cladograms) in terms of biogeographic area relationships is explained. It is argued that cladistic analyses of taxa occurring in the cool temperate waters of the northern oceans can provide biogeographic tracks, which in turn can suggest the origins and migrations of species and possibly even floras. A number of cool temperate taxa that appear particularly amenable to this approach are discussed, including genera in the Palmariaceae, Corallinaceae, Dumontiaceae, Solieriaceae, Petrocelidaceae, Ceramiaceae and Rhodomelaceae.

  19. Population Studies and Carrageenan Properties in Eight Gigartinales (Rhodophyta) from Western Coast of Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Leonel

    2013-01-01

    Eight carrageenophytes, representing seven genera and three families of Gigartinales (Florideophyceae), were studied for 15 months. The reproductive status, dry weight, and carrageenan content have been followed by a monthly random sampling. The highest carrageenan yields were found in Chondracanthus acicularis (61.1%), Gigartina pistillata (59.7%), and Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (58.0%). Species of Cystocloniaceae family produces predominantly iota-carrageenans; Gigartinaceae family produces hybrid kappa-iota carrageenans (gametophytic plants) and lambda-family carrageenans (sporophytic plants); Phyllophoraceae family produces kappa-iota-hybrid carrageenans. Quadrate destructive sampling method was used to determine the biomass and line transect. Quadrate nondestructive sampling method, applied along a perpendicular transect to the shoreline, was used to calculate the carrageenophytes cover in two periods: autumn/winter and spring/summer. The highest cover and biomass were found in Chondrus crispus (3.75%–570 g/m2), Chondracanthus acicularis (3.45%–99 g/m2), Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (2.45%–207.5 g/m2), and Mastocarpus stellatus (2.02%–520 g/m2). PMID:24288514

  20. Identification and characterization of a DnaJ gene from red alga Pyropia yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiao; Li, Xianchao; Tang, Xuexi; Zhou, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Members of the DnaJ family are proteins that play a pivotal role in various cellular processes, such as protein folding, protein transport and cellular responses to stress. In the present study, we identified and characterized the full-length DnaJ cDNA sequence from expressed sequence tags of Pyropia yezoensis ( PyDnaJ) via rapid identification of cDNA ends. This cDNA encoded a protein of 429 amino acids, which shared high sequence similarity with other identified DnaJ proteins, such as a heat shock protein 40/DnaJ from Pyropia haitanensis. The relative mRNA expression level of PyDnaJ was investigated using real-time PCR to determine its specific expression during the algal life cycle and during desiccation. The relative mRNA expression level in sporophytes was higher than that in gametophytes and significantly increased during the whole desiccation process. These results indicate that PyDnaJ is an authentic member of the DnaJ family in plants and red algae and might play a pivotal role in mitigating damage to P. yezoensis during desiccation.

  1. Checklist and Bibliography of Benthic Marine Macroalgae Recorded from Northern Australia. I. Rhodophyta,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Puerto Rico." Bot. Jb., 9, 457-470. 76 I Hering, D. (1841). "Diagnoses algarum novarum a cl. Dre. Ferdinand Krauss in Africa australi lectarum." Ann...ASCOT VALE (AUSTRALIA) UNCLASSIFIED J A LEWIS JAN 84 MRL-R-912 F/6 6/3 NLKIIEIIIEEIIF IIII IIU’~" m2 IIIJIL125 1111𔃾L 111 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TESI

  2. Antiviral Activities of Sulfated Polysaccharides Isolated from Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (Rhodophytha, Gigartinales) and Boergeseniella thuyoides (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales)

    PubMed Central

    Bouhlal, Rhimou; Haslin, Camille; Chermann, Jean-Claude; Colliec-Jouault, Sylvia; Sinquin, Corinne; Simon, Gaelle; Cerantola, Stephane; Riadi, Hassane; Bourgougnon, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Water-soluble sulfated polysaccharides isolated from two red algae Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (Gigartinales, Sphaerococcaceae) and Boergeseniella thuyoides (Ceramiales, Rhodomelaceae) collected on the coast of Morocco inhibited in vitro replication of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) at 12.5 μg/mL. In addition, polysaccharides were capable of inhibiting the in vitro replication of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) on Vero cells values of EC50 of 4.1 and 17.2 μg/mL, respectively. The adsorption step of HSV-1 to the host cell seems to be the specific target for polysaccharide action. While for HIV-1, these results suggest a direct inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication by controlling the appearance of the new generations of virus and potential virucidal effect. The polysaccharides from S. coronopifolius (PSC) and B. thuyoides (PBT) were composed of galactose, 3,6-anhydrogalactose, uronics acids, sulfate in ratios of 33.1, 11.0, 7.7 and 24.0% (w/w) and 25.4, 16.0, 3.2, 7.6% (w/w), respectively. PMID:21822410

  3. Assessment of four molecular markers as potential DNA barcodes for red algae Kappaphycus Doty and Eucheuma J. Agardh (Solieriaceae, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Tan, Ji; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Phang, Siew-Moi; Hong, Dang Diem; Sunarpi, H; Hurtado, Anicia Q

    2012-01-01

    DNA barcoding has been a major advancement in the field of taxonomy, seeing much effort put into the barcoding of wide taxa of organisms, macro and microalgae included. The mitochondrial-encoded cox1 and plastid-encoded rbcL has been proposed as potential DNA barcodes for rhodophytes, but are yet to be tested on the commercially important carrageenophytes Kappaphycus and Eucheuma. This study gauges the effectiveness of four markers, namely the mitochondrial cox1, cox2, cox2-3 spacer and the plastid rbcL in DNA barcoding on selected Kappaphycus and Eucheuma from Southeast Asia. Marker assessments were performed using established distance and tree-based identification criteria from earlier studies. Barcoding patterns on a larger scale were simulated by empirically testing on the commonly used cox2-3 spacer. The phylogeny of these rhodophytes was also briefly described. In this study, the cox2 marker which satisfies the prerequisites of DNA barcodes was found to exhibit moderately high interspecific divergences with no intraspecific variations, thus a promising marker for the DNA barcoding of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma. However, the already extensively used cox2-3 spacer was deemed to be in overall more appropriate as a DNA barcode for these two genera. On a wider scale, cox1 and rbcL were still better DNA barcodes across the rhodophyte taxa when practicality and cost-efficiency were taken into account. The phylogeny of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma were generally similar to those earlier reported. Still, the application of DNA barcoding has demonstrated our relatively poor taxonomic comprehension of these seaweeds, thus suggesting more in-depth efforts in taxonomic restructuring as well as establishment.

  4. Assessment of Four Molecular Markers as Potential DNA Barcodes for Red Algae Kappaphycus Doty and Eucheuma J. Agardh (Solieriaceae, Rhodophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ji; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Phang, Siew-Moi; Hong, Dang Diem; Sunarpi, H.; Hurtado, Anicia Q.

    2012-01-01

    DNA barcoding has been a major advancement in the field of taxonomy, seeing much effort put into the barcoding of wide taxa of organisms, macro and microalgae included. The mitochondrial-encoded cox1 and plastid-encoded rbcL has been proposed as potential DNA barcodes for rhodophytes, but are yet to be tested on the commercially important carrageenophytes Kappaphycus and Eucheuma. This study gauges the effectiveness of four markers, namely the mitochondrial cox1, cox2, cox2-3 spacer and the plastid rbcL in DNA barcoding on selected Kappaphycus and Eucheuma from Southeast Asia. Marker assessments were performed using established distance and tree-based identification criteria from earlier studies. Barcoding patterns on a larger scale were simulated by empirically testing on the commonly used cox2-3 spacer. The phylogeny of these rhodophytes was also briefly described. In this study, the cox2 marker which satisfies the prerequisites of DNA barcodes was found to exhibit moderately high interspecific divergences with no intraspecific variations, thus a promising marker for the DNA barcoding of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma. However, the already extensively used cox2-3 spacer was deemed to be in overall more appropriate as a DNA barcode for these two genera. On a wider scale, cox1 and rbcL were still better DNA barcodes across the rhodophyte taxa when practicality and cost-efficiency were taken into account. The phylogeny of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma were generally similar to those earlier reported. Still, the application of DNA barcoding has demonstrated our relatively poor taxonomic comprehension of these seaweeds, thus suggesting more in-depth efforts in taxonomic restructuring as well as establishment. PMID:23285223

  5. Chemical profile and biological potential of non-polar fractions from Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh) Montagne (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Rocha, Otávio P; De Felício, Rafael; Rodrigues, Ana Helena B; Ambrósio, Daniela L; Cicarelli, Regina Maria B; De Albuquerque, Sérgio; Young, Maria Claudia M; Yokoya, Nair S; Debonsi, Hosana M

    2011-08-19

    The present study reports the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) evaluation of the hexanes and dichloromethane fractions from extracts of the red alga Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh) Montagne. Twenty three compounds were identified, totaling ca. 42% of both fractions (0.18 g mass extract). The main constituents of the fractions were hexadecanoic acid (17.6%) and pentadecanoic acid (15.9%). Several secondary metabolites with interesting biological activity, such as (-)-loliolide, neophytadiene, phytol were identified. In addition, several classes of secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds (e.g., phenylacetic acid), terpene derivatives, fatty acids, halogenated compound (e.g., 2-chlorocyclohexenol), lignoids, steroids, esters, amides (e.g., hexadecanamide), ketones, carboxylic acids, aldehydes and alcohols were observed. The occurrence of several of these structural classes is described for the first time in this species. The same fractions analyzed by GC-MS, and a separate set of polar fractions, were evaluated against two life cycle stages (epimastigote and trypomastigote forms) of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and against phytopatogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporiodes and C. sphaerospermum. The dichloromethane fraction was active against both T. cruzi forms (epimastigote IC(50) = 19.1 μg.mL-1 and trypomastigote IC(50) = 76.2 μg.mL-1). The hexanes and ethyl acetate fractions also displayed activity against both fungi species (200 μg) by TLC-bioautography.

  6. Dietary Supplementation with the Microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta) Reduces Prolonged Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Carfagna, Simona; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Pinto, Gabriele; Venditti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming) determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle) homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:25874021

  7. Expression of the phycoerythrin gene of Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) in E. coli and evaluation of the bioactivity of recombinant PE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ruobing; Sui, Zhenghong; Zhang, Xuecheng; Zhang, Shuang; Qin, Song

    2007-10-01

    Phycoerythrin (PE) is one of the most important proteins involved in light capturing during photosynthesis in red algae. Its potential biological activities had gained wide concerns. In the present study, tumor cytotoxic and hydroxyl radical assay were preformed to detect the bioactivity of recombinant PE. Recombinant plasmids pGEX-PE and pBGL were transformed into E. coli BL21 to make two recombinant strains BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL). PE expressing in BEX (pGEX-PE) was validated by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the PE-GST fusion protein was mostly inclusion bodies. Specific expression of PE was confirmed by Western blotting analysis. The recombinant E. coli BEX (pGEX-PE) cells were collected and sonicated. The supernatants were reserved for the tumor cytotoxic experiments. The result of tumor cytotoxic assay indicated that the supernatants containing PE had the activity of inhibiting the growth of Hela cells and with the increase of protein concentration, the inhibiting rate increased from 37.31% to 63.26%, which showed significant difference from the control. Hydroxyl radical scavenging effect was tested with supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates treated with sonication and heating. For the sonication samples, the scavenging rates of the supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates were significantly higher than the negative control BL21(pGEX-4T) ( P<0.02), and the scavenging rates increased slowly following the increase of the protein content. For the heating samples, except for the 0.2 mg mL-1 BGL (pBGL) products, the scavenging effects of the supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates were stronger than that of negative control BL21(pGEX-4T). However, the effect intensity was not positively correlated with the increase of the protein concentration. Though a partially decreased hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was led by heating, the biological activity was still retained and conspicuous. This research showed that phycoerythrin protein expressing in E. coli has the potential medical and sanitarian value.

  8. Effects of UV-B irradiation on isoforms of antioxidant enzymes and their activities in red alga Grateloupia filicina (Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiqiang; Li, Lixia

    2014-11-01

    Macroalgae in a littoral zone are inevitably exposed to UV-B irradiance. We analyzed the effects of UV-B on isoenzyme patterns and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) of red algae Grateloupia filicina (Lamour.) C. Agardh. The activities of SOD, CAT, and APX changed in response to UV-B in a time- and dose-dependent manner. POX activity increased significantly under all three UV-B treatments. The enzymatic assay showed three distinct bands of SODI (Mn-SOD), SODII (Fe-SOD), and SODIII (CuZn-SOD) under a low (Luv) and medium (Muv) dose of UV-B irradiation, while SODI and SODIII activities decreased significantly when exposed to a high dose of UV-B irradiation (Huv). The activity of POX isoenzymes increased significantly after exposure to UV-B, which is consistent with the total activity. In addition, a clear decrease in activity of CATIV was detected in response to all the three doses of UV treatments. Some bands of APX isoenzyme were also clearly influenced by UV-B irradiation. Correspondingly, the daily growth rate declined under all the three exposure doses, and was especially significant under Muv and Huv treatments. These data suggest that, although the protection mechanisms of antioxidant defense system are partly inducible by UV-B to prevent the damage, G. filicina has incomplete tolerance to higher UV-B irradiation stress.

  9. Aragonite infill in overgrown conceptacles of coralline Lithothamnion spp. (Hapalidiaceae, Hapalidiales, Rhodophyta): new insights in biomineralization and phylomineralogy.

    PubMed

    Krayesky-Self, Sherry; Richards, Joseph L; Rahmatian, Mansour; Fredericq, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    New empirical and quantitative data in the study of calcium carbonate biomineralization and an expanded coralline psbA framework for phylomineralogy are provided for crustose coralline red algae. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) pinpointed the exact location of calcium carbonate crystals within overgrown reproductive conceptacles in rhodolith-forming Lithothamnion species from the Gulf of Mexico and Pacific Panama. SEM-EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the elemental composition of these calcium carbonate crystals to be aragonite. After spore release, reproductive conceptacles apparently became overgrown by new vegetative growth, a strategy that may aid in sealing the empty conceptacle chamber, hence influencing the chemistry of the microenvironment and in turn promoting aragonite crystal growth. The possible relevance of various types of calcium carbonate polymorphs present in the complex internal structure and skeleton of crustose corallines is discussed. This is the first study to link SEM, SEM-EDS, XRD, Microtomography and X-ray microscopy data of aragonite infill in coralline algae with phylomineralogy. The study contributes to the growing body of literature characterizing and speculating about how the relative abundances of carbonate biominerals in corallines may vary in response to changes in atmospheric pCO2 , ocean acidification, and global warming.

  10. Removal of eutrophication factors and heavy metal from a closed cultivation system using the macroalgae, Gracilaria sp. (Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Sui, Zhenghong

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the ability of macroalgae Gracilaria sp. of removing eutrophication factors and toxic heavy metals Al, Cr, and Zn in a closed cultivation system is reported. The results show that the concentration of the three heavy metals decreased significantly during the experimental period in an algal biomass dependent manner. The biofiltration capacity of the alga for Al, Cr, and Zn is 10.1%-72.6%, 52.5%-83.4% and 36.5%-91.7%, respectively. Using more materials resulted in stronger heavy metal removal. Additionally, the concentration of chl- a, TN, TP and DIN of water samples from aquariums involving large, medium, and small algal biomass cultivation increased first and then decreased during the experiment. COD value of all three groups decreased with time and displayed algal biomass dependency: more algae resulting in a greater COD value than those of less biomass. Furthermore, changes in COD reflect an obvious organic particles deprivation process of algae. This is the first report on heavy metal removal effect by Gracilaria species. The results suggest that macroalgae can be used as a biofilter for the treatment of nutrient-enriched or heavy-metal polluted water, to which an appropriate time range should be carefully determined.

  11. Temperature response of photosynthetic light- and carbon-use characteristics in the red seaweed Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Zou, Dinghui; Gao, Kunshan

    2014-04-01

    The red seaweed Gracilariopsis is an important crop extensively cultivated in China for high-quality raw agar. In the cultivation site at Nanao Island, Shantou, China, G. lemaneiformis experiences high variability in environmental conditions like seawater temperature. In this study, G. lemaneiformis was cultured at 12, 19, or 26°C for 3 weeks, to examine its photosynthetic acclimation to changing temperature. Growth rates were highest in G. lemaneiformis thalli grown at 19°C, and were reduced with either decreased or increased temperature. The irradiance-saturated rate of photosynthesis (Pmax ) decreased with decreasing temperature, but increased significantly with prolonged cultivation at lower temperatures, indicating the potential for photosynthesis acclimation to lower temperature. Moreover, Pmax increased with increasing temperature (~30 μmol O2  · g(-1) FW · h(-1) at 12°C to 70 μmol O2  · g(-1) FW · h(-1) at 26°C). The irradiance compensation point for photosynthesis (Ic ) decreased significantly with increasing temperature (28 μmol photons · m(-2)  · s(-1) at high temperature vs. 38 μmol photons · m(-2)  · s(-1) at low temperature). Both the photosynthetic light- and carbon-use efficiencies increased with increasing growth or temperatures (from 12°C to 26°C). The results suggested that the thermal acclimation of photosynthetic performance of G. lemaneiformis would have important ecophysiological implications in sea cultivation for improving photosynthesis at low temperature and maintaining high standing biomass during summer. Ongoing climate change (increasing atmospheric CO2 and global warming) may enhance biomass production in G. lemaneiformis mariculture through the improved photosynthetic performances in response to increasing temperature.

  12. Photosynthetic parameters of sexually different parts of Porphyra katadai var. hemiphylla (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) during dehydration and re-hydration.

    PubMed

    Lin, A-Peng; Wang, Guang-Ce; Yang, Fang; Pan, Guang-Hua

    2009-03-01

    Physiological data from extreme habitat organisms during stresses are vital information for comprehending their survival. The intertidal seaweeds are exposed to a combination of environmental stresses, the most influential one being regular dehydration and re-hydration. Porphyra katadai var. hemiphylla is a unique intertidal macroalga species with two longitudinally separated, color distinct, sexually different parts. In this study, the photosynthetic performance of both PSI and PSII of the two sexually different parts of P. katadai thalli during dehydration and re-hydration was investigated. Under low-grade dehydration the variation of photosystems of male and female parts of P. katadai were similar. However, after the absolute water content reached 42%, the PSI of the female parts was nearly shut down while that of the male parts still coordinated well and worked properly with PSII. Furthermore, after re-hydration with a better conditioned PSI, the dehydrated male parts were able to restore photosynthesis within 1 h, while the female parts did not. It is concluded that in P. katadai the susceptibility of photosynthesis to dehydration depends on the accommodative ability of PSI. The relatively lower content of phycobiliprotein in male parts may be the cause for a stronger PSI after severe dehydration.

  13. Unusual algal turfs associated with the rhodophyta Phyllophora crispa: Benthic assemblages along a depth gradient in the Central Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Andrea; Ventura, Daniele; Gravina, Maria Flavia; Lasinio, Giovanna Jona; Belluscio, Andrea; Ardizzone, Gian Domenico

    2017-02-01

    Macroalgal assemblages dominated by the turf-forming alga Phyllophora crispa are described in detail for the first time in the Central Mediterranean Sea. This particular form of algal growth, which comprises an upper mixed layer of multiple algal species with a basal stratum formed by entangled thalli of P. crispa, was observed for the first time in 2012 along the promontory of Punta del Lazzaretto (Giglio Island, Italy). In this study, this assemblage was analysed to document the diversity of macroalgae and invertebrate associated communities and assess their distribution along a depth gradient. The algae forming turfs grow directly on the rock at low depth up to 10-15 m depth, while they grow above P. crispa from 15 m to 35 m depth, resulting in luxuriant beds covering up to 100% of the substrate. Multivariate analysis revealed clear differences regarding algae and invertebrate species richness and abundance between shallow and deep strata because of the dominance of Phyllophora crispa at depths greater than 20 m. The long laminal thalli of P. crispa favoured sessile fauna colonization, while the vagile species were principally linked to the architectural complexity of the turf layer created by the P. crispa, which increased the microhabitat diversity and favoured sediment deposition within the turf layer. The complex structures of these turf assemblages and their widespread distribution along the whole coast of the island suggest a well-established condition of the communities linked to the high natural sedimentation rate observed in the area.

  14. Delimiting the species Neosiphonia yendoi (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) based on COI and rbcL genetic variation in Korea and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byeongseok; Yang, Mi Yeon; Kim, Myung Sook

    2016-09-01

    Although the marine red algal genus Neosiphonia is well characterized, many species of Neosiphonia are poorly understood. To correctly define the species delimitation of Neosiphonia yendoi using genetic variation, owing to the confusion over identification with " N. sphaerocarpa" from Korea, we investigated intensively the haplotype network of the mitochondrial COI and the plastid rbcL genes of specimens collected from Korea and Japan. The molecular analyses indicated that specimens collected in different sites of Korea and Japan belong to the same species, Neosiphonia yendoi and " Neosiphonia sphaerocarpa" from Korea, which is distinguished from N. sphaerocarpa from Florida and is allied with N. yendoi collected from the type locality, Muroran of Japan. A total of 29 COI and 13 rbcL haplotypes were found and the COI haplotype network shows evidence of a clear break between specimens from Jeju Island and all other locations of Korea, suggesting the possibility of cryptic diversity within N. yendoi.

  15. Population genetic analyses are consistent with the introduction of Ceramium secundatum (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta) to Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Meghann R; Saunders, Gary W

    2015-11-01

    During ongoing DNA barcode (COI-5P) surveys of the macroalgal flora along the northwest Atlantic coast, we discovered a population of Ceramium secundatum in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA. This species is regarded as common and widespread in the northeast Atlantic, ranging from Norway to Morocco, but until now has not been reported from the western Atlantic. Several lines of evidence suggest that C. secundatum may be introduced to Narragansett Bay: (1) despite extensive collecting, specimens have only been obtained from a limited geographic range in the northwest Atlantic; (2) three other nonindigenous seaweed species are reportedly introduced in this region, which is thought to be a consequence of shipping; and (3) this species is introduced to South Africa and New Zealand. To investigate this suspected introduction, we applied population genetic analyses (using the cox2-3 spacer) to compare the Narragansett Bay C. secundatum population to native populations in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom. Collectively, analyses of biogeographical and molecular data indicate that C. secundatum is likely introduced to Narragansett Bay. The implications of this discovery are discussed.

  16. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from the west coast of North America: the Pyropia lanceolata species complex updated

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, Sandra C.; Hughey, Jeffery R.; Rosas, Luis E. Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropia lanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Pyropia montereyensis sp. nov., Pyropia columbiensis sp. nov., and Pyropia protolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropia montereyensis and Pyropia columbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Pyropia lanceolata or Pyropia pseudolanceolata. Pyropia protolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropia bajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Pyropia nereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyra mumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Pyropia lanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California. PMID:26312033

  17. The system of sulfated galactans from the red seaweed Gymnogongrus torulosus (Phyllophoraceae, Rhodophyta): Location and structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Estevez, José M; Ciancia, Marina; Cerezo, Alberto S

    2008-09-05

    Sulfated polysaccharides were localized in the cuticle, cortex and medulla of the gametophyte thallus, being more concentrated in the intercellular matrix than in the cell walls. During the water extraction sequence, a small percentage of galactan sulfates (5.1% of dry seaweed) with average low Mr (6-11.4kDa) were extracted at room temperature without disturbing the cellular arrangement, while sulfated galactans of average medium Mr (18-45kDa) were obtained by further hot-water extractions (52.4% of dry seaweed), with diorganization of the tissue. The residue (40.0% of dry seaweed) still contained carrageenan-type (major) and agaran-type (minor) galactans. Part of these galactans was extracted with 8.4% LiCl solution in DMSO, from which "pure" κ/ι-carrageenans were isolated. Carrageenans and agarans were extracted in a ratio 1:0.5, showing the highest amount of agaran-structures for a carrageenophyte. The galactans comprise alternating 4-sulfated (major) and non-sulfated (minor) 3-linked β-d-galactopyranose units, and 4-linked α-galactopyranose units with the following substitutions: (i) non-sulfated and 2-sulfated 3,6-anhydro-α-d-galactopyranose residues in the carrageenan-structures, which belong to the κ-family (κ/ι-carrageenans); (ii) 3-sulfated α-l-galactopyranose units and 2-sulfated 3,6-anhydro-α-l-galactopyranose residues in the agaran-structures. Alkaline treatment and alkaline dialysis of the main extracts gave "pure" κ/ι-carrageenans, showing that carrageenan molecules are extracted together with low Mr agarans or agaran-dl-hybrids.

  18. Chemical structure of the complex pyruvylated and sulfated agaran from the red seaweed Palisada flagellifera (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luciana G; Noseda, Miguel D; Gonçalves, Alan G; Ducatti, Diogo R B; Fujii, Mutue T; Duarte, Maria E R

    2012-01-10

    A homogeneous agaran fraction from Palisada flagellifera (Laurencia complex, Rhodomelaceae, Ceramiales) was obtained by aqueous room-temperature extraction, followed by ion-exchange chromatography. This galactan presents a highly complex structure with at least 18 different types of derivatives. The A units were found mostly pyruvylated, 2-sulfated (∼34%), and 6-methylated (∼34%), with the latter partially 2- and 2,4-sulfated. Minor amounts of β-D-galactopyranosyl units 2-, 6- and 2,6-sulfated, 6-glycosylated, and non-substituted are also present. The B-units are L-sugars composed predominantly of their cyclized derivatives, 3,6-anhydrogalactose and 3,6-anhydro-2-O-methylgalactose (∼56%). The former are linked to β-D-galactosyl (6-methyl) (6-glycosylated) units, as well as to 4,6-O-(1-carboxyethylidene)-β-D-galactose 2-sulfate in the proportion of 3:1.8, respectively. A significant amount (∼18%) of the α-L-galactopyranosyl units are linked to pyruvylated β-D-galactose 2-sulfate residues. An important part of the B-units (20%) is represented by α-L-galactose 6-sulfate substituted on C-3 by xylosyl, galactosyl and/or 2,3-di-O-methylgalactose units or sulfate groups that preclude their cyclization to 3,6-anhydrogalactosyl derivative. The precursor units are present in relatively low percentages. Kinetic studies suggest that in P. flagellifera agaran the cyclizable units are linked to 6-O-methyl-β-D-galactosyl and/or β-D-galactosyl units (6-glycosylated). The structural complexity of this polysaccharide is increased by the presence of 2- and 3,6-sulfated α-L-galactoses, with the latter additionally 2-O-methylated. Therefore, the major subfraction obtained from the cold extract contains structurally complex sulfated, methylated, and pyruvylated agaran.

  19. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from the west coast of North America: the Pyropialanceolata species complex updated.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Sandra C; Hughey, Jeffery R; Rosas, Luis E Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropialanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Pyropiamontereyensis sp. nov., Pyropiacolumbiensis sp. nov., and Pyropiaprotolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropiamontereyensis and Pyropiacolumbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Pyropialanceolata or Pyropiapseudolanceolata. Pyropiaprotolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropiabajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Pyropianereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyramumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Pyropialanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California.

  20. MESOPHYLLUM SPHAERICUM SP. NOV. (CORALLINALES, RHODOPHYTA): A NEW MAËRL-FORMING SPECIES FROM THE NORTHEAST ATLANTIC(1).

    PubMed

    Peña, Viviana; Adey, Walter H; Riosmena-Rodríguez, Rafael; Jung, Moon-Yung; Afonso-Carrillo, Julio; Choi, Han-Gu; Bárbara, Ignacio

    2011-08-01

    Mesophyllum sphaericum sp. nov. is described based on spherical maërl individuals (up to 10 cm) collected in a shallow subtidal maërl bed in Galicia (NW Spain). The thalli of these specimens are radially organized, composed of arching tiers of compact medullary filaments. Epithallial cells have flattened to rounded outermost walls, and they occur in a single layer. Subepithallial initials are as long as, or longer than the daughter cells that subtend them. Cell fusions are abundant. Multiporate asexual conceptacles are protruding, mound-like with a flattened pore plate, lacking a peripheral raised rim. Filaments lining the pore canal and the conceptacle roof are composed of five to six cells with straight elongate and narrow cells at their base. Carposporangial conceptacles are uniporate, protruding, and conical. Spermatangial conceptacles were not observed. Molecular results placed M. sphaericum near to M. erubescens, but M. sphaericum is anatomically close to M. canariense. The examination of the holotype and herbarium specimens of M. canariense indicated that both species have pore canal filaments with elongate basal cells, but they differ in number of cells (five to six in M. sphaericum vs. four in M. canariense). Based on the character of pore canal filaments, M. canariense shows similarities with M. erubescens (three to five celled). The outermost walls of epithallial cells of M. canariense are flared compared to the round to flattened ones of M. erubescens, the latter being widely accepted for the genus Mesophyllum. The addition of M. sphaericum as new maërl-forming species suggests that European maërl beds are more biodiverse than previously understood.

  1. Patterns of genetic diversity of the cryptogenic red alga Polysiphonia morrowii (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) suggest multiple origins of the Atlantic populations.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Destombe, Christophe; Kim, Byeongseok; Mauger, Stéphane; Raffo, María Paula; Kim, Myung Sook; Le Gall, Line

    2016-08-01

    The red alga Polysiphonia morrowii, native to the North Pacific (Northeast Asia), has recently been reported worldwide. To determine the origin of the French and Argentine populations of this introduced species, we compared samples from these two areas with samples collected in Korea and at Hakodate, Japan, the type locality of the species. Combined analyses of chloroplastic (rbcL) and mitochondrial (cox1) DNA revealed that the French and Argentine populations are closely related and differ substantially from the Korean and Japanese populations. The genetic structure of P. morrowii populations from South Atlantic and North Atlantic, which showed high haplotype diversity compared with populations from the North Pacific, suggested the occurrence of multiple introduction events from areas outside of the so-called native regions. Although similar, the French and Argentine populations are not genetically identical. Thus, the genetic structure of these two introduced areas may have been modified by cryptic and recurrent introduction events directly from Asia or from other introduced areas that act as introduction relays. In addition, the large number of private cytoplasmic types identified in the two introduced regions strongly suggests that local populations of P. morrowii existed before the recent detection of these invasions. Our results suggest that the most likely scenario is that the source population(s) of the French and Argentine populations was not located only in the North Pacific and/or that P. morrowii is a cryptogenic species.

  2. Ocean acidification alleviates low-temperature effects on growth and photosynthesis of the red alga Neosiphonia harveyi (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Olischläger, Mark; Wiencke, Christian

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to examine interactive effects between ocean acidification and temperature on the photosynthetic and growth performance of Neosiphonia harveyi. N. harveyi was cultivated at 10 and 17.5 °C at present (~380 µatm), expected future (~800 µatm), and high (~1500 µatm) pCO2. Chlorophyll a fluorescence, net photosynthesis, and growth were measured. The state of the carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) was examined by pH-drift experiments (with algae cultivated at 10 °C only) using ethoxyzolamide, an inhibitor of external and internal carbonic anhydrases (exCA and intCA, respectively). Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of acetazolamide (an inhibitor of exCA) and Tris (an inhibitor of the acidification of the diffusive boundary layer) on net photosynthesis was measured at both temperatures. Temperature affected photosynthesis (in terms of photosynthetic efficiency, light saturation point, and net photosynthesis) and growth at present pCO2, but these effects decreased with increasing pCO2. The relevance of the CCM decreased at 10 °C. A pCO2 effect on the CCM could only be shown if intCA and exCA were inhibited. The experiments demonstrate for the first time interactions between ocean acidification and temperature on the performance of a non-calcifying macroalga and show that the effects of low temperature on photosynthesis can be alleviated by increasing pCO2. The findings indicate that the carbon acquisition mediated by exCA and acidification of the diffusive boundary layer decrease at low temperatures but are not affected by the cultivation level of pCO2, whereas the activity of intCA is affected by pCO2. Ecologically, the findings suggest that ocean acidification might affect the biogeographical distribution of N. harveyi.

  3. Genome Survey Sequencing and Genetic Background Characterization of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) Based on Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Zhenghong; Fu, Feng; Wang, Jinguo; Chang, Lianpeng; Guo, Weihua; Li, Binbin

    2013-01-01

    Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis has a high economic value and is one of the most important aquaculture species in China. Despite it is economic importance, it has remained largely unstudied at the genomic level. In this study, we conducted a genome survey of Gp. lemaneiformis using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. In total, 18.70 Gb of high-quality sequence data with an estimated genome size of 97 Mb were obtained by HiSeq 2000 sequencing for Gp. lemaneiformis. These reads were assembled into 160,390 contigs with a N50 length of 3.64 kb, which were further assembled into 125,685 scaffolds with a total length of 81.17 Mb. Genome analysis predicted 3490 genes and a GC% content of 48%. The identified genes have an average transcript length of 1,429 bp, an average coding sequence size of 1,369 bp, 1.36 exons per gene, exon length of 1,008 bp, and intron length of 191 bp. From the initial assembled scaffold, transposable elements constituted 54.64% (44.35 Mb) of the genome, and 7737 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified. Among these SSRs, the trinucleotide repeat type was the most abundant (up to 73.20% of total SSRs), followed by the di- (17.41%), tetra- (5.49%), hexa- (2.90%), and penta- (1.00%) nucleotide repeat type. These characteristics suggest that Gp. lemaneiformis is a model organism for genetic study. This is the first report of genome-wide characterization within this taxon. PMID:23875008

  4. Anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effects of red algae Gracilaria changii (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) extract

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gracilaria changii (Xia et Abbott) Abbott, Zhang et Xia, a red algae commonly found in the coastal areas of Malaysia is traditionally used for foods and for the treatment of various ailments including inflammation and gastric ailments. The aim of the study was to investigate anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic activities of a mass spectrometry standardized methanolic extract of Gracilaria changii. Methods Methanolic extract of Gracilaria changii (MeOHGCM6 extract) was prepared and standardized using mass spectrometry (MS). Anti-inflammatory activities of MeOHGCM6 extract were examined by treating U937 cells during its differentiation with 10 μg/ml MeOHGCM6 extract. Tumour necrosis factors-α (TNF-α) response level and TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene expression were monitored and compared to that treated by 10 nM betamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug. Gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic activities of MeOHGCM6 extract were examined by feeding rats with MeOHGCM6 extract ranging from 2.5 to 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) following induction of gastric lesions. Production of mucus and gastric juice, pH of the gastric juice and non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) levels were determined and compared to that fed by 20 mg/kg b.w. omeprazole (OMP), a known anti-ulcer drug. Results MS/MS analysis of the MeOHGCM6 extracts revealed the presence of methyl 10-hydroxyphaeophorbide a and 10-hydroxypheophytin a, known chlorophyll proteins and several unidentified molecules. Treatment with 10 μg/ml MeOHGCM6 extract during differentiation of U937 cells significantly inhibited TNF-α response level and TNF-α and IL-6 gene expression. The inhibitory effect was comparable to that of betamethasone. No cytotoxic effects were recorded for cells treated with the 10 μg/ml MeOHGCM6 extract. Rats fed with MeOHGCM6 extract at 500 mg/kg b.w. showed reduced absolute ethanol-induced gastric lesion sizes by > 99% (p < 0.05). This protective effect was comparable to that conferred by OMP. The pH of the gastric mucus decreased in dose-dependent manner from 5.51 to 3.82 and there was a significant increase in NP-SH concentrations. Conclusions Results from the study, suggest that the mass spectrometry standardized methanolic extract of Gracillaria changii possesses anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic properties. Further examination of the active constituent of the extract and its mechanism of action is warranted in the future. PMID:23497105

  5. THE DISTRIBUTION, MORPHOLOGY, AND ECOLOGY OF THREE INTRODUCED ASIATIC SPECIES OF PORPHYRA (BANGIALES, RHODOPHYTA) IN THE NORTHWESTERN ATLANTIC(1).

    PubMed

    Neefus, Christopher D; Mathieson, Arthur C; Bray, Troy L; Yarish, Charles

    2008-12-01

    Distributions of three Asiatic Porphyra species, Porphyra yezoensis Ueda, Porphyra katadae A. Miura, and Porphyra suborbiculata Kjellm., are reported from New England, USA. Species identifications were confirmed by rbcL and nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1) sequence comparisons with herbarium specimens, cultures, and GenBank accessions. Two distinct genotypes of P. yezoensis were detected: forma narawaensis A. Miura and f. yezoensis. Forma narawaensis occurs south of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and has ITS1 sequences identical to cultivars widely grown in Japan. Forma yezoensis occurs in western Long Island Sound and from Cape Cod northward to midcoastal Maine; its ITS1 sequence is identical to a wild specimen from Hokkaido, Japan. P. katadae has been collected from five locations near Cape Cod; its ITS1 sequence is identical to a cultured specimen from Qingdao, China. P. suborbiculata has been collected at several locations south of Cape Cod; its presence in North Carolina and Delaware during the mid-1960s was confirmed from herbarium specimens. Morphological and ecological characteristics for New England populations of the three Asiatic species were compared to original descriptions. New England P. yezoensis f. yezoensis is similar to Ueda's original description of Japanese specimens, but there are morphological differences for P. yezoensis f. narawaensis. In New England, f. narawaensis typically does not attain the length reported in Japan (max. 19 cm versus 100 cm). New England P. katadae is similar to Miura's original description, except for slight differences in thallus thickness and reproductive patterns. By contrast, New England, Japanese, and other populations of P. suborbiculata exhibit pronounced differences in blade coloration, shape and dimensions, reproductive patterns, seasonal occurrence, and general ecology.

  6. The enhancement of cyclic electron flow around photosystem I improves the recovery of severely desiccated Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Wang, Guangce

    2012-07-01

    Porphyra yezoensis, a representative species of intertidal macro-algae, is able to withstand periodic desiccation at low tide but is submerged in seawater at high tide. In this study, changes in photosynthetic electron flow in P. yezoensis during desiccation and re-hydration were investigated. The results suggested that the cyclic electron flow around photosystem I (PSI) increased significantly during desiccation, continued to operate at times of severe desiccation, and showed greater tolerance to desiccation than the electron flow around PSII. In addition, PSI activity in desiccated blades recovered faster than PSII activity during re-hydration. Even though linear electron flow was suppressed by DCMU [3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea], cyclic electron flow could still be restored. This process was insensitive to antimycin A and could be suppressed by dibromothymoquinone (DBMIB). The prolonged dark treatment of blades reduced the speed in which the cyclic electron flow around PSI recovered, suggesting that stromal reductants, including NAD(P)H, played an important role in the donation of electrons to PSI and were the main cause of the rapid recovery of cyclic electron flow in desiccated blades during re-hydration. These results suggested that cyclic electron flow in P. yezoensis played a significant physiological role during desiccation and re-hydration and may be one of the most important factors allowing P. yezoensis blades to adapt to intertidal environments.

  7. Antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of three red seaweeds (Division: Rhodophyta) harvested from the Gulf of Mannar of Peninsular India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu; Praveen, Nammunayathuputhenkotta Krishnankartha

    2015-04-01

    The antioxidant activities of methanol extract and its solvent fractions (n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate) of three red seaweeds (Hypnea musciformis, H. valentiae, and Jania rubens) collected from the Gulf of Mannar of South eastern coast of India were evaluated, using different in vitro systems, viz., DPPH, ABTS, HO radical scavenging activities, H2O2 scavenging ability, Fe(2+) ion chelating ability and reducing potential. Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content of the extracts/fractions, and the results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g of the seaweed extracts/fractions. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) inhibition assay was employed to assess the ability of the seaweed extracts/fractions to inhibit lipid oxidation. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fractions of H. musciformis exhibited significantly higher total phenolic content (205.5 mg GAE/g), DPPH· scavenging activity (IC50 0.6 mg/mL), ABTS(.+) scavenging activity (IC50 0.51 μg/mL), Fe(2+) chelating ability (IC50 0.70 mg/mL), H2O2 scavenging activity (IC50 0.39 mg/mL), reducing ability (Abs700 nm 1.46) and lipid peroxidation inhibitory ability (2.71 MDAEC/kg) (P < 0.05) compared to its n-hexane, DCM fractions, crude MeOH extract and MeOH extracts/fractions of H. valentiae and J. rubens. DCM fraction of J. rubens showed significantly higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50 0.55 mg/mL) compared with H. musciformis and H. valentiae (P < 0.05). This study indicated the potential use of red seaweeds, in particular, H. musciformis as candidate species to be used as food supplement for increasing the shelf-life of food industry, and candidates in combating carcinogenesis and inflammatory diseases.

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF CROSS-FERTILIZED CONCHOCELIS USING CLEAVED AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC SEQUENCE MARKERS IN CROSS-EXPERIMENTS OF PORPHYRA YEZOENSIS (BANGIALES, RHODOPHYTA)(1).

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jeong; Fukuda, Satoru; Endo, Hirotoshi; Kitade, Yukihiro; Saga, Naotsune

    2008-04-01

    As a part of the construction of a Porphyra yezoensis Ueda genetic linkage map, we conducted intraspecific cross-experiments and subsequent screening of cross-fertilized conchocelis by cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) analysis. The cross-experiments were carried out between males of the wildtype (KGJ) and females of the recessive green mutant (TU-2) using two methods, controlled and random crosses. A total of 42 and 186 wildtype-colored conchocelis colonies were obtained from the former and latter experiments, respectively. Among those, 49 DNA samples (14% and 23% obtained from the former and latter crosses, respectively) showed biparental CAPS patterns in the two gene regions (EF-1α open reading frame [ORF] region and V-ATPase). This study represents the first report in which the cross-fertilized conchocelis of P. yezoensis has been directly confirmed by molecular marker. The combination of the simple DNA extraction and CAPS analysis may be applicable in genetic studies of other macroalgae that are monoecious and/or grow slowly in laboratory culture.

  9. Characterization of the putatively introduced red alga Acrochaetium secundatum (Acrochaetiales, Rhodophyta) growing epizoically on the pelage of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentall, Gena B.; Rosen, Barry H.; Kunz, Jessica M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Saunders, Gary W.; LaRoche, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological associations between epibionts (organisms that live on the surface of another living organism) and vertebrates have been documented in both marine and terrestrial environments, and may be opportunistic, commensal, or symbiotic (Lewin et al. 1981, Holmes 1985, Allen et al. 1993, Bledsoe et al. 2006, Pfaller et al. 2008, Suutari et al. 2010). Although epibiont proliferation is frequently reported on slow-moving, sparsely haired organisms such as manatees and sloths, reports from densely furred, highly mobile mammals are much less common. There are reports of epizoic algae for several species of pinnipeds (Kenyon and Rice 1959, Scheffer 1962, Baldridge 1977, Allen et al. 1993), which rely to varying degrees on both pelage and blubber for thermoregulation, but the phenomenon has not been widely described. Scheffer (1962) noted that red algae was fairly common on the pelage of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), pinnipeds for which fur likely makes a comparatively high contribution to thermoregulation (Donohue et al. 2000). For species with pelage that plays a critical role of thermal insulation, it seems implausible that an epibiont would persist on healthy individuals that devote significant energy resources toward grooming and actively maintaining their coat. Biological characteristics of epibiont settlement and attachment, and physiological requirements of epizoic species play key roles in their successful colonization and potential host impacts. To investigate this relationship, we explore a novel discovery of an epizoic alga from southern sea otters, including describing algal development on sea otter hair and molecular identification of the algae.

  10. Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta): A New Species from South China Sea Based on Morphological Observation and rbcL Gene Sequences Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongwei; Luan, Rixiao

    2013-01-01

    Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. is a new species described from Lingshui, Hainan Province, South China Sea. Based on the external form and internal structure, combined with rbcL gene sequence analysis, Grateloupia tenuis is distinct from other Grateloupia species as follows: (1) thalli is slippery and cartilaginous in texture; possess fewer branches, relatively slight main axes, and two or three dichotomous branches; (2) cortex is 5-6 layers; medulla is solid when young, but hollow in old branches; reproductive structures are dispersed in main axes of thalli and lower portions of branchlets; exhibits Grateloupia-type auxiliary cell ampullae; (3) the four studied G. tenuis sequences were positioned in a large Grateloupia clade of Halymeniaceae, which included sister group generitype G. filicina with 68 bp differences; G. tenuis was determined to be a sister taxon to the G. catenata, G. ramosissima, G. orientalis, and G. filiformis subclade. The pairwise distances between G. tenuis and these species were 39 to 50 bp. The sequences of G. tenuis differed by 81–108 bp from the sequences of other samples in Grateloupia; there are 114–133 bp changes between G. tenuis and other genera of Halymeniaceae. In final analysis, we considered Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. to be a new species of genus Grateloupia. PMID:24455703

  11. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Chondracanthus (Rhodophyta), focusing on the resurrection of C. okamurae and the description of C. cincinnus sp. nov.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mi Yeon; Kim, Myung Sook

    2016-09-01

    Determining the taxonomic status of the red algal genus Chondracanthus based on morphological characters is challenging due to the similarity and high degree of plasticity of the thallus. Since the taxonomic history of several Chondracanthus species remains unclear, we analyzed the plastid rbcL and mitochondrial COI genes of the specimens from Korea and Japan, in combination with morphological observations, to examine their phylogenetic relationships. Our results confirmed the distinction of C. okamurae, which is separated from C. intermedius, and identified a novel species, C. cincinnus sp. nov. Three species ( C. okamurae, C. intermedius and C. cincinnus) formed a monophyletic clade with C. tenellus. C. okamurae is distinguished by linear, narrow, cylindrical to compressed, slightly recurved axes, and a high-intertidal to subtidal distribution. It was collected from Korea and Japan, while C. intermedius was identified from Japan only. A new species, Chondracanthus cincinnus sp. nov., is characterized by linear, compressed, strongly recurved axes, and a low-intertidal to subtidal distiribution. Based on the molecular phylogeny using rbcL and COI data, we herein resurrect C. okamurae as a distinct species and identify C. cincinnus as a new species.

  12. Solar radiation (PAR and UVA) and water temperature in relation to biochemical performance of Gelidium corneum (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) in subtidal bottoms off the Basque coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintano, Endika; Ganzedo, Unai; Díez, Isabel; Figueroa, Félix L.; Gorostiaga, José M.

    2013-10-01

    Gelidium corneum (Hudson) J.V. Lamouroux is a very important primary producer in the Cantabrian coastal ecosystem. Some local declines in their populations have been recently detected in the Basque coast. Occurrences of yellowing and an unusual branch breakdown pattern have also been reported for some G. corneum populations. In order to gain further insight into those environmental stressors operating at a local scale, here we investigate if shallow subtidal populations of G. corneum living under potentially different conditions of irradiance (PAR and UVA) and water temperature exhibit differences in some biochemical indicators of stress, namely C:N, antioxidant activity (radical cation of 2,2‧-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate); ABTS+ assay) and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) (Asterine 330 and Palythine). We hypothesised that G. corneum subjected to higher ambient levels of irradiance and water temperature would show higher C:N ratios, lower antioxidant activity and higher MAA concentrations. Our results partially support this hypothesis. We found that G. corneum exposed to increased levels of irradiance (PAR, UVA) exhibited greater C:N ratios and lower antioxidant activity (higher IC50), whereas no relationship was found regarding MAAs. No differences in biochemical performance in relation to temperature were detected among G. corneum exposed to comparable high light. Similarly, G. corneum growing under lower UVA radiation levels showed no differences in any of the measured biochemical variables with regard to PAR and water temperature. These findings suggest that, among the environmental factors examined, UVA radiation may be an important driver in regulating the along-shore variation in G. corneum biochemical performance. Therefore, the role of irradiance, especially UV radiation, in potential future alterations in Cantabrian G. corneum populations cannot be ruled out as a potential underlying factor.

  13. Evidence for the introduction of the Asian red alga Neosiphonia japonica and its introgression with Neosiphonia harveyi (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) in the Northwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Savoie, Amanda M; Saunders, Gary W

    2015-12-01

    There is currently conflict in the literature on the taxonomic status of the reportedly cosmopolitan species Neosiphonia harveyi, a common red alga along the coast of Atlantic Canada and New England, USA. Neosiphonia harveyi sensu lato was assessed using three molecular markers: COI-5P, ITS and rbcL. All three markers clearly delimited three genetic species groups within N. harveyi sensu lato in this region, which we identified as N. harveyi, N. japonica and Polysiphonia akkeshiensis (here resurrected from synonymy with N. japonica). Although Neosiphonia harveyi is considered by some authors to be introduced to the Atlantic from the western Pacific, it was only confirmed from the North Atlantic suggesting it is native to this area. In contrast, Neosiphonia japonica was collected from only two sites in Rhode Island, USA, as well as from its reported native range in Asia (South Korea), which when combined with data in GenBank indicates that this species was introduced to the Northwest Atlantic. The GenBank data further indicate that N. japonica was also introduced to North Carolina, Spain, Australia and New Zealand. Despite the fact that all three markers clearly delimited N. harveyi and N. japonica as distinct genetic species groups, the ITS sequences for some N. harveyi individuals displayed mixed patterns and additivity indicating introgression of nuclear DNA from N. japonica into N. harveyi in the Northwest Atlantic. Introgression of DNA from an introduced species to a native species (i.e. 'genetic pollution') is one of the possible consequences of species introductions, and we believe this is the first documented evidence for this phenomenon in red algae.

  14. Sequencing type material resolves the identity and distribution of the generitype Lithophyllum incrustans, and related European species L. hibernicum and L. bathyporum (Corallinales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Kantun, Jazmin J; Rindi, Fabio; Adey, Walter H; Heesch, Svenja; Peña, Viviana; Le Gall, Line; Gabrielson, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    DNA sequences from type material in the nongeniculate coralline genus Lithophyllum were used to unambiguously link some European species names to field-collected specimens, thus providing a great advance over morpho-anatomical identifi-cation. In particular, sequence comparisons of rbcL, COI and psbA genes from field-collected specimens allowed the following conclusion: the generitype species, L. incrustans, occurs mostly as subtidal rhodoliths and crusts on both Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts, and not as the common, NE Atlantic, epilithic, intertidal crust reported in the literature. The heterotypic type material of L. hibernicum was narrowed to one rhodolith belonging in Lithophyllum. As well as occurring as a subtidal rhodolith, L. hibernicum is a common, epilithic and epizoic crust in the intertidal zone from Ireland south to Mediterranean France. A set of four features distinguished L. incrustans from L. hibernicum, including epithallial cell diameter, pore canal shape of sporangial conceptacles and sporangium height and diameter. An rbcL sequence of the lectotype of Lithophyllum bathyporum, which was recently proposed to accommodate Atlantic intertidal collections of L. incrustans, corresponded to a distinct taxon hitherto known only from Brittany as the subtidal, bisporangial, lectotype, but also occurs intertidally in Atlantic Spain. Specimens from Ireland and France morpho-anatomically identified as L. fasciculatum and a specimen from Cornwall likewise identified as L. duckerae were resolved as L. incrustans and L. hibernicum, respectively.

  15. Effects of UV-B radiation on tetraspores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm (Rhodophyta), and effects of red and blue light on repair of UV-B-induced damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Qing; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of red and blue light on the repair of UV-B radiation-induced damage in tetraspores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm. Tetraspores of C. ocellatus were treated with different UV-B radiation levels (0, 36, 72, 108, 144 and 180 J/m2), and thereafter subjected to PAR, darkness, or red or blue light during a 2-h repair stage, each day for 48 days. The diameters and cellular contents of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimmers (CPDs), chlorophyll a (Chl a), phycoerythrin, and UV-B-absorbing mycosporinelike amino acids (MAAs) contents of the tetraspores were determined. Our results show that low doses of UV-B radiation (36 and 72 J/m2) promoted the growth of C. ocellatus; however, increased UV-B radiation gradually reduced the C. ocellatus growth (greater than 72 J/m2). The MAAs (palythine and asterina-330) in C. ocellatus were detected and analyzed by LC/MS. Our results suggest that moderate red light could induce the growth of this alga in aquaculture. In addition, photorepair was inhibited by red light, so there may be some other DNA repair mechanism activated by red light. Blue light promoted the activity of DNA photolyase, greatly improving remediation efficiency. Red and blue lights were found to reduce the capacity of C. ocellatus to form MAAs. Therefore, PAR, red light, and blue light play different roles during the repair processes for damage induced by UV-B radiation.

  16. Evaluation of food grade solvents for lipid extraction and impact of storage temperature on fatty acid composition of edible seaweeds Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) and Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Schmid, Matthias; Guihéneuf, Freddy; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the impact of different food- and non-food grade extraction solvents on yield and fatty acid composition of the lipid extracts of two seaweed species (Palmaria palmata and Laminaria digitata). The application of chloroform/methanol and three different food grade solvents (ethanol, hexane, ethanol/hexane) revealed significant differences in both, extraction yield and fatty acid composition. The extraction efficiency, in terms of yields of total fatty acids (TFA), was in the order: chloroform/methanol>ethanol>hexane>ethanol/hexane for both species. Highest levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were achieved by the extraction with ethanol. Additionally the effect of storage temperature on the stability of PUFA in ground and freeze-dried seaweed biomass was investigated. Seaweed samples were stored for a total duration of 22months at three different temperatures (-20°C, 4°C and 20°C). Levels of TFA and PUFA were only stable after storage at -20°C for the two seaweed species.

  17. Taxonomic revision of Gelidium tsengii and Gelidium honghaiwanense sp. nov. (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) from China based upon molecular and morphological data analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xulei; Xia, Bangmei; Bottalico, Antonella; Wang, Guangce

    2017-01-01

    The taxonomic relationship of Chinese Gelidium tsengii and Gelidium johnstonii was ambiguous. For almost 20 years they have been regarded as distinct taxa and until 2002 G. johnstonii was considered as a misapplied name of G. tsengii. In this study, herbarium specimens that initially attributed to G. tsengii and fresh G. tsengii specimens were used to address the taxonomic issues. In phylogenetic studies, G. tsengii from Dayawan, China, near the type locality of G. tsengii and G. johnstonii from Sonora, Mexico, the type locality of G. johnstonii, formed a monophyletic group with maximum support in rbcL and COI genes analyses, indicating that they were genetically identical. In morphological studies, G. tsengii was similar to G. johnstonii in branching pattern, inner structures and fructiferous organs. Consequently, we considered that semi-circular outline of G. tsengii could no longer be treated as a discrimating feature. G. johnstonii had priority of publication and according to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, G. tsengii was proposed as a synonym of G. johnstonii. Gelidium honghaiwanense sp. nov. was described from Guangdong, China on the basis of morphological and molecular data. For vegetative structures, it was characterized by flattened upright frond, regular two-three times branches pinnate or alternate and clavate ultimate branchlets. For reproductive structures, the tetrasporangial sori were in the apical part of branches and the tetrasporangial branchlets were distichously distributed along second order branches. The present study clarified the relationship between G. tsengii and G. johnstonii from Guangdong and added a new Gelidium species to the Chinese algal flora.

  18. Effects of three macroalgae, Ulva linza (Chlorophyta), Corallina pilulifera (Rhodophyta) and Sargassum thunbergii (Phaeophyta) on the growth of the red tide microalga Prorocentrum donghaiense under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Renjun; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Zhou, Wenli; Tang, Xuexi

    2007-10-01

    Allelopathic effects of several concentrations of fresh tissue and dry powder of three macroalgae, Ulva linza, Corallina pilulifera and Sargassum thunbergii, on the red tide microalga Prorocentrum donghaiense were evaluated in microcosms. Preliminary studies on the algicidal effects of one aqueous and four organic solvent extracts from the macroalgae on the microalga were carried out to confirm the existence of allelochemicals in the tissues of the macroalgae. The effects of macroalgal culture medium filtrate on P. donghaiense were investigated using initial or semi-continuous filtrate addition. Furthermore, the potential effects of the microalga on these three macroalgae were also tested. The results of the microcosm assay showed that the growth of P. donghaiense was strongly inhibited by using fresh tissues and dry powder of the three macroalgae. Both aqueous and methanol extracts of the macroalgae had strong growth inhibitory effects on P. donghaiense, while the other three organic solvent extracts (acetone, ether and chloroform) had no apparent effect on its growth; this suggested that the allelochemicals from these three macroalga had relatively high polarities. The three macroalgal culture medium filtrates exhibited apparent growth inhibitory effect on the microalgae under initial or semi-continuous addition, which suggested that the cells of P. donghaiense are sensitive to the allelochemicals. In contrast, P. donghaiense had no apparent effect on the growth of the macroalgae in coexistence experiment.

  19. INDUCTION OF APOMIXIS BY OUTCROSSING BETWEEN GENETICALLY DIVERGENT ENTITIES OF CALOGLOSSA LEPRIEURII (CERAMIALES, RHODOPHYTA) AND EVIDENCE OF HYBRID APOMICTS IN NATURE(1).

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Mitsunobu; West, John A; Hara, Yoshiaki

    2011-08-01

    Our previous study revealed that apomixis, recycling of tetrasporophytes, can be generated through outcrossing between genetically divergent entities of Caloglossa monosticha M. Kamiya, though such apomicts have never been found in nature. In the case of C. leprieurii (Mont.) G. Martens, the most widespread species in this genus, many apomictic strains have been isolated worldwide, but it is unknown whether these apomicts evolved through an outcrossing process similar to that in C. monosticha. In this study, heterogeneity of the apomicts and their sexual relatives as well as their evolutionary relationships was examined using the nuclear-encoded actin gene and plastid-encoded RUBISCO spacer region. Thirteen out of 18 apomictic strains were heterogeneous and contained divergent actin alleles, whereas only two out of 23 sexual strains were heterogeneous. The five homogeneous apomicts were genetically identical, or quite similar, to the sexual strains isolated from adjacent sites. Furthermore, three of the five homogeneous apomicts frequently produced tetraspores that grew into gametophytes, while all the heterogeneous apomicts never generated gametophytes. Apomictic strains from Florida were allotriploid, and each of the three actin sequences was closely related to those of sexual strains from Florida, Peru, and Mexico/Guatemala. In crossing tests, obligate apomixis was generated through the outcrossing between the male from Madagascar and the female from the northwestern Atlantic. These results suggest that outcrossing between genetically divergent sexual entities is one factor that induces apomixis in C. leprieurii.

  20. Biomineralization of calcium carbonate in the cell wall of Lithothamnion crispatum (Hapalidiales, Rhodophyta): correlation between the organic matrix and the mineral phase.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Rodrigo Tomazetto; Salgado, Leonardo Tavares; Amado Filho, Gilberto Menezes; Leal, Rachel Nunes; Werckmann, Jacques; Rossi, André Linhares; Campos, Andrea Porto Carreiro; Karez, Cláudia Santiago; Farina, Marcos

    2017-03-04

    Over the past few decades, progress has been made toward understanding the mechanisms of coralline algae mineralization. However, the relationship between the mineral phase and the organic matrix in coralline algae has not yet been thoroughly examined. The aim of this study was to describe the cell wall ultrastructure of Lithothamnion crispatum, a cosmopolitan rhodolith-forming coralline algal species collected near Salvador (Brazil), and examine the relationship between the organic matrix and the nucleation and growth/shape modulation of calcium carbonate crystals. A nanostructured pattern was observed in L. crispatum along the cell walls. At the nanoscale, the crystals from L. crispatum consisted of several single crystallites assembled and associated with organic material. The crystallites in the bulk of the cell wall had a high level of spatial organization. However, the crystals displayed cleavages in the (104) faces after ultrathin sectioning with a microtome. This organism is an important model for biomineralization studies as the crystallographic data do not fit in any of the general biomineralization processes described for other organisms. Biomineralization in L. crispatum is dependent on both the soluble and the insoluble organic matrix, which are involved in the control of mineral formation and organizational patterns through an organic matrix-mediated process. This knowledge concerning the mineral composition and organizational patterns of crystals within the cell walls should be taken into account in future studies of changing ocean conditions as they represent important factors influencing the physico-chemical interactions between rhodoliths and the environment in coralline reefs.

  1. ROLE OF SURFACE WOUNDS AND BROWN ALGAL EPIPHYTES IN THE COLONIZATION OF ASCOPHYLLUM NODOSUM (PHAEOPHYCEAE) FRONDS BY VERTEBRATA LANOSA (RHODOPHYTA)(1).

    PubMed

    Longtin, Caroline M; Scrosati, Ricardo A

    2009-06-01

    Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jol. forms extensive beds in wave-sheltered, rocky intertidal habitats on the northwestern Atlantic coast. This fucoid seaweed is host to an obligate red algal epiphyte, Vertebrata lanosa (L.) T. A. Chr. [=Polysiphonia lanosa (L.) Tandy], and two facultative brown algal epiphytes, Elachista fucicola (Velley) Aresch. and Pylaiella littoralis (L.) Kjellm. Although V. lanosa can occur throughout most of the length of host fronds, it largely predominates in midfrond segments. The two brown algal epiphytes are restricted to distal segments. Through field experiments conducted in Nova Scotia, Canada, we tested the hypothesis that surface wounds are required for the colonization of distal segments of host fronds by V. lanosa. Distal tissues normally have a smooth surface because of their young age (A. nodosum fronds grow apically). By creating small wounds that mimicked grazing wounds distributed elsewhere on host fronds, we demonstrated that V. lanosa can colonize distal frond segments during the growth and reproductive season (summer and autumn). Approximately half of the artificial wounds were colonized by V. lanosa during this time. The experimental exclusion of both brown algal epiphytes from distal frond segments did not affect colonization by V. lanosa. Thus, we conclude that the absence of surface irregularities on distal segments of host fronds, specifically small wounds, is the main factor explaining the absence of V. lanosa there. We propose that further experimental work clarifying epiphyte distribution in host beds will enhance our ability to understand the functional role of epiphytes in intertidal ecosystems.

  2. Effect of light quality on the accumulation of photosynthetic pigments, proteins and mycosporine-like amino acids in the red alga Porphyra leucosticta (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Korbee, Nathalie; Figueroa, Félix L; Aguilera, José

    2005-08-01

    The effect of different light qualities (white, blue, green, yellow and red light) on photosynthesis, measured as chlorophyll fluorescence, and the accumulation of photosynthetic pigments, proteins and the UV-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) was studied in the red alga Porphyra leucosticta. Blue light promoted the highest accumulation of nitrogen metabolism derived compounds i.e., MAAs, phycoerythrin and proteins in previously N-starved algae after seven days culture in ammonium enriched medium. Similar results were observed in the culture under white light. In contrast, the lowest photosynthetic capacity i.e., lowest electron transport rate and lowest photosynthetic efficiency as well as the growth rate were found under blue light, while higher values were found in red and white lights. Blue light favored the accumulation of the MAAs porphyra-334, palythine and asterina-330 in P. leucosticta. However, white, green, yellow and red lights favored the accumulation of shinorine. The increase of porphyra-334, palythine and asterina-330 occurred in blue light simultaneous to a decrease in shinorine. The accumulation of MAAs and other nitrogenous compounds in P. leucosticta under blue light could not be attributed to photosynthesis and the action of a non-photosynthetic blue light photoreceptor is suggested. A non-photosynthetic photoreceptor could be also involved in the MAAs interconversion pathways in P. leucosticta.

  3. Effects of sodium bicarbonate concentration on growth, photosynthesis, and carbonic anhydrase activity of macroalgae Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Sui, Zhenghong; Wang, Jinguo; Hu, Yiyi; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Hong, Hye Ran; Niaz, Zeeshan; Wei, Huihui; Du, Qingwei; Peng, Chong; Mi, Ping; Que, Zhou

    2016-06-01

    There is potential for bicarbonate to improve crop yields and economic efficiency of marine algae. However, few studies have focused on the effect of bicarbonate on the growth, photosynthesis, and enzyme activity associated with carbon utilization, especially in commercial macroalgae. Here, the addition of bicarbonate (up to 420 mg L(-1)) to macroalgal cultures has been evaluated for Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae with respect to growth rate, photosynthetic activity, carbonic anhydrase activity, and biochemical composition. The results showed that the effects of NaHCO3 on growth, chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin, photosynthetic oxygen evolution, photochemical parameters of PSI and PSII, carbonic anhydrase activity, and nitrogen content were significant (P < 0.05) and followed the same pattern in the three species. The parameter values were promoted in lower NaHCO3 concentrations (up to 252 or 336 mg L(-1)) and inhibited in higher NaHCO3 concentrations (>336 mg L(-1) for Gp. lemaneiformis and >420 mg L(-1) for the other two species). Moreover, species-specific differences induced by supplementation with bicarbonate were discovered during culture. Optimal concentrations of NaHCO3 used in this study were 252 mg L(-1) for Gp. lemaneiformis and 336 mg L(-1) for G. vermiculophylla and G. chouae. These results suggest that an adequate supplementation of sodium bicarbonate is a viable strategy for promoting growth and photosynthetic activity in some macroalgae as well as for improving biochemical composition. The study will help to accelerate the growth rate of algae and improve the quality of thalli, and will also be useful for enhancing the understanding of carbon utilization in macroalgae.

  4. Effect of Different Light Qualities on Growth, Pigment Content, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Wu, Huanyang

    2016-01-01

    Spectral light changes evoke different morphogenetic and photosynthetic responses that can vary among different algae species. The aim of this study is to investigate the photosynthetic characteristics of the red macroalgae grown under different spectrum environments. In this study, Pyropia haitanensis were cultured under blue, red, and green LED and fluorescent tubes light. The growth rate, photopigment composition, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzymes activities in different light spectrums were investigated. The results revealed that growth rate was significantly higher in the thalli grown under blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light. Contents of Chl a and phycobiliprotein in red light were lower among all the growth conditions. Furthermore, a striking increase in SOD and CAT activity was observed in red light treatment along with the NPQ increase. The results revealed that the photosynthetic efficiency and increased growth rate of P. haitanensis benefitted from light spectrums such as blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light by pigment composition and photochemical efficiency manipulation, whereas red light has disadvantageous effects. Accordingly, the results for improving quality and the economic yield of algae species in some extent and the combination of different wavelengths could allow better economic resource exploitation.

  5. Molecular cloning, homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis of vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase (GcVBPO1) from Gracilaria changii (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Baharum, H; Chu, W-C; Teo, S-S; Ng, K-Y; Rahim, R Abdul; Ho, C-L

    2013-08-01

    Vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases belong to a class of vanadium enzymes that may have potential industrial and pharmaceutical applications due to their high stability. In this study, the 5'-flanking genomic sequence and complete reading frame encoding vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase (GcVBPO1) was cloned from the red seaweed, Fracilaria changii, and the recombinant protein was biochemically characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence of GcVBPO1 is 1818 nucleotides in length, sharing 49% identity with the vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidases from Corralina officinalis and Cor. pilulifera, respectively. The amino acid residues associated with the binding site of vanadate cofactor were found to be conserved. The Km value of recombinant GcVBPO1 for Br(-) was 4.69 mM, while its Vmax was 10.61 μkat mg(-1) at pH 7. Substitution of Arg(379) with His(379) in the recombinant protein caused a lower affinity for Br(-), while substitution of Arg(379) with Phe(379) not only increased its affinity for Br(-) but also enabled the mutant enzyme to oxidize Cl(-). The mutant Arg(379)Phe was also found to have a lower affinity for I(-), as compared to the wild-type GcVBPO1 and mutant Arg(379)His. In addition, the Arg(379)Phe mutant has a slightly higher affinity for H2O2 compared to the wild-type GcVBPO1. Multiple cis-acting regulatory elements associated with light response, hormone signaling, and meristem expression were detected at the 5'-flanking genomic sequence of GcVBPO1. The transcript abundance of GcVBPO1 was relatively higher in seaweed samples treated with 50 parts per thousand (ppt) artificial seawater (ASW) compared to those treated in 10 and 30 ppt ASW, in support of its role in the abiotic stress response of seaweed.

  6. GRACILARIA VERMICULOPHYLLA (RHODOPHYTA, GRACILARIALES) IN THE VIRGINIA COASTAL BAYS, USA: COX1 ANALYSIS REVEALS HIGH GENETIC RICHNESS OF AN INTRODUCED MACROALGA.

    PubMed

    Gulbransen, Dana J; McGlathery, Karen J; Marklund, Maria; Norris, James N; Gurgel, Carlos Frederico D

    2012-10-01

    Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss is an invasive alga that is native to Southeast Asia and has invaded many estuaries in North America and Europe. It is difficult to differentiate G. vermiculophylla from native forms using morphology and therefore molecular techniques are needed. In this study, we used three molecular markers (rbcL, cox2-cox3 spacer, cox1) to identify G. vermiculophylla at several locations in the western Atlantic. RbcL and cox2-cox3 spacer markers confirmed the presence of G. vermiculophylla on the east coast of the USA from Massachusetts to South Carolina. We used a 507 base pair region of cox1 mtDNA to (i) verify the widespread distribution of G. vermiculophylla in the Virginia (VA) coastal bays and (ii) determine the intraspecific diversity of these algae. Cox1 haplotype richness in the VA coastal bays was much higher than that previously found in other invaded locations, as well as some native locations. This difference is likely attributed to the more intensive sampling design used in this study, which was able to detect richness created by multiple, diverse introductions. On the basis of our results, we recommend that future studies take differences in sampling design into account when comparing haplotype richness and diversity between native and non-native studies in the literature.

  7. Development of chloroplast simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) for the intraspecific study of Gracilaria tenuistipitata (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) from different populations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gracilaria tenuistipitata is an agarophyte with substantial economic potential because of its high growth rate and tolerance to a wide range of environment factors. This red seaweed is intensively cultured in China for the production of agar and fodder for abalone. Microsatellite markers were developed from the chloroplast genome of G. tenuistipitata var. liui to differentiate G. tenuistipitata obtained from six different localities: four from Peninsular Malaysia, one from Thailand and one from Vietnam. Eighty G. tenuistipitata specimens were analyzed using eight simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer-pairs that we developed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Findings Five mononucleotide primer-pairs and one trinucleotide primer-pair exhibited monomorphic alleles, whereas the other two primer-pairs separated the G. tenuistipitata specimens into two main clades. G. tenuistipitata from Thailand and Vietnam were grouped into one clade, and the populations from Batu Laut, Middle Banks and Kuah (Malaysia) were grouped into another clade. The combined dataset of these two primer-pairs separated G. tenuistipitata obtained from Kelantan, Malaysia from that obtained from other localities. Conclusions Based on the variations in repeated nucleotides of microsatellite markers, our results suggested that the populations of G. tenuistipitata were distributed into two main geographical regions: (i) populations in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and (ii) populations facing the South China Sea. The correct identification of G. tenuistipitata strains with traits of high economic potential will be advantageous for the mass cultivation of seaweeds. PMID:24490797

  8. Molluscs associated with the macroalgae of the genus Gracilaria (Rhodophyta): importance of algal fronds as microhabitat in a hypersaline mangrove in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, R N M; Dias, T L P

    2014-08-01

    The fronds of marine macroalgae play an important role in coastal ecosystems because the algae banks are utilized as a microhabitat by different taxa, including molluscs, one of the most abundant and diverse animals of marine ecosystems. In this study, we characterized the malacofauna associated with the macroalgae Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing) Sonder ex Dickie 1874 and Gracilaria cuneata Areschoug 1854 of a hypersaline mangrove on the northern coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil. The first alga dominates in the rainy season and it is substituted by second one in the dry period. A total of 1,490 molluscs were surveyed, representing 56 species in 29 families: 1,081 were associated with G. domingensis and 409 with G. cuneata, the latter showing the greater diversity (H'=1.25). Columbellidae, Neritidae, Pyramidellidae and Cerithiidae were among the most representative families in the number of species and individuals. The micromolluscs were dominant in the algal microhabitat, constituting 74.63% of the malacofauna recorded. The columbellid Parvanachis obesa (C. B. Adams, 1845) was the dominant species followed by the neritid Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758) in both algae. In spite of the annual alternated succession of the algae species, at least 15 mollusc species are common for these algae. Furthermore, juveniles of P. obesa were recorded in both seasons, indicating a continuous reproduction. Possible reasons for difference in abundance, diversity and dominance of molluscs living on these algae are discussed. Both species of substrate-algae represent an important microhabitat for refuge, feeding and the reproduction of small-sized mollusc species during rainy and dry seasons.

  9. Gene cloning, expression and activity analysis of manganese superoxide dismutase from two strains of Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ning; Zang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Xuecheng; Chen, Hao; Feng, Xiaoting; Zhang, Lu

    2012-04-16

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) plays a crucial role in antioxidant responses to environmental stress. To determine whether Mn-SOD affects heat resistance of Gracilaria lemaneiformis, we cloned Mn-SOD cDNA sequences of two strains of this red alga, wild type and cultivar 981. Both cDNA sequences contained an ORF of 675 bp encoding 224 amino acid residues. The cDNA sequences and the deduced amino acid sequences of the two strains shared relatively high identity (more than 99%). No intron existed in genomic DNA of Mn-SOD in G. lemaneiformis. Southern blotting indicated that there were multiple copies, possibly four, of Mn-SOD in both strains. Both in the wild type and cultivar 981, SOD mRNA transcription and SOD activity increased under high temperature stress, while cultivar 981 was more heat resistant based on its SOD activity. This research suggests that there may be a direct relationship between SOD activity and the heat resistance of G. lemaneiformis.

  10. A phylogenetic re-appraisal of the family Liagoraceae sensu lato (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) based on sequence analyses of two plastid genes and postfertilization development.

    PubMed

    Lin, Showe-Mei; Rodríguez-Prieto, Conxi; Huisman, John M; Guiry, Michael D; Payri, Claude; Nelson, Wendy A; Liu, Shao-Lun

    2015-06-01

    The marine red algal family Liagoraceae sensu lato is shown to be polyphyletic based on analyses of a combined rbcL and psaA data set and the pattern of carposporophyte development. Fifteen of eighteen genera analyzed formed a monophyletic lineage that included the genus Liagora. Nemalion did not cluster with Liagoraceae sensu stricto, and Nemaliaceae is reinstated, characterized morphologically by the formation of the primary gonimolobes by longitudinal divisions of the gonimoblast initial. Yamadaella and Liagoropsis, previously placed in the Dermonemataceae, are shown to be independent lineages and are recognized as two new families Yamadaellaceae and Liagoropsidaceae. Yamadaellaceae is characterized by two gonimoblast initials cut off bilaterally from the fertilized carpogonium and diffusely spreading gonimoblast filaments. Liagoropsidaceae is characterized by at least three gonimoblast initials cut off by longitudinal septa from the fertilized carpogonium. In contrast, Liagoraceae sensu stricto is characterized by a single gonimoblast initial cut off transversely or diagonally from the fertilized carpogonium. Reproductive features, such as diffuse gonimoblasts and unfused carpogonial branches following postfertilization, appear to have evolved on more than one occasion in the Nemaliales and are therefore not taxonomically diagnostic at the family level, although they may be useful in recognizing genera.

  11. The Japanese alga Polysiphonia morrowii (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) on the South Atlantic Ocean: first report of an invasive macroalga inhabiting oyster reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croce, M. Emilia; Parodi, Elisa R.

    2014-06-01

    Conspicuous tufts of the filamentous algae Polysiphonia Greville inhabit the reefs of Crassostrea gigas on the Atlantic Patagonian coast. The population was recorded for the first time in 1994 and identified as P. argentinica. This study exhaustively investigated the morphology and reproduction of specimens and the seasonality of the population. The results revealed the identity of the specimens as the invasive Japanese macroalga Polysiphonia morrowii Harvey, on the basis of several striking features: the setaceous and tufted thalli, the corymbose growing apices, the endogenous axillary branches, the urceolate cystocarps and the sharply pointed branches. Sexual reproduction was evidenced; however, fertile male gametophytes were absent in the samples. The population was found almost all year round, but its abundance became higher in autumn and winter. The present study constitutes the first record of this invasive macroalga on the South Atlantic Ocean; the fourth record of an exotic macroalgal species on the Atlantic Patagonian coast; and the first record of an invasive species related to the establishment of C. gigas in Atlantic Patagonia.

  12. Effect of Different Light Qualities on Growth, Pigment Content, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Spectral light changes evoke different morphogenetic and photosynthetic responses that can vary among different algae species. The aim of this study is to investigate the photosynthetic characteristics of the red macroalgae grown under different spectrum environments. In this study, Pyropia haitanensis were cultured under blue, red, and green LED and fluorescent tubes light. The growth rate, photopigment composition, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzymes activities in different light spectrums were investigated. The results revealed that growth rate was significantly higher in the thalli grown under blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light. Contents of Chl a and phycobiliprotein in red light were lower among all the growth conditions. Furthermore, a striking increase in SOD and CAT activity was observed in red light treatment along with the NPQ increase. The results revealed that the photosynthetic efficiency and increased growth rate of P. haitanensis benefitted from light spectrums such as blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light by pigment composition and photochemical efficiency manipulation, whereas red light has disadvantageous effects. Accordingly, the results for improving quality and the economic yield of algae species in some extent and the combination of different wavelengths could allow better economic resource exploitation. PMID:27642603

  13. The effect of cadmium under different salinity conditions on the cellular architecture and metabolism in the red alga Pterocladiella capillacea (Rhodophyta, Gelidiales).

    PubMed

    de L Felix, Marthiellen R; Osorio, Luz K P; Ouriques, Luciane C; Farias-Soares, Francine L; Steiner, Neusa; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Debora T; Simioni, Carmen; Costa, Giulia B; Horta, Paulo A; Chow, Fungyi; Ramlov, Fernanda; Maraschin, Marcelo; Bouzon, Zenilda L; Schmidt, Eder C

    2014-10-01

    The in vitro effect of cadmium (Cd) on apical segments of Pterocladiella capillacea was examined. Over a period of 7 days, the segments were cultivated with the combination of different salinities (25, 35, and 45 practical salinity units) and Cd concentrations, ranging from 0.17 to 0.70 ppm. The effects of Cd on growth rates and content of photosynthetic pigments were analyzed. In addition, metabolic profiling was performed, and samples were processed for microscopy. Serious damage to physiological performance and ultrastructure was observed under different combinations of Cd concentrations and salinity values. Elementary infrared spectroscopy revealed toxic effects registered on growth rate, photosynthetic pigments, chloroplast, and mitochondria organization, as well as changes in lipids and carbohydrates. These alterations in physiology and ultrastructure were, however, coupled to activation of such defense mechanisms as cell wall thickness, reduction of photosynthetic harvesting complex, and flavonoid. In conclusion, P. capillacea is especially sensitive to Cd stress when intermediate concentrations of this pollutant are associated with low salinity values. Such conditions resulted in metabolic compromise, reduction of primary productivity, i.e., photosynthesis, and carbohydrate accumulation in the form of starch granules. Taken together, these findings improve our understanding of the potential impact of this metal in the natural environment.

  14. Allelopathic inhibition of photosynthesis in the red tide-causing marine alga, Scrippsiella trochoidea (Pyrrophyta), by the dried macroalga, Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Changpeng; Liao, Heping; Yang, Yufeng

    2014-07-01

    The red tide-causing microalga, Scrippsiella trochoidea was co-cultured with different quantities of dried macroalga Gracilaria lemaneiformis under laboratory conditions, to characterize the allelopathic inhibition effect of the seaweed on photosynthesis of the microalga. Photosynthetic oxygen evolution was measured, and chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence transient O-J-I-P (O, J, I and P point in primary photochemistry reaction curve in photosystem II) curves associated with its specific parameters were determined. A concentration-dependent inhibition of S. trochoidea was observed when the dried seaweed was added. The rate of light-saturated maximum photosynthetic oxygen evolution (Pmax) was markedly decreased, and the O-J-I-P curve coupled with its specific parameters was reduced. The inhibitory effects of the macroalga on the microalga, according to the JIP-test (the relative fluorescence analysis based on O-J-I-P curve) and the activity of oxygen evolution, include a decrease in the number of active reaction centers, the blocking-up of the electron transport chain, and the damage to the oxygen-evolving complex. This study suggests that dried G. lemaneiformis is effective in inhibiting photosynthesis of S. trochoidea, and could thus be a potential candidate for mitigating S. trochoidea blooms.

  15. Molecular characterization of adenosine 5'-monophosphate deaminase--the key enzyme responsible for the umami taste of nori (Porphyra yezoensis Ueda, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Minami, Seiko; Sato, Minoru; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro; Iwamoto, Koji

    2011-12-01

    The enzyme adenosine 5'-monophosphate deaminase (AMPD, EC 3.5.4.6) catalyzes the conversion of adenosine 5'-monophosphate to inosine 5'-mononucleotide (IMP). IMP is generally known as the compound responsible for the umami taste of the edible red alga Porphyra yezoensis Ueda that is known in Japan as nori. Therefore, we suspect that AMPD plays a key role in providing a favorable nori taste. In this study, we undertake the molecular characterization of nori-derived AMPD. The nori AMPD protein has a molecular mass of 55 kDa as estimated from both gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The calculated molecular mass from the amino acid sequence deduced from cDNA is 57.1 kDa. The isoelectric point is 5.71. The coding region of AMPD consists of 1,566 bp encoding 522 amino acids and possesses a transmembrane domain and two N-glycosylation sites. The sequence identity of nori AMPD in human and yeast AMPDs was found to be less than 50% and 20% in DNA and amino acid sequences, respectively. Proline in the conserved motif of [SA]-[LIVM]-[NGS]-[STA]-D-D-P was found to be converted to glutamate. These results indicate that nori AMPD is a novel type of AMPD.

  16. Effects of natural radiation, photosynthetically active radiation and artificial ultraviolet radiation-B on the chloroplast organization and metabolism of Porphyra acanthophora var. brasiliensis (Rhodophyta, Bangiales).

    PubMed

    Bouzon, Zenilda L; Chow, Fungyi; Zitta, Carmen S; dos Santos, Rodrigo W; Ouriques, Luciane C; Felix, Marthiellen R de L; Osorio, Luz K P; Gouveia, Claudiane; Martins, Roberta de Paula; Latini, Alexandra; Ramlov, Fernanda; Maraschin, Marcelo; Schmidt, Eder C

    2012-12-01

    We undertook a study of Porphyra acanthophora var. brasiliensis to determine its responses under ambient conditions, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and PAR+UVBR (ultraviolet radiation-B) treatment, focusing on changes in ultrastructure, and cytochemistry. Accordingly, control ambient samples were collected in the field, and two different treatments were performed in the laboratory. Plants were exposed to PAR at 60 μmol photons m-2 s-1 and PAR + UVBR at 0.35 W m-2 for 3 h per day during 21 days of in vitro cultivation. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of the vegetative cells showed single stellate chloroplast in ambient and PAR samples, but in PAR+UVBR-exposed plants, the chloroplast showed alterations in the number and form of arms. Under PAR+UVBR treatment, the thylakoids of the chloroplasts were disrupted, and an increase in the number of plastoglobuli was observed, in addition to mitochondria, which appeared with irregular, disrupted morphology compared to ambient and PAR samples. After UVBR exposure, the formation of carpospores was also observed. Plants under ambient conditions, as well as those treated with PAR and PAR+UVBR, all showed different concentrations of enzymatic response, including glutathione peroxidase and reductase activity. In summary, the present study demonstrates that P. acanthophora var. brasiliensis shows the activation of distinct mechanisms against natural radiation, PAR and PAR+UVBR.

  17. The physiological links of the increased photosystem II activity in moderately desiccated Porphyra haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) to the cyclic electron flow during desiccation and re-hydration.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Niu, Jianfeng; Chen, Weizhou; Wang, Guangce; Xie, Xiujun; Pan, Guanghua; Gu, Wenhui; Zhu, Daling

    2013-09-01

    Photosynthetic electron flow changed considerably during desiccation and re-hydration of the intertidal macroalgae Porphyra haitanensis. Activities of both photosystem (PSI) and photosystem (PSII) increased significantly at moderate desiccation levels. Whereas PSII activity was abolished at an absolute water content (AWC) <24 %, PSI remained active with progressive decreases in AWC to values as low as 16 %. This result suggested that cyclic electron flow around PSI was still active after inactivation of linear electron flow following severe desiccation. Moreover, the PSI activity was restored more rapidly than that of PSII upon re-hydration. Pretreatment of the blades with 3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) suppressed PSII activity following desiccation to an AWC of ~16 % AWC. Cyclic electron flow around PSI decreased markedly in blades pretreated with DCMU than in blades without pretreatment of DCMU during re-hydration in seawater containing DCMU. All results suggested that the activity of PSII under desiccation conditions plays an important role in the operation of cyclic electron flow during desiccation and its recovery during re-hydration. Therefore, we proposed the PSII activity during desiccation could eventually lead to the accumulation of NADPH, which could serve as electron donor for P700(+) and promote its recovery during re-hydration, thereby favoring the operation of cyclic electron flow.

  18. Morphological and photosynthetic variations in the process of spermatia formation from vegetative cells in Porphyra yezoensis Ueda (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) and their responses to desiccation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui-Ling; Zhou, Wei; Shen, Song-Dong; Wang, Guang-Ce; He, Lin-Wen; Pan, Guang-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Porphyra yezoensis has a macroscopic foliage gametophyte phase with only a single cell layer, and is ideally suited for the study of the sexual differentiation process, from the vegetative cell to the spermatia. Firstly, we compared variations in the responses of the vegetative and male sectors to desiccation. Later, cell tracking experiments were carried out during the formation of spermatia from vegetative cells. The two sectors showed similar tolerance to desiccation, and the formation of spermatia from vegetative cells was independent of the degree of desiccation. Both light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of the differentiation process showed that the formation of spermatia could be divided into six phases: the one-cell, two-cell, four-cell, eight-cell, pre-release and spermatia phases. Photomicrographs of Fluorescent Brightener staining showed that the released spermatia had no cell walls. Photosynthetic data showed that there was a significant rise in Y(II) in the four-cell phase, indicating an increase in photosynthetic efficiency of PSII during this phase. We propose that this photosynthetic rise may be substantial and provide the increased energy needed for the formation and release of spermatia in P. yezoensis.

  19. Taxonomy, molecular phylogeny, and ultrastructural morphology of Olpidiopsis porphyrae sp. nov. (Oomycetes, straminipiles), a unicellular obligate endoparasite of Bangia and Porphyra spp. (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Satoshi; Yokoo, Kazunari; Kawamura, Yoshio; Honda, Daiske

    2008-03-01

    Olpidiopsis porphyrae sp. nov., a marine oomycete endoparasite that infects the commercially cultivated red alga Porphyra yezoensis, is described and its phylogenetic position based on molecular data and ultrastructural morphology is discussed. O. porphyrae infects the host Porphyra by means of encysted zoospores. Spherical-shaped holocarpic thalli develop within the cytoplasm of its algal host, which produce monoplanetic, subapically biflagellate zoospores. The characteristic features of this isolate are the ellipsoidal, unicellular thallus and simple holocarpic zoosporangial development, which show morphological similarity with the genus Olpidiopsis. Laboratory infection experiments with a wide range of green, brown, and red algae revealed that O. porphyrae infects several stages of the bangialean red algae (the genera Bangia and Porphyra). Molecular phylogenetic analyses inferred from both SSU rRNA and cox2 genes showed O. porphyrae branched before the main saprolegnian and peronosporalean lineages within the monophyletic oomycete clade, indicating its phylogenetic separation from them. A single or double K-body-like organelle, which contains tubular inclusions, is found located to one side of the zoospore nucleus and shows similarities to homologous organelles previously described in O. saprolegniae. The ultrastructural morphology of O. porphyrae with zoospore initials containing K-bodies and tubular mitochondrial cristae is characteristic of oomycetes. Group I intron-like multiple insertions were found in the SSU rRNA gene of O. porphyrae. This is the first report of SSU group I introns in the class Oomycetes.

  20. Effects of thermal stress on the growth of an intertidal population of Ellisolandia elongata (Rhodophyta) from N-W Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Nannini, Matteo; De Marchi, Lucia; Lombardi, Chiara; Ragazzola, Federica

    2015-12-01

    Coralline algae are calcareous algae able to build biogenic structures, thus playing a key-role as marine biodiversity promoters and calcium carbonate producers. The aim was to estimate the growth of Ellisolandia elongata under thermal stress. E. elongata were cultured for 2, 4 and 6 months under "natural" temperature (Tc) and increased temperature (Ti = Tc + 3 °C). In order to determine a possible culturing effect, growth in the field was also measured. For the first time, Alizarin Red S dye was used in high energy shallow water environments. Thallus linear extension was higher in the cultured specimens (Tc and Ti) compared to the field specimens. The carbonate mass in the field was higher than in Ti and Tc after 2, 4 months but decreased after 6 months. Partly unknown in situ environmental factors could have affected growth and calcification rates in the field while thermal adaptation could explain growth rates in the culturing experiment.

  1. Next-Generation Sequencing of an 88-Year-Old Specimen of the Poorly Known Species Liagora japonica (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) Supports the Recognition of Otohimella gen. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Segawa, Takahiro; Mori, Hiroshi; Akiyoshi, Ayumi; Ootsuki, Ryo; Kurihara, Akira; Sakayama, Hidetoshi; Kitayama, Taiju; Abe, Tsuyoshi; Kogame, Kazuhiro; Kawai, Hiroshi; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Liagora japonica is a red algal species distributed in temperate regions of Japan. This species has not been collected from its type locality on the Pacific coast of Japan since 1927 and seems to have become extinct in this area. For molecular characterization of L. japonica, we extracted DNA from the topotype material of L. japonica collected in 1927, analyzed seven genes using Illumina next-generation sequencing, and compared these data with sequences from modern samples of similar red algae collected from the Japan Sea coast of Japan. Both morphological and molecular data from modern samples and historical specimens (including the lectotype and topotype) suggest that the specimens from the Pacific and Japan Sea coasts of Japan should be treated as a single species, and that L. japonica is phylogenetically separated from the genus Liagora. Based on the phylogenetic results and examination of reproductive structures, we propose Otohimella japonica gen. et comb. nov., characterized morphologically by diffuse carposporophytes, undivided carposporangia, and involucral filaments initiated only from the cortical cell on the supporting cell. PMID:27388436

  2. Observación y registro fotográfico del cometa HYAKUTAKE C/1996 B2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arquiola, A. P.; Arquiola, F. E.

    Desde el momento en que nos llega la información del descubrimiento, comenzamos la observación de forma detallada a fin de apreciar y seguir su creciente actividad. La primera observación se realizó el 17 de febrero de 1996 a las 4h20m UT con nuestro telescopio de 300mm newtoniano de f/6.5, con una muy buena transparencia atmosférica, estimando una magnitud de 8.5. Realizábamos observaciones casi todas las noches, mientras nos lo permitían las condiciones climáticas. Ya el 26 de febrero el cometa presentaba un aspecto muy particular, ligeramente distinto a las primeras observaciones, ya que comenzamos a notar su gran actividad. En primer lugar se destacaba la cola de iones mucho mas extensa que la cola de polvo. Magnitud estimada 7.5. El 19 de marzo ya era visible a simple vista y en especial su cola muy abierta y extensa (3 grados) y no quedaba duda alguna que la última noche de observación del cometa en el horizonte de la Ciudad de Funes, que fue el 24 de marzo de 1996, un día antes del acercamiento a la Tierra, tendríamos una apreciación del cometa en su máximo esplendor. El 24 de marzo de 1996 a las 4hs UT, asomó el cometa por el horizonte NE, con su cola espectacular, llegando a medir 23 grados de longitud, muy recta y brillante, y su cabellera muy estelar. A este marco de observación se sumaron mas de 600 personas que participaron usando instrumentos, siendo la mayoría de los concurrentes de la vecina Ciudad de Rosario, ya que su observación era a muy baja atura sobre el horizonte norte. Instrumentos utilizados : Telescopio Newtoniano 300mm f/6.5, Telescopio Schmidt-Cassegrain 200mm , Binoculares 10 x 50, 7 x 50, Lente normal 50mm a f/1.8, Película 100 - 400 ASA Lugar de Observación : Ciudad de Funes, zona rural, ``Estancia La Polola" Latitud: - 32o 55' Longitud: 60o 40' Oeste

  3. Local resistance patterns to antimicrobials in internal medicine: a focused report from the REGIMEN (REGistro Infezioni in MEdicina INterna) study.

    PubMed

    Cei, Marco; Pardelli, Riccardo; Sani, Spartaco; Mumoli, Nicola

    2014-02-01

    The treatment for infections in hospitalized patients can be summarized in the timely start of empirical therapy, followed by adjustment on the basis of isolates and microbial susceptibilities. Initial therapy may be based on international guidelines. However, to know local frequencies of bacterial and fungal strains together with patterns of drug resistance should be a better approach to therapy. REGIMEN is a retrospective observational study of all consecutive recorded bacterial and fungal isolates, collected between October 2009 and August 2011 from patients admitted in a 53-bedded ward of internal medicine of a non-teaching Italian hospital. We investigated type of samples and of microorganisms, patterns of susceptibility and resistance to antibiotics, and in-hospital mortality. A total of 504 samples were examined (244 from urine, 189 from blood and 71 from skin and various exudates). Participants were old (mean age, 83 years), and so overall mortality was high (20 %). There were high frequencies of drug resistance; only 27.9 % of urinary gram-negatives and 52.6 % of blood gram-negatives were susceptible to levofloxacin. Susceptibility profiles compatible with the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were present in 64.2 % of gram-negative strains, and 10.1 % were also resistant to carbapenems. ESKAPE organisms account for a third of all bacterial infections. Local patterns of drug resistance should influence empirical antibiotic therapy for patients admitted in internal medicine wards, where mortality is high.

  4. Screening for antibacterial and antifungal activities in some marine algae from the Fujian coast of China with three different solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Chen, Yin-Shan; Lu, Hai-Sheng

    2001-12-01

    Three different solvents viz ethanol, acetone and methanol-toluene (3:1) were used to extract antibiotics from 23 species of marine algae belonging to the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. Their crude extracts were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among them, the ethanol extract showed the strongest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested. Four species of the Rhodophyta ( Laurencia okamurai, Dasya scoparia, Grateloupia filicina and plocamium telfairiae) showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Every solvent extract from the four species was active against all the bacteria tested. The test bacterium Pseudomonas solancearum and the fungus Penicilium citrinum were most sensitive to the extracts of marine algae. In general, the extracts of seaweeds inhibited bacteria more strongly than fungi and species of the Rhodophyta showed the greatest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested.

  5. Paediatric arterial ischaemic stroke and cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. First report from the Italian Registry of Pediatric Thrombosis (R. I. T. I., Registro Italiano Trombosi Infantili).

    PubMed

    Suppiej, Agnese; Gentilomo, Chiara; Saracco, Paola; Sartori, Stefano; Agostini, Manuela; Bagna, Rossana; Bassi, Bianca; Giordano, Paola; Grassi, Massimo; Guzzetta, Andrea; Lasagni, Donatella; Luciani, Matteo; Molinari, Angelo C; Palmieri, Antonella; Putti, Maria Caterina; Ramenghi, Luca Antonelli; Rota, Lidia Luciana; Sperlì, Domenico; Laverda, Anna Maria; Simioni, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    Data from large case series of children with cerebral thrombotic events are pivotal to improve prevention, early recognition and treatment of these conditions. The Italian Registry of Pediatric Thrombosis (R. I. T. I.) was established in 2007 by a multidisciplinary team, aiming for a better understanding of neonatal and paediatric thrombotic events in Italy and providing a preliminary source of data for the future development of specific clinical trials and diagnostic-therapeutic protocols. We analysed data relative to the paediatric cerebral thrombotic events of the R. I. T. I. which occurred between January 2007 and June 2012. In the study period, 79 arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS) events (49 in males) and 91 cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) events (65 in males) were enrolled in the R. I. T. I. Mean age at onset was 4.5 years in AIS, and 7.1 years in CSVT. Most common modes of presentation were hemiparesis, seizures and speech disturbances in AIS, and headache, seizures and lethargy in CSVT. Most common etiologies were underlying chronic diseases, vasculopathy and cardiopathy in AIS, and underlying chronic diseases and infection in CSVT. Time to diagnosis exceeded 24 hours in 46 % AIS and 59 % CSVT. Overall data from the Italian Registry are in substantial agreement with those from the literature, despite small differences. Among these, a longer time to diagnosis compared to other registries and case series poses the accent to the need of an earlier recognition of paediatric cerebrovascular events in Italy, in order to enable prompt and effective treatment strategies.

  6. [Variability in the in-hospital management of acute myocardial infarction in Spain. IBERICA Study (Investigación, Búsqueda Específica y Registro de Isquemia Coronaria Aguda)].

    PubMed

    Fiol, M; Cabadés, A; Sala, J; Marrugat, J; Elosua, R; Vega, G; José Tormo Díaz, M; Segura, A; Aldasoro, E; Moreno-Iribas, C; Muñiz, J; Hurtado de Saracho, I; García, J

    2001-04-01

    Introduction and objective. Although some in-hospital studies have described the management of acute myocardial infarction (MI) patients in Spain, none has been able to guarantee the exhaustiveness of patient registry. This study sought to determine the clinical characteristics and in-hospital management of patients with MI in eight Spanish population registries.Methods. The IBERICA study is a population-based MI registry carried out in the 25 to 74 year-old population, in eight Spanish regions in 1997. A standardized methodology was used to register and investigate all MI arriving alive to a hospital. Clinical characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors prevalence, pharmacological treatment, invasive and non-invasive procedures performed and complications at 28 days of evolution were recorded. A descriptive analysis was performed and the variation coefficient (VC) was calculated.Results. In 1997, 4,041 MI patients were registered, 79.9% were men with a mean age of 61.1 years. Although 10.9% (95% CI: 9.9-11.9%) were not admitted to the coronary care unit, a large variability existed among different areas (VC = 53%). There was a high variability in the utilization and performance of non-invasive and invasive procedures among regions, as well as in the use of pharmacological treatment. Only the use of antiaggregants (91.5%) and thrombolytic therapy (41.8%) showed a low variability (VC < 10%). Twenty-eight day mortality was 16.2% (95% CI: 15.1-17.4%) with a high variability being observed among the different regions (VC = 20.6%).Conclusion. Patient characteristics vary among the different Spanish regions. The differences in management and prognosis suggest a lack of equality in the health care provided to MI patients in the different regions in Spain.

  7. Results of investigation at the Miravalles Geothermal Field, Costa Rica: Part 1, Well logging. Resultados de las investigaciones en el campo geotermico de Miravalles, Costa Rica: Parte 1, Registros de pozos

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R.; Lawton, R.G.; Kolar, J.D.; Alvarado, A.

    1989-03-01

    The well-logging operations performed in the Miravalles Geothermal Field in Costa Rica were conducted during two separate field trips. The Phase I program provided the deployment of a suite of high-temperature borehole instruments, including the temperature/rabbit, fluid sampler, and three-arm caliper in Well PGM-3. These same tools were deployed in Well PGM-10 along with an additional survey run with a combination fluid velocity/temperature/pressure instrument used to measure thermodynamic properties under flowing well conditions. The Phase II program complemented Phase I with the suite of tools deployed in Wells PGM-5, PGM-11, and PGM-12. 4 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  8. 78 FR 62643 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Disaster...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ...), Solicitud en Papel/Registro Para Asistencia De Desastre; FEMA Form 009-0-1S (English) Smartphone, Disaster Assistance Registration; FEMA Form 009-0-2S (Spanish) Smartphone, Registro Para Asistencia De Desastre;...

  9. Classification, naming and evolutionary history of glycosyltransferases from sequenced green and red algal genomes.

    PubMed

    Ulvskov, Peter; Paiva, Dionisio Soares; Domozych, David; Harholt, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    The Archaeplastida consists of three lineages, Rhodophyta, Virideplantae and Glaucophyta. The extracellular matrix of most members of the Rhodophyta and Viridiplantae consists of carbohydrate-based or a highly glycosylated protein-based cell wall while the Glaucophyte covering is poorly resolved. In order to elucidate possible evolutionary links between the three advanced lineages in Archaeplastida, a genomic analysis was initiated. Fully sequenced genomes from the Rhodophyta and Virideplantae and the well-defined CAZy database on glycosyltransferases were included in the analysis. The number of glycosyltransferases found in the Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta are generally much lower then in land plants (Embryophyta). Three specific features exhibited by land plants increase the number of glycosyltransferases in their genomes: (1) cell wall biosynthesis, the more complex land plant cell walls require a larger number of glycosyltransferases for biosynthesis, (2) a richer set of protein glycosylation, and (3) glycosylation of secondary metabolites, demonstrated by a large proportion of family GT1 being involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. In a comparative analysis of polysaccharide biosynthesis amongst the taxa of this study, clear distinctions or similarities were observed in (1) N-linked protein glycosylation, i.e., Chlorophyta has different mannosylation and glucosylation patterns, (2) GPI anchor biosynthesis, which is apparently missing in the Rhodophyta and truncated in the Chlorophyta, (3) cell wall biosynthesis, where the land plants have unique cell wall related polymers not found in green and red algae, and (4) O-linked glycosylation where comprehensive orthology was observed in glycosylation between the Chlorophyta and land plants but not between the target proteins.

  10. Phospholipases and galactolipases trigger oxylipin-mediated wound-activated defence in the red alga Gracilaria chilensis against epiphytes.

    PubMed

    Lion, Ulrich; Wiesemeier, Theresa; Weinberger, Florian; Beltrán, Jessica; Flores, Verónica; Faugeron, Sylvain; Correa, Juan; Pohnert, Georg

    2006-03-01

    We investigated the wound response of the commercially important red alga, Gracilaria chilensis, in order to obtain insight into its interaction with epiphytic pests. After wounding, the host releases free fatty acids as well as the hydroxylated eicosanoids, 8R-hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid (8-HETE) and 7S,8R-dihydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid (7,8-di-HETE). While the release of free arachidonic acid and subsequent formation of 8-HETE is controlled by phospholipase A, 7,8-di-HETE production is independent of this lipase. This dihydroxylated fatty acid might be directly released from galactolipids. Physiologically relevant concentrations of oxylipins reduced spore settlement of Acrochaetium sp. (Rhodophyta, Acrochaetiaceae) and suppressed the development of hapteria in Ceramium rubrum (Rhodophyta, Ceramiaceae) when these model epiphytes were exposed to artificial surfaces that contained 8-HETE or 7,8-di-HETE. Thus, the immediate release of oxylipins can be seen as G. chilensis defence against epiphytes.

  11. Seaweed composition from Bintulu coast of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zawawi, Mohd Hafizbillah; Idris, Mohd Hanafi; Kamal, Abu Hena Mustafa; King, Wong Sing

    2014-08-01

    Species composition of seaweed and distribution were investigated in the coastal waters of Bintulu, Sarawak. The seaweed samples were collected during low tide between May 2011 and May 2012 from the six different stations. In total 54 species of seaweeds were identified from study areas of Bintulu coastal waters. Among them, 23 species were from Rhodophyta with 11 families, 15 species were from Phaeophyta with 2 families and 16 species were from Chlorophyta with 10 families: Seventeen species of seaweeds were recorded from the Tanjung Batu, while 23 species from Pantai Telekom, 14 species from Golden Beach, 26 species from Kuala Similajau, 12 species from Kuala Nyalau and 21 species from Batu Mandi. Seaweeds abundance was high in rocky substrate and Rhodophyta (11 families and 23 species) was the common and highest group of seaweeds in this coastal areas. Present study recorded high diversified seaweed species at the rocky shore area compare to reef area.

  12. Gulf Coast Deep Water Port Facilities study. Appendix B. North Central Gulf Hydrobiological Zones.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-04-01

    alga flora of the Mississippi coast. Previous knowledge of the algal flora was limited primarily to the work of Taylor (1954). Eleuterius (1972...Rhodophyta, 7 of Chlorophyta, 5 of Phaeophyta, and 4 of Cyanophyta. In comparing the algal flora of the Chandeleur Islands to previous collections in...Changes in the Mississippi Sound," J. Mississippi A cad. Sci., 12. 1966. pp. 418-419. Mullahy, J.H., "Preliminary Survey of the Algal Flora of the Chandeleur

  13. [Presence of lectins, tannins and protease inhibitors in venezuelan marine algae].

    PubMed

    Perez-Lorenzo, S; Levy-Benshimol, A; Gomez-Acevedo, S

    1998-01-01

    The presence of lectins, tannins and protease inhibitors was studied in 27 algae species collected at four Venezuelan coral rift sites. Among the species studied, only six had hemagglutinating activity, apparently due to their lectin content. Higher hemagglutinating titers were obtained when the extracts were tested on pronase-treated erythrocytes. Hemagglutination was inhibited by simple sugars and by bovine submaxillary gland mucine. GaINAc was the only inhibitor of the hemagglutination caused by Grateulopia filicina extracts. None of the compounds tested inhibited the hemagglutination caused by Halimeda opuntia. The polyvinylpolypirrolidone treatment abolished the hemagglutinating activity of both brown and red algae. However, in Grateulopia filicina and Hypnea cervicornis (Rhodophyta) hemagglutinating activity persisted after the polyvinylpolypirrolidone treatment, presumably due to the presence of true lectins in those algae. Tannin content (presumably phlorotannins) was higher in the Phaeophyta as compared to the Rhodophyta. The brown alga Padina gymnospora had the higher content of these polyphenols. Trypsin inhibitors were detected, in minute ammounts, only in Padina gymnospora (Phaeophyta) and Acantophora spicifera (Rhodophyta). No subtilisin inhibition was observed whatsoever.

  14. Reconstructing the complex evolutionary history of mobile plasmids in red algal genomes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, JunMo; Kim, Kyeong Mi; Yang, Eun Chan; Miller, Kathy Ann; Boo, Sung Min; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2016-01-01

    The integration of foreign DNA into algal and plant plastid genomes is a rare event, with only a few known examples of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Plasmids, which are well-studied drivers of HGT in prokaryotes, have been reported previously in red algae (Rhodophyta). However, the distribution of these mobile DNA elements and their sites of integration into the plastid (ptDNA), mitochondrial (mtDNA), and nuclear genomes of Rhodophyta remain unknown. Here we reconstructed the complex evolutionary history of plasmid-derived DNAs in red algae. Comparative analysis of 21 rhodophyte ptDNAs, including new genome data for 5 species, turned up 22 plasmid-derived open reading frames (ORFs) that showed syntenic and copy number variation among species, but were conserved within different individuals in three lineages. Several plasmid-derived homologs were found not only in ptDNA but also in mtDNA and in the nuclear genome of green plants, stramenopiles, and rhizarians. Phylogenetic and plasmid-derived ORF analyses showed that the majority of plasmid DNAs originated within red algae, whereas others were derived from cyanobacteria, other bacteria, and viruses. Our results elucidate the evolution of plasmid DNAs in red algae and suggest that they spread as parasitic genetic elements. This hypothesis is consistent with their sporadic distribution within Rhodophyta. PMID:27030297

  15. 77 FR 2306 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, Disaster...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... (Spanish), Solicitud en Papel/Registro Para Asistencia De Desastre; FEMA Form 009-0-1S (English) Smartphone, Disaster Assistance Registration; FEMA Form 009-0-2S (Spanish) Smartphone, Registro Para Asistencia De... and Spanish), FEMA Forms 009-0-1 and 009-0-2, 18 minutes; Smartphone Application for...

  16. [Structure and dynamics of the community associated to cultivated Gracilariopsis tenuifrons (Gracilariacea) in Chacopata, Sucre, Venezuela. I: Faunistic inventory].

    PubMed

    Barrios, J; Lemus, A

    2000-12-01

    The associated fauna of Gracilariopsis tenuifrons (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) cultures was collected between October 1994 and December 1996 in Chacopata (Sucre State, Venezuela) and preserved in 10% formaldehyde. The species list includes 17 Crustacea, 14 Mollusca and six Polychaeta, the remaining taxa added ten species (total 47 species in eight Phyla). Grazing by mesoherbivores affected the algae and the mollusk Aplysia protea damaged new cultures significantly. The abundance of tubes built by the amphipod Euricthonius brasiliensis impairs algal aspect and facilitates colonization by other organisms.

  17. The betaines from Chinese seaweeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Li-Jun; Fan, Xiao; Yan, Xiao-Jun

    2002-03-01

    Cation-exchange chromatography was selected to extract and separate betaines from marine algae. On the basis of the special chemical characteristics of the betaines and their analogues, Dragendorff's reagent (KBiI4) was used to test the existence of betaines and their analogues in marine algae. The total content of betaines from seven species was obtained by using the Reinkeate salt precipitation method. The results showed that the content of betaines in two species of Chlorophyta and two species of Rhodophyta were relatively high, and that the content of betaines in Enteromopha prolifera could even reach to 0.9%. The content in the three species of Phaeophyta was relatively low.

  18. Spatial patterns of seaweed distribution in Malaysia using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Du Hai; Sim, Jillian Ooi Lean; Fauzi, Rosmadi; Moi, Phang Siew

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this article is to represent spatial patterns of seaweed distribution in Malaysia. Seaweeds have been collected since 1984 along coastlines of 4675 km of peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak. However, there is no seaweed database and they cannot be displayed in a geographic view. Therefore, a database with 805 georeferenced observations was setup and GIS is used to analyze seaweed diversity based on this database. The highest number of observations is 94 which occur along east coastline of peninsular Malaysia. The highest number of species richness is 82 which are also along east coastline of peninsular Malaysia. Rhodophyta has the highest species richness while Chlorophyta has the least species richness.

  19. Bathymetric variation of epiphytic assemblages on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile leaves in relation to anthropogenic disturbance in the southeastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Ben Brahim, Mounir; Mabrouk, Lotfi; Hamza, Asma; Mahfoudi, Mabrouka; Bouain, Abderrahmane; Aleya, Lotfi

    2014-12-01

    A survey of the epiphytic leaves of Posidonia oceanica was conducted along a depth transect at both the control station Attaya in the Kerkennah Islands and the disturbed Mahres station on the Sfax coast (Tunisia). Samples were collected by scuba divers at depths of 5, 10, 15, and 20 m in July 2008. We evaluated whether the pattern of spatial variability of the macroepiphyte assemblages of leaves of Posidonia oceanica differed in relation to anthropogenic interference. The results indicate that the decrease in shoot density and leaf length according to depth was low at Mahres. The biomass of epiphytic leaves and the percentage cover of epiphytic assemblages decreased with depth for both stations and heavily at Mahres, this decline being related to anthropogenic disturbance. This study shows that the highest values of epifauna and epiflora were detected at the disturbed station Mahres. Macroalgae assemblages decreased with depth at both stations and were dominated by Rhodophyta, whereas the percentage cover of the epifauna leaf that decreases according to depth was dominated by Hydrozoa and Bryozoa. Changes in epiphyte assemblages, epiphytic biomass, percentage cover, and species richness in proportion to Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, Cyanobacteria, Hydrozoa, Porifera, and Tunicata between the two stations constitute promising tools for detecting environmental disturbance.

  20. Macroalgal communities of intertidal rock pools in the northwest coast of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Rita; Sousa-Pinto, I.; Bárbara, I.; Quintino, V.

    2006-09-01

    Macroalgal communities in littoral rock pools of the Northwest coast of Portugal were studied along 60 km of coastline. Thirty-eight pools were sampled twice between March and August 2003. Rhodophyta were the dominant algue group, whether the pools were located lower or upper on the shore, except in pools located between 2 and 3 meters where Rhodophyta share the dominance with Chlorophyta. Species richness increased from pools located at higher levels on the beach to the ones located lower on the shore. The macroalgal communities' species composition was the major source of variability between rock pools. Each pool presented a unique combination of species, forming particular communities. A reduced number of species with high percent cover are the main factor creating the differences between the pools. Also, clear differences could be found between the species compositions of macroalgal communities located in the pools and in the surrounding emergent substrata. The environmental variables considered in this study (tidal height, maximum pool depth, maximum pool width and maximum pool length), were poorly related to the communities' species composition. The results suggest that each pool is unique regarding its macroalgal community structure and that the environmental factors considered in this study were not of major importance in determining the variability between pools.

  1. Red Algal Phylogenomics Provides a Robust Framework for Inferring Evolution of Key Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Huan; Yoon, Hwan Su; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2016-01-01

    Red algae comprise an anciently diverged, species-rich phylum with morphologies that span unicells to large seaweeds. Here, leveraging a rich red algal genome and transcriptome dataset, we used 298 single-copy orthologous nuclear genes from 15 red algal species to erect a robust multi-gene phylogeny of Rhodophyta. This tree places red seaweeds (Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae) at the base of the mesophilic red algae with the remaining non-seaweed mesophilic lineages forming a well-supported sister group. The early divergence of seaweeds contrasts with the evolution of multicellular land plants and brown algae that are nested among multiple, unicellular or filamentous sister lineages. Using this novel perspective on red algal evolution, we studied the evolution of the pathways for isoprenoid biosynthesis. This analysis revealed losses of the mevalonate pathway on at least three separate occasions in lineages that contain Cyanidioschyzon, Porphyridium, and Chondrus. Our results establish a framework for in-depth studies of the origin and evolution of genes and metabolic pathways in Rhodophyta. PMID:28018750

  2. New records of benthic marine algae and Cyanobacteria for Costa Rica, and a comparison with other Central American countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernecker, Andrea; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    2009-09-01

    We present the results of an intensive sampling program carried out from 2000 to 2007 along both coasts of Costa Rica, Central America. The presence of 44 species of benthic marine algae is reported for the first time for Costa Rica. Most of the new records are Rhodophyta (27 spp.), followed by Chlorophyta (15 spp.), and Heterokontophyta, Phaeophycea (2 spp.). Overall, the currently known marine flora of Costa Rica is comprised of 446 benthic marine algae and 24 Cyanobacteria. This species number is an under estimation, and will increase when species of benthic marine algae from taxonomic groups where only limited information is available (e.g., microfilamentous benthic marine algae, Cyanobacteria) are included. The Caribbean coast harbors considerably more benthic marine algae (318 spp.) than the Pacific coast (190 spp.); such a trend has been observed in all neighboring countries. Compared to other Central American countries, Costa Rica has the highest number of reported benthic marine algae; however, Panama may have a similarly high diversity after unpublished results from a Rhodophyta survey (Wysor, unpublished) are included. Sixty-two species have been found along both the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica; we discuss this result in relation to the emergence of the Central American Isthmus.

  3. Marine macrophytes as effective lead biosorbents.

    PubMed

    Pennesi, Chiara; Totti, Cecilia; Romagnoli, Tiziana; Bianco, Barbara; De Michelis, Ida; Beolchini, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Several species of seagrass and marine macrophytes were investigated for their biosorption performance in the removal of lead from aqueous solution. The effect of pH on the equilibrium of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa as a biosorbent also was studied. It was found that increasing pH increased lead biosorption, with a maximum uptake of approximately 140 mg/g in the range pH 3.3 to 5. Equilibrium data at different pH levels were successfully fitted to competitive equilibrium models. In addition, the seaweeds belonging to different phyla (i.e., Chlorophyta, Heterokontophyta, and Rhodophyta) were studied for the effect of their structure on equilibrium at a constant pH 5. The brown algae (Heterokontophyta) showed the highest potential for lead sorption, with a maximum uptake of 220 mg/g for C. compressa and 140 mg/g for S. lomentaria. The green algae (Chlorophyta) showed lead uptake in the range 40 to 90 mg/g, and the red algae (Rhodophyta) was least effective, with uptake in the range 10 to 40 mg/g.

  4. Nuclear DNA Content Estimates in Multicellular Green, Red and Brown Algae: Phylogenetic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    KAPRAUN, DONALD F.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Multicellular eukaryotic algae are phylogenetically disparate. Nuclear DNA content estimates have been published for fewer than 1 % of the described species of Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. The present investigation aims to summarize the state of our knowledge and to add substantially to our database of C-values for theses algae. • Methods The DNA-localizing fluorochrome DAPI (4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and RBC (chicken erythrocyte) standard were used to estimate 2C values with static microspectrophotometry. • Key Results 2C DNA contents for 85 species of Chlorophyta range from 0·2–6·1 pg, excluding the highly polyploidy Charales and Desmidiales with DNA contents of up to 39·2 and 20·7 pg, respectively. 2C DNA contents for 111 species of Rhodophyta range from 0·1–2·8 pg, and for 44 species of Phaeophyta range from 0·2–1·8 pg. • Conclusions New availability of consensus higher-level molecular phylogenies provides a framework for viewing C-value data in a phylogenetic context. Both DNA content ranges and mean values are greater in taxa considered to be basal. It is proposed that the basal, ancestral genome in each algal group was quite small. Both mechanistic and ecological processes are discussed that could have produced the observed C-value ranges. PMID:15596456

  5. Studies on marine algae for haemagglutinic activity.

    PubMed

    Alam, M T; Usmanghani, K

    1994-07-01

    Lectins (agglutinins) are important in medical and immunological applications. Phytohaemagglutinins have been found useful in blood banking. Keeping in view of these facts, the marine algae found at Karachi coastal region have been screened for agglutinic activity by using human erythrocytes of A, B, AB and 0 group. Altogether 53 algal samples were collected and subjected to extraction, fractionation serial dilution and titre determinations. The total marine algae screened for haemagglutinic activity were 44 out of these 14, 13 and 17 belonged to Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, and Rhodophyta respectively. Among these three groups the Rhodophyta showed the highest number of lytic activity. The green marine alga Valoniopsis pachynema showed a titre value between 2(2) and 2(3), which is statistically significant. In case of brown marine algae Colpomenia sinuosa was found to be active (titre 2(3)), while Dictyota dichotoma, D. indica and Iyengaria stellata, furnished week titre value as 2(2). The red marine algae screened were 17, out of these 4 spp. showed significant activity (titre 2(3)), and these are Gelidium usmanghani, Gracilaria foliifera Hypnea pannosa and Hynea valentiae. While Scinaia fascicularis, Scinaia indica and Champia parvula were found to be weak in their onset on human erythrocytes. The results obtained were quite in agreement with those reported in the literature.

  6. [Distribution characteristics of benthic algae in intertidal zone of Ma' an Archipelago of Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shou-Yu; Liang, Jun; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Kai

    2008-10-01

    Based on the survey of benthic algae in the intertidal zone of Ma' an Archipelago from March to July 2007, the algal species composition, distribution, and temperature feature were studied. The dominant algal species in the study area were preliminarily analyzed by using similarity indices (S(c)) and index of relative importance (IRI(c)). A total of 31 species sampled in sublittoral area were identified, among which, 7 species of 5 genera belonged to Chlorophyta, 8 species of 5 genera belonged to Phaeophyta, and 16 species of 14 genera belonged to Rhodophyta. Topical and selective distribution species influenced by wave and tide were identified in the intertidal zone. Ulva pertusa and Sargassum thunbergii were found in all survey area. Rhodophyta was the dominant species, with the occurring frequency being up to 61.1%, and Chlorophyta showed quite uniformed horizontal distribution. In addition, 81% of sampled species were from low-tide zone, and some were extended from mid-tide zone to low-tide zone. The composition comparability between mid-tide and low-tide species was 0.47, and the convergence effect in mid-tide and low-tide zone was higher than that in high-tide and mid-tide zone. The sublittoral area of Ma' an Archipelago showed obvious vertical zoning character, with temperate species being absolute abundant, and the warm-water species dominant. The marine floral texture of Ma' an Archipelago belongs to warm temperate-subtropical transitional marine flora.

  7. Codon Adaptation of Plastid Genes

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Haruo; Morton, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Codon adaptation is codon usage bias that results from selective pressure to increase the translation efficiency of a gene. Codon adaptation has been studied across a wide range of genomes and some early analyses of plastids have shown evidence for codon adaptation in a limited set of highly expressed plastid genes. Here we study codon usage bias across all fully sequenced plastid genomes which includes representatives of the Rhodophyta, Alveolata, Cryptophyta, Euglenozoa, Glaucocystophyceae, Rhizaria, Stramenopiles and numerous lineages within the Viridiplantae, including Chlorophyta and Embryophyta. We show evidence that codon adaptation occurs in all genomes except for two, Theileria parva and Heicosporidium sp., both of which have highly reduced gene contents and no photosynthesis genes. We also show evidence that selection for codon adaptation increases the representation of the same set of codons, which we refer to as the adaptive codons, across this wide range of taxa, which is probably due to common features descended from the initial endosymbiont. We use various measures to estimate the relative strength of selection in the different lineages and show that it appears to be fairly strong in certain Stramenopiles and Chlorophyta lineages but relatively weak in many members of the Rhodophyta, Euglenozoa and Embryophyta. Given these results we propose that codon adaptation in plastids is widespread and displays the same general features as adaptation in eubacterial genomes. PMID:27196606

  8. An electronic system (PDA) to record dietary and physical activity in obese adolescents; data about efficiency and feasibility.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Elia; Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Lurbe, Empar; Alvarez-Pitti, Julio; Botella, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: En los últimos años, la prevalencia de la obesidad infantil se ha incrementado de forma significativa. Los registros de ingesta y actividad física son considerados la “piedra angular” de los programas comportamentales de control del peso. Los dispositivos móviles, como las Personal Digital Assistant (PDAs), están mostrando su utilidad en la realización de estos registros.

  9. Observacion y anatisis de la varlacton de parametros geofisicos de un pozo ubicado en el piedemonte lIanero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montano Mejia, Felix Humberto

    2001-12-01

    Este articulo presenta el desarrollo de instrumentacion especializada que se diseiio y se puso en funcionamiento con el fin de real izar la observacion y el anal isis de la variacion de parametres geofisicos de un pozo ubicado en el piedemonte llanero. La instrumentacion esta compuesta por una estacion remota para el registro multipararnetro y una estacion local en la cual se analizan los registros bajados de la estacion remota mediante la interrogacion periodica.

  10. [Design of a computer program for the registration of implantable medical device, field safety corrective action and advers events, as a tool for medical device surveillance].

    PubMed

    Márquez-Peiró, Juan Francisco; Gaspar-Carreño, Marisa; Jiménez-Torres, José; Selva-Otaolaurruchi, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Objetivo: Describir las funcionalidades de un programa informático de soporte a la actividad del responsable de vigilancia de productos sanitarios (PS). Analizar su utilidad tras un año de implantación. Método: Las etapas del proceso fueron: descripción de actividades básicas del responsable de vigilancia, definir las funcionalidades y datos a procesar, crear los formularios de registro y opciones de la herramienta SIVIPS, implantación en un hospital privado que gestiona PS, validación del programa y análisis de su utilidad al año. Resultados: Se desarrolló la herramienta SIVIPS en Acces® por farmacéuticos. Se describieron las variables básicas para todas las actividades del responsable de vigilancia de PS (registro implantes, registro de alertas, registro de incidentes con PS, incluidos los de diagnóstico in vitro) y las funcionalidades del programa. Al año de su implantación se encontraron registros de 564 implantes con la posibilidad de desglose por tipo de implante, 31 alertas con PS y 6 incidentes con PS, permitiendo el seguimiento de las actuaciones realizadas en estos casos. Conclusiones: SIVIPS® es la primera herramienta de soporte a la actividad del responsable de vigilancia de PS. Es una herramienta sencilla que permite de forma ágil el registro de alertas e incidentes con PS, así como el registro de los implantes realizados en el centro, consiguiendo mejorar la trazabilidad del PS.

  11. The leaves of green plants as well as a cyanobacterium, a red alga, and fungi contain insulin-like antigens.

    PubMed

    Silva, L B; Santos, S S S; Azevedo, C R; Cruz, M A L; Venâncio, T M; Cavalcante, C P; Uchôa, A F; Astolfi Filho, S; Oliveira, A E A; Fernandes, K V S; Xavier-Filho, J

    2002-03-01

    We report the detection of insulin-like antigens in a large range of species utilizing a modified ELISA plate assay and Western blotting. We tested the leaves or aerial parts of species of Rhodophyta (red alga), Bryophyta (mosses), Psilophyta (whisk ferns), Lycopodophyta (club mosses), Sphenopsida (horsetails), gymnosperms, and angiosperms, including monocots and dicots. We also studied species of fungi and a cyanobacterium, Spirulina maxima. The wide distribution of insulin-like antigens, which in some cases present the same electrophoretic mobility as bovine insulin, together with results recently published by us on the amino acid sequence of an insulin isolated from the seed coat of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and from the developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), suggests that pathways depending on this hormone have been conserved through evolution.

  12. Seaweed survival after consumption by the greenbeak parrotfish, Scarus trispinosus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tâmega, F. T. S.; Figueiredo, M. A. O.; Ferreira, C. E. L.; Bonaldo, R. M.

    2016-03-01

    We assessed the survival of seaweed (macroalgae and cyanobacteria) after consumption by the greenbeak parrotfish, Scarus trispinosus, in northeastern Brazil. Samples of S. trispinosus feces were collected, inoculated on filter paper, and kept in the laboratory and field for 60 and 30 d, respectively. Comparisons of samples inoculated with feces to those without (controls) revealed a marked increase in the abundance and diversity of seaweed in samples inoculated with feces in both laboratory and field experiments. These results were consistent between summer and winter, although the seaweed species differed. A total of one cyanobacterium and 16 macroalgal taxa (nine rhodophytes, five heterokontophytes, and two chlorophytes) were recorded in the inoculated samples. Rhodophyta also presented the highest abundance across treatments, possibly because of their higher resistance to parrotfish digestion, greater ingestion, or both. The survival of cyanobacteria and macroalgae after consumption by S. trispinosus suggests that parrotfishes may contribute to seaweed dispersion on tropical reefs.

  13. Preliminary observations on the benthic marine algae of the Gorringe seabank (northeast Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tittley, Ian; da Silva Vaz Álvaro, Nuno Miguel; de Melo Azevedo Neto, Ana Isabel

    2014-06-01

    Examination of marine samples collected in 2006 from the Gettysburg and Ormonde seamounts on the Gorringe seabank southwest of Portugal has revealed 29 benthic Chlorophyta, Phaeophyceae (Ochrophyta), and Rhodophyta that were identified provisionally to genus and to species. Combining lists for the present and a previous expedition brings the total of algae thus far recorded to 48. The brown alga Zonaria tournefourtii and the red alga Cryptopleura ramosa were the most abundant species in the present collections. The kelp Laminaria ochroleuca was present only in the Gettysburg samples while Saccorhiza polyschides was observed only on the Ormonde seamount. Comparisons with the benthic marine algae recorded on seamounts in the mid-Atlantic Azores archipelago show features in common, notably kelp forests of L. ochroleuca at depths below 30 m and Z. tournefortii dominance in shallower waters.

  14. Polysaccharides of the red algae.

    PubMed

    Usov, Anatolii I

    2011-01-01

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) are known as the source of unique sulfated galactans, such as agar, agarose, and carrageenans. The wide practical uses of these polysaccharides are based on their ability to form strong gels in aqueous solutions. Gelling polysaccharides usually have molecules built up of repeating disaccharide units with a regular distribution of sulfate groups, but most of the red algal species contain more complex galactans devoid of gelling ability because of various deviations from the regular structure. Moreover, several red algae may contain sulfated mannans or neutral xylans instead of sulfated galactans as the main structural polysaccharides. This chapter is devoted to a description of the structural diversity of polysaccharides found in the red algae, with special emphasis on the methods of structural analysis of sulfated galactans. In addition to the structural information, some data on the possible use of red algal polysaccharides as biologically active polymers or as taxonomic markers are briefly discussed.

  15. Phycobilins and Phycobiliproteins Used in Food Industry and Medicine.

    PubMed

    Solymosi, Katalin; Mysliwa-Kurdziel, Beata

    2016-09-12

    Open tetrapyrroles termed phycobilins represent the major photosynthetic accessory pigments of several cyanobacteria and some eukaryotic algae such as the Glaucophyta, Cryptophyta and Rhodophyta. These pigments are covalently bound to so-called phycobiliproteins which are in general organized into phycobilisomes on the thylakoid membranes. In this work we first briefly describe the physico-chemical properties, biosynthesis, occurrence, in vivo localization and roles of the phycobilin pigments and the phycobiliproteins. Then the potential applications and uses of these pigments, pigment-protein complexes and related products by the food industry (e.g., as LinaBlue® or the so-called spirulina extract used as coloring food), by the health industry or as fluorescent dyes are critically reviewed. In addition to the stability, bioavailability and safety issues of purified phycobilins and phycobiliproteins, literature data about their antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and neuroprotective effects, and their potential use in photodynamic therapy (PDT) are also discussed.

  16. Invertebrate communities associated with Bangia atropurpurea and Cladophora glomerata in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chilton, E.W.; Lowe, R.L.; Schurr, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    The appearance of the marine alga Bangia atropurpurea (Rhodophyta) in Lake Erie has been followed by its rapid dispersal throughout the eulittoral zone of the lake. Bangia was extensively sampled to determine its suitability as a habitat for littoral organisms. Present data indicate that the only organisms capable of maintaining populations on Bangia filaments are larval Chironomidae. Cladophora supports a larger and more diverse community. It is concluded that the mucilaginous cell wall of Bangia provides a less stable substrate for attached or clinging organisms than does the cellulose cell wall of Cladophora. The presence of Bangia in the littoral zone of Lake Erie results in a reduction of the quantity and diversity of algal epiphytes and may negatively impact the littoral food web.

  17. Occurrence of (210)Po in marine macroalgae inhabiting a coastal nuclear zone, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Praveen Pole, R P; Feroz Khan, M; Godwin Wesley, S

    2017-04-01

    The activity concentration of (210)Po in 26 species of marine macroalgae found along coast near to a nuclear installation in southeast coast of India was studied. Phaeophytes were found to accumulate the maximum (210)Po concentration and chlorophytes the minimum. The average (210)Po activity concentration values in the three groups were 6.2 ± 2.5 Bq kg(-1) (Chlorophyta), 14.4 ± 5.2 Bq kg(-1) (Phaeophyta) and 11.3 ± 3.9 Bq kg(-1) (Rhodophyta). A statistically significant variation in accumulation was found between groups (p < 0.05). The un-weighted dose rate to these algae due to (210)Po was calculated to be well below the benchmark dose limit of 10 μGy h(-1).

  18. De novo transcriptome analysis of the red seaweed Gracilaria chilensis and identification of linkers associated with phycobilisomes.

    PubMed

    Vorphal, María Alejandra; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Dagnino-Leone, Jorge; Vásquez, José Aleikar; Martínez-Oyanedel, José; Bunster, Marta

    2017-02-01

    This work reports the results of the Illumina RNA-Seq of a wild population of female haploid plants of Gracilaria chilensis (Bird et al., 1986) (Rhodophyta, Gigartinalis). Most transcripts were de novo assembled in 12,331 contigs with an average length of 1756bp, showing that 96.64% of the sequences were annotated with known proteins. In particular, the identification of linker proteins of phycobilisomes (PBS) is reported. Linker proteins have primary been identified in cyanobacteria but the information available about them in eukaryotic red alga is not complete, and this is the first report in G. chilensis. This resource will also provide the basis for the study of metabolic pathways related to polysaccharide production.

  19. The fouling of fish farm cage nets as bioindicator of aquaculture pollution in the Adriatic Sea (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Sliskovic, Merica; Jelic-Mrcelic, Gorana; Antolic, Boris; Anicic, Ivica

    2011-02-01

    A fouling assemblage (including density, species richness and diversity, and biomass) growing on netting of fish farm cages was investigated in Stracinska Bay--Location 1 and Peles Bay--Location 2 (Croatia) in order to test the efficiency of fouling as a bioindicator of organic pollution. A total number of 40 algal taxa in Location 1 and total number of 22 algal taxa in Location 2 were identified, with a dominance of opportunistic species (ESG II). We found domination of algal species over animal species and absolute dominance of Rhodophyta which are typical fouler in the Adriatic Sea. Low diversity and species richness with increase in value of the R/P index (occasionally higher than 6) were recorded in Location 2, indicating a certain impact of nutrient enrichment from fish culture facilities on a fouling community structure.

  20. Coral and macroalgal exudates vary in neutral sugar composition and differentially enrich reef bacterioplankton lineages

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Craig E; Goldberg, Stuart J; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Haas, Andreas F; Smith, Jennifer E; Rohwer, Forest; Carlson, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    Increasing algal cover on tropical reefs worldwide may be maintained through feedbacks whereby algae outcompete coral by altering microbial activity. We hypothesized that algae and coral release compositionally distinct exudates that differentially alter bacterioplankton growth and community structure. We collected exudates from the dominant hermatypic coral holobiont Porites spp. and three dominant macroalgae (one each Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta) from reefs of Mo'orea, French Polynesia. We characterized exudates by measuring dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fractional dissolved combined neutral sugars (DCNSs) and subsequently tracked bacterioplankton responses to each exudate over 48 h, assessing cellular growth, DOC/DCNS utilization and changes in taxonomic composition (via 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing). Fleshy macroalgal exudates were enriched in the DCNS components fucose (Ochrophyta) and galactose (Rhodophyta); coral and calcareous algal exudates were enriched in total DCNS but in the same component proportions as ambient seawater. Rates of bacterioplankton growth and DOC utilization were significantly higher in algal exudate treatments than in coral exudate and control incubations with each community selectively removing different DCNS components. Coral exudates engendered the smallest shift in overall bacterioplankton community structure, maintained high diversity and enriched taxa from Alphaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured representatives with relatively few virulence factors (VFs) (Hyphomonadaceae and Erythrobacteraceae). In contrast, macroalgal exudates selected for less diverse communities heavily enriched in copiotrophic Gammaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured pathogens with increased VFs (Vibrionaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae). Our results demonstrate that algal exudates are enriched in DCNS components, foster rapid growth of bacterioplankton and select for bacterial populations with more potential VFs than

  1. Functional Traits for Carbon Access in Macrophytes

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, Catherine A.; Wootton, J. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding functional trait distributions among organisms can inform impacts on and responses to environmental change. In marine systems, only 1% of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater exists as CO2. Thus the majority of marine macrophytes not only passively access CO2 for photosynthesis, but also actively transport CO2 and the more common bicarbonate (HCO3-, 92% of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon) into their cells. Because species with these carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) are non-randomly distributed in ecosystems, we ask whether there is a phylogenetic pattern to the distribution of CCMs among algal species. To determine macrophyte traits that influence carbon uptake, we assessed 40 common macrophyte species from the rocky intertidal community of the Northeast Pacific Ocean to a) query whether macrophytes have a CCM and b) determine the evolutionary history of CCMs, using ancestral state reconstructions and stochastic character mapping based on previously published data. Thirty-two species not only depleted CO2, but also concentrated and depleted HCO3-, indicative of a CCM. While analysis of CCMs as a continuous trait in 30 families within Phylum Rhodophyta showed a significant phylogenetic signal under a Brownian motion model, analysis of CCMs as a discrete trait (presence or absence) indicated that red algal families are more divergent than expected in their CCM presence or absence; CCMs are a labile trait within the Rhodophyta. In contrast, CCMs were present in each of 18 Ochrophyta families surveyed, indicating that CCMs are highly conserved in the brown algae. The trait of CCM presence or absence was largely conserved within Families. Fifteen of 23 species tested also changed the seawater buffering capacity, or Total Alkalinity (TA), shifting DIC composition towards increasing concentrations of HCO3- and CO2 for photosynthesis. Manipulating the external TA of the local environment may influence carbon availability in boundary layers and

  2. Coral and macroalgal exudates vary in neutral sugar composition and differentially enrich reef bacterioplankton lineages.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Craig E; Goldberg, Stuart J; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Haas, Andreas F; Smith, Jennifer E; Rohwer, Forest; Carlson, Craig A

    2013-05-01

    Increasing algal cover on tropical reefs worldwide may be maintained through feedbacks whereby algae outcompete coral by altering microbial activity. We hypothesized that algae and coral release compositionally distinct exudates that differentially alter bacterioplankton growth and community structure. We collected exudates from the dominant hermatypic coral holobiont Porites spp. and three dominant macroalgae (one each Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta) from reefs of Mo'orea, French Polynesia. We characterized exudates by measuring dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fractional dissolved combined neutral sugars (DCNSs) and subsequently tracked bacterioplankton responses to each exudate over 48 h, assessing cellular growth, DOC/DCNS utilization and changes in taxonomic composition (via 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing). Fleshy macroalgal exudates were enriched in the DCNS components fucose (Ochrophyta) and galactose (Rhodophyta); coral and calcareous algal exudates were enriched in total DCNS but in the same component proportions as ambient seawater. Rates of bacterioplankton growth and DOC utilization were significantly higher in algal exudate treatments than in coral exudate and control incubations with each community selectively removing different DCNS components. Coral exudates engendered the smallest shift in overall bacterioplankton community structure, maintained high diversity and enriched taxa from Alphaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured representatives with relatively few virulence factors (VFs) (Hyphomonadaceae and Erythrobacteraceae). In contrast, macroalgal exudates selected for less diverse communities heavily enriched in copiotrophic Gammaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured pathogens with increased VFs (Vibrionaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae). Our results demonstrate that algal exudates are enriched in DCNS components, foster rapid growth of bacterioplankton and select for bacterial populations with more potential VFs than

  3. Cloning, molecular characterization, and phylogeny of two evolutionary distinct glutamine synthetase isoforms in the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Reinecke, Diana L; Zarka, Aliza; Leu, Stefan; Boussiba, Sammy

    2016-12-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyta) is a widely used microalga of great economic potential, yet its molecular genetics and evolution are largely unknown. We present new detailed molecular and phylogenetic analysis of two glutamine synthetase (GS) enzymes and genes (gln) under the Astaxanthin-inducing conditions of light- and nitrogen-stress. Structure analysis identified key residues and confirmed two decameric GS2 holoenzymes, a cytoplasmic enzyme, termed GS2c , and a plastidic form, termed GS2p , due to chloroplast-transit peptides at its N-terminus. Gene expression analysis showed dissociation of mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity levels for both GS2 under different growth conditions, indicating the strong post-transcriptional regulation. Data-mining identified novel and specified published gln genes from Prasinophyceae, Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae, Charophyceae, Bryophyta, Lycopodiophyta, Spermatophyta, and Rhodophyta. Phylogenetic analysis found homologues to the cytosolic GS2c of H. pluvialis in all other photo- and non-photosynthetic Eukaryota. The chloroplastic GS2p was restricted to Chlorophyta, Bryophyta, some Proteobacteria and Fungii; no homologues were identified in Spermatophyta or other Eukaryota. This indicates two independent prokaryotic donors for these two gln genes in H. pluvialis. Combined phylogenetic analysis of GS, chl-b synthase, elongation factor, and light harvesting complex homologues project a newly refined model of Viridiplantae evolution. Herein, a GS1 evolved into the cytosolic GS2c and was passed on to all Eukaryota. Later, the chloroplastic GS2p entered the Archaeplastida lineage via a horizontal gene transfer at the divergence of Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta lineages. GS2p persisted in Chlorophyta and Bryophyta, but was lost during Spermatophyta evolution. These data suggest the revision of GS classification and nomenclature, and extend our understanding of the photosynthetic Eukaryota evolution.

  4. [Home parenteral nutrition in Spain 2011 and 2012; a report of the home and ambulatory artificial nutrition group NADYA].

    PubMed

    Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Moreno Villarés, J M; Cuerda Compés, C; Carrero, C; Burgos, R; Gómez Candela, C; Virgili Casas, N; Martínez Faedo, C; Alvarez, J; Sánchez Martos, E A; Matía Martín, P; Zugasti, A; Olveira, G; Luengo, L M; Campos Martín, C; Martín Folgueras, T; Penacho Lázaro, M A; Pereira, J L; Garde Orbaiz, C; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Apezetxea, A; Sánchez-Vilar, O; Gil Martínez, M C; Martínez Costa, C; De Luis, D; Laborda, L; Joaquin Ortiz, C; Suárez Llanos, J P; Leyes García, P; Ponce González, M A

    2014-06-01

    Objetivo: Comunicar los datos del registro de Nutrición Parenteral Domiciliaria (NPD) del grupo de trabajo NADYA-SENPE de los años 2011 y 2012. Material y métodos: Recopilación de los datos del registro “on-line” introducidos por los colaboradores del grupo NADYA responsables del seguimiento de la NPD desde el 1 de enero de 2011 al 31 de diciembre de 2012 dividido por años naturales. Resultados: Año 2010: Se registraron 184 pacientes, procedentes de 29 hospitales, lo que representa una tasa de 3,98 pacientes/millón habitantes/año 2011, con 186 episodios de NPD. Durante el año 2012 se registraron 203 pacientes, procedentes de 29 hospitales, lo que representa una tasa de 4,39 pacientes/millón habitantes/año 2012, con un total de 211 episodios de NPD. Conclusiones: Se observa un aumento progresivo de los pacientes registrados respecto a años anteriores. El principal grupo patológico sigue siendo oncológico ocupando el primer lugar desde 2003. Aunque el registro NADYA es un registro consolidado y ha sido y es fuente imprescindible de información relevante para el conocimiento de los avances de la Nutrición Artificial Domiciliaria en nuestro país, queda un amplio margen para la mejora. En especial lo que hace referencia al registro de pacientes pediátricos y al registro de las complicaciones.

  5. 76 FR 62429 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, OMB No. 1660-0002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... 009-0-1S (English) Smartphone, Disaster Assistance Registration; FEMA Form 009-0-2S (Spanish) Smartphone, Registro Para Asistencia De Desastre; FEMA Form 009-0-3 (English), Declaration and Release; FEMA... 009-0-1 and 009-0-2. Individuals or Households Smartphone Application for 192,447.20 1 192,447.20...

  6. Sustainability of Colombian Military/Strategic Support for Democratic Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    search). On a higher plane, a Centro de Coordinacion de Accion Integral (Coordination Center for Integrated Action, or CCA13 1) was formed, both as a...Fuerzes Militares de Colombia, Vol. 2, Ejercito, Bogota: Planeta, 1993, pp. 311-360; as well as Registro Historico del Ejercito, Documentos Acera de la

  7. 78 FR 47051 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 943, 943-PR, 943-A, and 943A-PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Contribucion Federal Del Patrono De Empleados Agricolas, 943-A, Agricultural Employer's Record of Federal Tax Liability, and 943A-PR, Registro De La Obligacion Contributiva Del Patrono Agricola. DATES: Written comments... Para La Declarcion Anual De La Contribucion Federal Del Patrono De Empleados Agricolas (Form...

  8. 75 FR 44847 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 943, 943-PR, 943-A, and 943A-PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... Contribucion Federal Del Patrono De Empleados Agricolas, 943-A, Agricultural Employer's Record of Federal Tax Liability, and 943A-PR, Registro De La Obligacion Contributiva Del Patrono Agricola. DATES: Written comments... Agricolas (Form 943-PR), Agricultural Employer's Record of Federal Tax Liability (Form 943-A), and...

  9. Biodiversity patterns of macrophyte and macroinvertebrate communities in two lagoons of Western Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyttis, G.; Reizopoulou, S.; Papastergiadou, E.

    2012-04-01

    Aquatic macrophytes and benthic macroinvertebrates were studied seasonally (Spring, Autumn, Summer) between the years 2009 - 2011 in two coastal lagoons (Kotychi and Prokopos) located in Peloponnese, Greece, in order to investigate spatial and temporal biodiversity trends related to hydrological processes (degree of confinement, nitrates, phosphates, chl-a, total suspended materials, light irradiance, pH, salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen). Kotychi lagoon presents a better communication with the sea, while Prokopos has a high degree of confinement. Both ecosystems seasonally receive freshwater input from streams. The submerged aquatic macrophytes constituted a major component of the ecosystems studied. In total, 22 taxa of aquatic macrophytes (angiosperms and macroalgae), 16 taxa for Kotychi (2 Rhodophyta, 8 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 1 Streptophyta) and 14 taxa for Prokopos (1 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 3 Streptophyta) were found. Ruppia cirrhosa, and Potamogeton pectinatus were dominant in both lagoons. Kotychi lagoon was also dominated by Zostera noltii and Prokopos by Zannichellia pallustris ssp. pedicellata, while the biomass of aquatic species peaked during the summer periods, in both lagoons. The total number of macroinvertebrates found in the lagoons was 28 taxa for Kotychi and 19 for Prokopos. Chironomidae were dominant in both lagoons, while Kotychi was also dominated by Lekanesphaera monodi and Monocorophium insidiosum, and Prokopos by Ostracoda and Lekanesphaera monodi. Benthic diversity ranged from 1.33 to 2.57 in Kotychi and from 0.67 to 2.48 in Prokopos. Species richness, diversity, and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates were strongly related to aquatic vegetation and to the degree of communication with the marine environment. Moreover, species richness and abundance of both macrophytes and macroinvertebrates were mainly dependent on depth, temperature, pH and concentration of total suspended materials (TSM). Results

  10. Ecophysiology of photosynthesis in macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Hurd, Catriona L

    2012-09-01

    Macroalgae occur in the marine benthos from the upper intertidal to depths of more than 200 m, contributing up to 1 Pg C per year to global primary productivity. Freshwater macroalgae are mainly green (Chlorophyta) with some red (Rhodophyta) and a small contribution of brown (Phaeophyceae) algae, while in the ocean all three higher taxa are important. Attempts to relate the depth distribution of three higher taxa of marine macroalgae to their photosynthetic light use through their pigmentation in relation to variations in spectral quality of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) with depth (complementary chromatic adaptation) and optical thickness (package effect) have been relatively unsuccessful. The presence (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyceae) or absence (Rhodophyta) of a xanthophyll cycle is also not well correlated with depth distribution of marine algae. The relative absence of freshwater brown algae does not seem to be related to their photosynthetic light use. Photosynthetic inorganic carbon acquisition in some red and a few green macroalgae involves entry of CO(2) by diffusion. Other red and green macroalgae, and brown macroalgae, have CO(2) concentrating mechanisms; these frequently involve acid and alkaline zones on the surface of the alga with CO(2) (produced from HCO(3) (-)) entering in the acid zones, while some macroalgae have CCMs based on active influx of HCO(3) (-). These various mechanisms of carbon acquisition have different responses to the thickness of the diffusion boundary layer, which is determined by macroalgal morphology and water velocity. Energetic predictions that macroalgae growing at or near the lower limit of PAR for growth should rely on diffusive CO(2) entry without acid and alkaline zones, and on NH(4) (+) rather than NO(3) (-) as nitrogen source, are only partially borne out by observation. The impact of global environmental change on marine macroalgae mainly relates to ocean acidification and warming with shoaling of the

  11. Please mind the gap - Visual census and cryptic biodiversity assessment at central Red Sea coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Pearman, John K; Anlauf, Holger; Irigoien, Xabier; Carvalho, Susana

    2016-07-01

    Coral reefs harbor the most diverse assemblages in the ocean, however, a large proportion of the diversity is cryptic and, therefore, undetected by standard visual census techniques. Cryptic and exposed communities differ considerably in species composition and ecological function. This study compares three different coral reef assessment protocols: i) visual benthic reef surveys: ii) visual census of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) plates; and iii) metabarcoding techniques of the ARMS (including sessile, 106-500 μm and 500-2000 μm size fractions), that target the cryptic and exposed communities of three reefs in the central Red Sea. Visual census showed a dominance of Cnidaria (Anthozoa) and Rhodophyta on the reef substrate, while Porifera, Bryozoa and Rhodophyta were the most abundant groups on the ARMS plates. Metabarcoding, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, significantly increased estimates of the species diversity (p < 0.001); revealing that Annelida were generally the dominant phyla (in terms of reads) of all fractions and reefs. Furthermore, metabarcoding detected microbial eukaryotic groups such as Syndiniophyceae, Mamiellophyceae and Bacillariophyceae as relevant components of the sessile fraction. ANOSIM analysis showed that the three reef sites showed no differences based on the visual census data. Metabarcoding showed a higher sensitivity for identifying differences between reef communities at smaller geographic scales than standard visual census techniques as significant differences in the assemblages were observed amongst the reefs. Comparison of the techniques showed no similar patterns for the visual techniques while the metabarcoding of the ARMS showed similar patterns amongst fractions. Establishing ARMS as a standard tool in reef monitoring will not only advance our understanding of local processes and ecological community response to environmental changes, as different faunal components will provide complementary information but

  12. Home enteral nutrition in Spain; NADYA registry 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Matía Martín, P; Luengo Pérez, L M; Cuerda Compes, C; Burgos Peláez, R; Alvarez Hernández, J; Calleja Fernández, A; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Gómez Candela, C; Leyes García, P; Laborda González, L; Martínez Olmos, M A; Campos Martín, C; Suárez Llanos, J P; Penacho Lázaro, M A; Gonzalo Marín, M; Salas Salvadó, J; Irles Rocamora, J A; Cánovas Gaillemin, B; Carrero Caballero, M C; Moreno Villares, J M; Garde Orbaiz, C; Miserachs Aranda, N; Del Olmo García, M D; Apezetxea Celaya, A; Mauri, S

    2014-06-01

    Objetivos: Describir los resultados del registro de nutrición enteral domiciliaria (NED) del grupo NADYASENPE de los años 2011 y 12. Material y métodos: Se recopilaron los datos introducidos en el registro desde el 1 de enero de 2011 al 31 de diciembre de 2012. Resultados: Hubo 3021 pacientes en el registro durante el periodo, procedentes de 29 hospitales, lo que da una prevalencia de 65,39 casos por millón de habitantes. 97.95% fueron adultos, 51,4% varones. La edad media fue 67,64 ± 19,1 años y la mediana 72 años para los adultos y 7 meses para los niños. La duración media de la NED fue 351 días y para el 97,5% fue el primer episodio con NED. La mayoría de pacientes tenían NED por una enfermedad neurológica (57,8%). La vía de acceso fue sonda nasogástrica para el 43,5% y gastrostomía para el 33,5%. La mayoría de pacientes tuvieron un nivel de actividad física limitado y, respecto a la autonomía, 54,8% necesitaba ayuda total. La fórmula de nutrición se suministró desde las oficinas de farmacia para el 73,8% y los fungibles, cuando fueron necesarios, desde los hospitales para el 53,8%. La NED se suspendió en 1.031 pacientes (34,1%) durante el periodo de estudio, 56,6% debido a fallecimiento y 22,2% debido a recuperación de la vía oral. Conclusiones: Los datos del registro NADYA-SENPE deben ser interpretados con precaución ya que se trata de un registro voluntario. A pesar del cambio de metodología del registro en 2010, las tendencias en NED se han mantenido, salvo la importancia cuantitativa de la vía oral.

  13. Rescuing biogeographic legacy data: The "Thor" Expedition, a historical oceanographic expedition to the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Mavraki, Dimitra; Fanini, Lucia; Tsompanou, Marilena; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Nikolopoulou, Stamatina; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Plaitis, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This article describes the digitization of a series of historical datasets based οn the reports of the 1908–1910 Danish Oceanographical Expeditions to the Mediterranean and adjacent seas. All station and sampling metadata as well as biodiversity data regarding calcareous rhodophytes, pelagic polychaetes, and fish (families Engraulidae and Clupeidae) obtained during these expeditions were digitized within the activities of the LifeWatchGreece Research Ιnfrastructure project and presented in the present paper. The aim was to safeguard public data availability by using an open access infrastructure, and to prevent potential loss of valuable historical data on the Mediterranean marine biodiversity. New information The datasets digitized here cover 2,043 samples taken at 567 stations during a time period from 1904 to 1930 in the Mediterranean and adjacent seas. The samples resulted in 1,588 occurrence records of pelagic polychaetes, fish (Clupeiformes) and calcareous algae (Rhodophyta). In addition, basic environmental data (e.g. sea surface temperature, salinity) as well as meterological conditions are included for most sampling events. In addition to the description of the digitized datasets, a detailed description of the problems encountered during the digitization of this historical dataset and a discussion on the value of such data are provided. PMID:28174510

  14. Seaweeds in cold seas: evolution and carbon acquisition.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Johnston, Andrew M; Kübler, Janet E; Korb, Rebecca; McInroy, Shona G; Handley, Linda L; Scrimgeour, Charlie M; Walker, Diana I; Beardall, John; Clayton, Margaret N; Vanderklift, Mathew; Fredriksen, Stein; Dunton, Kenneth H

    2002-10-01

    Much evidence suggests that life originated in hydrothermal habitats, and for much of the time since the origin of cyanobacteria (at least 2.5 Ga ago) and of eukaryotic algae (at least 2.1 Ga ago) the average sea surface and land surface temperatures were higher than they are today. However, there have been at least four significant glacial episodes prior to the Pleistocene glaciations. Two of these (approx. 2.1 and 0.7 Ga ago) may have involved a 'Snowball Earth' with a very great impact on the algae (sensu lato) of the time (cyanobacteria, Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta) and especially those that were adapted to warm habitats. By contrast, it is possible that heterokont, dinophyte and haptophyte phototrophs only evolved after the Carboniferous-Permian ice age (approx. 250 Ma ago) and so did not encounter low (

  15. New records of marine algae in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Hau, Nhu; Ly, Bui Minh; Van Huynh, Tran; Trung, Vo Thanh

    2015-06-01

    In May, 2013, a scientific expedition was organized by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEBRAS) through the frame of the VAST-FEBRAS International Collaboration Program. The expedition went along the coast of Vietnam from Quang Ninh to Kien Giang. The objective was to collect natural resources to investigate the biological and biochemical diversity of the territorial waters of Vietnam. Among the collected algae, six taxa are new records for the Vietnam algal flora. They are the red algae Titanophora pikeana (Dickie) Feldmann from Cu Lao Xanh Island, Laurencia natalensis Kylin from Tho Chu Island, Coelothrix irregularis (Harvey) Børgesen from Con Dao Island, the green algae Caulerpa oligophylla Montagne, Caulerpa andamanensis (W.R. Taylor) Draisma, Prudhomme et Sauvage from Phu Quy Island, and Caulerpa falcifolia Harvey & Bailey from Ly Son Island. The seaweed flora of Vietnam now counts 833 marine algal taxa, including 415 Rhodophyta, 147 Phaeophyceae, 183 Chlorophyta, and 88 Cyanobacteria.

  16. Microcystins and cyanophyte extracts inhibit or promote the photosynthesis of fluvial algae. Ecological and management implications.

    PubMed

    García-Espín, Laura; Cantoral, Enrique A; Asencio, Antonia D; Aboal, Marina

    2017-04-05

    The ecological influence of cyanotoxins on aquatic biota remains unclear despite the numerous published references on toxicological and sanitary problems related with cyanophyte proliferation. The effects of microcystins and cyanophyte extracts on the photosynthesis of the algae that belong to two taxonomic groups, Rhodophyta and Bacillariophyta, were studied in an attempt to elucidate their role in the intraspecific competence and physiognomy of fluvial communities. The data showed that both cyanobacteria extracts and pure microcystin-LR affected the photosynthetic activity of all the tested organisms, diatoms (Fistulifera pelliculosa, Gomphonema parvulum, Nitzschia frustulum and Stephanodiscus minutulus) and red algae (Chroothece richteriana) at environmentally relevant concentrations. Effects varied with strains and time, and promoted or inhibited photosynthesis. The microcystins and the other compounds present in cyanobacteria extracts may explain the competence effects observed in nature, especially in calcareous environments where they predominate, and after disturbing events like heavy rains or floods, which may destroy cyanophyte mats and release toxic or inhibitory compounds in a seasonal scale pattern.

  17. Recent mobility of plastid encoded group II introns and twintrons in five strains of the unicellular red alga Porphyridium.

    PubMed

    Perrineau, Marie-Mathilde; Price, Dana C; Mohr, Georg; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2015-01-01

    Group II introns are closely linked to eukaryote evolution because nuclear spliceosomal introns and the small RNAs associated with the spliceosome are thought to trace their ancient origins to these mobile elements. Therefore, elucidating how group II introns move, and how they lose mobility can potentially shed light on fundamental aspects of eukaryote biology. To this end, we studied five strains of the unicellular red alga Porphyridium purpureum that surprisingly contain 42 group II introns in their plastid genomes. We focused on a subset of these introns that encode mobility-conferring intron-encoded proteins (IEPs) and found them to be distributed among the strains in a lineage-specific manner. The reverse transcriptase and maturase domains were present in all lineages but the DNA endonuclease domain was deleted in vertically inherited introns, demonstrating a key step in the loss of mobility. P. purpureum plastid intron RNAs had a classic group IIB secondary structure despite variability in the DIII and DVI domains. We report for the first time the presence of twintrons (introns-within-introns, derived from the same mobile element) in Rhodophyta. The P. purpureum IEPs and their mobile introns provide a valuable model for the study of mobile retroelements in eukaryotes and offer promise for biotechnological applications.

  18. Biomass and Habitat Characteristics of Epiphytic Macroalgae in the Sibuti Mangroves, Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Isa, Hasmidah Md; Kamal, Abu Hena Mustafa; Idris, Mohd Hanafi; Rosli, Zamri; Ismail, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Mangroves support diverse macroalgal assemblages as epibionts on their roots and tree trunks. These algae provide nutrients to the primary consumers in the aquatic food web and have been reported to be substantial contributors to marine ecosystems. The species diversity, biomass, and habitat characteristics of mangrove macroalgae were investigated at three stations in the Sibuti mangrove estuary, Sarawak, Malaysia, from November 2012 to October 2013. Three groups of macroalgae were recorded and were found to be growing on mangrove prop roots, namely Rhodophyta (Caloglossa ogasawaraensis, Caloglossa adhaerens, Caloglossa stipitata, Bostrychia anomala, and Hypnea sp.), Chlorophyta (Chaetomorpha minima and Chaetomorpha sp.), and Phaeophyta (Dictyota sp.). The biomass of macroalgae was not influenced (p>0.05) by the season in this mangrove forest habitat. The macroalgal species Hypnea sp. contributed the highest biomass at both Station 1 (210.56 mg/cm(2)) and Station 2 (141.72 mg/cm(2)), while the highest biomass was contributed by B. anomala (185.89 mg/cm(2)) at Station 3. This study shows that the species distribution and assemblages of mangrove macroalgae were influenced by environmental parameters such as water nutrients, dissolved solids, and salinity in the estuarine mangrove habitats of Sibuti, Sarawak.

  19. Macroalgae in a spring stream in Shanxi Province: composition and relation to physical and chemical variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bianfang; Xie, Shulian

    2007-07-01

    Fourteen stream segments were investigated throughout the Xin’an Spring in Shanxi Province, China in 2004. The variation ranges in stream size, current velocity, discharge, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance were large. Twenty-two macroalgae species were found in the stream. Major divisions in terms of species numbers were Chlorophyta (59.1%), Cyanophyta (22.8%), Xanthophyta (9.1%), Rhodophyta (4.5%) and Charophyta (4.5%). The most widespread species, Cladophora rivularis (50.0%), also Oedogonium sp. (42.9%) and Spirogyra sp. (42.9%) were well represented throughout the stream, whereas another 10 species were found in only one sampling site. Total percentage cover varied from <1% to 90%. Red algae Batrachospermum acuatum and the charophytes Chara vulgaris have the highest percentage cover. Among the parameters analyzed, the stream width, specific conductance and dissolved oxygen were the ones that more closely related to the species number and percentage cover of macroalgal communities. The species number of each site was negatively correlated with dissolved oxygen content. The total percentage cover of the macroalgae was negatively correlated with the stream width and the specific conductance.

  20. Climate change and the microbiology of the Antarctic Peninsula region.

    PubMed

    Pearce, David A

    2008-01-01

    Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems are cold, dry, low nutrient environments, with large temperature fluctuations and paradoxically low levels of water availability. These extreme environments are dominated by microorganisms (viruses, archaea, eubacteria, fungi and microsporidia, alveolata, stmramenopila, rhodophyta, green algae and protists), which can either tolerate or are adapted to exploit unfavourable growth conditions. However, climate change is altering the growth environment in Antarctica, and so selection pressures on these microorganisms are changing which, in turn, might affect microbial activity in key processes such as biogeochemical cycling. Although the direct effect of a change in, for example, temperature, is known for very few Antarctic microorganisms, molecular techniques (to monitor population structure) and genomic techniques (to identify specific gene function) are starting to give us an insight into what the potential effects of climate change might be at the cellular level. The key to how microorganisms respond to such change depends upon the rate and magnitude of the change along with the physiological capability of microorganisms to adapt or tolerate those changes. Here we will examine a number of case studies in which the effects of factors such as temperature, nutrient availability, grazing, salinity, seasonal cycle and carbon dioxide concentration have each been demonstrated to affect bacterial community structure in polar and alpine ecosystems. The results suggest that the spatial distribution of genetic variation and, hence, comparative rates of evolution, colonization and extinction are particularly important when considering the response of microbial communities to climate change.

  1. DGDG and Glycolipids in Plants and Algae.

    PubMed

    Kalisch, Barbara; Dörmann, Peter; Hölzl, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic organelles in plants and algae are characterized by the high abundance of glycolipids, including the galactolipids mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG, DGDG) and the sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG). Glycolipids are crucial to maintain an optimal efficiency of photosynthesis. During phosphate limitation, the amounts of DGDG and SQDG increase in the plastids of plants, and DGDG is exported to extraplastidial membranes to replace phospholipids. Algae often use betaine lipids as surrogate for phospholipids. Glucuronosyldiacylglycerol (GlcADG) is a further glycolipid that accumulates under phosphate deprived conditions. In contrast to plants, a number of eukaryotic algae contain very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of 20 or more carbon atoms in their glycolipids. The pathways and genes for galactolipid and sulfolipid synthesis are largely conserved between plants, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and algae with complex plastids derived from secondary or tertiary endosymbiosis. However, the relative contribution of the endoplasmic reticulum- and plastid-derived lipid pathways for glycolipid synthesis varies between plants and algae. The genes for glycolipid synthesis encode precursor proteins imported into the photosynthetic organelles. While most eukaryotic algae contain the plant-like galactolipid (MGD1, DGD1) and sulfolipid (SQD1, SQD2) synthases, the red alga Cyanidioschyzon harbors a cyanobacterium-type DGDG synthase (DgdA), and the amoeba Paulinella, derived from a more recent endosymbiosis event, contains cyanobacterium-type enzymes for MGDG and DGDG synthesis (MgdA, MgdE, DgdA).

  2. Hydrodynamic transport of drifting macroalgae through a tidal cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biber, Patrick D.

    2007-09-01

    Drifting macroalgae are unattached seaweeds that are commonly found in many South Florida and Gulf of Mexico shallow-water seagrass habitats. They are primarily comprised of species of red algae (Rhodophyta) and some brown algae (Phaeophyta). Because of the unattached nature of these species, drift algae have the ability to be moved around the landscape primarily by tidal, as well as wind-driven and alongshore currents. Numerous invertebrates and some fish species are typically found associated with drift algal clumps and aggregations. Transport of drift algae is an important dispersal mechanism for both the plants and their associated fauna. Dispersal distances have been studied in numerous locations over a range of spatial scales. However, little is known about quantities of algal material that are involved. In this study I report on composition and biomass of drifting algae that are transported through a tidal inlet in Biscayne Bay, Florida. Sargassum (a brown alga) and about 12 genera of red algae were found in three seasonal collections (Aug., Dec., May). Total biomass collected varied among seasons, with larger average amounts of drift algae collected in May than the other two months sampled. From this data, I calculate the approximate quantities of drift algae that are potentially moving in, or out of, Biscayne Bay, about a half to one ton of biomass per day.

  3. dEMBF: A Comprehensive Database of Enzymes of Microalgal Biofuel Feedstock

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae have attracted wide attention as one of the most versatile renewable feedstocks for production of biofuel. To develop genetically engineered high lipid yielding algal strains, a thorough understanding of the lipid biosynthetic pathway and the underpinning enzymes is essential. In this work, we have systematically mined the genomes of fifteen diverse algal species belonging to Chlorophyta, Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Haptophyta, to identify and annotate the putative enzymes of lipid metabolic pathway. Consequently, we have also developed a database, dEMBF (Database of Enzymes of Microalgal Biofuel Feedstock), which catalogues the complete list of identified enzymes along with their computed annotation details including length, hydrophobicity, amino acid composition, subcellular location, gene ontology, KEGG pathway, orthologous group, Pfam domain, intron-exon organization, transmembrane topology, and secondary/tertiary structural data. Furthermore, to facilitate functional and evolutionary study of these enzymes, a collection of built-in applications for BLAST search, motif identification, sequence and phylogenetic analysis have been seamlessly integrated into the database. dEMBF is the first database that brings together all enzymes responsible for lipid synthesis from available algal genomes, and provides an integrative platform for enzyme inquiry and analysis. This database will be extremely useful for algal biofuel research. It can be accessed at http://bbprof.immt.res.in/embf. PMID:26727469

  4. Identification of protein N-termini in Cyanophora paradoxa cyanelles: transit peptide composition and sequence determinants for precursor maturation

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, Daniel; Dobritzsch, Dirk; Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang; Helm, Stefan; Steiner, Jürgen M.; Baginsky, Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Glaucophyta, rhodophyta, and chloroplastida represent the three main evolutionary lineages that diverged from a common ancestor after primary endosymbiosis. Comparative analyses between members of these three lineages are a rich source of information on ancestral plastid features. We analyzed the composition and the cleavage site of cyanelle transit peptides from the glaucophyte Cyanophora paradoxa by terminal amine labeling of substrates (TAILS), and compared their characteristics to those of representatives of the chloroplastida. Our data show that transit peptide architecture is similar between members of these two lineages. This entails a comparable modular structure, an overrepresentation of serine or alanine and similarities in the amino acid composition around the processing peptidase cleavage site. The most distinctive difference is the overrepresentation of phenylalanine in the N-terminal 1–10 amino acids of cyanelle transit peptides. A quantitative proteome analysis with periplasm-free cyanelles identified 42 out of 262 proteins without the N-terminal phenylalanine, suggesting that the requirement for phenylalanine in the N-terminal region is not absolute. Proteins in this set are on average of low abundance, suggesting that either alternative import pathways are operating specifically for low abundance proteins or that the gene model annotation is incorrect for proteins with fewer EST sequences. We discuss these two possibilities and provide examples for both interpretations. PMID:26257763

  5. Biofilms on tuff stones at historical sites: identification and removal by nonthermal effects of radiofrequencies.

    PubMed

    Cennamo, P; Caputo, P; Giorgio, A; Moretti, A; Pasquino, N

    2013-10-01

    A methodology aiming at identifying and removing biofilms from cultural heritage was applied to stones from tuff walls in historical sites. Identification of phototrophic encrusting microorganisms was carried out by optical and electron microscopy, as well as by molecular techniques (DNA analyses and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)). In all sites, the examination of microbial components of biofilms resulted in the identification of 17 species belonging to Cyanobacteria, Rhodophyta, Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta, with Cyanobacteria being the dominant components in all biofilms. In order to remove the biofilms, an innovative technique based on the use of nonthermal effects of radiofrequencies was adopted. The source of the electromagnetic fields was a signal generator connected to a horn antenna through an amplifier to provide the power boost required to generate the target field amplitude. Seven days after exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field, about 50 % reduction of biofilm was observed; after 14 days, biofilm extension was reduced by about 90 %. DGGE analyses performed after 14 days confirmed these visual inspections. Also, DGGE analyses carried out before and 14 days after treatments showed that 12 out of 17 identified species disappeared. A complete visual disappearance of biofilms was observed a month after the beginning of treatments. DGGE repeated at this time confirmed the total disappearance of biofilm-forming species. Treated stones, when transferred back to their original sites, did not show any microorganism re-growing after 6 months. No alteration in the color and structural consistency of tuff substrata was observed after radiofrequency treatments.

  6. Genetic Affinities between Trans-Oceanic Populations of Non-Buoyant Macroalgae in the High Latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Ceridwen I.; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C.; Spencer, Hamish G.; Salvatore, Laura C.; Garcia, Gabriella R.; Waters, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine biologists and biogeographers have long been puzzled by apparently non-dispersive coastal taxa that nonetheless have extensive transoceanic distributions. We here carried out a broad-scale phylogeographic study to test whether two widespread Southern Hemisphere species of non-buoyant littoral macroalgae are capable of long-distance dispersal. Samples were collected from along the coasts of southern Chile, New Zealand and several subAntarctic islands, with the focus on high latitude populations in the path of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current or West Wind Drift. We targeted two widespread littoral macroalgal species: the brown alga Adenocystisutricularis (Ectocarpales, Heterokontophyta) and the red alga Bostrychiaintricata (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta). Phylogenetic analyses were performed using partial mitochondrial (COI), chloroplast (rbcL) and ribosomal nuclear (LSU / 28S) DNA sequence data. Numerous deeply-divergent clades were resolved across all markers in each of the target species, but close phylogenetic relationships – even shared haplotypes – were observed among some populations separated by large oceanic distances. Despite not being particularly buoyant, both Adenocystisutricularis and Bostrychiaintricata thus show genetic signatures of recent dispersal across vast oceanic distances, presumably by attachment to floating substrata such as wood or buoyant macroalgae. PMID:23894421

  7. Marine flora of the Iles Eparses (Scattered Islands): A longitudinal transect through the Mozambique Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattio, L.; Zubia, M.; Maneveldt, G. W.; Anderson, R. J.; Bolton, J. J.; de Gaillande, C.; De Clerck, O.; Payri, C. E.

    2016-04-01

    The diversity of marine macrophytes of small islands in the South Western Indian Ocean region has been poorly documented and little or no information is available for the Iles Eparses (or Scattered Islands) in the Mozambique Channel. We present the first species checklist for the three largest islands of the Iles Eparses: Europa, Juan de Nova and Glorioso. Overall, with a total of 321 marine macrophyte species recorded (incl. 56% Rhodophyta, 27% Chlorophyta, 15% Phaeophyceae and 2% Magnoliophyta; Europa: 134 spp., Juan de Nova: 157 spp. and Glorioso: 170 spp.) these islands harbour 23.5% of the total species recorded for the Mozambique Channel region. We report 36 new records for the Mozambique Channel including 29 undescribed new and cryptic species. Our results highlight a decrease in species richness southward in the Channel. Because of their longitudinal arrangement between the northern and the southern ends of the Channel and their central position, Europa, Juan de Nova and Glorioso Islands represent data points of particular biogeographical interest and could be critical 'stepping stones' for connectivity in the highly dynamic Mozambique Channel region.

  8. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of seaweeds along the northern coasts of Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadolahi-Sohrab, A.; Garavand-Karimi, M.; Riahi, H.; Pashazanoosi, H.

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, Sirophysalia trinodis and Sargassum angustifolium of brown and Gracilaria canaliculata and Hypnea cervicornis of red seaweeds showed highest biomass in coastal areas of Bushehr Province. The Cheney`s ratio of 2.1 indicated a temperate algal flora to this area. All sites exhibited more than 50% similarity of algal species, indicating a relatively homogenous algal distribution. Total biomass showed the highest value of 3280.7 ± 537.8 g dry wt m - 2 during summer and lowest value of 856.9 ± 92.0 g dry wt m - 2 during winter. During this study, the highest and lowest seaweed biomass were recorded on the site 2 (2473.7 ± 311.0 g dry wt m - 2) and site 5 (856.7 ± 96.8 g dry wt m - 2), respectively.

  9. Screening of agglutinins in marine algae from Fujian coast of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Lu, Hai-Sheng

    2002-09-01

    Thirty-three species of marine algae belonging to Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta from the Fujian coast were examined for agglutinins with different animal and human erythrocytes. Protein extracts from 26 species were active against at least one type of the erythrocytes tested. There were 3 species ( Grateloupia imbricata, Ishige foliacea and Entermorpha prolifera) whose extracts could agglutimate all the erythrocytes used. The lowest protein concentration required to produce erythrocyte agglutination varied remarkably, from 3.1 μg/ml to 500 μg/ml. The strongest activity was found in the agglutination of rabbit erythrocytes by Gloiopeltis furcata extract. Inhibition assays performed with nine mono- and bisaccharides indicated that agglutinations of rabbit erythrocytes by extracts of 7 species were inhibited by one or more types of the sugars assayed. The agglutinating activity shown by extracts of most species was not affected when the test solution was heated to 90°C, but was lost at 95°C 100°C. A few extracts lost their activity at 60°C, 65°C and 75°C, respectively.

  10. Direct evaluation of macroalgal removal by herbivorous coral reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantyka, C. S.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2007-06-01

    Few studies have examined the relative functional impacts of individual herbivorous fish species on coral reef ecosystem processes in the Indo-Pacific. This study assessed the potential grazing impact of individual species within an inshore herbivorous reef fish assemblage on the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR), by determining which fish species were able to remove particular macroalgal species. Transplanted multiple-choice algal assays and remote stationary underwater digital video cameras were used to quantify the impact of local herbivorous reef fish species on 12 species of macroalgae. Macroalgal removal by the fishes was rapid. Within 3 h of exposure to herbivorous reef fishes there was significant evidence of intense grazing. After 12 h of exposure, 10 of the 12 macroalgal species had decreased to less than 15% of their original mass. Chlorodesmis fastigiata (Chlorophyta) and Galaxaura sp. (Rhodophyta) showed significantly less susceptibility to herbivorous reef fish grazing than all other macroalgae, even after 24 h exposure. Six herbivorous and/or nominally herbivorous reef fish species were identified as the dominant grazers of macroalgae: Siganus doliatus, Siganus canaliculatus, Chlorurus microrhinos, Hipposcarus longiceps, Scarus rivulatus and Pomacanthus sexstriatus. The siganid S. doliatus fed heavily on Hypnea sp., while S. canaliculatus fed intensively on Sargassum sp. Variation in macroalgal susceptibility was not clearly correlated with morphological and/or chemical defenses that have been previously suggested as deterrents against herbivory. Nevertheless, the results stress the potential importance of individual herbivorous reef fish species in removing macroalgae from coral reefs.

  11. Biomass and Habitat Characteristics of Epiphytic Macroalgae in the Sibuti Mangroves, Sarawak, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Isa, Hasmidah Md; Kamal, Abu Hena Mustafa; Idris, Mohd Hanafi; Rosli, Zamri; Ismail, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Mangroves support diverse macroalgal assemblages as epibionts on their roots and tree trunks. These algae provide nutrients to the primary consumers in the aquatic food web and have been reported to be substantial contributors to marine ecosystems. The species diversity, biomass, and habitat characteristics of mangrove macroalgae were investigated at three stations in the Sibuti mangrove estuary, Sarawak, Malaysia, from November 2012 to October 2013. Three groups of macroalgae were recorded and were found to be growing on mangrove prop roots, namely Rhodophyta (Caloglossa ogasawaraensis, Caloglossa adhaerens, Caloglossa stipitata, Bostrychia anomala, and Hypnea sp.), Chlorophyta (Chaetomorpha minima and Chaetomorpha sp.), and Phaeophyta (Dictyota sp.). The biomass of macroalgae was not influenced (p>0.05) by the season in this mangrove forest habitat. The macroalgal species Hypnea sp. contributed the highest biomass at both Station 1 (210.56 mg/cm2) and Station 2 (141.72 mg/cm2), while the highest biomass was contributed by B. anomala (185.89 mg/cm2) at Station 3. This study shows that the species distribution and assemblages of mangrove macroalgae were influenced by environmental parameters such as water nutrients, dissolved solids, and salinity in the estuarine mangrove habitats of Sibuti, Sarawak. PMID:28228913

  12. Temporal and spatial variations in the distribution of macroalgal communities along the Yantai coast, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qiuying; Liu, Dongyan

    2014-05-01

    To explore the impact of environmental variables on macroalgal their temporal and spatial distributions were examined along the Yantai coast, China between April 2010 and March 2011. Macroalgae sampling was conducted monthly at four sites along the coast: Jiahe River estuary, Zhifu Island, Fisherman's Wharf, and Yangma Island. The species composition and abundance, and their relationship with environmental variables were assessed. Along the Yantai coast, 35 macroalgae species were identified, including 24 Rhodophyta spp., 7 Chlorophyta, and 4 Phaeophyta spp. Highest species numbers were recorded in the summer at all sampling sites, except in the Jiahe River estuary. Macroalgae biomass was the greatest in the summer. Year-round, the highest species number and dry biomass recorded at Fisherman's Wharf and Yangma Island was attributed to the substrate type. In summer, Ulva pertusa Kjellman was the dominant species identified along the Yantai coast, which indicates a risk of macroalgae blooms. Our results show that seawater temperature and nutrients appear to significantly affect the temporal and spatial patterns of macroalgal abundance along the Yantai coast. The effects of environmental variables on the macroalgae on the Yantai coast need further study.

  13. Heavy metal concentrations in marine green, brown, and red seaweeds from coastal waters of Yemen, the Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shwafi, Nabil A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of heavy metals in different species of the main three marine algal divisions from the Gulf of Aden coastal waters, Yemen. The divisions included Chlorophyta—green plants ( Halimeda tuna, Rhizoclonium kochiamum, Caldophora koiei, Enteromorpha compressa, and Caulerpa racemosa species), Phaeophyta—brown seaweeds ( Padina boryana, Turbinaria elatensis, Sargassum binderi, Cystoseira myrica, and Sargassum boveanum species), and Rhodophyta—red seaweeds ( Hypnea cornuta, Champia parvula, Galaxaura marginate, Laurencia paniculata, Gracilaria foliifere, and species). The heavy metals, which included cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and vanadium (V) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAs). The concentrations of heavy metals in all algal species are in the order of Fe >> Cu > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > V > Co. The results also showed that the uptake of heavy metals by different marine algal divisions was in the order of Chlorophyta > Phaeophyta > Rhodophyta. These heavy metals were several order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of the same metals in seawater. This indicates that marine alga progressively uptake heavy metals from seawater.

  14. Isolation, expression and characterization of rbcL gene from Ulva prolifera J. Agardh (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhanru; Li, Wei; Guo, Hui; Duan, Delin

    2015-12-01

    Ulva prolifera is a typical green alga in subtidal areas and can grow tremendously fast. A highly efficient Rubisco enzyme which is encoded by UpRbcL gene may contribute to the rapid growth. In this study, the full-length UpRbcL open reading frame (ORF) was identified, which encoded a protein of 474 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of UpRbcL sequences revealed that Chlorophyta had a closer genetic relationship with higher plants than with Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta. The two distinct residues (aa11 and aa91) were presumed to be unique for Rubisco catalytic activity. The predicted three-dimensional structure showed that one α/β-barrel existed in the C-terminal region, and the sites for Mg2+ coordination and CO2 fixation were also located in this region. Gene expression profile indicated that UpRbcL was expressed at a higher level under light exposure than in darkness. When the culture temperature reached 35°C, the expression level of UpRbcL was 2.5-fold lower than at 15°C, and the carboxylase activity exhibited 13.8-fold decrease. UpRbcL was heterologously expressed in E. coli and was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The physiological and biochemical characterization of recombinant Rubisco will be explored in the future.

  15. Seasonal variation in biomass and species composition of seaweeds stranded along Port Okha, northwest coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Mukund C.; Reddy, C. R. K.; Jha, Bhavanath

    2008-06-01

    Port Okha coast, which is known for its luxuriant growth of a diverse assemblage of seaweeds on Saurashtra coast, is found to have abundant quantities of seaweeds being drifted and washed ashore every year. Studies conducted for quantifying the stranded seaweeds from May 2004 to April 2005 showed an average biomass value of 3.10 kg fresh wt/m2/month with maximum being 6.60 kg fresh wt/m2 in April. The stranded weeds constituted a total of 62 species during the entire study period. Of this, Rhodophyta ranked high with 26 species followed by Chlorophyta with 22 species and Phaeophyta with 14 species. The stranded seaweeds that were washed ashore provide valuable floristic information about the intertidal and near shore sub-tidal algae of the respective regions. Although natural senescence of seaweeds is one of the major factors, strong currents primarily forced by tides, also contribute to the uprooting and subsequent drifting of seaweeds on to the beach. This ultimately causes changes in floristic features of the existing algal beds.

  16. Precambrian palaeontology in the light of molecular phylogeny - an example: the radiation of the green algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyssèdre, B.

    2007-09-01

    The problem of the antiquity of the radiation of the green algae (phylum Viridiplantae) has been hotly debated and is still controversial today. A method combining Precambrian paleontology and molecular phylogeny is applied to shed light on this topic. As a critical method, molecular phylogeny is essential for avoiding taxonomic mistakes. As a heuristic method, it helps us to discern to what extent the presence of such and such clade is likely at such and such time, and it may even suggest the attribution of some fossil to a clade whose taxonomic position will be distinctly defined even though it has no previously known representative. Some well characterized Precambrian fossils of green algae are Palaeastrum and Proterocladus at Svanbergfjellet (ca. 750 Ma), Tasmanites and Pterospermella at Thule (ca. 1200 Ma), Spiromorpha at Ruyang (ca. 1200 Ma) and Leiosphaeridia crassa at Roper (ca. 1450 Ma). The position of these fossils in the taxonomy and the phylogeny of the Viriplantae is discussed. The conclusions are that the Chlorophyceae and the Ulvophyceae were separated long before 750 Ma, that the Chlorophyta and the Streptophyta were separated long before 1200 Ma and that the last common ancestor of the Viridiplantae and the Rhodophyta was possibly two billion years old.

  17. Main nutritional contents of 30 Dalian coastal microalgae species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xiurong; Liu, Huihui; Chen, Kwan Paul

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports results of study on the contents of proteins, amino acids, polysaccharose and uronic acids in 30 species of macroalgae from Shicao, Heishijiao, Shimiao, and Xiaofujiazhuang in the vicinity of Dalian City, N.E.China. The results showed that the protein contents of the 30 algae from highest (112.55 μ g/ml) to the lowest (0.24 μg/ml) was in the descending order of Dictyopteris ndalata, Gelidium vagum, Gymnogongrus japonican, Ectocarpus confervoides, Tinocladia crassa, Sargassum thunberii. In general, the protein content in red algae was higher than that in brown algae. The content of free amino acids showed no significent differences from 7.44 μg/ml4.96 μg/ml in all these algae, in the descending order of Gymnogongrus japonican, Sargassum confusum, Undoria pinnatifida, Laminaria japonica and Ectocarpus confervoides. The content of polysaccharose varied from 168.2 μ/ml-22.15 μg/ml in the descending order of Symphocladia latiuscula, Scytosiphon lomentarius, Desmarestia viridis., Tinocladia crassa, Gracilaria asiatica and Porphyra yezoensis. The content of uronic acids is from 196.24μg/ml-20.77 μg/ml in the descending order of Ulva lactuca, Symphyoclaldia latiuscula, Scytosiphon lomentarius, Ceramimum kodoi, Gracilaria vemucosa and Porphyra yezoensis. The fatty acids in 30 species of algae belong to Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta. Most phaeophytes have many (4 12) types of fatty acids.

  18. Thermochemical conversion pathways of Kappaphycus alvarezii granules through study of kinetic models.

    PubMed

    Das, Prasanta; Mondal, Dibyendu; Maiti, Subarna

    2017-03-10

    Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed belongs to the class of red alga (Rhodophyta). The granules obtained after recovery of "sap" (liquid plant stimulant) from freshly harvested alga is a promising biomass feedstock for energy application. Herein we report the kinetic behaviour of the granules using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at different heating rates in N2 atmosphere and thermogravimetric-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) analysis. Sawdust as lignocellulosic biomass is considered for comparative study. Four different kinetic models (i) multilinear regression technique, (ii) Friedman method, (iii) Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) method and (iv) Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) method are used to evaluate the apparent activation energy (Ea), the pre-exponential factor (Aα) and the overall reaction order (n). Maximum SO2 peak at 300°C and 950°C (from TG-MS), indicates that slow pyrolysis at 500°C, with a packed bed lime scrubber at the outlet during temperature rise, is the best suited thermochemical pathway for energy harnessing.

  19. Genome-wide identification of transcription factors and transcription-factor binding sites in oleaginous microalgae Nannochloropsis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianqiang; Wang, Dongmei; Li, Jing; Jing, Gongchao; Ning, Kang; Xu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Nannochloropsis spp. are a group of oleaginous microalgae that harbor an expanded array of lipid-synthesis related genes, yet how they are transcriptionally regulated remains unknown. Here a phylogenomic approach was employed to identify and functionally annotate the transcriptional factors (TFs) and TF binding-sites (TFBSs) in N. oceanica IMET1. Among 36 microalgae and higher plants genomes, a two-fold reduction in the number of TF families plus a seven-fold decrease of average family-size in Nannochloropsis, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta were observed. The degree of similarity in TF-family profiles is indicative of the phylogenetic relationship among the species, suggesting co-evolution of TF-family profiles and species. Furthermore, comparative analysis of six Nannochloropsis genomes revealed 68 “most-conserved” TFBS motifs, with 11 of which predicted to be related to lipid accumulation or photosynthesis. Mapping the IMET1 TFs and TFBS motifs to the reference plant TF-“TFBS motif” relationships in TRANSFAC enabled the prediction of 78 TF-“TFBS motif” interaction pairs, which consisted of 34 TFs (with 11 TFs potentially involved in the TAG biosynthesis pathway), 30 TFBS motifs and 2,368 regulatory connections between TFs and target genes. Our results form the basis of further experiments to validate and engineer the regulatory network of Nannochloropsis spp. for enhanced biofuel production. PMID:24965723

  20. Isolation and characterization of agar-digesting Vibrio species from the rotten thallus of Gracilariopsis heteroclada Zhang et Xia.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Joval N; Padilla, Philip Ian P

    2016-08-01

    Gracilariopsis heteroclada Zhang et Xia (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) is one of the most studied marine seaweeds due to its economic importance. This has been cultivated extensively on commercial scale in the Philippines and other Asian countries. However, sustainable production of G. heteroclada in the Philippines could not be maximized due to the occurrence of rotten thallus disease. Thus, isolation and characterization of agar-digesting bacteria from the rotten thalli of G. heteroclada was conducted. A total of seven representative bacterial isolates were randomly selected based on their ability to digest agar as evidenced by the formation of depressions around the bacterial colonies on nutrient agar plates supplemented with 1.5% NaCl and liquefaction of agar. Gram-staining and biochemical characterization revealed that isolates tested were gram-negative rods and taxonomically identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus (86-99.5%) and Vibrio alginolyticus (94.2-97.7%), respectively. It is yet to be confirmed whether these agar-digesting vibrios are involved in the induction and development of rotten thallus disease in G. heteroclada in concomitance with other opportunistic bacterial pathogens coupled with adverse environmental conditions.

  1. Distribution of Sargassum natans and some of its epibionts in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niermann, U.

    1986-12-01

    Sargassum was collected during the Sargasso Sea Eel Expedition in Spring 1979. On average, the morphological form type Sargassum natans (I) made up 85 % of the total wet weight of the samples. South of the thermal front, larger amounts of weeds were observed. Here, the bladder size of S. natans (I) was significantly smaller (surface 47±7 mm2) than in the northern part (surface: 64±15 mm2), while phylloids showed no differences. The composition and density of some epibionts were examined. Membranipora tuberculata (Bryozoa), Clytia noliformis (Hydrozoa) and the calcarious algae “ Melobesia sp.” (Rhodophyta) were studied quantitatively according to different features at 17 stations. M. tuberculata was the most abundant epibiont followed by C. noliformis. Compared with these species, " Melobesia sp." occurred in considerably lower quantities. M. tuberculata showed a preference for bladders rather than phylloids; C. noliformis was found more frequently on phylloids than on bladders. " Melobesia sp." did not show any preference. Frequency and abundance of these epibionts were higher north of the thermal front than south of this front. North of the front S. natans (I) was less abundant but bladders were larger.

  2. The effect of nutrient enrichment on the growth, nucleic acid concentrations, and elemental stoichiometry of coral reef macroalgae

    PubMed Central

    Reef, Ruth; Pandolfi, John M; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2012-01-01

    The growth rate hypothesis (GRH) links growth rates with organism elemental stoichiometry. Support for the GRH was found for many animal species, but less so for plants. This is the first study to test the GRH in macroalgae. Tropical coral reef macroalgae from three lineages, Caulerpa serrulata (Chlorophyta), Laurencia intricata (Rhodophyta), and Sargassum polyphyllum (Phaeophyceae) were grown enriched with nitrogen or phosphorous and under control conditions at Heron Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Growth rate, photosynthesis, nucleic acid composition, and elemental stoichiometry were measured. Nutrient enrichment had positive effects on photosynthetic rates and on investment in RNA. However, growth rate was not correlated with either photosynthetic rates or RNA content; thus, we did not find support for the GRH in tropical macroalgae. Macroalgae, especially L. intricata, accumulated P to very high levels (>0.6% of dry weight). The growth rate response to tissue P concentrations was unimodal. Above 0.21%, P accumulation had negative effects on growth. Nitrogen was not stored, but evidence of futile cycling was observed. The capacity to store large amounts of P is probably an adaptation to the low and patchy nutrient environment of the tropical oceans. PMID:22957199

  3. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

  4. dEMBF: A Comprehensive Database of Enzymes of Microalgal Biofuel Feedstock.

    PubMed

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae have attracted wide attention as one of the most versatile renewable feedstocks for production of biofuel. To develop genetically engineered high lipid yielding algal strains, a thorough understanding of the lipid biosynthetic pathway and the underpinning enzymes is essential. In this work, we have systematically mined the genomes of fifteen diverse algal species belonging to Chlorophyta, Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Haptophyta, to identify and annotate the putative enzymes of lipid metabolic pathway. Consequently, we have also developed a database, dEMBF (Database of Enzymes of Microalgal Biofuel Feedstock), which catalogues the complete list of identified enzymes along with their computed annotation details including length, hydrophobicity, amino acid composition, subcellular location, gene ontology, KEGG pathway, orthologous group, Pfam domain, intron-exon organization, transmembrane topology, and secondary/tertiary structural data. Furthermore, to facilitate functional and evolutionary study of these enzymes, a collection of built-in applications for BLAST search, motif identification, sequence and phylogenetic analysis have been seamlessly integrated into the database. dEMBF is the first database that brings together all enzymes responsible for lipid synthesis from available algal genomes, and provides an integrative platform for enzyme inquiry and analysis. This database will be extremely useful for algal biofuel research. It can be accessed at http://bbprof.immt.res.in/embf.

  5. Divergence time estimates and the evolution of major lineages in the florideophyte red algae

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun Chan; Boo, Sung Min; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Saunders, Gary W.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Fredericq, Suzanne; Graf, Louis; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2016-01-01

    The Florideophyceae is the most abundant and taxonomically diverse class of red algae (Rhodophyta). However, many aspects of the systematics and divergence times of the group remain unresolved. Using a seven-gene concatenated dataset (nuclear EF2, LSU and SSU rRNAs, mitochondrial cox1, and plastid rbcL, psaA and psbA genes), we generated a robust phylogeny of red algae to provide an evolutionary timeline for florideophyte diversification. Our relaxed molecular clock analysis suggests that the Florideophyceae diverged approximately 943 (817–1,049) million years ago (Ma). The major divergences in this class involved the emergence of Hildenbrandiophycidae [ca. 781 (681–879) Ma], Nemaliophycidae [ca. 661 (597–736) Ma], Corallinophycidae [ca. 579 (543–617) Ma], and the split of Ahnfeltiophycidae and Rhodymeniophycidae [ca. 508 (442–580) Ma]. Within these clades, extant diversity reflects largely Phanerozoic diversification. Divergences within Florideophyceae were accompanied by evolutionary changes in the carposporophyte stage, leading to a successful strategy for maximizing spore production from each fertilization event. Our research provides robust estimates for the divergence times of major lineages within the Florideophyceae. This timeline was used to interpret the emergence of key morphological innovations that characterize these multicellular red algae. PMID:26892537

  6. Characterization and Comparison of the Structural Features, Immune-Modulatory and Anti-Avian Influenza Virus Activities Conferred by Three Algal Sulfated Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lin; Chen, Xiaolin; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Fubo; Hu, Linfeng; Yue, Yang; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Three marine macroalgae, i.e., Grateloupia filicina, Ulva pertusa and Sargassum qingdaoense, were selected as the deputies of Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Ochrophyta for comparative analysis of the molecular structures and biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides (SP). The ratio of water-soluble polysaccharides, the monosaccharide composition and the sulfated contents of three extracted SPs were determined, and their structures were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. In addition, biological activity analysis showed that all three SPs had immune-modulatory activity both in vitro and in vivo, and SPs from S. qingdaoense had the best effect. Further bioassays showed that three SPs could not only enhance the immunity level stimulated by inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) in vivo but also significantly inhibited the activity of activated AIV (H9N2 subtype) in vitro. G. filicina SP exhibited the strongest anti-AIV activity. These results revealed the variations in structural features and bioactivities among three SPs and indicated the potential adjuvants for immune-enhancement and anti-AIV. PMID:26729137

  7. Macroalgae of Izmir Gulf: Dictyotaceae exhibit high in vitro anti-cancer activity independent from their antioxidant capabilities.

    PubMed

    Çelenk, Fatma Gül; Özkaya, Ali Burak; Sukatar, Atakan

    2016-12-01

    In this study, 24 marine macroalgae collected from the coastline of Izmir Gulf were examined for their antioxidant activities and their effects on cell proliferation. Crude extracts were obtained from samples with cold methanol extraction. Antioxidant activity was evaluated as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC); growth inhibitory effects of the extracts were determined by using WST-8. Amongst the species, Polysiphonia denuata (Rhodophyta) and Cystoseira species (Phaeophyceae) have been noticed by their high DPPH radical scavenging activities and TPCs. As expected, there was a strong correlation between these tests. Dictyota dichotoma (Phaeophyceae) showed the highest anti-cancer activity on MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 17.2 ng mL(-1). Flow cytometry analyses demonstrated that D. dichotoma methanolic extract strongly induced apoptosis. This extract exhibited moderate viability inhibition on MCF10A cells (IC50: 49.3 ng mL(-1)), suggesting a potential use of the extracts or its compounds for cancer therapy. There was no correlation between anti-cancer potential and antioxidant content of the extracts.

  8. Effects of different light conditions on repair of UV-B-induced damage in carpospores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Qing; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and different light conditions on the repair of UV-B-induced damage in carpospores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm (Rhodophyta) in laboratory experiments. Carpospores were treated daily with different doses of UV-B radiation for 48 days, when vertical branches had formed in all treatments; after each daily treatment, the carpospores were subjected to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), darkness, red light, or blue light during a 2-h repair stage. Carpospore diameters were measured every 4 days. We measured the growth and cellular contents of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin, and UV-B-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in carpospores on Day 48. Low doses of UV-B radiation (36 and 72 J/m2) accelerated the growth of C. ocellatus. However, as the amount of UV-B radiation increased, the growth rate decreased and morphological changes occurred. UV-B radiation significant damaged DNA and photosynthetic pigments and induced three kind of MAAs, palythine, asterina-330, and shinorine. PAR conditions were best for repairing UV-B-induced damage. Darkness promoted the activity of the DNA darkrepair mechanism. Red light enhanced phycoerythrin synthesis but inhibited light repair of DNA. Although blue light, increased the activity of DNA photolyase, greatly improving remediation efficiency, the growth and development of C. ocellatus carpospores were slower than in other light treatments.

  9. Sterols from the red algae, Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flagelliformis, from Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Masoumeh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Mashinchian-Moradi, Ali; Gohari, Ahmad R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Two of the important algae from Persian Gulf are Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flageliformis (Rhodophyta). Antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic effects of the mentioned algae have been presented in the previous studies. Aim: In this study, the isolation and structural elucidation of the sterols from these algae are reported. Materials and Methods: The separation and purification of the compounds were carried out with silica gel, sephadex LH20 column chromatography (CC) and HPLC to obtain six pure compounds 1-6. The structural elucidation of the constituents was based on the data obtained from H-NMR,13C-NMR, HMBC, HSQC, DEPT, and EI-MS. Results: The isolated compounds from G. salicornia were identified as 22-dehydrocholesterol (1), cholesterol (2), oleic acid (3), and stigmasterol (4), and the isolated constituents from H. flagelliformis were identified as 22-dehydrocholesterol (1), cholesterol (2), oleic acid (3), cholesterol oleate (5), and (22E)-cholesta-5,22-dien-3β-ol-7-one (6) based on the spectral data compared to those reported in the literature. Conclusion: Red algae are enriched with cholesterol polysaccharides. We first reported the presence of cholesteryl oleate and (22E)-cholesta-5,22-dien-3β-ol-7-one in H. flagelliformis. PMID:21716930

  10. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Elíca Amara Cecília; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flávia de Barros; Goulart Sant'ana, Antônio Euzebio

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40  μ g·mL(-1) (11.1460  μ g·mL(-1) and 25.8689  μ g·mL(-1), resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40  μ g·mL(-1) (29.018  μ g·mL(-1) and 17.230  μ g·mL(-1), resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277  μ g·mL(-1) and 706.990  μ g·mL(-1)) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar.

  11. Carrageenan as a dry strength additive for papermaking

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenhua; Li, Xinping; Xie, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Carrageenans are commercially important sulfated gums found in various species of red seaweeds (Rhodophyta), wherein they serve a structural function similar to that of pectins in land plants. In this study, carrageenan was used independently or in combination with cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) and/or Al2(SO4)3 to explore its application as a dry strength additive in papermaking. Strength index determination, ash content detection, FTIR characterization and SEM observation were performed on prepared handsheets. The results showed that with 0.6% Al2(SO4)3 and 0.2% carrageenan as additives, the tensile index increased by 13.53% and precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) retention increased by 57.06%. With 0.6% Al2(SO4)3, 0.2% carrageenan and 0.03% CPAM as additives, PCC retention increased by 121% while the tensile index did not fall compared to handsheets without additives, indicating that carrageenan could enhance the strength of handsheets and be used as an anionic dry strength agent. PMID:28170422

  12. Asparagopsis armata and Sphaerococcus coronopifolius as a natural source of antimicrobial compounds.

    PubMed

    Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Monteiro, Hugo; Araújo, Ernesto; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui

    2015-03-01

    Methanol, n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts of twelve marine macro-algae (Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Heterokontophyta divisions) from Peniche coast (Portugal) were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion method against Bacillus subtilis (gram positive bacteria) and Escherichia coli (gram negative bacteria). Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a model for the antifungal activity by evaluating the growth inhibitory activity of the extracts. The high antibacterial activity was obtained by the Asparagopsis armata methanolic extract (10 mm-0.1 mg/disc), followed by the Sphaerococcus coronopifolius n-hexane extract (8 mm-0.1 mg/disc), and the Asparagopsis armata dichloromethane extract (12 mm-0.3 mg/disc) against Bacillus subtilis. There were no positive results against Escherichia coli. Sphaerococcus coronopifolius revealed high antifungal potential for n-hexane (IC50 = 40.2 µg/ml), dichloromethane (IC50 = 78.9 µg/ml) and methanolic (IC50 = 55.18 µg/ml) extracts against Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth. The antifungal potency of the Sphaerococcus coronopifolius extracts was similar with the standard amphotericin B. Asparagopsis armata and Sphaerococcus coronopifolius reveal to be interesting sources of natural compounds with antimicrobial properties.

  13. [Punta Cocles coral reef, Caribbean Coast of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Cindy; Alvarado, Juan José

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the Punta Cocles reef (Limón, Costa Rica). Data were obtained by sampling nine transects along the coast and observations done by skin diving between September and November of 2002. This reef consist of 10.5 hectares, where 13 species of corals, 39 of macroalgae, two of seagrasses, two of zoantids, one anemone, one corallimorpharian, and one sponge were identified. Life coral coverage (16%), was higher than in other years (5% for 1985, and 13.2% for 1995), and death coral coverage was very low (0.2%). Macroalgae have the highest coverage (59%), particularly brown algae with a patchy distribution of Sargassum and Padina. Laurencia brongniartii (Rhodophyta) is added to the list of marine flora of Costa Rica. The Punta Cocles reef works as a refuge for organisms, because there are no towns or river mouths nearby, and because of the coast formation. The refuge character is enhanced by the environmental conscience of the people that live close to the reef and help to protect the environment.

  14. Selection of effective macroalgal species and tracing nitrogen sources on the different part of Yantai coast, China indicated by macroalgal δ(15)N values.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujue; Liu, Dongyan; Richard, Pierre; Di, Baoping

    2016-01-15

    To determine the dominant nitrogen sources and select effective macroalgal species for monitoring eutrophication along the Yantai coast, the total carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ(15)N) in macroalgal tissue were analyzed in conjunction with environmental variables in seawater along the Yantai coastline. The ranges of macroalgal tissue δ(15)N values together with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) composition indicated that except for the atmospheric deposition, there were three dominant types of nitrogen sources along the Yantai coast, with the agricultural fertilizer usage and factorial wastewater input at the S1 (Zhifu Island coast), the sewage discharge at S2 (the Moon Bay coast), the sewage discharge together with aquaculture impacts at S3 (Fisherman Wharf coast) and S4 (the Horse Island coast). Macroalgal growth were not limited by DIN but limited by P at S2, S3 and S4. Macroalgal species suitable or not for DIN source tracing along the Yantai coast were discussed. For sites with low DIN concentration, many species of three phyla could be used for DIN sources tracing with Laurencia okamurai, Gloiopeltis furcata and Ulva pertusa being ideal species. For site with high DIN concentration, however, species of Rhodophyta were not suitable and only Scytosiphon lomentaria and Monostroma nitidium were chosen.

  15. The effect of nutrient enrichment on the growth, nucleic acid concentrations, and elemental stoichiometry of coral reef macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Reef, Ruth; Pandolfi, John M; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2012-08-01

    The growth rate hypothesis (GRH) links growth rates with organism elemental stoichiometry. Support for the GRH was found for many animal species, but less so for plants. This is the first study to test the GRH in macroalgae. Tropical coral reef macroalgae from three lineages, Caulerpa serrulata (Chlorophyta), Laurencia intricata (Rhodophyta), and Sargassum polyphyllum (Phaeophyceae) were grown enriched with nitrogen or phosphorous and under control conditions at Heron Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Growth rate, photosynthesis, nucleic acid composition, and elemental stoichiometry were measured. Nutrient enrichment had positive effects on photosynthetic rates and on investment in RNA. However, growth rate was not correlated with either photosynthetic rates or RNA content; thus, we did not find support for the GRH in tropical macroalgae. Macroalgae, especially L. intricata, accumulated P to very high levels (>0.6% of dry weight). The growth rate response to tissue P concentrations was unimodal. Above 0.21%, P accumulation had negative effects on growth. Nitrogen was not stored, but evidence of futile cycling was observed. The capacity to store large amounts of P is probably an adaptation to the low and patchy nutrient environment of the tropical oceans.

  16. Impact of seaweed beachings on dynamics of δ(15)N isotopic signatures in marine macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Lemesle, Stéphanie; Mussio, Isabelle; Rusig, Anne-Marie; Menet-Nédélec, Florence; Claquin, Pascal

    2015-08-15

    A fine-scale survey of δ(15)N, δ(13)C, tissue-N in seaweeds was conducted using samples from 17 sampling points at two sites (Grandcamp-Maisy (GM), Courseulles/Mer (COU)) along the French coast of the English Channel in 2012 and 2013. Partial triadic analysis was performed on the parameter data sets and revealed the functioning of three areas: one estuary (EstA) and two rocky areas (GM(∗), COU(∗)). In contrast to oceanic and anthropogenic reference points similar temporal dynamics characterized δ(15)N signatures and N contents at GM(∗) and COU(∗). Nutrient dynamics were similar: the N-concentrations in seawater originated from the River Seine and local coastal rivers while P-concentrations mainly from these local rivers. δ(15)N at GM(∗) were linked to turbidity suggesting inputs of autochthonous organic matter from large-scale summer seaweed beachings made up of a mixture of Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta species. This study highlights the coupling between seaweed beachings and nitrogen sources of intertidal macroalgae.

  17. Analysis of Porphyra membrane transporters demonstrates gene transfer among photosynthetic eukaryotes and numerous sodium-coupled transport systems.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cheong Xin; Zäuner, Simone; Wheeler, Glen; Grossman, Arthur R; Prochnik, Simon E; Blouin, Nicolas A; Zhuang, Yunyun; Benning, Christoph; Berg, Gry Mine; Yarish, Charles; Eriksen, Renée L; Klein, Anita S; Lin, Senjie; Levine, Ira; Brawley, Susan H; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2012-04-01

    Membrane transporters play a central role in many cellular processes that rely on the movement of ions and organic molecules between the environment and the cell, and between cellular compartments. Transporters have been well characterized in plants and green algae, but little is known about transporters or their evolutionary histories in the red algae. Here we examined 482 expressed sequence tag contigs that encode putative membrane transporters in the economically important red seaweed Porphyra (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta). These contigs are part of a comprehensive transcriptome dataset from Porphyra umbilicalis and Porphyra purpurea. Using phylogenomics, we identified 30 trees that support the expected monophyly of red and green algae/plants (i.e. the Plantae hypothesis) and 19 expressed sequence tag contigs that show evidence of endosymbiotic/horizontal gene transfer involving stramenopiles. The majority (77%) of analyzed contigs encode transporters with unresolved phylogenies, demonstrating the difficulty in resolving the evolutionary history of genes. We observed molecular features of many sodium-coupled transport systems in marine algae, and the potential for coregulation of Porphyra transporter genes that are associated with fatty acid biosynthesis and intracellular lipid trafficking. Although both the tissue-specific and subcellular locations of the encoded proteins require further investigation, our study provides red algal gene candidates associated with transport functions and novel insights into the biology and evolution of these transporters.

  18. Immunomodulatory properties of the protein fraction from Phorphyra columbina.

    PubMed

    Cian, Raúl E; López-Posadas, Rocío; Drago, Silvina R; de Medina, Fermín Sánchez; Martínez-Augustin, Olga

    2012-08-22

    The phycobiliproteins from Rhodophyta , R-phycoerythrin (R-PE) and C-phycocyanin (C-PC), have been shown to exert immunomodulatory effects. This study evaluated the effects of a Phorphyra columbina protein fraction (PF) and R-PE and C-PC on rat primary splenocytes, macrophages, and T-lymphocytes in vitro. PF featured various protein species, including R-PE and C-PC. PF showed mitogenic effects on rat splenocytes and was nontoxic to cells except at 1 g L(-1) protein. IL-10 secretion was enhanced by PF in rat splenocytes, macrophages, and especially T-lymphocytes, whereas it was markedly diminished by R-PE and C-PC. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by macrophages was inhibited. The effect of PF on IL-10 was evoked by JNK/p38 MAPK and NF-κB-dependent pathways in macrophages and T-lymphocytes. It was concluded that PF has immunomodulatory effects on macrophages and lymphocytes that appear to be predominantly anti-inflammatory via up-regulated IL-10 production and cannot be accounted for by R-PE and C-PC.

  19. Comparisons of the fungal and protistan communities among different marine sponge holobionts by pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    He, Liming; Liu, Fang; Karuppiah, Valliappan; Ren, Yi; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    To date, the knowledge of eukaryotic communities associated with sponges remains limited compared with prokaryotic communities. In a manner similar to prokaryotes, it could be hypothesized that sponge holobionts have phylogenetically diverse eukaryotic symbionts, and the eukaryotic community structures in different sponge holobionts were probably different. In order to test this hypothesis, the communities of eukaryota associated with 11 species of South China Sea sponges were compared with the V4 region of 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Consequently, 135 and 721 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi and protists were obtained at 97 % sequence similarity, respectively. These sequences were assigned to 2 phyla of fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) and 9 phyla of protists including 5 algal phyla (Chlorophyta, Haptophyta, Streptophyta, Rhodophyta, and Stramenopiles) and 4 protozoal phyla (Alveolata, Cercozoa, Haplosporidia, and Radiolaria) including 47 orders (12 fungi, 35 protists). Entorrhizales of fungi and 18 orders of protists were detected in marine sponges for the first time. Particularly, Tilletiales of fungi and Chlorocystidales of protists were detected for the first time in marine habitats. Though Ascomycota, Alveolata, and Radiolaria were detected in all the 11 sponge species, sponge holobionts have different fungi and protistan communities according to OTU comparison and principal component analysis at the order level. This study provided the first insights into the fungal and protistan communities associated with different marine sponge holobionts using pyrosequencing, thus further extending the knowledge on sponge-associated eukaryotic diversity.

  20. Decadal changes in the distribution of common intertidal seaweeds in Galicia (NW Iberia).

    PubMed

    Piñeiro-Corbeira, Cristina; Barreiro, Rodolfo; Cremades, Javier

    2016-02-01

    Seaweed assemblages in Atlantic Europe are been distorted by global change, but the intricate coastal profile of the area suggests that susceptibility may differ between regions. In particular, NW Iberia is an important omission because no study has systematically assessed long-term changes in a large number of species. Using intertidal surveys for 33 common perennial seaweeds, we show that the average number of species per site declined significantly from 1998-99 to 2014 in NW Iberia. The largest drops in site occupancy were detected in kelps, fucoids, and carrageenan-producing Rhodophyta. Parallel analyses revealed significant upward trends in SST, air temperature, and strong waves; meanwhile, nutrients decreased slightly except in areas affected by local inputs. Similar changes reported for subtidal assemblages in other parts of Atlantic Europe suggest that the drivers may be ubiquitous. Nonetheless, a more proper assessment of both global and local impacts, will require further surveys, and the regular monitoring of intertidal perennial seaweeds appears as a cost-effective alternative to discriminate genuine long-term trends from transitory fluctuations.

  1. Atmospheric Dispersal of Bioactive Streptomyces albidoflavus Strains Among Terrestrial and Marine Environments.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; Braña, Alfredo F; González, Verónica; Nava, Herminio; Molina, Axayacatl; Llera, Eva; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Rico, José M; García-Flórez, Lucía; Acuña, José L; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria

    2016-02-01

    Members of the Streptomyces albidoflavus clade, identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, are widespread among predominant terrestrial lichens (Flavoparmelia caperata and Xanthoria parietina) and diverse intertidal and subtidal marine macroalgae, brown red and green (Phylum Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Chlorophyta) from the Cantabrian Cornice. In addition to these terrestrial and coastal temperate habitats, similar strains were also found to colonize deep-sea ecosystems and were isolated mainly from gorgonian and solitary corals and other invertebrates (Phylum Cnidaria, Annelida, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, and Porifera) living up to 4700-m depth and at a temperature of 2-4 °C in the submarine Avilés Canyon. Similar strains have been also repeatedly isolated from atmospheric precipitations (rain drops, snow, and hailstone) collected in the same area throughout a year observation time. These ubiquitous strains were found to be halotolerant, psychrotolerant, and barotolerant. Bioactive compounds with diverse antibiotic and cytotoxic activities produced by these strains were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and database comparison. These include antibacterials (paulomycins A and B), antifungals (maltophilins), antifungals displaying also cytotoxic activities (antimycins and 6-epialteramides), and the antitumor compound fredericamycin. A hypothetical dispersion model is here proposed to explain the biogeographical distribution of S. albidoflavus strains in terrestrial, marine, and atmospheric environments.

  2. Macroalgal Introductions by Hull Fouling on Recreational Vessels: Seaweeds and Sailors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineur, Frédéric; Johnson, Mark P.; Maggs, Christine A.

    2008-10-01

    Macroalgal invasions in coastal areas have been a growing concern during the past decade. The present study aimed to assess the role of hull fouling on recreational yachts as a vector for macroalgal introductions. Questionnaire and hull surveys were carried out in marinas in France and Spain. The questionnaires revealed that the majority of yacht owners are aware of seaweed introductions, usually undertake short range journeys, dry dock their boat at least once a year, and use antifouling paints. The hull survey showed that many in-service yachts were completely free of macroalgae. When present, fouling assemblages consisted mainly of one to two macroalgal species. The most commonly found species was the tolerant green seaweed Ulva flexuosa. Most of the other species found are also cosmopolitan and opportunistic. A few nonnative and potentially invasive Ceramiales (Rhodophyta) were found occasionally on in-service yachts. On the basis of the information gathered during interviews of yacht owners in the surveyed area, these occurrences are likely to be uncommon. However they can pose a significant risk of primary or secondary introductions of alien macroalgal species, especially in the light of the increase in yachting activities. With large numbers of recreational yachts and relatively rare occurrences of nonnative species on hulls, comprehensive screening programs do not seem justified or practical. The risks of transferring nonnative species may, however, be minimized by encouraging the behaviors that prevent fouling on hulls and by taking action against neglected boats before they can act as vectors.

  3. Potential and limits of Raman spectroscopy for carotenoid detection in microorganisms: implications for astrobiology

    PubMed Central

    Jehlička, Jan; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Osterrothová, Kateřina; Novotná, Julie; Nedbalová, Linda; Kopecký, Jiří; Němec, Ivan; Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, it is demonstrated how Raman spectroscopy can be used to detect different carotenoids as possible biomarkers in various groups of microorganisms. The question which arose from previous studies concerns the level of unambiguity of discriminating carotenoids using common Raman microspectrometers. A series of laboratory-grown microorganisms of different taxonomic affiliation was investigated, such as halophilic heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, the anoxygenic phototrophs, the non-halophilic heterotrophs as well as eukaryotes (Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta). The data presented show that Raman spectroscopy is a suitable tool to assess the presence of carotenoids of these organisms in cultures. Comparison is made with the high-performance liquid chromatography approach of analysing pigments in extracts. Direct measurements on cultures provide fast and reliable identification of the pigments. Some of the carotenoids studied are proposed as tracers for halophiles, in contrast with others which can be considered as biomarkers of other genera. The limits of application of Raman spectroscopy are discussed for a few cases where the current Raman spectroscopic approach does not allow discriminating structurally very similar carotenoids. The database reported can be used for applications in geobiology and exobiology for the detection of pigment signals in natural settings. PMID:25368348

  4. Plant and animal glycolate oxidases have a common eukaryotic ancestor and convergently duplicated to evolve long-chain 2-hydroxy acid oxidases.

    PubMed

    Esser, Christian; Kuhn, Anke; Groth, Georg; Lercher, Martin J; Maurino, Veronica G

    2014-05-01

    Glycolate oxidase (GOX) is a crucial enzyme of plant photorespiration. The encoding gene is thought to have originated from endosymbiotic gene transfer between the eukaryotic host and the cyanobacterial endosymbiont at the base of plantae. However, animals also possess GOX activities. Plant and animal GOX belong to the gene family of (L)-2-hydroxyacid-oxidases ((L)-2-HAOX). We find that all (L)-2-HAOX proteins in animals and archaeplastida go back to one ancestral eukaryotic sequence; the sole exceptions are green algae of the chlorophyta lineage. Chlorophyta replaced the ancestral eukaryotic (L)-2-HAOX with a bacterial ortholog, a lactate oxidase that may have been obtained through the primary endosymbiosis at the base of plantae; independent losses of this gene may explain its absence in other algal lineages (glaucophyta, rhodophyta, and charophyta). We also show that in addition to GOX, plants possess (L)-2-HAOX proteins with different specificities for medium- and long-chain hydroxyacids (lHAOX), likely involved in fatty acid and protein catabolism. Vertebrates possess lHAOX proteins acting on similar substrates as plant lHAOX; however, the existence of GOX and lHAOX subfamilies in both plants and animals is not due to shared ancestry but is the result of convergent evolution in the two most complex eukaryotic lineages. On the basis of targeting sequences and predicted substrate specificities, we conclude that the biological role of plantae (L)-2-HAOX in photorespiration evolved by co-opting an existing peroxisomal protein.

  5. [Usefulness of electronic drug registers: Spanish register of patients treated with fingolimod (Gilenya ®)].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Óscar; Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Alfredo; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Garcia-Garcia, Margarida; Montalban, Xavier

    2014-01-16

    Introduccion. Se describe el diseño de un registro electronico de los pacientes con esclerosis multiple que inician tratamiento con fingolimod en España, que se plantea como una herramienta para monitorizar su manejo en la practica clinica habitual que permita optimizar su uso. Objetivos. Conocer el perfil de los pacientes con esclerosis multiple en tratamiento con fingolimod y determinar la efectividad y seguridad de este tratamiento en la practica clinica habitual. Desarrollo. Se establece un registro observacional, retrospectivo y prospectivo, multicentrico, que estara activo durante cinco años. Participaran 40 neurologos de España. Se incluiran pacientes tratados con fingolimod que cumplan los criterios de seleccion. Las variables de efectividad que se evaluaran son: la discapacidad medida mediante la escala ampliada del estado de discapacidad, la tasa de brotes, las lesiones captantes de gadolinio en secuencia T1 y las lesiones nuevas en secuencia T2, y el porcentaje de pacientes libres de actividad y aquellos que requieran tratamientos concomitantes. Las variables de seguridad que se evaluaran son: la tasa de pacientes que presenten acontecimientos y reacciones adversas, respectivamente, analizandose separadamente aquellos que se presenten tras la primera dosis o relacionados con el plan de manejo del riesgo de fingolimod, y la tasa de abandonos del tratamiento. Conclusiones. Los nuevos farmacos de reciente comercializacion requieren mayor informacion acerca de su efectividad y seguridad, mas alla del entorno controlado de un ensayo clinico. Las iniciativas de registros electronicos como el registro Gilenya son la solucion para dar respuesta a dicha necesidad, proporcionando informacion en el menor tiempo posible acerca del manejo mas adecuado para conseguir su uso mas optimo y eficiente posible.

  6. [Validation of an adverse event reporting system in primary care].

    PubMed

    de Lourdes Rojas-Armadillo, María; Jiménez-Báez, María Valeria; Chávez-Hernández, María Margarita; González-Fondón, Araceli

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la seguridad del paciente es un tema prioritario en los sistemas de salud por el gasto que genera, el desgaste institucional, la falta de credibilidad y la frustración del personal que comete los eventos adversos. No existe un instrumento estandarizado y sistemático para registrar, reportar y analizar los eventos adversos en unidades de atención primaria. El objetivo fue validar un sistema de vigilancia para el registro de eventos centinelas, adversos y cuasi fallas en atención primaria. Métodos: se revisaron sistemas de registro y notificación de eventos adversos en atención primaria. Asimismo, se diseñó una propuesta de instrumento para el registro en unidades de atención primaria en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social que integrara fallas en la estructura y en el proceso. Resultados: se le presentó el caso del formato VENCER-MF a 35 sujetos. El 100 % identificó una falla en el proceso de atención médica, 90 % registró un evento centinela, 85 % identificó el origen de este y el 75 % sugirió medidas para evitar la recurrencia de eventos adversos. Se obtuvo un alfa de Cronbach de 0.6, con una p = 0.03. Conclusión: el instrumento VENCER-MF tiene una consistencia buena para la identificación de eventos adversos.

  7. [History of the cancer registry in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Allende-López, Aldo; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    A cancer registry is to record the data which let us to know the epidemiology of neoplasm, but led us take a decision in medical policy about this health problem that benefit patients. In this paper we did a brief historical review about models and attempts for having a cancer registry in Mexico. However, since 1940 "the fight against cancer" was declared, we have not had a confident cancer registry today validated and built with data from whole the country. In 1982, the Registro Nacional del Cancer was created. The design and validation of a registration card in four hospitals were the main results. In 1988, the Registro Nacional del Cancer was reinforced with a computerized system for facilitation the data capture. In 1994, it was signed the first interinstitutional agreement that led to Registro Histopatol6gico de Neoplasias Malignas. In 1996, the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social established a cancer registry in children in Mexico with the intention to have data from this population.

  8. Multigene phylogeny of the red algal subclass Nemaliophycidae.

    PubMed

    Lam, Daryl W; Verbruggen, Heroen; Saunders, Gary W; Vis, Morgan L

    2016-01-01

    The red algae (Rhodophyta) are a lineage of primary endosymbionts whose ancestors represent some of the first photosynthetic eukaryotes on the planet. They primarily inhabit marine ecosystems, with only ∼5% of species found in freshwater systems. The subclass Nemaliophycidae is very diverse in ecological and life history features and therefore a useful model to study these traits, but the phylogenetic relationships among the orders are, for the most part, poorly resolved. To elucidate the phylogeny of the Nemaliophycidae, we constructed a nine-gene dataset comprised of nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial markers for 67 red algal specimens. The resulting maximum likelihood (ML) phylogeny confirmed the monophyly of all orders. The sister relationship of the Acrochaetiales and Palmariales received high support and the relationship of the Balliales with Balbianiales and Entwisleiales with Colaconematales was moderately supported. The Nemaliales, Entwisleiales, Colaconematales, Palmariales and Acrochaetiales formed a highly supported clade. Unfortunately, all other relationships among the orders had low bootstrap support. Although the ML analysis did not resolve many of the relationships, further analyses suggested that a resolution is possible. A Phycas analysis supported a dichotomously branching tree and Bayesian analysis showed a similar topology with all relationships highly supported. Simulations extrapolating the number of nucleotide characters beyond the current size of the dataset suggested that most nodes in the phylogeny would be resolved if more data become available. Phylogenomic approaches will be necessary to provide a well-supported phylogeny of this subclass with all relationships resolved such that the evolution of freshwater species from marine ancestors as well as reproductive traits can be explored.

  9. THE BIOGEOGRAPHIC ORIGIN OF ARCTIC ENDEMIC SEAWEEDS: A THERMOGEOGRAPHIC VIEW(1).

    PubMed

    Adey, Walter H; Lindstrom, Sandra C; Hommersand, Max H; Müller, Kirsten M

    2008-12-01

    The Arctic is geologically and biogeographically young, and the origin of its seaweed flora has been widely debated. The Arctic littoral biogeographic region dates from the latest Tertiary and Pleistocene. Following the opening of Bering Strait, about 3.5 mya, the "Great Trans-Arctic Biotic Interchange" populated the Arctic with a fauna strongly dominated by species of North Pacific origin. The Thermogeographic Model (TM) demonstrates why climate and geography continued to support this pattern in the Pleistocene. Thus, Arctic and Atlantic subarctic species of seaweeds are likely to be evolutionarily "based" in the North Pacific, subarctic species are likely to be widespread in the warmer Arctic, and species of Atlantic Boreal or warmer origin are unlikely in the Arctic and Subarctic. Although Arctic seaweeds have been thought to have a greater affinity with the North Atlantic, we have reanalyzed the Arctic endemic algal flora, using the Thermogeographic Model and evolutionary trees based on molecular data, to demonstrate otherwise. There are 35 congeneric species of the six, abundant Arctic Rhodophyta that we treat in this paper; 32 of these species (91%) occur in the North Pacific, two species (6%) occur in the Boreal or warmer Atlantic Ocean, and a single species is panoceanic, but restricted to the Subarctic. Laminaria solidungula J. Agardh, a kelp Arctic "endemic" species, has 18 sister species. While only eleven (61%) occur in the North Pacific, this rapidly dispersing and evolving genus is a terminal member of a diverse family and order (Laminariales) widely accepted to have evolved in the North Pacific. Thus, both the physical/time-based TM and the dominant biogeographic pattern of relatives of Arctic macrophytes suggest strong compliance with the evidence of zoology, geology, and paleoclimatology that the Arctic marine flora is largely of Pacific origin.

  10. Development of a cost-effective metabarcoding strategy for analysis of the marine phytoplankton community

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Tae-Ho; Kang, Hye-Eun; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Sang Heon; Ahn, Do-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    We developed a cost-effective metabarcoding strategy to analyze phytoplankton community structure using the Illumina MiSeq system. The amplicons (404–411 bp) obtained by end-pairing of two reads were sufficiently long to distinguish algal species and provided barcode data equivalent to those generated with the Roche 454 system, but at less than 1/20th of the cost. The original universal primer sequences targeting the 23S rDNA region and the PCR strategy were both modified, and this resulted in higher numbers of eukaryotic algal sequences by excluding non-photosynthetic proteobacterial sequences supporting effectiveness of this strategy. The novel strategy was used to analyze the phytoplankton community structure of six water samples from the East/Japan Sea: surface and 50 m depths at coastal and open-sea sites, with collections in May and July 2014. In total, 345 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified, which covered most of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic algal phyla, including Dinophyta, Rhodophyta, Ochrophyta, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta, Cryptophyta, Haptophyta, and Cyanophyta. This highlights the importance of plastid 23S primers, which perform better than the currently used 16S primers for phytoplankton community surveys. The findings also revealed that more efforts should be made to update 23S rDNA sequences as well as those of 16S in the databases. Analysis of algal proportions in the six samples showed that community structure differed depending on location, depth and season. Across the six samples evaluated, the numbers of OTUs in each phylum were similar but their relative proportions varied. This novel strategy would allow laboratories to analyze large numbers of samples at reasonable expense, whereas this has not been possible to date due to cost and time. In addition, we expect that this strategy will generate a large amount of novel data that could potentially change established methods and tools that are currently used in the realms of

  11. The Complete Chloroplast and Mitochondrial Genomes of the Green Macroalga Ulva sp. UNA00071828 (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Melton, James T.; Leliaert, Frederik; Tronholm, Ana; Lopez-Bautista, Juan M.

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes has become an integral part in understanding the genomic machinery and the phylogenetic histories of green algae. Previously, only three chloroplast genomes (Oltmannsiellopsis viridis, Pseudendoclonium akinetum, and Bryopsis hypnoides) and two mitochondrial genomes (O. viridis and P. akinetum) from the class Ulvophyceae have been published. Here, we present the first chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes from the ecologically and economically important marine, green algal genus Ulva. The chloroplast genome of Ulva sp. was 99,983 bp in a circular-mapping molecule that lacked inverted repeats, and thus far, was the smallest ulvophycean plastid genome. This cpDNA was a highly compact, AT-rich genome that contained a total of 102 identified genes (71 protein-coding genes, 28 tRNA genes, and three ribosomal RNA genes). Additionally, five introns were annotated in four genes: atpA (1), petB (1), psbB (2), and rrl (1). The circular-mapping mitochondrial genome of Ulva sp. was 73,493 bp and follows the expanded pattern also seen in other ulvophyceans and trebouxiophyceans. The Ulva sp. mtDNA contained 29 protein-coding genes, 25 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes for a total of 56 identifiable genes. Ten introns were annotated in this mtDNA: cox1 (4), atp1 (1), nad3 (1), nad5 (1), and rrs (3). Double-cut-and-join (DCJ) values showed that organellar genomes across Chlorophyta are highly rearranged, in contrast to the highly conserved organellar genomes of the red algae (Rhodophyta). A phylogenomic investigation of 51 plastid protein-coding genes showed that Ulvophyceae is not monophyletic, and also placed Oltmannsiellopsis (Oltmannsiellopsidales) and Tetraselmis (Chlorodendrophyceae) closely to Ulva (Ulvales) and Pseudendoclonium (Ulothrichales). PMID:25849557

  12. XET Activity is Found Near Sites of Growth and Cell Elongation in Bryophytes and Some Green Algae: New Insights into the Evolution of Primary Cell Wall Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Van Sandt, Vicky S. T.; Stieperaere, Herman; Guisez, Yves; Verbelen, Jean-Pierre; Vissenberg, Kris

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims In angiosperms xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET)/hydrolase (XTH) is involved in reorganization of the cell wall during growth and development. The location of oligo-xyloglucan transglucosylation activity and the presence of XTH expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the earliest diverging extant plants, i.e. in bryophytes and algae, down to the Phaeophyta was examined. The results provide information on the presence of an XET growth mechanism in bryophytes and algae and contribute to the understanding of the evolution of cell wall elongation in general. Methods Representatives of the different plant lineages were pressed onto an XET test paper and assayed. XET or XET-related activity was visualized as the incorporation of fluorescent signal. The Physcomitrella genome database was screened for the presence of XTHs. In addition, using the 3′ RACE technique searches were made for the presence of possible XTH ESTs in the Charophyta. Key Results XET activity was found in the three major divisions of bryophytes at sites corresponding to growing regions. In the Physcomitrella genome two putative XTH-encoding cDNA sequences were identified that contain all domains crucial for XET activity. Furthermore, XET activity was located at the sites of growth in Chara (Charophyta) and Ulva (Chlorophyta) and a putative XTH ancestral enzyme in Chara was identified. No XET activity was identified in the Rhodophyta or Phaeophyta. Conclusions XET activity was shown to be present in all major groups of green plants. These data suggest that an XET-related growth mechanism originated before the evolutionary divergence of the Chlorobionta and open new insights in the evolution of the mechanisms of primary cell wall expansion. PMID:17098750

  13. Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis Sheds Light on the Diversity and Origin of the MLO Family of Integral Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kusch, Stefan; Pesch, Lina; Panstruga, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Mildew resistance Locus O (MLO) proteins are polytopic integral membrane proteins that have long been considered as plant-specific and being primarily involved in plant–powdery mildew interactions. However, research in the past decade has revealed that MLO proteins diverged into a family with several clades whose members are associated with different physiological processes. We provide a largely increased dataset of MLO amino acid sequences, comprising nearly all major land plant lineages. Based on this comprehensive dataset, we defined seven phylogenetic clades and reconstructed the likely evolution of the MLO family in embryophytes. We further identified several MLO peptide motifs that are either conserved in all MLO proteins or confined to one or several clades, supporting the notion that clade-specific diversification of MLO functions is associated with particular sequence motifs. In baker’s yeast, some of these motifs are functionally linked to transmembrane (TM) transport of organic molecules and ions. In addition, we attempted to define the evolutionary origin of the MLO family and found that MLO-like proteins with highly diverse membrane topologies are present in green algae, but also in the distinctly related red algae (Rhodophyta), Amoebozoa, and Chromalveolata. Finally, we discovered several instances of putative fusion events between MLO proteins and different kinds of proteins. Such Rosetta stone-type hybrid proteins might be instructive for future analysis of potential MLO functions. Our findings suggest that MLO is an ancient protein that possibly evolved in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes, and consolidated in land plants with a conserved topology, comprising seven TM domains and an intrinsically unstructured C-terminus. PMID:26893454

  14. Marine Invasion in the Mediterranean Sea: The Role of Abiotic Factors When There Is No Biological Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The tropical red alga Womersleyella setacea (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) is causing increasing concern in the Mediterranean Sea because of its invasive behavior. After its introduction it has colonized most Mediterranean areas, but the mechanism underlying its acclimatization and invasion process remains unknown. To understand this process, we decided i) to assess in situ the seasonal biomass and phenological patterns of populations inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea in relation to the main environmental factors, and ii) to experimentally determine if the tolerance of W. setacea to different light and temperature conditions can explain its colonization success, as well as its bathymetric distribution range. The bathymetric distribution, biomass, and phenology of W. setacea were studied at two localities, and related to irradiance and temperature values recorded in situ. Laboratory experiments were set up to study survival, growth and reproduction under contrasting light and temperature conditions in the short, mid, and long term.Results showed that, in the studied area, the bathymetric distribution of W. setacea is restricted to a depth belt between 25 and 40 m deep, reaching maximum biomass values (126 g dw m−2) at 30 m depth. In concordance, although in the short term W. setacea survived and grew in a large range of environmental conditions, its life requirements for the mid and long term were dim light levels and low temperatures. Biomass of Womersleyella setacea did not show any clear seasonal pattern, though minimum values were reported in spring. Reproductive structures were always absent. Bearing in mind that no herbivores feed on Womersleyella setacea and that its thermal preferences are more characteristic of temperate than of tropical seaweeds, low light (50 µmol photon m−2 s−1) and low temperature (12°C) levels are critical for W. setacea survival and growth, thus probably determining its spread and bathymetric distribution across the Mediterranean

  15. Effect of the dietary brominated phenol, lanasol, on chemical biotransformation enzymes in the gumboot chiton Cryptochiton stelleri (Middendorf, 1846).

    PubMed

    Debusk, B C; Chimote, S S; Rimoldi, J M; Schenk, D

    2000-09-01

    The effects of diet and other non-anthropogenic stressors on biochemical defenses and their relationship to susceptibility have been largely ignored in wildlife populations. Lanosol is a compound found in relatively high amounts in various marine species of Rhodophyta, including Odonthalia dentata. While previous studies demonstrated that lanosol is a feeding deterrent to several marine herbivores, Cryptochiton stelleri readily feeds upon O. dentata. To examine the effects of lanosol on the profile of biochemical defenses in C. stelleri, chitons were gavaged daily with 0, 1, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg of lanosol. After three days of exposure, digestive gland microsomes were probed for expression of homologous isoforms of cytochromes P450 (CYP1A, CYP3A, and CYP2) and phase II enzymatic activities. Expression of a 43 kDa CYP3A-like protein was increased by approximately 45%, over control following 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg treatments. Estradiol hydroxylase activity tended to increase with the dose of lanosol. UDP-glucuronosyl transferase activity was highly variable but appeared to increase at the two highest treatments, while sulfotranserase activity was significantly decreased at the three highest doses. Kinetic studies of GST activity showed lanosol is a non-competitive inhibitor of both CDNB and GSH in the GST-mediated conjugation reaction. These results show that dietary exposure to the brominated-phenol, lanosol, may alter expression and activity of some phase I and II biotransformation enzymes in chitons, potentially providing a dietary advantage for the species.

  16. Physiologic and metagenomic attributes of the rhodoliths forming the largest CaCO3 bed in the South Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, Giselle S; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; dos Santos, Eidy O; Silveira, Cynthia B; Meirelles, Pedro M; Longo, Leila; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Shota; Iida, Tetsuya; Sawabe, Tomoo; Rezende, Carlos E; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Moura, Rodrigo L; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2014-01-01

    Rhodoliths are free-living coralline algae (Rhodophyta, Corallinales) that are ecologically important for the functioning of marine environments. They form extensive beds distributed worldwide, providing a habitat and nursery for benthic organisms and space for fisheries, and are an important source of calcium carbonate. The Abrolhos Bank, off eastern Brazil, harbors the world's largest continuous rhodolith bed (of ∼21 000 km2) and has one of the largest marine CaCO3 deposits (producing 25 megatons of CaCO3 per year). Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about the microbial diversity, photosynthetic potential and ecological interactions within the rhodolith holobiont. Herein, we performed an ecophysiologic and metagenomic analysis of the Abrolhos rhodoliths to understand their microbial composition and functional components. Rhodoliths contained a specific microbiome that displayed a significant enrichment in aerobic ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria and dissimilative sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacteria. We also observed a significant contribution of bacterial guilds (that is, photolithoautotrophs, anaerobic heterotrophs, sulfide oxidizers, anoxygenic phototrophs and methanogens) in the rhodolith metagenome, suggested to have important roles in biomineralization. The increased hits in aromatic compounds, fatty acid and secondary metabolism subsystems hint at an important chemically mediated interaction in which a functional job partition among eukaryal, archaeal and bacterial groups allows the rhodolith holobiont to thrive in the global ocean. High rates of photosynthesis were measured for Abrolhos rhodoliths (52.16 μmol carbon m−2 s−1), allowing the entire Abrolhos rhodolith bed to produce 5.65 × 105 tons C per day. This estimate illustrates the great importance of the Abrolhos rhodolith beds for dissolved carbon production in the South Atlantic Ocean. PMID:23985749

  17. Exposure-driven macroalgal phase shift following catastrophic disturbance on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roff, George; Chollett, Iliana; Doropoulos, Christopher; Golbuu, Yimnang; Steneck, Robert S.; Isechal, Adelle L.; van Woesik, Robert; Mumby, Peter J.

    2015-09-01

    Environmental conditions play an important role in post-disturbance dynamics of ecosystems by modulating recovery of surviving communities and influencing patterns of succession. Here, we document the effects of wave exposure following a catastrophic disturbance on coral reefs in driving a phase shift to macroalgal dominance. In December 2012, a Category 5 super typhoon (`Typhoon Bopha') passed 50 km to the south of Palau (Micronesia), causing a major loss of reef corals. Immediately post-disturbance, a rapid and extensive phase shift of the macroalgae Liagora sp. (Rhodophyta) was observed at sites exposed to chronic wave exposure. To quantify the influence of biotic and abiotic drivers in modulating the extent of post-disturbance Liagora blooms, we compared benthic substrates and herbivore assemblages at sites surveyed pre- and post-disturbance across a gradient of wave exposure. Relative changes in herbivore biomass and coral cover before and after disturbance did not significantly predict the extent of Liagora cover, indicating that changes in herbivore biomass or reductions in grazing pressure were not directly responsible for driving the Liagora blooms. By contrast, the degree of wave exposure experienced at sites post-disturbance explained >90 % of model variance ( p < 0.001, R 2 = 0.69), in that Liagora was absent at low exposure sites, while most extensive blooms were observed at highly exposed sites. At regional scales, spatial maps of wave exposure accurately predicted the presence of Liagora at impacted sites throughout the Palau archipelago (>150 km distance), highlighting the predictive capacity of wave exposure as an explanatory variable and the deterministic nature of post-disturbance macroalgal blooms. Understanding how physical conditions modulate recovery of ecosystems after disturbance allows insight into post-disturbance dynamics and succession of communities, ultimately allowing management strategies to prioritise restoration efforts in regions

  18. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN OCEAN ACIDIFICATION AND WARMING ON THE MORTALITY AND DISSOLUTION OF CORALLINE ALGAE(1).

    PubMed

    Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Anthony, Kenneth R N; Kline, David I; Dove, Sophie; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2012-02-01

    Coralline algae are among the most sensitive calcifying organisms to ocean acidification as a result of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2 ). Little is known, however, about the combined impacts of increased pCO2 , ocean acidification, and sea surface temperature on tissue mortality and skeletal dissolution of coralline algae. To address this issue, we conducted factorial manipulative experiments of elevated CO2 and temperature and examined the consequences on tissue survival and skeletal dissolution of the crustose coralline alga (CCA) Porolithon (=Hydrolithon) onkodes (Heydr.) Foslie (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta) on the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. We observed that warming amplified the negative effects of high pCO2 on the health of the algae: rates of advanced partial mortality of CCA increased from <1% to 9% under high CO2 (from 400 to 1,100 ppm) and exacerbated to 15% under warming conditions (from 26°C to 29°C). Furthermore, the effect of pCO2 on skeletal dissolution strongly depended on temperature. Dissolution of P. onkodes only occurred in the high-pCO2 treatment and was greater in the warm treatment. Enhanced skeletal dissolution was also associated with a significant increase in the abundance of endolithic algae. Our results demonstrate that P. onkodes is particularly sensitive to ocean acidification under warm conditions, suggesting that previous experiments focused on ocean acidification alone have underestimated the impact of future conditions on coralline algae. Given the central role that coralline algae play within coral reefs, these conclusions have serious ramifications for the integrity of coral-reef ecosystems.

  19. Marine invasion in the Mediterranean Sea: the role of abiotic factors when there is no biological resistance.

    PubMed

    Cebrian, Emma; Rodríguez-Prieto, Conxi

    2012-01-01

    The tropical red alga Womersleyella setacea (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) is causing increasing concern in the Mediterranean Sea because of its invasive behavior. After its introduction it has colonized most Mediterranean areas, but the mechanism underlying its acclimatization and invasion process remains unknown. To understand this process, we decided i) to assess in situ the seasonal biomass and phenological patterns of populations inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea in relation to the main environmental factors, and ii) to experimentally determine if the tolerance of W. setacea to different light and temperature conditions can explain its colonization success, as well as its bathymetric distribution range. The bathymetric distribution, biomass, and phenology of W. setacea were studied at two localities, and related to irradiance and temperature values recorded in situ. Laboratory experiments were set up to study survival, growth and reproduction under contrasting light and temperature conditions in the short, mid, and long term. Results showed that, in the studied area, the bathymetric distribution of W. setacea is restricted to a depth belt between 25 and 40 m deep, reaching maximum biomass values (126 g dw m(-2)) at 30 m depth. In concordance, although in the short term W. setacea survived and grew in a large range of environmental conditions, its life requirements for the mid and long term were dim light levels and low temperatures. Biomass of Womersleyella setacea did not show any clear seasonal pattern, though minimum values were reported in spring. Reproductive structures were always absent. Bearing in mind that no herbivores feed on Womersleyella setacea and that its thermal preferences are more characteristic of temperate than of tropical seaweeds, low light (50 µmol photon m(-2) s(-1)) and low temperature (12°C) levels are critical for W. setacea survival and growth, thus probably determining its spread and bathymetric distribution across the Mediterranean

  20. Temporal mismatch between induction of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase correlates with high H2O2 concentration in seawater from clofibrate-treated red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii.

    PubMed

    Barros, Marcelo P; Granbom, Malena; Colepicolo, Pio; Pedersén, Marianne

    2003-12-01

    Algal cells have developed different strategies to cope with the common environmentally promoted generation of H(2)O(2), which include induction of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), massive H(2)O(2) release in seawater, and synthesis of volatile halocarbons by specific peroxidases. The antioxidant adaptability of the economically important carrageenophyte Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty (Gigartinales: Rhodophyta) was tested here against exposure to clofibrate (CFB), a known promoter of peroxisomal beta-oxidation in mammals and plants. Possibly as a consequence of CFB-induced H2O2 peroxisomal production, the maximum concentration of H(2)O(2) in the seawater of red algae cultures was found to occur (120+/-17 min) after the addition of CFB, which was followed by a significant decrease in the photosynthetic activity of PSII after 24 h. Interestingly, 4 h after the addition of CFB, the total SOD activity was about 2.5-fold higher than in the control, whereas no significant changes were observed in lipoperoxidation levels (TBARS) or in CAT and APX activities. The two H(2)O(2)-scavenging enzymes were only induced later (after 72 h), whereupon CAT showed a dose-dependent response with increasing concentrations of CFB. A more pronounced increase of TBARS concentration than in the controls was evidenced when a 50 microM Fe(2+/3+) solution (3:2 ratio) was added to CFB-treated cultures, suggesting that the combination of exacerbated H(2)O(2) levels in the seawater-in this work, caused by CFB exposure-and Fenton-reaction catalyst (ferric/ferrous ions), imposes harsh oxidative conditions on algal cultures. The bulk of data suggests that K. alvarezii possesses little ability to promptly induce CAT and APX compared to the immediately responsive antioxidant enzyme SOD and, to avoid harmful accumulation of H(2)O(2), the red alga presumably releases H(2)O(2) into the surrounding medium as an alternative mechanism.

  1. Cloning and Functional Characterization of Cycloartenol Synthase from the Red Seaweed Laurencia dendroidea

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, Philipp; de Oliveira, Louisi Souza; Thompson, Cristiane; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Goossens, Alain; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2016-01-01

    The red seaweed Laurencia dendroidea belongs to the Rhodophyta, a phylum of eukaryotic algae that is widely distributed across the oceans and that constitute an important source of bioactive specialized metabolites. Laurencia species have been studied since 1950 and were found to contain a plethora of specialized metabolites, mainly halogenated sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and triterpenes that possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological and ecological activities. The first committed step in the biosynthesis of triterpenes is the cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene, an enzymatic reaction carried out by oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs), giving rise to a broad range of different compounds, such as the sterol precursors cycloartenol and lanosterol, or triterpene precursors such as cucurbitadienol and β-amyrin. Here, we cloned and characterized the first OSC from a red seaweed. The OSC gene was identified through mining of a L. dendroidea transcriptome dataset and subsequently cloned and heterologously expressed in yeast for functional characterization, which indicated that the corresponding enzyme cyclizes 2,3-oxidosqualene to the sterol precursor cycloartenol. Accordingly, the gene was named L. dendroidea cycloartenol synthase (LdCAS). A phylogenetic analysis using OSCs genes from plants, fungi and algae revealed that LdCAS grouped together with OSCs from other red algae, suggesting that cycloartenol could be the common product of the OSC in red seaweeds. Furthermore, profiling of L. dendroidea revealed cholesterol as the major sterol accumulating in this species, implicating red seaweeds contain a ‘hybrid’ sterol synthesis pathway in which the phytosterol precursor cycloartenol is converted into the major animal sterol cholesterol. PMID:27832119

  2. The complete chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of the green macroalga Ulva sp. UNA00071828 (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Melton, James T; Leliaert, Frederik; Tronholm, Ana; Lopez-Bautista, Juan M

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes has become an integral part in understanding the genomic machinery and the phylogenetic histories of green algae. Previously, only three chloroplast genomes (Oltmannsiellopsis viridis, Pseudendoclonium akinetum, and Bryopsis hypnoides) and two mitochondrial genomes (O. viridis and P. akinetum) from the class Ulvophyceae have been published. Here, we present the first chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes from the ecologically and economically important marine, green algal genus Ulva. The chloroplast genome of Ulva sp. was 99,983 bp in a circular-mapping molecule that lacked inverted repeats, and thus far, was the smallest ulvophycean plastid genome. This cpDNA was a highly compact, AT-rich genome that contained a total of 102 identified genes (71 protein-coding genes, 28 tRNA genes, and three ribosomal RNA genes). Additionally, five introns were annotated in four genes: atpA (1), petB (1), psbB (2), and rrl (1). The circular-mapping mitochondrial genome of Ulva sp. was 73,493 bp and follows the expanded pattern also seen in other ulvophyceans and trebouxiophyceans. The Ulva sp. mtDNA contained 29 protein-coding genes, 25 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes for a total of 56 identifiable genes. Ten introns were annotated in this mtDNA: cox1 (4), atp1 (1), nad3 (1), nad5 (1), and rrs (3). Double-cut-and-join (DCJ) values showed that organellar genomes across Chlorophyta are highly rearranged, in contrast to the highly conserved organellar genomes of the red algae (Rhodophyta). A phylogenomic investigation of 51 plastid protein-coding genes showed that Ulvophyceae is not monophyletic, and also placed Oltmannsiellopsis (Oltmannsiellopsidales) and Tetraselmis (Chlorodendrophyceae) closely to Ulva (Ulvales) and Pseudendoclonium (Ulothrichales).

  3. Implementation of a ground truth process for development of a submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) mapping protocol using hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Carlton R.; Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Virnstein, Robert W.

    2006-09-01

    Protocol development for science based mapping of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) requires comprehensive ground truth data describing the full range of variability observed in the target. The Indian River Lagoon, Florida, extends along 250 km of the east central Florida coast adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean. The lagoon crosses the transition zone between the Caribbean and Carolinian zoogeographic provinces making it highly diverse. For large scale mapping and management of SAV four common and three uncommon species of seagrass (Tracheophyta) and three broad groups of macroalgae; red algae (Rhodophyta), green algae (Chlorophyta), and brown algae (Phaeophyta) are recognized. Based on technical and cost limitations we established twenty, 7-10 km long flight transects for collection of 1.2 m2 spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery covering the length of the lagoon. Emphasis was placed on the area near the Sebastian River and adjacent Sebastian Inlet. Twenty six 40 m long ground truth transects were established in the lagoon using 1 m2 white panels to mark each transect end. Each transect target was located in the field using high precision GPS. Transects were positioned to cover a range of depths, SAV densities, mixed and monotypic species beds, water quality conditions and general sediment types. A 3 m wide by 30 m long grid was centered on each transect to avoid spectral influences of the white targets. Water depth, species of seagrasses, estimates of vegetation cover percentage, estimates of epiphytic density, and measured canopy height were made for each 1 m2 (n=90). This target based grid arrangement allows for identification and extraction of pixel based hyperspectral signatures corresponding to individual ground truth grid cells without significant concern for rectification and registration error.

  4. Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel, a harmful microalga, and its production of dimethylsulfoniopropionate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Pingping; Qi, Yuzao; Wang, Yan; Huang, Liangmin

    2011-07-01

    The production of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and its cleavage products (DMS) are well studied in phytoplankton worldwide. However, less is known about their sources, distributions, and impacts in the coast of China. We examined the production of DMSP and DMS in Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel and other benthic macroalgae from the South China coast in relation to environmental conditions. P. globosa was a harmful marine microalgal species and its bloom took place in the eutrophic waters along the South China Sea frequently. It also produced high content of DMSP at different growth stages, with the highest concentration usually observed in the stationary period. Moreover, the production of DMSP in P. globosa was significantly affected by salinity and temperature with the highest contents associated with high salinity (e.g. 40) and low temperature (e.g. 20°C). In field benthic macroalgae, there was also a marked difference in the DMSP of various species or different samples of the same species. Chlorophyll a contents were also determined for each macroalgal species. The highest chlorophyll a (238.7 ng/g fresh weight) was recorded in Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca at Guishan Island (Zhuhai), while the lowest value (1.5 ng/g fresh weight) was found in Rhodophyta Gracilaria tenuistipitata in Zhanjiang. Further correlation analysis indicated that there was no significant relationship between the content of DMSP and chl- a in macroalgae samples ( P > 0.05). All the results suggested that the production of DMSP in marine algae was not only species- and stage-related, but also greatly affected by various environmental factors.

  5. Cultivation and conversion of marine macroalgae. [Gracilaria and Ulva

    SciTech Connect

    Ryther, J.H.; DeBusk, T.A.; Blakeslee, M.

    1984-05-01

    Research was conducted on the development of an alternative ocean energy farm concept that would not be dependent upon deep ocean water or other extraneous sources for its nutrient supply and that could be located in shallow, near shore, and protected coastal ocean areas. There are five tasks reported in this document: determination of the annual yield of Ulva in non-intensive cultures; evaluation of the effect of carbon concentration on Gracilaria and Ulva yields; evaluation of spray/mist culture of Ulva and Gracilaria; species screening for the production of petroleum replacement products; and synthesis analysis, and economic energy evaluation of culture data. An alternative concept to open ocean culture is a land-based energy production system utilizing saline waters from underground aquifers or enclosed coastal areas. Research was performed to evaluate growth and biomass production of all macroscopic algal species that could be obtained in adequate quantity in the central Florida area. A total of 42 species were grown in specially adapted burial vaults. These included 16 green algae (Garcilaria 4 weekshlorophyta), 2 brown algae (Phaeophyta), and 18 red algae (Rhodophyta). Of these, the most successful and suitable species were a strain of Gracilaria (a red seaweed) and Ulva (a green seaweed). These two species have a high carbohydrate content that may be anaerobically digested to methane gas. Well-nourished Gracilaria will double its biomass in 1 to 4 weeks, depending on the season, water flow, and other variables. After its biomass has doubled (i.e., from 2 to 4 kg/m/sup 2/) the incremental growth is harvested to return the crop to a starting density. Enrichment of the new starting crop following harvest could conceivably be accomplished onsite at the seaweed farm, but the rapid uptake and storage of nutrients by depleted seaweeds makes possible a simpler process, known as pulse fertilization.

  6. Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis Sheds Light on the Diversity and Origin of the MLO Family of Integral Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kusch, Stefan; Pesch, Lina; Panstruga, Ralph

    2016-03-26

    Mildew resistanceLocusO(MLO) proteins are polytopic integral membrane proteins that have long been considered as plant-specific and being primarily involved in plant-powdery mildew interactions. However, research in the past decade has revealed that MLO proteins diverged into a family with several clades whose members are associated with different physiological processes. We provide a largely increased dataset of MLO amino acid sequences, comprising nearly all major land plant lineages. Based on this comprehensive dataset, we defined seven phylogenetic clades and reconstructed the likely evolution of the MLO family in embryophytes. We further identified several MLO peptide motifs that are either conserved in all MLO proteins or confined to one or several clades, supporting the notion that clade-specific diversification of MLO functions is associated with particular sequence motifs. In baker's yeast, some of these motifs are functionally linked to transmembrane (TM) transport of organic molecules and ions. In addition, we attempted to define the evolutionary origin of the MLO family and found that MLO-like proteins with highly diverse membrane topologies are present in green algae, but also in the distinctly related red algae (Rhodophyta), Amoebozoa, and Chromalveolata. Finally, we discovered several instances of putative fusion events between MLO proteins and different kinds of proteins. Such Rosetta stone-type hybrid proteins might be instructive for future analysis of potential MLO functions. Our findings suggest that MLO is an ancient protein that possibly evolved in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes, and consolidated in land plants with a conserved topology, comprising seven TM domains and an intrinsically unstructured C-terminus.

  7. Identification of potential internal control genes for real-time PCR analysis during stress response in Pyropia haitanensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xia; Feng, Jianhua; Huang, Aiyou; He, Linwen; Niu, Jianfeng; Wang, Guangce

    2017-01-01

    Pyropia haitanensis has prominent stress-resistance characteristics and is endemic to China. Studies into the stress responses in these algae could provide valuable information on the stress-response mechanisms in the intertidal Rhodophyta. Here, the effects of salinity and light intensity on the quantum yield of photosystem II in Py. haitanensis were investigated using pulse-amplitude-modulation fluorometry. Total RNA and genomic DNA of the samples under different stress conditions were isolated. By normalizing to the genomic DNA quantity, the RNA content in each sample was evaluated. The cDNA was synthesized and the expression levels of seven potential internal control genes were evaluated using qRT-PCR method. Then, we used geNorm, a common statistical algorithm, to analyze the qRT-PCR data of seven reference genes. Potential genes that may constantly be expressed under different conditions were selected, and these genes showed stable expression levels in samples under a salinity treatment, while tubulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and actin showed stability in samples stressed by strong light. Based on the results of the pulse amplitude-modulation fluorometry, an absolute quantification was performed to obtain gene copy numbers in certain stress-treated samples. The stably expressed genes as determined by the absolute quantification in certain samples conformed to the results of the geNorm screening. Based on the results of the software analysis and absolute quantification, we proposed that elongation factor 3 and 18S ribosomal RNA could be used as internal control genes when the Py. haitanensis blades were subjected to salinity stress, and that α-tubulin and 18S ribosomal RNA could be used as the internal control genes when the stress was from strong light. In general, our findings provide a convenient reference for the selection of internal control genes when designing experiments related to stress responses in Py. haitanensis.

  8. Role of Recruitment Processes in Structuring Coralligenous Benthic Assemblages in the Northern Adriatic Continental Shelf.

    PubMed

    Fava, Federica; Ponti, Massimo; Abbiati, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Coralligenous biogenic reefs are among the most diverse marine habitats in the Mediterranean Sea. The northern Adriatic mesophotic coralligenous outcrops host very rich and diverse epibenthic assemblages. Several studies quantified the low temporal variability and high spatial heterogeneity of these habitats, while processes driving structuring and differentiation are still poorly understood. To shed light on these processes, temporal and spatial patterns of colonisation were investigated using travertine tiles deployed on three coralligenous outcrops, corresponding to the main typologies of benthic assemblages described in previous studies. Three years after deployment, assemblages colonising travertine tiles resembled the differentiation among sites revealed by the natural assemblages in terms of major ecological groups. Processes structuring and maintaining species diversity have been explored. Pioneer species with high reproduction rate, long distance larval dispersal and fast growth (e.g. the serpulid polychaete Spirobranchus triqueter and the bivalve Anomia ephippium), were the most abundant in the early stages of recruitment on the two outcrops further away from the coast and with lower sedimentation. Their success may vary according to larval availability and environmental conditions (e.g., sedimentation rates). At these sites early-stage lasted 10-12 months, during which even species from natural substrates began colonising tiles by settlement of planktonic propagules (e.g., encrusting calcareous Rhodophyta) and lateral encroachment (e.g., sponges and ascidians). On coastal outcrop, exposed to a higher sedimentation rates, tiles were colonised by fast-growing algal turfs. Resilience of northern Adriatic coralligenous assemblages, and maintenance of their diversity, appeared largely entrusted to asexual reproduction. Exploring the mechanisms that underlie the formation and maintenance of the species diversity is crucial to improve our understanding of

  9. Wenyingzhuangia gracilariae sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium of the phylum Bacteroidetes isolated from the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Oku, Naoya; Kasai, Hiroaki

    2015-06-01

    A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, beige-pigmented, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain designated N5DB13-4(T) was isolated from the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta) collected at Sodegaura Beach, Chiba, Japan. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the novel isolate is affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae within the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it showed highest sequence similarity (97.3 %) to Wenyingzhuangia heitensis H-MN17(T). The hybridization values for DNA-DNA relatedness between the strains N5DB13-4(T) and W. heitensis H-MN17(T) were 34.1 ± 3.5 %, which is below the threshold accepted for the phylogenetic definition of a novel prokaryotic species. The DNA G+C content of strain N5DB13-4(T) was determined to be 31.8 mol%; MK-6 was identified as the major menaquinone; and the presence of iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH and iso-C17:0 3-OH as the major (>10 %) cellular fatty acids. A complex polar lipid profile was present consisting of phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified glycolipids and four unidentified lipids. From the distinct phylogenetic position and combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strain is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Wenyingzhuangia for which the name Wenyingzhuangia gracilariae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of W. gracilariae sp. nov. is N5DB13-4(T) (=KCTC 42246 (T)=NBRC 110602(T)).

  10. Effects of Coral Reef Benthic Primary Producers on Dissolved Organic Carbon and Microbial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Andreas F.; Nelson, Craig E.; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Carlson, Craig A.; Rohwer, Forest; Leichter, James J.; Wyatt, Alex; Smith, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Benthic primary producers in marine ecosystems may significantly alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in their surrounding environment. To examine these interactions, we studied dissolved organic matter release by dominant benthic taxa and subsequent microbial remineralization in the lagoonal reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release were assessed for several common benthic reef organisms from the backreef habitat. We assessed microbial community response to dissolved exudates of each benthic producer by measuring bacterioplankton growth, respiration, and DOC drawdown in two-day dark dilution culture incubations. Experiments were conducted for six benthic producers: three species of macroalgae (each representing a different algal phylum: Turbinaria ornata – Ochrophyta; Amansia rhodantha – Rhodophyta; Halimeda opuntia – Chlorophyta), a mixed assemblage of turf algae, a species of crustose coralline algae (Hydrolithon reinboldii) and a dominant hermatypic coral (Porites lobata). Our results show that all five types of algae, but not the coral, exuded significant amounts of labile DOC into their surrounding environment. In general, primary producers with the highest rates of photosynthesis released the most DOC and yielded the greatest bacterioplankton growth; turf algae produced nearly twice as much DOC per unit surface area than the other benthic producers (14.0±2.8 µmol h−1 dm−2), stimulating rapid bacterioplankton growth (0.044±0.002 log10 cells h−1) and concomitant oxygen drawdown (0.16±0.05 µmol L−1 h−1 dm−2). Our results demonstrate that benthic reef algae can release a significant fraction of their photosynthetically-fixed carbon as DOC, these release rates vary by species, and this DOC is available to and consumed by reef associated microbes. These data provide compelling evidence that benthic primary producers differentially influence reef

  11. Physiologic and metagenomic attributes of the rhodoliths forming the largest CaCO3 bed in the South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Giselle S; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; dos Santos, Eidy O; Silveira, Cynthia B; Meirelles, Pedro M; Longo, Leila; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Shota; Iida, Tetsuya; Sawabe, Tomoo; Rezende, Carlos E; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Moura, Rodrigo L; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2014-01-01

    Rhodoliths are free-living coralline algae (Rhodophyta, Corallinales) that are ecologically important for the functioning of marine environments. They form extensive beds distributed worldwide, providing a habitat and nursery for benthic organisms and space for fisheries, and are an important source of calcium carbonate. The Abrolhos Bank, off eastern Brazil, harbors the world's largest continuous rhodolith bed (of ∼21,000 km(2)) and has one of the largest marine CaCO3 deposits (producing 25 megatons of CaCO3 per year). Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about the microbial diversity, photosynthetic potential and ecological interactions within the rhodolith holobiont. Herein, we performed an ecophysiologic and metagenomic analysis of the Abrolhos rhodoliths to understand their microbial composition and functional components. Rhodoliths contained a specific microbiome that displayed a significant enrichment in aerobic ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria and dissimilative sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacteria. We also observed a significant contribution of bacterial guilds (that is, photolithoautotrophs, anaerobic heterotrophs, sulfide oxidizers, anoxygenic phototrophs and methanogens) in the rhodolith metagenome, suggested to have important roles in biomineralization. The increased hits in aromatic compounds, fatty acid and secondary metabolism subsystems hint at an important chemically mediated interaction in which a functional job partition among eukaryal, archaeal and bacterial groups allows the rhodolith holobiont to thrive in the global ocean. High rates of photosynthesis were measured for Abrolhos rhodoliths (52.16 μmol carbon m(-2 )s(-1)), allowing the entire Abrolhos rhodolith bed to produce 5.65 × 10(5) tons C per day. This estimate illustrates the great importance of the Abrolhos rhodolith beds for dissolved carbon production in the South Atlantic Ocean.

  12. Activated chemical defenses suppress herbivory on freshwater red algae.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Keri M; Hay, Mark E

    2013-04-01

    The rapid life cycles of freshwater algae are hypothesized to suppress selection for chemical defenses against herbivores, but this notion remains untested. Investigations of chemical defenses are rare for freshwater macrophytes and absent for freshwater red algae. We used crayfish to assess the palatability of five freshwater red algae relative to a palatable green alga and a chemically defended aquatic moss. We then assessed the roles of structural, nutritional, and chemical traits in reducing palatability. Both native and non-native crayfish preferred the green alga Cladophora glomerata to four of the five red algae. Batrachospermum helminthosum, Kumanoa holtonii, and Tuomeya americana employed activated chemical defenses that suppressed feeding by 30-60 % following damage to algal tissues. Paralemanea annulata was defended by its cartilaginous structure, while Boldia erythrosiphon was palatable. Activated defenses are thought to reduce ecological costs by expressing potent defenses only when actually needed; thus, activation might be favored in freshwater red algae whose short-lived gametophytes must grow and reproduce rapidly over a brief growing season. The frequency of activated chemical defenses found here (three of five species) is 3-20× higher than for surveys of marine algae or aquatic vascular plants. If typical for freshwater red algae, this suggests that (1) their chemical defenses may go undetected if chemical activation is not considered and (2) herbivory has been an important selective force in the evolution of freshwater Rhodophyta. Investigations of defenses in freshwater rhodophytes contribute to among-system comparisons and provide insights into the generality of plant-herbivore interactions and their evolution.

  13. Lipid Composition, Fatty Acids and Sterols in the Seaweeds Ulva armoricana, and Solieria chordalis from Brittany (France): An Analysis from Nutritional, Chemotaxonomic, and Antiproliferative Activity Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kendel, Melha; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane; Bertrand, Samuel; Roussakis, Christos; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Bedoux, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Lipids from the proliferative macroalgae Ulva armoricana (Chlorophyta) and Solieria chordalis (Rhodophyta) from Brittany, France, were investigated. The total content of lipids was 2.6% and 3.0% dry weight for U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The main fractions of S. chordalis were neutral lipids (37%) and glycolipids (38%), whereas U. armoricana contained mostly neutral lipids (55%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) represented 29% and 15% of the total lipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. In both studied algae, the phospholipids were composed of PUFA for 18%. In addition, PUFA were shown to represent 9% and 4.5% of glycolipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The essential PUFA were 16:4n-3, 18:4n-3, 18:2n-3, 18:2n-6, and 22:6n-3 in U. armoricana, and 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3 in S. chordalis. It is important to notice that six 2-hydroxy-, three 3-hydroxy-, and two monounsaturated hydroxy fatty acids were also identified and may provide a chemotaxonomic basis for algae. These seaweeds contained interesting compounds such as squalene, α-tocopherol, cholest-4-en-3-one and phytosterols. The antiproliferative effect was evaluated in vitro on human non-small-cell bronchopulmonary carcinoma line (NSCLC-N6) with an IC50 of 23 μg/mL for monogalactosyldiacylglycerols isolated from S. chordalis and 24 μg/mL for digalactosyldiacylglycerols from U. armoricana. These results confirm the potentialities of valorization of these two species in the fields of health, nutrition and chemotaxonomy. PMID:26404323

  14. Effects of coral reef benthic primary producers on dissolved organic carbon and microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Haas, Andreas F; Nelson, Craig E; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Carlson, Craig A; Rohwer, Forest; Leichter, James J; Wyatt, Alex; Smith, Jennifer E

    2011-01-01

    Benthic primary producers in marine ecosystems may significantly alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in their surrounding environment. To examine these interactions, we studied dissolved organic matter release by dominant benthic taxa and subsequent microbial remineralization in the lagoonal reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release were assessed for several common benthic reef organisms from the backreef habitat. We assessed microbial community response to dissolved exudates of each benthic producer by measuring bacterioplankton growth, respiration, and DOC drawdown in two-day dark dilution culture incubations. Experiments were conducted for six benthic producers: three species of macroalgae (each representing a different algal phylum: Turbinaria ornata--Ochrophyta; Amansia rhodantha--Rhodophyta; Halimeda opuntia--Chlorophyta), a mixed assemblage of turf algae, a species of crustose coralline algae (Hydrolithon reinboldii) and a dominant hermatypic coral (Porites lobata). Our results show that all five types of algae, but not the coral, exuded significant amounts of labile DOC into their surrounding environment. In general, primary producers with the highest rates of photosynthesis released the most DOC and yielded the greatest bacterioplankton growth; turf algae produced nearly twice as much DOC per unit surface area than the other benthic producers (14.0±2.8 µmol h⁻¹ dm⁻²), stimulating rapid bacterioplankton growth (0.044±0.002 log10 cells h⁻¹) and concomitant oxygen drawdown (0.16±0.05 µmol L⁻¹ h⁻¹ dm⁻²). Our results demonstrate that benthic reef algae can release a significant fraction of their photosynthetically-fixed carbon as DOC, these release rates vary by species, and this DOC is available to and consumed by reef associated microbes. These data provide compelling evidence that benthic primary producers differentially influence reef microbial

  15. Role of Recruitment Processes in Structuring Coralligenous Benthic Assemblages in the Northern Adriatic Continental Shelf

    PubMed Central

    Abbiati, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Coralligenous biogenic reefs are among the most diverse marine habitats in the Mediterranean Sea. The northern Adriatic mesophotic coralligenous outcrops host very rich and diverse epibenthic assemblages. Several studies quantified the low temporal variability and high spatial heterogeneity of these habitats, while processes driving structuring and differentiation are still poorly understood. To shed light on these processes, temporal and spatial patterns of colonisation were investigated using travertine tiles deployed on three coralligenous outcrops, corresponding to the main typologies of benthic assemblages described in previous studies. Three years after deployment, assemblages colonising travertine tiles resembled the differentiation among sites revealed by the natural assemblages in terms of major ecological groups. Processes structuring and maintaining species diversity have been explored. Pioneer species with high reproduction rate, long distance larval dispersal and fast growth (e.g. the serpulid polychaete Spirobranchus triqueter and the bivalve Anomia ephippium), were the most abundant in the early stages of recruitment on the two outcrops further away from the coast and with lower sedimentation. Their success may vary according to larval availability and environmental conditions (e.g., sedimentation rates). At these sites early-stage lasted 10–12 months, during which even species from natural substrates began colonising tiles by settlement of planktonic propagules (e.g., encrusting calcareous Rhodophyta) and lateral encroachment (e.g., sponges and ascidians). On coastal outcrop, exposed to a higher sedimentation rates, tiles were colonised by fast-growing algal turfs. Resilience of northern Adriatic coralligenous assemblages, and maintenance of their diversity, appeared largely entrusted to asexual reproduction. Exploring the mechanisms that underlie the formation and maintenance of the species diversity is crucial to improve our understanding of

  16. Non-methylene interrupted and hydroxy fatty acids in polar lipids of the alga Grateloupia turuturu over the four seasons.

    PubMed

    Kendel, Melha; Barnathan, Gilles; Fleurence, Joël; Rabesaotra, Vony; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane

    2013-05-01

    Phospholipids (PL) and glycolipids (GL) FA in the edible Rhodophyta Grateloupia turuturu, from Brittany, France, were investigated over four seasons. The major lipid class was GL in all seasons (around 45 %). More than 80 FA occurred in polar lipids, with chains from C12 to C26, identified as methyl esters and N-acyl pyrrolidides by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PUFA occurred at up to 47.1 % (summer) in PL, and up to 43.6 % (summer) in GL. The major PUFA were 20:5n-3 (12.2 % in PL and 29.0 % in GL) and 20:4n-6 (25.6 % in PL and 10.4 % in GL). The unusual 18:3n-7 acid was identified in PL up to 2.2 %. Several minor unsaturated FA were identified in PL and are previously unreported in seaweeds, namely 14-tricosenoic, 15-tetracosenoic, 5,11-octadecadienoic and 5,9-nonadecadienoic. Also unprecedented in seaweeds, ten 2-hydroxy and three 3-hydroxy FA occurred mainly in PL, 13.9 % in spring with the 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid as the major one (8.1 % winter). Three n-9 monounsaturated 2-hydroxy FA occurred in PL. The 2-hydroxy-15-tetracosenoic acid was characterized as the dimethyl disulfide adduct of its methyl ester. The 2-hydroxy-16-pentacosenoic and 2-hydroxy-17-hexacosenoic acids were identified by comparison of mass spectra and GC mobilities with those of the 2-hydroxy-15-tetracosenoic acid, and of other homogeneous FA series. These rare n-9 monounsaturated 2-hydroxy FA are unprecedented in seaweeds.

  17. Applying DNA barcoding to red macroalgae: a preliminary appraisal holds promise for future applications

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Gary W

    2005-01-01

    Marine macroalgae, especially the Rhodophyta, can be notoriously difficult to identify owing to their relatively simple morphology and anatomy, convergence, rampant phenotypic plasticity, and alternation of heteromorphic generations. It is thus not surprising that algal systematists have come to rely heavily on genetic tools for molecular assisted alpha taxonomy. Unfortunately the number of suitable marker systems in the three available genomes is enormous and, although most workers have settled on one of three or four models, the lack of an accepted standard hinders the comparison of results between laboratories. The advantages of a standard system are obvious for practical purposes of species discovery and identification; as well, compliance with a universal marker, such as cox1 being developed under the label ‘DNA barcode’, would allow algal systematists to benefit from the rapidly emerging technologies. Novel primers were developed for red algae to PCR amplify and sequence the 5′ cox1 ‘barcode’ region and were used to assess three known species-complex questions: (i) Mazzaella species in the Northeast Pacific; (ii) species of the genera Dilsea and Neodilsea in the Northeast Pacific; and (iii) Asteromenia peltata from three oceans. These models were selected because they have all caused confusion with regards to species number, distribution, and identification in the field, and because they have all been studied with molecular tools. In all cases the DNA barcode resolved accurately and unequivocally species identities and, with the enhanced sampling here, turned up a variety of novel observations in need of further taxonomic investigation. PMID:16214745

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of proteins involved in the stringent response in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Ito, Doshun; Ihara, Yuta; Nishihara, Hidenori; Masuda, Shinji

    2017-03-16

    The nucleotide (p)ppGpp is a second messenger that controls the stringent response in bacteria. The stringent response modifies expression of a large number of genes and metabolic processes and allows bacteria to survive under fluctuating environmental conditions. Recent genome sequencing analyses have revealed that genes responsible for the stringent response are also found in plants. These include (p)ppGpp synthases and hydrolases, RelA/SpoT homologs (RSHs), and the pppGpp-specific phosphatase GppA/Ppx. However, phylogenetic relationship between enzymes involved in bacterial and plant stringent responses is as yet generally unclear. Here, we investigated the origin and evolution of genes involved in the stringent response in plants. Phylogenetic analysis and primary structures of RSH homologs from different plant phyla (including Embryophyta, Charophyta, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta) indicate that RSH gene families were introduced into plant cells by at least two independent lateral gene transfers from the bacterial Deinococcus-Thermus phylum and an unidentified bacterial phylum; alternatively, they were introduced into a proto-plant cell by a lateral gene transfer from the endosymbiotic cyanobacterium followed by gene loss of an ancestral RSH gene in the cyanobacterial linage. Phylogenetic analysis of gppA/ppx families indicated that plant gppA/ppx homologs form an individual cluster in the phylogenetic tree, and show a sister relationship with some bacterial gppA/ppx homologs. Although RSHs contain a plastidial transit peptide at the N terminus, GppA/Ppx homologs do not, suggesting that plant GppA/Ppx homologs function in the cytosol. These results reveal that a proto-plant cell obtained genes for the stringent response by lateral gene transfer events from different bacterial phyla and have utilized them to control metabolism in plastids and the cytosol.

  19. YCF1: A Green TIC?

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Jan; Sousa, Filipa L.; Bölter, Bettina; Soll, Jürgen; Gould, Sven B.

    2015-01-01

    A pivotal step in the transformation of an endosymbiotic cyanobacterium to a plastid some 1.5 billion years ago was the evolution of a protein import apparatus, the TOC/TIC machinery, in the common ancestor of Archaeplastida. Recently, a putative new TIC member was identified in Arabidopsis thaliana: TIC214. This finding is remarkable for a number of reasons: (1) TIC214 is encoded by ycf1, so it would be the first plastid-encoded protein of this apparatus; (2) ycf1 is unique to the green lineage (Chloroplastida) but entirely lacking in glaucophytes (Glaucophyta) and the red lineage (Rhodophyta) of the Archaeplastida; (3) ycf1 has been shown to be one of the few indispensable plastid genes (aside from the ribosomal machinery), yet it is missing in the grasses; and (4) 30 years of previous TOC/TIC research missed it. These observations prompted us to survey the evolution of ycf1. We found that ycf1 is not only lacking in grasses and some parasitic plants, but also for instance in cranberry (Ericaceae). The encoded YCF proteins are highly variable, both in sequence length and in the predicted number of N-terminal transmembrane domains. The evolution of the TOC/TIC machinery in the green lineage experienced specific modifications, but our analysis does not support YCF1 to be a general green TIC. It remains to be explained how the apparent complete loss of YCF1 can be tolerated by some embryophytes and whether what is observed for YCF1 function in a member of the Brassicaceae is also true for, e.g., algal and noncanonical YCF1 homologs. PMID:25818624

  20. The mineralogical responses of marine calcifiers to CO2-induced ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J. B.; Cohen, A. L.; McCorkle, D. C.

    2008-12-01

    We have conducted 6-month laboratory experiments to investigate the effect of pCO2-induced reductions in seawater CaCO3 saturation state on biocalcification by 18 aragonitic and calcitic (low-high Mg) taxa representing eight of the major marine calcifying groups: Chlorophyta; Rhodophyta; Crustacea; Bivalvia; Gastropoda; Annelida; Cnidaria; and Echinodermata. The CaCO3 saturation states of the experimental seawaters, constrained by intercalibrated determinations of pH, alkalinity, and DIC, were attained with bubbled air-CO2 mixtures of 400 (ambient), 600, 900, and 2850 ppm pCO2, yielding Ωarag of 2.5 (ambient), 2.0, 1.5, 0.7, respectively. We previously showed that while rates of net calcification obtained from buoyant weighing declined with increasing pCO2 for nearly half of the species investigated, a nearly equal number exhibited constant or, in some cases, increased calcification under moderately (600 ppm) or extremely (900 or 2850 ppm) elevated pCO2. The organisms' investigated in this study secrete various forms of CaCO3, which differ in crystallographic structure and therefore solubility: aragonite and high-Mg are generally more soluble than low-Mg calcite. We have employed powder x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy to quantify changes in the organisms' skeletal mineralogy (aragonite:calcite ratio) and Mg-content (MgCO3:CaCO3 ratio) that occurred in response to the prescribed reductions in seawater CaCO3 saturation state. We will compare calcification and mineralogical response patterns amongst the organisms to elucidate the role of mineral lability in driving species-specific responses to CO2-induced ocean acidification.

  1. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Calleja Fernández, Alicia; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Cano Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros Pomar, María D

    2016-03-25

    Introducción: la cuantificación y registro de la ingesta alimentaria del paciente hospitalizado es clave dentro del plan de cuidado nutricional. Objetivo: evaluar la validez de un cuestionario semicuantitativo de valoración del consumo comparado con una técnica de registro de alimentos por observación y pesada de los platos incluidos en la dieta hospitalaria. Métodos: estudio transversal realizado en condiciones de práctica clínica habitual. Las técnicas de valoración del consumo que se compararon fueron un registro por doble pesada y un cuestionario semicuantitativo por observación de la ingesta de cinco categorías (todo [> 80%], casi todo [80-60%], la mitad [60-40%], casi nada [40-20%] o nada [< 20%]), ambas realizadas por un dietista-nutricionista. La comparación entre ambas herramientas fue realizada con el índice kappa con ponderación cuadrática e intervalo de confianza del 95%. Resultados: fueron realizadas un total de 1.980 valoraciones. Se observó con el cuestionario semicuantitativo que en el 50% de los casos se ingirió todo, en el 19% casi todo, en el 13% la mitad, en el 9% menos de la mitad y en el 9% nada. La mediana de la ingesta por doble pesada de alimentos fue de 76,8 (RIC 45,8)%. Se observó que existió un acuerdo satisfactorio entre la técnica de doble pesada y la valoración visual del consumo con un valor κ = 0,907 (IC 95% 0,894-0,925). Conclusión: la escala visual empleada en este estudio permite cuantificar la ingesta real del paciente de forma precisa y adecuada por personal cualificado.

  2. RENASICA II: A Mexican acute myocardial infarction registry that highlights the importance of regional registries

    PubMed Central

    Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death, worldwide, with disproportionate representation in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Registro Nacional de los Síndromes Coronarios Agudos II (RENASICA II) investigators reported smoking, hypertension and diabetes were the main risk factors among Mexican patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Fibrinolytic therapy was administered to 37%. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) was performed in only 15% of patients. 30-day mortality was 10%. This study highlights the importance of conducting regional registries for quality improvement. PMID:25780784

  3. RENASICA II: A Mexican acute myocardial infarction registry that highlights the importance of regional registries.

    PubMed

    Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death, worldwide, with disproportionate representation in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Registro Nacional de los Síndromes Coronarios Agudos II (RENASICA II) investigators reported smoking, hypertension and diabetes were the main risk factors among Mexican patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Fibrinolytic therapy was administered to 37%. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) was performed in only 15% of patients. 30-day mortality was 10%. This study highlights the importance of conducting regional registries for quality improvement.

  4. [Life style, dietary habits and nutritional evaluation of Hospital de Mérida health professionals].

    PubMed

    Márquez Moreno, Raúl; Beato Víbora, Pilar Isabel; Tormo García, M Ángeles

    2015-04-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: Se estudiaron hábitos de vida y diversos aspectos nutricionales y la relación entre ellos en personal sanitario del Hospital de Mérida del Servicio Extremeño de Salud (SES). MÉTODO: Se contó con la participación voluntaria de 43 trabajadores en activo los cuales autorrealizaron un cuestionario de datos personales, estilos de vida y un registro alimentario de siete días. Además se les midieron una serie de datos antropométricos.

  5. Cometas: Das Lendas aos Fatos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    O descobrimento de cometas, devido ao seu aparecimento espetacular, tem registro nas mais antigas culturas humanas. A primeira referência situa-se no ano de 1095 antes de Cristo [a.C.; HO; HO, 1962]. A quantidade de registros de descobrimentos cometários, principalmente provenientes do território chinês em particular e do oriente em geral, aumentou gradualmente a partir do quarto século depois de Cristo (d.C.). É de origem chinesa a primeira referência ao cometa P/Halley no ano de 240 a.C. [VOELZKE, 1993]. Com o desenvolvimento da astronomia relativamente às técnicas observacionais os descobrimentos bem como as observações cometárias aumentaram sensivelmente a partir do século XVII, sendo que a partir do século XIX um novo incremento ocorreu devido ao emprego da fotografia e a resultante melhora de sensibilidade na observação.

  6. PubMed

    Wanden-Berghe Lozano, Carmina; Campos Martín, Cristina; Cuerda Compes, Cristina; Gómez Candela, Carmen; Burgos Peláez, Rosa; Moreno Villares, José Manuel; Pereira Cunill, José Luis; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio; Virgili Casas, Nuria; Martinez Faedo, Ceferino; Álvarez Hernández, Julia; Garde Orbaiz, Carmen; Penacho Lázaro, Mª Ángeles; Sánchez Martos, Eva Ángeles; Sanz Paris, Alejandro; Gonzalo Marín, Montserrat; Zugasti Murillo, Ana; Matía Martín, Pilar; Martín Folgueras, Tomás; Carabaña Pérez, Fátima; Díaz Guardiola, Patricia; Tejera Pérez, Cristina; De Luis Román, Daniel; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; Santacruz Carmona, Nieves; Apezetxea Celaya, Antxón; Ponce González, Miguel Ángel; Urgeles Planella, Juan Ramón; Laborda González, Lucía; Martinez Olmos, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez-Vilar Burdiel, Olga; Joaquín Ortiz, Clara; Martínez Costa, Cecilia; Suárez Llanos, José Pablo; Calleja Fernández, Alicia; Leyes García, Pere; Gil Martinez, Mª Carmen; Mauri Roca, Silvia; García Zafra, Maria Victoria; Carrera Santaliestra, María José; Nadya-Senpe, Grupo

    2016-11-29

    Objetivo: Comunicar los datos del registro de Nutrición Parenteral Domiciliaria (NPD) del grupo de trabajo NADYA-SENPE del años 2015.Material y métodos: Recopilación de los datos de NPD del registro "on-line" del grupo de Nutrición Artificial Domiciliaria y Ambulatoria (NADYA) desde el 1 de enero de 2015 al 31 de diciembre de 2015.Resultados: Se registraron 236 pacientes, con 243 episodios de NPD procedentes de 40 hospitales. Lo que representa una tasa de 5,08 pacientes/millón de habitantes/ año 2015. La patología más frecuente en los adultos fue "otros" (26,3%) seguido por "oncológico paliativo" (21,6%).  La complicación más frecuente fue la séptica relacionada con el catéter que presentó una tasa de 0,53 infecciones/1000 días de NPD. Finalizaron 64 episodios, la principal causa fue el fallecimiento (43,7%) y el 'paso a la vía oral' (32,8%).Conclusiones: constatamos el aumento de los centros y profesionales colaboradores, dando respuesta a la cantidad progresivamente mayor de pacientes con soporte nutricional parenteral en domicilio. Se mantienen estables las principales indicaciones para el establecimiento de NPD y las causas de finalización del tratamiento.

  7. [Functional connectivity and complex networks in focal epilepsy. Pathophysiology and therapeutic implications].

    PubMed

    Pastor, Jesús; Sola, Rafael G; Vega-Zelaya, Lorena; Garnes, Óscar; Ortega, Guillermo J

    2014-05-01

    Introduccion. El modelo tradicional de cirugia de la epilepsia focal consiste en la localizacion y reseccion de la zona epileptogena. Sin embargo, una minoria significativa de pacientes epilepticos sigue teniendo crisis tras la reseccion, lo que muestra el nivel de conocimiento incompleto que actualmente se tiene sobre esta materia. Objetivo. Introducir algunos conceptos de conectividad funcional y redes complejas y su aplicacion al estudio de registros neurofisiologicos de pacientes con epilepsia focal farmacorresistente, principalmente del lobulo temporal. Desarrollo. Con el objeto de entender con plenitud los nuevos desarrollos en el area de redes complejas y sus aplicaciones al estudio de la epilepsia, se revisaran los conceptos fundamentales de la metodologia de redes complejas, sincronizacion y conectividad funcional. Asimismo, se revisaran algunos de los trabajos mas recientes en los que se analizan registros neurofisiologicos y resonancias funcionales de pacientes con epilepsia focal bajo esta nueva perspectiva. Conclusiones. Una vision mas amplia en la perspectiva para el entendimiento de la epilepsia focal, como la tratada en este trabajo, permitira tambien plantear nuevas alternativas al tratamiento quirurgico de la epilepsia focal, tanto con el desarrollo de nuevos metodos no invasivos como con la mejora y optimizacion de algunos de los metodos invasivos ya existentes.

  8. [Experience on the management of a hepatitis A outbreak in a children daycare center].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro; Nava-Martínez, Martha Lorena; Ontiveros, David; Niebla-Fuentes, María Rosario; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción; Rojas-Mendoza, Teresita

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: dado que el virus de la hepatitis A se transmite vía fecal-oral, en las guarderías los brotes son favorecidos por los cambios constantes de pañal y las fallas en las medidas higiénicas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir un brote de hepatitis A entre noviembre de 2012 y febrero de 2013 en una guardería de Mexicali, Baja California, así como las medidas adoptadas para su control. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio descriptivo del brote y de las medidas de control, con cálculo de tasas de ataque y determinación de proporciones por escala de Wilson. Se consideró caso sospechoso a los alumnos, trabajadores o familiares que presentaran sintomatología compatible con hepatitis A. Se revisaron los registros de primera vez de hepatitis A del Informe Semanal de Casos Nuevos de Enfermedades de las unidades médicas involucradas y de los registros de enfermería de la guardería.

  9. Methods for DNA barcoding photosynthetic protists emphasizing the macroalgae and diatoms.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Gary W; McDevit, Daniel C

    2012-01-01

    This chapter outlines the current practices used in our laboratory for routine DNA barcode analyses of the three major marine macroalgal groups, viz., brown (Phaeophyceae), red (Rhodophyta), and green (Chlorophyta) algae, as well as for the microscopic diatoms (Bacillariophyta). We start with an outline of current streamlined field protocols, which facilitate the collection of substantial (hundreds to thousands) specimens during short (days to weeks) field excursions. We present the current high-throughput DNA extraction protocols, which can, nonetheless, be easily modified for manual molecular laboratory use. We are advocating a two-marker approach for the DNA barcoding of protists with each major lineage having a designated primary and secondary barcode marker of which one is always the LSU D2/D3 (divergent domains D2/D3 of the nuclear ribosomal large subunit DNA). We provide a listing of the primers that we currently use in our laboratory for amplification of DNA barcode markers from the groups that we study: LSU D2/D3, which we advocate as a eukaryote-wide barcode marker to facilitate broad ecological and environmental surveys (secondary barcode marker in this capacity); COI-5P (the standard DNA barcode region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene) as the primary barcode marker for brown and red algae; rbcL-3P (the 3' region of the plastid large subunit of ribulose-l-5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) as the primary barcode marker for diatoms; and tufA (plastid elongation factor Tu gene) as the primary barcode marker for chlorophytan green algae. We outline our polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing methodologies, which have been streamlined for efficiency and to reduce unnecessary cleaning steps. The combined information should provide a helpful guide to those seeking to complete barcode research on these and related "protistan" groups (the term protist is not used in a phylogenetic context; it is simply a catch-all term for the bulk of

  10. A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedges, S. Blair; Blair, Jaime E.; Venturi, Maria L.; Shoe, Jason L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pattern and timing of the rise in complex multicellular life during Earth's history has not been established. Great disparity persists between the pattern suggested by the fossil record and that estimated by molecular clocks, especially for plants, animals, fungi, and the deepest branches of the eukaryote tree. Here, we used all available protein sequence data and molecular clock methods to place constraints on the increase in complexity through time. RESULTS: Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that (i) animals are more closely related to fungi than to plants, (ii) red algae are closer to plants than to animals or fungi, (iii) choanoflagellates are closer to animals than to fungi or plants, (iv) diplomonads, euglenozoans, and alveolates each are basal to plants+animals+fungi, and (v) diplomonads are basal to other eukaryotes (including alveolates and euglenozoans). Divergence times were estimated from global and local clock methods using 20-188 proteins per node, with data treated separately (multigene) and concatenated (supergene). Different time estimation methods yielded similar results (within 5%): vertebrate-arthropod (964 million years ago, Ma), Cnidaria-Bilateria (1,298 Ma), Porifera-Eumetozoa (1,351 Ma), Pyrenomycetes-Plectomycetes (551 Ma), Candida-Saccharomyces (723 Ma), Hemiascomycetes-filamentous Ascomycota (982 Ma), Basidiomycota-Ascomycota (968 Ma), Mucorales-Basidiomycota (947 Ma), Fungi-Animalia (1,513 Ma), mosses-vascular plants (707 Ma), Chlorophyta-Tracheophyta (968 Ma), Rhodophyta-Chlorophyta+Embryophyta (1,428 Ma), Plantae-Animalia (1,609 Ma), Alveolata-plants+animals+fungi (1,973 Ma), Euglenozoa-plants+animals+fungi (1,961 Ma), and Giardia-plants+animals+fungi (2,309 Ma). By extrapolation, mitochondria arose approximately 2300-1800 Ma and plastids arose 1600-1500 Ma. Estimates of the maximum number of cell types of common ancestors, combined with divergence times, showed an increase from two cell types at 2500 Ma to

  11. Trace Elements in Calcifying Marine Invertebrates Indicate Diverse Sensitivities to the Seawater Carbonate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doss, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Surface ocean absorption of anthropogenic CO2 emissions resulting in ocean acidification may interfere with the ability of calcifying marine organisms to biomineralize, since the drop in pH is accompanied by reductions in CaCO3 saturation state. However, recent experiments show that net calcification rates of cultured benthic invertebrate taxa exhibit diverse responses to pCO2-induced changes in saturation state (Ries et al., 2009). Advancement of geochemical tools as biomineralization indicators will enable us to better understand these results and therefore help predict the impacts of ongoing and future decrease in seawater pH on marine organisms. Here we build upon previous work on these specimens by measuring the elemental composition of biogenic calcite and aragonite precipitated in four pCO2 treatments (400; 600; 900; and 2850 ppm). Element ratios (including Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, Li/Ca, B/Ca, U/Ca, Ba/Ca, Cd/Ca, and Zn/Ca) were analyzed in 18 macro-invertebrate species representing seven phyla (crustacea, cnidaria, echinoidea, rhodophyta, chlorophyta, gastropoda, bivalvia, annelida), then compared to growth rate data and experimental seawater carbonate system parameters: [CO32-], [HCO3-], pH, saturation state, and DIC. Correlations between calcite or aragonite composition and seawater carbonate chemistry are highly taxa-specific, but do not resemble trends observed in growth rate for all species. Apparent carbonate system sensitivities vary widely by element, ranging from strongly correlated to no significant response. Interpretation of these results is guided by mounting evidence for the capacity of individual species to modulate pH and/or saturation state at the site of calcification in response to ambient seawater chemistry. Such biomineralization pathways and strategies in turn likely influence elemental fractionation during CaCO3 precipitation. Ries, J.B., A.L. Cohen, A.L., and D.C. McCorkle (2009), Marine calcifiers exhibit mixed responses to CO2-induced ocean

  12. Water quality of the Crescent River basin, Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, Alaska, 2003-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Ourso, Robert T.

    2006-01-01

    relatively small number of ovigerous (egg-bearing) individuals. Cyclops sp. are one of the primary food sources for rearing sockeye salmon juveniles and were most prevalent in the July sampling. Qualitative-Multi-Habitat algae samples were collected from two surface-water sites. A total of 59 taxa were found and were comprised of 4 phyla: Rhodophyta (red algae), Cyanophyta (blue-green algae), Chlorophyta (green algae), and Chrysophyta (diatoms). Twenty-two algal taxa were collected from the upper site, North Fork Crescent River, whereas twice as many taxa were collected from the downstream site, Crescent River near the mouth.

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF TWO FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRES TO ASSESS GLUTEN INTAKE IN CHILDREN UP TO 36 MONTHS OF AGE.

    PubMed

    Crespo Escobar, Paula; Calvo Lerma, Joaquim; Hervas Marin, David; Donat Aliaga, Ester; Masip Simó, Etna; Polo Miquel, Begoña; Ribes Koninckx, Carmen

    2015-11-01

    Antecedentes y objetivos: una información precisa sobre el consumo de gluten es muy importante para estudiar el verdadero impacto de la introducción y la ingesta de gluten en el desarrollo de la enfermedad celiaca. El objetivo del estudio fue desarrollar y validar herramientas (cuestionarios de frecuencia de consumo, CFC) para evaluar el consumo de gluten en niños con edades comprendidas entre los 7 y 36 meses. Métodos: se incluyeron un total de 342 niños reclutados en el Hospital Universitario y Politécnico de La Fe, así como en guarderías y escuelas de primaria con problemas menores de salud. Se desarrollaron dos CFC diferentes (uno para niños de 7 a 12 meses y otro para niños de 13 a 36 meses). Para su validación, los resultados obtenidos con los CFC se compararon con un registro alimentario de dos días (2RA) y también con un registro alimentario de soete días (7RA), considerado el “estándar de oro”. La ingesta media de gluten obtenida de la comparación del 2RA vs. CFC y de 7RA vs. CFC fueron comparadas usando el método de Bland Altman plot y también el coeficiente de correlación de concordancia de Lin’s. Resultados: de acuerdo a los resultados de los dos métodos estadísticos usados para la validación, se encontró una buena correlación entre los CFC y los registros alimentarios de dos y siete días, lo que indica que los CFC son fiables para la evaluación de la ingesta de gluten. Conclusiones: estos dos nuevos CFC son los únicos validados y disponibles en España para la evaluación de la ingesta de gluten. Además, son herramientas útiles y fáciles de usar para el cálculo del consumo de gluten en niños de hasta tres años de edad.

  14. PubMed

    Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Luengo, Luis Miguel; Álvarez, Julia; Burgos, Rosa; Cuerda, Cristina; Matía, Pilar; Gómez Candela, Carmen; Martínez Olmos, Miguel Ángel; Gonzalo, Montserrat; Calleja, Alicia; Campos, Cristina; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio; Irles, José Antonio; Leyes, Pere; Sánchez, Rebeca; De Luis Román, Daniel; Cardona, Daniel; Santacruz, Nieves; Suárez, José Pablo; Ballesta, Carmen; Salas, Jordi; Penacho, María Ángeles; Gardez, Carmen; Martínez, María José; Cánovas, Bárbara; Moreno, José Manuel; Del Olmo, Dolores; Carabaña, Fátima; Virgili, Nuria; Higuera, Isabel; Mauri, Silvia; Sánchez-Vilar, Olga; Miserachs, Nuria; Ponce, Miguel Ángel; García, Yaiza; Morán, Jesús M; Apezetxea, Antxón; Tejera, Cristina; Calañas, Alfonso; Cantón, Ana; Díaz, Patricia; Nadya-Senpe, Grupo

    2017-02-01

    Objetivo: exponer los resultados del registro de nutrición enteral domiciliaria (NED) del año 2014 y 2015 del Grupo NADYA-SENPE.Métodos: se recopilaron los pacientes introducidos en el registro desde el 1 de enero al 31 de diciembre de 2014 y la mismas fechas de 2015, y se procedió al análisis descriptivo y analítico de los datos.Resultados: en el año 2014, se registraron 3.749 pacientes y en 2015, 4.202; la prevalencia fue de 80,58 pacientes/millón de habitantes en el año 2014 y de 90,51 en 2015. Por sexos, hubo un 49,9% de mujeres en 2014 y un 50,3% en 2015. La edad media fue de 73 años (IIQ 59-83) en ambos años. Finalizaron 684 episodios de NED en 2014 y 631 en 2015, la causa principal fue el fallecimiento en el 54,9% y 50,4% de los casos, respectivamente. Los portadores de sonda nasogástrica presentan una edad media superior a los pacientes con cualquier otra vía (p < 0,001). Se registraron 67 pacientes pediátricos en 2014 (56,7% niñas) y 77 en 2015 (55,8% niñas). La vía principal de administración fue la gastrostomía en el 52,0% de los casos de 2014 y sonda nasogástrica en el 50,8% de los casos de 2015. La causa principal de finalización de la nutrición fue el fallecimiento (57,1% en 2014 y 38,5% en 2015). Se observó que los niños más pequeños eran los que se alimentaban preferentemente por SNG (p 0,004 vs.0,002).Tanto en pacientes pediátricos como en adultos el diagnóstico principal que motivó la necesidad de NED fue la enfermedad neurológica que cursa con afagia o disfagia severa.Conclusiones: se ha incrementado el número de pacientes del registro, así como el número de centros participantes y el número medio de pacientes comunicados por cada centro respecto a años anteriores, sin que se hayan modificado sustancialmente las características de los pacientes, salvo mayor duración de los episodios.

  15. [Multi-parametric Flow Cytometry for Neuroblastoma, a new and possible diagnostic tool: case report].

    PubMed

    Manrique, Belén; López Marti, Jessica; Cacciavillano, Walter; Rossi, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most frequent extracranial solid tumor in childhood, representing 5.6% according to the "Registro Oncopediatrico Hospitalario Argentino". For its diagnosis, several complementary methods (radiological, biological and biochemical) are required, and Multi-parametric Flow Cytometry (MFC) arises as a potential diagnostic method, despite not having been so far extensively explored. MFC is a method that allows to obtain several information about size, internal complexity and antigenic expression by the use of a laser and fluorescent monoclonal antibodies. There are an increasing number of reports in the literature, which reveal the importance of using MFC for diagnosis and monitoring of solid tumors. The aim in this presentation is to highlight the fundamental role that MFC had in the case of a patient affected by neuroblastoma, in which an early diagnosis using this methodology allowed prompt administration of adequate treatment.

  16. [Chromosomal imbalances and survival in patients with astrocytomas].

    PubMed

    López-Aguilar, Enrique; Rioscovian-Soto, Ana; Betanzos-Cabrera, Yadira; Ruiz-Esparza, Ruth; Sepúlveda-Vildósola, Ana Carolina

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la citogenética ha revelado que el desarrollo de los tumores cerebrales pudiera estar inducido por alteraciones moleculares. La asociación de las alteraciones cromosómicas con la supervivencia permitirá valorar el pronóstico y tratamiento de estos tumores. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar las alteraciones cromosómicas, la supervivencia global y libre de enfermedad en pacientes pediátricos con astrocitomas, y la asociación entre ellas. MÉTODOS: se revisaron los expedientes clínicos de los pacientes con diagnóstico de astrocitoma de acuerdo con los registros de 1995 a 2005. Se buscaron los bloques de parafina para extraer el material tumoral y se realizó técnica de hibridación genómica comparativa para buscar ganancias y pérdidas cromosómicas.

  17. Accord No. 334 of 18 August 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This Accord creates the Programme for Forestation and Reforestation of the Amazon Region of Ecuador with Native Species, under the control of the National Forestry Directorate. The preamble to the Accord states that the Programme has been created, in part, to stop the indiscriminate exploitation of natural trees. Accord No. 332 of 18 August 1989, issued by the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, creates under the Regional Subsecretariat for the Amazon the Agency of Natural Resources of the Amazon Region of Ecuador to coordinate activities taking place in that area with the Institute for Settlement of the Amazon Region of Ecuador and relevant state organizations. The preamble to the Accord states that the Agency has been created, in part, to ensure the rational and harmonic development of the region and to preserve the region's natural resources. See Registro Oficial, No. 262, 28 August 1989, p. 2.

  18. Great landslide events in Italian artificial reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panizzo, A.; de Girolamo, P.; di Risio, M.; Maistri, A.; Petaccia, A.

    2005-09-01

    The empirical formulations to forecast landslide generated water waves, recently defined in the framework of a research program funded by the Italian National Dam Office RID (Registro Italiano Dighe), are here used to study three real cases of subaerial landslides which fell down italian artificial reservoirs. It is well known that impulse water waves generated by landslides constitute a very dangerous menace for human communities living in the shoreline of the artificial basin or downstream the dam. In 1963, the menace became tragedy, when a 270 millions m3 landslide fell down the Vajont reservoir (Italy), generated an impulse wave which destroyed the city of Longarone, and killed 2000 people. The paper is aimed at presenting the very satisfactorily reproduction of the events at hand by using forecasting formulations.

  19. Current status of pediatric home enteral nutrition in Spain: the importance of the NEPAD register.

    PubMed

    Gómez-López, L; Martínez-Costa, C; Pedrón-Giner, C; Calderón-Garrido, C; Navas López, V M; Martínez Zazo, A; Moreno Villares, J M

    2010-01-01

    Home enteral nutrition (HEN) is a type of enteral nutrition (EN) which is becoming progressively more widespread in pediatrics due to the benefits it affords to patients, their families and to reducing hospital costs. However, the true extent of its use is unknown in Spain as the data-base set up for this purpose is still underused (Registro de Nutrición Enteral Pediátrica Ambulatoria y Domiciliaria -NEPAD-). More thorough registration of patients in the NEPAD online register will provide information about the characteristics of HEN in Spain: prevalence, diagnosis, the population sector being administered HEN, complications and developments. Likewise, forecast and planning of the necessary resources could be made while those in use could be analysed.

  20. [Skin cancer incidence in Zacatecas].

    PubMed

    Pinedo-Vega, José Luis; Castañeda-López, Rosalba; Dávila-Rangel, J Ignacio; Mireles-García, Fernando; Ríos-Martínez, Carlos; López-Saucedo, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: el cáncer de piel es una neoplasia relacionada con la radiación ultravioleta solar. El objetivo fue estimar la incidencia del cáncer de piel de tipo melanoma y no-melanoma. MÉTODOS: se llevó a cabo un estudio epidemiológico entre 2008 y 2012 en Zacatecas, México. La información se obtuvo de los registros confirmados de cáncer de piel en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, el Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado, la Secretaría de Salud de Zacatecas y el laboratorio privado del Centro Médico Alameda. Se calculó la incidencia y la prevalencia global.

  1. A Home and Ambulatory Artificial Nutrition (NADYA) group report, Home Parenteral Nutrition in Spain, 2013.

    PubMed

    Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Cuerda Compes, J Cristina; Burgos Peláez, Rosa; Gómez Candela, Carmen; Virgili Casas, Nuria; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio; Moreno Villares, José Manuel; Carabaña Pérez, Fátima; Garde Orbaiz, Carmen; Martínez Faedo, Ceferino; Penacho Lázaro, Ma Ángeles; Gonzalo Marín, Montserrat; García Luna, Pedro Pablo; Matía Martín, Pilar; Sanz Paris, Alejandro; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; Martín Folgueras, Tomás; García Zafra, María Victoria; Hernández, Álvarez; Campos Martín, Cristina; Suárez Llanos, José Pablo; Zugasti, Ana; Apezetxea Celaya, Antxón; Urgeles Planella, Juan Ramon; Laborda González, Lucía; Sánchez-Vilar Burdiel, Olga; Joaquín Ortiz, Clara; Martínez Costa, Cecilia; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Leyes García, Pere; Ponce González, Miguel Angel; Gil Martínez, Ma Carmen; Sánchez Martos, Eva Ángeles; del Olmo García, Ma Dolores; Díaz Guardiola, Patricia

    2015-06-01

    Objetivo: comunicar los datos del registro de Nutrición Parenteral Domiciliaria (NPD) del grupo de trabajo NADYA-SENPE del años 2013. Material y métodos: recopilación de los datos del registro “on-line” introducidos por los colaboradores del grupo NADYA responsables del seguimiento de la NPD desde el 1 de enero de 2013 al 31 de diciembre de 2013. Resultados: se registraron 197 pacientes, procedentes de 35 hospitales, lo que representa una tasa de 4,22 pacientes/ millón habitantes/año 2013, con 202 episodios de NPD. La edad media de los 189 pacientes mayores de 14 años fue de 53 años (IIQ 40 – 64), y en los niños de 7 meses (IIQ 6 – 35,5). La patología más frecuente en los adultos fue la neoplasia (30,7%) seguida por otras patologías (20,1%) y la isquemia mesentérica (12,7%). En el 35,4% de los casos el motivo de indicación fue el síndrome de intestino corto, seguido de la obstrucción intestinal (25,9%). En los niños el diagnóstico más frecuente fueron las alteraciones congénitas intestinales y ‘otros diagnósticos’, ambas con un 37,5 %, y la causa de la indicación el síndrome de intestino corto y la obstrucción intestinal, que se repartieron el 50% de la muestra. Los catéteres más utilizados fueron los tunelizados (50%) y los reservorios subcutáneos (27,7%). Las complicaciones más frecuentes fueron las sépticas, relacionadas con el catéter, con una tasa de 0,74 infecciones/1.000 días de NPD. La duración de la NPD presentó una mediana de 1,69 años. Durante el año finalizaron 86 episodios, la principal causa de la finalización en adultos fue el fallecimiento (45%) seguido del ‘paso a la vía oral’ (43,75%) y en los niños a la inversa 66,7% pasan a vía oral y 16,7% fallecen. Se consideraron candidatos para trasplante intestinal el 15% de los pacientes, siendo proporcionalmente los candidatos niños, p-valor 0,002. Conclusiones: se observa un aumento progresivo de los centros participantes y de los pacientes

  2. Accord No. 000244, 30 June 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Accord publishes in the Registro Oficial the text of the Andean Instrument on Labour Migration, adopted by the National Congress of Ecuador on 24 June 1987. Under the Instrument, member countries are not to impede the entry and departure of migrant workers who have been contracted in conformity with the Instrument and the immigration laws of the country of immigration. Migrant workers are not to be discriminated against on the basis of race, sex, religion, or nationality and are to have, in general, the same rights of workers of the country of immigration. Workers and their families are also to have the same rights as nationals to education, housing, health care, and social security. Further provisions of the Instrument set forth specific rules with respect to temporary workers, border workers, and undocumented workers.

  3. [Toward a New Immunization Schedule in Spain, 2016 (Part 1)].

    PubMed

    Limia-Sánchez, Aurora; Andreu, María Mar; Torres de Mier, María de Viarce; Navarro-Alonso, José Antonio

    2016-03-08

    The immunization Schedule is a dynamic public health tool that has incorporated different changes over the years influenced by the epidemiologic situation and the scientific evidence. The Immunization Advisory Committee [Ponencia de Programa y Registro de Vacunaciones], as the Interterritorial Council scientific and technical advisory body, carries out assessments of different programmes and vaccines and proposes changes that after approval will be introduced in the Regions schedule. This article is divided into two parts presenting the rationale followed to propose a new schedule for the immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and invasive disease by Haemophilus influenzae type b. This first part is focused in the reasoning to undertake the assessment, the review of the immunization policy and the impact of immunization in Spain, as well as a review of the immunization schedules in similar countries.

  4. Validation of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess food groups and nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Ojeda, Gabriela; Vizmanos-Lamotte, Barbara; Márquez-Sandoval, Yolanda Fabiola; Rodríguez-Rocha, Norma Patricia; López-Uriarte, Patricia Josefina; Fernández-Ballart, Joan D

    2013-11-01

    Introducción. Los cuestionarios semicuantitativos de frecuencia de consumo (CFC) analizan ingestión promedio de alimentos y nutrimentos en períodos extensos para asociar consumo habitual con problemas de salud, como enfermedades crónicas. En México, no existe una herramienta similar, aplicable en mujeres y hombres. Objetivo. Validar un CFC en mujeres y hombres adultos. Métodos. El estudio incluyó 97 participantes (61% mujeres). Dos CFC fueron aplicados (un año entre ambos) para medir reproducibilidad. Para validez, se comparó el segundo CFC con registros dietéticos de nueve días. Los análisis incluyeron correlaciones de Pearson y coeficientes de correlación intraclase (CCI). Se controló desatenuación de CCI provocada por la variabilidad intraindividual. El análisis de validez se complementó con la comparación de la capacidad de clasificación entre CFC y registros dietéticos, mediante concordancia de categorías de consumo y gráficos de Bland y Altman. Resultados. Reproducibilidad: los CCI para grupos de alimentos oscilaron entre 0.42-0.87 y para nutrimentos entre 0.34-0.82. Validez: los CCI para grupos de alimentos variaron entre 0.35-0.84 y para nutrimentos entre 0.36-0.77. La mayoría de sujetos (56.7-76.3%) clasificaron en el mismo quintil o adyacente por ambos métodos (media 66.1%), para nutrimentos. La mala clasificación extrema para todos los ítems fue.

  5. [HOME AND AMBULATORY ARTIFICIAL NUTRITION (NADYA) GROUP REPORT, HOME PARENTERAL NUTRITION IN SPAIN, 2014].

    PubMed

    Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Pereira Cunill, José Luis; Cuerda Compes, Cristina; Moreno Villares, José Manuel; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio; Burgos Peláez, Rosa; Gómez Candela, Carmen; Virgili Casas, Nuria; Penacho Lázaro, M Angeles; Martinez Faedo, Ceferino; Garde Orbaiz, Carmen; Gonzalo Marín, Montserrat; Sanz Paris, Alejandro; Álvarez, Julia; Sánchez Martos, Eva Angeles; Martín Folgueras, Tomás; Campos Martín, Cristina; Matía Martín, Pilar; Zugasti, Ana; Carabaña Pérez, Fátima; García Zafra, Maria Victoria; Ponce Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Suárez Llanos, José Pablo; Martínez Costa, Cecilia; De Luis, Daniel; Apezetxea Celaya, Antxón; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; Díaz Guardiola, Patricia; Gil Martinez, M Carmen; Del Olmo García, M Dolores; Leyes García, Pere; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Joaquin Ortiz, Clara; Sánchez-Vilar Burdiel, Olga; Laborda González, Lucía

    2015-12-01

    Objetivo: comunicar los datos del registro de Nutrición Parenteral Domiciliaria (NPD) del grupo de trabajo NADYA-SENPE del año 2014. Material y métodos: recopilación de los datos de NPD del registro “on-line” del grupo de Nutrición Artificial Domiciliaria y Ambulatoria (NADYA) desde el 1 de enero de 2014 al 31 de diciembre de 2014. Resultados: se registraron 220 pacientes, con 229 episodios de NPD, procedentes de 37 hospitales; lo que representa una tasa de 4,73 pacientes/millón de habitantes/ año 2014. Las patologías más frecuentes en los adultos fueron: ‘otros diagnósticos’ (22,3%), la neoplasia paliativa (20,4%), seguida por la neoplasia activa radical (11,8%) y la isquemia mesentérica (10,9%). En los niños las patologías más frecuentes fueron: ‘alteraciones congénitas intestinales’ (33,3%), seguidas por ‘intestino corto traumático’ y ‘otro diagnóstico’. Conclusiones: se observa un aumento del número de pacientes que reciben nutrición parenteral domiciliaria y de los centros colaboradores. Consideramos que la NPD debería ser regulada por la Administración Sanitaria en el marco del Consejo Interterritorial del Sistema Nacional de Salud, y que su inclusión en la Cartera de Servicios de los diferentes Servicios de Salud de las diferentes comunidades autónomas redundaría en un beneficio para el paciente y los profesionales.

  6. [Acute coronary syndromes in Latin America: lessons from the ACCESS registry].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, Carlos; Jerjes-Sánchez, Carlos; Nicolau, José Carlos; Bazzino, Oscar; Antepara, Norka; Mármol, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: se desconocen las características, la evolución y el tratamiento de pacientes latinoamericanos con síndromes coronarios agudos (SCA). Métodos: registro internacional multicéntrico y prospectivo para evaluar riesgo, terapéutica y evolución en SCA. Punto primario: toda causa de mortalidad durante el primer año y mortalidad a 30 días. Ingresaron pacientes con síntomas de isquemia coronaria aguda en las primeras 24 horas del inicio de los síntomas y evidencia electrocardiográfica de isquemia. El diagnóstico final requirió pruebas invasivas o no invasivas. Resultados: entre el 2007 y 2008 se ingresaron en ocho países latinoamericanos 4436 pacientes, 2562 con angina inestable o infarto sin elevación del ST y 2374 con infarto con elevación del ST. Al ingreso tuvieron síntomas agudos 79 y 90 %, respectivamente. Ambos grupos tuvieron retraso entre el inicio de síntomas y el ingreso hospitalario. En infarto y elevación del ST se observó baja accesibilidad a reperfusión farmacológica (29 %) y mecánica (32 %). Al ingreso en ambos el porcentaje de tratamiento basado en evidencia fue bajo. Las complicaciones hospitalarias fueron la insuficiencia cardiaca (angina inestable e infarto sin elevación del ST 10 % y el infarto con elevación del ST 20 %) e isquemia recurrente (8 y 11 %). La mortalidad a 30 días fue 2 % y a un año 8 %. Conclusiones: el registro ACCESS ofrece información contemporánea sobre el espectro de pacientes, el manejo hospitalario y la evolución clínica subsecuente.

  7. A home enteral nutrition (HEN); spanish registry of NADYA-SENPE group; for the year 2013.

    PubMed

    Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Álvarez Hernández, Julia; Burgos Peláez, Rosa; Cuerda Compes, Cristina; Matía Martín, Pilar; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; Gómez Candela, Carmen; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio; Calleja Fernández, Alicia; Martínez Olmos, Miguel Ángel; Laborda González, Lucía; Campos Martín, Cristina; Leyes García, Pere; Irles Rocamora, José Antonio; Suárez Llanos, José Pablo; Cardona Pera, Daniel; Gonzalo Marín, Monserrat; Penacho Lázaro, María Ángeles; Ballesta Sáncez, Carmen; Rabasa Soler, Antoni; Garde Orbaiz, Carmen; Cánovas Gaillemin, Bárbara; Moreno Villares, José Manuel; del Olmo García, María Dolores; Carabaña Pérez, Fátima; Arraiza Irigoyen, Carmen; Mauri, Silvia; Sánchez-Vilar Burdiel, Olga; Virgili Casas, Nuria; Miserachs Aranda, Nuria; Apezetxea Celaya, Antxón; Pereira Soto, Manuel Ángel; Ponce González, Miguel Ángel

    2015-06-01

    Objetivo: exponer los resultados del registro de nutrición enteral domiciliaria (NED) del año 2013 del Grupo NADYA-SENPE. Material y métodos: se recopilaron los pacientes introducidos en el registro desde el 1 de enero al 31 de diciembre de 2013, procediendo al análisis descriptivo y analítico de los datos. Resultados: durante este periodo se registraron 3.223 pacientes, (50,6% varones) y un total de 3.272 episodios de NED en 33 hospitales españoles. La tasa de prevalencia fue de 67,11pacientes/millón de habitantes/año 2013. El 98,24% de los enfermos tenía más de 14 años. La media de edad de los adultos fue de 69,14 años (dt 17,64) y la mediana se situó en 73 años (IIQ 58-83), siendo los varones más jóvenes que las mujeres; p-valor < 0,001. Los niños tuvieron una edad media de 2,38 años (dt 4,35). La enfermedad que con más frecuencia motivó el uso de la NED fue la patología neurológica en niños (49,1%) y en adultos (60,6%). La vía de administración más utilizada en los niños fue la gastrostomía (51%), siendo los niños más pequeños los que se alimentaban por SNG (p-valor 0,003) y en los adultos (48%), siendo estos pacientes los de mayor edad (p-valor.

  8. [Mortality associated with a diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults of Mexican health institutions].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Moreno, Rogelio; Tolosa-Tort, Paulina; Patiño-Tamez, Anais; Quintero-Bauman, Alejandra; Collado-Frías, Deisy K; Miranda-Rodríguez, María G; Canela-Calderón, Obet J; Hurtado-Valadez, Pablo; de Gante-Castro, Raúl; Ortiz-Guillén, Karoll M; Estañol-Vidal, Bruno; Sentíes-Madrid, Horacio; García-Ramos, Guillermo; Cantú-Brito, Carlos; Ruiz-Sandoval, José Luis; Chiquete, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Introduccion. El sindrome de Guillain-Barre (SGB) es una urgencia neurologica que constituye la principal causa de paralisis flacida en el mundo, y que afecta a todos los grupos etarios. Se desconocen notablemente las caracteristicas epidemiologicas esenciales del SGB en la mayor parte de los paises de America Latina. Objetivo. Determinar la mortalidad asociada con el diagnostico de SGB en altas hospitalarias efectuadas durante el año 2010 en instituciones de la Secretaria de Salud, Mexico. Pacientes y metodos. Se analizo la base de datos de altas hospitalarias de instituciones que pertenecen a la Secretaria de Salud. Se identificaron los casos de SGB mediante el codigo G61.0 de la Clasificacion Internacional de Enfermedades, 10.ª revision (CIE-10). Se excluyeron los registros de pacientes menores de 18 años y los casos sin informacion demografica completa. Resultados. Durante el año 2010 se registraron 2.634.339 altas de hospitales que pertenecen a la Secretaria de Salud. Se identifico un total de 467 hospitalizaciones por SGB en adultos (mediana de edad: 41 años; 62,1% hombres) de 121 instituciones sanitarias de los 32 estados federados de Mexico. Durante el verano y otoño se registro la mayor frecuencia de hospitalizaciones por SGB. La mediana de la estancia hospitalaria fue de 8 dias y la tasa de mortalidad hospitalaria, del 10,5%. La probabilidad de muerte se asocio directamente con la edad, sin una tendencia particular respecto al sexo, hospital de atencion o entidad federativa. Conclusiones. En 2010, la mortalidad hospitalaria por SGB en esta parte del sistema sanitario mexicano fue mas alta de la que se informa en estudios contemporaneos. Se observo una asociacion estacional con la frecuencia de hospitalizaciones por SGB.

  9. [Sex differences in the integrated stroke management in a rural healthcare area in Asturias].

    PubMed

    Lopez-Martinez, T; Bernardo-Cofino, J; Garcia-Prieto, E; Feito-Alvarez, M; de Dios-Del Valle, R; Calleja-Puerta, S

    2016-08-16

    Introduccion. Las diferencias de sexo y el caracter (rural o urbano) de las poblaciones determinan en gran medida el abordaje integral de patologias dependientes del tiempo, como el ictus, principal causa de hospitalizacion y mortalidad femenina en nuestro medio. Objetivo. Determinar si en un area sanitaria rural del Principado de Asturias se ponen de manifiesto las caracteristicas diferenciales entre mujeres y hombres con ictus. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo realizado en el Hospital de Jarrio. Se revisaron variables a traves de las historias clinicas informatizadas de los pacientes que sufrieron ictus en 2013. Resultados. Se produjeron 126 altas totales, el 53,2% en las mujeres, que sufrieron la enfermedad con un retraso de cinco años (p < 0,008) en relacion con los varones, los cuales fueron mas fumadores y consumidores perjudiciales de alcohol (p < 0,000). La demora prehospitalaria no arrojo diferencias de sexo significativas. El trastorno del lenguaje fue el sintoma principal en el grupo femenino (p < 0,008), que registro una puntuacion superior en la National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (p < 0,046). Los estudios complementarios, como el Holter (p < 0,04) y la ecografia de troncos supraaorticos (p < 0,02), se realizaron menos en las mujeres, que recibieron un tratamiento principalmente conservador con mayor hidratacion parenteral (p < 0,017) y reposo. El grupo femenino sufrio mas complicaciones, discapacidad al alta (p < 0,001) y a los tres meses (p < 0,004), y registro porcentajes mas elevados de institucionalizacion posterior (p < 0,005). Conclusiones. Existen diferencias de sexo demograficas, en el perfil de riesgo cerebrovascular, la presentacion clinica, el manejo hospitalario y la comorbilidad del ictus en esta poblacion rural, que sugieren areas de mejora.

  10. Carbon isotopic fractionation in macroalgae from Cádiz Bay (Southern Spain): Comparison with other bio-geographic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, Jesús M.; de los Santos, Carmen B.; Lucas Pérez-Lloréns, J.; Vergara, Juan J.

    2009-11-01

    The 13C signature of forty-five macroalgal species from intertidal zones at Cádiz Bay was analysed in order to research the extension of diffusive vs. non-diffusive utilisation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and to perform a comparison with data published for other bio-geographic regions. The ∂ 13C values ranged from -6.8‰ to -33‰, although the span of variation was different depending on the taxa. Thus, ∂ 13C for Chlorophyta varied from -7‰ ( Codium adhaerens) to -29.6‰ ( Flabellia petiolata), while all the Phaeophyceae (excepting Padina pavonica with ∂ 13C higher than -10‰) had values between -10‰, and -20‰. The widest variation range was recorded in Rhodophyta, from values above -10‰ ( Liagora viscida) to values lower than -30‰ obtained in three species belonging to the subclass Rhodymeniophycidae. Accordingly, the mean ∂ 13C value calculated for red algae (-20.2‰) was significantly lower than that for brown (-15.9‰) and green algae (-15.6‰). Most of the analysed red algae were species inhabiting crevices and the low intertidal fringe which explains that, on average, the shaded-habitat species had a ∂ 13C value lower than those growing fully exposed to sun (i.e. in rockpools or at the upper intertidal zone). The comparison between the capacity for non-diffusive use of DIC (i.e. active or facilitated transport of HCO 3- and/or CO 2) and the ∂ 13C values reveals that values more negative than -30‰ indicate that photosynthesis is dependent on CO 2 diffusive entry, whereas values above this threshold would not indicate necessary the operation of a non-diffusive DIC transport mechanism. Furthermore, external carbonic anhydrase activity ( extCA) and ∂ 13C values were negatively correlated indicating that the higher the dependence of the photosynthesis on the CO 2 supplied from HCO 3- via extCA, the lower the ∂ 13C in the algal material. The comparison between the ∂ 13C values obtained for the analysed species and those

  11. Taxocoenosis of epibenthic dinoflagellates in the coastal waters of the northern Yucatan Peninsula before and after the harmful algal bloom event in 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Trujillo, Ana C; Okolodkov, Yuri B; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Merino-Virgilio, Fany Del C; Galicia-García, Citlalli

    2017-03-22

    Eutrophication causes the major impact in the coastal waters of the state of Yucatan. In general, loss of water quality and biological communities and massive development of toxic microorganisms are some of the consequences of this phenomenon. To reveal changes in species composition and cell abundance of the taxocoenosis of epibenthic dinoflagellates before and after a harmful algal bloom event in the water column that lasted about 150days (August-December 2011) in the Dzilam - San Crisanto area (northern Yucatan Peninsula, southeastern Gulf of Mexico) were the main objectives of the present study. In August 2011 and September 2012, sampling along 20 transects perpendicular to the coastline along the entire northern Yucatan coast, starting from 20 sampling sites from El Cuyo in the east to Celestún in the west, at a distance of 50, 150 and 250m from the coast, was carried out. Physicochemical characteristics measured before and after the bloom were within the ranges previously reported in the study area. Salinity was the most stable characteristic, with mean values of 36.25 and 36.42 in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Phosphates were the only parameter that showed a wide range with higher values before the bloom (0.03-0.54μM/l). A total of 168 macrophyte (seaweeds and seagrasses), sponge and sediment samples (105 in 2011 and 63 in 2012) that included associated microphytobenthos were taken by snorkeling from 0.7 to 5m depth. Six substrate types were distinguished: Chlorophyta, Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyta, Angiospermae (seagrasses), Demospongiae (sponges) and sediment. Chlorophytes dominated the collected samples: 38 samples in 2011 and 23 in 2012. Avrainvillea longicaulis f. laxa predominated before the bloom and Udotea flabellum after it. In total, 25 epibenthic dinoflagellate species from 11 genera were found. The genus Prorocentrum was the most representative in terms of the number of species. The highest total dinoflagellate cell abundances were observed in the

  12. Evaluation of biological data, Guanella Pass Area, Clear Creek and Park counties, Colorado, water years 1995-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox-Lillis, Jennifer R.

    2000-01-01

    density, were Cyanophyta (blue-green algae), Chrysophyta (diatoms), Chlorophyta (green algae), Rhodophyta (red algae), and Euglenophyta (euglenoids). In general, diatom biovolumes dominated the algal assemblage, followed by blue-green algae, green algae, red algae, and euglenoids. Algal densities ranged from 3.1 X 102 to more than 4.7 X 106 cells per square centimeter, and algal biovolume ranged from 2.3 X 104 to 4.6 X 109 cells per cubic centimeter. Diversity values for diatoms ranged from 1.5 to 4.9. The pollution tolerance index (PTI) for diatoms ranged from 1.8 to 3.0. Sensitive diatoms were present at each site and ranged from 21 to 97 percent. The percentage of motile diatoms ranged from 0 to 13 percent. The presence of acid-tolerant diatoms ranged from less than 0.5 to greater than 20 percent. The percentage of community similarity between site pairs ranged from 1 to 97 percent. Overall, the biotic metrics that were evaluated during this study indicate that the macroinvertebrate and algal communities in the streams on Guanella Pass are not degraded by the existing road. Erosion may cause some localized effects but may not affect the overall health of the whole stream system. The degraded condition of Geneva Creek probably is due to natural effects as opposed to road effects. Although upper South Clear Creek, upstream from Naylor Creek, is located downstream from several sources of road runoff, the biological community at this site does not seem to be negatively affected.

  13. [Pituitary tumors: 10 years of experience].

    PubMed

    Cecenarro, Laura Anahi; Rodrigo Fanton, Elica Tatiana; Estario, Paula; Papalini, Roque Francisco; Estario, María Éugenia

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Los tumores hipofisarios comprenden la cuarta parte de las neoplasias intracraneales y los adenomas son el mayor porcentaje de ellos. Son de naturaleza benigna, pero pueden ser invasivos y producir impacto en la morbi-mortalidad. Objetivo: analizar las características clínicas de los pacientes con diagnóstico de adenomas hipofisarios y crear un registro computarizado para mejorar las estrategias de diagnóstico y seguimiento de estos pacientes. Metodología: Se realizó un análisis retrospectivo, descriptivo, de 102 historias clínicas sobre un total de 191 pacientes que concurrieron al servicio de endocrinología desde el año 2003 al 2014 . Las variables fueron analizadas mediante las correspondientes estadísticas descriptivas. Se utilizó el programa SPSS 11.5. Resultados: El 63% fueron mujeres, y el mayor porcentaje etario entre 25-60 años (74.4%). El 54% correspondió a adenomas no funcionantes, el 28% a prolactinomas, el 11.8% somatotropinomas y el 6.2% corticotropinomas. En todos los tipos el grupo femenino fue mayoritario, excepto en los no funcionantes. De los adenomas no funcionantes el 79% fueron macroadenomas, los prolactinomas el 52% fueron microadenomas y se realizó cirugía en el 37% de ellos. Los somatotropinomas, en el 80% fueron macroadenomas, se operó el 80% de los pacientes y radioterapia al 40%. En los corticotropinomas, tanto micro como macroadenomas se presentaron en igual porcentaje (50%) y todos ellos recibieron tratamiento quirúrgico. Conclusión: Los hallazgos coinciden con la literatura en cuanto a frecuencia y edad de presentación de los adenomas. Consideramos valioso la elaboración de un registro que nos permita optimizar el seguimiento y tratamiento de los pacientes, la investigación y divulgación científica.

  14. Thanks to 70 years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, the world’s largest integrated census microdata dissemination site www.ipums.org/international

    PubMed Central

    McCAA, ROBERT

    2014-01-01

    Seventy years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, symbolized by the 70th anniversary of Estadística, made possible the construction of IPUMS-International, the world’s largest integrated census microdata dissemination site, www.ipums.org/international. Currently, the site offers access to 238 samples totaling over 540 million person records representing 74 countries. The Americas, which account for only about one-seventh of the world’s population, amount to over one-third (36%) of the person records in the IPUMS-International database. Likewise, 35% of the citations in the IPUMS-International bibliography are for studies focused on Latin America, with about half of these analyzing a single Latin American country. This article discusses salient features of the IPUMS integration methods and system. National Statistical Institutes that have not yet entrusted 2010 census microdata to the initiative are invited to do so. Researchers and teachers are invited to use the data freely in analysis and teaching. Setenta años de cooperación estadística inter-Americana, simbolizada por el 70 aniversario de la revista Estadística, han hecho posible la construcción de IPUMS-internacional, la base en línea de microdatos censales harmonizados más grande del mundo, www.ipums.org/international. Actualmente, IPUMS proporciona acceso a 238 muestras con más de 540 millones de registros individuales de 74 países. Las Américas, que albergan una séptima parte de la población mundial, representan más de un tercio (36%) de todos los registros individuales en la base de datos IPUMS-internacional. Asimismo, el 35% de todas las referencias en la bibliografía de IPUMS son de estudios realizados sobre América Latina, la mitad de éstas basadas en un sólo país de la región. Este artículo presenta las principales características del sistema de integración y difusión de datos de IPUMS. Los Institutos Nacionales de Estadísticas que todavía no ha entregado la muestra

  15. [Assessing the profile and nutritional intake of an Ibero-American group of nutrition postgraduate students].

    PubMed

    Sumalla Cano, Sandra; Elío, Iñaki; Domínguez, Irma; Calderón, Rubén; García, Agueda; Fernández, Federico; Gracia, Santos; Dzul, Luis; Battino, Maurizio; Solano, Héctor Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Los hábitos alimentarios tienen una gran influencia sobre la salud de las personas, por ello es de suma importancia profundizar en su estudio para comprobar su adaptación a las recomendaciones actuales y poder realizar políticas de educación nutricional y/o suplementación ajustadas a la realidad. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal descriptivo con la colaboración de estudiantes de postgrado. Los participantes se seleccionaron mediante muestreo no probabilístico accidental enviando vía mail la información del estudio, realizado mediante un cuestionario sobre sus características socio-demográficas y un registro dietético de 3 días. La muestra estuvo formada por n = 50 participantes. Los registros dietéticos de 3 días se valoraron con el software NutrIber y los datos obtenidos fueron tratados mediante el software estadístico SPSS 15. Resultados y discusión: El perfil de los estudiantes es de 80% mujeres y 20% hombres, con edad media de 33,7 ± 9,32 AÑOs, e índice de masa corporal de 22,91 ± 4,07. Todos los grupos presentan un consumo excesivo de proteínas y lípidos y deficitario en glúcidos. En cuanto a los micronutrientes es destacable que ningún grupo cubre las ingestas recomendadas de yodo, y que ningún grupo de mujeres cubre las recomendaciones de ingesta de fibra, ácido fólico ni hierro. Conclusiones: Son necesarios más estudios para confirmar los resultados hallado, sin embargo, se puede concluir que las poblaciones urbanas de Latinoamérica cada vez se acercan más al modelo de dieta occidental, rica en proteínas y grasas y pobre en glúcidos, fibra y micronutrientes, lo que es indicativo de dietas pobres en cereales integrales, frutas y verduras.

  16. Thanks to 70 years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, the world's largest integrated census microdata dissemination site www.ipums.org/international.

    PubMed

    McCAA, Robert

    2013-06-01

    Seventy years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, symbolized by the 70(th) anniversary of Estadística, made possible the construction of IPUMS-International, the world's largest integrated census microdata dissemination site, www.ipums.org/international. Currently, the site offers access to 238 samples totaling over 540 million person records representing 74 countries. The Americas, which account for only about one-seventh of the world's population, amount to over one-third (36%) of the person records in the IPUMS-International database. Likewise, 35% of the citations in the IPUMS-International bibliography are for studies focused on Latin America, with about half of these analyzing a single Latin American country. This article discusses salient features of the IPUMS integration methods and system. National Statistical Institutes that have not yet entrusted 2010 census microdata to the initiative are invited to do so. Researchers and teachers are invited to use the data freely in analysis and teaching. Setenta años de cooperación estadística inter-Americana, simbolizada por el 70 aniversario de la revista Estadística, han hecho posible la construcción de IPUMS-internacional, la base en línea de microdatos censales harmonizados más grande del mundo, www.ipums.org/international. Actualmente, IPUMS proporciona acceso a 238 muestras con más de 540 millones de registros individuales de 74 países. Las Américas, que albergan una séptima parte de la población mundial, representan más de un tercio (36%) de todos los registros individuales en la base de datos IPUMS-internacional. Asimismo, el 35% de todas las referencias en la bibliografía de IPUMS son de estudios realizados sobre América Latina, la mitad de éstas basadas en un sólo país de la región. Este artículo presenta las principales características del sistema de integración y difusión de datos de IPUMS. Los Institutos Nacionales de Estadísticas que todavía no ha entregado la muestra

  17. Study of the histopathological types of cutaneous melanoma in Palmas-TO from 2001 to 2011*

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Nilo Fernandes; Fernandes, Nurimar Conceição; Borges, Myrlena Regina Machado Mescouto

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is considered serious for causing frequent metastasis, presenting high mortality, resistance to available therapies and incidences in laboring activity. OBJECTIVES To study the histopathological types of cutaneous melanoma in Palmas-TO from 2001 to 2011, according to risk factors, location of lesions, Clark levels and Breslow thickness. METHODS A descriptive, retrospective and quantitative research in reports of the Serviços de Anatomia Patológica in Palmas (SAPP) and Registro de Câncer de Base Populacional de Palmas (RCBPP). RESULTS The years of highest incidences were: 2004 (8 cases/17.8%), 2008 and 2011 (7 cases each/15.6%) and 2010 (6 cases/13.3%). Among the 45 cases studied, there were predominance in patients between 41 and 60 years old, women, caucasians, farmers, located in trunk, in situ type, superficial extensive and metastatic cutaneous, Clark levels I (20%) and IV (17.7%), Breslow thickness ≤1 mm (35.5%) and 2.01 to 4 mm (24.4%). CONCLUSIONS The most common histopathological types were: cutaneous melanoma in situ, superficial extensive and metastatic, followed by nodular cutaneous melanoma, and finally, by other forms. In this study, Clark levels and Breslow thickness pointed to greater importance of thin melanomas and sun exposure without appropriate protection in farmers. PMID:26560208

  18. Rationale and design of a multidisciplinary national real-world registry on carotid stenting: the Italian Registry for Carotid Stenting (RISC).

    PubMed

    Biasi, Giorgio M; Deleo, Gaetano; Froio, Alberto; Cremonesi, Alberto; Inglese, Luigi; Lavitrano, Marialuisa; Setacci, Carlo

    2006-04-01

    The Registro Italiano per lo Stenting Carotideo (RISC, Italian Registry for Carotid Stenting) has been organized by Italian specialists from different disciplines directly involved in the prevention of stroke due to carotid plaques through stenting of carotid lesions. The Registry has been endorsed by the national societies of 4 different specialties: vascular surgery, interventional cardiology, radiology, and neuroradiology. Each society contributed in the planning stage. The basis for the registry is to collect data on carotid stenting procedures performed by different specialists with different techniques in a "real-world" setting without the limitations of a randomized clinical trial. The Registry was funded to enroll at least 1200 patients over a minimum period of 36 months. The results will be analyzed using the intention-to-treat principle and are anticipated in late 2006. Primary endpoints of the registry are the 30-day combined death and stroke rate and the occurrence of restenosis and ipsilateral neurological deficit at 12 and 24 months. Considerable attention has been paid to the registry's quality control program to ensure scientific validation. An online database facilitates the collection of data with speed and accuracy.

  19. [Treatment of syringomyelia in patients with Chiari malformation and craniosynostosis. A case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Aransay-Garcia, A; Villarejo-Ortega, F J

    2016-11-16

    Introduccion. Los pacientes con craneosinostosis complejas o unisuturales presentan frecuentemente malformacion de Chiari y siringomielia. El tratamiento quirurgico de la siringomielia en estos pacientes es controvertido. Caso clinico. Niña de 3 años con craneosinostosis compleja no corregida quirurgicamente. Permanecio asintomatica a pesar de que en la resonancia magnetica craneal se evidencio una malformacion de Chiari y un año despues desarrollo una siringomielia cervicodorsolumbar. Se le realizo una craniectomia suboccipital descompresiva, pero posteriormente sufrio un empeoramiento de la siringomielia. El registro de presion intracraneal resulto patologico, por lo que se decidio realizar una craneotomia descompresiva frontoparietotemporal bilateral y remodelacion de la boveda craneal, con lo que se consiguio una disminucion significativa de la siringomielia. Conclusiones. Tras la revision de la bibliografia, se observa que actualmente no existe un consenso sobre el tratamiento de la siringomielia en los pacientes con craneosinostosis y malformacion de Chiari. Algunos autores recomiendan la simultanea descompresion quirurgica suboccipital y de la boveda craneal, otros solo la descompresion de la boveda craneal, y otros la ampliacion de la fosa posterior con distractores. En los casos en los que se realizo primero la descompresion suboccipital no se consiguio resolver ni estabilizar la siringomielia. Concluimos que el tratamiento mas eficaz para los pacientes con siringomielia y craneosinostosis es la remodelacion descompresiva de la boveda craneal, ya que el principal factor causante de la siringomielia es la hipertension intracraneal y la falta de distensibilidad del craneo.

  20. [Otoneurologic and cardiovascular abnormalities associated to carbon monoxide poisoning in occupational exposed workers].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Martínez, Alma; Reyna-López, Víctor; Rodríguez-Ortega, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: aun cuando la Ley Federal del Trabajo incluye la intoxicación por monóxido de carbono, su registro es escaso en el ámbito laboral. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la relación de trastornos otoneurológicos y cardiovasculares con la intoxicación por monóxido de carbono en el ambiente de trabajo, para la adecuada fundamentación de su diagnóstico como enfermedad de trabajo. MÉTODOS: estudio transversal y analítico de un grupo de asaderos que utilizaban leña y carbón para cocinar pollo, comparados con un grupo control (n = 54). La investigación se realizó de abril a noviembre de 2012, con trabajadores de uno u otro sexo, entre los 18 y 74 años de edad; no se excluyó a quienes fumaban, pero no se incluyó a quienes manifestaron antecedente de cardiopatía isquémica Se obtuvieron niveles de carboxihemoglobina en aire espirado, audiometría tonal y electrocardiograma de 12 derivaciones.

  1. Nutritional adequacy in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mesquita de Carvalho, Cláudia; Dias Mendonça, Dayana; Haas Piovesan, Carla; Edler Macagnan, Fabrício; Pandolfo Feoli, Ana Maria

    2014-11-16

    Introducción: La terapia nutricional en el tratamiento del síndrome metabólico es un factor clave. Es importante educar los pacientes sobre los beneficios de seguir el tratamiento cuando se quiere promover cambios nel estilo de vida. Objetivo: El objetivo fue evaluar la adecuación nutricional en individuos con síndrome metabólico de acuerdo con las recomendaciones dietéticas prescritas. Métodos: Un ensayo clínico con 72 sujetos con síndrome metabólico, llevados a cabo en el sur de Brasil. Asesoramiento nutricional se llevó a cabo, asociada o no con el ejercicio físico durante tres meses. Un retiro de alimentos de 24 horas, y un registro de alimentos de dos días fueron los métodos de referencia para el consumo de alimentos. La adecuación nutricional se determinó mediante la ingesta de energía y nutrientes, grupos de alimentos definidos por la Pirámide de Alimentos del Brasil. Results: Los voluntarios alcanzado un promedio del 80% del consumo de energía se recomienda. La ingestión de proteínas y lípidos fue mayor de lo esperado, y la ingesta de hidratos de carbono fue inferior a los niveles recomendados. Hubo una baja ingesta de cereales, verduras, productos lácteos y frijoles (p.

  2. [Management of bilateral vocal cord paralysis with laser cordectomy].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Oropeza, Luz del Carmen; González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Góvea-Camacho, Luis Humberto; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la parálisis bilateral de cuerdas vocales se caracteriza por inmovilidad de las cuerdas en aducción o abducción completa secundaria a lesión del nervio vago a través de los nervios laríngeos recurrentes. Se manifiesta por disnea con estridor variable que puede ocasionar la muerte si no se despeja la vía aérea. Existen técnicas intra y extralaríngeas para aumentar la luz glótica y mejorar la ventilación, la deglución y la posibilidad de decanulación y emisión de voz funcional. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio de serie de casos en el que se incluyeron pacientes con parálisis bilateral de cuerdas vocales tratados mediante cordectomía posterior entre enero de 2004 y enero de 2010. Se revisaron los expedientes clínicos para obtener los datos y registros endolaringoscópicos de control pre y posquirúrgico.

  3. [Cognitive dysfunction in fibromyalgia].

    PubMed

    Gelonch, Olga; Garolera, Maite; Rosselló, Lluís; Pifarré, Josep

    2013-06-01

    Introduccion. Las personas diagnosticadas de fibromialgia refieren de manera muy frecuente quejas sobre su pobre funcionamiento cognitivo. En los ultimos anos ha aumentado el interes para investigar cuales son las alteraciones cognitivas presentes en esta enfermedad. Objetivo. Realizar una revision de las investigaciones publicadas sobre fibromialgia y funciones cognitivas. Desarrollo. Se realizo una busqueda bibliografica con un intervalo temporal desde 1995 hasta 2012. Los terminos de busqueda incluyeron las palabras clave 'fibromyalgia' y 'cognition', 'attention', 'memory', 'language', 'perception', 'executive functions' y 'disexecutive syndrome'. Se seleccionaron 64 registros tras aplicar criterios de inclusion. Conclusiones. Los estudios que han analizado las funciones cognitivas en las personas diagnosticadas de fibromialgia han sido escasos y mayoritariamente con muestras pequenas. Se han identificado deficits principalmente en la memoria de trabajo y en las capacidades atencionales mas complejas, donde el factor distraccion tiene una relevancia importante. Tambien se ha identificado deterioro en la memoria a largo plazo y en las funciones ejecutivas. Existe consenso entre los diversos estudios en que el grado de dolor tiene una relacion directa con el nivel de disfuncion cognitiva, mientras que no existe total consenso para explicar la influencia de la depresion y ansiedad sobre el funcionamiento cognitivo en estos pacientes.

  4. [Description of the follow-up protocol for idiopathic intracranial hypertension in the neuro-ophthalmological unit of a tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    González-Hernández, Ayoze; Tandón-Cárdenes, Luis; Cabrera-Naranjo, Fernando; Guzmán-Fernández, María; Fabre-Pi, Óscar; López-Veloso, Carolina

    2013-05-16

    Objetivo. Revisar los resultados de la implantacion de un protocolo de seguimiento de pacientes con hipertension intracraneal idiopatica (HICI) en una unidad de neurooftalmologia (UNO). Pacientes y metodos. Se realizo una revision bibliografica para determinar las exploraciones necesarias que debian incluirse en el protocolo de seguimiento, asi como la frecuencia optima de las visitas y la duracion adecuada del seguimiento. Posteriormente, se revisaron de forma prospectiva los pacientes incluidos desde la creacion de la UNO y se compararon con los pacientes incluidos en el registro de HICI previo a la creacion de la UNO. Resultados. Desde la implantacion del protocolo, en el 100% de los pacientes se ha valorado la agudeza visual y la campimetria visual a los tres meses, a los seis meses y al ano del diagnostico. Ademas, en un 91%, 72,8% y 100% de los pacientes con HICI se realizo una campimetria visual a los tres meses, a los seis meses y al ano del diagnostico, respectivamente. Antes de la implantacion de nuestro protocolo de seguimiento, se habian realizado 190, lo que corresponde a unas tres por paciente. El numero de punciones lumbares realizadas desde la creacion de la UNO es de 11. Conclusiones. La creacion de una UNO multidisciplinar permite optimizar los recursos y mejorar la asistencia a los pacientes con HICI. Esto deberia redundar en una mejoria del pronostico funcional de estos pacientes.

  5. Right heart thrombi in pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Deisy; Rosa-Salazar, Vladimir; Jiménez, David; Morillo, Raquel; Muriel, Alfonso; Del Toro, Jorge; López-Jiménez, Luciano; Farge-Bancel, Dominique; Yusen, Roger; Monreal, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    There is a lack of comprehensive data on the prevalence, predictors and prognostic significance of right heart thrombi (RHT) in pulmonary embolism.In this study of patients with pulmonary embolism from the Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) registry, we assessed the prevalence and predictors of RHT, and the association between the presence of RHT and the outcomes of all-cause mortality, pulmonary embolism-related mortality, recurrences, and major bleeding through 30 days after initiation of pulmonary embolism treatment.Of 12 441 patients with pulmonary embolism and baseline echocardiographic data, 2.6% had RHT. The following increased the risk of RHT: younger age, previous bleeding, congestive heart failure, cancer, syncope, systolic blood pressure <100 mmHg, and arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation <90%. Patients with RHT were significantly more likely to die from any cause (adjusted OR 2.50 (95% CI 1.62-3.84); p<0.001) and from pulmonary embolism (adjusted OR 4.29 (95% CI 2.45-7.48); p<0.001) during follow-up. RHT was associated with an increased risk of recurrence during follow-up (1.8% versus 0.7%; p=0.04). Major bleeding was similar in patients with and without RHT.In patients presenting with pulmonary embolism, RHT is relatively infrequent. Patients with RHT had a worse outcome when compared with those without RHT.

  6. Adequacy of energy and nutrient intake in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sanches Machado d'Almeida, Karina; Dalira Schweigert Perry, Ingrid; Clausell, Nadine; Corrêa Souza, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Factores nutricionales tienen una influencia significativa en el pronóstico de pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca (IC). Objetivos: Evaluar la ingesta de alimentos de pacientes con IC estable. Métodos: Pacientes de ambos sexos, mayores de 18 años, con diagnóstico confirmado de IC fueron reclutados y emparejados por edad, sexo y IMC con individuos sanos. La ingesta nutricional fue evaluada mediante el registro alimentario y pesaje de acuerdo con las recomendaciones de las DRIs y NCEP-ATP III para la evaluación de la adecuación de la ingesta nutricional. Resultados: El 65% de los 40 pacientes con IC y el 48% de los 25 individuos control eran hombres. La edad media en los grupos fue de 54±8 años y los valores del IMC fueron indicativos de sobrepeso. La ingesta de carbohidratos, ácidos grasos trans y sodio fue mayor en el grupo IC que en el grupo control (p=0,006, p.

  7. [The P300 component as a neurophysiological correlate of behavioural working memory in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Roca, Patricia; Presentación-Herrero, M Jesús; Miranda-Casas, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Ortiz-Sánchez, Pedro

    2014-02-24

    Introduccion. El deficit en funciones ejecutivas ha sido ampliamente estudiado en el trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH). El interes por sus correlatos neurofisiologicos apunta a una mejora en la identificacion de los sintomas, las caracteristicas y los tratamientos para el trastorno. Objetivo. Analizar, en una muestra de adolescentes con TDAH, la correlacion entre la latencia y amplitud del componente P300 y una medida ecologica de memoria de trabajo. Pacientes y metodos. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 24 chicos y 7 chicas de 12 a 18 anos. Se realizo un registro y analisis de potenciales evocados cognitivos P300 en modalidad auditiva en Cz. Ademas, los padres cumplimentaron una escala de comportamiento ejecutivo en el hogar (BRIEF), de la que se extrajo el indice de memoria de trabajo. Resultados. Se hallaron correlaciones significativas entre la amplitud del P300 y el indice de memoria de trabajo del BRIEF-P. Conclusion. Los resultados enfatizan la utilidad del componente P300 para el estudio de sus correlatos ejecutivos, y la necesidad de ampliar con estudios que aporten mayores muestras y mayor complejidad.

  8. [When does post-ictal period start in temporal lobe epilepsy? A quantitative EEG perspective].

    PubMed

    Sanz-Garcia, A; Vega-Zelaya, L; Pastor, J; Sola, R G; Ortega, G J

    2017-04-16

    Introduccion. En las crisis parciales, el periodo postictal presenta grandes dificultades de caracterizacion, tanto desde el punto de vista clinico como en electroencefalografia. Un analisis espectral y de redes complejas permitiria una definicion mas precisa de sus limites y una comprension mas completa de las crisis. Pacientes y metodos. Se analizaron registros digitales de electroencefalografia de electrodos de scalp y foramen oval, 32 crisis, de 15 pacientes con epilepsia farmacorresistente del lobulo temporal (Engel I). Numericamente se estudio la entropia espectral, las distintas bandas de frecuencia y medidas de caracterizacion de la red cortical, la densidad de enlaces, la modularidad, el coeficiente de agrupamiento y la longitud de camino medio, y se cuantifico la variacion del periodo postictal respecto al preictal. Resultados. Durante el periodo postictal de las crisis complejas existe un marcado aumento de la densidad de enlaces en la red cortical coincidente con un descenso en la entropia espectral, principalmente debido al aumento de la actividad en la banda delta. Los valores extremos de estas medidas se alcanzan aproximadamente un minuto despues del fin de las crisis, definidas electroencefalograficamente usando metodos tradicionales. Conclusiones. Nuestros resultados pueden explicarse por la aparicion de un mecanismo de 'finalizacion' de las crisis que comienza dentro del periodo ictal definido clasicamente y que alcanzan su efecto maximo durante el periodo postictal. Estos resultados podrian emplearse para definir el inicio del periodo postictal como aquel donde la sincronizacion es maxima, esto es, donde la densidad de enlaces resulta mayor y la entropia espectral es minima.

  9. Milk and dairy products intake in child-juvenile population in Navarre, Spain.

    PubMed

    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel

    2014-10-01

    Objetivo: Realizar un estudio descriptivo del consumo de leche y derivados lácteos en una población de escolares y adolescentes y analizar su contribución nutricional en la dieta de estos jóvenes. Material y Métodos: Registro de consumo de alimentos de tres días lectivos consecutivos en una muestra de 353 alumnos que cursaban Educación Primaria, entre 9 y 12 años de edad; y a 406 alumnos que cursaban Educación Secundaria Obligatoria, entre 13 y 16 años, en la ciudad de Pamplona (Navarra, España). Resultados: El 94% de los encuestados referían haber tomado lácteos en el desayuno y, en menor proporción, en la cena (69,3%), comida del mediodía (42,1%), merienda (23,3%) y almuerzo (16,4%). No existían diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos de edad. El valor medio del número de raciones de lácteos consumidas por la totalidad de los encuestados era de 2 diarias, siendo significativamente superior (p.

  10. Clinical presentation and outcome of venous thromboembolism in COPD.

    PubMed

    Bertoletti, L; Quenet, S; Mismetti, P; Hernández, L; Martín-Villasclaras, J J; Tolosa, C; Valdés, M; Barrón, M; Todolí, J A; Monreal, M

    2012-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a moderate risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE), but neither the clinical presentation nor the outcome of VTE in COPD patients is well known. The clinical presentation of VTE, namely pulmonary embolism (PE) or deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and the outcome at 3 months (death, recurrent VTE or bleeding) were compared between 2,984 COPD patients and 25,936 non-COPD patients included in the RIETE (Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica) registry. This ongoing international, multi-centre registry includes patients with proven symptomatic PE or DVT. PE was the more frequent VTE presentation in COPD patients (n = 1,761, 59%). PE presentation was more significantly associated with COPD patients than non-COPD patients (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.49-1.80). During the 3-month follow-up, mortality (10.8% versus 7.6%), minor bleeding (4.5% versus 2.3%) or first VTE recurrences as PE (1.5% versus 1.1%) were significantly higher in COPD patients than in non-COPD patients. PE was the most common cause of death. COPD patients presented more frequently with PE than DVT. It may explain the worse prognosis of COPD patients, with a higher risk of death, bleeding or VTE recurrences as PE compared with non-COPD patients. Further therapeutic options are needed.

  11. [Effectiveness of lacosamide in the treatment of refractory neuropathic pain: an open observational trial].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Argüelles, José M; Bermejo, Pedro E; Lara, Manuel; Almajano, Jerónimo; Aragón, Esther; García del Carrizo, Fernando; Blanco, M Victoria; Valenzuela-Rojas, Francisco J; Colás, Juan; Sánchez-Del Valle, Octavio; Ceballos, M Ángeles; Toribio-Díaz, M Elena; Latorre-González, Germán; Costa-Frossard, Lucienne; Morin-Martin, M del Mar

    2014-10-01

    Introduccion. Aunque se dispone de diferentes tratamientos para el dolor neuropatico, en muchas ocasiones estos pacientes son refractarios, lo que hace necesario probar tratamientos que, por su utilidad en otras patologias, podrian ser eficaces en el dolor neuropatico. Pacientes y metodos. Se recogieron las historias clinicas de pacientes que hubieran sido tratados con lacosamida para el dolor neuropatico, en diferentes hospitales de la zona centro peninsular, y que cumplieran unas caracteristicas similares en cuanto a refractariedad a otros tratamientos estandares, en un seguimiento de al menos seis meses, o que hubiesen tenido que suspender el tratamiento con dicho farmaco por cualquier motivo. Se obtuvo una muestra de 114 pacientes, 61 varones y 53 mujeres, con una edad media de 60,5 años. Resultados. Las causas de dolor neuropatico mas frecuentes fueron: polineuropatia diabetica (31,6%), neuralgia postherpetica (22,8%), neuralgia del trigemino (17,5%), neuralgia suboccipital y lumbociatalgia (un 12,3% en ambas). La eficacia fue buena/muy buena en la mayoria de los pacientes, con un descenso medio en la escala analogica visual tras seis meses de 7,7 a 4,8. No se registraron efectos secundarios graves en ningun paciente, pero en 12 y 10 pacientes no hubo registro mas alla de seis meses, por ineficacia e intolerancia al tratamiento, respectivamente. Conclusiones. El tratamiento con lacosamida en el dolor neuropatico de diferentes causas podria considerarse como una alternativa efectiva y bien tolerada para aquellos pacientes que no respondan a los tratamientos estandares.

  12. [Experience of the surgical management of the esophageal achalasia in a tertiary care hospital].

    PubMed

    Barajas-Fregoso, Elpidio Manuel; Romero-Hernández, Teodoro; Sánchez-Fernández, Patricio Rogelio; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la acalasia es un trastorno motor primario del esófago. La sintomatología más frecuente es la disfagia, dolor torácico, reflujo y pérdida de peso. La manometría esofágica es el estándar para su diagnóstico. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la eficacia del manejo quirúrgico de los pacientes con acalasia en nuestro centro hospitalario. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de serie de casos en el que se incluyeron pacientes con acalasia tratados de manera quirúrgica entre enero y diciembre de 2011. Se revisaron los expedientes para obtener los datos y registros del tipo de procedimiento quirúrgico realizado, morbilidad y mortalidad. Resultados: se incluyeron 14 pacientes con edad promedio de 49.1 años. Los síntomas predominantes fueron: disfagia, vómito, pérdida de peso y pirosis. Se realizaron ocho abordajes abiertos y seis laparoscópicos, con una longitud media de cardiomiotomía de 9.4 cm. Once pacientes recibieron un procedimiento antirreflujo concomitante. La efectividad de los procedimientos realizados fue del 85.7 %. Conclusiones: el manejo quirúrgico ofrecido en nuestro centro no difiere de lo reportado en otras series de caso, lo que otorga efectividad y seguridad a los pacientes tratados con acalasia.

  13. The Mexican Seismic Network (Red Sísmica Mexicana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes-Gonzales, C. M.; Arreola-Manzano, J.; Castelan-Pescina, G.; Alonso-Rivera, P.; Saldivar-Rangel, M. A.; Rodriguez-Arteaga, O. O.; Lopez-Lena-Villasana, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Mexican Seismic Network (Red Sísmica Mexicana) was created to give sufficient information and opportune to make decisions in order to mitigate seismic and tsunami risk. This was a Mexican government initiative headed by CENAPRED (National Disaster Prevention Center) who made an effort to integrated academic institutions and civil agencies to work together through a collaboration agreement. This network is supported by Universidad National Autónoma de México (UNAM) and its seismic networks (Broad Band and Strong Motion), the Centro de Instrumentación y Registro Sismico (CIRES) with its Earthquake Early Warning System that covers the Guerrero Gap and Oaxaca earthquakes, The Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE) with the support of its expertise in tsunami observation and the Secretaria de Marina (SEMAR) to monitor the sea level and operate the Mexican Tsunami Warning Center. The institutions involved in this scope have the compromise to interchange and share the data and advice to the Civil Protection authorities.

  14. Reproducibility of the WHO histological criteria for the diagnosis of Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Gianelli, Umberto; Bossi, Anna; Cortinovis, Ivan; Sabattini, Elena; Tripodo, Claudio; Boveri, Emanuela; Moro, Alessia; Valli, Riccardo; Ponzoni, Maurilio; M Florena, Ada; F Orcioni, Giulio; Ascani, Stefano; Bonoldi, Emanuela; Iurlo, Alessandra; Gugliotta, Luigi; Franco, Vito

    2014-06-01

    This study, performed on behalf of the Italian Registry of Thrombocythaemias (Registro Italiano Trombocitemie), aimed to test the inter-observer reproducibility of the histological parameters proposed by the WHO classification for the diagnosis of the Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. A series of 103 bone marrow biopsy samples of Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms consecutively collected in 2004 were classified according to the WHO criteria as follows: essential thrombocythaemia (n=34), primary myelofibrosis (n=44) and polycythaemia vera (n=25). Two independent groups of pathologists reviewed the bone marrow biopsies. The first group was asked to reach a collegial 'consensus' diagnosis. The second group reviewed individually all the cases to recognize the main morphological parameters indicated by the WHO classification and report their results in a database. They were subsequently instructed to individually build a 'personal' diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms subtype just assembling the parameters collected in the database. Our results indicate that high levels of agreement (≥70%) have been reached for about all of the morphological features. Moreover, among the 18 evaluated histological features, 11 resulted statistically more useful for the differential diagnosis among the different Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. Finally, we found a high percentage of agreement (76%) between the 'personal' and 'consensus' diagnosis (Cohen's kappa statistic >0.40). In conclusion, our results support the use of the histological criteria proposed by the WHO classification for the Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms to ensure a more precise and early diagnosis for these patients.

  15. [Effect of alcohol on electrical organisation in the brain during a visuospatial working memory task and its relationship with the menstrual cycle].

    PubMed

    Sanz-Martin, Araceli; Hernández-González, Marisela; Guevara, Miguel Ángel; Santana, Gloria; Gumá-Díaz, Emilio

    2014-02-01

    Introduccion. El metabolismo del alcohol y el desempeño de muchas funciones cognitivas pueden variar a lo largo del ciclo menstrual. Tanto la ingestion de alcohol como las variaciones hormonales durante el ciclo menstrual se asocian con cambios caracteristicos en la actividad electroencefalografica. Objetivo. Determinar si la actividad electroencefalografica durante una tarea de memoria de trabajo es afectada por el consumo agudo de alcohol, y si dicha actividad varia en funcion del ciclo menstrual. Sujetos y metodos. Muestra de 24 mujeres que ingirieron alcohol o placebo durante las fases folicular y lutea temprana. Se registro el electroencefalograma durante la ejecucion de una tarea de memoria de trabajo visuoespacial. Resultados. Aunque el alcohol no deterioro el rendimiento de la tarea de memoria de trabajo, si produjo en el electroencefalograma una disminucion de la potencia relativa de theta y una menor correlacion frontoparietal derecha en las bandas theta y alfa2. Unicamente las mujeres alcoholizadas en la fase folicular presentaron una mayor potencia relativa de alfa1, que podria indicar menor nivel de alertamiento y atencion. Conclusiones. Estos resultados contribuyen a una mejor comprension de los mecanismos cerebrales que subyacen a los cambios cognitivos con el alcohol y su relacion con el ciclo menstrual.

  16. [Cognitive Reserve Scale: testing the theoretical model and norms].

    PubMed

    Leon-Estrada, I; Garcia-Garcia, J; Roldan-Tapia, L

    2017-01-01

    Introduccion. La teoria de la reserva cognitiva contribuiria a explicar las diferencias en el rendimiento intelectual en sujetos con deterioro cognitivo similar y en sujetos sanos. Sin embargo, son necesarios mas datos psicometricos que garanticen el uso de los instrumentos de medicion de reserva cognitiva. Objetivo. Aportar evidencias de validez respecto a la estructura interna de la escala de reserva cognitiva (ERC) y establecer un baremo de referencia para la interpretacion de sus puntuaciones. Sujetos y metodos. Un total de 172 sujetos completaron la ERC y fueron distribuidos en dos grupos en funcion de la edad: 36-64 años (n = 110) y 65-88 años (n = 62). Resultados. El analisis factorial mediante modelos de ecuaciones estructurales exploratorios indico un moderado ajuste de los datos al modelo propuesto. En general, los indices de discriminacion fueron correctos (entre 0,21 y 0,50), y se registro congruencia entre los items a lo largo de los periodos de juventud, adultez y madurez para ambos grupos de edad. Se observaron valores adecuados del indice de fiabilidad (alfa de Cronbach: 0,80) y de los errores tipicos de medida (media: 51,40 ± 11,11). Conclusiones. La ERC se enmarcaria dentro del modelo teorico hipotetizado y las puntuaciones podrian interpretarse mediante el baremo ofrecido, lo que avalaria su empleo en la investigacion en este campo.

  17. Brain death and tissue and organ transplantation: the understanding of medical students

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Flávio Pola; Gomes, Bruno Henrique Pinto; Pimenta, Lucas Lopes; Etzel, Arnaldo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the level of knowledge of medical students about transplantation and brain death. Methods An anonymous self-administered questionnaire answered by medical students from the first through the sixth year that was based on information from the Associação Brasileira de Transplante de Órgãos e Tecidos, the Registro Brasileiro de Transplantes and the resolution that defines the criteria for brain death. Results Of the 677 medical students asked, 310 (45.8%) agreed to answer the questionnaire. In total, 22 (7.0%) subjects were excluded. Of the students who participated, 41.3% reported having already attended a class on organ transplantation and 33% on brain death; 9.7% felt able to diagnose brain death (p<0.01); only 66.8% indicated the kidney as the most transplanted solid organ in Brazil. Conclusion The level of knowledge of medical students at this institution regarding brain death and transplantation is limited, which may be the result of an inadequate approach during medical school. PMID:24553508

  18. [Clinical features of acute leukemia and its relationship to the season of the year].

    PubMed

    Santoyo-Sánchez, Adrián; Ramos-Peñafiel, Christian; Palmeros-Morgado, Goujon; Mendoza-García, Emma; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Martínez-Tovar, Adolfo; Collazo-Jaloma, Juan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: en 2009, 17.9 % de la morbilidad hospitalaria por tumores malignos en México correspondió a neoplasias hematooncológicas, principalmente a leucemias agudas. Algunos estudios sugieren un patrón estacional al presentarse más casos durante el verano. El objetivo de esta investigación fue estimar la relación entre los diferentes subtipos de leucemia aguda, la edad de presentación y la estación del año. MÉTODOS: estudio retrospectivo, observacional, que se llevó a cabo con los registros de enero de 2006 a abril de 2012 en un servicio de hematología; se incluyeron únicamente los pacientes con diagnósticos de novo de leucemia aguda, estratificada según la clasificación de la Asociación Franco-Américo-Británica. El análisis de temporalidad se realizó con el modelo periódico de Edward.

  19. QUALIS OF TECHNICAL PRODUCTION: METRIC DEVELOPMENT FOR MANUALS.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Adhemar Monteiro; Mendes, Carlos José Lazzarini

    2015-01-01

    ) utilizar as normas institucionais vigentes; 3) serem flexíveis; e 4) ter processo contínuo de revisão, atualização e distribuição. No processo de avaliação da Medicina III poderá ter os seguintes estratos: M4 - 100 pontos: registro no ISBN e divulgação em outros idiomas; M3 - 75 pontos: registro no ISBN apenas em nível nacional; M2 - 50 pontos: registrado em bibliotecas regionais; M1 - 25 pontos: manual de uso intrainstitucional por grupos interdepartamentais; M0 - 0 ponto: manual de uso intradepartamental ou de ensino. Em conclusão, sabe-se que o uso de manuais está destinado a quem não sabe do assunto; no entanto, trata-se de ferramenta importante que pode minimizar erros, consolidar condutas, otimizar recursos, permitindo avaliação criteriosa e aprofundada do tema em pauta.

  20. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teor

  1. Co-morbidities and sleep apnoea severity. A study in a cohort of Portuguese patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, L; Cunha, D; Lopes, J; Ramalheira, J; Freire, M; Novio, S; Nunez, M J; Mendonca, D; Martins-da-Silva, A

    2016-05-16

    Introduccion. El sindrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño (SAOS) se asocia frecuentemente a otras enfermedades que actuan como factores de riesgo que influyen en la morbilidad y mortalidad del SAOS. Objetivos. Analizar la presencia de comorbilidades en pacientes con SAOS, seleccionados en una clinica del sueño ambulatoria en el norte de Portugal y clasificados atendiendo a la gravedad del SAOS. Pacientes y metodos. Una cohorte de 319 pacientes con trastornos del sueño fueron evaluados mediante estudios clinicos y registro videopoligrafico durante el sueño. Del total de pacientes (n = 209) con distres respiratorio durante el sueño, 145 tenian SAOS con gravedad definida segun el indice de apnea/hipopnea (IAH); 64 presentaban ronquidos primarios o distres respiratorio con IAH < 5; y 110 tenian otros trastornos del sueño. Resultados. La presencia de comorbilidades fue del 75% en todos los pacientes con SAOS y del 79,5% en el grupo de pacientes con SAOS grave; 47 pacientes presentaban una unica comorbilidad, la mas comun de las cuales fue la obesidad (56,3%), seguida de hipertension, diabetes y otros trastornos cardiovasculares. La obesidad estuvo presente en el 84% de los casos mas graves de SAOS y en el 100% de casos con multiples comorbilidades. En comparacion con el grupo de pacientes con distres respiratorio durante el sueño, la comorbilidad aparece normalmente relacionada con el SAOS (p = 0,0196). Conclusion. Las comorbilidades se asocian con frecuencia al SAOS, independientemente de la gravedad de la enfermedad. Entre las comorbilidades presentes, la obesidad resulto ser la mas comun en los casos mas graves de SAOS.

  2. [Persistence in drug therapy of hypertension among different treatment groups and comparison between fixed-dose combinations of ara II + calcium channel blockers vs ace inhibitors + calcium channel blockers].

    PubMed

    Waisman, Gabriel Dario; Garfi, Leonardo Guillermo; Izbizky, Gustavo Hernan; Tortella, Juan Jose

    2012-01-01

    La hipertensión arterial (HTA) es una enfermedad crónica, y prevalente, que requiere un tratamiento sostenido en el tiempo donde existen medidas farmacológicas y no farmacológicas para su control. La “persistencia” es la continuidad de los tratamientos farmacológicos. Conocer cual es la persistencia de los diferentes grupos terapéuticos antihipertensivos podría ayudar a priorizar aquellos con mejores resultados. El objetivo es describir la persistencia al tratamiento antihipertensivo en una cohorte de pacientes utilizando diferentes métodos y comparar la persistencia en los diferentes grupos farmacológicos utilizados para el tratamiento de la HTA. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio observacional, de cohorte retrospectiva utilizando bases de datos secundarias obtenidas durante la dispensación de medicamentos y de los registros hospitalarios electrónicos del Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. Población adulta con diagnóstico de HTA y seguimiento por 2 años. Resultados: Los diuréticos, betabloqueantes de primera generación e inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina son los grupos con la caída más importante en la persistencia. Los antagonistas de la angiotensina en monoterapia o junto con diurético y los betabloqueantes de segunda generación demostraron los mejores resultados de persistencia. La persistencia nunca llegó al 60% de los pacientes tratados a los 2 años. Conclusión: Pese a haber realizado la medición de la persistencia a través de distintos métodos los resultados fueron similares y demostraron una baja persistencia al tratamiento antihipertensivo. No encontramos variables extra farmacológicas que pudieran explicar la diferente persistencia en los diferentes grupos terapéuticos.

  3. [Lower extremity amputation rates in diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Cisneros-González, Nelly; Ascencio-Montiel, Iván Jesús; Libreros-Bango, Vita Norma; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Héctor; Campos-Hernández, Ángel; Dávila-Torres, Javier; Kumate-Rodríguez, Jesús; Borja-Aburto, Víctor Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: las amputaciones de extremidades inferiores disminuyen la calidad de vida de los pacientes con diabetes mellitus (DM). El objetivo de este estudio fue describir el índice de amputaciones de extremidades inferiores (mayores y menores) en sujetos con DM adscritos al Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), comparando los años 2004 y 2013. Métodos: estudio observacional transversal comparativo. Se evaluaron los registros hospitalarios de amputaciones obtenidos del Sistema de Estadísticas Médicas (DataMart) y del Censo de pacientes con DM obtenido del Sistema de Atención Integral a la Salud. Se calcularon los índices de amputaciones mayores y menores x 100,000 sujetos con DM adscritos a Medicina Familiar. Resultados: durante 2004 y 2013 se observaron 2 334 340 y 3 416 643 pacientes con DM adscritos a Medicina Familiar respectivamente. Los promedios de edad al momento de la amputación fueron similares en el año 2004 y 2013 (61.7 años para las amputaciones menores y 65.6 años para las amputaciones mayores). Los índices de amputaciones mayores fueron de 100.9 y de 111.1 x 100 000 sujetos con DM en 2004 y 2013; mientras que el índice de amputaciones menores de extremidades inferiores fue de 168.8 y de 162.5 x 100 000 sujetos con DM en el durante 2004 y 2013 respectivamente. Conclusiones: el índice de amputaciones de extremidades inferiores en el IMSS es muy alto comparado con lo reportado en países desarrollados. El índice de amputaciones mayores se incrementó para el año 2013, comparado con 2004.

  4. [Retrospective analysis of the effect of a vagus nerve stimulator implanted in paediatric patients with refractory epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Pita, P; Gomez-Lado, C; Dacruz, D; Eiris-Punal, J; Prieto-Gonzalez, A; Castro-Gago, M

    2016-07-01

    Introduccion. El estimulador vagal es una alternativa terapeutica en los pacientes con epilepsia refractaria al tratamiento con farmacos antiepilepticos que no son candidatos a cirugia de reseccion. Objetivo. Analizar la eficacia del estimulador vagal en los pacientes pediatricos de nuestro centro. Pacientes y metodos. Conjunto de 13 pacientes implantados entre los años 2008 y 2013. Se registro la frecuencia de crisis previa a la implantacion, al año, a los dos años y al final del seguimiento. Asimismo, se recogio el numero de farmacos antiepilepticos utilizados, de forma cualitativa la mejoria conductual y el cambio en la intensidad de las crisis, asi como la aparicion de efectos secundarios y la retirada o no del dispositivo. Resultados. Al año, a los dos años y al final del seguimiento se habia producido una reduccion en el numero de crisis del 61%, 66,7% y 69%, respectivamente, y uno de los pacientes se encontro libre de crisis a los dos años. Al final del seguimiento, un 23% de los que habian disminuido sus crisis habia experimentado una reduccion superior al 90%. De forma independiente al efecto sobre el numero de crisis, el 77% de los pacientes presento una mejoria en la intensidad y duracion de las crisis, y ese mismo porcentaje mostro una mejoria conductual. Los efectos secundarios aparecieron en un 30,7% de los pacientes y fueron de intensidad leve. Conclusiones. A pesar del pequeño tamaño de la muestra, nuestros resultados indican que el estimulador vagal tiene una eficacia relevante en la poblacion pediatrica farmacorresistente, tanto sobre la frecuencia e intensidad de las crisis como sobre la conducta.

  5. [Biofeedback treatment for acute whiplash patients].

    PubMed

    Gálvez-Hernández, Carmen Lizette; Rodríguez-Ortiz, María Dolores; Del Río-Portilla, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo de este trabajo consistió en evaluar el efecto fisiológico y psicológico de la retroalimentación biológica de electromiografía de superficie (RB de EMGs) en combinación con relajación muscular progresiva (RMP) en pacientes con esguince cervical (EC) agudo. Métodos: Un total de 12 pacientes con EC agudo participaron voluntariamente en el estudio, con diseño cuasiexperimental, y grupo control. Criterios de inclusión: máximo dos meses del accidente automovilístico; gravedad I y II. Se excluyeron: pacientes con historia previa de dolor persistente, o que hayan tenido lesión seria. Se dividió en dos grupos aleatoriamente (de intervención y en lista de espera). Se realizó un registro psicofisiológico de los músculos trapecios con EMGs, en conjunto con instrumentos psicométricos: inventario de ansiedad y depresión de Beck; índice de incapacidad de Oswestry; escala visual análoga y de miedo al movimiento. La intervención consistió aplicar RB de EMGs, posterior a un entrenamiento en RMP. Resultados: el grupo de intervención disminuyó significativamente su valor de simetría muscular (permaneciendo dentro de lo normal) así como su percepción subjetiva del dolor, intragrupo antes/después de la intervención. Conclusiones: se produjo un cambio significativo (tanto clínico como estadístico) en la percepción del dolor y la actividad conjunta de músculos pares. Igualmente, muestra la relevancia de atender un problema agudo multidisciplinariamente; así como la utilidad de las estrategias psicofisiológicas clínicas en pacientes agudos de EC.

  6. [Determination and analysis of protein profile of different transfer factors].

    PubMed

    Guidos-Fogelbach, Guillermo Arturo; Paredes-Aguilar, Jorge Antonio; Colín-Martínez, Nayeli Montserrat; Rojo-Gutiérrez, María Isabel; López-Hidalgo, Marisol; Reyes-López, César Augusto Sandino

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: El factor de transferencia (FT) es el extracto dializable de leucocitos con propiedades de transferencia de inmunidad celular. Su uso se ha extendido en el tratamiento de una amplia gama de padecimientos inmunológicos, infecciosos y como coadyuvante de padecimientos oncológicos. A pesar de ello, no se conocen completamente aspectos importantes de su perfil proteico, concentraciones de componentes y mecanismos de acción. Objetivos: Analizar los perfiles proteicos de diferentes factores de transferencia comercializados en México. Métodos: Se obtuvieron y analizaron 6 FT comercializados en México. Se realizó la cuantificación de proteínas por el método de Bradford, cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC) y electroforesis en geles de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE). Todas las muestras fueron analizadas por duplicado. Resultados: Las concentraciones de proteínas totales de todos los FT analizados fueron menores de 0.2 mg/mL. Los perfiles cromatográficos mostraron diferencias en algunos FT. La concentración de proteínas resultó de 6 hasta casi mil veces más baja en comparación con lo informado por algunos fabricantes. Conclusión: Casi la totalidad de los factores de transferencia comercializados en México carecen de un etiquetado y registro sanitario que cumpla con las normas oficiales vigentes.

  7. [METABOLIC SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH CLINICAL PHENOTYPE "HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIC WAIST"].

    PubMed

    Millán Núñez-Cortés, Jesús; Mantilla Morató, Teresa; Toro, Rocio; Millán Pérez, Joaquín; Mangas Rojas, Alipio

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: el fenotipo de cintura hipertrigliceridémica se ha asociado con la presencia de síndrome metabólico. Objetivo: en el presente estudio se ha planteado estudiar la relación entre el fenotipo de cintura hipertrigliceridémica y el síndrome metabólico, así como otros factores de riesgo metabólicos. Y, finalmente, valorar si se asocia a un incremento del riesgo cardiovascular. Métodos: este estudio se ha realizado reclutando a los pacientes incluidos en un registro nacional de hipertrigliceridemias de la Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. El total de pacientes evaluables para el presente estudio ha sido de 1.369. Los criterios empleados para definir el aumento de perímetro y para el síndrome metabólico fueron en base a los establecidos por la ATPIII o por la IDF, respectivamente. Resultados: la prevalencia de cintura hipertrigliceridémica en los pacientes con hipertrigliceridemia resultó casi del 50 % y 80 % empleándose criterios antropométricos de ATPIII y de IDF, respectivamente. La prevalencia de síndrome metabólico en estos pacientes estuvo próxima al 97% (criterios ATPIII) y al 63% (criterios IDF). Asimismo, resultó significativamente elevada la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial y de diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Sin embargo, la asociación con la enfermedad cardiovascular no dependía de la existencia del fenotipo de cintura hipertrigliceridémica, sino de la existencia (o no) de síndrome metabólico. Conclusiones: la CHTG puede ser utilizada en la práctica clínica habitual como un marcador de alteraciones metabólicas.

  8. [Analysis of the nutritional status and body composition of persons with intellectual disability].

    PubMed

    San Mauro-Martin, I; Onrubia-Gonzalez-De la Aleja, J; Garicano-Vilar, E; Cadenato-Ruiz, C; Hernandez-Villa, I; Rodriguez-Alonso, P; Pina-Ordunez, D; Fortunez-Garrido, E; Villacorta-Perez, P; Sanz-Guisado, C; Galdine-Martin, P; Bonilla-Navarro, M A; Figueroa-Borque, M; Garcia de Angulo-Garcia de Arboleya, B

    2016-06-01

    Introduccion. La discapacidad intelectual, definida como limitaciones sustanciales en el funcionamiento intelectual, afecta al 0,7-1,5% de la poblacion. Estas personas presentan mayores tasas de obesidad, y sus valores caloricos y estado nutricional son deficientes. Objetivos. Conocer los habitos nutricionales, analizar la eficacia de la educacion nutricional y evaluar la posible mejora, introduciendo talleres de ejercicio fisico y nutricion, en la discapacidad intelectual. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizo una valoracion clinica, nutricional y antropometrica (peso, talla, indice de masa corporal, grasa corporal, perimetro de la cintura) a 47 sujetos con discapacidad intelectual. Se registraron los habitos deportivos, la historia clinica y la historia dietetica mediante un registro alimentario y un cuestionario de adhesion a la dieta mediterranea (KidMed). Los talleres de nutricion y ejercicio fisico contaron con una estructura de explicacion teorica, practica y juegos. Resultados. El 76,1% presentaba exceso ponderal en el inicio del estudio. Tras la intervencion, los valores de grasa corporal (–0,94 ± 4,4%) y grasa visceral (–0,86 ± 2%), asi como el peso (–0,4 ± 3,3 kg) y el indice de masa corporal (–0,2 ± 1,6 kg/m2), disminuyeron, mas en las mujeres que en los hombres. El 60,5% no cumplia con una alta adhesion a la dieta mediterranea. Tras la intervencion, se observo una diferencia significativa (p <= 0,001) en la puntuacion del KidMed. El taller de actividad fisica tuvo efectos positivos sobre la antropometria. Conclusiones. La alimentacion fue inadecuada en la mayoria de los individuos. La prevalencia de obesidad fue elevada. Los talleres de educacion nutricional y de ejercicio son una herramienta util para trabajar con este colectivo, y consiguen cambios significativos para prevenir la obesidad y mejorar su salud.

  9. Availability of food stores and consumption of fruit, legumes and vegetables in a Brazilian urban area.

    PubMed

    Cristine Pessoa, Milene; Loures Mendes, Larissa; Teixeira Caiaffa, Waleska; Carvalho Malta, Deborah; Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo

    2014-12-17

    Antecedentes: El ambiente alimentar puede tener una influencia importante en la disponibilidad y el acceso a ellos, éste desempeña un papel importante en la salud de las poblaciones. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el consumo de frutas, legumbres y hortalizas (FLV) de adultos y la disponibilidad de las tiendas de alimentos en el contexto del espacio socioeconómico y geográfico en el territorio de las unidades básicas de salud en una capital brasileña. Métodos: El estudio se desarrolló a partir de la información obtenida a través de la Vigilancia de Factores de Riesgo para Enfermedades no Transmisibles Prevención de Encuesta Telefónica (VIGITEL), utilizando muestras de la ciudad de Belo Horizonte en los años de 2008 a 2010. Un total de 5.611 registros fueron geo-codificados usando el código postal. Una puntuación fue creada en base a la frecuencia semanal y diario del consumo de FLV . El área de las unidades básicas de salud se utilizó como unidad vecinal. Se utilizaron los datos geo-referenciados de los comercios de venta de comida en la ciudad y el barrio. Resultados: A medida que aumentaba la renta del barrio, hubo un aumento en la distribución de los establecimientos de comida e bebidas para todas las categorías estudiadas. Se observaron las puntuaciones más altas de consumo FLV en zonas con niveles de ingresos más altos. Conclusión: La mayor concentración de tiendas de alimentos e bebidas e mayor puntuación de consumo, independientemente da calidad de los productos ofrecidos, fue observado en las áreas geográficas con mayor poder adquisitivo.

  10. [Differences in magnitude of nutritional status in Chilean school children according to CDC and WHO 2005-2008 reference].

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Fabián; Cerda Rioseco, Ricardo; Andrade, Margarita; Morales, Gladys; Gálvez, Patricia; Orellana, Yasna; Leyton, Bárbara

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Es necesario realizar nuevas discusiones respecto a la magnitud de los problemas nutricionales diagnosticados, al usar CDC u OMS, frente a la existencia de nuevas definiciones biológicas o estadísticas de obesidad. Objetivo: Comparar la evolución de la prevalencia de estado nutricional en escolares de primero básico, desde el 2013 2005 al 2008, según CDC y OMS. Métodos: Cohorte retrospectiva, de 140.265 escolares de ambos sexos de primero básico, evaluados entre 2005- 2008, cuyos datos antropométricos (peso y talla), se obtuvieron del sistema anual de registro del estado nutricional escolar. Para clasificar el estado nutricional, se utilizaron los patrones CDC y OMS. Resultados: Los promedios de IMC fueron levemente diferentes y menores en la niñas que en los niños, en 2005 y 2006. Durante el 2007 y 2008 el promedio de IMC en las niñas alcanzó la cifra observada en los varones. Hubo mayor prevalencia de bajo peso según OMS (p=0,03), con una tendencia a la disminución en los 2013s posteriores. La prevalencia de normalidad fue mayor según el criterio CDC, con una reducción entre el 2005 y 2007 y un incremento 2008 (p<0,001). Hubo una menor prevalencia de sobrepeso según el criterio CDC (p<0,001), con aumento entre el 2005 y 2007, tanto CDC como OMS. La prevalencia de obesidad fue menor según el criterio OMS, no encontrándose diferencia estadísticamente significativa al comparar con el patrón CDC. Conclusiones: Al comparar ambos patrones, CDC tiende a sobreestimar la normalidad y subestimar el sobrepeso, mientras que en obesidad no se encontraron diferencias significativas.

  11. [Prognostic category of corneal transplantation in a referal center].

    PubMed

    Verdiguel-Sotelo, Karla; Carrasco-Quiroz, Arturo; Rangel-Servín, Josué

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la queratoplastía penetrante (QP) es considerada como el trasplante orgánico más frecuentemente realizado y con mayor éxito. Las indicaciones de trasplante de córnea han cambiado con el tiempo y varían en función del país. Se han identificado factores de riesgo de rechazo corneal, como edad, vascularización corneal, cirugías oculares, etcétera. El objetivo fue identificar la categoría pronóstica, el grupo de riesgo y los factores asociados de pacientes con trasplante de córnea del Centro Médico Nacional La Raza. Métodos: se hizo un estudio transversal, analítico, observacional y ambispectivo, con fines ópticos y terapéuticos, de pacientes de la base de datos de trasplante corneal registrados entre 2011 y 2013 en el centro médico mencionado. Resultados: se obtuvieron 539 registros. El diagnóstico más frecuente fue el queratocono (29.1 %), en segundo lugar el leucoma (27.8 %) y la queratopatía bulosa pseudofáquica (25.6 %) en tercero. El 57.5 % de los pacientes correspondieron a la categoría pronóstica 2, con pronóstico de transparencia corneal muy bueno. Conclusiones: el diagnóstico más frecuente en la base de datos de trasplante de córnea fue el queratocono. Es necesaria una actualización de la clasificación pronóstica con base en todos los factores asociados conocidos, a fin de ser más acertados en el pronóstico del TC.

  12. OVERWEIGHT OBESITY AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN MENOPAUSAL TRANSITION.

    PubMed

    Villaverde Gutiérrez, Carmen; Ramírez Rodrigo, Jesús; Olmedo Alguacil, Maria Milagrosa; Sánchez Caravaca, Maria Angeles; Argente del Castillo Lechuga, Maria Josefa; Ruiz Villaverde, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    Introducción: el declive hormonal característico de la menopausia, junto al aumento ponderal añadido, está considerado como un factor determinante de riesgo cardiovascular. Propósito: examinar la situación ponderal en relación con la sintomatología clínica, durante la transición menopáusica, en mujeres derivadas desde atención primaria a la especialidad de endocrinología, para describir los posibles perfiles de riesgo cardiovascular. Método: se realizó un diseño observacional, analítico, de corte transversal, con los datos registrados en las historias clínicas en el momento de la derivación. 805 mujeres con 40 y más años de edad disponían de los registros necesarios para la estimación del riesgo cardiovascular. Resultados: la agrupación jerárquica distingue cuatro grupos. La frecuencia de obesidad en todos ellos superó el 60%, observándose los mayores promedios de riesgo cardiovascular en las mujeres de mayor edad y elevada frecuencia de obesidad e hipertensión arterial. En los grupos de menor edad, la estimación del riesgo fue baja, incrementándose hasta niveles similares a los de mayor edad, al proyectarlo a 65 años. Conclusión: estos resultados sugieren la necesidad de un seguimiento preventivo y terapéutico de la obesidad y los factores de riesgo modificables durante la transición menopáusica, para reducir el riesgo atribuible a dichos factores con el paso de los años.

  13. Association between LAP Index (Lipid Accumulation Product) and metabolic profile in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Sauer, Patrícia; Marcadenti, Aline; Piovesan, Carla Haas

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: el índice PAL (Producto de Acumulación Lipídica) se correlaciona con factores de riesgo cardiovasculares en la población general, pero no ha sido probado en pacientes hospitalizados. Objetivos: evaluar las asociaciones entre el índice PAL y el perfil metabólico en un hospital de tercer nivel. Métodos: estudio transversal con 90 pacientes hospitalizados. Se obtuvieron de los registros médicos electrónicos el perfil lipídico, la glucosa en ayunas y las mediciones de la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica. Fueron evaluados el peso, la talla y la circunferencia de la cintura (CC); se calcularon el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC) y el Índice de PAL. Los datos se expresan como media ± desviación estándar o porcentaje. Para evaluar los objetivos se utilizaron la correlación de Pearson y la regresión lineal múltiple. Resultados: la edad promedio de los participantes fue de 55,03 ± 14,86 años y el 47,8% (n = 43) eran hombres. Después de ajustar por sexo, edad y actividad física, el índice PAL (transformado-log) se asoció significativamente con el HDL-colesterol (p < 0,001), la glucosa en ayunas (p=0,02), la presión arterial sistólica (p = 0,03) y una tendencia hacia el colesterol total (p = 0,07). Conclusión: en los pacientes hospitalizados existe una asociación independiente entre el índice PAL (transformado- log) y el perfil metabólico.

  14. [Proposal of reference values of microbiological environment monitoring in foodservice establishments].

    PubMed

    Soler Quiles, Carla; Mañes, Jordi; Savino, Angelo; Soriano, José M

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: Proponer una nueva referencia microbiológica ambiental en los servicios de restauración. Objetivo: El presente trabajo muestra la determinación y evaluación de la contaminación microbiológica generada en un establecimiento de servicio de alimentos. Método: Se basa en el muestreo microbiológico de superficie utilizando filtros de membrana de ésteres mixtos de celulosa y en el muestreo de aire utilizando placas de Petri. Resultados: Los límites de contaminación se establecieron antes y durante la elaboración de alimentos, mediante el análisis microbiológico de las superficies y del medio ambiente, sistemas de equipos, hasta límites confiables y estableciendo niveles de aceptación en cada punto seleccionado. Por último, se estableció un programa de vigilancia microbiológica del medio ambiente incluyendo la evaluación de todos los parámetros que la componen y están implícitos en la zona, asegurando de esta manera y el apoyo a su continuidad con la documentación y los registros desarrollados para el área de seguridad. Las muestras para el análisis microbiológico se recogieron durante un período durante diez días diferentes, en dos horas diferentes. Se identificaron doce puntos como peligrosos. Además, los alimentos clasificados como de alto riesgo fueron recogidos periódicamente para el análisis microbiológico. Conclusiones: La posibilidad de utilizar de una amplia gama de medios selectivos, muy por encima del número limitado utilizado en este estudio, permite el análisis de muchas especies microbianas individuales.

  15. [Occupational physical activity and body composition in adult women; pilot study].

    PubMed

    Fuentes Bravo, Manuel; Zúñiga Paredes, Francisca; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Fernando Javier; Cristi-Montero, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Las actividades durante la jornada laboral, pueden diferenciarse entre sí por su gasto energético y algunos de ellos podrían beneficiar la salud de acuerdo a sus características. Objetivo: Analizar y comparar la composición corporal y las características de la actividad física, a través de la acelerometría en las jornadas laborales de las trabajadoras administrativas y trabajadoras auxiliares de aseo de la Universidad Viña del Mar. Métodos: Se realiza un registro en jornadas de 10 hrs. por cuatro días seguidos del gasto energético a través de acelerómetros triaxiales a 8 secretarias y 8 auxiliares de aseo. Además se hace una evaluación antropométrica y se aplica el IPAQ (International Physical Activity Questionnaire). Resultados: Según el IPAQ, ambos grupos se encuentran en categoría de sedentarias, pero la acelerometría determina que las auxiliares caminan más pasos, tienen más quiebres sedentarios y realizan un nivel de actividad física más alto que las secretarias. Discusión: Hay trabajos que pueden favorecer el estado de salud, a pesar de no cumplir con la norma para considerarse “no sedentario”, como es el caso de las auxiliares de aseo. El gasto energético es mayor en las personas que realizan actividades que implican ejercicio de baja intensidad, lo que podría ayudar a reducir los niveles de adiposidad y mantener la masa muscular de las personas.

  16. [Prehospital emergency care injuries from external causes in a region of Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Herrera, Rafael; Bastidas, Daniel; Arteaga, Everilda; Bastidas, Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: a nivel mundial, anualmente mueren aproximadamente 3 500 000 personas como consecuencia de lesiones debidas a causas externas, lo que representa para Venezuela la tercera causa de morbilidad general. Sin embargo, no existen registros en el país de los aspectos que definen la atención de emergencia prehospitalaria como herramienta para afrontar este problema socio-sanitario, objeto de la presente investigación. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, transversal y de campo con base en la información registrada diariamente durante un año en emergencia prehospitalaria. Resultados: fueron en total 1493 los lesionados por causas externas, con edad promedio de 29.5 ± 12 años, 84.5% del género masculino. Las lesiones fueron, en su mayoría, de severidad menor-moderada (69.4%), debidas a accidentes de transporte terrestre (70.9%), ocurridos de día (75.9%), entre lunes y viernes (72.9%), atendidos en 20 minutos o menos, y trasladados en el 97.3% de los casos. Conclusiones: los hombres jóvenes, económicamente productivos, de las zonas con mayor densidad poblacional y urbanismos son los más afectados por lesiones por causas externas; en ambos géneros, los accidentes de transporte terrestre son las causas más frecuente de lesión, de severidad menor-moderada; asimismo, la atención de emergencia prehospitalaria puede considerarse adecuada.

  17. Central obesity and not age increases skeletal muscle lipids, without influencing lean body mass and strength.

    PubMed

    de la Maza, María Pía; Hirsch, Sandra; Jara, Natalia; Leiva, Laura; Barrera, Gladys; Silva, Claudio; Pañella, Loreto; Henríquez, Sandra; Bunout, Daniel

    2014-09-12

    Introducción/Objetivos: medir la infiltracion grasa en el musculo esqueletico, su asociacion con resistencia a la insulina (RI) y con masa y funcion muscular, en hombres chilenos de diferente edad y composicion corporal. Nuestra hipotesis era que habria mas acumulacion de grasa en el tejido muscular entre las personas de mayor edad y peso, lo cual deterioraria la sensibilidad a la insulina (SI) y afectaria negativamente la masa y la funcion muscular, ambas caracteristicas del proceso de envejecimiento. Métodos: se estudiaron hombres sanos (38 < 55 anos y 18 > 65 anos), que fueron sometidos a mediciones antropometricas, evaluacion de la composicion corporal mediante densitometria radiologica (DEXA), espectroscopia de resonancia nuclear magnetica en el musculo tibial anterior para medir lipidos intra (LIM) y extramiocelulares (LEM), fuerza de mano y cuadriceps, test de 12 minutos y bioquimica serica (glicemia, hemoglobina, lipoproteinas, creatinina y proteina C reactiva ultrasensible en ayunas, ademas de glucosa e insulina post carga de glucosa para evaluar SI). La actividad fisica se estimo mediante actigrafia. Resultados: 23 hombres eran eutroficos, 26 tenian sobrepeso y 7 eran obesos, todos eran sedentarios segun el registro actigrafico, independiente de la edad. Tanto LIM como LEM resultaron mas altos entre los hombres con sobrepeso / obesidad. La grasa abdominal se asocio negativamente con la SI y se correlaciono positivamente con la acumulacion de grasa en el musculo (tanto LIM como LEM), pero no con la edad. Como era de esperar, las personas mayores tenian menor masa magra y fuerza, pero no mas tejido adiposo ni lipidos intramiocelulares, aunque eran mas intolerantes a la glucosa. Conclusiones: La obesidad central se asocio con infiltracion de grasa intramuscular y con RI. Esta distribucion adiposa no se relaciono con edad ni con sarcopenia asociada al envejecimiento. Las personas mayores resultaron mas intolerantes a la glucosa, explicable por una

  18. [Effect of partial and generalised epileptic seizures on sleep architecture in rats].

    PubMed

    López-Ruiz, Edith; Vega-Flores, Germán; Contreras-Cisneros, Bernardo; Martínez, Adrián; Rivera-García, Ana P

    2015-04-01

    Introduccion. La alteracion del sueño producido por las crisis epilepticas se conoce; sin embargo, aun se tiene poca informacion de la alteracion en el sueño por el tipo de crisis epileptica. Materiales y metodos. Se evaluo la arquitectura del sueño de ratas en registros polisomnograficos de 36 horas tras inducirles crisis epilepticas parciales y generalizadas. Para la induccion de las crisis epilepticas se aplicaron in situ 50-100 UI de penicilina G sodica en la amigdala del lobulo temporal. Resultados. Las crisis parciales y generalizadas provocaron el aumento en la latencia del sueño de ondas lentas (SOL) y sueño de movimiento oculares rapidos (MOR). El numero de episodios de las fases de vigilia, SOL y sueño MOR disminuyo y la duracion media de los episodios de la vigilia y del SOL aumento, mientras que la del sueño MOR disminuyo. El porcentaje total del sueño MOR disminuyo significativamente. Durante el primer periodo de luz, las crisis parciales y generalizadas provocaron el incremento de la vigilia y la reduccion de las fases del SOL y sueño MOR. En el periodo de oscuridad, aumento el SOL, disminuyo la vigilia y no hubo cambios en el sueño MOR. En el segundo periodo de luz los porcentajes de las fases de vigilia y SOL regresaron a los valores control y el porcentaje del sueño MOR continuo disminuido. Conclusion. Los cambios en la organizacion del sueño dependen del tipo de crisis epileptica que se presenta. Las crisis epilepticas generalizadas provocaron mayor deterioro en el sueño MOR.

  19. [Concordance between preoperative and definitive study in endometrial cancer].

    PubMed

    Mazón-González, Betania; Olguín-Cruces, Víctor Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: se han realizado diversos estudios para analizar el nivel de concordancia entre el estudio preoperatorio y el definitivo en cáncer de endometrio y se ha observado que se suele subgraduar el estadio del cáncer de endometrio en estudios preoperatorios. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, retrolectivo, transversal y comparativo para determinar la concordancia entre el diagnóstico preoperatorio y el estudio histopatológico definitivo en cáncer de endometrio. Se revisaron los registros del departamento de Patología del Hospital de Ginecoobstetricia No. 4 “Luis Castelazo Ayala”, durante el periodo comprendido entre el 1 de enero de 2012 y el 31 de diciembre de 2014. Se calculó la concordancia por medio del coeficiente kappa de Cohen, la escala de fuerza de concordancia de Byrt y la prueba de comparación de proporciones. Resultados: se observó una concordancia baja entre el estudio preoperatorio y el definitivo para variedad histológica (kappa = 0.258, p = 0.000) y grado de diferenciación (kappa = 0.220, p = 0.001). Estas diferencias fueron estadísticamente significativas para el grado de diferenciación moderadamente diferenciado (Z = −3.409, p < 0.05). Conclusión: existe un nivel de concordancia bajo entre el estudio preoperatorio y el estudio histopatológico definitivo para el diagnóstico de cáncer de endometrio.

  20. ECONOMIC BURDEN OF HOME ARTIFICIAL NUTRITION IN THE HEALTH AREA OF SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA.

    PubMed

    Villar-Taibo, Rocío; Martínez-Olmos, Miguel Ángel; Bellido Guerrero, Diego; Peinó-García, Roberto; Martís-Sueiro, Aurelio; Camarero-González, Emma; Ríos-Barreiro, Vanessa; Cao-Sánchez, Pilar; Durán Martínez, Reyes; Rodríguez Iglesias, María José; Rodríguez-Blanco, Brígida; Rojo Valdés, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: la nutrición artificial domiciliaria (NAD) es una terapia en creciente desarrollo, pero la ausencia de registros obligatorios hace difícil calcular la carga económica que implica. Nuestro objetivo es evaluar el estado y el impacto económico de la NAD en nuestra área sanitaria. Métodos: estudio observacional y prospectivo diseñado para estimar el gasto en fórmulas y materiales nutricionales en los pacientes que iniciaron NAD durante 1 año. Resultados: se incluyeron 573 pacientes que iniciaron NAD en el período de estudio. El 60% recibieron suplementos orales. La mediana de gasto diario fue de 3,65 (RIC 18,63) euros en la NAD oral y de 8,86 (RIC 20,02) euros en la NAD por acceso enteral. El gasto por 1.000 kcal de dieta fue superior en los pacientes con NAD oral respecto a los pacientes con NAD enteral (5,13 vs. 4,52 euros, p < 0.001). Asimismo se calculó la mediana de gasto completo de los tratamientos durante todo el período de estudio (186,60 euros y 531,99 euros en NAD oral y enteral, respectivamente). Considerando el gasto conjunto de todos los pacientes que iniciaron NAD en el período de estudio, el gasto estimado estaría en torno a un millón de euros. Conclusiones: la NAD representa una importante carga económica en nuestra área sanitaria. Sin embargo, el gasto diario estimado fue moderado, probablemente por la elevada proporción de NAD oral en nuestra muestra, la revisión frecuente de la indicación y la centralización de la dispensación desde el servicio de Farmacia Hospitalaria.

  1. Assessment of land use in protected areas of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iori, P.; da Silva, R. B.; Dias Junior, M. S.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    It is of universal knowledge that the soil, a basic natural resource, is renewable only if conserved or used correctly(Primavesi, 2002). It is salient for Araújo et al. (2007) that the establishment of index of soil quality is an important tool in the functions of control, supervision and monitoring of areas for environmental protection. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of the soil by means of a comparative diagram in different soil uses in permanent preservation areas (APP). The study was conducted in areas near the Ribeira de Iguape river in the city of Registro - São Paulo - Brazil, belonging to the Atlantic Forest domain, a Haplic Cambisol. The following uses of the soil had been evaluated: a) banana culture (CBAN) without agricultural traffic of machines; b) degraded pasture (PDEG) with extensive system predominantly Brachiaria decumbens L. c) use silvopastoral (MPIs), consisted in a kills with a traffic free for the animals, and d) native vegetation (MNAT), proposed in this study as a reference area.The following physical indicators were analyzed: bulk density (BD), total soil porosity (TP), macroporosity (Ma), microporosity (Mi), water dispersible clay (ADA), flocculation index (FI), preconsolidation pressure (PP), soil shear strength (SS), soil resistance to penetration (RP). To construct the comparative diagram the values for each attribute of the soil in each land use were related to the values of the native forest. It was feasible to use the comparative model in the qualitative evaluation of soil use, allowing separate environments under different uses. According to the comparative diagram of banana culture is the use that most negatively impacts the physical and mechanical soil due to the smaller size of the lower polygon.

  2. Determinacion de periodos fundamentales del suelo mediante vibraciones ambientales en el municipio de Humacao, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cintron Aponte, Rommel

    La tecnica de Nakamura ha sido utilizada a nivel mundial para determinar periodos fundamentales del suelo. La tecnica consiste en calcular y graficar cocientes espectrales H/V de vibraciones ambientales registradas sobre el suelo. Mediciones de vibraciones ambientales fueron tomadas en 151 lugares dentro del municipio de Humacao, localizado al este de Puerto Rico. Los datos se procesaron utilizando espectros de Fourier y espectros de potencia. La tecnica fue validada al compararla con los resultados de cocientes espectrales H/V de registros de sismos debiles y tambien con una modelacion numerica realizada con datos de un ensayo "downhole". Las graficas de los cocientes espectrales H/V fueron divididas en casos y grupos, los cuales dependen de la facilidad para identificar el periodo fundamental pico y amplitudes en frecuencias menores de 1 Hz, respectivamente. Los resultados obtenidos con ambos espectros fueron comparados y se concluye que los mismos se complementan para proveer resultados mas confiables. Se crearon mapas de periodos fundamentales, factores de amplitud, isoperiodos y clasificacion sismica de sitio. Los mapas de isoperiodos fueron realizados en las zonas mas pobladas sobre depositos de suelo. El mapa de periodos fundamentales del suelo mostro buena correlacion con la geologia local. El mapa de clasificacion sismica derivado de periodos de sitio fue comparado con el mapa de clasificacion sismica derivado de barrenos geotecnicos. El mapa de clasificacion obtenido de periodos puede sobreestimar un poco algunas clasificaciones del suelo. Sin embargo, este mapa puede proveer un estimado aproximado de la velocidad de onda de corte promedio del suelo hasta una profundidad de 100 pies (30 metros).

  3. MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE IS CORRELATED WITH DYSLIPIDEMIA AND LOW-GRADE INFLAMMATION IN CHILDHOOD OBESITY BUT MOSTLY IN MALE OBESE.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Barbara de Moura Mello; Monteiro, Paula Alves; Silveira, Loreana Sanches; Brunholi, Claudia de Carvalho; Lira, Fábio Santos; Freitas Júnior, Ismael Forte

    2015-09-01

    Introducción y objetivo: la hipoxia causada por la hipertrofia de las células adiposas en la obesidad desencadena macrófagos de reclutamiento y la producción de citoquinas. Además, el alto consumo de ácidos grasos saturados (AGS) y las comidas con alto índice glucémico pueden contribuir al estrés oxidativo y la inflamación crónica de bajo grado por los aumentos de activación de NF-kB. Por lo tanto, el objetivo del estudio fue analizar la contribución de la ingesta de macronutrientes en el perfil metabólico e inflamatorio, por niveles de lipoproteínas, resistencia a la insulina, citoquinas anti y pro inflamatorias, en adolescentes obesos según el género. Métodos: la muestra estaba compuesta por 37 adolescentes, de ambos géneros, identificados como obesos según el índice de masa corporal (IMC). La composición corporal se evaluó mediante absorciometría de energía dual de rayos X (DEXA) y medidas de adiposidad intraabdominal (IAAT) y del tejido adiposo subcutáneo (SAT) se realizaron mediante ecografía. Los análisis bioquímicos se realizaron mediante la medición de citoquinas; los ácidos grasos y la insulina se realizaron por la técnica de ELISA. La estimación del consumo de macronutrientes fue llevado a cabo durante tres días mediante el registro de alimentos con respecto a la ingesta total. La significación estadística se estableció en el valor p.

  4. [Adherence and toxicity to tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in chronic myeloid leukemia].

    PubMed

    González Rosa, V; Gutiérrez Nicolás, F; Gavira Moreno, R; Viña Romero, M M; Moreno Carvajal, M T; Gázquez Pérez, R

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Analizar la adherencia y la toxicidad del tratamiento con inhibidores de tirosinquinasa (TKIs) en pacientes diagnosticados de Leucemia Mieloide Crónica (LMC). Método: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de 18 meses de duración (enero 2011-junio 2012) en el que se incluyeron todos los pacientes diagnosticados de LMC en un hospital de se - gundo nivel (550 camas) en tratamiento con imatinib, dasatinib o nilotinib. Las variables recogidas fueron sexo, edad de diagnóstico, años de tratamiento y reacciones adversas. La adherencia se valoró mediante un sistema combinado basado en el autocuestionario SMAQ y el registro de dispensaciones. Resultados: Se incluyeron un total de 25 pacientes. El 92,0% experimentaron reacciones adversas a imatinib; 83,3% a dasatinib y 66,7% a nilotinib. La adherencia media fue de 71,3%. Se identificaron como posibles parámetros de falta de adherencia el sexo femenino (55,6% vs. 66,7%, p = 0,586), mayores de 50 años (55,6% vs. 83,3%, p = 0,125), más de cuatro años de duración de tratamiento (70,0% vs. 57,1%, p = 0,521) y la presencia de determinados efectos adversos (trastornos gastrointestinales y dolor musculoesquelético). Conclusiones: Casi un tercio de los pacientes en tratamiento fueron considerados no adherentes. A pesar de que el tamaño muestral no nos ha permitido establecer relaciones estadísticamente significativos entre la adherencia y las variables analizadas, la relevancia clínica de estos resultados muestran la importancia de realizar futuros estudios con poblaciones mayores que confirmen las tendencias establecidas en este estudio.

  5. [Urgent stroke care in hospitals with a stroke unit. Quick Project].

    PubMed

    Masjuán, Jaime; Álvarez-Sabín, José; Arias-Rivas, Susana; Blanco, Miguel; de Felipe, Alicia; Escudero-Martínez, Irene; Fuentes, Blanca; Gállego-Culleré, Jaime; Moniche-Álvarez, Francisco; Muñoz, Lucía; Pérez de la Ossa-Herrero, Natalia; Sahuquillo, Patricia; Santamarina, Estevo; Sanz, Borja; Tembl, José I; Zandio, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Introduccion. El ictus es una emergencia medica dependiente del tiempo. La rapidez en su reconocimiento y en la atencion que reciben los pacientes es clave en el pronostico. Objetivos. Analizar los tiempos de actuacion medica, evaluar posibles areas de mejora y estudiar la dotacion de recursos de los centros. Pacientes y metodos. Registro prospectivo de pacientes atendidos en ocho unidades de ictus experimentadas españolas con sospecha de ictus y activacion del codigo ictus. Se recogieron los tiempos inicio-puerta, puerta-tomografia computarizada (TC), puerta-aguja, TC-aguja e inicio-aguja. Tambien se recogieron el metodo de trasporte al hospital, el tipo de ictus y las terapias de reperfusion. En cuanto a la dotacion estructural de los centros, se recogieron la ratio de enfermeria, la monitorizacion de camas, la disponibilidad de TC multimodal y resonancia magnetica, y la realizacion de cursos de informacion o formacion. Resultados. Se incluyeron 197 pacientes, de los cuales fueron validos 181 (151 infartos y 30 hemorragias cerebrales). Las medianas (p25-p75) en minutos fueron: inicio-puerta, 104 (70-188); puerta-TC, 27 (19-41); TC-aguja, 30 (21-43); puerta-aguja, 64 (49-83); e inicio-aguja, 156 (129-202). Se aplicaron terapias de reperfusion en 68 pacientes (el 45% de los infartos cerebrales), de los cuales el 81% fueron trombolisis intravenosas; el 7%, tratamientos endovasculares; y el 12%, una combinacion de ambos. Los recursos de los centros estuvieron de acuerdo con lo recomendado por las guias clinicas. Hubo un bajo porcentaje de pacientes estudiados con resonancia magnetica. Conclusion. El porcentaje de pacientes tratados con trombolisis fue muy elevado y los tiempos de los circuitos intrahospitalarios, aunque buenos, tienen margen de mejora.

  6. Neural Tube Defects in Costa Rica, 1987–2012: Origins and Development of Birth Defect Surveillance and Folic Acid Fortification

    PubMed Central

    de la Paz Barboza-Argüello, María; Umaña-Solís, Lila M.; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Flores, Alina L.; Rodríguez-Aguilar, Sara; Alfaro-Calvo, Thelma; Mulinare, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to provide a descriptive overview of how the birth defects surveillance and folic acid fortification programs were implemented in Costa Rica—through the establishment of the Registry Center for Congenital Anomalies (Centro de Registro de Enfermedades Congénitas—CREC), and fortification legislation mandates. We estimated the overall prevalence of neural tube defects (i.e., spina bifida, anencephaly and encephalocele) before and after fortification captured by CREC. Prevalence was calculated by dividing the total number of infants born with neural tube defects by the total number of live births in the country (1987–2012).A total of 1,170 newborns with neural tube defects were identified from 1987 to 2012 (1992–1995 data excluded); 628 were identified during the baseline pre-fortification period (1987–1991; 1996–1998); 191 during the fortification period (1999–2002); and 351 during the post-fortification time period (2003–2012). The overall prevalence of neural tube defects decreased from 9.8 per 10,000 live-births (95 % CI 9.1–10.5) for the pre-fortification period to 4.8 per 10,000 live births (95 % CI 4.3–5.3) for the post–fortification period. Results indicate a statistically significant (P < 0.05) decrease of 51 % in the prevalence of neural tube defects from the pre-fortification period to the post-fortification period. Folic acid fortification via several basic food sources has shown to be a successful public health intervention for Costa Rica. Costa Rica’s experience can serve as an example for other countries seeking to develop and strengthen both their birth defects surveillance and fortification programs. PMID:24952876

  7. [Role of anaerobic blood culture in the simultaneous blood culture taking for the diagnosis of bacteremia].

    PubMed

    Guajardo-Lara, Claudia Elena; Saldaña-Ramírez, Martha Idalia; Ayala-Gaytán, Juan Jacobo; Valdovinos-Chávez, Salvador Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la frecuencia de la septicemia va en aumento y su mortalidad es alta; por lo tanto, su detección, la identificación del microorganismo causal y su susceptibilidad son perentorias. Metodos: se revisaron los registros de 4110 botellas de cultivo de sangre obtenida de enero de 2013 a julio de 2014 de pacientes adultos en un hospital privado de tercer nivel. Resultados: se observó crecimiento de microorganismos en 559 cultivos (12.6 %). En 2648 hemocultivos (60 %) inoculados en pares de frascos uno con medio aeróbico y el otro anaeróbico (1324 sets), se detectó crecimiento en 182 frascos a los que les fueron inoculadas las muestras tomadas al mismo tiempo a 135 pacientes (13.7 %). En 86 pares de frascos con las muestras de 54 pacientes (40 %), el crecimiento solamente se dio en el frasco aeróbico (47.5 %); en 24 pares de frascos (13.19 %) tomados a 21 pacientes (15.5 %, p < 0.05), solamente hubo crecimiento en el frasco anaeróbico. En los hemocultivos de 32 de 60 pacientes con crecimiento en ambos frascos (53 %), el crecimiento se detectó primero en el frasco anaeróbico. Conclusiones: los hemocultivos anaeróbicos tienen una utilidad baja para la detección de bacteriemias por anaerobios estrictos; no obstante, en el 15.55 % de los pacientes estuvo presente el riesgo de pasar por alto la presencia de bacteriemia, y en 53 % de los pacientes con hemocultivos positivos, el diagnóstico de bacteriemia pudo establecerse de manera más temprana, lo que permitió anticipar con mejor precisión la toma de decisiones.

  8. [Arteriovenous malformations of the brain: personal experience with 121 patients treated with microsurgery].

    PubMed

    Vilalta, Jordi

    2015-12-01

    Introduccion. Las malformaciones arteriovenosas (MAV) se pueden encontrar en el 0,1% de la poblacion, y la forma de presentacion mas frecuente es la hemorragia intracraneal. Objetivo. Analisis descriptivo de una serie de MAV operadas por un neurocirujano. Pacientes y metodos. De un registro hospitalario se han seleccionado los casos de MAV cerebrales operados por el autor en el periodo 1990-mayo 2014, revisando los aspectos clinicos, demograficos y angiograficos, y los resultados clinicorradiologicos seis meses despues de la cirugia. Resultados. De los 400 pacientes tratados en el mismo periodo, 121 fueron intervenidos por el autor, con una media de edad de 34,3 años (rango: 5-75 años). El 61,7% de los pacientes se diagnostico por una hemorragia cerebral, y la segunda forma de presentacion mas frecuente, el 19,8%, por crisis epilepticas. La localizacion superficial supratentorial, en 97 casos (80,2%), fue la mas frecuente. Mas de la mitad de los enfermos presentaba una MAV de grados bajos, I-II, segun la escala de Spetzler y Martin. Doce pacientes (10%) tenian aneurismas no intranidales asociados. En la mayoria de los casos, 109 (90,1%), se realizo cirugia electiva. La reseccion completa de la MAV despues del ultimo examen angiografico se obtuvo en 118 pacientes (97,5%). Los resultados clinicos fueron buenos (buena recuperacion y moderada incapacidad) en 114 casos (95%), y malos (gran incapacidad y muerte), en seis (5%). Conclusiones. La cirugia para las MAV cerebrales, con un criterio de seleccion apropiado, es la mejor opcion terapeutica para muchos pacientes.

  9. The stigma of low opioid prescription in the hospitalized multimorbid elderly in Italy.

    PubMed

    Marengoni, Alessandra; Nobili, Alessandro; Corli, Oscar; Djade, Codjo Djignefa; Bertoni, Diana; Tettamanti, Mauro; Pasina, Luca; Corrao, Salvatore; Salerno, Francesco; Marcucci, Maura; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2015-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of opioid prescriptions in hospitalized geriatric patients. Other aims were to evaluate factors associated with opioid prescription, and whether or not there was consistency between the presence of pain and prescription. Opioid prescriptions were gathered from the REgistro POliterapie Societa` Italiana di Medicina Interna (REPOSI) data for the years 2008, 2010 and 2012. 1,380 in-patients, 65+ years old, were enrolled in the first registry run, 1,332 in the second and 1,340 in the third. The prevalence of opioid prescription was calculated at hospital admission and discharge. In the third run of the registry, the degree of pain was assessed by means of a numerical scale. The prevalence of patients prescribed with opioids at admission was 3.8% in the first run, 3.6% in the second and 4.1% in the third, whereas at discharge rates were slightly higher (5.8, 5.3, and 6.6%). The most frequently prescribed agents were mild opioids such as codeine and tramadol. The number of total prescribed drugs was positively associated with opioid prescription in the three runs; in the third, dementia and a better functional status were inversely associated with opioid prescription. Finally, as many as 58% of patients with significant pain at discharge were prescribed no analgesic at all. The conservative attitude of Italian physicians to prescribe opioids in elderly patients changed very little between hospital admission and discharge through a period of 5 years. Reasons for such a low opioid prescription should be sought in physicians' and patients' concerns and prejudices.

  10. Fatal Events in Cancer Patients Receiving Anticoagulant Therapy for Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Farge, Dominique; Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Debourdeau, Philippe; Bura-Riviere, Alessandra; Rodriguez-Beltrán, Eva Maria; Nieto, Jose Antonio; Peris, Maria Luisa; Zeltser, David; Mazzolai, Lucia; Hij, Adrian; Monreal, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In cancer patients treated for venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), analyzing mortality associated with recurrent VTE or major bleeding is needed to determine the optimal duration of anticoagulation. This was a cohort study using the Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) Registry database to compare rates of fatal recurrent PE and fatal bleeding in cancer patients receiving anticoagulation for VTE. As of January 2013, 44,794 patients were enrolled in RIETE, of whom 7911 (18%) had active cancer. During the course of anticoagulant therapy (mean, 181 ± 210 days), 178 cancer patients (4.3%) developed recurrent PE (5.5 per 100 patient-years; 95% CI: 4.8–6.4), 194 (4.7%) had recurrent DVT (6.2 per 100 patient-years; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.3–7.1), and 367 (8.9%) bled (11.3 per 100 patient-years; 95% CI: 10.2–12.5). Of 4125 patients initially presenting with PE, 43 (1.0%) died of recurrent PE and 45 (1.1%) of bleeding; of 3786 patients with DVT, 19 (0.5%) died of PE, and 55 (1.3%) of bleeding. During the first 3 months of anticoagulation, there were 59 (1.4%) fatal PE recurrences and 77 (1.9%) fatal bleeds. Beyond the third month, there were 3 fatal PE recurrences and 23 fatal bleeds. In RIETE cancer patients, the rate of fatal recurrent PE or fatal bleeding was much higher within the first 3 months of anticoagulation therapy. PMID:26266353

  11. [Factors associated with post-stroke oropharingeal dysphagia].

    PubMed

    Peña-Chávez, Rodolfo; López-Espinoza, Miguel; Guzmán-Inostroza, Madelein; Jara-Parra, Mirna; Sepúlveda-Arriagada, Claudia; Sepulveda-Arriagada, Constanza; Zapata-Sepúlveda, Priscila

    2015-10-01

    Introduccion. La disfagia neurogena es una secuela del ictus que en ocasiones pone en riesgo la vida del paciente. La magnitud del daño cerebral generado por el ictus comunmente ocasiona la aparicion de otros trastornos que acompañan a la disfagia y agravan la salud del paciente. Objetivo. Analizar posibles asociaciones entre trastornos de la comunicacion, factores propios de la enfermedad, demograficos y comorbidos con disfagia en pacientes que sufrieron un ictus durante el ingreso hospitalario entre los años 2009 y 2011. Pacientes y metodos. Se estudiaron 1.519 historias clinicas de pacientes que presentaron ictus entre los años 2009 y 2011. Resultados. De los registros analizados, 206 presentaron disfagia (13,6%). El 80,1% de los casos de disfagia se concentro en pacientes de 60-89 años. El 66% de ellos permanecio hospitalizado durante mas de 11 dias. La edad (odds ratio = 2,36; p < 0,001), afasia (odds ratio = 4,47; p < 0,001), disartria (odds ratio = 4,95; p < 0,001), tiempo de hospitalizacion (odds ratio = 3,65; p < 0,001) e hipertension arterial (odds ratio = 1,64; p = 0,023) se asociaron estadisticamente con disfagia. Finalmente, en el 73,3% de los casos con disfagia, se presento disfagia mas afasia o disartria o apraxia del habla, mientras que solo el 26,7% tuvo exclusivamente disfagia. Conclusiones. La disfagia neurogena parece concomitar con trastornos de la comunicacion, aumentar el tiempo de hospitalizacion y asociarse a hipertension arterial. Sin embargo, se requieren estudios prospectivos que consideren un gran periodo de tiempo para confirmar estos hallazgos.

  12. PubMed

    Grijota Pérez, Francisco Javier; Barrientos Vicho, Gema; Casado Dorado, Analía; Muñoz Marín, Diego; Robles Gil, María Concepción; Maynar Mariño, Marcos

    2016-09-20

    Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la ingesta nutricional de atletas de alto nivel de las especialidades de fondo y medio fondo, durante una temporada atlética, para detectar posibles deficiencias.Métodos: para llevar a cabo el estudio, se procedió a evaluar la dieta y las diferentes concentraciones de los macronutrientes (glúcidos, lípidos y proteínas) y los diferentes tipos de ácidos grasos, en cuatro momentos diferentes de la temporada: al inicio y a los 3, 6 y 9 meses de entrenamiento. La muestra estuvo constituida por un grupo formado por 23 atletas de fondo y medio fondo con un mínimo de 5 años de ntrenamiento, una carga semanal de entre 14-20 horas y un volumen de 100-120 km semanales. El procedimiento consistió en el registro nutricional durante un periodo de tres días consecutivos, en los cuatro momentos establecidos.Resultados: los resultados obtenidos muestran incrementos significativos (p < 0,05) en la ingesta de proteínas entre los 3-9 meses.Conclusión: la ingesta energética en atletas de fondo y medio fondo va aumentando a lo largo de la temporada deportiva, con cantidades de macronutrientes inferiores a las recomendadas por la comunidad científica, y con incrementos en la ingesta de proteínas en periodos de primavera y verano, coincidiendo con momentos de competición.

  13. [Zinc phosphide poisoning in pediatric patients from a Toxicology Center at Mexico City].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Villegas, María Carmen Socorro; Bárcena-Ruiz, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: el fosfuro de zinc es usado para exterminar roedores; es un producto altamente tóxico, no crea resistencias y es de uso popular. Debido a que es un plaguicida altamente comercializado de elevada toxicidad que no cuenta con un antídoto disponible, es imperativo precisar e identificar con oportunidad las manifestaciones clínicas de la intoxicación. El objetivo fue describir el perfil epidemiológico y clínico de los niños intoxicados con fosfuro de zinc atendidos en un centro toxicológico de tercer nivel de atención. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo, observacional y trasversal del 2005 al 2015, con 36 registros de pacientes pediátricos atendidos en el Centro de Información y Atención Toxicológica del Hospital General “Dr. Gaudencio González Garza” del Centro Médico Nacional La Raza del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Resultados: el estudio no demostró predominio de algún género. El 66% de los pacientes se encontraba entre 1 y 2 años de edad. El 96% de los pacientes eran sanos y tres adolescentes utilizaron el producto con fines suicidas. La exposición ocurrió en el hogar. La toxicidad se caracterizó por hipotensión arterial, hipoglucemia, acidosis metabólica, dolor abdominal, náuseas, vómitos; ninguno de los pacientes falleció ni requirió de asistencia ventilatoria ni de hemodiálisis. Conclusión: la falta de conocimiento del potencial tóxico y la accesibilidad al producto en el interior del domicilio de los pacientes facilita su exposición; se trata de un riesgo 100% prevenible.

  14. EFFECT OF ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL ON SEVERITY OF CIRRHOSIS IN HUMANS.

    PubMed

    Colpo, Elisangela; Gomes Farias, Julia; Gomes Farias, Iria Luiza; Brenner Reetz, Luiz Gustavo; Oliveira, Liliane; Michelon de Carli, Diego; Irineu Müller, Edson; Marlon de Moraes Flores, Érico; Roth Dalcin, Saulo; Teixeira da Rocha, João Batista

    2015-11-01

    Introducción/Objetivos: examinar la relación entre los potenciales antioxidantes y los parámetros de gravedad de la cirrosis en los seres humanos. Métodos: quince pacientes con cirrosis hepática (nueve sujetos - grupo Child B, y seis sujetos - grupo Child C) y nueve sujetos control fueron incluidos en el estudio. Los principales criterios que se tuvieron en cuenta para caracterizar el diagnóstico de la cirrosis y sus complicaciones fueron la AST: relación de ALT, AST índice de la relación de plaquetas, clasificación Bonacini, clasificación MELD y clasificación de Child. Estos parámetros fueron determinados con base en los resultados de laboratorio y los registros clínicos del paciente. Se midieron los niveles de Zn, ácido ascórbico (AA) y los parámetros de estrés oxidativo en muestras de sangre de pacientes cirróticos. Resultados: el análisis de los niveles plasmáticos de Se y AA mostraron bajas concentraciones en los pacientes cirróticos en comparación con los sujetos control (P < 0,05); sin embargo, hubo una correlación positiva entre el plasma de Se y los parámetros de gravedad de la cirrosis en pacientes del grupo Child B y C. En la actividad de las enzimas antioxidantes catalasa solamente fue menor en los pacientes del grupo Child C, en comparación con el grupo control. Conclusión: se encontraron niveles bajos en plasma de Se y AA en pacientes cirróticos. Sin embargo, no está claro por qué los niveles de selenio tienden a aumentar con la gravedad de la cirrosis hepática.

  15. PubMed

    Lopéz-Galán, Belinda; De Magistris, Tiziana

    2017-02-01

    Introducción: a pesar de que estudios anteriores han proporcionado información relevante respecto al avance en la aplicación del Reglamento (CE) n.o 1924/2006 de la Unión Europea, hasta ahora no se ha determinado la prevalencia de las declaraciones nutricionales relevantes en la prevención de la obesidad en el mercado español.Objetivo: determinar la presencia de las declaraciones nutricionales relevantes en la prevención de la obesidad en el mercado español.Materiales y métodos: se realizó un registro de productos alimenticios comercializados en 3 cadenas de distribución alimentaria que concentran el 40% del mercado. Se registró información nutricional de 9 categorías de productos representativos en la cesta de la compra de las familias españolas. Las declaraciones nutricionales analizadas hacen mención de los nutrientes que pueden contribuir o no al exceso de peso.Resultados: se examinó un total de 4.568 productos y se encontraron un total de 900 declaraciones nutricionales en el 20% de los productos analizados. Los nutrientes referidos en las declaraciones nutricionales encontrados con mayor frecuencia en las 9 categorías de productos fueron las grasas (42%), los azúcares (32%), la fibra alimentaria (20%) y la sal (6%). Conclusiones: al igual que en otros estudios realizados en España, nuestro estudio mostró una baja proporción de declaraciones nutricionales. Por lo tanto, para que estas cumplan su función informativa tanto la industria como la distribución alimentaria deben seguir trabajando por incluir más declaraciones en los alimentos que ofrecen. De esta manera facilitarán a los consumidores una mejor toma de decisiones alimentarias.

  16. [Instrumental gait analysis in stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, P; Molina-Rueda, F; Cuesta-Gomez, A; Carratala-Tejada, M; Miangolarra-Page, J C

    2016-11-16

    Introduccion. Las alteraciones en el control motor consecuentes al ictus afectan al patron de marcha, existiendo una importante variabilidad intersujeto. Objetivos. Valorar, a traves de un sistema de captura del movimiento, el patron cinematico de la marcha en sujetos con ictus y establecer que alteraciones del patron de la marcha son comunes entre los participantes. Sujetos y metodos. Participaron nueve pacientes con ictus con capacidad de marcha y diez sujetos controles. Para la captura del movimiento se empleo el sistema VICON Motion System ®. Se analizaron los movimientos articulares de pelvis, cadera, rodilla y tobillo en el plano sagital, y los parametros espaciotemporales de la marcha. Resultados. La funcion motora de los participantes, valorada mediante la escala Fugl-Meyer (seccion del miebro inferior), oscilo entre 15 y 33 puntos. Los participantes presentaron alteraciones en la cinematica comunes entre ellos. En los pacientes con ictus se registro: aumento de la amplitud de movimiento de la pelvis en ambos hemicuerpos (lado afecto y no afecto frente a control, p < 0,01); en la cadera, disminucion de la maxima extension durante la fase de apoyo en el lado afecto (p < 0,01) e incremento de la flexion en las fases de apoyo y oscilacion en el no afecto (p = 0,025); en la rodilla, mayor flexion durante la fase de contacto inicial (lado afecto frente a control, p < 0,01; lado no afecto frente a control, p = 0,02); y en el tobillo, ligera flexion plantar durante la fase de contacto inicial en el lado afecto. Conclusiones. A pesar de la variabilidad clinica, existen alteraciones especificas comunes de la marcha en sujetos con ictus.

  17. Neural tube defects in Costa Rica, 1987-2012: origins and development of birth defect surveillance and folic acid fortification.

    PubMed

    Barboza-Argüello, María de la Paz; Umaña-Solís, Lila M; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Flores, Alina L; Rodríguez-Aguilar, Sara; Alfaro-Calvo, Thelma; Mulinare, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to provide a descriptive overview of how the birth defects surveillance and folic acid fortification programs were implemented in Costa Rica-through the establishment of the Registry Center for Congenital Anomalies (Centro de Registro de Enfermedades Congénitas-CREC), and fortification legislation mandates. We estimated the overall prevalence of neural tube defects (i.e., spina bifida, anencephaly and encephalocele) before and after fortification captured by CREC. Prevalence was calculated by dividing the total number of infants born with neural tube defects by the total number of live births in the country (1987-2012).A total of 1,170 newborns with neural tube defects were identified from 1987 to 2012 (1992-1995 data excluded); 628 were identified during the baseline pre-fortification period (1987-1991; 1996-1998); 191 during the fortification period (1999-2002); and 351 during the post-fortification time period (2003-2012). The overall prevalence of neural tube defects decreased from 9.8 per 10,000 live-births (95 % CI 9.1-10.5) for the pre-fortification period to 4.8 per 10,000 live births (95 % CI 4.3-5.3) for the post-fortification period. Results indicate a statistically significant (P < 0.05) decrease of 51 % in the prevalence of neural tube defects from the pre-fortification period to the post-fortification period. Folic acid fortification via several basic food sources has shown to be a successful public health intervention for Costa Rica. Costa Rica's experience can serve as an example for other countries seeking to develop and strengthen both their birth defects surveillance and fortification programs.

  18. [Accelerometer description as a method to assess physical activity in different periods of life; systematic review].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Cordero, M J; Sánchez López, A M; Guisado Barrilao, R; Rodríguez Blanque, R; Noack Segovia, J; Pozo Cano, M D

    2014-06-01

    Introducción: La acelerometría, se muestra como una de las técnicas más fiables, en el registro y almacenamiento de la cantidad y el nivel de actividad física, realizada por cada persona y en un periodo de tiempo determinado. Objetivo: Esta revisión tiene como objetivo describir y analizar los principales artículos que utilizan este método para valorar la actividad física. Método: Los artículos seleccionados para ser incluidos en esta revisión se identificaron a través de los siguientes motores de búsqueda especializados: SCOPUS, PUBMED, GOOGLE SCHOLAR; con un total de 56 artículos. La validez de los artículos estuvo dada por el grado de evidencias demostrado, por las recomendaciones que describen y por la aplicabilidad a nuestro contexto. Esta revisión ha considerado los estudios que evalúan la actividad física a través de acelerómetros. Resultados: Los resultados demuestran que este método se puede utilizar en edades comprendidas entre 3 y 90 años. También se puede utilizar en personas con sobrepeso/ obesidad, con lesiones articulares, niños con síndrome de Down, autistas, así como personas con problemas psicológicos. Los estudios en mujeres embarazadas muestran datos fiables. Conclusión: La literatura analizada establece la acelerometría como un método eficaz para valorar la actividad física.

  19. [Characteristics of patients with refractory epilepsy attended in a tertiary referral center in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Sanabria-Castro, A; Henriquez-Varela, F; Lara-Maier, S; Monge-Bonilla, C; Sittenfeld-Appel, M

    2016-07-16

    Introduccion. El 30% de los pacientes con epilepsia presenta convulsiones recurrentes, porcentaje que representa aproximadamente a 15 millones de personas en el mundo y constituye una poblacion escasamente descrita. Objetivo. Caracterizar sociodemografica y clinicamente la poblacion de pacientes diagnosticados con epilepsia refractaria en un hospital terciario de Costa Rica. Pacientes y metodos. Se analizan los registros medicos de los pacientes con epilepsia refractaria valorados en la unidad de epilepsia del Hospital San Juan de Dios de la Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social desde agosto de 2012 a octubre de 2014. Resultados. Se incluyen los expedientes clinicos de 91 pacientes. La edad media de inicio fue de 13,1 ± 11,1 años. Las crisis secundariamente generalizadas constituyen el tipo predominante (81,3%), la etiologia mas frecuente es la esclerosis mesial temporal (48,3%) y la mayoria de los pacientes presentaba examenes neurologicos normales y valoraciones neuro­psicologicas normales o bajas. Alrededor de la mitad (48,8%) de los pacientes habia sido medicada con un rango de 4-6 farmacos antiepilepticos, y los mas prescritos fueron lamotrigina, carbamacepina, acido valproico y fenitoina. Las principales recomendaciones en estos pacientes fueron: optimizacion de tratamiento, neurocirugia y reingreso. Se observan diferencias entre la edad de inicio y el sexo, la frecuencia de las crisis y el sexo, el tiempo de evolucion de la patologia y la cantidad de tratamientos fallidos, y el tiempo de evolucion de la enfermedad y la ocupacion. Conclusiones. Las caracteristicas sociodemograficas, el manejo de los pacientes, los farmacos antiepilepticos utilizados y las diferencias encontradas son similares a las descritas en otras latitudes.

  20. [Current status of alternative therapies renal function at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    Méndez-Durán, Antonio; Ignorosa-Luna, Manuel Humberto; Pérez-Aguilar, Gilberto; Rivera-Rodríguez, Francisco Jesús; González-Izquierdo, José Jesús; Dávila-Torres, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el IMSS realiza de manera sistemática la actualización de datos de los pacientes en terapias sustitutivas de la función renal (TSFR) mediante un registro electrónico denominado: Censo de administración de pacientes con Insuficiencia Renal Crónica (CIRC), cuyo objetivo es conocer la prevalencia de pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica y el comportamiento de las TSFR en el IMSS. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo, incluye 212 hospitales de segundo nivel con programas de diálisis, pacientes pediátricos y adultos. Datos obtenidos del CIRC de enero a diciembre de 2014, cédulas numeral y nominal de diálisis peritoneal (DP) y hemodiálisis (HD). Se identifica prevalencia de pacientes y terapias por delegación, distribución por género y edad, causa de la enfermedad renal, la morbilidad y mortalidad. Resultados: 55 101 pacientes, de los cuales fueron 29 924 masculinos (54 %) y 25 177 femeninos (46 %); edad promedio 62.1 años (rng: 4 a 90); pensionados 20 387 (36.9 %). Las causas de la insuficiencia renal fueron: diabetes 29 054 (52.7 %), hipertensión arterial 18 975 (34.4%), glomerulopatías crónicas 3951 (7.2 %), riñones poliquísticos 1142 (2.1 %), congénitos 875 (1.6 %), y otras 1104 (2 %). La HD se otorgó en 41 % de los pacientes y la DP al 59 % restante; el costo anual fue de 5 608 290 622 pesos. Conclusiones: la prevalencia incrementada de diabetes mellitus e hipertensión arterial repercuten en el inicio de una TSFR, las cuales muestran un panorama financiero catastrófico para el Instituto.

  1. [Nutritional analysis of dietary patterns in students of primary education with normal nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Durá-Gúrpide, Beatriz; Durá-Travé, Teodoro

    2014-06-01

    Objetivo: Realizar un análisis nutricional del modelo dietético en un grupo de alumnos de Educación Primaria (9-12 años) con estado nutricional normal. Material y Métodos: Registro de consumo de alimentos de dos días lectivos consecutivos en una muestra de 353 alumnos de Educación Primaria (188 varones y 165 mujeres) con una situación nutricional normal. Se ha calculado el consumo calórico y de macronutrientes, minerales y vitaminas comparándose con las ingestas recomendadas. Resultados: El valor medio del aporte calórico diario era de 2.066,9 kcal. Los cereales (33%), lácteos (19%) y carnes (17%) aportaban el 70% de la ingesta calórica total. Las proteínas aportaban el 20,3% de la ingesta calórica, los glúcidos el 48,8%, los lípidos el 30,9%, y las grasas saturadas el 12,6%. La ingesta de colesterol era excesiva y 2/3 de la ingesta proteica eran de origen animal. El valor medio de la ingesta de calcio, yodo y vitaminas A, D y E eran inferiores a los aportes dietéticos recomendados. Conclusiones: El modelo dietético de los alumnos de Educación Primaria con estado nutricional normal difiere del prototipo mediterráneo, con un consumo excesivo de carnes, limitado de cereales y lácteos, y deficiente en verduras y hortalizas, frutas, legumbres y pescados; dando lugar a un incremento del aporte de proteínas y grasas animales en detrimento de los hidratos de carbono complejos y un aporte deficiente de calcio, yodo y vitaminas A, D y E.

  2. [Physical activity and accelerometer; methodological training, recommendations and movement patterns in school].

    PubMed

    Calahorro Cañada, Fernando; Torres-Luque, Gema; Lopez Fernandez, Iván; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Garatachea, Nuria; Álvarez Carnero, Elvis

    2014-09-21

    Introducción: En los últimos años, ha cobrado especial importancia el empleo de acelerómetros para valorar la actividad física de niños y jóvenes. La metodología utilizada en el uso de la acelerometría determina los resultados obtenidos y condiciona la posibilidad de comparar diferentes estudios. Objetivo: El objetivo de esta revisión, se centra en aspectos metodológicos relacionados con la evaluación de la actividad física en escolares utilizando la acelerometría. Metodología: Se realizó una revisión de la literatura de los artículos incluidos en las bases de datos Medline/ Pubmed y Scielo que utilizaran acelerómetros con participantes en edad escolar entre Enero de 2002 y Agosto de 2013, seleccionándose 133 artículos científicos. Resultados: Parece existir un cierto consenso respecto a la elección del lugar de colocación, el tiempo de registro y el empleo de epochs cada vez más reducidos; sin embargo, se encuentra una gran variabilidad respecto al modelo de acelerómetro empleado y los puntos de corte seleccionados. Discusión y Conclusiones: Los diferentes criterios empleados, dificultan la comparación en la metodología empleada entre estudios a pesar de que existan ciertos puntos en común entre ellos.

  3. [Validity of the 24-h previous day physical activity recall (PDPAR-24) in Spanish adolescents].

    PubMed

    Cancela, José María; Lago, Joaquín; Ouviña, Lara; Ayán, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: El control del nivel de práctica de actividad física que realizan los adolescentes, de sus factores determinantes y susceptibilidad al cambio resulta indispensable para intervenir sobre la epidemia de obesidad que afecta a la sociedad española. Sin embargo, el número de cuestionarios validados para valorar la actividad física en adolescentes españoles es escaso. Objetivos: Evaluar la validez del cuestionario24hPrevious Day Physical Activity Recall (PDPAR-24) cuando es aplicado a la población de adolescentes españoles. Método: Participaron en este estudio estudiantes de 14-15 años de dos centros de educación secundaria del norte de Galicia. Como criterio objetivo de la actividad física realizada se utilizó el registro proporcionado por el acelerómetro Actigraph GT3X.Se monitorizó a los sujetos durante un día por medio del acelerómetro y al día siguiente se administró el cuestionario de auto-informe. Resultados: Un total de 79 alumnos (15.16 ± 0.81 años, 39% mujeres) finalizaron el estudio. Se observan correlaciones positivas estadísticamente significativas de tamaño medio a grande en ambos sexos (r=0.50-0.98), para la actividad física ligera y moderada. Las correlaciones observadas son más elevadas a medida que aumenta la intensidad de la actividad física realizada. Conclusiones: El cuestionario de auto-informe PDPAR-24 puede ser considerado como una herramienta válida a la hora de valorar el nivel de actividad física en adolescentes españoles.

  4. Working on a Standard Joint Unit: A pilot test.

    PubMed

    Casajuana, Cristina; López-Pelayo, Hugo; Mercedes Balcells, María; Miquel, Laia; Teixidó, Lídia; Colom, Joan; Gual, Antoni

    2016-09-29

    Introducción. Explorar el consumo de cánnabis sigue siendo complejo debido a la falta de sistemas de registro. Se evaluó la factibilidad de obtener una Unidad de Porro Estándar (UPE) que considere los principales cannabinoides con implicación clínica mediante un estudio naturalístico. Metodología. Estudio piloto con consumidores actuales de cánnabis de cuatro áreas (universidades, ocio nocturno, servicio ambulatorio de salud mental y asociaciones cannábicas) en Barcelona. Se diseñó y administró un cuestionario sobre patrones de consumo y se determinó la predisposición a donar un porro para análisis. Se utilizaron estadísticos descriptivos para analizar los datos. Resultados. Cuarenta consumidores de cannabis respondieron a la encuesta (tasa de respuesta 95%), siendo la mayoría hombres (72,5%) y jóvenes adultos (mediana de edad 24,5 años; RIQ 8,75 años) que consumen a diario o casi diariamente (70%). La marihuana es el derivado más consumido (85%), habiendo de mediana 0,25 gr de marihuana por porro. Un 67,5% de los participantes se mostraron predispuestos a donar un porro para análisis. Conclusión. La obtención de la UPE con la metodología prevista es factible. Tras el piloto el cuestionario ha sido adaptado y se ha introducido un incentivo para estimular la donación de muestras. Establecer la UPE permitirá avanzar en el conocimiento de las consecuencias del consumo de cannabis.

  5. Egg consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in a Mediterranean cohort; the sun project.

    PubMed

    Zazpe, Itziar; Beunza, Juan José; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Basterra-Gortari, Francisco Javier; Mari-Sanchis, Amelia; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción y Objetivo: La prevalencia de la diabetes está aumentando a un ritmo alarmante en casi todos los países. Algunos estudios en poblaciones no mediterráneas sugieren que un mayor consumo de huevo se asocia con un mayor riesgo de diabetes. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue evaluar prospectivamente la asociación entre el consumo de huevo y la incidencia de diabetes tipo 2 en una gran cohorte de graduados universitarios esp2013les. Métodos: Un total de 15.956 participantes (edad media: 38,5 2013s) seguidos durante 6,6 2013s (mediana), y libres de la diabetes mellitus al inicio del estudio fueron incluidos en este estudio. El consumo de huevos se evaluó al inicio del estudio a través de un cuestionario semicuantitativo de frecuencia de alimentos repetidamente validado en España. Los casos de diabetes mellitas incidente fueron diagnosticados por un médico a través de cuestionarios de seguimiento bianuales y posteriormente confirmados por los informes médicos o registros, de acuerdo con los criterios de la American Diabetes Association. Los análisis se realizaron a través de modelos de regresión logística no condicional multivariable. Resultados: Después de ajustar por los factores de confusión, el consumo de huevo no se asoció con el desarrollo de diabetes mellitus. Odds Ratio de aquellos participantes con mayores consumos frente a los del cuartel más bajo de consumo de huevos (< 4 huevos/semana frente a >1 huevo/semana) fue 0,7, IC del 95% CI 0.3-1.7. Conclusión: El consumo de huevos no se asoció con el desarrollo de diabetes mellitus en esta cohorte mediterránea.

  6. [Determination of von Willebrand factor multimers in Mexican population].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Zamora, Edgar; Zavala-Hernández, Cesar; Viveros-Sandoval, Martha Eva; Ochoa-Rico, Angeles; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos; Reyes-Maldonado, Elba

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la enfermedad de von Willebrand es un padecimiento hereditario en el que la estructura, función y concentración del factor de von Willebrand están alteradas y, en consecuencia, también la interacción plaqueta-factor de von Willebrand-endotelio. En México no hay registros epidemiológicos de la enfermedad, sólo se han efectuado algunos estudios aislados desde el punto de vista clínico y hematológico. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo efectuado en 155 mexicanos mestizos, 75 de ellos con diagnóstico presuntivo de enfermedad de von Willebrand, 15 con sospecha de hemofilia A y 65 donadores sanos (testigos). Se realizaron pruebas: básicas de coagulación, especiales y de clasificación: análisis de la composición multimérica. Resultados: 15 pacientes se diagnosticaron con hemofilia A; de los 75 sujetos con sospecha de enfermedad de von Willebrand se diagnosticaron 50 de la manera siguiente: tipo 1 (62%), tipo 2 (22%) [subtipos: 2A (14%), 2B (2%) y 2N (6%)] y tipo 3 (16%). Conclusión: el análisis de los multímeros del factor de von Willebrand es un método que cumple con las características adecuadas para el diagnóstico de la enfermedad de von Willebrand, por lo que es necesario implementar esta metodología para su estudio y mejorar su diagnóstico específico.

  7. [Protocol for neurophysiological studies of the pelvic floor to appraise anorectal dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Guerrico, Ion; Royo, Inmaculada; Andreu, Montserrat; Roquer-González, Jaume; Munteis, Elvira

    2016-03-01

    Introduccion. Los pacientes con esclerosis multiple (EM) frecuentemente desarrollan disfuncion anorrectal. Las estructuras neuromusculares del suelo pelvico y los mecanismos de control voluntario de la defecacion pueden afectarse por las lesiones parcheadas de la EM o secundarias a la discapacidad del paciente. La implicacion multifactorial limita la comprension de la fisiopatologia de la disfuncion anorrectal en la EM. Tests neurofisiologicos especificos valoran la funcionalidad de los elementos del sistema nervioso central y periferico implicados en las disfunciones anorrectales. Objetivo. Proponer un protocolo diagnostico de estudios neurofisiologicos estandarizados del suelo pelvico para caracterizar la fisiopatologia de la disfuncion anorrectal en los pacientes con EM. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizaron estudios de electromiografia de esfinter anal externo, potenciales evocados somatosensoriales desde el nervio pudendo interno, registro de reflejos sacros anales y neurografia del nervio pudendo a 16 pacientes con EM definida y criterios de estreñimiento o incontinencia fecal. Resultados. Las caracteristicas clinicas y neurofisiologicas fueron heterogeneas. Nueve pacientes presentaron estreñimiento; dos, incontinencia fecal aislada; y cinco, combinacion de ambos. La abolicion o el retraso de la latencia de los potenciales evocados somatosensoriales fue el hallazgo mas frecuente (n = 12), seguido de la deteccion de contraccion paradojica (n = 11) y de reclutamiento deficitario (n = 8) en la electromiografia de esfinter anal externo. Conclusiones. La correcta interpretacion de cada test neurofisiologico disponible y la correlacion de los hallazgos en conjunto permiten comprender la fisiopatologia de la disfuncion anorrectal. La protocolizacion de estudios neurofisiologicos del suelo pelvico permite ajustar el diagnostico al identificar la lesion nerviosa, central o periferica, determinante de disfuncion anorrectal en los pacientes con EM.

  8. Sealing versus partial caries removal in primary molars: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The resin-based pit and fissure sealant is considered a successful tool in caries prevention, however there is a growing evidence of its use in controlling already established caries in posterior teeth. The aim of this clinical trial is to verify the efficacy of pit and fissure sealants in arresting dentinal caries lesions compared to partial excavation and restorative treatment in primary molar teeth. Methods Thirty six patients with occlusal cavitated primary molar reaching outer half of dentin were selected. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups: sealant application (experimental group – n = 17) and restoration with composite resin (control group – n = 19). Clinical and radiograph evaluation were performed after 6, 12 and 18 months. The chi-square test was used to verify the distribution of characteristics variables of the sample among the groups. The survival rate of treatments was evaluated using Kaplan–Meier survival and log-rank test. Fisher’s Exact and logistic regression tests were calculated in each evaluation period (α = 5%). Results The control group showed significantly better clinical survival after 18 months (p = 0.0025). In both groups, no caries progression was registered on the radiographic evaluations. Conclusions Sealing had similar efficacy in the arrestment of caries progression of cavitated occlusal lesions compared to partial excavation of the lesions, even though the frequency of re-treatments was significantly higher in sealed lesions. Trial registration Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos (ReBEC): RBR-9kkv53 PMID:24884684

  9. The extreme environments and their microbes as models for extraterrestrial life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seckbach, J.; Oren, A.; Chela-Flores, J.

    2008-09-01

    British Penetrator Consortium (Smith et al., 2008), a modest penetration depth of penetrators (instruments in the process of development to be deployed on planetary bodies such as the Moon to bury themselves into the surface) into the icy surface of Europa would be sufficient to obtain samples that can be used to correctly interpret isotopic abundances of sulfur. When derived from the activity of putative S-reducing microbes, the sulfur can be used as a biomarker, based on its characteristic isotopic composition, not influenced by radiation interference. References Blanc, M. and the LAPLACE consortium (2008). LAPLACE: a mission to Europa and the Jupiter System, Astrophysical Instruments and Methods, in press. (The LAPLACE Consortium: http://www.ictp.it/~chelaf/ss164.html). Chela-Flores, J. (2006). The sulphur dilemma: Are there biosignatures on Europa's icy and patchy surface? International Journal of Astrobiology 5: 17-22. Chela-Flores, J. and Kumar, N. (2008). Returning to Europa: Can traces of surficial life be detected? International Journal of Astrobiology, in press. Dudeja, S., Bhattacherjee, A.B. and Chela-Flores, J. (2008). Manuscript in preparation. Greenberg, R. (2005). Europa - The Ocean Moon. Springer and Praxia Publishing, Chichester, 328 pp. Oren, A. (2002). Halophilic Microorganisms and their Environments. Kluwer Scientific Publishers, Dordrecht, 575 pp. Oren, A. (2008). Life at low water activity. Halophilic micro-organisms and their adaptations. The Biochemist, in press. Seckbach, J. (1994). The natural history of Cyanidium (Geitler 1933): past and present perspectives. in: Seckbach, J. (ed.), Evolutionary Pathways and Enigmatic Algae: Cyanidium caldarium (Rhodophyta) and Related Cells, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 99-112. Seckbach, J., Baker, F.A. and Shugarman, P.M. (1970). Algae thrive under pure CO2. Nature 227: 744-745. Seckbach, J. and Chela-Flores, J. (2007). Extremophiles and chemotrophs as contributors to astrobiological signatures

  10. Validation of beverage intake methods vs. hydration biomarkers; a short review.

    PubMed

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Ruano, Cristina; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-11-01

    Resumen: Introducción: La ingesta de líquidos es difícil de monitorear. Los biomarcadores de ingesta de bebidas son capaces de evaluar la ingesta dietética / estado de hidratación sin el sesgo producido por los errores de los auto- registros de ingesta dietaria, así como por la variabilidad intra-individual. Se han propuesto diversos marcadores para evaluar el estado de hidratación; sin embargo, hasta la fecha, no existe ningún biomarcador universalmente aceptado que refleje los cambios del estado de hidratación en respuesta a cambios en la ingesta de bebidas. Objetivo: Hemos llevado a cabo una revisión para determinar los cuestionarios de ingesta de bebidas disponibles en la literatura científica que evalúan la ingesta de bebidas y el estado de hidratación y que han sido validados con biomarcadores de hidratación. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en la literatura científica. Se seleccionaron sólo dos artículos, los cuales contenían dos cuestionarios de ingesta de bebidas diferentes, diseñados para capturar la ingesta habitual de bebidas. Ambos cuestionarios fueron validados con el biomarcador Gravedad específica de la orina (Usg). Resultados: El Cuestionario de Balance Hídrico (WBQ) no reportó correlaciones en el primer estudio y el Cuestionario de Ingesta de Bebidas (BEVQ), que es un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo alimentario (FFQ) en el segundo estudio, tampoco encontró una correlación positiva. El FFQ parece medir mejor la ingesta de bebidas que el WBQ en comparación con los biomarcadores. Sin embargo, el WBQ parece ser un método más completo para evaluar el balance hídrico de una población dada. Conclusión: Se necesita más investigación para entender el significado de las diferentes correlaciones entre las estimaciones de ingesta y los biomarcadores de bebidas en distintos grupos de población y en diferentes entornos.

  11. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characterization of a new formulation containing synergistic proportions of interferons alpha-2b and gamma (HeberPAG®) in patients with mycosis fungoides: an open-label trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    pharmacodynamic properties that may be very useful in the oncologic setting. Efficacy trials can be carried out to confirm these findings. Trial registration Registro Público Cubano de Ensayos Clínicos RPCEC00000130 PMID:23272809

  12. [Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity, energy intake and dietary caloric profile in university students from the region of Murcia (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Cutillas, Ana Belén; Herrero, Ester; de San Eustaquio, Alba; Zamora, Salvador; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Los estudiantes universitarios constituyen un sector de la población potencialmente vulnerable en relación con su estado nutricional. Objetivos: Evaluar la ingesta energética, el perfil calórico de la dieta y la prevalencia de peso insuficiente, sobrepeso y obesidad en estudiantes universitarios. Métodos: El estudio se realizó en 223 estudiantes (53% mujeres) de la Universidad de Murcia (España), edad media 21,4 ± 2,7 años. El consumo de alimentos se estimó mediante registro dietético continuado de 7 días, previamente validado, la ingesta de energía y macronutrientes mediante el software “GRUNUMUR 2.0” y la actividad física por un cuestionario. A partir de las medidas del peso y la altura se calculó el índice de masa corporal [peso (kg)/altura (m)(2)]. Resultados y discusión: El consumo medio de energía fue inferior a las recomendaciones. El perfil calórico de la dieta fue excesivo en proteínas y lípidos, y deficitario en carbohidratos. La prevalencia de sobrepeso fue 9,3% en mujeres y 24,2% en hombres. El 10,2% de las mujeres presentaron peso insuficiente y el 1,1% de los hombres. Sólo el 35,4% del colectivo manifestó realizar actividad física de forma habitual (3-4 horas/semana). Se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre edad y porcentajes de energía procedentes de carbohidratos (negativa) y lípidos (positiva), indicando que los estudiantes de más edad (adultos jóvenes) consumieron dietas más desequilibras que los más jóvenes (adolescentes). Conclusiones: Los estudiantes de la Universidad de Murcia presentan características muy similares a las descritas en otros colectivos universitarios de España y otros países occidentales, bajos consumos de energía, desequilibrios en el perfilcalórico de la dieta y altos porcentajes de sobrepeso. El sedentarismo y el desequilibrio calórico podrían ser los factores determinantes del exceso de peso observado. La edad es una variable significativa en el

  13. Fluid intake from beverages in Spanish adults; cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Babio, Nancy; Fenández-Alvira, Juan Miguel; Iglesia, Iris; Moreno, Luis A; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    Introducción: Los cuestionarios dietéticos, solamente evalúan la ingesta de bebidas calóricas. Sin embargo, no evalúan adecuadamente la ingesta total de líquidos o de agua. Objetivo: Evaluar la ingesta total de líquidos procedente de diferentes tipos de bebidas, en adultos españoles. Métodos: 1.262 adultos (18-70 años) fueron seleccionados al azar en regiones españolas. La información sobre la cantidad y calidad de la ingesta diaria de líquidos se recogió mediante un registro de 24 horas específico para la evaluación de fluidos durante 7 días consecutivos. Resultados: La ingesta de agua a partir de diferentes bebidas estaba por debajo de las recomendaciones de la EFSA en el 50,4% de la población. La probabilidad de cumplir las recomendaciones de la EFSA para la ingesta de agua fue mayor en mujeres [OR: 2.48, IC95%: 1.81- 3.40], y participantes con mayor practica de actividad física (3-4 veces/semana [OR: 1,5, IC95%: 1.01-2.46]; 5 o más veces/semana [OR: 1.97, IC95%: 1.37-2.83]). Las mujeres consumían más bebidas calientes y refrescos light. El consumo de refrescos regulares y de bebidas alcohólicas fue mayor en los hombres. Un mayor porcentaje de hombres, jóvenes y participantes con IMC < 30 kg/m2 consumían azúcar procedente de bebidas, por encima de las recomendaciones de la OMS. Discusión: La mitad de la población estudiada no cumple las recomendaciones de la EFSA para la ingesta de fluidos. El agua embotellada o del grifo es la principal bebida consumida. Existen diferencias en el consumo de bebidas en relación a la edad y género. Una cuarta parte de la población estudiada consume un exceso de azúcar procedente de las bebidas.

  14. Development of the management for parenteral nutrition traceability in a standard hospital.

    PubMed

    Bernabeu Soria, Beatriz; Mateo García, Máxima; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Cervera Peris, Mercedes; Piñeiro Corrales, Guadalupe; Sanz-Valero, Javier

    2015-11-01

    Objetivo: desarrollar el control de la trazabilidad y el análisis de riesgos en el proceso de mezcla de nutrientes parenterales (NP). Método: se diseñó la notación gráfica normalizada, caracterizando cada una de las etapas dentro del proceso global. Se analizó la presencia de riesgos mediante la secuenciación de decisiones. La existencia de Puntos de Control (PC) o de Puntos Críticos de Control (PCC) se calculó mediante el Índice de Criticidad (IC) para cada uno de los riesgos, teniendo en cuenta la probabilidad del suceso y la gravedad de los daños. El punto de corte del IC se estableció en 6. Resultados: se obtuvo el diagrama de flujo específico para la gestión y trazabilidad de la NP, caracterizándose cada una de las etapas en PC (validación y transcripción de la prescripción y administración) o PCC (preparación, conservación y bomba de infusión -flujo y filtro-). Las etapas de entrega de la NP y de recuperación y reciclado del material de envasado no se consideraron PC y, en consecuencia, no fueron incluidos en el cuadro de gestión. Conclusiones: la NP debe integrarse en un sistema normalizado de gestión con el fin de mejorar la seguridad del paciente y la pertinencia clínica, maximizar la eficiencia de los recursos y minimizar los incidentes procesales. El sistema propuesto permite establecer una gestión global cuyas etapas quedan totalmente caracterizadas, permitiendo su control y verificación. Sería deseable disponer de una aplicación informática que facilitara el seguimiento de la gestión de la trazabilidad y tener un histórico de los registros que permita evaluar el sistema.

  15. Protein intake, nitrogen balance and nutritional status in patients with Parkinson's disease; time for a change?

    PubMed

    Zilli Canedo Silva, Maryanne; Carol Fritzen, Natali; de Oliveira, Marlon; Paes da Silva, Michel; Rasmussen Petterle, Ricardo; Teive, Hélio Afonso; de Mesquita Barros Almeida Leite, Christiane; Rabito, Estela Iraci; Madalozzo Schieferdecker, Maria Eliana; Carvalho, Mauricio

    2015-06-01

    Objetivo: evaluar ingestión proteica, balance nitrogenado y estado nutricional de pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson (EP) clínicamente estables. Métodos: estudio transversal de pacientes con EP en los niveles 1-3 según la escala de Hoehn-Yahr e individuos sin enfermedad neurológica (controles), pareados por edad y género. Todos los participantes fueron sometidos a una entrevista de la historia nutricional, antropometría, impedancia eléctrica y registro alimentario de 3 días consecutivos, incluyendo un fin de semana. Fueron colectados sangre venosa en ayuno y orina de 24 horas para evaluación de la depuración de la creatinina, índice creatinina-altura y balance nitrogenado. Resultados: el promedio de edad en pacientes con EP fue 58,9 ± 12,8 años en comparación con 54,7 ± 12,6 años de los controles, p = 0,345. Un tercio del grupo EP tuvo síntomas de disfagia, con menor ingestión de agua y fibras, comparados a los controles. La circunferencia de la pantorrilla fue menor en grupo EP (35,5 ± 2,8 vs. 38,4 ± 3,5 cm, p = 0,012). La ingestión de nitrógeno fue significativamente menor y el balance de nitrógeno fue negativo en grupo EP (-1,8 ± 3,9 vs. 1,1 ± 4,2 controles, p = 0,064). Los antioxidantes folato y vitamina E fueron consumidos en pequeñas cantidades en ambos grupos, aunque significativamente menor en los pacientes con EP (p = 0,042 y 0,031, respectivamente). Discusión: la ingestión proteica diaria de aproximadamente 1,1 g/kg en pacientes clínicamente estables con EP puede no ser suficiente para garantizar un balance neutro de calorías-nitrógeno, así como para mantener la masa muscular. Serán necesarios mayores estudios que produzcan una imagen más completa del estado metabólico de los pacientes con Parkinson.

  16. [Nutritional risk factors in patients with head and neck cancer in oncology care center Michoacan state].

    PubMed

    García Rojas Vázquez, L E; Trujano-Ramos, L A; Pérez-Rivera, E

    2013-01-01

    En Michoacán, México, el cáncer de cabeza y cuello (CCC), es el tercer tipo de cáncer más frecuente y representa el 12% de las defunciones. El incremento de la desnutrición en un paciente con CCC se ha relacionado con el aumento en la mortalidad. Material y métodos: Se estudiaron de forma prospectiva 30 pacientes de ambos sexos, mayores de 18 años de edad con cáncer de cabeza y cuello del Centro de Atención Oncológica del Estado de Michoacán. En el periodo de evaluación comprendido de agosto de 2010 a agosto de 2011. Se utilizaron los formatos de VGS-Oncológico (Valoración Global Subjetiva), NRS 2002 (Nutritional risk screen) y GUSS (Gugging Swallowing Screen), por medio de los cuales se determinó el riesgo nutricional, y se estableció la capacidad deglutoria de la población estudiada. Resultados: El 53,3% de la población presento desnutrición moderada según la VGS Oncológica, El 33% registro pérdida de peso. La NRS 2002 muestro que el 43,3% se encuentra en riesgo de desnutrición. El grado de disfagia se muestra con mayor frecuencia en aquellos pacientes de mayor edad, el tipo cáncer que comprometía la vía oral y el estadio de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: Las escalas de riesgo nutricional se relacionan de manera directamente proporcional con la localización del tumor y el estadio, además, existen otros factores distintos a los oncológicos que participan en el deterioro nutricional del paciente. Por lo cual es de vital importancia contar con un nutriólogo como parte del equipo multidisciplinario, para detectar el riesgo nutricional y poder manejarlo de manera oportuna.

  17. Exploring increase of flood attenuation potential of reservoirs through simple gates operations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoero, A.; Claps, P.; Ganora, D.; Petaccia, A.

    2012-04-01

    Along with other flood risk mitigation measures, artificial flood storage has been considered as a mean to control flood peaks in mountainous basins, particularly as part of the flood management practices. Classical studies attain the evaluation of the 'natural' flood attenuation potential driven by the portion of volume available above the spillway crest level. These studies allow to reconstruct modified flood frequency curves in sections downstream as modified by this unconditioned type of attenuation. Less understood is the possibility to quantify the additional attenuation potential of reservoirs deriving by simple and standardized gates operations. Unconditioned gates opening in advance with respect to the incoming flood are the typical operations considered in this work. The study has been carried out using a system of 63 artificial reservoirs located in the Northwestern part of Italy, for which a comprehensive set of hydrological and hydraulic data has been collected with the help of the Italian Dams Authority (Registro Italiano Dighe, RID). The main aim of the study is to select the most interesting cases in which gates operation is able to consistently improve flood attenuation, and provide an overview of the effect that these dams exercise on the flood frequency curves of the river sections downstream. For what the 'natural' attenuation potential is concerned, an attenuation index named SFA (Synthetic Flood Attenuation) has been computed on all dams and subsequently used to modify the original frequency curve of the incoming floods. A recent regional statistical method for flood estimation has been used for this purpose. With the help of the same model and of additional information required to describe flood volumes, triangular and power-law synthetic flood hydrographs have been simulated. Gates operation is addressed to a preemptive drawdown, and is conceived as a fixed opening in defined conditions at the flood arrival. Consequently, the maximum

  18. Cirugía transnasal endoscópica para tumores de hipófisis

    PubMed Central

    Ajler, Pablo; Hem, Santiago; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Landriel, Federico; Campero, Alvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio; Carrizo, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: Exponer la técnica utilizada y los resultados obtenidos en los primeros 52 pacientes portadores de tumores hipofisarios tratados por la vía endoscópica transnasal en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un análisis retrospectivo de 52 cirugías endoscópicas transnasales utilizadas en el tratamiento de tumores hipofisários. Las mismas fueron realizadas en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires durante el período junio del 2011 a junio del 2012. Se analizaron las características demográficas de los pacientes, la patología de base y la morbimortalidad asociada a la cirugía. Resultados: La edad media de los pacientes fue de 41,52 años con un rango de 18-79. La distribución fue similar entre hombres y mujeres. Las patologías más frecuentes fueron: adenomas no funcionantes (40.4%), tumores productores de GH/Acromegalia (25%) y tumores productores de ACTH/Enfermedad de Cushing (23.1%). Aproximadamente el 70 % correspondieron a macroadenomas. Sólo un paciente presentó complicaciones. No se registro ningún óbito. Conclusión: Si bien podremos objetivar fehacientemente resultados más concluyentes en futuros trabajos, podemos decir a priori que, en la endoscopía el detalle anatómico es claramente superior al microscópico y que la posibilidad de la introducción del endoscopio en la silla turca permite la visualización directa de remanentes tumorales, de sitios de fístula y como así también de la glándula normal, ventajas que potencialmente podrían permitir obtener mejores resultados quirúrgicos, en términos de control de la enfermedad y tasa de complicaciones. PMID:23596553

  19. Magnitude and consequences of undertreatment of high‐risk patients with non‐ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: insights from the DESCARTES Registry

    PubMed Central

    Heras, M; Bueno, H; Bardají, A; Fernández‐Ortiz, A; Martí, H; Marrugat, J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyse intensity of treatment of high‐risk patients with non‐ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTEACS) included in the DESCARTES (Descripción del Estado de los Sindromes Coronarios Agudos en un Registro Temporal Español) registry. Patients and setting Patients with NSTEACS (n  =  1877) admitted to 45 randomly selected Spanish hospitals in April and May 2002 were studied. Design Patients with ST segment depression and troponin rise were considered high risk (n  =  478) and were compared with non‐high risk patients (n  =  1399). Results 46.9% of high‐risk patients versus 39.5% of non‐high‐risk patients underwent angiography (p  =  0.005), 23.2% versus 18.8% (p  =  0.038) underwent percutaneous revascularisation, and 24.9% versus 7.4% (p < 0.001) were given glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor. In‐hospital and six‐month mortality were 7.5% versus 1.1% and 17% versus 4.6% (p < 0.001), respectively. A treatment score (⩾ 4, 2–3 and < 2) was defined according to the number of class I interventions recommended in clinical guidelines: aspirin, clopidogrel, β blockers, angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitors, statins and revascularisation. Independent predictors of six‐month mortality were age (odds ratio (OR) 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to 1.10, p < 0.001), diabetes (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.14 to 3.22, p  =  0.014), previous cardiovascular disease (OR 4.17, 95% CI 1.63 to 10.68, p  =  0.003), high risk (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.30 to 3.71, p  =  0.003) and treatment score < 2 versus ⩾ 4 (OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.27 to 6.52, p  =  0.012). Conclusions Class I recommended treatments were underused in high‐risk patients in the DESCARTES registry. This undertreatment was an independent predictor of death of patients with an acute coronary syndrome. PMID:16644860

  20. Predictors of active cancer thromboembolic outcomes. RIETE experience of the Khorana score in cancer-associated thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Tafur, Alfonso J; Caprini, Joseph A; Cote, Lauren; Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Del Toro, Jorge; Garcia-Bragado, Fernando; Tolosa, Carles; Barillari, Giovanni; Visona, Adriana; Monreal, Manuel

    2017-03-09

    Even though the Khorana risk score (KRS) has been validated to predict against the development of VTE among patients with cancer, it has a low positive predictive value. It is also unknown whether the score predicts outcomes in patients with cancer with established VTE. We selected a cohort of patients with active cancer from the RIETE (Registro Informatizado Enfermedad TromboEmbolica) registry to assess the prognostic value of the KRS at inception in predicting the likelihood of VTE recurrences, major bleeding and mortality during the course of anticoagulant therapy. We analysed 7948 consecutive patients with cancer-associated VTE. Of these, 2253 (28 %) scored 0 points, 4550 (57 %) 1-2 points and 1145 (14 %) scored ≥3 points. During the course of anticoagulation, amongst patient with low, moderate and high risk KRS, the rate of VTE recurrences was of 6.21 (95 %CI: 4.99-7.63), 11.2 (95 %CI: 9.91-12.7) and 19.4 (95 %CI: 15.4-24.1) events per 100 patient-years; the rate of major bleeding of 5.24 (95 %CI: 4.13-6.56), 10.3 (95 %CI: 9.02-11.7) and 19.4 (95 %CI: 15.4-24.1) bleeds per 100 patient-years and the mortality rate of 25.3 (95 %CI: 22.8-28.0), 58.5 (95 %CI: 55.5-61.7) and 120 (95 %CI: 110-131) deaths per 100 patient-years, respectively. The C-statistic was 0.53 (0.50-0.56) for recurrent VTE, 0.56 (95 %CI: 0.54-0.59) for major bleeding and 0.54 (95 %CI: 0.52-0.56) for death. In conclusion, most VTEs occur in patients with low or moderate risk scores. The KRS did not accurately predict VTE recurrence, major bleeding, or mortality among patients with cancer-associated thrombosis.

  1. Effect of Providing Multiple Micronutrients in Powder through Primary Healthcare on Anemia in Young Brazilian Children: A Multicentre Pragmatic Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Marly A.; Augusto, Rosangela A.; Bortolini, Gisele A.; Oliveira, Cristieli S. M.; Tietzman, Daniela C.; Sequeira, Leopoldina A. S.; Hadler, Maria Claret C. M.; Peixoto, Maria do Rosario G.; Muniz, Pascoal T.; Vitolo, Márcia R.; Lira, Pedro I. C.; Jaime, Patrícia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple micronutrients in powder (MNP) are recommended by WHO to prevent anemia in young children. However, evidences for its effectiveness in different populations and improvements in other outcomes (e.g. linear growth and vitamin A deficiency) are scarce. Methods A multicentre pragmatic controlled trial was carried out in primary health centres. At study baseline, a control group (CG) of children aged 10- to 14 months (n = 521) was recruited in the routine healthcare for assessing anemia, anthropometric and micronutrient status. At the same time, an intervention group (IG) of infants aged 6- to 8 months (n = 462) was recruited to receive MNP daily in complementary feeding over a period of 60 days. Both study groups were compared when the IG infants reached the age of the CG children at enrolment. Results In CG, the prevalence of anemia [hemoglobin (Hb) < 110 g/L], iron deficiency (ID, plasma ferritin < 12 μg/L or TfR > 8.3 mg/L), and vitamin A deficiency (VAD, serum retinol < 0.70μmol/L) were 23.1%, 37.4%, and 17.4%, respectively. Four to six months after enrolment, when the IG participants had the same age of the controls at the time of testing, the prevalence of anemia, ID and VAD in IG were 14.3%, 30.1% and 7.9%, respectively. Adjusting for city, health centre, maternal education, and age, IG children had a lower likelihood of anemia and VAD [Prevalence Ratio (95% CI) = 0.63 (0.45, 0.88) and 0.45 (0.29, 0.69), respectively] when compared with CG children. The adjusted mean distributions of Hb and length-for-age Z-scores improved by 2 SE in the IG compared to CG children. Conclusions MNP effectively reduced anemia and improved growth and micronutrient status among young Brazilian children. Trial Registration Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clinicos RBR-5ktv6b PMID:26974146

  2. [Consumption of eggs may prevent vitamin D deficiency in schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; González-Rodríguez, Liliana G; Ortega Anta, Rosa María; López-Sobaler, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La vitamina D es esencial para la prevención de diversas enfermedades crónicas. Aunque se puede sintetizar a nivel cutáneo, esta fuente no es siempre suficiente para cubrir sus necesidades, por lo que el consumo de alimentos ricos en la misma, como el huevo, podría ser muy beneficioso en individuos que están en riesgo de presentar deficiencia. Objetivo: Estudiar la relación entre el estatus en vitamina D y el consumo diario de huevos en un colectivo de escolares. Metodología: Se incluyeron 564 escolares (9 a 12 años) de la Comunidad de Madrid. La ingesta de alimentos, de energía y nutrientes (incluidos el huevo y la vitamina D), se determinó empleando un registro del consumo de alimentos durante 3 días. Se calculó el Índice de Masa Corporal a través del peso corporal y la talla. Se valoró el colesterol total, lipoproteínas, triglicéridos y vitamina D sérica. Resultados: El consumo medio de huevos fue de 32,7 ± 20,9 g/día (inferior a 0,5 huevo/día recomendados en el 36,3% de los escolares). Se dividió a los escolares en función de que tuvieran un consumo ≥?o < 0,5 huevo/día (grupos SH e IH, respectivamente). La ingesta y los niveles séricos de vitamina D fueron significativamente superiores en el grupo SH que en el IH. Además, los primeros tuvieron menor riesgo de presentar deficiencia moderada de vitamina D (< 50 nmol/L) (OR = 0,41 (0,19-0,88); p = 0,022). No se observaron diferencias significativas entre los grupos en relación con las cifras de colesterol total y triglicéridos. Conclusión: Es recomendable fomentar el consumo deal menos 0,5 huevo/día entre la población infantil debidoa su alto contenido en vitamina D, lo que podría evitar laaparición de problemas de salud.

  3. PubMed

    Cabeza de Vaca Pedrosa, María José; Aguilar Diosdado, Manuel; Vizcaya Rojas, Miguel Ángel; Novalbos Ruiz, José Pedro; Lorenzo Peñuelas, Antonio; Valero Cabeza de Vaca, José Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Introducción: la declaración de voluntades anticipadas (DVA) es un documento que contiene las preferencias sobre los cuidados y tratamientos sanitarios que se desea recibir cuando no se tenga capacidad para expresarlos.Objetivo: estudiar el contenido de las DVA inscritas en la sede del Registro de Voluntades Anticipadas del Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, respecto al soporte nutricional especializado (SNE) e hidratación en el periodo de noviembre 2013 a diciembre 2015.Método: estudio transversal realizado sobre el contenido de las DVA inscritas en el modelo del Decreto 59/2012. Se estudian 9 variables de relevancia relacionadas con el SNE e hidratación en las DVA.Resultados: se analizan 414 DVA de las que el 60% corresponden a mujeres. La edad media de los declarantes es 55,2 años. El 41,7% inscribieron su DVA por automotivación. El 84,78% no desea recibir nutrición parenteral, el 91,06% rechaza la alimentación mediante tubo de gastrostomía y el 89,37% no desea recibir la sonda nasogástrica. La hidratación es rechazada por el 71,26%. Las tres posibles opciones de SNE dependen significativamente de la edad del declarante (p < 0,001) pero no así la hidratación. Ambos, SNE e hidratación, sí se asociaron significativamente con los motivos para inscribir las voluntades anticipadas (p < 0,001).Conclusiones: la edad es el principal factor que condiciona la opción de aceptación o rechazo de SNE. Por el contrario, la elección de la hidratación no está condicionada por la edad. Los motivos por los que se inscriben los otorgantes son otro determinante en la elección de si desean recibir o no SNE e hidratación.

  4. [Analysis of food intake and dietary habits in a population of adolescents in the city of Granada (Spain)].

    PubMed

    González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-Río-Valle, Jacqueline; García-López, Pedro A; García-García, Carmen J

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Los objetivos de este estudio fueron realizar un análisis de la ingesta de macronutrientes y micronutrientes en una población de adolescentes. En segundo lugar, verificar una correlación significativa entre el hábito de desayunar a diario en casa y el estado nutricional de dicha población. Muestra y metodología: La población de estudio estaba compuesta por 100 adolescentes de entre 12 y 15 años de edad, pertenecientes a 2 centros educativos públicos de la ciudad de Granada. Estudio descriptivo, transversal y multicéntrico en el que se llevó a cabo una valoración completa del estado nutricional de los alumnos mediante antropometría. Para el análisis de la ingesta alimentaria y hábitos nutricionales se utilizó un registro alimentario de 72 horas, específicamente elaborado y validado por el equipo investigador. Resultados: La ingesta energética fue superior en ambos sexos a la recomendada por la RDA. Se encontró una ingesta proteica media en chicas del 16% respecto del valor calórico total (VCT) y de un 15% del VCT en varones. Se evidenció un consumo medio de grasas de (106,1 gramos) en chicos, frente a los 100,4 gramos en chicas. Éstas ingerían más carbohidratos, destacando una ingesta media de 279,4 gramos/día frente a los 251 gramos/día ingeridos en varones. La ingesta de minerales fue variable en ambos sexos, siendo inferior a las recomendaciones de la RDA en chicas. En los varones resaltó una ingesta de calcio y zinc por encima de dichas recomendaciones. El aporte vitamínico fue variado y equilibrado en ambos sexos, cubriendo los requerimientos para edad y sexo. Respecto de la variable desayuno, se encontró una relación significativa (p < 0,0001) entre el hábito de desayunar en casa, antes de ir al instituto y el estado nutricional de los alumnos. Conclusiones: Un óptimo estado nutricional y de salud implica necesariamente mantener una alimentación equilibrada en sus nutrientes y unos hábitos nutricionales saludables.

  5. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic comparison of two "pegylated" interferon alpha-2 formulations in healthy male volunteers: a randomized, crossover, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    out to confirm clinical similarity. Trial registration Registro Público Cubano de Ensayos Clínicos RPCEC00000039. PMID:21092287

  6. First month prednisone dose predicts prednisone burden during the following 11 months: an observational study from the RELES cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Irastorza, G; Garcia, M; Espinosa, G; Caminal, L; Mitjavila, F; González-León, R; Sopeña, B; Canora, J; Villalba, M V; Rodríguez-Carballeira, M; López-Dupla, J M; Callejas, J L; Castro, A; Tolosa, C; Sánchez-García, M E; Pérez-Conesa, M; Navarrete-Navarrete, N; Rodríguez, A P; Herranz, M T; Pallarés, L

    2016-01-01

    Aim To study the influence of prednisone dose during the first month after systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) diagnosis (prednisone-1) on glucocorticoid burden during the subsequent 11 months (prednisone-2–12). Methods 223 patients from the Registro Español de Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico inception cohort were studied. The cumulative dose of prednisone-1 and prednisone-2–12 were calculated and recoded into a four-level categorical variable: no prednisone, low dose (up to 7.5 mg/day), medium dose (up to 30 mg/day) and high dose (over 30 mg/day). The association between the cumulative prednisone-1 and prednisone-2–12 doses was tested. We analysed whether the four-level prednisone-1 categorical variable was an independent predictor of an average dose >7.5 mg/day of prednisone-2–12. Adjusting variables included age, immunosuppressives, antimalarials, methyl-prednisolone pulses, lupus nephritis and baseline SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Results Within the first month, 113 patients (51%) did not receive any prednisone, 24 patients (11%) received average low doses, 46 patients (21%) received medium doses and 40 patients (18%) received high doses. There was a strong association between prednisone-1 and prednisone-2–12 dose categories (p<0.001). The cumulative prednisone-1 dose was directly associated with the cumulative prednisone-2–12 dose (p<0.001). Compared with patients on no prednisone, patients taking medium (adjusted OR 5.27, 95% CI 2.18 to 12.73) or high-dose prednisone-1 (adjusted OR 10.5, 95% CI 3.8 to 29.17) were more likely to receive prednisone-2–12 doses of >7.5 mg/day, while patients receiving low-dose prednisone-1 were not (adjusted OR 1.4, 95% CI 0. 0.38 to 5.2). If the analysis was restricted to the 158 patients with a baseline SLEDAI of ≥6, the model did not change. Conclusion The dose of prednisone during the first month after the diagnosis of SLE is an independent predictor of prednisone burden during the following

  7. Multiple skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in Goiania, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Samir; Curado, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Ana Maria Quinteiro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the trend for malignant skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in a region with high ultraviolet radiation indices.METHODS A descriptive epidemiological study on melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers that was conducted in Goiania, Midwest Brazil, with 1,688 people under 40 years of age, between 1988 and 2009. Cases were obtained fromRegistro de Câncer de Base Populacional de Goiânia(Goiania's Population-Based Cancer File). Frequency, trends, and incidence of cases with single and multiple lesions were analyzed; transplants and genetic skin diseases were found in cases with multiple lesions.RESULTS Over the period, 1,995 skin cancer cases were observed to found, of which 1,524 (90.3%) cases had single lesions and 164 (9.7%) had multiple lesions. Regarding single lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 2.4 to 3.1/100,000 inhabitants; it differed significantly for women, shifting from 2.3 to 5.3/100,000 (Annual percentage change - [APC] 3.0%, p = 0.006). Regarding multiple lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 0.30 to 0.98/100,000 inhabitants; for women, it rose from 0.43 to 1.16/100,000 (APC 8.6%, p = 0.003). Genetic skin diseases or transplants were found to have been correlated with 10.0% of cases with multiple lesions - an average of 5.1 lesions per patient. The average was 2.5 in cases without that correlation.CONCLUSIONS Skin cancer on women under 40 years of age has been observed to be increasing for both cases with single and multiple lesions. It is not unusual to find multiple tumors in young people - in most cases, they are not associated with genetic skin diseases or transplants. It is necessary to avoid excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation from childhood.

  8. EVALUATION OF DIET ACCEPTANCE BY PATIENTS WITH HAEMATOLOGICAL CANCER DURING CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC TREATMENT.

    PubMed

    Prockmann, Stéphanie; Ruschel Freitas, Ana Helena; Gonçalves Ferreira, Marilyn; Kunradi Vieira, Francilene Gracieli; Kuerten de Salles, Raquel

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: el estado nutricional amenazado es uno de los factores que puede elevar la morbimortalidad de los pacientes sometidos a quimioterapia. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la aceptación de la dieta por parte de pacientes con cáncer hematológico durante la internación para quimioterapia. Métodos: investigación transversal, descriptiva y cuantitativa llevada a cabo entre febrero y octubre de 2014 con pacientes adultos de ambos sexos diagnosticados de linfoma y leucemia. Se realizó la evaluación diaria del consumo alimentario mediante la utilización de herramientas para colección de datos preparado por el autor. Se utilizó ANOVA para medidas repetidas. Resultados: fueron evaluados 32 pacientes con edad promedio de 42 ± 11 años, siendo la mayoría mujeres (66%). Observamos trastornos gastrointestinales en el 72% de los pacientes, la mayoría de las molestias fueron náuseas (59%) además de xerostomía (34%), vómitos (28%), inapetencia (28%) y disgeusia (25%). El porcentaje de resto de ingesta alimentaria fue significativo, oscilando entre el 23% y el 35%. El mayor rechazo ocurrió en el almuerzo y la cena. Las meriendas fueron mejor aceptadas, con un porcentaje del 75% al 100%. Conclusión de la investigación: los registros de alimentos mostraron que durante los ciclos de quimioterapia se produjo un rechazo significativo de alimentos sobre todo en las comidas de mayor volumen, como el almuerzo y la cena, mientras que las comidas pequeñas, tales como aperitivos, son mejor toleradas. El uso de opciones de alimentos enumerados por los pacientes puede ser una estrategia para mejorar el cumplimiento de la dieta. Se necesitan más estudios sobre este tema para mejorar la atención a esta población, con el objetivo de prevenir y/o recuperar el estado nutricional de estos pacientes.

  9. Study on adherence to treatment with imatinib in chronic myeloid leukaemia and its association with therapeutic response.

    PubMed

    García-Queiruga, Marta; Martínez-López, Laura María; Martín-Herranz, María Isabel; Seoane-Pillado, Teresa; Fernández-Gabriel, Elena; Calleja-Chuclá, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Objetivo: El objetivo es evaluar el grado de adhesión terapéutica a imatinib en pacientes con leucemia mieloide crónica y su relación con la respuesta terapéutica. Material y métodos: Estudio realizado en octubre 2013-marzo 2014 que incluye a pacientes diagnosticados de leucemia mieloide crónica en tratamiento con imatinib en el hospital. Se evaluó la adhesión terapéutica mediante el cuestionario estandarizado Morisky-Green y el registro de dispensaciones de medicación. Se excluyeron aquellos que no completaron 6 meses de tratamiento y/o no realizaron el cuestionario. La respuesta terapéutica se evaluó siguiendo guías clínicas. Se realizó el análisis descriptivo de variables y correlación mediante test Chi-cuadrado de Pearson. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 pacientes. Al evaluar el grado de asociación entre variables de respuesta y adhesión terapéutica: 1. La respuesta molecular mayor fue alcanzada por el 68,4% de los pacientes con alta adhesión y por el 75% de los pacientes con adhesión media. 2. La respuesta molecular completa fue alcanzada por el 57,9% de los pacientes con alta adhesión y por el 58,3% de los pacientes con adhesión media. No se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las variables de respuesta entre pacientes con adhesión terapéutica alta y media. No se observó asociación entre el grado de adhesión y la respuesta terapéutica. Conclusiones: No podemos afirmar que el distinto grado de adhesión terapéutica influya en la respuesta al imatinib, aunque debería considerarse en casos de fallo terapéutico o respuesta subóptima.

  10. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ZINCEMIA, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE ACTIVITY AND MARKER OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN WOMEN WITH BREAST CANCER.

    PubMed

    Borges de Araújo, Camila Guedes; Oliveira do Nascimento Holanda, Aldenora; de Souza Rocha, Cinthya Vivianne; Soares do Nascimento, Ayla Patricia; Simplício Revoredo, Camila Maria; Borges da Silva, Benedito; do Nascimento Nogueira, Nadir; do Nascimento Marreiro, Dilina

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: diversos estudios muestran alteraciones en el metabolismo del zinc en mujeres con cáncer de mama. Este mineral posee acción antioxidante, y los disturbios en sus parámetros bioquímicos están relacionados con peor pronóstico de la enfermedad y agravamiento del proceso carcinogénico. Objetivos: este estudio evaluó la actividad de la enzima superóxido dismutasa y los parámetros bioquímicos relativos al zinc e investigó la existencia de correlación entre esas variables y el marcador del estrés oxidativo en estas pacientes. Métodos: este fue un estudio caso-control con 66 mujeres, con edad ente 20 y 50 años, distribuidas en: grupo caso (mujeres con cáncer de mama, n = 34) y grupo control (mujeres saludables, n = 32). La ingestión del zinc fue realizada por medio del registro alimentario de tres días, utilizando el programa Nutwin versión 1.5. Las concentraciones de zinc plasmático y eritrocitario fueron determinadas según el método de espectrofotometría de absorción atómica de llama (λ = 213,9). La actividad de la superóxido dismutasa fue evaluada por el método colorimétrico de Griess y fueron analizadas sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS). Resultados y discusión: los valores medios de la ingestión de zinc, superóxido dismutasa y TARBS eran superiores a los recomendados para las participantes del estudio, con una diferencia estadística para la enzima superóxido dismutasa (p > 0,05). La media de las concentraciones plasmática y eritrocitaria de zinc fueron reducidos en ambos grupos (p > 0.05). Conclusiones: por lo tanto, se puede suponer que la ingesta de zinc en mujeres con cáncer de mama no influye en las concentraciones plasmáticas y eritrocitarias de ese mineral. La elevada actividad de la superóxido dismutasa en las mujeres con cáncer de mama puede ser debida a un mecanismo de regulación compensatorio mediante el estrés oxidativo presente en esa enfermedad.

  11. Land-based versus aquatic resistance therapeutic exercises for older women with sarcopenic obesity: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    trial designed to evaluate resistance exercises in older patients with sarcopenic obesity. If our hypothesis proves correct, both intervention programmes will be effective, with the land-based exercises conferring better results in muscle performance. Trial registration Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos: RBR-9p5q67 PMID:24041219

  12. ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND INTAKE COMPARISONS IN CHILEAN CHILDREN 4-5 YEARS ATTENDING DAY-CARE CENTRES.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Gabriela; Vásquez, Fabián; Rodríguez, Maria P; Andrade, Ana M; Anziani, Maria A; Vio, Fernando; Coward, Williams

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: el método del agua doblemente marcada (ADM) tiene una precisión del 1% y en un mismo sujeto es de 5-8%, dependiendo de la edad y el entorno del sujeto. La evaluación de la ingesta energética es propensa a errores (> 15-20%), dependiendo del método utilizado. Objetivo: cuantificar los errores metodológicos del ADM en niños de 4-5 años que podrían afectar la comparación con la ingesta de energía. Métodos: el gasto de energía (GTE, por ADM), se evaluó durante 14 días en 18 preescolares, asistentes a guarderías infantiles. La ingesta energética se determinó mediante un método combinado: pesaje de alimentos durante los días de la semana y registro después de salir del centro (17 horas en adelante), además de un recordatorio de 24 horas, durante un día del fin de semana. Resultados: el promedio individual del gasto energético total fue 1373 ± 177 kcal y la ingesta de energía (1409 ± 161 kcal). La diferencia global entre la ingesta y el gasto fue 42,9 kcal/día. El error de medición del GET explicó una variación del 2,4%, entre ambas mediciones, y el espacio de dilución de isótopos fue 1030 ± 0.010, confirmando el valor utilizado en los estudios de adultos. Conclusiones: los datos de GET fueron similares a otros estudios realizados en niños en edad preescolar. La pequeña diferencia encontrada entre la ingesta y el gasto energético se puede atribuir a la metodología de la ingesta de energía aplicada, la dieta homogénea en los centros de atención, durante los días de la semana, y el bajo error metodológico del ADM.

  13. [Local recurrence based on size after conservative surgery in breast cancer stage T1-T2. A population-based study].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramos, David; Fortea-Sanchis, Carlos; Escrig-Sos, Javier; Prats-de Puig, Miguel; Queralt-Martín, Raquel; Salvador-Sanchis, José Luís

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la cirugía conservadora es un patrón de referencia del tratamiento de la mayor parte de los tumores mamarios en estadios iniciales. Sin embargo, una minoría de pacientes intervenidas con esta opción tendrá recurrencia local o locorregional. Por ello resulta de interés evaluar los posibles factores relacionados con esta recurrencia. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo, con base poblacional, efectuado con base en los datos del Registro de Tumores de Castellón (Comunidad Valenciana, España) de pacientes intervenidas de cáncer primario de mama no metastático de enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2008. Se utilizaron las curvas de Kaplan-Meier y la prueba de log-rank para estimar la recurrencia local a cinco años. Se definieron dos grupos de pacientes, uno con cirugía conservadora y otro con cirugía no conservadora de la mama. Se realizó un estudio multivariado de Cox. Resultados: se encontraron 410 pacientes con promedio de 6.8% de recurrencias locales. En el análisis univariado sólo el tamaño tumoral y la afectación ganglionar demostraron diferencias significativas. En el análisis multivariado los factores pronóstico independientes fueron: la cirugía conservadora (Hazard ratio [HR] 4.62; IC [intervalo de confianza] 95% 1.12-16.82), el número de ganglios linfáticos positivos (HR 1.07; IC 95% 1.01-1.17) y el tamaño del tumor en milímetros (HR 1.02; IC 95% 1.01-1.06). Conclusiones: la recurrencia local postcirugía conservadora de mama es mayor en tumores de más de 2 cm. Aunque el tamaño del tumor no debería ser una contraindicación para esta cirugía sí deben tomarse en cuenta como un factor de riesgo.

  14. Predicting survival of endoscopic gastrostomy candidates using the underlying disease, serum cholesterol, albumin and transferrin levels.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Jorge; Adriana Santos, Carla; Brito, José

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La Gastrostomia Endoscópica Percutánea (PEG) es una técnica de elección para la nutrición enteral de largo plazo, pero en pacientes con una perspectiva de vida menor que tres semanas debe evitarse la gastrostomia e utilizarse la sonda nasogástrica. Existen pocos estudios que tengan en cuenta factores de pronóstico y pocos intentos de crear un modelo predictivo de supervivencia de estos pacientes. Objetivo: Crear un modelo predictivo de la sobrevida de los candidatos a PEG, utilizando la enfermedad de base, los niveles de colesterol, albúmina y transferrina. Métodos: Los datos han sido recogidos de los registros clínicos de adultos sometidos a PEG entre 1999 y 2011. Los que han sobrevivido menos de 3 semanas se han considerado como sin supervivencia adecuada (short survivors); los que han sobrevivido más de 3 semanas se consideraran como teniendo sobrevivencia adecuada (adequate survivors). Se utilizó un modelo estadístico de regresión para clasificar pacientes futuros en cada uno de los grupos definidos anteriormente. Resultados: De este análisis estadístico resultó una ecuación que permite obtener un valor de P, para determinar la probabilidad de futuros casos. En el futuro se puede predecir que pacientes con un valor de P ≥0,88 tendrán 64,7% de probabilidades de supervivencia adecuada; los pacientes con un valor de P < 0,88 tendrán 70,3% de probabilidades de supervivencia no adecuada. Conclusiones: Cuando la evaluación clínica por si sola no es suficiente para predecir un pronóstico fiable, esta ecuación debe ser incluida en la evaluación de los pacientes candidatos a gastrostomia, para evitar gastrostomías inútiles.

  15. [Effect of high altitude on birth weight and adverse perinatal outcomes in two Argentine populations].

    PubMed

    Grandi, Carlos; Dipierri, José; Luchtenberg, Guillermo; Moresco, Angélica; Alfaro, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: existe poca información sobre la relación entre tamaño al nacer y altura geográfica ajustada para factores maternos y obstétricos potencialmente confusores. Objetivo: analizar la variación, en función de la altitud geográfica, del Peso al Nacimiento (PN) y resultados perinatales adversos, en dos poblaciones argentinas. Material y Métodos: 4000 registros de recién nacidos (RN) de Jujuy y 4000 de Buenos Aires (Maternidad Sardá) (1996-2000), seleccionados y aleatorizados del Sistema Informático Perinatal. Los datos provenían de la Maternidad Sarda (20 msnm) y las regiones jujeñas: Ramal (500 msnm), Valle (1200 msnm), Quebrada (2500 msnm) y Puna (3500 msnm). Variables resultado: PN >3000 g, PN <2500 g, Índice Ponderal (IP), prematurez, pequeño para edad gestacional (PEG) y restricción del crecimiento intrauterino (FGR). Variables confusoras: edad, tipo de pareja, educación, sobrepeso-obesidad, tabaquismo, hipertensión arterial, preeclampsia, infección urinaria, restricción del crecimiento y terminación cesárea. Resultados: Se observó un gradiente altitudinal creciente para madres adolescentes y decreciente para las variables obstétrico-maternas. El PN, PN >3000 g, PN <2500 g e Índice Ponderal se asociaron negativamente con altitud (p<0.001). La prevalencia de prematurez, PEG y FGR mostraron un comportamiento opuesto (p<0.001). Ajustados para variables confusoras el PN<3000 g, PEG, FGR < 0.90 e IP<2.53 mostraron mayor riesgo con la altitud geográfica (p<0.05). Conclusiones: La altitud se asoció independientemente con restricción del PN y resultados perinatales adversos. Dado el impacto de la reducción del PN en el riesgo de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, se debería evaluar esta relación en otras poblaciones, independientemente de su localización altitudinal.

  16. Declaración SPIRIT 2013: definición de los elementos estándares del protocolo de un ensayo clínico*

    PubMed Central

    Chan, An-Wen; Tetzlaff, Jennifer M.; Altman, Douglas G.; Laupacis, Andreas; Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Krleža-Jerić, Karmela; Hrobjartsson, Asbjørn; Mann, Howard; Dickersin, Kay; Berlin, Jesse A.; Dore, Caroline J.; Parulekar, Wendy R.; Summerskill, William S.M.; Groves, Trish; Schulz, Kenneth F.; Sox, Harold C.; Rockhold, Frank W.; Rennie, Drummond; Moher, David

    2016-01-01

    Resumen El protocolo de un ensayo clínico es la base para planificar, ejecutar, publicar y evaluar el ensayo. Sin embargo, los protocolos y las guías que existen para su elaboración varían enormemente en cuanto a su calidad y contenido. En este artículo se describe la elaboración sistemática y el alcance de la Declaración SPIRIT 2013 (denominada así por la sigla en inglés de Standard Protocol items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials o Elementos estándares de un protocolo: recomendaciones para los ensayos de intervención), una guía en la que se establecen los contenidos mínimos que debe tener el protocolo de un ensayo clínico. La lista de comprobación de la declaración SPIRIT, que consta de 33 elementos, se aplica a los protocolos de todos los ensayos clínicos y se centra más en el contenido que en el formato. En esta lista se recomienda hacer una descripción completa de lo que se ha planificado, aunque no se establece cómo diseñar o ejecutar un ensayo. Al brindar orientación sobre los contenidos fundamentales, las recomendaciones SPIRIT procuran facilitar la redacción de protocolos de alta calidad. El cumplimiento de las recomendaciones SPIRIT debería mejorar la transparencia y la exhaustividad de los protocolos de los ensayos en beneficio de los investigadores, los participantes, los pacientes, los patrocinadores, los financiadores, los comités de ética de la investigación o las juntas de revisión institucionales, los revisores, las revistas biomédicas, los registros de ensayos, los formuladores de políticas, los organismos reguladores y otras partes interesadas clave. PMID:27440100

  17. [Medicines reconciliation at hospital admission into an electronic prescribing program].

    PubMed

    Villamayor-Blanco, Lucía; Herrero-Poch, Leticia; De-Miguel-Bouzas, Jose Carlos; Freire Vazquez, M Carmen

    2016-09-01

    Objetivo: Describir y analizar los resultados obtenidos durante un año con un nuevo procedimiento de conciliación de la medicación al ingreso hospitalario basado en un programa de prescripción electrónica asistida. Método: Estudio observacional, prospectivo, no aleatorizado y no controlado de 12 meses de duración, en el que se incluyeron todos los pacientes que ingresaron, durante ese año, en un hospital general concertado de 450 camas. Para la conciliación de la medicación se utilizó el programa de prescripción electrónica como medio para el abordaje multidisciplinar (enfermería, médicos y farmacéuticos). La conciliación se realizó al ingreso hospitalario y se midieron los errores de conciliación. Resultados: Se incluyeron 23.701 pacientes, conciliándose 53.920 medicamentos, de los cuales no tenían discrepancias 48.744 (90,4%) y 5.176 (9,6%) presentaban discrepancias: 4.731 (8,8 % de los fármacos) justificadas y 445 (0,8% de los fármacos) no justificadas. La mayor parte de las discrepancias no justificadas, (n = 310; 69,7%) se debieron a errores en el registro de la medicación domiciliaria al ingreso: medicación no registrada o errores de medicamentos, dosis, frecuencia o vía de administración, omisiones de prescripción, 23,6% (n = 105) y duplicidades, 6,7% (n = 30). En ningún caso el error de conciliación llegó al paciente. Conclusiones: Mediante las ayudas informáticas incluidas en el programa de prescripción electrónica asistida y el abordaje multidisciplinar del proceso de conciliación se consigue realizar la conciliación de la medicación al ingreso en el 98% de los pacientes en el momento del ingreso, evidenciando errores de conciliación solo en el 1,3% de los pacientes.

  18. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Angulo, Daniela; Bustos, Edson; Sánchez, Andrés; Barja, Salesa

    2016-07-19

    Introducción: la rehabilitación de la alimentación por vía oral (RVO) es compleja en pacientes que han recibido nutrición enteral (NE) prolongada. Objetivo: describir este proceso en niños con enfermedades respiratorias crónicas y sonda nasoenteral (SNE) o gastrostomía (GT).Pacientes y métodos: estudio retrospectivo con revisión de registros clínicos de niños con NE mayor a dos meses, ingresados entre 2005 y 2014 al Hospital Josefina Martínez.Resultados: Se incluyeron 116 pacientes, con mediana de edad 10 meses (Rango: 3 a 101), 56% hombres. Diagnóstico: 34,5% Daño pulmonar crónico postinfeccioso (DPC), 29,3% Insuficiencia respiratoria por enfermedad neuromuscular, 19% Displasia broncopulmonar y 17,2% enfermedad de la vía aérea. Con traqueostomía: 82,8%. Eran usuarios de GT 89,7% y de SNG 10,3%, instaladas con mediana de edad 6 meses (0 a 74), por ingesta insuficiente (6,6%) o trastorno de deglución (92,4%). Del grupo total, 36,2% (42/116) tenía indicación de RVO, los cuales habían recibido NE durante 12,2 meses (2 a 41); de estos 50% (21/42) logró alimentarse exclusivamente por vía oral (91% SNG y 35,4% GT, Chi2 p = 0,023), 14% parcialmente y 36% no lo logró. El tiempo para lograr la vía oral exclusiva fue de 9,75 meses (0,5 a 47), sin diferencia por edad, sexo, vía de acceso, duración NE ni presencia de enfermedad neurológica.Conclusión: en pacientes con enfermedades respiratorias crónicas graves y NE prolongada, la RVO es un proceso lento pero posible: 64% lo logra de modo completo o parcial.

  19. [Food intake, nutritional status and physical activity between elderly with and without chronic constipation. A comparative study].

    PubMed

    Vargas-García, Elisa Joan; Vargas-Salado, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    antecedentes: el estreñimiento es uno de los trastornos gastrointestinales más comunes en la población de edad avanzada porque con el paso de los años los factores implicados en su causa se modifican y repercuten en la ingestión de alimentos, el estado de nutrición y la actividad física. Objetivo: evaluar en el adulto mayor el efecto en el estreñimiento crónico del consumo de alimentos con alto contenido de fibra, el estado nutricio, y la actividad física. Material y métodos: estudio comparativo, prospectivo y transversal efectuado en 140 adultos mayores de la consulta externa de la Unidad de Medicina Familiar51 del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social en la ciudad de León, Guanajuato, durante el periodo del 4 mayo al 30 de octubre de 2009. Se valoró si padecían o no estreñimiento de acuerdo con los criterios de Roma III. Se valoró: peso,talla, circunferencia del brazo, pliegue cutáneo tricipital; se aplicó un cuestionario de actividad física validado, y se obtuvo el registro dietético de tres días (dos de entre semana y uno de sábado o domingo). Resultados: la ingestión promedio de fibra y agua no esultó estadísticamente diferente entre los grupos estudiados. Los pacientes con estreñimiento tuvieron dietas menos completas y variadas (p < 0.02; p < 0.03). El estado nutricio predominante en los adultos mayores de ambos grupos fue de sobrepeso (p= 0.49) pero el grupo sin estreñimiento tuvo niveles más altos de actividad física en comparación con los estreñidos (1664 vs 1049 METs, p= 0.004).Conclusiones: el menor nivel de actividad física, la monotonía en la dieta, y no incluir todos los grupos de alimentos son factores que se asocian con el estreñimiento en el adulto mayor. De acuerdo con los resultados de este estudio la menor ingestión de fibra no se relacionó con el estreñimiento.

  20. Multiple skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in Goiania, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Samir; Curado, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Ana Maria Quinteiro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the trend for malignant skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in a region with high ultraviolet radiation indices. METHODS A descriptive epidemiological study on melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers that was conducted in Goiania, Midwest Brazil, with 1,688 people under 40 years of age, between 1988 and 2009. Cases were obtained from Registro de Câncer de Base Populacional de Goiânia (Goiania’s Population-Based Cancer File). Frequency, trends, and incidence of cases with single and multiple lesions were analyzed; transplants and genetic skin diseases were found in cases with multiple lesions. RESULTS Over the period, 1,995 skin cancer cases were observed to found, of which 1,524 (90.3%) cases had single lesions and 164 (9.7%) had multiple lesions. Regarding single lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 2.4 to 3.1/100,000 inhabitants; it differed significantly for women, shifting from 2.3 to 5.3/100,000 (Annual percentage change – [APC] 3.0%, p = 0.006). Regarding multiple lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 0.30 to 0.98/100,000 inhabitants; for women, it rose from 0.43 to 1.16/100,000 (APC 8.6%, p = 0.003). Genetic skin diseases or transplants were found to have been correlated with 10.0% of cases with multiple lesions – an average of 5.1 lesions per patient. The average was 2.5 in cases without that correlation. CONCLUSIONS Skin cancer on women under 40 years of age has been observed to be increasing for both cases with single and multiple lesions. It is not unusual to find multiple tumors in young people – in most cases, they are not associated with genetic skin diseases or transplants. It is necessary to avoid excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation from childhood. PMID:26465667

  1. [Status of the structure, process and outcoms of pharmaceutical care to HIV patient in Spain. Origen study].

    PubMed

    Morillo-Verdugo, R; Jiménez-Galán, R; Ibarra Barrueta, O; Martín Conde, M; Margusino Framinan, L; Illaro Uranga, A

    2014-04-01

    Objetivos: Describir la estructura, proceso y resultados con la que se lleva a cabo la actividad asistencial, docente e investigadora en torno a la Atención Farmacéutica (AF) al paciente VIH en los hospitales españoles. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional, transversal, pragmático y multicéntrico realizado entre Noviembre 2011-Febrero 2012. Participaron servicios de farmacia de hospitales españoles que dispensaran medicación antirretroviral para pacientes VIH. El cuestionario presentaba 41 preguntas estructuradas en 9 bloques: tipo de hospital y persona que realiza la encuesta, estructura y recursos disponibles, actividad asistencial, intervenciones, comunicación con el resto del equipo multidisciplinar, adherencia, registros y calidad, gestión y farmacoeconomía y docencia e investigación. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo y se aplicó la prueba de fisher, Chi cuadrado o regresión logística para analizar la existencia de relaciones estadísticamente significativas. Resultados: 86 hospitales cumplimentaron la encuesta. En el 93%, la consulta de AF era compartida con el resto de patologías. El 27,9% proporcionaba AF continuada a todos los pacientes. El 57,5% determinaban la adherencia periódicamente o en casos de sospecha de mala adhesión. El 20% de los hospitales docentes tenían un programa que permitía un alto nivel de formación en AF al paciente VIH. El 52,3% de los hospitales no habían publicado artículos científicos relacionados con el VIH. Conclusiones: La AF al paciente VIH+ en España debe adaptarse a un nuevo escenario donde se han de considerar aspectos como la cronicidad, la pluripatología, la incorporación de nuevas tecnologías y la necesidad de estratificación de los pacientes para hacerla más eficiente.

  2. Multifrequency tympanometry in infants.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Tamyne Ferreira Duarte; Macedo, Camila de Cássia; Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro

    2012-04-01

    Introdução: O uso de uma única frequência na timpanometria não é sensível na detecção de todos os casos de alteração na orelha média, dificultando o diagnóstico preciso.Objetivo: Caracterização das medidas de imitância acústica de lactentes utilizando três tipos de sonda. Estudo prospectivo.Método: Foram avaliados 54 lactentes, com idade entre zero e três meses. Os critérios de inclusão foram ausência de infecções de vias aéreas, presença de emissões otoacústicas evocadas transientes, ausência de indicadores de risco para perda auditiva. Foi realizada entrevista audiológica, inspeção visual do meato acústico externo e medidas de imitância acústica nas frequências de 226Hz, 678Hz e 1000Hz. Foram coletados os registros timpanométricos de efeito de oclusão, curva e pressão de pico timpanométrico, volume equivalente do meato acústico externo e pico compensado da admitância acústica estática.Resultados: Os resultados indicaram presença de efeito de oclusão (2,88% em 226Hz, 4,81% em 678Hz e 3,85% em 1000Hz); predomínio de curva em pico único (65,35% em 226Hz, 81,82% em 678Hz e 77,00% em 1000Hz); pressão de pico variando de -150 a 180daPa; aumento do volume equivalente do meato acústico externo com aumento da frequência da sonda (0,64ml em 226Hz, 1,63mmho em 678Hz e 2,59mmho em 1000Hz); aumento do pico compensado da admitância acústica estática (0,51ml em 226Hz, 0,55mmho em 678Hz e 1,20mmho em 1000Hz). Foram classificados como normais 93,06% dos timpanogramas com 226Hz, 80,81% em 678Hz e 82,00% em 1000Hz.Conclusão: Por meio destas avaliações e resultados foi possível caracterizar as medidas de imitância acústica dos lactentes.

  3. Platelet Count and Major Bleeding in Patients Receiving Vitamin K Antagonists for Acute Venous Thromboembolism, Findings From Real World Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi-Pierfranceschi, Matteo; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Cattabiani, Chiara; Guida, Anna; Pagán, Barbara; Morales, Maria del Valle; Salgado, Estuardo; Suriñach, José Maria; Tolosa, Carles; Monreal, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The outcome of patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) and abnormal platelet count (PlC) at baseline has not been consistently studied. In real-world clinical practice, a number of patients with abnormal PlC receive vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to treat acute VTE despite their higher risk of bleeding. We used the Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad TromboEmbólica registry database to compare the rate of major bleeding in patients receiving VKA for long-term therapy of acute VTE according to PlC levels at baseline. Patients were categorized as having very low (<100,000/μL), low (100,000–150,000/μL), normal (150,000–300,000/μL), high (300,000–450,000/μL), or very high (>450,000/μL) PlC at baseline. Of 55,369 patients recruited as of January 2015, 37,000 (67%) received long-term therapy with VKA. Of these, 611 patients (1.6%) had very low PlC, 4006 (10.8%) had low PlC, 25,598 (69%) had normal PlC, 5801 (15.6%) had high PlC, and 984 (2.6%) had very high PlC at baseline. During the course of VKA therapy (mean, 192 days), there were no differences in the duration or intensity (as measured by international normalized ratio levels) of treatment between subgroups. The rate of major bleeding was 3.6%, 2.1%, 1.9%, 2.1%, and 3.7%, respectively, and the rate of fatal bleeding was 0.98%, 0.17%, 0.29%, 0.34%, and 0.50%, respectively. Patients with very low or very high PlC levels were more likely to have severe comorbidities. We found a nonlinear “U-shaped” relationship between PlC at baseline and major bleeding during therapy with VKA for VTE. Consistent alteration of PlC values at baseline suggested a greater frailty. PMID:26632687

  4. [Prevalence of allergic sensitization to bee, mosquito and red ant in children with allergic disease].

    PubMed

    Flores-Ruiz, Leobardo Francisco; Valdez-López, Francisco; Bedolla-Barajas, Martín

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: en población pediátrica, pocas veces se busca la sensibilización alérgica a insectos de los órdenes Hymenoptera y Culicidae. Objetivo: establecer la prevalencia de sensibilización a abeja, mosco y hormiga roja en niños con enfermedades alérgicas. Material y método: estudio retrolectivo y descriptivo, en el que se revisaron los registros de la reactividad cutánea a alergenos de abeja, mosco y hormiga en un servicio de Alergia Pediátrica de enero de 2009 a diciembre de 2011. Se estimó la frecuencia de sensibilización y sus respectivos intervalos de confianza de 95% (IC95%). Resultados: se incluyeron 613 pacientes, 41% era del sexo femenino; la edad media del grupo fue de 6.2±3.7 años. La sensibilización alérgica al mosco fue de 15% (IC95%: 12.4 a 18.1), a abeja de 14% (IC95%: 11.4 a 16.9) y a hormiga roja de 6% (IC95%: 6.0 a 6.8); por sexo, la frecuencia no difirió significativamente. Los niños sensibles a las abejas o a las hormigas rojas tuvieron mayor edad que los no sensibilizados: 7.1 vs 6.0 años (p=0.011) y 7.4 vs 6.1 años (p=0.042), respectivamente. Durante las estaciones de otoño e invierno predominó la sensibilización a la hormiga roja. Conclusiones: hasta nuestro conocimiento, éste es el primer informe en México relacionado con la frecuencia de sensibilización a abejas, moscos y hormigas rojas realizado en niños. Además, nuestros resultados sugieren que se debe identificar de manera habitual la sensibilidad a estos insectos.

  5. Fluid intake in Spanish children and adolescents; a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Fenández-Alvira, Juan Miguel; Iglesia, Iris; Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Babio, Nancy; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Moreno, Luis A

    2014-05-01

    Introducción: Diversos estudios han mostrado que el proceso de deshidratación tiene lugar en población infantil y adolescente, y por ello, son causa de preocupación. Sin embargo, los patrones de consumo de líquidos en poblaciones infantil y adolescente no han sido estudiados en profundidad. Objetivos: Evaluar la ingesta de líquidos total a partir de distintos tipos de bebidas en niños y adolescentes españoles. Métodos: Un total de 238 niños y adolescentes de entre 3 y 17 años de edad fueron reclutados aleatoriamente en las distintas regiones españolas. La información sobre la cantidad y calidad de la ingesta diaria de líquidos se recogió mediante un registro de 24 horas específico para la evaluación de fluidos durante 7 días consecutivos. Results: La ingesta de líquidos estuvo por debajo del 80% de las recomendaciones de la EFSA en el 87% de la población de estudio. En el presente estudio el agua fue la principal fuente de líquidos, seguida de la leche y derivados y de las bebidas azucaradas. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en los patrones de consumo entre géneros. El consumo de bebidas calientes, bebidas azucaradas y edulcoradas incrementó con la edad, mientras que el consumo de leche y derivados disminuyó. Conclusion: La gran mayoría de nuestra población no cumplió con las recomendaciones de la EFSA sobre la ingesta total de agua. Por ello, se debería promover un aumento en el consumo de agua en niños y adolescentes, para poder satisfacer las necesidades de líquidos sin aumentar la ingesta calórica.

  6. Maternal age as risk factor of prematurity in Spain; Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Cortes Castell, E; Rizo-Baeza, M M; Aguilar Cordero, M J; Rizo-Baeza, J; Gil Guillén, V

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: La edad materna es una variable preponderante en el análisis epidemiológico del nacimiento prematuro. Los estudios muestran que en las edades extremas de la vida materna hay un riesgo de nacimiento prematuro que genera una tasa elevada de morbilidad neonatal. Objetivos: Determinar el efecto de las edades extremas de mujeres residentes en la provincia de Albacete sobre de nacimientos prematuros. Método: Se realizó un estudio explicativo, retrospectivo de casos-control durante el periodo de 1 de enero de 2008 a 31 de diciembre de 2011. El estudio se basó en la revisión de los registros de recién nacidos del Centro de Cribado Neonatal de la provincia de Alicante. Se incluyeron todos los recién nacidos pretérmino, es decir, entre las semanas 22 y 36 de gestación (5.295 de 78.391 recién nacidos, lo que representa un 6,75% de prematuridad), y una muestra aleatoria de los nacimientos con más de 37 semanas de gestación (grupo control). Se estudió la edad materna como variable independiente y la prematuridad como variable dependiente. Resultados: El estudio muestra claramente un mayor riesgo de prematuridad entre las madres adolescentes en comparación con el siguiente grupo más cercano en edad, lo que se confirmó por una distribución significativamente distinta con el test Chi cuadrado (p < 0,0001) con una OD para los grandes prematuros de 2,41 (1,51-3,24) y de 1,71 (1,32-2,19) para los prematuros. Esta probabilidad también fue mayor en madres con edades de más de 40 años con una OD de 1,86 (1,39-2,48) y de 1,66 (1,44- 1,91) para recién nacidos grandes prematuros y prematuros, respectivamente. Discusión: Los resultados muestran claramente que las madres adolescentes y las más mayores tienen mayor riesgo de hijos prematuros o con bajo peso al nacimiento, lo que motiva la necesidad de establecer intervenciones educacionales para disminuir el problema, a partir de los resultados de esta investigación.

  7. A Introdução de Astronomia Básica para Estudantes de 5 e 6 Séries do Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzaga, E. P.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Com intuito de despertar o interesse pelo estudo da astronomia, desenvolveu-se entre 2003 e 2006 no Centro Educacional do Serviço Social da Indústria situado no município de Mauá, São Paulo, um trabalho com duração de 12 meses para turmas de 11 e 12 anos, sendo três turmas por período (2003 / 2004, 2004 / 2005 e 2005 / 2006). O trabalho realizado, objetivando a introdução da astronomia básica com observações de constelações e das fases da Lua, permitindo estender-se a outros corpos celestes, iniciou-se com visita ao planetário Mundo Estelar, localizado no Ipiranga, São Paulo levantou-se a questão da importância do estudo da astronomia e foi lançado aos estudantes um trabalho de observação, com a proposta de localizar as constelações e compreender as fases da Lua, para o registro de tais observações, foram distribuídos mapas celestes, pastas, planilhas de anotações com lacunas para, constelações, fases da Lua e relatos, onde os estudantes acrescentaram pesquisas e relatórios. Os resultados dos 346 estudantes foram que 86,7% (300) concluíram a etapa de observação, destes 300 estudantes 43,3% (130) pesquisaram sobre as constelações e 19,0% (57) localizaram até quatro constelações. Dos 346 estudantes, 44,2% (153) registraram as fases da Lua equivocadamente e 10,4% (36) anexaram reportagens sobre astronomia. Conclui-se que os estudantes se dividiram em pesquisadores, sendo os estudantes que registraram e anexaram informações e, os observadores que preencheram as planilhas de observações, além de desenvolverem habilidades e competências relacionadas ao estudo da astronomia.

  8. [Vitamin D intake in a representative sample of Spanish population aged 7-16 years. Differences in the contribution and in the food sources of the vitamin according to age].

    PubMed

    Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; López-Sobaler, Ana María; López Plaza, Bricia; Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Ortega Anta, Rosa M

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La vitamina D juega un importante papel en el mantenimiento de la salud ósea y prevención de la aparición de diversas enfermedades. Muy pocos alimentos son fuente natural de esta vitamina y, además, éstos no se consumen de manera habitual, siendo las fuentes dietéticas más importantes el pescado azul y la yema del huevo. Objetivos: Analizar la ingesta y las fuentes de vitamina D en escolares de 7-16 años. Métodos: Se estudió una muestra representativa de la población española de 7 a 16 años (n = 1.976), seleccionada en diez provincias españolas. El estudio dietético se realizó por registro del consumo de alimentos durante 3 días. Los parámetros antropométricos estudiados fueron el peso y la talla. Resultados y discusión: La ingesta media de vitamina D (1,63 (0,96-3,35) μg/día) fue inferior a la recomendada (IR) en un 85,4% de los estudiados, estando influenciada por la edad (OR = 0,935; IC: 0,889-0,983; p < 0,01). La principal fuente de vitamina D fueron los huevos (27,7%) seguidos de cereales (25,8%), pescados (20,9%) y lácteos (12,7%). Además, se ha observado que es más fácil cubrir las ingestas recomendadas de vitamina D cuanto mayor es el consumo de pescado (r = 0,734; p < 0,001), y que por cada ración que aumenta el consumo de este grupo de alimentos el riesgo de no cubrir las IR de vitamina D disminuye un 72,5%. Conclusiones: La ingesta de vitamina D es inferior a la recomendada en un elevado porcentaje de los estudiados. Teniendo en cuenta que los pescados juegan un importante papel en el aporte de vitamina D de los niños y adolescentes españoles, aumentar el consumo de este grupo de alimentos resulta deseable. Los niños de menor edad merecen atención especial.

  9. PubMed

    Rodríguez-Villalba, Luisa Fernanda; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique

    2016-09-20

    Objetivo: el propósito del estudio fue relacionar la etapa en el cambio en el comportamiento frente a la actividad física y el estado nutricional en escolares de Bogotá, Colombia, pertenecientes al estudio FUPRECOL.Método: se trata de un estudio transversal, realizado en 8.000 niños y adolescentes de entre 9 y 17 años, pertenecientes a 24 instituciones educativas. Se aplicó de manera autodiligenciada el cuestionario de cambio de comportamiento en función de la intención de realizar actividad física (CCC-FUPRECOL) y se midió el peso y la estatura para determinar el estado nutricional con el índice de masa corporal (IMC).Resultados: el porcentaje de respuesta fue del 82,5% y se consideraron válidos 6.606 registros, siendo el 58,3% (n = 3.850) niñas, con un promedio de edad de 12,7 ± 2,3 años. En la población general, el 5,3% de los escolares se encontraba en etapa de precontemplación, el 31,8% en contemplación, el 26,7% en acción y el 36,2% en etapa de mantenimiento. Al comparar la etapa de cambio con el estado nutricional por IMC, los escolares clasificados como obesos mostraron mayor frecuencia de respuesta en la etapa de precontemplación, mientras que los escolares con peso saludable acusaron mayores porcentajes en la etapa de mantenimiento.Conclusión: en escolares de Bogotá, Colombia, se encontró una relación estadísticamente significativa entre la intención de realizar actividad con el estado nutricional medido con el IMC. Fomentar la promoción de la actividad física y monitorizar el estado nutricional deberá ser una prioridad en las agendas y políticas públicas dentro del ámbito escolar.

  10. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Perales-García, Aránzazu; Estévez-Martínez, Isabel; Urrialde, Rafael

    2016-07-12

    Introducción: la hidratación se define como el aporte de agua proveniente de alimentos y bebidas. Su estudio constituye desde hace unos años un área en sí misma dentro de la nutrición, que ha supuesto que en 2010 la European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) aprobara las recomendaciones de ingesta de agua; pero el estudio del estado de hidratación implica un elevado nivel metodológico que presenta ciertos desafíos. Objetivo: ofrecer una visión general de los principales problemas metodológicos en estudios sobre el estado de hidratación. Material y métodos: revisión de la bibliografía científica existente. Resultados: los principales problemas metodológicos presentes son: selección de la muestra (ámbito de investigación y diseño muestral), selección del método de evaluación del estado de hidratación (técnicas de dilución, impedancia bioeléctrica, indicadores plasmáticos y urinarios, cambios en la composición corporal, pérdidas de agua y síntomas clínicos), selección del método de valoración de la ingesta de agua (biomarcadores, cuestionarios, programas informáticos, uso de smartphones, registro 24 h, historia dietética y frecuencia de consumo de alimentos), así como sus principales fuentes dietéticas. Conclusiones: el estado de hidratación debe ser entendido como un modelo rutinario, de frecuencia diaria y variable en función de la edad, sexo, actividad física y condiciones ambientales; por todo ello es de especial importancia un correcto diseño metodológico capaz de recoger estos matices.

  11. [Bone mineral density and adequacy of dietary pattern of patients with chronic kidney disease in hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Fernando; Cano, Marcelo; Camousseigt, Jean; Rojas, Pamela; Inostroza, Jorge; Torres, Rubén

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La desnutrición es común en la enfermedad renal crónica (ERC), junto a una menor masa muscular y densidad mineral ósea (DMO), aumentando el riesgo de morbilidad. Objetivo: Comparar la composición corporal (CC), DMO y el contenido mineral óseo (CMO) entre pacientes con ERC y sujetos sanos, relacionándolos con ingesta energética, de macro y micronutrientes. Métodos: Se evaluó CC en 30 pacientes en hemodiálisis y 28 voluntarios sanos con DEXA. Los pacientes llenaron tres registros de 24 horas de ingesta alimentaria. Resultados: Los pacientes con ERC presentaron una menor DMO (p < 0,01) y CMO (p < 0,01) y una tendencia a tener menos masa libre de grasa (MLG) que los controles (p = 0,06). En los hombres, las diferencias en la DMO y CMO pierden significación al ajustar por masa grasa (%) y MLG (kg). En los pacientes con ERC, un 34,5% y 27,6% tuvo una ingesta adecuada de energía y proteínas, respectivamente. Sin embargo, se observó un déficit de la ingesta de energía y proteínas en 31,0% y 44,8% de los pacientes, respectivamente. No se encontró correlación en los pacientes con ERC entre la ingesta de macronutrientes y de calcio y DMO o CMO. Conclusiones: Los pacientes con ERC tienen menor DMO y CMO que los voluntarios sanos. Estas diferencias pierden su importancia en los hombres, después de ajustar por parámetros de composición corporal. Se observó una pobre adecuación de la dieta en la mayoría de los pacientes con ERC, no observándose asociación entre estas variables y la composición corporal o densidad mineral ósea.

  12. PubMed

    Redondo Del Río, María Paz; De Mateo Silleras, Beatriz; Carreño Enciso, Laura; Marugán de Miguelsanz, José Manuel; Fernández McPhee, Marina; Camina Martín, María Alicia

    2016-09-20

    Introducción: la alimentación de los jóvenes universitarios se aleja cada vez más de la dieta mediterránea (DM). El binomio alimentación-actividad física es fundamental para mantener un adecuado estado de salud.Objetivo: comparar la ingesta en un grupo de estudiantes universitarios deportistas frente a otro que no realiza deporte habitualmente.Sujetos y métodos:estudio observacional transversal realizado en 49 voluntarios de la Universidad de Valladolid. Se determinaron peso, talla y actividad física (cuestionario GPAQ). La ingesta se evaluó a partir de un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo y un registro de alimentos de 3 días. La adherencia a la DM se estimó con el Mediterranean Diet Score. Las diferencias entre las variables en función del sexo y la práctica deportiva se analizaron con la t de Student o la U-Mann-Whitney. Significación estadística: p < 0,05.Resultados: todos los sujetos presentaron normopeso, sin diferencias en función de la práctica deportiva. El nivel de actividad física fue inferior en las mujeres. En todos los estudiantes la dieta fue ligeramente hiperproteica, rica en grasas y colesterol, con un inadecuado perfil lipídico y deficiente en hidratos de carbono y fibra. Se cubren los requerimientos de micronutrientes. Destaca un escaso consumo de frutas-verdurashortalizas, cereales, aceite de oliva, pescado y frutos secos; y un exceso de carne, mantequilla, bollería-industrial, dulces, snacksy refrescos. El 50% de la muestra tiene una adherencia baja o muy baja a la DM.Conclusión: las dietas de los jóvenes universitarios no cumplen los objetivos nutricionales para la población española y presentan una adherencia media-baja a la DM, independientemente de la práctica deportiva.

  13. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    López-Fuenzalida, Antonio; Rodríguez Canales, Carolina; Reyes Ponce, Álvaro; Contreras Molina, Ángela; Fernández Quezada, Javiera; Aguirre Polanco, Carolina

    2016-03-25

    Introducción: dado el incremento del sobrepeso y obesidad infantil, es relevante estudiar no solo las consecuencias metabólicas, sino también aquellas de índole musculoesqueléticas que pueden afectar la funcionalidad motriz, como es el pie plano, en esta población. Objetivo: identificar la asociación entre el estado nutricional y la prevalencia de pie plano en niños y niñas chilenos de 6 a 10 años. Métodos: el z-score del índice de masa corporal (IMC) y el registro y análisis de las huellas plantares según la metodología de Hernández-Corvo fue llevado a cabo en 388 escolares (52,3% niñas). Un test de diferencia para dos proporciones fue utilizado para evaluar las diferencias entre los grupos. Se considera una significancia estadística con p ≤ 0,05. Resultados: la prevalencia del exceso de peso fue de más del 40%. Esta prevalencia fue más alta en las niñas (47,8%) que en los niños (42,7%). La prevalencia de pie plano en todos los niños fue del 17%, presentando valores más elevados el pie derecho (18,3%) que el izquierdo (15,7%). Hay un incremento significativo de la prevalencia de pie plano en los niños obesos en relación con los niños con sobrepeso y normopeso. Conclusión: el estado nutricional está asociado con incrementos en la prevalencia de pie plano en niños. En la población infantil de 6 a 10 años de edad, la obesidad está asociada con la alteración morfológica del pie.

  14. Iron status and dietary intakes of iron in normal-weight and obese young Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Tijerina-Sáenz, Alexandra; Martínez-Garza, Nancy E; Ramírez-López, Erik; Solís-Pérez, Elizabeth; Martínez-Báez, Adbel Z

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: la obesidad se ha reportado como predictor de la deficiencia de hierro. En México, el 45,5% de las mujeres mayores de 20 años tienen obesidad, y la prevalencia de anemia es de 10,2% en mujeres de 20 a 29 años. Objetivo: investigar la relación entre índice de masa corporal (IMC), porcentaje de grasa (%GC), ingesta dietética y reservas de hierro en mujeres jóvenes sanas con normopeso y obesidad. Métodos: ochenta y seis mujeres [normopeso (n = 46) y obesidad (n = 40)] completaron el estudio. La ingesta fue evaluada por un diario de registro de 8 días. La antropometría y obtención de sangre (hemoglobina, hematocrito, ferritina y transferrina) se consiguieron en la fase lútea del ciclo menstrual; se reportaron las características de la menstruación. Las reservas de hierro se determinaron según etapas de depleción. Pruebas de T y Mann-Whitney U se usaron para comparar variables entre grupos. La correlación de Pearson se usó para determinar relaciones entre variables. La razón de momios se utilizó para medir la asociación de IMC, %GC e ingesta dietética con las reservas de hierro. Resultados: los marcadores de hierro fueron similares entre grupos. Se encontró una relación positiva entre %GC y ferritina (r = 0,222; p = 0,032). La similitud en ingesta y periodos menstruales puede ser la razón de que existan reservas de hierro similares. El IMC, %GC e ingesta dietética no contribuyeron independientemente a las etapas de depleción de hierro. Conclusión: se sugiere guía dietética para esta población con el fin de evitar complicaciones por deficiencia de hierro.

  15. NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND PERIOPERATIVE FASTING TIME VERSUS COMPLICATIONS AND HOSPITAL STAY OF SURGICAL PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    de Amorim, Ana Carolina Ribeiro; Costa, Milena Damasceno de Souza; Nunes, Francisca Leide da Silva; da Silva, Maria da Guia Bezerra; de Souza Leão, Cristiano; Gadelha, Patrícia Calado Ferreira Pinheiro

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: muchos factores pueden influir negativamente en los resultados quirúrgicos, tales como el estado nutricional deteriorado y la extensión del tiempo de ayuno perioperatorio. Objetivo: evaluar la influencia del estado nutricional y el tiempo de ayuno perioperatorio en la aparición de complicaciones quirúrgicas y la duración de la estancia hospitalaria en pacientes sometidos a cirugía del tracto gastrointestinal y/o la pared abdominal, que fueron sometidos a protocolo de atención nutricional. Métodos: estudio de cohorte, realizado con 84 pacientes, de junio a noviembre de 2014. La recolección de datos se realizó mediante la aplicación de un cuestionario estructurado, búsqueda en los registros y prescripción médica y/o nutricional. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el programa STATA/SE 12.0 y se adoptó el nivel de significación del 5%. Resultados: el riesgo nutricional estuvo presente en el 26,2% de los casos, y de estos el 45,4% realizaron terapia nutricional preoperatoria, con una media de 6,6 ± 2,79 días. El ayuno preoperatorio fue de 4,5 (3,66; 5,50) horas y el ayuno postoperatorio fue de 5,1 (2,5; 20,5) horas. No se encontraron asociaciones entre los parámetros para evaluar la composición corporal y la presencia de complicaciones. Se observó una correlación negativa entre la duración de la estancia y el IMC (p = 0,017), y una correlación positiva entre la pérdida de peso y el tiempo de estancia hospitalaria (p = 0,036). Los pacientes con mayor tiempo de ayuno postoperatorio tuvieron una mayor incidencia de complicaciones (p = 0,021). Conclusión: el mal estado nutricional y la extensión del tiempo de ayuno perioperatorio están asociados a la aparición de complicaciones quirúrgicas y a una mayor duración de la estancia hospitalaria.

  16. Astronomia para/com crianças carentes em Limeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.

    2003-08-01

    Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatório do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoção Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituição mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianças e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivência Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criança e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianças e adolescentes em Centros Comunitários de diversas áreas da cidade. Esses projetos têm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianças no sentido de retirá-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianças passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatório. Este painel descreve as várias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reuniões de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianças ao Observatório, proposta de construção de gnômons e relógios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitários de Limeira e divulgação do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discussões sobre a aprendizagem de crianças carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinência do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatório e o que o número de crianças atendidas representou para as atividades da instituição desde o início de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados são baseados na análise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatório, registros de visitas e matérias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliação do que tal projeto representou para as Instituições participantes. Para o Observatório, em particular, foi feita uma análise com relação às outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e público em geral. Também é abordada a questão do compromisso social do Observatório na educação do

  17. Ensino e divulgação de astronomia no Planetário de Campinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. P.

    2003-08-01

    Projeto desenvolvido em 1981 por professores da Unicamp, sob a coordenação do Prof. Dr. Carlos Alfredo Argüello propunha a instalação de um Planetário em Campinas. Convênio firmado em 1982 entre a Unicamp, a Prefeitura de Campinas, a Funcamp e a Academia de Ciências do Estado de São Paulo, possibilitou a aquisição de um planetário Zeiss ZKP2, através do MEC, e em 28 de outubro de 1987 foi inaugurado o Planetário de Campinas. Desde então várias atividades de ensino e divulgação da Astronomia foram desenvolvidas regularmente. A verificação dos registros das atividades realizadas mostra um alto índice de atendimento, considerada a capacidade das instalações (sala de projeção para 60 pessoas, auditório com 45 poltronas e hall de exposições). As atividades dirigidas ao público, estudantes e professores, atenderam cerca de 400.000 participantes nos quase 16 anos de sua existência. Além de sessões públicas e escolares, com duração de 1 hora, são oferecidas às escolas vários outros tipos de atividades, com duração de 2,5 horas. Abordam diversos temas e são dirigidas a diferentes níveis de escolaridade. Cursos para o público e para professores, palestras, exposições e eventos especiais completam o quadro de atividades regulares. Mesmo enfrentando quase sempre dificuldades financeiras e administrativas verifica-se que o Planetário de Campinas realizou um trabalho quantitativamente e qualitativamente satisfatório, prestando bom serviços à comunidade de Campinas e de outras cidades de São Paulo e outros Estados. Isso é também atestado pela grande procura de reservas para suas atividades.

  18. [Financial expenses incurred by herniated disk in health professionals].

    PubMed

    Zonana-Nacach, Abraham; Moreno-Cazares, Marco Cesar; Gómez-Naranjo, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: las incapacidades prolongadas no sólo tienen un alto costo económico sino también repercusiones en la productividad debido a la ausencia del trabajador. Objetivo: evaluar el costo del subsidio pagado por el Instituto Mexicano Seguro Social (IMSS) a los trabajadores que incapacita por hernia de disco. Material y métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo efectuado con trabajadores del IMSS a quienes se incapacita para no laborar por más de 14 días. El estudio se efectuó mediante la revisión de los registros asentados entre 2009-2011 de 1,070 trabajadores con incapacidad prolongada de los que 48 tuvieron diagnóstico de hernia de disco. Se cuantificaron los días totales de incapacidad, días subsidiados por incapacidad versus los días sugeridos por el consejero médico de incapacidades. Resultados: de los 48 pacientes con hernias de disco, 54% fueron cervicales y 65% recibieron tratamiento uirúrgico. Los días totales promedio de incapacidad por hernias de disco fueron 125 ± 84 y 24 (50%), respectivamente. De las que rebasaron las recomendadas por el consejero médico, 6 (26%) fueron por concordancia diagnóstica, 12 (52%) por diferimiento en el diagnóstico y 5 (22%) por dolor residual. El costo de las incapacidades laborales originadas por hernias de disco que rebasaron las sugeridas por el consejero médico fue de 683,026 pesos en comparación con 367,081 pesos que no rebasaron la recomendación de éste. Después de 12 meses de seguimiento, 9 casos (18.8%) seguían con incapacidad y 2 (4%) tuvieron pensión por invalidez. Conclusiones: el costo en subsidio por incapacidades a pacientes con hernia de disco se duplicó principalmente por diferimiento en el diagnóstico.

  19. Hypoalbuminemia and other prognostic factors of mortality at different time points after ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Alcázar Lázaro, Victoria; del Ser Quijano, Teodoro; Barba Martín, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: El propósito del estudio era investigar si la hipoalbuminemia y otros factores de riesgo de mortalidad tras un ictus tenían el mismo valor pronóstico tras un ictus a corto (1 mes), medio (3 meses), largo (1 AÑO) o muy largo plazo (5 AÑOs). Métodos: Se estudiaron 254 pacientes ingresados en nuestro hospital con ictus isquémico y seguidos prospectivamente durante dos AÑOs con un procolo estándar de forma prospectiva. Se recogieron datos adicionales hasta 5 AÑOs de las Historias Clínicas, los datos del laboratorio, un cuestionario enviado por correo, una llamada telefónica y la revisión de los Registros de Mortalidad de los ayuntamientos. Los factores de riesgo de mortalidad en cada periodo se calcularon con regresión logistica y el modelo de riesgos proporcionales de Cox. Resultados: Se asociaron de forma significativa con la mortalidad al mes el mecanismo cardioembólico, la hipoalbuminemia, la glucemia al ingreso, la edad, la presión arterial diastólica más baja y la puntuación en la Escala Canadiense. A los tres meses, la existencia de ictus previos y el índice de Barthel al alta. Al AÑO la existencia previa de demencia y el índice de Barthel a los 3 meses y a los cinco AÑOs la edad, la puntuación en la escala Canadiense al alta y un colesterol menor al ingreso. El análisis de regresión de Cox considerando el tiempo de supervivencia, mostró una asociación independiente con la mortalidad de la hipoalbuminemia al ingreso ((HR) 2; p = 0,03), la edad (HR 1,06; p < 0,00), la demencia previa (HR 2; p < 0,00), el mecanismo cardioembólico (HR 2; p < 0,00) y la severidad según la escala Canadiense (HR 1.2; p < 0,00). Conclusión: La mortalidad tras un ictus isquémico parece depender de distintos factores según el tiempo transcurrido.

  20. [Ethical and methodological quality of non-interventional post-authorization studies promoted by Hospital Pharmacy Departments].

    PubMed

    González Bermejo, D; Vicente Sánchez, M P; Pozuelo González, C; Macías Saint-Gerons, D; Greciano Greciano, V; de la Fuente Honrubia, C

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Describir la calidad ética y metodológica de los estudios posautorización de tipo observacional con medicamentos de uso humano promovidos por los Servicios de Farmacia Hospitalaria (SFH). Métodos: Se identificaron los estudios promovidos por los SFH registrados en la Agencia Española de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios (AEMPS) durante 2009-2011 y/o publicados en la revista Farmacia Hospitalaria en el mismo período. Se analizaron los aspectos éticos y metodológicos más relevantes. Con el fin de conocer las diferencias de los estudios promovidos por los SFH respecto a estudios realizados por otros promotores, se compararon con los estudios registrados durante 2003-2007. Resultados: Se registraron en la AEMPS 22 estudios promovidos por SFH, que comparados con aquellos realizados por promotores diferentes, mostraron un menor cumplimiento de los aspectos éticos recogidos en la normativa, así como resultados más discretos y estadísticamente significativos (p < 0,05), respecto a justificación del tamaño muestral (41,5% vs 80%) o ámbito internacional (0% vs 24%). Respecto a los estudios publicados en la revista Farmacia Hospitalaria (n = 52), ninguno fue registrado en la AEMPS. En comparación con los estudios registrados promovidos por SFH, presentaron menor calidad metodológica, en aspectos tales como presencia de grupo control (3,8% vs 27,3%) (p = 0,0072) o justificación del tamaño muestral (19,2% vs 42,8%) (p < 0,05). Conclusión: Existen aspectos administrativos, metodológicos y éticos de los estudios promovidos por los SFH que deben ser mejorados según la normativa. El registro en la AEMPS, parece tener un efecto positivo en el rigor científico y ético de los protocolos de investigación.

  1. [Nutritional analysis of breakfast on rising and mid-morning snack in a college population].

    PubMed

    Durá Travé, T

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Realizar un estudio descriptivo del modelo de desayuno de una población universitaria y analizar su aporte energético y de nutrientes en relación con los requerimientos nutricionales establecidos. Material y métodos: Registro de consumo de alimentos durante la mañana (desayuno/almuerzo) de un día lectivo a una muestra de 740 universitarios (286 varones y 454 mujeres) con edades comprendidas entre 18 y 25 años. De cada encuestado se registraba sexo, edad, peso, talla e índice de masa corporal y tipo de residencia. Se han calculado las ingestas porcentuales de nutrientes en relación con las ingestas recomendadas (%IR). Resultados: El 98,6% desayunaba y el 54,2% almorzaba diariamente, y el 53.5% realizaba ambas ingestas. Lácteos (92,6%), cereales (58,8%) y dulces (57,9%) en el desayuno, y cereales (46,6%), frutas (40,7%) y embutidos (34,9%) en el almuerzo eran los alimentos más habituales. El %IR de la ingesta calórica (desayuno/almuerzo) era del 24,4% en varones y del 24,6% en mujeres (NS). El %IR de la ingesta de colesterol (desayuno:/almuerzo) era de 38,2% en varones y del 23,9% en mujeres (p < 0,05). En el desayuno los %IR de minerales y vitaminas eran significativamente superiores (p < 0,05) respecto a los del almuerzo. Conclusiones: Este modelo de desayuno/almuerzo difería del prototipo dietético saludable con un consumo excesivo de dulces, bollería y repostería (desayuno) y carnes y derivados (almuerzo). La mitad de los encuestados no almorzaban y su ingesta calórica matutina estaba por debajo de lo recomendado. Tratándose de estudiantes universitarios inquieta el efecto potencialmente negativo que pudiera tener sobre el rendimiento académico.

  2. [CONTRIBUTION OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TO DAILY RECOMMENDATIONS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN ADOLESCENTS ACCORDING TO GENDER; A STUDY WITH ACCELEROMETRY].

    PubMed

    Viciana, Jesús; Martínez-Baena, Alejandro; Mayorga-Vega, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: la institucionalización de la escuela como contexto propicio para el incremento de la actividad física (AF) saludable, la disparidad de resultados en el contexto internacional y la escasez de estudios españoles con medición objetiva en el marco de la Educación Física (EF) hacen necesaria la profundización en esta línea de investigación. Objetivos: los objetivos fueron determinar niveles objetivos de AF durante las clases de EF en adolescentes, comprobar su contribución a la AF diaria recomendable e identificar posibles diferencias según el género. Métodos: una muestra de 337 escolares (211 varones y 183 mujeres), de 13 a 16 años, participaron en esta investigación. La AF se estimó mediante medida objetiva (acelerómetro GT3X), registrándose dos horas completas de clase. Solo aquellos participantes que cumplieron con los criterios mínimos de registro fueron seleccionados para el estudio (n = 231). Resultados: los resultados mostraron que no se cumplen las recomendaciones de tiempo de práctica durante las clases de EF. Se encontraron diferencias significativas según el género en el tiempo de compromiso motor y los pasos/min, así como en los índices de AF moderada-vigorosa y en el tiempo de sedentarismo de los escolares estudiados (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: la EF tiene una escasa contribución a las recomendaciones de AF moderada-vigorosa (casi un tercio en chicos y un cuarto en chicas) y de pasos diarios (quinta parte en chicos/as), limitada además por su duración y frecuencia semanal. Incrementarla en el sistema educativo actual ayudaría a la consecución de estos estándares.

  3. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    San Mauro Martín, Ismael; Cevallos, Vanesa; Pina Ordúñez, Diana; Garicano Vilar, Elena

    2016-07-19

    Introducción: existen alteraciones frecuentes en la alimentación de la población infantil femenina, y especialmente en atletas de deportes estéticos por la presión ejercida para mantener un cuerpo.Objetivos: evaluar los aspectos nutricionales, antropométricos y la percepción del peso de niñas que realizan gimnasia rítmica frente a un grupo control.Métodos: estudio descriptivo comparativo. Se compararon 25 niñas gimnastas con 25 niñas no gimnastas (control). Se realizó una valoración antropométrica, mediante protocolo ISAK, y nutricional, mediante un registro dietético de siete días; así como una valoración cuantitativa y cualitativa de la ingesta alimentaria, mediante el software DIAL. Se rellenó un cuestionario de hábitos y sobre la percepción de su peso corporal.Resultados: los datos antropométricos no presentaron diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos, excepto en los pliegues cutáneos y el porcentaje de grasa, el cual era estadísticamente inferior en gimnastas. La ingesta energética (1.413 ± 283 Kcal/día) de las gimnastas era inferior a la recomendada por la Food and Nutrition Board de acuerdo a su edad. La distribución de los macronutrientes cumplía con los valores normales establecidos (10-30% proteínas, 45-65% hidratos, 20-35% grasas). El 32% de las gimnastas y el 36,4% de las niñas control consideraron que les gustaría pesar menos.Conclusión: teniendo en cuenta la intensa actividad de las gimnastas, sus requerimientos energéticos deberían ajustarse a ello, ya que esto contribuirá a su desarrollo y crecimiento y a una mejor ejecución del ejercicio. En la muestra estudiada, el consumo de alimentos de las gimnastas se aleja de una alimentación equilibrada. No se observaron comportamientos diferentes en la percepción del peso entre ambos grupos.

  4. Comparison of the effectiveness and renal safety of tenofovir versus entecavir in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    López Centeno, Beatriz; Collado Borrell, Roberto; Pérez Encinas, Montserrat; Gutiérrez García, Maria Luisa; Sanmartin Fenollera, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    Objetivo: Comparar la efectividad y seguridad renal del tratamiento con tenofovir frente al entecavir en pacientes con hepatitis B cronica. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo en pacientes con hepatitis B que iniciaron tratamiento con tenofovir o entecavir entre enero 1998-2013. La variable principal de la efectividad fue definida como DNA viral < 20 UI/ml (HBV-DNA) y la de la seguridad renal como variaciones en el filtrado glomerular (eGFR) tras 48 semanas de tratamiento. Resultados: Se analizaron un total de 64 pacientes (1:1), con caracteristicas semejantes excepto por el predominio de pacientes sin tratamiento previo (p=0,036), comorbilidades (p=0,077) y farmacos nefrotoxicos (p=0,088) en el grupo-entecavir, y de pacientes con HBV-DNA < 20 UI/ml (p=0,032) y HBeAg-positivo (p=0,050) en el grupo-tenofovir. Se realizaron analisis estadisticos univariantes y se ajustaron las variables confusoras mediante Propensity score (PS). Los resultados para la variable principal de efectividad (HBV-DNA < 20 UI/ml) denotan una superioridad del tenofovir tras el ajuste por PS con una ORadj= 6,7 (IC95%: 1,2-35,3; p=0,028). Tres pacientes con tenofovir sufrieron seroconversion (p=0,148). Los resultados para la variable principal de seguridad (eGFR < 60ml/min/1.73m2) no mostraron diferencias entre ambas ramas tras el ajuste, obteniendo una ORadj= 0,6 (IC95%: 0,1-2,8; p=0,521). El grupo-tenofovir registro dos casos de suspension por toxicidad renal, con posterior recuperacion, entre ellos un sindrome de Fanconi. Conclusiones: En nuestro estudio existen diferencias significativas entre ambos tratamientos respecto a su efectividad, mostrandose el tenofovir superior. En cuanto a la seguridad renal, no hemos encontrado diferencias significativas, pero dos casos de suspension de tratamiento por toxicidad renal con tenofovir nos llevan a concluir que la decision de tratamiento en los pacientes con alteraciones en la funcion renal deberia incluir un analisis individualizado de cada caso.

  5. [ACCEPTANCE OF PULP FRUIT BEVERAGES FORTIFIED WITH FERROUS FUMARATE; AN ALTERNATIVE SUPPLEMENT FOR A HEALTH PROGRAM].

    PubMed

    Morales Guerrero, Josefina Consuelo; García Zepeda, Rodrigo Antonio; Sánchez Vargas, Elena

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: la desnutrición y la deficiencia de hierro son problemas de salud pública en varios países, México no es la excepción, y la mayor prevalencia se presenta en el medio rural. Una forma de atenderla es a través de la suplementación. El suplemento que se seleccione debe ser aceptado sensorialmente por el consumidor final para que la intervención sea exitosa. Objetivos: elaborar un suplemento multivitamínico para el programa “Salud y Nutrición para Pueblos Indígenas” y evaluar su aceptación en la población infantil urbana y rural. Métodos: se determinaron las características fisicoquímicas del producto a desarrollar y el método de elaboración y de preparación para su consumo. La aceptación se evaluó en niños de entre 6 a 24 meses de edad, con una prueba de caritas, y en los infantes de 6 a 12 meses se corroboró con el registro del volumen consumido. Para determinar las diferencias en la aceptación por edad y género en la misma población y para establecer diferencias entre poblaciones se aplicó una Ji cuadrada. Resultados: los suplementos, en los tres sabores evaluados, cumplieron con la concentración de vitaminas y nutrimentos inorgánicos establecidos en el programa citado. El 80% de los niños aceptaron los suplementos multivitamínicos (SM) en sus tres sabores. La edad de los niños fue el factor que más influyó en la aceptación. Conclusión: los SM desarrollados en este estudio son una alternativa al suplemento que actualmente proporciona el PSNPI, para los niños mayores a seis meses.

  6. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Higuera Pulgar, Isabel; Bretón Lesmes, Irene; Carrascal Fabián, María Luisa; Prieto García, Alicia; Menchén Viso, Luis; Nogales Rincón, Óscar; Iglesias Hernández, Natalia Covadonga; Issasa Rodríguez, Leire; García Peris, Pilar

    2016-07-19

    Introducción: la esofagitis eosinofílica (EEo) es una enfermedad inmunoalérgica crónica emergente en adultos. Surge como respuesta disfuncional frente a los antígenos de los alimentos y se caracteriza por síntomas recurrentes de disfunción esofágica e inflamación. El tratamiento farmacológico y dietético se basa en su patogénesis y debe ser individualizado. Uno de los posibles abordajes dietéticos se basa en la eliminación empírica de alimentos que con mayor frecuencia causan EEo.Objetivo: evaluar la ingesta dietética de los pacientes con EEo que siguen la dieta de exclusión de los seis grupos de alimentos (DESGA) y conocer sus posibles carencias nutricionales.Métodos: estudio transversal descriptivo en un grupo de pacientes con EEo que inició tratamiento con DESGA durante el periodo de marzo de 2013 hasta marzo de 2015. Se evaluó la ingesta mediante registro de 72 horas. Se compararon los resultados con las referencias para población adulta sana española (23). Para el análisis estadístico se usaron los test de Mann-Whitney, Krhuskall-Wallis y Chi-cuadrado. Significación p < 0,05.Resultados: se incluyeron en el estudio 14 pacientes. En algunos de ellos, la ingesta dietética siguiendo DESGA fue deficitaria en energía, proteínas y fibra. Tampoco consiguieron cubrir las ingestas de micronutrientes de calcio, zinc, magnesio, ácido fólico, niacina y vitaminas B2 y D, teniendo en cuenta edad y sexo, el 60% de la muestra.Conclusiones: el abordaje terapéutico mediante DESGA, teniendo en cuenta las características de la dieta, debe acompañarse de una evaluación periódica del estado nutricional, que incluya micronutrientes y una pauta de suplementación específica.

  7. Astrophysics in Schools: Playing with Observational Data. (Spanish Title: Astrofísica Escolar: Jugando con Datos Observacionales.) Astrofísica Escolar: Brincando com Dados Observacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navone, Hugo D.; Scancich, Miriam; Vázquez, Rubén A.

    2011-07-01

    The use of observational records in the design of teaching sequences in Astrophysics in High Schools is quite uncommon. It is also uncommon the thematic approach within the context provided by Nature of Science. Besides these shortcomings, we should also consider the lack of proposals to use the computer as a laboratory from which nature is studied. These aspects expose the existence of a disconnection between school science and scientist's science, establishing the need for simple educational projects that promote interdisciplinary dialogue between the two fields of knowledge. Based on these assumptions, this paper presents the school reformulation of the redshift-distance problem as addressed by Hubble in his diagram, and explores the main educational dimensions emerging from it. The proposal is directed not only for senior students of high school and/or early 1st year students at University level, but also for students and teachers from teacher training colleges. Practical evidence shows that this proposal is viable, mobilizes interests about issues of Astrophysics and promotes a ludic and cooperative character among students. La utilización de registros observacionales en el diseño de secuencias didácticas en Astrofísica Escolar no es algo usual en el ámbito de la escuela media. Tampoco lo es el abordaje de temáticas desde el contexto que provee Naturaleza de la Ciencia. A estas carencias se le suma la falta de propuestas que hagan intervenir a la computadora como un laboratorio desde el cual se interpela a la naturaleza. Los aspectos mencionados exponen la existencia de un desajuste entre ciencia escolar y ciencia experta estableciendo la necesidad de elaborar proyectos educativos sencillos que promuevan el diálogo interdisciplinar entre ambos campos del conocimiento. Partiendo de estos presupuestos, en este trabajo se presenta la reformulación escolar del problema abordado por Hubble -que diera lugar al diagrama que lleva su nombre- y se exploran las

  8. Depth of the base of the Jackson aquifer, based on geophysical exploration, southern Jackson Hole, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Campbell, David L.; Senterfit, Robert M.

    ées ont été krigées afin d'estimer la profondeur de la base de la formation aquifère dans la partie sud de Jackson Hole. Les cartes d'isovaleurs d'estimation krigées indiquent que la profondeur de la base de la formation aquifère de Jackson est faible dans la partie centrale de la zone d'étude à l'est et à l'ouest des monts Gros Ventre, plus grande dans le secteur ouest près de la zone faillée de Teton, et faible sur la bordure sud de Jackson Hole. Les profondeurs estimées vont de 30m au sud, près des confluences des rivières Spring et Flat avec la rivière Snake, à 210m à l'ouest près de la ville de Wilson (Wyoming). Resumen Se llevó a cabo una campaña geofísica para determinar la profundidad del basamento de un acuífero libre en la zona sur de Jackson Hole, Wyoming, EEUU. USA. Medidas audio-magnetotelúricas (ATM) en 77 lugares de la zona de estudio dieron lugar a registros de resistividad eléctrica del subsuelo, que se usaron para inferir los cambios litológicos con la profundidad. Los depósitos superficiales, saturados y no consolidados de edad cuaternaria, el acuífero de Jackson, forman una capa de resistencia geoeléctrica entre 100-600ohm-m. La profundidad media de la base del acuífero de Jackson se estima en unos 61m (200pies), a partir de 62 registros con medidas suficientes. Los valores ATM fueron krigeados para obtener una medida de la profundidad del basamento del acuífero en la zona sur de Jackson Hole. Los mapas de isoprofundidades obtenidos por krigeado indican que el acuífero es poco profundo en la parte central de la zona de estudio, cerca de los Gros Ventre Buttes orientales y occidentales, más profundo al oeste, cerca del sistema de fallas de Teton, y menos profundo en el borde sur de Jackson Hole. Las profundidades van desde 30m (100pies) en el sur, en la confluencia entre los desfiladeros Spring y Flat con el Río Snake, hasta 210m (700pies) al oeste, cerca de la ciudad de Wilson, Wyoming.

  9. [Discriminant analysis to predict the clinical diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies: a preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Murata, Chiharu; Ramírez, Ana Belén; Ramírez, Guadalupe; Cruz, Alonso; Morales, José Luis; Lugo-Reyes, Saul Oswaldo

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: las características clínicas de un paciente con sospecha de inmunodeficiencia primaria orientan el diagnóstico diferencial por medio del reconocimiento de patrones. Las inmunodeficiencias primarias son un grupo heterogéneo de más de 250 enfermedades congénitas con mayor susceptibilidad a padecer infecciones, autoinflamación, autoinmunidad, alergia y cáncer. El análisis discriminante lineal es un método multivariante de clasificación supervisada para agrupar a los sujetos a partir de encontrar combinaciones lineales de un número de variables. Objetivo: identificar las características que mejor explican la pertenencia de pacientes pediátricos con inmunodeficiencias primarias a un grupo de defectos o a una enfermedad. Material y método: estudio analítico transversal en el que a partir de una base de datos preexistente, con registros clínicos y de laboratorio de 168 pacientes con inmunodeficiencia primaria, seguidos en el Instituto Nacional de Pediatría de 1991 a 2012, construimos modelos discriminantes lineales para explicar la pertenencia de cada paciente a los diferentes grupos de defectos y a las inmunodeficiencias primarias más prevalentes en nuestro registro. Luego de una corrida preliminar se incluyeron únicamente las 30 variables (4 demográficas, 10 clínicas, 10 de laboratorio y 6 gérmenes) de mayor peso, a partir de las que se construyeron los modelos de entrenamiento con el algoritmo paso-a-paso (stepwise) hacia atrás, utilizando selección automatizada de variables e incorporación manual “teórica” por un experto humano. Se evaluó la utilidad clínica de los modelos resultantes (sensibilidad, especificidad, exactitud y coeficiente kappa), con intervalos de confianza de 95%. Resultados: los modelos incluyeron 6 a 14 variables para explicar la pertenencia de 168 pacientes con inmunodeficiencias primarias a los cinco grupos más numerosos (combinados, anticuerpos, bien definidos, desregulación y fagocitosis) y las

  10. Higher hdl levels are a preventive factor for metabolic syndrome in obese Turkish children.

    PubMed

    Özer, Samet; Yılmaz, Resul; Özlem Kazanci, Nafia; Sönmezgöz, Ergün; Karaaslan, Erhan; Altuntaş, Buket; Emre Kuyucu, Yunus

    2014-10-03

    Objetivo: El síndrome metabólico infantil no ha sido definido aún con claridad. La obesidad infantil se está incrementando progresivamente al igual que la incidencia del síndrome metabólico infantil. Nuestro objetivo ha sido mostrar los componentes del síndrome metabólico y sus factores preventivos en los niños obesos. Metodología: Este estudio analizó de forma retrospectiva a 187 niños y adolescentes obesos de entre 5 y 18 años. Los datos demográficos, las medidas antropomórficas, los índices de masa corporal, los valores de presión sanguínea, los niveles de insulina, los resultados de test de tolerancia a la glucosa oral, el total de colesterol, las lipoproteínas de gran densidad y los niveles de triglicéridos fueron obtenidos de registros hospitalarios. Una masa corporal con un índice superior a 95 percentiles fue considerada como obesidad. La resistencia a la insulina se calculó de acuerdo con el test de tolerancia a la glucosa oral con 1,75 g/kg de glucosa y un máximo de 75 gramos de glucosa. Se calculó y comparó el índice de sensibilidad a la insulina y la evaluación del modelos homeostático- resistencia a la insulina (HOMA IR). El síndrome metabólico fue diagnosticado de acuerdo con los nuevos criterios de la OMS adaptados a los síndromes metabólicos infantiles. Resultados: Se observó una homeostasis de glucosa anormal en el 53% de los casos. La dislipidemia estaba presente en el 45,7% de los pacientes y la hipertensión en un 16,6%. El síndrome metabólico fue identificado en un 24,6% de los niños y adolescentes obesos. Altos valores de HOMA-IR y de glucosa, triglicéridos elevados y niveles bajos de HDL eran indicadores de síndrome metabólico. Conclusión: La obesidad y la resistencia a la insulina son factores significativos para el desarrollo del síndrome metabólico en niños y adolescentes. En niños obesos altos niveles de HDL son un factor preventivo del síndrome metabólico. Prevenir la obesidad y la

  11. [Software for performing a global phenotypic and genotypic nutritional assessment].

    PubMed

    García de Diego, L; Cuervo, M; Martínez, J A

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: La evaluación nutricional del paciente requiere del manejo simultáneo de una extensa información y de numerosas bases de datos, ya que se analizan tanto aspectos relacionados con el proceso de la nutrición como la situación y evolución clínica del paciente. Con la introducción de la informática dentro del ámbito nutricional se ha producido un avance extraordinario en la administración de la información, permitiendo la realización de valoraciones exhaustivas del estado nutricional de forma rápida y sencilla. Objetivo: Desarrollar un programa informático que sirva como instrumento para la evaluación del estado nutricional del paciente, la educación del personal clínico, en estudios epidemiológicos y con fines pedagógicos. Diseño: Un programa informático que ayude al especialista de la salud a realizar una evaluación nutricional completa del paciente, mediante el registro y valoración de las características fenotípicas y genotípicas. La aplicación ofrece pronósticos nutricionales basados en parámetros antropométricos y bioquímicos, imágenes de estados de desnutrición, cuestionarios de caracterización de enfermedades, criterios de diagnóstico, identificación de alelos relacionados con el desarrollo de ciertas enfermedades metabólicas y cuestionarios de calidad de vida, para una actuación personalizada. El programa incluye como parte de la valoración nutricional del paciente el análisis de la ingesta alimentaria, la elaboración de dietas y la promoción de la actividad física, introduciendo cuestionarios de frecuencia alimentaria, recordatorios dietéticos, índices de alimentación saludable, dietas modelo, test de condición física así como recomendaciones, recordatorios y cuestionarios de actividad física. Resultado: Un programa informático diseñado mediante el lenguaje de programación Java Swing, usando la base de datos SQLite y algunas librerías externas como JFreeChart para el diseño de gr

  12. [Quality of the diet "before and during" a weight loss treatment based on Mediterranean Diet; behavioural therapy and nutritional education].

    PubMed

    Morales-Falo, Eva María; Sánchez-Moreno, Carmen; Esteban, Alberto; Alburquerque, Juan José; Garaulet, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El método de pérdida de peso (dieta mediterránea, terapia de comportamiento y educación nutricional) ha mostrado ser efectivo en el tratamiento de la obesidad. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar y comparar la calidad de las dietas ingeridas antes y durante el tratamiento mediante el Índice de Alimentación Saludable (IAS) y su relación con diferentes variables. Materiales y métodos: La muestra fue de 392 pacientes (330 mujeres, 62 hombres), edad 39,3 ± 11,5 años y IMC de 31,2 ± 5,3 kg/m2. A partir del recuerdo-24 h previo al tratamiento y del registro dietético 7 días se estimó el IAS de “antes” y “durante” tratamiento. El IAS consta de 10 variables que representan el cumplimiento de objetivos nutricionales para la población española (SENC, 2004). Resultados: Dieta previa, presentó un IAS “necesita mejorar” (68,6 ± 11,6) con lípidos (%) (43,9 ± 8,4) y AGS (% lípidos) (67,4 ± 20,1) elevados, además el contenido en AGM (% lípidos) (27,8 ± 15,1) fue insuficiente. El IAS varió en función del IMC siendo el de obesos inferior al de personas con sobrepeso (65,1 ± 11,6 vs 69, 2 ± 13,9; P < 0,05). La dieta ingerida durante el tratamiento mejoró notablemente IAS (91,4 ± 9,7). El IAS de las mujeres fue superior (92,3 ± 9,1) al de los hombres (84,4 ± 12,0) (P < 0,05). Aquellos que alcanzaron la meta de pérdida de peso adquirieron mejores valores de IAS durante el tratamiento que los que no la alcanzaron (92,1 ± 9,2 vs 87,9 ± 11,7) (P < 0,05). Conclusiones: Según el IAS, la calidad de la dieta estudiada durante el tratamiento de pérdida de peso mejoró significativamente en relación a la dieta habitual del paciente. El IAS de la dieta durante el tratamiento se asocia con el sexo, el estado ponderal (sobrepeso y obesidad) y con el éxito del tratamiento (> 5% de pérdida del peso inicial).

  13. THE EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC FERMENTED MILK THAT INCLUDES BIFIDOBACTERIUM LACTIS CNCM I-2494 ON THE REDUCTION OF GASTROINTESTINAL DISCOMFORT AND SYMPTOMS IN ADULTS: A NARRATIVE REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Waitzberg, Dan L; Quilici, Flávio A; Michzputen, Sender; Friche Passos, Maria do Carmo

    2015-08-01

    Objetivo: determinar la eficacia de la leche fermentada con Bifidobacterium lactis CNCM I-2429 en la reducción de el malestar gastrointestinal (GI) en adultos sanos. Métodos: se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en la literatura para identificar estudios que informaron del uso de B. animalis spp. lactis para molestias/ confort GI en adultos sanos. Se identificaron un total de 5.329 registros, de estos se evaluaron 99 artículos de texto completo. Las búsquedas de ensayos adicionales se realizaron utilizando los nombres de los autores de cada estudio identificado y varias bases de datos relevantes. La selección de los estudios se llevó a cabo de acuerdo con las guías de Artículos de Información Preferidos para Revisiones Sistemáticas y Meta-Análisis (PRISMA). Los estudios eran incluidos si eran ensayos randomizados controlados, si los sujetos de estudio eran adultos sanos y si el grupo de intervención recibió B. lactis CNCM I-2494. Se excluyeron los estudios que no eran randomizados, que incluían adultos que no estaban sanos, que incluían el uso de cualquier otra intervención o si comparaban diferentes productos sin un grupo placebo. La calidad metodológica de los estudios se evaluó utilizando la Escala de Calidad de Oxford y la Evaluación Cochrane de ocultamiento. No fue posible un metaanálisis. Resultados: la estrategia de búsqueda identificó dos estudios que incluyeron un total de 538 mujeres sanas, con edades entre 18 a 60 años, de peso normal o sobrepeso (IMC de 18-30 kg/m2). En uno de los estudios las molestias GI disminuyeron significativamente en el grupo de probióticos frente al grupo control, sin diferencias en el otro. El porcentaje de respondedores para el bienestar GI fue mayor en el grupo de probióticos frente al grupo control en el primer estudio, pero no en el segundo. Los síntomas GI se redujeron significativamente en el grupo probiótico frente al grupo control en ambos estudios. La función intestinal solo se evaluó en

  14. High-pressure thermal aureoles around two Neoproterozoic synorogenic magmatic epidote-bearing granitoids, Northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caby, Renaud; Sial, Alcides N.; Ferreira, Valderez P.

    2009-02-01

    cerca de los contactos magmáticos y muestran lineaciones minerales casi verticales. Venillas leucocraticas contienen cuarzo, oligoclasa, granate, kyanita, estaurolita, rutilo e ilmenita sugiriendo que el límite en las condiciones de fusión fueron cercanas a los contactos magmáticos ( T ⩾ 650 °C, P entorno 8 kbar). Estos hornfelses de alta presión forman una cobertura rígida de poco metros entorno a los dos plutones. Contrariamente a lo conocido en diferentes ejemplos de hornfelses con kyanita con registro de descompresión, la isóbara de enfriamiento para cerca de 450 °C está controlada por el contenido de Si 3.20-3.30 de fengitas retrógradas, en los hornfelses internos y en las márgenes de los plutones donde las tonalitas están deformadas ductilmente. Isógradas y batógradas son, por lo tanto, aparentemente telescopadas debido a cizalla de alta presión/baja temperatura, posiblemente causado por subsecuentes movimientos verticales diferenciales afectando estos dos plutones solidificados. El emplazamiento a una profundidad inusual de estos plutones calci-alcalinos syn-cinemáticos es explicado por un modelo geodinámico tentativo que involucra un escenario de subducción pre-620 Ma.

  15. [IMPLEMENTATION OF A QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN A NUTRITION UNIT ACCORDING TO ISO 9001:2008].

    PubMed

    Velasco Gimeno, Cristina; Cuerda Compés, Cristina; Alonso Puerta, Alba; Frías Soriano, Laura; Camblor Álvarez, Miguel; Bretón Lesmes, Irene; Plá Mestre, Rosa; Izquierdo Membrilla, Isabel; García-Peris, Pilar

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: la implantación de sistemas de gestión de calidad (SGC) en el sector sanitario ha presentado un gran avance en los últimos años, siendo una herramienta clave para la gestión y la mejora de los servicios ofrecidos a los pacientes. Objetivo: describir el proceso de implantación de un SGC según la Norma ISO 9001:2008 en una unidad de nutrición. Material y métodos: el proceso comenzó en octubre de 2012. Se contó con la asesoría del servicio de medicina preventiva y gestión de calidad (MPGC) del hospital. Al inicio se realizaron sesiones formativas sobre SGC y normas ISO para el personal. Se instauró un comité de calidad (CC) con representación del personal facultativo y de enfermería. Semanalmente, se reunían los miembros del CC y del servicio de MPGC para definir los procesos, los procedimientos y los indicadores de calidad. Antes de validarlos se probaron durante dos meses. Resultados: se identificaron y documentaron un total de 4 procesos (Valoración del estado nutricional, Indicación de tratamiento nutricional, Seguimiento del tratamiento nutricional y Planificación y control de la alimentación oral) y 13 procedimientos operativos donde quedó recogida toda la actividad de la unidad. Las interacciones entre ellos quedaron definidas en el mapa de procesos. En cada uno de los procesos se identificaron indicadores de calidad para medir el estado del SGC y detectar oportunidades de mejora. Se desarrollaron todos los documentos asociados a requerimientos de la Norma ISO 9001:2008: política de calidad, objetivos de calidad, manual de calidad, procedimiento de control de la documentación y registros, de auditoría interna, de no conformidad y de acciones correctivas y preventivas. La unidad obtuvo la certificación de AENOR en abril de 2013. Conclusiones: la implantación de un SGC supone hacer una reflexión sobre las actividades que realiza la unidad con el objetivo de satisfacer las expectativas de los usuarios que demandan

  16. Role of PAHO/WHO in eHealth Capacity Building in the Americas: Analysis of the 2011-2015 period.

    PubMed

    Novillo-Ortiz, David; D'Agostino, Marcelo; Becerra-Posada, Francisco

    2016-08-01

    conocimiento y desarrollo de fuentes de información, el establecimiento de modelos de sostenibilidad en materia de eSalud, el apoyo al desarrollo de los registros electrónicos de salud, la promoción de normas sobre datos de salud y tecnologías conexas que garanticen el intercambio de información, la utilización de los dispositivos móviles para mejorar la salud y la mejora de la calidad asistencial por medio de la telemedicina. El presente artículo detalla las principales acciones ejecutadas por la OPS en eSalud, específicamente por la Oficina de Gestión del Conocimiento, Bioética e Investigación en el período comprendido entre 2011 y 2015 (primer período de implementación de la estrategia y plan de acción de eSalud de la OPS), entre las que se encuentran actividades de investigación y desarrollo de capacidad, la creación de lineamientos técnicos y la construcción de redes de conocimiento.

  17. [Effectiveness of plerixafor in patients undergoing mobilization autologous haematopoietic progenitor cell].

    PubMed

    Ruano Camps, R; Ortiz Pareja, M; Vidales Mancha, I; Muñoz Castillo, I M; Heiniger Mazo, A I

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar efectividad del tratamiento con plerixafor en pacientes sometidos a movilización para posterior autotrasplante de progenitores hematopoyéticos en nuestro hospital. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de todos los pacientes que hasta septiembre 2012, recibieron plerixafor en su esquema de movilización de progenitores hematopoyéticos a sangre periférica. Se revisaron las historias clínicas y los registros de dispensación de medicamentos de la consulta de pacientes externos. Las variables de efectividad utilizadas fueron: CD34/kg en producto de aféresis obtenidas, dosis y días recibidos de factor estimulante de colonias (G-CSF) y de plerixafor. Para cada paciente se comparó los resultados de efectividad del fármaco con los obtenidos para anteriores esquemas de movilización en los que no se utilizó plerixafor, en caso de tenerlos. Los datos se analizaron mediante IBM spss v19. Resultados: Un total de 24 pacientes recibieron plerixafor en nuestro hospital. Los diagnósticos se distribuyeron: 15 linfoma no Hodgkin , 6 pacientes con mieloma múltiple, 2 enfermedad de Hodgkin, y 1 coriocarcinoma diseminado. Los resultados de efectividad fueron: Movilización sin plerixafor (n = 18): 5 pacientes se movilizaron sólo con G-CSGF, 13 con G-CSF y quimioterapia. La dosis de G-CSF /día fue de 931,1 mcg (± 179,5), durante 9,5 días (± 4,7). El promedio de CD34/kg en producto obtenido fue de 0,2 células (± 0,5). Ningún paciente obtuvo producto suficiente (≥?2 x 106 células/kg) para el posterior autotrasplante. El 100 % de las movilizaciones fracasaron. Movilización con plerixafor (n = 24): 13 pacientes se movilizaron sólo con G-CSGF, 11 con G-CSF y quimioterapia. La dosis de G-CSF /día y de plerixafor promedio fue de 885,1 mcg (± 240,1) y 19,8 (± 4,4), respectivamente, administrados durante 8,9 (± 5,1) y 1,5 (± 0,6) días, respectivamente. El promedio de CD34/kg en producto obtenido fue de 2,3x106 células (±1,7) (p = 0,014, en relaci

  18. [Study of tolerance and aceptability of a hyperproteic enteral formula enriched in fiber].

    PubMed

    De Luis, Daniel Antonio; Izaola, Olatz; Castro, A; Martin, M; Torres, B; Lopez Gomez, Jj; Gomez Hoyos, E; Blanco Naveira, Mercedes

    2014-10-18

    Objetivos: Evaluar la tolerancia gastrointestinal y aceptación de la nueva formulación de Isosource Protein ® Fibre® con una nueva mezcla de fibras soluble e insoluble en practica clínica real. Material y métodos: Estudio abierto, no comparativo, no aleatorizado, descriptivo, evaluándose la tolerancia gastrointestinal mediante el registro diario de síntomas gastrointestinales subjetivos por parte del paciente, y objetivos tras la exploración abdominal por parte del investigador. Resultados: Se incluyeron 18 pacientes con una media de edad de 67,32 ±13,8 años y de los cuales un 66,7% eran varones. El peso actual medio de la muestra fue de 68,7±9,8 kg (Rango: 51 - 90 kg) y el IMC 24,0±4,0 kg/ m2 y (Rango: 16,0 - 32,00 kg/m2). El volumen medio final prescrito de Isosource Protein® Fibre® fue de 1580 ± 282,7 ml/día (Rango: 1200 - 2000 ml/día). El 72,22% de los pacientes recibió 1500 ml/día, un 16,67% recibió 1750 ml/día, un 5,56% recibió 2000 ml/día y un 5,56% recibió 2500 ml/día. El análisis de la tolerancia gastrointestinal por parte de los pacientes reveló que en la primera visita del estudio, no refirieron problemas gastrointestinales relevantes, tan solo un paciente indicó la presencia de estreñimiento moderado. Por el contrario, en la última visita del estudio, se observó que dos pacientes refirieron estreñimiento (leve y moderado) y dos pacientes refirieron diarrea (leve y severa). En cuanto a la evaluación de la tolerancia gastrointestinal por parte del investigador y del hábito deposicional, los resultados muestran que en el 100% casos la tolerancia fue normal. Respecto al hábito deposicional se observa significativamente (p=0,035) que el 66,7% de los pacientes no presentaron deposiciones al inicio del estudio, frente al 33,4% en la última visita. En este sentido, se observó un aumento significativo en la media del número de deposiciones diarias en la visita final (0,89 ± 0,90, rango: 0 a 3), respecto a la inicial (0

  19. [Calcium and vi