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Sample records for rhubarb rheum rhaponticum

  1. Antioxidant activity, phenolic and anthocyanin contents of various rhubarb (Rheum-spp.) varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antioxidant activity (ABTS assay), total phenolics, and total anthocyanins were determined in the petioles of fifteen rhubarb (Rheum spp.) varieties. Antioxidant activity ranged from 491 ± 60 (Victoria 574/27) to 1820 'mol Trolox/g DW (Valentine). The phenolic content varied from 673 ± 41 (Loher Blu...

  2. Rheum rhaponticum Extract (ERr 731): Postmarketing Data on Safety Surveillance and Consumer Complaints.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jyh-Lurn; Montalto, Michael B; Heger, Peter W; Thiemann, Eva; Rettenberger, Reinhard; Wacker, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Postmarketing surveillance data for a commercially available extract of Rheum rhaponticum (ERr 731) have not been published since the beginning of the reporting in 1993 in Germany about adverse events (AEs) that were believed to be associated with it. The extract is derived from the plant's roots and is indicated for menopausal relief. In Germany, the extract has been marketed as Phytoestrol N and other related products-Phyto-Strol, Phyto-Strol Loges, and Phyto-Strol compact and as femi-loges. In the United States and Canada and in South Africa, the product had been marketed as Estrovera. The study's objective was to summarize the AE reports from Germany from 1993 to June 2014 and also to assess consumers' complaints in North America and South Africa from the date of the extract's launch to June 2014. AE reports recorded by 2 German holders of marketing authorizations, Chemisch-Pharmazeutische Fabrik Göppingen, for Phytoestrol N, and Dr. Loges + Co. GmbH, for femi-loges, were collected and analyzed. Consumers' complaints in North America and South Africa that had been captured by the US distributor of Estrovera were also collected and analyzed. From 1993 to June 2014, approximately 140 million daily doses of the extract were placed on the German market, and 124 AE reports were recorded. The most common of those AEs were hypersensitivity, with 74 reactions, and gastrointestinal symptoms, with 47 reactions. From January 2009 to June 2014, approximately 13 million tablets of the supplement were sold in North America, and 79 complaints from consumers associated with a physical response to it had been recorded. The main complaints were gastrointestinal symptoms, with 23 cases, and failure to work as suggested, with 22 cases. From the date of the product's launch in South Africa in February 2011 to June 2014, no consumer complaints have been reported. The records related to postmarketing surveillance and consumers' complaints suggest that the extract of R rhaponticum is

  3. Rheum rhaponticum Extract (ERr 731): Postmarketing Data on Safety Surveillance and Consumer Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jyh-Lurn; Montalto, Michael B.; Heger, Peter W.; Thiemann, Eva; Rettenberger, Reinhard; Wacker, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Context Postmarketing surveillance data for a commercially available extract of Rheum rhaponticum (ERr 731) have not been published since the beginning of the reporting in 1993 in Germany about adverse events (AEs) that were believed to be associated with it. The extract is derived from the plant’s roots and is indicated for menopausal relief. In Germany, the extract has been marketed as Phytoestrol N and other related products—Phyto-Strol, Phyto-Strol Loges, and Phyto-Strol compact and as femi-loges. In the United States and Canada and in South Africa, the product had been marketed as Estrovera. Objective The study’s objective was to summarize the AE reports from Germany from 1993 to June 2014 and also to assess consumers’ complaints in North America and South Africa from the date of the extract’s launch to June 2014. Design AE reports recorded by 2 German holders of marketing authorizations, Chemisch-Pharmazeutische Fabrik Göppingen, for Phytoestrol N, and Dr. Loges + Co. GmbH, for femi-loges, were collected and analyzed. Consumers’ complaints in North America and South Africa that had been captured by the US distributor of Estrovera were also collected and analyzed. Results From 1993 to June 2014, approximately 140 million daily doses of the extract were placed on the German market, and 124 AE reports were recorded. The most common of those AEs were hypersensitivity, with 74 reactions, and gastrointestinal symptoms, with 47 reactions. From January 2009 to June 2014, approximately 13 million tablets of the supplement were sold in North America, and 79 complaints from consumers associated with a physical response to it had been recorded. The main complaints were gastrointestinal symptoms, with 23 cases, and failure to work as suggested, with 22 cases. From the date of the product’s launch in South Africa in February 2011 to June 2014, no consumer complaints have been reported. Conclusions The records related to postmarketing surveillance and

  4. Rhubarb botany, horticulture, and genetic resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhubarb (Rheum spp.) is native to areas around the Tibetan Plateau and has been cultivated for medicinal purposes for approximately 4,000 years. The roots (rhizomes) of species in this genus are rich in anthraquinones and other biochemicals that may show promise in treating or preventing cancer, dia...

  5. Short-read DNA sequencing yields microsatellite markers for Rheum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Identifying culinary rhubarb (Rheum ×hybridum Murray) cultivars using morphological characteristics is problematic due to variability within individual genotypes, variation caused by environmental factors, plant and leaf age, similarity between genetically diverse genotypes, multiple cultivar names ...

  6. Global chemical profiling based quality evaluation approach of rhubarb using ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Haiyu; Qin, Lingling; Zhang, Zhixin; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Qingqing; Lu, Zhiwei; Wei, Shengli; Gao, Xiaoyan; Tu, Pengfei

    2015-02-01

    A global chemical profiling based quality evaluation approach using ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed for the quality evaluation of three rhubarb species, including Rheum palmatum L., Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf., and Rheum officinale Baill. Considering that comprehensive detection of chemical components is crucial for the global profile, a systemic column performance evaluation method was developed. Based on this, a Cortecs column was used to acquire the chemical profile, and Chempattern software was employed to conduct similarity evaluation and hierarchical cluster analysis. The results showed R. tanguticum could be differentiated from R. palmatum and R. officinale at the similarity value 0.65, but R. palmatum and R. officinale could not be distinguished effectively. Therefore, a common pattern based on three rhubarb species was developed to conduct the quality evaluation, and the similarity value 0.50 was set as an appropriate threshold to control the quality of rhubarb. A total of 88 common peaks were identified by their accurate mass and fragmentation, and partially verified by reference standards. Through the verification, the newly developed method could be successfully used for evaluating the holistic quality of rhubarb. It would provide a reference for the quality control of other herbal medicines. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The protective and toxic effects of rhubarb tannins and anthraquinones in treating hexavalent chromium-injured rats: the Yin/Yang actions of rhubarb.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ling-na; Ma, Zhi-jie; Zhao, Yan-ling; Zhang, Lin-dong; Li, Rui-sheng; Wang, Jia-bo; Zhang, Ping; Yan, Dan; Li, Qi; Jiang, Bing-qian; Pu, Shi-biao; Lü, Yang; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2013-02-15

    Chromium nephrotoxicity (CrNT) is thought to occur through the oxidant lesion mechanism. There is still a lack of specific remedies against CrNT. We primarily screened Chinese herbal medicines with a potential protective effect against CrNT, e.g., rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.). However, the active constituents in rhubarb and its mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the total rhubarb extract (TR) was successively separated into three parts: total anthraquinone extract (TA), total tannin extract (TT) and remaining component extract (RC). The effects of each extract on the potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7))-induced nephrotoxicity in rats were comparatively assessed. The results showed that only the administration of TT protected the kidney function in K(2)Cr(2)O(7)-injured rats. Besides, TT showed significant activity to scavenge hydroxyl radicals, which is considered to be the dominant lesion product generated by hexavalent chromium. TT also showed a reduced ability to transform toxic high valence chromium ions into non-toxic low valence ions. And TT was able to further precipitate chromium ions. These results suggested that rhubarb tannins treat CrNT as a free radical scavenger, reductant, and metal precipitant. The multiple protective routes of the plant tannins reveal a superior option for development into a promising natural remedy against CrNT. In addition, the opposite effects of rhubarb anthraquinones in treating CrNT were observed compared to rhubarb tannins, which suggested the duo-directional effects (Yin and Yang) of herbal medicines should be addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Influence of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. on the Pharmacokinetic Characteristics of Main Components in Rheum palmatum L.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-xia; Gong, Xiao-hong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ruo-qi; Yuan, An; Zhao, Meng-jie; Zeng, Dai-wen; Peng, Cheng

    2015-08-01

    Rhei Radix et Rhizoma was one of the commonly used traditional Chinese medicines, and the compatibility of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata was the basic herb pair applied in many Chinese traditional prescription. Rhubarb anthraquinones were the main bioactive materials of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. To elucidate the compatibility of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, the pharmacokinetics of rhubarb anthraquinones as the main marker constituents were investigated. In the present study, pharmacokinetic differences of rhubarb anthraquinones were detected after oral administration of extract of Rheum palmatum L. and compatibility with Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. After oral administration, no difference of peak time can be found for anthraquinones between rhubarb group and compatibility group. But Cmax and area under the curve of aloe-emodin, emodin and chrysophanol in compatibility group were significantly higher than that in rhubarb group. Although the Cmax of rhein in compatibility group was much lower than that in rhubarb group, the area under the curve value was similar in two groups. The clearance and t1/2 of rhubarb anthraquinone were also changed after compatibility. The change of pharmacokinetics characteristics of rhubarb anthraquinone after compatibility may be caused by the drug-drug interaction medicated by chemical reaction and cytochromes P450. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. [Comparative studies on purgative potency among three spieces of certified rhubarb].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-kui; Li, Ao; Wang, Hui; Xu, Xiao-yu

    2006-12-01

    To investigate the difference and causes of purgative activity in three species of certified rhubarb, so as to lay steady foundations of further research on assessing purgative activity impersonally by using measurable indexes. The potencies of three species were comparied with purgative ED, of mice as quantitative index which were calculated, and activities of Na+ K + -ATP ase in mouse colonic epithelial cell membrane were also investigated . The related purgative contents (conjunct and free rhein, chrysophanol, chrysophanic acid, sennoside A) were detected by HPLC and contents (total anthraquinones, anthraglucosennin; conjunct and free anthraquinones) were detected by UV. There were different purgative activities among three spieces of certified rhubarb. Each purgative ED, of mice was Rheum tanguticum ( ED50 = 0. 37 g x kg (-1)) , R. officinale ( ED50 = 0. 99 g x kg(-1) ) and R. palrnatum from Gansu (ED50 = 1. 83 g x kg(-1)) , the ratio of potency of those was 4. 94: 1. 85: 1. In the meanwhile, the difference of the inhibitory effect on Na+ -K + -ATP ase in mouse colonic epithelial cell membrane and relative purgative components also existed in the three species of certified rhubarb. It disclosed that there was notable diference of purgative activity and components among three spieces of certified Rhubarb, which probably resulted in the ultimate diference in clinical prescription and the production of Chinese patent medicines.

  10. Rheum emodin inhibits enterovirus 71 viral replication and affects the host cell cycle environment

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ting; Zhang, Li-ying; Wang, Zeng-yan; Wang, Yue; Song, Feng-mei; Zhang, Ya-hong; Yu, Jing-hua

    2017-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the primary causative agent of recent large-scale outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in Asia. Currently, there are no drugs available for the prevention and treatment of HFMD. In this study, we compared the anti-EV71 activities of three natural compounds, rheum emodin, artemisinin and astragaloside extracted from Chinese herbs Chinese rhubarb, Artemisia carvifolia and Astragalus, respectively, which have been traditionally used for the treatment and prevention of epidemic diseases. Human lung fibroblast cell line MRC5 was mock-infected or infected with EV71, and treated with drugs. The cytotoxicity of the drugs was detected with MTT assay. The cytopathic effects such as cell death and condensed nuclei were morphologically observed. The VP1-coding sequence required for EV71 genome replication was assayed with qRT-PCR. Viral protein expression was analyzed with Western blotting. Viral TCID50 was determined to evaluate EV71 virulence. Flow cytometry analysis of propidium iodide staining was performed to analyze the cell cycle distribution of MRC5 cells. Rheum emodin (29.6 μmol/L) effectively protected MRC5 cells from EV71-induced cytopathic effects, which resulted from the inhibiting viral replication: rheum emodin treatment decreased viral genomic levels by 5.34-fold, viral protein expression by less than 30-fold and EV71 virulence by 0.33107-fold. The fact that inhibition of rheum emodin on viral virulence was much stronger than its effects on genomic levels and viral protein expression suggested that rheum emodin inhibited viral maturation. Furthermore, rheum emodin treatment markedly diminished cell cycle arrest at S phase in MRC5 cells, which was induced by EV71 infection and favored the viral replication. In contrast, neither astragaloside (50 μmol/L) nor artemisinin (50 μmol/L) showed similar anti-EV71 activities. Among the three natural compounds tested, rheum emodin effectively suppressed EV71 viral replication

  11. Rheum emodin inhibits enterovirus 71 viral replication and affects the host cell cycle environment.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ting; Zhang, Li-Ying; Wang, Zeng-Yan; Wang, Yue; Song, Feng-Mei; Zhang, Ya-Hong; Yu, Jing-Hua

    2017-03-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the primary causative agent of recent large-scale outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in Asia. Currently, there are no drugs available for the prevention and treatment of HFMD. In this study, we compared the anti-EV71 activities of three natural compounds, rheum emodin, artemisinin and astragaloside extracted from Chinese herbs Chinese rhubarb, Artemisia carvifolia and Astragalus, respectively, which have been traditionally used for the treatment and prevention of epidemic diseases. Human lung fibroblast cell line MRC5 was mock-infected or infected with EV71, and treated with drugs. The cytotoxicity of the drugs was detected with MTT assay. The cytopathic effects such as cell death and condensed nuclei were morphologically observed. The VP1-coding sequence required for EV71 genome replication was assayed with qRT-PCR. Viral protein expression was analyzed with Western blotting. Viral TCID50 was determined to evaluate EV71 virulence. Flow cytometry analysis of propidium iodide staining was performed to analyze the cell cycle distribution of MRC5 cells. Rheum emodin (29.6 μmol/L) effectively protected MRC5 cells from EV71-induced cytopathic effects, which resulted from the inhibiting viral replication: rheum emodin treatment decreased viral genomic levels by 5.34-fold, viral protein expression by less than 30-fold and EV71 virulence by 0.33107-fold. The fact that inhibition of rheum emodin on viral virulence was much stronger than its effects on genomic levels and viral protein expression suggested that rheum emodin inhibited viral maturation. Furthermore, rheum emodin treatment markedly diminished cell cycle arrest at S phase in MRC5 cells, which was induced by EV71 infection and favored the viral replication. In contrast, neither astragaloside (50 μmol/L) nor artemisinin (50 μmol/L) showed similar anti-EV71 activities. Among the three natural compounds tested, rheum emodin effectively suppressed EV71 viral replication

  12. Metabolomic characterization of rhubarb species by capillary electrophoresis and ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yufeng Jane; Kuo, Chun-Ting; Wang, San-Yuan; Liao, Hsiao-Wei; Chen, Guan-Yuan; Ku, Yuan-Ling; Shao, Wei-Cheng; Kuo, Ching-Hua

    2013-10-01

    This study developed CE and ultra-high-pressure LC (UHPLC) methods coupled with UV detectors to characterize the metabolomic profiles of different rhubarb species. The optimal CE conditions used a BGE with 15 mM sodium tetraborate, 15 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate monohydrate, 30 mM sodium deoxycholate, and 30% ACN v/v at pH 8.3. The optimal UHPLC conditions used a mobile phase composed of 0.05% phosphate buffer and ACN with gradient elution. The gradient profile increased linearly from 10 to 21% ACN within the first 25 min, then increased to 33% ACN for the next 10 min. It took another 5 min to reach the 65% ACN, then for the next 5 min, it stayed unchanged. Sixteen samples of Rheum officinale and Rheum tanguticum collected from various locations were analyzed by CE and UHPLC methods. The metabolite profiles of CE were aligned and baseline corrected before chemometric analysis. Metabolomic signatures of rhubarb species from CE and UHPLC were clustered using principle component analysis and distance-based redundancy analysis; the clusters were not only able to discriminate different species but also different cultivation regions. Similarity measurements were performed by calculating the correlation coefficient of each sample with the authentic samples. Hybrid rhizome was clearly identified through similarity measurement of UHPLC metabolite profile and later confirmed by gene sequencing. The present study demonstrated that CE and UHPLC are efficient and effective tools to identify and authenticate herbs even coupled with simple detectors. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Molecular Phylogeny, Recent Radiation and Evolution of Gross Morphology of the Rhubarb genus Rheum (Polygonaceae) Inferred from Chloroplast DNA trnL-F Sequences

    PubMed Central

    WANG, AILAN; YANG, MEIHUA; LIU, JIANQUAN

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Rheum, a highly diversified genus with about 60 species, is mainly confined to the mountainous and desert regions of the Qinghai–Tibetan plateau and adjacent areas. This genus represents a good example of the extensive diversification of the temperate genera in the Qinghai–Tibetan plateau, in which the forces to drive diversification remain unknown. To date, the infrageneric classification of Rheum has been mainly based on morphological characters. However, it may have been subject to convergent evolution under habitat pressure, and the systematic position of some sections are unclear, especially Sect. Globulosa, which has globular inflorescences, and Sect. Nobilia, which has semi-translucent bracts. Recent palynological research has found substantial contradictions between exine patterns and the current classification of Rheum. Two specific objectives of this research were (1) to evaluate possible relationships of some ambiguous sections with a unique morphology, and (2) to examine possible occurrence of the radiative speciation with low genetic divergence across the total genus and the correlation between the extensive diversification time of Rheum and past geographical events, especially the recent large-scale uplifts of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. • Methods The chloroplast DNA trnL-F region of 29 individuals representing 26 species of Rheum, belonging to seven out of eight sections, was sequenced and compared. The phylogenetic relationships were further constructed based on the sequences obtained. • Key Results Despite the highly diversified morphology, the genetic variation in this DNA fragment is relatively low. The molecular phylogeny is highly inconsistent with gross morphology, pollen exine patterns and traditional classifications, except for identifying all samples of Sect. Palmata, three species of Sect. Spiciformia and a few species of Sect. Rheum as corresponding monophyletic groups. The monotypic Sect. Globulosa

  14. Rapid identification and simultaneous analysis of multiple constituents from Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liang-Liang; Guo, Tao; Xu, Xu-Dong; Yang, Jun-Shan

    2017-07-01

    Rhubarb contains biologically active compounds such as anthraquinones, anthrones, stilbenes and tannins. A rapid and efficient UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS method was developed and applied towards identifying the constituents of Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. for the first time. Chemical constituents were separated and investigated by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS in the negative ion mode. The ESI-MS 2 fragmentation pathways of four types of compounds were interpreted, providing a very useful guidance for the characterisation of different types of compounds. Based on the exact mass information, fragmentation characteristic and LC retention time of 7 reference standards, 30 constituents were tentatively identified from the methanol extract of R. tanguticum. Among them, seven compounds were described for the first time from R. tanguticum and two from the genus Rheum were described for the first time. The analytical tool used here is valuable for the rapid separation and identification of multiple and minor constituents in methanol extracts of R. tanguticum.

  15. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002876.htm Rhubarb leaves poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rhubarb leaves poisoning occurs when someone eats pieces ...

  16. Preparation of Clinically Useful Sennoside-reduced Rhubarb.

    PubMed

    Arai, Makoto; Nakada, Yoshinobu; Kajiwara, Kagemasa; Kimura, Minoru; Ishii, Naoaki

    2016-03-20

    The aim of this study was to develop a method of removing sennoside to reduce the cathartic effect of rhubarb while conserving its other pharmacological activities. Rhubarb powder was steam autoclaved at 121°C and 0.14 MPa for 20, 60, or 120 minutes, and HPLC analysis was conducted to determine levels of rhubarb components. Mice were fed non-autoclaved or 20-minute-autoclaved rhubarb extracts. Feces were collected and weighed over a 24-hour period. India ink was orally administered to determine the distance of fecal migration through the intestinal tract. Autoclaving 20, 60, and 120 minutes decreased sennoside A and B to trace levels but only autoclaving 20 minutes conserved most of the (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and (-)-epicatechin gallate contents (i.e., 69%, 90%, 88%, respectively). Therefore only rhubarb autoclaved for 20 minutes was used in subsequent experiments. Fecal output (in g) in mice treated with water (control), autoclaved rhubarb, and non-autoclaved rhubarb was 2.78 ± 0.07, 3.30 ± 0.13 (p = 0.348), and 3.81 ± 0.07 (p = 0.005). India ink migration was far less in mice treated with autoclaved rhubarb vs non-autoclaved rhubarb. Steam autoclaving the rhubarb for 20 minutes reduces sennoside levels and its cathartic activity while conserving its other pharmacological activities.

  17. [Study on Precursors for Synthesis of Anthraquinone Metabolites from Rheum tanguticum].

    PubMed

    Hasi, Qi-mei-ge; Lj, Hai-ling; Cheng, Yan; Menggen, Qi-qi-ge; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    To explore the potential precursors of the anthraquinone metabolites from Rheum tanguticum and preliminanly identify the synthesis pathway thereof. Sterile seedlings sprouted from the seeds of Rheum tanguticum were chosen as materials for inducing callus. The effects of different precursors and feeding duration on the callus of Rheum tanguticum and the anthraquinone yield in adult rheum were studied. The greatest improvement of anthraquinone yield was achieved by acetic acid, increasing 43. 9% for the callus and 45. 8% in the adult rheum; the second greatest improvement was achieved by malonic acid, increasing 15. 8% for the callus and only 3. 6% in the adult rheum. The yield of anthraquinone was not influenced significantly by benzoic acid and p-benzoquinone, and in contrast, was inhibited in some degree by shikimic acid and α-ketoglutaric acid. A suitable feeding duration was 36 h, which worked well for the effects of precursors. The precursor for synthesis of anthraquinone metabolites from Rheum tan- guticum is acetic acid, which improves the yields of callus and anthraquinone in adult rheum, concluding that the anthraquinone metabolites are synthesized via polyketone pathway.

  18. Effect of rhubarb (Rheum emodi) in primary dysmenorrhoea: a single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Hina; Begum, Wajeeha; Anjum, Farzana; Tabasum, Humyra; Zahid, Shabnam

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and evaluate the efficacy of Rheum emodi in the management of primary dysmenorrhoea. A randomized, single-blind, standard controlled trial compared efficacy of R. emodi against mefenamic acid on diagnosed subjects of primary dysmenorrhoea for three consecutive cycles. Experimental group (n=30) received capsules of R. emodi powder two times a day, two days before the expected date of menstruation, and continued first three days of menstruation, while control group (n=15) participants received mefenamic acid capsules three times a day on the same protocol. The primary outcome measures were reduced in severity and duration of pain, assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) and verbal multidimensional scoring system (VMSS), and secondary outcome measures were overall improvement of dysmenorrhoea and improved in quality of life (QOL). Statistical analysis was done by repeated measures analysis of variance and Chi-square/Fisher Exact test. The menstrual pain was significantly decreased in both groups after three-cycle intervention. Significant changes were observed in VAS (p<0.001) and VMSS (p<0.001) in the experimental group. There is a significant (p<0.001) reduction in duration of pain in both the groups. Associated symptoms and QOL were markedly improved after treatment (p<0.001). It has been clear from the above result that R. emodi is an effective herb in alleviating symptoms of primary dysmenorrhoea. It can serve as an alternative treatment without any apparent side effects. These results deserve further investigations.

  19. Bioinformatics analysis on molecular mechanism of rheum officinale in treatment of jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Si; Tu, Jun; Nie, Peng; Yan, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the molecular mechanism of Rheum officinale in the treatment of Jaundice by building molecular networks and comparing canonical pathways. Methods: Target proteins of Rheum officinale and related genes of Jaundice were searched from Pubchem and Gene databases online respectively. Molecular networks and canonical pathways comparison analyses were performed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Results: The molecular networks of Rheum officinale and Jaundice were complex and multifunctional. The 40 target proteins of Rheum officinale and 33 Homo sapiens genes of Jaundice were found in databases. There were 19 common pathways both related networks. Rheum officinale could regulate endothelial differentiation, Interleukin-1B (IL-1B) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) in these pathways. Conclusions: Rheum officinale treat Jaundice by regulating many effective nodes of Apoptotic pathway and cellular immunity related pathways.

  20. Rhubarb Antagonizes Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-induced Vascular Endothelial Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yun-Liang; Zhang, Sheng; Tian, Zhao-Tao; Lin, Zhao-Fen; Chen, De-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intact endothelial structure and function are critical for maintaining microcirculatory homeostasis. Dysfunction of the latter is an underlying cause of various organ pathologies. In a previous study, we showed that rhubarb, a traditional Chinese medicine, protected intestinal mucosal microvascular endothelial cells in rats with metastasizing septicemia. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of rhubarb on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9)-induced vascular endothelial (VE) permeability. Methods: Rhubarb monomers were extracted and purified by a series of chromatography approaches. The identity of these monomers was analyzed by hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), carbon-13 NMR, and distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We established a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayer on a Transwell insert. We measured the HUVEC permeability, proliferation, and the secretion of VE-cadherin into culture medium using fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran assay, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, in response to treatment with MMP9 and/or rhubarb monomers. Results: A total of 21 rhubarb monomers were extracted and identified. MMP9 significantly increased the permeability of the HUVEC monolayer, which was significantly reduced by five individual rhubarb monomer (emodin, 3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, 1-O-caffeoyl-2-(4-hydroxyl-O-cinnamoyl)-β-D-glucose, daucosterol linoleate, and rhein) or a combination of all five monomers (1 μmol/L for each monomer). Mechanistically, the five-monomer mixture at 1 μmol/L promoted HUVEC proliferation. In addition, MMP9 stimulated the secretion of VE-cadherin into the culture medium, which was significantly inhibited by the five-monomer mixture. Conclusions: The rhubarb mixture of emodin, 3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2

  1. Gut Microbial Diversity in Rat Model Induced by Rhubarb

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ying; Wu, Chunfu; Yang, Jingyu; Li, Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Rhubarb is often used to establish chronic diarrhea and spleen (Pi)-deficiency syndrome animal models in China. In this study, we utilized the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) method to detect changes in bacterial diversity in feces and the bowel mucosa associated with this model. Total microbial genomic DNA from the small bowel (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), large bowel (proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum), cecum, and feces of normal and rhubarb-exposed rats were used as templates for the ERIC-PCR analysis. We found that the fecal microbial composition did not correspond to the bowel bacteria mix. More bacterial diversity was observed in the ileum of rhubarb-exposed rats (P<0.05). Furthermore, a 380 bp product was found to be increased in rhubarb-exposed rats both in faces and the bowel mucosa. The product was cloned and sequenced and showed high similarity with regions of the Bacteroides genome. AS a result of discriminant analysis with the SPSS software, the Canonical Discriminant Function Formulae for model rats was established. PMID:25048267

  2. [Rapid analysis on phenolic compounds in Rheum palmatum based on UPLC-Q-TOF/MSE combined with diagnostic ions filter].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Yue-Hong; Wang, Ming-Ling; Fu, Shuang; Zhang, Qing-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Zhen; Zhang, Zhi-Xin; Xie, Zi-Ye; Huang, Zheng-Hai; Yu, Hong-Hong; Zhou, Wen-Juan; Gao, Xiao-Yan

    2017-05-01

    Diagnostic ions filter method was used to rapidly detect and identify the phenolic compounds in Rheum palmatum based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MSE). The representative authentic standards of phenolic compounds, including gallic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate and procyanidin B2, were subjected to analysis by UPLC-Q-TOF/MSE system with negative ion mode. Fragmentation patterns of each standard were summarized based on assigned fragment ions. The prominent product ions were selected as diagnostic ions. Subsequently, diagnostic ions filter was employed to rapidly recognize analogous skeletons. Combined with retention time, accurate mass, characteristic fragments and previous literature data, the structures of the filtered compounds were identified or tentatively characterized. A total 63 phenolic compounds (36 phenolic acid derivatives, 8 flavonoid derivatives and 19 tennis derivatives) in R. palmatum were identified, including 6 potential new compounds. The method of diagnostic ions filter could rapidly detect and identify phenolic compounds in R. palmatum This study provides a method for rapid detection of phenolic compounds in R. palmatum and is expected to complete the material basis of rhubarb. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. A Systematic Review of Rhubarb (a Traditional Chinese Medicine) Used for the Treatment of Experimental Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Fang; Zhang, Yan; Xie, Dong-ping; Mai, Shu-tao; Weng, Yan-na; Du, Jiong-dong; Wu, Guang-ping; Zheng, Jing-xia; Han, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a global major health problem in great need for more effective therapy. For thousands of years, Rhubarb had been used for various diseases including severe infection. Pharmacological studies and trials reported that Rhubarb may be effective in treating sepsis, but the efficacy and the quality of evidence remain unclear since there is no systematic review on Rhubarb for sepsis. The present study is the first systematic review of Rhubarb used for the treatment of experimental sepsis in both English and Chinese literatures by identifying 27 studies from 7 databases. It showed that Rhubarb might be effective in reducing injuries in gastrointestinal tract, lung, and liver induced by sepsis, and its potential mechanisms might include reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, ameliorating microcirculatory disturbance, and maintaining immune balance. Yet the positive findings should be interpreted with caution due to poor methodological quality. In a word, Rhubarb might be a promising candidate that is worth further clinical and experimental trials for sepsis therapy. PMID:26339264

  4. THE ACCUMULATION OF ELECTROLYTES

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, A. G.

    1934-01-01

    The inorganic constituents of the sap of Rheum (rhubarb), Rumex (field sorrel), and Oxalis (wood sorrel) show a great preponderance of cations over anions, as would be expected if the cations entered chiefly as hydrates (other possibilities will be discussed in Part 2). PMID:19872837

  5. [Protective mechanism on the vascular pathological process in diabetes mellitus rats by Rheum officeinale].

    PubMed

    Tian, Feng-Sheng; Li, Zhen-Bin; Wang, Yuan-Song; Su, Xiu-Hai; Li, Wen-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Yun

    2008-03-01

    To explore the protective mechanism of officeihale on the vascular pathological process in diabetes mellitus (DM) rats. After the DM rat model was established, 24 DM rats were randomly divided into model group (12 DM rats) and Rheum officeinale group (12 DM rats). Rheum officeinale was orally given in 10 g kg(-1) per day, and the other two groups were given equal pure water. 8 weeks later, blood samples were collected to determine the level of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1). Thoracic aortic rings was prepared to observe the inhibiting effect of Ach with different concentration on contraction caused by NE. Another part of aorta was made to observe the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 by method of SP immunohistochemistry staining, Rheum officeinale group obviously decreased the level of ET-1 and increased the NO compared with model group (P <0.05). The expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 could be obviously inhibited in Rheum officeinale group compared with model group. (P <0.05). Rheum officeinale could decrease the level of ET-1 with increased the NO in diabetes rats, and inhibit the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, which may be mechanisms of protecting the endothelium of vessel in diabetes rats.

  6. [Resource situation investigation about Rheum tanguticum and its sustainable utilization analysis in main production area of China].

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Liu, Kai; Wei, Sheng-Li; Cheng, Xiao-Li; Liu, Juan; Ren, Guang-Xi; Wang, Wen-Quan

    2014-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the wild and cultivated resource situation of Rheum tanguticum in main production area of China, estimate its reserves, and put forward the feasible approach for the sustainable utilization of R. tanguticum. On the basis of the literature data about R. tanguticum, conbined with interview, investigation and sampling investigation, the total reserve of resources is estimated using the route-quadrat method and the vegetation and soil-type map area method proposed by our research group. The results indicate that there is no obvious change between the present distribution ranges of the wild R. tanguticum and its historical records, but its population density has changed clearly. The reserve of the wild R. tanguticum has seriously declined in lots of place, even faced the exhaustion in some regions. According to the investigation, the resource reserve of the wild R. tanguticum is no more than 5 000 t, and the cultivated is about 1 607 t. The resource reserve of the wild R. tanguticum is nearly depleted, and this suggests that the wild R. tanguticum should be enrolled in the protection plant list, and the cultivated will become the main resource of Rhubarb in the future. So it is extremely neccessary to collect and protect the germplasm resource of R. tanguticum, establish the germplasm nursery and repository, and conduct breeding research on those bases.

  7. [Quality evaluation of rhubarb dispensing granules based on multi-component simultaneous quantitative analysis and bioassay].

    PubMed

    Tan, Peng; Zhang, Hai-Zhu; Zhang, Ding-Kun; Wu, Shan-Na; Niu, Ming; Wang, Jia-Bo; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2017-07-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the quality of Chinese formula granules by combined use of multi-component simultaneous quantitative analysis and bioassay. The rhubarb dispensing granules were used as the model drug for demonstrative study. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method was adopted for simultaneously quantitative determination of the 10 anthraquinone derivatives (such as aloe emodin-8-O-β-D-glucoside) in rhubarb dispensing granules; purgative biopotency of different batches of rhubarb dispensing granules was determined based on compound diphenoxylate tablets-induced mouse constipation model; blood activating biopotency of different batches of rhubarb dispensing granules was determined based on in vitro rat antiplatelet aggregation model; SPSS 22.0 statistical software was used for correlation analysis between 10 anthraquinone derivatives and purgative biopotency, blood activating biopotency. The results of multi-components simultaneous quantitative analysisshowed that there was a great difference in chemical characterizationand certain differences inpurgative biopotency and blood activating biopotency among 10 batches of rhubarb dispensing granules. The correlation analysis showed that the intensity of purgative biopotency was significantly correlated with the content of conjugated anthraquinone glycosides (P<0.01), and the intensity of blood activating biopotency was significantly correlated with the content of free anthraquinone (P<0.01). In summary, the combined use of multi-component simultaneous quantitative analysis and bioassay can achieve objective quantification and more comprehensive reflection on overall quality difference among different batches of rhubarb dispensing granules. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Assessment of Boeremia exigua var. rhapontica, as a biological control agent of Russian knapweed (Rhaponticum repens)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Russian knapweed (Rhaponticum repens (L.) Hidalgo) is an herbaceous perennial weed that was introduced and has become invasive in the United States, particularly in the semi-arid west. It is characterized by its extensive root system, low seed production, and persistence. The weed has caused serious...

  9. Rheum australe D. Don: a review of its botany, ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Timsina, Binu; Bhattarai, Krishna Ram

    2012-06-14

    Rheum australe D. Don (Polygonaceae) has been commonly used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to the circulatory, digestive, endocrine, respiratory and skeletal systems as well as to infectious diseases. To provide the up-to-date information that is available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Rheum australe. Additionally, to highlight the possible uses of this species to treat different diseases and to provide a basis for future research. The present review covers the literature available from 1980 to 2011. The information was collected from scientific journals, books, theses and reports via a library and electronic search (Google Scholar, Web of Science and ScienceDirect). Ethnomedical uses of Rheum australe have been recorded from China, India, Nepal and Pakistan for 57 different types of ailments. The phytochemical studies have shown the presence of many secondary metabolites belonging to anthraquinones, stilbenes, anthrones, oxantrone ethers and esters, chromones, flavonoids, carbohydrate, lignans, phenols and sterols. Crude extracts and isolated compounds from Rheum australe show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, hepatoprotective and immune-enhancing activities, as well as a usefulness for improving renal function. Rheum australe has been widely used source of medicine for years without any adverse effects. Many studies have provided evidence for various traditional uses. However, there is a need for additional studies of the isolated compounds to validate the traditional uses in human models. The present review on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and toxicity has provided preliminary information for further studies and commercial exploitations of the plant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adjuvant treatment with crude rhubarb for patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lina; Pan, Shuming

    2015-12-01

    Crude rhubarb has been used to treat critically ill patients for many years. However, no previous meta-analysis has been investigated the benefits of crude rhubarb in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). To summarize the beneficial effects of adjuvant treatment with crude rhubarb in patients with AOPP by conducting a meta-analysis. A literature search of the databases through Pubmed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP, and Wanfang were performed for studies published up to October 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of crude rhubarb as adjuvant treatment for patients with AOPP were included. A total of 12 RCTs with 886 patients were identified. Adjuvant treatment with crude rhubarb was associated with a significantly lower incidence of intermediate syndrome (risk ratio [RR] 0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10-0.48), as well as multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (RR 0.34; 95% CI 0.20-0.56). Crude rhubarb as adjuvant treatment reduced the total dose of pralidoxime (mean difference [MD] -5.12 g; 95% CI -8.24 to -2.00) or atropine (MD -94.89 mg; 95% CI -156.22 to -33.57), and hospital length of stay (MD -2.79 days; 95% CI -4.19 to -1.39) compared with the controls. This meta-analysis suggests that crude rhubarb as adjuvant treatment appears to have additional beneficial effects in patients with AOPP. More well-designed trials are needed to confirm our findings due to the methodological flaws of the included trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Problems with Rhubarb: Accommodating Experience in Aristotelian Theories of Science.

    PubMed

    Hessbrüggen-Walter, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines controversies over the role of experience in the constitution of scientific knowledge in early modern Aristotelianism. While for Jacopo Zabarella, experience helps to confirm the results of demonstrative science, the Bologna Dominican Chrysostomo Javelli assumes that it also contributes to the discovery of new truths in what he calls 'beginning science'. Both thinkers use medical plants as a philosophical example. Javelli analyses the proposition 'rhubarb purges bile' as the conclusion of a yet unknown scientific proof. Zabarella uses instead hellebore, a plant that is found all over Europe, and defends the view that propositions about purgative powers of plants are based on their 'identity of substance', an identity that had become questionable with regard to rhubarb due to new empirical findings in the sixteenth century.

  12. The influence of rhein 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside on the purgative action of sennoside A from rhubarb in mice.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kento; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Ishizu, Takashi; Okamura, Nobuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Rhubarb is one of the most well-known herbal medicines that constitute daiokanzoto (DKT), which is clinically effective for constipation. Sennoside A is transformed into an active metabolite, rheinanthrone, by intestinal bacteria. Sennoside A in rhubarb showed significantly accelerated metabolic activity in intestinal bacteria in comparison with sennoside A alone. In this study, we investigated the influence of rhubarb constituents on the metabolism and purgative activity of sennoside A. The 20% MeOH-eluted fraction separated by MCI-gel CHP-20P column chromatography from the water extract of rhubarb showed sennoside A metabolic activity similar to that of rhubarb extract. The 20% MeOH elute was further purified and rhein 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (RG) was isolated. The metabolic activity of sennoside A was significantly accelerated by increasing the level of RG. Moreover, rhein, emodin and aloe-emodin also accelerated sennoside A metabolism. The purgative activity of sennoside A was significantly accelerated when RG or rhein was concomitantly given with sennoside A in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that anthraquinones contribute to the purgative action of sennoside A in rhubarb. Therefore, it is assumed that the influence of anthraquinones on the fate of rheinanthrone transformed from sennoside A may promote the purgative action of sennoside A.

  13. Pharmacokinetic alterations of rhubarb anthraquinones in experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium in the rat.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Jin; Yan, Ru; Li, Ting; Li, Ya-Ping; Zhou, Rui-Na; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2017-02-23

    Rhubarb (Rhei Rhizoma et Radix) is used for the treatment of digestive diseases in traditional medicinal practice in China. Recent studies also support its beneficial activities in alleviating ulcerative colitis (UC). This study aimed to characterize the oral pharmacokinetics of rhubarb anthraquinones, the main bioactive components of this herb, in the experimental chronic colitis rat model induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and to identify the factors causing the pharmacokinetic alterations. Rats received drinking water (normal group) or 5% DSS for the first 7 days and 3% DSS for additional 14 days (UC group). On day 21 both groups received an oral dose of the rhubarb extract (equivalent to 5.0g crude drug/kg body weight). Plasma anthraquinone aglycones levels were determined directly by an LC-MS/MS method and the total of each anthraquinone (aglycone+conjugates) was quantified after β-glucuronidases hydrolysis. Rhubarb anthraquinones predominantly existed as conjugates in plasma samples from both groups and only free aloe-emodin, rhein and emodin were detected. Compared to the normal rats, both C max and AUC of the three free anthraquinones were increased, while the systemic exposure (AUC) of the total (aglycone+conjugates) of most anthraquinones decreased by UC accompanied by the disappearance of multiple-peak phenomenon in the plasma concentration-time profiles. Gut bacteria from UC rats exhibited a decreased activity in hydrolyzing anthraquinone glycosides to form respective aglycone and there were significant decreases in microbial β-glucosidases and β-glucuronidases activities. Moreover, the intestinal microsomes from UC rats catalyzed glucuronidation of free anthraquinones with higher activities, while the activities of hepatic microsomes were comparable to normal rats. The decreases of β-glucuronidases activity in DSS-induced chronic rat colitis should mainly account for the decreases in systemic exposure and abrogation of enterohepatic

  14. Expression and clinical significance of rhubarb on serum amylase and TNF-alpha of rat model of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W F; Li, Z T; Fang, J J; Wang, G B; Yu, Y; Liu, Z Q; Wu, Y N; Zheng, S S; Cai, L

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of rhubarb extract on acute pancreatitis. Ninety-six healthy Sprague Dawley rats, weighing 301±5.12 g were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham surgery (group A), acute pancreatitis model (group B), acute pancreatitis with normal saline (group C), and acute pancreatitis model with rhubarb (group D). The levels of serum amylase (AMY) and TNF-α were measured at 1st, 6th, 12th and 24th hour after modeling, and the pancreatic tissue were used to observe the pathologic changes. Compared to the sham group, the serum AMY and serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) levels were significantly increased in the other groups (p <0.05). Compared to the model group and the saline group, the serum AMY, serum TNF-α level and pathological changes of rats in the rhubarb group were significantly lower (p <0.05). The serum AMY and TNF-α levels increased in acute pancreatitis. The rhubarb reduced the serum AMY and TNF-α level in rats with acute pancreatitis and reduced the pathological changes of pancreas and other tissues.

  15. An integrated lipidomics and metabolomics reveal nephroprotective effect and biochemical mechanism of Rheum officinale in chronic renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Hao; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Wei, Feng; Cheng, Xian-Long; Bai, Xu; Zhao, Ying-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a major public health problem worldwide. Earlier studies have revealed salutary effects of rhubarb extracts in CRF. In this study, we employed lipidomic and metabolomic approaches to identify the plasma biomarkers and to determine the effect of treatment with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of rhubarb in a rat model of CRF with adenine-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy. In addition, clinical biochemistry, histological evaluation and pro-fibrotic protein expression were analyzed. Significant changes were found between the CRF and control groups representing characteristic phenotypes of rats with CRF. Treatment with the three rhubarb extracts improved renal injury and dysfunction, either fully or partially reversed the plasma metabolites abnormalities and attenuated upregulation of pro-fibrotic proteins including TGF-β1, α-SMA, PAI-1, CTGF, FN and collagen-1. The nephroprotective effect of ethyl acetate extract was better than other extracts. The differential metabolites were closely associated with glycerophospholipid, fatty acid and amino acid metabolisms. The results revealed a strong link between renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and glycerophospholipid metabolism and L-carnitine metabolism in the development of CRF. Amelioration of CRF with the three rhubarb extracts was associated with the delayed development and/or reversal the disorders in key metabolites associated with adenine-induced CRF. PMID:26903149

  16. HPLC-TOF-MS and HPLC-MS/MS combined with multivariate analysis for the characterization and discrimination of phenolic profiles in nonfumigated and sulfur-fumigated rhubarb.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Zhang, Qianqian; Feng, Fang

    2016-07-01

    Sulfur fumigation has recently been used during the postharvest handling of rhubarb to reduce the drying duration and control pests. However, a few reports question the effect of sulfur fumigation on the bioactive components of rhubarb, which is crucial for the quality evaluation of the herbal medicine. The bottleneck limiting the study comes from the complex compounds that exist in herb samples with diverse structural features, wide concentration range and the difficulty to obtain all the reference standards. In this study, an integrated strategy based on the highly effective separation and analysis by liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and time-of-flight/triple-quadruple tandem mass spectrometry combined with multivariate analysis was established. 68 phenolic compounds that exist in nonfumigated and sulfur-fumigated herb samples of rhubarb were tentatively assigned based on their retention behavior, UV spectra, accurate molecular weight, and mass spectral fragments. Qualitative and semiquantitative comparison revealed a serious reduction of the majority of phenolic compounds in sulfur-fumigated rhubarb. Furthermore, multivariate analysis was applied to holistically discriminate nonfumigated from sulfur-fumigated rhubarb and explore the characteristic chemical markers. The established approach was specific and rapid for characterizing and screening sulfur-fumigated rhubarb among commercial samples and could be applied for the quality assessment of other sulfur-fumigated herbs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The Influence of Compatibility of Rhubarb and Radix Scutellariae on the Pharmacokinetics of Anthraquinones and Flavonoids in Rat Plasma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaqing; Zhang, Zunjian; Song, Rui

    2018-06-01

    Rhubarb-Radix scutellariae is a classic herb pair, which is commonly used to clear away heat and toxin in clinic. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of compatibility of Rhubarb and Radix scutellariae on the pharmacokinetic behaviors of anthraquinones and flavonoids in rat plasma. Eighteen rats were randomly divided into three groups, and were orally administered Rhubarb and/or Radix scutellariae extracts. A sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to determine the concentrations of baicalin, baicalein, wogonside, wogonin, rhein, and emodin in rat plasma. The concentrations of phase II conjugates of flavonoid aglycones and anthraquinone aglycones were also determined after hydrolyzing the plasma with sulfatase. Compared with administration of Radix scutellariae alone, co-administration of Rhubarb significantly decreased the first maximum plasma concentration (C max1 ) of baicalin, wogonside, and the phase II conjugates of baicalein, wogonin to 46.40, 61.27, 41.49, and 20.50%, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC 0-∞ ) was significantly decreased from 82.60 ± 20.22 to 51.91 ± 7.46 μM·h for rhein and 276.83 ± 98.02 to 175.42 ± 86.82 μM·h for the phase II conjugates of wogonin after compatibility. The time to reach the first maximum plasma concentration (T max1 ) of anthraquinones was shortened and the second peak of anthraquinones disappeared after compatibility. Compatibility of Rhubarb and Radix scutellariae can significantly affect the pharmacokinetic behaviors of characteristic constituents of the two herbs. The cause of these pharmacokinetic differences was further discussed combined with the in vivo ADME (absorption, disposition, metabolism, and excretion) processes of anthraquinones and flavonoids.

  18. Rapid Identification and Quantification of Natural Antioxidants in the Seeds of Rhubarb from Different Habitats in China Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction and HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn-DPPH Assay.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liang; Geng, Dan-dan; Hu, Feng-zu; Dong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the 10 accessions of rhubarb seeds from different habitats in China were investigated. Lipids were removed using petroleum ether, and the effective components were then separated using accelerated solvent extraction with 80% aqueous methanol. An off-line 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging method was used as the marker to evaluate the total antioxidant capability of extracts. On-line high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detectors-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n)) and HPLC-DAD-DPPH assays were developed for rapid identification and quantification of individual free-radical scavengers in extracts of rhubarb seeds. Ten free-radical scavengers from methanolic extracts of the rhubarb seeds were screened, five of which were identified and quantitatively analyzed: epicatechin, myricetin, hyperoside, quercitrin and quercetin. All were identified in rhubarb seeds for the first time and can be regarded as the major potent antioxidants in rhubarb seeds due to representing most of the total free-radical scavenging activity. Preliminary analysis of structures was performed for another five antioxidants. Based on our validation results, the developed method can be used for rapid separation, convenient identification and quantification of the multiple antioxidative constituents in rhubarb seeds, featuring good quantification parameters, accuracy and precision. The results are important to clarify the material basis and therapeutic mechanism of rhubarb seeds. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Effects of adding Rheum officinale to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers on renal function in patients with chronic renal failure: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yue; Ma, Ye-Ping; Zhang, Zheng; Dai, Pei-Lin; Li, Ping; Li, Wen-Ge

    2018-06-01

    Rheum officinale is a traditional medicinal herb used widely in China to treat chronic renal failure, but the proof of evidence-based medicine is poor. This meta-analysis aims to assess the benefits of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) supplemented with Rheum officinale for delaying the progression of chronic renal failure. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, SinoMed, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and VIP databases were searched to identify studies published before September 2016 that investigated the effects of ACEI/ARB plus the Chinese patented medicine Rheum (CPM-Rheum) compared to ACEI/ARB alone in lowering serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in chronic renal failure patients. Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform the meta-analysis. Fixed- and random-effects models were used to analyze the data. The meta-analysis included nine clinical trials. Comparisons of patients before and after treatment with ACEI/ARB plus CPM-Rheum or ACEI/ARB alone revealed that ACEI/ARB plus CPM-Rheum resulted in significantly greater reductions in SCr (short-term: weighted mean difference (WMD): 17.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 7.28 - 27.24; long-term: WMD: 63.71, 95% CI: 51.01 - 76.41) and BUN (short-term: WMD: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.27 - 2.12; long-term: WMD: 3.98, 95% CI: 3.14 - 4.82) than ACEI/ARB alone. In patients with chronic renal failure, the addition of CPM-Rheum to ACEI/ARB significantly lowered both SCr and BUN, particularly after long-term administration. Thus, the combination of ACEI/ARB and CPM-Rheum may improve the treatment of patients with impaired renal function.
.

  20. Rhubarb tannins extract inhibits the expression of aquaporins 2 and 3 in magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunfang; Zheng, Yanfang; Xu, Wen; Wang, Hui; Lin, Na

    2014-01-01

    Tannins, a group of major active components of Chinese rhubarb and widely distributed in nature, have a significant antidiarrhoeal activity. Aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 play important roles in regulating water transfer during diarrhoea. The present study aims to determine the effect of the total tannins extract of rhubarb on aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 in diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by magnesium sulphate (MgSO4). Our results showed that rhubarb tannins extract (RTE) significantly decreased the faecal water content in colon and evaluation index of defecation of diarrhoea mice. Interestingly, RTE could markedly reduce the mRNA and protein expression levels of AQPs 2 and 3 in apical and lateral mucosal epithelial cells in the colons of diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by MgSO4 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, RTE suppressed the production of cyclic monophosphate- (cAMP-) dependent protein kinase A catalytic subunits α (PKA C-α) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB, Ser133) in MgSO4-induced HT-29 cells. Our data showed for the first time that RTE inhibit AQPs 2 and 3 expression in vivo and in vitro via downregulating PKA/p-CREB signal pathway, which accounts for the antidiarrhoeal effect of RTE.

  1. Adaptive kernel independent component analysis and UV spectrometry applied to characterize the procedure for processing prepared rhubarb roots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoqing; Hou, Zhenyu; Peng, Yang; Wang, Yanjun; Sun, Xiaoli; Sun, Yu-an

    2011-11-07

    By determination of the number of absorptive chemical components (ACCs) in mixtures using median absolute deviation (MAD) analysis and extraction of spectral profiles of ACCs using kernel independent component analysis (KICA), an adaptive KICA (AKICA) algorithm was proposed. The proposed AKICA algorithm was used to characterize the procedure for processing prepared rhubarb roots by resolution of the measured mixed raw UV spectra of the rhubarb samples that were collected at different steaming intervals. The results show that the spectral features of ACCs in the mixtures can be directly estimated without chemical and physical pre-separation and other prior information. The estimated three independent components (ICs) represent different chemical components in the mixtures, which are mainly polysaccharides (IC1), tannin (IC2), and anthraquinone glycosides (IC3). The variations of the relative concentrations of the ICs can account for the chemical and physical changes during the processing procedure: IC1 increases significantly before the first 5 h, and is nearly invariant after 6 h; IC2 has no significant changes or is slightly decreased during the processing procedure; IC3 decreases significantly before the first 5 h and decreases slightly after 6 h. The changes of IC1 can explain why the colour became black and darkened during the processing procedure, and the changes of IC3 can explain why the processing procedure can reduce the bitter and dry taste of the rhubarb roots. The endpoint of the processing procedure can be determined as 5-6 h, when the increasing or decreasing trends of the estimated ICs are insignificant. The AKICA-UV method provides an alternative approach for the characterization of the processing procedure of rhubarb roots preparation, and provides a novel way for determination of the endpoint of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) processing procedure by inspection of the change trends of the ICs.

  2. Rhubarb Tannins Extract Inhibits the Expression of Aquaporins 2 and 3 in Magnesium Sulphate-Induced Diarrhoea Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunfang; Zheng, Yanfang; Xu, Wen; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Tannins, a group of major active components of Chinese rhubarb and widely distributed in nature, have a significant antidiarrhoeal activity. Aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 play important roles in regulating water transfer during diarrhoea. The present study aims to determine the effect of the total tannins extract of rhubarb on aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 in diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by magnesium sulphate (MgSO4). Our results showed that rhubarb tannins extract (RTE) significantly decreased the faecal water content in colon and evaluation index of defecation of diarrhoea mice. Interestingly, RTE could markedly reduce the mRNA and protein expression levels of AQPs 2 and 3 in apical and lateral mucosal epithelial cells in the colons of diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by MgSO4 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, RTE suppressed the production of cyclic monophosphate- (cAMP-) dependent protein kinase A catalytic subunits α (PKA C-α) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB, Ser133) in MgSO4-induced HT-29 cells. Our data showed for the first time that RTE inhibit AQPs 2 and 3 expression in vivo and in vitro via downregulating PKA/p-CREB signal pathway, which accounts for the antidiarrhoeal effect of RTE. PMID:25215286

  3. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of plant extracts traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cogo, Laura Lúcia; Monteiro, Cristina Leise Bastos; Miguel, Marilis Dallarmi; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes; Cunico, Miriam Machado; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; de Camargo, Eloá Ramalho; Kussen, Gislene Maria Botão; Nogueira, Keite da Silva; Costa, Libera Maria Dalla

    2010-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of plant extracts obtained from Bixa orellana L., Chamomilla recutita L., Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Malva sylvestris L., Plantago major L. and Rheum rhaponticum L. has been evaluated against two reference strains and eleven clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. All the plant species chosen are used in popular Brazilian cuisine and folk medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Initial screening was made by the disk diffusion test and then minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method. The results presented in this work demonstrated that among the plant preparations analyzed, B. orellana L., C. recutita L., I. paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. and M. sylvestris L. were capable of inhibiting the in vitro growth of H. pylori. PMID:24031496

  4. Effect of wine processing and acute blood stasis on the serum pharmacochemistry of rhubarb: a possible explanation for processing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Fu, Jinfeng; Lv, Mengying; Tian, Yuan; Xu, Fengguo; Song, Rui; Zhang, Zunjian

    2014-09-01

    As a specific item mentioned in traditional Chinese medicine theory, processing can fulfill different requirements of therapies. Crude and wine-processed rhubarbs are used as drastic and mild laxatives, respectively. In this study, a practical method based on ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed to screen and analyze multiple absorbed bioactive components and metabolites in the serum of both normal and acute blood stasis rats after oral administration of crude or wine-processed rhubarbs. A total of 16 compounds, mainly including phase II metabolites, were tentatively identified. Possible explanations for the processing-induced changes in pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicines were first explored at serum pharmacochemistry level. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Rhubarb Monomers Protect Intestinal Mucosal Barrier in Sepsis via Junction Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lyu; Cui, Yun-Liang; Zhang, Zhe; Lin, Zhao-Fen; Chen, De-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Leakage of the intestinal mucosal barrier may cause translocation of bacteria, then leading to multiorgan failure. This study hypothesized that rhubarb monomers might protect the gut mucosal barrier in sepsis through junction proteins. Methods: Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 230–250 g) under anesthesia and sedation were subjected to cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). After surgical preparation, rats were randomly assigned to eight groups (n = 6 or 8 each group): sham group (Group A: normal saline gavage); sepsis group (Group B: normal saline gavage); Group C (intraperitoneally, dexamethasone 0.5 mg/kg) immediately after CLP surgery; and rhubarb monomer (100 mg/kg in normal saline)-treated groups (Group D: rhein; Group E: emodin; Group F: 3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid; Group G: 1-O-caffeoyl-2-(4-hydroxy-O-cinnamoyl)-D-glucose; and Group H: daucosterol linoleate). Animals were sacrificed after 24 h. Intestinal histology, lactulose, mannitol concentrations were measured, and zonula occludens (ZO)-1, occludin and claudin-5 transcription (polymerase chain reaction), translation (by Western blot analysis), and expression (by immunohistochemistry) were also measured. Results: Intestinal histology revealed injury to intestinal mucosal villi induced by sepsis in Group B, compared with Group A. Compared with Group A (0.17 ± 0.41), the pathological scores in Groups B (2.83 ± 0.41, P < 0.001), C (1.83 ± 0.41, P < 0.001), D (2.00 ± 0.63, P < 0.001), E (1.83 ± 0.41, P < 0.001), F (1.83 ± 0.75, P < 0.001), G (2.17 ± 0.41, P < 0.001), and H (1.83 ± 0.41, P < 0.001) were significantly increased. Lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio in Group B (0.046 ± 0.003) was significantly higher than in Group A (0.013 ± 0.001, P < 0.001) while L/M ratios in Groups C (0.028 ± 0.002, P < 0.001), D (0.029 ± 0.003, P < 0.001), E (0.026 ± 0.003, P < 0.001), F (0.027 ± 0.003, P < 0.001), G (0.030 ± 0.005, P < 0.001), and H (0.026 ± 0

  6. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women’s Health

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dunlap, Tareisha L.

    2016-01-01

    Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women’s health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Pregnant women have also used ginger for relief from nausea. Natural galactagogues for lactating women include Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle); however, rigorous safety and efficacy studies are lacking. Older women suffering menopausal symptoms are increasingly likely to use botanicals, especially since the Women’s Health Initiative showed an increased risk for breast cancer associated with traditional hormone therapy. Serotonergic mechanisms similar to antidepressants have been proposed for Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian). Plant extracts with estrogenic activities for menopausal symptom relief include Glycine max (soy), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), Humulus lupulus (hops), Glycyrrhiza species (licorice), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), Epimedium species (herba Epimedii, horny goat weed), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Some of the estrogenic botanicals have also been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis. Several of these botanicals could have additional breast cancer preventive effects linked to hormonal, chemical, inflammatory, and/or epigenetic pathways. Finally, although botanicals are perceived as natural safe remedies, it is important for women and

  7. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Birgit M; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dunlap, Tareisha L; Bolton, Judy L

    2016-10-01

    Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women's health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Pregnant women have also used ginger for relief from nausea. Natural galactagogues for lactating women include Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle); however, rigorous safety and efficacy studies are lacking. Older women suffering menopausal symptoms are increasingly likely to use botanicals, especially since the Women's Health Initiative showed an increased risk for breast cancer associated with traditional hormone therapy. Serotonergic mechanisms similar to antidepressants have been proposed for Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian). Plant extracts with estrogenic activities for menopausal symptom relief include Glycine max (soy), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), Humulus lupulus (hops), Glycyrrhiza species (licorice), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), Epimedium species (herba Epimedii, horny goat weed), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Some of the estrogenic botanicals have also been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis. Several of these botanicals could have additional breast cancer preventive effects linked to hormonal, chemical, inflammatory, and/or epigenetic pathways. Finally, although botanicals are perceived as natural safe remedies, it is important for women and

  8. [Protection and bidirectional effect of rhubarb anthraquinone and tannins for rats' liver].

    PubMed

    Qin, Lu-shan; Zhao, Hai-ping; Zhao, Yan-ling; Ma, Zhi-jiel; Zeng, Ling-na; Zhang, Ya-ming; Zhang, Ping; Yan, Dan; Bai, Zhao-fang; Li, Yue; Hao, Qing-xiu; Zhao, Kui-jun; Wang, Jia-bo; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2014-06-01

    To compare the bidirectional effect of rhubarb total anthraquinone (TA) and total tannins (TT) on rats' liver. One hundred rats were randomly divided into 10 groups, i.e., the blank group, the model group, the blank + high dose TA group, the blank +low dose TA group, the blank + high dose TT group, the blank + low dose TT group, the model + high dose TA group, the model + low dose TA group, the model +high dose TT group, and the model + low dose TT group, 10 in each group. The carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) was used to prepare the acute liver injury rat model. TA and TT of rhubarb (at 5.40 g crude drugs/kg and 14.69 g crude drugs/kg) were intragastrically administrated to rats in all groups except the blank group and the model group, once daily for 6 successive days.The general state of rats, biochemical indices such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), laminin (LN), hyaluronic acid (HA), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), as well pathological results of rat liver tissues. Finally the protection laws of TA and TT for rats' liver were analyzed using factor analysis. Compared with the blank control group, all biochemical indices increased in the blank group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). HA also increased in the blank + high dose TA group; AST, ALT, and HA also increased in the blank +high dose TT group (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, AST, ALT, ALP, HA, and TGF-beta1 significantly decreased in the model + low dose TA group, the model + high dose TA group, the model + low dose TT group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Serum AST, ALT, and ALP also decreased in the model + high dose TT group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Pathological results showed that mild swollen liver cells in the model + high dose TA group. Fatty degeneration and fragmental necrosis around the central veins occurred in the blank + high dose TA group. The pathological injury was inproved in the model +low dose TA group. Two common factors, liver

  9. Botanical medicines for the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Yarnell, Eric

    2002-11-01

    Four important categories of urologic herbs, their history, and modern scientific investigations regarding them are reviewed. Botanical diuretics are discussed with a focus on Solidago spp (goldenrod) herb, Levisticum officinale (lovage) root, Petroselinum crispus (parsley) fruit, and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) herb. Urinary antiseptic and anti-adhesion herbs, particularly Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (uva-uri) leaf, Juniperus spp (juniper) leaf, and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) fruit are reviewed. The antinephrotoxic botanicals Rheum palmatum (Chinese rhubarb) root and Lespedeza capitata (round-head lespedeza) herb are surveyed, followed by herbs for symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, most notably Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) fruit, Urtica dioica root, and Prunus africana (pygeum) bark.

  10. Separation of three anthraquinone glycosides including two isomers by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography from Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Li, Hongmei; Zou, Denglang; Liu, Yongling; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Guoying; Li, Yulin

    2016-08-01

    Anthraquinone glycosides, such as chrysophanol 1-O-β-d-glucoside, chrysophanol 8-O-β-d-glucoside, and physion 8-O-β-d-glucoside, are the accepted important active components of Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. due to their pharmacological properties: antifungal, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities. However, an effective method for the separation of the above-mentioned anthraquinone glycosides from this herb is not currently available. Especially, greater difficulty existed in the separation of the two isomers chrysophanol 1-O-β-d-glucoside and chrysophanol 8-O-β-d-glucoside. This study demonstrated an efficient strategy based on preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography for the separation of the above-mentioned anthraquinone glycosides from Rheum tanguticum Maxim.ex Balf. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Preparative isolation and purification of three stilbene glycosides from the tibetan medicinal plant Rheum tanguticum maxim. Ex Balf. by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Hui; Han, Fa; Li, Yu-Lin; Yue, Hui-Lan

    2013-02-01

    Stilbene glycosides are the primary constituents of Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf., to which different bioactivities has been attributed, including: anti-HIV, anti-oxidant, anti-tumour, anti-malarial, and anti-allergy activity. However, effective methods for the isolation and purification of stilbene glycosides, such as trans-rhapontin, cis-rhapontin and trans-desoxyrhaponticin, from this herb are not currently available. To develop an efficient method for the preparative isolation and purification of three stilbene glycosides from Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. via high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). A solvent system composed of chloroform:n-butanol:methanol:water (4:1:3:2, v/v/v/v) was developed for the separation. The upper phase was used as the stationary phase, and the lower phase was used as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.8 mL/min. The apparatus was controlled at 800 rpm and 25 °C, and the effluent was monitored at 280 nm. Chemical constituents were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and their structures were identified by ¹H- and ¹³C-NMR. Under the optimised conditions, 25.5 mg trans-rhapontin, 16.0 mg cis-rhapontin and 20.5 mg trans-desoxyrhaponticin were separated from 80 mg crude sample; the isolates had purities of 99.6, 97.2 and 99.2%, respectively. A simple and efficient HSCCC method has been optimised for the preparative separation of stilbene glycosides from Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Determination of bioactive components in Chinese herbal formulae and pharmacokinetics of rhein in rats by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hou, Mei-Ling; Chang, Li-Wen; Lin, Chi-Hung; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2014-04-02

    Rhein (4,5-dihydroxy-9,10-dioxoanthracene-2-carboxylic acid, cassic acid) is a pharmacological active component found in Rheum palmatum L. the major herb of San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), a medicinal herbal product used as a remedy for constipation. Here we have determined multiple bioactive components in SHXXT and investigated the comparative pharmacokinetics of rhein in rats. A sensitive and specific method combining liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and validated to simultaneously quantify six active compounds in the pharmaceutical herbal product SHXXT to further study their pharmacokinetics in rats. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was employed for quantification with switching electrospray ion source polarity between positive and negative modes in a single run. There were no significant matrix effects in the quantitative analysis and the mean recovery for rhein in rat plasma was 91.6%±3.4%. The pharmacokinetic data of rhein demonstrate that the herbal formulae or the single herbal extract provide significantly higher absorption rate than the pure compound. This phenomenon suggests that the other herbal ingredients of SHXXT and rhubarb extract significantly enhance the absorption of rhein in rats. In conclusion, the herbal formulae (SHXXT) are more efficient than the single herb (rhubarb) or the pure compound (rhein) in rhein absorption.

  13. Identification and characterization of the related immune-enhancing proteins in crab Scylla paramamosain stimulated with rhubarb polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jingsong; Wang, Zehuan; Zhang, Yueling; Qu, Fengliang; Guo, Lingling; Zhong, Mingqi; Li, Shengkang; Zou, Haiying; Chen, Jiehui; Wang, Xiuying

    2014-02-01

    Recently, considerable interest has been focused on immunostimulants to reduce diseases in crab aquaculture. However, information regarding to the related immune-enhancing proteins in crabs is not available yet. In this study, rhubarb polysaccharides were tested for enhancement of the immune activity in crab Scylla paramamosain. Compared with those in the control group, values of, phenoloxidase (PO), alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and alkaline phosphatasein (ACP) activity in the, experimental group were improved significantly 4 d after the treatment. Furthermore, 15 and 17 altered proteins from haemocytes and hepatopancreas, respectively, were found in rhubarb polysaccharide-treated crabs using 2-DE approach. Of these, hemocyanin, chymotrypsin, cryptocyanin, C-type lectin receptor, and ferritin protein were identified by mass spectrometry. In addition, RT-PCR, analysis showed that the mRNA levels of hemocyanin and chymotrypsin increased about 2.4- and 1.4-fold in the experiment group. Moreover, the hemocyanin gene in S. paramamosain (SpHMC) was, cloned and characterized. SpHMC contains one open reading frame of 2022 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 673 amino acids. It is clustered into one branch along with crab hemocyanin in a phylogenetic tree. The mRNA transcripts of SpHMC were detected mainly in the tissues of, hepatopancreas, hemocyte and intestines, and its levels were up-regulated significantly in hemocytes, of S. paramamosain treated with Vibrio parahemolyticus, Beta streptococcus or poly I:C for 6-48 h. Taken together, these studies found 5 related immune-enhancing proteins and a novel heomcyanin homologue with potential pathogen-resistant activities in crab. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rheinanthrone, a metabolite of sennoside A, triggers macrophage activation to decrease aquaporin-3 expression in the colon, causing the laxative effect of rhubarb extract.

    PubMed

    Kon, Risako; Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Nagoya, Chika; Takayama, Tomoko; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Ishii, Makoto; Ueda, Harumi; Ochiai, Wataru; Machida, Yoshiaki; Sugita, Kazuyuki; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2014-02-27

    Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is expressed in mucosal epithelial cells in the colon and is important for regulating fecal water content. We examined the role of AQP3 in the laxative effect of rhubarb extract. After orally administering rhubarb extract or its major component (sennoside A) to rats, the fecal water content, AQP3 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations in the colon were examined. The mechanism by which sennoside A decreases the expression of AQP3 was examined using the human colon cancer HT-29 cells and macrophage-derived Raw264.7 cells. During diarrhea by rhubarb extract administration, the PGE2 levels in the colon increased while the AQP3 expression significantly decreased. Similar changes were also observed when sennoside A was administered. When sennoside A or its metabolites, rheinanthrone and rhein were added to Raw264.7 cells, a significant increase in the PGE2 concentration was observed only in cells treated with rheinanthrone. Fifteen minutes after adding PGE2 to the HT-29 cells, the AQP3 expression decreased to approximately 40% of the control. When pretreated with indomethacin, sennoside A neither decreased the AQP3 expression nor induced diarrhea. Sennoside A may decrease AQP3 expression in the colon to inhibit water transport from the luminal to the vascular side, leading to a laxative effect. The decreases in the levels of AQP3 are caused by rheinanthrone, which is a metabolite of sennoside A, this metabolite activates the macrophages in the colon and increases the secretion of PGE2; PGE2 acts as a paracrine factor and decreases AQP3 expression in colon mucosal epithelial cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for plasma and cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetics of rhein in patients with traumatic brain injury after administration of rhubarb decoction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Fan, Rong; Luo, Jiekun; Tang, Tao; Xing, Zhihua; Xia, Zian; Peng, Weijun; Wang, Wenzhu; Lv, Huiying; Huang, Wei; Liang, Yizeng; Yi, Lunzhao; Lu, Hongmei; Huang, Xi

    2015-04-01

    Damage of blood-brain barrier is a common result of traumatic brain injury. This damage can open the blood-brain barrier and allow drug passage. An ultraperformance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was established to determine the concentration of rhein in the biofluids (plasma and cerebrospinal fluid) of patients with a compromised blood-brain barrier following traumatic brain injury after rhubarb administration. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic profiles were analyzed. A triple-quadruple tandem mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization was used for rhein detection. The mass transition followed was m/z 283.06→239.0. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 10-8000 ng/mL for the biofluids. The intra- and interday precisions were less than 10%. The relative standard deviation of recovery was less than 15% in biological matrices. The pharmacokinetic data showed that rhein was rapidly transported into biofluids, and exhibited a peak concentration 1 h after rhubarb administration. The elimination rate of rhein was slow. The AUCcerebrospinal fluid /AUCplasma (AUC is area under curve) of rhein was approximately 17%, indicating that portions of rhein could pass the impaired blood-brain barrier. The method was successfully applied to quantify rhein in the biofluids of all patients. The data presented can help to guide clinical applications of rhubarb for treating traumatic brain injury. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Natural Resource Monitoring of Rheum tanguticum by Multilevel Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Caixiang; Song, Jingyuan; Suo, Fengmei; Li, Xiwen; Li, Ying; Yu, Hua; Xu, Xiaolan; Luo, Kun; Li, Qiushi; Xin, Tianyi; Guan, Meng; Xu, Xiuhai; Miki, Eiji; Takeda, Osami; Chen, Shilin

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing has been extensively applied in agriculture for its objectiveness and promptness. However, few applications are available for monitoring natural medicinal plants. In the paper, a multilevel monitoring system, which includes satellite and aerial remote sensing, as well as ground investigation, was initially proposed to monitor natural Rheum tanguticum resource in Baihe Pasture, Zoige County, Sichuan Province. The amount of R. tanguticum from images is M = S*ρ and S is vegetation coverage obtained by satellite imaging, whereas ρ is R. tanguticum density obtained by low-altitude imaging. Only the R. tanguticum which coverages exceeded 1 m2 could be recognized from the remote sensing image because of the 0.1 m resolution of the remote sensing image (called effective resource at that moment), and the results of ground investigation represented the amounts of R. tanguticum resource in all sizes (called the future resource). The data in paper showed that the present available amount of R. tanguticum accounted for 4% to 5% of the total quantity. The quantity information and the population structure of R. tanguticum in the Baihe Pasture were initially confirmed by this system. It is feasible to monitor the quantitative distribution for natural medicinal plants with scattered distribution. PMID:25101134

  17. Antidyslipidemic effect and antioxidant activity of anthraquinone derivatives from Rheum emodi rhizomes in dyslipidemic rats.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sunil K; Tiwari, Shashi; Shrivastava, Atul; Srivastava, Shishir; Boudh, Goutam K; Chourasia, Shivendra K; Chaturvedi, Upma; Mir, Snober S; Saxena, Anil K; Bhatia, Gitika; Lakshmi, Vijai

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antidyslipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of Rheum emodi rhizomes and its constituents in Triton-WR-1339 and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced dyslipidemic rats. In preliminary screening, the ethanolic extract showed significant activity in Triton-treated rats. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract resulted in the identification of four anthraquinone derivatives, viz. chrysophanol, emodin, chrysophanol 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and emodin 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside as active constituents. All these compounds significantly reduced plasma lipid levels. The most active compound emodin showed significant lipid-lowering activity in the HFD-fed model. In addition, these compounds showed significant antioxidant activity. The effect of emodin on enzymes modulating lipid metabolism confirms and supports the efficiency of emodin as a potent antidyslipidemic agent.

  18. Antimetastatic effects of Rheum palmatum L. extract on oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang-Yu; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Chang, Yu-Chao; Chen, Pei-Ni; Yang, Shun-Fa; Ho, Hsin-Yu; Chou, Ying-Erh; Lin, Chiao-Wen

    2017-10-01

    Rheum palmatum L., a traditional Chinese medication, has been used for the treatment of various disorders. However, the detailed impacts and underlying mechanisms of R. palmatum L. extracts (RLEs) on human oral cancer cell metastasis are still unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that an RLE has antimetastatic effects on SCC-9 and SAS human oral cancer cells. Gelatin zymography, Western blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and luciferase assay were used to explore the underlying mechanisms involved in the antimetastatic effects on oral cancer cells. Our results revealed that the RLE (up to 20 μg/mL, without cytotoxicity) attenuated SCC-9 and SAS cell motility, invasiveness, and migration by reducing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 enzyme activities. Western blot analysis of the MAPK signaling pathway indicated that the RLE significantly decreased phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels but not p38 and JNK levels. In conclusion, RLEs exhibit antimetastatic activity against oral cancer cells through the transcriptional repression of MMP-2 via the Erk1/2 signaling pathways. Thus, RLEs may be potentially useful as antimetastatic agents for oral cancer chemotherapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Establishment of Hairy Root Cultures of Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd.) Iljin for the Production of Biomass and Caffeic Acid Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Skała, Ewa; Kicel, Agnieszka; Olszewska, Monika A.; Kiss, Anna K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain transformed roots of Rhaponticum carthamoides and evaluate their phytochemical profile. Hairy roots were induced from leaf explants by the transformation of Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains A4 and ATCC 15834. The best response (43%) was achieved by infection with A4 strain. The effects of different liquid media (WPM, B5, SH) with full and half-strength concentrations of macro- and micronutrients on biomass accumulation of the best grown hairy root line (RC3) at two different lighting conditions (light or dark) were investigated. The highest biomass (93 g L−1 of the fresh weight after 35 days) was obtained in WPM medium under periodic light. UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS3 and HPLC-PDA analyses of 80% aqueous methanol extracts from the obtained hairy roots revealed the presence of eleven caffeoylquinic acids and their derivatives and five flavonoid glycosides. The production of caffeoylquinic acids and their derivatives was elevated in hairy roots grown in the light. Only light-grown hairy roots demonstrated the capability for the biosynthesis of such flavonoid glycosides as quercetagetin, quercetin, luteolin, and patuletin hexosides. Chlorogenic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and a tentatively identified tricaffeoylquinic acid derivative were detected as the major compounds present in the transformed roots. PMID:25811023

  20. Free Total Rhubarb Anthraquinones Protect Intestinal Injury via Regulation of the Intestinal Immune Response in a Rat Model of Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yuxia; Chen, Li; Fan, Ling; Wang, Lulu; Zhou, Yejiang; Qin, Dalian; Sun, Qin; Wu, Jianming; Cao, Shousong

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal mucosal immune barrier dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Rhubarb is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine as a laxative in China. It markedly protects pancreatic acinar cells from trypsin-induced injury in rats. Free total rhubarb anthraquinones (FTRAs) isolated and extracted from rhubarb display the beneficial effects of antibacteria, anti-inflammation, antivirus, and anticancer. The principal aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of FTRAs on the protection of intestinal injury and modification of the intestinal barrier function through regulation of intestinal immune function in rats with SAP. We established a rat model of SAP by injecting 3.5% sodium taurocholate (STC, 350 mg/kg) into the biliopancreatic duct via retrograde injection and treated the rats with FTRAs (36 or 72 mg/kg) or normal saline (control) immediately and 12 h after STC injection. Then, we evaluated the protective effect of FTRAs on intestinal injury by pathological analysis and determined the levels of endotoxin (ET), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), myeloperoxidase (MPO), capillary permeability, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD domain (ASC), casepase-1, secretary immunoglobulin A (SIgA), regulatory T cells (Tregs), and the ratio of Th1/Th2 in the blood and/or small intestinal tissues or mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells. Moreover, the chemical profile of FTRAs was analyzed by HPLC-UV chromatogram. The results showed that FTRAs significantly protected intestinal damage and decreased the levels of ET, IL-1β, TNF-α, and NO in the blood and TNF-α, IL-1β, and protein extravasation in the intestinal tissues in SAP rats. Furthermore, FTRAs significantly decreased the expressions of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1, the number of Tregs and the ratio of Th1/Th2, while

  1. Antiviral effect of emodin from Rheum palmatum against coxsakievirus B5 and human respiratory syncytial virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao; Ma, Nian; Zhong, Yan; Yang, Zhan-qiu

    2015-12-01

    Viral infections are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in elderly people and young children throughout the world. The most common pathogens include coxsackie virus (CV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). However, no antiviral agents with low toxicity and drug resistance are currently available in clinic therapy. The present study aimed to examine the antiviral activities of emodin (an ingredient of Rheum palmatum) against CVB5 and RSV infections, in an attempt to discover new antiviral agents for virus infection. The monomer emodin was extracted and isolated from Rheum palmatum. The antiviral activities of emodin on HEp-2 cells were evaluated, including virus replication inhibition, virucidal and anti-absorption effects, by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tet-razolium bromide (MTT) assay and plaque reduction assay (PRA). The kinetics of virus inhibition by emodin in a period of 14 h was further determined by plaque assay and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Cytokine (IFN-γ, TNF-α) mRNA expressions after emodin treatment (7.5, 15, 30 μmol/L) were also assessed by qPCR post-infection. The results showed that emodin had potent inhibitory activities against CVB5 and RSV, with the 50% effective concentration (EC50) ranging from 13.06 to 14.27 μmol/L and selectivity index (SI) being 5.38-6.41 μmol/L. However, emodin couldn't directly inactivate the viruses or block their absorption to cells. It acted as a biological synthesis inhibitor against CVB4 and RSV in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, especially during the first 0-4 h post-infection. Moreover, emodin could decrease the mRNA expression of IFN-α but enhance TNF-γ expression significantly compared to the viral controls in vitro. Our results provide a molecular basis for development of emodin as a novel and safe antiviral agent for human enterovirus and respiratory virus infection in the clinical therapy.

  2. Changes in Metabolically Active Bacterial Community during Rumen Development, and Their Alteration by Rhubarb Root Powder Revealed by 16S rRNA Amplicon Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zuo; Elekwachi, Chijioke; Jiao, Jinzhen; Wang, Min; Tang, Shaoxun; Zhou, Chuanshe; Tan, Zhiliang; Forster, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this present study was to explore the initial establishment of metabolically active bacteria and subsequent evolution in four fractions: rumen solid-phase (RS), liquid-phase (RL), protozoa-associated (RP), and epithelium-associated (RE) through early weaning and supplementing rhubarb root powder in 7 different age groups (1, 10, 20, 38, 41, 50, and 60 d) during rumen development. Results of the 16S rRNA sequencing based on RNA isolated from the four fractions revealed that the potentially active bacterial microbiota in four fractions were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes , and Bacteroidetes regardless of different ages. An age-dependent increment of Chao 1 richness was observed in the fractions of RL and RE. The principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) indicated that samples in four fractions all clustered based on different age groups, and the structure of the bacterial community in RE was distinct from those in other three fractions. The abundances of Proteobacteria decreased significantly ( P < 0.05) with age, while increases in the abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were noted. At the genus level, the abundance of the predominant genus Mannheimia in the Proteobacteria phylum decreased significantly ( P < 0.05) after 1 d, while the genera Quinella, Prevotella, Fretibacterium, Ruminococcus, Lachnospiraceae NK3A20 group , and Atopobium underwent different manners of increases and dominated the bacterial microbiota across four fractions. Variations of the distributions of some specific bacterial genera across fractions were observed, and supplementation of rhubarb affected the relative abundance of various genera of bacteria.

  3. Changes in Metabolically Active Bacterial Community during Rumen Development, and Their Alteration by Rhubarb Root Powder Revealed by 16S rRNA Amplicon Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zuo; Elekwachi, Chijioke; Jiao, Jinzhen; Wang, Min; Tang, Shaoxun; Zhou, Chuanshe; Tan, Zhiliang; Forster, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this present study was to explore the initial establishment of metabolically active bacteria and subsequent evolution in four fractions: rumen solid-phase (RS), liquid-phase (RL), protozoa-associated (RP), and epithelium-associated (RE) through early weaning and supplementing rhubarb root powder in 7 different age groups (1, 10, 20, 38, 41, 50, and 60 d) during rumen development. Results of the 16S rRNA sequencing based on RNA isolated from the four fractions revealed that the potentially active bacterial microbiota in four fractions were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes regardless of different ages. An age-dependent increment of Chao 1 richness was observed in the fractions of RL and RE. The principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) indicated that samples in four fractions all clustered based on different age groups, and the structure of the bacterial community in RE was distinct from those in other three fractions. The abundances of Proteobacteria decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with age, while increases in the abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were noted. At the genus level, the abundance of the predominant genus Mannheimia in the Proteobacteria phylum decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after 1 d, while the genera Quinella, Prevotella, Fretibacterium, Ruminococcus, Lachnospiraceae NK3A20 group, and Atopobium underwent different manners of increases and dominated the bacterial microbiota across four fractions. Variations of the distributions of some specific bacterial genera across fractions were observed, and supplementation of rhubarb affected the relative abundance of various genera of bacteria. PMID:28223972

  4. Rhaponticum acaule (L) DC essential oil: chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibition properties.

    PubMed

    Mosbah, Habib; Chahdoura, Hassiba; Kammoun, Jannet; Hlila, Malek Besbes; Louati, Hanen; Hammami, Saoussen; Flamini, Guido; Achour, Lotfi; Selmi, Boulbaba

    2018-03-05

    α-glucosidase is a therapeutic target for diabetes mellitus (DM) and α-glucosidase inhibitors play a vital role in the treatments for the disease. Furthermore, xanthine oxidase (XO) is a key enzyme that catalyzes hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid which at high levels can lead to hyperuricemia which is an important cause of gout. Pancreatic lipase (PL) secreted into the duodenum plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of fats. For its importance in lipid digestion, PL represents an attractive target for obesity prevention. The flowers essential oil of Rhaponticum acaule (L) DC (R. acaule) was characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant activities of R. acaule essential oil (RaEO) were also determined using 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), reducing power, phosphomolybdenum, and DNA nicking assays. The inhibitory power of RaEO against α-glucosidase, xanthine oxidase and pancreatic lipase was evaluated. Enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten and the derived Lineweaver-Burk (LB) plots were performed to understand the possible mechanism of inhibition exercised by the components of this essential oil. The result revealed the presence of 26 compounds (97.4%). The main constituents include germacrene D (49.2%), methyl eugenol (8.3%), (E)-β-ionone (6.2%), β-caryophyllene (5.7%), (E,E)-α-farnesene (4.2%), bicyclogermacrene (4.1%) and (Z)-α-bisabolene (3.7%). The kinetic inhibition study showed that the essential oil demonstrated a strong α-glucosidase inhibiton and it was a mixed inhibitor. On the other hand, our results evidenced that this oil exhibited important xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect, behaving as a non-competitive inhibitor. The essential oil inhibited the turkey pancreatic lipase, with maximum inhibition of 80% achieved at 2 mg/mL. Furthermore, the inhibition of turkey pancreatic lipase by RaEO was an irreversible one. The results revealed that the RaEO is a new

  5. The Essential Oils of Rhaponticum carthamoides Hairy Roots and Roots of Soil-Grown Plants: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidant Activities.

    PubMed

    Skała, Ewa; Rijo, Patrícia; Garcia, Catarina; Sitarek, Przemysław; Kalemba, Danuta; Toma, Monika; Szemraj, Janusz; Pytel, Dariusz; Wysokińska, Halina; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from the hairy roots (HR) and roots of soil-grown plants (SGR) of Rhaponticum carthamoides and were analyzed by GC-MS method. In the both essential oils 62 compounds were identified. The root essential oils showed the differences in the qualitative and quantitative composition. The sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (55-62%) dominated in both essential oils. The major compounds of HR essential oil were cyperene, 13-norcypera-1(5),11(12)-diene, and cadalene while aplotaxene, nardosina-1(10),11-diene, and dauca-4(11),8-diene dominated in SGR essential oil. Both essential oils showed antibacterial activity especially against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) (MIC value = 125  µ g/mL). HR and SGR essential oils also decreased the expression of IL-1 β , IL-6, and TNF- α and the ROS level in LPS-treatment astrocytes. This is the first report to describe the chemical composition of R. carthamoides essential oil from hairy roots, its protective effect against LPS-induced inflammation and ROS production in astrocytes, and its antimicrobial potential. The results show that R. carthamoides hairy roots may be a valuable source of the essential oil and may be an alternative to the roots of soil-grown plants.

  6. The Essential Oils of Rhaponticum carthamoides Hairy Roots and Roots of Soil-Grown Plants: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Rijo, Patrícia; Garcia, Catarina; Kalemba, Danuta; Toma, Monika; Szemraj, Janusz; Pytel, Dariusz; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from the hairy roots (HR) and roots of soil-grown plants (SGR) of Rhaponticum carthamoides and were analyzed by GC-MS method. In the both essential oils 62 compounds were identified. The root essential oils showed the differences in the qualitative and quantitative composition. The sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (55–62%) dominated in both essential oils. The major compounds of HR essential oil were cyperene, 13-norcypera-1(5),11(12)-diene, and cadalene while aplotaxene, nardosina-1(10),11-diene, and dauca-4(11),8-diene dominated in SGR essential oil. Both essential oils showed antibacterial activity especially against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) (MIC value = 125 µg/mL). HR and SGR essential oils also decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and the ROS level in LPS-treatment astrocytes. This is the first report to describe the chemical composition of R. carthamoides essential oil from hairy roots, its protective effect against LPS-induced inflammation and ROS production in astrocytes, and its antimicrobial potential. The results show that R. carthamoides hairy roots may be a valuable source of the essential oil and may be an alternative to the roots of soil-grown plants. PMID:28074117

  7. Effects of Angelica dahurica and Rheum officinale Extracts on Excisional Wound Healing in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wan-Ting; Ke, Chun-Yen; Harn, Horng-Jyh

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of wound treatments is to restore the functional skin properties and prevent infection. Traditional Chinese medicine provides alternative anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and wound healing therapies. Both Angelica dahurica extract (AE) and Rheum officinale extract (RE) possess antimicrobial activity. In this study, AE and RE were applied in wound treatment to investigate their healing effects. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats with dorsal full-thickness skin excision were divided into normal saline (NS), AE, RE, AE plus RE (ARE), and Biomycin (BM) groups. The treatment and area measurement of wounds were applied daily for 21 days. Wound biopsies and blood samples were obtained for histology examinations and cytokine analysis. Results showed that wound contraction in ARE group was significantly higher than that in NS and BM groups (P < 0.05). Histological analysis showed that more inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen fibers, and myofibroblasts were observed in ARE treated group than those in NS group on days 3–5. In ARE group, plasma IL-6 levels were elevated during days 3–5 (P > 0.05), and plasma TGF-β1 levels were significantly lower than those in the NS group on days 3-4 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, ARE accelerates wound healing during inflammation and proliferation phases. PMID:28900458

  8. In Vitro Estrogenic and Breast Cancer Inhibitory Activities of Chemical Constituents Isolated from Rheum undulatum L.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dahae; Park, SeonJu; Choi, Sungyoul; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kang, Ki Sung

    2018-05-18

    We investigated the estrogenic and breast cancer inhibitory activities of chemical constituents isolated from Rhei undulati Rhizoma (roots of Rheum undulatum L.), which is used as a laxative, an anti-inflammatory, and an anti-blood stagnation agent. Estrogen-like activity was studied using the well characterized E-screen assay in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 cells. The mechanism underlying the breast cancer inhibitory activity of the compounds was studied using human ER-negative MDA-MB-231 and ER-positive MCF-7 cells. The activation of apoptosis pathway-related proteins was investigated by western blotting, using extracts of R. undulatum prepared in three solvent conditions (EX1, EX2, and EX3). The R. undulatum chemical constituents (compounds 1 ⁻ 3 ) showed estrogen-like activity in the concentration range of 10 to 50 μM, by increasing the proliferation of human ER-positive MCF-7 cells. These effects were attenuated by co-treatment with 100 nM fulvestrant, an ER antagonist. Compounds 1 ⁻ 3 decreased the viability of MCF-7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Compounds 1 (aloe emodin) and 2 (rhapontigenin) induced mitochondria-independent apoptosis by activating the caspase-8 pathway, whereas the cytotoxic effect of compound 3 (chrysophanol 1- O -β-d-glucopyranoside) was mediated through the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway.

  9. Effects of rhaponticum carthamoides versus glycyrrhiza glabra and punica granatum extracts on metabolic syndrome signs in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rhaponticum cathamoides (RC) is an endemic wild Siberian herb with marked medicinal properties that are still poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic potential of RC extract (ERC) compared to the effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra (EGG) and Punica granatum extracts (EPG) in a rat model with high-fat diet-(HFD)-induced signs of metabolic syndrome; therefore, this study addresses a significant global public health problem. Methods Six-month-old male Wistar Albino Glaxo rats were subjected to eight weeks of a standard diet (SD), HFD, or HFD in which ERC, EGG, or EPG powders were incorporated at 300 mg/kg/day. The serum lipid profile, corticosterone and cytokine concentrations, glucose tolerance, systolic blood pressure, triacylglycerol accumulation, and PPARα DNA-binding activities in the liver samples were determined. Results In contrast to EGG and EPG, an ERC supplement significantly reduced the weight of epididymal tissue (19.0%, p < 0.01) and basal serum glucose level (19.4%, p < 0.05). ERC improved glucose intolerance as well as dyslipidemia more efficiently than EGG and EPG. EGG but not ERC or EPG supplementation decreased systolic blood pressure by 12.0% (p < 0.05). All of the tested extracts reduced serum IL6 and corticosterone levels induced by HFD. However, the lowering effects of ERC consumption on the serum TNF-α level and its restoring effect on the adrenal corticosterone level significantly exceeded the improvements induced by EGG and EPG. ERC intake also reduced triacylglycerol accumulation and increased the PPARα DNA-binding activity in the liver more significantly than EGG and EPG. Conclusions ERC powder supplementation improved glucose and lipid metabolism more significantly than EGG and EPG in rats fed on HFD, supporting the strategy of R. carthamoides use for safe relief of metabolic syndrome and its related disturbances such as inflammation, stress, and hepatic steatosis. PMID:24444255

  10. [Effect of rhubarb as the main composition of sequential treatment in patients with acute paraquat poisoning: a prospective clinical research].

    PubMed

    Wang, Weizhan; Li, Jing; Ma, Guoying; Li, Na; Wang, Pu; Xiao, Qingmian; Li, Baiyan; Liu, Yongjian; Gao, Xun; Li, Wei

    2015-04-01

    To observe the effect of rhubarb as the main composition in the therapy for patients with acute paraquat poisoning (AP). A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted. 128 patients with APP admitted to Harrison International Peace Hospital from March 2011 to December 2013 were randomly divided into western medicine control group (n = 64) and western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) combination group (n = 64). All the patients were treated with repeated gastric lavage and oral kaolin. The patients in western medicine control group were given 20% mannitol and (or) magnesium sulfate for catharsis, early ( within 8 hours of admission ) hemoperfusion HP), and also given the routine combined therapy. In TCM combination group, in addition to the above treatment patients were given oral paraquat poisoning detoxification prescription No.1 every 2 hours for catharsis, which was composed of rhubarb 10 g, glauber salt 12 g, agrimony 12 g, and licorice 6 g. When green stool disappeared, detoxification therapy was changed to No. 2 compound once a day for 14 days, which was consisted of rhubarb 10 g, ginseng 6 g, agrimony 15 g, rhizoma chuanxiong 10 g, licorice 6 g. The poison volume, first dose of oral drug, time for the first HP, time of the first defecation, the time of last green stool, decontamination time, white blood cell count ( WBC ), C-reactive protein ( CRP ), arterial blood gas analysis, blood lactic acid ( Lac ), liver and kidney functions, myocardial enzyme spectrum, chest CT, adverse reaction, days of hospitalization, and mortality rate were observed in both groups. The levels of paraquat in plasma and urine were determined before treatment and 12 hours after poisoning in both groups. Sixty days after discharge, chest CT was taken for observation of pulmonary fibrosis. There were no significant differences in the poison volume, ingestion time and the time for the first HP between the two groups. Compared with western medicine control group

  11. Determination of Five Chemical Markers in DF Formula, the Herbal Composition of Ephedra intermedia, Rheum palmatum, and Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Using High-performance Liquid Chromatography-ultraviolet Detection.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Birang; Roh, Jong Seong; Yoon, Michung; Yoon, Yoosik; Shin, Soon Shik; Cho, Hyun Joo; Kwon, Yong Soo; Yang, Heejung

    2018-01-01

    DF formula is a herbal preparation comprised three medicinal herbs, namely, Ephedra intermedia , Rheum palmatum , and Lithospermum erythrorhizon , which is being used for the treatment of obesity and liver fibrosis in Korean local clinics. Since the abovementioned three herbs exist with different proportions in DF formula and their chemical markers have different physiochemical properties; it is quite challenging to develop an analytical methodology for the determination of these chemical markers. For the analysis of the three herbs, five chemicals, (+)-pseudoephedrine (1) and (-)-ephedrine (2) for E. intermedia , aloe-emodin (3), and chrysophanol (4) for R. palmatum , and shikonin (5) for L. erythrorhizon , were selected for method validation of DF formula, and the analytical conditions were optimized and validated using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV). The specificities for the five compounds 1-5 were determined by their UV absorption spectra (1-4: 215 nm and 5: 520 nm). Their calibration curves showed good linear regressions with high correlation coefficient values ( R 2 > 0.9997). The limits of detection of these five markers were in the range 0.4-2.1 ng/mL, with the exception of 5 (12.7 ng/mL). The intraday variability for all the chemical markers was less than a Relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3%, except for 5 (RSD = 12.6%). In the case of interday analysis, 1 (1.0%), 2 (3.1%), and 4 (3.7%) showed much lower variabilities (RSD < 5%) than 3 (7.6%) and 5 (8.2%). Moreover, the five chemical markers showed good recoveries with good accuracies in the range of 90%-110%. The developed HPLC-UV method for the determination of the five chemical markers of the components of DF formula was validated. DF formula, the herbal composition of Ephedra intermedia , Rheum palmatum and Lithospermum erythrorhizon Five chemical markers in DF formula were (+)-pseudoephedrine (1) and (-)-ephedrine (2) for E. intermedia , aloe

  12. Deoxyrhapontigenin, a Natural Stilbene Derivative Isolated From Rheum undulatum L. Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress–Mediated Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Thamizhiniyan; Jeong, Min-Ji; Choi, Young-Woong; Park, Eun-Jin; El-Desouky, Samy Korany; Kim, Young-Kyoon

    2016-01-01

    Although current chemotherapeutic agents are active at the beginning of therapy, the most common risk is the development of resistance during later stages in almost all cancer types including breast cancer. Hence, investigation of novel drugs is still a priority goal for cancer treatment. The objective of the present study is to investigate the anticancer effect of a derivative of stilbene, deoxyrhapontigenin (DR) isolated from Rheum undulatum L. root extracts against the chemoresistant MCF-7/adr and its parental MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The morphological images indicate that DR induces an extensive cytoplasmic vacuolation in breast cancer cells. Mechanistic investigations revealed that DR treatment causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dilation and upregulated the expression of ER stress markers GRP78, IRE1α, eIF2α, CHOP, JNK, and p38. Subsequently, we also identified that DR increases the levels of apoptotic fragment of PARP (89 kDa) in breast cancer cells. Blocking the expression of one of the components of the ER stress–mediated apoptosis pathway, CHOP using siRNA significantly decreased DR-induced apoptotic cleavage of PARP. In summary, the present study suggests that the induction of ER stress–mediated apoptosis by DR may account for its cytotoxic effects in human breast cancer cells. PMID:27151591

  13. Application of an efficient strategy based on liquid-liquid extraction, high-speed counter-current chromatography, and preparative HPLC for the rapid enrichment, separation, and purification of four anthraquinones from Rheum tanguticum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Liu, Yongling; Zou, Denglang; Chen, Chen; You, Jinmao; Zhou, Guoying; Sun, Jing; Li, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an efficient strategy based on liquid-liquid extraction, high-speed counter-current chromatography, and preparative HPLC for the rapid enrichment, separation, and purification of four anthraquinones from Rheum tanguticum. A new solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/water (4:2:1, v/v/v) was developed for the liquid-liquid extraction of the crude extract from R. tanguticum. As a result, emodin, aloe-emodin, physcion, and chrysophanol were greatly enriched in the organic layer. In addition, an efficient method was successfully established to separate and purify the above anthraquinones by high-speed counter-current chromatography and preparative HPLC. This study supplies a new alternative method for the rapid enrichment, separation, and purification of emodin, aloe-emodin, physcione, and chrysophanol. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Determination of Five Chemical Markers in DF Formula, the Herbal Composition of Ephedra intermedia, Rheum palmatum, and Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Using High-performance Liquid Chromatography-ultraviolet Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Birang; Roh, Jong Seong; Yoon, Michung; Yoon, Yoosik; Shin, Soon Shik; Cho, Hyun Joo; Kwon, Yong Soo; Yang, Heejung

    2018-01-01

    Background: DF formula is a herbal preparation comprised three medicinal herbs, namely, Ephedra intermedia, Rheum palmatum, and Lithospermum erythrorhizon, which is being used for the treatment of obesity and liver fibrosis in Korean local clinics. Objective: Since the abovementioned three herbs exist with different proportions in DF formula and their chemical markers have different physiochemical properties; it is quite challenging to develop an analytical methodology for the determination of these chemical markers. Materials and Methods: For the analysis of the three herbs, five chemicals, (+)-pseudoephedrine (1) and (−)-ephedrine (2) for E. intermedia, aloe-emodin (3), and chrysophanol (4) for R. palmatum, and shikonin (5) for L. erythrorhizon, were selected for method validation of DF formula, and the analytical conditions were optimized and validated using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV). Results: The specificities for the five compounds 1–5 were determined by their UV absorption spectra (1–4: 215 nm and 5: 520 nm). Their calibration curves showed good linear regressions with high correlation coefficient values (R2 > 0.9997). The limits of detection of these five markers were in the range 0.4–2.1 ng/mL, with the exception of 5 (12.7 ng/mL). The intraday variability for all the chemical markers was less than a Relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3%, except for 5 (RSD = 12.6%). In the case of interday analysis, 1 (1.0%), 2 (3.1%), and 4 (3.7%) showed much lower variabilities (RSD < 5%) than 3 (7.6%) and 5 (8.2%). Moreover, the five chemical markers showed good recoveries with good accuracies in the range of 90%–110%. Conclusions: The developed HPLC-UV method for the determination of the five chemical markers of the components of DF formula was validated. SUMMARY DF formula, the herbal composition of Ephedra intermedia, Rheum palmatum and Lithospermum erythrorhizonFive chemical markers in DF formula

  15. Effectiveness of computer-assisted interactive videodisc instruction in teaching rheumatology to physical and occupational therapy students.

    PubMed

    Sanford, M K; Hazelwood, S E; Bridges, A J; Cutts, J H; Mitchell, J A; Reid, J C; Sharp, G

    1996-01-01

    A computer-assisted interactive videodisc instructional program, HP-RHEUM was designed to teach clinical findings in arthritis to occupational and physical therapy students. Using the Rheumatology Image Library videodisc produced by the National Library of Medicine, HP-RHEUM consists of instructional modules which employ advance organizers, examples/nonexamples, summaries, and immediate feedback. To see if HP-RHEUM would be as effective as traditional classroom instruction, control data were collected in 1991 from 52 OT and PT students. Treatment data were collected from 61 students in 1992 when HP-RHEUM entirely replaced lectures. Identical pre- and post-tests consisted of 70 multiple choice questions, with 24 matched to slides. On the slide questions the HP-RHEUM group had significantly higher scores. Otherwise, there was no significant difference in performance between groups. HP-RHEUM provided an independent learning method and enhanced visual comprehension of rheumatologic disease concepts.

  16. Acceleration of pro-caspase-3 maturation and cell migration inhibition in human breast cancer cells by phytoconstituents of Rheum emodi rhizome extracts

    PubMed Central

    Naveen Kumar, D.R.; George, V. Cijo; Suresh, P.K.; Kumar, R. Ashok

    2013-01-01

    The aggressive nature of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer subtype obligates for innovative targeted therapies. The present study aimed to investigate the phytoconstituents and specific anticancer activities of Rheum emodi rhizome, a known food source used locally to treat various ailments. Petroleum ether extracts (hot [PHR] and cold [PCR]) of R. emodi, exhibited significant free radical scavenging potentials through DPPH and reducing power assays, rendering them as good sources of antioxidants. The extracts, PHR and PCR had shown significant (P < 0.05) cancer-cell-specific cytotoxicity in the assayed cells (MDA-MB-231 [breast carcinoma] and WRL-68 [non-tumoral]) at 100 μg/ml, and 50 and 100 μg/ml concentrations respectively. Extracts also induced fervent apoptosis in ER-negative cells (MDA-MB-231) compared to ER-positive subtype (MCF-7), and found to involve CPP32/caspase-3 in its apoptosis induction mechanism. Moreover, extracts had an inevitable potential to inhibit the migration of metastatic breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) in vitro. Further, the active principles of extracts were identified through HPLC and GC-MS analysis to reveal major polyphenolics, 4,7-Dimethyl-(octahydro)indolo[4,3-fg]quinolin-10-one, 5-Oxo-isolongifolene, Valencene-2, and other quinone, quinoline and anthraquinone derivatives. The extracts are thus good candidates to target malignant ER-negative breast cancer, and the identified phytoconstituents could be eluted in further exploratory studies for use in dietary-based anti-breast cancer therapies. PMID:26417238

  17. [A consideration on the import of Chinese crude drugs of general use in the 2nd half of Taisho era (7): especially on the change of import volume and price of rhubarb].

    PubMed

    Harima, S; Tanaka, Y

    1991-01-01

    Since most of the crude drug rhubarb was imported in the Taisho era, similarly to the Meiji era, it was possible to refer to the government statistic data by investigating and elucidating the import volume of the same in the treaty ports at that time. Upon examining the import status in the period from the late part of the Taisho era to the early part of Showa era (around 1920 to 1930), the following transitions were observed. 1) In 1923 (Taisho 12), the Kantoh earthquake happened and it attacked Yokohama where the function as main trade port was almost totally destroyed. ... 2) The earthquake happened just at the time when the tariff protectionism was increasingly promoted in every country. ... 3) Since the port of Yokohama, as trade port, was damaged by the earthquake at that time and the government import statistic data were limited to a partial summing-up, our investigation was referred to the statistic data at the ports of Osaka and Kobe. ...

  18. Microwave-assisted ionic liquid homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of anthraquinones in Rheum palmatum L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhibing; Hu, Jianxue; Du, Hongxia; He, Shuang; Li, Qing; Zhang, Hanqi

    2016-06-05

    The microwave-assisted ionic liquid homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction (MA-IL-HLLME) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was developed for the determination of anthraquinones, including aloe-emodin, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion in root of Rheum palmatum L. Several experimental parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, including amount of sample, type and volume of ionic liquid, volume and pH value of extraction medium, microwave power and extraction time, concentration of NH4PF6 as well as centrifugal condition were optimized. When 140μL of ionic liquid ([C8MIM][BF4]) was used as an extraction solvent, target analytes can be extracted from sample matrix in one minute with the help of microwave irradiation. The MA-IL-HLLME is simple and quick. The calibration curves exhibited good linear relationship (r>0.9984). The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 0.015-0.026 and 0.051-0.088μgmL(-1), respectively. The spiked recovery for each analyte was in the range of 81.13-93.07% with relative standard deviations lower than 6.89%. The present method is free of volatile organic solvents, and represents lower expenditures of sample, extraction time and solvent, compared with ultrasonic and heat reflux extraction. The results indicated that the present method can be successfully applied to the determination of anthraquinones in medicinal plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Botanicals and Phosphonate Show Potential to Replace Copper for Control of Potato Late Blight

    PubMed Central

    Forrer, Hans-Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    Potato late blight (PLB) caused by Phytophthora infestans (Pi) is the most harmful disease in potato production worldwide. In organic farming, copper is used despite its persistence in soil and toxicity to soil organisms. To replace copper, suspensions of powders from three promising botanicals, including bark of buckthorn (Frangula alnus, FA), roots of medicinal rhubarb (Rheum palmatum) and galls of the nutgall tree (Galla chinensis), were tested in multi-year field experiments. The current study shows for the first time that botanicals could replace copper under field conditions and best PLB reduction on leaves was achieved with FA, reaching a level close to that of 2 to 3 kg copper per hectare and year. Better results than with copper were achieved with Phosfik® (Ph), a phosphonate-based product. For both FA and Ph, the mode of action is based on induced resistance, for Ph also on direct fungicidal effects. A disadvantage of Ph is the accumulation of residues in potato tubers. Nevertheless, two to three applications with 2 to 3 L/ha of Ph would be feasible to not exceed a minimal risk level (MLR) of 20 mg/kg of phosphorous acid as proposed by the European Food Safety Authority. Due to an excellent environmental profile and a complex mode of action counteracting Pi resistance, phosphonate-based products would be most suitable for sustainable PLB management in integrated pest management (IPM) programmes. PMID:29371580

  20. The efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Nayebi, Neda; Moradi, Leila; Mehri, Avin; Larijani, Bagher; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of effective herbal medicines in the management of hyperlipidemia in human. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases were searched up to 11th May 2010. The search terms were "hyperlipidemia" and ("herbal medicine" or "medicine traditional", "extract plant") without narrowing or limiting search elements. All of the human studies on the effects of herbs with the key outcome of change in lipid profiles were included. Fifty three relevant clinical trials were reviewed for efficacy of plants. This study showed significant decrease in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol after treatment with Daming capsule (DMC), chunghyul-dan, Glycyrrhiza glabra, garlic powder (Allicor), black tea, green tea, soy drink enriched with plant sterols, licorice, Satureja khuzestanica, Monascus purpureus Went rice, Fenugreek, Commiphora mukul (guggul), Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch, Ningzhi capsule (NZC), cherry, compositie salviae dropping pill (CSDP), shanzha xiaozhi capsule, Ba-wei-wan (hachimijiogan), rhubarb stalk, Silybum marianum, Rheum Ribes and Jingmingdan granule (primrose oil). Conflicting data exist for red yeast rice, garlic and guggul. No significant adverse effect or mortality were observed except in studies with DMC, guggul, and Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Emblica officinalis, ginger, and garlic powder (Allium sativum). Amongst reviewed studies, 22 natural products were found effective in the treatment of hyperlipidemia that deserve further works to isolate and characterization of their constituents to reach novel therapeutic and more effective agents.

  1. Characterisation of phenolics in Flor-Essence--a compound herbal product and its contributing herbs.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Ammar; Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Harris, Cory; Asim, Muhammad; Tamayo, Carmen; Sit, Summer; Arnason, John Thor

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available herbal mixture FE, a proprietary natural health product manufactured by Flora Manufacturing and Distributing Ltd (Flora), is a unique North American traditional herbal product. FE is a chemically complex mixture of eight herbs and has not been subjected to phytochemical analysis. To develop analytical methods to undertake detailed phytochemical analyses of FE, and its eight contributing herbs, including burdock (Arctium lappa L.), sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella L.), Turkish rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.), slippery elm Muhl. (Ulmus rubra), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), blessed thistle (Cnicus benedictus L.) and kelp (Laminaria digitata Lmx.). The identification was undertaken by a combination of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass selective detection (RP-HPLC-DAD-APCI-MSD) analysis and phenolics metabolomic library matching. New separation methods facilitated the identification of 43 markers in the individual herbs which constitute FE. Sixteen markers could be identified in FE originating from four contributing herbs including four caffeoyl quinic acids, three dicaffeoyl quinic acids and two caffeic acid derivatives from A. lappa, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, five apigenin glycosides and apigenin from R. acetocella and N. officinale and sissostrin from T. pretense. A validated method for quantitative determination of three markers is reported with good intraday, interday and interoperator repeatability using a reliable alcohol based extraction technique. FE and its contributing herbs predominantly contain phenolics. This methodology can be applied to further develop full-scale validation of this product.

  2. Comprehensive two-dimensional HPLC to study the interaction of multiple components in Rheum palmatum L. with HSA by coupling a silica-bonded HSA column to a silica monolithic ODS column.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lianghai; Li, Xin; Feng, Shun; Kong, Liang; Su, Xingye; Chen, Xueguo; Qin, Feng; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa

    2006-04-01

    A mode of comprehensive 2-D LC was developed by coupling a silica-bonded HSA column to a silica monolithic ODS column. This system combined the affinity property of the HSA column and the high-speed separation ability of the monolithic ODS column. The affinity chromatography with HSA-immobilized stationary phase was applied to study the interaction of multiple components in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) with HSA according to their affinity to protein in the first dimension. Then the unresolved components retained on the HSA column were further separated on the silica monolithic ODS column in the second dimension. By hyphenating the 2-D separation system to diode array detector and MS detectors, the UV and molecular weight information of the separated compounds can also be obtained. The developed separation system was applied to analysis of the extract of Rheum palmatum L., a number of low-abundant components can be separated on a single peak from the HSA column after normalization of peak heights. Six compounds were preliminarily identified according to their UV and MS spectra. It showed that this system was very useful for biological fingerprinting analysis of the components in TCMs and natural products.

  3. Optimization of GC/TOF MS analysis conditions for assessing host-gut microbiota metabolic interactions: Chinese rhubarb alters fecal aromatic amino acids and phenol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shan; Guo, Pan; Hai, Dafu; Xu, Li; Shu, Jiale; Zhang, Wenjin; Khan, Muhammad Idrees; Kurland, Irwin J; Qiu, Yunping; Liu, Yumin

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, an optimized method based on gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) platform has been developed for the analysis of gut microbial-host related co-metabolites in fecal samples. The optimization was performed with proportion of chloroform (C), methanol (M) and water (W) for the extraction of specific metabolic pathways of interest. Loading Bi-plots from the PLS regression model revealed that high concentration of chloroform emphasized the extraction of short chain fatty acids and TCA intermediates, while the higher concentration of methanol emphasized indole and phenyl derivatives. Low level of organic solution emphasized some TCA intermediates but not for indole and phenyl species. The highest sum of the peak area and the distribution of metabolites corresponded to the extraction of methanol/chloroform/water of 225:75:300 (v/v/v), which was then selected for method validation and utilized in our application. Excellent linearity was obtained with 62 reference standards representing different classes of gut microbial-host related co-metabolites, with correlation coefficients (r 2 ) higher than 0.99. Limit of detections (LODs) and limit of qualifications (LOQs) for these standards were below 0.9 nmol and 1.6 nmol, respectively. The reproducibility and repeatability of the majority of tested metabolites in fecal samples were observed with RSDs lower than 15%. Chinese rhubarb-treated rats had elevated indole and phenyl species, and decreased levels of polyamine such as putrescine, and several amino acids. Our optimized method has revealed host-microbe relationships of potential importance for intestinal microbial metabolite receptors such as pregnane X receptor (PXR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) activity, and for enzymes such as ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of complementary therapies for recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Archilla, Alberto; Raissouni, Tarik

    2017-07-21

    Despite the high prevalence of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), its etiology is not yet completely clear and there is no completely remedial treatment available at present. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of 4 treatments (silver nitrate, propolis, rhubarb and walnut) for RAS. A randomized clinical trial was conducted with 125 patients with minor aphthae, including 25 patients per group: cauterization with silver nitrate, propolis, rhubarb extract, walnut extract and placebo. No patient reported adverse effects related to the treatment received. There were significant (P<.001) differences in the time elapsed until symptom resolution. The fastest treatment was silver nitrate (1.16 days), followed by the 3 alternative treatments (1.60 days with propolis, 1.84 with rhubarb and 2.00 with walnut; with no differences between them), and finally the placebo (4.64 days). The mean healing time of the lesions was statistically higher (8.96 days) for the placebo than for the 4 treatments: silver nitrate (7.32 days), propolis (6.80), rhubarb (7.72) and walnut (8.00). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Autoimmune Associated Systemic Vasculitis as the Cause of Sudden onset Bilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss Following Lassa Virus Exposure in a Cynomolgus Macaque Deafness Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-10

    and IL-15 has been considered as a potential therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and GPA (36, 41, 42...22(1):19-33. 41. Baslund B, et al. (2005) Targeting interleukin-15 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis : a proof-of-concept study. Arthritis Rheum...Berrettini S, et al. (1998) Progressive sensorineural hearing impairment in systemic vasculitides. Semin Arthritis Rheum 27(5):301-318. 27. Webb AA

  6. Delayed luminescence: an experimental protocol for Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengmeng; van Wijk, Roeland; van Wijk, Eduard; Wang, Mei; van Wietmarschen, Herman; Hankemeier, Thomas; van der Greef, Jan

    2016-09-01

    In Chinese medicine, raw herbal materials are used in processed and unprocessed forms aiming to meet the different requirements of clinical practice. To assure the chemical quality and therapeutic properties of the herbs, fast and integrated systematic assays are required. So far, such assays have not been established. Delayed luminescence (DL) refers to a decaying long-term ultraweak photon emission after exposure to light. Its decay kinetics under certain conditions may be a sensitive indicator reflecting the internal structural and chemical/physiological state of a biological system. DL measurements have been used in many applications for quality control. However, relatively little research has been reported on dried plant material such as Chinese herbs. The objective of the present study is to establish a protocol for direct and rapid DL measurements of dried Chinese herbal materials, including the determination of the dependence on: (a) the optimal excitation time utilizing a white light source; (b) the optimal size of the grinded herbal particle; and (c) the humidity conditions before and during measurement. Results indicate that stable and reproducible curves of DL photon emission depend mainly on the water content of herbal materials. To investigate the application of the established DL measurement protocol, non-processed and processed Aconitum (Aconitum carmichaelii Debx.), wild and cultivated rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.) and ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A.Mey) of different ages were measured using DL. The results suggest that DL technology is a potential tool for assessment of dried Chinese herb qualities. The results warrant a further exploration of this technique in relation to therapeutic properties of the herbs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Local Blockade of CCL21 and CXCL13 Signaling as a New Strategy to Prevent and Treat Osteoarthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    2011 Characterization of CCL19 and CCL21 in rheumatoid arthritis . Arthritis Rheum. 63:914–22. - Zheng B1, Ozen Z, Zhang X, De Silva S, Marinova E...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent type of arthritis . It is characterized by progressive...development of osteoarthritis in mice. Arthritis Rheum. 64(3):705-17. - Pickens SR, Chamberlain ND, Volin MV, Pope RM, Mandelin AM 2nd, Shahrara S

  8. A perspective on B-cell-targeting therapy for SLE.

    PubMed

    Looney, R John; Anolik, Jennifer; Sanz, Inaki

    2010-02-01

    In recent years, large controlled trials have tested several new agents for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Unfortunately, none of these trials has met its primary outcome. This does not mean progress has not been made. In fact, a great deal has been learned about doing clinical trials in lupus and about the biological and clinical effects of the drugs being tested. Many of these drugs were designed to target B cells directly, e.g., rituximab, belimumab, epratuzumab, and transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor-immunoglobulin (TACI-Ig). The enthusiasm for targeting B cells derives from substantial evidence showing the critical role of B cells in murine models of SLE, as well promising results from multiple open trials with rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that specifically depletes B cells (Martin and Chan in Immunity 20(5):517-527, 2004; Sobel et al. in J Exp Med 173:1441-1449, 1991; Silverman and Weisman in Arthritis Rheum 48:1484-1492, 2003; Silverman in Arthritis Rheum 52(4):1342, 2005; Shlomchik et al. in Nat Rev Immunol 1:147-153, 2001; Looney et al. in Arthritis Rheum 50:2580-2589, 2004; Lu et al. in Arthritis Rheum 61(4):482-487, 2009; Saito et al. in Lupus 12(10):798-800, 2003; van Vollenhoven et al. in Scand J Rheumatol 33(6):423-427, 2004; Sfikakis et al. Arthritis Rheum 52(2):501-513, 2005). Why have the controlled trials of B-cell-targeting therapies failed to demonstrate efficacy? Were there flaws in design or execution of these trials? Or, were promising animal studies and open trials misleading, as so often happens? This perspective discusses the current state of B-cell-targeting therapies for human lupus and the future development of these therapies.

  9. The influence of glycyrrhiza and antibiotics on the purgative action of sennoside a from Daiokanzoto in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Emi; Takayama, Kento; Sato, Eiji; Okamura, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Daiokanzoto (DKT), a Kampo medicine that includes the combination of two crude drugs (rhubarb and glycyrrhiza), is clinically effective for constipation. The aim of this study is to clarify the influence of glycyrrhiza, three glycyrrhiza constituents (glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, and liquiritin apioside), and eight antibiotics on the purgative action of DKT, rhubarb, or sennoside A, a constituent of rhubarb, in mice. The purgative actions of rhubarb and sennoside A were significantly intensified when glycyrrhiza was co-administered orally to mice. Liquiritin and liquiritin apioside but not glycyrrhizin showed significant amplification of the purgative action in a dose-dependent manner. The purgative actions of DKT and sennoside A were significantly reduced by the pre-administration of ampicillin, cefcapene pivoxil, faropenem, fosfomycin, or kanamycin, but were not affected by the pre-administration of clarithromycin or levofloxacin. On the other hand, the purgative action of sennoside A was significantly reduced by the pre-administration of minocycline, whereas that of DKT was not affected. The effect of minocycline on the purgative action of sennoside A was lost when glycyrrhiza was co-administered. These results suggest that liquiritin and liquiritin apioside contribute as active substances for the purgative action of DKT, and some antibiotics reduce the purgative action of DKT and sennoside A. Furthermore, glycyrrhiza has the ability to recover the purgative action of sennoside A suppressed by minocycline via an unknown mechanism.

  10. Emodin Decreases Hepatic Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1[Formula: see text] by Inhibiting its Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Feifei; Hu, Lijuan; Yu, Ming; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is an [Formula: see text] dimeric transcription factor. Because HIF-1[Formula: see text] is instable with oxygen, HIF-1 is scarce in normal mammalian cells. However, HIF-1[Formula: see text] is expressed in pathological conditions such as cancer and obesity. Inhibiting HIF-1[Formula: see text] may be of therapeutic value for these pathologies. Here, we investigated whether emodin, derived from the herb of Rheum palmatum L, which is also known as Chinese rhubarb, and is native to China, regulates HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression. Male C57BL/6 mice without or with diet-induced obesity were treated with emodin for two weeks, while control mice were treated with vehicle. HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression was determined by Western blot. We found that emodin inhibited obesity-induced HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in liver and skeletal muscle but did not regulate HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in the kidneys or in intra-abdominal fat. In vitro, emodin inhibited HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in human HepG2 hepatic cells and Y1 adrenocortical cells. Further, we investigated the mechanisms of HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in emodin-treated HepG2 cells. First, we found that HIF-1[Formula: see text] had normal stability in the presence of emodin. Thus, emodin did not decrease HIF-1[Formula: see text] by stimulating its degradation. Importantly, emodin decreased the activity of the signaling pathways that led to HIF-1[Formula: see text] biosynthesis. Interestingly, emodin increased HIF-1[Formula: see text] mRNA in HepG2 cells. This may be a result of feedback in response to the emodin-induced decrease in the protein of HIF-1[Formula: see text]. In conclusion, emodin decreases hepatic HIF-1[Formula: see text] by inhibiting its biosynthesis.

  11. Further Studies on Oxalic Acid Biosynthesis in Oxalate-accumulating Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, Richard F.; Loewus, Frank A.

    1978-01-01

    l-Ascorbic acid functions as a precursor of oxalic acid in several oxalate-accumulating plants. The present study extends this observation to include Rumex crispus L. (curly dock), Amaranthus retroflexus L. (red root pigweed), Chenopodium album L. (lamb's-quarters), Beta vulgaris L. (sugar beet), Halogeton glomeratus M. Bieb. (halogeton), and Rheum rhabarbarum L. (rhubarb). Several species with low oxalate content are also examined. When l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid is supplied to young seedlings of R. crispus or H. glomeratus, a major portion of the 14C is released over a 24-hour period as 14CO2 and only a small portion is recovered as [14C]oxalate, unlike cuttings from 2- or 4-month-old plants which retain a large part of the 14C as [14C]oxalic acid and release very little 14CO2. Support for an intermediate role of oxalate in the release of 14CO2 from l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid is seen in the rapid release of 14CO2 by R. crispus and H. glomeratus seedlings labeled with [14C]oxalic acid. The common origin of oxalic acid carbon in the C1 and C2 fragment from l-ascorbic acid is demonstrated by comparison of 14C content of oxalic acid in several oxalate-accumulators after cuttings or seedlings are supplied equal amounts of l-[1-14C]- or l-[UL-14C]ascorbic acid. Theoretically, l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid will produce labeled oxalic acid containing three times as much 14C as l-[UL-14C]ascorbic acid when equal amounts of label are provided. Experimentally, a ratio of 2.7 ± 0.5 is obtained in duplicate experiments with six different species. PMID:16660342

  12. Enhanced production of resveratrol derivatives in tobacco plants by improving the metabolic flux of intermediates in the phenylpropanoid pathway.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yu Jeong; An, Chul Han; Woo, Su Gyeong; Park, Ji Hye; Lee, Ki-Won; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Rim, Yeonggil; Jeong, Hyung Jae; Ryu, Young Bae; Kim, Cha Young

    2016-09-01

    The biosynthesis of flavonoids such as anthocyanin and stilbenes has attracted increasing attention because of their potential health benefits. Anthocyanins and stilbenes share common phenylpropanoid precursor pathways. We previously reported that the overexpression of sweetpotato IbMYB1a induced anthocyanin pigmentation in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. In the present study, transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum SR1) plants (STS-OX and ROST-OX) expressing the RpSTS gene encoding stilbene synthase from rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L. cv. Jangyeop) and the RpSTS and VrROMT genes encoding resveratrol O-methyltransferase from frost grape (Vitis riparia) were generated under the control of 35S promoter. Phenotypic alterations in floral organs, such as a reduction in floral pigments and male sterility, were observed in STS-OX transgenic tobacco plants. However, we failed to obtain STS-OX and ROST-OX plants with high levels of resveratrol compounds. Therefore, to improve the production of resveratrol derivatives in plants, we cross-pollinated flowers of STS-OX or ROST-OX and IbMYB1a-OX transgenic lines (SM and RSM). Phenotypic changes in vegetative and reproductive development of SM and RSM plants were observed. Furthermore, by HPLC and LC-MS analyses, we found enhanced production of resveratrol derivatives such as piceid, piceid methyl ether, resveratrol methyl ether O-hexoside, and 5-methyl resveratrol-3,4'-O-β-D-diglucopyranoside in SM and RSM cross-pollinated lines. Here, total contents of trans- and cis-piceids ranged from approximately 104-240 µg/g fresh weight in SM (F2). Collectively, we suggest that coexpression of RpSTS and IbMYB1a via cross-pollination can induce enhanced production of resveratrol compounds in plants by increasing metabolic flux into stilbenoid biosynthesis.

  13. Plants and other natural products used in the management of oral infections and improvement of oral health.

    PubMed

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-02-01

    Challenges of resistance to synthetic antimicrobials have opened new vistas in the search for natural products. This article rigorously reviews plants and other natural products used in oral health: Punica granatum L. (pomegranate), Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile), Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea), chewing sticks made from Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A.D.C., Diospyros lycioides Desf., and Salvadora persica L. (miswak), honey and propolis from the manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium J.R. Forst. & G. Forst.), rhein from Rheum rhabarbarum L. (rhubarb), dried fruits of Vitis vinifera L. (raisins), essential oils, probiotics and mushrooms. Further, the review highlights plants from Africa, Asia, Brazil, Mexico, Europe, and the Middle East. Some of the plants' antimicrobial properties and chemical principles have been elucidated. While the use of natural products for oral health is prominent in resource-poor settings, antimicrobial testing is mainly conducted in the following countries (in decreasing order of magnitude): India, South Africa, Brazil, Japan, France, Egypt, Iran, Mexico, Kenya, Switzerland, Nigeria, Australia, Uganda, and the United Kingdom. While the review exposes a dire gap for more studies on clinical efficacy and toxicity, the following emerging trend was noted: basic research on plants for oral health is mainly done in Brazil, Europe and Australia. Brazil, China, India and New Zealand generally conduct value addition of natural products for fortification of toothpastes. African countries focus on bioprospecting and primary production of raw plants and other natural products with antimicrobial efficacies. The Middle East and Egypt predominantly research on plants used as chewing sticks. More research and funding are needed in the field of natural products for oral health, especially in Africa where oral diseases are fuelled by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  14. Inhibitory effect of emodin on human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Chen, Yingping; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Yaming

    2015-03-01

    Da Huang (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei) is the dried root or rhizome of Rheum palmatum L., Rheum tanguticum Maxim ex Balf. or Rheum officinale Braill of family Polygonaceae. It has heat clearing, damp drying, fire purging and toxin removing effects. Because of its definite curative efficacy, it has been widely applied in clinical settings. To study the inhibitory effect of emodin on human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 and its mechanism. MTT assay, flow cytometry and electron microscopy were used to investigate the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of emodin on human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721. 12 h, 24 h and 48 h after the action of 20, 40 and 80 umol/L emodin on SMMC-7721 cells, the proliferation of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells was inhibited; the inhibitory effects showed time-and concentration-dependence. 48 h after the action of different concentrations of emodin on SMMC-7721 cells, cells in G2/M phase increased significantly, while the proportion of S phase cells gradually declined. Emodin can inhibit human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721.

  15. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for total sennosides using anti-sennside A and anti-sennoside B monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Morinaga, Osamu; Uto, Takuhiro; Sakamoto, Seiichi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Total sennosides concentration is a very important factor when rhubarb and senna will be used as crude drugs. However, one-step analytical technique for total sennosides has not been reported except HPLC. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for total sennosides concentration by using the combination of anti-sennoside A (SA) and anti-sennoside B (SB) monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) in a single assay has been investigated. Total sennosides concentration in rhubarb and senna samples determined by newly developed assay system showed good agreement with those analyzed by ELISA using anti-SA MAb and anti-SB MAb, respectively.

  16. An RNA isolation system for plant tissues rich in secondary metabolites

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Secondary metabolites are reported to interfere with the isolation of RNA particularly with the recipes that use guanidinium-based salt. Such interference was observed in isolation of RNA with medicinal plants rheum (Rheum australe) and arnebia (Arnebia euchroma). A rapid and less cumbersome system for isolation of RNA was essential to facilitate any study related to gene expression. Findings An RNA isolation system free of guanidinium salt was developed that successfully isolated RNA from rheum and arnebia. The method took about 45 min and was successfully evaluated on twenty one tissues with varied secondary metabolites. The A260/280 ratio ranged between 1.8 - 2.0 with distinct 28 S and 18 S rRNA bands visible on a formaldehyde-agarose gel. Conclusions The present manuscript describes a rapid protocol for isolation of RNA, which works well with all the tissues examined so far. The remarkable feature was the success in isolation of RNA with those tissues, wherein the most commonly used methods failed. Isolated RNA was amenable to downstream applications such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), differential display (DD), suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library construction, and northern hybridization. PMID:21443767

  17. Person-centred care in nurse-led outpatient rheumatology clinics: Conceptualization and initial development of a measurement instrument.

    PubMed

    Bala, Sidona-Valentina; Forslind, Kristina; Fridlund, Bengt; Samuelson, Karin; Svensson, Björn; Hagell, Peter

    2018-06-01

    Person-centred care (PCC) is considered a key component of effective illness management and high-quality care. However, the PCC concept is underdeveloped in outpatient care. In rheumatology, PCC is considered an unmet need and its further development and evaluation is of high priority. The aim of the present study was to conceptualize and operationalize PCC, in order to develop an instrument for measuring patient-perceived PCC in nurse-led outpatient rheumatology clinics. A conceptual outpatient PCC framework was developed, based on the experiences of people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), person-centredness principles and existing PCC frameworks. The resulting framework was operationalized into the PCC instrument for outpatient care in rheumatology (PCCoc/rheum), which was tested for acceptability and content validity among 50 individuals with RA attending a nurse-led outpatient clinic. The conceptual framework focuses on the meeting between the person with RA and the nurse, and comprises five interrelated domains: social environment, personalization, shared decision-making, empowerment and communication. Operationalization of the domains into a pool of items generated a preliminary PCCoc/rheum version, which was completed in a mean (standard deviation) of 5.3 (2.5) min. Respondents found items easy to understand (77%) and relevant (93%). The Content Validity Index of the PCCoc/rheum was 0.94 (item level range, 0.87-1.0). About 80% of respondents considered some items redundant. Based on these results, the PCCoc/rheum was revised into a 24-item questionnaire. A conceptual outpatient PCC framework and a 24-item questionnaire intended to measure PCC in nurse-led outpatient rheumatology clinics were developed. The extent to which the questionnaire represents a measurement instrument remains to be tested. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Effect of Shenkang granules on the progression of chronic renal failure in 5/6 nephrectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YU; ZHOU, NAN; WANG, HONGYING; WANG, SICEN; HE, JIANYU

    2015-01-01

    Shenkang granules (SKGs) are a Chinese herbal medicinal formula, consisting of rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.), Salvia miltiorrhiza, milkvetch root [Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge] and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of SKG on chronic renal failure (CRF) in 5/6 nephrectomized (5/6 Nx) rats. The rats were randomly divided into seven groups (n=10 per group) as follows: (i) 5/6 Nx (model group; 2.25 ml/kg/day normal saline); (ii) SKGL (low dose; 5/6 Nx treated with 2 g crude drug/kg/day SKG); (iii) SKGM (moderate dose; 5/6 Nx treated with 4 g crude drug/kg/day SKG); (iv) SKGH (high dose; 5/6 Nx treated with 8 g crude drug/kg/day SKG); (v) benazepril treatment group (5/6 Nx treated with 5 mg/kg/day benazepril); (vi) Shenkang injection (SKI) group (5/6 Nx with 13.3 ml/kg/day SKI); and (vii) sham-operated group (2.25 ml/kg/day normal saline). After 30 days, the levels of microalbumin, total protein, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and serum lipid were found to be significantly decreased in the SKGL and SKGM rats, showing histological improvement compared with the untreated 5/6 Nx rats, as determined by hematoxylin and eosin, and Masson's trichrome staining. In addition, SKG was found to significantly improve the levels of glutathione peroxidase and reduce the damage caused by free radicals to the kidney tissues. Furthermore, SKG prevented the accumulation of extracellular matrix by decreasing the expression of collagen I and III and inhibiting the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and −9 in the renal tissue, as determined by western blot analysis. SKG was also shown to decrease the concentrations of serum transforming growth factor-β1, as determined by ELISA, and kidney angiotensin II, as determined using a radioimmunoassay kit. In conclusion, SKG was demonstrated to ameliorate renal injury in a 5/6 Nx rat model of CRF. Thus, SKG may exert a good therapeutic effect on CRF. PMID:26136932

  19. 26 CFR 1.954-3 - Foreign base company sales income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... table I shall be considered grown in the United States in commercially marketable quantities. Bananas... plants Cotton Raspberries Cranberries Rice Cucumbers Rhubarb Cut flowers Rye Dates Sorghum grain Eggplant...

  20. 26 CFR 1.954-3 - Foreign base company sales income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... table I shall be considered grown in the United States in commercially marketable quantities. Bananas... plants Cotton Raspberries Cranberries Rice Cucumbers Rhubarb Cut flowers Rye Dates Sorghum grain Eggplant...

  1. 26 CFR 1.954-3 - Foreign base company sales income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... table I shall be considered grown in the United States in commercially marketable quantities. Bananas... plants Cotton Raspberries Cranberries Rice Cucumbers Rhubarb Cut flowers Rye Dates Sorghum grain Eggplant...

  2. 26 CFR 1.954-3 - Foreign base company sales income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... table I shall be considered grown in the United States in commercially marketable quantities. Bananas... plants Cotton Raspberries Cranberries Rice Cucumbers Rhubarb Cut flowers Rye Dates Sorghum grain Eggplant...

  3. [Experimental study of bacteriostatic activity of Chinese herbal medicines on primary cariogenic bacteria in vitro].

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Fan, M; Bian, Z

    2001-09-01

    To screen some Chinese herbal medicines for their inhibitory activity on cariogenic bacteria, and investigate their active ingredients, and measure their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Active components were isolated from every tested Chinese herbal medicine by means of aqueous extraction and ethanolic extraction. Berberine was purified from Coptis chinensis Fra. Disk agar diffusion method was employed in screening herbs with inhibiting effect on cariogenic bacteria. MIC and MBC were determined by broth dilution method. Against Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt, MBCs of Magnolia officinalis ethanolic extract, Berberine, Coptis chinensis Fra aqueous extract and Coptis chinensis Fra ethanolic extract were 0.488, 0.625, 7.800 and 1.950 g/L respectively. Against Streptococcus sobrinus 6715, MBCs of Magnolia extract, Coptis chinensis Fra ethanolic extract, Rhus chinensis Mill ethanolic extract and Phellodendron chinen ethanolic extract were 0.488, 0.625, 1.950, 3.900, 3.900 and 3.900 g/L respectively. Against Actinomyces viscosus ATCC 19246, MBCs of Berberine, Coptis chinensis Fra aqueous extract, Coptis chinensis Fra ethanolic extract, Rheum palmatum L aqueous extract and Rheum palmatum L ethanolic extract were 1.250, 3.900, 3.900, 15.600 and 31.250 g/L respectively. Magnolia officinalis, Coptis chinensis Fran, Rheum palmatum L aqueous extracts exhibit strong inhibition on cariogenic bacteria. Magnolia officinalis ethanolic extract has the strongest bactericidal effects on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus.

  4. 77 FR 59558 - Sulfentrazone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... hay; wheat grain; wheat straw; and cowpea, succulent. The human health risk assessment used to support... Tolerances in/on: Rhubarb, Turnip Roots and Tops, Sunflower Subgroup 20B, Succulent Cowpea, Succulent Lima...

  5. HLA-B27 Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Time and International Normalized Ratio (PT/INR) PSEN1 Quantitative Immunoglobulins Red Blood Cell (RBC) Antibody Identification Red ... from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009. Arthritis Rheum . 2012 May;64(5):1407- ...

  6. Urine Color

    MedlinePlus

    ... during urinary tract infections caused by pseudomonas bacteria. Dark brown or cola-colored urine Brown urine can ... of fava beans, rhubarb or aloe can cause dark brown urine. Medications. A number of drugs can ...

  7. 40 CFR 180.411 - Fluazifop-P-butyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... equivalent of fluazifop, in or on the commodity. Commodity Parts per million Banana 0.01 Beans, dry, seed 50..., bean 0.1 Pepper, tabasco 1.0 Rhubarb 0.5 (d) Indirect or inadvertent residues. [Reserved] [65 FR 33714...

  8. Urine - bloody

    MedlinePlus

    ... movement The urine can also turn a red color from certain drugs, beets, or other foods. ... surgery or an injury? Have you recently eaten foods that may cause a change in color, like beets, berries, or rhubarb? Tests that may ...

  9. Senna

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels in the body might drop too low. Stimulant laxative herbs include aloe, alder buckthorn, black root, blue flag, butternut bark, colocynth, European buckthorn, fo ti, gamboge, gossypol, greater bindweed, jalap, manna, Mexican scammony root, rhubarb, senna, and yellow dock.

  10. Poisonous plants in New Zealand: a review of those that are most commonly enquired about to the National Poisons Centre.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Robin J; Beasley, D Michael G; Lambie, Bruce S; Wilkins, Gerard T; Schep, Leo J

    2012-12-14

    New Zealand has a number of plants, both native and introduced, contact with which can lead to poisoning. The New Zealand National Poisons Centre (NZNPC) frequently receives enquiries regarding exposures to poisonous plants. Poisonous plants can cause harm following inadvertent ingestion, via skin contact, eye exposures or inhalation of sawdust or smoked plant matter. The purpose of this article is to determine the 15 most common poisonous plant enquiries to the NZNPC and provide a review of current literature, discussing the symptoms that might arise upon exposure to these poisonous plants and the recommended medical management of such poisonings. Call data from the NZNPC telephone collection databases regarding human plant exposures between 2003 and 2010 were analysed retrospectively. The most common plants causing human poisoning were selected as the basis for this review. An extensive literature review was also performed by systematically searching OVID MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar. Further information was obtained from book chapters, relevant news reports and web material. For the years 2003-2010 inclusive, a total of 256,969 enquiries were received by the NZNPC. Of these enquiries, 11,049 involved exposures to plants and fungi. The most common poisonous plant enquiries, in decreasing order of frequency, were: black nightshade (Solanum nigrum), arum lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), kowhai (Sophora spp.), euphorbia (Euphorbia spp.), peace lily (Spathiphyllum spp.), agapanthus (Agapanthus spp.), stinking iris (Iris foetidissima), rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum), taro (Colocasia esculentum), oleander (Nerium oleander), daffodil (Narcissus spp.), hemlock (Conium maculatum), karaka (Corynocarpus laevigatus), foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and ongaonga/New Zealand tree nettle (Urtica ferox). The combined total of enquiries for these 15 species was 2754 calls (representing approximately 25% of all enquiries regarding plant exposures). The signs

  11. Argirein alleviates stress-induced and diabetic hypogonadism in rats via normalizing testis endothelin receptor A and connexin 43.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Hu, Chen; Khan, Hussein-hamed; Shi, Fang-hong; Cong, Xiao-dong; Li, Qing; Dai, Yin; Dai, De-zai

    2016-02-01

    Argirein (rhein-arginine) is a derivative of rhein isolated from Chinese rhubarb (Rheum Officinale Baill.) that exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study we investigated the effects of argirein on stress-induced (hypergonadotrophic) and diabetic (hypogonadotrophic) hypogonadism in male rats. Stress-induced and diabetic hypogonadism was induced in male rats via injection of isoproterenol (ISO) or streptozotocin (STZ). ISO-injected rats were treated with argirein (30 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po) or testosterone replacement (0.5 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), sc) for 5 days, and STZ-injected rats were treated with argirein (40-120 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po) or aminoguanidine (100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po) for 4 weeks. After the rats were euthanized, blood samples and testes were collected. Serum hormone levels were measured, and the expression of endothelin receptor A (ETA), connexin 43 (Cx43) and other proteins in testes was detected. For in vitro experiments, testis homogenate was prepared from normal male rats, and incubated with ISO (1 μmol/L) or high glucose (27 mmol/L). ISO injection induced hyper-gonadotrophic hypogonadism characterized by low testosterone and high FSH and LH levels in the serum, whereas STZ injection induced hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism as evidenced by low testosterone and low FSH and LH levels in the serum. In the testes of ISO- and STZ-injected rats, the expression of ETA, MMP-9, NADPH oxidase and pPKCε was significantly increased, and the expression of Cx43 was decreased. Administration of argirein attenuated both the abnormal serum hormone levels and the testis changes in ISO- and STZ-injected rats, and aminoguanidine produced similar actions in STZ-injected rats; testosterone replacement reversed the abnormal serum hormone levels, but did not affect the testis changes in ISO-injected rats. Argirein (0.3-3 μmol/L) exerted similar effects in testis homogenate incubated with ISO or high glucose in vitro. Two types of

  12. Combined Therapy with Rheum tanguticum Polysaccharide and Low-dose 5-ASA Ameliorates TNBS-Induced Colitis in Rats by Suppression of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linna; Liu, Zhenxiong; Zhang, Tian; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yan

    2015-06-01

    The most common conventional therapy for inflammatory bowel disease in clinical practice involves the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as 5-amino salicylic acid. However, a high dose of 5-amino salicylic acid may bring about severe side effects. Chinese people have used Rheum tanguticum as a folk remedy for gastrointestinal disease for two thousand years. Our group has isolated R. tanguticum polysaccharide 1 from R. tanguticum and verified that it can attenuate 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in murines/rats. The present study aims to evaluate whether the addition of R. tanguticum polysaccharide 1 can improve efficacy and limit subsequent side effects of conventional treatment (5-amino salicylic acid) in rats with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis. Sixty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomized into five groups and treated with (1) saline (saline, 0.2 mL/day × 5, p. o.), (2) 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid alone (saline, 0.2 mL/day × 5, p. o.), (3) 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid + 5-amino salicylic acid (5-amino salicylic acid, 75 mg/kg/day × 5, p.o), (4) 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid + R. tanguticum polysaccharide 1 (R. tanguticum polysaccharide 1, 200 mg/kg/day × 5, p. o.), and (5) 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid + 5-amino salicylic acid + R. tanguticum polysaccharide 1 (5-amino salicylic acid, 25 mg/kg/day × 5, p.o; R. tanguticum polysaccharide 1, 200 mg/kg/day × 5, p. o.). All the rats were sacrificed on the 6th day after treatment using an overdose of anesthesia. A histological assessment was performed using semiquantitative scores; nuclear factor-kappa B and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured with Western blot, cyclooxygenase 1 and cyclooxygenase 2 protein expressions were investigated by RT-polymerase chain reaction, and prostoglandin E2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase productions were investigated by ELISA. The extent and

  13. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics study of rhein treating renal fibrosis based on metabonomics approach.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Luo, Guangwen; Xiang, Zheng; Cai, Xiaojun; Chen, Dahui

    2016-12-01

    The selection of effect indicators in the pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic study of complex diseases to describe the relationship between plasma concentration and effect indicators is difficult. Three effect indicators of renal fibrosis were successfully determined. The relationship between pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rhein in rhubarb was elucidated. The study was a metabolomics analysis of rat plasma and pharmacokinetics/ pharmacodynamics of rhein. A sensitive and simple ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was applied to determine the rhein plasma concentration in the rat model of renal fibrosis and rat sham-operated group after the administration of rhubarb decoction. Then, the ultra performance liquid chromatography-Micromass quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) metabolomics method was used to screen biomarkers of renal fibrosis in rat plasma. Furthermore, the relationship between the plasma concentration of rhein and the concentration of three biomarkers directly related to renal fibrosis were analyzed. The three screened biomarkers could represent the effect of rhein treatment on renal fibrosis. Increasing the plasma concentration of rhein tended to restore the concentration of the three biomarkers in the model group compared with that in the sham-operated group. Evident differences in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of rhein were also observed under different pathological states. The results provide valuable information for the clinical application of rhubarb. Rhein intervention could recover the physiological balance in living organisms from the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic levels. New information on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study of complex diseases is provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of the sennosides on absorption of glycyrrhetic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Mizuhara, Yasuharu; Takizawa, Yukiho; Ishihara, Kazuhisa; Asano, Takayuki; Kushida, Hirotaka; Morota, Takashi; Kase, Yoshio; Takeda, Shuichi; Aburada, Masaki; Nomura, Masaaki; Yokogawa, Koichi

    2005-10-01

    In the course of our clinical studies of Kampo medicine (traditional Japanese medicines), we observed the pharmacokinetic interactions between two herbs. When Onpito (TJ-8117, Kampo medicine) containing licorice and rhubarb was administered orally to human subjects, we observed that the AUC(0-lim) and Cmax of glycyrrhetic acid (GA) in plasma were lower than those treated with other Kampo medicines containing licorice. In this study, we demonstrate the pharmacokinetic interactions of GA derived from glycyrrhizinic acid (GL) in licorice and anthraquinones derived from rhubarb. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the pharmacokinetic interactions between two herbs. When GL was orally co-administrated to rats with a non-effective dose of sennoside A having purgative activity, the AUC(0-lim) and Cmax of GA decreased. In addition, sennoside A did not affect the metabolism of GL by the intestinal bacteria in vitro. In the examination using an in situ loop of rat colon, the remaining ratio of GA rose drastically by the co-administration of sennoside A, sennidin A and rhein. Observed inhibition activity of these anthraquinones on GA absorption depended on the concentration of the components added. The maximum inhibition ratio was approximately 75% by rhein, 60% by sennoside A and 25% by sennidin A. We conclude that the decrease of the pharmacokinetic parameters of GA in human plasma observed in the clinical study of TJ-8117 is attributable to an interactive action of absorption from the intestinal tract by anthraquinones contained in or derived from rhubarb.

  15. 77 FR 75561 - Quinclorac; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ..., subgroup 13- 07 H and rhubarb. Interregional Research Project Number 4 (IR-4) requested these tolerances.... There was no increased qualitative or quantitative fetal or offspring susceptibility in the prenatal... resorptions, post-implantation loss, decreased number of live fetuses, and reduced fetal body weight. These...

  16. Archaeological Investigations of Three Sites within the Wipp Core Area, Eddy County, New Mexico.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    soils occasionally contain small playas, which hold water, generally quite saline , for short periods of time. Soils of this association are used for...be substituted for rhubarb (Castetter 1935:50). Portulacaceae Po 1*Maca. gZr Small purslane .E. Le Retose purslane Portulaca is a very important

  17. Emodin down-regulates expression of TRPV1 mRNA and its function in DRG neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sui, Feng; Huo, Hai-Ru; Zhang, Chang-Bin; Yang, Na; Guo, Jian-You; Du, Xin-Liang; Zhao, Bao-Sheng; Liu, Hong-Bin; Li, Lan-Fang; Guo, Shu-Ying; Jiang, Ting-Liang

    2010-01-01

    Emodin is a principle ingredient isolated from rhubarb rhizome, which is commonly used for constipation or pain-related diseases in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practice. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 ion channel proteins (TRPV1) are abundantly expressed in the peripheral sensory neurons and are assumed to act as a kind of nociceptor involved in the perception of pain and development of hyperalgesia. The aim of this study was to further unravel the analgesic mechanisms of rhubarb through investigating the effects of its main constitutive ingredient emodin on the expression of TRPV1 mRNA as well as on its calcium- mediating functions in vitro. The primary DRG neurons with a high purity and viability were obtained, and the TRPV1 mRNA expression levels were examined by using real-time RT-PCR and the elevated amplitudes of intracellular [Ca(2+)]i in the DRG neurons evoked by TRPV1 agonist capsaicin were examined by confocal microscopy. The results showed that emodin could significantly down-regulate both the mRNA expression of TRPV1 and the capsaicin-evoked intracellular fluorescent intensity in the DRG neurons under both 37 degrees C and 39 degrees C in vitro. Concomitantly, all of the changes induced by emodin could not be blocked by pretreatment of the primary neurons with capsazepine, an antagonist of TRPV1. In conclusion, we established that the mRNA expression level of TRPV1 and its calcium-mediating function in naive DRG neurons could be down-regulated by emodin through perhaps the non-TRPV1 channel pathways, and this might be the molecular mechanisms for rhubarb to inhibit hyperalgesia induced by inflammatory stimuli.

  18. 21 CFR 150.160 - Fruit preserves and jams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit preserves and jams. 150.160 Section 150.160... jams. (a) The preserves or jams for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this..., Pineapple, Raspberry, red raspberry, Rhubarb, Strawberry, Tangerine, Tomato, Yellow tomato, Youngberry Group...

  19. Trial of Essiac to ascertain its effect in women with breast cancer (TEA-BC).

    PubMed

    Zick, Suzanna M; Sen, Ananda; Feng, Yang; Green, Jen; Olatunde, Shade; Boon, Heather

    2006-12-01

    Breast cancer is a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and medical expenditures among women in Canada. Essiac (Resperin Canada Limited, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada), a blend of at least four herbs (burdock root [Arctium lappa], Indian rhubarb [Rheum palmatum], sheep sorrel [Rumex acetosella], and the inner bark of slippery elm [Ulmus fulva or U. rubra]), has become one of the more popular herbal remedies for breast-cancer treatment, secondary prevention, improving quality of life, and controlling negative side-effects of conventional breast-cancer treatment. Our primary objective was to determine the difference in health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), as assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Breast Cancer Version, between women who are new Essiac users (since breast cancer diagnosis) and those who have never used Essiac. Secondary endpoints included differences in depression, anxiety, fatigue, rate of adverse events, and prevalence of complications or benefits associated with Essiac during standard breast-cancer treatment. Additionally, we described the pattern of use of Essiac in this cohort of women. We performed a retrospective cohort study in 510 women, randomly chosen from the Ontario Cancer Tumour Registry, with a diagnosis of primary breast cancer in 2003. With the exception changes in a Physical well-being subscale and a relationship with doctor subscale, Essiac did not have a significant effect on HR-QOL or mood states. Even for Physical well-being and relationship with doctor, Essiac seemed to have a negative effect, with Essiac users doing worse than the non-Essiac users. This might be attributed to the fact that the group of users comprised younger women with more advanced stages of breast cancer, and both of these subgroups of patients have been shown to be at a significantly increased risk for negative mood states and/or a decreased sense of well-being. The women were taking low doses (total daily dose 43.6 +/- 30.8 mL) of Essiac

  20. Argirein alleviates stress-induced and diabetic hypogonadism in rats via normalizing testis endothelin receptor A and connexin 43

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ming; Hu, Chen; Khan, Hussein-hamed; Shi, Fang-hong; Cong, Xiao-dong; Li, Qing; Dai, Yin; Dai, De-zai

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Argirein (rhein-arginine) is a derivative of rhein isolated from Chinese rhubarb (Rheum Officinale Baill.) that exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study we investigated the effects of argirein on stress-induced (hypergonadotrophic) and diabetic (hypogonadotrophic) hypogonadism in male rats. Methods: Stress-induced and diabetic hypogonadism was induced in male rats via injection of isoproterenol (ISO) or streptozotocin (STZ). ISO-injected rats were treated with argirein (30 mg·kg−1·d−1, po) or testosterone replacement (0.5 mg·kg−1·d−1, sc) for 5 days, and STZ-injected rats were treated with argirein (40–120 mg·kg−1·d−1, po) or aminoguanidine (100 mg·kg−1·d−1, po) for 4 weeks. After the rats were euthanized, blood samples and testes were collected. Serum hormone levels were measured, and the expression of endothelin receptor A (ETA), connexin 43 (Cx43) and other proteins in testes was detected. For in vitro experiments, testis homogenate was prepared from normal male rats, and incubated with ISO (1 μmol/L) or high glucose (27 mmol/L). Results: ISO injection induced hyper-gonadotrophic hypogonadism characterized by low testosterone and high FSH and LH levels in the serum, whereas STZ injection induced hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism as evidenced by low testosterone and low FSH and LH levels in the serum. In the testes of ISO- and STZ-injected rats, the expression of ETA, MMP-9, NADPH oxidase and pPKCε was significantly increased, and the expression of Cx43 was decreased. Administration of argirein attenuated both the abnormal serum hormone levels and the testis changes in ISO- and STZ-injected rats, and aminoguanidine produced similar actions in STZ-injected rats; testosterone replacement reversed the abnormal serum hormone levels, but did not affect the testis changes in ISO-injected rats. Argirein (0.3–3 μmol/L) exerted similar effects in testis homogenate incubated with ISO or high glucose in

  1. Large scale screening of commonly used Iranian traditional medicinal plants against urease activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study H. pylori infection is an important etiologic impetus usually leading to gastric disease and urease enzyme is the most crucial role is to protect the bacteria in the acidic environment of the stomach. Then urease inhibitors would increase sensitivity of the bacteria in acidic medium. Methods 137 Iranian traditional medicinal plants were examined against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction. Each herb was extracted using 50% aqueous methanol. The more effective extracts were further tested and their IC50 values were determined. Results 37 plants out of the 137 crude extracts revealed strong urease inhibitory activity (more than 70% inhibition against urease activity at 10 mg/ml concentration). Nine of the whole studied plants crude extracts were found as the most effective with IC50 values less than 500 μg/ml including; Rheum ribes, Sambucus ebulus, Pistachia lentiscus, Myrtus communis, Areca catechu, Citrus aurantifolia, Myristica fragrans, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Nicotiana tabacum. Conclusions The most potent urease inhibitory was observed for Sambucus ebulus and Rheum ribes extracts with IC50 values of 57 and 92 μg/ml, respectively. PMID:23351780

  2. "Rheum to Improve": Quality Improvement in Outpatient Rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Chow, Shirley L; Shojania, Kaveh G

    2017-09-01

    The commitment to improve care processes and patient outcomes is a professional mandate for clinicians and is also seen as an operational priority for institutions. Quality improvement now figures in the accreditation of training programs, specialty examinations, and hospital scorecards. Rheumatologists have traditionally focused primarily on quality problems such as guideline adherence; however, improvement goals should also include other aspects of care that are helpful to patients and are professionally rewarding for practitioners. This review makes use of improvement projects in outlining tangible tools rheumatologists can use to resolve quality concerns in their practices.

  3. 40 CFR 180.479 - Halosulfuron-methyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Bean, dry, seed 0.05 Bushberry, subgroup 13-07B 0.05 Corn, field, forage 0.2 Corn, field, grain 0.05..., hay 0.01 Millet, proso, straw 0.01 Nut, tree, group 14 0.05 Okra 0.05 Pea and bean, succulent shelled, subgroup 6 0.05 Pea and bean, succulent shelled, subgroup 6B 0.05 Pistachio 0.05 Rhubarb 0.05 Rice, grain 0...

  4. Early Prediction of Lupus Nephritis Using Advanced Proteomics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    We are working with our collaborators at the Applied Biotechnology Branch, A ir Force Research Lab, W right-Patterson Air Force Base, to accomplish...with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 2001;44:2350–7. 33. Zappitelli M, Duffy CM, Bernard C, Gupta IR . Evaluation of activity, chronicity...Children’s Hospital, Chicago, IL: Dr. Linda Wagner-Weiner (data collection); Becky Puplava (study coordinator). University of Okla- homa Health Sciences

  5. 40 CFR 180.479 - Halosulfuron-methyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alfalfa, forage 1.0 Alfalfa, hay 2.0 Almond, hulls 0.2 Apple 0.05 Asparagus 0.8 Bean, dry, seed 0.05... subgroup 9A 0.1 Nut, tree, group 14 0.05 Okra 0.05 Pea and bean, succulent shelled, subgroup 6 0.05 Pea and bean, succulent shelled, subgroup 6B 0.05 Pistachio 0.05 Rhubarb 0.05 Rice, grain 0.05 Rice, straw 0.2...

  6. 40 CFR 180.479 - Halosulfuron-methyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alfalfa, forage 1.0 Alfalfa, hay 2.0 Almond, hulls 0.2 Apple 0.05 Asparagus 0.8 Bean, dry, seed 0.05... subgroup 9A 0.1 Nut, tree, group 14 0.05 Okra 0.05 Pea and bean, succulent shelled, subgroup 6 0.05 Pea and bean, succulent shelled, subgroup 6B 0.05 Pistachio 0.05 Rhubarb 0.05 Rice, grain 0.05 Rice, straw 0.2...

  7. Peering into the Future: Peer-to-Peer Technology as a Model for Distributed Joint Battlespace Intelligence Dissemination and Operational Tasking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    redundant topology.ൺ For example, assume that a user is looking for a recipe for strawberry rhubarb pie. Once connected to the network, the user asks...relatively quick and thorough. (See Figure 6). 73 John Borland, "Democracy’s Traffic Jams ," CNET...Traffic Jams ." CNET News.Com. 26 October 2000. n.p. On-line, Internet. Available from http://news.cnet.com/news/0-1005-201-3248711-2.html. Clip2

  8. Essiac for cancer?

    PubMed

    1998-07-01

    An analysis of a mixture of herbs in Essiac, an alternative-medicine anti-cancer therapy, has shown it contains a variety of compounds which have antioxidant activity as well as the ability to block cell growth. The Essiac mixture contains burdock root, Indian rhubarb, sheep sorrel, inner bark of slippery elm, watercress, blessed thistle, red clover, and kelp. A review of patients taking Essiac shows that there was no obvious toxicity. Clinical trials are recommended to determine Essiac's efficacy.

  9. Protection by Purines in Toxin Models of Parkinson’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    erythrocytes from the Yucatan miniature pig. Evidence that inosine functions as an in vivo energy substrate. Biochim Biophys Acta 842:214–224. Zai L, Ferrari C... nutrition examination survey 2007–2008. Arthritis Rheum 2011; 63: 3136–3141. 28 Ascherio A, LeWitt PA, Xu K, Eberly S, Watts A, Matson WR, Marras C...correspondence to Dr Ascherio, 667 Huntington Ave, Department of Nutrition , Building 2, 3rd floor, Boston, MA 02115. E-mail: aascherio@hsph.harvard.edu From the

  10. The synergistic activity of antibiotics combined with eight traditional Chinese medicines against two different strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zai-Chang; Wang, Bo-Chu; Yang, Xiao-Sheng; Wang, Qiang; Ran, Liang

    2005-03-25

    The ethanolic extracts of eight traditional Chinese medicines and four antibiotics were investigated for their combined effects on the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in vitro. Methicillin resistant S. aureus, which was isolated from patient and a standard strain, were used. Our results showed that there are differences in the effects of many combinations used on the standard strain and resistant strain of S. aureus. The ethanolic extracts of Isatis tinctoria, Scutellaria baicalensis and Rheum palmatum can improve the antimicrobial activity of four antibiotics we used.

  11. [Textual research for Tibetan medicine Qumazi].

    PubMed

    Luo, Wu-zheng; Li, Qi-en; Chen, Jing; Dor, Jerenchen; Tao, Si-yu; Shi Jin-bo; Xu, Ying-zhou; Yan, Xing-li

    2015-05-01

    Qumazi is a commonly used Tibetan medicine. With a long history, it can be found in the Four Medical Tantras written by gYu-thog rNying-ma Yon-tan mGon-po since the 8th century AD. Qumazi grows in mudflats and fields, including species growing in highlands, lowlands, mountains and farmlands. According to records in Crystal Beads Materia Medica, it features green sword-shaped leaves, thin stems with red veins, inserted panicles, white chicken-like flowers and copper needle row-like roots. However, there are many inconsistent morphological descriptions for Qumazi plants in many Chinese versions of Tibetan medicine books. In this article, after studying ancient and modern Tibetan medicine books, consulting experts and conducting surveys, the authors confirmed that Qumazi belongs to Rheum of Polygonaceae, including Rheum nobile Hook. f. et. Thoms, R. globulosum Gage, R. alexandrae Hook. f. et. Thoms, R. pumilum Maxim and R. delavayi Franch. In some regions, Qumazi is substituted by R. spiciforme Royle and R. przewalskyi Losinsk. After the Chinese version of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Drug Illustrations was published in 1972, Qumazi has been miswritten as P. sibiricum Laxm in many Chinese versions of Tibetan medicine books, perhaps because P. sibiricum Laxm has many similar features with Qumazi as described in Crystal Beads Materia Medica and then is mistranslated from Tibetan to Chinese versions. According to records, Qumazi can reduce edema and is mainly applied to treat the minamata disease in clinic.

  12. Oxalate content of some common foods: determination by an enzymatic method.

    PubMed

    Kasidas, G P; Rose, G A

    1980-08-01

    A specific enzymatic method was used to determine the oxalate content of some common foods. No preliminary isolation of oxalate was required and recoveries ranging from 95-110 per cent were obtained. Spinach, rhubarb, peanuts, chocolates, parsley and tea were found to contain high levels of oxalate as previously described by others. On the other hand the oxalate content of beetroot was found to be five times as high as previously reported, but coca-cola and beer were almost free from oxalate. Cereals and meat were either low or deficient in oxalate.

  13. Mixed-Initiative Tutorial System to Aid Users of the On-Line System (NLS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-30

    PIE 3A1 RHUBARB 3A2 BLUEBERRY 3B STRAWBERRY SHORTCAKE 3C ICE CREAM 3C1 PEPPERMINT ^C2 MAPLENUT 3C3 CHOCOLATE EDIT C: Done OK: ; Please tear the...QUESTIONS? THE RENUMBERED FILE Now let me show you what happens when I try to delete the statement containing " BLUEBERRY " which used to follow the...containing " BLUEBERRY " which was formerly 3A2 was ’promoted’ to become statement 3A1. So to delete the statement containing " BLUEBERRY " we would have to

  14. Emodin via colonic irrigation modulates gut microbiota and reduces uremic toxins in rats with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fuhua; Lu, Zhaoyu; Liu, Xusheng; Chen, Cha; Qu, Pinghua; Li, Dingcheng; Hua, Zhengshuang; Qu, Yanni; Zou, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a dual role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is closely linked to production of uremic toxins. Strategies of reducing uremic toxins by targeting gut microbiota are emerging. It is known that Chinese medicine rhubarb enema can reduce uremic toxins and improve renal function. However, it remains unknown which ingredient or mechanism mediates its effect. Here we utilized a rat CKD model of 5/6 nephrectomy to evaluate the effect of emodin, a main ingredient of rhubarb, on gut microbiota and uremic toxins in CKD. Emodin was administered via colonic irrigation at 5ml (1mg/day) for four weeks. We found that emodin via colonic irrigation (ECI) altered levels of two important uremic toxins, urea and indoxyl sulfate (IS), and changed gut microbiota in rats with CKD. ECI remarkably reduced urea and IS and improved renal function. Pyrosequencing and Real-Time qPCR analyses revealed that ECI resumed the microbial balance from an abnormal status in CKD. We also demonstrated that ten genera were positively correlated with Urea while four genera exhibited the negative correlation. Moreover, three genera were positively correlated with IS. Therefore, emodin altered the gut microbiota structure. It reduced the number of harmful bacteria, such as Clostridium spp. that is positively correlated with both urea and IS, but augmented the number of beneficial bacteria, including Lactobacillus spp. that is negatively correlated with urea. Thus, changes in gut microbiota induced by emodin via colonic irrigation are closely associated with reduction in uremic toxins and mitigation of renal injury. PMID:27003359

  15. Emodin via colonic irrigation modulates gut microbiota and reduces uremic toxins in rats with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yu-Qun; Dai, Zhenhua; Lu, Fuhua; Lu, Zhaoyu; Liu, Xusheng; Chen, Cha; Qu, Pinghua; Li, Dingcheng; Hua, Zhengshuang; Qu, Yanni; Zou, Chuan

    2016-04-05

    Gut microbiota plays a dual role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is closely linked to production of uremic toxins. Strategies of reducing uremic toxins by targeting gut microbiota are emerging. It is known that Chinese medicine rhubarb enema can reduce uremic toxins and improve renal function. However, it remains unknown which ingredient or mechanism mediates its effect. Here we utilized a rat CKD model of 5/6 nephrectomy to evaluate the effect of emodin, a main ingredient of rhubarb, on gut microbiota and uremic toxins in CKD. Emodin was administered via colonic irrigation at 5ml (1mg/day) for four weeks. We found that emodin via colonic irrigation (ECI) altered levels of two important uremic toxins, urea and indoxyl sulfate (IS), and changed gut microbiota in rats with CKD. ECI remarkably reduced urea and IS and improved renal function. Pyrosequencing and Real-Time qPCR analyses revealed that ECI resumed the microbial balance from an abnormal status in CKD. We also demonstrated that ten genera were positively correlated with Urea while four genera exhibited the negative correlation. Moreover, three genera were positively correlated with IS. Therefore, emodin altered the gut microbiota structure. It reduced the number of harmful bacteria, such as Clostridium spp. that is positively correlated with both urea and IS, but augmented the number of beneficial bacteria, including Lactobacillus spp. that is negatively correlated with urea. Thus, changes in gut microbiota induced by emodin via colonic irrigation are closely associated with reduction in uremic toxins and mitigation of renal injury.

  16. Estrogenic activity of constituents from the rhizomes of Rheum undulatum Linné.

    PubMed

    Park, SeonJu; Kim, Yun Na; Kwak, Hee Jae; Jeong, Eun Ju; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2018-02-15

    Stilbenes have been reported to be phytoestrogen compounds owing to its structural similarity to the estrogenic agent diethylstilbestrol. To find new stilbene-derivative phytoestrogens, isolation of stilbene-rich R. undulatum was performed and led to identify six new compounds (1-5 and 28), one newly determined absolute configurations compound (27) together with 21 previously reported compounds (6-26). The structures of compounds were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR and CD spectra data. All the isolated compounds were tested for their estrogenic activities in HepG2 cells transiently transfected with ERα, ERβ and ERE-reporter plasmid. Among them, stilbene-derivatives, piceatannol 3'-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (12), cis-rhaponticin (16) and rhapontigenin 3'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (17), showed the more potent binding affinity for estrogen receptors than 17β-estrodiol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of a powerful aroma compound in munster and camembert cheeses: ethyl 3-mercaptopropionate.

    PubMed

    Sourabié, Alain M; Spinnler, Henry-Eric; Bonnarme, Pascal; Saint-Eve, Anne; Landaud, Sophie

    2008-06-25

    With the view to investigate the presence of thiols in cheese, the use of different methods of preparation and extraction with an organomercuric compound ( p-hydroxymercuribenzoate) enabled the isolation of a new compound. The analysis of cheese extracts by gas chromatography coupled with pulse flame photometry, mass spectrometry, and olfactometry detections led to the identification of ethyl 3-mercaptopropionate in Munster and Camembert cheeses. This compound, described at low concentrations as having pleasant, fruity, grapy, rhubarb, and empyreumatic characters, has previously been reported in wine and Concord grape but was never mentioned before in cheese. A possible route for the formation of this compound in relation with the catabolism of sulfur amino acids is proposed.

  18. Anatomy of Subterranean Organs of Medicinally Used Cardueae and Related Species and its Value for Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Elisabeth; Saukel, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Numerous species of the Asteraceae, the composites, are famous for their use in both traditional and conventional medicine. Reliable anatomical descriptions of these plants and of possible adulterations provide a basis for fast identification and cheap purity controls of respective medicinal drugs by means of light microscopy. Nevertheless, detailed comparative studies on root and rhizome anatomy of valuable as well as related inconsiderable composite plants are largely missing yet. The presented study aims to narrow this gap by performing anatomical analyses of roots and rhizomes of 16 species belonging to the tribe Cardueae, of formerly and currently used drugs as well as their near relatives as potential adulterations (Carlina acaulis L., Carlina vulgaris L., Arctium lappa L., Arctium tomentosum Mill., Carduus defloratus L., Carduus personata (L.) Jacq, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten., Cirsium erisithales (Jacq.) Scop., Onopordum acanthium L., Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Rhaponticum scariosum Lam., Centaurea jacea L., Centaurea scabiosa L., Centaurea cyanus L., Cnicus benedictus L.). A detailed verbal and graphical survey of the analysed anatomical features is provided. Several characters were finally extracted which allow for discrimination of the examined species and may be effectively used for drug quality controls. PMID:21617780

  19. Renewable-emodin-based wearable supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengfei; Chen, Tinghan; Yang, Yun; Wang, Hua; Luo, Zihao; Yang, Jie; Fu, Haoran; Guo, Lin

    2017-01-26

    With the increasing dependency of human life on wearable electronics, the development of corresponding energy-storage devices is being insensitively pursued. Considering the special usage locations of wearable energy-storage devices, the safety and non-toxicity of electrode materials adopted should be of concern. In this work, a novel all-solid-state wearable supercapacitor based on the renewable-biomolecule emodin, naturally derivable from traditional Chinese herbal rhubarb or Polygonum cuspidatum, was successfully fabricated. Such supercapacitors exhibited excellent charge storage and rate capability with great flexibility and could be integrated into wearable electronics. As a proof of concept, a strap-shaped supercapacitor was fabricated, and it was capable of powering an electronic watch. Our work will promote the development of safe wearable electronics.

  20. HTP Nutraceutical Screening for Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors and Effects of HDACis on Tumor-suppressing miRNAs by Trichostatin A and Grapeseed (Vitis vinifera) in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

    2017-01-02

    ), Uva Ursi (Arctostaphylos uva ursi), Green tea (Camellia sinensis), Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria), Sassafras (Sassafras officinale), Turkey rhubarb (Rheum palmatum), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), gossypol and gallic acid. Next, we investigate the biological consequence of HDACi panel drugs in HeLa cells, where the data suggest predominant effects are anti-mitotic rather than cytotoxic. Lastly, differential effects of TSA vs. GSE at sub-lethal concentrations tested on HeLa cells show 6,631 miRNAs expressed in resting cells, 35 significantly up-regulated (TSA) and 81 up-regulated (GSE), with several miRNAs overlapping in the upward direction by both GSE and TSA (e.g. hsa-miR-23b-5p, hsa-miR-27b-5p, hsa-miR-1180-3p, hsa-miR-6880-5p and hsa-mir-943). Using DIANA miRNA online tools, it was determined that GSE and TSA simultaneously cause overexpression of similar miRNAs predicted to destroy the following influential oncogenes: NFkB, NRAS, KRAS, HRAS, MYC, TGFBR1, E2F1, E2F2, BCL21, CDKN1A, CDK6, HIF1a, and VEGFA. The data from this study show that plant- based HDACis are relatively rare, and can elicit a similar pattern to TSA in up-regulating miRNAs involved with tumor suppression of HeLa cervical carcinoma. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. Prescriptions of Chinese herbal medicine for constipation under the national health insurance in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Jong, Maw-Shiou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Chen, Fang-Pey

    2010-07-01

    Constipation is a common gastrointestinal problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of use and prescriptive patterns of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in treating constipation by analyzing the claims data of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Taiwan. The computerized claims dataset of the TCM office visits and the corresponding prescription files in 2004 compiled by the NHI Research Institute in Taiwan were linked and processed. Visit files with the single diagnostic coding of constipation (ICD-9-CM code 564.0) were extracted to analyze the frequency and pattern of corresponding CHM prescriptions. The association rule was applied to analyze the co-prescription of CHM in treating constipation. There were 152,564 subjects who visited TCM clinics only for constipation in Taiwan during 2004 and received a total of 387,268 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 20 and 29 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.5%). Female subjects used CHM for constipation more frequently than male subjects (female:male = 3.31:1). There was an average of 4.6 items of single Chinese herbs or formula in a single prescription for constipation. Ma-zi-renwan was the most commonly prescribed herbal formula, while Da-huang (Rheum palmatum) was the most commonly used single Chinese herb. According to the association rule, the most common prescribed pattern of 2-drug combination of CHM for treating constipation was Ban-xia-xie-xin-tang plus Ma-zi-ren-wan, while the 3-drug combination of CHM was Fang-feng-tong-sheng-san, Rheum palmatum and Ma-zi-ren-wan. This study showed the pattern of single Chinese herbs or herbal formulae used in treating constipation in Taiwan. Further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs in treating constipation. 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Induction of defence mechanisms in grapevine leaves by emodin- and anthraquinone-rich plant extracts and their conferred resistance to downy mildew.

    PubMed

    Godard, Sophie; Slacanin, Ivan; Viret, Olivier; Gindro, Katia

    2009-09-01

    The ability of two plant extracts, Rheum palmatum root extract (RPRE) and Frangula alnus bark extract (FABE), to protect Vitis vinifera leaves from Plasmopara viticola infection was evaluated. These natural products are toxic to the pathogen and induce defence reactions in a susceptible cultivar of V. vinifera (V. vinifera cv. Chasselas), including stilbenic phytoalexin accumulation, enhanced peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) activity, and a hypersensitive reaction. Inhibition of the first stage of biotrophic hyphal development of P. Viticola by the two plant extracts was observed. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis showed that these two natural extracts contain many phenolic compounds belonging to the anthraquinone family, such as rhein, frangulin A, emodin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion. Emodin alone is able to impair P. viticola development and to stimulate viniferins and the accumulation of pterostilbene.

  3. [Improvement of reproducibility in capillary electrophoretic characterization of rhubarb by normalization of migration time].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyi; Ge, Lijuan; Chen, Hui; Jing, Cong; Shi, Zhihong

    2009-07-01

    The principle of the normalization of migration time and its application on the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) analysis by capillary electrophoresis (CE) are presented. It is the core of the normalization of migration time that the fluctuation of apparent migration velocity for each component at different runs is attributed to the difference of electroosmotic flow velocity. To transform migration time (t) to normalized migration time, one peak or two peaks in the original electropherogram are selected as internal peak. The normalization of migration time is therefore classified into two types based on the number of selected internal peaks, one-peak and two-peak approaches. The migration times processed by one-peak normalization and by two-peak normalization are conducted by the following equations, respectively: (t'(i))(j) = 1/ [1/(t(i))(j) - [1/(t(istd))(j) - 1/(t(istd))1

  4. Emodin: A Review of its Pharmacology, Toxicity and Pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoxv; Fu, Jing; Yin, Xingbin; Cao, Sali; Li, Xuechun; Lin, Longfei; Ni, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Emodin is a natural anthraquinone derivative that occurs in many widely used Chinese medicinal herbs, such as Rheum palmatum, Polygonum cuspidatum and Polygonum multiflorum. Emodin has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for over 2000 years and is still present in various herbal preparations. Emerging evidence indicates that emodin possesses a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties, including anticancer, hepatoprotective, antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. However, emodin could also lead to hepatotoxicity, kidney toxicity and reproductive toxicity, particularly in high doses and with long-term use. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that emodin has poor oral bioavailability in rats because of its extensive glucuronidation. This review aims to comprehensively summarize the pharmacology, toxicity and pharmacokinetics of emodin reported to date with an emphasis on its biological properties and mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Forced Degradation Studies of Aloe Emodin and Emodin by HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P; Kadam, V J

    2015-01-01

    Anthraquinones are natural phenolic compounds, which are reported to act as anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, laxative and antitumor agents. They are abudant in plants like candle bush, aloes, cascara bark and rhubarb. The present work was to observe the effect of different forced degradation conditions by high-performance thin layer chromatography on potential markers i.e. aloe emodin and emodin. Both aloe emodin and emodin were subjected to various forced degradation studies such as oxidation, acid and alkaline hydrolysis, photolysis, hydrolytic and thermal degradation. Aloe emodin, was more susceptible to acid hydrolysis and degradation was found to a lesser extent under thermal degradation whereas significant degradation was observed under acid hydrolysis, lesser extent was observed under alkali hydrolysis for emodin. Forced degradation studies on aloe emodin and emodin gives information about its storage and intrinsic stability conditions considering the advanced pharmaceutical aspects of formulation.

  6. ["A" or ... "The" precious manuscript of the "Long life Elixir" just discovered].

    PubMed

    Grelaud, Jean-Pierre

    2012-05-01

    This study relates, describes, analyzes & comments the content of a recently discovered old manuscript, written probably at the beginning of the 18th century, and compares it with the well known "Long life Elixir, or Swedish Elixir", manuscript found on a Swedish doctor who died at 104 years old as a result of a fall from his horse... The origin of this new manuscript can be established from 1700 to 1710, and seems to be probably anterior to the well known Swedish manuscript, meanwhile the text is almost similar,... and also is more complete than this one! We learn that the "Manna" is synonymic here of "fine Rhubarb". Another recipe, unknown on the other manuscript and titled "Dalibour Water" is also published: By similar way, this formula brings some new details, in particular in the exact composition, the preparation and the use of the "Long Life Elixir".

  7. Emodin induces apoptosis of human cervical cancer hela cells via intrinsic mitochondrial and extrinsic death receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Yaoxian, Wang; Hui, Yu; Yunyan, Zhang; Yanqin, Liu; Xin, Ge; Xiaoke, Wu

    2013-07-16

    Emodin is a natural anthraquinone derivative isolated from the Rheum palmatum L. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of emodin on the apoptosis of the human cervical cancer line HeLa and to identify the mechanisms involved. Relative cell viability was assessed by MTT assay after treatment with emodin. Cell apoptosis was detected with TUNEL, Hoechst 33342 staining and quantified with flow cytometry using annexin FITC-PI staining. The percentage of apoptotic cells was 0.8, 8.2, 22.1, and 43.7%, respectively. The mRNA levels of Caspase-9, -8 and -3 detected by Real-time PCR after treatment with emodin were significantly increased. Emodin increased the protein levels of Cytochome c, Apaf-1, Fas, FasL, and FADD but decreased the protein levels of Pro-caspase-9, Pro-caspase-8 and Pro-caspase-3. We conclude that the emodin inhibited HeLa proliferation by inducing apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial and extrinsic death receptor pathways.

  8. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 1: Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, condyloma and herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Weckesser, Steffi; Schempp, Christoph

    2010-10-01

    Plant extracts and isolated compounds are increasingly used in cosmetics and food supplements to improve skin conditions. We first introduce the positive plant monographs with dermatological relevance of the former German Commission E. Subsequently clinical studies with botanicals for atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, condylomata acuminata and herpes simplex are discussed. The best studies have been conducted with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis patients. Mahonia aquifolium, Hypericum perforatum, Glycyrrhiza glabra and certain traditional Chinese therapies have been shown to be effective in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Mahonia aquifolium, Indigo naturalis and Capsicum frutescens are effective treatments for psoriasis. Green tea extract and tea tree oil have been investigated in the treatment of acne. Podophyllin and green tea extract are effective treatments for condylomata acuminata. Balm mint and a combination of sage and rhubarb have been shown to be effective in the treatment of herpes simplex in proof of concept studies. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  9. Wild food plants and fungi used in the mycophilous Tibetan community of Zhagana (Tewo County, Gansu, China).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jin; Kang, Yongxiang; Ji, Xiaolian; Guo, Quanping; Jacques, Guillaume; Pietras, Marcin; Łuczaj, Nasim; Li, Dengwu; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge and use of wild food plants and fungi in a highland valley in the Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Region on the north-eastern edges of the Tibetan Plateau. Field research was carried out in four neighbouring villages in a mountain valley of the Diebu (Tewo) county, surrounded by spruce forests. The study consisted of 30 interviews with single informants, or group interviews (altogether 63 informants). Apart from collecting voucher specimens, we also identified fungi using DNA barcoding. We recorded the use of 54 species of vascular plants. We also recorded the use of 22 mushroom taxa, which made up the largest category of wild foods. Fruits formed the largest category of food plants, with 21 species, larger than the wild greens category, which consisted of 20 species eaten after boiling or frying and 7 as raw snacks. We also recorded the alimentary use of 10 species of edible flowers and 3 species with underground edible organs. On average, 20.8 edible taxa were listed per interview (median - 21). The most listed category of wild foods was green vegetables (mean - 7.5 species, median - 8 species), but fruits and mushrooms were listed nearly as frequently (mean - 6.3, median - 6 and mean - 5.8, - median 6 respectively). Other category lists were very short, e.g., flowers (mean - 1.3, median - 1) and underground edible parts (mean - 0.7, median - 1). Wild vegetables are usually boiled and/or fried and served as side-dishes, or their green parts are eaten as snacks during mountain treks (e.g., peeled rhubarb shoots). Wild fruits are mainly collected by children and eaten raw, they are not stored for further use. The most widely used wild staple foods are Potetilla anserina roots, an important ceremonial food served on such occasions as New Year or at funerals. They are boiled and served with sugar and butter. The most important famine plants remembered by people are the aerial bulbils of Persicaria vivipara. Flowers are used

  10. The effect of emodin on Staphylococcus aureus strains in planktonic form and biofilm formation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xin; Gu, Shanshan; Shi, Yunjia; Cui, Xingyang; Wen, Shanshan; Ge, Junwei

    2017-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a Gram-positive pathogen and forms biofilm easily. Bacteria inside biofilms display an increased resistance to antibiotics and disinfectants. The objective of the current study was to assess the antimicrobial activities of emodin, 1,2,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone, an anthraquinone derivative isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum and Rheum palmatum, against S. aureus CMCC26003 grown in planktonic and biofilm cultures in vitro. In addition, a possible synergistic effect between emodin and berberine chloride was evaluated. As quantified by crystal violet method, emodin significantly decreased S. aureus biofilm growth in a dose-dependent manner. The above findings were further supported by scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the present study demonstrated that sub-MICs emodin obviously intervened the release of extracellular DNA and inhibited expression of the biofilm-related genes (cidA, icaA, dltB, agrA, sortaseA and sarA) by real-time RT-PCR. These results revealed a promising application for emodin as a therapeutic agent and an effective strategy to prevent S. aureus biofilm-related infections.

  11. Emodin induces apoptosis of human cervical cancer hela cells via intrinsic mitochondrial and extrinsic death receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Emodin is a natural anthraquinone derivative isolated from the Rheum palmatum L. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of emodin on the apoptosis of the human cervical cancer line HeLa and to identify the mechanisms involved. Methods Relative cell viability was assessed by MTT assay after treatment with emodin. Cell apoptosis was detected with TUNEL, Hoechst 33342 staining and quantified with flow cytometry using annexin FITC-PI staining. Results The percentage of apoptotic cells was 0.8, 8.2, 22.1, and 43.7%, respectively. The mRNA levels of Caspase-9, -8 and −3 detected by Real-time PCR after treatment with emodin were significantly increased. Emodin increased the protein levels of Cytochome c, Apaf-1, Fas, FasL, and FADD but decreased the protein levels of Pro-caspase-9, Pro-caspase-8 and Pro-caspase-3. Conclusion We conclude that the emodin inhibited HeLa proliferation by inducing apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial and extrinsic death receptor pathways. PMID:23866157

  12. In Vitro Conservation of Twenty-Three Overexploited Medicinal Plants Belonging to the Indian Sub Continent

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Priyanka; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Jain, Sheetal Prasad; Mathur, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-three pharmaceutically important plants, namely, Elaeocarpus spharicus, Rheum emodi, Indigofera tinctoria, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Bergenia ciliata, Lavandula officinalis, Valeriana wallichii, Coleus forskohlii, Gentiana kurroo, Saussurea lappa, Stevia rebaudiana, Acorus calamus, Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium, Aloe vera, Bacopa monnieri, Salvia sclarea, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Swertia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Jurinea mollis, Ocimum sanctum, Paris polyphylla, and Papaver somniferum, which are at the verge of being endangered due to their overexploitation and collection from the wild, were successfully established in vitro. Collections were made from the different biodiversity zones of India including Western Himalaya, Northeast Himalaya, Gangetic plain, Western Ghats, Semiarid Zone, and Central Highlands. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, suspension, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. Synseeds were also produced from highly proliferating shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Valeriana wallichii, Gentiana kurroo, Lavandula officinalis, and Papaver somniferum. In vitro flowering was observed in Papaver somniferum, Psoralea corylifolia, and Ocimum sanctum shoots cultures. Out of 23 plants, 18 plants were successfully hardened under glasshouse conditions. PMID:22593711

  13. A preliminary investigation of anticholinesterase activity of some Iranian medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Jazayeri, Seyed Behzad; Amanlou, Arash; Ghanadian, Naghmeh; Pasalar, Parvin; Amanlou, Massoud

    2014-01-08

    The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some commonly used herbal medicine in Iran to introduce a new source for management of Alzheimer's disease. A total of 18 aqueous-methanolic extract (1:1; v/v) from the following plants: Brassica alba, Brassica nigra, Camellia sinensis, Cinchona officinalis, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus x aurantium, Ferula assafoetida, Humulus lupulus, Juglans regia, Juniperus sabina, Myristica fragrans, Pelargonium graveolens, Pistacia vera, Punica granatum, Rheum officinale, Rosa damascena, Salix alba, and Zizyphus vulgaris were prepared and screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using in vitro Ellman spectrophotometric method. According to the obtained results, the order of inhibitory activity (IC50 values, μg /ml) of extracts from highest to the lowest was: C. sinensis (5.96), C. aurantifolia (19.57), Z. vulgaris (24.37), B. nigra (84.30) and R. damascena (93.1). The results indicated and confirmed the traditional use of these herbs for management of central nervous system disorders. C. sinensis showed the highest activity in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. However, further investigations on identification of active components in the extracts are needed.

  14. Use of liquid chromatography hybrid triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry for the detection of emodin metabolites in rat bile and urine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Songyan; Zhang, Yaqing; Zhang, Zunjian; Song, Rui

    2017-10-01

    Emodin is the representative form of rhubarb, which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of purgative, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antiviral, etc. Previous reports demonstrated that emodin glucuronide was the major metabolite in plasma. Owing to the extensive conjugation reactions of polyphenols, the aim of this study was to identify the metabolites of emodin in rat bile and urine. Neutral loss and precursor ion scan methods of triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer revealed 13 conjugated metabolites in rat bile and 22 metabolites in rat urine, which included four phase I and 18 phase II metabolites. The major metabolites in rat biosamples were emodin glucuronoconjugates. Moreover, rhein monoglucuronide, chrysophanol monoglucuronide and rhein sulfate were proposed for the first time after oral administration of emodin. Overall, liquid chromatography hybrid triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis leads to the discovery of several novel emodin metabolites in rat bile and urine and underscores that conjugated with glucuronic acid is the main metabolic pathway. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Making Early Modern Medicine: Reproducing Swedish Bitters.

    PubMed

    Ahnfelt, Nils-Otto; Fors, Hjalmar

    2016-05-01

    Historians of science and medicine have rarely applied themselves to reproducing the experiments and practices of medicine and pharmacy. This paper delineates our efforts to reproduce "Swedish Bitters," an early modern composite medicine in wide European use from the 1730s to the present. In its original formulation, it was made from seven medicinal simples: aloe, rhubarb, saffron, myrrh, gentian, zedoary and agarikon. These were mixed in alcohol together with some theriac, a composite medicine of classical origin. The paper delineates the compositional history of Swedish Bitters and the medical rationale underlying its composition. It also describes how we go about to reproduce the medicine in a laboratory using early modern pharmaceutical methods, and analyse it using contemporary methods of pharmaceutical chemistry. Our aim is twofold: first, to show how reproducing medicines may provide a path towards a deeper understanding of the role of sensual and practical knowledge in the wider context of early modern medical culture; and second, how it may yield interesting results from the point of view of contemporary pharmaceutical science.

  16. Essiac.

    PubMed

    Majchrowicz, M A

    1995-01-01

    Essiac, an herbal formulation from the Ojibway Indians in Canada, is composed of four herbs: burdock root, sheep sorrel, turkey rhubarb root, and slippery elm bark. After her discovery of Essiac in 1922, Rene Caisse reported treating and "curing" hundreds of people with cancer and other chronic diseases. The rights to the "original" Essiac now belong to Elaine Alexander of Vancouver, who is currently working with an unnamed health products company to research, test, manufacture, and distribute Essiac. However, there are a variety of sources for Essiac in the United States. According to former chiropractor Gary Glum, sheep's sorrel destroys cancer cells; the other three herbs are blood purifiers. In addition, Dr. Jim Chan, naturopathic physician, says burdock root contains inulin, a powerful immune modulator. However, there has been no basic research done with these herbs to demonstrate their true mechanisms of action. In addition, only anecdotal reports provide information about results. Only laboratory and clinical studies will confirm the anti-tumor and immune-modulating effects of Essiac.

  17. Application of the perineal ostomy in severe organophosphate poisoned patients after catharsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D-M; Xiao, Q

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of the one-piece ostomy bags for severe organophosphate poisoned patients after catharsis. Sixty cases of severe organophosphate poisoned patients who were given rhubarb catharsis after thorough nasal lavage were divided into two groups. The observation group used the one-piece ostomy bags whilst the control group used the disposable changing mats. The perineal skin changes, average daily hours of care, and cost of care rates were compared between the two groups. The rates of perineal skin changes were lower in the observation group than the control group (p < 0.05). The average daily hours of nursing and the cost of care were lower in the observation group than in the control group (p < 0.05). The application of one-piece perineal paste ostomy bag in poisoned patients after the catharsis can prevent the risk of nursing by protecting and promoting the care quality, reducing the nursing workload and improving their work efficiency. It can enhance the nurses' self-esteem, reduce patients' expenses and provide an objective basis for assessing the treatments.

  18. Sesquiterpenoids in subtribe Centaureinae (Cass.) Dumort (tribe Cardueae, Asteraceae): distribution, (13)C NMR spectral data and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Maurizio; Bancheva, Svetlana; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella

    2013-11-01

    Asteraceae Bercht. & J. Presl is one of the biggest and most economically important plant families. The taxonomy and phylogeny of Asteraceae is rather complex and according to the latest and most reliable taxonomic classification of Panero & Funk, based on the analysis of nine chloroplast regions, the family is divided into 12 subfamilies and 35 tribes. One of the largest tribes of Asteraceae is Cardueae Cass. with four subtribes (Carlininae, Echinopinae, Carduinae and Centaureinae) and more than 2500 species. Susanna & Garcia-Jacas have organized the genera of Centaureinae (about 800 species) into seven informal groups, which recent molecular studies have confirmed: 1. Basal genera; 2. Volutaria group; 3. Rhaponticum group; 4. Serratula group; 5. Carthamus group; 6. Crocodylium group; 7. Centaurea group. This review summarizes reports on sesquiterpenoids from the Centaureinae subtribe of the Asteraceae family, as well as the (13)C NMR spectral data described in the literature. It further reviews studies concerning the biological activities of these metabolites. For this work, literature data on sesquiterpenes from the Centaureinae subtribe were retrieved with the help of the SciFinder database and other similar data banks. All entries from 1958 until the end of 2011 were considered. This review is addressed to scientists working in the metabolomics field such as chemists, botanists, etc., the spectroscopic data reported make this work a good tool for structural elucidation, the biological section gives useful information to those who wish to study the structure activity relationships. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A preliminary investigation of anticholinesterase activity of some Iranian medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some commonly used herbal medicine in Iran to introduce a new source for management of Alzheimer’s disease. A total of 18 aqueous-methanolic extract (1:1; v/v) from the following plants: Brassica alba, Brassica nigra, Camellia sinensis, Cinchona officinalis, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus x aurantium, Ferula assafoetida, Humulus lupulus, Juglans regia, Juniperus sabina, Myristica fragrans, Pelargonium graveolens, Pistacia vera, Punica granatum, Rheum officinale, Rosa damascena, Salix alba, and Zizyphus vulgaris were prepared and screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using in vitro Ellman spectrophotometric method. Results According to the obtained results, the order of inhibitory activity (IC50 values, μg /ml) of extracts from highest to the lowest was: C. sinensis (5.96), C. aurantifolia (19.57), Z. vulgaris (24.37), B. nigra (84.30) and R. damascena (93.1). Conclusions The results indicated and confirmed the traditional use of these herbs for management of central nervous system disorders. C. sinensis showed the highest activity in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. However, further investigations on identification of active components in the extracts are needed. PMID:24401532

  20. An evaluation of extracts of five traditional medicinal plants from Iran on the inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity and scavenging of free radicals.

    PubMed

    Khazaeli, P; Goldoozian, R; Sharififar, F

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the free radical scavenging and inhibition properties of five medicinal plants, including Quercus infectoria Olive., Terminalia chebula Retz., Lavendula stoechas L., Mentha longifolia L., Rheum palmatum L., toward the activity of mushroom tyrosinase using L-tyrosine and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as the substrate.The methanol extracts of Q. infectoria and T. chebula showed strong radical scavenging effect in 2,2'-dipheny L-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay(IC50 = 15.3 and 82.2 microg mL)1 respectively).These plants also showed inhibitory effects against the activity of mushroom tyrosinase in hydroxylation of L-tyrosine (85.9% and 82.2% inhibition,respectively). These two plants also inhibited the oxidation of l-DOPA similar to kojic acid as positive control (IC50 = 102.8 and 192.6 microg mL)1 respectively). In general Q. infectoria and T. chebula significantly inhibited tyrosinase activity and DPPH radical. Both activities were concentration dependant but not in linear manner. It is needed to study the cytotoxicity of these plant extracts in pigment cell culture before further evaluation and moving to in vivo conditions.

  1. Two-dimensional preparative liquid chromatography system for preparative separation of minor amount components from complicated natural products.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ying-Kun; Chen, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Yan, Xia; Chen, Lin; Fang, Mei-Juan; Wu, Zhen

    2014-04-11

    An on-line comprehensive two-dimensional preparative liquid chromatography system was developed for preparative separation of minor amount components from complicated natural products. Medium-pressure liquid chromatograph (MPLC) was applied as the first dimension and preparative HPLC as the second one, in conjunction with trapping column and makeup pump. The performance of the trapping column was evaluated, in terms of column size, dilution ratio and diameter-height ratio, as well as system pressure from the view of medium pressure liquid chromatograph. Satisfactory trapping efficiency can be achieved using a commercially available 15 mm × 30 mm i.d. ODS pre-column. The instrument operation and the performance of this MPLC×preparative HPLC system were illustrated by gram-scale isolation of crude macro-porous resin enriched water extract of Rheum hotaoense. Automated multi-step preparative separation of 25 compounds, whose structures were identified by MS, (1)H NMR and even by less-sensitive (13)C NMR, could be achieved in a short period of time using this system, exhibiting great advantages in analytical efficiency and sample treatment capacity compared with conventional methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of sennoside A as a novel inhibitor of the slingshot (SSH) family proteins related to cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seon Young; Kim, Wooil; Lee, Young Geun; Kang, Hyo Jin; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Park, Sun Young; Min, Jeong-Ki; Lee, Sang-Rae; Chung, Sang J

    2017-05-01

    Phospho-cofilin (p-cofilin), which has a phosphate group on Ser-3, is involved in actin polymerization. Its dephosphorylated form promotes filopodia formation and cell migration by enhancing actin depolymerization. Protein phosphatase slingshot homologs (SSHs), known as dual-specificity phosphatases, catalyze hydrolytic removal of the Ser-3 phosphate group from phospho-cofilin. Aberrant SSH activity results in cancer metastasis, implicating SSHs as potential therapeutic targets for cancer metastasis. In this study, we screened 658 natural products purified from traditional oriental medicinal plants to identify three potent SSH inhibitors with submicromolar or single-digit micromolar K i values: gossypol, hypericin, and sennoside A. The three compounds were purified from cottonseed, Saint John's wort, and rhubarb, respectively. Sennoside A markedly increased cofilin phosphorylation in pancreatic cancer cells, leading to impaired actin dynamics in pancreatic cancer cells with or without EGF stimulation and reduced motility and invasiveness in vitro and in vivo. Collaboratively, these results demonstrate that sennoside A is a novel inhibitor of SSHs and suggest that it may be valuable in the development of pharmaceutical drugs for treating cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Injurious effects of emodin on maturation of mouse oocytes, fertilization and fetal development via apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Hui; Chang, Shao-Chung; Chan, Wen-Hsiung

    2012-10-29

    Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone), a major constituent of rhubarb, has a wide range of therapeutic applications. Previous studies have established that emodin induces apoptosis in the inner cell mass and trophectoderm of mouse blastocysts and leads to decreased embryonic development and viability, indicating a role as an injury risk factor for normal embryonic development. However, the mechanisms underlying its hazardous effects have yet to be characterized. In the current study, we further investigated the effects of emodin on oocyte maturation and subsequent pre- and post-implantation development, both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, emodin induced a significant reduction in the rates of oocyte maturation, fertilization, and in vitro embryonic development. Treatment of oocytes with emodin during in vitro maturation (IVM) led to increased resorption of postimplantation embryos and decreased fetal weight. Experiments using an in vivo mouse model disclosed that consumption of drinking water containing 20-40 μM emodin led to decreased oocyte maturation and in vitro fertilization, as well as early embryonic developmental injury. Notably, pretreatment with a caspase-3-specific inhibitor effectively prevented emodin-triggered injury effects, suggesting that impairment of embryo development occurs via a caspase-dependent apoptotic process.

  4. The use of Chinese herbal drugs in Islamic medicine.

    PubMed

    Heyadri, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Ayati, Mohammad Hosein; Quintern, Detlev; Nimrouzi, Majid; Heyadri, Mojtaba

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates some of the ways that Chinese medicine has been transferred to the Western world and to Islamic territories. During the Golden Age of Islam (8th to 13th century CE), the herbal drug trade promoted significant commercial and scientific exchange between China and the Muslim world. Chinese herbal drugs have been described by medieval Muslim medical scholars such as Tabari (870 CE), Rhazes (925 CE), Haly Abbas (982 CE), Avicenna (1037 CE) and Jurjani (1137 CE). The term al-sin (the Arabic word for China) is used 46 times in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine in reference to herbal drugs imported from China. Cinnamon (dar sini; "Chinese herb"), wild ginger (asaron), rhubarb (rivand-e sini), nutmeg (basbasa), incense tree wood (ood), cubeb (kababe) and sandalwood (sandal) were the most frequently mentioned Chinese herbs in Islamic medical books. There are also multiple similarities between the clinical uses of these herbs in both medical systems. It appears that Chinese herbal drugs were a major component of the exchange of goods and knowledge between China and the Islamic and later to the Western world amid this era.

  5. Emodin Suppresses Maintenance of Stemness by Augmenting Proteosomal Degradation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Variant III in Glioma Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongyub; Lee, Jong-Seon; Jung, Jieun; Lim, Inhye; Lee, Ji-Yun

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that small subpopulations of cells with stem cell-like characteristics within most solid tumors are responsible for the malignancy of aggressive cancer cells and that targeting these cells might be a good therapeutic strategy to reduce the risk of tumor relapse after therapy. Here, we examined the effects of emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone), an active component of the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum that has several biological activities, including antitumor effects, on primary cultured glioma stem cells (GSCs). Emodin inhibited the self-renewal activity of GSCs in vitro as evidenced by neurosphere formation, limiting dilution, and soft agar clonogenic assays. Emodin inhibited the maintenance of stemness by suppressing the expression of Notch intracellular domain, nonphosphorylated β-catenin, and phosphorylated STAT3 proteins. In addition, treatment with emodin partially induced apoptosis, reduced cell invasiveness, and sensitized GSCs to ionizing radiation. Intriguingly, emodin induced proteosomal degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII) by interfering with the association of EGFR/EGFRvIII with heat shock protein 90, resulting in the suppression of stemness pathways. Based on these data, we propose that emodin could be considered as a potent therapeutic adjuvant that targets GSCs. PMID:25229646

  6. Effects of emodin on the demethylation of tumor-suppressor genes in pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Chen, Liang; Bu, He-Qi; Yu, Qing-Jiang; Jiang, Dan-Dan; Pan, Feng-Ping; Wang, Yu; Liu, Dian-Lei; Lin, Sheng-Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Emodin, a natural anthraquinone derivative isolated from Rheum palmatum, has been reported to inhibit the growth of pancreatic cancer cells through different modes of action; yet, the detailed mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we hypothesized that emodin exerts its antitumor effect by participating in the regulation of the DNA methylation level. Our research showed that emodin inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Dot-blot results showed that 40 µM emodin significantly inhibited genomic 5 mC expression in the PANC-1 cells, and mRNA-Seq showed that different concentrations of emodin could alter the gene expression profile in the PANC-1 cells. BSP confirmed that the methylation levels of P16, RASSF1A and ppENK were decreased, while concomitantly the unmethylated status was increased. RT-PCR and western blotting results confirmed that the low expression or absence of expression of mRNA and protein in the PANC-1 cells was re-expressed following treatment with emodin. In conclusion, our study for the first time suggests that emodin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth, which may be related to the demethylation of tumor-suppressor genes. The related mechanism may be through the inhibition of methyltransferase expression.

  7. Metabolomics Coupled with Proteomics Advancing Drug Discovery toward More Agile Development of Targeted Combination Therapies*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xijun; Zhang, Aihua; Wang, Ping; Sun, Hui; Wu, Gelin; Sun, Wenjun; Lv, Haitao; Jiao, Guozheng; Xu, Hongying; Yuan, Ye; Liu, Lian; Zou, Dixin; Wu, Zeming; Han, Ying; Yan, Guangli; Dong, Wei; Wu, Fangfang; Dong, Tianwei; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Shuxiang; Wu, Xiuhong; Tong, Xin; Meng, Xiangcai

    2013-01-01

    To enhance the therapeutic efficacy and reduce the adverse effects of traditional Chinese medicine, practitioners often prescribe combinations of plant species and/or minerals, called formulae. Unfortunately, the working mechanisms of most of these compounds are difficult to determine and thus remain unknown. In an attempt to address the benefits of formulae based on current biomedical approaches, we analyzed the components of Yinchenhao Tang, a classical formula that has been shown to be clinically effective for treating hepatic injury syndrome. The three principal components of Yinchenhao Tang are Artemisia annua L., Gardenia jasminoids Ellis, and Rheum Palmatum L., whose major active ingredients are 6,7-dimethylesculetin (D), geniposide (G), and rhein (R), respectively. To determine the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of this formula, we conducted a systematic analysis of the therapeutic effects of the DGR compound using immunohistochemistry, biochemistry, metabolomics, and proteomics. Here, we report that the DGR combination exerts a more robust therapeutic effect than any one or two of the three individual compounds by hitting multiple targets in a rat model of hepatic injury. Thus, DGR synergistically causes intensified dynamic changes in metabolic biomarkers, regulates molecular networks through target proteins, has a synergistic/additive effect, and activates both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. PMID:23362329

  8. Oviposition by mutualistic seed-consuming pollinators reduces fruit abortion in a recently discovered pollination mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bo; Stöcklin, Jürg; Gao, Yong-Qian; Peng, De-Li; Song, Min-Shu; Sun, Hang

    2016-01-01

    A prerequisite for the evolutionary stability of pollinating seed-consuming mutualisms is that each partner benefits from the association. However, few studies of such mutualism have considered the benefit gained by the pollinators. Here, we determined how the pollinating seed-predators ensure the provisioning of their offspring in the recently discovered mutualism between Rheum nobile and Bradysia flies. The correlation between flower fate and fly oviposition was examined. Floral traits and patterns of variation in fruit abortion and fly oviposition were investigated to determine whether female flies exhibit preferences for particular flowers when laying eggs. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was quantified to determine whether female flies manipulate host physiology. Flowers that flies oviposited on had a significantly lower probability of fruit abortion compared with intact flowers. Females did not exhibit oviposition preference for any of the floral traits examined. There was no significant correlation between fruit abortion and fly oviposition in terms of either flower position or timing of flowering. IAA concentrations in oviposited flowers were significantly higher than in intact flowers. Our results suggest that oviposition by the mutualistic seed-consuming pollinator Bradysia sp., greatly reduces the probability of fruit abortion of its host, R. nobile; this may be attributed to the manipulation of host physiology through regulating IAA levels. PMID:27418228

  9. Emodin suppresses maintenance of stemness by augmenting proteosomal degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor/epidermal growth factor receptor variant III in glioma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongyub; Lee, Jong-Seon; Jung, Jieun; Lim, Inhye; Lee, Ji-Yun; Park, Myung-Jin

    2015-02-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that small subpopulations of cells with stem cell-like characteristics within most solid tumors are responsible for the malignancy of aggressive cancer cells and that targeting these cells might be a good therapeutic strategy to reduce the risk of tumor relapse after therapy. Here, we examined the effects of emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone), an active component of the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum that has several biological activities, including antitumor effects, on primary cultured glioma stem cells (GSCs). Emodin inhibited the self-renewal activity of GSCs in vitro as evidenced by neurosphere formation, limiting dilution, and soft agar clonogenic assays. Emodin inhibited the maintenance of stemness by suppressing the expression of Notch intracellular domain, nonphosphorylated β-catenin, and phosphorylated STAT3 proteins. In addition, treatment with emodin partially induced apoptosis, reduced cell invasiveness, and sensitized GSCs to ionizing radiation. Intriguingly, emodin induced proteosomal degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII) by interfering with the association of EGFR/EGFRvIII with heat shock protein 90, resulting in the suppression of stemness pathways. Based on these data, we propose that emodin could be considered as a potent therapeutic adjuvant that targets GSCs.

  10. Metabolomics coupled with proteomics advancing drug discovery toward more agile development of targeted combination therapies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xijun; Zhang, Aihua; Wang, Ping; Sun, Hui; Wu, Gelin; Sun, Wenjun; Lv, Haitao; Jiao, Guozheng; Xu, Hongying; Yuan, Ye; Liu, Lian; Zou, Dixin; Wu, Zeming; Han, Ying; Yan, Guangli; Dong, Wei; Wu, Fangfang; Dong, Tianwei; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Shuxiang; Wu, Xiuhong; Tong, Xin; Meng, Xiangcai

    2013-05-01

    To enhance the therapeutic efficacy and reduce the adverse effects of traditional Chinese medicine, practitioners often prescribe combinations of plant species and/or minerals, called formulae. Unfortunately, the working mechanisms of most of these compounds are difficult to determine and thus remain unknown. In an attempt to address the benefits of formulae based on current biomedical approaches, we analyzed the components of Yinchenhao Tang, a classical formula that has been shown to be clinically effective for treating hepatic injury syndrome. The three principal components of Yinchenhao Tang are Artemisia annua L., Gardenia jasminoids Ellis, and Rheum Palmatum L., whose major active ingredients are 6,7-dimethylesculetin (D), geniposide (G), and rhein (R), respectively. To determine the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of this formula, we conducted a systematic analysis of the therapeutic effects of the DGR compound using immunohistochemistry, biochemistry, metabolomics, and proteomics. Here, we report that the DGR combination exerts a more robust therapeutic effect than any one or two of the three individual compounds by hitting multiple targets in a rat model of hepatic injury. Thus, DGR synergistically causes intensified dynamic changes in metabolic biomarkers, regulates molecular networks through target proteins, has a synergistic/additive effect, and activates both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways.

  11. Dietary supplements for dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Pattanittum, Porjai; Kunyanone, Naowarat; Brown, Julie; Sangkomkamhang, Ussanee S; Barnes, Joanne; Seyfoddin, Vahid; Marjoribanks, Jane

    2016-03-22

    conducted in Iran and the rest were performed in other middle-income countries. Only one study addressed secondary dysmenorrhoea. Interventions included 12 different herbal medicines (German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla, M recutita, Chamomilla recutita), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, C. verum), Damask rose (Rosa damascena), dill (Anethum graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), guava (Psidium guajava), rhubarb (Rheum emodi), uzara (Xysmalobium undulatum), valerian (Valeriana officinalis), and zataria (Zataria multiflora)) and five non-herbal supplements (fish oil, melatonin, vitamins B1 and E, and zinc sulphate) in a variety of formulations and doses. Comparators included other supplements, placebo, no treatment, and NSAIDs.We judged all the evidence to be of low or very low quality. The main limitations were imprecision due to very small sample sizes, failure to report study methods, and inconsistency. For most comparisons there was only one included study, and very few studies reported adverse effects. Effectiveness of supplements for primary dysmenorrhoea We have presented pain scores (all on a visual analogue scale (VAS) 0 to 10 point scale) or rates of pain relief, or both, at the first post-treatment follow-up. Supplements versus placebo or no treatmentThere was no evidence of effectiveness for vitamin E (MD 0.00 points, 95% CI -0.34 to 0.34; two RCTs, 135 women).There was no consistent evidence of effectiveness for dill (MD -1.15 points, 95% CI -2.22 to -0.08, one RCT, 46 women), guava (MD 0.59, 95% CI -0.13 to 1.31; one RCT, 151 women); one RCT, 73 women), or fennel (MD -0.34 points, 95% CI -0.74 to 0.06; one RCT, 43 women).There was very limited evidence of effectiveness for fenugreek (MD -1.71 points, 95% CI -2.35 to -1.07; one RCT, 101 women), fish oil (MD 1.11 points, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77; one RCT, 120 women), fish oil plus vitamin B1 (MD -1.21 points, 95% CI -1.79 to -0.63; one RCT, 120

  12. Aloe-emodin inhibits HER-2 expression through the downregulation of Y-box binding protein-1 in HER-2-overexpressing human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jui-Wen; Hung, Chao-Ming; Lin, Ying-Chao; Ho, Chi-Tang; Kao, Jung-Yie; Way, Tzong-Der

    2016-09-13

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2)-positive breast cancer tends to be aggressive, highly metastatic, and drug resistant and spreads rapidly. Studies have indicated that emodin inhibits HER-2 expression. This study compared the HER-2-inhibitory effects of two compounds extracted from rhubarb roots: aloe-emodin (AE) and rhein. Our results indicated that AE exerted the most potent inhibitory effect on HER-2 expression. Treatment of HER-2-overexpressing breast cancer cells with AE reduced tumor initiation, cell migration, and cell invasion. AE was able to suppress YB-1 expression, further suppressing downstream HER-2 expression. AE suppressed YB-1 expression through the inhibition of Twist in HER-2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Our data also found that AE inhibited cancer metastasis and cancer stem cells through the inhibition of EMT. Interestingly, AE suppressed YB-1 expression through the downregulation of the intracellular integrin-linked kinase (ILK)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mTOR signaling pathway in HER-2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. In vivo study showed the positive result of antitumor activity of AE in nude mice injected with human HER-2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. These findings suggest the possible application of AE in the treatment of HER-2-positive breast cancer.

  13. Injurious Effects of Emodin on Maturation of Mouse Oocytes, Fertilization and Fetal Development via Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Mei-Hui; Chang, Shao-Chung; Chan, Wen-Hsiung

    2012-01-01

    Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone), a major constituent of rhubarb, has a wide range of therapeutic applications. Previous studies have established that emodin induces apoptosis in the inner cell mass and trophectoderm of mouse blastocysts and leads to decreased embryonic development and viability, indicating a role as an injury risk factor for normal embryonic development. However, the mechanisms underlying its hazardous effects have yet to be characterized. In the current study, we further investigated the effects of emodin on oocyte maturation and subsequent pre- and post-implantation development, both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, emodin induced a significant reduction in the rates of oocyte maturation, fertilization, and in vitro embryonic development. Treatment of oocytes with emodin during in vitro maturation (IVM) led to increased resorption of postimplantation embryos and decreased fetal weight. Experiments using an in vivo mouse model disclosed that consumption of drinking water containing 20–40 μM emodin led to decreased oocyte maturation and in vitro fertilization, as well as early embryonic developmental injury. Notably, pretreatment with a caspase-3-specific inhibitor effectively prevented emodin-triggered injury effects, suggesting that impairment of embryo development occurs via a caspase-dependent apoptotic process. PMID:23203041

  14. Botanical modulation of menopausal symptoms: Mechanisms of action?

    PubMed Central

    Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dietz, Birgit M.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2013-01-01

    Menopausal women suffer from a variety of symptoms, including hot flashes and night sweats which can affect quality of life. Although hormone therapy (HT) has been the treatment of choice for relieving these symptoms, HT has been associated with increased breast cancer risk leading many women to search for natural, efficacious, and safe alternatives such as botanical supplements. Data from clinical trials suggesting that botanicals have efficacy for menopausal symptom relief, have been controversial and several mechanisms of action have been proposed including estrogenic, progestogenic, and serotonergic pathways. Plant extracts with potential estrogenic activities include soy, red clover, kudzu, hops, licorice, rhubarb, yam, and chasteberry. Botanicals with reported progestogenic activities are red clover, hops, yam, and chasteberry. Serotonergic mechanisms have also been proposed since women taking antidepressants often report reduction in hot flashes and night sweats. Black cohosh, kudzu, kava, licorice, and dong quai all either have reported 5-HT7 ligands or inhibit serotonin re-uptake, therefore have potential serotonergic activities. Understanding the mechanisms of action of these natural remedies used for women’s health, could lead to more efficacious formulations and to the isolation of active components which have the potential of becoming effective medications in the future. PMID:23408273

  15. FOXO3-mediated up-regulation of Bim contributes to rhein-induced cancer cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiao; Liu, Shu; Yin, Yancun; Li, Mingjin; Wang, Bo; Yang, Li; Jiang, Yangfu

    2015-03-01

    The anthraquinone compound rhein is a natural agent in the traditional Chinese medicine rhubarb. Preclinical studies demonstrate that rhein has anticancer activity. Treatment of a variety of cancer cells with rhein may induce apoptosis. Here, we report that rhein induces atypical unfolded protein response in breast cancer MCF-7 cells and hepatoma HepG2 cells. Rhein induces CHOP expression, eIF2α phosphorylation and caspase cleavage, while it does not induce glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression in both MCF-7 and HepG2 cells. Meanwhile, rhein inhibits thapsigargin-induced GRP78 expression and X box-binding protein 1 splicing. In addition, rhein inhibits Akt phosphorylation and stimulates FOXO transactivation activity. Rhein induces Bim expression in MCF-7 and HepG2 cells, which can be abrogated by FOXO3a knockdown. Knockdown of FOXO3a or Bim abrogates rhein-induced caspase cleavage and apoptosis. The chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyrate acid antagonizes the induction of FOXO activation, Bim expression and caspase cleavage by rhein, indicating that protein misfolding may be involved in triggering these deleterious effects. We conclude that FOXO3a-mediated up-regulation of Bim is a key mechanism underlying rhein-induced cancer cells apoptosis.

  16. Chemical profiling approach to evaluate the influence of traditional and simplified decoction methods on the holistic quality of Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xuemei; Zhang, Qianying; Feng, Fang

    2016-04-01

    Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction, consisting of Rheum officinale Baill, Mirabilitum, Phellodendron amurense Rupr. and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, is a traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of jaundice. As described in "Jin Kui Yao Lue", a traditional multistep decoction of Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction was required while simplified one-step decoction was used in recent repsorts. To investigate the chemical difference between the decoctions obtained by the traditional and simplified preparations, a sensitive and reliable approach of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was established. As a result, a total of 105 compounds were detected and identified. Analysis of the chromatogram profiles of the two decoctions showed that many compounds in the decoction of simplified preparation had changed obviously compared with those in traditional preparation. The changes of constituents would be bound to cause the differences in the therapeutic effects of the two decoctions. The present study demonstrated that certain preparation methods significantly affect the holistic quality of traditional Chinese medicines and the use of a suitable preparation method is crucial for these medicines to produce special clinical curative effect. This research results elucidated the scientific basis of traditional preparation methods in Chinese medicines. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Ethnomedicine in Himalaya: a case study from Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Ripu M; Nepal, Bal K; Kshhetri, Hari B; Rai, Sanjeev K; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2006-01-01

    Traditional plant use in Nepal has been documented for millennia. The importance of plants as medicine has not diminished in any way in recent times, and traditional medicines are still the most important health care source for the vast majority of the population. This paper examines the ethnobotany and traditional use of plants extracted from the vulnerable alpine zone in the Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal. The results of this ethnobotanical study indicate that a very large number of plant species is used as traditional medicines. There were 107, 59, 44 and 166 species of ethnomedicinal importance in surveyed areas of Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang district respectively. Of these, 84 common species, used at least in two districts, were selected to enumerate their ethnomedicinal properties. The 84 species belonged to 75 genera and 39 families. The commonest species in this pharmacopoeia were: Allium wallichii, Cordyceps sinensis, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, and Rheum australe. A total of 21 species were most common in three districts and 59 in two districts. The genera Aconitum, Allium, Arisaema, Berberis, Corydalis, Gentiana, Hippophae, Juniperus and Rhododendron each possessed two species with ethnomedicinal use. Labiatae was the most medicinally important family with five species used, followed by Araceae, Compositae, Liliaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Umbelliferae, each contributing four species. PMID:16749924

  18. Characterization of Apoptosis Induced by Emodin and Related Regulatory Mechanisms in Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fu-Jen; Hsuuw, Yan-Der; Chan, Wen-Hsiung

    2013-01-01

    Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone), a major constituent of rhubarb, has a wide range of therapeutic applications. Recent studies have shown that emodin can induce or prevent cell apoptosis, although the precise molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. Experiments from the current study revealed that emodin (10–20 μM) induces apoptotic processes in the human neuroblastoma cell line, IMR-32, but exerts no injury effects at treatment doses below 10 μM. Treatment with emodin at concentrations of 10–20 μM led to a direct increase in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content in IMR-32 cells, along with significant elevation of cytoplasmic free calcium and nitric oxide (NO) levels, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), activation of caspases-9 and -3, and cell death. Pretreatment with nitric oxide (NO) scavengers suppressed the apoptotic biochemical changes induced by 20 μM emodin, and attenuated emodin-induced p53 and p21 expression involved in apoptotic signaling. Our results collectively indicate that emodin at concentrations of 10–20 μM triggers apoptosis of IMR-32 cells via a mechanism involving both ROS and NO. Based on the collective results, we propose a model for an emodin-triggered apoptotic signaling cascade that sequentially involves ROS, Ca2+, NO, p53, caspase-9 and caspase-3. PMID:24113589

  19. Laxative effect of repeated Daiokanzoto is attributable to decrease in aquaporin-3 expression in the colon.

    PubMed

    Kon, Risako; Yamamura, Miho; Matsunaga, Yukari; Kimura, Hiroshi; Minami, Moe; Kato, Saki; Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    Daiokanzoto (DKT) exerts its laxative effect via colonic inflammation caused by sennoside A in Daio (rhubarb). Previously, we showed that the laxative effect of sennoside A is related to decreased aquaporin-3 (AQP3) expression in mucosal epithelial cells due to colonic inflammation. We also found that a combination of glycyrrhizin, an ingredient in Kanzo (glycyrrhiza), and sennoside A attenuates the inflammatory response induced by sennoside A and reduces its laxative effect. These findings indicate that DKT may be a long-term treatment for chronic constipation, but there is no evidence supporting this hypothesis. In this study, we analyzed the laxative effect of repeated DKT administration, focusing on AQP3 expression in the colon. After rats were treated for 7 days, decreased AQP3 expression and the onset of diarrhea were observed in the DKT group, but were not seen in the Daio group either. Although the relative abundance of gut microbiota after repeated DKT administration was similar to that after control treatment, Daio reduced Lactobacillaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, and Bacteroidaceae levels and markedly increased Lachnospiraceae levels. In this study, we show that DKT has a sustained laxative effect, even upon repeated use, probably because it maintains decreased AQP3 expression and gut microbiota homeostasis. This outcome therefore indicates that DKT can be used as a long-term treatment for chronic constipation.

  20. Emodin reverses leukemia multidrug resistance by competitive inhibition and downregulation of P-glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hongping; Niu, Miaomiao; Zhang, Weilin; Yan, Jia; Li, Jiachang; Tan, Xiying; Li, Bo; Su, Mengxiang; Di, Bin; Yan, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is a continuous clinical challenge partially due to the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients. Herein, we evaluated the inhibitory potency of emodin, a natural anthraquinone derivative isolated from Rheum palmatum L, on P-gp in P-gp positive K562/ADM cells. Competition experiments combined with molecular docking analysis were utilized to investigate the binding modes between emodin and binding sites of P-gp. Emodin reversed adriamycin resistance in K562/ADM cells accompanied with the decrease of P-gp protein expression, further increasing the uptake of rhodamine123 in both K562/ADM and Caco-2 cells, indicating the inhibition of P-gp efflux function. Moreover, when incubated with emodin under different conditions where P-gp was inhibited, K562/ADM cells displayed increasing intracellular uptake of emodin, suggesting that emodin may be the potential substrate of P-gp. Importantly, rhodamine 123 could increase the Kintrinsic (Ki) value of emodin linearly, whereas, verapamil could not, implying that emodin competitively bound to the R site of P-gp and noncompetition existed between emodin and verapamil at the M site, in a good accordance with the results of molecular docking that emodin bound to the R site of P-gp with higher affinity. Based on our results, we suggest that emodin might be used to modulate P-gp function and expression. PMID:29121121

  1. Emodin reverses leukemia multidrug resistance by competitive inhibition and downregulation of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Min, Hongping; Niu, Miaomiao; Zhang, Weilin; Yan, Jia; Li, Jiachang; Tan, Xiying; Li, Bo; Su, Mengxiang; Di, Bin; Yan, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is a continuous clinical challenge partially due to the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients. Herein, we evaluated the inhibitory potency of emodin, a natural anthraquinone derivative isolated from Rheum palmatum L, on P-gp in P-gp positive K562/ADM cells. Competition experiments combined with molecular docking analysis were utilized to investigate the binding modes between emodin and binding sites of P-gp. Emodin reversed adriamycin resistance in K562/ADM cells accompanied with the decrease of P-gp protein expression, further increasing the uptake of rhodamine123 in both K562/ADM and Caco-2 cells, indicating the inhibition of P-gp efflux function. Moreover, when incubated with emodin under different conditions where P-gp was inhibited, K562/ADM cells displayed increasing intracellular uptake of emodin, suggesting that emodin may be the potential substrate of P-gp. Importantly, rhodamine 123 could increase the Kintrinsic (Ki) value of emodin linearly, whereas, verapamil could not, implying that emodin competitively bound to the R site of P-gp and noncompetition existed between emodin and verapamil at the M site, in a good accordance with the results of molecular docking that emodin bound to the R site of P-gp with higher affinity. Based on our results, we suggest that emodin might be used to modulate P-gp function and expression.

  2. Emodin up-regulates glucose metabolism, decreases lipolysis, and attenuates inflammation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Rong; Lv, Pengfei; Yang, Jian; Deng, Yujie; Xu, Jun; Zhu, Rongfeng; Zhang, Di; Yang, Ying

    2015-05-01

    Emodin, the major bioactive component of Rheum palmatum, has many different activities, including antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetes effects. Recently, emodin was reported to regulate energy metabolism. In the present study, we further explored the effects of emodin on glucose and lipid metabolism. Differentiated C2C12 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with or without different concentrations of emodin (6.25, 12.5, 25 or 50 μmol/L) for different time (1 h, 3 h, 12 h, 24 h or 48 h). Glucose metabolism, oxygen consumption, lactic acid levels, glycerol levels, and inflammation pathways were then evaluated. Cells were collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analysis. Emodin upregulated glucose uptake and consumption in both C2C12 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, with glycolysis increased. Furthermore, emodin inhibited lipolysis under basal conditions (as well as in the presence of 10 ng/ml tumor necrosis factor (TNF-)-α in 3T3-L1 adipocytes) and significantly decreased phosphorylated perilipin. Moreover, emodin inhibited the nuclear factor-κB and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways in C2C12 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Emodin upregulates glucose metabolism, decreases lipolysis, and inhibits inflammation in C2C12 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Emodin, a natural inhibitor of protein kinase CK2, suppresses growth, hyphal development, and biofilm formation of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Janeczko, Monika; Masłyk, Maciej; Kubiński, Konrad; Golczyk, Hieronim

    2017-06-01

    Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl-anthraquinone) is a natural secondary plant product, originally isolated from the rhizomes of Rheum palmatum. Many reports show its diuretic, vasorelaxant, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-ulcerogenic, immunosuppressive, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anticancer potential. Emodin is a pleiotropic molecule capable of interacting with several major molecular targets, e.g. NF-κB, AKT/mTOR and STAT3. The compound can also act as an inhibitor of some protein kinases, with special affinity to protein kinase CK2. The aim of the presented report was to evaluate antifungal properties of emodin and its activity towards CK2 isolated from Candida cells. Our studies revealed that the compound suppressed growth of the cells of reference strains as well as clinical Candida strains, with minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal fungicidal concentration values between 12.5 and 200 μg/mL. Moreover, at a low concentration, the compound was able to effectively stop hyphal formation, thus showing a distinct antivirulent potential. Interestingly, we showed that emodin added to Candida culture inhibited the phosphorylation of many cellular proteins, presumably owing to the inhibition of protein kinase CK2. Notably, the enzyme isolated from the Candida cells was susceptible to emodin with IC 50 of 2.8 μg/mL. Indeed, our computational modelling revealed that emodin was able to occupy the ATP-binding pocket of CK2. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Hypocholesterolemic effect of emodin by simultaneous determination of in vitro and in vivo bile salts binding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaoying; Ji, Jun; Song, Zijing; Zhang, Wenjun; He, Xin; Li, Fei; Zhang, Chunfeng; Guo, Changrun; Wang, Chongzhi; Yuan, Chunsu

    2016-04-01

    Emodin is an active anthraquinone derivative from Rheum palmatum and some other Chinese herbs and it is traditionally used for treating a variety of diseases. In this study, we investigated the hypocholesterolemic effects and mechanism of emodin on hypercholesterolemia rats. In vitro, capability of emodin binding to sodium deoxycholate which is one kind of bile salts (BAs) was evaluated by detection of surplus content of sodium deoxycholate. In vivo, hypocholesterolemic effects were assessed by determining total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level of serum and TC, TG level of the liver. Oil red O staining was employed to determine lipid droplet of the liver. The mechanism was explored by BAs in feces, the liver and small intestine. Furthermore, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) activity was measured to evaluate cholesterol's transforming to BAs. The results indicated that TC level of emodin group apparently decreased comparing with model group (p<0.05). Emodin could bind to BAs both in vivo (p<0.05) and in vitro. CYP7A1 activity in emodin group apparently increased comparing with model group (p<0.05). Data suggested that emodin had the potential value for treatment of hypercholesterolemia. The underlying mechanism is probably associated with binding capability to BAs and subsequent increasing expression of CYP7A1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Current research situation of nephrotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Feng, Xue; Fang, Sai-Nan; Gao, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jian-Ping; Chen, Wei

    2018-02-01

    To provide the basis for the future research on the nephrotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicine through systematic and comprehensive summary of all the Chinese herbal medicines which may lead to nephrotoxicity. Foreign resources included PubMed and Cochrane library, and domestic research resources was China Food and Drug Administration(CDFA) Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring Center database. The databases were searched from establishment to January 1, 2017. There was no limitation on research type. 28 English studies were found, including 97 Chinese herbs or prescriptions with the risk of nephrotoxicity. The following six Chinese herbal medicines with the risk of nephrotoxicity had a large number of studies: aristolochic acid(5 studies), Tripterygium wilfordii(4 studies), Erycibe obtusifolia(2 studies), Rheum palmatum(2 studies), Ephedra sinica(2 studies), and Atractylodes lances(2 studies). The remaining 91 Chinese medicines were reported with risk of nephrotoxicity in only 1 study respectively. CDFA reported 16 Chinese herbal medicines with the risk of nephrotoxicity, including Ganmaoqing Pian(capsule), Zhenju Jiangya Pian, T. wilfordii preparation, Vc-Yinqiao Pian, Chuanhuning injection, Shuanghuanglian injection, Qingkailing injection, Lianbizhi injection, herbal decoction containing Aristolochiae Radix, Guanxin Suhe Wan, Shugan Liqi Wan, Ershiwuwei Songshi Wan, herbal decoction containing Aristolochia Fangchi, herbal granules containing root of Kaempfer Dutchmanspipe, Ganmaotong(tablets), and Longdan Xiegan Wan. Currently, in addition to aristolochic acids, the most reported Chinese herbal medicine with the risk of nephrotoxicity is T. wilfordii preparation. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Medicinal plants used for ophthalmological problems in Navarra (Spain).

    PubMed

    Calvo, M Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda

    2016-08-22

    Several plants have been found to have effective against number of ophthalmological problems in Navarra. Information was collected using semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews with 686 informants in 267 locations. In order to confirm the pharmacological application of the uses more cited by the informants, a literature review was conducted. A total of 57 pharmaceutical uses were reported, for 19 plants and 13 families, mainly represented by Asteraceae. The most frequently used parts were inflorescences, flowers, aerial parts, leaves and flowered aerial parts. The related affections fell into eleven categories: bloodshot eyes, watery eyes and wounds, improve vision, irrited eyelids, rheums and styes, tired eyes, conjunctivitis, eyewash, ocular problems in general. The most cited plants were: Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All., Santolina chamaecyparissus L. ssp. squarrosa (DC.) Nyman, Sambucus nigra L. ssp. nigra, Rosa agrestis Savi and Calendula officinalis L. None of them have been pharmacologically validated by Official International Organisms. From the therapeutic point of view, Allium sativum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., C. officinalis, and S. chamaecyparissus ssp. squarrosa deserve special attention, because ethnobotanical and pharmacological studies suggest that these medicinal plants are effective for ophthalmological problems. The present study constitutes a good basis for further phytochemical and pharmacological research of these four plants, which could be of interest in the design of new inexpensive, effective and safe drugs. The remaining plants are needed to be screened through standard pharmacological and clinical procedures for their activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Emodin alleviates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ruijuan; Zhao, Xiaomei; Wang, Xia; Song, Nana; Guo, Yuhong; Yan, Xianxia; Jiang, Liping; Cheng, Wenjing; Shen, Linlin

    2016-11-16

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal lung disease with few treatment options and poor prognosis. Emodin, extracted from Chinese rhubarb, was found to be able to alleviate bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis, yet the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. This study aimed to further investigate the effects of emodin on the inflammation and fibrosis of BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and the mechanism involved in rats. Our results showed that emodin improved pulmonary function, reduced weight loss and prevented death in BLM-treated rats. Emodin significantly relieved lung edema and fibrotic changes, decreased collagen deposition, and suppressed the infiltration of myofibroblasts [characterized by expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)] and inflammatory cells (mainly macrophages and lymphocytes). Moreover, emodin reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-6, TGF-β1 and heat shock protein (HSP)-47 in the lungs of BLM-treated rats. In vitro, emodin profoundly inhibited TGF-β1-induced α-SMA, collagen IV and fibronectin expression in human embryo lung fibroblasts (HELFs). Emodin also inhibited TGF-β1-induced Smad2/3 and STAT3 activation, indicating that Smad2/3 and STAT3 inactivation mediates emodin-induced effects on TGF-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation. These results suggest that emodin can exert its anti-fibrotic effect via suppression of TGF-β1 signaling and subsequently inhibition of inflammation, HSP-47 expression, myofibroblast differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [The Original Formulation for Toso-shu (Tusujiu), Created by the 3rd Century Chinese Physician, Hua Tuo].

    PubMed

    Mouri, Chika; Mikage, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The original formulation for "Tusujiu," which Japanese people still consume on the morning of January 1st, was created by Hua Tuo, but has not been studied in detail. The book Huatuo Shenyi Bizhuan, found in 1918, describes a concoction, "Biyijiu," that shows great similarity to the current Tusujiu; the ingredients for Biyijiu being rhubarb, atractylodes rhizome, cinnamon bark, platycodon root, zanthoxylum fruit, processed aconite root and smilax rhizome. The procedures for preparing and drinking it are to "pound the ingredients and then put them into a silk bag dyed with madder. During the daytime of the last day of the year, hang the bag in a well to soften the powder. Take the bag out early in the morning of the next day, the first day of the year. Heat the bag in fermented liquor until simmering. Drink the liquid with all family members, doing so while facing east. If one person drinks it, there will be no disease in the family. If the whole family drinks it, there will be no disease in their neighborhood in an area of one square 'li'. In this study, to determine the original formulation for Tusujiu, we examined a number of ancient medical texts from the 3rd to the 13th century that discuss Biyijiu and Tusujiu. As a result, we concluded that "Biyijiu" is likely to be the original formulation developed by Hua Tuo.

  9. The Daiokanzoto (TJ-84) Kampo Formulation Reduces Virulence Factor Gene Expression in Porphyromonas gingivalis and Possesses Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Protease Activities

    PubMed Central

    Fournier-Larente, Jade; Azelmat, Jabrane; Yoshioka, Masami; Hinode, Daisuke; Grenier, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Kampo formulations used in Japan to treat a wide variety of diseases and to promote health are composed of mixtures of crude extracts from the roots, bark, leaves, and rhizomes of a number of herbs. The present study was aimed at identifying the beneficial biological properties of Daiokanzoto (TJ-84), a Kampo formulation composed of crude extracts of Rhubarb rhizomes and Glycyrrhiza roots, with a view to using it as a potential treatment for periodontal disease. Daiokanzoto dose-dependently inhibited the expression of major Porphyromonas gingivalis virulence factors involved in host colonization and tissue destruction. More specifically, Daiokanzoto reduced the expression of the fimA, hagA, rgpA, and rgpB genes, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The U937-3xκB-LUC monocyte cell line transfected with a luciferase reporter gene was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of Daiokanzoto. Daiokanzoto attenuated the P. gingivalis-mediated activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. It also reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and CXCL8) by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated oral epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts. Lastly, Daiokanzoto, dose-dependently inhibited the catalytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (-1 and -9). In conclusion, the present study provided evidence that Daiokanzoto shows potential for treating and/or preventing periodontal disease. The ability of this Kampo formulation to act on both bacterial pathogens and the host inflammatory response, the two etiological components of periodontal disease, is of high therapeutic interest. PMID:26859747

  10. [Analysis and identification of illegal constituents in health food products implicitly advertizing tonic or slimming effect in the National Institute of Health Sciences in Japan].

    PubMed

    Goda, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    With the prefectural governments' aid of the purchase, the Division of Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Narcotics, National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS) successively has surveyed illegal constituents in health food products implicitly advertizing tonic or slimming effect since the fiscal year of 2002 (slimming type) or 2003 (tonic type). The average numbers of the analyzed products per year are about 100 (slimming type) and 150 (tonic type), respectively. We also continuously distribute standards of authentic samples of several illegal components such as N-nitrosofenfluramine (NFF) and sildenafil (SIL) to prefectural institutes and the average gross number per year is about 140. In the case of slimming type, the fact that the products containing NFF were widely sold in Japanese markets in 2002 is well known. In addition, phenolphthalein, fenfluramine, sibtramine, desdimethylsibtramine, orlistat, mazindol, Rhubarb, Senna Leaf, etc. have been found as illegal constituents. In the tonic type products, we have identified more than 20 synthetic compounds relating to the erectile dysfunction (ED) treatment drugs, SIL, vardenafil and tadalafil (TDF). Since 2005, their synthetic intermediates and the patented but non-approved PDE5 inhibitors also have been found. It should be noted that TDF was found in the shells of capsule in 2009 and that mutaprodenafil was found as pro-drug type illegal component in 2010. In this report identification method of these illegal constituents is briefly described and then analytical trend in this decade is reviewed.

  11. The Daiokanzoto (TJ-84) Kampo Formulation Reduces Virulence Factor Gene Expression in Porphyromonas gingivalis and Possesses Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Protease Activities.

    PubMed

    Fournier-Larente, Jade; Azelmat, Jabrane; Yoshioka, Masami; Hinode, Daisuke; Grenier, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Kampo formulations used in Japan to treat a wide variety of diseases and to promote health are composed of mixtures of crude extracts from the roots, bark, leaves, and rhizomes of a number of herbs. The present study was aimed at identifying the beneficial biological properties of Daiokanzoto (TJ-84), a Kampo formulation composed of crude extracts of Rhubarb rhizomes and Glycyrrhiza roots, with a view to using it as a potential treatment for periodontal disease. Daiokanzoto dose-dependently inhibited the expression of major Porphyromonas gingivalis virulence factors involved in host colonization and tissue destruction. More specifically, Daiokanzoto reduced the expression of the fimA, hagA, rgpA, and rgpB genes, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The U937-3xκB-LUC monocyte cell line transfected with a luciferase reporter gene was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of Daiokanzoto. Daiokanzoto attenuated the P. gingivalis-mediated activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. It also reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and CXCL8) by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated oral epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts. Lastly, Daiokanzoto, dose-dependently inhibited the catalytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (-1 and -9). In conclusion, the present study provided evidence that Daiokanzoto shows potential for treating and/or preventing periodontal disease. The ability of this Kampo formulation to act on both bacterial pathogens and the host inflammatory response, the two etiological components of periodontal disease, is of high therapeutic interest.

  12. Emodin attenuates TNF-α-induced apoptosis and autophagy in mouse C2C12 myoblasts though the phosphorylation of Akt.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dexiu; Liu, Junshan; Lu, Lu; Huang, Yanfeng; Wang, Yanjing; Wang, Mingqing; Liu, Yangyang; Xie, Dandan; Chen, Jiebing; Diao, Jianxin; Wei, Lianbo; Wang, Ming

    2016-05-01

    Emodin, a major component of Rheum palmatum, has been reported to significantly protect neural tissue against apoptosis and autophagy. However, the effects and underlying mechanisms of action of emodin in muscle atrophy are still poorly defined. In this study, we investigated the protective effects and the underlying mechanisms by which emodin acts on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced apoptosis and autophagy in mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Emodin, at various concentrations, decreased TNF-α-induced apoptosis in C2C12 myoblasts, which were analyzed by Hoechst 33342 staining and annexin V/PI analysis. Emodin also inhibited the collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the generation of reactive oxygen species in TNF-α-stimulated C2C12 myoblasts. Consistent with these results, the expression of Bcl-2 was increased, whereas the expression of Bax, cleaved-caspase 3 and cleaved-PARP was decreased after emodin treatment. These data demonstrate that emodin attenuated apoptosis in TNF-α-stimulated C2C12 myoblasts through mitochondrial signaling pathways. In addition, emodin inhibited autophagy in TNF-α-stimulated C2C12 myoblasts by suppressing the expression of LC3-II, Beclin-1 and Atg7. Emodin also resulted in the upregulation of the phosphorylated forms of Akt. Taken together, these results suggest that emodin inhibited apoptosis and autophagy in TNF-α-induced C2C12 myoblasts, possibly through the activation of phosphorylated Akt. Our findings suggest that emodin could be a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of muscle atrophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Emodin induces hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis through MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wanfu; Zhong, Maofeng; Yin, Huixia; Chen, Yongan; Cao, Qingxin; Wang, Chen; Ling, Changquan

    2016-08-01

    Emodin is an active ingredient derived from root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum L and many studies have reported that it exhibits anticancer effects in a number of human tumors. However, there is little information demonstrating the possible effects of emodin on the proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we show that emodin may inhibit the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced apoptosis of cells in a concentration-dependent manner after treatment for 24 h. Moreover, we further discovered that the possible molecular mechanisms involved may relate to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathways. Emodin may induce the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 while mildly suppressed the expression of p-c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (p-JNK). However, emodin did not affect the expression of the total (t)-ERK, t-p38 or t-JNK. Furthermore, emodin also suppressed the activation of p-AKT, but not the t-AKT. In vivo, we found that emodin suppressed tumor growth in experimental mice without an obvious change in body weight, which may work through the antiproliferation and apoptosis inducing effects. Moreover, emodin improves the liver and kidney function in mice, revealing that emodin may improve the life quality of the mice with implanted tumors. In conclusion, the above findings indicate that emodin may be a potentially effective and safe drug to induce apoptosis of HCC.

  14. Growth arrest and morphological changes triggered by emodin on Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes cultivated in axenic medium.

    PubMed

    De Lima, Ana R; Noris-Suárez, Karem; Bretaña, Antonio; Contreras, Victor T; Navarro, Maria C; Pérez-Ybarra, Luis; Bubis, José

    2017-11-01

    Emodin is an anthraquinone obtained from Rheum palmatum rootstocks. Here we tested the cytotoxic effects of emodin on Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes, as well as the morphological changes that were induced by this compound in the parasite. Emodin was permeable and blocked in vitro cell division of T. cruzi epimastigotes in axenic medium, causing growth arrest in a dose-dependent but reversible manner. Emodin-exposed epimastigotes underwent duplication of organelles, such as the nucleus, kinetoplast and flagellum, but were incapable of completing cytokinesis. Neither elongation of the parasite body nor appearance of the regular longitudinal cleavage furrow was displayed, suggesting that emodin is most likely affecting components of the parasite cytoskeleton. Moreover, drug-treated parasites acquired alterations such as protuberances, folds and indentations on their membrane surface. Since emodin has been shown to be a potent protein kinase CK2 inhibitor, and we have previously described an association between tubulin and CK2 in T. cruzi epimastigotes (De Lima et al. Parasitology132, 511-523, 2006), we also measured the indirect effect of the drug on tubulin. Incubation of epimastigotes with axenic medium containing emodin hindered the endogenous phosphorylation of tubulin in whole-cell parasite extracts. All our results suggested that the parasite CK2 may be important for the maintenance of the morphology and for the regulation of mitosis-cytokinesis transition in T. cruzi epimastigotes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  15. SciTech Connect

    KoraMagazi, Arouna; Wang, Dandan; Yousef, Bashir

    Rhein is an active component of rhubarb; a traditional Chinese medicine reported to induce apoptosis and cause liver toxicity. However, rhein's apoptotic-inducing effects, as well as its molecular mechanisms of action on hepatic cells need to be further explored. In the present study, rhein was found to trigger apoptosis in primary human hepatic HL-7702 cells as showed by annexin V/PI double staining assay and nuclear morphological changes demonstrated by Hoechst 33258 staining. Moreover, it was observed that the mechanism implicated in rhein-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent, presumably via ER-stress associated pathways, as illustrated by up-regulation of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP 78), PKR-likemore » ER kinase (PERK), C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). Meanwhile, caspase-4 as a hallmark of ER-stress, was also showed to be activated following by caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, rhein also promoted intracellular elevation of calcium that contributed in apoptosis induction. Interestingly, pre-treatment with calpain inhibitor I reduced the effects of rhein on apoptosis induction and JNK activation. These data suggested that rhein-induced apoptosis through ER-stress and elevated intracellular calcium level in HL-7702 cells. - Highlights: • Rhein triggers apoptotic cell death on primary human hepatic HL-7702 cells. • Rhein leads to caspase-4 activation in HL-7702 cells. • Rhein induces endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways in HL-7702 cells. • Rhein causes elevation of intracellular calcium concentrations in HL-7702 cells.« less

  16. Rhein 8-O-β-D-Glucopyranoside Elicited the Purgative Action of Daiokanzoto (Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang), Despite Dysbiosis by Ampicillin.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kento; Tabuchi, Norihiko; Fukunaga, Masahito; Okamura, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sennoside A (SA), the main purgative constituent of Daiokanzoto (da-huang-gan-cao-tang; DKT), is generally regarded as a prodrug that is transformed into an active metabolite by β-glucosidase derived from Bifidobacterium spp. It has been suggested that antibiotics would promote dysbiosis, and thereby inhibit the purgative activity of DKT. In this study, ampicillin was administered to mice for 8 d, and the changes in the SA metabolism of SA alone and of DKT were investigated. The results showed that the SA metabolism of SA singly continued to be inhibited by ampicillin, but that of DKT was activated from day 3 under the same conditions. In order to investigate the mechanism of SA metabolism activated by DKT in the mice administered ampicillin, changes in the SA metabolism were observed in the presence of rhein 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (RG) in rhubarb and liquiritin in glycyrrhiza, both of which accelerated the SA metabolism. In fact, RG achieved an activation of SA metabolism similar to that by DKT. The purgative action of DKT, which was continued treatment of the ampicillin, was significantly greater than that by SA alone, and it was shown that RG was involved in this effect. We also analyzed changes in the intestinal microbiota before and after administration of ampicillin. No Bifidobacteria were detected throughout the treatment, but the population of Bacteroides was significantly increased after 3 d under the same conditions. Taken together, these results strongly suggested that the RG in DKT changed the function of Bacteroides and thereby allowed DKT to metabolize SA.

  17. Emodin opposes chronic unpredictable mild stress induced depressive-like behavior in mice by upregulating the levels of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Fu, Qiang; Li, Ying; Li, Shanshan; Xue, Jinsong; Ma, Shiping

    2014-10-01

    Emodin, the major active component of Rhubarb, has shown neuroprotective activity. This study is attempted to investigate whether emodin possesses beneficial effects on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced behavioral deficits (depression-like behaviors) and explore the possible mechanisms. ICR mice were subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress for 42 consecutive days. Then, emodin and fluoxetine (positive control drug) were administered for 21 consecutive days at the last three weeks of CUMS procedure. The classical behavioral tests: open field test (OFT), sucrose preference test (SPT), tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) were applied to evaluate the antidepressant effects of emodin. Then plasma corticosterone concentration, hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were tested to probe the mechanisms. Our results indicated that 6 weeks of CUMS exposure induced significant depression-like behavior, with high, plasma corticosterone concentration and low hippocampal GR and BDNF expression levels. Whereas, chronic emodin (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) treatments reversed the behavioral deficiency induced by CUMS exposure. Treatment with emodin normalized the change of plasma corticosterone level, which demonstrated that emodin could partially restore CUMS-induced HPA axis impairments. Besides, hippocampal GR (mRNA and protein) and BDNF (mRNA) expressions were also up-regulated after emodin treatments. In conclusion, emodin remarkably improved depression-like behavior in CUMS mice and its antidepressant activity is mediated, at least in part, by the up-regulating GR and BDNF levels in hippocampus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [The substantiation of the use of high-frequency intrapulmonary ventilation in the patients presenting with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at the spa and health resort stage of rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Zaripova, T N; Zhilyakova, L V; Bulanova, Z P

    The importance of the development of the new methods for the rehabilitation of the patients presenting with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease under conditions of the spa and health resort-based treatment arises from the high prevalence and the progressive character of this disease, poor quality of the patients' life, great economic losses due to the reduction of the working capacity of the patients, and the high cost of COPD treatment. The objective of the present study was to substantiate the advisability of inclusion of high-frequency intrapulmonary ventilation in the program of the therapeutic and rehabilitative treatment of the patients with COPD based at a spa and health resort facility. The analysis of the results of examination and rehabilitative treatment included 49 patients treated at the «Belokurikha» health resort (14 women and 35 men presenting with stage 1 and 2 COPD). The patients were divided into two groups. The main one included 23 patients while the group of comparison consisted of 26 patients. Those of the main group were given the treatment that included the mineral water baths, inhalations, exercise therapy for the training of skeletal muscles, manual massage, high-frequency intrapulmonary ventilation, intake of extract maral root (Rhaponticum carthamoides) and the «Yantar antiox» (amber antiox) preparation. The patients of the comparison group received the same rehabilitative treatment but without high-frequency intrapulmonary ventilation. The effectiveness of the rehabilitative measures was comprehensively estimated from the dynamics of the clinical data, indices of the inflammatory activity, the results of spirography and 6 minute walking test. It has been shown that the introduction of high-frequency intrapulmonary ventilation into the spa and health resort-based rehabilitative program facilitates the elimination of clinical manifestation of the disease, promotes recovery of the external respiration function due to sputum

  19. Emodin improves lipid and glucose metabolism in high fat diet-induced obese mice through regulating SREBP pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinmei; Ding, Lili; Song, Baoliang; Xiao, Xu; Qi, Meng; Yang, Qiaoling; Yang, Qiming; Tang, Xiaowen; Wang, Zhengtao; Yang, Li

    2016-01-05

    Currently, obesity has become a worldwide epidemic associated with Type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease and chronic metabolic diseases. Emodin is one of the active anthraquinone derivatives from Rheum palmatum and some other Chinese herbs with anti-inflammatory, anticancer and hepatoprotective properties. In the present study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of emodin in obese mice and explore its potential pharmacological mechanisms. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with high-fat diet for 12 weeks to induce obesity. Then the obese mice were divided into four groups randomly, HFD or emodin (40mg/kg/day and 80mg/kg/day) or lovastatin (30mg/kg/ day) for another 6 weeks. Body weight and food intake were recorded every week. At the end of the treatment, the fasting blood glucose, glucose and insulin tolerance test, serum and hepatic lipid levels were assayed. The gene expressions of liver and adipose tissues were analyzed with a quantitative PCR assay. Here, we found that emodin inhibited sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) transactivity in huh7 cell line. Furthermore, emodin (80mg/kg/day) treatment blocked body weight gain, decreased blood lipids, hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride content, ameliorated insulin sensitivity, and reduced the size of white and brown adipocytes. Consistently, SREBP-1 and SREBP-2 mRNA levels were significantly reduced in the liver and adipose tissue after emodin treatment. These data demonstrated that emodin could improve high-fat diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic disturbances. The underlying mechanism is probably associated with regulating SREBP pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of a ligand for tumor necrosis factor receptor from Chinese herbs by combination of surface plasmon resonance biosensor and UPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan; Li, Ying-Hua; Lv, Di-Ya; Chen, Xiao-Fei; Chen, Lang-Dong; Zhu, Zhen-Yu; Chai, Yi-Feng; Zhang, Jun-Ping

    2016-07-01

    Identification of bioactive compounds directly from complex herbal extracts is a key issue in the study of Chinese herbs. The present study describes the establishment and application of a sensitive, efficient, and convenient method based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors for screening active ingredients targeting tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (TNF-R1) from Chinese herbs. Concentration-adjusted herbal extracts were subjected to SPR binding assay, and a remarkable response signal was observed in Rheum officinale extract. Then, the TNF-R1-bound ingredients were recovered, enriched, and analyzed by UPLC-QTOF/MS. As a result, physcion-8-O-β-D-monoglucoside (PMG) was identified as a bioactive compound, and the affinity constant of PMG to TNF-R1 was determined by SPR affinity analysis (K D  = 376 nM). Pharmacological assays revealed that PMG inhibited TNF-α-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in L929 cells via TNF-R1. Although PMG was a trace component in the chemical constituents of the R. officinale extract, it had considerable anti-inflammatory activities. It was found for the first time that PMG was a ligand for TNF receptor from herbal medicines. The proposed SPR-based screening method may prove to be an effective solution to analyzing bioactive components of Chinese herbs and other complex drug systems. Graphical abstract Scheme of the method based on SPR biosensor for screening and recovering active ingredients from complex herbal extracts and UPLC-MS for identifying them. Scheme of the method based on SPR biosensor for screening and recovering active ingredients from complex herbal extracts and UPLC-MS for identifying them.

  1. Host specificity of two pollinating seed-consuming fly species is not related to soil moisture of host plant in the high Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Song, Bo; Stöcklin, Jürg; Gao, Yong-Qian; Peng, De-Li; Sun, Hang

    2017-01-01

    Studying the drivers of host specificity can contribute to our understanding of the origin and evolution of obligate pollination mutualisms. The preference-performance hypothesis predicts that host plant choice of female insects is related mainly to the performance of their offspring. Soil moisture is thought to be particularly important for the survival of larvae and pupae that inhabit soil. In the high Himalayas, Rheum nobile and R. alexandrae differ in their distribution in terms of soil moisture; that is, R. nobile typically occurs in scree with well-drained soils, R. alexandrae in wetlands. The two plant species are pollinated by their respective mutualistic seed-consuming flies, Bradysia sp1. and Bradysia sp2. We investigated whether soil moisture is important for regulating host specificity by comparing pupation and adult emergence of the two fly species using field and laboratory experiments. Laboratory experiments revealed soil moisture did have significant effects on larval and pupal performances in both fly species, but the two fly species had similar optimal soil moisture requirements for pupation and adult emergence. Moreover, a field reciprocal transfer experiment showed that there was no significant difference in adult emergence for both fly species between their native and non-native habitats. Nevertheless, Bradysia sp1., associated with R. nobile , was more tolerant to drought stress, while Bradysia sp2., associated with R. alexandrae , was more tolerant to flooding stress. These results indicate that soil moisture is unlikely to play a determining role in regulating host specificity of the two fly species. However, their pupation and adult emergence in response to extremely wet or dry soils are habitat-specific.

  2. Functional Promiscuity of Two Divergent Paralogs of Type III Plant Polyketide Synthases1

    PubMed Central

    Pandith, Shahzad A.; Dhar, Niha; Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Kushwaha, Manoj; Gupta, Ajai P.; Shah, Manzoor A.; Vishwakarma, Ram

    2016-01-01

    Plants effectively defend themselves against biotic and abiotic stresses by synthesizing diverse secondary metabolites, including health-protective flavonoids. These display incredible chemical diversity and ubiquitous occurrence and confer impeccable biological and agricultural applications. Chalcone synthase (CHS), a type III plant polyketide synthase, is critical for flavonoid biosynthesis. It catalyzes acyl-coenzyme A thioesters to synthesize naringenin chalcone through a polyketidic intermediate. The functional divergence among the evolutionarily generated members of a gene family is pivotal in driving the chemical diversity. Against this backdrop, this study was aimed to functionally characterize members of the CHS gene family from Rheum emodi, an endangered and endemic high-altitude medicinal herb of northwestern Himalayas. Two full-length cDNAs (1,179 bp each), ReCHS1 and ReCHS2, encoding unique paralogs were isolated and characterized. Heterologous expression and purification in Escherichia coli, bottom-up proteomic characterization, high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, and enzyme kinetic studies using five different substrates confirmed their catalytic potential. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of higher synonymous mutations in the intronless divergents of ReCHS. ReCHS2 displayed significant enzymatic efficiency (Vmax/Km) with different substrates. There were significant spatial and altitudinal variations in messenger RNA transcript levels of ReCHSs correlating positively with metabolite accumulation. Furthermore, the elicitations in the form of methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, ultraviolet B light, and wounding, chosen on the basis of identified cis-regulatory promoter elements, presented considerable differences in the transcript profiles of ReCHSs. Taken together, our results demonstrate differential propensities of CHS paralogs in terms of the accumulation of flavonoids and

  3. An Investigation of the Growth Inhibitory Capacity of Several Medicinal Plants From Iran on Tumor Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilbeig, Maryam; Kouhpayeh, Seyed Amin; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traditional herbal medicine is a valuable resource that provides new drugs for cancer treatment. Objectives: In this study we aim to screen and investigate the in vitro anti-tumor activities of ten species of plants commonly grown in Southern Iran. Materials and Methods: We used the MTT colorimetric assay to evaluate the cytotoxic activities of the methanol extracts of these plants on various tumor cell lines. The IC50 was calculated as a scale for this evaluation. Results: Satureja bachtiarica, Satureja hortensis, Thymus vulgaris, Thymus daenensis and Mentha lonigfolia showed the inhibitoriest effects on Jurkat cells with > 80% inhibition at 200 µg/mL. Satureja hortensis (IC50: 66.7 µg/mL) was the most effective. These plants also strongly inhibited K562 cell growth; Satureja bachtiarica (IC50: 28.3 µg/mL), Satureja hortensis (IC50: 52 µg/mL) and Thymus vulgaris (IC50: 87 µg/mL) were the most effective extracts. Cichorium intybus, Rheum ribes, Alhagi pseudalhagi and Glycyrrihza glabra also showed notable effects on the leukemia cell lines. The Raji cell line was mostly inhibited by Satureja bachtiarica and Thymus vulgaris with approximately 40% inhibition at 200µg/ml. The influence of these extracts on solid tumor cell lines was not strong. Fen cells were mostly affected by Glycyrrihza glabra (IC50: 182 µg/mL) and HeLa cells by Satureja hortensis (31.6% growth inhibitory effect at 200 µg/mL). Conclusions: Leukemic cell lines were more sensitive to the extracts than the solid tumor cell lines; Satureja hortensis, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus vulgaris, Thymus daenensis and Mentha lonigfolia showed remarkable inhibitory potential. PMID:26634114

  4. Emodin ameliorates cisplatin-induced apoptosis of rat renal tubular cells in vitro by activating autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Gu, Liu-bao; Tu, Yue; Hu, Hao; Huang, Yan-ru; Sun, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Aim: A previous report shows that emodin extracted from the Chinese herbs rhubarb and giant knotweed rhizome can ameliorate the anticancer drug cisplatin-induced injury of HEK293 cells. In this study, we investigated whether and how emodin could protect renal tubular epithelial cells against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in vitro. Methods: The viability and apoptosis of normal rat renal tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E) were detected using formazan assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, autophagy maker LC3 I/II, and AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway-related proteins were measured with Western blot analysis. The changes of morphology and RFP-LC3 fluorescence were observed under microscopy. Results: Cisplatin (10-50 μmol/L) dose-dependently induced cell damage and apoptosis in NRK-52E cells, whereas emodin (10 and 100 μmol/L) significantly ameliorated cisplatin-induced cell damage, apoptosis and caspase-3 cleavage. Emodin dose-dependently increased LC3-II levels and induced RFP-LC3-containing punctate structures in NRK-52E cells. Furthermore, the protective effects of emodin were abolished by bafilomycin A1 (10 nmol/L), and mimicked by rapamycin (100 nmol/L). Moreover, emodin increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and suppressed the phosphorylation of mTOR. The AMPK inhibitor compound C (10 μmol/L) not only abolished emodin-induced autophagy activation, but also emodin-induced anti-apoptotic effects. Conclusion: Emodin ameliorates cisplatin-induced apoptosis of rat renal tubular cells in vitro through modulating the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathways and activating autophagy. Emodin may have therapeutic potential for the prevention of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:26775661

  5. Protection of vascular endothelial cells from high glucose-induced cytotoxicity by emodin.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yun; Zhang, Jun; Li, Guilin; Xu, Hong; Yi, Yun; Wu, Qin; Song, Miaomiao; Bee, Yong Mong; Huang, Liping; Tan, Mengxia; Liang, Shangdong; Li, GuoDong

    2015-03-01

    Induction of endothelial cytotoxicity by hyperglycemia in diabetes has been widely accepted. Emodin is a natural anthraquinone in rhubarb used for treatment of diabetes, but its mechanism of action is not fully understood. This study aimed to examine the potential beneficial effects of emodin on endothelial cytotoxicity caused by high glucose milieu. Culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with high concentrations of glucose resulted in damage to the cells, leading to decreased formazan products by 14-27%, reduced DNA contents by 12-19%, and increased hypodiploid apoptosis by 40-109%. These adverse effects of high glucose could be prevented to a large extent by co-culture with 3 μM of emodin which per se did not affect HUVECs viability. In addition, CCL5 expression of HUVECs cultured in high glucose medium was significantly elevated at both mRNA and protein levels, an effect abolished after treatment with emodin. Moreover, the enhanced adhesion of monocytes to HUVECs (2.1-2.2 fold over control) and elevated chemotaxis activities (2.3-2.4 fold over control) in HUVECs cultured in high glucose medium were completely reversed by emodin. Emodin also suppressed activation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 due to high glucose. Our data demonstrated that endothelial cytotoxicity occurred clearly when HUVECs were exposed to high glucose milieu and emodin was able to alleviate the impairments. The protective effects of emodin might be related to the inhibition of CCL5 expression and subsequent cell stress/inflammatory events possibly mediated by activation of MAPK signaling pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Emodin ameliorates cisplatin-induced apoptosis of rat renal tubular cells in vitro by activating autophagy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Gu, Liu-bao; Tu, Yue; Hu, Hao; Huang, Yan-ru; Sun, Wei

    2016-02-01

    A previous report shows that emodin extracted from the Chinese herbs rhubarb and giant knotweed rhizome can ameliorate the anticancer drug cisplatin-induced injury of HEK293 cells. In this study, we investigated whether and how emodin could protect renal tubular epithelial cells against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in vitro. The viability and apoptosis of normal rat renal tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E) were detected using formazan assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, autophagy maker LC3 I/II, and AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway-related proteins were measured with Western blot analysis. The changes of morphology and RFP-LC3 fluorescence were observed under microscopy. Cisplatin (10-50 μmol/L) dose-dependently induced cell damage and apoptosis in NRK-52E cells, whereas emodin (10 and 100 μmol/L) significantly ameliorated cisplatin-induced cell damage, apoptosis and caspase-3 cleavage. Emodin dose-dependently increased LC3-II levels and induced RFP-LC3-containing punctate structures in NRK-52E cells. Furthermore, the protective effects of emodin were abolished by bafilomycin A1 (10 nmol/L), and mimicked by rapamycin (100 nmol/L). Moreover, emodin increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and suppressed the phosphorylation of mTOR. The AMPK inhibitor compound C (10 μmol/L) not only abolished emodin-induced autophagy activation, but also emodin-induced anti-apoptotic effects. Emodin ameliorates cisplatin-induced apoptosis of rat renal tubular cells in vitro through modulating the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathways and activating autophagy. Emodin may have therapeutic potential for the prevention of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

  7. Selection of Leafy Green Vegetable Varieties for a Pick-and-Eat Diet Supplement on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Stutte, Gary W.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Douglas, Grace L.; Sirmons, Takiyah

    2015-01-01

    Several varieties of leafy vegetables were evaluated with the goal of selecting those with the best growth, nutrition, and organoleptic acceptability for ISS. Candidate species were narrowed to commercially available cultivars with desirable growth attributes for space (e.g., short stature and rapid growth). Seeds were germinated in controlled environment chambers under conditions similar to what might be found in the Veggie plant growth chamber on ISS. Eight varieties of leafy greens were grown: 'Tyee' spinach, 'Flamingo' spinach, 'Outredgeous' Red Romaine lettuce, 'Waldmann's Dark Green' leaf lettuce, 'Bull's Blood' beet, 'Rhubarb' Swiss chard, 'Tokyo Bekana' Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna. Plants were harvested at maturity and biometric data on plant height, diameter, chlorophyll content, and fresh mass were obtained. Tissue was ground and extractions were performed to determine the tissue elemental content of Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca) and Iron (Fe). Following the biometric/elemental evaluation, four of the eight varieties were tested further for levels of anthocyanins, antioxidant (ORAC-fluorescein) capacity, lutein, zeaxanthin, and Vitamin K. For sensory evaluation, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, Swiss chard, Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna plants were grown, harvested when mature, packaged under refrigerated conditions, and sent to the JSC Space Food Systems Laboratory. Tasters evaluated overall acceptability, appearance, color intensity, bitterness, flavor, texture, crispness and tenderness. All varieties received acceptable scores with overall ratings greater than 6 on a 9-point hedonic scale. Chinese cabbage was the highest rated, followed by Mizuna, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, and Swiss chard. Based on our results, the selected varieties of Chinese cabbage, lettuce, Swiss chard and Mizuna seem suitable for a pick-and-eat scenario on ISS with a ranking based on all factors analyzed to help establish priority.

  8. Chronic rhein treatment improves recognition memory in high-fat diet-induced obese male mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sen; Huang, Xu-Feng; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Hongqin; Zhang, Qingsheng; Yu, Shijia; Yu, Yinghua

    2016-10-01

    High-fat (HF) diet modulates gut microbiota and increases plasma concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) which is associated with obesity and its related low-grade inflammation and cognitive decline. Rhein is the main ingredient of the rhubarb plant which has been used as an anti-inflammatory agent for several millennia. However, the potential effects of rhein against HF diet-induced obesity and its associated alteration of gut microbiota, inflammation and cognitive decline have not been studied. In this study, C57BL/6J male mice were fed an HF diet for 8 weeks to induce obesity, and then treated with oral rhein (120 mg/kg body weight/day in HF diet) for a further 6 weeks. Chronic rhein treatment prevented the HF diet-induced recognition memory impairment assessed by the novel object recognition test, neuroinflammation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) deficits in the perirhinal cortex. Furthermore, rhein inhibited the HF diet-induced increased plasma LPS level and the proinflammatory macrophage accumulation in the colon and alteration of microbiota, including decreasing Bacteroides-Prevotella spp. and Desulfovibrios spp. DNA and increasing Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. DNA. Moreover, rhein also reduced body weight and improved glucose tolerance in HF diet-induced obese mice. In conclusion, rhein improved recognition memory and prevented obesity in mice on a chronic HF diet. These beneficial effects occur via the modulation of microbiota, hypoendotoxinemia, inhibition of macrophage accumulation, anti-neuroinflammation and the improvement of BDNF expression. Therefore, supplementation with rhein-enriched food or herbal medicine could be beneficial as a preventive strategy for chronic HF diet-induced cognitive decline, microbiota alteration and neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Emodin induces human T cell apoptosis in vitro by ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Kai; Shen, Nai-ying; Xu, Xin-sen; Su, Hai-bo; Wei, Ji-chao; Tai, Ming-hui; Meng, Fan-di; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Yue-lang; Liu, Chang

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the immunosuppressive effects of emodin isolated from Rheum palmatum L. Methods: Human T cells were isolated from the peripheral venous blood of 10 healthy adult donors. Cell viability was analyzed with MTT assay. AO/EB and Annexin V/PI staining and DNA damage assay were used to detect cell apoptosis. Fluorescence staining was used to detect the levels of ROS, the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular Ca2+. Colorimetry was used to detect the levels of MDA and total SOD and GSH/GSSG ratio. The expression and activity of caspase-3, -4, and -9 were detected with Western blotting and a fluorometric assay. Western blotting was also used to detect the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome C, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) markers. Results: Emodin (1, 10, and 100 μmol/L) inhibited the growth of human T cells and induced apoptosis in dose- and time dependent manners. Emodin triggered ER stress and significantly elevated intracellular free Ca2+ in human T cells. It also disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased cytosolic level of cytochrome C, and the levels of activated cleavage fragments of caspase-3, -4, and -9 in human T cells. Furthermore, emodin significantly increased the levels of ROS and MDA, inhibited both SOD level and GSH/GSSG ratio in human T cells, whereas co-incubation with the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 20 μmol/L) almost completely blocked emodin-induced ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human T cells, and decreased the caspase cascade-mediated apoptosis. Conclusion: Emodin exerts immunosuppressive actions at least partly by inducing apoptosis of human T cells, which is triggered by ROS-mediated ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:23811723

  10. Emodin suppresses the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by targeting the chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lianshun; Yang, Yaping; Yin, Zizhang; Liu, Mei; Wang, Liwei; Chen, Lixin; Zhu, Linyan; Yang, Haifeng

    2017-06-01

    Emodin is a natural anthraquinone derivative isolated from the Rheum palmatum. Recent studies demonstrated that emodin has anti-cancer activity in different kinds of human cancer cell lines. However, the underlying mechanism has not been very well studied. Our previous studies showed chloride channels is an important target of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, the purpose of this research was aimed to explore the role of chloride channels involving in the anti-cancer activity of emodin. The proliferation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of poorly differentiated human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (CNE-2Z) and normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NP69-SV40T) were detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT)and flow cytometry. The results indicated that emodin inhibited the CNE-2Z cell growth more significantly than NP69-SV40T cells and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CNE-2Z cells but not in NP69-SV40T cells. Chloride channel blocker 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylprop ylamino)-benzoate (NPPB) or tamoxifen both can prevent the apoptosis of CNE-2Z cells induced by emodin. Optical microscope and atomic force microscope (AFM) demonstrated that emodin can induce apoptotic volume decrease (AVD) and ultrastructure changes in CNE-2Z cell and inhibited by chloride channel blocker. These data could be a further evidence of chloride channel for preventing CNE-2Z cells from apoptosis induced by emodin. Whole cell patch clamp study also demonstrated that emodin can activate chloride channel in CNE-2Z cells but not in NP69-SV40T cells. Furthermore, the activated chloride currents can also be inhibited by chloride channel blockers indicating that chloride channel may be the potential target molecular of emodin exerting its anti-tumor efficiency in CNE-2Z cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Emodin ameliorates high-fat-diet induced insulin resistance in rats by reducing lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanni; Chang, Shufang; Dong, Jie; Zhu, Shenyin; Zheng, Xiaoying; Li, Juan; Long, Rui; Zhou, Yuanda; Cui, Jianyu; Zhang, Ye

    2016-06-05

    Emodin, an anthraquinone derivative isolated from root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum, has been reported to have promising anti-diabetic activity. The present study was to explore the possible mechanism of emodin to ameliorate insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was induced by feeding a high fat diet to Sprague-Dawley rats. The blood glucose and lipid profiles in serum were measured by an enzymatic method, and a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp was used to evaluate insulin resistance. L6 cells were cultured and treated with palmitic acid and emodin. The lipid content was assayed in the soleus muscle and L6 cells by Oil Red O staining. Western blot, qRT-PCR, and immunohistochemical staining were used to detect the following in the rat soleus muscle and L6 cells: protein levels, mRNA levels of FATP1, FATP4, transporter fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), and plasma membrane-associated fatty acid protein (FABPpm). We found that blood glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly decreased in the emodin group. Oil Red O staining and the level of TG in skeletal muscle and L6 cells confirmed that lipid deposition decreased after treatment with emodin. Furthermore, the protein levels and mRNA levels of FATP1 in skeletal muscle and in L6 cells of rats were significantly decreased, yet the protein levels and mRNA levels of FATP4, FAT/CD36 and FABPpm did not drop off significantly. The study suggest that emodin ameliorates insulin resistance by reducing FATP1-mediated skeletal muscle lipid accumulation in rats fed a high fat diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Poloxamer-Based Thermoreversible Gel for Topical Delivery of Emodin: Influence of P407 and P188 on Solubility of Emodin and Its Application in Cellular Activity Screening.

    PubMed

    Ban, Eunmi; Park, Mijung; Jeong, Seonghee; Kwon, Taekhyun; Kim, Eun-Hee; Jung, Kiwon; Kim, Aeri

    2017-02-07

    Emodin is a component in a Chinese herb, Rheum officinale Baill, traditionally used for diabetes and anticancer. Its poor solubility is one of the major challenges to pharmaceutical scientists. We previously reported on thermoreversible gel formulations based on poloxamer for the topical delivery of emodin. The present study was to understand the effect of poloxamer type on emodin solubility and its application in cellular activity screening. Various gel formulations composed of poloxamer 407 (P407), poloxamer 188 (P188) and PEG400 were prepared and evaluated. Major evaluation parameters were the gelation temperature (Tgel) and solubility of emodin. The emodin solubility increased with increasing poloxamer concentration and the Tgel was modulated by the proper combination of P407. In particular, this study showed that the amount of P407 in thermoreversible poloxamer gel (PG) was the dominant factor in enhancing solubility and P188 was effective at fixing gelation temperature in the desired range. A thermoreversible emodin PG was selected as the proper composition with the liquid state at room temperature and gel state at body temperature. The gel showed the solubility enhancement of emodin at least 100-fold compared to 10% ethanol or water. The thermoreversible formulation was applied for in vitro cellular activity screening in the human dermal fibroblast cell line and DLD-1 colon cancer cell line after dilution with cell culture media. The thermoreversible gel formulation remained as a clear solution in the microplate, which allowed reliable cellular activity screening. In contrast, emodin solution in ethanol or DMSO showed precipitation at the corresponding emodin concentration, complicating data interpretation. In conclusion, the gel formulation is proposed as a useful prototype topical formulation for testing emodin in vivo as well as in vitro.

  13. Comparative pharmacokinetics of rhein in normal and loperamide-induced constipated rats and microarray analysis of drug-metabolizing genes.

    PubMed

    Hou, Mei-Ling; Chang, Li-Wen; Lin, Chi-Hung; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2014-09-11

    Rhein is a pharmacological active component found in Rheum palmatum L. that is the major herb of the San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), a medicinal herbal product used as a remedy for constipation. Here we have investigated the comparative pharmacokinetics of rhein in normal and constipated rats. Microarray analysis was used to explore whether drug-metabolizing genes will be altered after SHXXT treatment. The comparative pharmacokinetics of rhein in normal and loperamide-induced constipated rats was studied by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Gene expression profiling in drug-metabolizing genes after SHXXT treatment was investigated by microarray analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A validated LC-MS/MS method was applied to investigate the comparative pharmacokinetics of rhein in normal and loperamide-induced constipated rats. The pharmacokinetic results demonstrate that the loperamide-induced constipation reduced the absorption of rhein. Cmax significantly reduced by 2.5-fold, the AUC decreased by 27.8%; however, the elimination half-life (t1/2) was prolonged by 1.6-fold. Tmax and mean residence time (MRT) were significantly prolonged by 2.8-fold, and 1.7-fold, respectively. The volume of distribution (Vss) increased by 2.2-fold. The data of microarray analysis on gene expression indicate that five drug-metabolizing genes, including Cyp7a1, Cyp2c6, Ces2e, Atp1b1, and Slc7a2 were significantly altered by the SHXXT (0.5 g/kg) treatment. The loperamide-induced constipation reduced the absorption of rhein. Since among the 25,338 genes analyzed, there were five genes significantly altered by SHXXT treatment. Thus, information on minor drug-metabolizing genes altered by SHXXT treatment indicates that SHXXT is relatively safe for clinical application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Emodin Inhibits ATP-Induced Proliferation and Migration by Suppressing P2Y Receptors in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Li, Long; Guan, Ruijuan; Zhu, Danian; Song, Nana; Shen, Linlin

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular ATP performs multiple important functions via activation of P2 receptors on the cell surface. P2Y receptors play critical roles in ATP evoked response in human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 cells). Emodin is an anthraquinone derivative originally isolated from Chinese rhubarb, possesses anticancer properties. In this study we examined the inhibiting effects of emodin on proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by suppressing P2Y receptors-dependent Ca2+ increase and nuclear factor-κB (NF-KB) signaling in A549 cells. A549 cells were pretreated with emodin before stimulation with ATP for the indicated time. Then, intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured by Fluo-8/AM staining. Cell proliferation and cell cycle progression were tested by CCK8 assay and flow cytometry In addition, wound healing and western blot were performed to determine cell migration and related protein levels (Bcl-2, Bax, claudin-1, NF-κB). Emodin blunted ATP/UTP-induced increase of [Ca2+]i and cell proliferation concentration-dependently Meanwhile, it decreased ATP-induced cells accumulation in the S phase. Furthermore, emodin altered protein abundance of Bcl-2, Bax and claudin-1 and attenuated EMT caused by ATP. Such ATP-induced cellular reactions were also inhibited by a nonselective P2Y receptors antagonist, suramin, in a similar way to emodin. Besides, emodin could inhibit activation of NF-κB, thus suppressed ATP-induced proliferation, migration and EMT. Our results demonstrated that emodin inhibits ATP-induced proliferation, migration, EMT by suppressing P2Y receptors-mediated [Ca2+]i increase and NF-κB signaling in A549 cells. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Klotho preservation by Rhein promotes toll-like receptor 4 proteolysis and attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Bi, Fangfang; Chen, Fang; Li, Yanning; Wei, Ai; Cao, Wangsen

    2018-05-05

    Renal anti-aging protein Klotho exhibits impressive properties of anti-inflammation and renal protection, however is suppressed early after renal injury, making Klotho restoration an attractive strategy of treating renal inflammatory disorders. Here, we reported that Klotho is enriched in macrophages and Klotho preservation by Rhein, an anthraquinone derived from medicinal plant rhubarb, attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute inflammation essentially via promoting toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) degradation. LPS-induced pro-inflammatory NF-κB signaling and cytokine expressions coincided with Klotho repression and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) elevation in macrophages, renal epithelial cells, and acutely- inflamed kidney. Intriguingly, Rhein treatment effectively corrected the inverted alterations of Klotho and TLR4 and mitigated the TLR4 downstream inflammatory response in a Klotho restoration and TLR4 repression-dependent manner. Klotho inducibly associated with TLR4 after LPS stimulation and suppressed TLR4 protein abundance mainly via a proteolytic process sensitive to the inhibition of Klotho's putative β-glucuronidase activity. Consistently, Klotho knockdown by RNA interferences largely diminished the anti-inflammatory and renal protective effects of Rhein in a mouse model of acute kidney injury incurred by LPS. Thus, Klotho suppression of TLR4 via deglycosylation negatively controls TLR-associated inflammatory signaling and the endogenous Klotho preservation by Rhein or possibly other natural or synthetic compounds possesses promising potentials in the clinical treatment of renal inflammatory disorders. • Klotho is highly expressed in macrophages and repressed by LPS in vitro and in vivo. • Klotho inhibits LPS-induced TLR4 accumulation and the downstream signaling. • Klotho decreases TLR4 via a deglycosylation-associated proteolytic process. • Rhein effectively prevents acute inflammation-incurred Klotho suppression. • Rhein reversal of

  16. Evaluation of molecular chaperons Hsp72 and neuropeptide Y as characteristic markers of adaptogenic activity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Asea, Alexzander; Kaur, Punit; Panossian, Alexander; Wikman, Karl Georg

    2013-11-15

    We have previously demonstrated that ADAPT-232, a fixed combination of adaptogenic substances derived from Eleutherococcus senticosus root extract, Schisandra chinensis berry extract, Rhodiola rosea root extract stimulated the expression and release of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and molecular chaperone Hsp72 from isolated human neurolgia cells. Both of these mediators of stress response are known to play an important role in regulation of neuroendocrine system and immune response. We further demonstrated that ADAPT-232 induced release of Hsp70 is mediated by NPY, suggesting an existence of NPY-mediated pathway of activation of Hsp72 release into the blood circulation system. The objective of this study was to determine whether this pathway is common for adaptogens and whether NPY and/or Hsp72 can be considered as necessary specific biomarkers for adaptogenic activity. The release of NPY and Hsp72 from neuroglia cells in response to treatment with various plant extracts (n=23) including selected validated adaptogens, partly validated adaptogens, claimed but negligibly validated adaptogens and some other plant extracts affecting neuroendocrine and immune systems but never considered as adaptogens was measured using high throughput ELISA techniques. We demonstrated that adaptogens, e.g. R. rosea, S. chinensis and E. senticosus stimulate both NPY and Hsp70 release from neuroblastoma cells, while tonics and stimulants have no significant effect on NPY in this in vitro test. In the groups of partly validated adaptogens the effect of Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera was not statistically significant both on NPY and Hsp70 release, while the activating effect of Bryonia alba and Rhaponticum cartamoides was significant only on Hsp70. In contrast, all tested non-adaptogens, such as antiinflammatoty plant extracts Matricaria recutita, Pelargonium sidoides, Hedera helix and Vitis vinifera significantly inhibit Hsp70 release and have no influence on NPY release from neuroblastoma

  17. UHPLC/Q-TOFMS-based metabolomics for the characterization of cold and hot properties of Chinese materia medica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhou, Shujun; Wang, Meng; Liu, Shuying; Hu, Yuanjia; He, Chengwei; Li, Peng; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2016-02-17

    The cold/hot property of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and the application of its corresponding knowledge in the diagnosis, differentiation and treatment of diseases have been considered to be the extremely important part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). As highly abstracted TCM theory, the cold/hot property of CMMs is still not fully understood and remains to be elucidated by systems biology approach. The cold and hot properties of CMM are mainly defined by the response of the body to a given CMM. Metabolomics is a promising systems biology method to profile entire endogenous metabolites and monitor their fluctuations related to an exogenous stimulus. Thus, a metabolomics approach was applied to characterize the cold and hot properties of CMMs. Mice were intragastrically administered three selected cold property CMMs (i.e., Rheum palmatum L., radix et rhizoma; Coptis chinensis Franch, rhizome and Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, radix) and three hot property CMMs (i.e., Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J. Presl, cortex; Zingiber officinale Roscoe, rhizoma and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth., fructus) once daily for one week. The comprehensive metabolome changes in the plasma of mice after treatment with cold or hot property CMMs were characterized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS), and the potential biomarkers related to cold and hot properties of CMM were explored. Metabolites perturbation in plasma occurs after treatment with cold CMMs and hot CMMs in mice, and 15 and 16 differential biomarkers were identified to be associated with the cold and hot properties of CMMs, respectively. Among them, LPC (18:0), LPC (18:1), LPC (20:4) and LPC (20:5) showed decreased trends in the cold property CMM treated groups, but increased in the hot property CMM treated groups. There is a strong connection between the cold/hot property of CMMs and lysophosphatidylcholines metabolism. This study offers new insight

  18. [Effect of electroacupuncture on cellular structure of hippocampus in splenic asthenia pedo-rats].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhuo-xin; Zhuo, Yuan-yuan; Yu, Hai-bo; Wang, Ning

    2010-02-01

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on hippocampal structure in splenic asthenia pedo-rats. A total of 15 SD male rats were randomly assigned to normal control group (n=5), model group (n=5) and EA group (n=5). Splenic asthenic syndrome model was established by intragastric administration of rhubarb and intraperitoneal injection of Reserpine for 14 d. EA (1 mA, 3 Hz/iS Hz) was applied to bilateral "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) for 20 mm, once a day for 14 days. The cellular structure of hippocampus was observed by light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Optical microscopic observation showed that in normal control group, the cellular nucleus was distinct, and the granular cell layer well-arranged and tight. In model group, the intracellular space was widened, and the granular cell layer was out of order in the arrangement. In EA group, the celluldr nucleus and the granular cell layer were nearly normal. Results of the electronic microscope showed that cells in model group had a karyopyknosis with irregular appearance and clear incisure, and some of them presented dissolving and necrotic phenomena; and those in EA group were milder in injury, had nearly-normal nucleus with visible nucleoli and relatively-intact nuclear membrane. Regarding the cellular plasma, in comparison with rich normal organelles of control group, the mitochondria in model group were swelling, with vague, dissolved and broken cristae, while in EA group, majority of the organelles were well-kept, and slightly dissolved mitochondrial cristae found. In regard to the synaptic structure, in comparison with control group, synaptic apomorphosis and swelling mitochondria were found in model group While in EA group, milder swelling and hydropic degeneration were seen. Different from the distinct pre- and post-synaptic membrane and synaptic vesicles of control group, while those in EA group were nearly-normal. electroacupunture can effectively relieve splenasthenic

  19. Rhein Induces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Mouse Blastocysts and Has Immunotoxic Effects during Embryonic Development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Chan, Wen-Hsiung

    2017-09-20

    Rhein, a glucoside chemical compound found in a traditional Chinese medicine derived from the roots of rhubarb, induces cell apoptosis and is considered to have high potential as an antitumor drug. Several previous studies showed that rhein can inhibit cell proliferation and trigger mitochondria-related or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-dependent apoptotic processes. However, the side effects of rhein on pre- and post-implantation embryonic development remain unclear. Here, we show that rhein has cytotoxic effects on blastocyst-stage mouse embryos and induces oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in mouse fetuses. Blastocysts incubated with 5-20 μM rhein showed significant cell apoptosis, as well as decreases in their inner cell mass cell numbers and total cell numbers. An in vitro development assay showed that rhein affected the developmental potentials of both pre- and post-implantation embryos. Incubation of blastocysts with 5-20 μM rhein was associated with increased resorption of post-implantation embryos and decreased fetal weight in an embryo transfer assay. Importantly, in an in vivo model, intravenous injection of dams with rhein (1, 3, and 5 mg/kg body weight/day) for four days resulted in apoptosis of blastocyst-stage embryos, early embryonic developmental injury, and decreased fetal weight. Intravenous injection of dams with 5 mg/kg body weight/day rhein significantly increased the total reactive oxygen species (ROS) content of fetuses and the transcription levels of antioxidant proteins in fetal livers. Additional work showed that rhein induced apoptosis through ROS generation, and that prevention of apoptotic processes effectively rescued the rhein-induced injury effects on embryonic development. Finally, the transcription levels of the innate-immunity related genes, CXCL1 , IL-1 β and IL-8 , were down-regulated in the fetuses of dams that received intravenous injections of rhein. These results collectively show that rhein has the potential to

  20. [Vitamin C in fruits and vegetables].

    PubMed

    Kosheleva, O V; Kodentsova, V M

    2013-01-01

    Strong opinion about reducing vitamin C content in traditional cultivars of fruits and vegetables as a result of intensive farming practices, on the one hand, and depletion of soil, waste of fertilizers, on the other hand, takes place. The aim of the study was to assess changes in vitamin C content in fresh vegetables, fruits and berries from the 40s of last century to the present. Available national and foreign data from official tables of the chemical composition tables published in different years, including the most typical values, based on the results conducted in a number of research institutes, laboratories and university departments, as well as some original investigations and unpublished own results were used to analyze possible changes of vitamin C content in fruits and vegetables. For comparison we take into consideration only results from the most common and affordable since the last century method of visual titration, which has a relative error of 20%. Analysis of vitamin C content conducted according 5-58 studies from the 40s of the last century to the present, for 32 types of greens and vegetables (potatoes, various types of cabbage and onion, garlic, carrot, turnip, tomato, pepper, eggplant, cucumber, squash, peas, turnip, garden radish, parsnip, rhubarb, parsley, dill, lettuce, onion, spinach, sorrel), and according to 6-50 studies of 24 sorts of fruits (apple, pear, mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit, pineapple, banana, watermelon, cantaloupe, grapes, peach, apricot, plum, cherry, blackberry, blueberry, strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, gooseberry, black currant, red and white) has been done. It was found that the average content of vitamin varies slightly. Deviations from the average for all the years of research do not exceed the standard deviation. Analysis of longitudinal data did not confirm a vitamin C decrease. This means that vitamin value C of fruits and vegetables remains approximately constant, due to the successful selection of new

  1. An overview of herbal supplement utilization with particular emphasis on possible interactions with dental drugs and oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Worku

    2003-01-01

    Herbal medication in the United States is a popular form of therapy. This paper provides an overview of the utilization of herbal supplements with particular emphasis on possible interactions with oral health drugs and oral manifestations. Herbal supplements are regulated by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which limits their regulation by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A number of studies indicate that there is a progressive increase in the utilization of herbal supplements. The majority of consumers of these products are white, middle-aged women who have some college education. Many of the consumers use pharmaceutical drugs concurrently, but most do not inform their health-care providers about their use of herbal supplements. Various herbal supplements have been reported or are suspected to interact with certain oral health drugs, the most important one being 1) bromelain, cayenne, chamomile, feverfew, dong quai, eleuthro/Seberian ginseng, garlic, ginkgo, ginger, ginseng and licorice interacting with aspirin; 2) aloe latex, ephedra, ginseng, rhubarb, cascara sagrada, licorice, and senna interacting with corticosteriods; 3) kava, St. John's wort, chamomile, and valerian interacting with central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs; and 4) herbs acting on the gastrointestinal system, altering the absorption of several orally administered drugs. Further, the use of some herbal supplements has been reported to be associated with oral manifestations, including aphthous ulcers, lip and tongue irritation, and swelling with feverfew; gingival bleeding with feverfew and ginkgo; tongue numbness with echinacea; xerostomia with St. John's wort; oral and lingual dyskinesia with kava; and salivation with yohimbe. These potential effects of herbal supplements in conjunction with factors related to regulation restrictions suggest that the use of these products may be associated with various adverse reactions that can affect oral health and

  2. Effects of sucking acidic candy on whole-mouth saliva composition.

    PubMed

    Jensdottir, T; Nauntofte, B; Buchwald, C; Bardow, A

    2005-01-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of sucking acidic candies on saliva composition and the protective role of saliva in this relation. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine salivary effects of sucking acidic candies in vivo in relation to individual variations in whole-saliva flow rate (WSFR) and buffer capacity (WSbeta). Ten healthy young males (24 +/- 2 years) sucked a rhubarb-flavoured acidic hard-boiled candy with tartaric acid available on the Danish market. The whole saliva was collected into a closed system, regarding CO2, at different times as follows: firstly, unstimulated saliva for 5 min (baseline), secondly stimulated saliva for 4 min upon sucking the candy, and finally post-stimulated saliva for 10 min. Saliva pH was determined on a blood gas analyser and WSbeta was estimated from the saliva bicarbonate concentration obtained by the analyser and by ionic balance calculation. The erosive potential of the candy in saliva was estimated from the saliva pH values and degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (DS(HAp)). The results showed that saliva pH dropped from 6.5 (baseline) down to 4.5 at the fourth minute of sucking the candy, and returned to pH 6.5 five minutes after stimulation (post-stimulated). DS(HAp) decreased upon sucking the candy and saliva from all subjects became undersaturated with respect to HAp. Significant positive correlations were obtained between pH and WSFR (r(s) = 0.47; p < 0.05) and between pH and WSbeta (r(s) = 0.65; p < 0.01). In relation to WSbeta we found that 70% of the buffer capacity originating from the bicarbonate buffer system upon sucking the candy was exerted as phase buffering. We conclude that sucking this type of acidic candies changes whole-mouth saliva composition so that it may have erosive potential and that high WSFR and WSbeta have protective effects against these salivary changes. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Methodological considerations for a randomised controlled trial of podiatry care in rheumatoid arthritis: lessons from an exploratory trial.

    PubMed

    Turner, Deborah E; Helliwell, Philip S; Woodburn, James

    2007-11-06

    Whilst evidence exists to support the use of single treatments such as orthoses and footwear, the effectiveness of podiatry-led care as a complex intervention for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) related foot problems is unknown. The aim of this study was to undertake an exploratory randomised controlled parallel arm clinical trial (RheumAFooT) to inform the design and implementation of a definitive trial and to understand the potential benefits of this care. Patients with a definite diagnosis of RA, stable drug management 3 months prior to entry, and a current history of foot problems (pain, deformity, stiffness, skin or nail lesions, or footwear problems) were recruited from a hospital outpatient rheumatology clinic and randomised to receive 12 months of podiatry treatment or no care. The primary outcome was change in foot health status using the impairment/footwear (LFISIF) and activity limitation/participation restriction (LFISAP) subscales of the Leeds Foot Impact Scale. Disease Activity Score (DAS), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score and walking speed (m/s) were also recorded. Of the 80 patients identified, 64 patients were eligible to participate in the pilot and 34 were recruited. 16 patients were randomised to receive podiatry led foot care and 18 received no care. Against a backdrop of stable disease (DAS and HAQ scores), there was a statistically significant between group difference in the change in foot health status for foot impairment (LFISIF) but not activity/participation (LFISAP) or function (walking speed) over 12 months. In the podiatry arm, 1 patient declined treatment following randomisation (did not want additional hospital visits) and 3 self-withdrew (lost to follow-up). Patients received an average of 3 consultations for assessment and treatment comprising routine care for skin and nail lesions (n = 3), foot orthoses (n = 9), footwear referral to the orthotist (n = 5), and ultrasound guided intra-articular steroid injection

  4. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants commonly used by local Bedouins in the Badia region of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Nawash, Oraib; Shudiefat, Mustafa; Al-Tabini, Raed; Al-Khalidi, Khalid

    2013-07-30

    The harsh dry environment of the Badia region in Jordan harbors many valuable plant species that are well known to be used by the local Bedouins (Bedu) for medicinal purposes. An ethnobotanical study was conducted as a part of the local knowledge study which was carried out in 2010. The target participants were livestock owners in the arid Jordanian Badia region. The objective of the study was to document traditional knowledge in using wild plants to treat health problems in order to conserve this valuable knowledge from loss; to identify the key plant species used; and to calculate the Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) for each category of health disorder, the Fidelity Level (FL%) and the Use Value (UV) of the plant species used by the Bedouin. The data was collected by interviewing 80 participants whom were interviewed face to face of whom 21% were women. The team designed a questionnaire that helped in the data gathering, and also recorded the procedures used by the local communities on video. A total of 47 plant species are used by local Bedouins for medicinal purposes. The majority of these species are native to the study area, for example: Artemisia judaica, Citrullus colocynthis, Ecballium elaterium and Rheum palaestinum. The study showed that the plant species with the highest UV is Artemisia herba-alba and that Ducrosia flabellifolia is a remarkable native plant species with a high FL% in curing dental pain. Moreover, the highest value of ICF was scored for dental disorders, followed by gastrointestinal disorders, and jaundice which may indicate the high incidental occurrences of these diseases and/or the lack of dental care services in the rural areas. The study showed an agreement of the local Bedouins on using certain plant species, particularly natives in their dry surroundings, in treating certain health disorders. Some plants showed high use values and fidelity levels to treat certain health problem. Further investigation should be carried out in

  5. Emodin inhibits epithelial‑mesenchymal transition and metastasis of triple negative breast cancer via antagonism of CC‑chemokine ligand 5 secreted from adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xiqiu; Qin, Yuenong; Yang, Jianfeng; Wang, Yu; Sun, Zhenping; Yu, Kui; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Sheng

    2018-07-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) has the lowest survival rate of the breast cancer subtypes owing to its aggressive and metastatic behavior. It has been reported that peritumoral adipose tissue contributes to the cell invasiveness and dissemination of TNBC. Emodin is an active anthraquinone derivative isolated from Rheum palmatum, with anticancer properties that have been reported to inhibit lung metastasis in a nude mouse xenograft model. In the present study, the effects of emodin on human TNBC cells and adipocytes were investigated in vivo and in vitro. The TNBC cell lines MDA‑MB‑231 and MDA‑MB‑453 were co‑cultured with human adipocytes and treated with either emodin or epirubicin. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay and migration and invasion were examined using a wound healing assay and a Transwell assay. interleukin‑8, CC‑chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) and insulin‑like growth factor‑1 levels in the culture supernatants were detected by ELISA. The epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) or metastasis associated markers were determined by western blot analysis. Nude mice fed with a high fat and sugar diet were used investigate the in vivo effect of emodin. The results showed that emodin inhibited TNBC proliferation and invasion more efficiently than epirubicin when co‑cultured with adipocytes by downregulating the level of CCL5 in adipocyte supernatants; inhibiting the expression level of protein kinase B (AKT); and activating glycogen synthase kinase‑3i (GSK3) and β‑catenin. This led to the suppressed expression of EMT‑ and invasion‑associated markers, including vimentin, snail, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2 and MMP‑9, and upregulation of E‑cadherin, contributing to the inhibition of invasion. The in vivo assay showed that emodin inhibited tumor growth, and suppressed the lung and liver metastasis of TNBC cells by decreasing the secretion of CCL5 in mice fed a high fat and sugar diet more efficiently when

  6. Emodin enhances the demethylation by 5-Aza-CdR of pancreatic cancer cell tumor-suppressor genes P16, RASSF1A and ppENK.

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng-Ping; Zhou, Hong-Kun; Bu, He-Qi; Chen, Zi-Qiang; Zhang, Hao; Xu, Lu-Ping; Tang, Jian; Yu, Qing-Jiang; Chu, Yong-Quan; Pan, Jie; Fei, Yong; Lin, Sheng-Zhang; Liu, Dian-Lei; Chen, Liang

    2016-04-01

    5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) is currently acknowledged as a demethylation drug, and causes a certain degree of demethylation in a variety of cancer cells, including pancreatic cancer cells. Emodin, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is an effective monomer extracted from rhubarb and has been reported to exhibit antitumor activity in different manners in pancreatic cancer. In the present study, we examined whether emodin caused demethylation and increased the demethylation of three tumor-suppressor genes P16, RASSF1A and ppENK with a high degree of methylation in pancreatic cancer when combined with 5-Aza-CdR. Our research showed that emodin inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Dot-blot results showed that emodin combined with 5-Aza-CdR significantly suppressed the expression of genome 5mC in PANC-1 cells. In order to verify the effect of methylation, methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfite genomic sequencing PCR (BSP) combined with TA were selected for the cloning and sequencing. Results of MSP and BSP confirmed that emodin caused faint demethylation, and 5-Aza-CdR had a certain degree of demethylation. When emodin was combined with 5-Aza-CdR, the demethylation was more significant. At the same time, fluorescent quantitative PCR and western blot analysis results confirmed that when emodin was combined with 5-Aza-CdR, the expression levels of P16, RASSF1A and ppENK were increased more significantly compared to either treatment alone. In contrast, the expression levels of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and DNMT3a were more significantly reduced with the combination treatment than the control or either agent alone, further proving that emodin in combination with 5-Aza-CdR enhanced the demethylation effect of 5-Aza-CdR by reducing the expression of methyltransferases. In conclusion, the present study confirmed that emodin in combination with 5-Aza-CdR enhanced the demethylation by 5-Aza-CdR of tumor

  7. Emodin enhances the demethylation by 5-Aza-CdR of pancreatic cancer cell tumor-suppressor genes P16, RASSF1A and ppENK

    PubMed Central

    PAN, FENG-PING; ZHOU, HONG-KUN; BU, HE-QI; CHEN, ZI-QIANG; ZHANG, HAO; XU, LU-PING; TANG, JIAN; YU, QING-JIANG; CHU, YONG-QUAN; PAN, JIE; FEI, YONG; LIN, SHENG-ZHANG; LIU, DIAN-LEI; CHEN, LIANG

    2016-01-01

    5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) is currently acknowledged as a demethylation drug, and causes a certain degree of demethylation in a variety of cancer cells, including pancreatic cancer cells. Emodin, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is an effective monomer extracted from rhubarb and has been reported to exhibit antitumor activity in different manners in pancreatic cancer. In the present study, we examined whether emodin caused demethylation and increased the demethylation of three tumor-suppressor genes P16, RASSF1A and ppENK with a high degree of methylation in pancreatic cancer when combined with 5-Aza-CdR. Our research showed that emodin inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Dot-blot results showed that emodin combined with 5-Aza-CdR significantly suppressed the expression of genome 5mC in PANC-1 cells. In order to verify the effect of methylation, methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfite genomic sequencing PCR (BSP) combined with TA were selected for the cloning and sequencing. Results of MSP and BSP confirmed that emodin caused faint demethylation, and 5-Aza-CdR had a certain degree of demethylation. When emodin was combined with 5-Aza-CdR, the demethylation was more significant. At the same time, fluorescent quantitative PCR and western blot analysis results confirmed that when emodin was combined with 5-Aza-CdR, the expression levels of P16, RASSF1A and ppENK were increased more significantly compared to either treatment alone. In contrast, the expression levels of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and DNMT3a were more significantly reduced with the combination treatment than the control or either agent alone, further proving that emodin in combination with 5-Aza-CdR enhanced the demethylation effect of 5-Aza-CdR by reducing the expression of meth-yltransferases. In conclusion, the present study confirmed that emodin in combination with 5-Aza-CdR enhanced the demethylation by 5-Aza-CdR of

  8. Diesel Exhaust Particles Induce Impairment of Vascular and Cardiac Homeostasis in Mice: Ameliorative Effect of Emodin.

    PubMed

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Al Dhaheri, Rauda; Alamiri, Jawaher; Al Hefeiti, Suhaila; Al Saedi, Hajar; Beegam, Sumaya; Yuvaraju, Priya; Yasin, Javed; Ali, Badreldin H

    2015-01-01

    There is strong epidemiological and clinical evidence that components of the cardiovascular system are adversely affected by particulate air pollutants through the generation of inflammation and oxidative stress. Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6- methylanthraquinone), which is commonly found in the roots of rhubarb plant, has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, its possible protective effect on the cardiovascular effect of particulate air pollutants has never been reported before. We tested, in Tuck-Ordinary mice, the possible ameliorative effect of emodin on the acute (24h) cardiovascular effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP, 1 mg/kg) or saline (control). Emodin (4 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 1h before and 7h after pulmonary exposure to DEP. Twenty four h following DEP exposure, several cardiovascular endpoints were assessed. Emodin significantly prevented the increase of leukocyte (n=8, P<0.001) and erythrocyte (n=8, P<0.01) numbers caused by DEP. Likewise, emodin abrogated DEP-induced increase of heart tissue levels of interleukin 1β (n=8, P<0.01) and tumour necrosis factor α (n=8, P<0.05), and significantly mitigated the change of the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (n=8, P<0.001) and glutathione reductase (n=8, P<0.05). Emodin abolished the in vivo prothrombotic effect of DEP in pial arterioles (n=6, P<0.01) and venules (n=6, P<0.001). Similarly, emodin prevented platelet aggregation in vitro in whole blood (n=4-5, P<0.01), and the shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time (n=4, P<0.001) and prothrombin time (n=4, P<0.01) caused by DEP. We conclude that emodin treatment has consistently protected against DEP-induced impairment of vascular and cardiac homeostasis in mice. Our study provides experimental evidence that the use of functional food such as emodin, pending further studies, can be considered a useful agent and may have the potential to protect or mitigate the cardiovascular

  9. Antiinflammatory and Hepatoprotective Medicinal Herbs as Potential Substitutes for Bear Bile.

    PubMed

    Appiah, Sandra; Revitt, Mike; Jones, Huw; Vu, Milan; Simmonds, Monique; Bell, Celia

    2017-01-01

    Practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) commonly prescribe medicinal formulations relying on the purported synergism of a combination of plant species, sometimes incorporating animal parts and minerals. Bear bile, obtained from either wild or farmed bears, is a commonly used constituent of traditional medicine formulations. With several bear species now listed under Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora as threatened with extinction and with bear farming being actively campaigned against on ethical grounds, it is important to seek and promote alternatives to the use of bear bile as medicine. This chapter describes and evaluates the scientific data relating to the efficacy of bear bile and potential alternatives to its use, including the use of bile from other animal species, the use of synthetic chemical alternatives, and the use of herbal substitutes. Scientific studies have confirmed the efficacy of bear bile as an antiinflammatory and a hepatoprotective agent. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), the active component of bear bile is used in a synthetic form in Western medicine and can serve as an alternative to bear bile in the treatment and management of certain cholestatic liver conditions. In TCM practice, bile from domesticated animal species (such as cattle, chicken, and pig) has been used as a substitute for bear bile. Following evaluation of TCM literature and pharmacological/clinical data, the authors propose six plant species, either as single herbs or in combination, Gardenia jasminoides (zhī zi; ), Scutellaria baicalensis (huáng qín; ), Coptis chinensis (huáng lián, ), Phellodendron amurense (huáng băi; ), Andrographis paniculata (chuan xin lian; ), and Rheum palmatum (dà huang; ), two medicinal Kampo formulations, Orengedokuto, Dia-Orengedokuto (which originated from traditional Chinese herbal formula Huanglian Jiedu Tang, ), and two individual phytochemicals (berberine and andrographolide) as

  10. Pharmacological safety evaluation of a traditional herbal medicine "Zereshk-e-Saghir" and assessment of its hepatoprotective effects on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Sarhadynejad, Zarrin; Sharififar, Fariba; Pardakhty, Abbas; Nematollahi, Mohammad-Hadi; Sattaie-Mokhtari, Saeedeh; Mandegary, Ali

    2016-08-22

    "Zereshk-e-Saghir" (ZES), one of the traditional herbal medicines in old manuscripts of Persian hakims, has been used for the treatment of liver disorders. This current study is aimed to evaluate ZES effects on animal model to investigate its safety and hepatoprotective activity. ZES was prepared according to a traditional method by blending aqueous extracts of Berberis vulgaris L., with fine particles of other plants including Rosa damascene Mill, Cichorium intybus L., Cucumis sativus L., Portulaca oleracea L., Rheum palmatum L., and Nardostachys jatamansi DC.. The lethality of ZES was determined in male NMRI mice. Acute organ toxicity of ZES (750 and 1500mg/kg for 15 days, orally) was evaluated by measuring the cell blood count, liver marker enzymes, creatinine, antioxidant status and histopathological examinations in rats. CCl4-induced liver toxicity was used to examine the hepatoprotective effects of the preparation. The rats were pretreated with 250, 500, 750 and 1500mg/kg ZES by gavage for 15 days. At day 16, the rats were intraperitoneally injected 1ml/kg CCl4 in olive oil. Forty-eight hours after CCl4 injection, the animals were sacrificed and their liver samples and blood were collected for determination of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase (ALT, AST, and ALP), histopathological examinations and antioxidant status. Treatment of the mice with a single dose of ZES up to 2g/kg did not cause mortality. Treatment of the rats with doses of 750 and 1500mg/kg for 15 days showed no significant hematotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Treatment of the rats with ZES reduced the increased serum levels of ALT, AST, and ALP induced by CCl4 at the doses of 250, 500, and 750mg/kg. This was almost confirmed by histopathological examinations. Pretreatment with ZES also decreased lipid peroxidation and maintained the levels of glutathione and total antioxidant capacity. The present in vivo study revealed that the long term usage of ZES

  11. Comorbidity indices for clinical trials: adaptation of two existing indices for use with the FREEDOM trial in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Silverman, S L; Wang, A; Cheng, L; Yang, Y; Libanati, C; Geller, M; Grauer, A; Nevitt, M; Revicki, D; Viswanathan, H N

    2016-01-01

    Two comorbidity indices were adapted for use in the FREEDOM trial and significantly correlated with the number of medications and impaired health status at baseline. The indices have applications for the analysis of clinical trial data and would allow for the appropriate adjustment of comorbidities when evaluating clinical trial outcomes. The purpose of this study is to adapt two published comorbidity indices for use with the FREEDOM clinical trial evaluating postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. FREEDOM enrolled women aged 60-90 years with a bone mineral density T-score <-2.5 at the lumbar spine or total hip and ≥-4.0 at both sites. Comorbidity indices were calculated using methods described by Sangha (Arthritis Rheum 49:156-163, 2003) and Wolfe (J Rheumatol 37:305-315, 2010) following modification. The adapted Sangha index included 12 conditions with a summary score of 0-12; the adapted Wolfe index included 7 conditions with a weighted summary score of 0-8. Higher scores indicated greater comorbidity. A panel of clinicians independently reviewed subjects' medical histories using a systematic process based on Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) preferred terms to map specified comorbid conditions. Spearman correlations between the adapted indices and baseline subject characteristics expected to be associated with comorbidities were examined. Of the 7808 subjects in this study, 74 % had ≥1 comorbidities based on the adapted Sangha or Wolfe comorbidity indices. The mean (SD) adapted Sangha and Wolfe comorbidity indices were 1.4 (1.2) and 1.4 (1.3), respectively. Both indices correlated positively with age, body mass index, and the number of medications (r = 0.54 to 0.55) at baseline and inversely correlated with health-related quality of life (r = -0.22 to -0.30) (all P < 0.0001). Further, when either the adapted Sangha or Wolfe index was included as a covariate for assessing mortality over 36 months in the FREEDOM population, the

  12. Antidiarrheal effect of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. (Zingiberaceae) in experimental mice and its possible mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Junqing; Huang, Xiaoxing; Wang, Yifei; Xu, Xiaotao; Zheng, Bin; Zhou, Xue; Tian, Huajie; Liu, Li; Mei, Qibing

    2015-06-20

    The fructus Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. (AOM) has been used for treating diarrhea with spleen deficiency and gastralgia for thousands of years. A number of traditional Chinese medicine formulae provide AOM as an alternative herbal treatment for diarrhea, but the scientific basis for this usage has not been well defined. In this study, we tried to investigate the antidiarrheal activity and possible mechanisms of Fructus AOM, aiming to enrich our understanding to the scientific meanings and theoretical significance of Fructus AOM in clinical practice. The fructus of AOM collected from Hainan province in China were macerated in the 95% ethanol to obtain the crude 95% ethanol extract, followed by subjected to chromatographic separation over a Diaion HP20 column to obtain 90% and 50% ethanol eluted fractions. The activities of the crude extract and fractions on castor oil induced acute diarrhea, rhubarb induced chronic diarrhea, gastrointestinal transit (GIT) in mice, and contractions of isolated guinea-pig ileum were evaluated. Additionally, nitric oxide (NO), gastrointestinal peptides gastrin (GAS), motilin (MTL) and somatostatin (SS) levels that related to gastrointestinal motilities were detected to demonstrate the potential mechanisms. Ultimately, LC-MS/MS method was utilized to ensure the chemical consistency. The 95% ethanol extract and 90% ethanol eluted fraction significantly delayed the onset time and decreased the wet faeces proportion compared with control group in the castor oil induced acute diarrhea mice. In terms of further evaluation of antidiarrheal activity, the 95% ethanol extract and 90% ethanol elution displayed significant inhibition of the intestinal propulsion at the two highest oral doses of 20 g crude drug/kg and 1g/kg. Moreover the 95% ethanol extract (10 and 20 g crude drug/kg) and 90% ethanol elution (0.5 and 1g/kg) could significantly inhibit the GIT, which was partially attributed to the increase in NO and SS levels, and the decreased MTL. In

  13. A molecular theory of cartilage viscoelasticity.

    PubMed

    Kovach, I S

    1996-03-07

    ). Together, these two contributions accurately reproduce the experimentally determined osmotic pressure of cartilage as previously determined by Maroudas (Maroudas and Bannon, Biorheology, 18 (1981) 619-632). The time-dependent, or creep, phenomena which cartilage exhibits when subject to mechanical load is explained in terms of frictional drag on the polysaccharide chain monomers in terms of a Kirkwood-Riseman type model (Kirkwood and Riseman, J. Chem. Phys., 16 (6) (1948) 573-579). This approach is shown to accurately predict the hydraulic permeability of cartilage as previously determined by Maroudas (Madouras, Ann. Rheum. Dis., 34 (suppl. 3) (1975) 77). By use of a quasi-static approximation (neglecting inertial effects) the time-dependent response to a uniform compressive force is determined and also found to be in good agreement with experimental values from the literature.

  14. Antitumor and synergistic effect of Chinese medicine “Bushen huayu jiedu recipe” and chemotherapy on transplanted animal hepatocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yong; Xia, Qing-Hua; Meng, Hua; Zhong, An-Pu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the antitumor and synergistic effect of Chinese medicine “Bushen huayu jiedu recipe” (recipe for invigorating the kidney, removing blood stasis and toxic substances) and chemotherapy on mice hepatocarcinoma. METHODS: Bushen huayu jiedu recipe (BSHYJDR) consisting of Chinese Cassia Bark, Psoralea, Zedoary, Rhubarb, etc. is equal to 1.5 g/mL liquid of originated herbs after being decocted, filtered, and concentrated. Kunming mice, weighing 18-22 g, were injected with 0.2 mL ascitic hepatocarcinoma H22 containing 1×107 cells/mL into armpit of the right forelimb of mice. After 24 h, the mice were weighed and randomly divided into tumor-bearing model control group, cisplatin (DDP) group, BSHYJDR high dosage group, low dosage BSHYJDR group, DDP combined with high and low dosage BSHYJDR group, 10 mice in each group. DDP group received injection intraperitoneally (ip) at the dosage of 1 mg/kg (equal to 1/10 LD50), once a day for 4 d. High and low dosage BSHYJDR groups received intragastric BSHYJDR at the dosages of 26.6 and 13.3 g/kg (20 and 10 times each of clinical adult dosage) respectively, while tumor-bearing model group received the equal volume of distilled water once a day for 10 d. On the 11th d, the mice were weighed and killed, then the tumor was dissected and weighed, the repression rate (RR) was calculated according to the mean weight of tumor (MWT). RESULTS: Compared to the model group (MWT: 1.30±0.73), DDP group (MWT: 0.41±0.09, RR: 68.46%) had a significant difference in the inhibition of hepatocarcinoma H22 (P<0.01). High dosage BSHYJDR group (MWT: 0.69±0.29, RR: 46.92%) also had a significant difference in inhibition (P<0.05), while no difference was found in low dosage BSHYJDR group (MWT: 0.85±0.34, RR: 34.62%) (P>0.05). When DDP was combined with high dosage BSHYJDR (MWT: 0.29±0.17, RR: 77.69%) and low dosage BSHYJDR (MWT: 0.38±0.21, RR: 70.77%) respectively, we could see improvement of the inhibition effect of DDP on

  15. Effect of Carnitine and herbal mixture extract on obesity induced by high fat diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Amin, Kamal A; Nagy, Mohamed A

    2009-10-16

    Obesity-associated type 2 diabetes is rapidly increasing throughout the world. It is generally recognized that natural products with a long history of safety can modulate obesity. To investigate the development of obesity in response to a high fat diet (HFD) and to estimate the effect of L-carnitine and an Egyptian Herbal mixture formulation (HMF) (consisting of T. chebula, Senae, rhubarb, black cumin, aniseed, fennel and licorice) on bodyweight, food intake, lipid profiles, renal, hepatic, cardiac function markers, lipid Peroxidation, and the glucose and insulin levels in blood and liver tissue in rats. White male albino rats weighing 80-90 gm, 60 days old. 10 rats were fed a normal basal diet (Cr), 30 rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks during the entire study. Rats of the HFD group were equally divided into 3 subgroups each one include 10 rats. The first group received HFD with no supplement (HFD), the 2nd group HFD+L-carnitine and the third group received HFD+HMF. Carnitine and HMF were administered at 10th week (start time for treatments) for 4 weeks.Body weight, lipid profile & renal function (urea, uric acid creatinine) ALT & AST activities, cardiac markers, (LDH, C.K-NAC and MB) the oxidative stress marker reduced glutathione (GSH), and Malondialdehyde (MDA) catalase activity, in addition to glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance in serum & tissues were analyzed. Data showed that feeding HFD diet significantly increased final body weight, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, & LDL concentration compared with controls, while significantly decreasing HDL; meanwhile treatment with L-carnitine, or HMF significantly normalized the lipid profile.Serum ALT, urea, uric acid, creatinine, LDH, CK-NAC, CK-MB were significantly higher in the high fat group compared with normal controls; and administration of L-carnitine or herbal extract significantly lessened the effect of the HFD. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and high insulin resistance (IR

  16. Designing an orally available nontoxic p38 inhibitor with a fragment-based strategy.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Frank

    2015-01-01

    resulted in nonspecific isoform toxicities, but binding in the adjacent allosteric DFG-site resulted in molecules that were too planar and too hydrophobic. Applying the computational method of Simulated Annealing of Chemical Potential (SACP) to this problem, we at Locus were able to come up with surprising fragment substitution patterns that led to potent non-ATP p38 inhibitors with the solubility and lack of planarity that resulted in potent in vivo efficacy in rodents with 33 % oral bioavailability. By using the simulations, we made only a small number of molecules and created a high quality clinical candidate. We also did extensive co-crystallography work, which demonstrated that the compounds bound in the mode predicted by the simulations. Unfortunately, all p38 programs ultimately shut down, because compelling evidence emerged that inhibiting p38 had no long-term clinical (Genovese, Arthritis Rheum 60:317-320, 2009) benefit. Devoting a large amount of limited resources to a target that ultimately turns out to be a mistake because it was not properly validated is a fatal error for a small company, and this is one of the reasons that Locus ultimately failed.

  17. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of EMODIN (CAS NO. 518-82-1) Feed Studies in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice.

    PubMed

    2001-06-01

    Emodin is a naturally occurring anthraquinone present in the roots and bark of numerous plants of the genus Rhamnus. Extracts from the roots, bark, and/or dried leaves of buckthorn, senna, cascara, aloe, frangula, and rhubarb have been used as laxatives since ancient times and currently are widely used in the preparation of herbal laxative preparations. Anthraquinone glycosides are poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract but are cleaved by gut bacteria to produce aglycones (such as emodin) that are more readily absorbed and are responsible for the purgative properties of these preparations. There is extensive exposure to emodin and other anthraquinones resulting from the use of herb-based stimulant laxatives. Reports that 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone, a commonly used laxative ingredient, caused tumors in the gastrointestinal tract of rats raised the possibility of an association between colorectal cancer and the use of laxatives containing anthraquinones. Because emodin is a hydroxyanthraquinone structurally similar to 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone, is present in herbal laxatives, and was reported to be mutagenic in bacteria, it was considered a potential carcinogen and was selected for in-depth evaluation. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to emodin (at least 94% pure) in feed for 16 days, 14 weeks, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, rat and mouse bone marrow cells, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. 16-DAY STUDY IN RATS: Groups of five male and five female rats were fed diets containing 0, 600, 2,000, 5,500, 17,000, or 50,000 ppm emodin (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 50, 170, 480, 1,400, or 3,700 mg emodin/kg body weight to males and 50, 160, 460, 1,250, or 2,000 mg/kg to females) for 15 (males) or 16 (females) days. Three female rats died before the end of the study. Mean body weights of males and females exposed to 5,500 ppm