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Sample records for ri beam production

  1. Production of drip-line nuclei at RIKEN RI Beam Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Atsumi

    2014-09-01

    Production cross-sections and secondary-beam yields of very neutron rich nuclei near neutron drip-line at 200--250 MeV/u have been investigated at RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF). RIBF is the next generation RI beam facility, which can produce a variety of exotic nuclei with high intensity. The measurement of production yields of 19B, 22C, which are located on the neutron drip-line, and neighboring isotopes was made on the occasion of the Coulomb and nuclear breakup experiments of these halo nuclei at SAMURAI (Superconducting Analyzer for MUlti-particle from RAdioIsotope beams) facility at RIBF. We used 345 MeV/u 48Ca beam as primary beam, which impinged on 30 mm-thick Be target, to obtain secondary beams by projectile fragmentation. The projectile fragments were then separated through Superconducting RI beam separator BigRIPS, and were identified by measuring time of flight (TOF), energy loss (ΔE), and magnetic rigidity (Bρ) by the standard detectors at 2nd stage of BigRIPS. We thus obtained production cross-sections and yields of carbon and boron isotopes. The production cross-sections and yields extracted were compared with the simulation code LISE using EPAX. We discuss these results and comparisons in this poster presentation.

  2. Cryogenic gas target system for intense RI beam productions in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Kurihara, Y.; Amadio, G.; Fujikawa, H.; Binh, D. N.; He, J. J.; Kim, A.; Kubono, S.

    2008-05-01

    A cryogenic gas target system was newly developed to produce intense RI beams at the low-energy in-flight radio-isotope beam separator (CRIB) of the University of Tokyo. The main features of the cryogenic gas target system are the direct cooling of the target cell by a liquid N2 finger and the circulation of the target gas that goes through the liquid N2 tank. Hydrogen gas was cooled down to 85-90 K by liquid nitrogen and used as a secondary beam production target which has a thickness of 2.3 mg/cm2 at the gas pressure of 760 Torr. Intense RI beams, such as a 7Be beam of 2×108 particles per second, were successfully produced using the target.

  3. Cryogenic gas target system for intense RI beam productions in nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Kurihara, Y.; Amadio, G.; Fujikawa, H.; Kubono, S.; Binh, D. N.; He, J. J.; Kim, A.

    2008-05-21

    A cryogenic gas target system was newly developed to produce intense RI beams at the low-energy in-flight radio-isotope beam separator (CRIB) of the University of Tokyo. The main features of the cryogenic gas target system are the direct cooling of the target cell by a liquid N{sub 2} finger and the circulation of the target gas that goes through the liquid N{sub 2} tank. Hydrogen gas was cooled down to 85-90 K by liquid nitrogen and used as a secondary beam production target which has a thickness of 2.3 mg/cm{sup 2} at the gas pressure of 760 Torr. Intense RI beams, such as a {sup 7}Be beam of 2x10{sup 8} particles per second, were successfully produced using the target.

  4. Electron-beam-driven RI separator for SCRIT (ERIS) at RIKEN RI beam factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, T.; Ichikawa, S.; Koizumi, K.; Kurita, K.; Miyashita, Y.; Ogawara, R.; Tamaki, S.; Togasaki, M.; Wakasugi, M.

    2013-12-01

    We constructed a radioactive isotope (RI) separator named ERIS (electron-beam-driven RI separator for SCRIT) for the SCRIT (Self-Confinement RI Target) electron scattering facility at RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF). In ERIS, production rate of fission products in the photofission of uranium is estimated to be 2.2 ×1011 fissions/s with 30 g of uranium and a 1-kW electron beam. During the commissioning of ERIS, the mass resolution and overall efficiency, including ionization, extraction, and transmission, were found to be 1660 and 21%, respectively, using natural xenon gas. The preparation of uranium carbide (UC2) RI production targets is described from which a 132Sn beam was successfully separated in our first attempt at RI production.

  5. A gas circulation and purification system for gas-cell-based low-energy RI-beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Sonoda, T.; Wada, M.; Katayama, I.; Kojima, T. M.; Reponen, M.; Tsubota, T.

    2016-06-15

    A gas circulation and purification system was developed at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory that can be used for gas-cell-based low-energy RI-beam production. A high-flow-rate gas cell filled with one atmosphere of buffer gas (argon or helium) is used for the deceleration and thermalization of high-energy RI-beams. The exhausted buffer gas is efficiently collected using a compact dry pump and returned to the gas cell with a recovery efficiency of >97%. The buffer gas is efficiently purified using two gas purifiers as well as collision cleaning, which eliminates impurities in the gas. An impurity level of one part per billion is achieved with this method.

  6. A gas circulation and purification system for gas-cell-based low-energy RI-beam production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonoda, T.; Tsubota, T.; Wada, M.; Katayama, I.; Kojima, T. M.; Reponen, M.

    2016-06-01

    A gas circulation and purification system was developed at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory that can be used for gas-cell-based low-energy RI-beam production. A high-flow-rate gas cell filled with one atmosphere of buffer gas (argon or helium) is used for the deceleration and thermalization of high-energy RI-beams. The exhausted buffer gas is efficiently collected using a compact dry pump and returned to the gas cell with a recovery efficiency of >97%. The buffer gas is efficiently purified using two gas purifiers as well as collision cleaning, which eliminates impurities in the gas. An impurity level of one part per billion is achieved with this method.

  7. SAMURAI spectrometer for RI beam experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Chiga, N.; Isobe, T.; Kondo, Y.; Kubo, T.; Kusaka, K.; Motobayashi, T.; Nakamura, T.; Ohnishi, J.; Okuno, H.; Otsu, H.; Sako, T.; Sato, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Sekiguchi, K.; Takahashi, K.; Tanaka, R.; Yoneda, K.

    2013-12-01

    A large-acceptance multiparticle spectrometer SAMURAI has been constructed at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF) for RI beam experiments. It was designed primarily for kinematically complete experiments such as the invariant-mass spectroscopy of particle-unbound states in exotic nuclei, by detecting heavy fragments and projectile-rapidity nucleons in coincidence. The system consists of a superconducting dipole magnet, beam line detectors, heavy fragment detectors, neutron detectors, and proton detectors. The SAMURAI spectrometer was commissioned in March 2012, and a rigidity resolution of about 1/1500 was obtained for RI beams up to 2.4 GeV/c.

  8. Parasitic production of slow RI-beam from a projectile fragment separator by ion guide Laser Ion Source (PALIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonoda, Tetsu

    2009-10-01

    The projectile fragment separator BigRIPS of RIBF at RIKEN provides a wide variety of short-lived radioactive isotope (RI) ions without restrictions on their lifetime or chemical properties. A universal slow RI-beam facility (SLOWRI) to decelerate the beams from BigRIPS using an RF-carpet ion guide has been proposed as a principal facility of RIBF. However, beam time at such a modern accelerator facility is always limited and operational costs are high. We therefore propose an additional scheme as a complementary option to SLOWRI to drastically enhance the usability of such an expensive facility. In BigRIPS, a single primary beam produces thousands of isotopes but only one isotope is used for an experiment while the other >99.99% of isotopes are simply dumped in the slits or elsewhere in the fragment separator. We plan to locate a compact gas cell with 1 bar Ar at the slits. The thermalized ions in the cell will be quickly neutralized and transported to the exit by gas flow and resonantly re-ionized by lasers. Such low energy RI-beams will always be provided without any restriction to the main experiment. It will allow us to run parasitic experiments for precision atomic or decay spectroscopy, mass measurements. Furthermore, the resonance ionization in the cell itself can be used for high-sensitive laser spectroscopy, which will expand our knowledge of the ground state property of unstable nuclei.

  9. Study on astrophysical reactions using low-energy RI beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hidetoshi

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, low-energy RI beams can be produced in a good intensity and they have been used for studying many astrophysical reactions. One of the facilities producing low-energy RI beams is CRIB (CNS Radio-Isotope Beam separator) [1,2], an RI-beam separator of Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. Taking CRIB as an example, recent improvements on the RI-beam production and experimental results on astrophysical studies are presented. Several experimental approaches have been taken for the studies on astrophysical reactions.The feature of each method are discussed based on real measurements performed at CRIB. One is the direct method, applied for measurements of reactions such as (α,p) [3]. Another is the measurement of proton/alpha resonance scattering using the thick target method in inverse kinematics, by which we can obtain information on the resonances relevant in astrophysical reactions [4,5]. A recent fruitful result was from a measurement of proton resonance scattering using a ^7Be beam [5]. The energy level structure of ^8B, revealed by the experiment, is especially of interest as it is related with the ^7Be(p,γ) ^8B reaction, responsible for the production of ^8B neutrinos in the sun. We successfully determined parameters of resonances in ^8B below 6.7 MeV, which may affect the ^7Be(p,γ)^8B reaction rate at the solar temparature. Indirect methods, such as ANC and the Trojan Horse Method, were also used in some of the measurements.[4pt] [1] S. Kubono et al., Eur. Phys. J. A13 (2002) 217.[0pt] [2] Y. Yanagisawa et al., Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res., Sect. A 539 (2005) 74.[0pt] [3] M. Notani et al., Nucl. Phys. A 764 (2004) 113c.[0pt] [4] T. Teranishi et al., Phys. Lett. B 650 (2007) 129.[0pt] [5] H. Yamaguchi et al., Phys. Lett. B 672 (2009) 230.

  10. RI-induced reaction studies by new energy-degrading beam line, OEDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michimasa, Shin'ichiro

    2014-09-01

    The RI beam factory (RIBF) has expanded variety of accessible nuclei, and provides very intense RI beams. However, the beams are energy range of above 100 MeV/u, and are not necessarily suitable to some kinds of nuclear reactions. Therefore, deceleration of intense RI beams from RIBF open potentially new scientific opportunities to access various states in exotic nuclei by using characteristics probes, such as transfer reactions at several ten MeV/u and fusion reactions at several MeV/u. For energy degrading of nuclear beams, the degrader is generally used. This method easily controls beam energy, while multiple scattering effect and energy straggling in the material broaden the beam spot size at the downstream foci. Therefore, a key issue for reaction measurements is achievement of ion transport to reduce the beam emittance at the secondary target. For this purpose, CNS has set up OEDO (Optimized Energy Degrading Optics for RI beam) project for production of high-quality low energy RI beams. The OEDO beam line scheme is planned to be achieved by re-arrangement of magnets of the high-resolution beam line, where the SHARAQ spectrometer is useful as a spectrograph for low-energy reaction spectroscopy. In this presentation, I will discuss scientific opportunities in the OEDO beam line and the SHARAQ spectrometer.

  11. ZeroDegree spectrometer at RIKEN RI Beam Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Toshiyuki; Ohnishi, Tetsuya; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Naoki; Kameda, Daisuke; Kusaka, Kensuke; Yoshida, Atsushi; Yoshida, Koichi; Ohtake, Masao; Inabe, Naohito; Yanagisawa, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Kanenobu

    2009-10-01

    At RI Beam Factory (RIBF) [1] at RIKEN Nishina Center, a variety of fast rare isotope (RI) beams are produced using the BigRIPS in-flight separator [2] for studies of exotic nuclei. The beam line following BigRIPS is designed to work as a forward spectrometer named ZeroDegree, so that it can be used for reaction studies with RI beams. The ZeroDegree spectrometer consists of two dipoles and six superconducting quadrupole triplets, of which designs are essentially the same as those of BigRIPS. It analyzes and indentifies projectile reaction residues, often in coincidence with gamma rays, and can be operated in different optics modes, depending on experimental requirements. The ZeroDegree spectrometer has recently been commissioned and used for a series of full-dress RI-beam experiments. Overview and status of the ZeroDegree spectrometer will be reported.[4pt] [1] Y. Yano: Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 261 (2007) 1009. [0pt] [2] T. Kubo: Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 204 (2003) 97 and T. Ohnishi et al.: J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 77 (2008) 083201.

  12. Construction of rare-RI ring at RIKEN RI Beam Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Wakasugi, M.; Uesaka, T.; Ozawa, A.; Abe, Y.; Fujinawa, T.; Kase, M.; Komiyama, M.; Kubo, T.; Kumagai, K.; Maie, T.; Nagae, D.; Ohnishi, J.; Suzaki, F.; Tokuchi, A.; Watanabe, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Yamada, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yamasawa, H.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Zenihiro, J.; Yano, Y.

    2013-12-01

    An isochronous mass spectroscopy system using a newly constructed storage ring named the “rare-RI ring” is expected to be implemented at the RIKEN Nishina Center to determine the masses of short-lived rare nuclei including those in the r-process region with a relative precision of the order of 10-6 even for only one particle. In an isochronous storage ring, the mass is determined by measuring the revolution time of each nucleus. Our rare-RI ring consists of six magnetic sectors, and each sector consists of four bending magnets. To precisely optimize the isochronous conditions of the circulating particles for large acceptance, we install ten trim coils to half of the bending magnets. A fast-response and fast-charging kicker system enables selective and efficient injection of the produced rare nuclei into the ring one by one, along with facilitating efficient extraction of the circulating particles for time-of-flight measurement. Construction of the rare-RI ring was begun in the middle of the fiscal year 2012 at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory, and the ring is expected to be fully functional by 2015.

  13. Spin-Isospin responses via charge exchange reactions of RI beams at SHARAQ

    SciTech Connect

    Shimoura, Susumu

    2012-11-12

    Nuclear spectroscopy via direct reactions of RI beams is discussed focusing on characteristics of charge-exchange reactions of RI beams. Recent experiments using the SHARAQ spectrometer at the RIBF are presented, where isovector spin monopole and spin-non-flip monopole responses are studied by charge exchange reaction of RI beams. Some experimental plans and perspectives are also presented.

  14. Nuclear Astrophysical studies using low-energy RI beams at CRIB

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Hayakawa, S.; Binh, D. N.; Kahl, D.; Kurihara, Y.; Kubono, S.; Niikura, M.; Teranishi, T.; He, J. J.; Kwon, Y. K.; Nishimura, S.; Togano, Y.; Iwasa, N.; Khiem, L. H.

    2009-05-04

    CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) is a low-energy RI beam separator at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo, used for various studies covering nuclear-astrophysical topics. An application of the RI beam at CRIB for the astrophysical studies is a new measurement of the proton resonance scattering on {sup 7}Be. The measurement was performed up to the excitation energy of 6.8 MeV, ans the excitation function above 3.5 MeV was successfully measured for the first time, providing important information about the reaction rate of {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B, which is the key reaction in the solar {sup 8}B neutrino production. A preliminary result of the {sup 7}Be+p experiment is presented.

  15. Experimental Studies of Light-Ion Nuclear Reactions Using Low-Energy RI Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Hayakawa, S.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Abe, K.; Shimuzu, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Rapisarda, G. G.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; Kubono, S.; Iwasa, N.; Teranishi, T.; Kawabata, T.; Kwon, Y. K.; Binh, D. N.; Khiem, L. H.; Duy, N. N.; Kato, S.; Komatsubara, T.; Coc, A.; de Sereville, N.; Hammache, F.; Kiss, G.; Bishop, S.

    CRIB (CNS Radio-Isotope Beam separator) is a low-energy RI beam separator of Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), the University of Tokyo. Studies on nuclear astrophysics, nuclear structure, and other interests have been performed using the RI beams at CRIB, forming international collaborations. A striking method to study astrophyiscal reactions involving radioactive nuclei is the thick-target method in inverse kinematics. Several astrophysical alpha-induced reactions have been be studied with that method at CRIB. A recent example is on the α resonant scattering with a radioactive 7Be beam. This study is related to the astrophysical 7Be(α , γ ) reactions, important at hot p-p chain and ν p-process in supernovae. There have been measurements based on several indirect methods, such as the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) and Trojan horse method (THM). The first THM measurement using an RI beam has been performed at CRIB, to study the 18F(p, α )15O reaction at astrophysical energies via the three body reaction 2H(18F, α 15O)n. The 18F(p, α )15O reaction rate is crucial to understand the 511-keV γ -ray production in nova explosion phenomena, and we successfully evaluated the reaction cross section at novae temperature and below experimentally for the first time.

  16. Radiation protection system at the RIKEN RI beam factory.

    PubMed

    Uwamino, Y; Fujita, S; Sakamoto, H; Ito, S; Fukunishi, N; Yabutani, T; Yamano, T; Fukumura, A

    2005-01-01

    The RIKEN RI (radioactive isotope) Beam Factory is scheduled to commence operations in 2006, and its maximum energy will be 400 MeV u(-1) for ions lighter than Ar and 350 MeV u(-1) for uranium. The beam intensity will be 1 pmicroA (6 x 10(12) particles s(-1)) for any element at the goal. For the hands-on-maintenance and the rational shield thickness of the building, the beam loss must be controlled with several kinds of monitors. Three types of radiation monitors will be installed. The first one consists of a neutron dose equivalent monitor and an ionisation chamber, which are commercially available area monitors. The second one is a conventional hand-held dose equivalent monitor wherein the logarithmic signal is read by a programmable logic controller based on the radiation safety interlock system (HIS). The third one is a simple plastic scintillator called a beam loss monitor. All the monitors have threshold levels for alarm and beam stop, and HIS reads all these signals.

  17. Studying astrophysical reactions with low-energy RI beams at CRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Hayakawa, S.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Rapisarda, G. G.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; Kubono, S.; Iwasa, N.; Teranishi, T.; Kawabata, T.; Kwon, Y. K.; Binh, D. N.; Khiem, L. H.; Duy, N. N.; Kato, S.; Komatsubara, T.; Coc, A.; De Sereville, N.; Hammache, F.; Kiss, G.; Bishop, S.

    2016-05-01

    Studies on nuclear astrophysics, nuclear structure, and other interests have been performed using the radioactive-isotope (RI) beams at the low-energy RI beam separator CRIB, operated by Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), the University of Tokyo. A typical measurement performed at CRIB is the elastic resonant scattering with the inverse kinematics. One recent experiment was on the α resonant scattering with 7Li and 7Be beams. This study is related to the astrophysical 7Li/7Be(α,γ) reactions, important at hot p-p chain and νp-process in supernovae. There have also been measurements based on other experimental methods. The first THM measurement using an RI beam has been performed at CRIB, to study the 18F(p, α)15O reaction at astrophysical energies via the three body reaction 2H(18F, α15O)n. The 18F(p, α) 15O reaction rate is crucial to understand the 511-keV γ-ray production in nova explosion phenomena, and we successfully evaluated the reaction cross section at novae temperature and below experimentally for the first time.

  18. Nuclear Astrophysics and Structure Studies Using Low-energy RI Beams at CRIB

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayakawa, S.; Binh, D. N.; Kahl, D.; Kubono, S.

    2010-05-12

    CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) is a low-energy RI beam separator at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. Using the RI beams at CRIB, Many measurements on proton and alpha resonance scatterings, (alpha,p) reactions, and others were peformed in recent years, mainly for studying astrophysical reactions and exotic nuclear structure. Among them, the results on the {sup 7}Be+p and {sup 7}Li+alpha resonance scatterings are presented.

  19. Alpha-induced reaction studies using low-energy RI beams at CRIB

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Hu, J.; Kubono, S.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.

    2012-11-12

    CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) is a low-energy RI beam separator at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. Studies on proton and alpha resonance scatterings, ({alpha}, p) reactions, and other types of measurements ({beta}-decay lifetimes etc.) have been performed using RI beams at CRIB, motivated by interests on astrophysical reactions and exotic nuclear structure. Among the studies at CRIB, the measurement of {sup 7}Li+{alpha}/{sup 7}Be+{alpha} resonant scatterings are presented.

  20. Studies on Nuclear Astrophysics and Exotic Structure at the Low-Energy RI Beam Facility CRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Hayakawa, S.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Nakao, T.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Teranishi, T.; Kubono, S.; Cherubini, S.; Mazzocco, M.; Signorini, C.; Gulino, M.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; La Cognata, M.; Lattuada, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Torresi, D.; Lee, P. S.; Lee, C. S.; Komatsubara, T.; Iwasa, N.; Okoda, Y.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Parascandolo, C.; La Commara, M.; Strano, E.; Boiano, C.; Boiano, A.; Manea, C.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Miyatake, H.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S. C.; Imai, N.; Hirayama, Y.; Kimura, S.; Mukai, M.; Kim, Y. H.; Lin, C. J.; Jia, H. M.; Yan, L.; Yang, Y. Y.; Kawabata, T.; Kwon, Y. K.; Binh, D. N.; Khiem, L. H.; Duy, N. N.

    Studies on nuclear astrophysics, resonant structure, and nuclear reaction are going on at CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator), a low-energy RI beam separator operated by Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), the University of Tokyo. Two major methods used at CRIB to study nuclear reactions of astrophysical relevance are the resonant scattering, and direct measurements of (α,p) reactions using a thick-gas target. Several experiments for decay measurements and reaction mechanism are also performed using low-energy RI beams at CRIB. Some of the results from recent experiments at CRIB are discussed.

  1. RI beam facility project at RIKEN and physics programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, H.

    2008-08-01

    In the Radioactive-Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) project in RIKEN, intense primary beams can be provided at the energies E = 350-400MeV over the whole range of atomic number in the cascade-cyclotron acceleration scheme, for which three cyclotrons, fRC, IRC, and SRC, have been newly constructed. The project proceeds through two phases. In the phase-I program, the superconducting in-flight radioactive-isotope beam separator BigRIPS and the following ZeroDegree spectrometer have been installed as well as the three cyclotrons. In the commissioning, after the successful extraction of a 238U beam from SRC at E = 345 A MeV in the cascade-acceleration scheme, radioactive-isotope beams were produced and isotope-separated with BigRIPS as designed. The RIBF project is fully capitalized in the phase-II program, in which the construction of several experimental key devices has been proposed. The upgrade of the former fragment separator RIPS is also included there. It allow for a scheme to use intense primary beams at the intermediate energy E = 115 A MeV with RIPS. Remarkably, the produced radioactive-isotope beams at this energy can be spin-polarized taking the advantage of the fragmentation-induced spin orientation phenomena.

  2. Construction of the SCRIT electron scattering facility at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakasugi, M.; Ohnishi, T.; Wang, S.; Miyashita, Y.; Adachi, T.; Amagai, T.; Enokizono, A.; Enomoto, A.; Haraguchi, Y.; Hara, M.; Hori, T.; Ichikawa, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Kitazawa, R.; Koizumi, K.; Kurita, K.; Miyamoto, T.; Ogawara, R.; Shimakura, Y.; Takehara, H.; Tamae, T.; Tamaki, S.; Togasaki, M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yanagi, K.; Suda, T.

    2013-12-01

    The SCRIT electron scattering facility, aiming at electron scattering off short-lived unstable nuclei, has been constructed at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory. This facility consists of a racetrack microtron (RTM), an electron storage ring (SR2) equipped with the SCRIT system, and a low-energy RI separator (ERIS). SCRIT (self-confining radioactive isotope ion targeting) is a novel technique to form internal targets in an electron storage ring. Experiments for evaluating performance of the SCRIT system have been carried out using the stable 133Cs1+ beam and the 132Xe1+ beam supplied from ERIS. Target ions were successfully trapped in the SCRIT system with 90% efficiency at a 250 mA electron beam current, and luminosity exceeding 1026/(cm2 s) was maintained for more than 1 s. Electrons elastically scattered from the target ions were successfully measured. Applicability of the SCRIT system to electron scattering for unstable nuclei has been established in experiments.

  3. Superconducting Ring Cyclotron for Riken RI Beam Factory in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuno, H.; Dantsuka, T.; Yamada, K.; Kase, M.; Maie, T.; Kamigaito, O.

    2010-04-01

    Since 1997, RIKEN Nishina Center has been constructing the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) and succeeded in beam commissioning of its accelerator complex at the end of 2006. The world's first superconducting ring cyclotron (SRC) is the final booster in the RIBF accelerator complex which is able to accelerate all-element heavy ions to a speed of about 70% of the velocity of light. The ring cyclotron consists of 6 major superconducting sector magnets with a maximum field of 3.8 T. The total stored energy is 235 MJ, and its overall sizes are 19 m diameter, 8 m height and 8,300 tons. The magnet system assembly was completed in August 2005, and successfully reached the maximum field in November 2005. The first beam was extracted at the end of 2006 and the first uranium beam was extracted in March 2007. However operation of the helium refrigerator was not satisfactory although the commissioning of SRC was successful. Operation was stopped every two month due to degradation of its cooling power. In February 2008 the reason of the degradation was revealed to be oil contamination. Operation of the cryogenic system was restarted from August 2008 after hard task to clean up the helium refrigerator and to add oil separators to the compressor. After restoration long-term steady operation to keep the magnet superconducting continued for about 8 months with no sign of degradation of cooling capacity.

  4. Nuclear Astrophysics Programs with Low-Energy RI Beams at CRIB

    SciTech Connect

    Kubono, S.; Binh, Dam N.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Kahl, D. M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Komatsubara, T.; Kato, S.; Khiem, Le H.

    2010-04-30

    Nuclear astrophysics activities with CNS RI beam separator (CRIB) are reported together with the present status of the CRIB facility which is supported by the AVF upgrade project for the total development of the low-energy RIB facility. The activities include direct and indirect measurements of stellar reactions especially relevant to explosive burning processes such as nova and supernovae. Some recent results are discussed together with a scope of the facility.

  5. Ion-optical studies of BigRIPS separator and ZeroDegree spectrometer at RIKEN RI Beam Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Hiroyuki; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Ohnishi, Tetsuya; Fukuda, Naoki; Kameda, Daisuke; Kusaka, Kensuke; Yoshida, Atsushi; Yoshida, Koichi; Ohtake, Masao; Inabe, Naohito; Yanagisawa, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Kanenobu; Matsushita, Masafumi

    2009-10-01

    The BigRIPS in-flight separator[1] and the ZeroDegree spectrometer (ZDS) have been commissioned at RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF) recently. Intense radioactive isotope (RI) beams are produced, separated and analyzed by the BigRIPS and the ZDS. Both of them are operated in several optical modes according to experimental conditions. For particle identifications of RI beams, it is essentially important to achieve high resolutions in A/Q ratio because RI beams are produced in several charge states in our energy region especially for heavy RI beams. Ion optical calculation with realistic magnetic field maps is indispensable for our purpose and we use COSY INFINITY[2] for that. Measured field maps are incorporated in the COSY calculations. In 2008, the ZDS was commissioned for the first time in three different modes. Experimental results and comparison with the COSY calculations will be presented in this report. [1]T. Kubo: Nucl. Instr. Meth. B204, 97 (2003). [2]K. Makino, M. Berz: Nucl. Instr. Meth. A558, 346 (2006).

  6. Performance of ion surfing rf-carpets for RI beam gas catcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Fumiya; Ito, Yuta; Katayama, Ichirou; Schury, Peter; Sonoda, Tetsu; Wada, Michiharu; Wollnik, Hermann

    2014-09-01

    High-energy RI beams produced in-flight by fragmentation or fission are used in ion trap-based precision experiments after being stopped in a gas catcher. The stopped ions can be extracted from the gas catcher as a low energy ion beam. In order to transport and extract ions quickly and efficiently, an rf-carpet (RFC) method utilizing a dc potential gradient has been the standard technique. However, such a method is restricted by the transport time to longer half-life isotopes due to the maximum dc gradient that can be supported before electric discharges occur in the gas catcher. To avoid that limitation, a hybrid technique wherein the dc gradient is replaced by a traveling potential wave was proposed, called ``ion surfing''. Recently, we have demonstrated ion extraction using a circular RFC under low and intermediate pressures. For the first time we demonstrated the ion extraction using an rf-carpet in high-pressure He gas. An efficiency of nearly 100% was obtained at 200 mbar He gas pressure for K+ ions.

  7. Mass Measurement with Rare-RI Rin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Akira

    2014-09-01

    Mass measurement with Rare-RI Ring in RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF) will be presented. The main purpose of Rare-RI Ring is to measure the mass for very neutron-rich nuclei, the production rate of which is very small (rare RI) and the life-time of which is predicted to be very short (less than 10 ms). In Rare-RI Ring, mass measurements will be performed based on isochronous mass spectrometry. There are two innovative apparatus in Rare-RI Ring: individual injection, which can realize the injection of 200 A MeV rare RI one-by-one, and a cyclotron-like storage ring, which allows high isochronous magnetic fields with large angular and momentum acceptances (~1%). By these apparatus, we will achieve a 10-6 mass resolution, and will be able to access rare RI, the production rate of which is down to 1 event/day/pnA in RIBF. Construction of Rare-RI Ring has started from the 2012 fiscal year. Construction of the storage ring itself was almost completed. In this fiscal year, we succeeded to store alphas from 241Am source and to check the production of isochronous fields in the storage ring. In this talk, present status of Rare-RI Ring and the possible mass measurement there will be presented.

  8. Development of a beam line for radio-isotope production at the KOMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Han-Sung

    2016-09-01

    A new beam line of the 100-MeV proton linac at the KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex), aiming for RI (radioisotope) production has been constructed reflecting the increasing demands for various RIs (radioisotopes), such as Sr-82 and Cu-67 for medical applications. Proton beam with beam energy of 100 MeV and an average current of 0.6 mA is directed to the 100-mm-diameter production target through a beam window made of aluminum-beryllium alloy. Major components of the newly-installed beam line include electromagnets for bending and focusing, beam diagnostic systems such as a BPM (beam position monitor) and a BCM (beam current monitor), and a vacuum pumping system based on an ion pump. In this paper, the design features and the installation of the RI-production beam line at the KOMAC are given.

  9. Low-energy RI beam technology and nuclear clusters in the explosive pp-chain breakout process

    SciTech Connect

    Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D. M.; Ohshiro, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Yamazaki, N.; Teranishi, T.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Kase, M.; Hayakawa, S.; Kwon, Y. K.; Hashimoto, T.; Fukuda, Y.; He, J. J.; Goto, A.; Muto, H.

    2014-05-09

    The lecture includes two parts: One is a discussion on the technology for developing RIB beam facility based on the in-flight method and relevant experimental technology. The second part is a discussion on experimental efforts for studying the breakout process from the pp-chain region based on recent works with low energy RI beams. The discussion of the second part specifically covers the problem of the vp-process in type II supernovae in terms of alpha cluster nature for the reactions.

  10. TRAF6 specifically contributes to FcepsilonRI-mediated cytokine production but not mast cell degranulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong Jun; Chen, Wei; Carrigan, Svetlana O; Chen, Wei-Min; Roth, Kristy; Akiyama, Taishin; Inoue, Jun-ichiro; Marshall, Jean S; Berman, Jason N; Lin, Tong-Jun

    2008-11-14

    TRAF6 (tumor necrosis factor-associated factor 6) is an essential adaptor downstream from the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor and Toll-like receptor superfamily members. This molecule is critical for dendritic cell maturation and T cell homeostasis. Here we show that TRAF6 is important in high affinity IgE receptor, FcepsilonRI-mediated mast cell activation. In contrast to dendritic cells and T cells, TRAF6-deficient mast cells matured normally and showed normal IgE-dependent degranulation. Importantly, TRAF6-deficient mast cells showed impaired production of cytokine interleukin-6, CCL-9, interleukin-13, and TNF following FcepsilonRI aggregation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed decreased NF-kappaB p65 binding to CCL-9 and TNF promoters in TRAF6-deficient mast cells. Antigen and IgE-induced IkappaB phosphorylation and NF-kappaB p65 translocation to the nucleus were diminished in TRAF6-deficient mast cells. NF-kappaB luciferase activity in response to antigen and IgE stimulation was severely impaired in TRAF6-deficient mast cells. In addition, antigen and IgE-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 and JNK, but not ERK1/2, was significantly reduced in TRAF6-deficient mast cells. These results identified TRAF6 as an important signal transducer in FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling in mast cells. Our findings implicate TRAF6 as a new adaptor/regulator molecule for allergen-mediated inflammation in allergy.

  11. SIM.RI(I)-K3 comparison of calibration coefficients at radiotherapy level for orthovoltage x-ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, M.; McCaffrey, J.; Shen, H.; Saraví, M.; Stefanic, A.; Montaño Ortiz, G.; Carlos, M.; da Silva, C.; Álvarez, J.; Tovar, V.

    2015-01-01

    Air-kerma calibration coefficients were compared at the radiotherapy level for orthovoltage x ray beams in the SIM.RI(I)-K3 comparison for members of the Sistema Interamericano de Metrología (SIM). Five SIM laboratories participated in the comparison: NIST, NRC, ININ, CNEA and LNMRI, the NIST being the pilot laboratory. Results from the comparison are linked to the BIPM.RI(I)-K3 key comparison reference value through the NIST-BIPM comparison made in 2003 and will meet requirements of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) to support several CMCs (calibration and measurement capability claims) of the participants. The comparison began in October of 2007 and the measurements were completed in September 2008. The results reveal the degree to which the participating calibration facility can demonstrate proficiency in transferring air-kerma calibrations under the conditions of the said facility at the time of the measurements. The evaluation of the degrees of equivalence was performed as described in the comparison protocol. The comparison of the calibration coefficients for the four chambers is based on the average ratios of the calibration coefficients measured at the NIST and at each participating laboratory. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  12. Low-energy radioactive ion beam production of 22Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duy, N. N.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Kwon, Y. K.; Khiem, L. H.; Kim, Y. H.; Song, J. S.; Hu, J.; Ayyad, Y.

    2013-09-01

    The 22Mg nucleus plays an important role in nuclear astrophysics, specially in the 22Mg(α,p)25Al and proton capture 22Mg(p,γ)23Al reactions. It is believed that 22Mg is a waiting point in the αp-process of nucleosynthesis in novae. We proposed a direct measurement of the 22Mg+α resonance reaction in inverse kinematics using a radioactive ion (RI) beam. A 22Mg beam of 3.73 MeV/u was produced at CRIB (Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) low-energy RI Beam) facility of the University of Tokyo located at RIKEN (Japan) in 2011. In this paper we present the results about the production of the 22Mg beam used for the direct measurement of the scattering reaction 22Mg(α,α)22Mg, and the stellar reaction 22Mg(α,p)25Al in the energy region concerning an astrophysical temperature of T9=1-3 GK.

  13. Status of Beam Line Detectors for the BigRIPS Fragment Separator at RIKEN RI Beam Factory: Issues on High Rates and Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yuki; Fukuda, Naoki; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Kameda, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yohei; Ahn, DeukSoon; Murai, Daichi; Inabe, Naohito; Shimaoka, Takehiro; Tsubota, Masakatsu; Kaneko, Junichi H.; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Shikata, Shinichi; Kumagai, Hidekazu; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Sato, Hiromi; Yoshida, Koichi; Kubo, Toshiyuki

    A multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) and parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPACs) were installed within the superconducting in-flight separator, named BigRIPS, at the RIKEN Nishina Center for particle identification of RI beams. The MUSIC detector showed negligible charge collection inefficiency from recombination of electrons and ions, up to a 99-kcps incidence rate for high-energy heavy ions. For the PPAC detectors, the electrical discharge durability for incident heavy ions was improved by changing the electrode material. Finally, we designed a single crystal diamond detector, which is under development for TOF measurements of high-energy heavy ions, that has a very fast response time (pulse width <1 ns).

  14. Design study on the beam line for radioisotope production at KOMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung

    2015-10-01

    A beam line for radioisotope (RI) production was designed for the 100-MeV proton linear accelerator at Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC). The specifications of the beam line are such that the energy is 100 MeV and the average current is 0.6 mA for a target size of 100 mm in diameter. The system consists of a beam transport system including a magnet, a vacuum system, beam diagnostics, power supplies and a control system. The key components of the system are the high-field 45 bending magnet, the beam scanning system and beam window. In this paper, the design of the beam line and its key components are presented.

  15. Production of negatively charged radioactive ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Stracener, D. W.; Stora, T.

    2017-08-01

    Beams of short-lived radioactive nuclei are needed for frontier experimental research in nuclear structure, reactions, and astrophysics. Negatively charged radioactive ion beams have unique advantages and allow for the use of a tandem accelerator for post-acceleration, which can provide the highest beam quality and continuously variable energies. Negative ion beams can be obtained with high intensity and some unique beam purification techniques based on differences in electronegativity and chemical reactivity can be used to provide beams with high purity. This article describes the production of negative radioactive ion beams at the former holifield radioactive ion beam facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at the CERN ISOLDE facility with emphasis on the development of the negative ion sources employed at these two facilities. ).

  16. Beam Energy Calibration with Meson Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razen, B.; Betigeri, M. G.; Bojowald, J.; Budzanowski, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Drochner, M.; Ernst, J.; Foertsch, S.; Freindl, L.; Frekers, D.; Garske, W.; Grewer, K.; Hamacher, A.; Hawash, M.; Igel, S.; Ilieva, I.; Jahn, R.; Jarczyk, L.; Kemmerling, G.; Kilian, K.; Kliczewski, S.; Klimala, W.; Kolev, D.; Kutsarova, T.; Lieb, B. J.; Lippert, G.; Machner, H.; Magiera, A.; Maier, R.; Nann, H.; Plendl, H. S.; Protic, D.; Razen, B.; von Rossen, P.; Roy, B.; Siudak, R.; Smyrski, J.; Strzalkowski, A.; Tsenov, R.; Zolnierczuk, P. A.

    1998-11-01

    The magnetic spectrometer BIG KARL is used to get energy calibration fix-points for the external beam of COSY-Juelich. These fixpoints were obtained by measuring the meson-production reaction pp → dπ+ close to threshold and at the beam momentum, where the forward pions and the backward deuterons have the same momentum.

  17. Acidic environment augments FcεRI-mediated production of IL-6 and IL-13 in mast cells.

    PubMed

    Kamide, Yosuke; Ishizuka, Tamotsu; Tobo, Masayuki; Tsurumaki, Hiroaki; Aoki, Haruka; Mogi, Chihiro; Nakakura, Takashi; Yatomi, Masakiyo; Ono, Akihiro; Koga, Yasuhiko; Sato, Koichi; Hisada, Takeshi; Dobashi, Kunio; Yamada, Masanobu; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2015-08-28

    Although blood pH is maintained in a narrow range of around pH 7.4 in living organisms, inflammatory loci are characterized by acidic conditions. Mast cells tend to reside close to the surface of the body in areas such as the mucosa and skin where they may be exposed to exogenous acids, and they play an important role in immune responses. However, little is known about the effects of extracellular acidification on the functions of mast cell. Here, we found that extracellular acidification increased the dinitrophenyl-conjugated human serum albumin (DNP-HSA)-induced production of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-13 in MC/9 cells or bone marrow-derived mouse mast cells sensitized with anti-DNP IgE. Extracellular acidification also inhibited migration of MC/9 cells toward DNP-HSA. In addition, acidic pH stimulated antigen-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B (Akt). These findings suggest that extracellular acidification augmented antigen/IgE-induced and FcεRI-mediated production of IL-6 and IL-13 in mast cells, and that this was associated with the enhancement of p38 MAPK and Akt activation.

  18. Acidic environment augments FcεRI-mediated production of IL-6 and IL-13 in mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kamide, Yosuke; Ishizuka, Tamotsu; Tobo, Masayuki; Tsurumaki, Hiroaki; Aoki, Haruka; Mogi, Chihiro; Nakakura, Takashi; Yatomi, Masakiyo; Ono, Akihiro; Koga, Yasuhiko; Sato, Koichi; Hisada, Takeshi; Dobashi, Kunio; Yamada, Masanobu; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2015-08-28

    Although blood pH is maintained in a narrow range of around pH 7.4 in living organisms, inflammatory loci are characterized by acidic conditions. Mast cells tend to reside close to the surface of the body in areas such as the mucosa and skin where they may be exposed to exogenous acids, and they play an important role in immune responses. However, little is known about the effects of extracellular acidification on the functions of mast cell. Here, we found that extracellular acidification increased the dinitrophenyl-conjugated human serum albumin (DNP-HSA)-induced production of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-13 in MC/9 cells or bone marrow-derived mouse mast cells sensitized with anti-DNP IgE. Extracellular acidification also inhibited migration of MC/9 cells toward DNP-HSA. In addition, acidic pH stimulated antigen-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B (Akt). These findings suggest that extracellular acidification augmented antigen/IgE-induced and FcεRI-mediated production of IL-6 and IL-13 in mast cells, and that this was associated with the enhancement of p38 MAPK and Akt activation. - Highlights: • Antigen-induced IL-6 and IL-13 production was augmented by acidic pH in mast cells. • Acidic pH-induced actions were associated with activation of p38 MAPK and Akt. • Inhibition of p38 MAPK and Akt attenuated cytokine responses to acidic pH. • Acidic pH effects are not attributable to actions of known proton-sensing GPCRs.

  19. Energy Production Demonstrator for Megawatt Proton Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Pronskikh, Vitaly S.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Novitski, Igor; Tyutyunnikov, Sergey I.

    2014-07-16

    A preliminary study of the Energy Production Demonstrator (EPD) concept - a solid heavy metal target irradiated by GeV-range intense proton beams and producing more energy than consuming - is carried out. Neutron production, fission, energy deposition, energy gain, testing volume and helium production are simulated with the MARS15 code for tungsten, thorium, and natural uranium targets in the proton energy range 0.5 to 120 GeV. This study shows that the proton energy range of 2 to 4 GeV is optimal for both a natU EPD and the tungsten-based testing station that would be the most suitable for proton accelerator facilities. Conservative estimates, not including breeding and fission of plutonium, based on the simulations suggest that the proton beam current of 1 mA will be sufficient to produce 1 GW of thermal output power with the natU EPD while supplying < 8% of that power to operate the accelerator. The thermal analysis shows that the concept considered has a problem due to a possible core meltdown; however, a number of approaches (a beam rastering, in first place) are suggested to mitigate the issue. The efficiency of the considered EPD as a Materials Test Station (MTS) is also evaluated in this study.

  20. Nuclear Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics Studies with Fast Heavy-Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motobayashi, Tohru

    Collaboration between France and Japan on studies with fast RI (radioactive isotope) beams and related technical developments started in 1980s, when the GANIL accelerators and RIKEN cyclotron complex started operation and RI beam production technique was developed. Several examples of collaboration on nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics experiments including related technical development are discussed.

  1. Production of a thermal stress resistant mutant Euglena gracilis strain using Fe-ion beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Koji; Kazama, Yusuke; Mitra, Sharbanee; Marukawa, Yuka; Arashida, Ryo; Abe, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kengo

    2016-08-01

    Euglena gracilis is a common phytoplankton species, which also has motile flagellate characteristics. Recent research and development has enabled the industrial use of E. gracilis and selective breeding of this species is expected to further expand its application. However, the production of E. gracilis nuclear mutants is difficult because of the robustness of its genome. To establish an efficient mutation induction procedure for E. gracilis, we employed Fe-ion beam irradiation in the RIKEN RI beam factory. A decrease in the survival rate was observed with the increase in irradiation dose, and the upper limit used for E. gracilis selective breeding was around 50 Gy. For a practical trial of Fe-ion irradiation, we conducted a screening to isolate high-temperature-tolerant mutants. The screening yielded mutants that proliferated faster than the wild-type strain at 32 °C. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of heavy-ion irradiation on E. gracilis selective breeding.

  2. Making radioactive ion beams - Detecting reaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raabe, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    We present a didactical overview of the methods for the production of radioactive ion beams (RIBs), discussing the main characteristics and associated advantages and drawbacks of the in-flight separation and isotope separation on-line methods. We include a short overview of present and planned facilities, focusing on Europe. In the second part of the paper a brief introduction on the detection of radiation is given, followed by a discussion of the specific problems related to radiation detection in measurements involving RIBs. A few illustrative examples of detection setups are presented.

  3. Production of an 15O beam using a stable oxygen ion beam for in-beam PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Akram; Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inaniwa, Taku; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yamaya, Taiga

    2017-03-01

    In advanced ion therapy, the 15O ion beam is a promising candidate to treat hypoxic tumors and simultaneously monitor the delivered dose to a patient using PET imaging. This study aimed at production of an 15O beam by projectile fragmentation of a stable 16O beam in an optimal material, followed by in-beam PET imaging using a prototype OpenPET system, which was developed in the authors' group. The study was carried out in three steps: selection of the optimal target based on the highest production rate of 15O fragments; experimental production of the beam using the optimal target in the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Chiba (HIMAC) secondary beam course; and realization of in-beam PET imaging for the produced beam. The optimal target evaluations were done using the Monte Carlo simulation code PHITS. The fluence and mean energy of the secondary particles were simulated and the optimal target was selected based on the production rate of 15O fragments. The highest production rate of 15O was observed for a liquid hydrogen target, 3.27% for a 53 cm thick target from the 16O beam of 430 MeV/u. Since liquid hydrogen is not practically applicable in the HIMAC secondary beam course a hydrogen-rich polyethylene material, which was the second optimal target from the simulation results, was selected as the experimental target. Three polyethylene targets with thicknesses of 5, 11 or 14 cm were used to produce the 15O beam without any degrader in the beam course. The highest production rate was measured as around 0.87% for the 11 cm thick polyethylene target from the 16O beam of 430 MeV/u when the angular acceptance and momentum acceptance were set at ±13 mrad and ±2.5%, respectively. The purity of the produced beam for the three targets were around 75%, insufficient for clinical application, but it was increased to 97% by inserting a wedge shape aluminum degrader with a thickness of 1.76 cm into the beam course and that is sufficiently high. In-beam PET imaging was also

  4. The production of accelerated radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.

    1993-11-01

    During the last few years, substantial work has been done and interest developed in the scientific opportunities available with accelerated radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for nuclear physics, astrophysics, and applied research. This interest has led to the construction, development, and proposed development of both first- and second-generation RIB facilities in Asia, North America, and Europe; international conferences on RIBs at Berkeley and Louvain-la-Neuve; and many workshops on specific aspects of RIB production and science. This paper provides a discussion of both the projectile fragmentation, PF, and isotope separator on-line, ISOL, approach to RIB production with particular emphasis on the latter approach, which employs a postaccelerator and is most suitable for nuclear structure physics. The existing, under construction, and proposed facilities worldwide are discussed. The paper draws heavily from the CERN ISOLDE work, the North American IsoSpin Laboratory (ISL) study, and the operating first-generation RIB facility at Louvain-la-Neuve, and the first-generation RIB project currently being constructed at ORNL.

  5. Efficient laser production of energetic neutral beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollica, F.; Antonelli, L.; Flacco, A.; Braenzel, J.; Vauzour, B.; Folpini, G.; Birindelli, G.; Schnuerer, M.; Batani, D.; Malka, V.

    2016-03-01

    Laser-driven ion acceleration by intense, ultra-short, laser pulse has received increasing attention in recent years, and the availability of much compact and versatile ions sources motivates the study of laser-driven sources of energetic neutral atoms. We demonstrate the production of a neutral and directional beam of hydrogen and carbon atoms up to 200 keV per nucleon, with a peak flow of 2.7× {{10}13} atom s-1. Laser accelerated ions are neutralized in a pulsed, supersonic argon jet with tunable density between 1.5× {{10}17} cm-3and 6× {{10}18} cm-3. The neutralization efficiency has been measured by a time-of-flight detector for different argon densities. An optimum is found, for which complete neutralization occurs. The neutralization rate can be explained only at high areal densities (>1× {{10}17} cm-2) by single electron charge transfer processes. These results suggest a new perspective for the study of neutral production by laser and open discussion of neutralization at a lower density.

  6. Anti-hydrogen production with positron beam ion trap

    SciTech Connect

    Itahashi, Takahisa

    2008-08-08

    In low-energy antiproton physics, it is advantageous to be able to manipulate anti-particles as freely as normal particles. A robust production and storage system for high-quality positrons and antiprotons would be a substantial advance for the development of anti-matter science. The idea of electron beam ion trap could be applied for storage of anti-particle when the electron beam could be replaced by the positron beam. The bright positron beam would be brought about using synchrotron radiation source with a superconducting wiggler. The new scheme for production of anti-particles is proposed by using new accelerator technologies.

  7. Modelling Beam Dynamics and RF Production in Two Beam Accelerators with a Hybrid Simulation Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidia, Steven

    2000-04-01

    A hybrid mapping and PIC code is described and applied to the study of transient-to-steady-state phenomena of beam dynamics and rf power production in relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerators. Beam and beamline parameters appropriate to a single device that produces 40-100 MW per meter over 10 meters with a 120 ns pulse length are described and used.

  8. Redesigned Electron-Beam Furnace Boosts Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Gary A.

    1995-01-01

    Redesigned electron-beam furnace features carousel of greater capacity so more experiments conducted per loading, and time spent on reloading and vacuum pump-down reduced. Common mounting plate for electron source and carousel simplifies installation and reduces vibration.

  9. Redesigned Electron-Beam Furnace Boosts Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Gary A.

    1995-01-01

    Redesigned electron-beam furnace features carousel of greater capacity so more experiments conducted per loading, and time spent on reloading and vacuum pump-down reduced. Common mounting plate for electron source and carousel simplifies installation and reduces vibration.

  10. A beam sweeping system for the Fermilab antiproton production target

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F.M.

    1993-08-01

    In the Main Injector era beam intensities high enough to damage the antiproton production target will be available. In order to continue to operate with a tightly-focused primary beam spot on the target, and thus maintain yield, it will be necessary to spread the hot spot on the target by use of a beam sweeping system. This report summarizes the requirements for such a system, and addresses the issues involved in the design of a sweeping system.

  11. Radioactive Ion Beam Production Capabilities at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Beene, James R; Dowling, Darryl T; Gross, Carl J; Juras, Raymond C; Liu, Yuan; Meigs, Martha J; Mendez, II, Anthony J; Nazarewicz, Witold; Sinclair, John William; Stracener, Daniel W; Tatum, B Alan

    2011-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) is a national user facility for research with radioactive ion beams (RIBs) that has been in routine operation since 1996. It is located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and operated by the ORNL Physics Division. The principal mission of HRIBF is the production of high-quality beams of short-lived radioactive isotopes to support research in nuclear structure physics and nuclear astrophysics. HRIBF is currently unique worldwide in its ability to provide neutron-rich fission fragment beams post-accelerated to energies above the Coulomb barrier for nuclear reactions.

  12. Coherent 455 nm beam production in a cesium vapor.

    PubMed

    Schultz, J T; Abend, S; Döring, D; Debs, J E; Altin, P A; White, J D; Robins, N P; Close, J D

    2009-08-01

    We observe coherent, cw, 455 nm blue-beam production via frequency upconversion in cesium vapor. Two IR lasers induce strong double excitation in a heated cesium vapor cell, allowing the atoms to undergo a double cascade and produce a coherent, collimated, blue beam copropagating with the two IR pump lasers.

  13. Production of an Accelerated Oxygen-14 Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, James; O'Neil, James P.; Cerny, Joseph

    2002-05-03

    BEARS is an ongoing project to provide a light-ion radioactive-beam capability at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL. Light radioactive isotopes are produced at a 10 MeV proton medical cyclotron, transported 350 m via a high-speed gas transport capillary, cryogenically separated, and injected into the 88-Inch Cyclotron's ion source. The first radioactive beam successfully accelerated was Carbon-11 and beams of intensity more than 108 ions/sec have been utilized for experiments. Development of Oxygen-14 as the second BEARS beam presented considerable technical challenges, both due to its short half-life of 71 seconds and the radiation chemistry of oxygen in the target. The usual techniques developed for medical uses of Oxygen-15 involve the addition of significant amounts of carrier oxygen, something that would overload the ion source. As a solution, Oxygen-14 is produced as water in a carrier-free form, and is chemically converted in two steps to carbon dioxide, a form readily usable by the BEARS. This system has been built and is operational, and initial tests of accelerating an Oxygen-14 beam have been performed.

  14. HPLC separation and determination of 12 cholesterol oxidation products in fish: comparative study of RI, UV, and APCI-MS detectors.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Tatiana; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Bragagnolo, Neura

    2006-06-14

    A simple, fast, and sensitive method for the extraction through direct saponification, separation, quantification, and identification of 12 cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) and cholesterol in a single isocratic, normal-phase, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. Three detectors were compared for determination of COPs and cholesterol in fish samples: refractive index (RI), ultraviolet (UV), and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). The results did not show significant differences (p > 0.05) between the concentration of the cholesterol oxides and cholesterol obtained with these detectors. The present study demonstrated the presence of 19-hydroxycholesterol, 22"R"-hydroxycholesterol, 22"S"-hydroxycholesterol, 24"S"-hydroxycholesterol, and 25"R"-hydroxycholesterol for the first time in fish samples.

  15. Comparison of air kerma-length product measurements between the PTB and the IAEA for x-radiation qualities used in computed tomography (EURAMET.RI(I)-S12, EURAMET project #1327)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csete, István; Büermann, Ludwig; Alikhani, Babak; Gomola, Igor

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of air kerma-length product determinations for standard radiation qualities defined for use in computed tomography was performed between the PTB and the IAEA as EURAMET project #1327, registered in the KCDB as the EURAMET.RI(I)-S12 comparison. A pencil type reference-class ionization chamber of the IAEA and the three RQT beam qualities established according to the IEC standard 61627:2005 were selected for the comparison. The calibration coefficients for the transfer chamber in terms of Gycm/C at the PTB and the IAEA using the partial irradiation method recommended in the IAEA TRS 457 were determined. The results show the calibration coefficients of both laboratories were in a very good agreement of about 0.2 % well within the estimated relative standard uncertainty of the comparison of about 0.8 %. Residual correction due to the additional aperture required for partial irradiation of pencil chambers and feasibility of the full irradiation method were also studied. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. ITEP MEVVA ion beam for rhenium silicide production

    SciTech Connect

    Kulevoy, T.; Seleznev, D.; Kropachev, G.; Kozlov, A.; Kuibeda, R.; Yakushin, P.; Petrenko, S.; Gerasimenko, N.; Medetov, N.; Zaporozhan, O.

    2010-02-15

    The rhenium silicides are very attractive materials for semiconductor industry. In the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) at the ion source test bench the research program of rhenium silicide production by ion beam implantation are going on. The investigation of silicon wafer after implantation of rhenium ion beam with different energy and with different total dose were carried out by secondary ions mass spectrometry, energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis, and x-ray diffraction analysis. The first promising results of rhenium silicide film production by high intensity ion beam implantation are presented.

  17. Resveratrol Suppresses Cytokine Production Linked to FcεRI-MAPK Activation in IgE-Antigen Complex-Exposed Basophilic Mast Cells and Mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Seon-Young; Choi, Yean-Jung; Kang, Min-Kyung; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-01-01

    A complicated interplay between resident mast cells and other recruited inflammatory cells contributes to the development and progression of allergic inflammation entailing the promotion of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine responses. The current study examined whether resveratrol suppressed the production of inflammatory Th2 cytokines in cultured rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. Cells pre-treated with resveratrol nontoxic at 1–25 μM were sensitized with anti-dinitrophenyl (anti-DNP), and subsequently stimulated by dinitrophenyl-human serum albumin (DNP–HSA) antigen. Resveratrol dose-dependently diminished the secretion of interleukin (IL)-3, IL-4, IL-13 as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α by the antigen stimulation from sensitized cells. It was found that resveratrol mitigated the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK, and JNK elevated in mast cells exposed to Fc epsilon receptor I (FcεRI)-mediated immunoglobulin E (IgE)-antigen complex. The FcεRI aggregation was highly enhanced on the surface of mast cells following the HSA stimulation, which was retarded by treatment with 1–25 μM resveratrol. The IgE-receptor engagement rapidly induced tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Src-related focal adhesion protein paxillin involved in the cytoskeleton rearrangement. The FcεRI-mediated rapid activation of c-Src and paxillin was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the paxillin activation entailed p38 MAPK and ERK-responsive signaling, but the JNK activation was less involved. Consistently, oral administration of resveratrol reduced the tissue level of phosphorylated paxillin in the dorsal skin of DNP–HSA-challenged mice. The other tyrosine kinase Tyk2-STAT1 signaling was activated in the dorsal epidermis of antigen-exposed mice, which was associated with allergic inflammation. These results showed that resveratrol inhibited Th2 cytokines- and paxillin-linked allergic responses dependent upon MAPK signaling. Therefore, resveratrol may possess the

  18. High power targets for production of intense radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Talbert, W. L.; Drake, D. M.; Wilson, M. T.; Walker, J. J.; Lenz, J. W.

    1999-04-26

    Issues are discussed in producing intense Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) using the Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) approach, based on the use of thick targets employed at existing facilities. Some new physics studies may possibly be addressed by improving the performance of these existing targets through improvements in release and effusion properties to optimize the RIB yields. It is, however, acknowledged that many desired physics objectives using RIB can be met only by employing production beams of energetic light ions or protons with currents up to 100 {mu}A. Development of targets that use such intense production beams needs to address the requirement to control operational temperatures derived from internal production beam interactions with the target materials. In addition, issues arise for target materials in terms of their thermal characteristics, such as thermal conductivity and thermo-mechanical properties. A target concept is described for an in-beam test of a prototype target for actual thermal behavior under RIB production conditions. For such a test, a high-power test facility is needed; fortunately, the prototypical production beam currents required exist at the TRIUMF accelerator facility. An experimental proposal has been approved for such a test.

  19. {sup 18}Ne production for the Beta beams project

    SciTech Connect

    Hodák, Rastislav; Stora, Thierry

    2013-12-30

    Intense relativistic (anti)neutrino beams are an unique tool required to study fundamental properties of neutrinos such as neutrino oscillation parameters, as well as their Majorana or Dirac nature, the lepton number conservation hypothesis and the absolute neutrino mass scale. Such beams originate from acceleration of β-decaying radioactive ions (“Beta beams”). A molten fluoride salt target has been developed for the production of the required rates of low-Q baseline isotope {sup 18}Ne for the Beta beams project. The prototyped unit has been tested on-line at ISOLDE-CERN. In this contribution an overview of the prototyping and on-line tests is presented.

  20. Rare-RI ring for mass measurements at RIBF

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, Akira

    2014-05-02

    The rare-RI (radioactive isotope) ring at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory is described. The main purpose of the rare-RI ring is to measure the mass of short-lived rare RI. In the rare-RI ring, the mass is determined by measuring the revolution time of each nucleus based on isochronous mass spectrometry. The rare-RI ring consists of six magnetic sectors, and each sector consists of four dipole magnets. To precisely optimize the isochronous conditions of the circulating particles for large acceptance, we install 10 trim coils to half of the dipole magnets. Individual injection system enables efficient injection of the produced rare RI into the ring one by one. With facilitating efficient extraction of the circulating particles, time-of-flight measurements can be performed to the each rare RI. Construction of the rare-RI ring was begun in the middle of the fiscal year 2012, and the ring is expected to be fully functional by 2015, when we can start the mass measurements for unknown masses.

  1. Rare-RI ring for mass measurements at RIBF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Akira

    2014-05-01

    The rare-RI (radioactive isotope) ring at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory is described. The main purpose of the rare-RI ring is to measure the mass of short-lived rare RI. In the rare-RI ring, the mass is determined by measuring the revolution time of each nucleus based on isochronous mass spectrometry. The rare-RI ring consists of six magnetic sectors, and each sector consists of four dipole magnets. To precisely optimize the isochronous conditions of the circulating particles for large acceptance, we install 10 trim coils to half of the dipole magnets. Individual injection system enables efficient injection of the produced rare RI into the ring one by one. With facilitating efficient extraction of the circulating particles, time-of-flight measurements can be performed to the each rare RI. Construction of the rare-RI ring was begun in the middle of the fiscal year 2012, and the ring is expected to be fully functional by 2015, when we can start the mass measurements for unknown masses.

  2. Comparison of air kerma measurements for tungsten anode based mammography x-ray beam qualities (EURAMET.RI(I)-S4.1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csete, I.; Büermann, L.; Gomola, I.

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of the air kerma standards for x-radiation qualities used in mammography was performed between the PTB and the IAEA. Two reference-class ionization chamber types Radcal RC6M and Magna A650 of the IAEA and tungsten anode based beam qualities with Mo and Al external filtrations (W+Mo, W+Al) established at both laboratories were selected for the comparison. The calibration coefficients, NK_air, were determined for the transfer chambers at the PTB in May 2015 and before and after this at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory. The results show good agreement, to be well within the 0.55 % standard uncertainty of the comparison. Correction factors to determine NK_air for these beam qualities based on calibration in RQR-M mammography beam qualities, established according to the IEC 61267 standard, were also calculated for the Radcal RC6M, 10X5-6M, and Magna A650 types of chambers. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  3. Shielding calculations for a production target for secondary beams

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K.E.; Back, B.B.; Jiang, C.L.

    1995-08-01

    In order to estimate the amount of shielding required for a radioactive beam facility dose rate were performed. The calculations for production targets with different geometries were performed. The calculations were performed with the MSU shielding code assuming a 500-p{mu}A 200-MeV deuteron beam stopped in a thick Al target. The target and the ion-optical elements for beam extraction are located in a 2 m{sup 3} large volume at the center of the production cell. These dose rate calculations show that with a combination of Fe and concrete it is possible to reduce the dose rate expected at the surface of a 7-m-wide cube housing the production target to less than 2 mrem/hr.

  4. Ohmic heated sheet for the Ca ion beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Efremov, A.; Bogomolov, S.; Kazarinov, N.; Kochagov, O.; Loginov, V.

    2008-02-15

    The production of intense accelerated {sup 48}Ca ion beams is the key problem in the experiments on the synthesis of new superheavy nuclei. For this purpose in the FLNR (JINR), an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used at the U-400 cyclotron. The combination of a micro oven with a hot tantalum sheet inside the discharge chamber allowed the production of the intense {sup 48}Ca{sup 5+} ion beam at the {sup 48}Ca consumption of about 0.5 mg/h. In this case, the tantalum sheet is heated by microwaves and plasma electrons. The microwave power of up to 500 W is required to heat the sheet to the temperature of about 500 deg. C. To decrease the required microwave power, a new sheet with a direct Ohmic heating was designed. The present paper describes the method, technique, and preliminary experimental results on the production of the Ca ion beam.

  5. Production of isotopes using high power proton beams

    DOEpatents

    Nolen, Jr., Jerry A.; Gomes, Itacil C.

    2015-12-01

    The invention provides for a method for producing isotopes using a beam of particles from an accelerator, whereby the beam is maintained at between about 70 to 2000 MeV; and contacting a thorium-containing target with the particles. The medically important isotope .sup.225Ac is produced via the nuclear reaction (p,2p6n), whereby an energetic proton causes the ejection of 2 protons and 6 neutrons from a .sup.232Th target nucleus. Another medically important isotope .sup.213Bi is then available as a decay product. The production of highly purified .sup.211At is also provided.

  6. Nicotine inhibits Fc epsilon RI-induced cysteinyl leukotrienes and cytokine production without affecting mast cell degranulation through alpha 7/alpha 9/alpha 10-nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Neerad C; Rir-sima-ah, Jules; Boyd, R Thomas; Singh, Shashi P; Gundavarapu, Sravanthi; Langley, Raymond J; Razani-Boroujerdi, Seddigheh; Sopori, Mohan L

    2010-07-01

    Smokers are less likely to develop some inflammatory and allergic diseases. In Brown-Norway rats, nicotine inhibits several parameters of allergic asthma, including the production of Th2 cytokines and the cysteinyl leukotriene LTC(4). Cysteinyl leukotrienes are primarily produced by mast cells, and these cells play a central role in allergic asthma. Mast cells express a high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI). Following its cross-linking, cells degranulate and release preformed inflammatory mediators (early phase) and synthesize and secrete cytokines/chemokines and leukotrienes (late phase). The mechanism by which nicotine modulates mast cell activation is unclear. Using alpha-bungarotoxin binding and quantitative PCR and PCR product sequencing, we showed that the rat mast/basophil cell line RBL-2H3 expresses nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) alpha7, alpha9, and alpha10; exposure to exceedingly low concentrations of nicotine (nanomolar), but not the biologically inactive metabolite cotinine, for > or = 8 h suppressed the late phase (leukotriene/cytokine production) but not degranulation (histamine and hexosaminidase release). These effects were unrelated to those of nicotine on intracellular free calcium concentration but were causally associated with the inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) activity and the PI3K/ERK/NF-kappaB pathway, including phosphorylation of Akt and ERK and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. The suppressive effect of nicotine on the late-phase response was blocked by the alpha7/alpha9-nAChR antagonists methyllycaconitine and alpha-bungarotoxin, as well as by small interfering RNA knockdown of alpha7-, alpha9-, or alpha10-nAChRs, suggesting a functional interaction between alpha7-, alpha9-, and alpha10-nAChRs that might explain the response of RBL cells to nanomolar concentrations of nicotine. This "hybrid" receptor might serve as a target for novel antiallergic/antiasthmatic therapies.

  7. Production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL.

    PubMed

    Sun, L T; Zhao, H W; Lu, W; Zhang, X Z; Feng, Y C; Li, J Y; Cao, Y; Guo, X H; Ma, H Y; Zhao, H Y; Shang, Y; Ma, B H; Wang, H; Li, X X; Jin, T; Xie, D Z

    2010-02-01

    Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an all-superconducting-magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged ion beams to meet the requirements of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, an aluminum chamber has been installed inside a 1.5 mm thick Ta liner used for the reduction of x-ray irradiation at the high voltage insulator. With double-frequency (18+14.5 GHz) heating and at maximum total microwave power of 2.0 kW, SECRAL has successfully produced quite a few very highly charged Xe ion beams, such as 10 e microA of Xe(37+), 1 e microA of Xe(43+), and 0.16 e microA of Ne-like Xe(44+). To further explore the capability of the SECRAL in the production of highly charged heavy metal ion beams, a first test run on bismuth has been carried out recently. The main goal is to produce an intense Bi(31+) beam for HIRFL accelerator and to have a feel how well the SECRAL can do in the production of very highly charged Bi beams. During the test, though at microwave power less than 3 kW, more than 150 e microA of Bi(31+), 22 e microA of Bi(41+), and 1.5 e microA of Bi(50+) have been produced. All of these results have again demonstrated the great capability of the SECRAL source. This article will present the detailed results and brief discussions to the production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL.

  8. Production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L. T.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, J. Y.; Guo, X. H.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhao, H. Y.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Li, X. X.; Jin, T.; Xie, D. Z.; Lu, W.; Cao, Y.; Shang, Y.

    2010-02-15

    Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an all-superconducting-magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged ion beams to meet the requirements of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, an aluminum chamber has been installed inside a 1.5 mm thick Ta liner used for the reduction of x-ray irradiation at the high voltage insulator. With double-frequency (18+14.5 GHz) heating and at maximum total microwave power of 2.0 kW, SECRAL has successfully produced quite a few very highly charged Xe ion beams, such as 10 e {mu}A of Xe{sup 37+}, 1 e {mu}A of Xe{sup 43+}, and 0.16 e {mu}A of Ne-like Xe{sup 44+}. To further explore the capability of the SECRAL in the production of highly charged heavy metal ion beams, a first test run on bismuth has been carried out recently. The main goal is to produce an intense Bi{sup 31+} beam for HIRFL accelerator and to have a feel how well the SECRAL can do in the production of very highly charged Bi beams. During the test, though at microwave power less than 3 kW, more than 150 e {mu}A of Bi{sup 31+}, 22 e {mu}A of Bi{sup 41+}, and 1.5 e {mu}A of Bi{sup 50+} have been produced. All of these results have again demonstrated the great capability of the SECRAL source. This article will present the detailed results and brief discussions to the production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL.

  9. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 of the standards for absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 of the NMIJ, Japan and the BIPM in accelerator photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D. T.; Roger, P.; Shimizu, M.; Morishita, Y.; Kato, M.; Tanaka, T.; Kurosawa, T.; Saito, N.

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of the dosimetry for accelerator photon beams was carried out between the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) from 9 to 23 April 2015. The comparison was based on the determination of absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 for three radiation qualities at the NMIJ. The results, reported as ratios of the NMIJ and the BIPM evaluations (and with the combined standard uncertainties given in parentheses), are 0.9966 (47) at 6 MV, 0.9965 (60) at 10 MV and 0.9953 (50) at 15 MV. This result is the eighth in the on-going BIPM.RI(I)-K6 series of comparisons. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  10. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 of the standards for absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 of the NPL, United Kingdom and the BIPM in accelerator photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D. T.; Roger, P.; Duane, S.; Bass, G. A.; Manning, J. W.; Shipley, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of the dosimetry for accelerator photon beams was carried out between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) from 23 September to 7 October 2014. The comparison was based on the determination of absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 for three radiation qualities at the NPL. The results, reported as ratios of the NPL and the BIPM evaluations (and with the combined standard uncertainties given in parentheses), are 1.0000(62) at 6 MV, 0.9999(70) at 10 MV and 0.9993(80) at 25 MV. This result is the seventh in the on-going BIPM.RI(I)-K6 series of comparisons. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  11. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 of the standards for absorbed dose to water at 5 g cm-2 and 7 g cm-2 of the NPL, United Kingdom and the BIPM in accelerator photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D. T.; Roger, P.; Duane, S.; Bass, G. A.; Manning, J. W.; Shipley, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of the dosimetry for accelerator photon beams was carried out between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in two periods from September to November 2013. The comparison was based on the determination of absorbed dose to water for three radiation qualities at the NPL. The results, reported as ratios of the NPL and the BIPM evaluations (and with the combined standard uncertainties given in parentheses), are 0.9973(62) at 6 MV, 0.9995(66) at 10 MV and 0.9957(81) at 25 MV. This result is the sixth in the on-going BIPM.RI(I)-K6 series of comparisons. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  12. Enhancing Neutron Beam Production with a Convoluted Moderator

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, Erik B; Baxter, David V; Muhrer, Guenter; Ansell, Stuart; Gallmeier, Franz X; Dalgliesh, Robert; Lu, Wei; Kaiser, Helmut

    2014-10-01

    We describe a new concept for a neutron moderating assembly resulting in the more efficient production of slow neutron beams. The Convoluted Moderator, a heterogeneous stack of interleaved moderating material and nearly transparent single-crystal spacers, is a directionally-enhanced neutron beam source, improving beam effectiveness over an angular range comparable to the range accepted by neutron beam lines and guides. We have demonstrated gains of 50% in slow neutron intensity for a given fast neutron production rate while simultaneously reducing the wavelength-dependent emission time dispersion by 25%, both coming from a geometric effect in which the neutron beam lines view a large surface area of moderating material in a relatively small volume. Additionally, we have confirmed a Bragg-enhancement effect arising from coherent scattering within the single-crystal spacers. We have not observed hypothesized refractive effects leading to additional gains at long wavelength. In addition to confirmation of the validity of the Convoluted Moderator concept, our measurements provide a series of benchmark experiments suitable for developing simulation and analysis techniques for practical optimization and eventual implementation at slow neutron source facilities.

  13. ^26Al Beam Production and its Application to Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Brad

    2012-10-01

    Presumably produced during the supernova stage of stellar evolution, ^26Al offers unique opportunities to better understand the processes of nucleosynthesis occurring in pre-SN phases of stellar evolution and within the Galactic disk. When decaying to ^26Mg, ^26Al emits a unique 1.8MeV gamma ray, detectable by satellite telescopes. The production and destruction pathways of ^26Al is a key portion of understanding the on-going stellar nucleosynthesis. In order to measure the cross-section of ^26Al(n, p) ^26Mg at the astrophysical relevant energies, an indirect method, called the Trojan Horse Method(THM), is utilized. The THM allows the study of neutron induced reactions at astrophysical energies via the d break-up. This method requires the three-body cross section for the ^26Al(d, p ^26Mg)H reaction to be measured at a beam of 60 MeV. This requires that the ^26Al secondary beam is produced by the MARS facility at Cyclotron institute of Texas A&M University from a primary ^26Mg beam (E 16MeV/u) impinging on a H2 target. ^26Al beam was then degraded to 2.25MeV/u energy by means of a Beryllium foil. The obtained results will be shown and discussed in details together with the features of the obtained intense and pure beam.

  14. Charge breeding simulations for radioactive ion beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Variale, V.; Raino, A. C.; Clauser, T.

    2012-02-15

    The charge breeding technique is used for radioactive ion beam (RIB) production in order of optimizing the re-acceleration of the radioactive element ions produced by a primary beam in a thick target. Charge breeding is achieved by means of a device capable of increasing the ion charge state from 1+ to a desired value n+. In order to get high intensity RIB, experiments with charge breeding of very high efficiency could be required. To reach this goal, the charge breeding simulation could help to optimize the high charge state production efficiency by finding more proper parameters for the radioactive 1+ ions. In this paper a device based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS) is considered. In order to study that problem, a code already developed for studying the ion selective containment in an EBIS with RF quadrupoles, BRICTEST, has been modified to simulate the ion charge state breeding rate for different 1+ ion injection conditions. Particularly, the charge breeding simulations for an EBIS with a hollow electron beam have been studied.

  15. Production of medical Sc radioisotopes with an alpha particle beam.

    PubMed

    Szkliniarz, Katarzyna; Sitarz, Mateusz; Walczak, Rafał; Jastrzębski, Jerzy; Bilewicz, Aleksander; Choiński, Jarosław; Jakubowski, Andrzej; Majkowska, Agnieszka; Stolarz, Anna; Trzcińska, Agnieszka; Zipper, Wiktor

    2016-12-01

    The internal α-particle beam of the Warsaw Heavy Ion Cyclotron was used to produce research quantities of the medically interesting Sc radioisotopes from natural Ca and K and isotopically enriched (42)Ca targets. The targets were made of metallic calcium, calcium carbonate and potassium chloride. New data on the production yields and impurities generated during the target irradiations are presented for the positron emitters (43)Sc, (44g)Sc and (44m)Sc. The different paths for the production of the long lived (44m)Sc/(44g)Sc in vivo generator, proposed by the ARRONAX team, using proton and deuteron beams as well as alpha-particle beams are discussed. Due to the larger angular momentum transfer in the formation of the compound nucleus in the case of the alpha particle induced reactions, the isomeric ratio of (44m)Sc/(44g)Sc at a bombarding energy of 29MeV is five times larger than previously determined for a deuteron beam and twenty times larger than for proton induced reactions on enriched CaCO3 targets. Therefore, formation of this generator via the alpha-particle route seems a very attractive way to form these isotopes. The experimental data presented here are compared with theoretical predictions made using the EMPIRE evaporation code. Reasonable agreement is generally observed.

  16. Ozone Production by Irradiation of Intense, Pulsed Relativistic Electron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imada, Go; Morishima, Nobuyuki; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    Characteristics of ozone production have been investigated by irradiation of intense, pulsed relativistic electron beam (IREB). The 1.8-m-long gas-treatment chamber is filled up with dry-N2-balanced O2 gas mixture with the pressure of 98 kPa and is irradiated by IREB. The kinetic energy, current and pulse width of the IREB are - 2 MeV, - 2.9 kA, and - 80 ns (FWHM), respectively. It is found that - 340 ppm of ozone is produced by firing 10 shots of the IREB. We have also obtained the production yield of ozone of 9 - 21 g/kWh.

  17. Fully automated production of iodine-124 using a vertical beam.

    PubMed

    Nagatsu, Kotaro; Fukada, Masami; Minegishi, Katsuyuki; Suzuki, Hisashi; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Suzuki, Kazutoshi

    2011-01-01

    A fully automated system for the production of iodine-124, based on techniques of vertical-beam irradiation and dry distillation, was developed. The system, coupled with a capsulated target, was able to irradiate the (124)TeO(2) target up to 29 μA for 1-4h, which yielded iodine-124 with an almost constant yield of 6.9 MBq/μAh at the end of bombardment. All procedures were performed automatically and repeatedly. The newly developed system would be suitable for routine, large-scale productions of iodine-124.

  18. Production rate calculations for a secondary beam facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, C.L.; Back, B.B.; Rehm, K.E.

    1995-08-01

    In order to select the most cost-effective method for the production of secondary ion beams, yield calculations for a variety of primary beams were performed ranging in mass from protons to {sup 18}O with energies of 100-200 MeV/u. For comparison, production yields for 600-1000 MeV protons were also calculated. For light ion-(A < {sup 4}He) induced reactions at energies above 50 MeV/u the LAHET code was used while the low energy calculations were performed with LPACE. Heavy-ion-induced production rates were calculated with the ISAPACE program. The results of these codes were checked against each other and wherever possible a comparison with experimental data was performed. These comparisons extended to very exotic reaction channels, such as the production of {sup 100}Sn from {sup 112}Sn and {sup 124}Xe induced fragmentation reactions. These comparisons indicate that the codes are able to predict production rates to within one order of magnitude.

  19. Present status of Rare-RI Ring facility at RIBF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    T Yamaguchithe Rare-RI Ring Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    A new storage ring facility called the Rare-RI Ring is currently under preparation at the RI Beam Factory (RIBF) in RIKEN. The storage ring is dedicated to the single-ion precision mass spectrometry of neutron-rich exotic nuclei. The masses are essential to elucidate the evolution of the nuclear shell structure far from the β stability and to determine the pathway of astrophysical nucleosynthesis. Such exotic nuclei are provided by the large-acceptance superconducting fragment separator, BigRIPS, at the RIBF accelerator complex. The experimental principle of the Rare-RI Ring mass measurements is based on isochronous mass spectrometry combined with the individual injection technique. This novel technique enables exotic species of interest to be produced randomly, in time to be sequentially stored in the storage ring. The Rare-RI Ring facility realizes the most efficient measurements for rare isotopes. An overview of the project is presented, along with its present status.

  20. Treatment of effluents from petroleum production by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Celina Lopes; Geraldo, Lucia Limoeiro; Junior, Oswaldo de Aquino P.; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Sato, Ivone Mulako; Sampa, Maria Helena de Oliveira

    2004-09-01

    During the offshore oil production large volumes of aqueous waste with high salinity are produced. The produced water originates mainly from the oil-bearing formation but may also include seawater, which has been injected to maintain reservoir pressure. This water is normally separated from oil on the platform generating aqueous effluent with metals, sulfite, ammonium and organic compounds. The conventional treatment used includes filtration, flotation, ionic change and adsorption in activated charcoal, but the high salinity of this water decreases the treatment efficiency. The high efficiency of electron beam irradiation on removing organic compound in industrial effluent has been shown, and the primary aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of this new technology to treat the oil water production. Experiments were conducted using samples from two platforms processed in the radiation dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37 kW power. The results showed that the electron beam technology has high efficiency in destroying organic compounds even in the presence of high salinity and complex effluent.

  1. Concepts for laser beam parameter monitoring during industrial mass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrop, Nicholas J.; Maerten, Otto; Wolf, Stefan; Kramer, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    In today's industrial mass production, lasers have become an established tool for a variety of processes. As with any other tool, mechanical or otherwise, the laser and its ancillary components are prone to wear and ageing. Monitoring of these ageing processes at full operating power of an industrial laser is challenging for a range of reasons. Not only the damage threshold of the measurement device itself, but also cycle time constraints in industrial processing are just two of these challenges. Power measurement, focus spot size or full beam caustic measurements are being implemented in industrial laser systems. The scope of the measurement and the amount of data collected is limited by the above mentioned cycle time, which in some cases can only be a few seconds. For successful integration of these measurement systems into automated production lines, the devices must be equipped with standardized communication interfaces, enabling a feedback loop from the measurement device to the laser processing systems. If necessary these measurements can be performed before each cycle. Power is determined with either static or dynamic calorimetry while camera and scanning systems are used for beam profile analysis. Power levels can be measured from 25W up to 20 kW, with focus spot sizes between 10μm and several millimeters. We will show, backed by relevant statistical data, that defects or contamination of the laser beam path can be detected with applied measurement systems, enabling a quality control chain to prevent process defects.

  2. Positronium beam production and scattering cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Dawn Elizabeth

    In this work, the efficiency for the production of a monoenergetic positronium beam via the charge-exchange reaction of a positron beam in a gaseous target has been determined for molecular hydrogen and molecular nitrogen. In the case of molecular nitrogen, it has been found that the energy range over which a useful intensity of collimated positronium may be produced can be extended to 250eV, 100eV higher than previously achieved. This should enable measurements of the total and partial positronium cross-sections at correspondingly higher energies, where target inelastic effects are expected to be significant A recent measurement of the integrated positronium formation cross-section for xenon found a larger yield of positronium atoms compared to the other noble gases. A shoulder was also seen 10eV above the peak and it was suggested that this might be due to the production of positronium in an excited state. These findings have provided an incentive to investigate the collimated positronium production efficiency from xenon, which has been found to be surprisingly low. The quantum state of the beam atoms has also been found to be dominantly ground state. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed Total cross-sections for positronium-gas scattering have been extracted from the measurements of the positronium beam production efficiency for both molecular nitrogen and xenon. These quantities have also been determined directly by measuring the intensity of the positronium beam transmitted through a gas cell via the Beer-Lambert Law. A good consistency is found between the values obtained using this method and those determined indirectly. Recently, measurements have been made of the absolute integrated cross-section for the fragmentation of positronium in collision with helium atoms, along with the longitudinal energy distributions of the residual positrons in the energy range -Ep/=13-33eV. Measurements of the latter indicate a peak close to half the residual

  3. LISE++: Exotic beam production with fragment separators and their design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, O. B.; Bazin, D.

    2016-06-01

    Since the LISE++ code presentation at the EMIS 2007 conference (Tarasov and Bazin, 2008), important improvements have been made in the analytical and Monte Carlo calculations of transmission, and accuracy of reaction product distributions. In this paper new features of the code in ion-beam optics, creation of new LISE++ blocks, and development of some reaction models will be discussed. Large progress has been done in ion-beam optics with the introduction of "elemental" blocks, that allows optical matrices calculation within LISE++. New type of configurations based on these blocks allow a detailed analysis of the transmission, useful for fragment separator design, and can be used for optics optimization based on user constraints.

  4. Total well management aids production of beam pumped wells

    SciTech Connect

    Podio, A.L.; McCoy, J.N.; Drake, B.; Becker, D.

    1995-10-01

    The need to increase oil production, reduce operating costs and increase net income from beam pumped wells requires an integrated analysis of the pumping system, including the performance and interaction of all the elements: the reservoir, well bore, downhole pump, rod string, beam pump and prime mover. Such system analysis can now be undertaken efficiently using portable lap-top-based data acquisition systems with appropriate transducers and a suite of analysis software. Using field experience to analyze numerous wells has resulted in the development of a procedure which ensures that good results are obtained with minimal effort. The result of such system analysis should be a definitive picture of the performance of a specific time and a set of recommendations to be followed if significant improvements can be achieved. This paper reviews the steps to developing this well management strategy.

  5. Calculation of in-target production rates for radioactive isotope beam production at TRIUMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Fatima; Andreoiu, Corina; Kunz, Peter; Laxdal, Aurelia

    2016-09-01

    Rare Isotope Beam (RIB) facilities around the world, such as TRIUMF, work towards development of new target materials to generate exotic species. Access to these rare radioactive isotopes is key for applications in nuclear medicine, astrophysics and fundamental nuclear science. To better understand production from these and other materials, we have built a computer simulation of the RIB targets used at the TRIUMF Isotope Separation and ACceleration (ISAC) facility, to support new target material development. Built at Simon Fraser University, the simulation runs in the GEANT4 nuclear transport toolkit, and can simulate the production rate of isotopes from a given set of beam and target characteristics. The simulation models the bombardment of a production target by an incident high-energy proton beam and calculates isotope in-target production rates different nuclear reactions. Results from the simulation will be presented, along with an evaluation of various nuclear reaction models and a experimentally determined RIB yields at the ISAC Yield Station.

  6. Production of low energy spread ion beams with multicusp sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y., Lee; Perkins, L. T.; Gough, R. A.; Hoffmann, M.; Kunkel, W. B.; N. Leung, K.; Sarstedt, M.; Vujic, J.; Weber, M.; Williams, M. D.

    1996-02-01

    The use of multicusp sources to generate ion beams with narrow energy spread has been investigated. It is found that the presence of a magnetic filter can reduce the longitudinal energy spread significantly. This is achieved by creating a uniform plasma potential distribution in the discharge chamber region, eliminating ion production in the extraction chamber and in the sheath of the exit aperture and by minimizing the probability of charge exchange processes in the extraction chamber. An energy spread as low as 1 eV has been measured.

  7. Fission product yield measurements using monoenergetic photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishichayan; Bhike, M.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.

    2017-09-01

    Measurements of fission products yields (FPYs) are an important source of information on the fission process. During the past couple of years, a TUNL-LANL-LLNL collaboration has provided data on the FPYs from quasi monoenergetic neutron-induced fission on 235U, 238U, and 239Pu and has revealed an unexpected energy dependence of both asymmetric fission fragments at energies below 4 MeV. This peculiar FPY energy dependence was more pronounced in neutron-induced fission of 239Pu. In an effort to understand and compare the effect of the incoming probe on the FPY distribution, we have carried out monoenergetic photon-induced fission experiments on the same 235U, 238U, and 239Pu targets. Monoenergetic photon beams of Eγ = 13.0 MeV were provided by the HIγS facility, the world's most intense γ-ray source. In order to determine the total number of fission events, a dual-fission chamber was used during the irradiation. These irradiated samples were counted at the TUNL's low-background γ-ray counting facility using high efficient HPGe detectors over a period of 10 weeks. Here we report on our first ever photofission product yield measurements obtained with monoenegetic photon beams. These results are compared with neutron-induced FPY data.

  8. Production and all-optical deceleration of molecular beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gary; Jayich, Andrew; Long, Xueping; Ransford, Anthony; Campbell, Wesley

    2015-05-01

    Ultracold molecules open up new opportunities in many areas of study, including many-body physics, quantum chemistry, quantum information, and precision measurements. Current methods cannot easily address the spontaneous decay of molecules into dark states without an amalgam of repump lasers. We present an alternative method to produce cold molecules. A cryogenic buffer gas beam (CBGB) is used to create an intense, slow, cold source of molecules. By using a CBGB for the production, we can quench vibrational modes that cannot be addressed with optical methods. This is then followed by an all-optical scheme using a single ultra-fast laser to decelerate the molecules and a continuous wave laser to cool the species. We have started experiments with strontium monohydride (SrH), but the proposed method should be applicable to a wide range of molecular species.

  9. Neon gas target for the production of radioactive fluorine beams

    SciTech Connect

    Decrock, P.; Nolen, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    A neon gas target has been developed to produce radioactive fluorine. Small CF{sub 4} impurities were added to the neon gas and the recovery efficiency of {sup 18}F-labeled CF{sub 4} has been measured as a function of the impurity level. Extraction efficiencies up to 90{percent} have been obtained, which makes this technique to produce and extract radioactive fluorine from a production target a powerful method to generate intense radioactive {sup 17}F and {sup 18}F beams, using the {sup 20}Ne(p,{alpha}){sup 17}F and {sup 20}Ne(d,{alpha}){sup 18}F reactions, respectively. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. 76 FR 50770 - Submission for Review: Financial Resources Questionnaire (RI 34-1, RI 34-17, and RI 34-18) and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Financial Resources Questionnaire (RI 34- 1, RI 34-17, and RI 34-18) and Notice of Amount Due Because of Annuity Overpayment (RI 34-3, RI 34-19, and RI 34-20) AGENCY: U.S. Office... Resources Questionnaire (RI 34-1), Financial Resources Questionnaire--Federal Employees' Group...

  11. Beam line shielding calculations for an Electron Accelerator Mo-99 production facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mocko, Michal

    2016-05-03

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the photon and neutron fields in and around the latest beam line design for the Mo-99 production facility. The radiation dose to the beam line components (quadrupoles, dipoles, beam stops and the linear accelerator) are calculated in the present report. The beam line design assumes placement of two cameras: infra red (IR) and optical transition radiation (OTR) for continuous monitoring of the beam spot on target during irradiation. The cameras will be placed off the beam axis offset in vertical direction. We explored typical shielding arrangements for the cameras and report the resulting neutron and photon dose fields.

  12. Ion beam system for implanting industrial products of various shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denholm, A. S.; Wittkower, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    Implantation of metals and ceramics with ions of nitrogen and other species has improved surface properties such as friction, wear and corrosion in numerous industrial applications. Zymet has built a production machine to take advantage of this process which can implant a 2 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 dose of nitrogen ions into a 20 cm × 20 cm area in about 30 min using a 100 keV beam. Treatment is accomplished by mounting the product on a cooled, tiltable, turntable which rotates continuously, or is indexed in 15° steps to expose different surfaces in fixed position. Product cooling is accomplished by using a chilled eutectic metal to mount and grip the variously shaped objects. A high voltage supply capable of 10 mA at 100 kV is used, and the equipment is microcomputer controlled via serial light links. All important machine parameters are presented in sequenced displays on a CRT. Uniformity of treatment and accumulated dose are monitored by a Faraday cup system which provides the microprocessor with data for display of time to completion on the process screen. For routine implants the operator requires only two buttons; one for chamber vacuum control, and the other for process start and stop.

  13. Maskless Electron-Beam Lithography for Trusted Microchip Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    lithography has soared and continues to rise unabated. Multibeam has developed maskless electron-beam lithography ( EBL ) for producing advanced Rad-Hard...and other DoD microchips at lower cost. In addition to significant cost savings in mask and lithography equipment, Multibeam’s maskless EBL technology...maskless electron-beam lithography ( EBL ); e-beam direct write (EBDW); complementary e-beam lithography (CEBL); multiple patterning; cycle time

  14. Specialty flat-top beam delivery fibers with controlled beam parameter product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jollivet, C.; Farley, K.; Conroy, M.; Abramczyk, J.; Belke, S.; Becker, F.; Tankala, K.

    2016-03-01

    Beam delivery fibers have been used widely for transporting the optical beams from the laser to the subject of irradiation in a variety of markets including industrial, medical and defense applications. Standard beam delivery fibers range from 50 to 1500 μm core diameter and are used to guide CW or pulsed laser light, generated by solid state, fiber or diode lasers. Here, we introduce a novel fiber technology capable of simultaneously controlling the beam profile and the angular divergence of single-mode (SM) and multi-mode (MM) beams using a single-optical fiber. Results of beam transformation from a SM to a MM beam with flat-top intensity profile are presented in the case of a controlled BPP at 3.8 mm*mrad. The scaling capabilities of this flat-top fiber design to achieve a range of BPP values while ensuring a flat-top beam profile are discussed. In addition, we demonstrate, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, the homogenizer capabilities of this novel technology, able to transform random MM beams into uniform flat-top beam profiles with very limited impact on the beam brightness. This study is concluded with a discussion on the scalability of this fiber technology to fit from 50 up to 1500 μm core fibers and its potential for a broader range of applications.

  15. Generalized energy-aperture product limit for multi-beam and spotlight SARs

    SciTech Connect

    Karr, T.J.

    1995-12-21

    The SAR energy-aperture product limit is extended to multi-beam SARS, Spotlight and moving spotlight SARS. This fundamental limit bounds the tradeoff between energy and antenna size. The kinematic relations between design variables such as platform speed, pulse repetition frequency, beam width and area rate are analyzed in a unified framework applicable to a wide variety of SARs including strip maps, spotlights, vermer arrays and multi-beam SARS, both scanning and swept-beam. Then the energy-aperture product limit is derived from the signal-to noise requirement and the kinematic constraints. The derivation clarifies impact of multiple beams and spotlighting on SAR performance.

  16. Production and propagation of Hermite-sinusoidal-Gaussian laser beams.

    PubMed

    Tovar, A A; Casperson, L W

    1998-09-01

    Hermite-sinusoidal-Gaussian solutions to the wave equation have recently been obtained. In the limit of large Hermite-Gaussian beam size, the sinusoidal factors are dominant and reduce to the conventional modes of a rectangular waveguide. In the opposite limit the beams reduce to the familiar Hermite-Gaussian form. The propagation of these beams is examined in detail, and resonators are designed that will produce them. As an example, a special resonator is designed to produce hyperbolic-sine-Gaussian beams. This ring resonator contains a hyperbolic-cosine-Gaussian apodized aperture. The beam mode has finite energy and is perturbation stable.

  17. Electron Production and Collective Field Generation in Intense Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A W; Vay, J; Cohen, R; Friedman, A; Lee, E; Verboncoeur, J; Covo, M K

    2006-02-09

    Electron cloud effects (ECEs) are increasingly recognized as important, but incompletely understood, dynamical phenomena, which can severely limit the performance of present electron colliders, the next generation of high-intensity rings, such as PEP-II upgrade, LHC, and the SNS, the SIS 100/200, or future high-intensity heavy ion accelerators such as envisioned in Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion (HIF). Deleterious effects include ion-electron instabilities, emittance growth, particle loss, increase in vacuum pressure, added heat load at the vacuum chamber walls, and interference with certain beam diagnostics. Extrapolation of present experience to significantly higher beam intensities is uncertain given the present level of understanding. With coordinated LDRD projects at LLNL and LBNL, we undertook a comprehensive R&D program including experiments, theory and simulations to better understand the phenomena, establish the essential parameters, and develop mitigating mechanisms. This LDRD project laid the essential groundwork for such a program. We developed insights into the essential processes, modeled the relevant physics, and implemented these models in computational production tools that can be used for self-consistent study of the effect on ion beams. We validated the models and tools through comparison with experimental data, including data from new diagnostics that we developed as part of this work and validated on the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL. We applied these models to High-Energy Physics (HEP) and other advanced accelerators. This project was highly successful, as evidenced by the two paragraphs above, and six paragraphs following that are taken from our 2003 proposal with minor editing that mostly consisted of changing the tense. Further benchmarks of outstanding performance are: we had 13 publications with 8 of them in refereed journals, our work was recognized by the accelerator and plasma physics communities by 8 invited papers and we have 5

  18. The ADRIA project for high intensity radioactive beams production

    SciTech Connect

    Bisoffi, G.; Cavenago, M.; Dainelli, A.; Facco, A.; Fortuna, G.; Lombardi, A.; Moisio, M.F.; Pisent, A.; Spolaore, P.; Tiveron, B. ); Ruggiero, A.G. ); Tecchio, L. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin )

    1992-01-01

    A proposal of an accelerator complex (ADRIA) for the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) is described in this report. The main components of the complex are a Heavy Ion Injection system and two rings, a Booster and a Decelerator, both with a maximum rigidity of 22.25 Tm, connected by a Transfer Line where exotic proposal has two main goals consisting in the isotopes are produced and selected. The proposal has two main goals consisting in the acceleration of stable ion species up to kinetic energies of the order of few GeV/u, at a repetition rate of 10 Hz with intensities of about 10[sup 12] ions per second, for fixed target experiments in nuclear physics and for the production of fully stripped radioactive beams, using particle fragmentation method for nuclear spectroscopy experiments. Fragments are accumulated in the Decelerator, with intensities 10[sup 8] [divided by] 10[sup 9] ions/s, cooled and delivered at the production energies or decelerated down to energies of few MeV/u, in proximity of the Coulomb barrier.

  19. The ADRIA project for high intensity radioactive beams production

    SciTech Connect

    Bisoffi, G.; Cavenago, M.; Dainelli, A.; Facco, A.; Fortuna, G.; Lombardi, A.; Moisio, M.F.; Pisent, A.; Spolaore, P.; Tiveron, B.; Ruggiero, A.G.; Tecchio, L. |

    1992-12-31

    A proposal of an accelerator complex (ADRIA) for the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) is described in this report. The main components of the complex are a Heavy Ion Injection system and two rings, a Booster and a Decelerator, both with a maximum rigidity of 22.25 Tm, connected by a Transfer Line where exotic proposal has two main goals consisting in the isotopes are produced and selected. The proposal has two main goals consisting in the acceleration of stable ion species up to kinetic energies of the order of few GeV/u, at a repetition rate of 10 Hz with intensities of about 10{sup 12} ions per second, for fixed target experiments in nuclear physics and for the production of fully stripped radioactive beams, using particle fragmentation method for nuclear spectroscopy experiments. Fragments are accumulated in the Decelerator, with intensities 10{sup 8} {divided_by} 10{sup 9} ions/s, cooled and delivered at the production energies or decelerated down to energies of few MeV/u, in proximity of the Coulomb barrier.

  20. Approaches to develop targets for production of intense radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Talbert, W. L.; Drake, D. M.; Wilson, M. T.; Walker, J. J.; Lenz, J. W.

    1999-06-10

    Approaches to develop targets for production of intense radioactive ion beams (RIBs) have been evaluated over the past five years. It is acknowledged that many desired physics objectives using RIBs can be met only by using production beams of energetic protons with currents up to 100 {mu}A. Such beams can be made available at future spallation neutron facilities. The production targets will require active cooling to control operational temperatures due to internal heating caused by the production beam. A target concept has been selected, and calculational analyses of the target concept have been performed to guide the design of a prototype target for an in-beam test of the actual thermal behavior. For this test, a high-power test facility is needed; fortunately, the beam currents required exist at the TRIUMF accelerator facility. An experimental proposal has been approved for such a test.

  1. The technical consideration of multi-beam mask writer for production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Hee; Ahn, Byung-Sup; Choi, Jin; Shin, In Kyun; Tamamushi, Shuichi; Jeon, Chan-Uk

    2016-10-01

    Multi-beam mask writer is under development to solve the throughput and patterning resolution problems in VSB mask writer. Theoretically, the writing time is appropriate for future design node and the resolution is improved with multi-beam mask writer. Many previous studies show the feasible results of resolution, CD control and registration. Although such technical results of development tool seem to be enough for mass production, there are still many unexpected problems for real mass production. In this report, the technical challenges of multi-beam mask writer are discussed in terms of production and application. The problems and issues are defined based on the performance of current development tool compared with the requirements of mask quality. Using the simulation and experiment, we analyze the specific characteristics of electron beam in multi-beam mask writer scheme. Consequently, we suggest necessary specifications for mass production with multi-beam mask writer in the future.

  2. Production of accelerating quad Airy beams and their optical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhijun; Wu, Qiong; Shi, Yile; Chen, Chen; Wu, Jiangmiao; Wang, Hui

    2014-06-16

    Based on a geometric caustic argument and diffraction catastrophe theory, we generate a novel form of accelerating beams using a symmetric 3/2 phase-only pattern. Such beams can be called accelerating quad Airy beams (AQABs) because they look very much like four face-to-face combined Airy beams. Optical characteristics of AQABs are subsequently investigated. The research results show that the beams have axial-symmetrical and centrosymmetrical transverse intensity patterns and quasi-diffraction-free propagation features for their four main lobes while undergoing transverse shift along parabolic trajectories. Moreover, we also demonstrate that AQABs possess self-construction ability when local areas are blocked. The unique optical properties of these beams will make them useful tools for future scientific applications.

  3. Neutron production from beam-modifying devices in a modern double scattering proton therapy beam delivery system.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; Newhauser, Wayne D; Deluca, Paul M

    2009-02-21

    In this work the neutron production in a passive beam delivery system was investigated. Secondary particles including neutrons are created as the proton beam interacts with beam shaping devices in the treatment head. Stray neutron exposure to the whole body may increase the risk that the patient develops a radiogenic cancer years or decades after radiotherapy. We simulated a passive proton beam delivery system with double scattering technology to determine the neutron production and energy distribution at 200 MeV proton energy. Specifically, we studied the neutron absorbed dose per therapeutic absorbed dose, the neutron absorbed dose per source particle and the neutron energy spectrum at various locations around the nozzle. We also investigated the neutron production along the nozzle's central axis. The absorbed doses and neutron spectra were simulated with the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The simulations revealed that the range modulation wheel (RMW) is the most intense neutron source of any of the beam spreading devices within the nozzle. This finding suggests that it may be helpful to refine the design of the RMW assembly, e.g., by adding local shielding, to suppress neutron-induced damage to components in the nozzle and to reduce the shielding thickness of the treatment vault. The simulations also revealed that the neutron dose to the patient is predominated by neutrons produced in the field defining collimator assembly, located just upstream of the patient.

  4. Neutron production from beam-modifying devices in a modern double scattering proton therapy beam delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; Newhauser, Wayne D; DeLuca, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    In this work the neutron production in a passive beam delivery system was investigated. Secondary particles including neutrons are created as the proton beam interacts with beam shaping devices in the treatment head. Stray neutron exposure to the whole body may increase the risk that the patient develops a radiogenic cancer years or decades after radiotherapy. We simulated a passive proton beam delivery system with double scattering technology to determine the neutron production and energy distribution at 200 MeV proton energy. Specifically, we studied the neutron absorbed dose per therapeutic absorbed dose, the neutron absorbed dose per source particle and the neutron energy spectrum at various locations around the nozzle. We also investigated the neutron production along the nozzle's central axis. The absorbed doses and neutron spectra were simulated with the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The simulations revealed that the range modulation wheel (RMW) is the most intense neutron source of any of the beam spreading devices within the nozzle. This finding suggests that it may be helpful to refine the design of the RMW assembly, e.g., by adding local shielding, to suppress neutron-induced damage to components in the nozzle and to reduce the shielding thickness of the treatment vault. The simulations also revealed that the neutron dose to the patient is predominated by neutrons produced in the field defining collimator assembly, located just upstream of the patient. PMID:19147903

  5. Reference dosimetry of proton pencil beams based on dose-area product: a proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Gomà, Carles; Safai, Sairos; Vörös, Sándor

    2017-06-21

    This paper describes a novel approach to the reference dosimetry of proton pencil beams based on dose-area product ([Formula: see text]). It depicts the calibration of a large-diameter plane-parallel ionization chamber in terms of dose-area product in a (60)Co beam, the Monte Carlo calculation of beam quality correction factors-in terms of dose-area product-in proton beams, the Monte Carlo calculation of nuclear halo correction factors, and the experimental determination of [Formula: see text] of a single proton pencil beam. This new approach to reference dosimetry proves to be feasible, as it yields [Formula: see text] values in agreement with the standard and well-established approach of determining the absorbed dose to water at the centre of a broad homogeneous field generated by the superposition of regularly-spaced proton pencil beams.

  6. Production of high current proton beams using complex H-rich molecules at GSI

    SciTech Connect

    Adonin, A. Barth, W.; Heymach, F.; Hollinger, R.; Vormann, H.; Yakushev, A.

    2016-02-15

    In this contribution, the concept of production of intense proton beams using molecular heavy ion beams from an ion source is described, as well as the indisputable advantages of this technique for operation of the GSI linear accelerator. The results of experimental investigations, including mass-spectra analysis and beam emittance measurements, with different ion beams (CH{sub 3}{sup +},C{sub 2}H{sub 4}{sup +},C{sub 3}H{sub 7}{sup +}) using various gaseous and liquid substances (methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, and iodoethane) at the ion source are summarized. Further steps to improve the ion source and injector performance with molecular beams are depicted.

  7. Electron beam treatment parameters for control of stored product insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleghorn, D. A.; Nablo, S. V.; Ferro, D. N.; Hagstrum, D. W.

    2002-03-01

    The fluidized bed process (EBFB) has been evaluated for the disinfestation of cereal grains. The various life stages from egg to adult have been studied on the 225 kV pilot as a function of surface dose. Three of the most common pests were selected: the rice weevil ( S. oryzae), the lesser grain borer ( R. dominica) and the red flour beetle ( T. castaneum). The major challenge to this process lies in those "protected" life-stages active deeply within the endosperm of the grain kernel. The rice weevil is such an internal feeder in which the larvae develop through several molts during several weeks before pupation and adult emergence. Product velocities up to 2000 m/min have been used for infested hard winter wheat at dose levels up to 1000 Gy. Detailed depth of penetration studies at three life stages of S. oryzae larvae were conducted at 225-700 kV and demonstrated effective mortality at 400 kV×200 Gy. Mortality data are also presented for the radiation labile eggs of these insects as well as the (sterile) adults, which typically lived for several weeks before death. These results are compared with earlier 60Co gamma-ray studies on these same insects. Based upon these studies, the effectiveness of the fluidized bed process employing self-shielded electron beam equipment for insect control in wheat/rice at sub-kilogray dose levels has been demonstrated.

  8. Drift distance survey in DPIS for high current beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesue,T.; Okamura, M.; Kondo, K.; Tamura, J.; Kashiwagi, H.; Zhang, Z.

    2009-09-20

    In a laser ion source, plasma drift distance is one of the most important design parameters. Ion current density and beam pulse width are defined by plasma drift distance between laser target and beam extraction position. In direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS), which uses a laser ion source and Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linac, we can apply relatively higher electric field at the beam extraction due to the unique shape of a positively biased electrode. However, when we aim at very high current acceleration like several tens of mA, we observed mismatched beam extraction conditions. We tested three different ion current at ion extraction region by changing plasma drift distance to study better extraction condition. In this experiment, C{sup 6+} beam was accelerated. We confirmed that the matching condition can be improved by controlling plasma drift distance.

  9. Improve large area uniformity and production capacity of laser interference lithography with beam flattening device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yin-Kuang; Wu, Yu-Xiang; Lin, Te-Hsun; Yu, Chun-Wen; Fu, Chien-Chung

    2016-03-01

    Laser interference lithography (LIL) is a maskless lithography technique with many advantages such as simple optical design, inexpensive, infinite depth of focus, and large area patterning with single exposure. However, the intensity of normal laser beam is Gaussian distribution. In order to obtain large area uniform structure, we have to expand the laser beam much bigger than the wafer and use only the center part of the beam. Resulting in wasting lots of energy and the production capacity decrease. In this study, we designed a beam shaping device which consists of two parallel fused silicon optical window with different coating on both side. Two optical window form an air thin film. When the expanded laser beam pass through the device, the beam will experience many refraction and reflection between two optical window and interference with each other. The transmittance of laser beam will depend on the incident angle. The output intensity distribution will change from Gaussian distribution to a flat top distribution. In our experiment, we combined the beam shaping device with a Lloyd's mirror LIL system. Experiment results indicated that the LIL system with beam shaping device can obtain large area uniform pattern. And compare with the traditional Lloyd's mirror LIL system, the exposure time is shorten up to 4.5 times. In conclusion, this study design a beam flattening device for LIL system. The flat top beam can improve the large area uniformity and the production capacity of LIL. Making LIL more suitable for industry application.

  10. Positive and negative ion beam merging system for neutral beam production

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2005-12-13

    The positive and negative ion beam merging system extracts positive and negative ions of the same species and of the same energy from two separate ion sources. The positive and negative ions from both sources pass through a bending magnetic field region between the pole faces of an electromagnet. Since the positive and negative ions come from mirror image positions on opposite sides of a beam axis, and the positive and negative ions are identical, the trajectories will be symmetrical and the positive and negative ion beams will merge into a single neutral beam as they leave the pole face of the electromagnet. The ion sources are preferably multicusp plasma ion sources. The ion sources may include a multi-aperture extraction system for increasing ion current from the sources.

  11. Production of high density molecular beams with wide velocity scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, L. S.; Woo, S. O.; Rathnayaka, K. D. D.; Lyuksyutov, I. F. Herschbach, D. R.

    2016-06-15

    We describe modifications of a pulsed rotating supersonic beam source that improve performance, particularly increasing the beam density and sharpening the pulse profiles. As well as providing the familiar virtues of a supersonic molecular beam (high intensity, narrowed velocity distribution, and drastic cooling of rotation and vibration), the rotating source enables scanning the translational velocity over a wide range. Thereby, beams of any atom or molecule available as a gas can be slowed or speeded. Using Xe beams in the slowing mode, we have obtained lab speeds down to about 40 ± 5 m/s with density near 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3} and in the speeding mode lab speeds up to about 660 m/s and density near 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3}. We discuss some congenial applications. Providing low lab speeds can markedly enhance experiments using electric or magnetic fields to deflect, steer, or further slow polar or paramagnetic molecules. The capability to scan molecular speeds facilitates merging velocities with a codirectional partner beam, enabling study of collisions at very low relative kinetic energies, without requiring either beam to be slow.

  12. Optimization of accelerated charged particle beam for ADS energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldin, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Paraipan, M.; Tyutyunnikov, S. I.

    2017-01-01

    A comparative analysis and optimization of energy efficiency for proton and ion beams in ADS systems is performed via simulation using a GEANT4 code with account for energy consumption for different accelerator types. It is demonstrated that for light nuclei, beginning from 7Li, with energies above 1 GeV/nucleon, ion beams are considerably (several times) more efficient than the 1-3 GeV proton beam. The possibility of achieving energy deposition equivalent to 1 GeV protons in a quasi-infinite uranium target with higher efficiency (and twice as small accelerator size) in the case of acceleration of light ions is substantiated.

  13. Reference dosimetry of proton pencil beams based on dose-area product: a proof of concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomà, Carles; Safai, Sairos; Vörös, Sándor

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to the reference dosimetry of proton pencil beams based on dose-area product (DAPw ). It depicts the calibration of a large-diameter plane-parallel ionization chamber in terms of dose-area product in a 60Co beam, the Monte Carlo calculation of beam quality correction factors—in terms of dose-area product—in proton beams, the Monte Carlo calculation of nuclear halo correction factors, and the experimental determination of DAPw of a single proton pencil beam. This new approach to reference dosimetry proves to be feasible, as it yields DAPw values in agreement with the standard and well-established approach of determining the absorbed dose to water at the centre of a broad homogeneous field generated by the superposition of regularly-spaced proton pencil beams.

  14. Production and characterization of ion beams from magnetically insulated diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Neri, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The operation of magnetically insulated diodes and the characteristics of the resulting ion beams have been investigated using two pulsed power generators, LYNX at the 10/sup 9/W power level, and Neptune at the 10/sup 11/W power level. LYNX is a small magnetically insulated diode driven directly by a Marx bank. By changing the material used as the surface flashover ion source, the majority ion species generated by the diode could be chosen. Ion beams produced so far by this device are: protons, lithium, boron, carbon, sodium, strontium, and barium. Typical beam parameters for the ion beams are peak energies of 300 keV, current densities of 40 to 60 A/cm/sup 2/, and pulse durations of 300 to 400 nsec. The ion beam uniformity, divergence, and reproducibility were shown to be a function of the surface flashover source geometry. Finally, the LYNX ion beam was also used to anneal silicon crystals and other materials science experiments. The diode used on the Neptune generator was designed to study virtual cathode formation in a high power magnetically insulated diode. The physical cathode was replaced by electrons that ExB drift on the applied magnetic field lines. It was found that the best electrode configuration is one in which the electrons are required to only undergo the Hall drift to form the cathode. The divergence of the ion beam was examined with time-dependent and time-integrated shadowbox diagnostics. It was found that the intrinsic divergence of the ion beam does not have a strong directional dependence.

  15. CRIS: A new method in isomeric beam production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, K. M.; Billowes, J.; Bissell, M. L.; Budincevic, I.; Cocolios, T. E.; De Groote, R. P.; De Schepper, S.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Heylen, H.; Marsh, B. A.; Mason, P. J. R.; Neyens, G.; Procter, T. J.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Simpson, G. S.; Smith, A. J.; Strashnov, I.; Stroke, H. H.; Walker, P. M.; Wendt, K. D. A.; Wood, R. T.

    2013-12-01

    The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at ISOLDE, CERN, uses laser radiation to stepwise excite and ionize an atomic beam for the purpose of ultra-sensitive detection of rare isotopes, and hyperfine-structure measurements. The technique also offers the ability to purify an ion beam that is heavily contaminated with radioactive isobars, including the ground state of an isotope from its isomer, allowing decay spectroscopy on nuclear isomeric states to be performed. The isomeric ion beam is selected by resonantly exciting one of its hyperfine structure levels, and subsequently ionizing it. This selectively ionized beam is deflected to a decay spectroscopy station (DSS). This consists of a rotating wheel implantation system for alpha- and beta-decay spectroscopy, and up to three germanium detectors around the implantation site for gamma-ray detection. Resonance ionization spectroscopy and the new technique of laser assisted nuclear decay spectroscopy have recently been performed at the CRIS beam line on the neutron-deficient francium isotopes. Here an overview of the two techniques will be presented, alongside a description of the CRIS beam line and DSS.

  16. Production and release of ISOL beams from molten fluoride salt targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonca, T. M.; Hodak, R.; Ghetta, V.; Allibert, M.; Heuer, D.; Noah, E.; Cimmino, S.; Delonca, M.; Gottberg, A.; Kronberger, M.; Ramos, J. P.; Seiffert, C.; Stora, T.

    2014-06-01

    In the framework of the Beta Beams project, a molten fluoride target has been proposed for the production of the required 101318Ne/s. The production and extraction of such rates are predicted to be possible on a circulating molten salt with 160 MeV proton beams at close to 1 MW power. As a most important step to validate the concept, a prototype has been designed and investigated at CERN-ISOLDE using a static target unit. The target material consisted of a binary fluoride system, NaF:LiF (39:61 mol.%), with melting point at 649 °C. The production of Ne beams has been monitored as a function of the target temperature and proton beam intensity. The prototype development and the results of the first online tests with 1.4 GeV proton beam are presented in this paper.

  17. Numerical studies on alpha production from high energy proton beam interaction with Boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustaizis, S. D.; Lalousis, P.; Hora, H.; Korn, G.

    2017-05-01

    Numerical investigations on high energy proton beam interaction with high density Boron plasma allows to simulate conditions concerning the alpha production from recent experimental measurements . The experiments measure the alpha production due to p11B nuclear fusion reactions when a laser-driven high energy proton beam interacts with Boron plasma produced by laser beam interaction with solid Boron. The alpha production and consequently the efficiency of the process depends on the initial proton beam energy, proton beam density, the Boron plasma density and temperature, and their temporal evolution. The main advantage for the p11B nuclear fusion reaction is the production of three alphas with total energy of 8.9 MeV, which could enhance the alpha heating effect and improve the alpha production. This particular effect is termed in the international literature as the alpha avalanche effect. Numerical results using a multi-fluid, global particle and energy balance, code shows the alpha production efficiency as a function of the initial energy of the proton beam, the Boron plasma density, the initial Boron plasma temperature and the temporal evolution of the plasma parameters. The simulations enable us to determine the interaction conditions (proton beam - B plasma) for which the alpha heating effect becomes important.

  18. Radial compression of antiproton cloud for production of ultraslow antiproton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroda, N.; Nagata, Y.; Torii, H. A.; Komaki, K.; Barna, D.; Horvath, D.; Eades, J.; Hori, M.; Imao, H.; Mohri, A.; Shibata, M.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2009-03-30

    We report here the radial compression of a large number of antiprotons under ultrahigh vacuum conditions by applying a rotating electric field. The radial compression is a key technique for production of ultraslow antiproton beam extracting from an electromagnetic traps. Such beam will be applicable to synthesizing antiprotonic atoms and antihydrogen atoms.

  19. Studies of slow-positron production using low-energy primary electron beams.

    SciTech Connect

    Lessner, E.

    1999-04-20

    Slow-positron beams produced from negative-work-function solid-state moderators have found numerous applications in condensed matter physics. There are potential advantages in using low-energy primary electron beams for positron production, including reduced radiation damage to single-crystal moderators and reduced activation of nearby components. We present numerical calculations of positron yields and other beam parameters for various target-moderator configurations using the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) [1] and Advanced Photon Source (APS) [2] electron linacs [3] as examples of sources for the primary electron beams. The status of experiments at these facilities is reviewed.

  20. Working group II report: Production and dynamics of high brightness beams

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper summarizes the main discussions of the Working Group on the Production and Dynamics of High Brightness Beams. The following topics are covered in this paper. Proposed new electron sources and needed research on existing sources is covered. The discussions on issues relating to the description of phase space on non-thermalized electron beam distributions and the theoretical modeling on non-thermalized electron beam distributions is presented. Finally, the present status of the theoretical modeling of beam transport in bends is given.

  1. Production of pulsed atomic oxygen beams via laser vaporization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David E.; Coulter, Daniel R.; Liang, Ranty H.; Gupta, Amitava

    1986-01-01

    The generation of energetic pulsed atomic oxygen beams by laser-driven evaporation of cryogenically frozen ozone/oxygen films and thin indium-tin oxide (ITO) films is reported. Mass spectroscopy is used in the mass and energy characterization of beams from the ozone/oxygen films, and a peak flux of 3 x 10 to the 20th/sq m per sec at 10 eV is found. Analysis of the time-of-flight data suggests that several processes contribute to the formation of the oxygen beam. Results show the absence of metastable states such as the 2p(3)3s(1)(5S) level of atomic oxygen blown-off from the ITO films. The present process has application to the study of the oxygen degradation problem of LEO materials.

  2. Production of rare isotope beams with the NSCL fragment separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, A.; Baumann, T.; Ginter, T. N.; Morrissey, D. J.; Portillo, M.; Sherrill, B. M.; Steiner, M.; Stetson, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    Rare isotope beams at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory are produced by projectile fragmentation of medium energy primary beams on beryllium targets. The fragments of interest are selected by the A1900 high-acceptance fragment separator. The A1900 consists of superconducting magnets: four 45° dipoles and eight quadrupole triplets with a maximum magnetic rigidity of 6 Tm. A momentum acceptance of Δp/p = 5% with a solid angle acceptance of ΔΩ = 8 msr makes the A1900 one of the highest-acceptance separators in the world. Detector systems installed within the device allow tracking and unambiguous identification of individual isotopes. During the first three years of operation of the A1900, more than 200 different rare isotope beams approaching both the neutron and proton driplines have been delivered to experiments.

  3. Production of uniform and well-confined beams by nonlinear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Blind, B.

    1990-01-01

    Particle beams with uniform and well-confined intensity distributions are desirable for medical treatments, food irradiation an ion implantation. Moreover, such beams are essential in the development of high-intensity accelerators to prevent target damage and optimize target efficiency. One accepted method for beam redistribution employs nonlinear beamline elements, in particular octupoles and to a lesser degree magnets of even higher odd multipolarity. The method is not limited to the production of uniform beam distributions. The development of this field is reviewed. Beam redistribution is explained and the degree of uniformity and confinement achievable under various conditions is discussed. A method for tuning the size of the irradiation area is presented. A possible alternative to the use of combined-function multipoles is given. The effect of beam jitter on the distribution is considered. Applications of the method are given as examples throughout.

  4. Production of multiply charged ion beams from solid substances with the mVINIS ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Draganic, I.; Dobrosavljevic, A.; Nedeljkovic, T.; Siljegovic, M.

    2006-03-15

    The mVINIS ion source has enabled us to obtain multiply charged ion beams from gases as well as from solid materials. The solid substance ion beams were produced by using two techniques: (a) the evaporation of metals by using the inlet system based on a minioven and (b) the metal-ions-from-volatile-compounds method (MIVOC) by using the modified gas inlet system. Great efforts were made in the production of high current stable ion beams of solids with relatively high melting points (over 1000 deg. C). The B{sup 3+} ion-beam current of over 300 {mu}A was one of the most intensive beams extracted until now. The obtained multiply charged ion-beam spectra of solid substances (B, Fe, and Zn) are presented as well as some of the corresponding experimental results achieved during the modification of polymers, carbon materials, and fullerenes.

  5. Production of pulsed atomic oxygen beams via laser vaporization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David E.; Coulter, Daniel R.; Liang, Ranty H.; Gupta, Amitava

    1987-01-01

    Energetic pulsed atomic oxygen beams were generated by laser-driven evaporation of cryogenically frozen ozone/oxygen films and thin films of indium-tin oxide (ITO). Mass and energy characterization of beams from the ozone/oxygen films were carried out by mass spectrometry. The peak flux, found to occur at 10 eV, is estimated from this data to be 3 x 10(20) m(-2) s(-1). Analysis of the time-of-flight data indicates a number of processes contribute to the formation of the atomic oxygen beam. The absence of metastable states such as the 2p(3) 3s(1) (5S) level of atomic oxygen blown off from ITO films is supported by the failure to observe emission at 777.3 nm from the 2p(3) 3p(1) (5P sub J) levels. Reactive scattering experiments with polymer film targets for atomic oxygen bombardment are planned using a universal crossed molecular beam apparatus.

  6. Exploring the energy/beam current parameter space for the isotope production facility (IPF) at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Gulley, Mark S; Bach, Hong; Nortier, Francis M; Pillai, Chandra; Bitteker, Leo J; John, Kevin D; Valdez, Frank O; Seifter, Achim

    2010-09-07

    IPF has recently investigated isotope production with proton beams at energies other than the 100-MeV currently available to the IPF beam line. To maximize the yield of a particular isotope, it is necessary to measure the production rate and cross section versus proton beam energy. Studies were conducted at 800 MeV and 197 MeV to determine the cross section of Tb-159. Also, the ability to irradiate targets at different proton beam energies opens up the possibility of producing other radioisotopes. A proof-of-principle test was conducted to develop a 40-MeV tune in the 100-MeV beam line. Another parameter explored was the beam current, which was raised from the normal limit of 250 {mu}A up to 356 {mu}A via both power and repetition rate increase. This proof-of-principle test demonstrated the capability of the IPF beam line for high current operation with potential for higher isotope yields. For the full production mode, system upgrades will need to be in place to operate at high current and high duty factor. These activities are expected to provide the data needed for the development of a new and unique isotope production capability complementing the existing 100-MeV IPF facility.

  7. Analysis of Neutron Production in Passively Scattered Ion-Beam Therapy.

    PubMed

    Heo, Seunguk; Yoo, Seunghoon; Song, Yongkeun; Kim, Eunho; Shin, Jaeik; Han, Soorim; Jung, Wongyun; Nam, Sanghee; Lee, Rena; Lee, Kitae; Cho, Sungho

    2016-11-24

    A new treatment facility for heavy ion therapy since 2010 was constructed. In the broad beam, a range shifter, ridge filter and multi leaf collimator (MLC) for the generation of the spread-out Bragg peak is used. In this case, secondary neutrons produced by the interactions of the ion field with beam-modifying devices (e.g. double-scattering system, beam shaping collimators and range compensators) are very important for patient safety. Therefore, these components must be carefully examined in the context of secondary neutron yield and associated secondary cancer risk. In this article, Monte Carlo simulation has been carried out with the FLUktuierende KAskade particle transport code, the fluence and distribution of neutron generation and the neutron dose equivalent from the broad beam components are compared using carbon and proton beams. As a result, it is confirmed that the yield of neutron production using a carbon beam from all components of the broad beam was higher than using a proton beam. The ambient dose by neutrons per heavy ion and proton ion from the MLC surface was 0.12-0.18 and 0.0067-0.0087 pSv, respectively, which shows that heavy ions generate more neutrons than protons. However, ambient dose per treatment 2 Gy, which means physical dose during treatment by ion beam, is higher than carbon beam because proton therapy needs more beam flux to make 2-Gy prescription dose. Therefore, the neutron production from the MLC, which is closed to the patient, is a very important parameter for patient safety.

  8. High-Voltage, High-Impedance Ion Beam Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    20375 USA ∗ Work supported by the US Office of Naval Research ξ email : ddh...voltage adder at typical parameters of 4 MV, 360 kA, and 70-90-kA ion current. These results are consistent with theory and with LSP calculations. This...fluorine via 19F(p,αγ)16O, from Ref. 2 This paper describes ion-beam diode experiments on the Mercury inductive voltage adder at ~4-MV, ~360-kA

  9. FAT: Fully Automated TiRiFiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamphuis, P.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Oh, S.-. H.; Spekkens, K.; Urbancic, N.; Serra, P.; Koribalski, B. S.; Dettmar, R.-J.

    2015-07-01

    FAT (Fully Automated TiRiFiC) is an automated procedure that fits tilted-ring models to Hi data cubes of individual, well-resolved galaxies. The method builds on the 3D Tilted Ring Fitting Code (TiRiFiC, ascl:1208.008). FAT accurately models the kinematics and the morphologies of galaxies with an extent of eight beams across the major axis in the inclination range 20°-90° without the need for priors such as disc inclination. FAT's performance allows us to model the gas kinematics of many thousands of well-resolved galaxies, which is essential for future HI surveys, with the Square Kilometre Array and its pathfinders.

  10. Flexible assembly module for beam-shaping product families based on support structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haag, Sebastian; Rübenach, Olaf; Beleke, Andreas; Haverkamp, Tobias; Müller, Tobias; Zontar, Daniel; Wenzel, Christian; Brecher, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Depending on the application, high-power diode lasers (HPDL) have individual requirements on their beam-shaping as well as their mechanical fixation. In order to reduce assembly efforts, laser system manufacturers request pre-assembled beam-shaping systems consisting of a support structure for adhesive bonding as well as one, two or more lenses. Therefore, manufacturers of micro-optics for HPDL need flexible solutions for assembling beam-shaping subassemblies. This paper discusses current solutions for mounting optical subassemblies for beam-shaping of high-power diode lasers and their drawbacks regarding quality and scalability. Subsequently, the paper presents a device which can be used for the sensor-guided assembly of beam-shaping systems based on bottomtab support structures. Results from test productions of several hundred modules are presented showing that repeatability in the range of 1 μm is feasible on an industrial level.

  11. Monochromatic neutron beam production at Brazilian nuclear research reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasiulevicius, Roberto; Rodrigues, Claudio; Parente, Carlos B. R.; Voi, Dante L.; Rogers, John D.

    2000-12-01

    Monochomatic beams of neutrons are obtained form a nuclear reactor polychromatic beam by the diffraction process, suing a single crystal energy selector. In Brazil, two nuclear research reactors, the swimming pool model IEA-R1 and the Argonaut type IEN-R1 have been used to carry out measurements with this technique. Neutron spectra have been measured using crystal spectrometers installed on the main beam lines of each reactor. The performance of conventional- artificial and natural selected crystals has been verified by the multipurpose neutron diffractometers installed at IEA-R1 and simple crystal spectrometer in operator at IEN- R1. A practical figure of merit formula was introduced to evaluate the performance and relative reflectivity of the selected planes of a single crystal. The total of 16 natural crystals were selected for use in the neutron monochromator, including a total of 24 families of planes. Twelve of these natural crystal types and respective best family of planes were measured directly with the multipurpose neutron diffractometers. The neutron spectrometer installed at IEN- R1 was used to confirm test results of the better specimens. The usually conventional-artificial crystal spacing distance range is limited to 3.4 angstrom. The interplane distance range has now been increased to approximately 10 angstrom by use of naturally occurring crystals. The neutron diffraction technique with conventional and natural crystals for energy selection and filtering can be utilized to obtain monochromatic sub and thermal neutrons with energies in the range of 0.001 to 10 eV. The thermal neutron is considered a good tool or probe for general applications in various fields, such as condensed matter, chemistry, biology, industrial applications and others.

  12. Production of (211)At by a vertical beam irradiation method.

    PubMed

    Nagatsu, Kotaro; Minegishi, Katsuyuki; Fukada, Masami; Suzuki, Hisashi; Hasegawa, Sumitaka; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2014-12-01

    We produced (211)At by irradiating the semi-sealed encapsulated Bi target with an external vertical beam. At 28.5MeV, the yield of (211)At was 22MBq/μAh (600μCi/μAh). (211)At was recovered by dry distillation, and 80% of the produced (211)At was successfully obtained in dry Na(211)At form within 2h from the end of bombardment (EOB). The radionuclidic purity of (211)At was >99% at 5h from EOB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Velocity Distributions and Proton Beam Production in the Solar Wind

    SciTech Connect

    Pierrard, Viviane; Voitenko, Yuriy

    2010-03-25

    Helios, Ulysses, and Wind spacecraft have observed the velocity distribution functions (VDFs) of solar wind particles deviating significantly from Maxwellians. We review recent models using different approximations and mechanisms that determine various observed characteristics of the VDFs for the electrons, protons and minor ions. A new generation mechanism is proposed for super-Alfvenic proton beams and tails that are often observed in the fast solar wind. The mechanism is based on the proton trapping and acceleration by kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs), which carry a field-aligned potential well propagating with super-Alfven velocities.

  14. Production and acceleration of ion beams by laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Velardi, L; Siciliano, M V; Delle Side, D; Nassisi, V

    2012-02-01

    In this work, we present a new pulsed laser ablation technique to obtain energetic ion beams. The accelerator we made is a compact device able to extract and accelerate the ionic components of plasma up to 160 keV per charge state. It is composed by a generating chamber containing an expansion chamber used like first electrode. Next, a second electrode connected to ground and a third electrode connected to negative voltage are used. The third electrode is used also as Faraday cup. By the analysis of the ion signals we studied the plume parameters such as TOF accelerated signals, charge state, and divergence.

  15. Proton beam production by a laser ion source with hydride target

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Stifler, C.; Palm, K.; Steski, D.; Kanesue, T.; Ikeda, S.; Kumaki, M.

    2016-02-15

    We studied proton beam production from a laser ion source using hydrogen rich target materials. In general, gas based species are not suitable for laser ion sources since formation of a dense laser target is difficult. In order to achieve reliable operation, we tested hydride targets using a sub nanosecond Q-switched Nd-YAG laser, which may help suppress target material consumption. We detected enough yields of protons from a titanium hydride target without degradation of beam current during the experiment. The combination of a sub nanosecond laser and compressed hydride target may provide stable proton beam.

  16. Radioactive ion beam production at GANIL: Status and prospectives (invited) (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, R.

    2004-05-01

    During the last ICIS in Oakland, we announced that the production of radioactive ion beams on the SPIRAL facility located at GANIL will start before the end of 2001. The production has effectively started and numerous multicharged radioactive ion beams have been delivered for high energy nuclear experiments. This article makes an overview of the different beams that have been produced. In the mean time, an important Research and Development program is continued in order to produce new species of radioactive elements. A new concept of multicharged radioactive production that couple a monocharged ion source, based on the monolithe concept, to an electron cyclotron resonance ion source like Nanogan3 is under developments and is described. The development of monocharged ion sources with high efficiencies is also motivated by a new big project that is under studies at GANIL: the SPIRAL 2 project. The goal of this project consists of extending the disponible radioactive ion beams to very heavy elements created with a new method of production: while the SPIRAL 1 facility uses the projectile fragmentation for radioactive nuclei production, the SPIRAL 2 project is based on the fission of a uranium carbide target induced by a neutron flow created by a high intensity deuton beam. The principle and an overview of the project is presented.

  17. Feasibility study of heavy-ion beams and compound target materials for muon production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Jae Bum; Lee, Ju Hahn; Kim, Gi Dong; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2015-10-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of using compound materials as targets for muon production by virtue of simulations using a GEANT4 toolkit. A graphite material and two thermostable compound materials, beryllium oxide (BeO) and boron carbide (B4C), were considered as muon production targets, and their muon production rates for a 600-MeV proton beam were calculated and compared. For the thermal analysis, the total heat deposited on the targets by the proton beams and the secondary particles was calculated with the MCNPX code; then, the temperature distribution of target was derived from the calculated heat by using the ANSYS code with consideration of heat transfer mechanisms such as thermal conduction and thermal radiation. In addition, we have investigated whether the heavy-ion beams can be utilized for muon production. For various beam species such as 3He2, 4He, 7Li, 10B and 12C, their muon production rates were calculated and compared with the rates experimentally-obtained for a proton beam.

  18. Intense positron beam as a source for production of electron-positron plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoneking, M. R.; Horn-Stanja, J.; Stenson, E. V.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Saitoh, H.; Hergenhahn, U.; Niemann, H.; Paschkowski, N.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Piochacz, C.

    2016-10-01

    We aim to produce magnetically confined, short Debye length electron-positron plasma and test predicted properties for such systems. A first challenge is obtaining large numbers of positrons; a table-top experiment (system size 5 cm) with a temperature less than 5 eV requires about 1010 positrons to have more than 10 Debye lengths in the system. The NEPOMUC facility at the FRM II research reactor in Germany is one of the world's most intense positron sources. We report on characterization (using a retarding field energy analyzer with magnetic field gradient) of the NEPOMUC beam as delivered to the open beam port at various beam energies and in both the re-moderated and primary beam configurations in order to design optimal trapping (and accumulation) schemes for production of electron-positron plasma. The intensity of the re-moderated (primary) beam is in the range 2 -3 x 107 /s (1 - 5 x 108 /s). The re-moderated beam is currently the most promising for direct injection and confinement experiments; it has a parallel energy spread of 15 - 35% and the transverse energy spread is 6 - 15% of the parallel energy. We report on the implications for injection and trapping in a dipole magnetic field as well as plans for beam development, in situ re-moderation, and accumulation. We also report results demonstrating a difference in phosphor luminescent response to low energy positrons versus electrons.

  19. RESONATORS, MODES, BEAMS: Gain saturation of laser beams and production and decay of phase dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyutin, A. A.

    2006-02-01

    The distortion of the distribution of initially pure laser modes caused by the gain saturation is simulated numerically. It is shown that the gain saturation results in a considerable enrichment of the modal spectrum of radiation accompanied by the production and decay of phase dislocations in the far-field domain and at the output of an astigmatic π/2-mode converter.

  20. Characteristics performance of production-worthy multiple e-beam maskless lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, S. J.; Wang, W. C.; Chen, P. S.; Liu, C. Y.; Lo, T. N.; Chen, Jack J. H.; Krecinic, Faruk; Lin, Burn J.

    2010-03-01

    E-beam direct write (EBDW) is one of the potential solutions for technology nodes of 28-nm half-pitch (HP) and beyond. Throughput limitation confined its development mostly to small-volume prototyping. Recently, proposals have been made to achieve throughput greater than 10 wafers per hour (WPH) on a single column with >10,000 beams writing in parallel (MEBDW), or even greater than 100 WPH by further clustering multiple columns within a typical production-tool footprint. The MAPPER concept contains a CMOS-MEMS blanker array driven by high-speed optical data path architecture to simultaneously control >10,000 beams, switching them on and off independently. The MAPPER Pre-Alpha Tool with a 110-beam, 5-keV column and a 300-mm wafer stage has been installed in a semiconductor manufacturing cleanroom environment and is ready for imaging test. In this paper, the resist imaging results of 110-beam parallel raster-scan writing for 30-nm half-pitch (HP) dense hole on 300-mm wafer is shown. The challenges of implementing multiple e-beam maskless lithography (MEBML2) in mass production environment, including resolution, local variation, focusing, energy latitude, proximity effect correction and electron scattering model fitting of hole patterning are discussed. Similar to mask-error-enhanced-factor (MEEF), the new writing-error-enhanced-factor (WEEF) to describe the impact of writing error, is introduced.

  1. Large-angle production of charged pions with incident pion beams on nuclear targets

    SciTech Connect

    Apollonio, M.; Chimenti, P.; Giannini, G.; Artamonov, A.; Giani, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Gorbunov, P.; Grant, A.; Grossheim, A.; Ivanchenko, A.; Ivanchenko, V.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Panman, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Tcherniaev, E.; Tsukerman, I.; Wiebusch, C.; Zucchelli, P.; Bagulya, A.; Grichine, V.

    2009-12-15

    Measurements of the double-differential {pi}{sup {+-}} production cross section in the range of momentum 100{<=}p{<=}800 MeV/c and angle 0.35{<=}{theta}{<=}2.15 rad using {pi}{sup {+-}} beams incident on beryllium, aluminum, carbon, copper, tin, tantalum, and lead targets are presented. The data were taken with the large-acceptance hadron production (HARP) detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN Proton Synchrotron. The secondary pions were produced by beams in a momentum range from 3 to 12.9GeV/c hitting a solid target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The tracking and identification of the produced particles was performed using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber placed inside a solenoidal magnet. Incident particles were identified by an elaborate system of beam detectors. Results are obtained for the double-differential cross sections d{sup 2}{sigma}/dp d{theta} at six incident-beam momenta. Data at 3,5,8, and 12GeV/c are available for all targets, while additional data at 8.9 and 12.9GeV/c were taken in positive particle beams on Be and Al targets, respectively. The measurements are compared with several generators of GEANT4 and the MARS Monte Carlo simulation.

  2. Possibilities of production of transfermium nuclei in complete fusion reactions with radioactive beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Juhee; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2017-07-01

    The possibilities of direct production of new isotopes of transfermium nuclei 261,263,264No, 264Lr263, 263,264,266,268Rf, 265Db264, and 267,268,270,272Sg are studied in various asymmetric hot fusion-evaporation reactions with radioactive beams. The optimal reaction partners and conditions for the synthesis of new isotopes are suggested. The products of the suggested reactions can fill a gap of unknown isotopes between the isotopes of heaviest nuclei obtained in the x n evaporation channels of the cold and hot complete fusion reactions with the stable beams.

  3. Plasma heating, plasma flow and wave production around an electron beam injected into the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.; Erickson, K. N.

    1986-01-01

    A brief historical summary of the Minnesota ECHO series and other relevant electron beam experiments is given. The primary purpose of the ECHO experiments is the use of conjugate echoes as probes of the magnetosphere, but beam-plasma and wave studies were also made. The measurement of quasi-dc electric fields and ion streaming during the ECHO 6 experiment has given a pattern for the plasma flow in the hot plasma region extending to 60m radius about the ECHO 6 electron beam. The sheath and potential well caused by ion orbits is discussed with the aid of a model which fits the observations. ELF wave production in the plasma sheath around the beam is briefly discussed. The new ECHO 7 mission to be launched from the Poker Flat range in November 1987 is described.

  4. The role of beam polarization for radiative neutralino production at the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreiner, H. K.; Kittel, O.; Langenfeld, U.

    2008-03-01

    We analyze the impact of electron and positron beam polarization on radiative neutralino production at the international linear collider (ILC). We focus on three different mSUGRA scenarios in turn at the Higgs strahlung threshold, the top pair production threshold, and at sqrt{s} =500 GeV. In these scenarios at the corresponding sqrt{s}, radiative neutralino production is the only supersymmetric production mechanism that is kinematically allowed. The heavier neutralinos and charginos as well as the sleptons, squarks and gluinos are too heavy to be pair produced. We calculate the signal cross section and also the standard model background from radiative neutrino production. For our scenarios, we obtain significances larger than 10 and signal to background ratios between 2% and 5%, if we have electron beam polarization P_{e^-} = 0.0 0.8 and positron beam polarization P_{e^+} = 0.0 0.3. If we have electron beam polarization of P_{e^-} = 0.9, then the signal is observable with P_{e^+} = 0.0 but both the significance and the signal to background ratio are significantly improved for P_{e^+} = 0.3.

  5. Advancement of highly charged ion beam production by superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L. Lu, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Qian, C.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.; Guo, J. W.; Yang, Y.; Fang, X.

    2016-02-15

    At Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source SECRAL (Superconducting ECR ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) has been put into operation for about 10 years now. It has been the main working horse to deliver intense highly charged heavy ion beams for the accelerators. Since its first plasma at 18 GHz, R&D work towards more intense highly charged ion beam production as well as the beam quality investigation has never been stopped. When SECRAL was upgraded to its typical operation frequency 24 GHz, it had already showed its promising capacity of very intense highly charged ion beam production. And it has also provided the strong experimental support for the so called scaling laws of microwave frequency effect. However, compared to the microwave power heating efficiency at 18 GHz, 24 GHz microwave heating does not show the ω{sup 2} scale at the same power level, which indicates that microwave power coupling at gyrotron frequency needs better understanding. In this paper, after a review of the operation status of SECRAL with regard to the beam availability and stability, the recent study of the extracted ion beam transverse coupling issues will be discussed, and the test results of the both TE{sub 01} and HE{sub 11} modes will be presented. A general comparison of the performance working with the two injection modes will be given, and a preliminary analysis will be introduced. The latest results of the production of very intense highly charged ion beams, such as 1.42 emA Ar{sup 12+}, 0.92 emA Xe{sup 27+}, and so on, will be presented.

  6. Advancement of highly charged ion beam production by superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Yang, Y.; Qian, C.; Fang, X.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    At Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source SECRAL (Superconducting ECR ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) has been put into operation for about 10 years now. It has been the main working horse to deliver intense highly charged heavy ion beams for the accelerators. Since its first plasma at 18 GHz, R&D work towards more intense highly charged ion beam production as well as the beam quality investigation has never been stopped. When SECRAL was upgraded to its typical operation frequency 24 GHz, it had already showed its promising capacity of very intense highly charged ion beam production. And it has also provided the strong experimental support for the so called scaling laws of microwave frequency effect. However, compared to the microwave power heating efficiency at 18 GHz, 24 GHz microwave heating does not show the ω2 scale at the same power level, which indicates that microwave power coupling at gyrotron frequency needs better understanding. In this paper, after a review of the operation status of SECRAL with regard to the beam availability and stability, the recent study of the extracted ion beam transverse coupling issues will be discussed, and the test results of the both TE01 and HE11 modes will be presented. A general comparison of the performance working with the two injection modes will be given, and a preliminary analysis will be introduced. The latest results of the production of very intense highly charged ion beams, such as 1.42 emA Ar12+, 0.92 emA Xe27+, and so on, will be presented.

  7. Beam-Based Production of 178m2Hf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, J. Paul; Dudnikov, V.; Carroll, J. J.; Merkel, G.

    2002-11-01

    In this study, the production yield for the reaction 176Yb(9Be, α3n)178Hf was explored using the FN tandem injected superconducting LINAC at SUNY at Stony Brook at a 9Be energy of 65 MeV. By comparing the experimental yield of 178Hf ground state γ rays with those of 180W as a function of energy, the cross section for production of the incomplete fusion γ rays in 178Hf was evaluated. Coincidence measurements were made to get information about the population strength of the high spin states in 178Hf. From these measurements, the maximum cross section for the reaction 176Yb(9Be, α3n)178m2Hf is estimated to be no larger than 5 mb.

  8. Hadron production measurements to constrain accelerator neutrino beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzenev, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    A precise prediction of expected neutrino fluxes is required for a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment. The flux is used to measure neutrino cross sections at the near detector, while at the far detector it provides an estimate of the expected signal for the study of neutrino oscillations. In the talk several approaches to constrain the ν flux are presented. The first is the traditional one when an interaction chain for the neutrino parent hadrons is stored to be weighted later with real measurements. In this approach differential hadron cross sections are used which, in turn, are measured in ancillary hadron production experiments. The approach is certainly model dependent because it requires an extrapolation to different incident nucleon momenta assuming xF scaling as well as extrapolation between materials having different atomic numbers. In the second approach one uses a hadron production yields off a real target exploited in the neutrino beamline. Yields of neutrino parent hadrons are parametrized at the surface of the target, thus one avoids to trace the particle interaction history inside the target. As in the case of the first approach, a dedicated ancillary experiment is mandatory. Recent results from the hadron production experiments - NA61/SHINE at CERN (measurements for T2K) and MIPP at Fermilab (measurements for NuMI) - are reviewed.

  9. Hadron production measurements to constrain accelerator neutrino beams

    SciTech Connect

    Korzenev, Alexander

    2015-07-15

    A precise prediction of expected neutrino fluxes is required for a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment. The flux is used to measure neutrino cross sections at the near detector, while at the far detector it provides an estimate of the expected signal for the study of neutrino oscillations. In the talk several approaches to constrain the ν flux are presented. The first is the traditional one when an interaction chain for the neutrino parent hadrons is stored to be weighted later with real measurements. In this approach differential hadron cross sections are used which, in turn, are measured in ancillary hadron production experiments. The approach is certainly model dependent because it requires an extrapolation to different incident nucleon momenta assuming x{sub F} scaling as well as extrapolation between materials having different atomic numbers. In the second approach one uses a hadron production yields off a real target exploited in the neutrino beamline. Yields of neutrino parent hadrons are parametrized at the surface of the target, thus one avoids to trace the particle interaction history inside the target. As in the case of the first approach, a dedicated ancillary experiment is mandatory. Recent results from the hadron production experiments – NA61/SHINE at CERN (measurements for T2K) and MIPP at Fermilab (measurements for NuMI) – are reviewed.

  10. Overview of the activities at the low-energy beam separator CRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Hayakawa, S.; Yang, L.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Abe, K.; Shimizu, H.; CRIB Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    CRIB (CNS Radio-Isotope Beam separator) is a low-energy RI beam separator of Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), the University of Tokyo. Studies on nuclear astrophysics, nuclear structure, and other interests have been performed using the RI beams at CRIB, forming international collaborations. Measurements of proton and α resonant scatterings have been performed at CRIB for many nuclides using RI beams. Projects to study astrophysical reactions with direct and indirect methods are also in progress.

  11. MONO1001: A source for singly charged ions applied to the production of multicharged fullerene beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maunoury, L.; Andersen, J. U.; Cederquist, H.; Huber, B. A.; Hvelplund, P.; Leroy, R.; Manil, B.; Pacquet, J. Y.; Pedersen, U. V.; Rangamma, J.; Tomita, S.

    2004-05-01

    The present article reports on a recent study of the production of multiply charged fullerene beams based on an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (ECRIS). As collision studies in fundamental physics are demanding intense beams of multiply charged ions of small molecules, clusters, and particularly of fullerenes, we have further developed the ion source ECRIS MONO1000 [P. Jardin et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 789 (2002)], originally devoted to produce singly charged ions, towards the production of multiply charged fullerene beams. In this article, the test measurements performed at the Electrostatic Ion Storage Ring Århus rf power (ELISA) facility will be described. Typical mass spectra (from pure C60 and C70 powder) will be shown and the influence of several source parameters (rf power, support gas, gas pressure,…) will be discussed specifying the conditions necessary for an optimum ion source operation.

  12. Photo-production of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc with electron linear accelerator beam.

    PubMed

    Avagyan, R; Avetisyan, A; Kerobyan, I; Dallakyan, R

    2014-09-01

    We report on the development of a relatively new method for the production of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc. The method involves the irradiation of natural molybdenum using high-intensity bremsstrahlung photons from the electron beam of the LUE50 linear electron accelerator located at the Yerevan Physics Institute (YerPhi). The production method has been developed and shown to be successful. The linear electron accelerator at YerPhi was upgraded to allow for significant increases of the beam intensity and spatial density. The LUE50 was also instrumented by a remote control system for ease of operation. We have developed and tested the (99m)Tc extraction from the irradiation of natural MoO3. This paper reports on the optimal conditions of our method of (99)Mo production. We show the success of this method with the production and separation of the first usable amounts of (99m)Tc.

  13. Measurement of desorbed products during organic polymer thin film etching by plasma beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kurihara, Kazuaki; Karahashi, Kazuhiro; Egami, Akihiro; Nakamura, Moritaka

    2006-11-15

    The authors investigated the etching characteristics of three kinds of methacrylate polymer films, which have the same main chain but with different side chains, using a plasma beam irradiation apparatus. The polymers are polytbutylmethacrylate, polybenzylmethacrylate, and polycyclohexylmethacrylate. The major desorbed products during nitrogen plasma beam etching were found to be HCN and C{sub 2}N{sub 2} for all methacrylate polymer films. The desorbed products originating from the polymer structure, namely, the main chain and the side chain, were hardly observed. The energy distributions of desorbed products were mainly composed of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution with a small component of collision cascade distribution for all three polymers and were slightly dependent on the ion energy. It is concluded that chemical sputtering, which can be defined as the production of weakly bound species by ion bombardment, followed by thermal desorption, is the significant ion induced mechanism of organic polymer etching.

  14. RI 1170 advanced strapdown gyro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The major components of the RI 1170 gyroscope are described. A detailed functional description of the electronics including block diagrams and photographs of output waveshapes within the loop electronics are presented. An electronic data flow diagram is included. Those gyro subassemblies that were originally planned and subsequently changed or modified for one reason or another are discussed in detail. Variations to the original design included the capacitive pickoffs, torquer flexleads, magnetic suspension, gas bearings, electronic design, and packaging. The selection of components and changes from the original design and components selected are discussed. Device failures experienced throughout the program are reported and design corrections to eliminate the failure modes are noted. Major design deficiencies such as those of the MSE electronics are described in detail. Modifications made to the gas bearing parts and design improvements to the wheel are noted. Changes to the gas bearing prints are included as well as a mathematical analysis of the 1170 gas bearing wheel by computer analysis. The mean free-path effects on gas bearing performance is summarized.

  15. Cherenkov light detection as a velocity selector for uranium fission products at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Enomoto, A.; Kouno, J.; Yamaki, S.; Matsunaga, S.; Suzaki, F.; Suzuki, T.; Abe, Y.; Nagae, D.; Okada, S.; Ozawa, A.; Saito, Y.; Sawahata, K.; Kitagawa, A.; Sato, S.

    2014-12-01

    The in-flight particle separation capability of intermediate-energy radioactive ion (RI) beams produced at a fragment separator can be improved with the Cherenkov light detection technique. The cone angle of Cherenkov light emission varies as a function of beam velocity. This can be exploited as a velocity selector for secondary beams. Using heavy ion beams available at the HIMAC synchrotron facility, the Cherenkov light angular distribution was measured for several thin radiators with high refractive indices (n = 1.9 2.1). A velocity resolution of 10-3 was achieved for a 56Fe beam with an energy of 500 MeV/nucleon. Combined with the conventional rigidity selection technique coupled with energy-loss analysis, the present method will enable the efficient selection of an exotic species from huge amounts of various nuclides, such as uranium fission products at the BigRIPS fragment separator located at the RI Beam Factory.

  16. E-beam treatment of trichloroethylene-air mixtures: Products and rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mill, Theodore; Su, Minggong; David Yao, C. C.; Matthews, Stephen M.; Wang, Francis T. S.

    1997-09-01

    Electron beam (E-beam) treatment of 3000 ppmv trichloroethylene (TCE) vapor in dry and wet air led to rapid, nearly quantitative, conversion of TCE to dichloroacetyl chloride, plus small amounts of phosgene. Higher E-beam doses, up to 110 kGy, led to oxidation of the initial products to CO, CO 2, HCl and Cl 2. The results parallel results found for photo- and Cl-atom initiated oxidation of TCE vapor, and are accounted for by an efficient Cl-atom chain oxidation. Lack of effect of 28,000 ppmv water vapor (90% RH) on rates or products reflects a very high efficiency for the Cl-atom chain oxidation and the very slow reaction of vapor phase water with acyl halides. Irradiation experiments conducted with TCE dissolved in aerated and deaerated water at 10 and 300 ppm showed marked differences in radiolytic products from those found in the vapor phase. A preliminary cost estimate indicates that E-beam treatment of TCE vapor is very competitive with conventional activated carbon treatment and catalytic oxidation.

  17. Production of α-particle emitting 211At using 45 MeV α-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gyehong; Chun, Kwonsoo; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Byungil

    2014-06-01

    Among the α-particle emitting radionuclides, 211At is considered to be a promising radionuclide for targeted cancer therapy due to its decay properties. The range of alpha particles produced by the decay of 211At are less than 70 µm in water with a linear energy transfer between 100 and 130 keV µm-1, which are about the maximum relative biological effectiveness for heavy ions. It is important to note that at the present time, only a few of cyclotrons routinely produce 211At. The direct production method is based on the nuclear reactions 209Bi(α,2n)211At. Production of the radionuclide 211At was carried out using the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). To ensure high beam current, the α-beam was extracted with an initial energy of 45 MeV, which was degraded to obtain the appropriate α-beam energy. The calculations of beam energy degradation were performed utilizing the MCNPX. Alumina-baked targets were prepared by heating the bismuth metal powder onto a circular cavity in a furnace. When using an Eα, av of 29.17 MeV, the very small contribution of 210At confirms the right choice of the irradiation energy to obtain a pure production of 211At isotope.

  18. Optimization of the profile of a pulsed slow positron beam extracted from a buffer-gas positron trap for the production of a variable energy positronium beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladen, R.; Michishio, K.; Chiari, L.; Oshima, N.; Nagashima, Y.

    In this poster we will present some details of steps taken to optimize the beam profile of a pulsed slow positron beam extracted from a buffer-gas positron trap. The beam will be employed for the production of a novel positronium beam by the acceleration and photodetachment of positronium negative ions. The TUS group is planning on using this beam to study positronium diffraction from solid surfaces, providing a unique neutral-particle spectroscopic method with several advantages over conventional neutral-particle spectroscopy, such as a reduced particle mass and, hence, the reduction of damage to the sample surface This work was performed at the Tokyo University of Science. The visit of R. G. to the laboratory was sponsored in part by the NSF EAPSI fellowship and the JSPS Summer Program.

  19. Ethanol Inhibits High-Affinity Immunoglobulin E Receptor (FcεRI) Signaling in Mast Cells by Suppressing the Function of FcεRI-Cholesterol Signalosome

    PubMed Central

    Draberova, Lubica; Paulenda, Tomas; Halova, Ivana; Potuckova, Lucie; Bugajev, Viktor; Bambouskova, Monika; Tumova, Magda; Draber, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol has multiple effects on biochemical events in a variety of cell types, including the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcεRI) signaling in antigen-activated mast cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. To get better understanding of the effect of ethanol on FcεRI-mediated signaling we examined the effect of short-term treatment with non-toxic concentrations of ethanol on FcεRI signaling events in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. We found that 15 min exposure to ethanol inhibited antigen-induced degranulation, calcium mobilization, expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-13), and formation of reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent manner. Removal of cellular cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin had a similar effect and potentiated some of the inhibitory effects of ethanol. In contrast, exposure of the cells to cholesterol-saturated methyl-β-cyclodextrin abolished in part the inhibitory effect of ethanol on calcium response and production of reactive oxygen species, supporting lipid-centric theories of ethanol action on the earliest stages of mast cell signaling. Further studies showed that exposure to ethanol and/or removal of cholesterol inhibited early FcεRI activation events, including tyrosine phosphorylation of the FcεRI β and γ subunits, SYK kinases, LAT adaptor protein, phospholipase Cγ, STAT5, and AKT and internalization of aggregated FcεRI. Interestingly, ethanol alone, and particularly in combination with methyl-β-cyclodextrin, enhanced phosphorylation of negative regulatory tyrosine 507 of LYN kinase. Finally, we found that ethanol reduced passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction in mice, suggesting that ethanol also inhibits FcεRI signaling under in vivo conditions. The combined data indicate that ethanol interferes with early antigen-induced signaling events in mast cells by suppressing the function of FcεRI

  20. Ethanol Inhibits High-Affinity Immunoglobulin E Receptor (FcεRI) Signaling in Mast Cells by Suppressing the Function of FcεRI-Cholesterol Signalosome.

    PubMed

    Draberova, Lubica; Paulenda, Tomas; Halova, Ivana; Potuckova, Lucie; Bugajev, Viktor; Bambouskova, Monika; Tumova, Magda; Draber, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol has multiple effects on biochemical events in a variety of cell types, including the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcεRI) signaling in antigen-activated mast cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. To get better understanding of the effect of ethanol on FcεRI-mediated signaling we examined the effect of short-term treatment with non-toxic concentrations of ethanol on FcεRI signaling events in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. We found that 15 min exposure to ethanol inhibited antigen-induced degranulation, calcium mobilization, expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-13), and formation of reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent manner. Removal of cellular cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin had a similar effect and potentiated some of the inhibitory effects of ethanol. In contrast, exposure of the cells to cholesterol-saturated methyl-β-cyclodextrin abolished in part the inhibitory effect of ethanol on calcium response and production of reactive oxygen species, supporting lipid-centric theories of ethanol action on the earliest stages of mast cell signaling. Further studies showed that exposure to ethanol and/or removal of cholesterol inhibited early FcεRI activation events, including tyrosine phosphorylation of the FcεRI β and γ subunits, SYK kinases, LAT adaptor protein, phospholipase Cγ, STAT5, and AKT and internalization of aggregated FcεRI. Interestingly, ethanol alone, and particularly in combination with methyl-β-cyclodextrin, enhanced phosphorylation of negative regulatory tyrosine 507 of LYN kinase. Finally, we found that ethanol reduced passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction in mice, suggesting that ethanol also inhibits FcεRI signaling under in vivo conditions. The combined data indicate that ethanol interferes with early antigen-induced signaling events in mast cells by suppressing the function of FcεRI

  1. Measurement and properties of the dose-area product ratio in external small-beam radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemelä, Jarkko; Partanen, Mari; Ojala, Jarkko; Sipilä, Petri; Björkqvist, Mikko; Kapanen, Mika; Keyriläinen, Jani

    2017-06-01

    In small-beam radiation therapy (RT) the measurement of the beam quality parameter, i.e. the tissue-phantom ratio or TPR20,10, using a conventional point detector is a challenge. To obtain reliable results, one has to consider potential sources of error, including volume averaging and adjustment of the point detector into the narrow beam. To overcome these challenges, a different type of beam quality parameter in small beams was studied, namely the dose-area product ratio, or DAPR20,10. With this method, the measurement of a dose-area product (DAP) using a large-area plane-parallel chamber (LAC) eliminates the uncertainties in detector positioning and volume averaging that are present when using a point detector. In this study, the properties of the DAPR20,10 of a cone-collimated 6 MV photon beam were investigated using Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and the obtained values were compared to measurements obtained using two LAC detectors, PTW Type 34073 and PTW Type 34070. In addition, the possibility of determining the DAP using EBT3 film and a Razor diode detector was studied. The determination of the DAPR20,10 value was found to be feasible in external small-beam radiotherapy using cone-collimated beams with diameters from 4-40 mm, based on the results of the two LACs, the MC calculations and the Razor diode. The measurements indicated a constant DAPR20,10 value for fields 20-40 mm in diameter, with a maximum relative change of 0.6%, but an increase of 7.0% for fields from 20-4 mm in diameter for the PTW Type 34070 chamber. Simulations and measurements showed an increase of DAPR20,10 with increasing LAC size or dose integral area for the studied 4-40 mm cone-collimated 6 MV photon beams. This has the consequence that there should be a reference to the size of the used LAC active area or the DAP integration area with the reported DAPR20,10 value.

  2. Measurement and properties of dose-area product ratio in external small-beam radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Niemelä, Jarkko Tapio; Partanen, Mari; Ojala, Jarkko; Sipilae, Petri; Björkqvist, Mikko; Kapanen, Mika; Keyriläinen, Jani

    2017-03-22

    In small-beam radiation therapy (RT) the measurement of beam quality parameter i.e. tissue-phantom ratio or TPR20,10 with conventional point detector is a challenge. To obtain reliable results, one has to consider potential sources of error, including volume averaging and adjustment of the point detector into the narrow beam. To overcome these challenges, a different type of possible beam quality parameter in small beams was studied, namely the dose-area product ratio or DAPR20,10. With this method, the measurement of a dose-area product (DAP) with a large-area plane-parallel chamber (LAC) eliminates the uncertainties in detector positioning and volume averaging present with the use of a point detector. In this study, properties of DAPR20,10 of cone-collimated 6 MV photon beam were investigated with Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and the obtained values were compared to measurements obtained by two LAC detectors PTW Type 34073 and PTW Type 34070. In addition, the possibility of determining the DAP with EBT3 film and Razor diode detector was studied. The determination of DAPR20,10 value was found to be feasible in external small-beam radiotherapy of cone-collimated beams with diameters from 4 to 40 mm with the two LACs, MC calculation and Razor diode. Measurements indicated a constant DAPR20,10 value for fields from 20 to 40 mm in diameter with maximum relative change of 0.6%, but an increase of 7.0% for fields from 20 to 4 mm in diameter for PTW Type 34070 chamber. Simulations and measurements showed an increase of DAPR20,10 with increasing LAC size or dose integral area for studied cone-collimated 6 MV photon beams from 4 to 40 mm in diameter. This has a consequence that with reported DAPR20,10 value there should be a reference to the size of the used LAC active area or the DAP integration area.

  3. $\\pi^0$ Production with $K^-$ and $\\pi^+$ Beams at 530 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Lanaro, Armando

    1990-01-01

    In thia theaia we report on measurements of inclusive neutral pion production at large transverse momenta ($P_T$) in collision of 530 GeV/c ($\\sqrt{s}$ = 31.5 GeV) $K^-$ and $\\pi^+$ beams with a copper and beryllium combined target. The $\\pi^0$ acceptance in center-of-mass rapidity is $\\mid y \\mid$ < 0.7, for $P_T$ values greater than 3.5 GeV/c (negative beam) and 4.25 GeV/c (positive beam). The data were taken using the large acceptance liquid argon calorimeter of the E706 spectrometer at Fermilab, and analyzed using the standard E706 reconstruction package. Ratios on $\\pi^0$ yields using $\\pi^+, \\pi^-, K^-$ and $p$ are presented. The results are used to examine issues of scaling in point-like hadronic collisions at high energies and large transverse momenta.

  4. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Xie, D. Z.; Hitz, D.; Zhang, X. Z.; Yang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24-28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of 40Ar+ and 129Xe26+ have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24 +18 GHz ) heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  5. Ion beam production and study of radioactive isotopes with the laser ion source at ISOLDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosseev, Valentin; Chrysalidis, Katerina; Day Goodacre, Thomas; Marsh, Bruce; Rothe, Sebastian; Seiffert, Christoph; Wendt, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    At ISOLDE the majority of radioactive ion beams are produced using the resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS). This ion source is based on resonant excitation of atomic transitions by wavelength tunable laser radiation. Since its installation at the ISOLDE facility in 1994, the RILIS laser setup has been developed into a versatile remotely operated laser system comprising state-of-the-art solid state and dye lasers capable of generating multiple high quality laser beams at any wavelength in the range of 210-950 nm. A continuous programme of atomic ionization scheme development at CERN and at other laboratories has gradually increased the number of RILIS-ionized elements. At present, isotopes of 40 different elements have been selectively laser-ionized by the ISOLDE RILIS. Studies related to the optimization of the laser-atom interaction environment have yielded new laser ion source types: the laser ion source and trap and the versatile arc discharge and laser ion source. Depending on the specific experimental requirements for beam purity or versatility to switch between different ionization mechanisms, these may offer a favourable alternative to the standard hot metal cavity configuration. In addition to its main purpose of ion beam production, the RILIS is used for laser spectroscopy of radioisotopes. In an ongoing experimental campaign the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of long isotopic chains have been measured by the extremely sensitive in-source laser spectroscopy method. The studies performed in the lead region were focused on nuclear deformation and shape coexistence effects around the closed proton shell Z = 82. The paper describes the functional principles of the RILIS, the current status of the laser system and demonstrated capabilities for the production of different ion beams including the high-resolution studies of short-lived isotopes and other applications of RILIS lasers for ISOLDE experiments. This article belongs to the Focus on

  6. Production of arbitrary polarized light beams with a liquid crystal spatial modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Ignacio; Sánchez-López, Maria M.; Davis, Jeffrey A.; Badham, Katherine; Cottrell, Don M.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we review some of our recent advances in the generation and control of polarized light beams by means of liquid crystal light modulators. We use a reflective geometry where a single parallel-aligned spatial light modulator device is used to independently spatially modulate two orthogonal linear polarizations with two different phase profiles. In this way we are able to produce arbitrary polarization patterns, which can be combined to produce polarization diffractive elements. In this work we present two such new elements: 1) an anisotropic axicon capable to produce a line focus with axial arbitrary state of polarization, and 2) anisotropic diffraction gratings, capable to generate arbitrary orders of diffraction with different states of polarization designed at will. The anisotropic axicon generates a Bessel beam with polarization variation, which might be useful in micro-fabrication techniques. On the other hand, the anisotropic gratings are useful to produce snapshot polarimeters, capable to measure the Stokes parameters of a light beam in a single measurement. Finally, we will show that these elements can be combined with spiral phase patterns in order to convert them into cylindrically polarized light beams. Experimental results on the production of diffractive elements that generate light beams with these polarization features will be included.

  7. The charge breeder beam line for the selective production of exotic species project at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatà, A.; Comunian, M.; Maggiore, M.; Manzolaro, M.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.

    2014-02-01

    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is an INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) project with the aim at producing and post-accelerating exotic beams to perform forefront research in nuclear physics. To allow post-acceleration of the radioactive ions, an ECR-based Charge Breeder (CB) developed on the basis of the Phoenix booster was chosen. The design of the complete beam line for the SPES-CB will be described: a system for stable 1+ beams production was included; special attention was paid to the medium resolution mass spectrometer after the CB to limit possible superposition of the exotic beams with the impurities present in the ECR plasma.

  8. The charge breeder beam line for the selective production of exotic species project at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Galatà, A; Comunian, M; Maggiore, M; Manzolaro, M; Angot, J; Lamy, T

    2014-02-01

    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is an INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) project with the aim at producing and post-accelerating exotic beams to perform forefront research in nuclear physics. To allow post-acceleration of the radioactive ions, an ECR-based Charge Breeder (CB) developed on the basis of the Phoenix booster was chosen. The design of the complete beam line for the SPES-CB will be described: a system for stable 1+ beams production was included; special attention was paid to the medium resolution mass spectrometer after the CB to limit possible superposition of the exotic beams with the impurities present in the ECR plasma.

  9. Reactive Collisions in Crossed Molecular Beams

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Herschbach, D. R.

    1962-02-01

    The distribution of velocity vectors of reaction products is discussed with emphasis on the restrictions imposed by the conservation laws. The recoil velocity that carries the products away from the center of mass shows how the energy of reaction is divided between internal excitation and translation. Similarly, the angular distributions, as viewed from the center of mass, reflect the partitioning of the total angular momentum between angular momenta of individual molecules and orbital angular momentum associated with their relative motion. Crossed-beam studies of several reactions of the type M + RI yields R + MI are described, where M = K, Rb, Cs, and R = CH{sub 3}, C{sub 3}H{sub 5}, etc. The results show that most of the energy of reaction goes into internal excitation of the products and that the angular distribution is quite anisotropic, with most of the MI recoiling backward (and R forward) with respect to the incoming K beam. (auth)

  10. Steady-state plasma production and fluid flow in ion beams with step-function density profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, D.S.; Jones, M.E.; Kadish, A.; Lee, H.; Newberger, B.S.

    1985-06-01

    The steady-state fluid equations for plasma production and transverse flow in an ion beam with a step-function density profile are solved exactly in both slab and cylindrical geometries. The beam edge is treated as both a neutral and a non-neutral sheath. In the former, the beam density falls from its value inside the beam to zero in a distance much greater than a Debye length, while in the latter the Debye length is much greater than the beam falloff distance. Physical solutions with plasma density profiles which decrease monotonically from the beam center are shown not to exist for negative ion beams with a non-neutral sheath.

  11. Photo-fission for the production of radioactive beams ALTO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essabaa, S.; Arianer, J.; Ausset, P.; Bajeat, O.; Baronick, J. P.; Clapier, F.; Coacolo, L.; Donzaud, C.; Ducourtieux, M.; Galès, S.; Gardès, D.; Grialou, D.; Hosni, F.; Guillemaud-Mueller, D.; Ibrahim, F.; Junquera, T.; Lau, C.; Le Blanc, F.; Lefort, H.; Le Scornet, J. C.; Lesrel, J.; Mueller, A. C.; Obert, J.; Perru, O.; Potier, J. C.; Proust, J.; Pougheon, F.; Roussière, B.; Rouvière, N.; Sauvage, J.; Sorlin, O.; Tkatchenko, A.; Verney, D.; Waast, B.; Rinolfi, L.; Rossat, G.; Forkel-Wirth, D.; Muller, A.; Bienvenu, G.; Bourdon, J.-C.; Garvey, T.; Jacquemard, B.; Omeich, M.

    2003-05-01

    In order to probe neutron rich radioactive noble gases produced by photo-fission, a PARRNe-1 experiment (Production d'Atomes Radioactifs Riches en Neutrons) has been carried out at CERN. The incident electron beam of 50 MeV was delivered by the LIL machine: LEP Injector Linac. The experiment allowed us to compare under the same conditions two production methods of radioactive noble gases: fission induced by fast neutrons and photo-fission. The obtained results show that the use of the electrons is a promising mode to get intense neutron rich ion beams. After the success of this photo-fission experiment, a conceptual design for the installation at IPN Orsay of a 50 MeV electron accelerator close to the PARRNe-2 device has been worked out: ALTO Project. This work has started within a collaboration between IPNO, LAL (Laboratoire de l'Accélérateur Linéaire) and CERN groups.

  12. A Polarized High-Energy Photon Beam for Production of Exotic Mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Senderovich, Igor

    2012-01-01

    This work describes design, prototyping and testing of various components of the Jefferson Lab Hall D photon beamline. These include coherent bremsstrahlung radiators to be used in this facility for generating the photon beam, a fine resolution hodoscope for the facility's tagging spectrometer, and a photon beam position sensor for stabilizing the beam on a collimator. The principal instrumentation project was the hodoscope: its design, implementation and beam testing will be thoroughly described. Studies of the coherent bremsstrahlung radiators involved X-ray characterization of diamond crystals to identify the appropriate line of manufactured radiators and the proper techniques for thinning them to the desired specification of the beamline. The photon beam position sensor project involved completion of a designed detector and its beam test. The results of these shorter studies will also be presented. The second part of this work discusses a Monte Carlo study of a possible photo-production and decay channel in the GlueX experiment that will be housed in the Hall D facility. Specifically, the γ p → Xp → b1 π → ω π+1 π-1 channel was studied including its Amplitude Analysis. This exercise attempted to generate a possible physics signal, complete with internal angular momentum states, and be able to reconstruct the signal in the detector and find the proper set of JPC quantum numbers through an amplitude fit. Derivation of the proper set of amplitudes in the helicity basis is described, followed by a discussion of the implementation, generation of the data sets, reconstruction techniques, the amplitude fit and results of this study.

  13. Note: Production of a mercury beam with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Vondrasek, R.; Pardo, R.; Scott, R.

    2013-11-15

    An electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been utilized to produce mercury beams with intensities of 4.5 eμA of {sup 202}Hg{sup 29+} and 3.0 eμA of {sup 202}Hg{sup 31+} from natural abundance mercury metal. The production technique relies on the evaporation of liquid mercury into the source plasma vacuum region and utilizes elemental mercury instead of a volatile organic compound as the neutral feed material.

  14. Note: Production of a mercury beam with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Vondrasek, R; Pardo, R; Scott, R

    2013-11-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been utilized to produce mercury beams with intensities of 4.5 eμA of (202)Hg(29+) and 3.0 eμA of (202)Hg(31+) from natural abundance mercury metal. The production technique relies on the evaporation of liquid mercury into the source plasma vacuum region and utilizes elemental mercury instead of a volatile organic compound as the neutral feed material.

  15. Injection and Propagation of Multiple Relativistic Electron Beams into Preformed Plasma Channels for High-Power X-Ray Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    and a surface - flashover prepulse switch were added to the focused-beam diodes. These changes have improved the pinch stability of the focused beam... plasma channel-front expansion velocities from the exploding wire as inferred from the experi- mental data are 0.8 mm per microsecond for the 760 Torr...27.3 INJECTION AND PROPAGATION OF ~1ULTIPLE RELATIVISTIC ELECTRON BEAMS INTO PREFORMED PLASMA CHANNELS FOR HIGH-POWER X-RAY PRODUCTION F. J

  16. Design and optimization of a highly efficient optical multipass system for γ-ray beam production from electron laser beam Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupraz, K.; Cassou, K.; Delerue, N.; Fichot, P.; Martens, A.; Stocchi, A.; Variola, A.; Zomer, F.; Courjaud, A.; Mottay, E.; Druon, F.; Gatti, G.; Ghigo, A.; Hovsepian, T.; Riou, J. Y.; Wang, F.; Mueller, A. C.; Palumbo, L.; Serafini, L.; Tomassini, P.

    2014-03-01

    A new kind of nonresonant optical recirculator, dedicated to the production of γ rays by means of Compton backscattering, is described. This novel instrument, inspired by optical multipass systems, has its design focused on high flux and very small spectral bandwidth of the γ-ray beam. It has been developed to fulfill the project specifications of the European Extreme Light Infrastructure "Nuclear Pillar," i.e., the Gamma Beam System. Our system allows a single high power laser pulse to recirculate 32 times synchronized on the radio frequency driving accelerating cavities for the electron beam. Namely, the polarization of the laser beam and crossing angle between laser and electrons are preserved all along the 32 passes. Moreover, optical aberrations are kept at a negligible level. The general tools developed for designing, optimizing, and aligning the system are described. A detailed simulation demonstrates the high efficiency of the device.

  17. Observation of new neutron-rich micro-second isomers among fission products of ^238U at 345 MeV/u

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameda, Daisuke; Nakao, Taro; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Ohnishi, Tetsuya; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Naoki; Kusaka, Kensuke; Yoshida, Atsushi; Yoshida, Koichi; Ohtake, Masao; Inabe, Naohito; Yanagisawa, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Kanenobu; Gono, Yasuyuki

    2009-10-01

    In the production of the radioactive isotope (RI) beam using projectile fragment separators, γ rays emitted from metastable states, isomers, of the reaction products can be used as a fingerprint of the isotope that is analyzed in the separator. In the operation of the superconducting in-flight RI beam separator BigRIPS [1] at RIKEN RI Beam Factory, the detection of such γ rays plays important roles not only in the identification of the RI beam [2] but also in searching for new isomers, providing valuable spectroscopic information on the isotopes. In the recent new-isotope production experiment with BigRIPS using in-flight fission of 345 MeV/nucleon ^238U at the beam intensity around 0.3 pnA, we have observed a number of short-lived isomeric decays which include unknown decays from more than 10 isotopes, using three clover-type Ge detectors with a beam stopper of aluminum. The primal result of the observations will be reported. [1] T. Kubo: Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 204 (2003) 97. [2] T. Ohnishi et al.: J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 77 (2008) 083201.

  18. Production of clinically useful positron emitter beams during carbon ion deceleration.

    PubMed

    Lazzeroni, M; Brahme, A

    2011-03-21

    In external beam radiation therapy, radioactive beams offer the best clinical solution to simultaneously treat and in vivo monitor the dose delivery and tumor response using PET or PET-CT imaging. However, difficulties mainly linked to the low production efficiency have so far limited their use. This study is devoted to the analysis of the production of high energy (11)C fragments, preferably by projectile fragmentation of a stable monodirectional and monoenergetic primary (12)C beam in different absorbing materials (decelerators) in order to identify the optimal elemental composition. The study was performed using the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT07. The track length and fluence of generated secondary particles were scored in a uniform absorber of 300 cm length and 10 cm radius, divided into slices of 1 cm thickness. The (11)C fluence build-up and mean energy variation with increasing decelerator depth are presented. Furthermore, the fluence of the secondary (11)C beam was studied as a function of its mean energy and the corresponding remaining range in water. It is shown that the maximum (11)C fluence build-up is high in compounds where the fraction by weight of hydrogen is high, being the highest in liquid hydrogen. Furthermore, a cost effective alternative solution to the single medium initially envisaged is presented: a two-media decelerator that comprises a first liquid hydrogen section followed by a second decelerating section made of a hydrogen-rich material, such as polyethylene (C(2)H(4)). The purpose of the first section is to achieve a fast initial (11)C fluence build-up, while the second section is primarily designed to modulate the mean energy of the generated (11)C beam in order to reach the tumor depth. Finally, it was demonstrated that, if the intensity of the primary (12)C beam can be increased by an order of magnitude, a sufficient intensity of the secondary (11)C beam is achieved for therapy and subsequent therapeutic PET imaging sessions. Such an

  19. Production of clinically useful positron emitter beams during carbon ion deceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzeroni, M.; Brahme, A.

    2011-03-01

    In external beam radiation therapy, radioactive beams offer the best clinical solution to simultaneously treat and in vivo monitor the dose delivery and tumor response using PET or PET-CT imaging. However, difficulties mainly linked to the low production efficiency have so far limited their use. This study is devoted to the analysis of the production of high energy 11C fragments, preferably by projectile fragmentation of a stable monodirectional and monoenergetic primary 12C beam in different absorbing materials (decelerators) in order to identify the optimal elemental composition. The study was performed using the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT07. The track length and fluence of generated secondary particles were scored in a uniform absorber of 300 cm length and 10 cm radius, divided into slices of 1 cm thickness. The 11C fluence build-up and mean energy variation with increasing decelerator depth are presented. Furthermore, the fluence of the secondary 11C beam was studied as a function of its mean energy and the corresponding remaining range in water. It is shown that the maximum 11C fluence build-up is high in compounds where the fraction by weight of hydrogen is high, being the highest in liquid hydrogen. Furthermore, a cost effective alternative solution to the single medium initially envisaged is presented: a two-media decelerator that comprises a first liquid hydrogen section followed by a second decelerating section made of a hydrogen-rich material, such as polyethylene (C2H4). The purpose of the first section is to achieve a fast initial 11C fluence build-up, while the second section is primarily designed to modulate the mean energy of the generated 11C beam in order to reach the tumor depth. Finally, it was demonstrated that, if the intensity of the primary 12C beam can be increased by an order of magnitude, a sufficient intensity of the secondary 11C beam is achieved for therapy and subsequent therapeutic PET imaging sessions. Such an increase in the

  20. Latest developments at GANIL for stable and radioactive ion beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Jardin, P.; Barue, C.; Bajeat, O.; Canet, C.; Clement, E.; Cornell, J. C.; Delahaye, P.; Dubois, M.; Dupuis, M.; Flambard, J. L.; Fraanberg, H.; Frigot, R.; Leboucher, C.; Lecesne, N.; Lecomte, P.; Leherissier, P.; Lemagnen, F.; Leroy, R.; Maunoury, L.; Mery, A.; and others

    2010-02-15

    In the frame of the SPIRAL II (Systeme de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Acceleres en Ligne Partie II) project, several developments of stable and radioactive ion production systems have been started up. In parallel, GANIL has the ambition to preserve the existing stable and radioactive beams and also to increase its range by offering new ones. In order to identify the best directions for this development, a new group called GANISOL has been formed. Its preliminary conclusions and the latest developments at GANIL are presented.

  1. Production of intense positron beams at the VEPP-5 injection complex

    SciTech Connect

    Astrelina, K. V.; Blinov, M. F.; Vsevolozhskaya, T. A.; Dikanskii, N. S.; Emanov, F. A.; Lapik, R. M.; Logachev, P. V.; Martyshkin, P. V.; Petrenko, A. V.; Rybitskaya, T. V.; Skrinskii, A. N.; Shiyankov, S. V.; Yaskina, T. A.

    2008-01-15

    A source of positrons allowing 5 x 10{sup 8} positrons accelerated to the energy of 70 MeV to be produced per pulse has been developed. The process of electron-positron pair production in an electromagnetic shower is used for production of positrons. The electromagnetic shower is generated in a tantalum target by a beam of 2 x 10{sup 10} electrons with energy 270 MeV. A high efficiency of positron collection (positron yield Y {approx} 0.1 GeV{sup -1}) is ensured by a unique design of the matching device.

  2. Production of intense positron beams at the VEPP-5 injection complex

    SciTech Connect

    Astrelina, K. V.; Blinov, M. F.; Vsevolozhskaya, T. A.; Dikanskii, N. S.; Emanov, F. A.; Lapik, R. M.; Logachev, P. V.; Martyshkin, P. V.; Petrenko, A. V.; Rybitskaya, T. V.; Skrinskii, A. N.; Shiyankov, S. V.; Yaskina, T. A.

    2008-01-15

    A source of positrons allowing 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} positrons accelerated to the energy of 70 MeV to be produced per pulse has been developed. The process of electron-positron pair production in an electromagnetic shower is used for production of positrons. The electromagnetic shower is generated in a tantalum target by a beam of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} electrons with energy 270 MeV. A high efficiency of positron collection (positron yield Y Almost-Equal-To 0.1 GeV{sup -1}) is ensured by a unique design of the matching device.

  3. Neutron productions in the fragmentation of relativistic heavy nuclei and formation of a beam of high-energy neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Yurevich, V. I.

    2016-03-15

    The production of quasimonoenergetic high-energy neutrons at zero angle (0°) in the spallation of relativistic heavy nuclei is discussed by considering the example of the interaction of lead nuclei with light target nuclei. It is shown that this process can be used to generate a beam of high-energy neutrons at existing heavy ion accelerators. At the same time, itmay lead to the appearance of a parasitic neutron beam because of the interaction of the heavy-ion beam used with beam line and experimental setup materials.

  4. A CW radiofrequency ion source for production of negative hydrogen ion beams for cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Koivisto, H.; Tuunanen, J.; Potkins, D.; Stewart, T.; Dehnel, M. P.

    2015-04-08

    A CW 13.56 MHz radiofrequency-driven ion source RADIS for production of H{sup −} and D{sup −} beams is under development for replacing the filament-driven ion source of the MCC30/15 cyclotron. The RF ion source has a 16-pole multicusp plasma chamber, an electromagnet-based magnetic filter and an external planar spiral RF antenna behind an AlN window. The extraction is a 5-electrode system with an adjustable puller electrode voltage for optimizing the beam formation, a water-cooled electron dump electrode and an accelerating einzel lens. At 2650 W of RF power, the source produces 1 mA of H{sup −} (2.6 mA/cm{sup 2}), which is the intensity needed at injection for production of 200 µA H{sup +} with the filament-driven ion source. A simple pepperpot device has been developed for characterizing the beam emittance. Plans for improving the power efficiency with the use of a new permanent magnet front plate is discussed.

  5. Study of muon-induced neutron production using accelerator muon beam at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Y.; Lin, C. J.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Draeger, E.; White, C. G.; Luk, K. B.; Steiner, H.

    2015-08-17

    Cosmogenic muon-induced neutrons are one of the most problematic backgrounds for various underground experiments for rare event searches. In order to accurately understand such backgrounds, experimental data with high-statistics and well-controlled systematics is essential. We performed a test experiment to measure muon-induced neutron production yield and energy spectrum using a high-energy accelerator muon beam at CERN. We successfully observed neutrons from 160 GeV/c muon interaction on lead, and measured kinetic energy distributions for various production angles. Works towards evaluation of absolute neutron production yield is underway. This work also demonstrates that the setup is feasible for a future large-scale experiment for more comprehensive study of muon-induced neutron production.

  6. Real time M2 and beam parameter product measurement using GigE CMOS sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaggs, Michael; Haas, Gil

    2016-03-01

    The ISO 11146-1 standard for measurement of a laser's M-square requires the minimum measurement of five (5) spatial profiles within the first Rayleigh range and an addition five (5) outside the second Rayleigh range. The first five spatial profiles within the first Rayleigh range establish the beam waist and its location; the second five beyond the second Rayleigh range establish the divergence or convergence from the focusing lens for the M-square computation. The majority of methods used to date are all time averaged and as such are incapable of a real time M-square measurement. We present an ISO 11146-1 compliant method for measuring single shot M-square or beam parameter product values or the measurement of continuous wave sources at rates greater than five frames per second utilizing a pair of GigE based CMOS sensors. One GigE CMOS sensor is setup to measure the minimum of five spots within the first Rayleigh range for the establishment of the beam waist and its location. A second GigE CMOS sensor is setup to measure the five spatial profiles beyond the second Rayleigh range for the determination of the beam divergence from the focusing lens. Both GigE cameras utilize optics that passively create multiple spatial time slices of the beam and superimpose these time slices on the CMOS sensor in real time resulting in the ability to make single pulse measurements or continuous wave measurements at speeds of greater than five frames per second with full ISO 11146-1 compliance.

  7. Nonlinear Breit-Wheeler Pair Production in a Tightly Focused Laser Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Piazza, A.

    2016-11-01

    The only available analytical framework for investigating QED processes in a strong laser field systematically relies on approximating the latter as a plane wave. However, realistic high-intensity laser beams feature much more complex space-time structures than plane waves. Here, we show the feasibility of an analytical framework for investigating strong-field QED processes in laser beams of arbitrary space-time structure by determining the energy spectrum of positrons produced via nonlinear Breit-Wheeler pair production as a function of the background field in the realistic assumption that the energy of the incoming photon is the largest dynamical energy in the problem. A numerical evaluation of the angular resolved positron spectrum shows significant quantitative differences with respect to the analogous result in a plane wave, such that the present results will be also important for the design of upcoming strong laser facilities aiming at measuring this process.

  8. Production of charm and beauty in e{sup +}e{sup -} with polarized electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Su, D.

    1995-09-01

    The test of the Standard Model through the measurements of Z{sup 0} to fermion couplings can benefit from much enhanced sensitivity by using longitudinally polarized electron beams. This report reviews preliminary electroweak measurements from SLD on heavy quark production at the Z{sup 0}, using 150,000 hadronic Z{sup 0} decays accumulated during the 93-95 runs with high electron beam polarization. The parity violating parameters A{sub b} and A{sub c} of the Zbb and Zcc couplings are measured directly from the left-right forward-backward asymmetries. A measurement of R{sub b} with a lifetime double tag and a summary of the preliminary measurement of A{sub LR} from the 93-95 SLD data are also included in this report.

  9. Production of zero energy radioactive beams through extraction across superfluid helium surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, N.; Huang, W. X.; Gloos, K.; Dendooven, P.; Pekola, J. P.; Äystö, J.

    2003-05-01

    A radioactive 223Ra source was immersed in superfluid helium at 1.2- 1.7 K. Electric fields transported recoiled 219Rn ions in the form of snowballs to the surface and further extracted them across the surface. The ions were focussed onto an aluminium foil and alpha particle spectra were taken with a surface barrier spectrometer. This enabled us to determine the efficiency for each process unambiguously. The pulsed second sound wave proved effective in enhancing the extraction of positive ions from the surface. Thus we offer a novel method for study of impurities in superfluid helium and propose this method for production of zero energy nuclear beams for use at radioactive ion beam facilities.

  10. Finish ion beam treatment of the longrange cylindrical products outer surface in automatic mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalin, B. A.; Volkov, N. V.; Valikov, R. A.; Yashin, A. S.; Krivobokov, V. P.; Yanin, S. N.; Asainov, O. Kh; Yurev, Yu N.

    2016-04-01

    The results of using of ion-beam technologies methods for finish treatment of metal products are presented. The experiments were performed at the installation ILUR-03, which allows the operation of cleaning, polishing and surface layers doping of the material of unlimited length cylindrical samples by radial Ar+ ions beam with energy up to 5 keV. The tubes from zirconium alloy E110 up to 500 mm length were used as samples for investigation. It is shown that selected automatic treatment modes reduce the surface roughness over the entire length of the samples and increase uniformity of the surface layer without observable effect on the bulk properties of material. Treatment promotes the formation of oxide films with improved defensive properties.

  11. Modelling third harmonic ion cyclotron acceleration of deuterium beams for JET fusion product studies experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, M.; Johnson, T.; Dumont, R.; Eriksson, J.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Giacomelli, L.; Girardo, J.-B.; Hellsten, T.; Khilkevitch, E.; Kiptily, V. G.; Koskela, T.; Mantsinen, M.; Nocente, M.; Salewski, M.; Sharapov, S. E.; Shevelev, A. E.; Contributors, JET

    2016-11-01

    Recent JET experiments have been dedicated to the studies of fusion reactions between deuterium (D) and Helium-3 (3He) ions using neutral beam injection (NBI) in synergy with third harmonic ion cyclotron radio-frequency heating (ICRH) of the beam. This scenario generates a fast ion deuterium tail enhancing DD and D3He fusion reactions. Modelling and measuring the fast deuterium tail accurately is essential for quantifying the fusion products. This paper presents the modelling of the D distribution function resulting from the NBI+ICRF heating scheme, reinforced by a comparison with dedicated JET fast ion diagnostics, showing an overall good agreement. Finally, a sawtooth activity for these experiments has been observed and interpreted using SPOT/RFOF simulations in the framework of Porcelli’s theoretical model, where NBI+ICRH accelerated ions are found to have a strong stabilizing effect, leading to monster sawteeth.

  12. Towards the production of an ultra cold antihydrogen beam with the AEGIS apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, James William

    The AEGIS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) experiment is an international collaboration, based at CERN, with the experimental goal of performing the first direct measurement of the Earth's gravitational acceleration on antihydrogen. In the first phase of the experiment, a gravity measurement with 1% precision will be performed by passing a beam of ultra cold antihydrogen atoms through a classical Moiré deflectometer coupled to a position sensitive detector. The key requirements for this measurement are the production of ultra cold (T˜100 mK) Rydberg state antihydrogen and the subsequent Stark acceleration of these atoms. The aim is to produce Rydberg state antihydrogen by means of the charge exchange reaction between ultra cold antiprotons (T˜100 mK) and Rydberg state positronium. This paper will present details of the developments necessary for the successful production of the ultra cold antihydrogen beam, with emphasis on the detector that is required for the development of these techniques. Issues covered will include the detection of antihydrogen production and temperature, as well as detection of the effects of Stark acceleration.

  13. Towards the production of an ultra cold antihydrogen beam with the AEGIS apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, James William

    2012-12-01

    The AEGIS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) experiment is an international collaboration, based at CERN, with the experimental goal of performing the first direct measurement of the Earth's gravitational acceleration on antihydrogen. In the first phase of the experiment, a gravity measurement with 1% precision will be performed by passing a beam of ultra cold antihydrogen atoms through a classical Moiré deflectometer coupled to a position sensitive detector. The key requirements for this measurement are the production of ultra cold (T˜100 mK) Rydberg state antihydrogen and the subsequent Stark acceleration of these atoms. The aim is to produce Rydberg state antihydrogen by means of the charge exchange reaction between ultra cold antiprotons (T˜100 mK) and Rydberg state positronium. This paper will present details of the developments necessary for the successful production of the ultra cold antihydrogen beam, with emphasis on the detector that is required for the development of these techniques. Issues covered will include the detection of antihydrogen production and temperature, as well as detection of the effects of Stark acceleration.

  14. LC/MS/MS identification of some folic acid degradation products after E-beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. M.; Marchioni, E.; Zhao, M.; Kuntz, F.; Di Pascoli, T.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Bergaentzle, M.

    2012-08-01

    Folates belong to the B vitamin group based on the parental compound folic acid (FA). They are involved in important biochemical processes like DNA synthesis and repair. FA is composed of a pteridine ring, p-aminobenzoic acid and glutamate moieties. The human metabolism is not able to synthesize folates and therefore obtain them from diet. FA, a synthetic vitamin, is used as a food fortificant because of its low price, relative stability and increased bioavailability compared to natural folate forms. FA is known to be a sensitive compound easily degradable in aqueous solution by ultraviolet and visible light towards various by-products. Irradiation is a process for preservation of foods that uses accelerated electrons, gamma rays or X-rays. Irradiation is proposed for the treatment of various food products, eliminating or reducing pathogens and insects, increasing the storage time and replacing chemical fumigants. This study concerns the identification of degradation products of FA after E-beam irradiation. FA aqueous solutions were irradiated with a Van de Graaff electrons beam accelerator (2 MeV, 100 μA current, 20 cm scan width, dose rate about 2 kGy/s). Applied doses were between 0 (control) and 10.0 kGy. Absorbed doses were monitored with FWT 60.00 radiochromic dosimeters.

  15. Ion source developments for the production of radioactive isotope beams at TRIUMF

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, F. Bricault, P.; Heggen, H.; Kunz, P.; Lassen, J.; Mjøs, A.; Raeder, S.; Teigelhöfer, A.

    2014-02-15

    At the ISAC facility at TRIUMF radioactive ions are produced by bombarding solid targets with up to 100 μA of 500 MeV protons. The reaction products have to diffuse out of the hot target into an ion source. Normally, singly charged ions are extracted. They can be transported either directly to experiments or via an ECR charge state breeder to a post accelerator. Several different types of ion sources have to be used in order to deliver a large variety of rare isotope beams. At ISAC those are surface ion sources, forced electron beam arc discharge (FEBIAD) ion sources and resonant laser ionization sources. Recent development activities concentrated on increasing the selectivity for the ionization to suppress isobaric contamination in the beam. Therefore, a surface ion rejecting resonant laser ionization source (SIRLIS) has been developed to suppress ions from surface ionization. For the FEBIAD ion source a cold transfer line has been introduced to prevent less volatile components from reaching the ion source.

  16. Production of charged (singly and multiply) phosphorous beams with electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maunoury, L.; Kantas, S.; Leroy, R.; Pacquet, J. Y.

    2006-03-01

    Within the framework of biological application linked to ion irradiation, the fabrication of radioactive stents by ion implantation provides a significant improvement of the recovery of arteries after a treatment of stenosed coronary arteries [P. Fehsenfeld et al., Semin Interv Cardiol. 3, 157 (1998); E. Huttel et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 825 (2002); M.-A. Golombeck et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 495 (2003)]. For this appliance, the suitable radioactive ion is P32. Obviously, in order to have a minimum loss of these radioactive ions through the ionization process, it is imperative to have high ionization efficiency. In this article, the production of such singly and multiply charged phosphorous beams is investigated using two different electron cyclotron resonance ion sources: MONO1000/1001 [P. Jardin et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 789 (2002)] and SUPERSHyPIE [J. Y. Pacquet et al., EP Patent No. 97 401294 (pending); R. Leroy et al., 14th International Workshop on ECR Ion Sources, May 1999 (unpublished)]. Spectra and above all efficiencies [J. Y. Pacquet et al., GANIL R 02 07; GANIL R 03 08] (31% of ionization efficiency for phosphorous atoms and compound with MONO1000/1001 and 43% of ionization efficiency for phosphorous atoms with SUPERSHyPIE) of these beams will be presented as well as the intensities (227eμA for P+ with MONO1000/1001 and 145eμA for P7+ with SUPERSHyPIE) of such beams.

  17. Production of high-angular-momentum electron beams in laser-plasma interactions.

    PubMed

    Ju, L B; Zhou, C T; Huang, T W; Jiang, K; Zhang, H; Wu, S Z; Qiao, B; Ruan, S C

    2017-05-01

    It was shown that in the interactions of ultra-intense circularly polarized laser pulse with the near-critical plasmas, the angular momentum can be transferred efficiently from the laser beam to electrons through the resonance acceleration process. The transferred angular momentum increases almost linearly with the acceleration time t_{a} when the electrons are resonantly accelerated by the laser field. In addition, it is shown analytically that the averaged angular momentum of electrons is proportional to the laser amplitude a_{L}, and the total angular momentum of the accelerated electron beam is proportional to the square of the laser amplitude a_{L}^{2} for a fixed parameter of n_{e}/n_{c}a_{L}. These results are verified by three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. This regime provides an efficient and compact alternative for the production of high angular momentum electron beams, which may have many potential applications in condensed-matter spectroscopy, new electron microscopes, and bright x-ray vortex generation.

  18. Production of high-angular-momentum electron beams in laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, L. B.; Zhou, C. T.; Huang, T. W.; Jiang, K.; Zhang, H.; Wu, S. Z.; Qiao, B.; Ruan, S. C.

    2017-05-01

    It was shown that in the interactions of ultra-intense circularly polarized laser pulse with the near-critical plasmas, the angular momentum can be transferred efficiently from the laser beam to electrons through the resonance acceleration process. The transferred angular momentum increases almost linearly with the acceleration time ta when the electrons are resonantly accelerated by the laser field. In addition, it is shown analytically that the averaged angular momentum of electrons is proportional to the laser amplitude aL, and the total angular momentum of the accelerated electron beam is proportional to the square of the laser amplitude aL2 for a fixed parameter of n/encaL . These results are verified by three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. This regime provides an efficient and compact alternative for the production of high angular momentum electron beams, which may have many potential applications in condensed-matter spectroscopy, new electron microscopes, and bright x-ray vortex generation.

  19. Production of pure quasi-monochromatic 11C beams for accurate radiation therapy and dose delivery verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzeroni, Marta; Brahme, Anders

    2015-09-01

    In the present study we develop a new technique for the production of clean quasi-monochromatic 11C positron emitter beams for accurate radiation therapy and PET-CT dose delivery imaging and treatment verification. The 11C ion beam is produced by projectile fragmentation using a primary 12C ion beam. The practical elimination of the energy spread of the secondary 11C fragments and other beam contaminating fragments is described. Monte Carlo calculation with the SHIELD-HIT10+ code and analytical methods for the transport of the ions in matter are used in the analysis. Production yields, as well as energy, velocity and magnetic rigidity distributions of the fragments generated in a cylindrical target are scored as a function of the depth within 1 cm thick slices for an optimal target consisting of a fixed 20 cm section of liquid hydrogen followed by a variable thickness section of polyethylene. The wide energy and magnetic rigidity spread of the 11C ion beam can be reduced to values around 1% by using a variable monochromatizing wedge-shaped degrader in the beam line. Finally, magnetic rigidity and particle species selection, as well as discrimination of the particle velocity through a combined Time of Flight and Radio Frequency-driven Velocity filter purify the beam from similar magnetic rigidity contaminating fragments (mainly 7Be and 3He fragments). A beam purity of about 99% is expected by the combined method.

  20. Small radio frequency driven multicusp ion source for positive hydrogen ion beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L.T.; Herz, P.R.; Leung, K.N.; Pickard, D.S. )

    1994-04-01

    A compact, 2.5 cm diam rf-driven multicusp ion source has been developed and tested for H[sup +] ion production in pulse mode operation. The source is optimized for atomic hydrogen ion species and extractable current. It is found that hydrogen ion beam current densities in excess of 650 mA/cm[sup 2] can be achieved with H[sup +] species above 80%. The geometry and position of the porcelain-coated copper antenna were found to be of great significance in relation to the efficiency of the ion source.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... health and development? More about Mutations and Health Inheritance Pattern Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis has a pseudoautosomal dominant pattern ... of the SHOX gene in each cell. The inheritance pattern of Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis is described as dominant ...

  2. 34. Boston switch interlocking tower. Central Falls, Providence Co., RI. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Boston switch interlocking tower. Central Falls, Providence Co., RI. Sec. 4116, mp 190.40. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  3. Production of multi-, oligo- and single-pore membranes using a continuous ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, P. Yu.; Ivanov, O. M.; Lizunov, N. E.; Mamonova, T. I.; Nechaev, A. N.; Olejniczak, K.; Vacik, J.; Dmitriev, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    Ion track membranes (ITM) have attracted significant interest over the past two decades due to their numerous applications in physical, biological, chemical, biochemical and medical experimental works. A particular feature of ITM technology is the possibility to fabricate samples with a predetermined number of pores, including single-pore membranes. The present report describes a procedure that allowed for the production of multi-, oligo- and single-pore membranes using a continuous ion beam from an IC-100 cyclotron. The beam was scanned over a set of small diaphragms, from 17 to ∼1000 μm in diameter. Ions passed through the apertures and impinged two sandwiched polymer foils, with the total thickness close to the ion range in the polymer. The foils were pulled across the ion beam at a constant speed. The ratio between the transport speed and the scanning frequency determined the distance between irradiation spots. The beam intensity and the aperture diameters were adjusted such that either several, one or no ions passed through the diaphragms during one half-period of scanning. After irradiation, the lower foil was separated from the upper foil and was etched to obtain pores 6-8 μm in diameter. The pores were found using a color chemical reaction between two reagents placed on opposite sides of the foil. The located pores were further confirmed using SEM and optical microscopy. The numbers of tracks in the irradiation spots were consistent with the Poisson statistics. Samples with single or few tracks obtained in this way were employed to study fine phenomena in ion track nanopores.

  4. THE PAIR BEAM PRODUCTION SPECTRUM FROM PHOTON-PHOTON ANNIHILATION IN COSMIC VOIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlickeiser, R.; Ibscher, D.; Elyiv, A.; Miniati, F. E-mail: ibscher@tp4.rub.de E-mail: fm@phys.ethz.ch

    2012-10-20

    Highly beamed relativistic e {sup {+-}}-pair energy distributions result in double photon collisions of the beamed gamma rays from TeV blazars at cosmological distances with the isotropically distributed extragalactic background light (EBL) in the intergalactic medium. The typical energies k {sub 0} {approx_equal} 10{sup -7} in units of m{sub e}c {sup 2} of the EBL are more than 10 orders of magnitude smaller than the observed gamma-ray energies k {sub 1} {>=} 10{sup 7}. Using the limit k {sub 0} << k {sub 1}, we demonstrate that the angular distribution of the generated pairs in the lab frame is highly beamed in the direction of the initial gamma-ray photons. For the astrophysically important case of power-law distributions of the emitted gamma-ray beam up to the maximum energy M interacting with Wien-type N(k {sub 0}){proportional_to}k{sup q} {sub 0}exp (- k {sub 0}/{Theta}) soft photon distributions with total number density N {sub 0}, we calculate analytical approximations for the electron production spectrum. For distant objects with luminosity distances d{sub L} >> r {sub 0} = ({sigma} {sub T} N {sub 0}){sup -1} = 0.49N {sup -1} {sub 0} Mpc (with Thomson cross section {sigma} {sub T}), the implied large values of the optical depth {tau}{sub 0} = d{sub L} /r {sub 0} indicate that the electron production spectra differ at energies inside and outside the interval [({Theta}ln {tau}{sub 0}){sup -1}, {tau}{sub 0}/{Theta}], given the maximum gamma-ray energy M >> {Theta}{sup -1}. In the case M >> {Theta}{sup -1}, the production spectrum is strongly peaked near E {approx_equal} {Theta}{sup -1}, being exponentially reduced at small energies and decreasing with the steep power law {proportional_to}E {sup -1-p} up to the maximum energy E = M - (1/2).

  5. Neutron Productions from thin Be target irradiated by 50 MeV/u 238U beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee-Seock; Oh, Joo-Hee; Jung, Nam-Suk; Oranj, Leila Mokhtari; Nakao, Noriaki; Uwamino, Yoshitomo

    2017-09-01

    Neutrons generated from thin beryllium target by 50 MeV/u 238U beam were measured using activation analysis at 15, 30, 45, and 90 degrees from the beam direction. A 0.085 mm-thick Be stripper of RIBF was used as the neutron generating target. Activation detectors of bismuth, cobalt, and aluminum were placed out of the stripper chamber. The threshold reactions of 209Bi(n, xn)210-xBi(x=4 8), 59Co(n, xn)60-xCO(x=2 5), 59Co(n, 2nα)54Mn, 27Al(n, α)24Na, and 27Al(n,2nα)22Na were applied to measure the production rates of radionuclides. The neutron spectra were obtained using an unfolding method with the SAND-II code. All of production rates and neutron spectra were compared with the calculated results using Monte Carlo codes, the PHITS and the FLUKA. The FLUKA results showed better agreement with the measurements than the PHITS. The discrepancy between the measurements and the calculations were discussed.

  6. Production and diagnosis of a lithium anode plasma source for intense ion beam diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Dreike, P.L.; Tisone, G.C.

    1986-01-15

    A scheme for the production of a thin layer of dense lithium plasma is outlined, and the results of a proof-of-principle experiment are presented. Our objective is to produce a thin layer of lithium plasma for the anode plasma of an intense ion beam diode, such as the one being designed for inertial confinement fusion experiments with the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II. Minimum requirements for the lithium anode plasma density, thickness, and purity are developed. Production of a lithium vapor layer by pulsed evaporation, and plasma formation by laser ionization based on resonant saturation (LIBORS) of the vapor are described. Lithium was evaporated, by ohmic heating with a two step capacitor discharge, from a thin layer of lithium silver alloy deposited on a tantalum foil. A two-photon pumped fluoresence technique was developed and used to characterize the density and thickness of the vapor layer. A peak vapor density near 1 x 10 W cm T with a thickness of a few millimeters was observed. The electron density of the final plasma was inferred from broadening of the 460.3 nm lithium line, and agreed with the lithium neutral density within experimental uncertainty, for several different lithium densities.

  7. Production of radioactivity in local soil at AGS fast neutrino beam

    SciTech Connect

    Gollon, P.J.; Hauptmann, M.G.; McIntyre, K.; Miltenberger, R.; Naidu, J.

    1984-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has recently decided to construct a new neutrino production target station at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). To determine the environmental impact of this addition, a study is being conducted in the vicinity of the old target area to determine the radiological consequences of operating this experimental facility. Typical BNL soil samples were placed at two locations near an operating target: at right angles to the target and behind thick shielding close to the direction of the incident beam. These samples were used to determine radionuclide production and leaching information. A core was taken from beneath the concrete floor of the old target area and a monitoring well was installed down-gradient of the facility. Preliminary results from all areas of the study are presented along with estimates of the potential environmental impact of the old and new facilities. 9 figures.

  8. Production of low axial energy spread ion beams with multicusp sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette

    Multicusp ion sources are capable of producing ions with low axial energy spread which are necessary in applications such as: ion projection lithography (IPL) and focused ion beams for the next generation lithographic tools and nuclear science experiments such as radioactive ion beam production. The axial ion energy spread for multicusp source is approximately 6 eV which is too large for IPL and radioactive ion beam applications. The addition of a magnetic filter which consists of a pair of permanent magnets to the multicusp source reduces the energy spread considerably. The reduction is due to the improvement in the uniformity of the axial plasma potential distribution in the discharge region. Axial ion energy spread of the filament driven ion source has been measured using three different techniques. In all cases, it was found to be less than 2 eV. Energy spread of the radio frequency (RF) driven source has also been explored, and it was found to be less than 3 eV with the proper RF-shielding. A new multicusp source configuratian has been designed and constructed to further reduce the energy spread. To achieve a more uniform axial plasma potential distribution, a cylindrical magnetic filter has been designed and constructed for a 20-cm-diameter source. This new source configuration, the co-axial source, is new in its kind. The energy spread in this source has been measured to be a record low of 0.6 eV. Because of the novelty of this device, some plasma parameters inside the source have been studied. Langmuir probe has been used to measure the plasma potential, the electron temperature and the density distribution. Unlike any other source in existence, the co-axial source has been designed to have a capability in adjusting the radial plasma potential distribution and therefore the transverse ion temperature (or beam emittance). The effect on the beam emittance has been verified by using a triode accelerator assembly and a Allison type parallel- plate emittance

  9. The Transcription Factor Ehf Is Involved in TGF-β-Induced Suppression of FcεRI and c-Kit Expression and FcεRI-Mediated Activation in Mast Cells.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Susumu; Nakano, Nobuhiro; Honjo, Asuka; Hara, Mutsuko; Maeda, Keiko; Nishiyama, Chiharu; Kitaura, Jiro; Ohtsuka, Yoshikazu; Okumura, Ko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2015-10-01

    FcεRI, which is composed of α, β, and γ subunits, plays an important role in IgE-mediated allergic responses. TGF-β1 has been reported to suppress FcεRI and stem cell factor receptor c-Kit expression on mast cell surfaces and to suppress mast cell activation induced by cross-linking of FcεRI. However, the molecular mechanism by which these expressions and activation are suppressed by TGF-β1 remains unclear. In this study, we found that the expression of Ets homologous factor (Ehf), a member of the Ets family transcriptional factors, is upregulated by TGF-β/Smad signaling in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Forced expression of Ehf in BMMCs repressed the transcription of genes encoding FcεRIα, FcεRIβ, and c-Kit, resulting in a reduction in cell surface FcεRI and c-Kit expression. Additionally, forced expression of Ehf suppressed FcεRI-mediated degranulation and cytokine production. Ehf inhibited the promoter activity of genes encoding FcεRIα, FcεRIβ, and c-Kit by binding to these gene promoters. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of Gata1, Gata2, and Stat5b were lower in BMMCs stably expressing Ehf compared with control cells. Because GATA-1 and GATA-2 are positive regulators of FcεRI and c-Kit expression, decreased expression of GATAs may be also involved in the reduction of FcεRI and c-Kit expression. Decreased expression of Stat5 may contribute to the suppression of cytokine production by BMMCs. In part, mast cell response to TGF-β1 was mimicked by forced expression of Ehf, suggesting that TGF-β1 suppresses FcεRI and c-Kit expression and suppresses FcεRI-mediated activation through upregulation of Ehf.

  10. 77 FR 33007 - Submission for Review: Rollover Election (RI 38-117), Rollover Information (RI 38-118), and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Rollover Election (RI 38-117), Rollover Information (RI 38-118), and... change, of a currently approved collection information request (ICR) 3206-0212, Rollover Election (RI 38... other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submissions of responses....

  11. 77 FR 66187 - Submission for Review: Rollover Election (RI 38-117), Rollover Information (RI 38-118), and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Rollover Election (RI 38-117), Rollover Information (RI 38-118), and... change, of a currently approved information collection request (ICR) 3206-0212, Rollover Election (RI 38... information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submissions of responses. DATES: Comments are...

  12. Large acceptance magnetic focussing horns for production of a high intensity narrow band neutrino beam at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, A.; Chimienti, L.; Leonhardt, W.; Monaghan, R.; Ryan, G.; Sandberg, J.; Sims, W.; Smith, G.; Stillman, P.; Thorwarth, H.

    1985-01-01

    A set of two large acceptance (20 to 140 mrad) horns have been designed and built to form a parallel beam of 3 GeV/c pions and kaons for the production of an intense, dichromatic neutrino beam. A set of beam plugs and collimators determined the momentum of the particles which pass through the horns. The cooling and maintenance of the horns and target was a particular concern since they were operated with an incident intensity of over 10/sup 13/ proton/sec. These systems were designed for simplicity, reliability, and easy replacement.

  13. Streamlining the RI/FS process

    SciTech Connect

    Dumas, L.; Doss, R.C.

    1998-07-01

    In 1994, Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) contracted with CH2M HILL to manage remedial investigations and feasibility studies (RI/FS) at its former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites in Chico, Willows, and Marysville, California. These three sites had similar histories, MGP-related contaminants, similar geologic settings, and geographically were close together. Recognizing the advantages that may be gained, both in time and money, by streamlining the RI/FS process, PG and E and CH2M HILL combined the sites into one project. From the start of the project, PG and E and CH2M HILL looked for an implemented changes to the RI/FS process to streamline the project. These changes included combining deliverables, linking field programs at the three sites, and negotiating bulk discounts on laboratory and other services by combining the work to be done at the three sites under one contract. CH2M HILL later proposed additional measures to streamline the project that were eventually adopted by both PG and E and the regulatory agencies. PG and E and CH2M HILL are currently working with the regulatory agencies to negotiate realistic measures to address contaminants in soil and groundwater, and are jointly preparing the FS with the regulatory agencies using a unique means of documentation.

  14. Formaldehyde photodissociation: molecular beam, product appearance rate, and carbon-14 isotopic-enrichment studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, P.

    1981-12-01

    Several aspects of the formaldehyde photopredissociation mechanism were studied. The technique of crossed laser and molecular beams was used to study the system under collisionless conditions. Detection of the molecular product CO after excitation of H/sub 2/CO near the S/sub 1/ origin gives strong support to the sequential decay model for fast nonradiative decay of S/sub 1/ states. For H/sub 2/CO excitation at 283.9 nm, formation of the radical product HCO dominates dissociation to molecular products by an order of magnitude. CO appearance rates for H/sub 2/CO excitation at 354.7, 317.0, 298.5 and 283.9 nm were measured by time-resolved absorption of a CO laser, and were the same within approx. 20%. These measurements could be complicated by rotational relaxation; an impulse approximation calculation using the CO translational energy distribution from the molecular beam experiment suggests that CO should be formed in high J states. The evidence for an intermediate in H/sub 2/CO photodissociation may thus be compromised. Simultaneous high resolution spectra of H/sub 2//sup 14/CO and H/sub 2//sup 12/CO between 290 and 345 nm were measured. About 30 lines with spectra selectivities C greater than or equal to 50 were found. Photolysis on one such line at 326.9 nm of a dilute mixture of H/sub 2//sup 14/CO in natural H/sub 2/CO gave one-step enrichment factors of up to 150. Since a factor of 150 in /sup 14/C concentration corresponds to approx. 7.2 half-lives, or 41,000 years, laser enrichment of archaeological samples could greatly improve the range of radiocarbon dating.

  15. Production of low axial energy spread ion beams with multicusp sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yung -Hee Y.

    1998-05-01

    Multicusp ion sources are capable of producing ions with low axial energy spread which are necessary in applications such as: ion projection lithography (IPL) and focused ion beams for the next generation lithographic tools and nuclear science experiments such as radioactive ion beam production. The axial ion energy spread for multicusp source is approximately 6 eV which is too large for IPL and radioactive ion beam applications. The addition of a magnetic filter which consists of a pair of permanent magnets to the multicusp source reduces the energy spread considerably. The reduction is due to the improvement in the uniformity of the axial plasma potential distribution in the discharge region. Axial ion energy spread of the filament driven ion source has been measured using three different techniques. In all cases, it was found to be less than 2 eV. Energy spread of the radio frequency (RF) driven source has also been explored, and it was found to be less than 3 eV with the proper RF-shielding. A new multicusp source configuration has been designed and constructed to further reduce the energy spread. To achieve a more uniform axial plasma potential distribution, a cylindrical magnetic filter has been designed and constructed for a 2-cm-diameter source. This new source configuration, the co-axial source, is new in its kind. The energy spread in this source has been measured to be a record low of 0.6 eV. Because of the novelty of this device, some plasma parameters inside the source have been studied. Langmuir probe has been used to measure the plasma potential, the electron temperature and the density distribution.

  16. Production of intense ion beams in a reflex triode with an external plasma source at the anode

    SciTech Connect

    Bystritskii, V.M.; Verigin, A.A.; Volkov, S.N.; Krasik, Y.E.; Podkatov, V.I.

    1986-09-01

    An experimental study of the production of intense ion beams in a reflex triode with an external plasma source at the anode is reported. The ions had various ratios Z/M. When the anode plasma is produced in a preliminary charging pulse of the accelerator, the plasma density is too low for operation under charge-limited emission conditions. In this case, an ion beam is observed to be produced from the plasma formed by the direct heating of the anode material by oscillating electrons. When an anode plasma resulting from the breakdown of a dielectric insert or of the vacuum gap of a composite andode by an external voltage source is used to produce an ion beam, the reflex triode operating conditions depend on delaying the operation of the accelerator with respect to the external source. The highest efficiency (approx. =20%) in the production of an ion beam is observed at t/sub d/ = 3--6 ..mu..s. In this case, the reflex triode operates under increasing or constant impedance conditions. It was shown in the course of the experiments that the ion beam which is produced is nonuniform. There are three groups of ions: H/sup +/, C/sup n//sup +/, and Cu/sup n//sup +/. The energy of the heavy ions depends on the applied anode potential. The different mass components of the ion beam do not appear at the same time. The macroscopic divergence of the beam is 4--6/sup 0/ at the periphery and drops off to approx. <1/sup 0/ at the center. The microscopic divergence of the beam is 3/sup 0/. The total energy of the ion beam which is produced is less than 120 J at an average current approx. =2.8 kA.

  17. Enhancement of L(+)-Lactic Acid Production of Immobilized Rhizopus Oryzae Implanted by Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yonghong; Yang, Yingge; Zheng, Zhiming; Li, Wen; Wang, Peng; Yao, Liming; Yu, Zengliang

    2008-02-01

    Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae culturing may be a solution to the inhibited production of L(+)-lactic acid in submerged fermentation, which is caused by aggregated mycelia floc. In the present study, a R. oryzae mutant (RL6041) with a 90% conversion rate of glucose into L-lactic acid was obtained by N+ implantation under the optimized conditions of a beam energy of 15 keV and a dose of 2.6 × 1015 ions/cm2. Using polyurethane foam as the immobilization matrix, the optimal L-lactic acid production conditions were determined as 4 mm polyurethane foam, 150 r/min, 50 g/L ~ 80 g/L of initial glucose, 38°C and pH 6.0. 15-cycle repeated productions of L-lactic acid by immobilized RL6041 were performed under the optimized culturing conditions and over 80% of the glucose was converted into L-lactic acid in 30 hours on average. The results show that immobilized RL6041 is a promising candidate for continuous L-lactic acid production.

  18. Dual-fission chamber and neutron beam characterization for fission product yield measurements using monoenergetic neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, C.; Fallin, B.; Gooden, M. E.; Howell, C. R.; Kelley, J. H.; Tornow, W.; Arnold, C. W.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Moody, W. A.; Rundberg, R. S.; Rusev, G.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Macri, R.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Tonchev, A. P.

    2014-09-01

    A program has been initiated to measure the energy dependence of selected high-yield fission products used in the analysis of nuclear test data. We present out initial work of neutron activation using a dual-fission chamber with quasi-monoenergetic neutrons and gamma-counting method. Quasi-monoenergetic neutrons of energies from 0.5 to 15 MeV using the TUNL 10 MV FM tandem to provide high-precision and self-consistent measurements of fission product yields (FPY). The final FPY results will be coupled with theoretical analysis to provide a more fundamental understanding of the fission process. To accomplish this goal, we have developed and tested a set of dual-fission ionization chambers to provide an accurate determination of the number of fissions occurring in a thick target located in the middle plane of the chamber assembly. Details of the fission chamber and its performance are presented along with neutron beam production and characterization. Also presented are studies on the background issues associated with room-return and off-energy neutron production. We show that the off-energy neutron contribution can be significant, but correctable, while room-return neutron background levels contribute less than <1% to the fission signal.

  19. Production of very neutron-rich nuclei with a {sup 76}Ge beam

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, O. B.; Portillo, M.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Ginter, T. N.; Hausmann, M.; Pereira, J.; Stolz, A.; Amthor, A. M.; Gade, A.; Nettleton, A.; Sherrill, B. M.; Thoennessen, M.; Inabe, N.; Kubo, T.; Morrissey, D. J.

    2009-09-15

    Production cross sections for neutron-rich nuclei from the fragmentation of a {sup 76}Ge beam at 132 MeV/u were measured. The longitudinal momentum distributions of 34 neutron-rich isotopes of elements 13{<=}Z{<=}27 were scanned using a novel experimental approach of varying the target thickness. Production cross sections with beryllium and tungsten targets were determined for a large number of nuclei, including 15 isotopes first observed in this work. These are the most neutron-rich nuclides of the elements 17{<=}Z{<=}25 ({sup 50}Cl, {sup 53}Ar, {sup 55,56}K, {sup 57,58}Ca, {sup 59,60,61}Sc, {sup 62,63}Ti, {sup 65,66}V, {sup 68}Cr, and {sup 70}Mn). A one-body Q{sub g} systematics is used to describe the production cross sections based on thermal evaporation from excited prefragments. Some of the fragments near {sup 58}Ca show anomalously large production cross sections.

  20. [Bacteria and viruses modulate FcεRI-dependent mast cell activity].

    PubMed

    Słodka, Aleksandra; Brzezińska-Błaszczyk, Ewa

    2013-03-08

    Undoubtedly, mast cells play a central role in allergic processes. Specific allergen cross-linking of IgE bound to the high affinity receptors (FcεRI) on the mast cell surface leads to the release of preformed mediators and newly synthesized mediators, i.e. metabolites of arachidonic acid and cytokines. More and more data indicate that bacteria and viruses can influence FcεRI-dependent mast cell activation. Some bacterial and viral components can reduce the surface expression of FcεRI. There are also findings that ligation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) by bacterial or viral antigens can affect IgE-dependent mast cell degranulation and preformed mediator release as well as eicosanoid production. The synergistic interaction of TLR ligands and allergen can also modify cytokine synthesis by mast cells stimulated via FcεRI. Moreover, data suggest that specific IgE for bacterial or viral antigens can influence mast cell activity. What is more, some bacterial and viral components or some endogenous proteins produced during viral infection can act as superantigens by interacting with the VH3 domain of IgE. All these observations indicate that bacterial and viral infections modify the course of allergic diseases by affecting FcεRI-dependent mast cell activation. 

  1. SWAP-70 regulates mast cell FcεRI-mediated signaling and anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Sivalenka, Raja Rajeswari; Sinha, Manoj; Jessberger, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Mast cells, perhaps best known by their ability to trigger allergic reactions after stimulation through the FcεRI, express the unusual phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent, Rac-binding protein SWAP-70. Here we show that the IgE-mediated passive cutaneous and the systemic anaphylactic responses are strongly reduced in SWAP-70−/− mice. Cultured SWAP-70−/− immature bone marrow mast cells (BMMC) are also impaired in FcεRI-mediated degranulation, which can be restored by expression of exogenous wild-type SWAP-70, but less so if a phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (PIP3) binding mutant is expressed. SWAP-70 itself supports inositol-3-phosphate and PIP3 production, the latter indicating a potential feedback from SWAP-70 towards PI3K. FcεRI-stimulated transcription and release of cytokines is controlled by SWAP-70. Key FcεRI signal transduction events like activation of LAT by phosphorylation, activation of Akt/PKB and of p38 MAPKinase are reduced in SWAP-70−/− BMMC, but ERK is strongly hyperactivated. Some requirements for SWAP-70 were apparent only under limited-strength signaling conditions. We suggest that SWAP-70 defines a new element of efficient mast cell activation upon FcεRI signaling, important for the control of mast cell dependent anaphylaxis. PMID:18236401

  2. Upgrade of the facility EXOTIC for the in-flight production of light Radioactive Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzocco, M.; Torresi, D.; Strano, E.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Costa, L.; Glodariu, T.; Guglielmetti, A.; La Commara, M.; Parascandolo, C.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Signorini, C.; Soramel, F.; Stroe, L.

    2013-12-01

    The facility EXOTIC for the in-flight production of light weakly-bound Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) has been operating at INFN-LNL since 2004. RIBs are produced via two-body reactions induced by high intensity heavy-ion beams impinging on light gas targets and selected by means of a 30°-dipole bending magnet and a 1-m long Wien filter. The facility has been recently upgraded (i) by developing a cryogenic gas target, (ii) by replacing the power supplies of the middle lenses of the two quadrupole triplets, (iii) by installing two y-steerers and (iv) by placing two Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters upstream the secondary target to provide an event-by-event reconstruction of the position hit on the target. So far, RIBs of 7Be, 8B and 17F in the energy range 3-5 MeV/u have been produced with intensities about 3 × 105, 1.6 × 103 and 105 pps, respectively. Possible light RIBs (up to Z = 10) deliverable by the facility EXOTIC are also reviewed.

  3. High intensity high charge state ion beam production with an evaporative cooling magnet ECRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, W. Qian, C.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Ma, B. H.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhan, W. L.; Fang, X.; Guo, J. W.; Yang, Y.; Xiong, B.; Ruan, L.; Xie, D.

    2016-02-15

    LECR4 (Lanzhou ECR ion source No. 4) is a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source, designed to produce high current, high charge state ion beams for the SSC-LINAC injector (a new injector for sector separated cyclotron) at the Institute of Modern Physics. LECR4 also serves as a PoP machine for the application of evaporative cooling technology in accelerator field. To achieve those goals, LECR4 ECR ion source has been optimized for the operation at 18 GHz. During 2014, LECR4 ion source was commissioned at 18 GHz microwave of 1.6 kW. To further study the influence of injection stage to the production of medium and high charge state ion beams, in March 2015, the injection stage with pumping system was installed, and some optimum results were produced, such as 560 eμA of O{sup 7+}, 620 eμA of Ar{sup 11+}, 430 eμA of Ar{sup 12+}, 430 eμA of Xe{sup 20+}, and so on. The comparison will be discussed in the paper.

  4. Vector meson and associated strangeness production using a linearly polarized photon beam at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Philip L. Cole

    2004-09-01

    The set of experiments forming the g8a run took place in the summer of 2001 in Hall B of Jefferson Lab. The g8a run was the commissioning experiment for the linearly-polarized photon beam at CLAS. The aim of these experiments is to improve the understanding of the underlying symmetry of the quark degrees of freedom in the nucleon, the nature of the parity exchange between the incident photon and the target nucleon, and the mechanism of associated strangeness production in electromagnetic reactions. A beam of tagged and collimated linearly polarized photons (energy range 1.8-2.2 GeV) in conjunction with the large solid angle coverage of CLAS make possible the extraction of the differential cross-sections and polarization observables for the photoproduction of vector mesons and kaons. The reaction channels are under investigation to search for possibly missing nucleon resonances. An overview of the experiment and preliminary results on the measurement of the photon asymmetries of the aforementioned reactions will be presented in this paper.

  5. High intensity high charge state ion beam production with an evaporative cooling magnet ECRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, W.; Qian, C.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Fang, X.; Guo, J. W.; Yang, Y.; Feng, Y. C.; Ma, B. H.; Xiong, B.; Ruan, L.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhan, W. L.; Xie, D.

    2016-02-01

    LECR4 (Lanzhou ECR ion source No. 4) is a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source, designed to produce high current, high charge state ion beams for the SSC-LINAC injector (a new injector for sector separated cyclotron) at the Institute of Modern Physics. LECR4 also serves as a PoP machine for the application of evaporative cooling technology in accelerator field. To achieve those goals, LECR4 ECR ion source has been optimized for the operation at 18 GHz. During 2014, LECR4 ion source was commissioned at 18 GHz microwave of 1.6 kW. To further study the influence of injection stage to the production of medium and high charge state ion beams, in March 2015, the injection stage with pumping system was installed, and some optimum results were produced, such as 560 eμA of O7+, 620 eμA of Ar11+, 430 eμA of Ar12+, 430 eμA of Xe20+, and so on. The comparison will be discussed in the paper.

  6. Production and transformation of ring light beams by means of biaxial crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhevich, Anatol A.; Katranji, Evgeni G.; Mashchenko, Aleksander G.

    2001-03-01

    Universal method, permitting to form multi-ring light beams with a required quantity of rings from the circularly polarized Gaussian light beam, is proposed. This method permits to increase or decrease by 1 the order of an input beam wavefront screw dislocation, if beam has it. The method was realized by means of the optical scheme containing a biaxial crystal. Using biaxial KTP and (alpha) -HIO3 (iodic acid) crystals Bessel and multi-ring light beams with the first and the second order dislocations are obtained experimentally. The second harmonic generation by mono-, two- and four-ring light beams possessing WFSD1 in a nonlinear KTP crystal is studied experimentally.

  7. Electron Beam Production and Characterization for the PLEIADES Thomson X-ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W J; Hartemann, F V; Tremaine, A M; Springer, P T; Le Sage, G P; Barty, C P J; Rosenzweig, J B; Crane, J K; Cross, R R; Fittinghoff, D B; Gibson, D J; Slaughter, D R; Anderson, S

    2002-10-14

    We report on the performance of an S-band RF photocathode electron gun and accelerator for operation with the PLEIADES Thomson x-ray source at LLNL. Simulations of beam production, transport, and focus are presented. It is shown that a 1 ps, 500 pC electron bunch with a normalized emittance of less than 5 {pi}mm-mrad can be delivered to the interaction point. Initial electron measurements are presented. Calculations of expected x-ray flux are also performed, demonstrating an expected peak spectral brightness of 10{sup 20} photons/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1% bandwidth. Effects of RF phase jitter are also presented, and planned phase measurements and control methods are discussed.

  8. High intensity production of high and medium charge state uraniumand other heavy ion beams with VENUS

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Daniela; Galloway, Michelle L.; Loew, Timothy J.; Lyneis, Claude M.; Rodriguez, Ingrid Castro; Todd, Damon S.

    2007-11-15

    The next generation, superconducting ECR ion source VENUS(Versatile ECR ion source for NUclear Science) started operation with 28GHzmicrowave heating in 2004. Since then it has produced world recordion beam intensities. For example, 2850 e mu A of O6+, 200 e mu A of U33+or U34+, and in respect to high charge state ions, 1 e mu A of Ar18+, 270e mu A of Ar16+, 28 e mu A of Xe35+ and 4.9 e mu A of U47+ have beenproduced. A brief overview of the latest developments leading to theserecord intensities is given and the production of high intensity uraniumbeams is discussed in more detail.

  9. Analysis of Beam-Induced Damage to the SLC Positron Production Target

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, Vinod

    2002-08-20

    The nominal Next Linear Collider (NLC) positron production design is based on extrapolation of the existing SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) positron production system. Given that the SLC positron production target failed during a run, it is necessary to analyze the beam-induced damage to the target in order to validate the extrapolations on which the NLC target is based. The failed SLC target and its associated housing were sent to existing ''hot-cell'' facilities at LANL for analysis. The target material, a tungsten-rhenium ''puck'', was removed from the housing and photographed and x-rayed. Leak-checking on the cooling system was performed. Sections were then removed from the target to determine the extent of internal damage to the material. High resolution photographs were taken and extensive hardness tests were performed on the irradiated and non-irradiated areas of the target material. The results of these analyses and conclusions applicable to the NLC target design are presented in this paper.

  10. Improvement of 1,3-dihydroxyacetone production from Gluconobacter oxydans by ion beam implantation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhong-Ce; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Xu, Jian-Miao; Zheng, Yu-Guo; Shen, Yin-Chu

    2012-01-01

    Improvement of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) production by mutagenesis of ion beam implantation and medium optimization using response-surface methodology (RSM) were investigated in this work. More than 1000 mutant strains were selected through a mutagenesis method using N(+) ions implantation with a dose of 60 × (2.6 × 10(13)) ions/cm(2) and energy of 10 keV. Several high-yield mutant strains were showed the potent application for DHA production and the genetically stable mutant strain G. oxydans ZJB09113 was selected for optimization of cultivation condition by RSM. The optimal medium for DHA fermentation is composed (in g/L) of yeast extract 4.88, CaCO(3) 2.00, and glycerol 52.86 mL/L (initial pH 4.89). The maximal DHA concentration of 40.0 g/L was achieved after 24 hr of shaken flask fermentation at 30°C with 150 rpm, and 196.3% increase in DHA production in comparison with unoptimized conditions.

  11. Assessment of protocols in cone-beam CT with symmetric and asymmetric beams usingeffective dose and air kerma-area product.

    PubMed

    Batista, Wilson Otto; Soares, Maria Rosangela; de Oliveira, Marcus V L; Maia, Ana F; Caldas, Linda V E

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate and compare protocols with similar purposes in a cone beam CT scanner using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) and the air kerma-area product (PKA) as the kerma index. The measurements were performed on two protocols used to obtain an image of the maxilla-mandible using the equipment GENDEX GXCB 500: Protocol [GX1] extended diameter and asymmetric beam (14cm×8.5cm-maxilla/mandible) and protocol [GX2] symmetrical beam (8.5cm×8.5cm-maxillary/mandible). LiF dosimeters inserted into a female anthropomorphic phantom were used. For both protocols, the value of PKA was evaluated using a PTW Diamentor E2 meter and the multimeter Radcal Rapidose system. The results obtained for the effective dose/PKA were separated by protocol image. [GX1]: 44.5µSv/478mGycm(2); [GX2]: 54.8µSv/507mGycm(2). Although the ratio of the diameters (14cm/8.5cm)=1.65, the ratio of effective dose values (44.5µSv/54.8µSv)=0.81, that is, the effective dose of the protocol with extended diameter is 19% smaller. The PKA values reveal very similar results between the two protocols. For the cases where the scanner uses an asymmetric beam to obtain images with large diameters that cover the entire face, there are advantages from the point of view of reducing the exposure of patients when compared to the use of symmetrical beam and/or to FOV images with a smaller diameter.

  12. Electron Beam/Optical Hybrid Lithography For The Production Of Gallium Arsenide Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (Mimics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, Rao M.; Rask, Steven D.

    1988-06-01

    beam to optical with t 0.2μm (2 sigma) and (2) Electron beam to electron beam with f 0.lμm (2 sigma). These results suggest that the electron beam/optical hybrid lithography techniques could be used for MIMIC volume production as alignment tolerances required by GaAS chips are met in both cases. These results are discussed in detail.

  13. Cantilever-beam dynamic modulus for wood composite products. Part 1, apparatus

    Treesearch

    Chris Turk; John F. Hunt; David J. Marr

    2008-01-01

    A cantilever-beam vibration-testing apparatus has been developed to provide a means of dynamic and non-destructive evaluation of modulus of elasticity for small samples of wood or wood-composite material. The apparatus applies a known displacement to a cantilever beam and then releases the beam into its natural first-mode vibration and records displacement as a...

  14. Ion cyclotron emission due to collective instability of fusion products and beam ions in TFTR and JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendy, R. O.; McClements, K. G.; Lashmore-Davies, C. N.; Cottrell, G. A.; Majeski, R.; Cauffman, S.

    1995-12-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) has been observed from neutral beam heated TFTR, and JET tritium experiments at sequential cyclotron harmonics of both fusion products and beam ions. The emission originates from the outer midplane plasma, where fusion products and beam ions are likely to have a drifting ring-type velocity-space distribution that is anisotropic and sharply peaked. Fusion product driven ICE in both TFTR and JET can be attributed to the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability, which involves the excitation of obliquely propagating waves on the fast Alfven/ion Bernstein branch at cyclotron harmonics of the fusion products. Differences between ICE observations in JET and TFTR appear to reflect the sensitivity of the instability growth rate to the ratio vbirth/cA where vbirth is the fusion product birth speed and cA is the local Alfven speed for fusion products in the outer midplane edge of TFTR supershots, vbirth < cA for alpha particles in the outer midplane edge of JET, the opposite inequality applies. If sub-Alfvenic fusion products are isotropic or have undergone even a moderate degree of thermalization, the magnetoacoustic instability cannot occur. In contrast, the super-Alfvenic alpha particles that are present in the outer midplane of JET can drive the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability even if they are isotropic or have a relatively broad distribution of speeds. These conclusions may account for the observation that fusion product driven ICE in JET persists for longer than fusion product driven ICE in TFTR. Moreover, the time evolution of the maximum growth rate, obtained using the Sigmar model for the alpha particle distribution and TFTR data for the fusion product source rate, closely follows the observed time evolution of the ICE amplitude in TFTR supershot discharges. Other observed features of fusion product driven ICE that match the linear instability include the scaling with fusion product density, doublet splitting of spectral peaks, the

  15. Outreach and Education with Europlanet 2020 RI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heward, Anita R.; Barrosa, Mariana; Europlanet 2020 RI

    2016-10-01

    Since 2005, Europlanet has provided a framework to bring together Europe's widespread planetary science community. The project has evolved through a number of phases, and currently comprises a Research Infrastructure (RI) funded through the European Commission's Horizon 2020 program, as well as a self-sustaining membership organization. Launched in September 2015, Europlanet 2020 RI provides support, services, access to facilities, new research tools and a virtual planetary observatory. Europlanet 2020 RI's outreach and education program aims to engage members of the public, schools, teachers, policy makers and industrial partners across Europe with planetary science and the opportunities that it provides for innovation, inspiration and job creation. Europlanet's outreach and education activities are led by Science Office Ltd, a Portuguese-based SME, and a network of partners spread across nine countries including University College London, the University of Leiden, University of Latvia, Vilnius University, the Institute of Accelerating Systems and Applications, the Observatoire de Paris, CAB-INTA and the Austrian Space Forum.Europlanet supports educators and outreach providers within the planetary science community by organizing meetings, best practice workshops and communication training sessions, offering a seed-funding scheme for outreach activities, and awarding an annual prize for public engagement. Europlanet is also developing its own education and outreach resources, including an animation on 'Jupiter and its Icy Moons' (the first in a series of video "shorts") and kits for hands-on comparative planetology activities. The Europlanet Media Centre uses traditional and social media channels to communicate newsworthy results and activities to diverse audiences in Europe and worldwide. Using tools like Google Hangouts, the project connects planetary researchers directly with the public and school groups. In addition, Europlanet engages with policy makers in the

  16. Radio Meteors Observations Techniques at RI NAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovk, Vasyl; Kaliuzhnyi, Mykola

    2016-07-01

    The Solar system is inhabited with large number of celestial bodies. Some of them are well studied, such as planets and vast majority of big asteroids and comets. There is one group of objects which has received little attention. That is meteoroids with related to them meteors. Nowadays enough low-technology high-efficiency radio-technical solutions are appeared which allow to observe meteors daily. At RI NAO three methodologies for meteor observation are developed: single-station method using FM-receiver, correlation method using FM-receiver and Internet resources, and single-station method using low-cost SDR-receiver.

  17. Production of a sub-10 fs electron beam with 107 electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jang-Hui

    2011-05-01

    We study the possibility to produce a 1.6 pC electron beam (107 electrons) with a bunch length of less than 10 fs and a beam energy of a few MeV. Such a short, relativistic beam will be useful for an electron diffraction experiment with a 10 fs time resolution. An electron beam with 107 electrons will allow a single-shot experiment with a laser pulse pump and an electron beam probe. In this design, an S-band photocathode gun is used for generating and accelerating a beam and a buncher consisting of two S-band four-cell cavities is used for temporally compressing the beam. Focusing solenoids control the beam transverse divergence and size at the sample. Numerical optimization is carried out to achieve a beam with a 4 fs full-width-at-half-maximum length, a 26 microradian root-mean-square divergence, and a 2 nm transverse coherence length at a 3.24 MeV beam energy. When state-of-the-art rf stability is considered, beam arrival time jitter at the sample is calculated to be about 10 fs.

  18. Laser-driven wavebreaking, electron trapping, and mono-energetic beam production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esarey, Eric

    2006-10-01

    Recent breakthrough results reported in Nature demonstrate that laser-plasma accelerators can produce high quality (e.g., narrow energy spread) electron bunches at the 100 MeV level that may be useful for numerous applications. More recently, high quality electron beams at 1 GeV were produced in experiments at LBNL using 40 TW laser pulse interacting with a 3.3 cm plasma channel. In these experiments, the accelerated electrons were self-trapped from the background plasma, often attributed to the process of wavebreaking. Using a warm fluid model, a general analytic theory of wavebreaking has been developed that is valid for all regimes of interest, i.e., arbitrary temperature and phase velocity. This theory indicates that the maximum electric field obtainable by a relativistic plasma wave is lower that previously calculated. The relation between wavebreaking and particle trapping is discussed, and various quantities, such as the fraction of electrons trapped (i.e., the dark current), are calculated. A variety of methods for particle trapping relevant to present experiments, including 2D wavebreaking, density ramps, and laser injection, will be described. Limitations from dephasing and pump depletion will be summarized. Also presented will be 2D and 3D simulations modeling the production high quality electron beams from laser-plasma accelerators. C.G.R. Geddes et al., Nature 431, 538 (2004); S.P.D. Mangles et al., ibid., p. 535; J. Faure et al., ibid., p. 541. W.P. Leemans et al., submitted. C.B. Schroeder et al., Phys. Rev. E bf 72, 055401 (2005). C.B. Schroeder et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 033103 (2006). G. Fubiani et al., Phys. Rev. E 73, 026402 (2006).

  19. Fundamental aspects on ion-beam surface modification: defect production and migration processes

    SciTech Connect

    Rehn, L.E.; Averback, R.S.; Okamoto, P.R.

    1984-09-01

    Ion-beam modification of metals is generating increasing scientific interest not only because it has exciting technological potential, but also because it has raised fundamental questions concerning radiation-induced diffusion processes. In addition to the implanted species, several defect production and migration mechanisms contribute to changes in the near-surface composition of an alloy during ion bombardment, e.g., atoms exchange positions via displacements and replacement sequences; preferential sputtering effects arise; radiation-enhanced diffusion and radiation-induced segregation occur. The latter two defect migration mechanisms are of particular significance since they can alter the composition to depths which are much greater than the implanted ion range. By altering various parameters such as irradiation temperature, ion mass, energy, and current density, and initial alloying distributions, a rich variety of near-surface composition profiles can be created. We have utilized changes in ion mass and energy, and irradiation temperature to distinguish defect production from defect migration effects. Experimental results are presented which provide a guide to the relative efficiencies of different mechanisms under various irradiation conditions. 46 references.

  20. STUDY OF BEAM SPIN ASYMMETRY IN EXCLUSIVE Π° PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Howley, I.; Avagyan, H.

    2007-01-01

    Describing and understanding atomic nuclei is a puzzle that has intrigued scientists for decades. Approximately ten years ago, a description of nucleon structure, referred to as Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD), was introduced. GPDs are a way of describing scattering and production processes in a single framework. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) is a process that scatters a photon from a proton and detects a scattered electron, a proton, and one photon in the fi nal state. From DVCS, GPDs can be extracted in order to lead us to a more complete picture of nucleon structure. The focus of this study is to understand the beam spin asymmetry (BSA) of the neutral π° meson, a main source of background during the DVCS process. To calculate the BSA, the number of π° events with positive helicity (spin) and negative helicity were counted by integrating histograms with Gaussians fi ts. It is shown that there is a signifi cant non-zero BSA in production of exclusive π°, namely 0.0655±0.0022. In the analysis of previous experiments, the BSA of π° was assumed to be zero and therefore ignored. Now, future analyses of DVCS data may incorporate this evidence of BSA. A deeper understanding of background processes (π°) in the DVCS will allow precision measurements of GPDs, providing new insight concerning the structure of nucleons.

  1. Pair production and γ ray emission in collisions of e+e-beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Gaudio, Fabrizio; Grismayer, Thomas; Fonseca, Ricardo; Mori, Warren; Silva, Luis

    2016-10-01

    The fast development in Plasma Wakefield Acceleration suggests that high quality relativistic electron/positron beams, having tens of GeV in energy and densities up to 10cm-3, can be delivered by tabletop devices in the near future. With these parameters, the collective electromagnetic field of one beam compares to the Schwinger field in the boosted frame of the oncoming beam, thus the quantum regime is approached where particles are capable to emit hard photons apt to decay in electron positron pairs. Under certain conditions, additionally to quantum effects, the disruption effect takes place altering the beams density profile more or less severely. Estimates regarding beams energy loss and the number of pairs generated in such collisions were addressed by P. Chen with simplified beam geometry. We present a model for the low disruption regime, with realistic beams parameters, that predicts the average radiation intensity, its spectrum and the number of pairs created during the beam-beam interaction. Our model agrees with fully consistent PIC simulations done with the QED module of OSIRIS 3.0. The results obtained qualify this setup as possible γ ray source and show that relevant number of pairs, higher than previous estimates, is produced at these beam energies and densities.

  2. The production of low-energy neutral oxygen beams by grazing-incidence neutralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albridge, R. G.; Haglund, R. F.; Tolk, N. H.; Daech, A. F.

    1987-01-01

    The Vanderbilt University neutral oxygen facility produces beams of low-energy neutral oxygen atoms by means of grazing-incidence collisions between ion beams and metal surfaces. Residual ions are reflected by applied electric fields. This method can utilize initial ion beams of either O(+) or O2(+) since a very large percentage of molecular oxygen ions are dissociated when they undergo grazing-incidence neutralization. The method of neutralization is applicable to low-energy beams and to all ions. Particular emphasis is on O and N2 beams for simulation of the low Earth orbit space environment. Since the beam is a pure O-neutral beam and since measurements of the interaction of the beam with solid surfaces are made spectroscopically, absolute reaction rates can be determined. The technique permits the beams to be used in conjunction with electron and photon irradiation for studies of synergistic effects. Comparisons of optical spectra of Kapton excited by 2.5-keV O, O(+), and O2(+) show significant differences. Optical spectra of Kapton excited by neutral oxygen beams of less than 1 keV have been recorded.

  3. Undulator-Based Production of Polarized Positrons, A Proposal for the 50-GeV Beam in the FFTB

    SciTech Connect

    G. Alexander; P. Anthony; V. Bharadwaj; Yu.K. Batygin; T. Behnke; S. Berridge; G.R. Bower; W. Bugg; R. Carr; E. Chudakov; J.E. Clendenin; F.J. Decker; Yu. Efremenko; T. Fieguth; K. Flottmann; M. Fukuda; V. Gharibyan; T. Handler; T. Hirose; R.H. Iverson; Yu. Kamyshkov; H. Kolanoski; T. Lohse; Chang-guo Lu; K.T. McDonald; N. Meyners; R. Michaels; A.A. Mikhailichenko; K. Monig; G. Moortgat-Pick; M. Olson; T. Omori; D. Onoprienko; N. Pavel; R. Pitthan; M. Purohit; L. Rinolfi; K.P. Schuler; J.C. Sheppard; S. Spanier; A. Stahl; Z.M. Szalata; J. Turner; D. Walz; A. Weidemann; J. Weisend

    2003-06-01

    The full exploitation of the physics potential of future linear colliders such as the JLC, NLC, and TESLA will require the development of polarized positron beams. In the proposed scheme of Balakin and Mikhailichenko [1] a helical undulator is employed to generate photons of several MeV with circular polarization which are then converted in a relatively thin target to generate longitudinally polarized positrons. This experiment, E-166, proposes to test this scheme to determine whether such a technique can produce polarized positron beams of sufficient quality for use in future linear colliders. The experiment will install a meter-long, short-period, pulsed helical undulator in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) at SLAC. A low-emittance 50-GeV electron beam passing through this undulator will generate circularly polarized photons with energies up to 10 MeV. These polarized photons are then converted to polarized positrons via pair production in thin targets. Titanium and tungsten targets, which are both candidates for use in linear colliders, will be tested. The experiment will measure the flux and polarization of the undulator photons, and the spectrum and polarization of the positrons produced in the conversion target, and compare the measurement results to simulations. Thus the proposed experiment directly tests for the first time the validity of the simulation programs used for the physics of polarized pair production in finite matter, in particular the effects of multiple scattering on polarization. Successful comparison of the experimental results to the simulations will lead to greater confidence in the proposed designs of polarized positrons sources for the next generation of linear colliders. This experiment requests six-weeks of time in the FFTB beam line: three weeks for installation and setup and three weeks of beam for data taking. A 50-GeV beam with about twice the SLC emittance at a repetition rate of 30 Hz is required.

  4. Undulator-Based Production of Polarized Positrons, A Proposal for the 50-GeV Beam in the FFTB

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, G

    2004-03-25

    The full exploitation of the physics potential of future linear colliders such as the JLC, NLC, and TESLA will require the development of polarized positron beams. In the proposed scheme of Balakin and Mikhailichenko [1] a helical undulator is employed to generate photons of several MeV with circular polarization which are then converted in a relatively thin target to generate longitudinally polarized positrons. This experiment, E-166, proposes to test this scheme to determine whether such a technique can produce polarized positron beams of sufficient quality for use in future linear colliders. The experiment will install a meter-long, short-period, pulsed helical undulator in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) at SLAC. A low-emittance 50-GeV electron beam passing through this undulator will generate circularly polarized photons with energies up to 10 MeV. These polarized photons are then converted to polarized positrons via pair production in thin targets. Titanium and tungsten targets, which are both candidates for use in linear colliders, will be tested. The experiment will measure the flux and polarization of the undulator photons, and the spectrum and polarization of the positrons produced in the conversion target, and compare the measurement results to simulations. Thus the proposed experiment directly tests for the first time the validity of the simulation programs used for the physics of polarized pair production in finite matter, in particular the effects of multiple scattering on polarization. Successful comparison of the experimental results to the simulations will lead to greater confidence in the proposed designs of polarized positrons sources for the next generation of linear colliders. This experiment requests six-weeks of time in the FFTB beam line: three weeks for installation and setup and three weeks of beam for data taking. A 50-GeV beam with about twice the SLC emittance at a repetition rate of 30 Hz is required.

  5. Bremsstrahlung and photoneutron production in a steel shield for 15-22-MeV clinical electron beams.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yukio; Myojoyama, Atsushi; Saitoh, Hidetoshi

    2015-02-01

    The physical data regarding bremsstrahlung and neutrons produced in a steel shield by high-energy electron beams from a medical linear accelerator were investigated. These data are required to allow the accurate prediction of shielding performance for high-energy electron beams and in the design of radiotherapy facilities. A Monte Carlo code was used to develop Monte Carlo beam models for clinical electron beams and to directly simulate bremsstrahlung and secondary neutron production in a steel shield. The effective dose and dose equivalent of bremsstrahlung X rays and secondary neutrons outside a vault were determined using a realistic radiation source. The accuracy of Monte Carlo simulations was validated experimentally by comparing the measured and calculated physical quantities. In validating the Monte Carlo simulation, the measured and calculated values showed reasonable agreement, indicating that bremsstrahlung and photoneutron production and transport were simulated accurately. The bremsstrahlung X-ray dose was the main component of the total dose outside a vault. The secondary neutron dose was 1-20 % of the bremsstrahlung X-ray dose, but the neutron dose was also at a non-negligible level. The calculated neutron dose outside the vault differed from the McGinley's reported data. These results indicate that McGinley's method overestimates the neutron dose beyond the steel shield. The physical data used here will be useful in the accurate estimation of bremsstrahlung X-ray and neutron doses for high-energy electron beams.

  6. Evaluation of the Hanford RI/FS cost projections

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The US Department of Energy-Richland Operations (DOE-RL) tasked the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) to review the cost estimates and implementation process for the Hanford Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program as defined by the Hanford RCRA/CERLA Past Practices Cost Models. The purpose of the review was to determine if there were opportunities to reduce the RI/FS costs at Hanford, with a focus on the approach being taken at Hanford to implement and complete the RI/FS process. This volume contains 4 appendices for the evaluation of the Hanford RI/FS Cost Projections.

  7. SU-E-T-195: Commissioning the Neutron Production of a Varian TrueBeam Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Irazola, L; Brualla, L; Rosello, J; Terron, JA; Sanchez-Nieto, B; Bedogni, R; Sanchez-Doblado, F

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is the characterization of a new Varian TrueBeam™ facility in terms of neutron production, in order to estimate neutron equivalent dose in organs during radiotherapy treatments. Methods: The existing methodology [1] was used with the reference SRAMnd detector, calibrated in terms of thermal neutron fluence at the reference field operated by PTB (Physikalisch-Technische-Bundesanstalt) at the GeNF (Geesthacht-Neutron-Facility) with the GKSS reactor FRG-1 [2]. Thermal neutron fluence for the 5 available possibilities was evaluated: 15 MV and 10&6 MV with and without Flattening Filter (FF and FFF, respectively). Irradiation conditions are as described in [3]. In addition, three different collimator-MLC configurations were studied for 15 MV: (a) collimator of 10×10 cm{sup 2} and MLC fully retracted (reference), (b) field sizes of 20×20 cm{sup 2} and 10×10 cm{sup 2} for collimator and MLC respectively, and (c) collimator and MLC aperture of 10×10 cm{sup 2}. Results: Thermal fluence rate at the “reference point” [3], as a consequence of the neutron production, obtained for (a) conformation in 15 MV is (1.45±0.11) x10{sup 4} n•cm{sup 2}/MU. Configurations (b) and (c) gave fluences of 96.6% and 97.8% of the reference (a). Neutron production decreases up to 8.6% and 5.7% for the 10 MV FF and FFF beams, respectively. Finally, it decreases up to 2.8% and 0.1% for the 6 MV FF and FFF modes, respectively. Conclusion: This work evaluates thermal neutron production of Varian TrueBeam™ system for organ equivalent dose estimation. The small difference in collimator-MLC configuration shows the universality of the methodology [3]. A decrease in this production is shown when decreasing energy from 15 to 10 MV and an almost negligible production was found for 6 MV. Moreover, a lower neutron contribution is observed for the FFF modes.[1]Phys Med Biol,2012;57:6167–6191.[2]Radiat Meas,2010;45:1513–1517.[3]Med Phys,2015;42:276–281.

  8. MaRiMba: a software application for spectral library-based MRM transition list assembly.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Carly A; Eastham, Ashley; Lee, Lik Wee; Peterson, Amelia; Eng, Jimmy K; Shteynberg, David; Mendoza, Luis; Deutsch, Eric W; Risler, Jenni; Tasman, Natalie; Aebersold, Ruedi; Lam, Henry; Martin, Daniel B

    2009-10-01

    Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) is a targeted analysis method that has been increasingly viewed as an avenue to explore proteomes with unprecedented sensitivity and throughput. We have developed a software tool, called MaRiMba, to automate the creation of explicitly defined MRM transition lists required to program triple quadrupole mass spectrometers in such analyses. MaRiMba creates MRM transition lists from downloaded or custom-built spectral libraries, restricts output to specified proteins or peptides, and filters based on precursor peptide and product ion properties. MaRiMba can also create MRM lists containing corresponding transitions for isotopically heavy peptides, for which the precursor and product ions are adjusted according to user specifications. This open-source application is operated through a graphical user interface incorporated into the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline, and it outputs the final MRM list to a text file for upload to MS instruments. To illustrate the use of MaRiMba, we used the tool to design and execute an MRM-MS experiment in which we targeted the proteins of a well-defined and previously published standard mixture.

  9. MaRiMba: A Software Application for Spectral Library-Based MRM Transition List Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Carly A.; Eastham, Ashley; Lee, Lik Wee; Peterson, Amelia; Eng, Jimmy K.; Shteynberg, David; Mendoza, Luis; Deutsch, Eric W.; Risler, Jenni; Tasman, Natalie; Aebersold, Ruedi; Lam, Henry; Martin, Daniel B.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) is a targeted analysis method that has been increasingly viewed as an avenue to explore proteomes with unprecedented sensitivity and throughput. We have developed a software tool, called MaRiMba, to automate the creation of explicitly defined MRM transition lists required to program triple quadrupole mass spectrometers in such analyses. MaRiMba creates MRM transition lists from downloaded or custom-built spectral libraries, restricts output to specified proteins or peptides, and filters based on precursor peptide and product ion properties. MaRiMba can also create MRM lists containing corresponding transitions for isotopically heavy peptides, for which the precursor and product ions are adjusted according to user specifications. This open-source application is operated through a graphical user interface incorporated into the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline, and it outputs the final MRM list to a text file for upload to MS instruments. To illustrate the use of MaRiMba, we used the tool to design and execute an MRM-MS experiment in which we targeted the proteins of a well-defined and previously published standard mixture. PMID:19603829

  10. Tetraspanin CD151 Is a Negative Regulator of FcεRI-Mediated Mast Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Bryce, Paul J; Schleimer, Robert P; Wechsler, Joshua B; Loffredo, Lucas F; Cook-Mills, Joan M; Hsu, Chia-Lin; Berdnikovs, Sergejs

    2015-08-15

    Mast cells are critical in the pathogenesis of allergic disease due to the release of preformed and newly synthesized mediators, yet the mechanisms controlling mast cell activation are not well understood. Members of the tetraspanin family are recently emerging as modulators of FcεRI-mediated mast cell activation; however, mechanistic understanding of their function is currently lacking. The tetraspanin CD151 is a poorly understood member of this family and is specifically induced on mouse and human mast cells upon FcεRI aggregation but its functional effects are unknown. In this study, we show that CD151 deficiency significantly exacerbates the IgE-mediated late phase inflammation in a murine model of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Ex vivo, FcεRI stimulation of bone marrow-derived mast cells from CD151(-/-) mice resulted in significantly enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-13, and TNF-α compared with wild-type controls. However, FcεRI-induced mast cell degranulation was unaffected. At the molecular signaling level, CD151 selectively regulated IgE-induced activation of ERK1/2 and PI3K, associated with cytokine production, but had no effect on the phospholipase Cγ1 signaling, associated with degranulation. Collectively, our data indicate that CD151 exerts negative regulation over IgE-induced late phase responses and cytokine production in mast cells.

  11. Progress in long-pulse production of powerful negative ion beams for JT-60SA and ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, A.; Umeda, N.; Hanada, M.; Yoshida, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Watanabe, K.; Akino, N.; Komata, M.; Mogaki, K.; Sasaki, S.; Seki, N.; Nemoto, S.; Shimizu, T.; Endo, Y.; Ohasa, K.; Dairaku, M.; Yamanaka, H.; Grisham, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    Significant progress in the extension of pulse durations of powerful negative ion beams has been made to realize the neutral beam injectors for JT-60SA and ITER. In order to overcome common issues of the long-pulse production/acceleration of negative ion beams in JT-60SA and ITER, new technologies have been developed in the JT-60SA ion source and the MeV accelerator in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. As for the long-pulse production of high-current negative ions for the JT-60SA ion source, the pulse durations have been successfully increased from 30 s at 13 A on JT-60U to 100 s at 15 A by modifying the JT-60SA ion source, which satisfies the required pulse duration of 100 s and 70% of the rated beam current for JT-60SA. This progress was based on the R&D efforts for the temperature control of the plasma grid and uniform negative ion productions with the modified tent-shaped filter field configuration. Moreover, each parameter of the required beam energy, current and pulse has been achieved individually by these R&D efforts. The developed techniques are useful to design the ITER ion source because the sustainment of the caesium coverage in the large extraction area is one of the common issues between JT-60SA and ITER. As for the long-pulse acceleration of high power density beams in the MeV accelerator for ITER, the pulse duration of MeV-class negative ion beams has been extended by more than 2 orders of magnitude by modifying the extraction grid with a high cooling capability and a high transmission of negative ions. A long-pulse acceleration of 60 s has been achieved at 70 MW m-2 (683 keV, 100 A m-2) which has reached the power density of JT-60SA level of 65 MW m-2. No degradations of the voltage holding capability of the acceleration voltage and the beam optics due to the distortion of the acceleration grids have been observed in this power density level. These results are the longest pulse durations of high-current and high-power-density negative ion beams in the

  12. Production of U beam from RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Higurashi, Y.; Nakagawa, T.; Kidera, M.; Haba, H.; Aihara, T.; Kase, M.; Goto, A.; Yano, Y.

    2008-02-15

    For the RIKEN radio isotope factory (RIBF) project, we produced the multicharged uranium beam with two methods. To produce lower charge state U ion beams (14+-20+) we used the UF{sub 6} gas as an ionized gas. The typical beam intensity of U{sup 14+-20+} was 2-1 particle {mu}A at the extraction voltage of 14 kV. To produce higher charge state U ion beam (U{sup 35+}), we chose the sputtering method. The beam intensity was 70 particle nA at the extraction voltage of 5.4 kV. Using this method, we successfully produced multicharged U beam continuously for one month without break for RIBF commissioning.

  13. ION Production and RF Generation in the DARHT-II Beam Dump

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    radiofrequency fields (rf) that disrupt the beam transport to the target. This requires a change in the nominal tune to the target. An alternative is to...of the kicker. The bias dipole , collocated with the kicker, deflects the beam downward by about 1 to 1.5 o . The beam enters the horizontally...focusing septum quad and is deflected further downward by a total of about 15 o . The dipole completes a 45 o bend. The design and function septum dump

  14. Production of a highly charged uranium ion beam with RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Higurashi, Y.; Ohnishi, J.; Nakagawa, T.; Haba, H.; Fujimaki, M.; Komiyama, M.; Kamigaito, O.; Tamura, M.; Aihara, T.; Uchiyama, A.

    2012-02-15

    A highly charged uranium (U) ion beam is produced from the RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source using 18 and 28 GHz microwaves. The sputtering method is used to produce this U ion beam. The beam intensity is strongly dependent on the rod position and sputtering voltage. We observe that the emittance of U{sup 35+} for 28 GHz microwaves is almost the same as that for 18 GHz microwaves. It seems that the beam intensity of U ions produced using 28 GHz microwaves is higher than that produced using 18 GHz microwaves at the same Radio Frequency (RF) power.

  15. Ongoing characterization of the forced electron beam induced arc discharge ion source for the selective production of exotic species facility

    SciTech Connect

    Manzolaro, M. Andrighetto, A.; Monetti, A.; Scarpa, D.; Rossignoli, M.; Vasquez, J.; Corradetti, S.; Calderolla, M.; Prete, G.; Meneghetti, G.

    2014-02-15

    An intense research and development activity to finalize the design of the target ion source system for the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility (operating according to the isotope separation on line technique) is at present ongoing at Legnaro National Laboratories. In particular, the characterization of ion sources in terms of ionization efficiency and transversal emittance is currently in progress, and a preliminary set of data is already available. In this work, the off-line ionization efficiency and emittance measurements for the SPES forced electron beam induced arc discharge ion source in the case of a stable Ar beam are presented in detail.

  16. Production of α-particle emitting ²¹¹At using 45 MeV α-beam.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyehong; Chun, Kwonsoo; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Byungil

    2014-06-07

    Among the α-particle emitting radionuclides, (211)At is considered to be a promising radionuclide for targeted cancer therapy due to its decay properties. The range of alpha particles produced by the decay of (211)At are less than 70 µm in water with a linear energy transfer between 100 and 130 keV µm(-1), which are about the maximum relative biological effectiveness for heavy ions. It is important to note that at the present time, only a few of cyclotrons routinely produce (211)At. The direct production method is based on the nuclear reactions (209)Bi(α,2n)(211)At. Production of the radionuclide (211)At was carried out using the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). To ensure high beam current, the α-beam was extracted with an initial energy of 45 MeV, which was degraded to obtain the appropriate α-beam energy. The calculations of beam energy degradation were performed utilizing the MCNPX. Alumina-baked targets were prepared by heating the bismuth metal powder onto a circular cavity in a furnace. When using an E(α, av) of 29.17 MeV, the very small contribution of (210)At confirms the right choice of the irradiation energy to obtain a pure production of (211)At isotope.

  17. LC MS analysis in the e-beam and gamma radiolysis of metoprolol tartrate in aqueous solution: Structure elucidation and formation mechanism of radiolytic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slegers, Catherine; Maquille, Aubert; Deridder, Véronique; Sonveaux, Etienne; Habib Jiwan, Jean-Louis; Tilquin, Bernard

    2006-09-01

    E-beam and gamma products from the radiolysis of aqueous solutions of (±)-metoprolol tartrate, saturated in nitrogen, are analyzed by HPLC with on-line mass and UV detectors. The structures of 10 radiolytic products common to e-beam and gamma irradiations are elucidated by comparing their fragmentation pattern to that of (±)-metoprolol. Two of the radiolytic products are also metabolites. Different routes for the formation of the radiolytic products are proposed.

  18. Effects of the imposed magnetic field on the production and transport of relativistic electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hong-bo; Zhu, Shao-ping; He, X. T.

    2013-07-01

    The effects of the imposed uniform magnetic field, ranging from 1 MG up to 50 MG, on the production and transport of relativistic electron beams (REBs) in overdense plasmas irradiated by ultraintense laser pulse are investigated with two-dimensional particle-in-cell numerical simulations. This study gives clear evidence that the imposed magnetic field is capable of effectively confining the relativistic electrons in space even when the source is highly divergent since it forces the electrons moving helically. In comparison, the spontaneous magnetic fields, generated by the helically moving electrons interplaying with the current filamentation instability, are dominant in scattering the relativistic electrons. As the imposed magnetic field was increased from 1 MG to 50 MG, overall coupling from laser to the relativistic electrons which have the potential to heat the compressed core in fast ignition was found to increase from 6.9% to 21.3% while the divergence of the REB increases significantly from 64° to 90°. The simulations show that imposed magnetic field of the value of 3-30 MG could be more suitable to fast-ignition inertial fusion.

  19. Strain improvement of Trichoderma viride for increased cellulase production by irradiation of electron and (12)C(6+)-ion beams.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaozhou; Chen, Xiujin; Li, Zhili; Li, Daomin; Wang, Yao; Gao, Hongli; Cao, Li; Hou, Yuze; Li, Songbiao; Liang, Jianping

    2016-06-01

    To improve cellulase production and activity, Trichoderma viride GSICC 62010 was subjected to mutation involving irradiation with an electron beam and subsequently with a (12)C(6+)-ion beam. Mutant CIT 626 was the most promising cellulase producer after preliminary and secondary screening. Soluble protein production and cellulase activities were increased mutifold. The optimum temperature, pH and culture time for the maximum cellulase production of the selected mutant were 35 °C, pH 5 and 6 days. The highest cellulase production was obtained using wheat bran. The prepared cellulases from T. viride CIT 626 had twice the hydrolytic performance with sawdust (83 %) than that from the parent strain (42.5 %). Furthermore, molecular studies demonstrated that there were some key mutation sites suggesting that some amino acid changes in the protein caused by base mutations had led to the enhanced cellulase production and activity. Mutagenesis with electron and (12)C(6+)-ion beams could be developed as an effective tool for improvement of cellulase producing strains.

  20. Production of low-Z ions in the Dresden superconducting electron ion beam source for medical particle therapy.

    PubMed

    Zschornack, G; Schwan, A; Ullmann, F; Grossmann, F; Ovsyannikov, V P; Ritter, E

    2012-02-01

    We report on experiments with a new superconducting electron beam ion source (EBIS-SC), the Dresden EBIS-SC, with the objective to meet the main requirements for their application in particle-therapy facilities. Synchrotrons as well as innovative accelerator concepts, such as high-gradient linacs which are driven by a large-current cyclotron (CYCLINACS) and direct drive RF linear accelerators may benefit from the advantages of EBISs in regard to their functional principle. First experimental studies of the production of low-Z ions such as H(+), H(2)(+), H(3)(+), C(4+), and C(6+) are presented. Particular attention is paid to the ion output, i.e., the number of ions per pulse and per second, respectively. Important beam parameters in this context are, among others, ion pulse shaping, pulse repetition rates, beam emittance, and ion energy spread.

  1. Beam production of a laser ion source with a rotating hollow cylinder target for low energy positive and negative ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saquilayan, G. Q.; Wada, M.

    2017-08-01

    A laser ion source that utilizes a hollow cylinder target is being developed for the production of positive and negative ions. Continuous operation of the laser ion source is possible through the design of a rotating target. Ion extraction through a grounded circular aperture was tested for positive and negative ions up to 1 kV. Time-of-flight measurements for the mass separation of ions were made by placing a Faraday cup at locations 0 and 15 mm from the beam extraction axis. Signals corresponding to slow and massive ions were detected with mass at least 380 amu. Investigation on the beam profile suggests a geometrical optimization of the beam forming system is necessary.

  2. Production of intense negative hydrogen beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of cold negative ions

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1984-02-13

    A process for selectively neutralizing H/sup -/ ions in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative hydrogen ion beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H/sup -/ ions that are

  3. Meniscus and beam halo formation in a tandem-type negative ion source with surface production

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, S.; Hatayama, A.

    2012-06-04

    A meniscus of plasma-beam boundary in H{sup -} ion sources largely affects the extracted H{sup -} ion beam optics. Although it is hypothesized that the shape of the meniscus is one of the main reasons for the beam halo observed in experiments, a physical mechanism of the beam halo formation is not yet fully understood. In this letter, it is first shown by the 2D particle in cell simulation that the H{sup -} ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus cause a beam halo since the surface produced H{sup -} ions penetrate into the bulk plasma, and, thus, the resultant meniscus has a relatively large curvature.

  4. Production of molecular ion beams using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Draganić, I. N.; Bannister, M. E.; Meyer, F. W.; Vane, C. R.; Havener, C. C.

    2011-06-01

    An all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is tuned to create a variety of intense molecular ion beams for basic energy research. Based on simultaneous injection of several gases with spectroscopic high purity or enriched isotope content (e.g., H2, D2, N2, O2, or CO) and lower power microwave heating, the ECR ion source produces diatomic molecular ion beams of H2+, D2+, HD+, HO+, DO+, NH+, ND+, and more complex polyatomic molecular ions such as H3+, D3+, HD2+, H2O+, D2O+, H3O+, D3O+, and NHn+, NDn+ with n=2,3,4 and possibly higher. Molecular ion beams have been produced with very high current intensities compared to other molecular beam sources. The recorded molecular ion beam spectra are discussed.

  5. Drift distance survey in direct plasma injection scheme for high current beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesue, T.; Okamura, M.; Kondo, K.; Tamura, J.; Kashiwagi, H.; Zhang, Z.

    2010-02-15

    In a laser ion source, plasma drift distance is one of the most important design parameters. Ion current density and beam pulse width are defined by plasma drift distance between a laser target and beam extraction position. In direct plasma injection scheme, which uses a laser ion source and a radio frequency quadrupole linac, we can apply relatively higher electric field at beam extraction due to the unique shape of a positively biased electrode. However, when we aim at very high current acceleration such as several tens of milliamperes, we observed mismatched beam extraction conditions. We tested three different ion current at ion extraction region by changing plasma drift distance to study better extraction condition. In this experiment, C{sup 6+} beam was accelerated. We confirmed that matching condition can be improved by controlling plasma drift distance.

  6. Neutron production in tissue-like media and shielding materials irradiated with high-energy ion beams.

    PubMed

    Gudowska, I; Kopec, M; Sobolevsky, N

    2007-01-01

    Secondary neutrons produced in high-energy therapeutic ion beams require special attention since they contribute to the dose delivered to patient, both to tumour and to the healthy tissues. Moreover, monitoring of neutron production in the beam line elements and the patient is of importance for radiation protection aspects around ion therapy facility. Monte Carlo simulations of light ion transport in the tissue-like media (water, A-150, PMMA) and materials of interest for shielding devices (graphite, steel and Pb) were performed using the SHIELD-HIT and MCNPX codes. The capability of the codes to reproduce the experimental data on neutron spectra differential both in energy and angle is demonstrated for neutron yield from the thick targets. Both codes show satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. The absorbed dose due to neutrons produced in the water and A-150 phantoms is calculated for proton (200 MeV) and carbon (390 MeV/u) beams. Secondary neutron dose contribution is approximately 0.6% of the total dose delivered to the phantoms by proton beam and at the similar level for both materials. For carbon beam the neutron dose contribution is approximately 1.0 and 1.2% for the water and A-150 phantoms, respectively. The neutron ambient dose equivalent, H(10), was determined for neutrons leaving different shielding materials after irradiation with ions of various energies.

  7. 33 CFR 80.150 - Block Island, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Block Island, RI. 80.150 Section... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.150 Block Island, RI. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on the harbors of Block Island. ...

  8. 33 CFR 80.150 - Block Island, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Block Island, RI. 80.150 Section... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.150 Block Island, RI. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on the harbors of Block Island. ...

  9. 33 CFR 80.150 - Block Island, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Block Island, RI. 80.150 Section... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.150 Block Island, RI. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on the harbors of Block Island. ...

  10. 33 CFR 80.150 - Block Island, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Block Island, RI. 80.150 Section... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.150 Block Island, RI. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on the harbors of Block Island. ...

  11. 33 CFR 80.150 - Block Island, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Block Island, RI. 80.150 Section... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.150 Block Island, RI. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on the harbors of Block Island. ...

  12. Theoretical evaluation of induced radioactivity in food products by electron — or X-ray beam sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leboutet, H.; Aucouturier, J.

    We evaluate first the energy density for electrons or X-ray beams necessary to produce a reference level of 1 kilogray at the maximum of dose, as a function of energy, for electrons and bremsstrahlung photons ( BX rays), based on experimental data obtained on radio-therapy beams, from 4 to 32 MeV, and irradiation beams from production plant CARIC. Then from the production of neutrons on the tungsten target and from (γ n) reactions on the deuterium content of the irradiated food, the slowing down and capture of these neutrons is estimated. Radioisotopes can be produced by (γ n) reactions on iodine, and to a lesser extent on tin, lead, barium, etc., but the major contribution is neutron activation, where the more critical elements are sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium. Induced activity is compared to natural activity coming from potassium 40, carbon 14 and radium, contained in all foods. We conclude that for electrons up to 1 Mrad the induced activity remains of the order of a few percent of natural activity, for energies below 10-11 MeV. Bremsstrahlung X-ray irradiations can give comparable levels as soon as the energy of the generating electron beam is above 3 MeV. The induced activity decays within a few days. There is only a small increase of induced activity as the energy changes from 5 to 10 MeV, for the same total applied dose.

  13. A novel process for production of spherical PBT powders and their processing behavior during laser beam melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jochen; Sachs, Marius; Zhao, Meng; Fanselow, Stephanie; Wudy, Katrin; Drexler, Maximilian; Drummer, Dietmar; Wirth, Karl-Ernst; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing processes like laser beam melting of polymers are established for production of prototypes and individualized parts. The transfer to other areas of application and to serial production is currently hindered by the limited availability of polymer powders with good processability. Within this contribution a novel process route for the production of spherical polymer micron-sized particles of good flowability has been established and applied to produce polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) powders. Moreover, the applicability of the PBT powders in selective laser beam melting and the dependencies of process parameters on device properties will be outlined. First, polymer micro particles are produced by a novel wet grinding method. To improve the flowability the produced particles the particle shape is optimized by rounding in a heated downer reactor. A further improvement of flowability of the cohesive spherical PBT particles is realized by dry coating. An improvement of flowability by a factor of about 5 is achieved by subsequent rounding of the comminution product and dry-coating as proven by tensile strength measurements of the powders. The produced PBT powders were characterized with respect to their processability. Therefore thermal, rheological, optical and bulk properties were analyzed. Based on these investigations a range of processing parameters was derived. Parameter studies on thin layers, produced in a selective laser melting system, were conducted. Hence appropriate parameters for processing the PBT powders by laser beam melting, like building chamber temperature, scan speed and laser power have been identified.

  14. A novel process for production of spherical PBT powders and their processing behavior during laser beam melting

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Jochen Sachs, Marius; Fanselow, Stephanie; Wirth, Karl-Ernst; Peukert, Wolfgang; Zhao, Meng; Wudy, Katrin; Drexler, Maximilian; Drummer, Dietmar

    2016-03-09

    Additive manufacturing processes like laser beam melting of polymers are established for production of prototypes and individualized parts. The transfer to other areas of application and to serial production is currently hindered by the limited availability of polymer powders with good processability. Within this contribution a novel process route for the production of spherical polymer micron-sized particles of good flowability has been established and applied to produce polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) powders. Moreover, the applicability of the PBT powders in selective laser beam melting and the dependencies of process parameters on device properties will be outlined. First, polymer micro particles are produced by a novel wet grinding method. To improve the flowability the produced particles the particle shape is optimized by rounding in a heated downer reactor. A further improvement of flowability of the cohesive spherical PBT particles is realized by dry coating. An improvement of flowability by a factor of about 5 is achieved by subsequent rounding of the comminution product and dry-coating as proven by tensile strength measurements of the powders. The produced PBT powders were characterized with respect to their processability. Therefore thermal, rheological, optical and bulk properties were analyzed. Based on these investigations a range of processing parameters was derived. Parameter studies on thin layers, produced in a selective laser melting system, were conducted. Hence appropriate parameters for processing the PBT powders by laser beam melting, like building chamber temperature, scan speed and laser power have been identified.

  15. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited).

    PubMed

    Zhao, H Y; Zhang, J J; Jin, Q Y; Liu, W; Wang, G C; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 10(13) W cm(-2) in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  16. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Jin, Q. Y.; Liu, W.; Wang, G. C.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 1013 W cm-2 in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  17. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, H. Y. Zhang, J. J.; Jin, Q. Y.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.; Liu, W.; Wang, G. C.

    2016-02-15

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 10{sup 13} W cm{sup −2} in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  18. Simultaneous production of mixed electron--photon beam in a medical LINAC: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Khaledi, Navid; Arbabi, Azim; Sardari, Dariush; Mohammadi, Mohammad; Ameri, Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    The electron or photon beams might be used for treatment of tumors. Each beam has its own advantage and disadvantages. Combo beam can increase the advantages. No investigation has been performed for producing simultaneous mixed electron and photon beam. In current study a device has been added to the Medical Linac to produce a mixed photon-electron beam. Firstly a Varian 2300CD head was simulated by MCNP Monte Carlo Code. Two sets of perforated lead sheets with 1 and 2 mm thickness and 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5 cm punches then placed at the top of the applicator holder tray. This layer produces bremsstrahlung x-ray upon impinging fraction electrons on it. The remaining fraction of electrons passes through the holes. The simulation was performed for 10 × 10, 6 × 6, and 4 × 4 cm(2) field size. For 10 × 10 cm(2) field size, among the punched targets, the largest penumbra difference between the depth of 1 and 7 cm was 72%. This difference for photon and electron beams were 31% and 325% respectively. A maximum of 39% photon percentage was produced by 2 mm target with 0.2 cm holes diameter layer. The minimum surface dose value was 4% lesser than pure electron beam. For small fields, unlike the pure electron beam, the PDD, penumbra, and flatness variations were negligible. The advantages of mixing the electron and photon beam is reduction of pure electron's penumbra dependency with the depth, especially for small fields, also decreasing of dramatic changes of PDD curve with irradiation field size. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Scaling laws for positron production in laser-electron-beam collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, T. G.; Ilderton, A.; Murphy, C. D.; Marklund, M.

    2017-08-01

    Showers of γ rays and positrons are produced when a high-energy electron beam collides with a superintense laser pulse. We present scaling laws for the electron-beam energy loss, the γ -ray spectrum, and the positron yield and energy that are valid in the nonlinear, radiation-reaction-dominated regime. As an application we demonstrate that by employing the collision of a >GeV electron beam with a laser pulse of intensity >5 ×1021W cm-2 , today's high-intensity laser facilities are capable of producing O (104) positrons per shot via light-by-light scattering.

  20. Production of proton beams with narrow-band energy spectra from laser-irradiated ultrathin foils

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, A. P. L; Gibbon, P.

    2007-01-15

    Three-dimensional gridless particle simulations of proton acceleration via irradiation of a very thin foil by a short-pulse, high-intensity laser have been performed to evaluate recently proposed microstructured target configurations. It is found that a pure proton microdot target does not by itself result in a quasimonoenergetic proton beam. Such a beam can only be produced with a very lightly doped target, in qualitative agreement with one-dimensional theory. The simulations suggest that beam quality in current experiments could be dramatically improved by choosing microdot compositions with a 5-10 times lower proton fraction.

  1. Production of proton beams with narrow-band energy spectra from laser-irradiated ultrathin foils.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A P L; Gibbon, P

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimensional gridless particle simulations of proton acceleration via irradiation of a very thin foil by a short-pulse, high-intensity laser have been performed to evaluate recently proposed microstructured target configurations. It is found that a pure proton microdot target does not by itself result in a quasimonoenergetic proton beam. Such a beam can only be produced with a very lightly doped target, in qualitative agreement with one-dimensional theory. The simulations suggest that beam quality in current experiments could be dramatically improved by choosing microdot compositions with a 5-10 times lower proton fraction.

  2. Energetic Ion Beam Production by a Low-Pressure Plasma Focus Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, L. K.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.

    2011-03-30

    Energetic ion beam emissions in a 3 kJ Mather type plasma focus operating at low-pressure regime are investigated. Deuterium gas is used and the discharge is operated in a low-pressure regime of below 1 mbar. Formation of the current sheath during the breakdown phase at the back wall is assisted by a set delayed trigger pulse. Energetic and intense ion beams with good reproducibility have been obtained for the operating pressure ranging from 0.05 mbar to 0.5 mbar. Deuteron beam is determined by time resolved measurement by making use of three biased ion collectors placed at the end on direction. The average energies of deuteron beams are resolved by using time-of flight method. Correlation between the ion emissions and the current sheath dynamics is also discussed.

  3. Production of multicharged metal ion beams on the first stage of tandem-type ECRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hagino, Shogo Nagaya, Tomoki; Nishiokada, Takuya; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Kitagawa, Atsushi

    2016-02-15

    Multicharged metal ion beams are required to be applied in a wide range of fields. We aim at synthesizing iron-endohedral fullerene by transporting iron ion beams from the first stage into the fullerene plasma in the second stage of the tandem-type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). We developed new evaporators by using a direct ohmic heating method and a radiation heating method from solid state pure metal materials. We investigate their properties in the test chamber and produce iron ions on the first stage of the tandem-type ECRIS. As a result, we were successful in extracting Fe{sup +} ion beams from the first stage and introducing Fe{sup +} ion beams to the second stage. We will try synthesizing iron-endohedral fullerene on the tandem-type ECRIS by using these evaporators.

  4. Measurement of secondary particle production induced by particle therapy ion beams impinging on a PMMA target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toppi, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bellini, F.; Collamati, F.; De Lucia, E.; Durante, M.; Faccini, R.; Frallicciardi, P. M.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Morganti, S.; Muraro, S.; Paramatti, R.; Patera, V.; Pinci, D.; Piersanti, L.; Rucinski, A.; Russomando, A.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Senzacqua, M.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Traini, G.; Voena, C.

    2016-05-01

    Particle therapy is a technique that uses accelerated charged ions for cancer treatment and combines a high irradiation precision with a high biological effectiveness in killing tumor cells [1]. Informations about the secondary particles emitted in the interaction of an ion beam with the patient during a treatment can be of great interest in order to monitor the dose deposition. For this purpose an experiment at the HIT (Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center) beam facility has been performed in order to measure fluxes and emission profiles of secondary particles produced in the interaction of therapeutic beams with a PMMA target. In this contribution some preliminary results about the emission profiles and the energy spectra of the detected secondaries will be presented.

  5. Characterization of Three New Glutaredoxin Genes in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Rhizophagus irregularis: Putative Role of RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 in Iron Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Elisabeth; Benabdellah, Karim; Ferrol, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are small ubiquitous oxidoreductases involved in the regulation of the redox state in living cells. In an attempt to identify the full complement of GRXs in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, three additional GRX homologs, besides the formerly characterized GintGRX1 (renamed here as RiGRX1), were identified. The three new GRXs (RiGRX4, RiGRX5 and RiGRX6) contain the CXXS domain of monothiol GRXs, but whereas RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 belong to class II GRXs, RiGRX6 belongs to class I together with RiGRX1. By using a yeast expression system, we observed that the newly identified homologs partially reverted sensitivity of the GRX deletion yeast strains to external oxidants. Furthermore, our results indicated that RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 play a role in iron homeostasis in yeast. Gene expression analyses revealed that RiGRX1 and RiGRX6 were more highly expressed in the intraradical (IRM) than in the extraradical mycelium (ERM). Exposure of the ERM to hydrogen peroxide induced up-regulation of RiGRX1, RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 gene expression. RiGRX4 expression was also up-regulated in the ERM when the fungus was grown in media supplemented with a high iron concentration. These data indicate the two monothiol class II GRXs, RiGRX4 and RiGRX5, might be involved in oxidative stress protection and in the regulation of fungal iron homeostasis. Increased expression of RiGRX1 and RiGRX6 in the IRM suggests that these GRXs should play a key role in oxidative stress protection of R. irregularis during its in planta phase.

  6. Characterization of Three New Glutaredoxin Genes in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Rhizophagus irregularis: Putative Role of RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 in Iron Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo, Elisabeth; Benabdellah, Karim; Ferrol, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are small ubiquitous oxidoreductases involved in the regulation of the redox state in living cells. In an attempt to identify the full complement of GRXs in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, three additional GRX homologs, besides the formerly characterized GintGRX1 (renamed here as RiGRX1), were identified. The three new GRXs (RiGRX4, RiGRX5 and RiGRX6) contain the CXXS domain of monothiol GRXs, but whereas RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 belong to class II GRXs, RiGRX6 belongs to class I together with RiGRX1. By using a yeast expression system, we observed that the newly identified homologs partially reverted sensitivity of the GRX deletion yeast strains to external oxidants. Furthermore, our results indicated that RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 play a role in iron homeostasis in yeast. Gene expression analyses revealed that RiGRX1 and RiGRX6 were more highly expressed in the intraradical (IRM) than in the extraradical mycelium (ERM). Exposure of the ERM to hydrogen peroxide induced up-regulation of RiGRX1, RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 gene expression. RiGRX4 expression was also up-regulated in the ERM when the fungus was grown in media supplemented with a high iron concentration. These data indicate the two monothiol class II GRXs, RiGRX4 and RiGRX5, might be involved in oxidative stress protection and in the regulation of fungal iron homeostasis. Increased expression of RiGRX1 and RiGRX6 in the IRM suggests that these GRXs should play a key role in oxidative stress protection of R. irregularis during its in planta phase. PMID:26900849

  7. Equipment for radionuclide production using a 160 MeV beam in the Moscow Meson Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuikov, B.L.; Kokhanyuk, V.M.; Gabrielyants, Yu.G. |

    1995-07-01

    Equipment was installed on a 160 MeV proton beam in the linear accelerator at the Institute of Nuclear Research (INR), Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) (Troitsk, Moscow district). For a beam of 100 {mu}A and greater, tens of curies of {sup 82}Sr in addition to {sup 109}Cd, {sup 22}Na, and other medical, industrial, and research radionuclides can be produced per year.

  8. Payload dose rate from direct beam radiation and exhaust gas fission products. [for nuclear engine for rocket vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capo, M. A.; Mickle, R.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made to determine the dose rate at the payload position in the NERVA System (1) due to direct beam radiation and (2) due to the possible effect of fission products contained in the exhaust gases for various amounts of hydrogen propellant in the tank. Results indicate that the gamma radiation is more significant than the neutron flux. Under different assumptions the gamma contribution from the exhaust gases was 10 to 25 percent of total gamma flux.

  9. Production of intense negative hydrogen beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of negative ions

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    1987-01-01

    A process for selectively neutralizing H.sup.- ions in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative hydrogen ion beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H.sup.- ions that are intersected by a beam of laser light. Photodetachment is effected in a uniform magnetic field that is provided around the beam of H.sup.- ions to spin polarize the H.sup.- ions and produce first and second populations or groups of ions, having their respective proton spin aligned either with the magnetic field or opposite to it. The intersecting beam of laser light is directed to selectively neutralize a majority of the ions in only one population, or given spin polarized group of H.sup.- ions, without neutralizing the ions in the other group thereby forming a population of H.sup.- ions each of which has its proton spin down, and a second group or population of H.sup.o atoms having proton spin up. Finally, the two groups of ions are separated from each other by magnetically bending the group of H.sup.- ions away from the group of neutralized ions, thereby to form an intense H.sup.- ion beam that is directed toward a predetermined objective.

  10. An Enhanced Vacuum Arc Ion Source for High Current, High Charge State Uranium Beam Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. M.; Hershcovitch, A.; Brown, I. G.; Leemans, W.; Liu, F.

    1996-05-01

    We plan to carry out an experimental program at LBNL to develop a novel kind of vacuum arc ion source in which the metal ions are further stripped by interaction with an energetic, dense electron beam. Preliminary results obtained by Batalin et al.(V. A. Batalin, Y. N. Volkov, T. V. Kulevoy, and S. V. Petrenko, ITEP, Moscow, Reprints 18-93 (1993), 33-94 (1994); Proc. EPAC 1994, p. 1453.) using this approach have been most promising; the vacuum arc ion source(I.G. Brown, ``Vacuum Arc Ion Sources'', Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3061 (1994).) uranium ion beam output of mostly U^3+ ions was increased significantly, although the yield of high charge state ions was only a small fraction of the original source current. In our experiments the electron beam will propagate antiparallel to the ion beam so as to provide a radially inward Lorentz force to confine and focus the stripped uranium beam, thus maximizing the electron-ion interactions and increasing the ion beam current density. We expect improved performance over the encouraging earlier^1 results. The motivation for this work(Ady Hershcovitch and Brant Johnson, RHIC/DET Note 17 and AGS/ ADD/Tech. Note No. 416) is the desire to eventually inject fully stripped uranium into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

  11. Preliminary consideration of a double, 480 GeV, fast cycling proton accelerator for production of neutrino beams at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarz, Henryk; Hays, Steven; /Fermilab

    2007-03-01

    We propose to build the DSF-MR (Double Super-Ferric Main Ring), 480 GeV, fast-cycling (2 second repetition rate) two-beam proton accelerator in the Main Ring tunnel of Fermilab. This accelerator design is based on the super-ferric magnet technology developed for the VLHC, and extended recently to the proposed LER injector for the LHC and fast cycling SF-SPS at CERN. The DSF-MR accelerator system will constitute the final stage of the proton source enabling production of two neutrino beams separated by 2 second time period. These beams will be sent alternately to two detectors located at {approx} 3000 km and {approx} 7500 km away from Fermilab. It is expected that combination of the results from these experiments will offer more than 3 order of magnitudes increased sensitivity for detection and measurement of neutrino oscillations with respect to expectations in any current experiment, and thus may truly enable opening the window into the physics beyond the Standard Model. We examine potential sites for the long baseline neutrino detectors accepting beams from Fermilab. The current injection system consisting of 400 MeV Linac, 8 GeV Booster and the Main Injector can be used to accelerate protons to 45 GeV before transferring them to the DSF-MR. The implementation of the DSF-MR will allow for an 8-fold increase in beam power on the neutrino production target. In this note we outline the proposed new arrangement of the Fermilab accelerator complex. We also briefly describe the DSF-MR magnet design and its power supply, and discuss necessary upgrade of the Tevatron RF system for the use with the DSF-MR accelerator. Finally, we outline the required R&D, cost estimate and possible timeline for the implementation of the DSF-MR accelerator.

  12. Improved measurement of neutral current coherent $\\pi^0$ production on carbon in a few-GeV neutrino beam

    SciTech Connect

    Kurimoto, Y.; Alcaraz-Aunion, J.L.; Brice, S.J.; Bugel, L.; Catala-Perez, J.; Cheng, G.; Conrad, J.M.; Djurcic, Z.; Dore, U.; Finley, D.A.; Franke, A.J.; /Columbia U. /INFN, Rome

    2010-05-01

    The SciBooNE Collaboration reports a measurement of neutral current coherent neutral pion production on carbon by a muon neutrino beam with average energy 0.8 GeV. The separation of coherent from inclusive neutral pion production has been improved by detecting recoil protons from resonant neutral pion production. We measure the ratio of the neutral current coherent neutral pion production to total charged current cross sections to be (1.16 +/- 0.24) x 10-2. The ratio of charged current coherent pion to neutral current coherent pion production is calculated to be 0.14+0.30 -0.28, using our published charged current coherent pion measurement.

  13. Production of neutron-rich Ca, Sn, and Xe isotopes in transfer-type reactions with radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Lacroix, D.

    2010-12-15

    The production cross sections of neutron-rich isotopes {sup 52,54,56,58,60}Ca, {sup 136,138,140,142}Sn, and {sup 146,148,150,152}Xe are predicted for future experiments in the diffusive multinucleon transfer reactions {sup 86,90,92,94}Kr, {sup 124,130,132,134}Sn, {sup 136,140,142,146}Xe, and {sup 138,144,146}Ba+{sup 48}Ca with stable and radioactive beams at incident energies close to the Coulomb barrier. Because of the small cross sections, the production of neutron-rich isotopes requires the optimal choice of projectile-target combinations and bombarding energies.

  14. Fyn kinase controls Fc{epsilon}RI receptor-operated calcium entry necessary for full degranulation in mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Miranda, Elizabeth; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo; Gonzalez-Espinosa, Claudia

    2010-01-22

    IgE-antigen-dependent crosslinking of the high affinity IgE receptor (Fc{epsilon}RI) on mast cells leads to degranulation, leukotriene synthesis and cytokine production. Calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) mobilization is a sine qua non requisite for degranulation, allowing the rapid secretion of stored pro-inflammatory mediators responsible for allergy symptoms. Fyn is a Src-family kinase that positively controls Fc{epsilon}RI-induced mast cell degranulation. However, our understanding of the mechanism connecting Fyn activation to secretion of pre-synthesized mediators is very limited. We analyzed Fc{epsilon}RI-dependent Ca{sup 2+} mobilization in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) differentiated from WT and Fyn -/- knock out mice. Fyn -/- BMMCs showed a marked defect in extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx after Fc{epsilon}RI crosslinking but not after thapsigargin addition. High concentrations of Gadolinium (Gd{sup 3+}) partially blocked Fc{epsilon}RI-induced Ca{sup 2+} influx in WT cells but, in contrast, completely inhibited Ca{sup 2+} mobilization in Fyn -/- cells. Low concentrations of an inhibitor of the canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) Ca{sup 2+} channels (2-aminoethoxyphenyl-borane, 2-APB) blocked Fc{epsilon}RI-induced maximal Ca{sup 2+} rise in WT but not in Fyn -/- cells. Ca{sup 2+} entry through Fyn-controlled, 2-APB sensitive channels was found to be important for full degranulation and IL-2 mRNA accumulation in WT cells. Immunoprecipitation assays showed that Fyn kinase interacts with TRPC 3/6/7 channels after IgE-antigen stimulation, but its association is not related to protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Results indicate Fyn kinase mediates the receptor-dependent activation of TRPC channels that contribute to degranulation in Fc{epsilon}RI-stimulated mast cells.

  15. Hard X-ray bremsstrahlung production in solar flares by high-energy proton beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emslie, A. G.; Brown, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility that solar hard X-ray bremsstrahlung is produced by acceleration of stationary electrons by fast-moving protons, rather than vice versa, as commonly assumed, was investigated. It was found that a beam of protons which involves 1836 times fewer particles, each having an energy 1836 times greater than that of the electrons in the equivalent electron beam model, has exactly the same bremsstrahlung yield for a given target, i.e., the mechanism has an energetic efficiency equal to that of conventional bremsstrahlung models. Allowance for the different degrees of target ionization appropriate to the two models (for conventional flare geometries) makes the proton beam model more efficient than the electron beam model, by a factor of order three. The model places less stringent constraints than a conventional electron beam model on the flare energy release mechanism. It is also consistent with observed X-ray burst spectra, intensities, and directivities. The altitude distribution of hard X-rays predicted by the model agrees with observations only if nonvertical injection of the protons is assumed. The model is inconsistent with gamma-ray data in terms of conventional modeling.

  16. Co-axial multicusp source for low axial energy spread ion beam production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Gough, R. A.; Leung, K. N.; Vujic, J.; Williams, M. D.; Zahir, N.

    1999-09-01

    A co-axial multicusp ion source has been designed and tested. This source uses a new magnetic filter configuration. This magnetic filter is efficient in modifying the plasma potential distribution which can reduce the axial energy spread of the extracted ion beam. Energy spreads as low as 0.6 eV have been obtained. The electron temperature in this source has also been found to be about 0.1 eV. Furthermore, the new source configuration is capable of adjusting the radial plasma potential distribution which can improve the transverse ion energy, which results in a low beam emittance. The co-axial source can be used for a number of different applications such as ion projection lithography and radioactive ion beam projets.

  17. Influence of ridge filter material on the beam efficiency and secondary neutron production in a proton therapy system.

    PubMed

    Riazi, Zafar; Afarideh, Hossein; Sadighi-Bonabi, Rasoul

    2012-09-01

    In this work, the 3D proton dose profile is calculated in a homogenous water phantom using a Monte Carlo application developed with the Geant4 toolkit. The effect of the ridge filter material (for SOBP widths of 6, 9 and 12cm) on the homogeneity of the dose distribution, secondary neutron production and beam efficiency are investigated in a single ring wobbling irradiation system. The energy spectrum of secondary neutrons per primary proton at various locations around the phantom surface is calculated. The simulation revealed that most of the produced neutrons are released at slight angles which enable them to reach the patient and consequently to be hazardous. Also, the homogeneity of the dose distribution at the proximal edge of spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) field is deteriorated due to the scattering of protons in the ridge filter. It is found that for reducing the above mentioned destructive effects, usage of a PMMA ridge filter is better than Al one. For a similar value of 9cm water equivalent thickness, beam widening radius of Al at isocenter is twice of PMMA. Furthermore, for uniform irradiation of the target, the beam efficiency of the system for Al is less than of PMMA and also regarding to the secondary neutron production PMMA is a better choice. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Large-format multi-wafer production of 5" GaSb-based photodetectors by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loubychev, Dmitri; Fastenau, Joel M.; Kattner, Michael; Frey, Phillip; Liu, Amy W. K.; Furlong, Mark J.

    2017-02-01

    GaSb and its heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) have received much attention given their application in a wide range of mid-wave and long-wave IR photodetector applications. With the maturation of the MBE growth process, focus is now turned to improving manufacturing readiness and the transition to the production of large-format wafers. We will discuss the transition from the development of early detector layer structures on 2" diameter GaSb substrates, through today's 3"/4" production standard, and to the onset of 5" pilot production from the perspective of volume compound semiconductor manufacturing. We will report on the growth of 5" GaSb-based MWIR nBn detector structures using a large format 5×5" production MBE platform. Structural and optical properties, as well as electrical data from large-area mesa diodes will be presented and compared with results achieved with smaller batch size MBE reactor platform.

  19. Thermal analysis and neutron production characteristics of a low power copper beam dump-cum-target for LEHIPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, Y. S.; Thomas, R. G.; Verma, V.; Agarwal, A.; Prasad, N. K.; Bhagwat, P. V.; Saxena, A.; Singh, P.

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of heat deposition and neutron production have been carried out for the low power beam dump-cum-target for the 20 MeV Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) facility at BARC using GEANT4 and FLUKA. Thermal analysis and heat transfer calculations have also been carried out using the computational fluid dynamics code CFD ACE+. In this work we present the details of the analysis of the low power beam dump-cum-target designed for conditioning of the accelerator upto a maximum power of 600 kW with a duty cycle of 2% which corresponds to an average power of 12 kW in the first phase.

  20. Pion Production from 5-15 GeV Beam for the Neutrino Factory Front-End Study

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, Gersende

    2010-03-30

    For the neutrino factory front-end study, the production of pions from a proton beam of 5-8 and 14 GeV kinetic energy on a Hg jet target has been simulated. The pion yields for two versions of the MARS15 code and two different field configurations have been compared. The particles have also been tracked from the target position down to the end of the cooling channel using the ICOOL code and the neutrino factory baseline lattice. The momentum-angle region of pions producing muons that survived until the end of the cooling channel has been compared with the region covered by HARP data and the number of pions/muons as a function of the incoming beam energy is also reported.

  1. High intensity production of high and medium charge state uranium and other heavy ion beams with VENUS

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, D.; Galloway, M. L.; Loew, T. J.; Lyneis, C. M.; Castro Rodriguez, I.; Todd, D. S.

    2008-02-15

    The next generation, superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source VENUS (versatile ECR ion source for nuclear science) started operation with 28 GHz microwave heating in 2004. Since then it has produced world record ion beam intensities. For example, 2850 e {mu}A of O{sup 6+}, 200 e {mu}A of U{sup 33+} or U{sup 34+}, and in respect to high charge state ions, 1 e {mu}A of Ar{sup 18+}, 270 e {mu}A of Ar{sup 16+}, 28 e {mu}A of Xe{sup 35+}, and 4.9 e {mu}A of U{sup 47+} have been produced. A brief overview of the latest developments leading to these record intensities is given and the production of high intensity uranium beams is discussed in more detail.

  2. Narragansett, RI Lab--Office of Research and Development

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA-ORD laboratory in Narragansett, RI is a recognized leader in scientific knowledge and expertise concerning the ecology of oceans, estuaries, and water-sheds, and the effects of human activities on that ecology.

  3. 75 FR 19666 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00007

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Island Disaster RI-00007 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice... Island (FEMA-1894-DR), dated 04/08/2010. Incident: Severe Storms and Flooding. Incident Period: 03/12...

  4. RadNet Air Data From Providence, RI

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Providence, RI from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  5. Development of An Ion Beam Cooler and Buncher for the SCRIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togasaki, Mamoru; Enokizono, Akitomo; Kurita, Kazuyoshi; Matsuo, Saki; Hara, Masahiro; Hori, Toshitada; Ichikawa, Shin'ichi; Ohnishi, Tetsuya; Wakasugi, Masanori; Haraguchi, Yuji; Suda, Toshimi; Tamae, Tadaaki; Tsukada, Kyo; Tsuru, Teruaki; Yoneyama, Shunpei; Wang, Shuo

    2014-09-01

    The SCRIT (Self-Confining RI Ion Target) is an internal target forming technique for electron scattering off short lived unstable nuclei. In the SCRIT electron scattering facility at RIKEN RI Beam Factory, we constructed an ISOL-type RI beam generator named ERIS (Electron-beam-driven RI separator for SCRIT). ERIS supplys continuous RI ion beam with the energy of 50 keV at maximum. In order to efficiently inject the RI beam into SCRIT, it is necessary to provide a pulsed beam. Therefore, we are developing a cooler buncher system. The principle of this device is based on a linear radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) trap. Required performance for the device is to convert 1-s continuous beam into 500- μs pulsed beam with high efficiency. Experiment for the performance study is now going on using the stable 133Cs and 23Na ions. In this talk, we will report the latest status of the development and the study of the cooler buncher.

  6. Production of beams of neutron-rich nuclei between Ca and Ni using the ion-guide technique

    SciTech Connect

    Perajarvi, K.; Cerny, J.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Huikari, J.; Jokinen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Kurpeta, J.; Lee, D.; Moore, I.; Penttila, H.; Popov, A.; Aysto, J.

    2004-09-28

    Since several elements between Z = 20-28 are refractory in their nature, their neutron-rich isotopes are rarely available as low energy Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) in ordinary Isotope Separator On-Line facilities [1-4]. These low energy RIBs would be especially interesting to have available under conditions which allow high-resolution beta-decay spectroscopy, ion-trapping and laser-spectroscopy. As an example, availability of these beams would open a way for research which could produce interesting and important data on neutron-rich nuclei around the doubly magic {sup 78}Ni. One way to overcome the intrinsic difficulty of producing these beams is to rely on the chemically unselective Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) technique [5]. Quasi- and deep-inelastic reactions, such as {sup 197}Au({sup 65}Cu,X)Y, could be used to produce these nuclei in existing IGISOL facilities, but before they can be successfully incorporated into the IGISOL concept their kinematics must be well understood. Therefore the reaction kinematics part of this study was first performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using its 88'' cyclotron and, based on those results, a specialized target chamber was built[6]. The target chamber shown in Fig. 1 was recently tested on-line at the Jyvaaskylaa IGISOL facility. Yields of mass-separated radioactive projectile-like species such as {sup 62,63}Co are about 0.8 ions/s/pnA, corresponding to about 0.06 % of the total IGISOL efficiency for the products that hit the Ni-degrader. (The current maximum 443 MeV {sup 65}Cu beam intensity at Jyvaaskylaa is about 20 pnA.) This total IGISOL efficiency is a product of two coupled loss factors, namely inadequate thermalization and the intrinsic IGISOL efficiency. In our now tested chamber, about 9 % of the Co recoils are thermalized in the owing He gas (p{sub He}=300 mbar) and about 0.7 % of them are converted into the mass-separated ion beams. In the future, both of these physical

  7. Design of a compact, permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for proton and H2(+) beam production.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xianlu; Zhang, Tianjue; Luo, Shan; Wang, Chuan; Zheng, Xia; Yin, Zhiguo; Zhong, Junqing; Wu, Longcheng; Qin, Jiuchang

    2010-02-01

    A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source was developed at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) for proton beam production of over 60 mA [B.-Q. Cui, Y.-W. Bao, L.-Q. Li, W.-S. Jiang, and R.-W. Wang, Proceedings of the High Current Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Ion Source for Proton Accelerator, APAC-2001, 2001 (unpublished)]. For various proton beam applications, another 2.45 GHz microwave ion source with a compact structure is designed and will be built at CIAE as well for high current proton beam production. It is also considered to be used for the test of H(2)(+) beam, which could be injected into the central region model cyclotron at CIAE, and accelerated to 5 MeV before extraction by stripping. The required ECR magnetic field is supplied by all the permanent magnets rather than electrical solenoids and six poles. The magnetic field distribution provided by this permanent magnets configuration is a large and uniformly volume of ECR zone, with central magnetic field of a magnitude of approximately 875 Gs [T. Taylor and J. S. C. Wills, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 309, 37 (1991)]. The field adjustment at the extraction end can be implemented by moving the position of the magnet blocks. The results of plasma, coupling with 2.45 GHz microwave in the ECR zone inside the ion source are simulated by particle-in-cell code to optimize the density by adjusting the magnetic field distribution. The design configuration of the ion source will be summarized in the paper.

  8. Production of N.sup.+ ions from a multicusp ion beam apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Kunkel, Wulf B.; Walther, Steven R.

    1993-01-01

    A method of generating a high purity (at least 98%) N.sup.+ ion beam using a multicusp ion source (10) having a chamber (11) formed by a cylindrical chamber wall (12) surrounded by a plurality of magnets (13), a filament (57) centrally disposed in said chamber, a plasma electrode (36) having an extraction orifice (41) at one end of the chamber, a magnetic filter having two parallel magnets (21, 22) spaced from said plasma electrode (36) and dividing the chamber (11) into arc discharge and extraction regions. The method includes ionizing nitrogen gas in the arc discharge region of the chamber (11), maintaining the chamber wall (12) at a positive voltage relative to the filament (57) and at a magnitude for an optimum percentage of N.sup.+ ions in the extracted ion beams, disposing a hot liner (45) within the chamber and near the chamber wall (12) to limit recombination of N.sup.+ ions into the N.sub.2.sup.+ ions, spacing the magnets (21, 22) of the magnetic filter from each other for optimum percentage of N.sup.3 ions in the extracted ion beams, and maintaining a relatively low pressure downstream of the extraction orifice and of a magnitude (preferably within the range of 3-8.times.10.sup.-4 torr) for an optimum percentage of N.sup.+ ions in the extracted ion beam.

  9. Light ion beam approach to ICF ignition, gain, and energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.; Allshouse, G.; Cook, D.; Lockner, T.; Mazarakis, M.; Olson, C.; Smith, D. ); Peterson, R.; Adler, D.; Bruggink, D.; Englestad, R.; Khater, H.; Kulcinski, G.; Lovell, E.; MacFarlane, J.; Morgahead, E.; Moses, G.; Rutledge, S.; Sawan, M.; Sviatoslalvsky, I.; Wang, P.; Wittenberg, L. )

    1994-10-05

    A review of anticipated achievements in the light ion beam method of the inertial confinement fusion program is presented. They allow to estimate the cost of produced electric energy. It appears to be quite competitive to other fusion reactor designs at the 1000 MWe level and above. (AIP) [copyright] [ital American] [ital Institute] [ital of] [ital Physics] 1994

  10. Production Engineering Measure for an Electron-Beam Machine and Microwave Transistors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    the instrument and are functioning to specifications. Major modifications were made to the pattern generation and auto-align software to take advantage...transistor lots were initiated during the sixth quarter because of the instrument upgrading effort. E-beam delineation was limited to pattern generation, auto-align, and resist process testing. (Author)

  11. Production of N[sup +] ions from a multicusp ion beam apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kango Leung; Kunkel, W.B.; Walther, S.R.

    1993-03-30

    A method of generating a high purity (at least 98%) N[sup +] ion beam using a multicusp ion source having a chamber formed by a cylindrical chamber wall surrounded by a plurality of magnets, a filament centrally disposed in said chamber, a plasma electrode having an extraction orifice at one end of the chamber, a magnetic filter having two parallel magnets spaced from said plasma electrode and dividing the chamber into arc discharge and extraction regions. The method includes ionizing nitrogen gas in the arc discharge region of the chamber, maintaining the chamber wall at a positive voltage relative to the filament and at a magnitude for an optimum percentage of N[sup +] ions in the extracted ion beams, disposing a hot liner within the chamber and near the chamber wall to limit recombination of N[sup +] ions into the N[sub 2][sup +] ions, spacing the magnets of the magnetic filter from each other for optimum percentage of N[sup 3] ions in the extracted ion beams, and maintaining a relatively low pressure downstream of the extraction orifice and of a magnitude (preferably within the range of 3-8[times]10[sup [minus]4] torr) for an optimum percentage of N[sup +] ions in the extracted ion beam.

  12. Influence of the medium composition and plasmid combination on the growth of recombinant Escherichia coli JM109 and on the production of the fusion protein EcoRI::SPA.

    PubMed

    Rhee, J I; Bode, J; Diaz-Ricci, J C; Poock, D; Weigel, B; Kretzmer, G; Schügler, K

    1997-06-13

    Plasmid-free and plasmid-harbouring E. coli JM109 strains were investigated in shaken flasks, stirred tanks in batch and continuous operation. The shaken flask cultivations were performed in M9 minimal medium and in media with various protein supplements. The host hardly grows on M9 minimal medium as opposed to the plasmid-harbouring cells, which grow well on this medium. All of the investigated cells propagate well on protein-containing media. The influence of the combinations of repressor plasmid pRK248cI, the protection plasmid EcoR4 and the production plasmid pMTC48 were determined on the initial specific growth rate of the E. coli JM109 without gene expression, on the yield coefficient of cell growth, acetate concentration and acetate yield coefficient in the yeast extract-containing (HM) medium. The influence of various media on the induction of the gene expression were evaluated. In cultivation media with protein supplement, the growth rate and yield coefficient increased. The variation of the volumetric and specific beta-lactamase activities with the cultivation time were determined in a stirred tank reactor in HM medium. With increasing dilution rate the process performance decreased. Simple relationships exist between the substrate uptake rate and the specific growth rate of the continuous cultivated cells in M9 and HM media. The influence of the dilution rate on the cell mass concentration, colony forming units, acetate formation, yield coefficients of growth and acetate formation, substrate uptake rate, CO2 production rate, ammonium formation rate and beta-lactamase activity in M9 and HM media were determined as well. Carbon balances of the batch and continuous cultivations indicated high carbon recoveries. On account of the higher growth rate of plasmid-harbouring cells than than of the plasmid-free cells, the behaviour of the investigated plasmid-free and plasmid-harbouring E. coli JM109 cells deviates from the published properties of other plasmid

  13. RiSA: A Science Festival for the Bilingual and Bicultural Rio Grande Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, Joey Shapiro; Torres, Cristina; Stone, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The Rio Grande Science and Arts (RiSA) Festival organized by the Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy (CGWA) at the University of Texas at Brownsville (UTB) will use a wide variety of artforms to bring physics and science topics to the bilingual and bicultural population of the Rio Grande Valley of South Texas. The science and art faculty at UTB will partner with art and education professionals to create an annual community event celebrating science though art. Music, dance, poetry, and visual arts will headline the festival activities. Festival events and products will be produced in both English and Spanish to attract and inform the bilingual local community. The RiSA Festival is supported by the Science Festival Alliance and the Sloan Foundation. Supported by the Science Festival Alliance and the Sloan Foundation.

  14. Measurement of inclusive neutral current {pi}{sup 0} production on carbon in a few-GeV neutrino beam

    SciTech Connect

    Kurimoto, Y.; Hiraide, K.; Kubo, H.; Matsuoka, K.; Nakajima, Y.; Nakaya, T.; Orme, D.; Otani, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Alcaraz-Aunion, J. L.; Jover-Manas, G.; Sanchez, F.; Brice, S. J.; Finley, D. A.; Kobilarcik, T.; Moore, C. D.; Russell, A. D.; Stefanski, R. J.; Tesarek, R. J.; White, H. B.

    2010-02-01

    The SciBooNE Collaboration reports inclusive neutral current neutral pion production by a muon neutrino beam on a polystyrene target (C{sub 8}H{sub 8}). We obtain (7.7{+-}0.5(stat){+-}0.5(sys))x10{sup -2} as the ratio of the neutral current neutral pion production to total charged current cross section; the mean energy of neutrinos producing detected neutral pions is 1.1 GeV. The result agrees with the Rein-Sehgal model implemented in our neutrino interaction simulation program with nuclear effects. The spectrum shape of the {pi}{sup 0} momentum and angle agree with the model. We also measure the ratio of the neutral current coherent pion production to total charged current cross section to be (0.7{+-}0.4)x10{sup -2}.

  15. First Measurement of the Beam Normal Single Spin Asymmetry in $Δ$ Resonance Production by $Q_{\\rm weak}$

    SciTech Connect

    Nuruzzaman, nfn

    2016-08-01

    The beam normal single spin asymmetry ($B_{\\rm n}$) is generated in the scattering of transversely polarized electrons from unpolarized nuclei. The asymmetry arises from the interference of the imaginary part of the two-photon exchange with the one-photon exchange amplitude. The $Q_{\\rm weak}$ experiment has made the first measurement of $B_{\\rm n}$ in the production of the $\\Delta$(1232) resonance, using the $Q_{\\rm weak}$ apparatus in Hall-C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The final transverse asymmetry, corrected for backgrounds and beam polarization, is $B_{\\rm n}$ = 43 $\\pm$ 16 ppm at beam energy 1.16 GeV at an average scattering angle of about 8.3 degrees, and invariant mass of 1.2 GeV. The measured preliminary $B_{\\rm n}$ agrees with a preliminary theoretical calculation. $B_{\\rm n}$ for the $\\Delta$ is the only known observable that is sensitive to the $\\Delta$ elastic form-factors ($\\gamma$*$\\Delta\\Delta$) in addition to the generally studied transition form-factors ($\\gamma$*N$\\Delta$), but extracting this information will require significant theoretical input.

  16. Production of a Biomimetic Fe(I)-S Phase on Pyrite by Atomic-Hydrogen Beam-Surface Reactive Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Che, Li; Gardenghi, David J.; Szilagyi, Robert K.; Minton, Timothy K.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular beam-surface scattering and X-ray absorption spectroscopic experiments were employed to study the reaction of deuterium atoms with a pyrite, FeS2 (100), surface and to investigate the electronic and geometric structures of the resulting Fe-S phases. Incident D atoms, produced by a radio frequency plasma and expanded in an effusive beam, were directed at a pyrite surface held at various temperatures from ambient up to 200 °C. During exposure to the D-atom beam, D2S products were released with a thermal distribution of molecular speeds, indicating that the D atoms likely reacted in thermal equilibrium with the surface. The yield of D2S from the surface decreased approximately exponentially with exposure duration, suggesting that the surface accessible sulfur atoms were depleted, thus leaving an iron-rich surface. This conclusion is consistent with X-ray absorption measurements of the exposed surfaces, which indicated the formation of a layered structure, with elemental iron as the outermost layer on top of a formally Fe(I)-S phase as an intermediate layer and a formally Fe(II)-S2 bulk pyrite layer at lower depths. The reduced Fe(I)-S phase is particularly remarkable because of its similarity to the catalytically active sites of small molecule metalloenzymes, such as FeFe-hydrogenases and MoFe-nitrogenases. PMID:21526811

  17. Production of a Beam of Highly Vibrationally Excited CO Using Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, N.; Schäfer, T.; Hühnert, J.; Wodtke, A. M.; Field, R. W.

    2012-06-01

    For many experimentalists (especially those, who are not spectroscopists), molecular pertubations are a curse, as they make assignments and analysis of spectral data more difficult. Nevertheless, they can also be a boon! In this talk we will show how a molecular beam of CO in high vibrational states (v=17,18) can be prepared by an optical pumping scheme that we call PUMP-PUMP-PERTURB and DUMP (P^3D). P^3D exploits the loaning, via spin-orbit perturbations, of the large oscillator strength of the 4th positive system, A ^1 π ← X ^1 Σ ^+, to the triplet manifold. This allows some nominally spin-forbidden transitions to be exploited in multistep optical pumping schemes. The ability to {state-selectively} prepare CO in high vibrational states opens up new opportunities for molecular beam scattering experiments.

  18. Laser ion beam production at CERN-ISOLDE: New features - More possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothe, S.; Day Goodacre, T.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Marsh, B. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Rossel, R. E.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Veinhard, M.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2016-06-01

    This article summarizes the current specifications and the latest features of the CERN-ISOLDE resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS). This includes a description of the optical layout and the newly designed reference system. The ionization schemes for the laser ionized beams at ISOLDE are tabulated, including six new elements. All RILIS schemes are also made publicly available in the RILIS elements on-line database. Finally, we announce a paradigm shift in RILIS operation - the combination of a machine protection and a monitoring and control system has enabled on-call operation of the laser ion source for selected beams in 2014 and has become the standard mode of operation in 2015.

  19. Efficient production and diagnostics of MeV proton beams from a cryogenic hydrogen ribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velyhan, A.; Giuffrida, L.; Scuderi, V.; Perin, J. P.; Chatain, D.; Garcia, S.; Bonnay, P.; Dostal, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Dudzak, R.; Krousky, E.; Cykhardt, J.; Prokupek, J.; Pfeifer, M.; Rosinski, M.; Krasa, J.; Brabcova, K.; De Napoli, M.; Lastovicka, T.; Margarone, D.

    2017-06-01

    A solid hydrogen thin ribbon, produced by the cryogenic system ELISE (Experiments on Laser Interaction with Solid hydrogEn) target delivery system, was experimentally used at the PALS kJ-laser facility to generate intense proton beams with energies in the MeV range. This sophisticated target system operating at cryogenic temperature (~ 10 K) continuously producing a 62 μm thick target was combined with a 600 J sub-nanosecond laser pulse to generate a collimated proton stream. The accelerated proton beams were fully characterized by a number of diagnostics. High conversion efficiency of laser to energetic protons is of great interest for future potential applications in non-conventional proton therapy and fast ignition for inertial confinement fusion.

  20. Production of beams from solid materials at Center for Nuclear Study electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Ohshiro, Y; Yamaka, S; Watanabe, S; Kobayashi, K; Kotaka, Y; Nishimura, M; Kase, M; Muto, H; Yamaguchi, H; Shimoura, S

    2014-02-01

    Two methods for the feed of vapor from solid materials in the Center for Nuclear Study ECR ion source are described. A rod placed near the wall of the plasma chamber, operating up to a melting point of 2600 °C, has been used for CaO, SiO2, and FeO. An oven with a number of openings, operating up to 800 °C, has been used for P2O5, Li, and S. Typical ion beam intensities of (7)Li(2+), (6)Li(3+), (40)Ca(12+), and (56)Fe(15+) are achieved 280, 75, 28, and 7 eμA, respectively. High intensity heavy ion beams are stably supplied into the azimuthally varying field cyclotron.

  1. Defining A-Kinase Anchoring Protein (AKAP) Specificity for the Protein Kinase A Subunit RI (PKA-RI).

    PubMed

    Autenrieth, Karolin; Bendzunas, N George; Bertinetti, Daniela; Herberg, Friedrich W; Kennedy, Eileen J

    2016-04-15

    A-Kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) act as spatial and temporal regulators of protein kinase A (PKA) by localizing PKA along with multiple proteins into discrete signaling complexes. AKAPs interact with the PKA holoenzyme through an α-helix that docks into a groove formed on the dimerization/docking domain of PKA-R in an isoform-dependent fashion. In an effort to understand isoform selectivity at the molecular level, a library of protein-protein interaction (PPI) disruptors was designed to systematically probe the significance of an aromatic residue on the AKAP docking sequence for RI selectivity. The stapled peptide library was designed based on a high affinity, RI-selective disruptor of AKAP binding, RI-STAD-2. Phe, Trp and Leu were all found to maintain RI selectivity, whereas multiple intermediate-sized hydrophobic substitutions at this position either resulted in loss of isoform selectivity (Ile) or a reversal of selectivity (Val). As a limited number of RI-selective sequences are currently known, this study aids in our understanding of isoform selectivity and establishing parameters for discovering additional RI-selective AKAPs.

  2. Aspects of strangeness production with 15 -- 30 GeV proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C.B.

    1992-04-01

    We discuss the spectrum of physics questions related to strangeness which could be addressed with a 15--30 GeV proton storage ring. We focus on various aspects of strangeness production, including hyperon production in pp collisions, studies of hyperon-nucleon scattering, production of hyper-fragments in p-nucleus collisions, and hyperon spin observables in inclusive production.

  3. Development of a laser ion source for production of high-intensity heavy-ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwagi, H.; Yamada, K.; Kurashima, S.

    2017-09-01

    A laser ion source has been developed as a high-intensity source for the ion implanter and the single pulsed beam of the azimuthally varying field cyclotron at TIARA. Highly charged beams of C5+ and C6+ ions and low-charged beams of heavy ions such as C, Al, Ti, Cu, Au, and Pt are required for the single-pulse acceleration in the cyclotron and for the ion implanter, respectively. In the vacuum chamber of the ion source, a target holder on a three-dimensional linear-motion stage provides a fresh surface for each laser shot. A large-sized target with a maximum size of 300 mm × 135 mm is mounted on the holder for long-term operation. The ion current (ion charge flux) in the laser-produced plasma is measured by a Faraday cup and time-of-flight spectra of each charge state are measured using a 90° cylindrical electrostatic analyzer just behind the Faraday cup. Carbon-plasma-generation experiments indicate that the source produces intense high- and low-charged pulsed ion beams. At a laser energy of 483 mJ (2.3 × 1013 W/cm2), average C6+ current of 13 mA and average C5+ current of 23 mA were obtained over the required time duration for single-pulse acceleration in the cyclotron (49 ns for C6+ and 80 ns for C5+). Furthermore, at 45 mJ (2.1 × 1012 W/cm2), an average C2+ current of 1.6 mA over 0.88 μs is obtained.

  4. Generation and biological evaluation of the products formed from the exposure of Phenothiazine to a 266nm laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandru, T.; Pascu, M. L.; Danko, B.; Nastasa, V.; Boni, M.; Militaru, A.; Andrei, I. R.; Staicu, A.; Hunyadi, A.; Armada, A.; Viveiros, M.; Amaral, L.

    2013-06-01

    Phenothiazine exposed to white light or UV radiation undergoes a variety of reactions that result in the degradation of the parental compound and the formation of new species. Chlorpromazine exposed to the 266 nm laser beam of given energy levels yielded species derived from it, whose number increased with the exposure duration. At distinct time intervals the irradiation products were evaluated by spectrophotometry between 200-1500 nm, Thin Layer Chromatography, and for antimicrobial activity of Chlorpromazine against different test organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus.

  5. Runaway electron production during intense electron beam penetration in dense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, P. B.; Cowan, T. E.

    2007-01-15

    Relativistic electrons are efficiently generated when multiterawatt lasers focused to ultrahigh intensities > or approx. 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} illuminate the surface of dense plasma targets. A theoretical study finds that during typical picosecond pulse widths, significant amounts of Dreicer produced runaway electrons can build up due to the high axial electric field driving the neutralizing return current. An important consequence is that there will be a conversion of plasma current to runaway electron current, which is maximized at some optimum value of the beam-to-plasma density ratio N{sub b}=n{sub b}/n{sub e}, depending on the plasma collisionality. At collisionalities representative of solid target experiments, complete conversion to runaway electrons can only take place over a certain range of N{sub b} values. At higher collisionalities and pulse widths, applicable to the fast ignition concept for inertial confinement fusion, it was found that conversion to runaways has a peak at {approx}90% around N{sub b}{approx}0.06. Significant lessening of target material heating by Joule current dissipation is also possible, since part of the beam energy loss is transferred through the electric field directly to the formation of energetic runaways. Implications for beam transport inhibition by the electric field are also discussed.

  6. Single source sound production and dynamic beam formation in echolocating harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena).

    PubMed

    Madsen, P T; Wisniewska, D; Beedholm, K

    2010-09-15

    Echolocating toothed whales produce high-powered clicks by pneumatic actuation of phonic lips in their nasal complexes. All non-physeteroid toothed whales have two pairs of phonic lips allowing many of these species to produce both whistles and clicks at the same time. That has led to the hypothesis that toothed whales can increase the power outputs and bandwidths of clicks, and enable fast clicking and beam steering by acutely timed actuation of both phonic lip pairs simultaneously. Here we test that hypothesis by applying suction cup hydrophones on the sound-producing nasal complexes of three echolocating porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) with symmetrical pairs of phonic lips. Using time of arrival differences on three hydrophones, we show that all recorded clicks from these three porpoises are produced by the right pair of phonic lips with no evidence of simultaneous or independent actuation of the left pair. It is demonstrated that porpoises, despite actuation of only one sound source, can change their output and sound beam probably through conformation changes in the sound-producing soft tissues and nasal sacs, and that the coupling of the phonic lips and the melon acts as a waveguide for sound energy between 100 and 160 kHz to generate a forward-directed sound beam for echolocation.

  7. Statistical analysis of the ion beam production in a self magnetically insulated diode

    SciTech Connect

    Isakova, Y. I.; Pushkarev, A. I.; Khaylov, I. P.

    2013-09-15

    The paper presents the results of a study on shot to shot variation in energy density of an ion beam formed by a self-magnetically insulated diode with an explosive emission cathode. The experiments were carried out with the TEMP-4M accelerator operating in double-pulse mode: plasma formation occurs during the first pulse (negative polarity, 300–500 ns, 100–150 kV), and ion extraction and acceleration during the second pulse (positive polarity, 150 ns, 250–300 kV). Crucially, it was found that the standard deviation of energy density does not exceed 11%, whilst the same variation for ion current density was 20%–30%, suggesting the presence of neutrals in the beam. This idea is further supported by the fact that ion current density is only weakly dependant on the accelerating voltage and other output parameters of the accelerator (coefficient of determination < 0.3), whilst the correlation between the energy density of the beam and the output parameters is strong (coefficient of determination > 0.9). We attribute the neutral component as being due to charge exchange between accelerated ions and neutral molecules from a neutral layer near the anode surface. Implementation using a self-magnetically insulated diode with an explosive-emission cathode, having an operational lifetime of up to 10{sup 7} shots, has promising prospects for various technological applications.

  8. Proceedings of the workshop on the production and use of intense radioactive beams at the Isospin Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, J.D.

    1992-12-31

    These proceedings report the deliberations of a 3 1/2 day workshop on the Production and Use of Intense Radioactive Ion Beams at the Isospin Laboratory, which was held at the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1992. The purpose of this workshop was not to duplicate the programs of other recent radioactive ion beam workshops or international conferences that have focused on the scientific concepts which radioactive beams can, and in fact already are, addressing. Instead, the intent was to address the technical problems associated with the construction of the next generation ISOL facility and to initiate a discussion of the type of experimental equipment that should be developed for such a facility. We have tried to bring together in Oak Ridge the world`s experts in radioactive targets/ion sources, light and heavy-ion accelerators, and detection systems. After 1 1/2 days of overview presentations, the participants divided into three discussion groups (Experiments with Radioactive Beams, Target Ion Sources and Mass Separation, and Accelerators-Primary and Secondary) for 1 1/2 days of detailed discussions of the most pertinent issues. The final session was devoted to reports from each of the discussion groups and a general discussion of where to go from here. An outgrowth of these discussions was the establishment of working groups to coordinate future technical developments associated with the pertinent issues. The proceedings include the text of all the overview presentations, reports from each discussion group, as well as contributions from those participants who chose to provide the text of their presentations in the discussion groups and the Concluding Remarks. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Applicability of e-beam mask inspection to EUV mask production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoval, Lior; Mangan, Shmoolik; Schwarzband, Ishai; Khristo, Sergey; Balasubramanian, Vivek; Goldstein, Shay; Brikman, Ran; Shoshani, Nir

    2012-03-01

    Ever since the 180nm technology node the semiconductor industry has been battling the sub-wavelength regime in optical lithography. During the same time development for a 13.5nm Extreme Ultraviolet [EUV] solution has been in development, which would take us back from a λ/10 to a >λ regime again - at least for one node. Add to this the potential to increase the wafer size as well, and we are at a major crossroads. The introduction of EUV has been marred by many delays, but we are finally seeing the hardware development efforts converge and multiple customers around the world embarking on this adventure. As it becomes clear that this preproduction phase will occur at or below 20nmHP, it also becomes clear that this will happen at the limiting edge of existing 19x-based patterned mask inspection technology, reaching the practical resolution limits at around 20nm HP mask densities. Resolution is coupled with sensitivity and throughput such that the extended sensitivity may come at an unreasonable throughput. Loss of resolution also badly impacts defect dispositioning, or classification, which becomes impractical. As resolution is especially critical for die to database inspection, single die masks and masks with high flare bias are at risk of not being inspectable with 19xnm based inspectors. E-Beam based mask inspection has been proposed and demonstrated as a viable technology for patterned EUV mask inspection. In this paper, we study the key questions of sensitivity and throughput, in both die-to-die and die-to-database applications. We present new results, based on a new generation of E-Beam inspection technology, which has a higher data rate at smaller spot sizes. We will demonstrate the feasibility of acceptable inspection time with EBMI. We also will discuss die-to-data-base inspection and the advantage of using E-Beam imaging for meeting future requirements of single- die EUV masks.

  10. Molecular beam studies of unimolecular and bimolecular chemical reaction dynamics using VUV synchrotron radiation as a product probe

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, David Andrew

    1997-08-01

    This dissertation describes the use of a new molecular beam apparatus designed to use tunable VUV synchrotron radiation for photoionization of the products from scattering experiments. The apparatus was built at the recently constructed Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a third generation 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source. The new apparatus is applied to investigations of the dynamics of unimolecular reactions, photodissociation experiments, and bimolecular reactions, crossed molecular beam experiments. The first chapter describes the new apparatus and the VUV radiation used for photoionization. This is followed by a number of examples of the many advantages provided by using VUV photoionization in comparison with the traditional technique of electron bombardment ionization. At the end of the chapter there is a discussion of the data analysis employed in these scattering experiments. The remaining four chapters are complete investigations of the dynamics of four chemical systems using the new apparatus and provide numerous additional examples of the advantages provided by VUV photoionizaiton of the products. Chapters 2-4 are photofragment translational spectroscopy studies of the photodissociation dynamics of dimethyl sulfoxide, acrylonitrile, and vinyl chloride following absorption at 193 mn. All of these systems have multiple dissociation channels and provide good examples of the ability of the new apparatus to unravel the complex UV photodissociation dynamics that can arise in small polyatomic molecules.

  11. Production of polycrystalline silicon from monosilane in the electron-beam plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinov, V. O.; Shchukin, V. G.; Sharafutdinov, R. G.; Karsten, V. M.; Gartvich, G. G.; Semenova, O. I.

    2010-12-15

    The results of experimental studies concerned with deposition of solar-grade silicon from monosilane in the electron-beam plasma are reported. With the laboratory equipment, the silicon deposition rate attains up to 40 g h{sup -1} at the expenditure of energy for the process 78 kW h kg{sup -1} and the efficiency of conversion of monosilane into silicon at about 50%. Analysis of the chemical composition of the resulting material shows that the material fits the requirements imposed on solar-grade silicon. The method suggested in the study holds promise in industrial-scale applications.

  12. Quasi-monoenergetic electron beams production in a sharp density transition

    SciTech Connect

    Fourmaux, S.; Lassonde, P.; Lebrun, G.; Kieffer, J. C.; Ta Phuoc, K.; Corde, S.; Malka, V.; Rousse, A.

    2012-09-10

    Using a laser plasma accelerator, experiments with a 80 TW and 30 fs laser pulse demonstrated quasi-monoenergetic electron spectra with maximum energy over 0.4 GeV. This is achieved using a supersonic He gas jet and a sharp density ramp generated by a high intensity laser crossing pre-pulse focused 3 ns before the main laser pulse. By adjusting this crossing pre-pulse position inside the gas jet, among the laser shots with electron injection, more than 40% can produce quasi-monoenergetic spectra. This could become a relatively straight forward technique to control laser wakefield electron beams parameters.

  13. Regulation of FcεRI signaling by lipid phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Kuhny, Marcel; Zorn, Carolin N; Huber, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are tissue-resident sentinels of hematopoietic origin that play a prominent role in allergic diseases. They express the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI), which when cross-linked by multivalent antigens triggers the release of preformed mediators, generation of arachidonic acid metabolites, and the synthesis of cytokines and chemokines. Stimulation of the FcεRI with increasing antigen concentrations follows a characteristic bell-shaped dose-responses curve. At high antigen concentrations, the so-called supra-optimal conditions, repression of FcεRI-induced responses is facilitated by activation and incorporation of negative signaling regulators. In this context, the SH2-containing inositol-5'-phosphatase, SHIP1, has been demonstrated to be of particular importance. SHIP1 with its catalytic and multiple protein interaction sites provides several layers of control for FcεRI signaling. Regulation of SHIP1 function occurs on various levels, e.g., protein expression, receptor and membrane recruitment, competition for protein-protein interaction sites, and activating modifications enhancing the phosphatase function. Apart from FcεRI-mediated signaling, SHIP1 can be activated by diverse unrelated receptor systems indicating its involvement in the regulation of antigen-dependent cellular responses by autocrine feedback mechanisms or tissue-specific and/or (patho-) physiologically determined factors. Thus, pharmacologic engagement of SHIP1 may represent a beneficial strategy for patients suffering from acute or chronic inflammation or allergies.

  14. Structure of RiVax: a recombinant ricin vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Legler, Patricia M.; Brey, Robert N.; Smallshaw, Joan E.; Vitetta, Ellen S.; Millard, Charles B.

    2011-01-01

    RiVax is a recombinant protein that is currently under clinical development as part of a human vaccine to protect against ricin poisoning. RiVax includes ricin A-chain (RTA) residues 1–267 with two intentional amino-acid substitutions, V76M and Y80A, aimed at reducing toxicity. Here, the crystal structure of RiVax was solved to 2.1 Å resolution and it was shown that it is superposable with that of the ricin toxin A-chain from Ricinus communis with a root-mean-square deviation of 0.6 Å over 258 Cα atoms. The RiVax structure is also compared with the recently determined structure of another potential ricin-vaccine immunogen, RTA 1–33/44–198 R48C/T77C. Finally, the locations and solvent-exposure of two toxin-neutralizing B-cell epitopes were examined and it was found that these epitopes are within or near regions predicted to be involved in catalysis. The results demonstrate the composition of the RiVax clinical material and will guide ongoing protein-engineering strategies to develop improved immunogens. PMID:21904036

  15. Beam polarization asymmetry and the electromagnetic production of kaons from protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Oren V.

    2012-12-01

    The beam polarization asymmetry in the reaction ep→e'K+Λ has been investigated in a tree-level effective Lagrangian model. The model incorporates most of the well-established baryon resonances with spins up to (5)/(2), four less well-established nucleon resonances with larger mass, and the two kaon resonances K(892) and K1(1270). The off-shell structure of the electromagnetic vertices was accounted for by the inclusion of electromagnetic form factors at those vertices. The free parameters of the model were fitted in a previous study to a large pool of photoproduction data from the CLAS, GRAAL, SAPHIR, and LEPS collaborations and to CLAS data for the virtual photoproduction structure functions σU, σT, σL, σTT, and σLT. Using this model, results were obtained for the beam polarization asymmetry structure function σLT' and compared with CLAS data. Two new fits to the combined photoproduction and electroproduction data with the σLT' data included were then generated. The first of these includes contributions from all of the resonances included in the previous study; the second excludes contributions from the N(2080) and N(2200) resonances. The results of both fits for both photoproduction and electroproduction observables are compared with the results of the previous fit and the data.

  16. Calibration of eddy current carburization measurements in ethylene production tubes using ion beam analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, K. J.; Trompetter, W. J.

    2004-02-01

    Nuclear reaction analysis using a 12C(d, p0)13C reaction and a 16O(d, p1)17O reaction, with 1.02 MeV deuterons in an accelerator microprobe, has been used to produce quantitative linescans of the carbon and oxygen levels in ex-service ethylene pyrolysis tubes of HPM, HK40 and Manaurite XM alloy. Particle induced x-ray emission in the ion beam microprobe and energy dispersive analysis of x-rays in a scanning electron microscope were used for linescans of the heavier elements (Cr, Ni, Fe, Si and Ti). The composition linescans were used to calibrate the response and accuracy of an eddy current probe system for measuring carburization near the inner surface of the tubes. The influence of the ferromagnetic outer oxide surface layers has been clarified. A two-dimensional ANSYS finite element model (FEM) was used for interpretation of the eddy current scans. Good correlation was obtained between the ion beam analysis results, the impedance scans and the FEM.

  17. Significance of Heavy-Ion Beam Irradiation-Induced Avermectin B1a Production by Engineered Streptomyces avermitilis

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Yong-Heng; Chen, Ji-Hong; Li, Wen-Jian; Liang, Jian-Ping; Xiao, Guo-Qing; Wang, Yu-Chen; Liu, Jing; Hu, Wei; Jiang, Bo-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Heavy-ion irradiation technology has advantages over traditional methods of mutagenesis. Heavy-ion irradiation improves the mutation rate, broadens the mutation spectrum, and shortens the breeding cycle. However, few data are currently available regarding its effect on Streptomyces avermitilis morphology and productivity. In this study, the influence of heavy-ion irradiation on S. avermitilis when cultivated in approximately 10 L stirred-tank bioreactors was investigated. The specific productivity of the avermectin (AVM) B1a-producing mutant S. avermitilis 147-G58 increased notably, from 3885 to 5446 μg/mL, approximately 1.6-fold, compared to the original strain. The mycelial morphology of the mutant fermentation processes was microscopically examined. Additionally, protein and metabolite identification was performed by using SDS-PAGE, 2- and 3-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE and 3DE). The results showed that negative regulation gene deletion of mutants led to metabolic process upregulating expression of protein and improving the productivity of an avermectin B1a. The results showed that the heavy-ion beam irradiation dose that corresponded to optimal production was well over the standard dose, at approximately 80 Gy at 220 AMeV (depending on the strain). This study provides reliable data and a feasible method for increasing AVM productivity in industrial processes. PMID:28243599

  18. In vivo specificity of EcoRI DNA methyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D W; Crowder, S W; Reich, N O

    1992-01-01

    The EcoRI adenine DNA methyltransferase forms part of a bacterial restriction/modification system; the methyltransferase modifies the second adenine within the canonical site GAATTC, thereby preventing the EcoRI endonuclease from cleaving this site. We show that five noncanonical EcoRI sites (TAATTC, CAATTC, GTATTC, GGATTC and GAGTTC) are not methylated in vivo under conditions when the canonical site is methylated. Only when the methyltransferase is overexpressed is partial in vivo methylation of the five sites detected. Our results suggest that the methyltransferase does not protect host DNA against potential endonuclease-mediated cleavage at noncanonical sites. Our related in vitro analysis of the methyltransferase reveals a low level of sequence-discrimination. We propose that the high in vivo specificity may be due to the active removal of methylated sequences by DNA repair enzymes (J. Bacteriology (1987), 169 3243-3250). Images PMID:1461739

  19. Schedule Optimization Study, Hanford RI/FS Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    A Schedule Optimization Study (SOS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program was conducted by an independent team of professionals from other federal agencies and the private sector experienced in environmental restoration. This team spent two weeks at Hanford in September 1992 examining the reasons for the lengthy RI/FS process at Hanford and developing recommendations to expedite the process. The need for the study arose out of a schedule dispute regarding the submission of the 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit RI/FS Work Plan. This report documents the study called for in the August 29, 1991, Dispute Resolution Committee Decision Statement. Battelle's Environmental Management Operations (EMO) coordinated the effort for DOE's Richland Field Office (RL).

  20. Production of beam of negative hydrogen and deuterium ions from source with electron cyclotron resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Golovanivskii, K.S.; Dzhayamanna, K.; Dugar-Zhabon, V.D.

    1988-09-01

    The GELIOS-H/sup /minus// ion source is described; it has electron cyclotron resonance and is designed for generation of negative hydrogen and deuterium ions. The source consumes up to 100 W of microwave power at a frequency of 2.4 GHz and provides a stationary beam of H/sup /minus// ions of up to 1.5 mA and D/sup /minus// ions of up to 1.0 mA for an exit-aperture diameter of 6.2 mm and an extraction voltage of 4.5 kV. The life of the source is limited only by the life of the microwave generator.

  1. New methods for high current fast ion beam production by laser-driven acceleration.

    PubMed

    Margarone, D; Krasa, J; Prokupek, J; Velyhan, A; Torrisi, L; Picciotto, A; Giuffrida, L; Gammino, S; Cirrone, P; Cutroneo, M; Romano, F; Serra, E; Mangione, A; Rosinski, M; Parys, P; Ryc, L; Limpouch, J; Laska, L; Jungwirth, K; Ullschmied, J; Mocek, T; Korn, G; Rus, B

    2012-02-01

    An overview of the last experimental campaigns on laser-driven ion acceleration performed at the PALS facility in Prague is given. Both the 2 TW, sub-nanosecond iodine laser system and the 20 TW, femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser, recently installed at PALS, are used along our experiments performed in the intensity range 10(16)-10(19) W∕cm(2). The main goal of our studies was to generate high energy, high current ion streams at relatively low laser intensities. The discussed experimental investigations show promising results in terms of maximum ion energy and current density, which make the laser-accelerated ion beams a candidate for new-generation ion sources to be employed in medicine, nuclear physics, matter physics, and industry.

  2. New methods for high current fast ion beam production by laser-driven accelerationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margarone, D.; Krasa, J.; Prokupek, J.; Velyhan, A.; Torrisi, L.; Picciotto, A.; Giuffrida, L.; Gammino, S.; Cirrone, P.; Cutroneo, M.; Romano, F.; Serra, E.; Mangione, A.; Rosinski, M.; Parys, P.; Ryc, L.; Limpouch, J.; Laska, L.; Jungwirth, K.; Ullschmied, J.; Mocek, T.; Korn, G.; Rus, B.

    2012-02-01

    An overview of the last experimental campaigns on laser-driven ion acceleration performed at the PALS facility in Prague is given. Both the 2 TW, sub-nanosecond iodine laser system and the 20 TW, femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser, recently installed at PALS, are used along our experiments performed in the intensity range 1016-1019 W/cm2. The main goal of our studies was to generate high energy, high current ion streams at relatively low laser intensities. The discussed experimental investigations show promising results in terms of maximum ion energy and current density, which make the laser-accelerated ion beams a candidate for new-generation ion sources to be employed in medicine, nuclear physics, matter physics, and industry.

  3. Ion beam production with sub-milligram samples of material from an ECR source for AMS.

    PubMed

    Scott, R; Bauder, W; Palchan-Hazan, T; Pardo, R; Vondrasek, R

    2016-02-01

    Current accelerator mass spectrometry experiments at the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System facility at Argonne National Laboratory push us to improve the ion source performance with a large number of samples and a need to minimize cross contamination. These experiments can require the creation of ion beams from as little as a few micrograms of material. These low concentration samples push the limit of our current efficiency and stability capabilities of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source. A combination of laser ablation and sputtering techniques coupled with a newly modified multi-sample changer has been used to meet this demand. We will discuss performance, stability, and consumption rates as well as planned improvements.

  4. Ion beam production with sub-milligram samples of material from an ECR source for AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, R.; Bauder, W.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R.; Vondrasek, R.

    2016-02-01

    Current accelerator mass spectrometry experiments at the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System facility at Argonne National Laboratory push us to improve the ion source performance with a large number of samples and a need to minimize cross contamination. These experiments can require the creation of ion beams from as little as a few micrograms of material. These low concentration samples push the limit of our current efficiency and stability capabilities of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source. A combination of laser ablation and sputtering techniques coupled with a newly modified multi-sample changer has been used to meet this demand. We will discuss performance, stability, and consumption rates as well as planned improvements.

  5. Production and crosslinking of multi-layer tubes (PE & metal) by E-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyball, Alfred

    2000-03-01

    Irradiation crosslinking of PE-tubes has been used for heating floors for about 25 years. Such tubes are also used today for drinking water supply. A further development has been the coating of such tubes with Ethylene-Vinyl-Alcohol-Copolymers (EVAL), in order to prevent oxygen diffusion into the water through the PE tube. For about 15 years composite tubes made of PE and aluminum have been available. These tubes are crosslinked with electron beams. The energy of the accelerated electrons must be adjusted for the particular tube configuration, so that the inner PE-layer will be crosslinked. This paper will concern itself with the manufacture and the crosslinking of composite tubes.

  6. Ion beam production with sub-milligram samples of material from an ECR source for AMS

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, R. Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R.; Vondrasek, R.; Bauder, W.

    2016-02-15

    Current accelerator mass spectrometry experiments at the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System facility at Argonne National Laboratory push us to improve the ion source performance with a large number of samples and a need to minimize cross contamination. These experiments can require the creation of ion beams from as little as a few micrograms of material. These low concentration samples push the limit of our current efficiency and stability capabilities of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source. A combination of laser ablation and sputtering techniques coupled with a newly modified multi-sample changer has been used to meet this demand. We will discuss performance, stability, and consumption rates as well as planned improvements.

  7. The production of patient dose level 99mTc medical radioisotope using laser-driven proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, R.; Dorkings, S.; Neely, D.; Musgrave, I.

    2013-05-01

    The medical isotope 99mTc (technetium) is used in over 30 million nuclear medical procedures annually, accounting for over 80% of the worldwide medical isotope usage. Its supply is critical to the medical community and a worldwide shortage is expected within the next few decades as current fission reactors used for its generation reach their end of life. The cost of build and operation of replacement reactors is high and as such, alternative production mechanisms are of high interest. Laser-accelerated proton beams have been widely discussed as being able to produce Positron Emission Tomography (PET) isotopes once laser architecture evolved to high repetition rates and energies. Recent experimental results performed on the Vulcan Laser Facility in the production of 99mTc through 100Mo (p,2n) 99mTc demonstrate the ability to produce this critical isotope at the scales required for patient doses using diode pumped laser architecture currently under construction. The production technique, laser and target requirements are discussed alongside a timeline and cost for a prototype production facility.

  8. Production and synchronization of electron beams from RF photoinjector/compressor systems for ultra-fast applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M. C.; Rosenzweig, J. B.

    2001-05-01

    The RF photoinjector, when coupled with a magnetic pulse compression system, is now a ubiquitous tool for production of sub-picosecond electron beam pulses which are to be used in advanced accelerator and light source experiments. As the time-scale for both pulse lengths and synchronization to external systems approaches the femtosecond level, a clear understanding of the longitudinal dynamics of the electron injector is required. This paper presents an analysis of the longitudinal beam dynamics of electron bunches in the photoinjector/compressor system from birth at the photocathode, through their initial violent acceleration in the RF gun, and subsequent phase space manipulation in the post-acceleration linac and magnetic chicane. The phenomena of phase focusing due to RF forces, and defocusing due to longitudinal space-charge, are discussed, as is the process of magnetic pulse compression. The issues relevant to synchronization of electron pulses with external lasers are examined, using the examples of beat-wave acceleration and Compton light sources, and solutions involving appropriate compressor configurations are proposed. Diagnosis of the relevant physical effects in such schemes is discussed.

  9. Evaluation of potential induced radioactivity in medical products as a function of electron energy in electron beam sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial sterilization of medical devices may be performed using electron beam irradiators at various electron energies. The potential for activating components of the devices has been discussed, with current standards stating that electron energy greater than 10 MeV requires assessment of potential induced radioactivity. This paper evaluates the potential for induced activity in medical products sterilized in electron beam as a function of the electron maximum energy. Monte Carlo simulation of a surrogate medical device was used to calculate photon and neutron fields resulting from electron irradiation, which were used to calculate concentrations for several radionuclides. The experiments confirmed that 10 MeV is a conservative assumption for limiting induced radioactivity. However, under the conditions as evaluated, which is a limited total quantity of metal in the material being irradiated and absent a limited number of elements; the amount of induced activity at 12 MeV could also be considered insignificant. The comparison of the sum-of-fractions to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission exempt concentration limits is less than unity for all energies below 12.1 MeV, which suggests that there is minimal probability of significant induced activity at energies above the 10 MeV upper energy limit.

  10. Electrical-thermal-structural finite element simulation and experimental study of a plasma ion source for the production of radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Manzolaro, M.; Andrighetto, A.; Meneghetti, G.; Vivian, G.

    2016-03-15

    The production target and the ion source constitute the core of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility. In this complex experimental apparatus for the production of radioactive ion beams, a 40 MeV, 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 10{sup 13} fissions per second. The transfer line enables the unstable isotopes generated by the {sup 238}U fissions in the target to reach the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work, the plasma ion source currently adopted for the SPES facility is analyzed in detail by means of electrical, thermal, and structural numerical models. Next, theoretical results are compared with the electric potential difference, temperature, and displacement measurements. Experimental tests with stable ion beams are also presented and discussed.

  11. Electrical-thermal-structural finite element simulation and experimental study of a plasma ion source for the production of radioactive ion beams.

    PubMed

    Manzolaro, M; Meneghetti, G; Andrighetto, A; Vivian, G

    2016-03-01

    The production target and the ion source constitute the core of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility. In this complex experimental apparatus for the production of radioactive ion beams, a 40 MeV, 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 10(13) fissions per second. The transfer line enables the unstable isotopes generated by the (238)U fissions in the target to reach the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work, the plasma ion source currently adopted for the SPES facility is analyzed in detail by means of electrical, thermal, and structural numerical models. Next, theoretical results are compared with the electric potential difference, temperature, and displacement measurements. Experimental tests with stable ion beams are also presented and discussed.

  12. A new fission-fragment detector to complement the CACTUS-SiRi setup at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornyi, T. G.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Siem, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Csige, L.

    2014-02-01

    An array of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) for the detection of heavy ions has been developed. The new device, NIFF (Nuclear Instrument for Fission Fragments), consists of four individual detectors and covers 60% of 2π. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the SiRi array of ΔE-E silicon telescopes for light charged particles and fits into the CACTUS array of 28 large-volume NaI scintillation detectors at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-pressure gas-filled PPACs are sensitive for the detection of fission fragments, but are insensitive to scattered beam particles of light ions or light-ion ejectiles. The PPAC detectors of NIFF have good time resolution and can be used either to select or to veto fission events in in-beam experiments with light-ion beams and actinide targets. The powerful combination of SiRi, CACTUS, and NIFF provides new research opportunities for the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions in the actinide region. The new setup is particularly well suited to study the competition of fission and γ decay as a function of excitation energy.

  13. Laser sustained discharge nozzle apparatus for the production of an intense beam of high kinetic energy atomic species

    DOEpatents

    Cross, J.B.; Cremers, D.A.

    1986-01-10

    Laser sustained discharge apparatus for the production of intense beams of high kinetic energy atomic species is described. A portion of the plasma resulting from a laser sustained continuous optical discharge which generates energetic atomic species from a gaseous source thereof is expanded through a nozzle into a region of low pressure. The expanded plasma contains a significant concentration of the high kinetic energy atomic species which may be used to investigate the interaction of surfaces therewith. In particular, O-atoms having velocities in excess of 3.5 km/s can be generated for the purpose of studying their interaction with materials in order to develop protective materials for spacecraft which are exposed to such energetic O-atoms during operation in low earth orbit.

  14. Laser sustained discharge nozzle apparatus for the production of an intense beam of high kinetic energy atomic species

    DOEpatents

    Cross, Jon B.; Cremers, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Laser sustained discharge apparatus for the production of intense beams of high kinetic energy atomic species. A portion of the plasma resulting from a laser sustained continuous optical discharge which generates energetic atomic species from a gaseous source thereof is expanded through a nozzle into a region of low pressure. The expanded plasma contains a significant concentration of the high kinetic energy atomic species which may be used to investigate the interaction of surfaces therewith. In particular, O-atoms having velocities in excess of 3.5 km/s can be generated for the purpose of studying their interaction with materials in order to develop protective materials for spacecraft which are exposed to such energetic O-atoms during operation in low earth orbit.

  15. Improvement of Vitamin K2 Production by Escherichia sp. with Nitrogen Ion Beam Implantation Induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Li; Zheng, Zhiming; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Genhai; Liu, Hui; Gong, Guohong; Wu, Hefang; Liu, Hongxia; Tan, Mu; Li, Zhemin

    2015-02-01

    Low-energy ion implantation as a novel mutagen has been increasingly applied in the microbial mutagenesis for its higher mutation frequency and wider mutation spectra. In this work, N+ ion beam implantation was used to enhance Escherichia sp. in vitamin K2 yield. Optimization of process parameters under submerged fermentation was carried out to improve the vitamin K2 yield of mutant FM5-632. The results indicate that an excellent mutant FM5-632 with a yield of 123.2±1.6 μg/L, that is four times that of the original strain, was achieved by eight successive implantations under the conditions of 15 keV and 60×2.6×1013 ions/cm2. A further optimization increased the yield of the mutant by 39.7%, i.e. 172.1±1.2 μg/L which occurred in the mutant cultivated in the optimal fermentation culture medium composed of (per liter): 15.31 g glycerol, 10 g peptone, 2.89 g yeast extract, 5 g K2HPO4, 1 g NaCl, 0.5 g MgSO4·7H2O and 0.04 g cedar wood oil, incubated at 33 °C, pH 7.0 and 180 rpm for 120 h.

  16. Radioisotope Productions for Medical Use with Accelerator Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minato, Futoshi; Nagai, Yasuki; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Iwamoto, Osamu

    2014-09-01

    Various kinds of radioactive isotopes (RIs) are widely used in nuclear medicine for diagnostics and therapy. Since the RIs are not usually present in the nature, they must be produced by nuclear reactors and accelerators. For instance, 99mTc, which is the most common RI used in diagnosis, is mainly produced by fission of highly enriched 235U (HEU) in nuclear reactors. However, use of the HEU is unfavorable in terms of nuclear security. Therefore, many methods without 235U have been studied in order to produce RIs for medical use; for example, thermal neutron capture, gamma disintegration, and proton induced reactions. We also have proposed an alternative method using accelerator neutrons besides the above methods. Technique producing high intense accelerator neutron beam as much as 1015 n/s is being developed and RI productions with the accelerator neutron have been done recently. The major advantages of the use of accelerator neutron are followings. 1) A wide variety of carrier-added and carrier-free radioisotopes can be produced using the neutrons, because a charge exchange reaction of a sample nucleus has a sizable cross section of 50 to 500 mb. 2) High transparency of neutron allows us to use a large amount of sample to co-produce other RIs by putting other samples behind the main sample in the beam direction. In this talk, we will show the features of RI productions with accelerator neutron which we have ever investigated and found, along with numerical results of RI yields calculated with Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL-4.0).

  17. AKAP7gamma is a nuclear RI-binding AKAP.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebecca L; August, Shelley L; Williams, Carmen J; Moss, Stuart B

    2003-06-27

    Spatial regulation of protein kinase A (PKA) is accomplished by its sequestration via A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs). PKA activity is critical for mammalian oocyte development, suggesting that PKA must be appropriately positioned in these large cells. A screen for AKAPs in oocytes identified AKAP7gamma, an AKAP originally found in pancreas. Yeast two-hybrid analysis and co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that AKAP7gamma bound the type I PKA regulatory subunit (RI) and that the RI-binding domain overlapped the previously identified type II PKA regulatory subunit (RII) binding domain. Overexpressed AKAP7gamma localized to the nuclei of HEK 293 cells via a nuclear localization signal. In addition, endogenous AKAP7gamma protein was found in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of oocytes. This work identifies AKAP7gamma as the first nuclear AKAP to bind RI and suggests that AKAP7gamma may be responsible for positioning PKA via RI and/or RII to regulate PKA-mediated gene transcription in both somatic cells and oocytes.

  18. 78 FR 21492 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00012 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4107-DR), dated 03/22/2013. Incident: Severe winter storm and snowstorm...

  19. 75 FR 18554 - Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00006

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00006 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... of Rhode Island (FEMA-1894-DR), dated 03/ 29/2010. Incident: Severe storms and flooding. Incident... INFORMATION: The notice of the Presidential disaster declaration for the State of Rhode Island, dated 03/29...

  20. 78 FR 4967 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00010 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Island (FEMA-4089-DR), dated 11/ 14/2012. Incident: Hurricane Sandy. Incident Period: 10/26/2012 through... the President's major disaster declaration for the State of Rhode Island, dated 11/14/2012 is hereby...

  1. 75 FR 22872 - Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00006

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00006 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... of Rhode Island (FEMA-1894-DR), dated 03/ 29/2010. Incident: Severe storms and flooding. Incident... of Rhode Island, dated 03/29/2010 is hereby amended to establish the incident period for this...

  2. 76 FR 61131 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00008

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00008 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Rhode Island dated 09... Island: Bristol, Kent. Connecticut: Windham. Massachusetts: Bristol, Norfolk, Worcester. The Interest...

  3. 77 FR 67857 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00011 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4089-DR), dated 11/03/2012. Incident: Hurricane Sandy. Incident Period: 10...

  4. 75 FR 17178 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00006

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00006 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island.... Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): Rhode Island: Bristol. Connecticut: New London, Windham...

  5. 77 FR 69915 - Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00011 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... Assistance Only for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4089-DR), dated 11/03/2012. Incident: Hurricane Sandy... Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of RHODE ISLAND, dated 11/03/2012, is hereby amended to...

  6. 75 FR 22873 - Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00007

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00007 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... Assistance Only for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-1894-DR), dated 04/08/2010. Incident: Severe storms and... Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Rhode Island, dated 04/08/2010, is hereby amended to...

  7. 77 FR 70203 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00010 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island...): Rhode Island: Kent. Connecticut: New London. Massachusetts: Bristol. The Interest Rates are: Percent For...

  8. Evaluation of the Hanford RI/FS cost projections

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The US Department of Energy-Richland Operations (DOE-RL) tasked the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) to review the cost estimates and implementation process for the Hanford Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program as defined by the Hanford RCRA/CERCLA Past Particles Cost Model. The purpose of the review was to determine if there were opportunities to reduce the RI/FS costs at Hanford, with a focus on the approach being taken at Hanford to implement and complete the RI/FS process. Three specific tasks comprised the review. The first focused on the cost model assumptions to assess whether the assumptions and resulting estimates were representative of the cost of performing work at Hanford. The second involved a detailed review of the regulatory and other driving forces that define the scope and approach to be taken at Hanford. The purpose of the review was to develop recommendations on changes what would help streamline the past practices process and reduce the cost and schedule. The third (Task 1C) provided a review of the scope and approach planned for two operable units (OUs), 100-HR-1 and 100-HR-3, as contained in their detailed draft RI/FS work plans. These work plans were reviewed for appropriate application of and conformance to the regulations and other requirements examined in the first two tasks. 4 refs.

  9. Review on the production process and uses of controlled rheology polypropylene—Gamma radiation versus electron beam processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugão, A. B.; Otaguro, H.; Parra, D. F.; Yoshiga, A.; Lima, L. F. C. P.; Artel, B. W. H.; Liberman, S.

    2007-11-01

    Controlled rheology polypropylene grades are established commodities in the polymer processing market. However, new types, mainly the so-called high melt strength polypropylene (HMSPP) grades, are being introduced in the last two decades and radiation processing has played an important role. The melt strength properties of a polymer increases with molecular weight and with long-chain branching due to the increase in the entanglement level. As polypropylene (PP) is a linear polymer, the way to improve its elongational viscosity is by the production of a bi-modal polymer. Basell's patents claim the production of long-chain branching on PP by irradiating with electrons under oxygen free atmosphere, followed by two heating steps to allow radical recombination and annihilation reaction. Some other companies have issued patents using electron beam processing, but so far there is no actual production other than the Basell one. As a result of a research joint effort, IPEN, BRASKEM (the biggest Brazilian polymer producer) and EMBRARAD (the major Brazilian radiation processing center) developed a new process to produce HMSPP based on gamma processing. This paper will address some characteristics of each technology and the main industrial opportunities.

  10. Production of TeV-class photons via Compton back-scattering on proton beams of a keV high brilliance FEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafini, L.; Broggi, F.; Curatolo, C.

    2017-07-01

    Present availability of high brilliance photon beams as those produced by X-ray Free Electron Lasers in combination with intense TeV proton beams like those available at SPS, LHC or in the future at FCC, makes possible to conceive the production of TeV-class photons by Compton back-scattering of keV photons carried by the FEL radiation pulse. We present here the study of spectra and fluxes of the TeV-class photons, which are collimated in the typical 1/ γ forward angle with respect to the propagation of the proton beam (γ is the proton beam relativistic factor). Using a room-temperature Linac based X-ray FEL delivering radiation pulses at 100 Hz up to 6 keV photon energy (implying a Linac electron beam energy in the 5-8 GeV range), fluxes of tens photons/s are achievable. It is also shown that a proper control of proton beam emittance and focusing at the interaction point is crucial to assure a reasonable energy spread of the photons emitted within an angle smaller than 1/ γ . Moreover, due to the reasonably small proton recoil, the back-scattering is actually in the Thomson regime, therefore the back-scattered photons retain the same polarization of the incident FEL beam (that is typically linear, but can be made circular too) even using unpolarized protons. The life-time of the proton beam circulating in the main ring is not affected at all by the interaction with the FEL beam due to the small number of Compton back-scattering events generated (maximum of 1 per bunch collision).

  11. Quorum sensing in Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas salmonicida: identification of the LuxRI homologs AhyRI and AsaRI and their cognate N-acylhomoserine lactone signal molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Swift, S; Karlyshev, A V; Fish, L; Durant, E L; Winson, M K; Chhabra, S R; Williams, P; Macintyre, S; Stewart, G S

    1997-01-01

    Spent culture supernatants from both Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas salmonicida activate a range of biosensors responsive to N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). The genes for a quorum sensing signal generator and a response regulator were cloned from each Aeromonas species and termed ahyRI and asaRI, respectively. Protein sequence homology analysis places the gene products within the growing family of LuxRI homologs. ahyR and asaR are transcribed divergently from ahyI and asaI, respectively, and in both Aeromonas species, the genes downstream have been identified by DNA sequence and PCR analysis. Downstream of both ahyI and asaI is a gene with close homology to iciA, an inhibitor of chromosome replication in Escherichia coli, a finding which implies that in Aeromonas, cell division may be linked to quorum sensing. The major signal molecule synthesized via both AhyI and AsaI was purified from spent culture supernatants and identified as N-(butanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (BHL) by thin-layer chromatography, high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis, and mass spectrometry. In addition, a second, minor AHL, N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, was identified. Transcriptional reporter studies with ahyI::luxCDABE fusions indicate that AhyR and BHL are both required for ahyI transcription. For A. salmonicida, although the addition of exogenous BHL gives only a small stimulation of the production of serine protease with comparison to the control culture, the incorporation of a longer-chain AHL, N-(3-oxodecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, reduced the final level (by approximately 50%) and delayed the appearance (from an A650 of 0.9 in the control to an A650 of 1.2 in the test) of protease in the culture supernatant. These data add A. hydrophila and A. salmonicida to the growing family of gram-negative bacteria now known to control gene expression through quorum sensing. PMID:9286976

  12. Neutrino trident production: a powerful probe of new physics with neutrino beams.

    PubMed

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Gori, Stefania; Pospelov, Maxim; Yavin, Itay

    2014-08-29

    The production of a μ+ μ- pair from the scattering of a muon neutrino off the Coulomb field of a nucleus, known as neutrino trident production, is a subweak process that has been observed in only a couple of experiments. As such, we show that it constitutes an exquisitely sensitive probe in the search for new neutral currents among leptons, putting the strongest constraints on well-motivated and well-hidden extensions of the standard model gauge group, including the one coupled to the difference of the lepton number between the muon and tau flavor, Lμ-Lτ. The new gauge boson Z', increases the rate of neutrino trident production by inducing additional (μγαμ)(νγ(α)ν) interactions, which interfere constructively with the standard model contribution. Existing experimental results put significant restrictions on the parameter space of any model coupled to muon number Lμ, and disfavor a putative resolution to the muon g-2 discrepancy via the loop of Z' for any mass mZ'≳400  MeV. The reach to the models' parameter space can be widened with future searches of the trident production at high-intensity neutrino facilities such as the LBNE.

  13. Structure of RiVax: a recombinant ricin vaccine

    SciTech Connect

    Legler, Patricia M.; Brey, Robert N.; Smallshaw, Joan E.; Vitetta, Ellen S.; Millard, Charles B.

    2011-09-01

    The X-ray crystal structure (at 2.1 Å resolution) of an immunogen under development as part of a ricin vaccine for humans is presented and structure-based analysis of the results was conducted with respect to related proteins and the known determinants for inducing or suppressing the protective immune response. RiVax is a recombinant protein that is currently under clinical development as part of a human vaccine to protect against ricin poisoning. RiVax includes ricin A-chain (RTA) residues 1–267 with two intentional amino-acid substitutions, V76M and Y80A, aimed at reducing toxicity. Here, the crystal structure of RiVax was solved to 2.1 Å resolution and it was shown that it is superposable with that of the ricin toxin A-chain from Ricinus communis with a root-mean-square deviation of 0.6 Å over 258 C{sup α} atoms. The RiVax structure is also compared with the recently determined structure of another potential ricin-vaccine immunogen, RTA 1–33/44–198 R48C/T77C. Finally, the locations and solvent-exposure of two toxin-neutralizing B-cell epitopes were examined and it was found that these epitopes are within or near regions predicted to be involved in catalysis. The results demonstrate the composition of the RiVax clinical material and will guide ongoing protein-engineering strategies to develop improved immunogens.

  14. Micromachining using a focused MeV proton beam for the production of high-precision 3D microstructures with vertical sidewalls of high orthogonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Kan, Jeroen A.; Bettiol, Andrew A.; Ansari, K.; Watt, Frank

    2001-08-01

    The production of high aspect ratio microstructures requires a lithographic technique capable of producing microstructures with vertical sidewalls. There are few techniques (eg proton beam micromachining, LIGA and Stereolithoghaphy) capable of producing high aspect ratio microstructures at sub-micron dimensions. In Proton Beam Micromachining (PBM), a high energy (eg 2 MeV) proton beam is focused to a sub-micron spot size and scanned over a resist material (eg SU-8 and PMMA). When a proton beam interacts with matter it follows an almost straight path, the depth of which is dependent on the proton beam energy. These features enable the production of multilevel microstructures with vertical sidewalls of high orthogonality. Proton beam micromachining is a fast direct write lithographic technique; in a few seconds a complicated pattern in an area of 400 x 400 micrometers 2 can be exposed down to a depth of 150 micrometers . These features make proton beam micromachining a technique of high potential for the production of high-aspect-ratio-structures at a much lower total cost than the LIGA process, which requires a synchrotron radiation source and precision masks. Research is currently under way to improve the process that employs the SU-8 negative photo-resist as a mold to electroplate Ni. Experiments have shown that post-bake and curing steps are not required in this SU-8 process, reducing the effects of cracking and internal stress in the resist. Plated Ni structures can be easily produced which are high quality negative copies of the SU-8 produced microstructures.

  15. Beam-Beam Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sramek, Christopher

    2003-09-05

    At the interaction point of a particle accelerator, various phenomena occur which are known as beam-beam effects. Incident bunches of electrons (or positrons) experience strong electromagnetic fields from the opposing bunches, which leads to electron deflection, beamstrahlung and the creation of electron/positron pairs and hadrons due to two-photon exchange. In addition, the beams experience a ''pinch effect'' which focuses each beam and results in either a reduction or expansion of their vertical size. Finally, if a beam's disruption parameter is too large, the beam can develop a sinusoidal distortion, or two-stream (kink) instability. This project simulated and studied these effects as they relate to luminosity, deflection angles and energy loss in order to optimize beam parameters for the Next Linear Collider (NLC). Using the simulation program Guinea-Pig, luminosity, deflection angle and beam energy data was acquired for different levels of beam offset and distortion. Standard deflection curves and luminosity plots agreed with theoretical models but also made clear the difficulties of e-e- feedback. Simulations emphasizing kink instability in modulated and straight beam collisions followed qualitative behavioral predictions and roughly fit recent analytic calculations. Finally, a study of e-e- collisions under design constraints for the NLC provided new estimates of how luminosity, beamstrahlung energy loss, upsilon parameter and deflection curve width scale with beam spotsizes.

  16. The GPU-enabled divide-expand-consolidate RI-MP2 method (DEC-RI-MP2).

    PubMed

    Bykov, Dmytro; Kjaergaard, Thomas

    2017-02-05

    We report porting of the Divide-Expand-Consolidate Resolution of the Identity second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation (DEC-RI-MP2) method to the graphic processing units (GPUs) using OpenACC compiler directives. It is shown that the OpenACC compiler directives implementation efficiently accelerates the rate-determining step of the DEC-RI-MP2 method with minor implementation effort. Moreover, the GPU acceleration results in a better load balance and thus in an overall scaling improvement of the DEC algorithm. The resulting cross-platform hybrid MPI/OpenMP/OpenACC implementation has scalable and portable performance on heterogeneous HPC architectures. The GPU-enabled code was benchmarked using a reduced version of the S12L test set of Stefan Grimme (Grimme, Chem. Eur. J. 2012, 18, 9955) consisting of supramolecular complexes up to 158 atoms and 4292 contracted basis functions (cc-pVTZ). The test set results demonstrate the general applicability of the DEC-RI-MP2 method showing results consistent with the DEC-RI-MP2 introductory paper (Baudin et al., J. Chem. Phys. 2016, 144, 054102) on molecules of complicated electronic structures. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. BEAM-BEAM 2003 SUMMARY.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.SEN,T.

    2003-05-19

    This paper summarizes the presentations and discussions of the Beam-Beam'03 workshop, held in Montauk, Long Island, from May 19 to 23, 2003. Presentations and discussions focused on halo generation from beam-beam interactions; beam-beam limits, especially coherent limits and their effects on existing and future hadron colliders; beam-beam compensation techniques, particularly for long-range interactions; and beam-beam study tools in theory, simulation, and experiment.

  18. Production of radioactivity in local soil at AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron) fast neutrino beam

    SciTech Connect

    Gollon, P.J.; Rohrig, N.; Hauptmann, M.G.; McIntyre, K.; Miltenberger, R.; Naidu, J.

    1989-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has constructed a new neutrino production target station at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). A study has been conducted in the vicinity of the old target area to determine the radiological consequences of operating this experimental facility. Results from all areas of the study are presented along with estimates of the potential environmental impact of the old and new facilities. 12 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Asia Rice Crop Estimation and Monitoring (Asia-RiCE) for GEOGLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyoshi, K.; Tomiyama, N.; Okumura, T.; Sobue, S.

    2013-12-01

    Food security is a critical issue for the international community because of rapid population and economic growth, and climate change. In June 2011, the meeting of G20 agriculture ministers was held to discuss food security and food price volatility, and they agreed on an 'Action Plan on Food Price Volatility and Agriculture'. This plan includes a GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative. The aim of GEOGLAM is to reinforce the international community's ability to produce and disseminate relevant, timely, and accurate forecasts of agricultural production on regional, national, and global scales by utilizing remote sensing technology. GEOGLAM focused on four major grain crops, wheat, maize, soybeans and rice. In particular, Asian countries are responsible for approximately 90% of the world rice production and consumption, rice is the most significant cereal crop in Asian region. Hence, Asian space and agricultural agencies with an interest in the development of rice crop monitoring technology launched an Asia-Rice Crop Estimation & Monitoring (Asia-RiCE) component for the GEOGLAM initiative. In Asian region, rice is mainly cultivated in rainy season, and a large amount of cloud limits rice crop monitoring with optical sensors. But, Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) is all-weather sensor and can observe land surface even if the area is covered by cloud. Therefore, SAR technology would be powerful tool to monitor rice crop in Asian region. Asia-RiCE team required mainly SAR observation data including ALOS-2, RISAT-1, Sentinel-1 and RADARSAT, TerraSAR-X, COSMO-SkyMed for Asia-RiCE GEOGLAM Phase 1 implementation (2013-2015) to the Committee on Earth Observations (CEOS) in the GEOGLAM-CEOS Global Agricultural Monitoring Co-community Meeting held in June 2013. And also, rice crop has complicated cropping systems such as rein-fed or irrigated cultivation, single, double or sometimes triple cropping. In addition, each agricultural field is smaller than that of

  20. Thermal and electrostatic simulations of the diagnostic calorimeter for the Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma beam

    SciTech Connect

    Serianni, G.; Dalla Palma, M.; Fasolo, D.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pomaro, N.; Rizzolo, A.; Tollin, M.; De Muri, M.

    2012-02-15

    To study and optimise negative ion production for the ITER neutral beam injectors, a test facility is under construction in Padova with the aim of testing beam characteristics and to verify the source proper operation. The instrumented calorimeter STRIKE (short-time retractable instrumented kalorimeter experiment) is being developed to characterise the SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) beam during short operations. The paper presents an investigation of the response of STRIKE measurement systems. It results that biasing is necessary to cope with the influence of secondary electrons on current measurements; moreover, despite the discretisation of the recorded thermal patterns introduced by the pixels of thermal cameras, a sufficient spatial resolution is expected.

  1. A Study of Charged Current Single Charged Pion Productions on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraide, Katsuki

    2009-01-01

    Understanding single charged pion production via neutrino-nucleus charged current interaction in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV is essential for future neutrino oscillation experiments since this process is a dominant background for vμ → vx oscillation measurements. There are two contributions to this process: single pion production via baryonic resonance (vμN → μ-+) and coherent pion production interacting with the entire nucleus (vμA → μ-+), where N is nucleon in the nucleus and A is the nucleus. The purpose of the study presented in this thesis is a precise measurement of charged current single charged pion productions, resonant and coherent pion productions, with a good final state separation in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV. In this thesis, we focus on the study of charged current coherent pion production from muon neutrinos scattering on carbon, vμ 12C → μ-12+, in the SciBooNE experiment. This is motivated by the fact that without measuring this component first, the precise determination of resonant pion production cross section can not be achieved since the contribution of coherent pion production in the region of small muon scattering angle is not small. Furthermore, the coherent process is particularly interesting because it is deeply rooted in fundamental physics via Adler's partially conserved axial-vector current theorem. We took data from June 2007 until August 2008, in both the neutrino and antineutrino beam. In total, 2.52 x 1020 protons on target were collected. We have performed a search for charged current coherent pion production by using SciBooNE's full neutrino data set, corresponding to 0.99 x 1020 protons on target. No evidence for coherent pion production is observed. We set 90% confidence level upper limits on the cross section ratio of charged

  2. Adjustable mounting device for high-volume production of beam-shaping systems for high-power diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haag, Sebastian; Bernhardt, Henning; Rübenach, Olaf; Haverkamp, Tobias; Müller, Tobias; Zontar, Daniel; Brecher, Christian

    2015-02-01

    In many applications for high-power diode lasers, the production of beam-shaping and homogenizing optical systems experience rising volumes and dynamical market demands. The automation of assembly processes on flexible and reconfigurable machines can contribute to a more responsive and scalable production. The paper presents a flexible mounting device designed for the challenging assembly of side-tab based optical systems. It provides design elements for precisely referencing and fixating two optical elements in a well-defined geometric relation. Side tabs are presented to the machine allowing the application of glue and a rotating mechanism allows the attachment to the optical elements. The device can be adjusted to fit different form factors and it can be used in high-volume assembly machines. The paper shows the utilization of the device for a collimation module consisting of a fast-axis and a slow-axis collimation lens. Results regarding the repeatability and process capability of bonding side tab assemblies as well as estimates from 3D simulation for overall performance indicators achieved such as cycle time and throughput will be discussed.

  3. Development of an all-permanent-magnet microwave ion source equipped with multicusp magnetic fields for high current proton beam production.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Hara, S; Seki, T; Iga, T

    2008-02-01

    An all-permanent-magnet (APM) microwave hydrogen ion source was developed to reduce the size and to simplify structure of a conventional solenoid coil microwave ion source developed for reliability improvement of high current proton linac application systems. The difficulty in developing the APM source was sensitive dependence of the source performance on axial magnetic field in the microwave discharge chamber. It was difficult to produce high current proton beam stably without precise tuning of the magnetic field using solenoid coils. We lowered the sensitivity using multicusp magnetic fields for plasma confinement at the discharge chamber sidewall of the source. This enabled stable high current proton beam production with the APM microwave ion source with no tuning coil. The water cooling and the power supply for the coils are not necessary for the APM source, which leads to better reliability and system simplification. The outer diameter of the APM source was around 300 mm, which was 20% lower than the coil source. The APM source produced a maximum hydrogen ion beam current of 65 mA (high current density of 330 mA/cm(2), proton ratio of 87%, and beam energy of 30 keV) with a 5 mm diameter extraction aperture, pulse width of 400 micros, and 20 Hz repetition rate at 1.3 kW microwave power. This performance is almost the same as the best performances of the conventional coil sources. The extracted ion beams were focused with electrostatic five-grid lens to match beam to acceptance of radio-frequency quadrupole linacs. The maximum focused beam current through the orifice (5 mm radius) and the lens was 36 mA and the 90% focused beam half-width was 1-2 mm.

  4. Production of cold beams of ND{sub 3} with variable rotational state distributions by electrostatic extraction of He and Ne buffer-gas-cooled beams

    SciTech Connect

    Twyman, Kathryn S.; Bell, Martin T.; Heazlewood, Brianna R.; Softley, Timothy P.

    2014-07-14

    The measurement of the rotational state distribution of a velocity-selected, buffer-gas-cooled beam of ND{sub 3} is described. In an apparatus recently constructed to study cold ion-molecule collisions, the ND{sub 3} beam is extracted from a cryogenically cooled buffer-gas cell using a 2.15 m long electrostatic quadrupole guide with three 90° bends. (2+1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization spectra of molecules exiting the guide show that beams of ND{sub 3} can be produced with rotational state populations corresponding to approximately T{sub rot} = 9–18 K, achieved through manipulation of the temperature of the buffer-gas cell (operated at 6 K or 17 K), the identity of the buffer gas (He or Ne), or the relative densities of the buffer gas and ND{sub 3}. The translational temperature of the guided ND{sub 3} is found to be similar in a 6 K helium and 17 K neon buffer-gas cell (peak kinetic energies of 6.92(0.13) K and 5.90(0.01) K, respectively). The characterization of this cold-molecule source provides an opportunity for the first experimental investigations into the rotational dependence of reaction cross sections in low temperature collisions.

  5. Assessing the Combinatorial Potential of the RiPP Cyanobactin tru Pathway

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomally produced natural products, the RiPPs, exhibit features that are potentially useful in the creation of large chemical libraries using simple mutagenesis. RiPPs are encoded on ribosomal precursor peptides, but they are extensively posttranslationally modified, endowing them with properties that are useful in drug discovery and biotechnology. In order to determine which mutations are acceptable, strategies are required to determine sequence selectivity independently of the context of flanking amino acids. Here, we examined the absolute sequence selectivity of the trunkamide cyanobactin pathway, tru. A series of random double and quadruple simultaneous mutants were synthesized and produced in Escherichia coli. Out of a total of 763 mutated amino acids examined in 325 unique sequences, 323 amino acids were successfully incorporated in 159 sequences, leading to >300 new compounds. Rules for tru sequence selectivity were determined, which will be useful for the design and synthesis of combinatorial biosynthetic libraries. The results are also interpreted in comparison to the known natural products of tru and pat cyanobactin pathways. PMID:25140729

  6. Measurement of Neutral Current Neutral Pion Production on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Kurimoto, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the π0 production via neutrino-nucleus neutral current interaction in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV is essential for the neutrino oscillation experiments. In this thesis, we present a study of neutral current π0 production from muon neutrinos scattering on a polystyrene (C8H8) target in the SciBooNE experiment. All neutrino beam data corresponding to 0.99 × 1020 protons on target have been analyzed. We have measured the cross section ratio of the neutral current π0 production to the total charge current interaction and the π0 kinematic distribution such as momentum and direction. We obtain [7.7 ± 0.5(stat.) ± 0.5(sys.)] × 10-2 as the ratio of the neutral current neutral pion production to total charged current cross section; the mean energy of neutrinos producing detected neutral pions is 1.1 GeV. The result agrees with the Rein- Sehgal model, which is generally used for the Monte Carlo simulation by many neutrino oscillation experiments. We achieve less than 10 % uncertainty which is required for the next generation search for νµ → νe oscillation. The spectrum shape of the π0 momentum and the distribution of the π0 emitted angle agree with the prediction, which means that not only the Rein-Sehgal model but also the intra-nuclear interaction models describe our data well. We also measure the ratio of the neutral current coherent pion production to total charged current cross section to be (1.17 ± 0.23 ) × 10-2 based on the Rein and Sehgal model. The result gives the evidence for non-zero coherent pion production via neutral current interaction at the mean neutrino energy of 1.0 GeV.

  7. Genetic transformation of Begonia tuberhybrida by Ri rol genes.

    PubMed

    Kiyokawa, S; Kikuchi, Y; Kamada, H; Harada, H

    1996-04-01

    We have developed an Agrobacterium -mediated transformation system for commercial Begonia species. The leaf explants of Begonia semperflorens, Begonia x hiemalis and B. tuberhybrida were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 harboring a binary vector pBI121 which contains rolA, B and C genes of an agropine type Ri plasmid (pRiA4b). Kanamycin resistant shoots of B. tuberhybrida were obtained on MS agar medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l NAA, 0.5 mg/l BA, 500 mg/l claforan and 100 mg/l kanamycin. These shoots exhibited GUS activity and Southern analysis showed a single copy insertion into the genome. When the transgenic plants were transferred to soil, they displayed the phenotype specific to the transgenic plants by A. rhizogenes such as dwarfness, delay of flowering, and wrinkled leaves and petals.

  8. The Tla protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50: a homolog of the RI protease precursor (PrpRI) is an outer membrane receptor required for growth on low levels of hemin.

    PubMed

    Aduse-Opoku, J; Slaney, J M; Rangarajan, M; Muir, J; Young, K A; Curtis, M A

    1997-08-01

    The prpR1 gene of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 encodes the polyprotein precursor (PrpRI) of an extracellular arginine-specific protease. PrpRI is organized into four distinct domains (pro, alpha, beta, and gamma) and is processed to a heterodimeric protease (RI) which comprises the alpha and beta components in a noncovalent association. The alpha component contains the protease active site, whereas the beta component appears to have a role in adherence and hemagglutination processes. DNA sequences homologous to the coding region for the RI beta component are present at multiple loci on the P. gingivalis chromosome and may represent a family of related genes. In this report, we describe the cloning, sequence analysis, and characterization of one of these homologous loci isolated in plasmid pJM7. The 6,041-bp P. gingivalis DNA fragment in pJM7 contains a major open reading frame of 3,291 bp with coding potential for a protein with an Mr 118,700. An internal region of the deduced sequence (V304 to N768) shows 98% identity to the beta domain of PrpRI, and the recombinant product of pJM7 is immunoreactive with an antibody specific to the RI beta component. The N terminus of the deduced sequence has regional similarity to TonB-linked receptors which are frequently involved in periplasmic translocation of hemin, iron, colicins, or vitamin B12 in other bacteria. We have therefore designated this gene tla (TonB-linked adhesin). In contrast to the parent strain, an isogenic mutant of P. gingivalis W50 in which the tla was insertionally inactivated was unable to grow in medium containing low concentrations of hemin (<2.5 mg liter(-1)), and hemin-depleted cells of this mutant failed to respond to hemin in an agar diffusion plate assay. These data suggest a role for this gene product in hemin acquisition and utilization. Furthermore, the mutant produced significantly less arginine- and lysine-specific protease activities than the parent strain, indicating that there may be a

  9. The Mechanical Design and Preliminary Testing Results of Beam Position Monitors for the LANSCE Isotope Production Facility and Switchyard Kicker Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, J. F.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Ledford, J. E.; Shurter, R. B.; Roybal, R. J.; Bentley, B. E.

    2002-12-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE-1) Beam Diagnostic Team is providing Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) to the LANSCE Facility for use in two on-going projects: The Isotope Production Facility (IPF) and The Switchyard Kicker Upgrade (SYK). The BPM designs for both projects are very similar. The BPMs are classic, four, micro-stripline units having one end terminated in a 50-ohm load. This paper will discuss the position measurement requirements, mechanical design, fabrication, and alignment issues encountered for both sets of BPMs, as well as report the results obtained from the initial taught wire testing of the IPF BPMs.

  10. (211)Rn/(211)At and (209)At production with intense mass separated Fr ion beams for preclinical (211)At-based α-therapy research.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jason R; Kunz, Peter; Yang, Hua; Schaffer, Paul; Ruth, Thomas J

    2017-04-01

    Mass-separated francium beams ((211)Fr or (213)Fr) were implanted into solid targets for producing (211)Rn (14.6h half-life) or (209)At (5.41h), in situ. (211)Rn was transferred to dodecane and isolated from contaminants, providing sources for (211)At (7.21h) production by (211)Rn decay (73%). (209)At was recovered with high radionuclidic purity in aqueous solutions, directly. These experiments demonstrated Fr beam implantations as a novel method for producing preclinical quantities of (211)Rn/(211)At (for therapy) and (209)At (for imaging).

  11. Quarry residuals RI/FS scoping document. [Weldon Spring quarry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to serve as a planning tool for the implementation of the Quarry Residual Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process and to provide direct input to revising and updating the 1988 Work Plan for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study-Environmental Impact Statement for the Weldon Spring Site (RI/FS-EIS) (Peterson et al. 1988) for this effort. The scoping process is intended to outline the tasks necessary to develop and implement activities in compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act-National Environmental Policy Act (CERCLA-NEPA) process from detailed planning through the appropriate decision document. In addition to scoping the entire process, this document will serve as the primary tool for planning and accomplishing all activities to be developed in the Quarry Residual RI/FS Work Plan. Subsequent tasks are difficult to plan at this time. 10 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Standards for Reporting Implementation Studies (StaRI) Statement.

    PubMed

    Pinnock, Hilary; Barwick, Melanie; Carpenter, Christopher R; Eldridge, Sandra; Grandes, Gonzalo; Griffiths, Chris J; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Meissner, Paul; Murray, Elizabeth; Patel, Anita; Sheikh, Aziz; Taylor, Stephanie J C

    2017-03-06

    Implementation studies are often poorly reported and indexed, reducing their potential to inform initiatives to improve healthcare services. The Standards for Reporting Implementation Studies (StaRI) initiative aimed to develop guidelines for transparent and accurate reporting of implementation studies. Informed by the findings of a systematic review and a consensus-building e-Delphi exercise, an international working group of implementation science experts discussed and agreed the StaRI Checklist comprising 27 items. It prompts researchers to describe both the implementation strategy (techniques used to promote implementation of an underused evidence-based intervention) and the effectiveness of the intervention that was being implemented. An accompanying Explanation and Elaboration document (published in BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013318) details each of the items, explains the rationale, and provides examples of good reporting practice. Adoption of StaRI will improve the reporting of implementation studies, potentially facilitating translation of research into practice and improving the health of individuals and populations.

  13. Control of Mechanical Properties of Three-Dimensional Ti-6Al-4V Products Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting with Unidirectional Elongated Pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeo, Naoko; Ishimoto, Takuya; Serizawa, Ai; Nakano, Takayoshi

    2014-09-01

    Aligned, unidirectional, elongated pores were incorporated in Ti-6Al-4V products fabricated by electron beam melting in order to control the mechanical properties of the products such that they became suitable for biomedical applications. Unidirectional pores were successfully produced when the scan spacing of the electron beam was greater than the diameter of the beam. By changing the scan spacing of the electron beam, the size of the unidirectional pores could be varied. As a result, both the Young's moduli and the yield stresses of the products with unidirectional pores decreased linearly with an increase in their porosity, owing to the stress concentration coefficient being 1 in the equation representing the relation between strength and porosity for porous materials. Further, low (<35 GPa) Young's moduli were obtained when the scan spacing was 1 mm or higher, with these values being were close to the typical Young's modulus of human cortical bone. This suggested that these porous materials could be used to fabricate customized bone implants that exhibited desired mechanical properties and suppressed the stress shielding of bone that is normally noticed when implants made of Ti alloys are used.

  14. Beam-beam simulations for separated beams

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, Miguel A.

    2000-04-10

    We present beam-beam simulation results from a strong-strong gaussian code for separated beams for the LHC and RHIC. The frequency spectrum produced by the beam-beam collisions is readily obtained and offers a good opportunity for experimental comparisons. Although our results for the emittance blowup are preliminary, we conclude that, for nominal parameter values, there is no significant difference between separated beams and center-on-center collisions.

  15. Layer Additive Production or Manufacturing of Thick Sections of Ti-6Al-4V by Selective Electron Beam Melting (SEBM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. Y.; Gulizia, S.; Fraser, D.; Oh, C. H.; Lu, S. L.; Qian, M.

    2017-07-01

    Selective electron beam melting (SEBM) is an established layer additive manufacturing or production process for small-to-medium-sized components of Ti-6Al-4V. Current literature data on SEBM of Ti-6Al-4V are, however, based principally on thin-section (<1″; mostly <0.5″) samples or components. In this research, 34-mm-thick (1.34″) Ti-6Al-4V block samples were produced through use of default Arcam SEBM parameters and characterized versus section thickness. High densities (99.4-99.8%) were achieved across different thick sections, but markedly inhomogeneous microstructures also developed. Nonetheless, the tensile properties measured from 27 different thickness-width positions all clearly satisfied the minimum requirements for mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V. SEBM produced highly dense thick sections of Ti-6Al-4V with good tensile properties. Large lack-of-fusion defects (80-250 µm) were found to be mainly responsible for variations in tensile properties.

  16. Layer Additive Production or Manufacturing of Thick Sections of Ti-6Al-4V by Selective Electron Beam Melting (SEBM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. Y.; Gulizia, S.; Fraser, D.; Oh, C. H.; Lu, S. L.; Qian, M.

    2017-10-01

    Selective electron beam melting (SEBM) is an established layer additive manufacturing or production process for small-to-medium-sized components of Ti-6Al-4V. Current literature data on SEBM of Ti-6Al-4V are, however, based principally on thin-section (<1″; mostly <0.5″) samples or components. In this research, 34-mm-thick (1.34″) Ti-6Al-4V block samples were produced through use of default Arcam SEBM parameters and characterized versus section thickness. High densities (99.4-99.8%) were achieved across different thick sections, but markedly inhomogeneous microstructures also developed. Nonetheless, the tensile properties measured from 27 different thickness-width positions all clearly satisfied the minimum requirements for mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V. SEBM produced highly dense thick sections of Ti-6Al-4V with good tensile properties. Large lack-of-fusion defects (80-250 µm) were found to be mainly responsible for variations in tensile properties.

  17. An improvement of a beam search method for warehouse storage allocation planning problems minimizing the number of operations and the aggregated number of products for each customer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Tatsushi; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Konishi, Masami

    The storage allocation planning problem in warehouse management is to determine the allocation of products to the storage space and intermediate operations for retrieving products so as to minimize the number of operations, and maximize the collected number of products for each customer when the sequence of requests for inlet and retrieval operations are given. In this paper, we propose an efficient beam search method for generating a near optimal solution with a reasonable computation time. A heuristic procedure is also proposed in order to reduce a search space in the beam search method by using the information of subsequent inlet and retrieving requests. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by comparing the results with the optimal solution derived by solving an MILP problem. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by solving an actual large-sized problem consisting of more than 3000 operations.

  18. Multi-Frequency Microwaves Plasma Production for Active Profile Control of Ion Beams on a Large Bore ECR Ion Source with Permanent Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Naoki; Kato, Yushi; Kiriyama, Ryutaro; Takenaka, Tomoya; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-07

    A new concept on magnetic field of plasma production and confinement by using permanent magnets, i.e. cylindrically comb-shaped magnets, has been proposed to enhance efficiency of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma for broad and dense ion beam source under the low pressure and also the low microwave power. The resonance zones corresponding to the fundamental ECR for 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz frequency are constructed at different positions. The profiles of the plasma parameters in the ECR ion source are different from each frequency of microwave. Large bore extractor is set at the opposite side against the microwave feeds. It is found that differences of their profiles also appear at those of ion beam profiles. We conducted to launch simultaneously multiplex frequency microwaves controlled individually, and tried to control the profiles of the plasma parameters and then those of extracted ion beam.

  19. Production of electron cyclotron resonance plasma by using multifrequencies microwaves and active beam profile control on a large bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source with permanent magnets.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yushi; Watanabe, Takeyoshi; Matsui, Yuuki; Hirai, Yoshiaki; Kutsumi, Osamu; Sakamoto, Naoki; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2010-02-01

    A new concept on magnetic field with all magnets on plasma production and confinement has been proposed to enhance efficiency of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma for broad and dense ion beam source under the low pressure. The magnetic field configuration is constructed by a pair of magnets assembly, i.e., comb-shaped magnet which cylindrically surrounds the plasma chamber. The resonance zones corresponding to the fundamental ECR for 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz frequencies are constructed at different positions. The profiles of the plasma parameters in the ECR ion source are different from each frequency of microwave. Large bore extractor is set at the opposite side against the microwave feeds. It is found that differences of their profiles also appear at those of ion beam profiles. We conducted to launch simultaneously multiplex frequencies microwaves controlled individually, and tried to control the profiles of the plasma parameters and then those of extracted ion beam.

  20. Two-loop matching factors for light quark masses and three-loop mass anomalous dimensions in the RI/SMOM schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, C.; Almeida, L.

    2010-04-26

    Light quark masses can be determined through lattice simulations in regularization invariant momentum-subtraction (RI/MOM) schemes. Subsequently, matching factors, computed in continuum perturbation theory, are used in order to convert these quark masses from a RI/MOM scheme to the {ovr MS} scheme. We calculate the two-loop corrections in QCD to these matching factors as well as the three-loop mass anomalous dimensions for the RI/SMOM and RI/SMOM{sub {gamma}{mu}} schemes. These two schemes are characterized by a symmetric subtraction point. Providing the conversion factors in the two different schemes allows for a better understanding of the systematic uncertainties. The two-loop expansion coefficients of the matching factors for both schemes turn out to be small compared to the traditional RI/MOM schemes. For n{sub f} = 3 quark flavors they are about 0.6%-0.7% and 2%, respectively, of the leading order result at scales of about 2 GeV. Therefore, they will allow for a significant reduction of the systematic uncertainty of light quark mass determinations obtained through this approach. The determination of these matching factors requires the computation of amputated Green's functions with the insertions of quark bilinear operators. As a by-product of our calculation we also provide the corresponding results for the tensor operator.

  1. Effective doses from panoramic radiography and CBCT (cone beam CT) using dose area product (DAP) in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Shin, H S; Nam, K C; Park, H; Choi, H U; Kim, H Y

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We compared the effective dose from panoramic radiography with that from cone beam CT (CBCT) using dose area product under adult and child exposure conditions. Methods: The effective doses of the cephalo, panorama, implant and dental modes of Alphard 3030 (Asahi Roentgen Ind., Co. Ltd, Kyoto, Japan) CBCT and the Jaw, Wide, Facial and temporomandibular joint modes of Rayscan Symphony (RAY Co., Ltd, Hwaseong, Republic of Korea) CBCT were compared with those of CRANEX® 3+ CEPH (Soredex Orion Corporation, Helsinki, Finland) panoramic radiography equipment under adult and child exposure conditions. Each effective dose was calculated using a conversion formula from dose area product meter measured values (VacuTec Messtechnik GmbH, Dresden, Germany). The conversion formulae used were suggested by Helmrot and Alm Carlsson and Batista et al, and they were applied with the tube voltage taken into consideration. Results: The maximum effective doses from the Alphard 3030 and Rayscan Symphony were 67 and 21 times greater than that from panoramic radiography, respectively. The ratios of the effective dose under the child setting to that under the adult condition were 0.60–0.62 and 0.84–0.95, and the maximum differences in effective doses between the adult and child exposure settings were equivalent to 27 and 4 times greater than a panoramic examination in the Alphard 3030 and Rayscan Symphony, respectively. Conclusions: The effective CBCT doses were higher than those of panoramic radiography. The differences in effective doses between the adult and child CBCT settings were dependent on equipment type and exposure parameters. Therefore, adequate mode selection and control of exposure as well as further research are necessary to minimize the effective dose to patients, especially for radiosensitive children. PMID:24845340

  2. Evaluation of the effect of tooth and dental restoration material on electron dose distribution and production of photon contamination in electron beam radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Akbari, Fatemeh; Mehrpouyan, Mohammad; Sobhkhiz Sabet, Leila

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of tooth and dental restoration materials on electron dose distribution and photon contamination production in electron beams of a medical linac. This evaluation was performed on 8, 12 and 14 MeV electron beams of a Siemens Primus linac. MCNPX Monte Carlo code was utilized and a 10 × 10 cm(2) applicator was simulated in the cases of tooth and combinations of tooth and Ceramco C3 ceramic veneer, tooth and Eclipse alloy and tooth and amalgam restoration materials in a soft tissue phantom. The relative electron and photon contamination doses were calculated for these materials. The presence of tooth and dental restoration material changed the electron dose distribution and photon contamination in phantom, depending on the type of the restoration material and electron beam's energy. The maximum relative electron dose was 1.07 in the presence of tooth including amalgam for 14 MeV electron beam. When 100.00 cGy was prescribed for the reference point, the maximum absolute electron dose was 105.10 cGy in the presence of amalgam for 12 MeV electron beam and the maximum absolute photon contamination dose was 376.67 μGy for tooth in 14 MeV electron beam. The change in electron dose distribution should be considered in treatment planning, when teeth are irradiated in electron beam radiotherapy. If treatment planning can be performed in such a way that the teeth are excluded from primary irradiation, the potential errors in dose delivery to the tumour and normal tissues can be avoided.

  3. Production and dosimetry of simultaneous therapeutic photons and electrons beam by linear accelerator: A Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khledi, Navid; Arbabi, Azim; Sardari, Dariush; Mohammadi, Mohammad; Ameri, Ahmad

    2015-02-01

    Depending on the location and depth of tumor, the electron or photon beams might be used for treatment. Electron beam have some advantages over photon beam for treatment of shallow tumors to spare the normal tissues beyond of the tumor. In the other hand, the photon beam are used for deep targets treatment. Both of these beams have some limitations, for example the dependency of penumbra with depth, and the lack of lateral equilibrium for small electron beam fields. In first, we simulated the conventional head configuration of Varian 2300 for 16 MeV electron, and the results approved by benchmarking the Percent Depth Dose (PDD) and profile of the simulation and measurement. In the next step, a perforated Lead (Pb) sheet with 1mm thickness placed at the top of the applicator holder tray. This layer producing bremsstrahlung x-ray and a part of the electrons passing through the holes, in result, we have a simultaneous mixed electron and photon beam. For making the irradiation field uniform, a layer of steel placed after the Pb layer. The simulation was performed for 10×10, and 4×4 cm2 field size. This study was showed the advantages of mixing the electron and photon beam by reduction of pure electron's penumbra dependency with the depth, especially for small fields, also decreasing of dramatic changes of PDD curve with irradiation field size.

  4. Production and dosimetry of simultaneous therapeutic photons and electrons beam by linear accelerator: A Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect

    Khledi, Navid; Sardari, Dariush; Arbabi, Azim; Ameri, Ahmad; Mohammadi, Mohammad

    2015-02-24

    Depending on the location and depth of tumor, the electron or photon beams might be used for treatment. Electron beam have some advantages over photon beam for treatment of shallow tumors to spare the normal tissues beyond of the tumor. In the other hand, the photon beam are used for deep targets treatment. Both of these beams have some limitations, for example the dependency of penumbra with depth, and the lack of lateral equilibrium for small electron beam fields. In first, we simulated the conventional head configuration of Varian 2300 for 16 MeV electron, and the results approved by benchmarking the Percent Depth Dose (PDD) and profile of the simulation and measurement. In the next step, a perforated Lead (Pb) sheet with 1mm thickness placed at the top of the applicator holder tray. This layer producing bremsstrahlung x-ray and a part of the electrons passing through the holes, in result, we have a simultaneous mixed electron and photon beam. For making the irradiation field uniform, a layer of steel placed after the Pb layer. The simulation was performed for 10×10, and 4×4 cm2 field size. This study was showed the advantages of mixing the electron and photon beam by reduction of pure electron's penumbra dependency with the depth, especially for small fields, also decreasing of dramatic changes of PDD curve with irradiation field size.

  5. Theoretical study on production of heavy neutron-rich isotopes around the N = 126 shell closure in radioactive beam induced transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Long; Su, Jun; Xie, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2017-04-01

    In order to produce more unknown neutron-rich nuclei around N = 126, the transfer reactions 136Xe + 198Pt, 136-144Xe + 208Pb, and 132Sn + 208Pb are investigated within the framework of the dinuclear system (DNS) model. The influence of neutron excess of projectile on production cross sections of target-like products is studied through the reactions 136,144Xe + 208Pb. We find that the radioactive projectile 144Xe with much larger neutron excess is favorable to produce neutron-rich nuclei with charge number less than the target rather than produce transtarget nuclei. The incident energy dependence of yield distributions of fragments in the reaction 132Sn + 208Pb are also studied. The production cross sections of neutron-rich nuclei with Z = 72- 77 are predicted in the reactions 136-144Xe + 208Pb and 132Sn + 208Pb. It is noticed that the production cross sections of unknown neutron-rich nuclei in the reaction 144Xe + 208Pb are at least two orders of magnitude larger than those in the reaction 136Xe + 208Pb. The radioactive beam induced transfer reactions 139,144Xe + 208Pb, considering beam intensities proposed in SPIRAL2 (Production System of Radioactive Ion and Acceleration On-Line) project as well, for production of neutron-rich nuclei around the N = 126 shell closure are investigated for the first time. It is found that, in comparison to the stable beam 136Xe, the radioactive beam 144Xe shows great advantages for producing neutron-rich nuclei with N = 126 and the advantages get more obvious for producing nuclei with less charge number.

  6. Sensitivities in the production of spread-out Bragg peak dose distributions by passive scattering with beam current modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, H.-M.; Brett, Robert; Engelsman, Martijn; Slopsema, Roelf; Kooy, Hanne; Flanz, Jay

    2007-10-15

    A spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) is used in proton beam therapy to create a longitudinal conformality of the required dose to the target. In order to create this effect in a passive beam scattering system, a variety of components must operate in conjunction to produce the desired beam parameters. We will describe how the SOBP is generated and will explore the tolerances of the various components and their subsequent effect on the dose distribution. A specific aspect of this investigation includes a case study involving the use of a beam current modulated system. In such a system, the intensity of the beam current can be varied in synchronization with the revolution of the range-modulator wheel. As a result, the weights of the pulled-back Bragg peaks can be individually controlled to produce uniform dose plateaus for a large range of treatment depths using only a small number of modulator wheels.

  7. A Lanthipeptide-like N-Terminal Leader Region Guides Peptide Epimerization by Radical SAM Epimerases: Implications for RiPP Evolution.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Sebastian W; Lackner, Gerald; Morinaka, Brandon I; Morishita, Yohei; Asai, Teigo; Riniker, Sereina; Piel, Jörn

    2016-09-26

    Ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide natural products (RiPPs) exhibit diverse structures and bioactivities and are classified into distinct biosynthetic families. A recently reported family is the proteusins, with the prototype members polytheonamides being generated by almost 50 maturation steps, including introduction of d-residues at multiple positions by an unusual radical SAM epimerase. A region in the protein-like N-terminal leader of proteusin precursors is identified that is crucial for epimerization. It resembles a precursor motif previously shown to mediate interaction in thioether bridge-formation in class I lanthipeptide biosynthesis. Beyond this region, similarities were identified between proteusin and further RiPP families, including class I lanthipeptides. The data suggest that common leader features guide distinct maturation types and that nitrile hydratase-like enzymes are ancestors of several RiPP classes.

  8. Positive and negative regulation of FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling by the adaptor protein LAB/NTAL.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Minghua; Liu, Yan; Koonpaew, Surapong; Granillo, Olivia; Zhang, Weiguo

    2004-10-18

    Linker for activation of B cells (LAB, also called NTAL; a product of wbscr5 gene) is a newly identified transmembrane adaptor protein that is expressed in B cells, NK cells, and mast cells. Upon BCR activation, LAB is phosphorylated and interacts with Grb2. LAB is capable of rescuing thymocyte development in LAT-deficient mice. To study the in vivo function of LAB, LAB-deficient mice were generated. Although disruption of the Lab gene did not affect lymphocyte development, it caused mast cells to be hyperresponsive to stimulation via the FcepsilonRI, evidenced by enhanced Erk activation, calcium mobilization, degranulation, and cytokine production. These data suggested that LAB negatively regulates mast cell function. However, mast cells that lacked both linker for activation of T cells (LAT) and LAB proteins had a more severe block in FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling than LAT(-/-) mast cells, demonstrating that LAB also shares a redundant function with LAT to play a positive role in FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling.

  9. An Interaction Library for the FcεRI Signaling Network

    DOE PAGES

    Chylek, Lily A.; Holowka, David A.; Baird, Barbara A.; ...

    2014-04-15

    Antigen receptors play a central role in adaptive immune responses. Although the molecular networks associated with these receptors have been extensively studied, we currently lack a systems-level understanding of how combinations of non-covalent interactions and post-translational modifications are regulated during signaling to impact cellular decision-making. To fill this knowledge gap, it will be necessary to formalize and piece together information about individual molecular mechanisms to form large-scale computational models of signaling networks. To this end, we have developed an interaction library for signaling by the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI. The library consists of executable rules for protein–protein and protein–lipid interactions.more » This library extends earlier models for FcεRI signaling and introduces new interactions that have not previously been considered in a model. Thus, this interaction library is a toolkit with which existing models can be expanded and from which new models can be built. As an example, we present models of branching pathways from the adaptor protein Lat, which influence production of the phospholipid PIP3 at the plasma membrane and the soluble second messenger IP3. We find that inclusion of a positive feedback loop gives rise to a bistable switch, which may ensure robust responses to stimulation above a threshold level. In addition, the library is visualized to facilitate understanding of network circuitry and identification of network motifs.« less

  10. Tim-3 enhances FcεRI-proximal signaling to modulate mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Phong, Binh L; Avery, Lyndsay; Sumpter, Tina L; Gorman, Jacob V; Watkins, Simon C; Colgan, John D; Kane, Lawrence P

    2015-12-14

    T cell (or transmembrane) immunoglobulin and mucin domain protein 3 (Tim-3) has attracted significant attention as a novel immune checkpoint receptor (ICR) on chronically stimulated, often dysfunctional, T cells. Antibodies to Tim-3 can enhance antiviral and antitumor immune responses. Tim-3 is also constitutively expressed by mast cells, NK cells and specific subsets of macrophages and dendritic cells. There is ample evidence for a positive role for Tim-3 in these latter cell types, which is at odds with the model of Tim-3 as an inhibitory molecule on T cells. At this point, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which Tim-3 regulates the function of T cells or other cell types. We have focused on defining the effects of Tim-3 ligation on mast cell activation, as these cells constitutively express Tim-3 and are activated through an ITAM-containing receptor for IgE (FcεRI), using signaling pathways analogous to those in T cells. Using a variety of gain- and loss-of-function approaches, we find that Tim-3 acts at a receptor-proximal point to enhance Lyn kinase-dependent signaling pathways that modulate both immediate-phase degranulation and late-phase cytokine production downstream of FcεRI ligation.

  11. An Interaction Library for the FcεRI Signaling Network

    PubMed Central

    Chylek, Lily A.; Holowka, David A.; Baird, Barbara A.; Hlavacek, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Antigen receptors play a central role in adaptive immune responses. Although the molecular networks associated with these receptors have been extensively studied, we currently lack a systems-level understanding of how combinations of non-covalent interactions and post-translational modifications are regulated during signaling to impact cellular decision-making. To fill this knowledge gap, it will be necessary to formalize and piece together information about individual molecular mechanisms to form large-scale computational models of signaling networks. To this end, we have developed an interaction library for signaling by the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI. The library consists of executable rules for protein–protein and protein–lipid interactions. This library extends earlier models for FcεRI signaling and introduces new interactions that have not previously been considered in a model. Thus, this interaction library is a toolkit with which existing models can be expanded and from which new models can be built. As an example, we present models of branching pathways from the adaptor protein Lat, which influence production of the phospholipid PIP3 at the plasma membrane and the soluble second messenger IP3. We find that inclusion of a positive feedback loop gives rise to a bistable switch, which may ensure robust responses to stimulation above a threshold level. In addition, the library is visualized to facilitate understanding of network circuitry and identification of network motifs. PMID:24782869

  12. 77 FR 5581 - Submission for Review: Financial Resources Questionnaire (RI 34-1, RI 34-17) and Notice of Amount...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Due Because of Annuity Overpayment (RI 34-3, RI 34-19) AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management... Street NW., Washington, DC 20503, Attention: Desk Officer for the Office of Personnel Management or sent...., Washington, DC 20503, Attention: Desk Officer for the Office of Personnel Management or sent via...

  13. 76 FR 18811 - Submission for Review: Letter Reply To Request for Information (RI 20-64), Former Spouse Survivor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Annuity Election (RI 20-64A), Information on Electing a Survivor Annuity for Your Former Spouse (RI 20-64B... Reply to Request for Information, RI 20-64, and Former Spouse Survivor Annuity Election, RI 20-64A. As... information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submissions of responses. DATES: Comments are...

  14. Helicon plasma generator-assisted surface conversion ion source for the production of H(-) ion beams at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center.

    PubMed

    Tarvainen, O; Rouleau, G; Keller, R; Geros, E; Stelzer, J; Ferris, J

    2008-02-01

    The converter-type negative ion source currently employed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is based on cesium enhanced surface production of H(-) ion beams in a filament-driven discharge. In this kind of an ion source the extracted H(-) beam current is limited by the achievable plasma density which depends primarily on the electron emission current from the filaments. The emission current can be increased by increasing the filament temperature but, unfortunately, this leads not only to shorter filament lifetime but also to an increase in metal evaporation from the filament, which deposits on the H(-) converter surface and degrades its performance. Therefore, we have started an ion source development project focused on replacing these thermionic cathodes (filaments) of the converter source by a helicon plasma generator capable of producing high-density hydrogen plasmas with low electron energy. In our studies which have so far shown that the plasma density of the surface conversion source can be increased significantly by exciting a helicon wave in the plasma, and we expect to improve the performance of the surface converter H(-) ion source in terms of beam brightness and time between services. The design of this new source and preliminary results are presented, along with a discussion of physical processes relevant for H(-) ion beam production with this novel design. Ultimately, we perceive this approach as an interim step towards our long-term goal, combining a helicon plasma generator with an SNS-type main discharge chamber, which will allow us to individually optimize the plasma properties of the plasma cathode (helicon) and H(-) production (main discharge) in order to further improve the brightness of extracted H(-) ion beams.

  15. X-ray production cross-sections measurements for high-energy alpha particle beams: New dedicated set-up and first results with aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, T.; Chêne, G.; Mathis, F.; Marchal, A.; Garnir, H.-P.; Strivay, D.

    2011-12-01

    The "IPNAS" laboratory, in collaboration with the "Centre Européen d'Archéométrie" is partly focused on material analysis by means of IBA techniques: PIXE, PIGE and RBS. A new transport beam line has been developed at our CGR-520 MeV cyclotron to analyze Cultural Heritage objects using these techniques. This facility allows us to produce proton and alpha particle beams with energies up to 20 MeV. A vacuum chamber dedicated to X-ray production and Non-Rutherford cross-section measurements has been recently constructed. After determination of the chamber's geometry for X-ray detection using thin foils of several elements (11 ⩽ Z ⩽ 82) and 3 MeV proton beams, the measurement of the X-ray production cross-sections in the 6-12 MeV energy range has started using alpha particle beams on light element targets. These experiments contribute to the filling a serious lack of experimental values for alpha particles of this particular energy range in databases. The recent decision to focus our work on the alpha particle interaction with light elements was taken because of the high interest of the low Z elements in the field of archaeometry.

  16. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight MS for identification of electron beam from accelerator degradation products of aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruiqi; Liu, Ruijie; Chang, Ming; Jin, Qingzhe; Huang, Jianhua; Liu, Yuanfa; Wang, Xingguo

    2015-02-01

    Electron beam irradiation was proven to be a successful method in aflatoxin degradation in earlier researches. However, the exact nature of the result radiation products generated by the aflatoxins remains unknown. Based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF MS) analysis, the solution of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in acetonitrile irradiated by electron beam degraded to two kinds of major products. The doses employed were in the range of 0 (control) to 8.60 kGy. The absorbed doses were monitored with FWT-60-00 radio-chromic dosimeters. By using UPLC-Q-TOF MS, accurate masses and proposed molecular formula for the degradation products, 261.1233 m/z (C14H13O5) and 299.1104 m/z (C17H15O5), were obtained from low mass error and high matching properties. Structural formula for the radio-degradation products and the degradation pathways leading to the compounds were proposed, based on the molecular formula and MS-MS spectra. The results showed that electron beam (EB) irradiation is an effective method for degrading AFB1.

  17. Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of AIRS Cloud Cleared Radiances RiCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Rosenberg, Robert I.; Iredell, Lena

    2015-01-01

    ECMWF, NCEP, and GMAO routinely assimilate radiosonde and other in-situ observations along with satellite IR and MW Sounder radiance observations. NCEP and GMAO use the NCEP GSI Data Assimilation System (DAS).GSI DAS assimilates AIRS, CrIS, IASI channel radiances Ri on a channel-by-channel, case-by-case basis, only for those channels i thought to be unaffected by cloud cover. This test excludes Ri for most tropospheric sounding channels under partial cloud cover conditions. AIRS Version-6 RiCC is a derived quantity representative of what AIRS channel i would have seen if the AIRS FOR were cloud free. All values of RiCC have case-by-case error estimates RiCC associated with them. Our experiments present to the GSI QCd values of AIRS RiCC in place of AIRS Ri observations. GSI DAS assimilates only those values of RiCC it thinks are cloud free. This potentially allows for better coverage of assimilated QCd values of RiCC as compared to Ri.

  18. New Insights into the Biosynthetic Logic of Ribosomally Synthesized and Post-translationally Modified Peptide Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Manuel A; van der Donk, Wilfred A

    2016-01-21

    Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are a large group of structurally diverse natural products. Their biological activities and unique biosynthetic pathways have sparked a growing interest in RiPPs. Furthermore, the relatively low genetic complexity associated with RiPP biosynthesis makes them excellent candidates for synthetic biology applications. This Review highlights recent developments in the understanding of the biosynthesis of several bacterial RiPP family members, the use of the RiPP biosynthetic machinery for generating novel macrocyclic peptides, and the implementation of tools designed to guide the discovery and characterization of novel RiPPs.

  19. SPIDER beam dump as diagnostic of the particle beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaupa, M.; Dalla Palma, M.; Sartori, E.; Brombin, M.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2016-11-01

    The beam power produced by the negative ion source for the production of ion of deuterium extracted from RF plasma is mainly absorbed by the beam dump component which has been designed also for measuring the temperatures on the dumping panels for beam diagnostics. A finite element code has been developed to characterize, by thermo-hydraulic analysis, the sensitivity of the beam dump to the different beam parameters. The results prove the capability of diagnosing the beam divergence and the horizontal misalignment, while the entity of the halo fraction appears hardly detectable without considering the other foreseen diagnostics like tomography and beam emission spectroscopy.

  20. SPIDER beam dump as diagnostic of the particle beam

    SciTech Connect

    Zaupa, M. Sartori, E.; Dalla Palma, M.; Brombin, M.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2016-11-15

    The beam power produced by the negative ion source for the production of ion of deuterium extracted from RF plasma is mainly absorbed by the beam dump component which has been designed also for measuring the temperatures on the dumping panels for beam diagnostics. A finite element code has been developed to characterize, by thermo-hydraulic analysis, the sensitivity of the beam dump to the different beam parameters. The results prove the capability of diagnosing the beam divergence and the horizontal misalignment, while the entity of the halo fraction appears hardly detectable without considering the other foreseen diagnostics like tomography and beam emission spectroscopy.

  1. Characterization of high quality InN grown on production-style plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy system

    SciTech Connect

    Gherasoiu, I.; O'Steen, M.; Bird, T.; Gotthold, D.; Chandolu, A.; Song, D. Y.; Xu, S. X.; Holtz, M.; Nikishin, S. A.; Schaff, W. J.

    2008-05-15

    In this work, the authors report step-flow growth mode of InN on [0001] oriented GaN templates, using a production-style molecular beam epitaxy system, Veeco GEN200 registered , equipped with a plasma source. Using adaptive growth conditions, they have obtained a surface morphology that exhibits the step-flow features. The root mean squared roughness over an area of 5x5 {mu}m{sup 2} is 1.4 nm with monolayer height terrace steps (0.281 nm), based on atomic force microscopy. It has been found that the presence of In droplets leads to defective surface morphology. From x-ray diffraction, they estimate edge and screw dislocation densities. The former is dominant over the latter. Micro-Raman spectra reveal narrow E{sub 2}{sup 2} phonon lines consistent with excellent crystalline quality of the epitaxial layers. The Hall mobility of 1 {mu}m thick InN layers, grown in step-flow mode, is slightly higher than 1400 cm{sup 2}/V s, while for other growth conditions yielding a smooth surface with no well-defined steps, mobility as high as 1904 cm{sup 2}/V s at room temperature has been measured. The samples exhibit high intensity photoluminescence (PL) with a corresponding band edge that shifts with free carrier concentration. For the lowest carrier concentration of 5.6x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}, they observe PL emission at {approx}0.64 eV.

  2. THE UBV(RI){sub C} COLORS OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, I.; Michel, R.; Schuster, W. J.; Sefako, R.; Van Wyk, F.; Tucci Maia, M.; Melendez, J.; Castilho, B. V.

    2012-06-10

    Photometric data in the UBV(RI){sub C} system have been acquired for 80 solar analog stars for which we have previously derived highly precise atmospheric parameters T{sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H] using high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra. UBV and (RI){sub C} data for 46 and 76 of these stars, respectively, are published for the first time. Combining our data with those from the literature, colors in the UBV(RI){sub C} system, with {approx_equal} 0.01 mag precision, are now available for 112 solar analogs. Multiple linear regression is used to derive the solar colors from these photometric data and the spectroscopically derived T{sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H] values. To minimize the impact of systematic errors in the model-dependent atmospheric parameters, we use only the data for the 10 stars that most closely resemble our Sun, i.e., the solar twins, and derive the following solar colors: (B - V){sub Sun} = 0.653 {+-} 0.005, (U - B){sub Sun} = 0.166 {+-} 0.022, (V - R){sub Sun} = 0.352 {+-} 0.007, and (V - I){sub Sun} = 0.702 {+-} 0.010. These colors are consistent, within the 1{sigma} errors, with those derived using the entire sample of 112 solar analogs. We also derive the solar colors using the relation between spectral-line-depth ratios and observed stellar colors, i.e., with a completely model-independent approach, and without restricting the analysis to solar twins. We find (B - V){sub Sun} = 0.653 {+-} 0.003, (U - B){sub Sun} = 0.158 {+-} 0.009, (V - R){sub Sun} = 0.356 {+-} 0.003, and (V - I){sub Sun} = 0.701 {+-} 0.003, in excellent agreement with the model-dependent analysis.

  3. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. 1995 Ship Production Symposium. Paper No. 4: Tee-Beam Manufacturing Analysis: Producibility of Panel Stiffening Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    INNOVATION MARINE INDUSTRY STANDARDS WELDING INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND TRAINING THE NATIONAL SHIPBUILDING RESEARCH PROGRAM January, 1995 NSRP 0439...Research Program , 1995 Ship Production Symposium: Paper No. 4: Tee-Beam Manufacturing Analysis: Producibility of Panel Stiffening Elements 5a...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING

  4. Particle beam injection system

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.; Kulsrud, Russell M.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a poloidal divertor for stacking counterstreaming ion beams to provide high intensity colliding beams. To this end, method and apparatus are provided that inject high energy, high velocity, ordered, atomic deuterium and tritium beams into a lower energy, toroidal, thermal equilibrium, neutral, target plasma column that is magnetically confined along an endless magnetic axis in a strong restoring force magnetic field having helical field lines to produce counterstreaming deuteron and triton beams that are received bent, stacked and transported along the endless axis, while a poloidal divertor removes thermal ions and electrons all along the axis to increase the density of the counterstreaming ion beams and the reaction products resulting therefrom. By balancing the stacking and removal, colliding, strong focused particle beams, reaction products and reactions are produced that convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

  5. Coordinates and RI photometry of Large Magellanic Cloud carbon stars

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, E. )

    1990-07-01

    Coordinates and photoelectric RI magnitudes are given for 86 carbon stars discovered by Blanco et al. in four selected 0.12 deg sq areas of the LMC. A comparison with the photometry of Blanco et al. for carbon stars in three different fields of the LMC suggests that the luminosity distribution of the carbon stars may change from center to center in the LMC. This possibility is supported by the differences in the mean I magnitude of the carbon stars detected between the four areas studied. 16 refs.

  6. Improved measurement of neutral current coherent {pi}{sup 0} production on carbon in a few-GeV neutrino beam

    SciTech Connect

    Kurimoto, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Alcaraz-Aunion, J. L.; Jover-Manas, G.; Sanchez, F.; Brice, S. J.; Finley, D. A.; Kobilarcik, T.; Moore, C. D.; Russell, A. D.; Stefanski, R. J.; Tesarek, R. J.; White, H. B.; Bugel, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Karagiorgi, G.; McGary, V. T.; Tanaka, H.-K.; Catala-Perez, J.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.

    2010-06-01

    The SciBooNE Collaboration reports a measurement of neutral current coherent {pi}{sup 0} production on carbon by a muon neutrino beam with average energy 0.8 GeV. The separation of coherent from inclusive {pi}{sup 0} production has been improved by detecting recoil protons from resonant {pi}{sup 0} production. We measure the ratio of the neutral current coherent {pi}{sup 0} production to total charged current cross sections to be (1.16{+-}0.24)x10{sup -2}. The ratio of charged current coherent {pi}{sup +} to neutral current coherent {pi}{sup 0} production is calculated to be 0.14{sub -0.28}{sup +0.30}, using our published charged current coherent pion measurement.

  7. High-resolution abundance analysis of very metal-poor r-I stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira Mello, C.; Hill, V.; Barbuy, B.; Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Beers, T. C.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Cayrel, R.; François, P.; Schatz, H.; Wanajo, S.

    2014-05-01

    Context. Moderately r-process-enriched stars (r-I; +0.3 ≤ [Eu/Fe] ≤ +1.0) are at least four times as common as those that are greatly enriched in r-process elements (r-II; [Eu/Fe] > +1.0), and the abundances in their atmospheres are important tools for obtaining a better understanding of the nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the origin of the elements beyond the iron peak. Aims: The main aim of this work is to derive abundances for a sample of seven metal-poor stars with -3.4 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -2.4 classified as r-I stars, to understand the role of these stars for constraining the astrophysical nucleosynthesis event(s) that is (are) responsible for the production of the r-process, and to investigate whether they differ, in any significant way, from the r-II stars. Methods: We carried out a detailed abundance analysis based on high-resolution spectra obtained with the VLT/UVES spectrograph, using spectra in the wavelength ranges 3400-4500 Å, 6800-8200 Å, and 8700-10 000 Å, with resolving power R ~ 40 000 (blue arm) and R ~ 55 000 (red arm). The OSMARCS LTE 1D model atmosphere grid was employed, along with the spectrum synthesis code Turbospectrum. Results: We have derived abundances of the light elements Li, C, and N, the α-elements Mg, Si, S, Ca, and Ti, the odd-Z elements Al, K, and Sc, the iron-peak elements V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni, and the trans-iron elements from the first peak (Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Ru, and Pd), the second peak (Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb), the third peak (Os and Ir, as upper limits), and the actinides (Th) regions. The results are compared with values for these elements for r-II and "normal" very and extremely metal-poor stars reported in the literature, ages based on radioactive chronometry are explored using different models, and a number of conclusions about the r-process and the r-I stars are presented. Hydrodynamical models were used for some elements, and general behaviors for the 3D corrections

  8. IL-1RI (interleukin-1 receptor type I) signalling is essential for host defence and hemichannel activity during acute central nervous system bacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Juan; Burkovetskaya, Maria; Karpuk, Nikolay; Kielian, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common aetiological agent of bacterial brain abscesses. We have previously established that a considerable IL-1 (interleukin-1) response is elicited immediately following S. aureus infection, where the cytokine can exert pleiotropic effects on glial activation and blood–brain barrier permeability. To assess the combined actions of IL-1α and IL-1β during CNS (central nervous system) infection, host defence responses were evaluated in IL-1RI (IL-1 receptor type I) KO (knockout) animals. IL-1RI KO mice were exquisitely sensitive to intracerebral S. aureus infection, as demonstrated by enhanced mortality rates and bacterial burdens within the first 24 h following pathogen exposure compared with WT (wild-type) animals. Loss of IL-1RI signalling also dampened the expression of select cytokines and chemokines, concomitant with significant reductions in neutrophil and macrophage infiltrates into the brain. In addition, the opening of astrocyte hemichannels during acute infection was shown to be dependent on IL-1RI activity. Collectively, these results demonstrate that IL-1RI signalling plays a pivotal role in the genesis of immune responses during the acute stage of brain abscess development through S. aureus containment, inflammatory mediator production, peripheral immune cell recruitment, and regulation of astrocyte hemichannel activity. Taken in the context of previous studies with MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88) and TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2) KO animals, the current report advances our understanding of MyD88-dependent cascades and implicates IL-1RI signalling as a major antimicrobial effector pathway during acute brain-abscess formation. PMID:22414156

  9. Plasma modified production of high-current, high-purity cw H{sup +}, D{sup +}, and H{sup -} beams from microwave-driven sources

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, D.; Lykke, K.R.; McMichael, G.E.

    1996-10-01

    We have recently reported production of cw proton beams from magnetically confined microwave-driven sources, operating under nonresonant (non-ECR) conditions, with proton fractions > 0.95, the remaining fraction consisting of H{sub 2}{sup +} (0.05) with no H{sub 3}{sup +}. We achieve this by adding H{sub 2}O to the plasma at molecular concentrations of 1% and about 700 W 2.45 GHz RF power to the source. High-current (45 mA) high-power (45 kV) beams of >92% proton purity have been produced using this technique. Additional impurity ions O{sup +} at 4ppt and OH{sup +} and H{sub 2}O{sup +} at << 1ppt are produced. We report further progress using this technique and similar results achieved for cw D{sup +} beams with D{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O additives. Finally, we report progress made in the direct extraction of cw H{sup -} beams from microwave-driven sources in terms of ion source surface material and confining magnetic field configurations. Mechanisms are discussed.

  10. Optimization of L-lactic Acid Production of Rhizopus Oryzae Mutant RLC41-6 by Ion Beam Implantation at Low-Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiuhong; Ge, Chunmei; Yao, Jianming; Pan, Renrui; Yu, Zengliang

    2005-10-01

    In order to obtain an industrial strain with a higher L(+)-lactic acid yield, the strain Rhizopus oryzae RF3608 was mutated by means of nitrogen ion beam implantation and the mutant strain RLC41-6 was isolated. Under optimal conditions the yield of L(+)-lactic acid produced in a shake-flask reached 133 g/L-137 g/L after 36 h cultivation, indicating that the conversion rate based on glucose was as high as 88%-91% and the productivity was 3.75 g/L.h. It was almost a 115% increase in lactic acid production compared with the original strain RF3608.

  11. Quorum sensing in Burkholderia cepacia: identification of the LuxRI homologs CepRI.

    PubMed

    Lewenza, S; Conway, B; Greenberg, E P; Sokol, P A

    1999-02-01

    Burkholderia cepacia has emerged as an important pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis. Many gram-negative pathogens regulate the production of extracellular virulence factors by a cell density-dependent mechanism termed quorum sensing, which involves production of diffusible N-acylated homoserine lactone signal molecules, called autoinducers. Transposon insertion mutants of B. cepacia K56-2 which hyperproduced siderophores on chrome azurol S agar were identified. One mutant, K56-R2, contained an insertion in a luxR homolog that was designated cepR. The flanking DNA region was used to clone the wild-type copy of cepR. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of cepI, a luxI homolog, located 727 bp upstream and divergently transcribed from cepR. A lux box-like sequence was identified upstream of cepI. CepR was 36% identical to Pseudomonas aeruginosa RhlR and 67% identical to SolR of Ralstonia solanacearum. CepI was 38% identical to RhlI and 64% identical to SolI. K56-R2 demonstrated a 67% increase in the production of the siderophore ornibactin, was protease negative on dialyzed brain heart infusion milk agar, and produced 45% less lipase activity in comparison to the parental strain. Complementation of a cepR mutation restored parental levels of ornibactin and protease but not lipase. An N-acylhomoserine lactone was purified from culture fluids and identified as N-octanoylhomoserine lactone. K56-I2, a cepI mutant, was created and shown not to produce N-octanoylhomoserine lactone. K56-I2 hyperproduced ornibactin and did not produce protease. These data suggest both a positive and negative role for cepIR in the regulation of extracellular virulence factor production by B. cepacia.

  12. RiBAC: Role Interaction Based Access Control Model for Community Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Youna; Masoumzadeh, Amirreza; Joshi, James B. D.; Kim, Minkoo

    Community computing is an agent-based development paradigm for ubiquitous computing systems. In a community computing system, ubiquitous services are provided by cooperation among agents. While agents cooperate, they interact with each other continuously to access data of other agents and/or to execute other agent’s actions. However, in cases of security-critical ubiquitous services such as medical or military services, an access control mechanism is necessary to prevent unauthorized access to critical data or action. In this paper, we propose a family of Role interaction Based Access Control (RiBAC) models for Community Computing, by extending the existing RBAC model to consider role interactions. As a basic model, we propose the core RiBAC model. For the convenience of management and to provide more fine-grained access control, we propose Hierarchical RiBAC (H-RiBAC), Constrained RiBAC (C-RiBAC), and Constrained Hierarchical RiBAC (CH-RiBAC) models. Finally, we extend the existing community computing framework to accommodate the specification and enforcement of RiBAC policies.

  13. Radiolysis products and sensory properties of electron-beam-irradiated high-barrier food-packaging films containing a buried layer of recycled low-density polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Chytiri, S D; Badeka, A V; Riganakos, K A; Kontominas, M G

    2010-04-01

    The aim was to study the effect of electron-beam irradiation on the production of radiolysis products and sensory changes in experimental high-barrier packaging films composed of polyamide (PA), ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE). Films contained a middle buried layer of recycled LDPE, while films containing 100% virgin LDPE as the middle buried layer were taken as controls. Irradiation doses ranged between zero and 60 kGy. Generally, a large number of radiolysis products were produced during electron-beam irradiation, even at the lower absorbed doses of 5 and 10 kGy (approved doses for food 'cold pasteurization'). The quantity of radiolysis products increased with irradiation dose. There were no significant differences in radiolysis products identified between samples containing a recycled layer of LDPE and those containing virgin LDPE (all absorbed doses), indicating the 'functional barrier' properties of external virgin polymer layers. Sensory properties (mainly taste) of potable water were affected after contact with irradiated as low as 5 kGy packaging films. This effect increased with increasing irradiation dose.

  14. Atomic Ferris wheel beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembessis, Vasileios E.

    2017-07-01

    We study the generation of atom vortex beams in the case where a Bose-Einstein condensate, released from a trap and moving in free space, is diffracted from a properly tailored light mask with a spiral transverse profile. We show how such a diffraction scheme could lead to the production of an atomic Ferris wheel beam.

  15. Measurement of Electric Quadrupole Moments for 31Al Using Spin Polarized RI Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Nagae, D.; Asahi, K.; Takemura, M.; Takase, K.; Uchida, M.; Shimada, K.; Arai, T.; Inoue, T.; Kagami, S.; Hatakeyama, N.; Ueno, H.; Kameda, D.; Yoshimi, A.; Sugimoto, T.; Nagatomo, T.; Kobayashi, Y.

    2007-06-13

    The electromagnetic moment is a sensitive probe to investigate microscopic structure. In order to measure the electromagnetic moment, {beta}-NMR and {beta}-NQR methods are employed taking advantage of the fragment spin polarization produced by the fragmentation reaction. The measurement of the electric quadrupole moment for ground-state 31Al has been been carried out by {beta}-NQR method. Spin-polarized 31Al nuclei were obtained from the fragmentation of 40Ar projectiles, and were implanted in {alpha}-Al2O3 stopper. The electric quadrupole moment was deduced from the measured quadrupole coupling constant. The obtained value is |Q(31Al)| 104(9) e{center_dot}mb.

  16. Performance of Ion Surfing Rf-carpets for High-Energy RI Beam Gas Catcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Fumiya; Ito, Yuta; Katayama, Ichiro; Schury, Peter; Sonoda, Tetsu; Wada, Michiharu; Wollnik, Hermann

    A new concept for the transport of ions in gas by means of a traveling potential wave super-imposed on an rf-carpet (RFC), known as ion surfing, has recently been proposed. We demonstrated, for the first time, the transport and extraction of K+ and Cs+ ions using a circular rf-carpet in high pressure He gas. An efficiency of nearly 100% was obtained . In addition, we compared an RFC of a fine pitch (0.16 mm) and the one of a rough pitch (0.32 mm). For higher pressure, the fine RFC was found to be better than the rough RFC.

  17. Genomic charting of ribosomally synthesized natural product chemical space facilitates targeted mining

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Chad W.; Edgar, Robyn E.; Dejong, Chris A.; Merwin, Nishanth J.; Rees, Philip N.; Magarvey, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial natural products are an evolved resource of bioactive small molecules, which form the foundation of many modern therapeutic regimes. Ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs) represent a class of natural products which have attracted extensive interest for their diverse chemical structures and potent biological activities. Genome sequencing has revealed that the vast majority of genetically encoded natural products remain unknown. Many bioinformatic resources have therefore been developed to predict the chemical structures of natural products, particularly nonribosomal peptides and polyketides, from sequence data. However, the diversity and complexity of RiPPs have challenged systematic investigation of RiPP diversity, and consequently the vast majority of genetically encoded RiPPs remain chemical “dark matter.” Here, we introduce an algorithm to catalog RiPP biosynthetic gene clusters and chart genetically encoded RiPP chemical space. A global analysis of 65,421 prokaryotic genomes revealed 30,261 RiPP clusters, encoding 2,231 unique products. We further leverage the structure predictions generated by our algorithm to facilitate the genome-guided discovery of a molecule from a rare family of RiPPs. Our results provide the systematic investigation of RiPP genetic and chemical space, revealing the widespread distribution of RiPP biosynthesis throughout the prokaryotic tree of life, and provide a platform for the targeted discovery of RiPPs based on genome sequencing. PMID:27698135

  18. Genomic charting of ribosomally synthesized natural product chemical space facilitates targeted mining.

    PubMed

    Skinnider, Michael A; Johnston, Chad W; Edgar, Robyn E; Dejong, Chris A; Merwin, Nishanth J; Rees, Philip N; Magarvey, Nathan A

    2016-10-18

    Microbial natural products are an evolved resource of bioactive small molecules, which form the foundation of many modern therapeutic regimes. Ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs) represent a class of natural products which have attracted extensive interest for their diverse chemical structures and potent biological activities. Genome sequencing has revealed that the vast majority of genetically encoded natural products remain unknown. Many bioinformatic resources have therefore been developed to predict the chemical structures of natural products, particularly nonribosomal peptides and polyketides, from sequence data. However, the diversity and complexity of RiPPs have challenged systematic investigation of RiPP diversity, and consequently the vast majority of genetically encoded RiPPs remain chemical "dark matter." Here, we introduce an algorithm to catalog RiPP biosynthetic gene clusters and chart genetically encoded RiPP chemical space. A global analysis of 65,421 prokaryotic genomes revealed 30,261 RiPP clusters, encoding 2,231 unique products. We further leverage the structure predictions generated by our algorithm to facilitate the genome-guided discovery of a molecule from a rare family of RiPPs. Our results provide the systematic investigation of RiPP genetic and chemical space, revealing the widespread distribution of RiPP biosynthesis throughout the prokaryotic tree of life, and provide a platform for the targeted discovery of RiPPs based on genome sequencing.

  19. Gamma Putty dosimetric studies in electron beam

    PubMed Central

    Gloi, Aime M.

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, lead has been used for field shaping in megavoltage electron beams in radiation therapy. In this study, we analyze the dosimetric parameters of a nontoxic, high atomic number (Z = 83), bismuth-loaded material called Gamma Putty that is malleable and can be easily molded to any desired shape. First, we placed an ionization chamber at different depths in a solid water phantom under a Gamma Putty shield of thickness (t = 0, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mm, respectively) and measured the ionizing radiation on the central axis (CAX) for electron beam ranging in energies from 6 to 20 MeV. Next, we investigated the relationship between the relative ionization (RI) measured at a fixed depth for several Gamma Putty shield at different cutout diameters ranging from 2 to 5 cm for various beam energies and derived an exponential fitting equation for clinical purposes. The dose profiles along the CAX show that bremsstrahlung dominates for Gamma Putty thickness >15 mm. For high-energy beams (12–20 MeV) and all Gamma Putty thicknesses up to 25 mm, RI below 5% could not be achieved due to the strong bremsstrahlung component. However, Gamma Putty is a very suitable material for reducing the transmission factor below 5% and protecting underlying normal tissues for low-energy electron beams (6–9 MeV). PMID:27651563

  20. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, Z M; Yuan, P; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Jin, T; Shang, Y; Zhan, W L; Wei, B W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28 GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28 GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6 T at injection, 2.2 T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0 T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18 GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5 kW by two 18 GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810 e microA of O(7+), 505 e microA of Xe(20+), 306 e microA of Xe(27+), and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007.

  1. Calculation of Nuclear Particles Production at High-Energy Photon Beams from a Linac Operating at 6, 10 and 15 MV.

    PubMed

    Marchesini, Renato; Bettega, Daniela; Calzolari, Paola; Pignoli, Emanuele

    2016-08-13

    Production of photonuclear particles in a tissue-equivalent medium has been calculated for linacs at 6, 10 and 15 MV from Varian TrueBeam. Based on the knowledge of bremsstrahlung fluence spectra and linac photon beam parameters, numerical integration was performed on the cross sections for photoparticle production of the constituent elements of tissue ((2)H,(12)C,(13)C,(16)O,(17)O,(18)O,(14)N,(15)N). At 15 MV, at the depth of photon maximum dose, the total absorbed dose due to neutrons, protons, alphas and residual nuclei from photon reactions in tissue (5.5E-05 Gy per Gy of photons) is comparable to that due to neutrons from accelerator head. Results reasonably agree with data reported in the literature using Monte Carlo models simulating linac head components. This work suggests a simple method to estimate the dose contributed by the photon-induced nuclear particles for high-energy photon beams produced by linacs in use, as it might be relevant for late stochastic effects.

  2. A gas-jet transport and catcher technique for on-line production of radioactive ion beams using an electron cyclotron resonance ion-source.

    PubMed

    Naik, V; Chakrabarti, A; Bhattacharjee, M; Karmakar, P; Bandyopadhyay, A; Bhattacharjee, S; Dechoudhury, S; Mondal, M; Pandey, H K; Lavanyakumar, D; Mandi, T K; Dutta, D P; Kundu Roy, T; Bhowmick, D; Sanyal, D; Srivastava, S C L; Ray, A; Ali, Md S

    2013-03-01

    Radioactive ion beams (RIB) have been produced on-line, using a gas-jet recoil transport coupled Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion-source at the VECC-RIB facility. Radioactive atoms∕molecules carried through the gas-jet were stopped in a catcher placed inside the ECR plasma chamber. A skimmer has been used to remove bulk of the carrier gas at the ECR entrance. The diffusion of atoms∕molecules through the catcher has been verified off-line using stable isotopes and on-line through transmission of radioactive reaction products. Beams of (14)O (71 s), (42)K (12.4 h), (43)K (22.2 h), and (41)Ar (1.8 h) have been produced by bombarding nitrogen and argon gas targets with proton and alpha particle beams from the K130 cyclotron at VECC. Typical measured intensity of RIB at the separator focal plane is found to be a few times 10(3) particles per second (pps). About 3.2 × 10(3) pps of 1.4 MeV (14)O RIB has been measured after acceleration through a radiofrequency quadrupole linac. The details of the gas-jet coupled ECR ion-source and RIB production experiments are presented along with the plans for the future.

  3. Measurement of the beam asymmetry Σ in π 0 η production off the proton with the CBELSA/TAPS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutz, E.; Sokhoyan, V.; van Pee, H.; Anisovich, A. V.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Bantes, B.; Bartholomy, O.; Bayadilov, D.; Beck, R.; Beloglazov, Y. A.; Castelijns, R.; Credé, V.; Dutz, H.; Ehmanns, A.; Elsner, D.; Essig, K.; Ewald, R.; Fabry, I.; Fornet-Ponse, K.; Fuchs, M.; Funke, Ch.; Gothe, R.; Gregor, R.; Gridnev, A. B.; Höffgen, St.; Hoffmeister, P.; Horn, I.; Jägle, I.; Junkersfeld, J.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kammer, S.; Kleber, V.; Klein, Friedrich; Klein, Frank; Klempt, E.; Konrad, M.; Kotulla, M.; Krusche, B.; Lang, M.; Langheinrich, J.; Löhner, H.; Lopatin, I. V.; Lotz, J.; Lugert, S.; Menze, D.; Mertens, T.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Metag, V.; Morales, C.; Nanova, M.; Nikonov, V. A.; Novinsky, D.; Novotny, R.; Ostrick, M.; Pant, L.; Pfeiffer, M.; Radkov, A.; Sarantsev, A. V.; Schadmand, S.; Schmidt, Ch.; Schmieden, H.; Schoch, B.; Shende, S.; Süle, A.; Sumachev, V. V.; Szczepanek, T.; Thoma, U.; Trnka, D.; Walther, D.; Weinheimer, Ch.; Wendel, Ch.

    In photoproduction experiments, a large number of final states yielding various resonance contributions are accessible. To extract resonance parameters via partial-wave analysis not only the measurement of differential cross-sections is necessary, but also the determination of polarization observables. At the electron accelerator ELSA (Bonn) the coherent bremsstrahlung method was used to generate a linearly polarized photon beam. Using the CBELSA/TAPS detector setup, the beam asymmetry Σ in the reaction γp → pπ 0 η was determined as a function of various masses and angles for photon energies between 970MeV and 1650MeV.

  4. Measurement of the beam asymmetry Σ in πeta; production off the proton with the CBELSA/TAPS experiment⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutz, E.; Sokhoyan, V.; van Pee, H.; Anisovich, A. V.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Bantes, B.; Bartholomy, O.; Bayadilov, D.; Beck, R.; Beloglazov, Y. A.; Castelijns, R.; Credé, V.; Dutz, H.; Ehmanns, A.; Elsner, D.; Essig, K.; Ewald, R.; Fabry, I.; Fornet-Ponse, K.; Fuchs, M.; Funke, Ch.; Gothe, R.; Gregor, R.; Gridnev, A. B.; Höffgen, St.; Hoffmeister, P.; Horn, I.; Jägle, I.; Junkersfeld, J.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kammer, S.; Kleber, V.; Klein, Friedrich; Klein, Frank; Klempt, E.; Konrad, M.; Kotulla, M.; Krusche, B.; Lang, M.; Langheinrich, J.; Löhner, H.; Lopatin, I. V.; Lotz, J.; Lugert, S.; Menze, D.; Mertens, T.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Metag, V.; Morales, C.; Nanova, M.; Nikonov, V. A.; Novinsky, D.; Novotny, R.; Ostrick, M.; Pant, L.; Pfeiffer, M.; Radkov, A.; Sarantsev, A. V.; Schadmand, S.; Schmidt, Ch.; Schmieden, H.; Schoch, B.; Shende, S.; Süle, A.; Sumachev, V. V.; Szczepanek, T.; Thoma, U.; Trnka, D.; Walther, D.; Weinheimer, Ch.; Wendel, Ch.

    2008-03-01

    In photoproduction experiments, a large number of final states yielding various resonance contributions are accessible. To extract resonance parameters via partial-wave analysis not only the measurement of differential cross-sections is necessary, but also the determination of polarization observables. At the electron accelerator ELSA (Bonn) the coherent bremsstrahlung method was used to generate a linearly polarized photon beam. Using the CBELSA/TAPS detector setup, the beam asymmetry Σ in the reaction γ p → pπ0η was determined as a function of various masses and angles for photon energies between 970MeV and 1650MeV.

  5. The effects of proton-beam quality on the production of gamma rays for nuclear resonance absorption in nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Graybill, R.; Morgado, R.E.; Cappiello, C.C.

    1994-05-01

    The authors describe a method for performing nuclear-resonance absorption with the proton beam from a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator. The objective was to assess the suitability of the pulsed beam from an RFQ to image nitrogen compared to electrostatic accelerators. This choice of accelerator results in trade-offs in performance and complexity, in return for the prospect of higher average current. In spite of a reduced resonance attenuation coefficient in nitrogen, they successfully produced three-dimensional tomographic images of real explosives in luggage the first time the unoptimized system was operated. The results and assessments of the initial laboratory measurements are reported.

  6. Cartesian beams.

    PubMed

    Bandres, Miguel A; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C

    2007-12-01

    A new and very general beam solution of the paraxial wave equation in Cartesian coordinates is presented. We call such a field a Cartesian beam. The complex amplitude of the Cartesian beams is described by either the parabolic cylinder functions or the confluent hypergeometric functions, and the beams are characterized by three parameters that are complex in the most general situation. The propagation through complex ABCD optical systems and the conditions for square integration are studied in detail. Applying the general expression of the Cartesian beams, we also derive two new and meaningful beam structures that, to our knowledge, have not yet been reported in the literature. Special cases of the Cartesian beams are the standard, elegant, and generalized Hermite-Gauss beams, the cosine-Gauss beams, the Lorentz beams, and the fractional order beams.

  7. CP asymmetries with longitudinal and transverse beam polarizations in neutralino production and decay into the Z0 boson at the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartl, Alfred; Hohenwarter-Sodek, Karl; Kernreiter, Thomas; Kittel, Olaf

    2007-09-01

    We study neutralino production at the linear collider with the subsequent two-body decays tilde chi0i → tilde chi0nZ0 and Z0 → ell bar-ell, with ell = e, μ, τ, or Z0 → qbar q with q = c, b. We show that transverse electron and positron beam polarizations allow the definition of unique CP observables. These are azimuthal asymmetries in the distributions of the final leptons or quarks. We calculate these CP asymmetries and the cross sections in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with complex higgsino and gaugino parameters μ and M1. For final quark pairs, we find CP asymmetries as large as 30%. We discuss the significances for observing the CP asymmetries at the International Linear Collider (ILC). Finally we compare the CP asymmetries with those asymmetries which require unpolarized and/or longitudinally polarized beams only.

  8. Design of a compact, permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for proton and H{sub 2}{sup +} beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Jia Xianlu; Zhang Tianjue; Wang Chuan; Zheng Xia; Yin Zhiguo; Zhong Junqing; Wu Longcheng; Qin Jiuchang; Luo Shan

    2010-02-15

    A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source was developed at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) for proton beam production of over 60 mA [B.-Q. Cui, Y.-W. Bao, L.-Q. Li, W.-S. Jiang, and R.-W. Wang, Proceedings of the High Current Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Ion Source for Proton Accelerator, APAC-2001, 2001 (unpublished)]. For various proton beam applications, another 2.45 GHz microwave ion source with a compact structure is designed and will be built at CIAE as well for high current proton beam production. It is also considered to be used for the test of H{sub 2}{sup +} beam, which could be injected into the central region model cyclotron at CIAE, and accelerated to 5 MeV before extraction by stripping. The required ECR magnetic field is supplied by all the permanent magnets rather than electrical solenoids and six poles. The magnetic field distribution provided by this permanent magnets configuration is a large and uniformly volume of ECR zone, with central magnetic field of a magnitude of {approx}875 Gs[T. Taylor and J. S. C. Wills, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 309, 37 (1991)]. The field adjustment at the extraction end can be implemented by moving the position of the magnet blocks. The results of plasma, coupling with 2.45 GHz microwave in the ECR zone inside the ion source are simulated by particle-in-cell code to optimize the density by adjusting the magnetic field distribution. The design configuration of the ion source will be summarized in the paper.

  9. Beam-foil spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, H.G.; Hass, M.

    1982-01-01

    A brief survey of some applications of beam-foil spectroscopy is presented. Among the topics covered are lifetime and magnetic moment measurements, nuclear alignment, and polarized light production. (AIP)

  10. The use of aluminum nitride to improve Aluminum-26 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry measurements and production of Radioactive Ion Beams

    DOE PAGES

    Janzen, Meghan S.; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo; Liu, Yuan; ...

    2015-06-29

    In this paper, we present results and discuss the use of aluminum nitride as a promising source material for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) science applications of 26Al isotopes. The measurement of 26Al in geological samples by AMS is typically conducted on Al2O3 targets. However, Al2O3 is not an ideal source material because it does not form a prolific beam of Al- required for measuring low-levels of 26Al. Multiple samples of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), aluminum nitride (AlN), mixed Al2O3–AlN as well as aluminum fluoride (AlF3) were tested and compared using the ion source test facility andmore » the stable ion beam (SIB) injector platform at the 25-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Negative ion currents of atomic and molecular aluminum were examined for each source material. It was found that pure AlN targets produced substantially higher beam currents than the other materials and that there was some dependence on the exposure of AlN to air. The applicability of using AlN as a source material for geological samples was explored by preparing quartz samples as Al2O3 and converting them to AlN using a carbothermal reduction technique, which involved reducing the Al2O3 with graphite powder at 1600°C within a nitrogen atmosphere. The quartz material was successfully converted to AlN. Thus far, AlN proves to be a promising source material and could lead towards increasing the sensitivity of low-level 26Al AMS measurements. In conclusion, the potential of using AlN as a source material for nuclear physics is also very promising by placing 26AlN directly into a source to produce more intense radioactive beams of 26Al.« less

  11. The use of aluminum nitride to improve Aluminum-26 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry measurements and production of Radioactive Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzen, Meghan S.; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo; Liu, Yuan; Mills, Gerald D.; Romero-Romero, Elisa; Stracener, Daniel W.

    2015-10-01

    We present results and discuss the use of aluminum nitride as a promising source material for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) science applications of 26Al isotopes. The measurement of 26Al in geological samples by AMS is typically conducted on Al2O3 targets. However, Al2O3 is not an ideal source material because it does not form a prolific beam of Al- required for measuring low-levels of 26Al. Multiple samples of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), aluminum nitride (AlN), mixed Al2O3-AlN as well as aluminum fluoride (AlF3) were tested and compared using the ion source test facility and the stable ion beam (SIB) injector platform at the 25-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Negative ion currents of atomic and molecular aluminum were examined for each source material. It was found that pure AlN targets produced substantially higher beam currents than the other materials and that there was some dependence on the exposure of AlN to air. The applicability of using AlN as a source material for geological samples was explored by preparing quartz samples as Al2O3 and converting them to AlN using a carbothermal reduction technique, which involved reducing the Al2O3 with graphite powder at 1600 °C within a nitrogen atmosphere. The quartz material was successfully converted to AlN. Thus far, AlN proves to be a promising source material and could lead towards increasing the sensitivity of low-level 26Al AMS measurements. The potential of using AlN as a source material for nuclear physics is also very promising by placing 26AlN directly into a source to produce more intense radioactive beams of 26Al.

  12. Anti-Ri-associated paraneoplastic cerebellar and brainstem degenerative syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tay, J K; Miller, J; Joshi, A; Athey, R J

    2012-01-01

    We present the case of a female patient with a subacute paraneoplastic brainstem neurological syndrome associated with breast cancer and the development of anti-Ri antineuronal antibodies (ANNAs). It is an important syndrome to identify because of the need for urgent investigation and management to reduce progressive and irreversible neurological deterioration and to recognise the associated risks of bulbar and central respiratory failure. Diagnosis can be confounded if the anticipated normality of imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies is not appreciated. Positive antineuronal screening can provide rapid support for a paraneoplastic aetiology. Urgent and extensive investigation to identify the underlying tumour is imperative since neurological outcome is dependent on the rapidity of commencement and efficacy of tumour therapy. We discuss the symptoms, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes.

  13. The Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised Indicator (BSS-RI).

    PubMed

    Martin, Colin R; Hollins Martin, Caroline; Redshaw, Maggie

    2017-08-29

    The current study sought to develop a short birth satisfaction indicator utilising items from the Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BSS-R) for use as a brief measure of birth satisfaction and as a possible key performance indicator for perinatal service delivery evaluation. Building on the recently developed BSS-R, the study aimed to develop a simplified version of the instrument to assess birth satisfaction easily that could work as a short evaluative measure of clinical service delivery for labour and birth that is consistent with policy documents, placing women at the centre of the birth experience. The six item Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised Indicator (BSS-RI) was embedded within the 2014 National Maternity Survey for England. A random selection of mothers who had given birth in a two week period in England were surveyed three months after the birth. Using a two-stage design and split-half dataset, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency, convergent, divergent and known-groups discriminant validity evaluation were conducted in a secondary analysis of the survey data. Using this large population based survey of recent mothers the short revised measure was found to comprise two distinct domains of birth satisfaction, 'stress and emotional response to labour and birth' and 'quality of care'. The psychometric qualities of the tool were robust as were the indices of validity and reliability evaluated. The BSS-RI represents a short easily administered and scored measure of women's satisfaction with care and the experience of labour and birth. The instrument is potentially useful for researchers, service evaluation and policy makers.

  14. 76 FR 82001 - Submission for Review: Alternative Annuity Election, RI 20-80

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Alternative Annuity Election, RI 20-80 AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel... on a revised information collection request (ICR) 3206-0168, Alternative Annuity Election, RI 20-80... other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submissions of responses....

  15. 76 FR 18812 - Submission for Review: RI 30-10, Disabled Dependent Questionnaire

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: RI 30-10, Disabled Dependent Questionnaire AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel... INFORMATION: The RI 30-10, Disabled Dependent Questionnaire, is used to collect sufficient information...

  16. 76 FR 82000 - Submission for Review: Marital Status Certification Survey, RI 25-7

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Marital Status Certification Survey, RI 25-7 AGENCY: U.S. Office of... Survey, RI 25-7. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. chapter... collection. The information collection was previously published in the Federal Register on July 7, 2011...

  17. 76 FR 39927 - Submission for Review: Marital Status Certification Survey, RI 25-7

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Marital Status Certification Survey, RI 25-7 AGENCY: U.S. Office of... to (202) 606-0910. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: RI 25-7, Marital Status Certification Survey, is...

  18. 33 CFR 110.47 - Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hill, R.I. 110.47 Section 110.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Hill, R.I. All of the navigable waters of Watch Hill Cove southeasterly of a line beginning at the shore end of the United States project groin on the southerly shore of the cove and running 41°30′...

  19. 33 CFR 110.47 - Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hill, R.I. 110.47 Section 110.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Hill, R.I. All of the navigable waters of Watch Hill Cove southeasterly of a line beginning at the shore end of the United States project groin on the southerly shore of the cove and running 41°30′...

  20. 78 FR 55124 - Submission for Review: Death Benefit Payment Rollover Election, RI 94-7

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Death Benefit Payment Rollover Election, RI 94-7 AGENCY: U.S. Office of... (ICR) 3206-0218, Death Benefit Payment Rollover Election, RI 94-7. As required by the Paperwork... Services, Office of Personnel Management. Title: Death Benefit Payment Rollover Election. OMB: 3206-0218...

  1. 33 CFR 100.119 - Newport-Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Newport-Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI 100.119 Section 100.119 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...-Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI (a) Regulated area. The regulated area includes all...

  2. The Humanities and Interrater Reliability: A Response to R. Stephen RiCharde

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flick, Arend

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's critique of R. Stephen RiCharde's argument in his essay on the humanities and interrater reliability in the July-August 2008 issue of "Assessment Update." RiCharde suggests that the humanities' historical commitment to a dialectical pedagogy, a "nonlinear" process that values disagreement and debate, is at odds…

  3. IgE enhances Fc epsilon RI expression and IgE-dependent TNF-alpha release from canine skin mast cells.

    PubMed

    Brazís, P; De Mora, F; Ferrer, L; Puigdemont, A

    2002-03-01

    The role of IgE on mast cell (MC) activation is well known. Recent studies have demonstrated that IgE also has the ability to up-regulate the high affinity IgE receptor (Fc epsilon RI) on the surface of human and murine MC, leading to an increased production of cytokines and chemokines. In the present study, we have examined the influence of IgE levels on Fc epsilon RI expression, and its consequences on TNF-alpha production from canine skin MC. Mature MC were enzymatically dispersed from the skin biopsies of 6-8 dogs and were cultured for up to 5 days in medium supplemented with recombinant canine stem cell factor (SCF) (6 ng/ml), in the presence of increasing serum IgE concentrations (ranging from 0 to 80 microg/ml). Subsequently, skin MC were activated with anti-IgE, and TNF-alpha concentration was assessed 5h post-activation by a cytotoxic bioassay. Fc epsilon RI receptors were identified in MC surface by flow cytometry. MC cultured for up to 5 days in the presence of high serum IgE concentration (8 microg/ml) produced twice the quantity of TNF-alpha than MC cultured in the absence of serum IgE, in response to stimulation with anti-IgE. Moreover, the percentage of Fc epsilon RI-positive skin cells was found to be approximately double in cells cultured with serum IgE compared to that cultured in the absence of IgE, following saturation of IgE receptors. These results suggest that, as found in human and murine MC, IgE may induce an up-regulation of the Fc epsilon RI density and an enhancement in the secretory activity of canine skin MC. This study could be of great interest in designing new therapeutic strategies for controlling MC activation in inflammatory and allergic processes.

  4. Population trends and flight behavior of the American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus (Coleoptera: Silphidae), on Block Island, RI

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raithel, C.J.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Prospero, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    The endangered American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus, was monitored on Block Island, RI, USA, from 1991-2003 using mark-recapture population estimates of adults collected in pitfall traps. Populations increased through time, especially after 1994 when a program was initiated that provided carrion for beetle production. Beetle captures increased with increasing temperature and dew point, and decreased with increasing wind speed. Short distance movement was not related to wind direction, while longer distance flights tended to be downwind. Although many individuals flew considerable distances along transects, most recaptures were in traps near the point of release. These behaviors probably have counterbalancing effects on population estimates.

  5. Ion beam thruster shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, J. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An ion thruster beam shield is provided that comprises a cylindrical housing that extends downstream from the ion thruster and a plurality of annular vanes which are spaced along the length of the housing, and extend inwardly from the interior wall of the housing. The shield intercepts and stops all charge exchange and beam ions, neutral propellant, and sputter products formed due to the interaction of beam and shield emanating from the ion thruster outside of a fixed conical angle from the thruster axis. Further, the shield prevents the sputter products formed during the operation of the engine from escaping the interior volume of the shield.

  6. RI-1: a chemical inhibitor of RAD51 that disrupts homologous recombination in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Budke, Brian; Logan, Hillary L.; Kalin, Jay H.; Zelivianskaia, Anna S.; Cameron McGuire, William; Miller, Luke L.; Stark, Jeremy M.; Kozikowski, Alan P.; Bishop, Douglas K.; Connell, Philip P.

    2012-01-01

    Homologous recombination serves multiple roles in DNA repair that are essential for maintaining genomic stability. We here describe RI-1, a small molecule that inhibits the central recombination protein RAD51. RI-1 specifically reduces gene conversion in human cells while stimulating single strand annealing. RI-1 binds covalently to the surface of RAD51 protein at cysteine 319 that likely destabilizes an interface used by RAD51 monomers to oligomerize into filaments on DNA. Correspondingly, the molecule inhibits the formation of subnuclear RAD51 foci in cells following DNA damage, while leaving replication protein A focus formation unaffected. Finally, it potentiates the lethal effects of a DNA cross-linking drug in human cells. Given that this inhibitory activity is seen in multiple human tumor cell lines, RI-1 holds promise as an oncologic drug. Furthermore, RI-1 represents a unique tool to dissect the network of reaction pathways that contribute to DNA repair in cells. PMID:22573178

  7. Study of device mass production capability of the character projection based electron beam direct writing process technology toward 14 nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Yasushi; Takakuwa, Masaki; Ohshio, Shuzo; Sugatani, Shinji; Tujimura, Ryo; Takita, Hiroshi; Ogino, Kozo; Hoshino, Hiromi; Ito, Yoshio; Miyajima, Masaaki; Kon, Jun-ichi

    2012-03-01

    Techniques to appropriately control the key factors for a character projection (CP) based electron beam direct writing (EBDW) technology for mass production are shown and discussed. In order to achieve accurate CD control, the CP technique using the master CP is adopted. Another CP technique, the Packed CP, is used to obtain suitable shot count. For the alignment on the some critical layers which have the normally an even surface, the alignment methodology differ from photolithography is required. The process that etches the SiO2 material in the shallow trench isolation is added and then the alignment marks can be detected using electron beam even at the gate layer, which is normally on an even surface. The proximity effect correction using the simplified electron energy flux model and the hybrid exposure are used to obtain enough process margins. As a result, the sufficient CD accuracy, overlay accuracy, and yield are obtained on the 65 nm node device. The condition in our system is checked using self-diagnosis on a regular basis, and scheduled maintenances have been properly performed. Due to the proper system control, more than 10,000 production wafers have been successfully exposed so far without any major system downtime. It is shown that those techniques can be adapted to the 32 nm node production with slight modifications. For the 14 nm node and beyond, however, the drastic increment of the shot count becomes more of a concern. The Multi column cell (MCC) exposure method, the key concept of which is the parallelization of the electron beam columns with a CP, can overcome this concern. It is expected that by using the MCC exposure system, those techniques will be applicable to the rapid establishment for the 14 nm node technology.

  8. High P(t) Neutral Pion and Eta Meson Production by 300 Gev/c PI(+,-) and Proton Beams on a Lithium Targe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Qifeng

    The inclusive cross sections of high p _{T} pi^0 and eta production were measured in 300 GeV pi^+/- Li and p Li interactions, by Fermilab experiment 705. The data covered the p_{T} range from 3.5 GeV/c to 7.0 GeV/c, and the x_{F} range from -0.25 to 0.35. The inclusive pi^0 production cross section falls off with increasing p _{T}, following a power law that is in good agreement with the scaling violation behavior observed by earlier experiments. The pi ^0 cross sections in pi^+ Li and pi^- Li are equal within statistical errors, and in agreement with theoretical prediction based on the isospin invariance. The pi^0 cross section ratio of sigma(pi^+ + Li to pi ^0 + X)/sigma(p + Li to pi^0 + X) increases with increasing p_ {T} as expected from the parton model. The eta to pi ^0 production ratios, sigma( pi^{+/-},p + Li to eta + X)/ sigma(pi^{+/-}, p + Li to pi^0 + X), were also measured for the three different types of beams. Those ratios are 0.471 +/- 0.031, 0.457 +/- 0.057, and 0.562 +/- 0.074 for pi^-, pi^+, and proton beams, respectively.

  9. The Production of Energetic Atomic Beams via Charge Exchange for the Simulation of the Low-Earth Orbit Environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketsdever, Andrew David

    The interactions of energetic atoms with solid materials and other gases are important to a wide range of engineering disciplines. The interactions between low -Earth orbit (LEO) atomic oxygen and spacecraft surfaces, outgassed molecules, rocket exhaust plume species and other atmospheric gases are of great interest to the aerospace engineering community. The approach taken in this study was to design a facility which can be used to understand the physics of energetic gas-gas and gas-surface collisions. The type of facility needed to accomplish this requires a continuous, high energy (5-100eV) atomic beam with a low energy spread and a moderate flux. The flux of atoms from this facility, although estimated to be several orders of magnitude lower than LEO conditions, is sufficient to gain qualitative and quantitative insight into LEO environmental interactions. In the pilot scale true energy atmospheric simulator (TEAS) developed in this research, ion engine technology is incorporated to produce a beam of energetic ions. Because the ion source discharges can be operated on several gases, simulation of any atmospheric species can be achieved; however, atomic oxygen is the species of interest in this study. The ions are accelerated to the desired energy range and undergo a charge exchange process in molecular hydrogen to produce the energetic atomic beam Molecular hydrogen is chosen as the charge exchange gas because of the relatively large cross section for the reaction and the small scattering angle per collision. An electrostatic energy analyzer, a mass spectrometer and thin silver reaction films are used to diagnose the beams produced by the TEAS.

  10. Evaluation of some selected vaccines and other biological products irradiated by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, J. C.; Rey, L.; Lee, Chi-Jen

    2002-03-01

    Molecular sizing potency results are presented for irradiated samples of one lot of Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal polysaccharide type 6B and typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine. The samples were irradiated (25 kGy) by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays. IgG and IgM antibody response in mice test results (ELISA) are given for the Hib conjugate vaccine irradiated at 0°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen.

  11. Thorium silicate compound as a solid-state target for production of isomeric thorium-229 nuclei by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisyuk, P. V.; Vasilyev, O. S.; Lebedinskii, Y. Y.; Krasavin, A. V.; Tkalya, E. V.; Troyan, V. I.; Habibulina, R. F.; Chubunova, E. V.; Yakovlev, V. P.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we discuss an idea of the experiment for excitation of the isomeric transition in thorium-229 nuclei by irradiating with electron beam targets with necessary physical characteristics. The chemical composition and bandgap of ThSi10O22 were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy. It was found that the energy gap is equal to 7.7 eV and does not change when the target is exposed to a medium energy electron beam for a long time. This indicates that the compound possesses high electron-beam resistance. A quantitative estimation of the output function of isomeric thorium-229 nuclei generated by interaction of nuclei with the secondary electron flow formed by irradiating the solid-state ThSi10O22-based target is given. The estimation shows that ThSi10O22 is a promising thorium-containing target for investigating excitation of the nuclear low-lying isomeric transition in the thorium-229 isotope using medium-energy electrons.

  12. The use of aluminum nitride to improve Aluminum-26 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry measurements and production of Radioactive Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Janzen, Meghan S.; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo; Liu, Yuan; Mills, Gerald D.; Romero-Romero, Elisa; Stracener, Daniel W.

    2015-06-29

    In this paper, we present results and discuss the use of aluminum nitride as a promising source material for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) science applications of 26Al isotopes. The measurement of 26Al in geological samples by AMS is typically conducted on Al2O3 targets. However, Al2O3 is not an ideal source material because it does not form a prolific beam of Al- required for measuring low-levels of 26Al. Multiple samples of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), aluminum nitride (AlN), mixed Al2O3–AlN as well as aluminum fluoride (AlF3) were tested and compared using the ion source test facility and the stable ion beam (SIB) injector platform at the 25-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Negative ion currents of atomic and molecular aluminum were examined for each source material. It was found that pure AlN targets produced substantially higher beam currents than the other materials and that there was some dependence on the exposure of AlN to air. The applicability of using AlN as a source material for geological samples was explored by preparing quartz samples as Al2O3 and converting them to AlN using a carbothermal reduction technique, which involved reducing the Al2O3 with graphite powder at 1600°C within a nitrogen atmosphere. The quartz material was successfully converted to AlN. Thus far, AlN proves to be a promising source material and could lead towards increasing the sensitivity of low-level 26Al AMS measurements. In conclusion, the potential of using AlN as a source material for nuclear physics is also very promising by placing 26AlN directly into a source to produce more intense radioactive beams of 26Al.

  13. Noncoaxial Bessel-Gauss beams.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chaohong; Zheng, Yishu; Li, Hanqing

    2016-04-01

    We proposed a new family of noncoaxial Gauss-truncated Bessel beams through multiplying conventional symmetrical Bessel beams by a noncoaxial Gauss function. These beams can also be regarded as the exponential-truncated version of Bessel-Gauss beams since they can be transformed into the product of Bessel-Gauss beams and an exponential window function along a certain Cartesian axis. The closed-form solutions of the angular spectra and paraxial propagation of these beams were derived. These beams have asymmetrical intensity distributions and carry the same orbit angular momentum per photon as the corresponding Bessel-Gauss beams. While propagating along the z axis, the mth (m≠0) noncoaxial Bessel-Gauss beams rotate their intensity distributions and the mth-order vortex at the beam center has a transverse shift along the direction perpendicular to the offset axis. Depending on the product of the transverse scalar factor of the Bessel beams and the offset between the Gaussian window function and the center of the Bessel beams, the noncoaxial Bessel-Gauss beams can produce unit vortices with opposite signs in pairs during propagation.

  14. Establishment of a mammalian cell line suitable for industrial production of recombinant protein using mutations induced by high-energy beam radiation.

    PubMed

    Chida, Yasuhito; Takagi, Keiichi; Terada, Satoshi

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian cells are extensively used for production of biopharmaceuticals. Most cells used in industry have infinite proliferative capacity, which provides a high number of cells and corresponding productivity. However, infinite cells will continue to multiply even after cell density reaches sufficient levels. This excess proliferation aggravates the culture environment and induces low productivity. Therefore, after cell density reaches sufficient levels, downregulation of proliferation would prevent such aggravation and extend the culture period and improve productivity. To realize such suitable proliferation, we aimed to establish a novel cell line whose proliferation was spontaneously downregulated after reaching a sufficient population level. Mutagenesis using high-energy beam irradiation was used. CHO-DP12 cells were irradiated with 2.5 Gy X-rays and screened with hydroxyurea and 5-fluorouracil to eliminate any cells multiplying after confluence and to concentrate desired mutants. One clone was established and named CHO-M1. Cell cycle analysis indicated that CHO-M1 cells had a similar cell cycle profile in the exponential growth phase, but cells rapidly accumulated in G1 phase just before confluence and did not progress through the cell cycle. This suggested that until confluence, proliferation of CHO-M1 was similar to parental CHO, but after confluence, it was inhibited and under G1 arrest. The specific antibody production rate of CHO-M1 was kept high, even after confluence, while that of parental CHO was drastically decreased in stationary phase. These results suggest that the desired cell line was successfully established and that high-energy beam irradiation could be an efficient mutagenic technique for breeding industrial cells.

  15. Peptide mimetics of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and FcαRI block IgA-induced human neutrophil activation and migration.

    PubMed

    Heineke, Marieke H; van der Steen, Lydia P E; Korthouwer, Rianne M; Hage, J Joris; Langedijk, Johannes P M; Benschop, Joris J; Bakema, Jantine E; Slootstra, Jerry W; van Egmond, Marjolein

    2017-07-24

    The cross-linking of the IgA Fc receptor (FcαRI) by IgA induces release of the chemoattractant LTB4, thereby recruiting neutrophils in a positive feedback loop. IgA autoantibodies of patients with autoimmune blistering skin diseases therefore induce massive recruitment of neutrophils, resulting in severe tissue damage. To interfere with neutrophil mobilization and reduce disease morbidity, we developed a panel of specific peptides mimicking either IgA or FcαRI sequences. CLIPS technology was used to stabilize three-dimensional structures and to increase peptides' half-life. IgA and FcαRI peptides reduced phagocytosis of IgA-coated beads, as well as IgA-induced ROS production and neutrophil migration in in vitro and ex vivo (human skin) experiments. Since topical application would be the preferential route of administration, Cetomacrogol cream containing an IgA CLIPS peptide was developed. In the presence of a skin permeation enhancer, peptides in this cream were shown to penetrate the skin, while not diffusing systemically. Finally, epitope mapping was used to discover sequences important for binding between IgA and FcαRI. In conclusion, a cream containing IgA or FcαRI peptide mimetics, which block IgA-induced neutrophil activation and migration in the skin may have therapeutic potential for patients with IgA-mediated blistering skin diseases. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B4 regulates key signalling molecules involved in FcγRI-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis and phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mijeong; Raftery, Mark J.; Thomas, Paul S.; Geczy, Carolyn L.; Bryant, Katherine; Tedla, Nicodemus

    2016-01-01

    FcγRI cross-linking on monocytes may trigger clathrin-mediated endocytosis, likely through interaction of multiple intracellular molecules that are controlled by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events. However, the identity of phospho-proteins and their regulation are unknown. We proposed the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B4 (LILRB4) that inhibits FcγRI-mediated cytokine production via Tyr dephosphorylation of multiple kinases, may also regulate endocytosis/phagocytosis through similar mechanisms. FcγRI and/or LILRB4 were antibody-ligated on THP-1 cells, lysates immunoprecipitated using anti-pTyr antibody and peptides sequenced by mass spectrometry. Mascot Search identified 25 Tyr phosphorylated peptides with high confidence. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that the most significantly affected pathways were clathrin-mediated endocytosis and Fc-receptor dependent phagocytosis. Tyr phosphorylation of key candidate proteins in these pathways included common γ-chain of the Fc receptors, Syk, clathrin, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase Cbl, hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate, tripartite motif-containing 21 and heat shock protein 70. Importantly, co-ligation of LILRB4 with FcγRI caused significant dephosphorylation of these proteins and was associated with suppression of Fc receptor-dependent uptake of antibody-opsonised bacterial particles, indicating that LILRB4. These results suggest that Tyr phosphorylation may be critical in FcγRI-dependent endocytosis/phagocytosis that may be regulated by LILRB4 by triggering dephosphorylation of key signalling proteins. PMID:27725776

  17. Depth profiles of production yields of natPb(p, xn)206,205,204,203,202 Bi reactions using 100-MeV proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oranj, Leila Mokhtari; Jung, Nam-Suk; Oh, Joo-Hee; Lee, Arim; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Bae, Oryun; Lee, Hee-Seock

    2017-09-01

    In this study, results of the experimental study on the depth profiles of production yields of 206,205,204,203,202Bi radio-nuclei in the natural Pb target irradiated by a 100-MeV proton beam are presented. Irradiation was performed at proton linac facility (KOMAC) in Korea. The target, irradiated by 100-MeV protons, was arranged in a stack consisting of natural Pb, Al, Au foils and Pb plates. The proton beam intensity was determined by activation analysis method using 27Al(p, 3p1n)24Na, 197Au(p, p1n)196Au, and 197Au(p, p3n)194Au monitor reactions and also using dosimetry method by a Gafchromic film. The production yields of produced Bi radio-nuclei in the natural Pb foils and monitor reactions were measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Monte Carlo simulations were performed by FLUKA, PHITS, and MCNPX codes and compared with the measurements in order to verify validity of physical models and nuclear data libraries in the Monte Carlo codes. A fairly good agreement was observed between the present experimental data and the simulations by FLUKA, PHITS, and MCNPX. However, physical models and the nuclear data relevant to the end of range of protons in the codes need to be improved.

  18. Simulation study of neutron production in thick beryllium targets by 35 MeV and 50.5 MeV proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae Won; Park, Tae-Sun

    2017-09-01

    A data-driven nuclear model dedicated to an accurate description of neutron productions in beryllium targets bombarded by proton beams is developed as a custom development that can be used as an add-on to GEANT4 code. The developed model, G4Data(Endf7.1), takes as inputs the total and differential cross section data of ENDF/B-VII.1 for not only the charge-exchange 9Be(p,n)9B reaction which produces discrete neutrons but also the nuclear reactions relevant for the production of continuum neutrons such as 9Be(p,pn)8Be and 9Be(p,n α) 5Li . In our benchmarking simulations for two experiments with 35 MeV and 50.5 MeV proton beams impinged on 1.16 and 1.05 cm thick beryllium targets, respectively, we find that the G4Data(Endf7.1) model can reproduce both the total amounts and the spectral shapes of the measured neutron yield data in a satisfactory manner, while all the considered hadronic models of GEANT4 cannot.

  19. Towards tabletop production of intense quasimonochromatic X-ray beams using small 2-20 MeV accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakian, Robert O.; Ispirian, Karo A.

    2005-08-01

    The existing synchrotron radiation sources and the fourth generation x-ray sources, which are projected at SLAC, USA, and DESY, Germany, are very expensive. For this reason the search for the novel and cheaper sources using various types of radiation produced by 2-20 MeV electrons available at many hospitals, universities and firms in various countries is of great interest. A review of the physics, history, new theoretical and experimental results and of some applications is given with a purpose to consider the possibilities of construction of small tabletop sources of quasimonochromatic X-ray photon beams necessary for scientific, industrial, medicine and other applications.

  20. Production of Zero-Energy Radioactive Nuclear Beams through Extraction from the Liquid-Vapour Interface of Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, N.; Huang, W. X.; Dendooven, P.; Gloos, K.; Pekola, J. P.; ńystö, J.

    2004-04-01

    A new approach has been investigated to create an ultra-cold radioactive beam from high-energy ions. A 223Ra alpha-decay recoil source has been used to produce radioactive ions in superfluid helium. The alpha spectra demonstrate that the recoiling 219Rn ions have been extracted out of liquid helium. This first observation of the extraction of heavy positive ions across the superfluid helium surface has been possible thanks to the high sensitivity of radioactive ion detection. An efficiency of 36 % has been obtained for the ion extraction out of liquid helium.

  1. Final product analysis in the e-beam and gamma radiolysis of aqueous solutions of metoprolol tartrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slegers, Catherine; Tilquin, Bernard

    2006-09-01

    The radiostability of metoprolol tartrate aqueous solutions and the influence of the absorbed dose (0-50 kGy), dose rate (e-beam (EB) vs. gamma ( γ)) and radioprotectors (pharmaceutical excipients) are investigated by HPLC-UV analyses and through computer simulations. The use of radioprotecting excipients is more promising than an increase in the dose rate to lower the degradation of metoprolol tartrate aqueous solutions for applications such as radiosterilization. The decontamination of metoprolol tartrate from waste waters by EB processing appears highly feasible.

  2. On the sequences ri, si, ti ∈ ℤ related to extended Euclidean algorithm and continued fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Khairun Nisak; Kamarulhaili, Hailiza

    2016-06-01

    The extended Euclidean Algorithm is a practical technique used in many cryptographic applications, where it computes the sequences ri, si, ti ∈ ℤ that always satisfy ri = si a+ tib. The integer ri is the remainder in the ith sequences. The sequences si and ti arising from the extended Euclidean algorithm are equal, up to sign, to the convergents of the continued fraction expansion of a/b. The values of (ri, si, ti) satisfy various properties which are used to solve the shortest vector problem in representing point multiplications in elliptic curves cryptography, namely the GLV (Gallant, Lambert & Vanstone) integer decomposition method and the ISD (integer sub decomposition) method. This paper is to extend the proof for each of the existing properties on (ri, si, ti). We also generate new properties which are relevant to the sequences ri, si, ti ∈ ℤ. The concepts of Euclidean algorithm, extended Euclidean algorithm and continued fractions are intertwined and the properties related to these concepts are proved. These properties together with the existing properties of the sequence (ri, si, ti) are regarded as part and parcel of the building blocks of a new generation of an efficient cryptographic protocol.

  3. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process, elements and techniques guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This manual provides detailed guidance on Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Studies (RI/FSs) conducted pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The purpose of the RI/FS, to assess the risk posed by a hazardous waste site and to determine the best way to reduce that risk, and its structure (site characterization, risk assessment, screening and detailed analysis of alternatives, etc.) is defined in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) and further explained in the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies Under CERCLA (Interim Final) 540/G-89/004, OSWER Directive 9355.3-01, October 1988. Though issued in 1988, the EPA guidance remains an excellent source of information on the conduct and structure of an RI/FS. This document makes use of supplemental RI/FS-related guidance that EPA has developed since its initial document was issued in 1988, incorporates practical lessons learned in more than 12 years of experience in CERCLA hazardous site remediation, and drawing on those lessons, introduces the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER), developed by DOE as a way to proceed quickly and efficiently through the RI/FS process at DOE facilities. Thus as its title implies, this guidance is intended to describe in detail the process and component elements of an RI/FS, as well as techniques to manage the RI/FS effectively.

  4. Soft Fusion Energy Path: Isotope Production in Energy Subcritical/Economy Hypercritical D +D Colliding-Beam Mini Fusion Reactor `Exyder'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, Tim; Maglich, Bogdan; Calsec Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Bethe1 and Sakharov2 argued for soft fusion energy path via isotope production, substantiated by Manheimer3. - Copious T and 3He production4 , 5 from D(d, p) T and D(d, n) 3He reactions in 725 KeV D +D colliding beams was measured in weak-focusing Self-Collider6 , 7 radius 0.15 m, in B = 3.12 T, non-linearly stabilized by electron cloud oscillations8 to confinement time = 24 s. Simulations6 predict that by switching to strong focusing9, 10 deuterons 0.75 MeV each, generate 1 3He +1T +1p + 1n at total input energy cost 10.72 MeV. Economic value of T and 3He is 65 and 120 MeV/atom, respectively. We obtain economic gain 205MeV/10.72 MeV ~ 2,000% i.e. 3He production funds cost of T. If first wall is made of Thorium n's will breed 233U releasing 200 MeV/fission, at neutron cost 5.36 MeV versus 160 MeV in beam on target, resulting in no cost 3He production, valued 75K/g. 1. Physics Today, May 1979, p.44; 2. Memoirs, Vintage Books, (1992); 3. Phys. Today, May 2012 p. 12; 4. Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 796 (1985); 5. Bull. APS, 57, No. 3 (2012); 6. Part. Acc.1, (1970); 7. ANEUTRONIC FUSION NIM A 271 1-167 (1988); 8. Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1818 (1993); 9. Part. Acc. 34, 13 (1990).

  5. Stability of EcoRI restriction-modification enzymes in vivo differentiates the EcoRI restriction-modification system from other postsegregational cell killing systems.

    PubMed

    Ichige, Asao; Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2005-10-01

    Certain type II restriction modification gene systems can kill host cells when these gene systems are eliminated from the host cells. Such ability to cause postsegregational killing of host cells is the feature of bacterial addiction modules, each of which consists of toxin and antitoxin genes. With these addiction modules, the differential stability of toxin and antitoxin molecules in cells plays an essential role in the execution of postsegregational killing. We here examined in vivo stability of the EcoRI restriction enzyme (toxin) and modification enzyme (antitoxin), the gene system of which has previously been shown to cause postsegregational host killing in Escherichia coli. Using two different methods, namely, quantitative Western blot analysis and pulse-chase immunoprecipitation analysis, we demonstrated that both the EcoRI restriction enzyme and modification enzyme are as stable as bulk cellular proteins and that there is no marked difference in their stability. The numbers of EcoRI restriction and modification enzyme molecules present in a host cell during the steady-state growth were estimated. We monitored changes in cellular levels of the EcoRI restriction and modification enzymes during the postsegregational killing. Results from these analyses together suggest that the EcoRI gene system does not rely on differential stability between the toxin and the antitoxin molecules for execution of postsegregational cell killing. Our results provide insights into the mechanism of postsegregational killing by restriction-modification systems, which seems to be distinct from mechanisms of postsegregational killing by other bacterial addiction modules.

  6. Bulk production and evaluation of high specific activity (186g)Re for cancer therapy using enriched (186)WO3 targets in a proton beam.

    PubMed

    Mastren, Tara; Radchenko, Valery; Bach, Hong T; Balkin, Ethan R; Birnbaum, Eva R; Brugh, Mark; Engle, Jonathan W; Gott, Matthew D; Guthrie, James; Hennkens, Heather M; John, Kevin D; Ketring, Alan R; Kuchuk, Marina; Maassen, Joel R; Naranjo, Cleo M; Nortier, F Meiring; Phelps, Tim E; Jurisson, Silvia S; Wilbur, D Scott; Fassbender, Michael E

    2017-06-01

    Rhenium-186g (t1/2 = 3.72 d) is a β(-) emitting isotope suitable for theranostic applications. Current production methods rely on reactor production by way of the reaction (185)Re(n,γ)(186g)Re, which results in low specific activities limiting its use for cancer therapy. Production via charged particle activation of enriched (186)W results in a (186g)Re product with a higher specific activity, allowing it to be used more broadly for targeted radiotherapy applications. This targets the unmet clinical need for more efficient radiotherapeutics. A target consisting of highly enriched, pressed (186)WO3 was irradiated with protons at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Isotope Production Facility (LANL-IPF) to evaluate (186g)Re product yield and quality. LANL-IPF was operated in a dedicated nominal 40 MeV mode. Alkaline dissolution followed by anion exchange chromatography was used to isolate (186g)Re from the target material. Phantom and radiolabeling studies were conducted with the produced (186g)Re activity. A (186g)Re batch yield of 1.38 ± 0.09 MBq/μAh or 384.9 ± 27.3 MBq/C was obtained after 16.5 h in a 205 μA average/230μA maximum current proton beam. The chemical recovery yield was 93% and radiolabeling was achieved with efficiencies ranging from 60-80%. True specific activity of (186g)Re at EOB was determined via ICP-AES and amounted to 0.788 ± 0.089 GBq/μg (0.146 ± 0.017 GBq/nmol), which is approximately seven times higher than the product obtained from neutron capture in a reactor. Phantom studies show similar imaging quality to the gold standard (99m)Tc. We report a preliminary study of the large-scale production and novel anion exchange based chemical recovery of high specific activity (186g)Re from enriched (186)WO3 targets in a high-intensity proton beam with exceptional chemical recovery and radiochemical purity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Design of a secondary ionization target for direct production of a C(-) beam from CO2 pulses for online AMS.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Gary; Ognibene, Ted

    2013-01-01

    We designed and optimized a novel device "target" that directs a CO2 gas pulse onto a Ti surface where a Cs(+) beam generates C(-) from the CO2. This secondary ionization target enables an accelerator mass spectrometer to ionize pulses of CO2 in the negative mode to measure (14)C/(12)C isotopic ratios in real time. The design of the targets were based on computational flow dynamics, ionization mechanism and empirical optimization. As part of the ionization mechanism, the adsorption of CO2 on the Ti surface was fitted with the Jovanovic-Freundlich isotherm model using empirical and simulation data. The inferred adsorption constants were in good agreement with other works. The empirical optimization showed that amount of injected carbon and the flow speed of the helium carrier gas improve the ionization efficiency and the amount of (12)C(-) produced until reaching a saturation point. Linear dynamic range between 150 and 1000 ng of C and optimum carrier gas flow speed of around 0.1 mL/min were shown. It was also shown that the ionization depends on the area of the Ti surface and Cs(+) beam cross-section. A range of ionization efficiency of 1-2.5% was obtained by optimizing the described parameters.

  8. Effect of nanoparticles on the RII -RI -RV rotator phase transitions of alkanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Prabir K.

    2017-08-01

    Experimental studies have shown that nanoparticles play an important role on the rotator phase transitions of n-alkanes. A phenomenological model for predicting the RII -RI -RV phase transitions in mixtures of alkanes and nanoparticles has been proposed by combining Flory-Huggins free energy of isotropic mixing and Landau free energy. The impact of nanoparticles on the RII -RI -RV phase transitions and their transition temperatures is discussed by means of phenomenological theory. The possibility of the tricritical behavior of the RI -RV phase transition in the mixtures of alkanes and nanoparticles is discussed. The theoretical predictions are in good qualitative agreement with available experimental results.

  9. Optical observations of meteors in RI Nikolaev Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulga, Alexander; Sybiryakova, Yevgeniya; Kulichenko, Nikolay; Vovk, Vasyl

    2015-08-01

    Video observations of meteors at the RI NAO are conducted using meteor patrol, which includes 6 optical telescopes (4 lenses: f = 85 mm, f/1.8; 2 lenses: f = 100 mm, f/2.0) equipped with a TV CCD cameras WAT-902H2 (768×576, 8.6×8.3µ). The field of view of 4 telescopes is 3.2°×4.2° and 2.7°×3.6° for 2 telescopes. System doesn't have any intensifier. Each video system is contained in a hermetic capsule to prevent it from rain and other aggressive meteorological conditions. Cameras work in the interlace mode with rate 50 half-frames per second.During 2011-2014 4135 single station meteors were observed. The mean duration of observed meteor trajectories are in 0.05-0.6 s. Double station observation campaigns has been started in September 2013 and it is still working with baseline 11.8 km. During September 2013 - September 2014 total number of observed meteor trajectories was 1757. Number of double station meteors - 328. The mean accuracy of visible radiant determination is less than 0.5 arc sec, more than 80% of radiates have standard deviation less than 0.2 arc sec.

  10. Initial Measurements of Radiocarbon In Atmospheric Formaldehyde at Narragansett, RI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, H.; Heikes, B. G.; Xu, L.; McNichol, A. P.; Olson, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Formaldehyde is an intermediate in the atmospheric oxidation of nearly every volatile organic compound (VOC) and is important to odd-hydrogen radicals and ozone chemistry. It is directly observed from space and its distributions are used to constrain biogenic emissions of VOCs, specifically isoprene. The relative contribution of fossil VOCs and biogenic VOCs to formaldehyde, to isoprene emission estimates and subsequently to ozone and oxidant chemistry is expected to vary seasonally and spatially due to VOC speciation, emission patterns, and reactivity. The radiocarbon, 14C, content of formaldehyde is useful in assessing the relative contributions of fossil and biogenic VOC groups to formaldehyde. We report a compound specific radiocarbon analysis (CSRA) method for formaldehyde based upon gaseous formaldehyde collection, derivatization to thiazolidine, preparative capillary gas chromatography separation, and AMS analysis. Ambient measurements from Narragansett, RI, made in winter and summer 2007 are presented. On 11 of 13 samples, we find 80 to >95% of the collected formaldehyde is of fossil origin and, contrary to our initial hypothesis, we see no seasonal shift in proportion. The remaining 2 samples, one each from winter and summer, are 30-40% biogenic carbon. The measurements are interpreted considering fossil-biogenic source attribution and local transport conditions and contrasted with prior measurements from Nova Scotia. Further, CSRA measurement of acetaldehyde is feasible with the method.

  11. CCD UBV(RI)C photometry of twenty open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oralhan, İnci Akkaya; Karataş, Yüksel; Schuster, William J.; Michel, Raúl; Chavarría, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental astrophysical parameters have been derived for 20 open clusters (OCs) using CCD UBV(RI)C photometric data observed with the 84 cm telescope at the San Pedro Mártir National Astronomical Observatory, México. The interstellar reddenings, metallicities, distances, and ages have been compared to the literature values. Significant differences are usually due to the usage of diverse empirical calibrations and differing assumptions, such as concerning cluster metallicity, as well as distinct isochrones which correspond to differing element-abundance ratios, internal stellar physics, and photometric systems. Different interstellar reddenings, as well as varying reduction and cluster-membership techniques, are also responsible for these kinds of systematic differences and errors. The morphological ages, which are derived from the morphological indices (δV and δ1) in the CM diagrams, are in good agreement with the isochrone ages of 12 OCs, those with good red clump (RC) and red giant (RG) star candidates. No metal abundance gradient is detected for the range 6.82⩽RGC⩽15.37 kpc, nor any correlation between the cluster ages and metal abundances for these 20 OCs. Young, metal-poor OCs, observed here in the third Galactic quadrant, may be associated with stellar over-densities, such as that in Canis Major (Martin et al.) and the Monoceros Ring (Newberg et al.), or signatures of past accretion events, as discussed by Yong et al. and Carraro et al.

  12. Production of medical radioisotopes with high specific activity in photonuclear reactions with γ-beams of high intensity and large brilliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habs, D.; Köster, U.

    2011-05-01

    We study the production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine in ( γ, xn+ yp) photonuclear reactions or ( γ, γ') photoexcitation reactions with high-flux [(1013-1015) γ/s], small diameter ˜(100 μm)2 and small bandwidth (Δ E/ E≈10-3-10-4) γ beams produced by Compton back-scattering of laser light from relativistic brilliant electron beams. We compare them to (ion, xn+ yp) reactions with (ion = p,d, α) from particle accelerators like cyclotrons and (n, γ) or (n,f) reactions from nuclear reactors. For photonuclear reactions with a narrow γ-beam the energy deposition in the target can be managed by using a stack of thin target foils or wires, hence avoiding direct stopping of the Compton and pair electrons (positrons). However, for ions with a strong atomic stopping only a fraction of less than 10-2 leads to nuclear reactions resulting in a target heating, which is at least 105 times larger per produced radioactive ion and often limits the achievable activity. In photonuclear reactions the well defined initial excitation energy of the compound nucleus leads to a small number of reaction channels and enables new combinations of target isotope and final radioisotope. The narrow bandwidth γ excitation may make use of the fine structure of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) or fluctuations in γ-width leading to increased cross sections. Within a rather short period compared to the isotopic half-life, a target area of the order of (100 μm)2 can be highly transmuted, resulting in a very high specific activity. ( γ, γ') isomer production via specially selected γ cascades allows to produce high specific activity in multiple excitations, where no back-pumping of the isomer to the ground state occurs. We discuss in detail many specific radioisotopes for diagnostics and therapy applications. Photonuclear reactions with γ-beams allow to produce certain radioisotopes, e.g. 47Sc, 44Ti, 67Cu, 103Pd, 117 m Sn, 169Er, 195 m Pt or 225Ac, with higher specific activity

  13. Application of STORMTOOLS's simplified flood inundation model with sea level rise to assess impacts to RI coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaulding, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    The vision for STORMTOOLS is to provide access to a suite of coastal planning tools (numerical models et al), available as a web service, that allows wide spread accessibly and applicability at high resolution for user selected coastal areas of interest. The first product developed under this framework were flood inundation maps, with and without sea level rise, for varying return periods for RI coastal waters. The flood mapping methodology is based on using the water level vs return periods at a primary NOAA water level gauging station and then spatially scaling the values, based on the predictions of high resolution, storm and wave simulations performed by Army Corp of Engineers, North Atlantic Comprehensive Coastal Study (NACCS) for tropical and extratropical storms on an unstructured grid, to estimate inundation levels for varying return periods. The scaling for the RI application used Newport, RI water levels as the reference point. Predictions are provided for once in 25, 50, and 100 yr return periods (at the upper 95% confidence level), with sea level rises of 1, 2, 3, and 5 ft. Simulations have also been performed for historical hurricane events including 1938, Carol (1954), Bob (1991), and Sandy (2012) and nuisance flooding events with return periods of 1, 3, 5, and 10 yr. Access to the flooding maps is via a web based, map viewer that seamlessly covers all coastal waters of the state at one meter resolution. The GIS structure of the map viewer allows overlays of additional relevant data sets (roads and highways, wastewater treatment facilities, schools, hospitals, emergency evacuation routes, etc.) as desired by the user. The simplified flooding maps are publically available and are now being implemented for state and community resilience planning and vulnerability assessment activities in response to climate change impacts.

  14. Engineered selective plant male sterility through pollen-specific expression of the EcoRI restriction endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Millwood, Reginald J; Moon, Hong S; Poovaiah, Charleson R; Muthukumar, Balasubramaniam; Rice, John Hollis; Abercrombie, Jason M; Abercrombie, Laura L; Green, William Derek; Stewart, Charles Neal

    2016-05-01

    Unintended gene flow from transgenic plants via pollen, seed and vegetative propagation is a regulatory concern because of potential admixture in food and crop systems, as well as hybridization and introgression to wild and weedy relatives. Bioconfinement of transgenic pollen would help address some of these concerns and enable transgenic plant production for several crops where gene flow is an issue. Here, we demonstrate the expression of the restriction endonuclease EcoRI under the control of the tomato pollen-specific LAT52 promoter is an effective method for generating selective male sterility in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Of nine transgenic events recovered, four events had very high bioconfinement with tightly controlled EcoRI expression in pollen and negligible-to-no expression other plant tissues. Transgenic plants had normal morphology wherein vegetative growth and reproductivity were similar to nontransgenic controls. In glasshouse experiments, transgenic lines were hand-crossed to both male-sterile and emasculated nontransgenic tobacco varieties. Progeny analysis of 16 000-40 000 seeds per transgenic line demonstrated five lines approached (>99.7%) or attained 100% bioconfinement for one or more generations. Bioconfinement was again demonstrated at or near 100% under field conditions where four transgenic lines were grown in close proximity to male-sterile tobacco, and 900-2100 seeds per male-sterile line were analysed for transgenes. Based upon these results, we conclude EcoRI-driven selective male sterility holds practical potential as a safe and reliable transgene bioconfinement strategy. Given the mechanism of male sterility, this method could be applicable to any plant species. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Measurements of yields of fission products in the reaction of {sup 238}U with high-energy p, d and n beams

    SciTech Connect

    Nolen, J.A.; Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.

    1995-08-01

    An experiment was performed at the Michigan State University cyclotron to determine the yields of neutron-rich fission products in the reaction of {sup 238}U with 100-MeV neutrons, 200-MeV deuterons and 200-MeV protons. Several 1-mm-thick {sup 238}U foils were irradiated for 100-second intervals sequentially for each configuration and the ten spectra were added for higher statistics. The three successive spectra, each for a 40 s period, were accumulated for each sample. Ten foils were irradiated. Successive spectra allowed us to determine approximate half-lives of the gamma peaks. Several arrangements, which were similar to the setup we plan to use in our radioactive beam proposal, were used for the production of fission products. For the high-energy neutron irradiation, U foils were placed after a 5-inch-long, 1-inch-diameter Be cylinder which stopped the 200-MeV deuteron beam generating 100-MeV neutrons. Arrangements for deuteron irradiation included direct irradiation of U foils, placing U foils after different lengths of (0.5 inch, 1.0 inch and 1.5 inch) 2-inch diameter U cylinder. Since the deuteron range in uranium is 17 mm, some of the irradiations were due to the secondary neutrons from the deuteron-induced fission of U. Similar arrangements were also used for the 200-MeV proton irradiation of the {sup 238}U foils. In all cases, several neutron-rich fission products were identified and their yields determined. In particular, we were able to observe Sn in all the runs and determine its yield. The data show that with our proposed radioactive device we will be able to produce more than 10{sup 12} {sup 132}Sn atoms per second in the target. Assuming an overall efficiency of 1 %, we will be able to deliver one particle nanoampere of {sup 132}Sn beam at a target location. Detailed analysis of the {gamma}-ray spectra is in progress.

  16. Low-energy mass-selected ion beam production of fragments produced from hexamethyldisilane for SiC film formation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Satoru Sugimoto, Satoshi; Kiuchi, Masato

    2016-03-14

    We have proposed an experimental methodology which makes it possible to deposit silicon carbide (SiC) films on Si substrates with a low-energy mass-selected ion beam system using hexamethyldisilane (HMD) as a gas source. In this study, one of the fragment ions produced from HMD, SiCH{sub 4}{sup +}, was mass-selected. The ion energy was approximately 100 eV. Then, the SiCH{sub 4}{sup +} ions were irradiated to a Si(100) substrate. When the temperature of the Si substrate was set at 800 °C during the ion irradiation, the X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy of the substrate following the completion of ion irradiation experiment demonstrated the occurrence of 3C-SiC deposition.

  17. Beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.E.; Zinkann, G.P.; Pardo, R.C.

    1995-08-01

    The ECR-PII injector beam line is operated at a fixed ion velocity. The platform high voltage is chosen so that all ions have a velocity of 0.0085c at the PII entrance. If a previous tune configuration for the linac is to be used, the beam arrival time must be matched to the previous tune as well. A nondestructive beam-phase pickup detector was developed and installed at the entrance to the PII linac. This device provides continuous phase and beam current information and allows quick optimization of the beam injected into PII. Bunches traverse a short tubular electrode thereby inducing displacement currents. These currents are brought outside the vacuum interface where a lumped inductance resonates electrode capacitance at one of the bunching harmonic frequencies. This configuration yields a basic sensitivity of a few hundred millivolts signal per microampere of beam current. Beam-induced radiofrequency signals are summed against an offset frequency generated by our master oscillator. The resulting kilohertz difference frequency conveys beam intensity and bunch phase information which is sent to separate processing channels. One channel utilizes a phase locked loop which stabilizes phase readings if beam is unstable. The other channel uses a linear full wave active rectifier circuit which converts kilohertz sine wave signal amplitude to a D.C. voltage representing beam current. A prototype set of electronics is now in use with the detector and we began to use the system in operation to set the arrival beam phase. A permanent version of the electronics system for the phase detector is now under construction. Additional nondestructive beam intensity and phase monitors at the {open_quotes}Booster{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ATLAS{close_quotes} linac sections are planned as well as on some of the high-energy beam lines. Such a monitor will be particularly useful for FMA experiments where the primary beam hits one of the electric deflector plates.

  18. A Soluble Form of the High Affinity IgE Receptor, Fc-Epsilon-RI, Circulates in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Dehlink, Eleonora; Platzer, Barbara; Baker, Alexandra H.; LaRosa, Jessica; Pardo, Michael; Dwyer, Peter; Yen, Elizabeth H.; Szépfalusi, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    Soluble IgE receptors are potential in vivo modulators of IgE-mediated immune responses and are thus important for our basic understanding of allergic responses. We here characterize a novel soluble version of the IgE-binding alpha-chain of Fc-epsilon-RI (sFcεRI), the high affinity receptor for IgE. sFcεRI immunoprecipitates as a protein of ∼40 kDa and contains an intact IgE-binding site. In human serum, sFcεRI is found as a soluble free IgE receptor as well as a complex with IgE. Using a newly established ELISA, we show that serum sFcεRI levels correlate with serum IgE in patients with elevated IgE. We also show that serum of individuals with normal IgE levels can be found to contain high levels of sFcεRI. After IgE-antigen-mediated crosslinking of surface FcεRI, we detect sFcεRI in the exosome-depleted, soluble fraction of cell culture supernatants. We further show that sFcεRI can block binding of IgE to FcεRI expressed at the cell surface. In summary, we here describe the alpha-chain of FcεRI as a circulating soluble IgE receptor isoform in human serum. PMID:21544204

  19. Tailoring medium energy proton beam to induce low energy nuclear reactions in ⁸⁶SrCl₂ for production of PET radioisotope ⁸⁶Y.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, Dmitri G; Mausner, Leonard F; Pile, Philip

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports results of experiments at Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) aiming to investigate effective production of positron emitting radioisotope (86)Y by the low energy (86)Sr(p,n) reaction. BLIP is a facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory designed for the proton irradiation of the targets for isotope production at high and intermediate proton energies. The proton beam is delivered by the Linear Accelerator (LINAC) whose incident energy is tunable from 200 to 66 MeV in approximately 21 MeV increments. The array was designed to ensure energy degradation from 66 MeV down to less than 20 MeV. Aluminum slabs were used to degrade the proton energy down to the required range. The production yield of (86)Y (1.2+/-0.1 mCi (44.4+/-3.7) MBq/μAh) and ratio of radioisotopic impurities was determined by assaying an aliquot of the irradiated (86)SrCl2 solution by gamma spectroscopy. The analysis of energy dependence of the (86)Y production yield and the ratios of radioisotopic impurities has been used to adjust degrader thickness. Experimental data showed substantial discrepancies in actual energy propagation compared to energy loss calculations.

  20. The in vitro activity of products formed from exposure of chlorpromazine to a 266 nm laser beam against species of mycobacteria of human interest.

    PubMed

    Armada, Ana Maria; Alexandru, Tatiana; Machado, Diana; Danko, Balazs; Hunyadi, Attila; Dinache, Andra; Nastasa, Viorel; Boni, Mihai; Ramos, Jorge; Viveiros, Miguel; Molnar, Joseph; Pascu, Mihail Lucian; Amaral, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ) was exposed to a 266 nm laser beam for different periods of time ranging from minutes to 24 h. At intervals, the products from irradiation were evaluated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and evaluated for their activity against mycobacteria of human interest (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. avium, M. intracellulare and their corresponding reference strains or clinical isolates). With the exception of the M. avium 47/07 clinical strain, the products produced from the irradiation of CPZ for 4 h had greater activity against M. intracellulare ATCC, M. avium ATCC, H37Rv and the Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strains as opposed to that produced by the unirradiated control. The level of products from the 4-h exposure of CPZ remained the same throughout the next 20 h of irradiation. Of significant note is that the irradiation products of CPZ had lower in vitro cytotoxicity against human cells, suggesting that this approach may be useful for the development of compounds more bioactive than the parental species.