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Sample records for riboflavin vitamin b2

  1. Study of energy transfer between riboflavin (vitamin B2) and AgNPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokashi, Vidya V.; Walekar, Laxman S.; Anbhule, Prashant V.; Lee, Sang Hak; Patil, Shivajirao R.; Kolekar, Govind B.

    2014-03-01

    Here, we report the studies on the interaction and formation of nanobiocomplex between silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) and vitamin B2, i.e., riboflavin (RF). The binding study of AgNP to RF was studied by fluorescence, UV-Vis, and TEM techniques. AgNPs were prepared by reducing AgNO3 with trisodium citrate. Prepared nanoparticles size obtained at 20 nm having surface Plasmon resonance band at 426 nm. The absorbance band of RF at 264, 374, and 444 nm changes significantly in the presence of AgNPs suggests that there is change in the chemical environment surrounding AgNPs. A fluorescence spectral change for a solution of RF upon the addition of AgNPs and rapid quenching is suggestive of a rapid adsorption of RF on AgNPs.

  2. Synthesis, characterization, thermal and antimicrobial studies of diabetic drug models: Complexes of vanadyl(II) sulfate with ascorbic acid (vitamin C), riboflavin (vitamin B2) and nicotinamide (vitamin B3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.

    2010-04-01

    The oxovanadium(II) complexes of the different vitamins like ascorbic acid (vitamin C; Vit. C), riboflavin (vitamin B2; Vit. B2) and nicotinamide (vitamin B3; Vit. B3) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, IR, electronic, magnetic measurements, thermal studies, XRD and SEM. Conductance measurements indicated that the vanadyl(II) complexes of Vit. B2 and Vit. B3 are 1:2 electrolytes except for [VO(Vit. C) 2(H 2O) 2] complex is non-electrolyte. IR data show that Vit. B2 is bidentate ligand against azomethine nitrogen of pyrazine ring and C dbnd O of pyrimidine-2,4-dione but Vit. B3 and Vit. C acts as a monodentate ligand through pyridine nitrogen and hydroxo oxygen of furan ring, respectively. Electronic spectral measurements indicated that all VO(II) complexes have a square-pyramidal geometry. Magnetic measurements for the new vanadyl(II) complexes are in a good agreement with the proposed formula. Thermal analyses (TG/DSC) of the studied complexes show that the decomposition process takes place in more than two steps. XRD refer that VO(II) complexes have an amorphous behavior. The surface morphology of the complexes was studied by SEM. The antimicrobial activities of the ligands and its complexes indicate that the vanadyl(II) complexes possess high antibacterial and antifungal activities towards the bacterial species and the fungal species than start ligands.

  3. The B Vitamins Nicotinamide (B3) and Riboflavin (B2) Stimulate Metamorphosis in Larvae of the Deposit-Feeding Polychaete Capitella teleta: Implications for a Sensory Ligand-Gated Ion Channel

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Robert T.; Pechenik, Jan A.; Biggers, William J.; Scavo, Gia; Lehman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Marine sediments can contain B vitamins, presumably incorporated from settled, decaying phytoplankton and microorganisms associated with decomposition. Because B vitamins may be advantageous for the energetically intensive processes of metamorphosis, post-metamorphic growth, and reproduction, we tested several B vitamins to determine if they would stimulate larvae of the deposit-feeding polychaete Capitella teleta to settle and metamorphose. Nicotinamide and riboflavin individually stimulated larvae of C. teleta to settle and metamorphose, generally within 1–2 hours at nicotinamide concentrations as low as 3 µM and riboflavin concentrations as low as 50 µM. More than 80% of the larvae metamorphosed within 30 minutes at a nicotinamide concentration of 7 µM. The pyridine channel agonist pyrazinecarboxamide also stimulated metamorphosis at very low concentrations. In contrast, neither lumichrome, thiamine HCl, pyridoxine HCl, nor vitamin B12 stimulated larvae of C. teleta to metamorphose at concentrations as high as 500 µM. Larvae also did not metamorphose in response to either nicotinamide or pyrazinecarboxamide in calcium-free seawater or with the addition of 4-acetylpyridine, a competitive inhibitor of the pyridine receptor. Together, these results suggest that larvae of C. teleta are responding to nicotinamide and riboflavin via a chemosensory pyridine receptor similar to that previously reported to be present on crayfish chela and involved with food recognition. Our data are the first to implicate B vitamins as possible natural chemical settlement cues for marine invertebrate larvae. PMID:25390040

  4. Biotechnological production of vitamin B2-enriched bread and pasta.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Menga, Valeria; Digesu, Anna Maria; De Vita, Pasquale; van Sinderen, Douwe; Cattivelli, Luigi; Fares, Clara; Spano, Giuseppe

    2011-07-27

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were obtained from durum wheat flour samples and screened for roseoflavin-resistant variants to isolate natural riboflavin-overproducing strains. Two riboflavin-overproducing strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated as described above were used for the preparation of bread (by means of sourdough fermentation) and pasta (using a prefermentation step) to enhance their vitamin B2 content. Pasta was produced from a monovarietal semolina obtained from the durum wheat cultivar PR22D89 and, for experimental purposes, from a commercial remilled semolina. Several samples were collected during the pasta-making process (dough, extruded, dried, and cooked pasta) and tested for their riboflavin content by a high-performance liquid chromatography method. The applied approaches resulted in a considerable increase of vitamin B2 content (about 2- and 3-fold increases in pasta and bread, respectively), thus representing a convenient and efficient food-grade biotechnological application for the production of vitamin B2-enriched bread and pasta. This methodology may be extended to a wide range of cereal-based foods, feed, and beverages. Additionally, this work exemplifies the production of a functional food by a novel biotechnological exploitation of LAB in pasta-making.

  5. [Effects of excess vitamin B1 or vitamin B2 on growth and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in weaning rats].

    PubMed

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Kuzuya, Mako; Satoh, Shiori; Shibata, Katsumi

    2009-04-01

    To determine the tolerable upper intake levels of vitamin B(1) and vitamin B(2) in humans, we investigated the effects of excess thiamin or riboflavin administration on body weight gain, food intake, tissue weights, and urinary excretion of B-group vitamins in weaning rats. The weaning rats were freely fed ordinary diet containing 0.0006% thiamin-HCl or the same diet with 0.006%, 0.03%, 0.18% or 1.0% thiamin-HCl for 30 days, or the diet containing 0.0006% riboflavin or the same diet with 0.1%, 0.5 or 1.0% riboflavin for 22 days. Mild diarrhea was seen only in the rats fed with 1.0% thiamin-HCl diet. Excess thiamin-HCl or riboflavin did not affect body weight gains, food intake or tissue weights. The urinary excretions of water-soluble vitamins also did not differ among the diets. These results clearly showed that feeding a diet containing up to 1.0% thiamin-HCl or 1.0% riboflavin did not induce apparent adverse effects, and the no-observed-adverse-effect-levels (NOAELs) for thiamin-HCl and riboflavin in rats might be 1.0% in diet, corresponding to 900 mg/kg body weight/day.

  6. Vitamin B2 as a virulence factor in Pseudogymnoascus destructans skin infection.

    PubMed

    Flieger, Miroslav; Bandouchova, Hana; Cerny, Jan; Chudíčková, Milada; Kolarik, Miroslav; Kovacova, Veronika; Martínková, Natália; Novák, Petr; Šebesta, Ondřej; Stodůlková, Eva; Pikula, Jiri

    2016-09-13

    Pathogenic and non-pathogenic related microorganisms differ in secondary metabolite production. Here we show that riboflavin overproduction by a fungal pathogen and its hyperaccumulation in affected host tissue exacerbates a skin infection to necrosis. In white-nose syndrome (WNS) skin lesions caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, maximum riboflavin concentrations reached up to 815 μg ml(-1), indicating bioaccumulation and lack of excretion. We found that high riboflavin concentrations are cytotoxic under conditions specific for hibernation, affect bats' primary fibroblasts and induce cell detachment, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, polymerization of cortical actin, and cell necrosis. Our results explain molecular pathology of WNS, where a skin infection becomes fatal. Hyperaccumulation of vitamin B2 coupled with reduced metabolism and low tissue oxygen saturation during hibernation prevents removal of excess riboflavin in infected bats. Upon reperfusion, oxygen reacts with riboflavin resulting in dramatic pathology after arousal. While multiple molecules enable invasive infection, riboflavin-associated extensive necrosis likely contributes to pathophysiology and altered arousal pattern in infected bats. Bioaccumulation of a vitamin under natural infection represents a novel condition in a complex host-pathogen interplay.

  7. Vitamin B2 as a virulence factor in Pseudogymnoascus destructans skin infection

    PubMed Central

    Flieger, Miroslav; Bandouchova, Hana; Cerny, Jan; Chudíčková, Milada; Kolarik, Miroslav; Kovacova, Veronika; Martínková, Natália; Novák, Petr; Šebesta, Ondřej; Stodůlková, Eva; Pikula, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic and non-pathogenic related microorganisms differ in secondary metabolite production. Here we show that riboflavin overproduction by a fungal pathogen and its hyperaccumulation in affected host tissue exacerbates a skin infection to necrosis. In white-nose syndrome (WNS) skin lesions caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, maximum riboflavin concentrations reached up to 815 μg ml−1, indicating bioaccumulation and lack of excretion. We found that high riboflavin concentrations are cytotoxic under conditions specific for hibernation, affect bats’ primary fibroblasts and induce cell detachment, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, polymerization of cortical actin, and cell necrosis. Our results explain molecular pathology of WNS, where a skin infection becomes fatal. Hyperaccumulation of vitamin B2 coupled with reduced metabolism and low tissue oxygen saturation during hibernation prevents removal of excess riboflavin in infected bats. Upon reperfusion, oxygen reacts with riboflavin resulting in dramatic pathology after arousal. While multiple molecules enable invasive infection, riboflavin-associated extensive necrosis likely contributes to pathophysiology and altered arousal pattern in infected bats. Bioaccumulation of a vitamin under natural infection represents a novel condition in a complex host-pathogen interplay. PMID:27620349

  8. Riboflavin

    MedlinePlus

    ... and nails, to slow aging, for canker sores, multiple sclerosis, memory loss including Alzheimer's disease, high blood pressure, ... the risk of liver cancer in older people. Multiple sclerosis. Early research shows that taking riboflavin by mouth ...

  9. Plasma Levels of Folates, Riboflavin, Vitamin B6, and Ascorbate in Severely Disturbed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankar, D. V. Siva

    1979-01-01

    The plasma levels of folic acid, ascorbic acid, pyridoxine, and riboflavin were studied in 125 severely emotionally disturbed children (ages 5-16 years) to determine whether they had overt vitamin deficiencies. (Author/DLS)

  10. The influence of vitamin B2 intake on the activation coefficient of erythrocyte glutation reductase in the elderly.

    PubMed

    López-Sobaler, A M; Ortega, R M; Quintas, M E; Navarro, A R; Aparicio, A; Gomez-Rodriguez, N; Cocho, M; Requejo, A M

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of dietetic vitamin B2 on the activation coefficient of erythrocyte glutation reductase (alpha-EGR) of a group of elderly people. The study subjects were 133, independently-living elderly people, between 65 and 90 years of age. A dietetic study was performed using a 7-day food record. Riboflavin status was measured by determining the alpha-EGR. Some 23.9% of subjects had riboflavin intakes lower than those recommended. At the biochemical level, 9.8% of subjects (7.7% of men and of 10.6% women) showed alpha-EGR>1.2. Those subjects with riboflavin intakes below 90% of those recommended showed significantly higher alpha-EGR levels (1.15+/-0.16), an indication of a poorer riboflavin status at the biochemical level. Those with greater intakes showed lower alpha-EGR values (1.05+/-0.10). Furthermore, the mean consumption of dairy products (an important source of this vitamin) by subjects is insuficiente (341.1+/-159.8 g/day, 2.1+/-1 servings/day). The data show that those with riboflavin intakes below those recommended took 204.7+/-89.4 g/day of milk products (1.3+/-0.5 servings/day) compared to the 384+/-153.1 g/day (2.4+/-1 servings/day) (p<0.001) consumed by those with higher riboflavin intakes. Although the mean riboflavin intake is acceptable, there remain some insufficiencies that require attention. It would seem advisable to recommend the elderly increase their intake of milk products. This would be especially important for subjects who take less than two rations per day.

  11. Rapid determination of the various native forms of vitamin B6 and B2 in cow's milk using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A; Schreiner, M G; Mayer, H K

    2017-06-02

    As the formation of pyridoxal phosphate, the active cofactor of vitamin B 6 , is dependent on riboflavin 5-phosphate, we propose a fast and simple ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of the native B 6 vitamers pyridoxal, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, their mono phosphorus esters and 4-pyridoxic acid as well as vitamin B 2 as riboflavin and its phosphorus ester riboflavin 5-phosphate in milk. Separation was achieved under 6.0min by reversed-phase and pH gradient elution. Sample preparation was optimized regarding various acids and pH levels. Changes in those parameters led to significant deviations of sample matrix breakdown efficiency. The optimized method was then validated regarding specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, detection and quantification limits. As the method performed satisfactory, is was used to study commercial liquid cow's milk (n=31), regarding effects of the employed preservation technique (pasteurization, extended shelf-life, ultra-high temperature) on the composition and content of B 6 and B 2 vitamers. In cow's milk, vitamin B 6 mostly consists of pyridoxal and its phosphate ester, with pyridoxal phosphate being the bulk component. The catabolite of the vitamin B 6 metabolism, 4-pyridoxic acid was present in significant amounts in all studied samples, with up to 2.69μmolL -1 . Vitamin B 2 was present as riboflavin and its phosphate ester up to 12.86μmolL -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasma vitamins B2, B6, B12, and related genetic variants as predictors of colorectal cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Eussen, Simone JPM; Vollset, Stein Emil; Hustad, Steinar; Midttun, Øivind; Meyer, Klaus; Fredriksen, Åse; Ueland, Per Magne; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Boffetta, Paolo; Overvad, Kim; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Morois, Sophie; Weikert, Cornelia; Pischon, Tobias; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Zilis, Demosthenes; Katsoulis, Michael; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra HM; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel JB; Skeie, Guri; Muñoz, Xavier; Martínez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Ardanaz, Eva; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez, Laudina; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Palmqvist, Richard; Manjer, Jonas; Ericson, Ulrika; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio

    2010-01-01

    Background B-vitamins are essential for one-carbon metabolism and have been linked to colorectal cancer (CRC). Although associations with folate have frequently been studied, studies on other plasma vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and CRC are scarce or inconclusive. Methods Nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, including 1365 incident CRC cases and 2319 controls matched for study center, age, and sex. We measured the sum of B2 species riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide, and the sum of B6 species pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, pyridoxal, and 4-pyridoxic acid as indicators for vitamin B2 and B6 status, as well as vitamin B12 in plasma samples collected at baseline. In addition, we determined eight polymorphisms related to one-carbon metabolism. Relative risks (RRs) for CRC were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for smoking, education, physical activity, BMI, alcohol consumption, and intakes of fiber, red- and processed meat. Results RRs comparing highest to lowest quintile (95% confidence interval, Ptrend) were: 0.71 (0.56–0.91, 0.02) for vitamin B2, 0.68 (0.53–0.87, <0.001) for vitamin B6, and 1.02 (0.80–1.29, 0.19) for vitamin B12. The associations for vitamin B6 were stronger in males who consumed ≥ 30g alcohol/day. The polymorphisms were not associated with CRC. Conclusions Higher plasma concentrations of vitamins B2 and B6 are associated with a lower CRC risk. Impact This European population-based study is the first to indicate that vitamin B2 is inversely associated with CRC, and is in agreement to previously suggested inverse associations of vitamin B6 with CRC. PMID:20813848

  13. Riboflavin

    MedlinePlus

    ... 23193625 . Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ... Saunders; 2016:chap 218. Salwen MJ. Vitamins and trace elements. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

  14. Update on clinical aspects and treatment of selected vitamin-responsive disorders II (riboflavin and CoQ 10).

    PubMed

    Horvath, Rita

    2012-07-01

    Riboflavin and ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q(10), CoQ(10)) deficiencies are heterogeneous groups of autosomal recessive conditions affecting both children and adults. Riboflavin (vitamin B(2))-derived cofactors are essential for the function of numerous dehydrogenases. Genetic defects of the riboflavin transport have been detected in Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere and Fazio-Londe syndromes (C20orf54), and haploinsufficiency of GPR172B has been proposed in one patient to cause persistent riboflavin deficiency. Mutations in the electron tranferring fravoprotein genes (ETFA/ETFB) and its dehydrogenase (ETFDH) are causative for multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Mutations in ACAD9, encoding the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 protein were recently reported in mitochondrial disease with respiratory chain complex I deficiency. All these conditions may respond to riboflavin therapy. CoQ(10) is a lipid-soluble component of the cell membranes, where it functions as a mobile electron and proton carrier, but also participates in other cellular processes as a potent antioxidant, and by influencing pyrimidine metabolism. The increasing number of molecular defects in enzymes of the CoQ(10) biosynthetic pathways (PDSS1, PDSS2, COQ2, COQ6, COQ9, CABC1/ADCK3) underlies the importance of these conditions. The clinical heterogeneity may reflect blocks at different levels in the complex biosynthetic pathway. Despite the identification of several primary CoQ(10) deficiency genes, the number of reported patients is still low, and no true genotype-phenotype correlations are known which makes the genetic diagnosis still difficult. Additionally to primary CoQ(10) deficiencies, where the mutation impairs a protein directly involved in CoQ(10) biosynthesis, we can differentiate secondary deficiencies. CoQ(10) supplementation may be beneficial in both primary and secondary deficiencies and therefore the early recognition of these diseases is of utmost importance.

  15. Vitamins B2 and B6 as determinants of kynurenines and related markers of interferon-γ-mediated immune activation in the community-based Hordaland Health Study.

    PubMed

    Theofylaktopoulou, Despoina; Ulvik, Arve; Midttun, Øivind; Ueland, Per Magne; Vollset, Stein Emil; Nygård, Ottar; Hustad, Steinar; Tell, Grethe S; Eussen, Simone J P M

    2014-10-14

    Vitamins B2 and B6 are cofactors in the kynurenine pathway. Many of the kynurenines are neuroactive compounds with immunomodulatory effects. In the present study, we aimed to investigate plasma concentrations of vitamins B2 and B6 as determinants of kynurenines and two markers of interferon-γ-mediated immune activation (kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR) and neopterin). We measured the concentrations of vitamins B2 and B6 vitamers, neopterin, tryptophan and six kynurenines (i.e. kynurenine, anthranilic acid, kynurenic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and xanthurenic acid) in plasma from 7051 individuals. Dietary intake of vitamins B2 and B6 was assessed using a validated FFQ. Associations were investigated using partial Spearman's correlations, generalised additive models, and segmented or multiple linear regression. The B2 vitamer, riboflavin, was positively associated with 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and xanthurenic acid, with correlation coefficients, as obtained by segmented regression, of 0·20 (95 % CI 0·16, 0·23) and 0·24 (95 % CI 0·19, 0·28), at riboflavin concentrations below the median value (13·0 nmol/l). The vitamin B6 vitamer, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), was positively associated with most kynurenines at PLP concentrations < 39·3-47·0 nmol/l, and inversely associated with 3-hydroxykynurenine with the association being more prominent at PLP concentrations < 18·9 nmol/l. Riboflavin and PLP were associated with xanthurenic acid only at relatively low, but normal concentrations of both vitamers. Lastly, PLP was negatively correlated with neopterin and KTR. These results demonstrate the significant and complex determination of kynurenine metabolism by vitamin status. Future studies on B-vitamins and kynurenines in relation to chronic diseases should therefore integrate data on relevant biomarkers related to B-vitamins status and tryptophan metabolism.

  16. Vitamin B2, vitamin B12 and total homocysteine status in children and their associations with dietary intake of B-vitamins from different food groups: the Healthy Growth Study.

    PubMed

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Dekkers, Renske; Mavrogianni, Christina; Grammatikaki, Eva; van den Heuvel, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    To examine the associations between the dietary intakes of certain B-vitamins from different food sources with the relevant plasma status indices in children. A representative subsample of 600 children aged 9-13 years from the Healthy Growth Study was selected. Dietary intakes of vitamins B 2 , B 12 , B 6 and folate derived from different food sources were estimated. Plasma levels of vitamin B 2 (or riboflavin), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy) were also measured. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B 2 below 3 μg/L were found in 22.8 % of the children. Children in the lower quartile of dietary vitamin B 2 intake were found to have the lowest plasma vitamin B 2 levels compared to children in the upper three quartiles (5.06 ± 7.63 vs. 6.48 ± 7.88, 6.34 ± 7.63 and 6.05 ± 4.94 μg/L respectively; P = 0.003). Regarding vitamin B 12 children in the lower quartile of dietary intake had higher mean plasma tHcy levels compared to children in the upper two quartiles, respectively (6.00 ± 1.79 vs. 5.41 ± 1.43 and 5.46 ± 1.64 μmol/L; P = 0.012). Positive linear associations were observed between plasma vitamin B 2 levels and dietary vitamin B 2 derived from milk and fruits (β = 0.133; P = 0.001 and β = 0.086; P = 0.037). Additionally, nonlinear associations were also observed between plasma vitamin B 2 levels and vitamin B 2 derived from red meat, as well as between tHcy levels and vitamins B 12 and B 6 derived from milk; vitamins B 12 , B 6 and folate derived from cereal products and folate derived from fruits. A considerably high prevalence of poor plasma vitamin B 2 status was observed in children. The intake of milk, fruits and cereals was associated with more favorable tHcy levels, while the intake of milk and fruits with more favorable plasma B2 levels. However, these findings need to be further confirmed from controlled dietary intervention studies examining the modulation of biomarkers of B-vitamins.

  17. Molecular characterization of an unauthorized genetically modified Bacillus subtilis production strain identified in a vitamin B2 feed additive.

    PubMed

    Paracchini, Valentina; Petrillo, Mauro; Reiting, Ralf; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Wahler, Daniela; Stolz, Andrea; Schönig, Birgit; Matthies, Anastasia; Bendiek, Joachim; Meinel, Dominik M; Pecoraro, Sven; Busch, Ulrich; Patak, Alex; Kreysa, Joachim; Grohmann, Lutz

    2017-09-01

    Many food and feed additives result from fermentation of genetically modified (GM) microorganisms. For vitamin B2 (riboflavin), GM Bacillus subtilis production strains have been developed and are often used. The presence of neither the GM strain nor its recombinant DNA is allowed for fermentation products placed on the EU market as food or feed additive. A vitamin B 2 product (80% feed grade) imported from China was analysed. Viable B. subtilis cells were identified and DNAs of two bacterial isolates (LHL and LGL) were subjected to three whole genome sequencing (WGS) runs with different devices (MiSeq, 454 or HiSeq system). WGS data revealed the integration of a chloramphenicol resistance gene, the deletion of the endogenous riboflavin (rib) operon and presence of four putative plasmids harbouring rib operons. Event- and construct-specific real-time PCR methods for detection of the GM strain and its putative plasmids in food and feed products have been developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Excess Vitamin Intake before Starvation does not Affect Body Mass, Organ Mass, or Blood Variables but Affects Urinary Excretion of Riboflavin in Starving Rats.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Aya; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    B-vitamins are important for producing energy from amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of excess vitamin intake before starvation on body mass, organ mass, blood, and biological variables as well as on urinary excretion of riboflavin in rats. Adult rats were fed two types of diets, one with a low vitamin content (minimum vitamin diet for optimum growth) and one with a sufficient amount of vitamins (excess vitamin diet). Body mass, organ mass, and blood variables were not affected by excess vitamin intake before starvation. Interestingly, urinary riboflavin excretion showed a different pattern. Urine riboflavin in the excess vitamin intake group declined gradually during starvation, whereas it increased in the low vitamin intake group. Excess vitamin intake before starvation does not affect body mass, organ mass, or blood variables but does affect the urinary excretion of riboflavin in starving rats.

  19. From Cholesterogenesis to Steroidogenesis: Role of Riboflavin and Flavoenzymes in the Biosynthesis of Vitamin D12

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, John T.; Cooper, Arthur J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Flavin-dependent monooxygenases and oxidoreductases are located at critical branch points in the biosynthesis and metabolism of cholesterol and vitamin D. These flavoproteins function as obligatory intermediates that accept 2 electrons from NAD(P)H with subsequent 1-electron transfers to a variety of cytochrome P450 (CYP) heme proteins within the mitochondria matrix (type I) and the (microsomal) endoplasmic reticulum (type II). The mode of electron transfer in these systems differs slightly in the number and form of the flavin prosthetic moiety. In the type I mitochondrial system, FAD-adrenodoxin reductase interfaces with adrenodoxin before electron transfer to CYP heme proteins. In the microsomal type II system, a diflavin (FAD/FMN)-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase [NAD(P)H-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR)] donates electrons to a multitude of heme oxygenases. Both flavoenzyme complexes exhibit a commonality of function with all CYP enzymes and are crucial for maintaining a balance of cholesterol and vitamin D metabolites. Deficits in riboflavin availability, imbalances in the intracellular ratio of FAD to FMN, and mutations that affect flavin binding domains and/or interactions with client proteins result in marked structural alterations within the skeletal and central nervous systems similar to those of disorders (inborn errors) in the biosynthetic pathways that lead to cholesterol, steroid hormones, and vitamin D and their metabolites. Studies of riboflavin deficiency during embryonic development demonstrate congenital malformations similar to those associated with genetic alterations of the flavoenzymes in these pathways. Overall, a deeper understanding of the role of riboflavin in these pathways may prove essential to targeted therapeutic designs aimed at cholesterol and vitamin D metabolism. PMID:24618756

  20. Evaluation of synergistic antimicrobial effect of vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, E and K) with antibiotics against resistant bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Shakeel; Ashraf, M Adnan; Sajid, M; Shahzad, Aqeel; Rafique, Azhar; Mahmood, M Shahid

    2018-02-02

    Multiple drug resistant super bugs of Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are becoming challenge for healthcare professionals. In this study, vitamins were evaluated for synergistic activity with the antibiotics. Synergistic effect between antibiotic and stock solutions of vitamins is evaluated by using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay. Distilled water and propylene glycol were used as solvent for water soluble vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins respectively. The final concentration of 10mg/ml of each water-soluble vitamin B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), B6 (Pyridoxine) B12 (Methylcobalamin), C (Ascorbic acid) and 0.1mg/ml of each fat soluble vitamin A (retinol), D (cholecalciferol) E (αTocopherol) K (Menadione) were used with the antibiotics. The results depicted that vitamin K and E have better synergistic activity with piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem and doripenem antibiotics against A. baumannii. While vitamin B1, B2 and B12 showed remarkable synergistic activity with linezolid against MRSA. Vitamin B1 was further tested to have better synergism with antibiotics oxacillin, tetracycline, rifampicin and linezolid against MRSA. The fat-soluble vitamins E and K were good in synergism against Gram negative A. baumannii while water soluble vitamins as B1, B2 and B12 were effective against MRSA but not against A. baumannii. This synergistic action of vitamins with the antibiotics can be used as a tool to treat multiple drug resistant super bugs with further evaluation at molecular level. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B 6 content in two varieties of Brazilian beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H. A. L. C. H.; Mancini-Filho, J. J.; Delincée, H. H.; Bognár, A. A.

    2000-03-01

    The effect of 60Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macaçar beans ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macaçar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B 1, B 2 and B 6 was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology.

  2. Genotype and environment effects on the contents of vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 in wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Shewry, Peter R; Van Schaik, Frank; Ravel, Catherine; Charmet, Gilles; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2011-10-12

    The total contents of thiamine (vitamin B1), riboflavin (B2), and pyridoxine (B6) and the bioavailable forms of niacin (B3) were determined on wholemeal flours of 24 winter wheat varieties grown on four sites (United Kingdom, Poland, France, and Hungary) in 2007 and of two spring varieties grown on the same sites with the exception of Poland. The contents of vitamins B1 (5.53-13.55 μg/g dw), B2 (0.77-1.40 μg/g dw), and B6 (1.27-2.97 μg/g dw) were within the ranges reported previously, while the content of bioavailable vitamin B3 (0.16-1.74 μg/g dw) was about 10-15% of the total contents of vitamin B3 reported in previous studies. Strong correlations were observed between the contents of vitamins B1, B3, and B6, and partitioning of the variance in the contents of these three B vitamins showed that between 48 and 70% was accounted for by the environment. By contrast, the content of vitamin B2 was not correlated with the contents of other B vitamins, and 73% of the variance was ascribed to the error term, which suggests that this trait may be influenced by genotype × environment interactions. Whereas the contents of vitamins B1, B3, and B6 were correlated positively with the mean temperature from heading to harvest (r > 0.8), the content of vitamin B2 was positively correlated with precipitation during the 3 months prior to heading. These results are discussed in relation to the development of new wheat varieties with enhanced health benefits.

  3. Influence of nanosized amorphous silica on assimilation of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in rats.

    PubMed

    Gmoshinsky, I V; Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Shumakova, A A; Shipelin, V A; Kodentsova, V M; Khotimchenko, S A

    2016-01-01

    Amorphous silica (SiO2) in the form of nanoparticles (NPs) is widely used as a food additive E551 in many enriched foods and food supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of SiO2 NPs on assimilation and metabolism of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in laboratory rats. Amorphous SiO2 «Orisil-300 ®» was used with the size of the primary NPs 20-60 nm according to the electronic, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The experiment was conducted on 8 groups of growing male Wistar rats (with initial body weight 70-80g) number, respectively, 7, 7, 10, 10, 12, 12, 14 and 16 animals. Animals of the 1st, 3rd, 4th and 5th groups received through­out the experiment balanced semi-synthetic diet. Animals of the 2nd group received a diet depleted of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 until day 21; animals of the 6th, 7th and 8th groups -the same diet from the 1st to the 21th day, and then, before the closure of the experiment, the diet provided with the indicated B vitamins at 100% of normal level. From day 22 of experiment and until the end at day 29 the animals of the 3rd and 6th groups received deionized water (placebo) through intragastric gavage; rat of the 4th and 7th groups -aqueous suspension of SiO2 dose of 1 mg/kg body weight /day, and the 5th and 8th group -100 mg/kg/day. Urinary excretion of thiamine, riboflavin, 4-pyridoxilic acid and liver and brain content of vitamins B1 and B2 (after acid and enzyme hydrolysis) were deter­mined by fluorimetric methods. It was found that rats in group 2 lagged in weight gain at day 21 significantly compared to group 1, and developed a marked deficiency of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 according to studied safety parameters. In groups from 6 to 8 at day 29 par­tial recovery was achieved in vitamin status. Administration of SiO2 to animal of groups 4 and 5, with normal consumption of B vitamins, had no significant effect on any param­eters of vitamin status in comparison to group 3. However

  4. Use of chitosan in the treatment of obesity: evaluation of interaction with vitamin B2.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Máira Regina; Oliveira, Hueder Paulo M; Lacerda, Fábio Vieira

    2011-05-01

    Obesity is a serious health problem and its prevalence has increased over the years. Studies have assessed the polysaccharide chitosan as anti-obesity supplement due to its ability to absorb fats. However, this property may cause the interaction of chitosan with essential substances for the proper functioning of the body, such as vitamins. In this context, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate interactions of the chitosan with vitamin B2. These interactions were evaluated in the absence and the presence of acid aqueous solution of chitosan using fluorescence and ultraviolet-visible absorption measurements of vitamin B2. Results showed that the rigid microenvironment generated by chitosan solution modifies the photophysics properties of vitamin B2. Thus, chitosan is able to eliminate vitamin B2 and the present study aims to warn of excessive loss of vitamins or other nutrients by the body during prolonged treatment with chitosan.

  5. Thiamin and riboflavin vitamers in human milk: effects of lipid-based nutrient supplementation and stage of lactation on vitamer secretion and contributions to total vitamin content

    While thiamin and riboflavin in breast milk have been analyzed for over 50 years, less attention has been given to the different forms of each vitamin. Thiamin-monophosphate (TMP) and free thiamin contribute to total thiamin content; flavin adenine-dinucleotide (FAD) and free riboflavin are the main...

  6. Dietary intake of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Olsen, A; Halkjaer, J; van Gils, C H; Buijsse, B; Verhagen, H; Jenab, M; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Ericson, U; Ocké, M C; Peeters, P H M; Touvier, M; Niravong, M; Waaseth, M; Skeie, G; Khaw, K T; Travis, R; Ferrari, P; Sanchez, M J; Agudo, A; Overvad, K; Linseisen, J; Weikert, C; Sacerdote, C; Evangelista, A; Zylis, D; Tsiotas, K; Manjer, J; van Guelpen, B; Riboli, E; Slimani, N; Bingham, S

    2009-11-01

    To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons aged between 35 and 74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes of the four B vitamins and vitamin C were estimated using the standardized EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB). Mean intakes were adjusted for age and weighted by season and day of recall. Intake of B vitamins did not vary considerably between centres, except in the UK health-conscious cohort, in which substantially higher intakes of thiamine and lower intakes of vitamin B12 were reported compared with other centres. Overall, meat was the most important contributor to the B vitamins in all centres except in the UK health-conscious group. Vitamin C showed a clear geographical gradient, with higher intakes in the southern centres as compared with the northern ones; this was more pronounced in men than in women. Vegetables and fruits were major contributors to vitamin C in all centres, but juices and potatoes were also important sources in the northern centres. This study showed no major differences across centres in the mean intakes of B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, B6, B12), whereas a tendency towards a north-south gradient was observed for vitamin C.

  7. Determination of Vitamin C, b-carotene and Riboflavin Contents in Five Green Vegetables Organically and Conventionally Grown.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amin; Cheah, Sook Fun

    2003-03-01

    As consumer interest in organically grown vegetables is increasing in Malaysia, there is a need to answer whether the vegetables are more nutritious than those conventionally grown. This study investigates commercially available vegetables grown organically and conventionally, purchased from retailers to analyse β-carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin contents. Five types of green vegetables were selected, namely Chinese mustard (sawi) (Brassica juncea), Chinese kale (kai-lan) (Brassica alboglabra), lettuce (daun salad) (Lactuca sativa), spinach (bayam putih) (Amaranthus viridis) and swamp cabbage (kangkung) (Ipomoea aquatica). For vitamin analysis, a reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify β -carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin. The findings showed that not all of the organically grown vegetables were higher in vitamins than that conventionally grown. This study found that only swamp cabbage grown organically was highest in β -carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin contents among the entire samples studied. The various nutrients in organically grown vegetables need to be analysed for the generation of a database on nutritional value which is important for future research.

  8. Carotenoids, vitamins (A, B2, C and E) and total folate of traditional foods from Black Sea Area countries.

    PubMed

    Sanches-Silva, Ana; Albuquerque, Tânia G; Finglas, Paul; Ribeiro, Tiago; Valente, Ana; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Alexieva, Iordanka; Boyko, Nadiya; Costea, Cármen-Eugenia; Hayran, Osman; Jorjadze, Mariam; Kaprelyants, Leonid; Karpenko, Dmitry; D'Antuono, L Filippo; Costa, Helena S

    2013-11-01

    Carotenoids, vitamins (A, B2, C and E) and total folate are related to health promotion. However, there are still many food matrices for which the content of these compounds is not available. In order to fill this gap, traditional foods from Black Sea Area countries (BSAC) were analysed in order to investigate their potential health benefits. The most abundant carotenoid was β-carotene. Plum jam was the sample with the highest β-carotene content (608 µg 100 g(-1) edible portion). The group of vegetables and vegetable-based foods contributed most to β-carotene content. Evergreen cherry laurel presented the highest l-ascorbic acid content (29.9 mg 100 g(-1) edible portion), while the highest riboflavin and total folate contents were found for roasted sunflower seeds. Approximately 61% of the analysed samples showed quantifiable amounts of α-tocopherol but did not contain retinol. Despite the great variability in the content of carotenoids, vitamins and total folate, most of the analysed traditional foods from BSAC can be considered good sources of these compounds. Therefore, owing to their putative health benefits, the consumption of those with higher contents of these compounds should be encouraged and promoted. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Intrinsic fluorescence spectra characteristics of vitamin B1, B2, and B6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Xiao, Xue; Zhao, Xuesong; Hu, Lan; Lv, Caofang; Yin, Zhangkun

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the intrinsic fluorescence characteristics of vitamin B1, B2 and B6 measured with 3D fluorescence Spectrophotometer. Three strong fluorescence areas of vitamin B2 locate at λex/λem=270/525nm, 370/525nm and 450/525nm, one fluorescence areas of vitamin B1 locates at λex/λem=370/460nm, two fluorescence areas of vitamin B6 locates at λex/λem=250/370nm and 325/370nm were found. The influence of pH of solution to the fluorescence profile was also discussed. Using the PARAFAC algorithm, 10 vitamin B1, B2 and B6 mixed solutions were successfully decomposed, and the emission profiles, excitation profiles, central wavelengths and the concentration of the three components were retrieved precisely through about 5 iteration times.

  10. Involvement of riboflavin transporter RFVT2/Slc52a2 in hepatic homeostasis of riboflavin in mice.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yoshiaki; Yonezawa, Atsushi; Yoshimatsu, Hiroki; Omura, Tomohiro; Masuda, Satohiro; Matsubara, Kazuo

    2013-08-15

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) acts as an intermediary during various biochemical oxidation-reduction reactions in the liver. Hepatic riboflavin homeostasis is suggested to be maintained through its transporter(s). Riboflavin transporters, RFVT2/Slc52a2 and RFVT3/Slc52a3, have been identified in rodents. However, the role of each RFVT in the hepatic homeostasis of riboflavin has not yet been fully clarified. In this study, we assessed the contribution of each RFVT to riboflavin uptake into the liver using in vitro and in vivo studies. The uptake of riboflavin by mouse primary hepatocytes increased in a time-dependent and a concentration-dependent manner. Riboflavin transport was independent of extracellular Na(+). However, the uptake decreased slightly along with the extracellular pH increases. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA level of Slc52a2, or coding for mouse (m)RFVT2, in the mouse liver was 10 times higher than that of Slc52a3 (coding for mRFVT3). The uptake of riboflavin at pH 7.4 by primary hepatocytes was significantly decreased by the transfection of Slc52a2-small interfering RNA (siRNA), but not Slc52a3-siRNA. Furthermore, we also confirmed the contribution of riboflavin transporters in vivo. The riboflavin concentrations in plasma, but not in the liver, were significantly decreased in mice fed on a riboflavin-deficient diet for 8 weeks. The expression of Slc52a2 mRNA was significantly upregulated by riboflavin deprivation. These results strongly suggest that mRFVT2 was involved in hepatic riboflavin homeostasis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Total Vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 in Infant Formula and Related Nutritionals by Enzymatic Digestion and LC-MS/MS: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.14.

    PubMed

    Salvati, Louis M; McClure, Sean C; Reddy, Todime M; Cellar, Nicholas A

    2016-05-01

    This method provides simultaneous determination of total vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 in infant formula and related nutritionals (adult and infant). The method was given First Action for vitamins B1, B2, and B6, but not B3, during the AOAC Annual Meeting in September 2015. The method uses acid phosphatase to dephosphorylate the phosphorylated vitamin forms. It then measures thiamine (vitamin B1); riboflavin (vitamin B2); nicotinamide and nicotinic acid (vitamin B3); and pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine (vitamin B6) from digested sample extract by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A single-laboratory validation was performed on 14 matrixes provided by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) to demonstrate method effectiveness. The method met requirements of the AOAC SPIFAN Standard Method Performance Requirement for each of the three vitamins, including average over-spike recovery of 99.6 ± 3.5%, average repeatability of 1.5 ± 0.8% relative standard deviation, and average intermediate precision of 3.9 ± 1.3% relative standard deviation.

  12. Simultaneous Determination of Pyridoxine and Riboflavin in Energy Drinks by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martí-Andre´s, P.; Escuder-Gilabert, L.; Martín-Biosca, Y.; Sagrado, S.; Medina-Herna´ndez, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, as familiar consumer products, have been widely used in laboratory courses to help promote student interest, as well as to connect lecture concepts with laboratory work. Energy drinks contain B vitamins: pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and riboflavin (vitamin B2) of which amounts are high enough to be of concern. In this work, a fast and…

  13. [In vitro study of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 adsorption on zeolite].

    PubMed

    Basić, Zorica; Kilibarda, Vesna; Dobrić, Silva; Resanović, Radmila

    2011-01-01

    Zeolites are the hydratised alumosilicates of alcali and earthalcali cations, which have a long three-dimensional crystal structure. Preparations on the basis of zeolites are used for adsorption of organic and nonorganic toxic substances and they, also, find more and more use in veterinary and human medicine and pharmacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of zeolite to adsorb vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in acid and neutral solutions, as well as the characteristics of the process (saturability, reversibility and competitiveness). The specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescent detector was used for determination of vitamins B1, B2 and B6. Analyte separation and detection were carried out by applying the reverse-phase method on column C18. An in vitro experiment was done by testing the influence of pH value (2 and 7), concentration of vitamin solution (1, 2 and 5 mg/L), the length of contact with zeolite (10-180 min) and cation competitiveness on the exchange capacity, which is achieved by media and zeolite contact, as well as a possible vitamins desorption through changing pH value of the solution at 37 degrees C. Jon competitiveness was examined by adding commercial feed mixture (grower) with a defined content of the examined vitamins in zeolite solutions the pH = 2 and pH = 7. Vitamins B1, B2 and B6 were stable in both pH=2 and pH = 7 solutions at 37 degrees C, in the defined time intervals. In acid solution concentrations of vitamins significantly declined in the first 10 min, with no significant decline in further 30 min for all the three concentrations tests. In neutral solution, after the addition of 1% zeolite, decrease in vitamins concentrations was slightly lower than in acid solution, but also significant in the first 10 min of the contact with zeolite. It was found that zeolite, which adsorbed vitamins in acid solution, transferred in the neutral one released a significant quantity of adsorbed vitamins after 30 min of extraction

  14. Blood-to-retina transport of riboflavin via RFVTs at the inner blood-retinal barrier.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Yahata, Shizuka; Miki, Satoshi; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi

    2017-02-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B 2 ) supply to the retina across the inner blood-retinal barrier (BRB) was investigated. In rats, the apparent influx permeability clearance of [ 3 H]riboflavin (62.8 μL/(min·g retina)) was much higher than that of a non-permeable paracellular marker, suggesting the facilitative influx transport of riboflavin across the BRB. The retinal uptake index (RUI) of [ 3 H]riboflavin was 59.0%, and significantly reduced by flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), but not by l-ascorbic acid, suggesting the substrate specificity of riboflavin transport. TR-iBRB2 cells, an in vitro model of the inner BRB, showed a temperature- and concentration-dependent [ 3 H]riboflavin uptake with a K m of 113 nM, suggesting that the influx transport of riboflavin across the inner BRB involves a carrier-mediated process. [ 3 H]Riboflavin uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells was slightly altered by Na + - and Cl - -free buffers, suggesting that riboflavin transport at the inner BRB is preferentially Na + - and Cl - -independent. [ 3 H]Riboflavin uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells was significantly reduced by riboflavin analogues while the uptake remained unchanged by other vitamins. The function and inhibition profile suggested the involvement of riboflavin transporters (SLC52A/RFVT) in riboflavin transport at the inner BRB, and this is supported by expression and knockdown analysis of rRFVT2 (Slc52a2) and rRFVT3 (Slc52a3) in TR-iBRB2 cells. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Blue light induced free radicals from riboflavin in degradation of crystal violet by microbial viability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ji-Yuan; Yuann, Jeu-Ming P; Hsie, Zong-Jhe; Huang, Shiuh-Tsuen; Chen, Chiing-Chang

    2017-09-01

    Crystal violet (CV) is applied in daily use mainly as a commercial dye and antimicrobial agent. Waste water containing CV may affect aquatic ecosystems. Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B 2 , is non-toxic and an essential vitamin required for the functions of the human body. Riboflavin is photosensitive to UV and visible light in terms of generating reactive oxygen species. This study investigated the potential application of blue light on riboflavin, so as to come up with an effective way of degrading CV during its treatment. Photosensitivity of CV leading to degradation in the presence of riboflavin was investigated by light intensity, exposure time, and irradiation dosage. The degradation of CV during riboflavin photolysis treatment was studied by a UV/vis spectrometry and chromatography. The effects of CV degradation on microbial viability are relevant when considering the influences on the ecosystem. This study proved that riboflavin photochemical treatment with blue light degrades CV dye by ROS formation. The riboflavin photolysis-treated CV solution appeared to be transparent during conformational transformations of the CV that was rearranged by free radical species generated from riboflavin photolysis. After riboflavin photolysis, colony-forming units (CFUs) were determined for each CV solution. CFU preservation was 85.2% for the CV dissolved riboflavin solution treated with blue light irradiation at 2.0mW/cm 2 for 120min. Degradation of CV by riboflavin photochemical procedures can greatly reduce antimicrobial ability and serve as an environmental friendly waste water treatment method. Our results presented here concerning riboflavin photolysis in degradation of CV provide a novel technique, and a simple and safe practice for environmental decontamination processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular and functional characterization of riboflavin specific transport system in rat brain capillary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mitesh; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-08-15

    Riboflavin is an important water soluble vitamin (B2) required for metabolic reactions, normal cellular growth, differentiation and function. Mammalian brain cells cannot synthesize riboflavin and must import from systemic circulation. However, the uptake mechanism, cellular translocation and intracellular trafficking of riboflavin in brain capillary endothelial cells are poorly understood. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the existence of a riboflavin-specific transport system and delineate the uptake and intracellular regulation of riboflavin in immortalized rat brain capillary endothelial cells (RBE4). The uptake of [3H]-riboflavin is sodium, temperature and energy dependent but pH independent. [3H]-Riboflavin uptake is saturable with K(m) and V(max) values of 19 ± 3 μM and 0.235 ± 0.012 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively. The uptake process is inhibited by unlabelled structural analogs (lumiflavin, lumichrome) but not by structurally unrelated vitamins. Ca(++)/calmodulin and protein kinase A (PKA) pathways are found to play an important role in the intracellular regulation of [3H]-riboflavin. Apical and baso-lateral uptake of [3H]-riboflavin clearly indicates that a riboflavin specific transport system is predominantly localized on the apical side of RBE4 cells. A 628 bp band corresponding to a riboflavin transporter is revealed in RT-PCR analysis. These findings, for the first time report the existence of a specialized and high affinity transport system for riboflavin in RBE4 cells. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle limiting drug transport inside the brain as it regulates drug permeation from systemic circulation. This transporter can be utilized for targeted delivery in enhancing brain permeation of highly potent drugs on systemic administration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical stability study of vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine and ascorbic acid in parenteral nutrition for neonatal use

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this work was to study the vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C stability in a pediatric formulation containing high amounts of calcium in the presence of organic phosphate, amino acids, glucose, sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, pediatric vitamins and trace elements under different conditions using developed and validated analytical methods. Methods The study was carried out during 72 h with formulations packaged in recommended storage temperature (4°C) and 25°C, with and without photoprotection. Results The results showed that the methodologies used for assessing the chemical stability of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C in the formulation were selective, linear, precise and accurate. The vitamins could be considered stable in the formulation during the three days of study if stored at 4°C. When stored at 25°C vitamin C presented instability after 48 h. Conclusion The pediatric formulation containing high amount of calcium in the presence of organic phosphate, amino acids, glucose, sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate, pediatric vitamins and trace elements packaged in bag-type trilaminate presented a shelf life of the 72 h, when maintained under refrigeration, between 2°C and 8°C. This shelf life was measured considering the vitamins studied. Further studies are needed including all the vitamins present in this formulation. PMID:21569609

  18. The superfamily keeps growing: Identification in trypanosomatids of RibJ, the first riboflavin transporter family in protists.

    PubMed

    Balcazar, Darío E; Vanrell, María Cristina; Romano, Patricia S; Pereira, Claudio A; Goldbaum, Fernando A; Bonomi, Hernán R; Carrillo, Carolina

    2017-04-01

    Trypanosomatid parasites represent a major health issue affecting hundreds of million people worldwide, with clinical treatments that are partially effective and/or very toxic. They are responsible for serious human and plant diseases including Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease), Trypanosoma brucei (Sleeping sickness), Leishmania spp. (Leishmaniasis), and Phytomonas spp. (phytoparasites). Both, animals and trypanosomatids lack the biosynthetic riboflavin (vitamin B2) pathway, the vital precursor of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactors. While metazoans obtain riboflavin from the diet through RFVT/SLC52 transporters, the riboflavin transport mechanisms in trypanosomatids still remain unknown. Here, we show that riboflavin is imported with high affinity in Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana, Crithidia fasciculata and Phytomonas Jma using radiolabeled riboflavin transport assays. The vitamin is incorporated through a saturable carrier-mediated process. Effective competitive uptake occurs with riboflavin analogs roseoflavin, lumiflavin and lumichrome, and co-factor derivatives FMN and FAD. Moreover, important biological processes evaluated in T. cruzi (i.e. proliferation, metacyclogenesis and amastigote replication) are dependent on riboflavin availability. In addition, the riboflavin competitive analogs were found to interfere with parasite physiology on riboflavin-dependent processes. By means of bioinformatics analyses we identified a novel family of riboflavin transporters (RibJ) in trypanosomatids. Two RibJ members, TcRibJ and TbRibJ from T. cruzi and T. brucei respectively, were functionally characterized using homologous and/or heterologous expression systems. The RibJ family represents the first riboflavin transporters found in protists and the third eukaryotic family known to date. The essentiality of riboflavin for trypanosomatids, and the structural/biochemical differences that RFVT

  19. The superfamily keeps growing: Identification in trypanosomatids of RibJ, the first riboflavin transporter family in protists

    PubMed Central

    Balcazar, Darío E.; Vanrell, María Cristina; Romano, Patricia S.; Pereira, Claudio A.; Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Bonomi, Hernán R.; Carrillo, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Background Trypanosomatid parasites represent a major health issue affecting hundreds of million people worldwide, with clinical treatments that are partially effective and/or very toxic. They are responsible for serious human and plant diseases including Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease), Trypanosoma brucei (Sleeping sickness), Leishmania spp. (Leishmaniasis), and Phytomonas spp. (phytoparasites). Both, animals and trypanosomatids lack the biosynthetic riboflavin (vitamin B2) pathway, the vital precursor of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactors. While metazoans obtain riboflavin from the diet through RFVT/SLC52 transporters, the riboflavin transport mechanisms in trypanosomatids still remain unknown. Methodology/Principal findings Here, we show that riboflavin is imported with high affinity in Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana, Crithidia fasciculata and Phytomonas Jma using radiolabeled riboflavin transport assays. The vitamin is incorporated through a saturable carrier-mediated process. Effective competitive uptake occurs with riboflavin analogs roseoflavin, lumiflavin and lumichrome, and co-factor derivatives FMN and FAD. Moreover, important biological processes evaluated in T. cruzi (i.e. proliferation, metacyclogenesis and amastigote replication) are dependent on riboflavin availability. In addition, the riboflavin competitive analogs were found to interfere with parasite physiology on riboflavin-dependent processes. By means of bioinformatics analyses we identified a novel family of riboflavin transporters (RibJ) in trypanosomatids. Two RibJ members, TcRibJ and TbRibJ from T. cruzi and T. brucei respectively, were functionally characterized using homologous and/or heterologous expression systems. Conclusions/Significance The RibJ family represents the first riboflavin transporters found in protists and the third eukaryotic family known to date. The essentiality of riboflavin for

  20. Emerging roles for riboflavin in functional rescue of mitochondrial β-oxidation flavoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Bárbara J; Olsen, Rikke K; Bross, Peter; Gomes, Cláudio M

    2010-01-01

    Riboflavin, commonly known as vitamin B2, is the precursor of flavin cofactors. It is present in our typical diet, and inside the cells it is metabolized to FMN and FAD. As a result of their rather unique and flexible chemical properties these flavins are among the most important redox cofactors present in a large series of different enzymes. A problem in riboflavin metabolism or a low intake of this vitamin will have consequences on the level of FAD and FMN in the cell, resulting in disorders associated with riboflavin deficiency. In a few number of cases, riboflavin deficiency is associated with impaired oxidative folding, cell damage and impaired heme biosynthesis. More relevant are several studies referring reduced activity of enzymes such as dehydrogenases involved in oxidative reactions, respiratory complexes and enzymes from the fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. The role of this vitamin in mitochondrial metabolism, and in particular in fatty acid oxidation, will be discussed in this review. The basic aspects concerning riboflavin and flavin metabolism and deficiency will be addressed, as well as an overview of the role of the different flavoenzymes and flavin chemistry in fatty acid β-oxidation, merging clinical, cellular and biochemical perspectives. A number of recent studies shedding new light on the cellular processes and biological effects of riboflavin supplementation in metabolic disease will also be overviewed. Overall, a deeper understanding of these emerging roles of riboflavin intake is essential to design better therapies.

  1. Riboflavin accumulation and characterization of cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sanghyun; Chae, Soo Cheon; Park, Sang Un

    2012-12-05

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is the universal precursor of the coenzymes flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide--cofactors that are essential for the activity of a wide variety of metabolic enzymes in animals, plants, and microbes. Using the RACE PCR approach, cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase (McLS) and riboflavin synthase (McRS), which catalyze the last two steps in the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway, were cloned from bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a popular vegetable crop in Asia. Amino acid sequence alignments indicated that McLS and McRS share high sequence identity with other orthologous genes and carry an N-terminal extension, which is reported to be a plastid-targeting sequence. Organ expression analysis using quantitative real-time RT PCR showed that McLS and McRS were constitutively expressed in M. charantia, with the strongest expression levels observed during the last stage of fruit ripening (stage 6). This correlated with the highest level of riboflavin content, which was detected during ripening stage 6 by HPLC analysis. McLS and McRS were highly expressed in the young leaves and flowers, whereas roots exhibited the highest accumulation of riboflavin. The cloning and characterization of McLS and McRS from M. charantia may aid the metabolic engineering of vitamin B2 in crops.

  2. Variability of vitamins B1, B2 and minerals content in baobab (Adansonia digitata) leaves in East and West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hyacinthe, Traoré; Charles, Parkouda; Adama, Korbo; Diarra, Compaoré-Sérémé; Dicko, Mamoudou H; Svejgaard, Jan J; Diawara, Bréhima

    2015-01-01

    The regional variability and age–age correlation on vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and minerals (Ca, Mg, P, K, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, and Zn) concentration in baobab leaves were investigated. Baobab was cultivated from seeds from 11 countries including Benin, Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Tanzania, Togo, Senegal, and Sudan. Vitamins B1 and B2 content were assessed using microbiological VitaFast kits methods and minerals by atomic absorption and flame spectrometry methods. Overall, the results showed a higher content of vitamin B2 compared to vitamin B1 with the highest vitamin B2 content (1.04 ± 0.05 mg/100 g DM) from Senegal. The highest iron (Fe) content of 26.39 mg/100 g was found in baobab leaves from Mali. For age–age correlation, adult baobab leaves of Nankoun in Burkina Faso provided the highest calcium (Ca) content of 3373 mg/100 g. However, for provenance trial, young plants from three communities of Burkina Faso showed the highest calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) content. The study demonstrated that vitamins B1 and B2 and mineral contents in baobab leaves vary with the country and the age of the tree. Vitamin B1 content was higher in baobab leaves from ascendants compared to those from descendants, while in contrast vitamin B2 content was higher in the leaves from the descendants compared to their ascendants (mother tree). PMID:25649547

  3. Influence of foliar riboflavin applications to vineyard on grape amino acid content.

    PubMed

    González-Santamaría, Rosario; Ruiz-González, Rubén; Nonell, Santi; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Pérez-Álvarez, Eva P

    2018-02-01

    Nitrogen is an important element for grapevine and winemaking, which affects plant development, grape juice fermentation and has a potential effect in modulating wine quality. The aim was to study the influence of foliar applications of riboflavin (vitamin B2) to vineyard on grape nitrogen composition. This vitamin has a reported capacity to protect different plant species, but its application to favor grape and grape juice quality had not previously been studied. This work reports the oenological properties and the effect on amino acid concentration of grape juices obtained from grapes treated with riboflavin at two different doses compared to control. Results showed that probable alcohol, malic acid, color intensity and hue had significant differences when the riboflavin treatments were applied. Most of the amino acids presented the highest concentrations when the lowest riboflavin dose was used. These results are promising in terms of fermentation development and grape juice nitrogen composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. GREEN AND CONTROLLED SYNTHESIS OF GOLD AND PLATINUM NANOMATERIALS USING VITAMIN B2: DENSITY-ASSISTED SELF-ASSEMBLY OF NANOSPHERES, WIRES AND RODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    For the first time, we report density-assisted self-assembly and efficient synthesis of gold (Au) and platinum (Pt) nanospheres, nanowires and nanorods using vitamin B2 (riboflavin) without employing any special capping or dispersing agent at room temperature; this env...

  5. Laboratory measurement of the absorption coefficient of riboflavin for ultraviolet light (365 nm).

    PubMed

    Iseli, Hans Peter; Popp, Max; Seiler, Theo; Spoerl, Eberhard; Mrochen, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Corneal cross-linking (CXL) is an increasingly used treatment technique for stabilizing the cornea in keratoconus. Cross-linking (polymerization) between collagen fibrils is induced by riboflavin (vitamin B2) and ultraviolet light (365 nm). Although reported to reach a constant value at higher riboflavin concentrations, the Lambert-Beer law predicts a linear increase in the absorption coefficient. This work was carried out to determine absorption behavior at different riboflavin concentrations and to further investigate the purported plateau absorption coefficient value of riboflavin and to identify possible bleaching effects. The Lambert-Beer law was used to calculate the absorption coefficient at various riboflavin concentrations. The following investigated concentrations of riboflavin solutions were prepared using a mixture of 0.5% riboflavin and 20% Dextran T500 dissolved in 0.9% sodium chloride solution: 0%, 0.02%, 0.03%, 0.04%, 0.05%, 0.06%, 0.08%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5%, and were investigated with and without aperture plate implementation. An additional test series measured the transmitted power at selected riboflavin concentrations over time. In diluted solutions, a linear correlation exists between the absorption coefficient and riboflavin concentration. The absorption coefficient reaches a plateau, but this occurs at a higher riboflavin concentration (0.1%) than previously reported (just above 0.04%). Transmitted light power increases over time, indicating a bleaching effect of riboflavin. The riboflavin concentration can be effectively varied as a treatment parameter in a considerably broader range than previously thought. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Thiamin and Riboflavin in Human Milk: Effects of Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplementation and Stage of Lactation on Vitamer Secretion and Contributions to Total Vitamin Content

    PubMed Central

    Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Adair, Linda S.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Flax, Valerie L.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Tegha, Gerald; Chasela, Charles S.; Kamwendo, Debbie; Allen, Lindsay H.

    2016-01-01

    While thiamin and riboflavin in breast milk have been analyzed for over 50 years, less attention has been given to the different forms of each vitamin. Thiamin-monophosphate (TMP) and free thiamin contribute to total thiamin content; flavin adenine-dinucleotide (FAD) and free riboflavin are the main contributors to total riboflavin. We analyzed milk collected at 2 (n = 258) or 6 (n = 104), and 24 weeks (n = 362) from HIV-infected Malawian mothers within the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) study, randomly assigned at delivery to lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) or a control group, to investigate each vitamer’s contribution to total milk vitamin content and the effects of supplementation on the different thiamin and riboflavin vitamers at early and later stages of lactation, and obtain insight into the transport and distribution of these vitamers in human milk. Thiamin vitamers were derivatized into thiochrome-esters and analyzed by high-performance liquid-chromatography-fluorescence-detection (HPLC-FLD). Riboflavin and FAD were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry (ULPC-MS/MS). Thiamin-pyrophosphate (TPP), identified here for the first time in breast milk, contributed 1.9–4.5% to total thiamin. Free thiamin increased significantly from 2/6 to 24 weeks regardless of treatment indicating an active transport of this vitamer in milk. LNS significantly increased TMP and free thiamin only at 2 weeks compared to the control: median 170 versus 151μg/L (TMP), 13.3 versus 10.5μg/L (free thiamin, p<0.05 for both, suggesting an up-regulated active mechanism for TMP and free thiamin accumulation at early stages of lactation. Free riboflavin was consistently and significantly increased with LNS (range: 14.8–19.6μg/L (LNS) versus 5.0–7.4μg/L (control), p<0.001), shifting FAD:riboflavin relative amounts from 92–94:6–8% to 85:15%, indicating a preferred secretion of the free form into breast milk. The

  7. Inadequate Riboflavin Intake and Anemia Risk in a Chinese Population: Five-Year Follow Up of the Jiangsu Nutrition Study

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zumin; Zhen, Shiqi; Wittert, Gary A.; Yuan, Baojun; Zuo, Hui; Taylor, Anne W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Riboflavin (vitamin B2) has been shown in animal studies to affect the absorption and metabolism of iron. Cross-sectional population studies show a relationship between riboflavin intake and anemia but prospective population studies are limited. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between riboflavin intake and the risk of anemia in a Chinese cohort. Method The study used data from 1253 Chinese men and women who participated in two waves of the Jiangsu Nutrition Study (JIN), five years apart, in 2002 and 2007. Riboflavin intake and hemoglobin (Hb) were quantitatively assessed together with dietary patterns, lifestyle, socio-demographic and health-related factors. Results At baseline, 97.2% of participants had inadequate riboflavin intake (below the estimate average requirement). Riboflavin intake was positively associated with anemia at baseline, but low riboflavin intake was associated with an increased risk of anemia at follow-up among those anemic at baseline. In the multivariate model, adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors and dietary patterns, the relative risk and 95% confidence interval for anemia at follow-up, across quartiles of riboflavin intake were: 1, 0.82(0.54–1.23), 0.56(0.34–0.93), 0.52(0.28–0.98) (p for trend 0.021). There was a significant interaction between riboflavin and iron intake; when riboflavin intake was low, a high iron intake was associated with a lower probability of anemia at follow-up. This association disappeared when riboflavin intake was high. Conclusion Inadequate riboflavin intake is common and increases the risk of anemia in Chinese adults. Given the interaction with iron intake correcting inadequate riboflavin intake may be a priority in the prevention of anemia, and population based measurement and intervention trials are required. PMID:24533156

  8. Genetic Control of Biosynthesis and Transport of Riboflavin and Flavin Nucleotides and Construction of Robust Biotechnological Producers†

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Charles A.; Sibirny, Andriy A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Riboflavin [7,8-dimethyl-10-(1′-d-ribityl)isoalloxazine, vitamin B2] is an obligatory component of human and animal diets, as it serves as the precursor of flavin coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide, which are involved in oxidative metabolism and other processes. Commercially produced riboflavin is used in agriculture, medicine, and the food industry. Riboflavin synthesis starts from GTP and ribulose-5-phosphate and proceeds through pyrimidine and pteridine intermediates. Flavin nucleotides are synthesized in two consecutive reactions from riboflavin. Some microorganisms and all animal cells are capable of riboflavin uptake, whereas many microorganisms have distinct systems for riboflavin excretion to the medium. Regulation of riboflavin synthesis in bacteria occurs by repression at the transcriptional level by flavin mononucleotide, which binds to nascent noncoding mRNA and blocks further transcription (named the riboswitch). In flavinogenic molds, riboflavin overproduction starts at the stationary phase and is accompanied by derepression of enzymes involved in riboflavin synthesis, sporulation, and mycelial lysis. In flavinogenic yeasts, transcriptional repression of riboflavin synthesis is exerted by iron ions and not by flavins. The putative transcription factor encoded by SEF1 is somehow involved in this regulation. Most commercial riboflavin is currently produced or was produced earlier by microbial synthesis using special selected strains of Bacillus subtilis, Ashbya gossypii, and Candida famata. Whereas earlier RF overproducers were isolated by classical selection, current producers of riboflavin and flavin nucleotides have been developed using modern approaches of metabolic engineering that involve overexpression of structural and regulatory genes of the RF biosynthetic pathway as well as genes involved in the overproduction of the purine precursor of riboflavin, GTP. PMID:21646432

  9. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Wynn, V

    1975-03-08

    Reports concerning the interaction between steroidal contraceptives (the combined pill) and vitamins indicate that in users the mean serum-vitamin-A level is raised and the mean serum-vitamin-B2 (riboflavine), vitamin-B6 (pyridoxine), vitamine-C, folic-acid, and vitamin-B12 levels are reduced. Other vitamins have been insufficiently studied for comment. Biochemical evidence of co-enzyme deficiency has been reported for vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and folic acid. Clinical effects due to vitamin deficiency have been described for vitamin B6--namely, depression and impaired glucose tolerance. Folic-acid deficiency with megaloblastic anaemia has been reported in only 21 cases.

  10. Inhibition of riboflavin metabolism in rat tissues by chlorpromazine, imipramine, and amitriptyline.

    PubMed

    Pinto, J; Huang, Y P; Rivlin, R S

    1981-05-01

    Prompted by recognition of the similar structures of riboflavin (vitamin B(2)), phenothiazine drugs, and tricyclic antidepressants, our studies sought to determine effects of drugs of these two types upon the conversion of riboflavin into its active coenzyme derivative, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in rat tissues. Chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine derivative, and imipramine and amitriptyline, both tricyclic antidepressants, each inhibited the incorporation of [(14)C]riboflavin into [(14)C]FAD in liver, cerebrum, cerebellum, and heart. A variety of psychoactive drugs structurally unrelated to riboflavin were ineffective. Chlorpromazine, imipramine, and amitriptyline in vitro inhibited hepatic flavokinase, the first of two enzymes in the conversion of riboflavin to FAD. Evidence was obtained that chlorpromazine administration for a 3- or 7-wk period at doses comparable on a weight basis to those used clinically has significant effects upon riboflavin metabolism in the animal as a whole: (a) the activity coefficient of erythrocyte glutathione reductase, an FAD-containing enzyme used as an index of riboflavin status physiologically, was elevated, a finding compatible with a deficiency state, (b) the urinary excretion of riboflavin was more than twice that of age- and sex-matched pair-fed control rats, and (c) after administration of chlorpromazine for a 7-wk period, tissue levels of flavin mononucleotide and FAD were significantly lower than those of pair-fed littermates, despite consumption of a diet estimated to contain 30 times the recommended dietary allowance. The present study suggests that certain psychotropic drugs interfere with riboflavin metabolism at least in part by inhibiting the conversion of riboflavin to its coenzyme derivatives, and that as a consequence of such inhibition, the overall utilization of the vitamin is impaired.

  11. Clinical presentation and outcome of riboflavin transporter deficiency: mini review after five years of experience.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Bregje; Bosch, Annet M

    2016-07-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is absorbed in the small intestine by the human riboflavin transporters RFVT1 and RFVT3. A third riboflavin transporter (RFVT2) is expressed in the brain. In 2010 it was demonstrated that mutations in the riboflavin transporter genes SLC52A2 (coding for RFVT2) and SLC52A3 (coding for RFVT3) cause a neurodegenerative disorder formerly known as Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere (BVVL) syndrome, now renamed to riboflavin transporter deficiency. Five years after the diagnosis of the first patient we performed a review of the literature to study the presentation, treatment and outcome of patients with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of a riboflavin transporter deficiency. A search was performed in Medline, Pubmed using the search terms 'Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome' and 'riboflavin transporter' and articles were screened for case reports of patients with a molecular diagnosis of a riboflavin transporter deficiency. Reports on a total of 70 patients with a molecular diagnosis of a RFVT2 or RTVT3 deficiency were retrieved. The riboflavin transporter deficiencies present with weakness, cranial nerve deficits including hearing loss, sensory symptoms including sensory ataxia, feeding difficulties and respiratory difficulties which are caused by a sensorimotor axonal neuropathy and cranial neuropathy. Biochemical abnormalities may be absent and the diagnosis can only be made or rejected by molecular analysis of all genes. Treatment with oral supplementation of riboflavin is lifesaving. Therefore, if a riboflavin transporter deficiency is suspected, treatment must be started immediately without first awaiting the results of molecular diagnostics.

  12. [Status of vitamin A, vitamin B2, iron and an-oxidantive activity in anemic pregnant women in China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Ma, Ai-Guo; Zhang, Xiu-Zhen; Jiang, Dian-Chen

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the status of vitamin A(VA), vitamin B2 (VB2), iron and anoxidative function in anemic and non-anemic pregnant women. 426 anemic and 36 non-anemic pregnant women were included in the study. The survey of 24-hour's diet recall of pregnant women was made to evaluate intake of iron, VB2, folic acid, etc by the nutrition software provided by Beijing 301 hospital, iron and VA were measured by Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and by high-pressure liquid chromatography. VB2 status was detected using the assay for erythrocyte glutathione reductase (Egr; EC 1.6.4.2) activity. SOD and GSH-Px activities and MDA were determined using commercial kits. Peripheral blood erythrocyte membrane fluidity was detected by using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene as a probe, the degree of fluorescence polarization (P) at 25 degrees C of disrupted cells plasma membranes were compared for a variety of systems. Median intakes of protein and vitamin C met the current Chinese RNIs for pregnancy, whereas intakes of(VA) and VB2 were well below the recommendations. Intake of iron were above 90%, but the main sources of iron are vegetables. Plasma VA (1.25 micromol/L) and iron (20.57 microg/L) were lower, BGRAC (1.79) was higher than that in non-anemia group (VA 1.57 micromol/L, SF 33.16 microg/L, BGRAC 1.52). The level of plasma SOD (77.1U/ml) and the activity of GSH-Px (61.9U) were lower than those in non-anemia group (92.2U/ml, 71.6U, P < 0.05), while MDA (4.58 nmol/ml) level and erythrocyte membrane (P = 0.2622, eta = 2.7465) fluidity were higher than those non-anemia group(MDA = 3.78 nmol/ ml, P = 0.2360, eta = 2.3658). Plasam VA, VB2 and iron, antioxidantcapacity and erythrocyte membrane fluidity were decreased in the anemic pregnant women.

  13. Green Synthesis of Ag and Pd Nanospheres, Nanowires, and Nanorods Using Vitamin B2: Catalytic Polymerisation of Aniline and Pyrrole

    EPA Science Inventory

    For the first time, we report green chemistry approach using vitamin B2 in the synthesis of silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd), nanospheres, nanowires and nanorods at room temperature without using any harmful reducing agents, such as sodium borohydride (NaBH4) or hydroxylamine hydro...

  14. [Effect of vitamins B1, B2, B6, folic acid and vitamin C on the motor activity of chicken's intestines in chronic experiments and in vitro].

    PubMed

    Nagórna-Stasiak, B; Wawrzeńska, M

    1987-01-01

    The studies were carried out on 33 chickens of the broiler breed in chronic experiments and in vitro. In the chronic experiments the motility of the jejunum under the influence of vitamins of group B and vitamine C was recorded in 8 chickens. The vitamins were used at concentrations from 10 mg/l to 2.5 x 10(3) mg/l. In the experiments in vitro, the motility of the isolated segment of the jejunum was recorded by the method of Magnus. In this part of experiments the chickens were divided into 3 groups, of which group I (15 chickens) were fed with DKA finischer mixture, group II (5 hens) received, besides the mixture, per os 200 mg of vitamin C for 2 weeks, group III (5 hens) received the mixture and for 2 weeks intraperitoneally 200 mg of vitamin C. The effect of vitamins of group B in vitro was determined in chickens of group I, whereas that of vitamin C in chickens of group I, II and III. At the same time the level of vitamin C in the wall of the jejunum was determined by the method of Roe-Kuenther. It was shown that vitamin B2 and folic acid caused stimulation of intestine motility in the chickens, while vitamin B1, B6 and C decreased the motoric activity. Increased level of vitamin C in the intestinal wall resulted in increased intestine sensitivity. Chicken intestines sensitivity to vitamins was 10 times stronger to vitamins than that of the intestines of rabbits.

  15. Riboflavin deprivation inhibits macrophage viability and activity - a study on the RAW 264.7 cell line.

    PubMed

    Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka Irena; Buchala, Beata; Plytycz, Barbara

    2013-08-28

    Riboflavin, or vitamin B2, as a precursor of the coenzymes FAD and FMN, has an indirect influence on many metabolic processes and determines the proper functioning of several systems, including the immune system. In the human population, plasma riboflavin concentration varies from 3·1 nM (in a moderate deficiency, e.g. in pregnant women) to 10·4 nM (in healthy adults) and 300 nM (in cases of riboflavin supplementation). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of riboflavin concentration on the activity and viability of macrophages, i.e. on one of the immunocompetent cell populations. The study was performed on the murine monocyte/macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line cultured in medium with various riboflavin concentrations (3·1, 10·4, 300 and 531 nM). The results show that riboflavin deprivation has negative effects on both the activity and viability of macrophages and reduces their ability to generate an immune response. Signs of riboflavin deficiency developed in RAW 264.7 cells within 4 d of culture in the medium with a low riboflavin concentration (3·1 nM). In particular, the low riboflavin content reduced the proliferation rate and enhanced apoptotic cell death connected with the release of lactate dehydrogenase. The riboflavin deprivation impaired cell adhesion, completely inhibited the respiratory burst and slightly impaired phagocytosis of the zymosan particles. In conclusion, macrophages are sensitive to riboflavin deficiency; thus, a low riboflavin intake in the diet may affect the immune system and may consequently decrease proper host immune defence.

  16. Blue light induced free radicals from riboflavin on E. coli DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ji-Yuan; Yuann, Jeu-Ming P; Cheng, Chien-Wei; Jian, Hong-Lin; Lin, Chin-Chang; Chen, Liang-Yu

    2013-02-05

    The micronutrients in many cellular processes, riboflavin (vitamin B(2)), FMN, and FAD are photo-sensitive to UV and visible light to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). The riboflavin photochemical treatment with UV light has been applied for the inactivation of microorganisms to serve as an effective and safe technology. Ultra-violet or high-intensity radiation is, however, considered as a highly risky practice. This study was working on the application of visible LED lights to riboflavin photochemical reactions to development an effective antimicrobial treatment. The photosensitization of bacterial genome with riboflavin was investigated in vitro and in vivo by light quality and irradiation dosage. The riboflavin photochemical treatment with blue LED light was proved to be able to inactivate E. coli by damaging nucleic acids with ROS generated. Riboflavin is capable of intercalating between the bases of bacterial DNA or RNA and absorbs lights in the visible regions. LED light illumination could be a more accessible and safe practice for riboflavin photochemical treatments to achieve hygienic requirements in vitro. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A directed-overflow and damage-control N -glycosidase in riboflavin biosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Frelin, Océane; Huang, Lili; Hasnain, Ghulam; ...

    2015-02-15

    Plants and bacteria synthesize the essential human micronutrient riboflavin (vitamin B2) via the same multistep pathway. The early intermediates of this pathway are notoriously reactive, and may be overproduced in vivo because riboflavin biosynthesis enzymes lack feedback controls. Here we demonstrate disposal of riboflavin intermediates by COG3236 (DUF1768), a protein of previously unknown function that is fused to two different riboflavin pathway enzymes in plants and bacteria (RIBR and RibA, respectively). We present cheminformatic, biochemical, genetic, and genomic evidence to show that: (i) plant and bacterial COG3236 proteins cleave the N-glycosidic bond of the first two intermediates of riboflavin biosynthesis,more » yielding relatively innocuous products; (ii) certain COG3236 proteins are in a multienzyme riboflavin biosynthesis complex that gives them privileged access to riboflavin intermediates; and (iii) COG3236 action in Arabidopsis thaliana and Escherichia coli helps maintain flavin levels. We find COG3236 proteins thus illustrate two emerging principles in chemical biology: directed overflow metabolism, in which excess flux is diverted out of a pathway, and the pre-emption of damage from reactive metabolites.« less

  18. Anti-mitochondrial flavoprotein autoantibodies of patients with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (anti-M7): interaction with flavin-carrying proteins, effect of vitamin B2 and epitope mapping

    PubMed Central

    Stähle, I; Brizzio, C; Barile, M; Brandsch, R

    1999-01-01

    Vitamin B2 and flavin cofactors are transported tightly bound to immunoglobulin in human serum. We reasoned that anti-mitochondrial flavoprotein autoantibodies (αFp-AB) present in the serum of patients with myocarditis and cardiomyopathy of unknown aetiology may form immunoglobulin aggregates with these serum proteins. However, immunodiffusion and Western blot assays demonstrated that the flavin-carrying proteins were not recognized by αFp-AB. Apparently the flavin moiety in the native protein conformation was inaccessible to αFp-AB. This conclusion was supported by the absence of an immunoreaction between the riboflavin-binding protein from egg white and αFP-AB. Intravenous application of vitamin B2 to rabbits immunized with 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase, a bacterial protein carrying covalently attached FAD, did not neutralize αFp-AB which had been raised in the serum of the animals. FAD-carrying peptides generated from 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase by trypsin and chymotrypsin treatment were not recognized by the αFp-AB, but those generated by endopeptidase Lys were. This demonstrates that the epitope recognized by αFp-AB comprises, besides the flavin moiety, protein secondary structure elements. PMID:10193410

  19. Plasma Riboflavin and Vitamin B-6, but Not Homocysteine, Folate, or Vitamin B-12, Are Inversely Associated with Breast Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Varese Cohort.

    PubMed

    Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Krogh, Vittorio; Pala, Valeria; Allione, Alessandra; Matullo, Giuseppe; Di Gaetano, Cornelia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Pedraglio, Samuele; Garrone, Giulia; Cancarini, Ilaria; Cavalleri, Adalberto; Sieri, Sabina

    2016-06-01

    One-carbon metabolism-important for DNA stability and integrity-may play a role in breast carcinogenesis. However, epidemiologic studies addressing this issue have yielded inconsistent results. We prospectively investigated associations between breast cancer and plasma folate, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine in women recruited to the Varese (Italy) cohort of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. We performed a nested case-control study on women aged 35-65 y at recruitment with a median body mass index of 25.3 kg/m(2) who gave blood samples in 1987-1992 and again in 1993-1998. Breast cancer cases identified by 31 December 2009 were individually matched to controls. RRs of breast cancer (and subtypes defined by hormone receptor status) with 95% CIs were estimated by unconditional logistic regression, controlling for matching factors and breast cancer risk factors. After a median of 14.9 y, 276 breast cancer cases were identified and matched to 276 controls. Increasing plasma vitamin B-6 was associated with decreased risk of overall (RR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.96 for 1-SD increase), premenopausal (RR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.92 for 1-SD increase), estrogen receptor-positive (RR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63, 1.00 for 1-SD increase), and progesterone receptor-positive (RR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.95 for 1-SD increase) breast cancers. Increased plasma vitamin B-6 was also associated with decreased breast cancer risk in alcohol consumers (≥7 g/d) compared with consumption of <7 g/d or nonconsumption (RR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.99). High plasma riboflavin was associated with significantly lower risk in premenopausal women (RR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.94; highest compared with the lowest quartile, P trend = 0.021). Plasma homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B-12 were not associated with breast cancer risk. High plasma vitamin B-6 and riboflavin may lower breast cancer risk, especially in premenopausal women. Additional

  20. Construction and fed-batch cultivation of Candida famata with enhanced riboflavin production.

    PubMed

    Dmytruk, Kostyantyn; Lyzak, Oleksy; Yatsyshyn, Valentyna; Kluz, Maciej; Sibirny, Vladimir; Puchalski, Czeslaw; Sibirny, Andriy

    2014-02-20

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is an essential nutrition component serving as a precursor of coenzymes FMN and FAD that are involved mostly in reactions of oxidative metabolism. Riboflavin is produced in commercial scale and is used in feed and food industries, and in medicine. The yeast Candida famata (Candida flareri) belongs to the group of so called "flavinogenic yeasts" which overproduce riboflavin under iron limitation. Three genes SEF1, RIB1 and RIB7 coding for a putative transcription factor, GTP cyclohydrolase II and riboflavin synthase, respectively were simultaneously overexpressed in the background of a non-reverting riboflavin producing mutant AF-4, obtained earlier in our laboratory using methods of classical selection (Dmytruk et al. (2011), Metabolic Engineering 13, 82-88). Cultivation conditions of the constructed strain were optimized for shake-flasks and bioreactor cultivations. The constructed strain accumulated up to 16.4g/L of riboflavin in optimized medium in a 7L laboratory bioreactor during fed-batch fermentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel riboflavin transporter family RFVT/SLC52: identification, nomenclature, functional characterization and genetic diseases of RFVT/SLC52.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Atsushi; Inui, Ken-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Riboflavin, a water-soluble vitamin also known as vitamin B2, is essential for normal cellular functions. Riboflavin transporters play important roles in its homeostasis. Recently, three novel riboflavin transporters were identified, and designated as RFT1, RFT2 and RFT3. Because the RFTs did not show similarity to other SLC transporters, and RFT1 and RFT3 are similar in sequence and function, they were assigned into a new SLC family, SLC52. Subsequently, RFT1/GPR172B, RFT3/GPR172A and RFT2/C20orf54 were renamed as RFVT1/SLC52A1, RFVT2/SLC52A2 and RFVT3/SLC52A3, respectively. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the cloning, nomenclature, functional characterization and genetic diseases of RFVT1/SLC52A1, RFVT2/SLC52A2 and RFVT3/SLC52A3. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. "Send & hold" clinical decision support rules improvement to reduce unnecessary testing of vitamins A, E, K, B1, B2, B3, B6 and C.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Borja, Enrique; Corchon-Peyrallo, Africa; Barba-Serrano, Esther; Villalba Martínez, Celia; Carratala Calvo, Arturo

    2018-06-27

    We assessed the impact of several "send & hold" clinical decision support rules (CDSRs) within the electronical request system for vitamins A, E, K, B1, B2, B3, B6 and C for all outpatients at a large health department. When ordered through electronical request, providers (except for all our primary care physicians who worked as a non-intervention control group) were always asked to answer several compulsory questions regarding main indication, symptomatology, suspected diagnosis, vitamin active treatments, etc., for each vitamin test using a drop-down list format. After samples arrival, tests were later put on hold internally by our laboratory information system (LIS) until review for their appropriateness was made by two staff pathologists according to the provided answers and LIS records (i.e. "send & hold"). The number of tests for each analyte was compared between the 10-month period before and after CDSRs implementation in both groups. After implementation, vitamins test volumes decreased by 40% for vitamin A, 29% for vitamin E, 42% for vitamin K, 37% for vitamin B1, 85% for vitamin B2, 68% for vitamin B3, 65% for vitamin B6 and 59% for vitamin C (all p values 0.03 or lower except for vitamin B3), whereas in control group, the majority increased or remained stable. In patients with rejected vitamins, no new requests and/or adverse clinical outcome comments due to this fact were identified. "Send & hold" CDSRs are a promising informatics tool that can support in utilization management and enhance the pathologist's leadership role as tests specialist.

  3. Vitamin B-12 in breast milk and diet, and riboflavin in breastmilk, are very low in Kenyan lactating women, although vitamin B-6 is sufficient.

    Background: Breastmilk B-vitamin concentrations can fluctuate with maternal intake. Low maternal intake of B-vitamins may result in low B-vitamin breastmilk concentrations and consequently B-vitamin deficiency in their infants because infants 0–6 months are recommended to be exclusively breastfed. T...

  4. Hydrosoluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Jasvinder; Kvarnberg, David

    2014-01-01

    The hydrosoluble vitamins are a group of organic substances that are required by humans in small amounts to prevent disorders of metabolism. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical, physiologic and nutritional aspects of the water-soluble vitamins. Deficiency of these particular vitamins, most commonly due to inadequate nutrition, can result in disorders of the nervous system. Many of these disorders have been successfully prevented in developed countries; however, they are still common in developing countries. Of the hydrosoluble vitamins, the nervous system depends the most on vitamins B and C (ascorbic acid) for proper functioning. The B group vitamins include thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin or niacinamide (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine or pyridoxal (vitamin B6) and cobalamin (vitamin B12). Clinical findings depend upon the deficiency of the underlying vitamin; generally, deficiency symptoms are seen from a combination rather than an isolated vitamin deficiency. True hereditary metabolic disorders and serious deficiency-associated diseases are rare and in general limited to particular geographic regions and high-risk groups. Their recognition is truly important as that determines the appropriate therapeutic management. The general availability of vitamins to practically everyone and several national health programs have saved many lives and prevented complications. However, there has been some apprehension for several decades about how harmless generous dosages of these vitamins are. Overt overdosages can cause vitamin toxicity affecting various body systems including the nervous system. Systemically, vitamin toxicity is associated with nonspecific symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and skin rash which are common with any acute or chronic vitamin overdose. At a national level, recommended daily allowances for vitamins become policy statements. Nutrition policy has far

  5. Biosynthesis of riboflavin: an unusual riboflavin synthase of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum.

    PubMed Central

    Eberhardt, S; Korn, S; Lottspeich, F; Bacher, A

    1997-01-01

    Riboflavin synthase was purified by a factor of about 1,500 from cell extract of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. The enzyme had a specific activity of about 2,700 nmol mg(-1) h(-1) at 65 degrees C, which is relatively low compared to those of riboflavin synthases of eubacteria and yeast. Amino acid sequences obtained after proteolytic cleavage had no similarity with known riboflavin synthases. The gene coding for riboflavin synthase (designated ribC) was subsequently cloned by marker rescue with a ribC mutant of Escherichia coli. The ribC gene of M. thermoautotrophicum specifies a protein of 153 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence agrees with the information gleaned from Edman degradation of the isolated protein and shows 67% identity with the sequence predicted for the unannotated reading frame MJ1184 of Methanococcus jannaschii. The ribC gene is adjacent to a cluster of four genes with similarity to the genes cbiMNQO of Salmonella typhimurium, which form part of the cob operon (this operon contains most of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of vitamin B12). The amino acid sequence predicted by the ribC gene of M. thermoautotrophicum shows no similarity whatsoever to the sequences of riboflavin synthases of eubacteria and yeast. Most notably, the M. thermoautotrophicum protein does not show the internal sequence homology characteristic of eubacterial and yeast riboflavin synthases. The protein of M. thermoautotrophicum can be expressed efficiently in a recombinant E. coli strain. The specific activity of the purified, recombinant protein is 1,900 nmol mg(-1) h(-1) at 65 degrees C. In contrast to riboflavin synthases from eubacteria and fungi, the methanobacterial enzyme has an absolute requirement for magnesium ions. The 5' phosphate of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine does not act as a substrate. The findings suggest that riboflavin synthase has evolved independently in eubacteria and methanobacteria. PMID:9139911

  6. Bioengineered riboflavin in nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Beztsinna, N; Solé, M; Taib, N; Bestel, I

    2016-02-01

    Riboflavin (RF) is an essential water-soluble vitamin with unique biological and physicochemical properties such as transporterspecific cell internalization, implication in redox reactions, fluorescence and photosensitizing. Due to these features RF attracted researchers in various fields from targeted drug delivery and tissue engineering to optoelectronics and biosensors. In this review we will give a brief reminder of RF chemistry, its optical, photosensitizing properties, RF transporter systems and its role in pathologies. We will point a special attention on the recent findings concerning RF applications in nanotechnologies such as RF functionalized nanoparticles, polymers, biomolecules, carbon nanotubes, hydrogels and implants for tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Riboflavin as adjuvant with cisplatin: study in mouse skin cancer model.

    PubMed

    Salman, Maria; Naseem, Imrana

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin used in treatment of solid tumor induces oxidative stress which leads to hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. New strategies are therefore needed to combat toxicity and optimize its therapeutic potential. Riboflavin (VitaminB2) under photoillumination works as an anti proliferative agent and induces apoptosis. These properties of riboflavin have been exploited to mitigate cisplatin induced toxicities. 9,10-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene /12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate  were used to induce skin tumor in Swiss albino mice. The tumor induced mice were treated with cisplatin, riboflavin as well as their combination under photo illumination. In comparison to tumor control group the cisplatin and riboflavin treated groups showed a compromised level of antioxidant enzymes, functional markers and a higher degree of lipid peroxidation. However these parameters tended towards normal in the combination treated group. The results from histopathology indicate that apoptosis was favored mode of cell death and that necrosis was reduced in combination treated groups. Our findings indicate that combination of cisplatin with riboflavin under photo illumination synergizes its anti cancer activity towards cancer cells and attenuates the cisplatin induced toxicities.

  8. Experimente ueber den Einflusse von Metaboliten und Antimetaboliten am Modell von Trichomonas Vaginalis. I. Mitteilung Experimente mit dem Vitamin B2-Komplex (Experiments on the Influence of Metabolites and Antimetabolites on the Model of Trichomonas vaginalis. I. Communication: Experiments with the Vitamin-B2-Complex),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    pathogenic protozoa Trichomonas vaginalis have been studied. Material and methods are described in the paper. The efficacy of the individual admixtures from the vitamin-B2-complex is subsequently discussed. (Author)

  9. Assessment of intake and nutritional status of vitamin b1, b2, and b6 in men and women with different physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Malara, M; Hübner-Wozniak, E; Lewandowska, I

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6 in respect to dietary intake of these vitamins and activity coefficients of the erythrocyte enzymes transketolase, glutathione reductase, and aspartic aminotransferase in young men and women with different physical activity levels. The participants of this study were 20 women and 20 men with high physical activity (groups HAW and HAM, respectively), and 20 women and 20 men with low physical activity (groups LAW and LAM, respectively). The intake of vitamins B1, B2, B6, proteins, and calorie content of the diet was based on the average of the 4-day dietary recalls. To assess nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6, the activity coefficients (α) of erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), erythrocyte glutathione reductase (EGR), and erythrocyte aspartic aminotransferase (EAST) were estimated in blood hemolysates. The intake of the studied vitamins in the diet was statistically significantly lower in the female groups compared with the respective male groups. Deficiency of vitamin B6 in the diet was present more often in women than in men (in terms of the recommended dietary allowances [RDA]). Values of the activity coefficient αETK indicated that none of the groups in this study suffered the risk of vitamin B1 deficiency. The value of the activity coefficient αEGR indicated that the groups of women and men with low physical activity were more prone to vitamin B2 deficiency compared with the high physical activity groups. The risk of vitamin B6 deficiency (αEAST) in both male groups was higher than in both female groups. The obtained results do not allow for unequivocal determination of the impact of sex and the level of physical activity on intake and nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6. Independently of sex and the level of physical activity, the women and men consumed insufficient quantities of vitamins B1 and B6, although this was not always related to

  10. Green Synthesis of Ag and Pd Nanospheres, Nanowires, and Nanorods Using Vitamin B 2 : Catalytic Polymerisation of Aniline and Pyrrole

    DOE PAGES

    Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N.; Varma, Rajender S.

    2008-01-01

    Formore » the first time, we report green chemistry approach using vitamin B 2 in the synthesis of silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd), nanospheres, nanowires, and nanorods at room temperature without using any harmful reducing agents, such as sodium borohydride ( NaBH 4 ) or hydroxylamine hydrochloride and any special capping or dispersing agent. Vitamin B 2 was used as reducing agent as well as capping agent due to its high-water solubility, biodegradability, and low-toxicity compared with other reducing agents. The average particle size of nanoprticle was found to be Ag (average size 6.1 ± 0.1 nm) and Pd (average size 4.1 ± 0.1 nm) nanoparticles in ethylene glycol and Ag (average size 5.9 ± 0.1 nm, and average size 6.1 ± 0.1) nanoparticles in acetic acid and NMP, respectively. The formation of noble multiple shape nanostructures and their self assembly were dependent on the solvent employed for the preparation. When water was used as solvent media, Ag and Pd nanoparticles started to self-assemble into rod-like structures and in isopropanol Ag and Pd nanoparticles yielded wire-like structures with a thickness in the range of 10 to 20 nm and several hundred microns in length. In acetone and acetonitrile medium, the Ag and Pd nanoparticles are self-assembled into a regular pattern making nanorod structures with thicknesses ranging from 100 to 200 nm and lengths of a few microns. The so-synthesized nanostructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, and UV spectroscopy. The ensuing Ag and Pd nanoparticles catalyzed the reactions of aniline and pyrrole to generate polyaniline and polypyrrole nanofibers and may find various technological and biological applications. This single-step greener approach is general and can be extended to other noble metals and transition metal oxides.« less

  11. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... The water-soluble vitamins — C and the B-complex vitamins (such as vitamins B6, B12, niacin, riboflavin, ... day, as well as the right balance of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and calories. Whole or unprocessed foods — ...

  12. Photo, thermal and chemical degradation of riboflavin

    PubMed Central

    Kazi, Sadia Hafeez; Ahmed, Sofia; Anwar, Zubair; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Summary Riboflavin (RF), also known as vitamin B2, belongs to the class of water-soluble vitamins and is widely present in a variety of food products. It is sensitive to light and high temperature, and therefore, needs a consideration of these factors for its stability in food products and pharmaceutical preparations. A number of other factors have also been identified that affect the stability of RF. These factors include radiation source, its intensity and wavelength, pH, presence of oxygen, buffer concentration and ionic strength, solvent polarity and viscosity, and use of stabilizers and complexing agents. A detailed review of the literature in this field has been made and all those factors that affect the photo, thermal and chemical degradation of RF have been discussed. RF undergoes degradation through several mechanisms and an understanding of the mode of photo- and thermal degradation of RF may help in the stabilization of the vitamin. A general scheme for the photodegradation of RF is presented. PMID:25246959

  13. Association of riboflavin, caffeine, and sodium salicylate in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranovskii, S. F.; Bolotin, P. A.

    2007-03-01

    We have used UV and visible spectrophotometry to study self-association of aromatic riboflavin molecules (RFN, vitamin B2, 7,8-dimethyl-10-N-(1'-D-ribityl)isoalloxazine) in aqueous solution (pH 6.86) at T = 298 K, using a dimer model. We have determined the equilibrium dimerization constant for riboflavin, KdB = 125 ± 40 M-1. We have studied heteroassociation in the system of molecules of 7,8-dimethyl-10-ribitylisoalloxazine with 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) and sodium salicylate (NAS) in aqueous solution (pH 6.86; T = 298 K). We have determined the heteroassociation constants for RFN-NAS and RFN-caffeine molecules in the absence and in the presence of urea in solutions using a modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation: 25 ± 4, 17 ± 3, and 74 ± 11, 53 ± 7 M-1 respectively. We have determined the dimerization constants for NAS (2.7 ± 0.5 M-1) and caffeine (17.0 ± 1.5 M-1). We conclude that heteroassociation of the aromatic molecules leads to a lower effective riboflavin concentration in solution, and the presence of urea in mixed solutions leads to an decrease in the complexation constants for the RFN-NAS and RFN-caffeine systems.

  14. Gluten-Free Flours from Different Raw Materials as the Source of Vitamin B1, B2, B3 and B6.

    PubMed

    Rybicka, Iga; Gliszczynska-Swiglo, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Gluten-free (GF) products are those with a natural absence or acceptable level (<20 mg/kg) of gluten. They should be a part of a diet for people with gluten-related disorders, like celiac disease. Recently the popularity of a gluten-free diet (GFD) has risen extremely, because a lot of healthy individuals exclude gluten from their menus. According to the literature data on nutritional deficiencies in the GFD, this trend seems to be risky. This paper describes the nutritional value of 14 flours from different GF raw materials from the aspect of B-group vitamin content (B 1 , B 2 , B 3 , B 6 ). Vitamins were determined using high performance liquid chromatography after enzymatic and acid hydrolysis of the samples. The vitamin contents significantly differed in the analysed flours. The content (in 100 g of the product) of vitamin B 1 ranged from 0.01 mg (amaranth flour) to 0.60 mg (teff flour), vitamin B 2 from 0.03 mg (GF flour with oats) to 0.22 mg (buckwheat flour), vitamin B 3 from below 0.01 mg (amaranth flour) to 6.02 mg (millet flour), and vitamin B 6 from 0.03 mg (acorn flour) to 0.69 mg (amaranth flour). The content of vitamins in the analysed GF flours was also compared to gluten-containing flours. Obtained results indicate that flours from teff, millet, chestnut, buckwheat, and amaranth are better sources of certain B-group vitamins than flours from corn, rice, and some flours with gluten.

  15. Spectroscopic and thermodynamic study of charge transfer complex formation between cloxacillin sodium and riboflavin in aqueous ethanol media of varying composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Dalim Kumar; Saha, Avijit; Mukherjee, Asok K.

    2006-03-01

    Cloxacillin sodium has been shown to form a charge transfer complex of 2:1 stoichiometry with riboflavin (Vitamin B 2) in aqueous ethanol medium. The enthalpy and entropy of formation of this complex have been determined by estimating the formation constant spectrophotometrically at five different temperatures in pure water medium. Pronounced effect of dielectric constant of the medium on the magnitude of K has been observed by determining K in aqueous ethanol mixtures of varying composition. This has been rationalized in terms of ionic dissociation of the cloxacillin sodium (D -Na +), hydrolysis of the anion D - and complexation of the free acid, DH with riboflavin.

  16. [Influence wheat bran on organism vitamin (experiment on rats)].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Isaeva, V A; Pozdniakov, A L

    2011-01-01

    The inclusion of wheat bran (at a dose of 2,3 and 4,6% of the dry weight) in the semi-synthetic diet of rats under combined deficiency of vitamins (20 and 50% of the adequate level) did not have a significant effect on vitamins C, B1 and B2 liver levels, riboflavin blood plasma level, and thiamine and riboflavin urinary excretion. The consumption of bran in high dose has been accompanied by a decrease of retinol blood plasma level on 19-28% but it has no effect on liver retinol palmitate content. Bran intake in both doses resulted in a deterioration of rats sufficiency with vitamin E, which had been confirmed by a simultaneous significant decrease of blood plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration on 31-40%, and its liver level on 23-43%. The results obtained indicate the advisability of vitamin E enrichment of diets with a high content of dietary fiber.

  17. Electroactive species-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) films: enhanced sensitivity for electrochemical simultaneous determination of vitamins B2, B6 and C.

    PubMed

    Nie, Tao; Xu, Jing-Kun; Lu, Li-Min; Zhang, Kai-Xin; Bai, Ling; Wen, Yang-Ping

    2013-12-15

    Herein, functionalized PEDOT films were prepared by incorporation of two electroactive species, ferrocenecarboxylic acid (Fc(-)) and ferricyanide (Fe(CN)6(4-)) as doping anions during the electropolymerization of PEDOT at glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) from aqueous solution. The electrochemically synthesized electroactive species-doped PEDOT films have been carefully characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FTIR and UV/Vis spectra and various electrochemical techniques. Such nanostructured films combined the advantages of PEDOT (high conductivity and stability) together with electroactive species (good electrochemical activity) and were applied as electrochemical sensors for simultaneous determination of vitamin B2 (VB2), vitamin B6 (VB6) and vitamin C (VC). The results showed that the oxidation peak currents of vitamins obtained at the GCEs modified with electroactive species-doped PEDOT films were much higher than those at the ClO4(-)-doped PEDOT films and bare GCEs. The experiment results also illustrated that the sensors possessed high selectivity with no interference from other potential competing species. Moreover, the proposed sensors were successfully employed for the determination of vitamins in orange juice samples with satisfactory results. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evolution of vitamin B2 biosynthesis: structural and functional similarity between pyrimidine deaminases of eubacterial and plant origin.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Markus; Römisch, Werner; Saller, Sabine; Illarionov, Boris; Richter, Gerald; Rohdich, Felix; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Bacher, Adelbert

    2004-08-27

    The Arabidopsis thaliana open reading frame At4g20960 predicts a protein whose N-terminal part is similar to the eubacterial 2,5-diamino-6-ribosylamino-4(3H)-pyrimidinone 5'-phosphate deaminase domain. A synthetic open reading frame specifying a pseudomature form of the plant enzyme directed the synthesis of a recombinant protein which was purified to apparent homogeneity and was shown by NMR spectroscopy to convert 2,5-diamino-6-ribosylamino-4(3H)-pyrimidinone 5'-phosphate into 5-amino-6-ribosylamino-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione 5'-phosphate at a rate of 0.9 micromol mg(-1) min(-1). The substrate and product of the enzyme are both subject to spontaneous anomerization of the ribosyl side chain as shown by (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The protein contains 1 eq of Zn(2+)/subunit. The deaminase activity could be assigned to the N-terminal section of the plant protein. The deaminase domains of plants and eubacteria share a high degree of similarity, in contrast to deaminases from fungi. These data show that the riboflavin biosynthesis in plants proceeds by the same reaction steps as in eubacteria, whereas fungi use a different pathway.

  19. Riboflavin Responsive Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Udhayabanu, Tamilarasan; Manole, Andreea; Rajeshwari, Mohan; Varalakshmi, Perumal; Houlden, Henry; Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria are the repository for various metabolites involved in diverse energy-generating processes, like the TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and metabolism of amino acids, fatty acids, and nucleotides, which rely significantly on flavoenzymes, such as oxidases, reductases, and dehydrogenases. Flavoenzymes are functionally dependent on biologically active flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN), which are derived from the dietary component riboflavin, a water soluble vitamin. Riboflavin regulates the structure and function of flavoenzymes through its cofactors FMN and FAD and, thus, protects the cells from oxidative stress and apoptosis. Hence, it is not surprising that any disturbance in riboflavin metabolism and absorption of this vitamin may have consequences on cellular FAD and FMN levels, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction by reduced energy levels, leading to riboflavin associated disorders, like cataracts, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, etc. Furthermore, mutations in either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA encoding for flavoenzymes and flavin transporters significantly contribute to the development of various neurological disorders. Moreover, recent studies have evidenced that riboflavin supplementation remarkably improved the clinical symptoms, as well as the biochemical abnormalities, in patients with neuronopathies, like Brown-Vialetto-Van-Laere syndrome (BVVLS) and Fazio-Londe disease. This review presents an updated outlook on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative disorders in which riboflavin deficiency leads to dysfunction in mitochondrial energy metabolism, and also highlights the significance of riboflavin supplementation in aforementioned disease conditions. Thus, the outcome of this critical assessment may exemplify a new avenue to enhance the understanding of possible mechanisms in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases and may provide new rational approaches of disease

  20. New Methods for the Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritionals.

    PubMed

    Martin, Frederic; Giménez, Ester Campos; Konings, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Water-soluble vitamins (WSVs) are a group of organic compounds which are essential micronutrients. WSVs could be divided between the B complex group and vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid). Within the B complex group, eight vitamins are recognized: vitamins B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin or niacinamide), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, or pyridoxamine), B7 (biotin), B9 (folic acid), and B12 (various cobalamins). This paper reviews the new methods for the analysis of these vitamins, with a focus on infant formula and adult nutritionals.

  1. [Estimation of vitamin status of moscow student according to data on vitamins intake and their levels in blood].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Solntseva, T N; Pogozheva, A V; Khanferyan, R A; Berketova, L V; Lipatova, L P

    Supply with vitamins C, A, E and B2 of 61 high school students (38 girls and 23 boys, aged 18–22 years, body mass index – 23.0±0.6 kg/m2) by means of determination of blood plasma concentration of ascorbic acid, retinol and carotenoids, tocopherols and riboflavin has been investigated in the period from May to September. All students were well supplied with vitamin C (only 2 boys had a reduced level of ascorbic acid) and vitamin A. Decreased level of carotenoids was more common in boys (48 versus 24% in girls). 20% of the students were insufficiently supplied with vitamin E, 38% – with vitamin B2. 39% of students (50% girls and 22% boys) were adequately provided with all studied vitamins. 5% of the students had a combined deficiency of 3 vitamins, 20% – 2 vitamins. Student’s sufficiency with vitamins B2, C, A, E, carotenoids did not depend on the season. Diet intake of vitamins C, A, carotenoids and vitamin B2 has been calculated basing on the data on the frequency of food consumption during the previous month. Reduced consumption relatively to the Russia RDA of vitamins В2, C and А took place in 63, 54 and 46% of the students respectively. The lack of vitamin B2 in the diet was most pronounced, the value of probabilistic risk corresponded to the average level in 34% of students. Average probabilistic risk of inadequate intake of vitamin A was present in 17% of students, vitamin C – 6%. Coincidence of the results of vitamin C and A status assessment obtained by calculation of vitamin diet intake and by biochemical methods (concentration of vitamins in the blood plasma) was 94 and 83%. These methods are interchangeable if you select the value of the average probability of risk failure intake of these vitamins as a criterion. Proportion of coinciding results of the estimation of vitamin B2 status was 56%. Special well-designed studies on larger sample surveyed are needed for the final output of the interchangeability of methods to assess riboflavin

  2. [Effect of the folic acid and vitamin B2 on the diabetes mellitus rats with diabetic nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Xu, Rongxian; Fan, Yanfeng; Xiang, Jianjun; Zhan, Meirong

    2012-11-01

    To explore the relationship among the folic acid, vitamin B12 and diabetic nephropathy and to discuss the mechanism of the diabetic microangiopathy. We selected 80 SD rats, and then divided them into 2 groups randomly. Those were the control group and the model groups. During the process of this study, the control group was fed with the normal animal feeds; the model groups were fed with the high calorie diets for 10 weeks. At the end of the tenth week, the rats of the model group were induced to diabetes mellitus by intraperitoneal injection with streptozocin 30mg/kg, and then we divided the diabetes mellitus rats into 4 groups which measured the levels of the blood fat (total cholesterin, triglyceride), Fins, FBG, SOD, MDA, GSH-Px. Results (1) Through feeding the rats with the special feeds for a long time, and then injecting with streptozocin can make them develop to be the diabetes mellitus. The model groups' levels of the triglyceride, the cholesterin and the random blood glucose were (1.07 +/- 0.27), (2.29 +/- 0.42), (21.12 +/- 4.21) mmol/L, respectively, those were significantly higher than the control group's levels which were (1.11 +/- 0.20), (0.68 +/- 0.11), (5.73 +/- 0.26) mmol/L (P < 0.05). (2) After given different interference, for the group of the diabetes mellitus rats that without fed with vitamin B12 and folic acid, the degree of the pathological change of kidney tissue was the most serious through the method of periodic acid-Schiff' s staining (PAS), and the level of the MDA was also highest (P < 0.05), the level of the GSH-Px was lowest (P < 0.05) during the all groups. What' s more, both of the folic acid and the vitamin B12 could reduce the increase of the 24hours urinary albumin, especially using the folic acid and the vitamin B12 together. Using the special feeds to feed the SD rats for ten weeks and then inject STZ (30 mg/kg) from abdominal cavity can make them develop to be the diabetes mellitus. The supplement with folic acid and vitamin

  3. A comparative analysis of single cell and droplet-based FACS for improving production phenotypes: Riboflavin overproduction in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Wagner, James M; Liu, Leqian; Yuan, Shuo-Fu; Venkataraman, Maya V; Abate, Adam R; Alper, Hal S

    2018-04-23

    Evolutionary approaches to strain engineering inherently require the identification of suitable selection techniques for the product and phenotype of interest. In this work, we undertake a comparative analysis of two related but functionally distinct methods of high-throughput screening: traditional single cell fluorescence activated cell sorting (single cell FACS) and microdroplet-enabled FACS (droplet FACS) using water/oil/water (w/o/w) emulsions. To do so, we first engineer and evolve the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for high extracellular production of riboflavin (vitamin B2), an innately fluorescent product. Following mutagenesis and adaptive evolution, a direct parity-matched comparison of these two selection strategies was conducted. Both single cell FACS and droplet FACS led to significant increases in total riboflavin titer (32 and 54 fold relative to the parental PO1f strain, respectively). However, single cell FACS favored intracellular riboflavin accumulation (with only 70% of total riboflavin secreted) compared with droplet FACS that favored extracellular product accumulation (with 90% of total riboflavin secreted). We find that for the test case of riboflavin, the extent of secretion and total production were highly correlated. The resulting differences in production modes and levels clearly demonstrate the significant impact that selection approaches can exert on final evolutionary outcomes in strain engineering. Moreover, we note that these results provide a cautionary tale when intracellular read-outs of product concentration (including signals from biosensors) are used as surrogates for total production of potentially secreted products. In this regard, these results demonstrate that extracellular production is best assayed through an encapsulation technique when performing high throughput screening. Copyright © 2018 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Vitamins for enhancing plant resistance.

    PubMed

    Boubakri, Hatem; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Mliki, Ahmed; Brini, Faiçal; Chong, Julie; Jbara, Moez

    2016-09-01

    This paper provides an overview on vitamins with inducing activities in plants, the molecular and cellular mechanisms implicated, and the hormonal signalling-network regulating this process. Moreover, it reports how vitamins might be part of the molecular events linked to induced resistance by the conventional elicitors. Induced resistance (IR), exploiting the plant innate-defense system is a sustainable strategy for plant disease control. In the last decade, vitamins have been proven to act as inducers of disease resistance, and these findings have received an important attention owing to their safety and cost effectiveness. Vitamins, including thiamine (TH, vitamin B1), riboflavin (RF, vitamin B2), menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB, vitamin K3), Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, vitamin Bx), and folic acid (FA, vitamin B9) provided an efficient protection against a wide range of pathogens through the modulation of specific host-defense facets. However, other vitamins, such as ascorbic acid (AA, vitamin C) and tocopherols (vitamin E), have been shown to be a part of the molecular mechanisms associated to IR. The present review is the first to summarize what vitamins are acting as inducers of disease resistance in plants and how could they be modulated by the conventional elicitors. Thus, this report provides an overview on the protective abilities of vitamins and the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying their activities. Moreover, it describes the hormonal-signalling network regulating vitamin-signal transduction during IR. Finally, a biochemical model describing how vitamins are involved in the establishment of IR process is discussed.

  5. A vitamin-B2-sensing mechanism that regulates gut protease activity to impact animal’s food behavior and growth

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Bin; Kniazeva, Marina; Han, Min

    2017-01-01

    To survive challenging environments, animals acquired the ability to evaluate food quality in the intestine and respond to nutrient deficiencies with changes in food-response behavior, metabolism and development. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying intestinal sensing of specific nutrients, especially micronutrients such as vitamins, and the connections to downstream physiological responses in animals remain underexplored. We have established a system to analyze the intestinal response to vitamin B2 (VB2) deficiency in Caenorhabditis elegans, and demonstrated that VB2 level critically impacts food uptake and foraging behavior by regulating specific protease gene expression and intestinal protease activity. We show that this impact is mediated by TORC1 signaling through reading the FAD-dependent ATP level. Thus, our study in live animals uncovers a VB2-sensing/response pathway that regulates food-uptake, a mechanism by which a common signaling pathway translates a specific nutrient signal into physiological activities, and the importance of gut microbiota in supplying micronutrients to animals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26243.001 PMID:28569665

  6. Uptake and Metabolism of Antibiotics Roseoflavin and 8-Demethyl-8-Aminoriboflavin in Riboflavin-Auxotrophic Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Matern, Andreas; Pedrolli, Danielle; Großhennig, Stephanie; Johansson, Jörgen; Mack, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    The riboflavin analogs roseoflavin (RoF) and 8-demethyl-8-aminoriboflavin (AF) are produced by the bacteria Streptomyces davawensis and Streptomyces cinnabarinus Riboflavin analogs have the potential to be used as broad-spectrum antibiotics, and we therefore studied the metabolism of riboflavin (vitamin B 2 ), RoF, and AF in the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium which is a riboflavin auxotroph. We show that the L. monocytogenes protein Lmo1945 is responsible for the uptake of riboflavin, RoF, and AF. Following import, these flavins are phosphorylated/adenylylated by the bifunctional flavokinase/flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) synthetase Lmo1329 and adenylylated by the unique FAD synthetase Lmo0728, the first monofunctional FAD synthetase to be described in bacteria. Lmo1329 generates the cofactors flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and FAD, whereas Lmo0728 produces FAD only. The combined activities of Lmo1329 and Lmo0728 are responsible for the intracellular formation of the toxic cofactor analogs roseoflavin mononucleotide (RoFMN), roseoflavin adenine dinucleotide (RoFAD), 8-demethyl-8-aminoriboflavin mononucleotide (AFMN), and 8-demethyl-8-aminoriboflavin adenine dinucleotide (AFAD). In vivo reporter gene assays and in vitro transcription/translation experiments show that the L. monocytogenes FMN riboswitch Rli96, which controls expression of the riboflavin transport gene lmo1945, is negatively affected by riboflavin/FMN and RoF/RoFMN but not by AF/AFMN. Treatment of L. monocytogenes with RoF or AF leads to drastically reduced FMN/FAD levels. We suggest that the reduced flavin cofactor levels in combination with concomitant synthesis of inactive cofactor analogs (RoFMN, RoFAD, AFMN, and AFAD) explain why RoF and AF contribute to antibiotic activity in L. monocytogenes IMPORTANCE: The riboflavin analogs roseoflavin (RoF) and 8-demethyl-8-aminoriboflavin (AF) are small molecules which are produced by Streptomyces davawensis and Streptomyces cinnabarinus

  7. Main-chain optically active riboflavin polymer for asymmetric catalysis and its vapochromic behavior.

    PubMed

    Iida, Hiroki; Iwahana, Soichiro; Mizoguchi, Tomohisa; Yashima, Eiji

    2012-09-12

    A novel optically active polymer consisting of riboflavin units as the main chain (poly-1) was prepared from naturally occurring riboflavin (vitamin B(2)) in three steps. The riboflavin residues of poly-1 were converted to 5-ethylriboflavinium cations (giving poly-2), which could be reversibly transformed into the corresponding 4a-hydroxyriboflavins (giving poly-2OH) through hydroxylation/dehydroxylation reactions. This reversible structural change was accompanied by a visible color change along with significant changes in the absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra. The nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) and CD spectra of poly-2 revealed a supramolecularly twisted helical structure with excess one-handedness through face-to-face stacking of the intermolecular riboflavinium units, as evidenced by the apparent NOE correlations between the interstrand riboflavin units and intense Cotton effects induced in the flavinium chromophore regions. The hydroxylation of poly-2 at the 4a-position proceeded in a diastereoselective fashion via chirality transfer from the induced supramolecular helical chirality assisted by the ribityl pendants, resulting in a 83:17 diastereomeric mixture of poly-2OH. The diastereoselectivity of poly-2 was remarkably higher than that of the corresponding monomeric model (64.5:35.5), indicating amplification of the chirality resulting from the supramolecular chirality induced in the stacked poly-2 backbones. The optically active poly-2 efficiently catalyzed the asymmetric organocatalytic oxidation of sulfides with hydrogen peroxide, yielding optically active sulfoxides with up to 60% enantiomeric excess (ee), whose enantioselectivity was higher than that catalyzed by the monomeric counterpart (30% ee). In addition, upon exposure to primary and secondary amines, poly-2 exhibited unique high-speed vapochromic behavior arising from the formation of 4a-amine adducts in the film.

  8. Mitochondrial oxidative metabolism during respiratory infection in riboflavin deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Brijlal, S; Lakshmi, A V; Bamji, M S

    1999-12-01

    Studies in children and mice have shown that respiratory infection alters riboflavin metabolism, resulting in increased urinary loss of this vitamin. This could be due to mobilization of riboflavin from the liver to blood because liver Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) levels were lowered in the mice during infection. To understand the functional implications of lowered hepatic FAD levels during respiratory infection, flavoprotein functions such as oxidative phosphorylation and beta-oxidation of the liver mitochondria were examined during infection in mice. Weanling mice were fed either riboflavin-restricted or control diet for 18 days and then injected with a sublethal dose of Klebsiella pneumoniae. During infection, the state 3 respiratory rate with palmitoyl-L-carnitine and glutamate were significantly lowered (27-29%) in the riboflavin-restricted group, whereas in the control group 10% reduction was observed with palmitoyl-L-carnitine as substrate. A 22% reduction in the respiratory control ratio with palmitoyl-L-carnitine as substrate was observed during infection in the riboflavin-restricted group. The beta-oxidation of palmitoyl-L-carnitine was significantly lowered (29%) in the riboflavin-restricted infected group. The results of the study suggest that the effects of infection on vital physiologic functions were more pronounced in the riboflavin-restricted mice than in the control mice. (c) Elsevier Science Inc. 1999.

  9. The Analysis of Riboflavin in Urine Using Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderleiter, Julie A.; Hyslop, Richard M.

    1996-06-01

    To become functional as scientists, chemistry students must integrate concepts learned in their classes and apply them to novel, "real life" situations. The laboratory provides an important place for the students to practice integrating concepts. This laboratory experiment, designed for undergraduate biochemistry students, requires each student to determine the amount of riboflavin excreted by his/her body following oral administration of riboflavin contained in a multi-vitamin tablet. The experimental procedure describes a protocol for the analysis of riboflavin concentration in urine using a fluorometric assay. The students must draw upon their knowledge of solution preparation, construction of a standard curve, and back-calculation procedures to determine the concentration of riboflavin in their urine. Students need to combine knowledge from general and analytical chemistry with that learned in biochemistry to complete this analysis, thus providing an opportunity to integrate knowledge while answering a novel question.

  10. Rapid determination of thiamine, riboflavin, niacinamide, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, folic acid and ascorbic acid in Vitamins with Minerals Tablets by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Jin, Pengfei; Xia, Lufeng; Li, Zheng; Che, Ning; Zou, Ding; Hu, Xin

    2012-11-01

    A simple, isocratic, and stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the rapid determination of thiamine (VB(1)), niacinamide (VB(3)), pyridoxine (VB(6)), ascorbic acid (VC), pantothenic acid (VB(5)), riboflavin (VB(2)) and folic acid (VB(9)) in Vitamins with Minerals Tablets (VMT). An Alltima C(18) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm) was used for the separation at ambient temperature, with 50mM ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (adjusting with phosphoric acid to pH 3.0) and acetonitrile as the mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.5 ml min(-1). VB(1), VB(3), VB(6), VC and VB(5) were extracted with a solution containing 0.05% phosphoric acid (v/v) and 0.3% sodium thiosulfate (w/v), and were then simultaneously analyzed by using the mobile phase of phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (95:5, v/v), while VB(2) and VB(9) were extracted with a solution containing 0.5% ammonium hydroxide solution (v/v), and were then simultaneously analyzed by using the mobile phase of phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (85:15, v/v). The detection wavelengths were 275 nm for VB(1), VB(3), VB(6), VC, 210 nm for VB(5), and 282 nm for VB(2) and VB(9). The method showed good system suitability, sensitivity, linearity, specificity, precision, stability and accuracy. All the seven water-soluble vitamins were well separated from other ingredients and degradation products. Method comparison indicated good concordance between the developed method and the USP method. The developed method was reliable and convenient for the rapid determination of VB(1), VB(3), VB(6), VC, VB(5), VB(2) and VB(9) in VMT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation of a screening method for the simultaneous identification of fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins (A, E, B1, B2 and B6) in an aqueous micellar medium of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride.

    PubMed

    León-Ruiz, V; Vera, S; San Andrés, M P

    2005-04-01

    Simultaneous determination of the fat-soluble vitamins A and E and the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2 and B6 has been carried using a screening method from fluorescence contour graphs. These graphs show different colour zones in relation to the fluorescence intensity measured for the pair of excitation/emission wavelengths. The identification of the corresponding excitation/emission wavelength zones allows the detection of different vitamins in an aqueous medium regardless of the fat or water solubility of each vitamin, owing to the presence of a surfactant which forms micelles in water at the used concentration (over the critical micelle concentration). The micelles dissolve very water insoluble compounds, such as fat-soluble vitamins, inside the aggregates. This approach avoids the use of organic solvents in determining these vitamins and offers the possibility of analysing fat- and water-soluble vitamins simultaneously. The method has been validated in terms of detection limit, cut-off limit, sensitivity, number of false positives, number of false negatives and uncertainty range. The detection limit is about microg L(-1). The screening method was applied to different samples such as pharmaceuticals, juices and isotonic drinks.

  12. Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... about taking large amounts of fat-soluble vitamin supplements. These include vitamins A, D, E, and K. These vitamins are stored in fat cells, and they can build up in your body and may cause harmful effects.

  13. Identification and Characterization of the Missing Pyrimidine Reductase in the Plant Riboflavin Biosynthesis Pathway1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hasnain, Ghulam; Frelin, Océane; Roje, Sanja; Ellens, Kenneth W.; Ali, Kashif; Guan, Jiahn-Chou; Garrett, Timothy J.; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Gregory, Jesse F.; McCarty, Donald R.; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is the precursor of the flavin coenzymes flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide. In Escherichia coli and other bacteria, sequential deamination and reduction steps in riboflavin biosynthesis are catalyzed by RibD, a bifunctional protein with distinct pyrimidine deaminase and reductase domains. Plants have two diverged RibD homologs, PyrD and PyrR; PyrR proteins have an extra carboxyl-terminal domain (COG3236) of unknown function. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PyrD (encoded by At4g20960) is known to be a monofunctional pyrimidine deaminase, but no pyrimidine reductase has been identified. Bioinformatic analyses indicated that plant PyrR proteins have a catalytically competent reductase domain but lack essential zinc-binding residues in the deaminase domain, and that the Arabidopsis PyrR gene (At3g47390) is coexpressed with riboflavin synthesis genes. These observations imply that PyrR is a pyrimidine reductase without deaminase activity. Consistent with this inference, Arabidopsis or maize (Zea mays) PyrR (At3g47390 or GRMZM2G090068) restored riboflavin prototrophy to an E. coli ribD deletant strain when coexpressed with the corresponding PyrD protein (At4g20960 or GRMZM2G320099) but not when expressed alone; the COG3236 domain was unnecessary for complementing activity. Furthermore, recombinant maize PyrR mediated NAD(P)H-dependent pyrimidine reduction in vitro. Import assays with pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts showed that PyrR and PyrD are taken up and proteolytically processed. Ablation of the maize PyrR gene caused early seed lethality. These data argue that PyrR is the missing plant pyrimidine reductase, that it is plastid localized, and that it is essential. The role of the COG3236 domain remains mysterious; no evidence was obtained for the possibility that it catalyzes the dephosphorylation that follows pyrimidine reduction. PMID:23150645

  14. Separation and preconcentration of riboflavin from human plasma using polythionine coated magnetite/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite prior to analysis by surfactant-enhanced fluorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzin, Leila; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2017-09-01

    The exploration of novel adsorption properties of conductive polymers based on hybridization with biocompatible nanomaterials receives an increasing interest. In this regard, hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic is of critical importance mainly owing to its facile synthesis, high surface area, economic and low toxicity in biological environments. In this work, we first prepared and characterized a magnetite/hydroxyapatite (Fe3O4/HA) nanocomposite using the bio-waste chicken eggshell via an attractive green way that involved low cost and irrespective of toxicity. Then, polythionine as a novel class of conductive polymers was in situ coated on the synthesized magnetic bioceramic for the separation and preconcentration of riboflavin (vitamin B2) in human plasma before its fluorimetric determination. Considering the putative role of riboflavin in protecting against cancer and cardiovascular diseases, it is essential to evaluate this vitamin in biological fluids. The described method possesses a linear range of 0.75-262.5 μg L- 1 (R2 = 0.9985) and a detection limit of 0.20 μg L- 1 (signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for single-sorbent repeatability and sorbent-to-sorbent reproducibility were less than 4.0% and 7.6% (n = 5), respectively. The respective enrichment factor and extraction recovery of the method found to be 35.7 and 98.4%. The analytical performance of method for riboflavin was characterized by good consistency of the results with those obtained by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) conventional method (p-value of < 0.05). The optimized protocol intended for control determinations of riboflavin in human subjects and is addressed to clinical laboratories.

  15. Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... C? citrus fruits, like oranges cantaloupe strawberries tomatoes broccoli cabbage kiwi fruit sweet red peppers Vitamin D ... green vegetables dairy products, like milk and yogurt broccoli soybean oil When your body gets this vitamin ...

  16. Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... get enough vitamins is to eat a balanced diet with a variety of foods. In some cases, you may need to take vitamin supplements. It's a good idea to ask your health care provider first. High doses of some vitamins can cause problems.

  17. Medium composition influence on Biotin and Riboflavin production by newly isolated Candida sp

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Gaby Tiemi; Macedo, Juliana Alves; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2011-01-01

    Complex B vitamins as Biotin and Riboflavin are required by living organisms, not only for growth but also for metabolite production, and the feed market classifies them as growth promoters. Since Brazil will soon be one of the world’s biggest animal protein producers, feed production is a large consumer of vitamins and micronutrients. The industry requires 10 mg riboflavin/0.2 mg biotin per kilogram of feed; a ratio of 40 ~ 50:1. Although few studies have been conducted specifically on riboflavin production using factorial design and surface response method as an optimization strategy, it is a common practice in biotechnology with many research reports available. However, there are no reports on the use of statistical design for biotin production. This study set out to evaluate medium composition influence on biotin and riboflavin production using a statistical design. There are no studies relating biotin and riboflavin production by Candida sp LEB 130. In this preliminary study to improve the simultaneous production of biotin and riboflavin, the maximum riboflavin/biotin ratio of 8.3 μg/mL was achieved with medium component concentrations of: sucrose 30 g/L, KH2PO4 2 g/L, MgSO4 1 g/L and ZnSO4 0.5mL/L. PMID:24031727

  18. Medium composition influence on Biotin and Riboflavin production by newly isolated Candida sp.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Gaby Tiemi; Macedo, Juliana Alves; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2011-07-01

    Complex B vitamins as Biotin and Riboflavin are required by living organisms, not only for growth but also for metabolite production, and the feed market classifies them as growth promoters. Since Brazil will soon be one of the world's biggest animal protein producers, feed production is a large consumer of vitamins and micronutrients. The industry requires 10 mg riboflavin/0.2 mg biotin per kilogram of feed; a ratio of 40 ~ 50:1. Although few studies have been conducted specifically on riboflavin production using factorial design and surface response method as an optimization strategy, it is a common practice in biotechnology with many research reports available. However, there are no reports on the use of statistical design for biotin production. This study set out to evaluate medium composition influence on biotin and riboflavin production using a statistical design. There are no studies relating biotin and riboflavin production by Candida sp LEB 130. In this preliminary study to improve the simultaneous production of biotin and riboflavin, the maximum riboflavin/biotin ratio of 8.3 μg/mL was achieved with medium component concentrations of: sucrose 30 g/L, KH2PO4 2 g/L, MgSO4 1 g/L and ZnSO4 0.5mL/L.

  19. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, thermal analysis and electrical conductivity studies of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) vitamin B2 complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Moussa, Mohamed A. A.; Mohamed, Soha F.

    2011-05-01

    Riboflavin (RF) complexes of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) were successfully synthesized. Structures of metal complexes obtained were confirmed and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, and infrared spectra. DC electrical conductivity measurements indicated that the alkaline earth metal (II) complexes of RF ligand are non-electrolytes. Elemental analysis of chelates suggest that the metal(II) ligand ratio is 1:2 with structure formula as [M(RF) 2( X) 2]· nH 2O. Infrared assignments clearly show that RF ligand coordinated as a bidentate feature through azomethine nitrogen of pyrazine ring and C dbnd O of pyrimidine-2,4-dione. Thermal analyses of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) complexes were investigated using (TG/DSC) under atmospheric nitrogen between 30 and 800 °C. The surface morphology of the complexes was studied by SEM. The electrical conductivities of RF and its metal complexes were also measured with DC electrical conductivity in the temperature range from room to 483 K.

  20. Water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were <6.5%. The concentrations of vitamins found in premixes with the method were comparable to the values declared. A disadvantage of the methods mentioned above is that sample composition has to be known in advance. According to European legislation, for example, foods might be fortified with riboflavin phosphate or thiamin phosphate, vitamers which are not included in the simultaneous separations described. Vitamin B2.--Viñas et al. elaborated an LC analysis of riboflavin vitamers in foods. Vitamin B2 can be found in nature as the free riboflavin, but in most biological materials it occurs predominantly in the form of 2 coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Several methods usually involve the conversion of these coenzymes into free riboflavin before quantification of total riboflavin. According to the authors, there is growing interest to know flavin composition of foods. The described method separates the individual vitamers isocratically. Accuracy of the method is tested with 2 certified reference materials (CRMs). Vitamin B5.-Methods for the determination of vitamin B5 in foods are limited

  1. Genetic control of biosynthesis and transport of riboflavin and flavin nucleotides and construction of robust biotechnological producers.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Charles A; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2011-06-01

    Riboflavin [7,8-dimethyl-10-(1'-d-ribityl)isoalloxazine, vitamin B₂] is an obligatory component of human and animal diets, as it serves as the precursor of flavin coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide, which are involved in oxidative metabolism and other processes. Commercially produced riboflavin is used in agriculture, medicine, and the food industry. Riboflavin synthesis starts from GTP and ribulose-5-phosphate and proceeds through pyrimidine and pteridine intermediates. Flavin nucleotides are synthesized in two consecutive reactions from riboflavin. Some microorganisms and all animal cells are capable of riboflavin uptake, whereas many microorganisms have distinct systems for riboflavin excretion to the medium. Regulation of riboflavin synthesis in bacteria occurs by repression at the transcriptional level by flavin mononucleotide, which binds to nascent noncoding mRNA and blocks further transcription (named the riboswitch). In flavinogenic molds, riboflavin overproduction starts at the stationary phase and is accompanied by derepression of enzymes involved in riboflavin synthesis, sporulation, and mycelial lysis. In flavinogenic yeasts, transcriptional repression of riboflavin synthesis is exerted by iron ions and not by flavins. The putative transcription factor encoded by SEF1 is somehow involved in this regulation. Most commercial riboflavin is currently produced or was produced earlier by microbial synthesis using special selected strains of Bacillus subtilis, Ashbya gossypii, and Candida famata. Whereas earlier RF overproducers were isolated by classical selection, current producers of riboflavin and flavin nucleotides have been developed using modern approaches of metabolic engineering that involve overexpression of structural and regulatory genes of the RF biosynthetic pathway as well as genes involved in the overproduction of the purine precursor of riboflavin, GTP.

  2. [Sufficiency with water-soluble vitamins and state of bone in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Pereverzeva, O G; Gmoshinskaya, M V; Kodentsova, V M; Safronova, A I; Korosteleva, M M; Aleshina, I V; Fandeeva, T A

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin status and bone strength have been estimated in 91 pregnant women (29.3 ± 4.6 years old) from Moscow by non-invasive methods. Sufficiency with vitamins C, B2, B6 has been evaluated by morning urinary excretion of ascorbic acid, riboflavin and 4-piridoxic acid determined by visual titration and fluorimetric methods. The rate of bone resorption has been measured by the ratio of urinary calcium and creatinine, determined by complexometric titration and spectrophotometrically. The study of the bone strength has been conducted using an ultrasonic densitometer (the speed of the ultrasonic waves along the cortical layer). The lack of vitamin C was found in 20.4% .of the women surveyed, vitamin B2--in 27.4%. Vitamin B6 deficiency was detected most frequently (90%). Excretion of vitamins B2 and B6 in women in the third trimester of pregnancy was lower as compared with the women in the first and second trimester. In 53.3% of the women surveyed an increase in urinary excretion of calcium per creatinine has been observed. Excretion of group B vitamins (especially vitamin B6, 1.75 fold, p < 0.05) in women taking vitamin supplements was higher compared to non-taking vitamins that indicates the better sufficiency of the organism with these vitamins. Among women who took vitamin complexes, inadequate supply with water-soluble vitamins C, B2 and B6 was detected less frequently (the difference was significant for vitamin B2) than among women who did not intake vitamin complexes (in 11.9, 27.7 and 42.4% vs 16.1, 54.8 and 48.8 %). The rate of bone resorption (Ca/creatinine) in women taking vitamins was smaller (0.19 ± 0.09 vs 0.24 ± 0.14, p > 0.05). Ca/creatinine ratio was within normal range in 40% of women who intake vitamins, while in women not taking vitamins--only in 22.2%; this value exceeded the upper limit of norm in the rest. The strength of bone was broken in women in the second and third trimester of pregnancy, having worse supply of vitamins. The percentage of

  3. Bioavailability of Cu, Zn and Mn from Mineral Chelates or Blends of Inorganic Salts in Growing Turkeys Fed with Supplemental Riboflavin and/or Pyridoxine.

    PubMed

    Salami, S A; Oluwatosin, O O; Oso, A O; Fafiolu, A O; Sogunle, O M; Jegede, A V; Bello, F A; Pirgozliev, V

    2016-09-01

    An 84-day feeding trial was conducted in growing turkeys to measure the bioavailability of Cu, Zn and Mn from a commercial mineral chelate and corresponding inorganic salts in composite feeds containing supplemental riboflavin (B2) and/or pyridoxine (B6). A total of 320, 28-day-old British United Turkeys (BUT) were assigned to eight dietary treatments in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement comprising two trace mineral sources: chelated trace mineral blend (CTMB) and its corresponding inorganic trace minerals blend (ITMB) fed solely or with supplements of vitamin B2 (8 ppm) or B6 (7 ppm) or 8 ppm B2 + 7 ppm B6. Each treatment was replicated four times with 10 turkeys each. It was observed that turkeys fed with diets supplemented solely with ITMB elicited higher (P < 0.05) Zn excretion than their counterparts fed with diets containing ITMB with supplements of vitamins B2 and/or B6. Manganese retention was lower (P < 0.05) in turkeys fed with diets supplemented solely with ITMB than those fed with diets containing vitamins B2 and/or B6 additives. Combination of CTMB or ITMB with B6 improved (P < 0.05) the concentration of Mn in the liver and Cu in the bone. It was concluded that the minerals in CTMB were more available to the animals than ITMB. Furthermore, vitamins B2 and/or B6 supplementation improved the bioavailability of the inorganic Cu, Zn and Mn in growing turkeys and tended to reduce the concentration of these trace elements in birds' excreta.

  4. Studies on the biosynthesis of vitamin B sub 2 and vitamin B sub 12

    SciT

    Chen, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Feeding experiments with Ashbya gossypii followed by NMR analysis of the resulting riboflavin showed incorporation of deuterium from D-(2-{sup 2}H)ribose at C-2{prime} and from D-(1-{sup 2}H)ribose in the pro-R position at C-1{prime} of the ribityl side chain. The results rule out an Amadori rearrangement mechanism for the reduction of the ribosylamino to the ribitylamino linkage and point to formation of a Schiff base that is reduced stereospecifically opposite to the face from which the oxygen has departed. As prerequisite for the analysis, the {sup 1}H NMR signals for the pro-R and pro-S hydrogens at C-1{prime} of riboflavin and its tetraacetatemore » were assigned with the aid of synthetic stereospecifically deuteriated samples. Feeding experiments with Propionibacterium shermianii followed by NMR analysis of the resulting vitamin B{sub 12} showed: (1) 5-methylbenzimidazole (5MBI) incorporated and only one regioisomer (B6-demethylcyanocobalamin)formed. (2) 8-demethylriboflavin incorporated and the same regioisomer was obtained as 5MBI experiment. (3) (1{prime}-{sup 13}C, 5-{sup 15}N)riboflavin incorporated and {sup 13}C-NMR showed that {sup 13}C at the B2 position of cyanocobalamin coupled to both adjacent nitrogen-15 atoms at about the same ratio.« less

  5. Suspected Outbreak of Riboflavin Deficiency among Populations Reliant on Food Assistance: A Case Study of Drought-Stricken Karamoja, Uganda, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Erin K.; Talley, Leisel E.; Birungi, Nelly; McClelland, Amanda; Madraa, Elizabeth; Chandia, Agnes B.; Nivet, Jacqueline; Flores-Ayala, Rafael; Serdula, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, a humanitarian response was launched to address a food security and livelihoods crisis in Karamoja, Uganda. During a polio immunization campaign in mid-August 2009, health workers in Nakapiripit District reported a concern about an increase in mouth sores, or angular stomatitis (AS) and gum ulcerations, among children in one village, and an investigation was launched. Objective This article describes the investigation, lessons learned, and provides guidance for monitoring micronutrient deficiencies among populations receiving food assistance. Design An investigation into a suspected outbreak of riboflavin (vitamin B2) deficiency was initiated, including a rapid assessment, mass screening, a convenience sample collection of blood specimens (n = 58 symptomatic cases and n = 18 asymptomatic individuals), and analysis of the general food ration (70% ration). Results Findings showed signs of AS in only 399 (0.2%) of 179,172 screened individuals, including adults and children. Biochemical analysis confirmed riboflavin deficiency in 84.5% of specimens from symptomatic individuals and 94.4% of specimens from asymptomatic individuals. Ration distribution data showed that 55% of distributions provided less than half the riboflavin RDA. Conclusion Evidence was insufficient to confirm an actual outbreak of riboflavin deficiency, though the present investigation adds further documentation that micronutrient deficiencies continue to persist among populations in emergency settings. This article describes challenges, lessons learned, and guidance for monitoring micronutrient deficiencies among food assistance recipients, including: ongoing nutrition monitoring and surveillance; training and sensitization about micronutrient deficiencies, sensitization of the population about locally-available food, and identifying ways to improve micronutrient interventions. PMID:23658790

  6. Defective remethylation of homocysteine is related to decreased synthesis of coenzymes B2 in thyroidectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Ayav, A; Alberto, J M; Barbe, F; Brunaud, L; Gerard, P; Merten, M; Gueant, J L

    2005-02-01

    We investigated the influence of hypothyroidism on homocysteine metabolism in rats, focusing on a hypothetical deficient synthesis of FAD by riboflavin kinases. Animals were allocated in control group (n = 7), thyroidectomized rats (n = 6), rats with diet deficient in vitamin B2, B9, B12, choline and methionine (n = 7), thyroidectomized rats with deficient diet (n = 9). Homocysteine was decreased in operated rats (2.6 +/- 1.01 vs. 4.05 +/- 1.0 mumol/L, P = 0.02) and increased in deficient diet rats (29.56 +/- 4.52 vs. 4.05 +/- 1.0 micromol/L, P = 0.001), when compared to control group. Erythrocyte-Glutathione-Reductase-Activation-Coefficient (index of FAD deficiency) was increased in thyroidectomized or deficient diet rats (P = 0.004 for both). Methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase and methionine-synthase activities were decreased in thyroidectomized rats but not in those subjected to deficient diet. Cystathionine-beta-synthase was increased only in operated rats. Taken together, these results showed a defective re-methylation in surgical hypothyroidism, which was due in part to a defective synthesis of vitamin B2 coenzymes. This defective pathway was overcompensated by the increased Cystathionine-beta-synthase activity.

  7. [Vitamin status of citizens from Moscow Region].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Pogozheva, A V; Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Aristarhova, T V; Levin, L G; Danisova, N N; Baturin, A K

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of vitamin status in healthy individuals (68 men and 70 women) aged from 18 to 60 years (median - 37 years), residents of Moscow and the Moscow region has been performed by means of determination of vitamin C, A, E, B2, B12 and folic acid level in blood serum. The nutrition was investigated by questionnaire method on frequency of food consumption. Both diet of men and women had excessive fat content (41.7 and 42.7% of total calories), saturated fatty acids (14.1 and 13.6%), added sugars (11.1 and 11.0%), sodium, and had lack of dietary fiber (2.5-fold reduced level comparing with RDA). Daily intake of vitamin B1 was 1.37±0.04 mg for men and 1.06±0.07 mg for women, vitamin B2 - respectively 1.72±0.06 and 1.62±0.07 mg, niacin - 18.5±0.72 and 14.8±0.88 mg and did not reach the optimal level. All persons were sufficiently supplied with vitamins A, C, E and B12: mean and median of blood serum level of retinol, tocopherols, ascorbic acid and cobalamins were in the range of optimum values. The lack of vitamins A and B12 has not been found in any person. The frequency of vitamin C and E insufficiency was insignificant and amounted to 2 and 8% respectively. The lack of vitamin B2, and β-carotene was most pronounced and took place in about a half of individuals. Only 34% of healthy people of working age were sufficiently supplied with all vitamins. A combined lack of two vitamins was detected in 26%, of three vitamins - in 8%. Women were better supplied with riboflavin and β-carotene. The blood serum level of β-carotene and vitamin E was significantly higher in individuals older than 30 years compared with persons of younger age. Individuals with overweight or obesity were worse supplied with β-carotene and folate. A negative correlation was detected between the levels of serum folate and homocysteine concentration (r=-0.262, p<0.05). A positive correlation has been revealed between the concentration of folic acid and the level of HDL-C (r=0.356, p<0

  8. [Influence of hypocaloric diet with addition of a vitamin-mineral complex on status of patients with obesity 1st and 2nd degrees].

    PubMed

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Plotnikova, O A; Zykina, V V; Mal'tsev, G Iu; Sokol'nikov, A A; Kaganov, B S

    2011-01-01

    Addition of a vitamin-mineral complex (VMC) to a standard hypocaloric diet leads to a positive dynamics of antropometric characteristics in patients with obesity 1st and 2nd degrees which is comparable to effectiveness of standard dietotherapy (dietary treatment) traditionally used in complex treatment of obesity. Addition of 1,8 mg of vitamin B2 as part of VMC to a hypocaloric diet is shown to be inadequate in eradication of marginal provision of riboflavin when using diets reduced in calories.

  9. [Vitamin-antioxidant sufficiency of winter sports athletes].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Solntseva, T N; Khanfer'ian, R A

    2013-01-01

    The sufficiency of 169 athletes (six disciplines: bullet shooting, biathlon, bobsleigh, skeleton, freestyle skiing, snowboarding) with vitamins A, E, C, B2, and beta-carotene has been investigated in April-September 2013. All athletes (102 juniors, mean age--18.5 +/- 0.3 years, and 67 adult high-performance athletes, mean age--26.8 +/- 0.7 years) were sufficiently supplied with vitamin A (70.7 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl). Mean blood serum retinol level was 15% higher the upper limit of the norm (80 mcg/dl) in biathletes while median reached 90.9 mcg/dl. Blood serum level of tocopherols (1.22 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), ascorbic acid (1.06 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), riboflavin (7.1 +/- 0.4 ng/ml), and beta-carotene (25.1 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl) was in within normal range, but the incidence of insufficiency of vitamins E, C, B2, and carotenoid among athletes varied in the range of 0-25, 0-17, 15-67 and 42-75%, respectively. 95% of adults and 80% of younger athletes were sufficiently provided with vitamin E. Vitamin E level in blood serum of juniors involved in skeleton and biathlon was lower by 51 and 72% (p < 0.05), than this parameter in adult athletes. Vitamin A, C and B2, and beta-carotene blood serum level did not significantly differ in junior and adult athletes. Women were better supplied with vitamins C, B2, and beta-carotene: a reduced blood serum level of these micronutrients in women was detected 2-3 fold rare (p < 0.10) than among men. Blood serum concentration of vitamin C (1.20 +/- 0.05 mg/dl) and beta-carotene (32.0 +/- 3.9 mcg/dl) in women was greater by 15 and 54% (p < 0.05) than in men. In general, the biathletes were better provided with vitamins compared with other athletes. The vast majority (80%) were optimally provided by all three antioxidants (beta-carotene and vitamins E and C). In other sports, the relative quantity of athletes sufficiently supplied with these essential nutrients did not exceed 56%. The quota of supplied with all antioxidants among bullet shooters (31.1%) and

  10. Finding the Needle in the Haystack-the Use of Microfluidic Droplet Technology to Identify Vitamin-Secreting Lactic Acid Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Vestergaard, Mike; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam; Shen, Jing; Dufva, Martin; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2017-05-30

    Efficient screening technologies aim to reduce both the time and the cost required for identifying rare mutants possessing a phenotype of interest in a mutagenized population. In this study, we combined a mild mutagenesis strategy with high-throughput screening based on microfluidic droplet technology to identify Lactococcus lactis variants secreting vitamin B 2 (riboflavin). Initially, we used a roseoflavin-resistant mutant of L. lactis strain MG1363, JC017, which secreted low levels of riboflavin. By using fluorescence-activated droplet sorting, several mutants that secreted riboflavin more efficiently than JC017 were readily isolated from the mutagenesis library. The screening was highly efficient, and candidates with as few as 1.6 mutations per million base pairs (Mbp) were isolated. The genetic characterization revealed that riboflavin production was triggered by mutations inhibiting purine biosynthesis, which is surprising since the purine nucleotide GTP is a riboflavin precursor. Purine starvation in the mutants induced overexpression of the riboflavin biosynthesis cluster ribABGH When the purine starvation was relieved by purine supplementation in the growth medium, the outcome was an immediate downregulation of the riboflavin biosynthesis cluster and a reduction in riboflavin production. Finally, by applying the new isolates in milk fermentation, the riboflavin content of milk (0.99 mg/liter) was improved to 2.81 mg/liter, compared with 0.66 mg/liter and 1.51 mg/liter by using the wild-type strain and the original roseoflavin-resistant mutant JC017, respectively. The results obtained demonstrate how powerful classical mutagenesis can be when combined with droplet-based microfluidic screening technology for obtaining microorganisms with useful attributes. IMPORTANCE The food industry prefers to use classical approaches, e.g., random mutagenesis followed by screening, to improve microorganisms used in food production, as the use of recombinant DNA

  11. RP-HPLC determination of water-soluble vitamins in honey.

    PubMed

    Ciulu, Marco; Solinas, Silvia; Floris, Ignazio; Panzanelli, Angelo; Pilo, Maria I; Piu, Paola C; Spano, Nadia; Sanna, Gavino

    2011-01-15

    The assessment and validation of reliable analytical methods for the determination of vitamins in sugar-based matrices (e.g. honey) are still scarcely explored fields of research. This study proposes and fully validates a simple and fast RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of five water-soluble vitamins (vitamin B(2), riboflavin; vitamin B(3), nicotinic acid; vitamin B(5), pantothenic acid; vitamin B(9), folic acid; and vitamin C, ascorbic acid) in honey. The method provides low detection and quantification limits, very good linearity in a large concentration interval, very good precision, and the absence of any bias. It has been successfully applied to 28 honey samples (mainly from Sardinia, Italy) of 12 different botanical origins. While the overall amount of the analytes in the samples is quite low (always below 40 mg kg(-1)), we have observed a marked dependence of some of their concentrations (i.e. vitamin B(3) and vitamin B(5)) and the botanical origin of the honey. This insight might lead to important characterization features for this food item. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Effect of vitamin sufficiency on adaptation syndrome in growing rats].

    PubMed

    Sidorova, Iu S; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Zorin, S N; Selifanov, A V; Mazo, V K

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vitamin supply of growing male -Wistar rats (n=21) with an initial body weight 53,5±0,9 g on their resistance to a single distress induced by the electric shock has been investigated. Control rats within 21 days received a complete semisynthetic diet,providingadequate amounts of vitamins. Combined vitamin deficiency in experimental rats was caused by 5-fold decrease of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and the total vitamin E exclusion from the mixture. On the 21st day, one day before the end of the experiment, both groups of rats were subjected to stress impact (electrocutaneous irritation on paws, 0,4 mA for 8 sec) and then animals were placed in metabolic cages to collect urine. By the end of the experiment, the animals with the combined vitamin deficiency lag behind in growth. Vitamin B2, A, B1 and E liver content decreased in experimental rats by 1,6, 2,3, 4,4 and 15 fold accordingly. Retinol plasma concentration was significantly reduced by 18%, α-tocopherol level - by 5 fold, urinary excretionof riboflavin and 4-pyridoxic acid (vitamin B6 metabolite) was significantly reduced by 6,5 and 2,46 times accordingly. MDA blood plasma concentration and the urinary ratio of oxidized and not oxidized form of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine did not differ in both groups of rats. Urinary excretion of stress biomarker corticosterone in rats with combined vitamin deficit was 2,5-fold higher than in control rats. Thus, reducing of vitamins supply resulted in an increase of urine corticosterone in stressed rats, that characterized the intensity of general adaptation syndrome. This fact shows the importance of optimal sufficiency with vitamins in nonspecific (general) resistance to stress.

  13. Spectrofluorimetric determination of some water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Abdel-Maaboud I; Mohamed, Horria A; Abdel-Latif, Niveen M; Mohamed, Marwa R

    2011-01-01

    Two simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for determination of three water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, and B6) in mixtures in the presence of cyanocobalamin. The first one was for thiamine determination, which depends on the oxidation of thiamine HCl to thiochrome by iodine in an alkaline medium. The method was applied accurately to determine thiamine in binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures with pyridoxine HCl, riboflavin, and cyanocobalamin without interference. In the second method, riboflavin and pyridoxine HCl were determined fluorimetrically in acetate buffer, pH 6. The three water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, and B6) were determined spectrofluorimetrically in binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures in the presence of cyanocobalamin. All variables were studied in order to optimize the reaction conditions. Linear relationship was obeyed for all studied vitamins by the proposed methods at their corresponding lambda(exc) or lambda(em). The linear calibration curves were obtained from 10 to 500 ng/mL; the correlation ranged from 0.9991 to 0.9999. The suggested procedures were applied to the analysis of the investigated vitamins in their laboratory-prepared mixtures and pharmaceutical dosage forms from different manufacturers. The RSD range was 0.46-1.02%, which indicates good precision. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical additives. Good recoveries (97.6 +/- 0.7-101.2 +/- 0.8%) were obtained. Statistical comparison of the results with reported methods shows excellent agreement and indicates no significant difference in accuracy and precision.

  14. Ion-pair cloud-point extraction: a new method for the determination of water-soluble vitamins in plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Rouhollah; Elyasi, Najmeh S

    2014-10-01

    A novel, simple, and effective ion-pair cloud-point extraction coupled with a gradient high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for determination of thiamine (vitamin B1 ), niacinamide (vitamin B3 ), pyridoxine (vitamin B6 ), and riboflavin (vitamin B2 ) in plasma and urine samples. The extraction and separation of vitamins were achieved based on an ion-pair formation approach between these ionizable analytes and 1-heptanesulfonic acid sodium salt as an ion-pairing agent. Influential variables on the ion-pair cloud-point extraction efficiency, such as the ion-pairing agent concentration, ionic strength, pH, volume of Triton X-100, extraction temperature, and incubation time have been fully evaluated and optimized. Water-soluble vitamins were successfully extracted by 1-heptanesulfonic acid sodium salt (0.2% w/v) as ion-pairing agent with Triton X-100 (4% w/v) as surfactant phase at 50°C for 10 min. The calibration curves showed good linearity (r(2) > 0.9916) and precision in the concentration ranges of 1-50 μg/mL for thiamine and niacinamide, 5-100 μg/mL for pyridoxine, and 0.5-20 μg/mL for riboflavin. The recoveries were in the range of 78.0-88.0% with relative standard deviations ranging from 6.2 to 8.2%. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Riboflavin uptake transporter Slc52a2 (RFVT2) is upregulated in the mouse mammary gland during lactation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Alex Man Lai; Dedina, Liana; Dalvi, Pooja; Yang, Mingdong; Leon-Cheon, John; Earl, Brian; Harper, Patricia A; Ito, Shinya

    2016-04-01

    While it is well recognized that riboflavin accumulates in breast milk as an essential vitamin for neonates, transport mechanisms for its milk excretion are not well characterized. The multidrug efflux transporter ABCG2 in the apical membrane of milk-producing mammary epithelial cells (MECs) is involved with riboflavin excretion. However, it is not clear whether MECs possess other riboflavin transport systems, which may facilitate its basolateral uptake into MECs. We report here that transcripts encoding the second (SLC52A2) and third (SLC52A3) member of the recently discovered family of SLC52A riboflavin uptake transporters are expressed in milk fat globules from human breast milk. Furthermore, Slc52a2 and Slc52a3 mRNA are upregulated in the mouse mammary gland during lactation. Importantly, the induction ofSlc52a2, which was the major Slc52a riboflavin transporter in the lactating mammary gland, was also observed at the protein level. Subcellular localization studies showed that green fluorescent protein-tagged mouse SLC52A2 mainly localized to the cell membrane, with no preferential distribution to the apical or basolateral membrane in polarized kidney MDCK cells. These results strongly implicate a potential role for SLC52A2 in riboflavin uptake by milk-producing MECs, a critical step in the transfer of riboflavin into breast milk. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Riboflavin-induced photo-crosslinking of collagen hydrogel and its application in meniscus tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jiseung; Koh, Rachel H; Shim, Whuisu; Kim, Hwan D; Yim, Hyun-Gu; Hwang, Nathaniel S

    2016-04-01

    A meniscus tear is a common knee injury, but its regeneration remains a clinical challenge. Recently, collagen-based scaffolds have been applied in meniscus tissue engineering. Despite its prevalence, application of natural collagen scaffold in clinical setting is limited due to its extremely low stiffness and rapid degradation. The purpose of the present study was to increase the mechanical properties and delay degradation rate of a collagen-based scaffold by photo-crosslinking using riboflavin (RF) and UV exposure. RF is a biocompatible vitamin B2 that showed minimal cytotoxicity compared to conventionally utilized photo-initiator. Furthermore, collagen photo-crosslinking with RF improved mechanical properties and delayed enzyme-triggered degradation of collagen scaffolds. RF-induced photo-crosslinked collagen scaffolds encapsulated with fibrochondrocytes resulted in reduced scaffold contraction and enhanced gene expression levels for the collagen II and aggrecan. Additionally, hyaluronic acid (HA) incorporation into photo-crosslinked collagen scaffold showed an increase in its retention. Based on these results, we demonstrate that photo-crosslinked collagen-HA hydrogels can be potentially applied in the scaffold-based meniscus tissue engineering.

  17. Study on fluorescence spectra of thiamine, riboflavin and pyridoxine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Xiao, Xue; Zhao, Xuesong; Hu, Lan; Lv, Caofang; Yin, Zhangkun

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the intrinsic fluorescence characteristics of vitamin B1, B2 and B6 measured with 3D fluorescence Spectrophotometer. Three strong fluorescence areas of vitamin B2 locate at λex/λem=270/525nm, 370/525nm and 450/525nm, one fluorescence areas of vitamin B1 locates at λex/λem=370/460nm, two fluorescence areas of vitamin B6 locate at λex/λem=250/370nm and 325/370nm were found. The influence of pH of solution to the fluorescence profile was also discussed. Using the PARAFAC algorithm, 10 vitamin B1, B2 and B6 mixed solutions were successfully decomposed, and the emission profiles, excitation profiles, central wavelengths and the concentration of the three components were retrieved precisely through about 5 iteration times.

  18. HILIC separation and quantitation of water-soluble vitamins using diol column.

    PubMed

    Karatapanis, Andreas E; Fiamegos, Yiannis C; Stalikas, Constantine D

    2009-04-01

    Hydrophilic interaction liquid-chromatography (HILIC) in conjunction with diode array detection has been applied for the separation of selected-water-soluble vitamins using an end-capped HILIC-diol column. Vitamins with significant biological importance, such as thiamine (B(1)), riboflavin (B(2)), nicotinic acid (B(3)), nicotinamide (B(3)), pyridoxine (B(6)), folic acid (B(9)), cyanocobalamin (B(12)) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) were simultaneously separated. Chromatographic conditions including type and percentage of organic modifier in the mobile phase, pH, type and concentration of buffer salt and flow rate were investigated. ACN was shown to offer superior separation for the compounds tested as compared to methanol, isopropanol and THF. Isocratic separation and analysis were achieved for six vitamins (B(1), B(2), nicotinic acid/nicotinamide, B(6) and C) at ACN-H(2)O 90:10, containing ammonium acetate 10 mM, triethylamine 20 mM, pH 5.0, using a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, while a gradient was necessary to resolve a mixture of all eight water-soluble vitamins. The HILIC method was validated and successfully applied to the analysis of a pharmaceutical formulation and an energy drink negating the need for time consuming clean-up steps.

  19. Vitamin Content of Breast Milk From HIV-1–Infected Mothers Before and After Flash-Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Israel-Ballard, Kiersten A.; Abrams, Barbara F.; Coutsoudis, Anna; Sibeko, Lindiwe N.; Cheryk, Lynn A.; Chantry, Caroline J.

    2010-01-01

    Background World Health Organization advocates heat treatment of expressed breastmilk (EBM) as one method to reduce postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in developing countries. Flash-heat is a simple heat treatment method shown to inactivate cell-free HIV. Objective To determine the effect of flash-heat on vitamin content of milk. Methods Fresh EBM was collected from 50 HIV+ mothers in Durban, South Africa. Mothers washed their hands and then manually expressed 75–150 mL EBM into sterile jars. Milk was aliquoted to unheated controls or flash-heat (50 mL EBM in a glass jar heated in a 450-mL water jacket in an aluminum pan until water boiled, then EBM removed) simulating field conditions with an open flame. Samples were stored at −70°C and then analyzed for the effect of flash-heat on vitamins [A, ascorbic acid, riboflavin (B2), pyridoxal-5-phosphate (B6), folate, and B12]. Results Vitamin A was not significantly affected by flash-heat and vitamins B12 and C and folate increased significantly. Vitamins B2 and B6 were decreased to 59% (95% confidence interval 44 to 81) and 96% (95% confidence interval 92 to 99), respectively, of that found in unheated milk. Conclusions The percentage remaining after flash-heat suggests that most vitamin concentrations are retained after heating. Flash-heat may be a practical and nutritious infant feeding method for mothers in developing countries. PMID:18614920

  20. Vitamin content of breast milk from HIV-1-infected mothers before and after flash-heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Israel-Ballard, Kiersten A; Abrams, Barbara F; Coutsoudis, Anna; Sibeko, Lindiwe N; Cheryk, Lynn A; Chantry, Caroline J

    2008-08-01

    World Health Organization advocates heat treatment of expressed breastmilk (EBM) as one method to reduce postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in developing countries. Flash-heat is a simple heat treatment method shown to inactivate cell-free HIV. To determine the effect of flash-heat on vitamin content of milk. Fresh EBM was collected from 50 HIV+ mothers in Durban, South Africa. Mothers washed their hands and then manually expressed 75-150 mL EBM into sterile jars. Milk was aliquoted to unheated controls or flash-heat (50 mL EBM in a glass jar heated in a 450-mL water jacket in an aluminum pan until water boiled, then EBM removed) simulating field conditions with an open flame. Samples were stored at -70 degrees C and then analyzed for the effect of flash-heat on vitamins [A, ascorbic acid, riboflavin (B2), pyridoxal-5-phosphate (B6), folate, and B12]. Vitamin A was not significantly affected by flash-heat and vitamins B12 and C and folate increased significantly. Vitamins B2 and B6 were decreased to 59% (95% confidence interval 44 to 81) and 96% (95% confidence interval 92 to 99), respectively, of that found in unheated milk. The percentage remaining after flash-heat suggests that most vitamin concentrations are retained after heating. Flash-heat may be a practical and nutritious infant feeding method for mothers in developing countries.

  1. 21 CFR 73.450 - Riboflavin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications. Riboflavin shall meet the specifications given in... may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with good manufacturing... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Riboflavin. 73.450 Section 73.450 Food and Drugs...

  2. 21 CFR 73.450 - Riboflavin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications. Riboflavin shall meet the specifications given in... may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with good manufacturing... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Riboflavin. 73.450 Section 73.450 Food and Drugs...

  3. Multiple B-vitamin depletion in large areas of the coastal ocean

    PubMed Central

    Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.; Cutter, Lynda S.; Durazo, Reginaldo; Smail, Emily A.; Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Webb, Eric A.; Prokopenko, Maria G.; Berelson, William M.; Karl, David M.

    2012-01-01

    B vitamins are some of the most commonly required biochemical cofactors in living systems. Therefore, cellular metabolism of marine vitamin-requiring (auxotrophic) phytoplankton and bacteria would likely be significantly compromised if B vitamins (thiamin B1, riboflavin B2, pyridoxine B6, biotin B7, and cobalamin B12) were unavailable. However, the factors controlling the synthesis, ambient concentrations, and uptake of these key organic compounds in the marine environment are still not well understood. Here, we report vertical distributions of five B vitamins (and the amino acid methionine) measured simultaneously along a latitudinal gradient through the contrasting oceanographic regimes of the southern California-Baja California coast in the Northeast Pacific margin. Although vitamin concentrations ranged from below the detection limits of our technique to 30 pM for B2 and B12 and to ∼500 pM for B1, B6, and B7, each vitamin showed a different geographical and depth distribution. Vitamin concentrations were independent of each other and of inorganic nutrient levels, enriched primarily in the upper mesopelagic zone (depth of 100–300 m), and associated with water mass origin. Moreover, vitamin levels were below our detection limits (ranging from ≤0.18 pM for B12 to ≤0.81 pM for B1) in extensive areas (100s of kilometers) of the coastal ocean, and thus may exert important constraints on the taxonomic composition of phytoplankton communities, and potentially also on rates of primary production and carbon sequestration. PMID:22826241

  4. Multiple B-vitamin depletion in large areas of the coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A; Cutter, Lynda S; Durazo, Reginaldo; Smail, Emily A; Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Webb, Eric A; Prokopenko, Maria G; Berelson, William M; Karl, David M

    2012-08-28

    B vitamins are some of the most commonly required biochemical cofactors in living systems. Therefore, cellular metabolism of marine vitamin-requiring (auxotrophic) phytoplankton and bacteria would likely be significantly compromised if B vitamins (thiamin B(1), riboflavin B(2), pyridoxine B(6), biotin B(7), and cobalamin B(12)) were unavailable. However, the factors controlling the synthesis, ambient concentrations, and uptake of these key organic compounds in the marine environment are still not well understood. Here, we report vertical distributions of five B vitamins (and the amino acid methionine) measured simultaneously along a latitudinal gradient through the contrasting oceanographic regimes of the southern California-Baja California coast in the Northeast Pacific margin. Although vitamin concentrations ranged from below the detection limits of our technique to 30 pM for B(2) and B(12) and to ∼500 pM for B(1), B(6), and B(7), each vitamin showed a different geographical and depth distribution. Vitamin concentrations were independent of each other and of inorganic nutrient levels, enriched primarily in the upper mesopelagic zone (depth of 100-300 m), and associated with water mass origin. Moreover, vitamin levels were below our detection limits (ranging from ≤0.18 pM for B(12) to ≤0.81 pM for B(1)) in extensive areas (100s of kilometers) of the coastal ocean, and thus may exert important constraints on the taxonomic composition of phytoplankton communities, and potentially also on rates of primary production and carbon sequestration.

  5. [The vitamin status of pregnant women in Moscow: effect of multivitamin-mineral supplements].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Sokolnikov, A A; Kodentsova, V M; Pereverzeva, O G; Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Kosheleva, O V; Gmoshinskaya, M V

    2016-01-01

    Examination of the vitamin status of 102 pregnant women (19-41 years old) from Moscow (gestational age 6-38 weeks) in winter and spring 2015 has been conducted. The lack of vitamin B2 (blood serum level of riboflavin <5 ng/ml), D (25(OH)D level <30 ng/ml) and β-carotene (<20 mg/dL) occurred in 49-66% of pregnant women. The percentage of persons with reduced serum levels of vitamin B6 (<4.8 mg/l), folic acid (<3 mg/l), vitamin A (<30 mg/dL), and E (<0.8 mg/dl) was insignificant and amounted 6-8%. All of the women had an adequate supply with vitamins C (>0.4 mg/dL) and B12 (>150 ng/L). The frequency of the combined deficiency of two vitamins was 29%, of three vitamins - 21%, four - 10%, five - 5%. Only 8% of women were sufficiently supplied with all 8 studied vitamins and β-carotene. A positive correlation (p<0.001) between the concentration of vitamin E and gestation term occurred. β-Carotene blood serum level raised with increasing gestation term in women receiving multivitamin-mineral supplements (VMS) and directly correlated (p<0.05) with vitamin E serum level. In 63 women who were not taking VMS, blood serum level of vitamins A, D, C, B2, B6, B12, folic acid and β-carotene was lower, and the frequency of inadequate supply, on the contrary, was significantly higher, compared to 39 women receiving VMS. Blood serum concentration of vitamins C, A, D, B6 and folic acid in women who were not taking VMS was significantly reduced (p<0.05) with increasing gestation term, whereas in women consuming VMS vitamin blood serum level was maintained at a constant level. The data obtained demonstrate advisability of VMS intake during pregnancy to maintain vitamin status of pregnant women at a satisfactory level and to reduce the risk of birth defects in infants.

  6. Dual-Targeting Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the Staphylococcus aureus FMN Riboswitch Disrupt Riboflavin Homeostasis in an Infectious Setting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Mann, Paul A; Xiao, Li; Gill, Charles; Galgoci, Andrew M; Howe, John A; Villafania, Artjohn; Barbieri, Christopher M; Malinverni, Juliana C; Sher, Xinwei; Mayhood, Todd; McCurry, Megan D; Murgolo, Nicholas; Flattery, Amy; Mack, Matthias; Roemer, Terry

    2017-05-18

    Riboswitches are bacterial-specific, broadly conserved, non-coding RNA structural elements that control gene expression of numerous metabolic pathways and transport functions essential for cell growth. As such, riboswitch inhibitors represent a new class of potential antibacterial agents. Recently, we identified ribocil-C, a highly selective inhibitor of the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) riboswitch that controls expression of de novo riboflavin (RF, vitamin B2) biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Here, we provide a mechanistic characterization of the antibacterial effects of ribocil-C as well as of roseoflavin (RoF), an antimetabolite analog of RF, among medically significant Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Enterococcus faecalis. We provide genetic, biophysical, computational, biochemical, and pharmacological evidence that ribocil-C and RoF specifically inhibit dual FMN riboswitches, separately controlling RF biosynthesis and uptake processes essential for MRSA growth and pathogenesis. Such a dual-targeting mechanism is specifically required to develop broad-spectrum Gram-positive antibacterial agents targeting RF metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The study of riboflavin requirement in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Olkowski, A A; Classen, H L

    1998-01-01

    Riboflavin status indices in tissues (brain, liver, heart) and blood plasma, and performance parameters were studied in male and female broiler chickens in response to a wide range of dietary supplementation of riboflavin in order to establish the requirement for riboflavin in fast growing modern broilers. The birds fed riboflavin supplemented diets were increasing their body weight at a higher rate than those fed the unsupplemented diet, but this was apparent only during the first stage of growth (days 1 to 21). Supplementation of 2 mg riboflavin per kg was sufficient to support the maximum growth rate. Feed consumption was not affected by different levels of dietary supplementation of riboflavin. The supplementation of riboflavin in the diet increased (p < 0.001) plasma riboflavin level, but the magnitude of response decreased with age. The main component in the tissues was FAD, followed by FMN and riboflavin. Overall, the dietary riboflavin supplementation had highly significant (p < 0.001) effects on tissue FAD, FMN, and riboflavin status, but the effect of supplementation was clearly pronounced only at days 7 and 14, and thereafter the status of FAD, FMN, and riboflavin in the tissues did not differ between unsupplemented and supplemented birds. Neither FAD, FMN, and riboflavin nor GSSG-RED activity correlate with the level of supplementation. Saturation levels of riboflavin in the blood plasma and tissues, corresponded with dietary riboflavin levels of supplementation at 1 to 2 mg per kg. Based on the performance and biochemical data, the dietary requirement of riboflavin for fast growing broilers should be set at a level of 5 mg/kg. The currently recommended allowance of 3.6 mg riboflavin per kg of ration is not sufficient for modern breeds of broiler chickens.

  8. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of use...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of use...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of use...

  11. Effect of freezing and canning on the content of selected vitamins and pigments in seeds of two grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivars at the not fully mature stage.

    PubMed

    Korus, Anna; Lisiewska, Zofia; Kmiecik, Waldemar

    2002-08-01

    Seeds of the grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivars Derek and Krab, with a dry matter content of about 33%, were used for freezing and for canning. The content of vitamins C, B1, and B2 and of carotenoids, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls was determined in raw and blanched material, in frozen products after 6-month storage before and after cooking to consumption consistency, and in canned products after 6-month storage. In comparison with the cultivar Krab, raw seeds of Derek contained 45% more vitamin C, 14% more total chlorophylls, 13% less thiamine (vitamin B1), and 7% less riboflavin (vitamin B2). The level of carotenoids was similar. Blanching of seeds led to a statistically significant decrease only in the content of vitamin C. Freezing and frozen storage significantly lowered the level of vitamin C and chlorophylls. The cooking of frozen seeds and the production of canned products and their storage resulted in a statistically verified reduction in the content of components analysed in all the samples. Greater losses were found in products prepared from seeds of the cv. Krab. After cooking, frozen seeds contained more of all the analysed components than the canned products.

  12. Microalgal cultivation in wastewater from the fermentation effluent in Riboflavin (B2) manufacturing for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuefei; Wang, Cunwen; Li, Zihao; Wang, Weiguo; Tong, Yanjie; Wei, Jiang

    2013-09-01

    In this work, the acclimation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in diluted wastewater was studied to produce biomass and remove chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia-N and phosphorous. The results indicated that the optimal conditions (the volume ratio of wastewater, light intensity, culture temperature, CO2 concentration in feeding gas) which could influence the wastewater treatment efficiency were 0.05, 250 photons m(-2) s(-1), 28 °C and 5%, respectively. Under these conditions, the removal efficiency of COD reached up to 89.2%, while the total nitrogen and total phosphorous decreased by 64.52% and 82.20%, respectively. With the second treatment, COD in the wastewater was further reduced to less than 100 mg/L while it was only reduced to 542.9 mg/L after the first treatment. The treated wastewater could be discharged directly or subjected to for further treatment for recycling. In addition, 1.25 g/L of the biomass and 38.27% (dry basis, w%) of lipid content were reached after microalgal cultivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. B-vitamin status and concentrations of homocysteine in Austrian omnivores, vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Majchrzak, D; Singer, I; Männer, M; Rust, P; Genser, D; Wagner, K-H; Elmadfa, I

    2006-01-01

    A vegetarian diet is considered to promote health and longevity and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, a vegetarian diet may be deficient in some nutrients. Exclusion of animal products in vegetarian diets may affect the status of certain B-vitamins, and further cause the rise of plasma homocysteine concentration. The nutritional status of various B-vitamins (B(1), B(2), B(6), B(12), folic acid) and the concentration of homocysteine in blood plasma of omnivores (n = 40), vegetarians (n = 36) and vegans (n = 42) in Austria was evaluated. The evaluation was done using the functional parameters erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), glutathione reductase (EGR) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (EGOT) activation coefficients. Enzyme activity was measured photometrically. The quantity of vitamins B(1), B(2) and B(6) in urine and the concentrations of vitamin B(6) and homocysteine in plasma were determined by HPLC methods with fluorescence detection. Plasma concentration of vitamin B(12) and folic acid were measured with radioimmunoassay. Most of the subjects showed a satisfying vitamin B(1) status. Vegans presented a significantly lower mean plasma vitamin B(12) concentration than omnivores and vegetarians and deficiency in 2.4% of the volunteers but the highest mean value of plasma folate among the investigated groups. A deficient status of folate was found in 18% of omnivores and in approximately 10% of vegans and vegetarians. The status of riboflavin is considered to be deficient in about 10% of omnivores and vegetarians and in over 30% of vegans. According to the activation coefficient of GOT, approximately one third of all subjects showed vitamin B(6) deficiency. Elevated homocysteine concentration in plasma was observed in 66% of the vegans and about 45-50% of the omnivores and vegetarians. Vegan subjects had significantly higher mean plasma homocysteine levels than omnivores. Thiamin and folate need not be a problem in a well

  14. Protective effects of riboflavin and selenium on brain microsomal Ca2+-ATPase and oxidative damage caused by glyceryl trinitrate in a rat headache model.

    PubMed

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Çelik, Ömer; Uğuz, Abdulhadi Cihangir; Bütün, Ayşe

    2015-03-01

    Migraine headaches are considered to be associated with increased mitochondrial energy metabolism. Mitochondrial oxidative stress is also important in migraine headache pathophysiology although riboflavin and selenium (Se) induced a modulator role on mitochondrial oxidative stress in the brain. The current study aimed to determine the effects of Se with/without riboflavin on the microsomal membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (MMCA), lipid peroxidation, antioxidant, and electroencephalography (EEG) values in glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)-induced brain injury rats. Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups. The first group was used as the control, and the second group was the GTN group. Se and Se plus oral riboflavin were administered to rats constituting the third and fourth groups for 10 days prior to GTN administration. The second, third, and fourth groups received GTN to induce headache. Ten hours after the administration of GTN, the EEG records and brain cortex samples were obtained for all groups. Brain cortex microsomes were obtained from the brain samples. The brain and microsomal lipid peroxidation levels were higher in the GTN group compared to the control group, whereas they were decreased by selenium and selenium + riboflavin treatments. Vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations of the brain and MMCA, GSH and glutathione peroxidase values of microsomes were decreased by the GTN administration, although the values and β-carotene concentrations were increased by Se and Se + riboflavin treatments. There was no significant change in EEG records of the four groups. In conclusion, Se with/without riboflavin administration protected against GTN-induced brain oxidative toxicity by inhibiting free radicals and the modulation of MMCA activity and supporting the antioxidant redox system.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1695 - Riboflavin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or isolated from natural sources. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Riboflavin. 184.1695 Section 184.1695 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  16. 21 CFR 73.450 - Riboflavin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.450 Riboflavin. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive... practice; except that it may not be used to color foods for which standards of identity have been...

  17. 21 CFR 73.450 - Riboflavin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.450 Riboflavin. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive... practice; except that it may not be used to color foods for which standards of identity have been...

  18. 21 CFR 73.450 - Riboflavin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.450 Riboflavin. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive... practice; except that it may not be used to color foods for which standards of identity have been...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5695 - Riboflavin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Riboflavin. 582.5695 Section 582.5695 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5695 - Riboflavin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Riboflavin. 582.5695 Section 582.5695 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5695 - Riboflavin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Riboflavin. 582.5695 Section 582.5695 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5695 - Riboflavin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Riboflavin. 582.5695 Section 582.5695 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5695 - Riboflavin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Riboflavin. 582.5695 Section 582.5695 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  4. Studies on the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid and choline requirements of young Embden geese

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, and choline requirements of young Embden geese fed purified diets. Goslings fed diets deficient in either riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, or choline grew poorly. Feeding a pantothenic acid-deficient diet resulted in 100% mortality. Goslings fed diets containing 530 mg/kg of choline or less developed perosis. Under the conditions of these experiments it was found that: 1) goslings require no more than 3.84 mg/kg of riboflavin and 31.2 mg/kg of nicotinic acid in the diet for rapid growth and normal development, 2) the pantothenic acid requirement of goslings is no more than 12.6 mg/kg of diet, and 3) a dietary choline level of 1530 mg/kg is adequate for both the prevention of perosis and rapid growth of goslings. The levels of vitamins found to support normal growth and development of goslings appear to be similar to requirements of other species that have been examined.

  5. FAD-induced in vitro activation of glutathione reductase in the lens of B2 deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Ono, S; Hirano, H

    1984-04-01

    We studied the FAD-induced in vitro stimulation of lenticular glutathione reductase in riboflavin-deficient rats. The stimulatory effect of FAD on lenticular glutathione reductase in rats fed a B2-deficient diet for 4 weeks was remarkably higher than in paired control rats fed a B2-supplemented basal diet and control rats had ad libitum access to a B2-supplemented basal diet. The in vitro FAD stimulation effect on rat lenticular glutathione reductase represents a sensitive indicator of the B2 deficient status.

  6. Effect of flour extraction rate and baking on thiamine and riboflavin content and antioxidant capacity of traditional rye bread.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Villaluenga, C; Michalska, A; Frias, J; Piskula, M K; Vidal-Valverde, C; Zieliński, H

    2009-01-01

    The effect of rye flour extraction rates and baking on thiamine and riboflavin content, and antioxidant capacity of traditional rye bread were studied and compared with white wheat flour. The content of thiamine was higher (10.9%) in rye dough formulated with dark rye flour (F-100%; extraction rate of 100%) than in rye dough formulated with brown rye flour (F-92%; extraction rate of 92%) that was similar to dough made with wheat flour. The riboflavin content in rye dough made from flour F-100% was also higher (16%) than in dough formulated with flour F-92%, and both provided larger riboflavin content than wheat dough. Baking led to reductions in thiamine of 56% for wheat bread and of 20% for both rye breads; however, this process caused only a 10% decrease in riboflavin for wheat bread and a 30% decrease for rye breads. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity were higher in rye than in wheat dough and bread. Baking process produced slight changes in antioxidant activity, except for Superoxide Dismutase-like activity where a sharp decrease was observed. Our findings showed that rye breads are an important source of B vitamins and rye breads formulated with dark and brown flours showed better antioxidant properties than wheat bread. Therefore, rye breads should be more widely recommended in human nutrition.

  7. Collagen Cross-Linking Using Riboflavin and Ultraviolet-A for Corneal Thinning Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pron, G; Ieraci, L; Kaulback, K

    2011-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The main objectives for this evidence-based analysis were to determine the safety and effectiveness of photochemical corneal collagen cross-linking with riboflavin (vitamin B2) and ultraviolet-A radiation, referred to as CXL, for the management of corneal thinning disease conditions. The comparative safety and effectiveness of corneal cross-linking with other minimally invasive treatments such as intrastromal corneal rings was also reviewed. The Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) evidence-based analysis was performed to support public financing decisions. Subject of the Evidence-Based Analysis The primary treatment objective for corneal cross-linking is to increase the strength of the corneal stroma, thereby stabilizing the underlying disease process. At the present time, it is the only procedure that treats the underlying disease condition. The proposed advantages for corneal cross-linking are that the procedure is minimally invasive, safe and effective, and it can potentially delay or defer the need for a corneal transplant. In addition, corneal cross-linking does not adversely affect subsequent surgical approaches, if they are necessary, or interfere with corneal transplants. The evidence for these claims for corneal cross-linking in the management of corneal thinning disorders such as keratoconus will be the focus of this review. The specific research questions for the evidence review were as follows: Technical: How technically demanding is corneal cross-linking and what are the operative risks? Safety: What is known about the broader safety profile of corneal cross-linking? Effectiveness - Corneal Surface Topographic Affects: What are the corneal surface remodeling effects of corneal cross-linking? Do these changes interfere with subsequent interventions, particularly corneal transplant known as penetrating keratoplasty (PKP)? Effectiveness -Visual Acuity: What impacts does the remodeling have on visual acuity? Are these impacts

  8. Effect of oral contraceptive agents on nutrients: II. Vitamins.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A S; Oberleas, D; Moghissi, K S; Stryker, J C; Lei, K Y

    1975-04-01

    Clinical, biochemical and nutritional data were collected from a large population of women using oral contraceptive agents. Higher incidence of abnormal clinical signs related to malnutrition were observed in the lower (B) as compared to the higher (A) socioeconomic groups, and also in the nonsupplemented groups as compared to the supplemented groups in the B subjects. As a rule the intake of oral contraceptive agent subjects of vitamin A, C, B6 and folic acid did not differ from that of the controls As expected, subjects from the supplemented groups had higher intake of vitamin A, C, B6, thiamin, riboflavin and folic acid, and A groups had higher intake of vitamin C, B6, riboflavin and folic acid. Increased plasma vitamin A and decreased carotene levels were observed in oral contraceptive agent users. In general oral contraceptive agents had little or no effect on plasma ascorbic acid. Urinary excretion of both thiamin and riboflavin in subjects using oral contraceptive agents were lower in A groups. Erythrocyte folate and plasma pyridoxal phosphate was decreased in A groups due to oral contraceptive agents. Subjects who took supplements had higher levels of plasma vitamin A, ascorbic acid and folate. But urinary thiamin and riboflavin were higher only in group A subjects who took supplements.

  9. Effect of Acidity of a Medium on Riboflavin Photodestruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astanov, S. Kh.; Turdiev, M.; Sharipov, M. Z.; Kurtaliev, É. N.; Nizomov, N. N.

    2016-03-01

    Effect of acidity of a medium on the spectroscopic characteristics of riboflavin aqueous solutions is investigated by the method of fluorescent and absorption spectroscopy. Significant deformation of the electronic spectra of riboflavin aqueous solutions irradiated with unfiltered light of a PRK-2 lamp is observed. It is established that riboflavin photostability in an acid medium is about twice as much as the photostability in a neutral medium, which is caused by the formation of a protonated species.

  10. Changes in water-soluble vitamins and antioxidant capacity of fruit juice-milk beverages as affected by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) or heat during chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Salvia-Trujillo, Laura; Morales-de la Peña, Mariana; Rojas-Graü, Alejandra; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2011-09-28

    The effect of high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) or thermal processes and refrigerated storage on water-soluble vitamins and antioxidant capacity of beverages containing fruit juices and whole (FJ-WM) or skim milk (FJ-SM) was assessed. Peroxidase (POD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inactivation as well as color changes were also studied. High vitamin C retention was observed in HIPEF and thermally treated beverages, but a significant depletion of the vitamin during storage occurred, which was correlated with antioxidant capacity. HIPEF treatment did not affect the concentration of group B vitamins, which also remained constant over time, but thermally treated beverages showed lower riboflavin (vitamin B2) concentration. With regard to enzyme activity, thermal processing was more effective than HIPEF on POD and LOX inactivation. The color of the beverages was maintained after HIPEF processing and during storage. Consequently, HIPEF processing could be a feasible technology to attain beverages with fruit juices and milk with high vitamin content and antioxidant potential.

  11. Thiamine

    MedlinePlus

    ... B vitamins, and found in many vitamin B complex products. Vitamin B complexes generally include vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), ... is required by our bodies to properly use carbohydrates. It also helps maintain proper nerve function.

  12. Effect of amino acids and vitamins on laccase production by the bird's nest fungus Cyathus bulleri.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Shikha; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2002-08-01

    Various amino acids, their analogues and vitamins have shown stimulatory as well as inhibitory effects on laccase production by Cyathus bulleri. DL-methionine, DL-tryptophan, glycine and DL-valine stimulated laccase production, while L-cysteine monohydrochloride completely inhibited the enzyme production. Among vitamins tested biotin, riboflavin and pyridoxine hydrochloride were found to induce laccase production.

  13. Effectiveness of B vitamins on the control of hypertension and stroke events of SHRSP rats.

    PubMed

    França, Camille Feitoza; Vianna, Lucia Marques

    2010-03-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rat (SHRSP) is a recognized animal model for the study of severe hypertension and stroke, being characterized by presenting an elevated tissue levels of free radicals. Therefore, this study has the main goal to identify the effect of B vitamins, closely associated to the control of oxidative stress, on SHRSP rats. After 10 days (baseline period), the animals, 18 SHRSP rats at 18 weeks of age, were divided into three groups with six rats treated with riboflavin (B2), six treated with pyridoxine (B6) plus folic acid (B9), and control. Body weight, water and food intake, diuresis, sensory-motor responses, and systolic blood pressure of all the rats were determined daily. Physical aspects of whole body (i.e., distribution and coloring of hair, skin and mucosa, and an eventual presence of bleeding, stains, cracks, or opacification) and behavior were equally monitored. The data were evaluated by ANOVA two-way and p < .05 was considered significant. The supraphysiologic doses did not cause toxic effects. There was a significant decrease of systolic blood pressure, homocysteine, and malondialdehyde (MDA) blood levels in animals under B vitamin supplementation. The treatment also inhibited the neurological signs of an ischemic attack (unbalance, ataxia, and convulsions). The findings reported here suggest that B vitamin therapy was effective for the control of systolic blood pressure and oxidative stress. Hence, it could be thought as one of the alternative therapies to prevent the occurrence of stroke.

  14. Spectrophotometric determination of ternary mixtures of thiamin, riboflavin and pyridoxal in pharmaceutical and human plasma by least-squares support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Ali; Zolgharnein, Javad; Afiuni-Zadeh, Somaie

    2007-11-01

    Ternary mixtures of thiamin, riboflavin and pyridoxal have been simultaneously determined in synthetic and real samples by applications of spectrophotometric and least-squares support vector machines. The calibration graphs were linear in the ranges of 1.0 - 20.0, 1.0 - 10.0 and 1.0 - 20.0 microg ml(-1) with detection limits of 0.6, 0.5 and 0.7 microg ml(-1) for thiamin, riboflavin and pyridoxal, respectively. The experimental calibration matrix was designed with 21 mixtures of these chemicals. The concentrations were varied between calibration graph concentrations of vitamins. The simultaneous determination of these vitamin mixtures by using spectrophotometric methods is a difficult problem, due to spectral interferences. The partial least squares (PLS) modeling and least-squares support vector machines were used for the multivariate calibration of the spectrophotometric data. An excellent model was built using LS-SVM, with low prediction errors and superior performance in relation to PLS. The root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) for thiamin, riboflavin and pyridoxal with PLS and LS-SVM were 0.6926, 0.3755, 0.4322 and 0.0421, 0.0318, 0.0457, respectively. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied to the rapid simultaneous determination of thiamin, riboflavin and pyridoxal in commercial pharmaceutical preparations and human plasma samples.

  15. Collagen cross-linking using riboflavin and ultraviolet-a for corneal thinning disorders: an evidence-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Pron, G; Ieraci, L; Kaulback, K

    2011-01-01

    The main objectives for this evidence-based analysis were to determine the safety and effectiveness of photochemical corneal collagen cross-linking with riboflavin (vitamin B(2)) and ultraviolet-A radiation, referred to as CXL, for the management of corneal thinning disease conditions. The comparative safety and effectiveness of corneal cross-linking with other minimally invasive treatments such as intrastromal corneal rings was also reviewed. The Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) evidence-based analysis was performed to support public financing decisions. SUBJECT OF THE EVIDENCE-BASED ANALYSIS: The primary treatment objective for corneal cross-linking is to increase the strength of the corneal stroma, thereby stabilizing the underlying disease process. At the present time, it is the only procedure that treats the underlying disease condition. The proposed advantages for corneal cross-linking are that the procedure is minimally invasive, safe and effective, and it can potentially delay or defer the need for a corneal transplant. In addition, corneal cross-linking does not adversely affect subsequent surgical approaches, if they are necessary, or interfere with corneal transplants. The evidence for these claims for corneal cross-linking in the management of corneal thinning disorders such as keratoconus will be the focus of this review. The specific research questions for the evidence review were as follows: TECHNICAL: How technically demanding is corneal cross-linking and what are the operative risks? What is known about the broader safety profile of corneal cross-linking?Effectiveness - Corneal Surface Topographic Affects:What are the corneal surface remodeling effects of corneal cross-linking?Do these changes interfere with subsequent interventions, particularly corneal transplant known as penetrating keratoplasty (PKP)?Effectiveness -Visual Acuity:What impacts does the remodeling have on visual acuity?Are these impacts predictable, stable, adjustable and

  16. The structure, stability, and infrared spectrum of B 2N, B 2N +, B 2N -, BO, B 2O and B 2N 2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. M. L.; François, J. P.; Gijbels, R.

    1992-05-01

    The structure, infrared spectrum, and heat of formation of B 2N, B 2N -, BO, and B 2O have been studied ab initio. B 2N is very stable; B 2O even more so. B 2N, B 2N -, B 2O, and probably B 2N + have symmetric linear ground-state structures; for B 2O, an asymmetric linear structure lies about 12 kcal/mol above the ground state. B 2N +, B 2N - and B 2O have intense asymmetric stretching frequencies, predicted near 870, 1590 and 1400 cm -1, respectively. Our predicted harmonic frequencies and isotopic shifts for B 2O confirm the recent experimental identification by Andrews and Burkholder. Absorptions at 1889.5 and 1998.5 cm -1 in noble-gas trapped boron nitride vapor belong the BNB and BNBN ( 3Π), respectively; a tentative assignment of 882.5 cm -1 to BNB + is proposed. Total atomization energies Σ De (Σ D0) are computed (accuracy ±2 kcal/mol) as: BO 193.1 (190.4), B 2O 292.5 (288.7), B 2N 225.0 (250.3) kcal/mol. The ionization potential and electron affinity of B 2N are predicted to be 8.62±0.1 and 3.34±0.1 eV. The MP4-level additivity approximations involved in G1 theory results in errors on the order of 1 kcal/mol in the Σ De values.

  17. Carrier-mediated transport of riboflavin in the rat colon.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, H; Hirobe, M; Tomei, S; Watanabe, J

    2000-03-01

    Carriers involved in riboflavin transport have generally been presumed to be localized in the upper small intestine. However, using a closed loop technique, we found that in the rat colon the absorption of riboflavin could be significantly reduced by raising the concentration from 0.1 to 200 microM and by adding lumiflavin, an analogue of riboflavin. These results suggest that saturable transport by the carrier that is specific for riboflavin and analogues may also be involved in riboflavin absorption in the colon. At the lower concentration of 0.1 microM, carrier-mediated transport was suggested to prevail, compared with passive transport, both in the colon and the small intestine. Furthermore, carrier-mediated transport in the colon was comparable with that in the small intestine. This study is the first to suggest carrier-mediated riboflavin transport in the colon. Although the riboflavin transport system in the colon needs to be subjected to more detailed investigation of its transport functions and role in riboflavin absorption after oral administration, it would be of interest to explore potential use of this carrier as a system for drug delivery.

  18. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (uplc-ms/ms) for the rapid, simultaneous analysis of thiamin, riboflavin, flavin adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide and pyridoxal in human milk

    A novel, rapid and sensitive Ultra Performance Liquid-Chromatography tandem Mass-Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of several B-vitamins in human milk was developed. Resolution by retention time or multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) for thiamin, riboflavin, flavin a...

  19. Prophylaxis of migraine headaches with riboflavin: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D F; Saluja, H S

    2017-08-01

    Migraine headache is a relatively common, debilitating condition that costs our healthcare system over 78 billion dollars per year. Riboflavin has been advocated as a safe, effective prophylactic therapy for the prevention of migraines. The purpose of this study was to provide a systematic review of the current role of riboflavin in the prophylaxis of migraine headache. A MEDLINE literature search inclusive of the dates 1966-2016 was performed using the search terms: riboflavin and migraine disorders. Excerpta Medica was searched from 1980 to 2016 using the search terms: riboflavin and migraine. Additionally, Web of Science was searched using the terms riboflavin and migraine inclusive of 1945-2016. Bibliographies of all relevant papers were reviewed for additional citations. We utilized the PRISMA guidelines to select English language, human, clinical trials of riboflavin as a single entity or in combination, review articles, and supporting pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenomic data assessing the efficacy and mechanism of riboflavin therapy in the prophylactic treatment of migraine headache. A total of 11 clinical trials reveal a mixed effect of riboflavin in the prophylaxis of migraine headache. Five clinical trials show a consistent positive therapeutic effect in adults; four clinical trials show a mixed effect in paediatric and adolescent patients, and two clinical trials of combination therapy have not shown benefit. Adverse reactions with riboflavin have generally been mild. Riboflavin is well tolerated, inexpensive and has demonstrated efficacy in the reduction of adult patient's migraine headache frequency. Additional data are needed, however, to resolve questions involving pharmacokinetic issues and pharmacogenomic implications of therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Identification of the First Riboflavin Catabolic Gene Cluster Isolated from Microbacterium maritypicum G10*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hui; Chakrabarty, Yindrila; Philmus, Benjamin; Mehta, Angad P.; Bhandari, Dhananjay; Hohmann, Hans-Peter; Begley, Tadhg P.

    2016-01-01

    Riboflavin is a common cofactor, and its biosynthetic pathway is well characterized. However, its catabolic pathway, despite intriguing hints in a few distinct organisms, has never been established. This article describes the isolation of a Microbacterium maritypicum riboflavin catabolic strain, and the cloning of the riboflavin catabolic genes. RcaA, RcaB, RcaD, and RcaE were overexpressed and biochemically characterized as riboflavin kinase, riboflavin reductase, ribokinase, and riboflavin hydrolase, respectively. Based on these activities, a pathway for riboflavin catabolism is proposed. PMID:27590337

  1. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of eight water-soluble vitamins in multivitamin formulations and human urine.

    PubMed

    Patil, Suyog S; Srivastava, Ashwini K

    2013-01-01

    A simple, precise, and rapid RPLC method has been developed without incorporation of any ion-pair reagent for the simultaneous determination of vitamin C (C) and seven B-complex vitamins, viz, thiamine hydrochloride (B1), pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6), nicotinamide (B3), cyanocobalamine (B12), folic acid, riboflavin (B2), and 4-aminobenzoic acid (Bx). Separations were achieved within 12.0 min at 30 degrees C by gradient elution on an RP C18 column using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of 15 mM ammonium formate buffer and 0.1% triethylamine adjusted to pH 4.0 with formic acid and acetonitrile. Simultaneous UV detection was performed at 275 and 360 nm. The method was validated for system suitability, LOD, LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, and robustness in accordance with International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The developed method was implemented successfully for determination of the aforementioned vitamins in pharmaceutical formulations containing an individual vitamin, in their multivitamin combinations, and in human urine samples. The calibration curves for all analytes showed good linearity, with coefficients of correlation higher than 0.9998. Accuracy, intraday repeatability (n = 6), and interday repeatability (n = 7) were found to be satisfactory.

  2. Vitamins in Heart Failure: Friend or Enemy?

    PubMed

    Georgiopoulos, George; Chrysohoou, Christina; Vogiatzi, Georgia; Magkas, Nikolaos; Bournelis, Ippokratis; Bampali, Sofia; Gruson, Damien; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    The failing heart is characterized by a depleted metabolic energy reserve and the upregulation of several molecular mechanisms leading to cardiac hypertrophy, inflammation, fibrosis, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Dietary or non-dietary supplementation of vitamins could potentially benefit energy balance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate all available information on vitamins supplementation in patients with chronic HF for possible beneficial effect on metabolic, inotropic, chronotropic and hemodynamic indices. We searched MEDLINE via Pubmed by using the following terms: "chronic heart failure" OR "cardiomyopathy" AND "vitamins", "vitamin A", "B complex vitamins", "vitamin C", "ascorbic acid", "vitamin D", "retinol", "vitamin E", "thiamine", "riboflavin", "niacin", "pyridoxine", "cobalamin", "folate", "pantothenic acid", "biotin", "tocopherol" and combinations of them. Data regarding supplementation of micronutrients in HF for most vitamins were sparse, and the inference about cardiovascular outcomes was obscured by the heterogeneity of studies, high inherent morbidity, and mortality of this group of high-risk patients, limited sample sizes in certain studies, unclear design and lack of head to head comparisons. Most vitamins in human trials failed to offer survival, or robust beneficial effect. Mostly indirect favorable evidence is derived from patients with deficiencies of certain micronutrients rather than their ad hoc supplementation. While vitamins and micronutrients are promising compounds for optimizing myocardial metabolism and homeostasis in HF, additional randomized clinical trials of larger scale are warranted to demonstrate the benefits of their supplementation in this high risk group of patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Electrochemical Characterization of Riboflavin-Enhanced Reduction of Trinitrotoluene

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, James J.; Chu, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    There is great interest in understanding trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) contamination, detection and remediation in the environment due to TNT’s negative health effects and security implications. Numerous publications have focused on detecting TNT in groundwater using multiple techniques, including electrochemistry. The main degradation pathway of nitrotoluenes in the environment is reduction, frequently with biological and/or photolytic assistance. Riboflavin has also been noted to aid in TNT remediation in soils and groundwater when exposed to light. This report indicates that adding riboflavin to a TNT or DNT solution enhances redox currents in electrochemical experiments. Here AC voltammetry was performed and peak currents compared with and without riboflavin present. Results indicated that TNT, DNT and riboflavin could be detected using AC voltammetry on modified gold electrodes and the addition of riboflavin affected redox peaks of TNT and DNT. Poised potential experiments indicated that it is possible to enhance reduction of TNT in the presence of riboflavin and light. These results were dramatic enough to explain long term enhancement of bioremediation in environments containing high levels of riboflavin and enhance the limit of detection in electrochemically-based nitrotoluene sensing. PMID:22346674

  4. Kinetic modeling of storage effects on biomarkers related to B vitamin status and one-carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hustad, Steinar; Eussen, Simone; Midttun, Øivind; Ulvik, Arve; van de Kant, Puck M; Mørkrid, Lars; Gislefoss, Randi; Ueland, Per M

    2012-02-01

    Biomarkers and metabolites related to B vitamin function and one-carbon metabolism have been studied as predictors of chronic diseases in studies based on samples stored in biobanks. For most biomarkers, stability data are lacking or fragmentary. Degradation and accumulation kinetics of 32 biomarkers were determined at 23 °C in serum and plasma (EDTA, heparin, and citrate) collected from 16 individuals and stored for up to 8 days. In frozen serum (-25 °C), stability was studied cross-sectionally in 650 archival samples stored for up to 29 years. Concentration vs time curves were fitted to monoexponential, biexponential, linear, and nonlinear models. For many biomarkers, stability was highest in EDTA plasma. Storage effects were similar at room temperature and at -25 °C; notable exceptions were methionine, which could be recovered as methionine sulfoxide, and cystathionine, which decreased in frozen samples. Cobalamin, betaine, dimethylglycine, sarcosine, total homocysteine, total cysteine, tryptophan, asymetric and symmetric dimethyl argenine, creatinine, and methylmalonic acid were essentially stable under all conditions. Most B vitamins (folate and vitamins B2 and B6) were unstable; choline increased markedly, and some amino acids also increased, particularly in serum. The kynurenines showed variable stability. For many biomarkers, degradation (folate and flavin mononucleotide) or accumulation (pyridoxal, riboflavin, choline, amino acids) kinetics at room temperature were non-first order. Data on stability and deterioration kinetics for individual biomarkers are required to optimize procedures for handling serum and plasma, and for addressing preanalytical bias in epidemiological and clinical studies.

  5. An important source of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins D and E, carotenoids, iodine and selenium: a new natural multi-enriched egg.

    PubMed

    Bourre, J M; Galea, F

    2006-01-01

    As natural eggs can contribute significantly to overcoming dietary deficits, we have designed and studied the composition of multiple-enriched eggs (Benefic eggs) whose composition is close to the natural egg. They are obtained by feeding laying hens in the usual way, but using additional autoclaved linseed, minerals, vitamins and lutein to provide the extra components. These eggs have greater nutritional value than standard. Thus 100 g of these eggs contains 6 times more of the omega-3 fatty acid ALA (15% of the French recommended daily allowance (RDA)), 3 times more DHA (100% of RDA), 3 times more vitamin D (30% of RDA), 4 times more folic acid (70% of RDA), 6 times more vitamin E (66% of RDA), 6 times more lutein and zeaxanthine (70% of international recommendation), 2.5 times more iodine (100% RDA), and 4 times more selenium (45% RDA). As the content of omega-6 fatty acids remains unchanged, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio is lower, and thus improved. These eggs contain a little less cholesterol and, like standard eggs, are rich in vitamin B12 (160% of RDA) and vitamin A (25% of RDA), plus vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) and phosphorus. Proteins quality is indeed excellent. These eggs are interesting for everybody, and particularly appropriate for older people. The nutritional value of enriched eggs (similar to the multiple-enriched eggs of this study) has been assessed in animals and in human volunteers in terms of their influence on blood lipids. They improve the blood concentration of omega-3 fatty acids, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides.

  6. Quantitative analysis of corneal stromal riboflavin concentration without epithelial removal.

    PubMed

    Rubinfeld, Roy S; Stulting, R Doyle; Gum, Glenwood G; Talamo, Jonathan H

    2018-02-01

    To compare the corneal stromal riboflavin concentration and distribution using 2 transepithelial corneal crosslinking (CXL) systems. Absorption Systems, San Diego, California, USA. Experimental study. The stromal riboflavin concentration of 2 transepithelial CXL systems was compared in rabbit eyes in vivo. The systems were the Paracel/Vibex Xtra, comprising riboflavin 0.25% solution containing TRIS and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and an isotonic solution of riboflavin 0.25%, (Group 1) and the CXLO system (Group 2). Manufacturers' Instructions For Use were followed. The intensity of riboflavin fluorescence by slitlamp observation 10, 15, and 20 minutes after instillation was graded on a scale of 0 to 5. The animals were humanely killed and the corneal stromal samples analyzed with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The mean riboflavin fluorescence intensity grades in Group 1 (4 eyes) were 3.8, 4.8, and 4.8 at 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively. The mean grades in Group 2 (3 eyes) were 2.0, 2.3, and 2.0, respectively. The riboflavin distribution was uniform in Group 1 but not in Group 2. The mean riboflavin concentration by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry was 27.0 μg/g stromal tissue in Group 1 and 6.7 μg/g in Group 2. A stromal riboflavin concentration theoretically adequate for CXL, 15 μg/g, was achieved in all eyes in Group 1 and no eyes in Group 2. Slitlamp grading correlated well with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry concentration (R 2  = 0.940). The system used in Group 1 produced corneal riboflavin concentrations that were theoretically adequate for effective transepithelial CXL (≥15 μg/g), while the system in Group 2 did not. Slitlamp grading successfully estimated the corneal riboflavin concentration and can be used to ensure an adequate concentration of riboflavin in the cornea for transepithelial CXL. Copyright © 2018 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An Aromatic Cap Seals the Substrate Binding Site in an ECF-Type S Subunit for Riboflavin

    SciT

    Karpowich, Nathan K.; Song, Jinmei; Wang, Da-Neng

    2016-06-13

    ECF transporters are a family of active membrane transporters for essential micronutrients, such as vitamins and trace metals. Found exclusively in archaea and bacteria, these transporters are composed of four subunits: an integral membrane substrate-binding subunit (EcfS), a transmembrane coupling subunit (EcfT), and two ATP-binding cassette ATPases (EcfA and EcfA'). We have characterized the structural basis of substrate binding by the EcfS subunit for riboflavin from Thermotoga maritima, TmRibU. TmRibU binds riboflavin with high affinity, and the protein–substrate complex is exceptionally stable in solution. The crystal structure of riboflavin-bound TmRibU reveals an electronegative binding pocket at the extracellular surface inmore » which the substrate is completely buried. Analysis of the intermolecular contacts indicates that nearly every available substrate hydrogen bond is satisfied. A conserved aromatic residue at the extracellular end of TM5, Tyr130, caps the binding site to generate a substrate-bound, occluded state, and non-conservative mutation of Tyr130 reduces the stability of this conformation. Using a novel fluorescence binding assay, we find that an aromatic residue at this position is essential for high-affinity substrate binding. Comparison with other S subunit structures suggests that TM5 and Loop5-6 contain a dynamic, conserved motif that plays a key role in gating substrate entry and release by S subunits of ECF transporters.« less

  8. Force spectroscopy of multivalent binding of riboflavin-conjugated dendrimers to riboflavin binding protein.

    PubMed

    Leistra, Abigail N; Han, Jong Hyun; Tang, Shengzhuang; Orr, Bradford G; Banaszak Holl, Mark M; Choi, Seok Ki; Sinniah, Kumar

    2015-05-07

    Putative riboflavin receptors are considered as biomarkers due to their overexpression in breast and prostate cancers. Hence, these receptors can be potentially exploited for use in targeted drug delivery systems where dendrimer nanoparticles with multivalent ligand attachments can lead to greater specificity in cellular interactions. In this study, the single molecule force spectroscopy technique was used to assess the physical strength of multivalent interactions by employing a riboflavin (RF)-conjugated generation 5 PAMAM dendrimer G5(RF)n nanoparticle. By varying the average RF ligand valency (n = 0, 3, 5), the rupture force was measured between G5(RF)n and the riboflavin binding protein (RFBP). The rupture force increased when the valency of RF increased. We observed at the higher valency (n = 5) three binding events that increased in rupture force with increasing loading rate. Assuming a single energy barrier, the Bell-Evans model was used to determine the kinetic off-rate and barrier width for all binding interactions. The analysis of our results appears to indicate that multivalent interactions are resulting in changes to rupture force and kinetic off-rates.

  9. Effect of fasting on the urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in humans and rats.

    PubMed

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Erina; Takahashi, Kei; Shibata, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies showed that the urinary excretion of the water-soluble vitamins can be useful as a nutritional index. To determine how fasting affects urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins, a human study and an animal experiment were conducted. In the human study, the 24-h urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in 12 healthy Japanese adults fasting for a day was measured. One-day fasting drastically decreased urinary thiamin content to 30%, and increased urinary riboflavin content by 3-fold. Other water-soluble vitamin contents did not show significant change by fasting. To further investigate the alterations of water-soluble vitamin status by starvation, rats were starved for 3 d, and water-soluble vitamin contents in the liver, blood and urine were measured during starvation. Urinary excretion of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B(6) metabolite 4-pyridoxic acid, nicotinamide metabolites and folate decreased during starvation, but that of vitamin B(12), pantothenic acid and biotin did not. As for blood vitamin levels, only blood vitamin B(1), plasma PLP and plasma folate levels decreased with starvation. All water-soluble vitamin contents in the liver decreased during starvation, whereas vitamin concentrations in the liver did not decrease. Starvation decreased only concentrations of vitamin B(12) and folate in the skeletal muscle. These results suggest that water-soluble vitamins were released from the liver, and supplied to the peripheral tissues to maintain vitamin nutrition. Our human study also suggested that the effect of fasting should be taken into consideration for subjects showing low urinary thiamin and high urinary riboflavin.

  10. Simultaneous determination of riboflavin and pyridoxine by UHPLC/LC-MS in UK commercial infant meal food products.

    PubMed

    Zand, Nazanin; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Pullen, Frank S; Snowden, Martin J; Tetteh, John

    2012-12-15

    An assay for the simultaneous quantitative determination of riboflavin and pyridoxine in eight different complementary infant meal products has been developed in order to (1) estimate the daily intake of these vitamins from commercial infant food consumption, and (2) ascertain their nutritional suitability relative to dietary guidelines for the 6-9 months age group. The method involves mild hydrolysis of the foods, an extraction of the supernatant by centrifugation followed by quantitative determination using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. Separation of the two water soluble vitamins is achieved within one minute and the resultant sample is also LC-MS compatible. Despite wide individual differences between brands (p=6.5e-12), no significant differences were observed in the level of pyridoxine between the meat and vegetable-based varieties (p=0.7) per 100g of commercial infant food. Riboflavin was not detected in any of the samples where the detection limit was below 0.07 μg/mL. In terms of the Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI) of pyridoxine for 6-9 months old infants, the complementary infant meal products analysed herein provided less than 15% of the RNI values with mean (SD) values of 12.87 (± 4.46)% and 13.88 (± 4.97)% for the meat- and vegetable-based recipes, respectively. The estimated total daily intake of riboflavin and pyridoxine from the consumption of commercial complementary food was found to be satisfactory and in accordance with the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs). The intake of both riboflavin and pyridoxine was estimated to be mainly derived from the consumption of formula milk which could be a cause of concern if the quality of an infant's milk diet is compromised by an inadequate or lack of supplemented milk intake. The results of this study suggest that the selected commercial complementary infant foods in the UK market may not contain the minimum levels of riboflavin and pyridoxine required for the labelling declaration of the

  11. Biofortification of riboflavin and folate in idli batter, based on fermented cereal and pulse, by Lactococcus lactis N8 and Saccharomyces boulardii SAA655.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar Rajendran, S C; Chamlagain, B; Kariluoto, S; Piironen, V; Saris, P E J

    2017-06-01

    Lactococcus lactis N8 and Saccharomyces boulardii SAA655 were investigated for their ability to synthesize B-vitamins (riboflavin and folate) and their functional role as microbial starters in idli fermentation. In this study, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and microbiological assay were used to determine the total riboflavin and folate content respectively. Increased levels of folate were evident in both L. lactis N8 and S. boulardii SAA655 cultivated medium. Enhanced riboflavin levels were found only in S. boulardii SAA655 grown medium, whereas decreased riboflavin level was found in L. lactis N8 cultivated medium. To evaluate the functional role of microbial starter strains, L. lactis N8 and S. boulardii SAA655 were incorporated individually and in combination into idli batter, composed of wet grounded rice and black gram. For the experiments, naturally fermented idli batter was considered as control. The results indicated that natural idli fermentation did not enhance the riboflavin level and depleted folate levels by half. In comparison with control, L. lactis N8 and S. boulardii SAA655 incorporated idli batter (individually and in combination) increased riboflavin and folate levels by 40-90%. Apart from compensating the folate loss caused by natural fermentation, S. boulardii SAA655 fermented idli batter individually and in combination with L. lactis N8 also showed the highest leavening character. Moreover, the microbial starter incorporation did not significantly influence the pH of idli batter. Incorporation of L. lactis N8 and S. boulardii SAA655 can evidently enhance the functional and technological characteristics of idli batter. UN General Assembly declared 2016 the International Year of pulses emphasizing the importance of legumes as staple food. Furthermore, this is the first experimental report of in situ biofortifcation of riboflavin and folate using microbes in pulse based fermented staple food. The current study suggests possible

  12. Clinical, pathological and functional characterization of riboflavin-responsive neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Manole, Andreea; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Hargreaves, Iain; Ludtmann, Marthe H R; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Bello, Oscar D; Pope, Simon; Pandraud, Amelie; Horga, Alejandro; Scalco, Renata S; Li, Abi; Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem; Lourenço, Charles M; Heales, Simon; Horvath, Rita; Chinnery, Patrick F; Toro, Camilo; Singleton, Andrew B; Jacques, Thomas S; Abramov, Andrey Y; Muntoni, Francesco; Hanna, Michael G; Reilly, Mary M; Revesz, Tamas; Kullmann, Dimitri M

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome represents a phenotypic spectrum of motor, sensory, and cranial nerve neuropathy, often with ataxia, optic atrophy and respiratory problems leading to ventilator-dependence. Loss-of-function mutations in two riboflavin transporter genes, SLC52A2 and SLC52A3, have recently been linked to Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome. However, the genetic frequency, neuropathology and downstream consequences of riboflavin transporter mutations are unclear. By screening a large cohort of 132 patients with early-onset severe sensory, motor and cranial nerve neuropathy we confirmed the strong genetic link between riboflavin transporter mutations and Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, identifying 22 pathogenic mutations in SLC52A2 and SLC52A3, 14 of which were novel. Brain and spinal cord neuropathological examination of two cases with SLC52A3 mutations showed classical symmetrical brainstem lesions resembling pathology seen in mitochondrial disease, including severe neuronal loss in the lower cranial nerve nuclei, anterior horns and corresponding nerves, atrophy of the spinothalamic and spinocerebellar tracts and posterior column–medial lemniscus pathways. Mitochondrial dysfunction has previously been implicated in an array of neurodegenerative disorders. Since riboflavin metabolites are critical components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, we hypothesized that reduced riboflavin transport would result in impaired mitochondrial activity, and confirmed this using in vitro and in vivo models. Electron transport chain complex I and complex II activity were decreased in SLC52A2 patient fibroblasts, while global knockdown of the single Drosophila melanogaster riboflavin transporter homologue revealed reduced levels of riboflavin, downstream metabolites, and electron transport chain complex I activity. This in turn led to abnormal mitochondrial membrane potential, respiratory chain activity and morphology. Riboflavin transporter

  13. Clinical, pathological and functional characterization of riboflavin-responsive neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Manole, Andreea; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Hargreaves, Iain; Ludtmann, Marthe H R; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Bello, Oscar D; Pope, Simon; Pandraud, Amelie; Horga, Alejandro; Scalco, Renata S; Li, Abi; Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem; Lourenço, Charles M; Heales, Simon; Horvath, Rita; Chinnery, Patrick F; Toro, Camilo; Singleton, Andrew B; Jacques, Thomas S; Abramov, Andrey Y; Muntoni, Francesco; Hanna, Michael G; Reilly, Mary M; Revesz, Tamas; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Jepson, James E C; Houlden, Henry

    2017-11-01

    Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome represents a phenotypic spectrum of motor, sensory, and cranial nerve neuropathy, often with ataxia, optic atrophy and respiratory problems leading to ventilator-dependence. Loss-of-function mutations in two riboflavin transporter genes, SLC52A2 and SLC52A3, have recently been linked to Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome. However, the genetic frequency, neuropathology and downstream consequences of riboflavin transporter mutations are unclear. By screening a large cohort of 132 patients with early-onset severe sensory, motor and cranial nerve neuropathy we confirmed the strong genetic link between riboflavin transporter mutations and Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, identifying 22 pathogenic mutations in SLC52A2 and SLC52A3, 14 of which were novel. Brain and spinal cord neuropathological examination of two cases with SLC52A3 mutations showed classical symmetrical brainstem lesions resembling pathology seen in mitochondrial disease, including severe neuronal loss in the lower cranial nerve nuclei, anterior horns and corresponding nerves, atrophy of the spinothalamic and spinocerebellar tracts and posterior column-medial lemniscus pathways. Mitochondrial dysfunction has previously been implicated in an array of neurodegenerative disorders. Since riboflavin metabolites are critical components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, we hypothesized that reduced riboflavin transport would result in impaired mitochondrial activity, and confirmed this using in vitro and in vivo models. Electron transport chain complex I and complex II activity were decreased in SLC52A2 patient fibroblasts, while global knockdown of the single Drosophila melanogaster riboflavin transporter homologue revealed reduced levels of riboflavin, downstream metabolites, and electron transport chain complex I activity. This in turn led to abnormal mitochondrial membrane potential, respiratory chain activity and morphology. Riboflavin transporter knockdown in

  14. Comparison of Corneal Riboflavin Gradients Using Dextran and HPMC Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ehmke, Tobias; Seiler, Theo G; Fischinger, Isaak; Ripken, Tammo; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Frueh, Beatrice E

    2016-12-01

    To determine the riboflavin concentration gradient in the anterior corneal stroma when using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) or dextran as the carrier agent. Four different groups of porcine corneas (5 each) were compared regarding the riboflavin concentration in the anterior stroma. Prior to all experiments, stable hydration conditions were established for the corresponding solution. The dextran groups were treated with 0.1% riboflavin in 20% dextran for 10 and 30 minutes and the HPMC groups with 0.1% riboflavin in 1.1% HPMC for 10 and 30 minutes. After imbibition, nonlinear microscopy and consecutive image analysis were used to determine two-photon fluorescence intensities. To determine the riboflavin concentration, corneas were saturated and measured a second time by two-photon microscopy. With this measurement, a proper correction for absorption and scattering could be performed. Ultraviolet-A (UVA) transmission was measured after the application time for each group. Riboflavin concentration decreased with increasing depth and increased with longer application times in all groups. Comparing the dextran for 30 minutes and HPMC for 10 minutes groups, a significantly higher stromal riboflavin concentration was found within the most anterior 70 µm in the dextran group for 30 minutes, whereas deeper than 260 µm HPMC-assisted imbibition for 10 minutes yielded higher concentrations. In dextran-treated corneas, values obtained from pachymetry were substantially reduced, whereas HPMC-assisted imbibition led to a decent swelling. UVA transmission values were higher in dextran-assisted imbibition than in HPMC-assisted imbibition. Stromal riboflavin gradients are similar when applied in dextran for 30 minutes and HPMC for 10 minutes. When using HPMC solutions, a shallower cross-linked volume is expected due to a higher corneal hydration. [J Refract Surg. 2016;32(12):798-802.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Effects of forage family on apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castagnino, D S; Seck, M; Beaudet, V; Kammes, K L; Linton, J A Voelker; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2016-03-01

    Effects of forage family (legume vs. grass) on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 experiments. Diets containing either alfalfa (AL) or orchardgrass (OG) silages as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Experiment 1 compared diets containing AL and OG [~23% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~27% total NDF] offered to 8 cows in two 15-d treatment periods. Experiment 2 compared diets containing AL and OG (~25% forage NDF and ~30% total NDF) offered to 13 cows in two 18-d treatment periods. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were analyzed in feeds and duodenal digesta. Apparent ruminal synthesis was calculated as the duodenal flow of each vitamin minus its intake. Forage family affected B vitamin intakes, duodenal flow, and ARS. In both experiments, AL diets increased vitamin B6 and decreased folate intakes. In experiment 1, riboflavin and niacin intakes were greater with the OG diet, whereas in experiment 2 thiamin intake was greater but riboflavin intake was smaller with the OG diet. In spite of the low contribution of either silage to the dietary folate content, folate intake was greater with OG diets than AL due to the difference in soybean meal contribution between diets. Niacin and folate ARS were not affected by the forage family. Duodenal microbial nitrogen flow was positively correlated with ARS of riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12, but tended to be negatively correlated with thiamin ARS. Apparent ruminal synthesis of folates and vitamin B12 appear to be related to microbial biomass activity. Changes in nutrient composition of the diets likely affected the microbial population in the rumen and their B vitamin metabolism. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Biogeochemical Insights into B-Vitamins in the Coastal Marine Sediments of San Pedro Basin, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteverde, D.; Berelson, W.; Baronas, J. J.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal marine sediments support a high abundance of mircoorganisms which play key roles in the cycling of nutrients, trace metals, and carbon, yet little is known about many of the cofactors essential for their growth, such as the B-vitamins. The suite of B-vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B7, B12) are essential across all domains of life for both primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore, studying sediment concentrations of B-vitamins can provide a biochemical link between microbial processes and sediment geochemistry. Here we present B-vitamin pore water concentrations from suboxic sediment cores collected in September 2014 from San Pedro Basin, a silled, low oxygen, ~900 m deep coastal basin in the California Borderlands. We compare the B-vitamin concentrations (measured via LCMS) to a set of geochemical profiles including dissolved Fe (65-160 μM), dissolved Mn (30-300 nM), TCO2, solid phase organic carbon, and δ13C. Our results show high concentrations (0.8-3nM) of biotin (B7), commonly used for CO2 fixation as a cofactor in carboxylase enzymes. Thiamin (B1) concentrations were elevated (20-700nM), consistent with previous pore water measurements showing sediments could be a source of B1 to the ocean. Cobalamin (B12), a cofactor required for methyl transfers in methanogens, was also detected in pore waters (~4-40pM). The flavins (riboflavin [B2] and flavin mononucleotide[FMN]), molecules utilized in external electron transfer, showed a distinct increase with depth (10-90nM). Interestingly, the flavin profiles showed an inverse trend to dissolved Fe (Fe decreases with depth) providing a potential link to culture experiments which have shown extracellular flavin release to be a common trait in some metal reducers. As some of the first B-vitamin measurements made in marine sediments, these results illustrate the complex interaction between the microbial community and surrounding geochemical environment and provide exciting avenues for future research.

  17. Apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows fed diets with different forage-to-concentrate ratios.

    PubMed

    Seck, M; Linton, J A Voelker; Allen, M S; Castagnino, D S; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2017-03-01

    Effects of the forage-to-concentrate ratio on apparent ruminal synthesis of thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B 6 , folates, and vitamin B 12 were evaluated in an experiment using 14 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows. The experiment was a crossover design with two 15-d treatment periods and a 14-d preliminary period in which cows were fed a diet intermediate in composition between the treatment diets. Treatments were diets containing low-forage (44.8% forage, 32.8% starch, 24.4% neutral detergent fiber) or high-forage (61.4% forage, 22.5% starch, 30.7% neutral detergent fiber) concentrations. Both diets were formulated with different proportions of the same ingredients. Concentrations of B vitamins were analyzed in feed and duodenal digesta. Apparent ruminal synthesis of each B vitamin was calculated as the duodenal flow minus the intake. The high-forage diet had the highest concentrations of riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B 6 , and folates, whereas the low-forage diet had the highest thiamine concentration. Vitamin B 12 in the diets was under the level of detection. Consequently, despite a reduction in dry matter intake when the cows were fed the high-forage diet, increasing dietary forage concentration increased or tended to increase intakes of riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B 6 but reduced thiamine and folate intakes. Increasing dietary forage concentration reduced apparent ruminal degradation of thiamine and apparent ruminal synthesis of riboflavin, niacin, and folates and increased ruminal degradation of vitamin B 6 , but had no effect on ruminal synthesis of vitamin B 12 . As a consequence, increasing the forage-to-concentrate ratio had no effect on the amounts of thiamine, riboflavin, and vitamin B 12 reaching the small intestine but decreased the amounts of niacin, vitamin B 6 , and folates available for absorption. Apparent ruminal syntheses of riboflavin, niacin, folates, and vitamin B 12 were correlated positively with the amount of

  18. Proximate composition, functional properties, amino acid, mineral and vitamin contents of a novel food: Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour.

    PubMed

    Al-Farga, Ammar; Zhang, Hui; Siddeeg, Azhari; Shamoon, Muhammad; V M Chamba, Moses; Al-Hajj, Nabil

    2016-11-15

    Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour was evaluated for chemical and nutritional composition, and functional properties in a pursuit to identify an innovative plant with high nutraceuticals value which could be exploited in other food applications. The flour was found to be rich in dietary fiber (30.13%), protein (14.60%), crude fat (11.49%), carbohydrates (30.77%), and ash (6.88%) and encompassed adequate amounts of essential amino acids and minerals, whereas, sucrose constituted 71.3% of total sugar contents. Vitamins analysis revealed that flour is rich in water-soluble vitamins such as Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2) and Niacin (B3), to the amounts of 19.3, 8.2 and 2.3mg/100g, respectively. Results on functional properties demonstrated high water and oil absorption capacities of 6.31 and 2.43g/g, respectively. Foaming capacity, foam stability and emulsion capacity were 9.35%, 6.90%, and 29.60%, respectively. It can be concluded that alhydwan is an excellent food material with a high nutritional value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Vaporization of B2O3(l) to B2O3(g) and B2O2(g)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Myers, Dwight L.

    2011-01-01

    The vaporization of B2O3 in a reducing environment leads to formation of both B2O3(g) and B2O2(g). While formation of B2O3(g) is well understood, many questions about the formation of B2O2(g) remain. Previous studies using B(s) + B2O3(l) have led to inconsistent thermodynamic data. In this study, it was found that after heating, B(s) and B2O3(l) appear to separate and variations in contact area likely led to the inconsistent vapor pressures of B2O2(g). To circumvent this problem, an activity of boron is fixed with a two-phase mixture of FeB and Fe2B. Both second and third law enthalpies of formation were measured for B2O2(g) and B2O3(g). From these the enthalpies of formation at 298.15 K are calculated to be -479.9 +/- 41.5 kJ/mol for B2O2(g) and -833.4 +/- 13.1 kJ/mol for B2O3(g). Ab initio calculations to determine the enthalpies of formation of B2O2(g) and B2O3(g) were conducted using the W1BD composite method and show good agreement with the experimental values.

  20. Riboflavin and migraine: the bridge over troubled mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Bruno; Saraceno, Lorenzo; Comi, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    Brain energy metabolism has been found to be disturbed in migraine. A mitochondrial defect may reduce the threshold for migraine attacks both increasing neuronal excitability and leading migrainous brain to a hyper-responsiveness to triggering stimuli. Riboflavin, a major co-factor in oxidative metabolism, may overcome this impairment. RCT studies in adult confirmed that riboflavin is safe and probably effective in migraine prophylaxis, based on level B evidence. Improving brain energy metabolism may reduce the susceptibility to migraine when brain energy demand increases due to both physiological and biopsychological factors.

  1. Theoretical modeling of the absorption spectrum of aqueous riboflavin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti-Polzi, Laura; Aschi, Massimiliano; Daidone, Isabella; Amadei, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    In this study we report the modeling of the absorption spectrum of riboflavin in water using a hybrid quantum/classical mechanical approach, the MD-PMM methodology. By means of MD-PMM calculations, with which the effect of riboflavin internal motions and of solvent interactions on the spectroscopic properties can be explicitly taken into account, we obtain an absorption spectrum in very good agreement with the experimental spectrum. In particular, the calculated peak maxima show a consistent improvement with respect to previous computational approaches. Moreover, the calculations show that the interaction with the environment may cause a relevant recombination of the gas-phase electronic states.

  2. Histoplasma capsulatum Depends on De Novo Vitamin Biosynthesis for Intraphagosomal Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Garfoot, Andrew L.; Zemska, Olga

    2014-01-01

    During infection of the mammalian host, Histoplasma capsulatum yeasts survive and reside within macrophages of the immune system. Whereas some intracellular pathogens escape into the host cytosol, Histoplasma yeasts remain within the macrophage phagosome. This intracellular Histoplasma-containing compartment imposes nutritional challenges for yeast growth and replication. We identified and annotated vitamin synthesis pathways encoded in the Histoplasma genome and confirmed by growth in minimal medium that Histoplasma yeasts can synthesize all essential vitamins with the exception of thiamine. Riboflavin, pantothenate, and biotin auxotrophs of Histoplasma were generated to probe whether these vitamins are available to intracellular yeasts. Disruption of the RIB2 gene (riboflavin biosynthesis) prevented growth and proliferation of yeasts in macrophages and severely attenuated Histoplasma virulence in a murine model of respiratory histoplasmosis. Rib2-deficient yeasts were not cleared from lung tissue but persisted, consistent with functional survival mechanisms but inability to replicate in vivo. In addition, depletion of Pan6 (pantothenate biosynthesis) but not Bio2 function (biotin synthesis) also impaired Histoplasma virulence. These results indicate that the Histoplasma-containing phagosome is limiting for riboflavin and pantothenate and that Histoplasma virulence requires de novo synthesis of these cofactor precursors. Since mammalian hosts do not rely on vitamin synthesis but instead acquire essential vitamins through diet, vitamin synthesis pathways represent druggable targets for therapeutics. PMID:24191299

  3. Vitamin A

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin A plays a role in your Vision Bone growth Reproduction Cell functions Immune system Vitamin A is an antioxidant. It can come from ...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Riboflavin-5-phosphate. 582.5697 Section 582.5697 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Riboflavin-5-phosphate. 582.5697 Section 582.5697 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  6. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of... environment for present and future generations. (b) Each USDA agency is responsible for compliance with this...

  7. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of... environment for present and future generations. (b) Each USDA agency is responsible for compliance with this...

  8. 32 CFR 806b.2 - Basic guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic guidelines. 806b.2 Section 806b.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Overview of the Privacy Act Program § 806b.2 Basic guidelines. This part implements the Privacy Act of 1974...

  9. 42 CFR 52b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 52b.2 Section 52b.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Public Health Service Act, as...

  10. 42 CFR 52b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 52b.2 Section 52b.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Public Health Service Act, as...

  11. 12 CFR 261b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 261b.2 Section 261b.2 Banks and... REGARDING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF MEETINGS § 261b.2 Definitions. For purposes of this part, the following... bank capital and surplus which may be represented by loans secured by stock and bond collateral under...

  12. 15 CFR 8b.2 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application. 8b.2 Section 8b.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.2...

  13. 15 CFR 8b.2 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application. 8b.2 Section 8b.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.2...

  14. 15 CFR 8b.2 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application. 8b.2 Section 8b.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.2...

  15. 15 CFR 8b.2 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application. 8b.2 Section 8b.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.2...

  16. 15 CFR 8b.2 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application. 8b.2 Section 8b.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.2...

  17. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to investigations...

  18. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to investigations...

  19. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to investigations...

  20. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to investigations...

  1. Particle length of silages affects apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castagnino, D S; Kammes, K L; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2016-08-01

    Effects of particle length of silages on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 feeding trials. Diets containing alfalfa (trial 1) or orchardgrass (trial 2) silages, chopped to either 19mm (long cut, LC) or 10mm (short cut, SC) theoretical particle length, as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Forages chopped to a theoretical particle length of 19 and 10mm had mean particles sizes of 14.1 and 8.1mm, respectively, in trial 1, and 15.3 and 11.3mm, respectively, in trial 2. Trial 1 was conducted with 13 multiparous cows in two 19-d treatment periods; both diets contained approximately 20% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 25% total NDF, and forage-to-concentrate ratios were approximately 47:53. Trial 2 was conducted with 15 cows in two 18-d treatment periods; both diets contained approximately 23% forage NDF, 28% total NDF, and had a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 50:50. Thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were measured in feed and duodenal content. Daily ARS was calculated as the duodenal flow minus the intake. In trial 1, daily intake of individual B vitamins was increased with the LC diet, but ARS of thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and folates was reduced. In trial 2, except for folates, intakes of the other B vitamins were decreased with the LC diets, whereas ARS of riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B6 was increased. Daily ARS of thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B6 were correlated negatively with their intake, suggesting that ruminal bacteria reduced their synthesis when dietary supply increased. Microbial activity could have also reduced degradation of thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin, which is supported by (1) the negative correlation between ARS of these vitamins and ruminal pH or microbial N duodenal flow; and (2) the positive correlation between ARS and ruminal concentrations

  2. Efficiency of various vitamin doses for polyhypovitaminosis correction in rats.

    PubMed

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Beketova, N A; Kosheleva, O V; Sokol'nikov, A A

    2014-09-01

    A 5-fold decrease of the content of vitamin mixture in the ration and exclusion of vitamin E from this mixture over 4 weeks led to a significant growth delay in rats initially weighing 58.1±0.5 g, but was inessential for the growth rates of animals weighing 107.1±1.1 g. The decrease in the levels of vitamins A and B2 in the liver and of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the plasma of younger rats was more significant, this indicating their higher sensitivity to alimentary vitamin deficit. The increase in vitamin content in the ration to 100% over 5 days led to a significant body weight increment but did not restore vitamin levels in the liver, restoring, however, plasma levels of vitamins E and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Addition of 50% vitamin content of the vitamin mixture for controls to vitamin-deficient rations of older rats for 2 weeks improved the levels of vitamins B1 and B2, but was virtually inessential for the liver content of vitamins A and E. High dose (158-200%) vitamins in animals of both age groups repaired the deficit of all vitamins, except vitamin A, despite the fact that its doses were the highest. These results validate long-term vitamin consumption for repair of their deficit.

  3. Causes, Consequences and Public Health Implications of Low B-Vitamin Status in Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Kirsty; Hoey, Leane; Hughes, Catherine F.; Ward, Mary; McNulty, Helene

    2016-01-01

    The potential protective roles of folate and the metabolically related B-vitamins (vitamins B12, B6 and riboflavin) in diseases of ageing are of increasing research interest. The most common cause of folate and riboflavin deficiencies in older people is low dietary intake, whereas low B12 status is primarily associated with food-bound malabsorption, while sub-optimal vitamin B6 status is attributed to increased requirements in ageing. Observational evidence links low status of folate and the related B-vitamins (and/or elevated concentrations of homocysteine) with a higher risk of degenerative diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD), cognitive dysfunction and osteoporosis. Deficient or low status of these B-vitamins alone or in combination with genetic polymorphisms, including the common MTHFR 677 C → T polymorphism, could contribute to greater disease risk in ageing by causing perturbations in one carbon metabolism. Moreover, interventions with the relevant B-vitamins to optimise status may have beneficial effects in preventing degenerative diseases. The precise mechanisms are unknown but many have been proposed involving the role of folate and the related B-vitamins as co-factors for one-carbon transfer reactions, which are fundamental for DNA and RNA biosynthesis and the maintenance of methylation reactions. This review will examine the evidence linking folate and related B-vitamins with health and disease in ageing, associated mechanisms and public health implications. PMID:27854316

  4. Determination of selected water-soluble vitamins using hydrophilic chromatography: a comparison of photodiode array, fluorescence, and coulometric detection, and validation in a breakfast cereal matrix.

    PubMed

    Langer, Swen; Lodge, John K

    2014-06-01

    Water-soluble vitamins are an important class of compounds that require quantification from food sources to monitor nutritional value. In this study we have analysed six water-soluble B vitamins ([thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), nicotinic acid (B3, NAc), nicotinamide (B3, NAm), pyridoxal (B6), folic acid (B9)], and ascorbic acid (vit C) with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), and compared UV, fluorescent (FLD) and coulometric detection to optimise a method to quantitate the vitamins from food sources. Employing UV/diode array (DAD) and fluorimetric detection, six B vitamins were detected in a single run using gradient elution from 100% to 60% solvent B [10mM ammonium acetate, pH 5.0, in acetonitrile and water 95:5 (v:v)] over 18 min. UV detection was performed at 268 nm for B1, 260 nm for both B3 species and 284 nm for B9. FLD was employed for B2 at excitation wavelength of 268 nm, emission of 513 nm, and 284 nm/317 nm for B6. Coulometric detection can be used to detect B6 and B9, and vit C, and was performed isocratically at 75% and 85% of solvent B, respectively. B6 was analysed at a potential of 720 mV, while B9 was analysed at 600 mV, and vit C at 30 mV. Retention times (0.96 to 11.81 min), intra-day repeatability (CV 1.6 to 3.6), inter-day variability (CV 1.8 to 11.1), and linearity (R 0.9877 to 0.9995) remained good under these conditions with limits of detection varying from 6.6 to 164.6 ng mL(-1), limits of quantification between 16.8 and 548.7 ng mL(-1). The method was successfully applied for quantification of six B vitamins from a fortified food product and is, to our knowledge, the first to simultaneously determine multiple water-soluble vitamins extracted from a food matrix using HILIC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quadratic nonlinear optics to assess the morphology of riboflavin doped chitosan for eco-friendly lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Cédric; Caillau, Mathieu; Jonin, Christian; Benichou, Emmanuel; Moulin, Christophe; Salmon, Estelle; Maldonado, Melissa E.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; Monnier, Virginie; Laurenceau, Emmanuelle; Leclercq, Jean-Louis; Chevolot, Yann; Delair, Thierry; Brevet, Pierre-François

    2018-06-01

    We report the use of the Second Harmonic Generation response from a riboflavin doped chitosan film as a characterization method of the film morphology. This film is of particular interest in the development of new and bio-sourced material for eco-friendly UV lithography. The method allows us to determine how riboflavin is distributed as a function of film depth in the sample. This possibility is of importance in order to have a better understanding of the riboflavin influence in chitosan films during the lithography process. On the contrary, linear optical techniques provide no information beyond the mere confirmation of the riboflavin presence.

  6. The protective effect of salicylic acid on lysozyme against riboflavin-mediated photooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kun; Wang, Hongbao; Cheng, Lingli; Zhu, Hui; Wang, Mei; Wang, Shi-Long

    2011-06-01

    As a metabolite of aspirin in vivo, salicylic acid was proved to protect lysozyme from riboflavin-mediated photooxidation in this study. The antioxidative properties of salicylic acid were further studied by using time-resolved laser flash photolysis of 355 nm. It can quench the triplet state of riboflavin via electron transfer from salicylic acid to the triplet state of riboflavin with a reaction constant of 2.25 × 10 9 M -1 s -1. Mechanism of antioxidant activities of salicylic acid on lysozyme oxidation was discussed. Salicylic acid can serve as a potential antioxidant to quench the triplet state of riboflavin and reduce oxidative pressure.

  7. Absorption and emission spectroscopic characterisation of 8-amino-riboflavin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, A.; Zirak, P.; Penzkofer, A.; Mathes, T.; Hegemann, P.; Mack, M.; Ghisla, S.

    2009-10-01

    The flavin dye 8-amino-8-demethyl- D-riboflavin (AF) in the solvents water, DMSO, methanol, and chloroform/DMSO was studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The first absorption band is red-shifted compared to riboflavin, and blue-shifted compared to roseoflavin (8-dimethylamino-8-demethyl-D-riboflavin). The fluorescence quantum yield of AF in the studied solvents varies between 20% and 50%. The fluorescence lifetimes were found to be in the 2-5 ns range. AF is well soluble in DMSO, weakly soluble in water and methanol, and practically insoluble in chloroform. The limited solubility causes AF aggregation, which was seen in differences between measured absorption spectra and fluorescence excitation spectra. Light scattering in the dye absorption region is discussed and approximate absorption cross-section spectra are determined from the combined measurement of transmission and fluorescence excitation spectra. The photo-stability of AF was studied by prolonged light exposure. The photo-degradation routes of AF are discussed.

  8. 32 CFR 806b.2 - Basic guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Basic guidelines. 806b.2 Section 806b.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM.... (d) Air Force members will: (1) Keep paper and electronic records that are retrieved by name or...

  9. 32 CFR 806b.2 - Basic guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Basic guidelines. 806b.2 Section 806b.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM.... (d) Air Force members will: (1) Keep paper and electronic records that are retrieved by name or...

  10. 18 CFR 3b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 3b.2 Section 3b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL...

  11. 18 CFR 3b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 3b.2 Section 3b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL...

  12. 18 CFR 3b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 3b.2 Section 3b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL...

  13. 18 CFR 3b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 3b.2 Section 3b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL...

  14. Vitamin E

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... food sources of vitamin E: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for vitamin ...

  15. Vitamin C

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... food sources of vitamin C: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for vitamin ...

  16. Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... food sources of vitamin D: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for vitamin ...

  17. Vitamin A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... food sources of vitamin A: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for vitamin ...

  18. Vitamin K

    MedlinePlus

    ... your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for healthy ... blood clotting. If you don't have enough vitamin K, you may bleed too much. Newborns have very ...

  19. Vitamin E

    MedlinePlus

    ... extra vitamin E. Vitamin E supplements may be harmful for people who take blood thinners and other medicines. Check with your health care provider before taking the supplements. NIH: National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements

  20. Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... 25419853 . Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ... Accessed May 5, 2017. Salwen MJ. Vitamins and trace elements. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

  1. Vitamin K

    MedlinePlus

    ... 25057538 . Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ... Saunders; 2016:chap 218. Salwen MJ. Vitamins and trace elements. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

  2. Vitamin E

    MedlinePlus

    ... 25077263 . Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ... Saunders; 2016:chap 218. Salwen MJ. Vitamins and trace elements. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

  3. Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Calcium is one ... building blocks of bone. A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone diseases such as osteoporosis ...

  4. Vitamin C

    MedlinePlus

    ... body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin C is an antioxidant. It is important for your ... healing and helps the body absorb iron. Vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables. Good sources include ...

  5. Vitamin C

    MedlinePlus

    ... tomato juice Winter squash Some cereals and other foods and beverages are fortified with vitamin C. Fortified means a vitamin or mineral has been added to the food. Check the product labels to see how much ...

  6. Usual Vitamin Intakes by Mexican Populations.

    PubMed

    Pedroza-Tobías, Andrea; Hernández-Barrera, Lucía; López-Olmedo, Nancy; García-Guerra, Armando; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Ramírez-Silva, Ivonne; Villalpando, Salvador; Carriquiry, Alicia; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    In the past several years, the consumption of high-energy, nutrient-poor foods has increased globally. Dietary intake data collected by the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2012 provide information to assess the quality of the Mexican diet and to guide food and nutrition policy. The aim was to describe the usual intake and the prevalence of inadequate intakes of vitamins for the overall Mexican population and by subgroups defined by sex, age, region, urban or rural areas, and socioeconomic status (SES). ENSANUT 2012 is a cross-sectional probabilistic survey representative of the Mexican population. Dietary information was collected by using the 24-h recall automated multiple-pass method (n = 10,096) with a repeated measurement on a subsample (n = 889) to permit adjustment for intraindividual variability with the use of the Iowa State University method. Mean usual intakes and the prevalence of inadequate intakes of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, and vitamins A, D, E, C, B-6, and B-12 were calculated for children aged 1-4 y (CH1-4y), children aged 5-11 y (CH5-11y), adolescents aged 12-19 y, and adults aged ≥20 y. In all of the age groups, prevalences of inadequate intakes of vitamins D and E were the highest (77-99% of adults and adolescents and 53-95% of CH5-11y and CH1-4y) and those of folate and vitamin A were intermediate (47-70% of adults and adolescents, 15-23% of CH5-11y and 8-13% of CH1-4y), whereas those of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamins B-6, B-12, and C were the lowest (0-37% of adults, 1-27% of adolescents, and 0-2.4% of CH5-11y and CH1-4y). With few exceptions, the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for vitamins were observed in the poorest populations (rural South region and the lowest tertile of SES). The intake of vitamins among Mexicans is inadequate overall. Information collected by ENSANUT can help target food assistance programs and develop strategies to prevent vitamin deficiencies. © 2016 American Society

  7. B Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... proteins such as fish, poultry, meat, eggs, and dairy products. Leafy green vegetables, beans, and peas also have B vitamins. Many cereals and some breads have added B vitamins. Not getting enough of certain B vitamins can cause diseases. A lack of B12 or B6 can cause anemia.

  8. Vitamin K

    Vitamin K, a fat-soluble vitamin, is an enzyme cofactor for post-translation modification of specific glutamate residues that are converted into '-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues by a vitamin K-dependent (VKD) carboxylase. Seven VKD coagulation proteins are synthesized in the liver. The extra-he...

  9. Analyzing B-vitamins in Human Milk: Methodological Approaches.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Daniela; Allen, Lindsay H

    2016-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life. However, there is insufficient information about the concentration of nutrients in human milk. For some nutrients, including B-vitamins, maternal intake affects their concentration in human milk but the extent to which inadequate maternal diets affect milk B-vitamin content is poorly documented. Little is known about infant requirements for B-vitamins; recommendations are generally set as Adequate Intakes (AI) calculated on the basis of the mean volume of milk (0.78 L/day) consumed by infants exclusively fed with human milk from well-nourished mothers during the first six months, and the concentration of each vitamin in milk based on reported values. Methods used for analyzing B-vitamins, commonly microbiological, radioisotope dilution or more recently chromatographic, coupled with UV, fluorometric and MS detection, have rarely been validated for the complex human milk matrix. Thus the validity, accuracy, and sensitivity of analytical methods is important for understanding infant requirements for these nutrients, the maternal intakes needed to support adequate concentrations in breast milk. This review summarizes current knowledge on methods used for analyzing the B-vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6 and pantothenic acid, vitamin B-12, folate, biotin, and choline in human milk, their chemical and physical properties, the different forms and changes in concentration during lactation, and the effects of deficiency on the infant.

  10. Riboflavin-mediated RDX transformation in the presence of Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 and lepidocrocite.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sungjun; Lee, Yoonhwa; Kwon, Man Jae; Lee, Woojin

    2014-06-15

    The potential of riboflavin for the reductive degradation of a cyclic nitramine, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), was investigated in the presence of lepidocrocite and/or Shewanella putrefaciens CN32. RDX reduction by CN32 alone or CN32 with lepidocrocite was insignificant, while 110 μM RDX was completely reduced by CN32 with riboflavin in 78 h. The transformation products identified included nitroso metabolites, formaldehyde, and ammonium, indicating the ring cleavage of RDX. UV and visible light analysis revealed that riboflavin was microbially reduced by CN32, and that the reduced riboflavin was linked to the complete degradation of RDX. In the presence of both CN32 and lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH), 100 μM-riboflavin increased the rate and extent of Fe(II) production as well as RDX reduction. An abiotic study also showed that Fe(II)-riboflavin complex, and Fe(II) adsorbed on lepidocrocite, reduced RDX by 48% and 21%, respectively. The findings in this study suggest that riboflavin-mediated RDX degradation pathways in subsurface environments are diverse and complex. However, riboflavin, either from bacteria or exogenous sources, can significantly increase RDX degradation. This will provide a sustainable clean-up option for explosive-contaminated subsurface environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite contents as nutritional markers for evaluating vitamin intakes in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2008-06-01

    Little information is available to estimate water-soluble vitamin intakes from urinary vitamins and their metabolite contents as possible nutritional markers. Determination of the relationships between the oral dose and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in human subjects contributes to finding valid nutrition markers of water-soluble vitamin intakes. Six female Japanese college students were given a standard Japanese diet in the first week, the same diet with a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture as a diet with approximately onefold vitamin mixture based on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese in the second week, with a threefold vitamin mixture in the third week, and a sixfold mixture in the fourth week. Water-soluble vitamins and their metabolites were measured in the 24-h urine collected each week. All urinary vitamins and their metabolite levels except vitamin B(12) increased linearly in a dose-dependent manner, and highly correlated with vitamin intake (r=0.959 for vitamin B(1), r=0.927 for vitamin B(2), r=0.965 for vitamin B(6), r=0.957 for niacin, r=0.934 for pantothenic acid, r=0.907 for folic acid, r=0.962 for biotin, and r=0.952 for vitamin C). These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite levels can be used as good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes.

  12. Vitamin profile of cooked foods: how healthy is the practice of ready-to-eat foods?

    PubMed

    Agte, Vaishali; Tarwadi, Kirtan; Mengale, Sangeeta; Hinge, Ashwini; Chiplonkar, Shashi

    2002-05-01

    During recent years importance of B complex vitamins, beta-carotene and vitamin C has been realised in terms of their antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. Fruits and vegetables are the rich sources of these vitamins. However, there are considerable cooking losses of vitamins, and information on vitamin contents of cooked foods is essential for assessing the adequacy of vitamin intakes. Secondly, there is a growing trend to consume ready-to-eat foods such as stuffed pancakes (samosa, patties), pastries, French fries; replacing traditional foods for lunch or dinner like roti, vegetable curry, bread, non-vegetarian items. Ready-to-eat foods are considered to give empty calories rather than a balanced diet. A study was undertaken to estimate ascorbic acid, folic acid, riboflavin, thiamine and beta-carotene of 263 cooked food samples and 260 meals representing dietary patterns of Asia, Africa, Europe, USA and Latin America by spectrophotometry and photoflurometry. A broad range of beta-carotene (84-2038 mcg%), riboflavin (0.01-0.48 mg%), thiamine (0.04-0.36 mg%), vitamin C (1-28 mg%) and folate (26-111 mcg%) was observed in individual foods. Bakery products and sweets were found to be poor sources and green leafy vegetables and fruits were good sources of these five vitamins. The differences between ready-to-eat foods and meals consumed during lunch or dinner were prominent for beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, riboflavin and folic acid (P < 0.05). The cooking losses were 34.6, 30, 52.2, 45.9 and 32.2% in case of ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, beta-carotene and folic acid respectively. Irrespective of whether it is ready-to-eat or a lunch/dinner food item, the contribution of vegetables in the preparations was found to make a marked impact on the vitamin profile. While results justify the concept of a food pyramid, emphasis needs to be given to types of fruits and vegetables rich in vitamins; preferably in their uncooked form, rather than considering their

  13. Semiautomated Method for Microbiological Vitamin Assays

    PubMed Central

    Berg, T. M.; Behagel, H. A.

    1972-01-01

    A semiautomated method for microbiological vitamin assays is described, which includes separate automated systems for the preparation of the cultures and for the measurement of turbidity. In the dilution and dosage unit based on the continuous-flow principle, vitamin samples were diluted to two different dose levels at a rate of 40 per hr, mixed with the inoculated test broth, and dispensed into culture tubes. After incubation, racks with culture tubes were placed on the sampler of an automatic turbidimeter. This unit, based on the discrete-sample system, measured the turbidity and printed the extinction values at a rate of 300 per hr. Calculations were computerized and the results, including statistical data, are presented in an easily readable form. The automated method is in routine use for the assays of thiamine, riboflavine, pyridoxine, cyanocobalamin, calcium pantothenate, nicotinic acid, pantothenol, and folic acid. Identical vitamin solutions assayed on different days gave variation coefficients for the various vitamin assays of less than 10%. Images PMID:4553802

  14. [Contents of water-soluble vitamins in canned fish and seafood].

    PubMed

    Shmakova, S I; Shvidskaia, Z P; Dolbnina, L V

    2000-01-01

    Data of contents of vitamins (B1 and B2, C, PP) in production from gidrobionts is given. Is established, that the process of sterilization of canned food from gidrobionts in to container provides significant (almost twofold) decrease (reduction) of vitamins B1 [symbol: see text] B2, smaller losses of vitamin C (less than 30%) and proves to be true sufficient stability (almost on 85-90%) to action of high temperatures (120 degrees C) of vitamin PP. The canned food from sea gidrobionts represent the certain interest basically as a source of vitamin PP, and canned food "Herring smoked in oil"--vitamin B2. The canned food "Skobljanka from cucumber and fish" can be considered as a source of vitamins B2, C, PP.

  15. Radio Observations of Sgr B2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xin-Jie; Su, Jiang-Tao

    2001-10-01

    The 13CO (J=1-0) map of the molecular cloud Sgr B2 reveals that the mass center of the molecular cloud nucleus does not coincide with that of compact HII regions which are likely to be the outcome of a shock on the cloud. We find evidence of cloud contraction probably resulting from cloud-cloud collision at subsonic speed.

  16. 18 CFR 3b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 3b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL... or the granting of access to a record, by oral, written, electronic or mechanical communication. ...

  17. Vitamin K

    Vitamin K was identified in the early 1930’s when it was shown to be essential for normal blood coagulation. Phylloquinone (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) found in green plants is the major source of the vitamin. Large amounts of menaquinones with lengthy side chains are also synthesized in...

  18. Vitamin K

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk a heart disease in people at high risk for this condition. Dietary intake of vitamin K1 has not been linked ... arthritis medicine alone. Stroke. Population research suggests that dietary intake of vitamin K1 is not linked with a reduced risk of stroke. Bruises. Burns. Scars. Spider veins. Stretch ...

  19. Vitamin A

    Vitamin A is essential during embryonic development and, in the adult, it is necessary for vision, immunity, metabolism, cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Recently, additional functions of vitamin A such as regulation of energy balance, insulin signaling and nervous system acti...

  20. Vitamin K

    A wide range of analytical techniques are available for the detection, quantitation, and evaluation of vitamin K in foods. The methods vary from simple to complex depending on extraction, separation, identification and detection of the analyte. Among the extraction methods applied for vitamin K anal...

  1. [Correction of the combined vitamin deficiency in growing rats fed fiber enriched diets with different doses of vitamins].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Sokol'nikov, A A; Aksenov, I V

    2014-01-01

    The effect of 5% dietary wheat bran (WB) on the correction of combined vitamin deficiency by two doses of vitamins (physiological and enhanced) has been analyzed using a rat model (8 groups, n = 8/group). Vitamin deficiency in male weanling Wistar rats (58.1 ± 0.5 g) was induced by 5-fold reduction of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and complete vitamin E, B1 and B2 exclusion from the mixture for 30 days, then deficit was corrected within 5 days. Rats from control group were fed a complete semisynthetic diet containing microcrystalline cellulose 2%. Vitamin deficient diet for 35 days resulted in reduced (p < 0.05) levels of vitamin A in the liver by 25 fold, vitamin E and B1--2.0-2.3 fold, vitamin B2--by 40%, 25(OH)D blood plasma concentration--by 21% compared with the control. Feed consumption of the animals treated with vitamin deficient diet and WB was higher by 43% than in rats with vitamin deficit. Their rate of weight occupied the intermediate position between the rates of weight in deficit and in control animals, and they could not serve a full control to evaluate the WB impact on vitamin sufficiency. After filling the vitamin diet content to an adequate level vitamin E liver content was fully restored. To restore vitamins B1 and B2 liver level higher doses of vitamins (120-160% of adequate content) were required, and to restore the reduced levels of vitamin A in rat liver even 2-fold increased dose of vitamin A was insufficient. The diet enrichment with WB had no effect on vitamin B1 and B2 liver content, regardless of the amount of vitamins in the diet. Adding fiber to the diet of animals adequately provided with vitamins resulted in significantly 1,3-fold increase of 25(OH)D blood plasma concentration and a slight but significant decrease of α-tocopherol liver level by 16% as compared to rats not receiving WB. The enrichment of rat diet with dietary fibers worsened restoration of the reduced vitamin E status not only by filling vitamin content in the

  2. CARDIO-i2b2: integrating arrhythmogenic disease data in i2b2.

    PubMed

    Segagni, Daniele; Tibollo, Valentina; Dagliati, Arianna; Napolitano, Carlo; G Priori, Silvia; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    The CARDIO-i2b2 project is an initiative to customize the i2b2 bioinformatics tool with the aim to integrate clinical and research data in order to support translational research in cardiology. In this work we describe the implementation and the customization of i2b2 to manage the data of arrhytmogenic disease patients collected at the Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri of Pavia in a joint project with the NYU Langone Medical Center (New York, USA). The i2b2 clinical research chart data warehouse is populated with the data obtained by the research database called TRIAD. The research infrastructure is extended by the development of new plug-ins for the i2b2 web client application able to properly select and export phenotypic data and to perform data analysis.

  3. Impaired riboflavin transport due to missense mutations in SLC52A2 causes Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome.

    PubMed

    Haack, Tobias B; Makowski, Christine; Yao, Yoshiaki; Graf, Elisabeth; Hempel, Maja; Wieland, Thomas; Tauer, Ulrike; Ahting, Uwe; Mayr, Johannes A; Freisinger, Peter; Yoshimatsu, Hiroki; Inui, Ken; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Yonezawa, Atsushi; Prokisch, Holger

    2012-11-01

    Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome (BVVLS [MIM 211530]) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by infancy onset sensorineural deafness and ponto-bulbar palsy. Mutations in SLC52A3 (formerly C20orf54), coding for riboflavin transporter 2 (hRFT2), have been identified as the molecular genetic correlate in several individuals with BVVLS. Exome sequencing of just one single case revealed that compound heterozygosity for two pathogenic mutations in the SLC52A2 gene coding for riboflavin transporter 3 (hRFT3), another member of the riboflavin transporter family, is also associated with BVVLS. Overexpression studies confirmed that the gene products of both mutant alleles have reduced riboflavin transport activities. While mutations in SLC52A3 cause decreased plasma riboflavin levels, concordant with a role of SLC52A3 in riboflavin uptake from food, the SLC52A2-mutant individual had normal plasma riboflavin concentrations, a finding in line with a postulated function of SLC52A2 in riboflavin uptake from blood into target cells. Our results contribute to the understanding of human riboflavin metabolism and underscore its role in the pathogenesis of BVVLS, thereby providing a rational basis for a high-dose riboflavin treatment.

  4. Riboflavin Has Neuroprotective Potential: Focus on Parkinson’s Disease and Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Marashly, Eyad T.; Bohlega, Saeed A.

    2017-01-01

    With the huge negative impact of neurological disorders on patient’s life and society resources, the discovery of neuroprotective agents is critical and cost-effective. Neuroprotective agents can prevent and/or modify the course of neurological disorders. Despite being underestimated, riboflavin offers neuroprotective mechanisms. Significant pathogenesis-related mechanisms are shared by, but not restricted to, Parkinson’s disease (PD) and migraine headache. Those pathogenesis-related mechanisms can be tackled through riboflavin proposed neuroprotective mechanisms. In fact, it has been found that riboflavin ameliorates oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation, and glutamate excitotoxicity; all of which take part in the pathogenesis of PD, migraine headache, and other neurological disorders. In addition, riboflavin-dependent enzymes have essential roles in pyridoxine activation, tryptophan-kynurenine pathway, and homocysteine metabolism. Indeed, pyridoxal phosphate, the active form of pyridoxine, has been found to have independent neuroprotective potential. Also, the produced kynurenines influence glutamate receptors and its consequent excitotoxicity. In addition, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase requires riboflavin to ensure normal folate cycle influencing the methylation cycle and consequently homocysteine levels which have its own negative neurovascular consequences if accumulated. In conclusion, riboflavin is a potential neuroprotective agent affecting a wide range of neurological disorders exemplified by PD, a disorder of neurodegeneration, and migraine headache, a disorder of pain. In this article, we will emphasize the role of riboflavin in neuroprotection elaborating on its proposed neuroprotective mechanisms in opposite to the pathogenesis-related mechanisms involved in two common neurological disorders, PD and migraine headache, as well as, we encourage the clinical evaluation of riboflavin in PD and migraine headache patients

  5. Effect of Ultraviolet Light Irradiation Combined with Riboflavin on Different Bacterial Pathogens from Ocular Surface Infection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jing; Liang, Qingfeng; Su, Guanyu; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Zhiqun; Liang, Hong; Baudouin, Christophe; Labbé, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    In order to study Staphylococcus epidermis and Staphylococcus aureus in vitro viability after the exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light and riboflavin, twelve strains of Staphylococcus epidermis and twelve strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from patients with bacterial keratitis. The growth situation of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus under different experimental conditions was qualitatively observed. The number of colonies surviving bacteria was counted under different UV light power and different exposure time. The experiment showed that there was no inhibition effect on the growth of bacteria using riboflavin alone. In UV alone group and UV-riboflavin group, inhibition effect on the bacteria growth was found. The UV-riboflavin combination had better inhibition effect on bacteria than UV irradiation alone. The amount of bacteria in the UV-riboflavin group was decreased by 99.1%~99.5% and 54.8%~64.6% in the UV alone group, when the UV light power was 10.052 mW/cm 2 and the irradiation time was 30 min. Moreover, with the increase of the UV power or irradiation time, the survival rates of bacteria were rapidly reduced. Compared with Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermis was more easily to be killed under the action of UV light combined with riboflavin.

  6. Increased riboflavin production from activated bleaching earth by a mutant strain of Ashbya gossypii.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Satoshi; Itoh, Yoko; Sugimoto, Takashi; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2009-10-01

    The production of riboflavin from vegetable oil was increased using a mutant strain of Ashbya gossypii. This mutant was generated by treating the wild-type strain with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Riboflavin production was 10-fold higher in the mutant compared to the wild-type strain. The specific intracellular catalase activity after 3 d of culture was 6-fold higher in the mutant than in the wild-type strain. For the mutant, riboflavin production in the presence of 40 mM hydrogen peroxide was 16% less than that in the absence of hydrogen peroxide, whereas it was 56% less for the wild-type strain. The isocitrate lyase (ICL) activity of the mutant was 0.26 mU/mg of protein during the active riboflavin production phase, which was 2.6-fold higher than the wild-type strain. These data indicate that the mutant utilizes the carbon flux from the TCA cycle to the glyoxylate cycle more efficiently than the wild-type strain, resulting in enhanced riboflavin production. This novel mutant has the potential to be of use for industrial-scale riboflavin production from waste-activated bleaching earth (ABE), thereby transforming a useless material into a valuable bioproduct.

  7. Biological variation of vitamins in blood of healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Dinesh K; Azharuddin, Mohammed K; Williamson, Cathy; Teoh, Yee Ping; McMillan, Donald C; St J O'Reilly, Denis

    2005-11-01

    Components of biological variation can be used to define objective quality specifications (imprecision, bias, and total error), to assess the usefulness of reference values [index of individuality (II)], and to evaluate significance of changes in serial results from an individual [reference change value (RCV)]. However, biological variation data on vitamins in blood are limited. The aims of the present study were to determine the intra- and interindividual biological variation of vitamins A, E, B(1), B(2), B(6), C, and K and carotenoids in plasma, whole blood, or erythrocytes from apparently healthy persons and to define quality specifications for vitamin measurements based on their biology. Fasting plasma, whole blood, and erythrocytes were collected from 14 healthy volunteers at regular weekly intervals over 22 weeks. Vitamins were measured by HPLC. From the data generated, the intra- (CV(I)) and interindividual (CV(G)) biological CVs were estimated for each vitamin. Derived quality specifications, II, and RCV were calculated from CV(I) and CV(G). CV(I) was 4.8%-38% and CV(G) was 10%-65% for the vitamins measured. The CV(I)s for vitamins A, E, B(1), and B(2) were lower (4.8%-7.6%) than for the other vitamins in blood. For all vitamins, CV(G) was higher than CV(I), with II <1.0 (range, 0.36-0.95). The RCVs for vitamins were high (15.8%-108%). Apart from vitamins A, B(1), and erythrocyte B(2), the imprecision of our methods for measurement of vitamins in blood was within the desirable goal. For most vitamin measurements in plasma, whole blood, or erythrocytes, the desirable imprecision goals based on biological variation are obtainable by current methodologies. Population reference intervals for vitamins are of limited value in demonstrating deficiency or excess.

  8. Intake of medication and vitamin status in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Elisabeth; Bogner, Michaela; Kickinger, Andrea; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    An inadequate vitamin status is associated with higher morbidity and frailty in the elderly and might be due to medication. This study aimed to evaluate the status of several vitamins in relation to regular intake of medication in this population. A total of 102 non-institutionalized subjects aged 70-90 years were recruited. Plasma levels of vitamins A, D, E, K and C were determined by HPLC. The functional parameters of vitamins B(1), B(2) and B(6), i.e. the activities of the erythrocyte enzymes transketolase, glutathione reductase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase were analyzed photometrically; plasma folate and vitamin B(12) were determined by RIA. The status of vitamins A, E and C was generally satisfactory. Eighty-eight percent and 42% of participants were deficient in vitamins D and K, respectively, as were 29% in B(6); up to 10% were deficient in vitamins B(1), B(2), B(12) and folate. A considerable percentage of participants was, however, at risk for vitamin deficiencies (vitamins B(1), B(6), B(12) and folate: 20-30%; vitamin B(2): 60%). Regular intake of maximally 2 drugs per day was not adversely related to the status of several vitamins; intake of ≥ 3 drugs per day was significantly negatively associated with the status of vitamins D, K, B(6) and folate. Daily intake of ≥ 3 drugs was found to be adversely associated with the status of some vitamins in the elderly. Hence, the medication schedule and nutritional status of these subjects should be monitored closely to ensure that the daily micronutrient requirement is fulfilled. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Scurvy in an alcoholic patient treated with intravenous vitamins

    PubMed Central

    Ong, John; Randhawa, Rabinder

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C deficiency is rare in developed countries but there is an increased prevalence in chronic alcohol abusers. In the UK, it is common practice to treat patients with chronic alcoholism who are admitted to hospital with intravenous vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and C for 2–3 days, followed by oral thiamine and vitamin B-compound tablets. This is a case of a 57-year-old man with a history of chronic alcoholism and chronic obstructive lung disease who was admitted to the intensive care unit for pneumonia requiring ventilatory support. He was given high doses of intravenous vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and C for 3 days then oral thiamine and vitamin B compound tablets but developed scurvy 4 days later. He was restarted on oral vitamin C supplementation and showed signs of improvement within 3 days of treatment. PMID:24728889

  10. B11 NMR in the layered diborides OsB2 and RuB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, B. J.; Zong, X.; Singh, Y.; Niazi, A.; Johnston, D. C.

    2007-10-01

    B11 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements have been performed on B11 enriched OsB2 and RuB2 polycrystalline powder samples in an external field of 4.7T and in the temperature range, 4.2KB2 and RuB2 , respectively. The experimental results indicate that a p character dominates the conduction electron wave function at the B site with a negligibly small s character in both compounds.

  11. Lattice Thermal Conductivity from Atomistic Simulations: ZrB2 and HfB2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, John W.; Daw, Murray S.; Bauschlicher, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    Ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC) including ZrB2 and HfB2 have a number of properties that make them attractive for applications in extreme environments. One such property is their high thermal conductivity. Computational modeling of these materials will facilitate understanding of fundamental mechanisms, elucidate structure-property relationships, and ultimately accelerate the materials design cycle. Progress in computational modeling of UHTCs however has been limited in part due to the absence of suitable interatomic potentials. Recently, we developed Tersoff style parameterizations of such potentials for both ZrB2 and HfB2 appropriate for atomistic simulations. As an application, Green-Kubo molecular dynamics simulations were performed to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity for single crystals of ZrB2 and HfB2. The atomic mass difference in these binary compounds leads to oscillations in the time correlation function of the heat current, in contrast to the more typical monotonic decay seen in monoatomic materials such as Silicon, for example. Results at room temperature and at elevated temperatures will be reported.

  12. Vitamins and cancer prevention: issues and dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Young, V R; Newberne, P M

    1981-03-01

    Vitamins are a class of organic compounds that are components of an adequate diet. They or their derivatives function as coenzymes, cellular antioxidants, and/or regulators of gene expression. Fourteen vitamins are recognized in human nutrition (Vitamins A, D, E, K, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, niacin, folacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline), with deficiencies or excesses in intake leading to changes in protein, nucleic acid, carbohydrates, fat and/or mineral metabolism. Thus, the integrity of physiological systems, including those associated with detoxification, cellular repair, immune processes, and neural and endocrine function, depends upon the nutritional and vitamin status of the host. For these reasons, it may be anticipated that the adequacy of the vitamin supply to cells and tissues would affect the development, progress, and outcome of cancers. In this review, the definition and functions of and requirements and recommended allowance for vitamins are discussed briefly before exploring the evidence, largely from studies in experimental animals, that indicates the nature of the link between vitamins and cancer. Although evidence based on studies in animal systems reveals that vitamin intake and status can modulate the outcome of experimental carcinogenesis, the findings are often conflicting and difficult to interpret. Furthermore, it is not yet possible to develop a suitable prediction of the role of the individual vitamins in tumor development. The significance of these observations for human nutrition and cancer prevention, particularly in reference to ascorbic acid (vitamin C), vitamin E, and B-complex vitamins is considered. Vitamin A and retinoid compounds are discussed elsewhere in the symposium. The many popular misconceptions and unsound advice concerning vitamins and health, including "fake" vitamins-pangamic acid ("vitamin B15") and laetrile ("vitamin B17")-are also discussed. On the basis of current evidence, it would be inappropriate to recommend

  13. Suboptimal Vitamin B Intakes of Zambian Preschool Children: Evaluation of 24-Hour Dietary Recalls.

    PubMed

    Titcomb, Tyler J; Schmaelzle, Samantha T; Nuss, Emily T; Gregory, Jesse F; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2018-06-01

    Hidden hunger affects individuals who chronically consume an inadequate intake of at least 1 micronutrient and is associated with low dietary diversity. Little data are available on dietary intake or status assessment of B vitamins among preschool children in Zambia. The aim of this study was to assess 24-hour dietary recall records obtained from Zambian children aged 3 to 7 years for B vitamin intake in relation to adequacy and change over time in the same community. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected from 2 studies that were 2 years apart in the same district of Zambia. Data were retrospectively analyzed for B vitamin intake, that is, biotin, vitamin B 12 , folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B 6 , riboflavin, and thiamin. The estimated average requirement (EAR) cut point method was used to assess inadequacy prevalence for EARs established by the Institute of Medicine in the United States. For all B vitamins, mean values were below the EARs established for children 4 to 8 years old. Relative to the EAR, children had the highest intakes of vitamin B 6 with inadequacies of 77.9% and 60.1% in 2010 and 2012, respectively. The highest prevalence of inadequate intake was associated with folate, where ≥95% of the children had intakes below the EAR in both studies. All median vitamin B intakes were inadequate among these young children in rural Zambia. Future researchers and policy makers may need to consider B vitamin status in resource-poor areas of the country.

  14. [Nutritional value of daily diets prepared in several regions of the country. Part V. Value of group b vitamins].

    PubMed

    Nadolna, I; Wiśniewska, W; Kunachowicz, H

    1991-01-01

    Studies of the content of group B vitamins: thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin b6 in daily diets of manual and mental workers with medium income were carried on. The diets were prepared for five regions of the country (Warszawa, Lublin, Olsztyn, Poznań, Wrocław) under laboratory conditions. These diets contained respectively: thiamin 1.17 and 1.11 mg, riboflavin 1.48 and 1.55 mg; niacin 11.3 and 10.2 mg and vitamin B6 1.50 and 1.21 mg per day. According to the studies the realization of daily requirements by these diets for thiamin were met 82 and 98%, for niacin 62 and 65%, and for vitamin B6 79 and 64%. The comparison of the presently studied diets with the ones from 1973, 1980 and 1981 showed that the content of niacin and vitamin B6 intakes systematically decrease. There were no considerable differences in the contents of group B vitamins between diets prepared in all five regions of Poland.

  15. Blood vitamin concentrations in privately owned dogs fed non-standardized commercial diets and after intake of diets with specified vitamin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tran, J L; Horvath, C; Krammer, S; Höller, U; Zentek, J

    2007-02-01

    The objective was to investigate in a survey study the blood vitamin concentrations in healthy dogs fed non-specified commercial complete diets and in an intervention study to determine the effects of defined dietary vitamin intakes on blood vitamin levels and hair and skin condition. Sixty-four privately owned dogs, aged from 1 to 8 years, without history of skin or coat problems were included. All animals were fed commercial complete diets with uncertain vitamin concentrations before enrolment. The animals were assigned, according to weight and gender, to four groups with graded vitamin intakes. The blood vitamin levels and skin and coat quality of the dogs were investigated at days 0 and day 122. Coat and hair condition was not influenced by the experimental diets. The retinol concentrations were reduced at the end of the experiment compared with the baseline levels, retinyl esters were not influenced. 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol decreased in all groups, alpha-tocopherol was constant or tended to decrease. Ascorbic acid, thiamine pyrophosphate and riboflavin concentrations were not affected by treatment, flavin adenine dinucleotide and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate were partially reduced on day 122. Cobalamin, pantothenate and biotin concentrations increased with higher dietary intakes, folate levels in tendency. In conclusion, this study gives a survey of blood vitamin concentrations in healthy dogs and provides a data base for the evaluation of the vitamin status in health and disease.

  16. Vitamin status in elderly people in relation to the use of nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Fabian, E; Bogner, M; Kickinger, A; Wagner, K H; Elmadfa, I

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the status of several vitamins and to investigate the effect of regular individual supplementation on their status in this population. An observational study. State of Burgenland, Austria. A total of 102 non-institutionalized subjects (49% supplementing regularly, 51% without supplementation) aged between 70-90 years were recruited. Plasma levels of vitamins A, D, E, K and C were determined by HPLC. The functional parameters of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, i.e. the activities of the erythrocyte enzymes transketolase, glutathione reductase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, were analyzed photometrically; plasma folate and vitamin B12 were determined by RIA. The status of vitamins A, E and C was generally satisfactory. Eighty-eight percent and 42% of participants were deficient in vitamins D and K, respectively, as were 29% for B6; up to 10% of participants were deficient in vitamins B1, B2, B12 and folate. A considerable percentage of participants was, however, at risk for vitamin deficiencies (vitamins B1, B6, B12, folate: 20-30%, vitamin B2: 60%). Except for vitamins A and K, regular intake of supplements had a significant positive influence on vitamin levels. These results indicate that use of supplements significantly improved the status of several vitamins in elderly people. Due to age-related problems concerning the intake and digestion of nutrients, a moderate, regular supplementation might be a useful option for older people who are otherwise unable to satisfy their micronutrient requirements.

  17. Effect of ultraviolet light on water- and fat-soluble vitamins in cow and goat milk.

    PubMed

    Guneser, O; Karagul Yuceer, Y

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of UV light and heat treatment on vitamins A, B(2), C, and E in cow and goat milk. Vitamins were analyzed by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Ultraviolet and pasteurization treatments caused loss in vitamin C in milk. Pasteurization did not have any significant effect on vitamin B(2). However, UV light treatment decreased the amount of vitamin B(2) after several passes of milk through the UV system. In addition, UV light treatment decreased the amount of vitamins A and E. Vitamins C and E are more sensitive to UV light. UV light sensitivities of vitamins were C>E>A>B(2). These results show that UV light treatment decreases the vitamin content in milk. Also, the number of passes through the UV system and the initial amount of vitamins in milk are important factors affecting vitamin levels. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stability of hydrophilic vitamins mixtures in the presence of electrolytes and trace elements for parenteral nutrition: a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation.

    PubMed

    Uccello-Barretta, Gloria; Balzano, Federica; Aiello, Federica; Falugiani, Niccolò; Desideri, Ielizza

    2015-03-25

    In total parenteral nutrition (TPN), especially in the case of preterm infants, simultaneous administration of vitamins and trace elements is still a problematic issue: guidelines put in evidence the lack of specific documentation. In this work NMR spectroscopy was applied to the study of vitamins (pyridoxine hydrochloride, thiamine nitrate, riboflavin-5'-phosphate and nicotinamide) stability in presence of salts and trace elements. Vitamins in D2O were first analyzed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy in absence of salts and trace elements; changes in chemical shifts or in diffusion coefficients, measured by NMR DOSY technique, were analyzed. The effects of salts and trace elements on single vitamins and on their admixtures were then investigated by performing quantitative analyses during 48h. Selected vitamins are subject to intermolecular interactions. No degradative effects were observed in presence of salts and trace elements. Only riboflavin-5'-phosphate is subject to precipitation in presence of divalent cations; however, at low concentration and in presence of other vitamins this effect was not observed. Solutions analyzed, in the condition of this study, are stable for at least 48h and vitamins and trace elements can be administered together in TPN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Probiotic abilities of riboflavin-overproducing Lactobacillus strains: a novel promising application of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Arena, Mattia P; Russo, Pasquale; Capozzi, Vittorio; López, Paloma; Fiocco, Daniela; Spano, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    The probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum strains, capable of overproducing riboflavin, was investigated. The riboflavin production was quantified in co-cultures of lactobacilli and human intestinal epithelial cells, and the riboflavin overproduction ability was confirmed. When milk and yogurt were used as carrier matrices, L. plantarum and L. fermentum strains displayed a significant ability to survive through simulated gastrointestinal transit. Adhesion was studied on both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Both strains adhered strongly on Caco-2 cells, negatively influenced the adhesion of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and strongly inhibited the growth of three reference pathogenic microbial strains. Resistance to major antibiotics and potential hemolytic activity were assayed. Overall, this study reveals that these Lactobacillus stains are endowed with promising probiotic properties and thus are candidates for the development of novel functional food which would be both enriched in riboflavin and induce additional health benefits, including a potential in situ riboflavin production, once the microorganisms colonize the host intestine.

  20. Riboflavin transporter deficiency mimicking mitochondrial myopathy caused by complex II deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nimmo, Graeme A M; Ejaz, Resham; Cordeiro, Dawn; Kannu, Peter; Mercimek-Andrews, Saadet

    2018-02-01

    Biallelic likely pathogenic variants in SLC52A2 and SLC52A3 cause riboflavin transporter deficiency. It is characterized by muscle weakness, ataxia, progressive ponto-bulbar palsy, amyotrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss. Oral riboflavin halts disease progression and may reverse symptoms. We report two new patients whose clinical and biochemical features were mimicking mitochondrial myopathy. Patient 1 is an 8-year-old male with global developmental delay, axial and appendicular hypotonia, ataxia, and sensorineural hearing loss. His muscle biopsy showed complex II deficiency and ragged red fibers consistent with mitochondrial myopathy. Whole exome sequencing revealed a homozygous likely pathogenic variant in SLC52A2 (c.917G>A; p.Gly306Glu). Patient 2 is a 14-month-old boy with global developmental delay, respiratory insufficiency requiring ventilator support within the first year of life. His muscle biopsy revealed combined complex II + III deficiency and ragged red fibers consistent with mitochondrial myopathy. Whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous likely pathogenic variant in SCL52A3 (c.1223G>A; p.Gly408Asp). We report two new patients with riboflavin transporter deficiency, caused by mutations in two different riboflavin transporter genes. Both patients presented with complex II deficiency. This treatable neurometabolic disorder can mimic mitochondrial myopathy. In patients with complex II deficiency, riboflavin transporter deficiency should be included in the differential diagnosis to allow early treatment and improve neurodevelopmental outcome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Vitamin B1 Deficiency Does not Affect the Liver Concentrations of the Other Seven Kinds of B-Group Vitamins in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Katsumi; Shimizu, Atsushi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of vitamin B1 deficiency on vitamin contents of urine, liver, and blood. In the current study, rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 5, each group): the first was freely fed a complete diet (ad lib-fed control group); the second freely fed a vitamin B1-free diet (vitamin B1 deficient group); and the third pair-fed a complete diet with the same amounts of the vitamin B1 deficient group (pair-fed control group). The experimental period was for 15 days. The blood concentrations of vitamin B2, PLP, vitamin B12, folic acid, and biotin were lower in the pair-fed control than in the ad lib-fed control and those of nicotinamide and pantothenic acid were the same. We conclude that Vitamin B1 deficiency did not affect concentrations of the other B-group vitamins. PMID:23935367

  2. Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... body that produces vitamin D. As many of us spend more and more time on computers and game consoles, we're not outdoors as much as we once were. And, when we do spend time in the sun, more of us are making the wise decision to use sunscreen ...

  3. Systematic genome assessment of B-vitamin biosynthesis suggests co-operation among gut microbes

    PubMed Central

    Magnúsdóttir, Stefanía; Ravcheev, Dmitry; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Thiele, Ines

    2015-01-01

    The human gut microbiota supplies its host with essential nutrients, including B-vitamins. Using the PubSEED platform, we systematically assessed the genomes of 256 common human gut bacteria for the presence of biosynthesis pathways for eight B-vitamins: biotin, cobalamin, folate, niacin, pantothenate, pyridoxine, riboflavin, and thiamin. On the basis of the presence and absence of genome annotations, we predicted that each of the eight vitamins was produced by 40–65% of the 256 human gut microbes. The distribution of synthesis pathways was diverse; some genomes had all eight biosynthesis pathways, whereas others contained no de novo synthesis pathways. We compared our predictions to experimental data from 16 organisms and found 88% of our predictions to be in agreement with published data. In addition, we identified several pairs of organisms whose vitamin synthesis pathway pattern complemented those of other organisms. This analysis suggests that human gut bacteria actively exchange B-vitamins among each other, thereby enabling the survival of organisms that do not synthesize any of these essential cofactors. This result indicates the co-evolution of the gut microbes in the human gut environment. Our work presents the first comprehensive assessment of the B-vitamin synthesis capabilities of the human gut microbiota. We propose that in addition to diet, the gut microbiota is an important source of B-vitamins, and that changes in the gut microbiota composition can severely affect our dietary B-vitamin requirements. PMID:25941533

  4. Vitamin Concentrations in Human Milk Vary with Time within Feed, Circadian Rhythm, and Single-Dose Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Islam, M Munirul; Peerson, Janet M; Allen, Lindsay H

    2017-04-01

    Background: Human milk is the subject of many studies, but procedures for representative sample collection have not been established. Our improved methods for milk micronutrient analysis now enable systematic study of factors that affect its concentrations. Objective: We evaluated the effects of sample collection protocols, variations in circadian rhythms, subject variability, and acute maternal micronutrient supplementation on milk vitamin concentrations. Methods: In the BMQ (Breast-Milk-Quality) study, we recruited 18 healthy women (aged 18-26 y) in Dhaka, Bangladesh, at 2-4 mo of lactation for a 3-d supplementation study. On day 1, no supplements were given; on days 2 and 3, participants consumed ∼1 time and 2 times, respectively, the US-Canadian Recommended Dietary Allowances for vitamins at breakfast (0800-0859). Milk was collected during every feeding from the same breast over 24 h. Milk expressed in the first 2 min (aliquot I) was collected separately from the remainder (aliquot II); a third aliquot (aliquot III) was saved by combining aliquots I and II. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamins B-6, B-12, A, and E and fat were measured in each sample. Results: Significant but small differences (14-18%) between aliquots were found for all vitamins except for vitamins B-6 and B-12. Circadian variance was significant except for fat-adjusted vitamins A and E, with a higher contribution to total variance with supplementation. Between-subject variability accounted for most of the total variance. Afternoon and evening samples best reflected daily vitamin concentrations for all study days. Acute supplementation effects were found for thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamins B-6 and A at 2-4 h postdosing, with 0.1-6.17% passing into milk. Supplementation was reflected in fasting, 24-h postdose samples for riboflavin and vitamin B-6. Maximum amounts of dose-responding vitamins in 1 feeding ranged from 4.7% to 21.8% (day 2) and 8.2% to 35.0% (day 3) of Adequate Intake

  5. Vitamin Concentrations in Human Milk Vary with Time within Feed, Circadian Rhythm, and Single-Dose Supplementation1234

    PubMed Central

    Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Peerson, Janet M; Allen, Lindsay H

    2017-01-01

    Background: Human milk is the subject of many studies, but procedures for representative sample collection have not been established. Our improved methods for milk micronutrient analysis now enable systematic study of factors that affect its concentrations. Objective: We evaluated the effects of sample collection protocols, variations in circadian rhythms, subject variability, and acute maternal micronutrient supplementation on milk vitamin concentrations. Methods: In the BMQ (Breast-Milk-Quality) study, we recruited 18 healthy women (aged 18–26 y) in Dhaka, Bangladesh, at 2–4 mo of lactation for a 3-d supplementation study. On day 1, no supplements were given; on days 2 and 3, participants consumed ∼1 time and 2 times, respectively, the US-Canadian Recommended Dietary Allowances for vitamins at breakfast (0800–0859). Milk was collected during every feeding from the same breast over 24 h. Milk expressed in the first 2 min (aliquot I) was collected separately from the remainder (aliquot II); a third aliquot (aliquot III) was saved by combining aliquots I and II. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamins B-6, B-12, A, and E and fat were measured in each sample. Results: Significant but small differences (14–18%) between aliquots were found for all vitamins except for vitamins B-6 and B-12. Circadian variance was significant except for fat-adjusted vitamins A and E, with a higher contribution to total variance with supplementation. Between-subject variability accounted for most of the total variance. Afternoon and evening samples best reflected daily vitamin concentrations for all study days. Acute supplementation effects were found for thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamins B-6 and A at 2–4 h postdosing, with 0.1–6.17% passing into milk. Supplementation was reflected in fasting, 24-h postdose samples for riboflavin and vitamin B-6. Maximum amounts of dose-responding vitamins in 1 feeding ranged from 4.7% to 21.8% (day 2) and 8.2% to 35.0% (day 3) of Adequate

  6. Impact of Pre-Pregnancy BMI on B Vitamin and Inflammatory Status in Early Pregnancy: An Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Ulvik, Arve; Nilsen, Roy M.; Midttun, Øivind; Roth, Christine; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Vollset, Stein Emil; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Ueland, Per Magne

    2016-01-01

    Maternal nutrition and inflammation have been suggested as mediators in the development of various adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity. We have investigated the relation between pre-pregnancy BMI, B vitamin status, and inflammatory markers in a group of healthy pregnant women. Cobalamin, folate, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, and riboflavin; and the metabolic markers homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio (HK/XA); and markers of cellular inflammation, neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR) were determined in pregnancy week 18 and related to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), in 2797 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely related to folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), and riboflavin (p < 0.001), and associated with increased neopterin and KTR levels (p < 0.001). Inflammation seemed to be an independent predictor of low vitamin B6 status, as verified by low PLP and high HK/XA ratio. A high pre-pregnancy BMI is a risk factor for low B vitamin status and increased cellular inflammation. As an optimal micronutrient status is vital for normal fetal development, the observed lower B vitamin levels may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity and B vitamin status should be assessed in women with high BMI before they get pregnant. PMID:27916904

  7. On the nature of solvatochromic effect: The riboflavin absorption spectrum as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daidone, Isabella; Amadei, Andrea; Aschi, Massimiliano; Zanetti-Polzi, Laura

    2018-03-01

    We present here the calculation of the absorption spectrum of riboflavin in acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfoxide using a hybrid quantum/classical approach, namely the perturbed matrix method, based on quantum mechanical calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated spectra are compared to the absorption spectrum of riboflavin previously calculated in water and to the experimental spectra obtained in all three solvents. The experimentally observed variations in the absorption spectra upon change of the solvent environment are well reproduced by the calculated spectra. In addition, the nature of the excited states of riboflavin interacting with different solvents is investigated, showing that environment effects determine a recombination of the gas-phase electronic states and that such a recombination is strongly affected by the polarity of the solvent inducing significant changes in the absorption spectra.

  8. Remarkable motor recovery after riboflavin therapy in adult-onset Brown—Vialetto—Van Laere syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bashford, James A; Chowdhury, Fahmida A; Shaw, Chris E

    2017-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis of Brown—Vialetto—Van Laere syndrome in this woman with rapidly progressive pontobulbar palsy led to empirical high-dose oral riboflavin (1200 mg/day) therapy. This resulted in a dramatic improvement in her motor function from being anarthric, dysphagic, tetraparetic and in ventilatory failure to living independently with mild dysarthria and distal limb weakness. DNA sequencing of the SLC52A3 gene found compound heterozygous C-terminus mutations, V413A1/D461Y, consistent with recent reports of mutations within the riboflavin transporter genes (SLC52A2 and SLC52A3) in this condition. Early diagnosis and empirical riboflavin therapy can lead to major motor recovery in this condition, that can be sustained with long-term maintenance therapy. PMID:27777325

  9. Biofunctionalized Zinc Oxide Field Effect Transistors for Selective Sensing of Riboflavin with Current Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Joshua A.; Kim, Sang N.; Bayraktaroglu, Burhan; Leedy, Kevin; Chávez, Jorge L.; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R.; Stone, Morley O.

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide field effect transistors (ZnO-FET), covalently functionalized with single stranded DNA aptamers, provide a highly selective platform for label-free small molecule sensing. The nanostructured surface morphology of ZnO provides high sensitivity and room temperature deposition allows for a wide array of substrate types. Herein we demonstrate the selective detection of riboflavin down to the pM level in aqueous solution using the negative electrical current response of the ZnO-FET by covalently attaching a riboflavin binding aptamer to the surface. The response of the biofunctionalized ZnO-FET was tuned by attaching a redox tag (ferrocene) to the 3′ terminus of the aptamer, resulting in positive current modulation upon exposure to riboflavin down to pM levels. PMID:22163977

  10. B-2 Extremely High Frequency SATCOM and Computer Increment 1 (B-2 EHF Inc 1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    2012 FEB 2012 FEB 2012 FEB 2012 Final DIOT&E flight JUL 2012 JUL 2012 JUL 2012 JUL 2012 RAA MAR 2015 MAR 2015 MAR 2016 MAR 2015 Change Explanations...None Memo RAA is defined as eight assigned aircraft modified, sufficient aircrews and maintenance personnel trained, sufficient aircrew and...incremental upgrade. Acronyms and Abbreviations DIOT&E - Dedicated Initial Operational Test and Evaluation RAA - Required Assets Available B-2 EHF Inc 1

  11. Photochemical eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by blue light activation of riboflavin.

    PubMed

    Makdoumi, Karim; Goodrich, Ray; Bäckman, Anders

    2017-08-01

    To compare elimination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by exposure of blue light alone and with riboflavin. A reference strain of MRSA was cultured and diluted in PBS with and without riboflavin (0.01%). Fifteen microlitre was added on a microscope slide, creating a fluid layer with a thickness of around 400 microns. Both of the bacterial suspensions were exposed to blue light, and the effect between exposure with and without riboflavin was compared. Evaluation involved two different wavelengths (412 and 450 nm) of blue light with a lower (5.4 J/cm 2 ) and higher dose (approximately 28.5 J/cm 2 ). The effect of 412 nm light was also evaluated for a thicker fluid layer (1.17 mm). After exposure, colony-forming units (CFUs) were determined for each solution. All measurements were repeated eight times. The reductions in bacteria were similar for both wavelengths. With riboflavin, a statistically significant elimination was observed for both 412 and 450 nm (p < 0.001). At both dosages, the mean reduction was more pronounced with the presence of riboflavin than without it. Using the higher dose, CFU reduction was 99% and 98%, respectively, for 412 and 450 nm light. The bactericidal efficacy was high also in the deeper fluid layer (93%, higher dose). Riboflavin enhanced the antibacterial effect on the exposed MRSA strain of blue light for both 412 and 450 nm blue light. This indicates that blue light could be considered for possible implementation in deep corneal infections. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Treatable childhood neuronopathy caused by mutations in riboflavin transporter RFVT2

    PubMed Central

    Foley, A. Reghan; Menezes, Manoj P.; Pandraud, Amelie; Gonzalez, Michael A.; Al-Odaib, Ahmad; Abrams, Alexander J.; Sugano, Kumiko; Yonezawa, Atsushi; Manzur, Adnan Y.; Burns, Joshua; Hughes, Imelda; McCullagh, B. Gary; Jungbluth, Heinz; Lim, Ming J.; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Megarbane, Andre; Urtizberea, J. Andoni; Shah, Ayaz H.; Antony, Jayne; Webster, Richard; Broomfield, Alexander; Ng, Joanne; Mathew, Ann A.; O’Byrne, James J.; Forman, Eva; Scoto, Mariacristina; Prasad, Manish; O’Brien, Katherine; Olpin, Simon; Oppenheim, Marcus; Hargreaves, Iain; Land, John M.; Wang, Min X.; Carpenter, Kevin; Horvath, Rita; Straub, Volker; Lek, Monkol; Gold, Wendy; Farrell, Michael O.; Brandner, Sebastian; Phadke, Rahul; Matsubara, Kazuo; McGarvey, Michael L.; Scherer, Steven S.; Baxter, Peter S.; King, Mary D.; Clayton, Peter; Rahman, Shamima; Reilly, Mary M.; Ouvrier, Robert A.; Christodoulou, John; Züchner, Stephan; Muntoni, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Childhood onset motor neuron diseases or neuronopathies are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders. A particularly severe subgroup first described in 1894, and subsequently called Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, is characterized by progressive pontobulbar palsy, sensorineural hearing loss and respiratory insufficiency. There has been no treatment for this progressive neurodegenerative disorder, which leads to respiratory failure and usually death during childhood. We recently reported the identification of SLC52A2, encoding riboflavin transporter RFVT2, as a new causative gene for Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome. We used both exome and Sanger sequencing to identify SLC52A2 mutations in patients presenting with cranial neuropathies and sensorimotor neuropathy with or without respiratory insufficiency. We undertook clinical, neurophysiological and biochemical characterization of patients with mutations in SLC52A2, functionally analysed the most prevalent mutations and initiated a regimen of high-dose oral riboflavin. We identified 18 patients from 13 families with compound heterozygous or homozygous mutations in SLC52A2. Affected individuals share a core phenotype of rapidly progressive axonal sensorimotor neuropathy (manifesting with sensory ataxia, severe weakness of the upper limbs and axial muscles with distinctly preserved strength of the lower limbs), hearing loss, optic atrophy and respiratory insufficiency. We demonstrate that SLC52A2 mutations cause reduced riboflavin uptake and reduced riboflavin transporter protein expression, and we report the response to high-dose oral riboflavin therapy in patients with SLC52A2 mutations, including significant and sustained clinical and biochemical improvements in two patients and preliminary clinical response data in 13 patients with associated biochemical improvements in 10 patients. The clinical and biochemical responses of this SLC52A2-specific cohort suggest that riboflavin supplementation can

  13. Treatable childhood neuronopathy caused by mutations in riboflavin transporter RFVT2.

    PubMed

    Foley, A Reghan; Menezes, Manoj P; Pandraud, Amelie; Gonzalez, Michael A; Al-Odaib, Ahmad; Abrams, Alexander J; Sugano, Kumiko; Yonezawa, Atsushi; Manzur, Adnan Y; Burns, Joshua; Hughes, Imelda; McCullagh, B Gary; Jungbluth, Heinz; Lim, Ming J; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Megarbane, Andre; Urtizberea, J Andoni; Shah, Ayaz H; Antony, Jayne; Webster, Richard; Broomfield, Alexander; Ng, Joanne; Mathew, Ann A; O'Byrne, James J; Forman, Eva; Scoto, Mariacristina; Prasad, Manish; O'Brien, Katherine; Olpin, Simon; Oppenheim, Marcus; Hargreaves, Iain; Land, John M; Wang, Min X; Carpenter, Kevin; Horvath, Rita; Straub, Volker; Lek, Monkol; Gold, Wendy; Farrell, Michael O; Brandner, Sebastian; Phadke, Rahul; Matsubara, Kazuo; McGarvey, Michael L; Scherer, Steven S; Baxter, Peter S; King, Mary D; Clayton, Peter; Rahman, Shamima; Reilly, Mary M; Ouvrier, Robert A; Christodoulou, John; Züchner, Stephan; Muntoni, Francesco; Houlden, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Childhood onset motor neuron diseases or neuronopathies are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders. A particularly severe subgroup first described in 1894, and subsequently called Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, is characterized by progressive pontobulbar palsy, sensorineural hearing loss and respiratory insufficiency. There has been no treatment for this progressive neurodegenerative disorder, which leads to respiratory failure and usually death during childhood. We recently reported the identification of SLC52A2, encoding riboflavin transporter RFVT2, as a new causative gene for Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome. We used both exome and Sanger sequencing to identify SLC52A2 mutations in patients presenting with cranial neuropathies and sensorimotor neuropathy with or without respiratory insufficiency. We undertook clinical, neurophysiological and biochemical characterization of patients with mutations in SLC52A2, functionally analysed the most prevalent mutations and initiated a regimen of high-dose oral riboflavin. We identified 18 patients from 13 families with compound heterozygous or homozygous mutations in SLC52A2. Affected individuals share a core phenotype of rapidly progressive axonal sensorimotor neuropathy (manifesting with sensory ataxia, severe weakness of the upper limbs and axial muscles with distinctly preserved strength of the lower limbs), hearing loss, optic atrophy and respiratory insufficiency. We demonstrate that SLC52A2 mutations cause reduced riboflavin uptake and reduced riboflavin transporter protein expression, and we report the response to high-dose oral riboflavin therapy in patients with SLC52A2 mutations, including significant and sustained clinical and biochemical improvements in two patients and preliminary clinical response data in 13 patients with associated biochemical improvements in 10 patients. The clinical and biochemical responses of this SLC52A2-specific cohort suggest that riboflavin supplementation can

  14. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  15. Electronic Commerce in Tourism in China: B2B or B2C?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongxiu; Suomi, Reima

    E-commerce has significantly changed the distribution channels of travel products in the world including China. Online channels are growing important in travel service distribution. In China tourism industry has been developed rapidly with the economic development, more and more international travel service providers are trying to expand their Chinese market through the Internet. This paper sheds lights on the e-commerce development models in China for international travel service providers. It explores the current e-tourism in China from the three different participants in the value chain in tourism industry - consumer, travel agent and travel service provider. The paper also identifies the barriers in B2C arena in international outbound travel market, and discusses the possible approaches for international travel service providers to develop their e-commerce in the huge Chinese market. The results in this study reveal that international travel service providers should focus on B2B model to expand their electronic market in China. B2C development in tourism largely depends on the change of Chinese customers' behavior and the change of international tourism regulations. The findings of the study are expected to assist international travel service providers to understand current e-tourism in China and to support their planning for future e-commerce development in China.

  16. [Optimization of riboflavin sodium phosphate loading to calcium alginate floating microspheres by response surface methodology].

    PubMed

    Zhang, An-yang; Fan, Tian-yuan

    2009-12-18

    To investigate the preparation, optimization and in vitro properties of riboflavin sodium phosphate floating microspheres. The floating microspheres composed of riboflavin sodium phosphate and calcium alginate were prepared using ion gelatin-oven drying method. The properties of the microspheres were investigated, including the buoyancy, release, appearance and entrapment efficiency. The formulation was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized microspheres were round. The entrapment efficiency was 57.49%. All the microspheres could float on the artificial gastric juice over 8 hours. The release of the drug from the microspheres complied with Fick's diffusion.

  17. 8 CFR 343b.2 - Number of applications required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Number of applications required. 343b.2 Section 343b.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.2 Number of applications required. A...

  18. 8 CFR 343b.2 - Number of applications required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Number of applications required. 343b.2 Section 343b.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.2 Number of applications required. A...

  19. Vitamin C and colds

    MedlinePlus

    Colds and vitamin C ... is that vitamin C can cure the common cold . However, research about this claim is conflicting. Although ... vitamin C may help reduce how long a cold lasts. They do not protect against getting a ...

  20. B-2 Extremely High Frequency SATCOM and Computer Increment 1 (B-2 EHF Inc 1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Confidence Level Confidence Level of cost estimate for current APB: 55% This APB reflects cost and funding data based on the B-2 EHF Increment I SCP...This cost estimate was quantified at the Mean (~55%) confidence level . Total Quantity Quantity SAR Baseline Production Estimate Current APB...Production Estimate Econ Qty Sch Eng Est Oth Spt Total 33.624 -0.350 1.381 0.375 0.000 -6.075 0.000 -0.620 -5.289 28.335 Current SAR Baseline to Current

  1. Effects of B group vitamins on reactions of various alpha-hydroxyl-containing organic radicals.

    PubMed

    Lagutin, P Yu; Shadyro, O I

    2005-08-15

    Effects of vitamins B1, B2, B6, and pyridoxal phosphate (PPh) on final product formation in radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ethanol, ethylene glycol, alpha-methylglycoside, and maltose were studied. It has been found that vitamin B2 and PPh effectively oxidize R*CHOH species, while suppressing their recombination and fragmentation reactions, thereby increasing the yields of the respective oxidation products. Vitamins B1 and B2 are capable of reducing alcohol radicals to the respective initial molecules, decreasing the yields of the radical transformation products.

  2. Comparison of Riboflavin and Toluidine Blue O as Photosensitizers for Photoactivated Disinfection on Endodontic and Periodontal Pathogens In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Henrik Krarup; Garcia, Javier; Væth, Michael; Schlafer, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Photoactivated disinfection has a strong local antimicrobial effect. In the field of dentistry it is an emerging adjunct to mechanical debridement during endodontic and periodontal treatment. In the present study, we investigate the effect of photoactivated disinfection using riboflavin as a photosensitizer and blue LED light for activation, and compare it to photoactivated disinfection with the widely used combination of toluidine blue O and red light. Riboflavin is highly biocompatible and can be activated with LED lamps at hand in the dental office. To date, no reports are available on the antimicrobial effect of photoactivated disinfection using riboflavin/blue light on oral microorganisms. Planktonic cultures of eight organisms frequently isolated from periodontal and/or endodontic lesions (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherischia coli, Lactobacillus paracasei, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Propionibacterium acnes) were subjected to photoactivated disinfection with riboflavin/blue light and toluidine blue O/red light, and survival rates were determined by CFU counts. Within the limited irradiation time of one minute, photoactivated disinfection with riboflavin/blue light only resulted in minor reductions in CFU counts, whereas full kills were achieved for all organisms when using toluidine blue O/red light. The black pigmented anaerobes P. gingivalis and P. intermedia were eradicated completely by riboflavin/blue light, but also by blue light treatment alone, suggesting that endogenous chromophores acted as photosensitizers in these bacteria. On the basis of our results, riboflavin cannot be recommended as a photosensitizer used for photoactivated disinfection of periodontal or endodontic infections.

  3. ETFDH mutations as a major cause of riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Rikke K J; Olpin, Simon E; Andresen, Brage S; Miedzybrodzka, Zofia H; Pourfarzam, Morteza; Merinero, Begoña; Frerman, Frank E; Beresford, Michael W; Dean, John C S; Cornelius, Nanna; Andersen, Oluf; Oldfors, Anders; Holme, Elisabeth; Gregersen, Niels; Turnbull, Douglass M; Morris, Andrew A M

    2007-08-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD) is a disorder of fatty acid, amino acid and choline metabolism that can result from defects in two flavoproteins, electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or ETF: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF:QO). Some patients respond to pharmacological doses of riboflavin. It is unknown whether these patients have defects in the flavoproteins themselves or defects in the formation of the cofactor, FAD, from riboflavin. We report 15 patients from 11 pedigrees. All the index cases presented with encephalopathy or muscle weakness or a combination of these symptoms; several had previously suffered cyclical vomiting. Urine organic acid and plasma acyl-carnitine profiles indicated MADD. Clinical and biochemical parameters were either totally or partly corrected after riboflavin treatment. All patients had mutations in the gene for ETF:QO. In one patient, we show that the ETF:QO mutations are associated with a riboflavin-sensitive impairment of ETF:QO activity. This patient also had partial deficiencies of flavin-dependent acyl-CoA dehydrogenases and respiratory chain complexes, most of which were restored to control levels after riboflavin treatment. Low activities of mitochondrial flavoproteins or respiratory chain complexes have been reported previously in two of our patients with ETF:QO mutations. We postulate that riboflavin-responsive MADD may result from defects of ETF:QO combined with general mitochondrial dysfunction. This is the largest collection of riboflavin-responsive MADD patients ever reported, and the first demonstration of the molecular genetic basis for the disorder.

  4. Single-laboratory validation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic-diode array detector-fluorescence detector/mass spectrometric method for simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins in multivitamin dietary tablets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei; Atkinson, Renata; Wolf, Wayne R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a single-laboratory validated (SLV) method using high-performance liquid chromatography with different detectors [diode array detector (DAD); fluorescence detector (FLD); and mass spectrometry (MS)] for determination of 7 B-complex vitamins (B1-thiamin, B2-riboflavin, B3-nicotinamide, B6-pyridoxine, B9-folic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin) and vitamin C in multivitamin/multimineral dietary supplements. The method involves the use of a reversed-phase octadecylsilyl column (4 microm, 250 x 2.0 mm id) and a gradient mobile phase profile. Gradient elution was performed at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. After a 5 min isocratic elution at 100% A (0.1% formic acid in water), a linear gradient to 50% A and 50% B (0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile) at 15 min was employed. Detection was performed with a DAD as well as either an FLD or a triple-quadrupole MS detector in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. SLV was performed using Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3280 Multivitamin/Multimineral Tablets, being developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, with support by the Office of Dietary Supplements of the National Institutes of Health. Phosphate buffer (10 mM, pH 2.0) extracts of the NIST SRM 3280 were analyzed by the liquid chromatographic (LC)-DAD-FLDIMS method. Following extraction, the method does not require any sample cleanup/preconcentration steps except centrifugation and filtration.

  5. Single-Laboratory Validation of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic-Diode Array Detector-Fluorescence Detector/Mass Spectrometric Method for Simultaneous Determination of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Multivitamin Dietary Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pei; Atkinson, Renata; Wolf, Wayne R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a single-laboratory validated (SLV) method using high-performance liquid chromatography with different detectors [diode array detector (DAD); fluorescence detector (FLD); and mass spectrometry (MS)] for determination of 7 B-complex vitamins (B1-thiamin, B2-riboflavin, B3-nicotinamide, B6-pyridoxine, B9-folic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin) and vitamin C in multivitamin/multimineral dietary supplements. The method involves the use of a reversed-phase octadecylsilyl column (4 µm, 250 × 2.0 mm id) and a gradient mobile phase profile. Gradient elution was performed at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. After a 5 min isocratic elution at 100% A (0.1% formic acid in water), a linear gradient to 50% A and 50% B (0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile) at 15 min was employed. Detection was performed with a DAD as well as either an FLD or a triple-quadrupole MS detector in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. SLV was performed using Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3280 Multivitamin/Multimineral Tablets, being developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, with support by the Office of Dietary Supplements of the National Institutes of Health. Phosphate buffer (10 mM, pH 2.0) extracts of the NIST SRM 3280 were analyzed by the liquid chromatographic (LC)-DAD-FLD/MS method. Following extraction, the method does not require any sample cleanup/preconcentration steps except centrifugation and filtration. PMID:19485230

  6. Microwave high performance liquid chromatography with UV-visible detection. Application to vitamins determination.

    PubMed

    Terol, Amanda; Maestre, Salvador E; Prats, Soledad; Todolí, José L

    2012-05-07

    The present work describes the first attempt to use microwave reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (MW-HPLC) to carry out the separation of organic compounds. Biotin and riboflavin were selected for the characterization of the new separation technique. Additional vitamins (nicotinamide, pyridoxine and thiamine) were used as reference compounds. In order to perform the separation, a chromatographic column was placed inside a domestic microwave oven in a hanging position. The column particular location was an extremely critical point, since it precluded the actual power absorbed by the sample. In order to avoid magnetron damage, a heat well (i.e., water vessels) was used. Vitamins were detected using a UV-VIS detector. Results obtained showed that the application of microwave radiation, even at low power levels, gave rise to a significant modification in the characteristics of the chromatograms. It was found that retention times for biotin and riboflavin shortened as the power increased. Furthermore, the peak shape also changed, with the modification being more significant for the former vitamin than for the latter one. Furthermore, sensitivity also increased as the column was exposed to the action of microwave. Comparatively speaking, MW-HPLC was more efficient in terms of compound separation than when performed at room temperature or thermostatted at 45 °C HPLC. This was likely due to the combined action of a moderate and quick heating of the mobile phase with an increase in the analytes diffusivity caused by the radiation.

  7. Assessment of Rose Bengal vs. Riboflavin Photodynamic Therapy for Inhibition of Fungal Keratitis Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Arboleda, Alejandro; Miller, Darlene; Cabot, Florence; Taneja, Mukesh; Aguilar, Mariela C.; Alawa, Karam; Amescua, Guillermo; Yoo, Sonia H.; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the in vitro effect of rose bengal and riboflavin as photosensitizing agents for photodynamic therapy (PDT) on fungal isolates that are common causes of fungal keratitis Design Experimental study Methods Three isolates (Fusarium solani, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans) recovered from patients with confirmed fungal keratitis were used in the experiments. Isolates were grown on Sabouraud-Dextrose agar, swabbed and prepared in suspension, and one milliliter aliquots were inoculated onto test plates in triplicate. Test plates were separated into 5 groups: Group 1 - no treatment, Group 2 - 0.1% rose bengal alone, Group 3 - 518 nm irradiation alone, Group 4 - riboflavin PDT (riboflavin + 375 nm irradiation), and Group 5 - rose bengal PDT (rose bengal + 518 nm irradiation). Irradiation was performed over a circular area using either a green LED array (peak wavelength: 518 nm) or a UV-A LED array (peak wavelength: 375 nm). Test plates were irradiated with an energy density of 5.4 J/cm2. Later, plates were placed in a 30° C incubator and observed for growth. Results Rose bengal-mediated PDT successfully inhibited the growth of all three fungal isolates in the irradiated area. All other groups exhibited unrestricted growth throughout the plate. Conclusions Rose bengal-mediated PDT successfully inhibited the growth of three types of fungi. No other experimental groups, including riboflavin-mediated PDT, had any inhibitory effect on the isolates. The results might be useful for the treatment of patients suffering from corneal infection. PMID:24792103

  8. Studies on the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young bobwhite quail

    Serafin, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young Bobwhite quail. Quail fed purified diets deficient in either riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid or choline grew poorly and high mortality occurred by 5 weeks of age. Under the conditions of these experiments, it was found that: (1) young quail require approximately 3.8 mg. riboflavin/kg. diet for satisfactory growth and survival; (2) no more than 31 mg. niacin/kg. diet are required for normal growth and survival of young quail; (3) the requirement for pantothenic acid is higher than has previously been reported, quail in these studies requiring 12.6 mg. pantothenic acid/kg. feed for growth and survival; and (4) the requirement for choline for reducing mortality is approximately 1000 mg./kg., while the amount necessary for normal growth of young quail is no greater than 1500 mg./kg. when the diet contains ample amounts of methionine. Quail fed a niacin-deficient diet developed stiff, shortened feathers and an erythema about the head; those receiving a riboflavin-deficient ration developed enlarged hocks and bowed legs, as did quail fed diets low or devoid of choline. Aside from slow growth, poor feathering was the only other indication that a deficient diet was being fed when quail were placed on a basal ration without pantothenic acid for five weeks.

  9. Effect of photoactivated riboflavin on the biodegradation-resistance of root-dentin collagen.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshini, Balasankar Meera; Lu, Thong Beng; Fawzy, Amr S

    2017-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of UVA-activated 1% riboflavin solution on structural integrity; mechanical properties and stability; and collagenase-mediated collagen solubilisation resistance of demineralized root dentin collagen matrix. Root dentin specimens demineralized with 17% EDTA for 7days were treated with 1% RF for 1min followed by UVA photo-activation at intensity 7mW/cm 2 for 1min. Control specimens were completely devoid of riboflavin and/or UVA treatments. Specimens were challenged with bacterial collagenase type-I solution for different time-periods at 37°C. Collagen solubilisation resistance was evaluated in terms of hydroxyproline (HYP) liberation. Mechanical characterization of dentin specimens before and after 24h of exposure to collagenase solution was done in terms of apparent-elastic modulus (E appr ) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Variations in dentin collagen-network structure with exposure time in collagenase were visualized by TEM. Crosslinking dentin with UVA-activated riboflavin significantly decreased HYP release and increased E appr and UTS compared to control specimens with storage time in collagenase. Moreover, crosslinked specimens showed higher structural resistance to collagenase effect reflected from dense, well-formed collagen fibrils-network with characteristic collagen cross-banding. UVA-activated riboflavin treatment increased collagenase-mediated collagen degradation resistance and enhanced mechanical stability against collagenase challenges of root dentin after EDTA demineralization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of B-complex vitamins in pharmaceutical formulations by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Junior, Benedito Roberto Alvarenga; Soares, Frederico Luis Felipe; Ardila, Jorge Armando; Durango, Luis Guillermo Cuadrado; Forim, Moacir Rossi; Carneiro, Renato Lajarim

    2018-01-05

    The aim of this work was to quantify B-complex vitamins in pharmaceutical samples by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy technique using gold colloid substrate. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles was performed according to an adapted Turkevich method. Initial essays were able to suggest the orientation of molecules on gold nanoparticles surface. Central Composite design was performed to obtain the highest SERS signal for nicotinamide and riboflavin. The evaluated parameters in the experimental design were volume of AuNPs, concentration of vitamins and sodium chloride concentration. The best condition for nicotinamide was NaCl 2.3×10 -3 molL -1 and 700μL of AuNPs colloid and this same condition showed to be adequate to quantify thiamine. The experimental design for riboflavin shows the best condition at NaCl 1.15×10 -2 molL -1 and 2.8mL of AuNPs colloid. It was possible to quantify thiamine and nicotinamide in presence of others vitamins and excipients in two solid multivitamin formulations using the standard addition procedure. The standard addition curve presented a R 2 higher than 0.96 for both nicotinamide and thiamine, at orders of magnitude 10 -7 and 10 -8 molL -1 , respectively. The nicotinamide content in a cosmetic gel sample was also quantified by direct analysis presenting R 2 0.98. The t-student test presented no significant difference regarding HPLC method. Despite the experimental design performed for riboflavin, it was not possible its quantification in the commercial samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of B-complex vitamins in pharmaceutical formulations by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junior, Benedito Roberto Alvarenga; Soares, Frederico Luis Felipe; Ardila, Jorge Armando; Durango, Luis Guillermo Cuadrado; Forim, Moacir Rossi; Carneiro, Renato Lajarim

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify B-complex vitamins in pharmaceutical samples by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy technique using gold colloid substrate. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles was performed according to an adapted Turkevich method. Initial essays were able to suggest the orientation of molecules on gold nanoparticles surface. Central Composite design was performed to obtain the highest SERS signal for nicotinamide and riboflavin. The evaluated parameters in the experimental design were volume of AuNPs, concentration of vitamins and sodium chloride concentration. The best condition for nicotinamide was NaCl 2.3 × 10- 3 mol L- 1 and 700 μL of AuNPs colloid and this same condition showed to be adequate to quantify thiamine. The experimental design for riboflavin shows the best condition at NaCl 1.15 × 10- 2 mol L- 1 and 2.8 mL of AuNPs colloid. It was possible to quantify thiamine and nicotinamide in presence of others vitamins and excipients in two solid multivitamin formulations using the standard addition procedure. The standard addition curve presented a R2 higher than 0.96 for both nicotinamide and thiamine, at orders of magnitude 10- 7 and 10- 8 mol L- 1, respectively. The nicotinamide content in a cosmetic gel sample was also quantified by direct analysis presenting R2 0.98. The t-student test presented no significant difference regarding HPLC method. Despite the experimental design performed for riboflavin, it was not possible its quantification in the commercial samples.

  12. [Effect of wheat bran fiber on vitamin status of weaning rats with alimentary polyhypovitaminosis].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Sokol'nikov, A A; Aksenov, I V; Baturina, V A

    2014-01-01

    Effect of wheat bran on the vitamin status of rats adequately provided with vitamins or insufficiently supplied with vitamins has been investigated. 32 male Wistar weaning rats (initial body mass--49-67g) were randomly divided into 4 groups and fed with complete semi-synthetic diet, containing 100 or 20% of vitamin mixture with or without addition of wheat bran (5% of diet mass) for 35 days. The animals of the control group received 100% of vitamin mixture without adding of wheat bran; 2 group--received those diet with wheat bran; 3 deficient group--20% of vitamin mixture with full exclusion of vitamins E, B1 and B2; 4 group--20% of vitamin mixture and wheat bran. The inclusion of wheat bran in full semi-synthetic diet has been accompanied by significant decrease of alpha-tocopherol liver content on 17% (p = 0.006), significant increase of vitamin B1 liver level on the 16% (p = 0.027) and blood plasma vitamin D elevation on 19% (p = 0.017), as well as a tendency (p = 0.059) to increase the liver level of vitamin B2. Indicators of vitamin A status as well as plasma vitamin E concentration, liver and blood plasma MDA levels were not changed in this group rats. The 5-fold reduction of the vitamin mixture quota and the exclusion of vitamins E, B1 and B2 resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) 1.6-1.8 fold decreased in animal body weight and liver mass and the manifestation of the deep external signs of vitamin deficiency. Young animals were more sensitive than adult animals to a lack of vitamins in the diet. Vitamin A (retinol palmitate) liver content in rats from this group was 25.1-fold reduced, vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)--2.1-fold, vitamins B1 and B2--by 57 and 38% compared with animals received a complete control diet (p < 0.05). Blood plasma concentration of vitamins A, E, D was 19-34% decreased. Adding of bran in vitamin deficit diet led to increased consumption of vitamin B--on 40%, vitamins B2 and E--21%, both due to their natural content in the bran, and as a

  13. Similarities of Water-soluble Vitamin Components among Non-prescription Pharmaceutical Vitamin Products Generally Available on the Domestic Market.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keiichiro; Kojina, Moeko; Aiba, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Similarities among non-prescription pharmaceutical vitamin products generally available in community pharmacies were examined based on their vitamin components, and a chart was constructed to differentiate products to assist in appropriate product choice. In the analysis of the similarities, two hundred and seventy-six data entries on vitamin products were extracted from the database on the package inserts of the pharmaceutical products provided by the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, and they were reviewed for the amounts of vitamins they contained, in which the B vitamins, or vitamin B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , B 12 , and niacin, were considered as well as vitamins C and E. Pantothenic acid and L-Cysteine that are frequently used in combination with those vitamins are also taken into consideration. The data entries were then processed by classical multi-dimensional scaling to evaluate the inter-product similarities. As a result, it was shown that the products categorized as pharmaceutical nutrients and tonics containing vitamins (NTcV) are similar to one another, reflecting the fact that they are less characteristic regarding their vitamin components. As for the products in other categories, they were generally found to be featured for their unique content of vitamin components, and thereby, each category includes products with a wide range of variation. It was also indicated that some products categorized as vitamin B 1 , B 2 , and C products are less distinguishable from those categorized as NTcV. These findings will assist pharmacists to decide on an appropriate product for a customer following consultation.

  14. Exome sequencing reveals riboflavin transporter mutations as a cause of motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Janel O; Gibbs, J Raphael; Megarbane, Andre; Urtizberea, J Andoni; Hernandez, Dena G; Foley, A Reghan; Arepalli, Sampath; Pandraud, Amelie; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Clayton, Peter; Reilly, Mary M; Muntoni, Francesco; Abramzon, Yevgeniya; Houlden, Henry; Singleton, Andrew B

    2012-09-01

    Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome was first described in 1894 as a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive sensorineural deafness in combination with childhood amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Mutations in the gene, SLC52A3 (formerly C20orf54), one of three known riboflavin transporter genes, have recently been shown to underlie a number of severe cases of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome; however, cases and families with this disease exist that do not appear to be caused by SLC52A3 mutations. We used a combination of linkage and exome sequencing to identify the disease causing mutation in an extended Lebanese Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere kindred, whose affected members were negative for SLC52A3 mutations. We identified a novel mutation in a second member of the riboflavin transporter gene family (gene symbol: SLC52A2) as the cause of disease in this family. The same mutation was identified in one additional subject, from 44 screened. Within this group of 44 patients, we also identified two additional cases with SLC52A3 mutations, but none with mutations in the remaining member of this gene family, SLC52A1. We believe this strongly supports the notion that defective riboflavin transport plays an important role in Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome. Initial work has indicated that patients with SLC52A3 defects respond to riboflavin treatment clinically and biochemically. Clearly, this makes an excellent candidate therapy for the SLC52A2 mutation-positive patients identified here. Initial riboflavin treatment of one of these patients shows promising results.

  15. Exome sequencing reveals riboflavin transporter mutations as a cause of motor neuron disease

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Janel O.; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Megarbane, Andre; Urtizberea, J. Andoni; Hernandez, Dena G.; Foley, A. Reghan; Arepalli, Sampath; Pandraud, Amelie; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Clayton, Peter; Reilly, Mary M.; Muntoni, Francesco; Abramzon, Yevgeniya; Houlden, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Brown–Vialetto–Van Laere syndrome was first described in 1894 as a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive sensorineural deafness in combination with childhood amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Mutations in the gene, SLC52A3 (formerly C20orf54), one of three known riboflavin transporter genes, have recently been shown to underlie a number of severe cases of Brown–Vialetto–Van Laere syndrome; however, cases and families with this disease exist that do not appear to be caused by SLC52A3 mutations. We used a combination of linkage and exome sequencing to identify the disease causing mutation in an extended Lebanese Brown–Vialetto–Van Laere kindred, whose affected members were negative for SLC52A3 mutations. We identified a novel mutation in a second member of the riboflavin transporter gene family (gene symbol: SLC52A2) as the cause of disease in this family. The same mutation was identified in one additional subject, from 44 screened. Within this group of 44 patients, we also identified two additional cases with SLC52A3 mutations, but none with mutations in the remaining member of this gene family, SLC52A1. We believe this strongly supports the notion that defective riboflavin transport plays an important role in Brown–Vialetto–Van Laere syndrome. Initial work has indicated that patients with SLC52A3 defects respond to riboflavin treatment clinically and biochemically. Clearly, this makes an excellent candidate therapy for the SLC52A2 mutation-positive patients identified here. Initial riboflavin treatment of one of these patients shows promising results. PMID:22740598

  16. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey -- the OTAP2009 study. III. Vitamin intake of the Hungarian population].

    PubMed

    Lugasi, Andrea; Bakacs, Márta; Zentai, Andrea; Kovács, Viktória Anna; Martos, Eva

    2012-07-15

    For the healthy status the adequate intake of vitamins is essential. The Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey - joining to the European Health Interview Survey - studied the dietary habits of the Hungarian population. This work presents the vitamins intake. The intake of all water soluble vitamins, vitamin E and D were significantly higher in men than in women. Favourable phenomena were the increased β-carotene and vitamin C intakes in men and women compared to the earlier data. Intakes of vitamin C, B1-, B2-, B6- and B12, and niacin meet the recommendations. Crucially low intakes of vitamin D and folate were calculated in both genders, particularly in the elders, mainly in case of vitamin D. Imperfect intakes of panthotenic acid and biotin were also observed. For maintaining the adequate vitamin supply and for prevention of vitamin deficiency, diversified nutrition, information of the population on the basic principles of healthy nutrition and availability of healthy food are essential.

  17. B2B Models for DoD Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-15

    unlimited. Prepared for: Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California 93943 B2B Models for DoD Acquisition 15 January 2008 by Magdi N...TYPE AND DATES COVERED 1 Oct 2006 through 30 Sept 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE B2B Models for DoD Acquisition 5. FUNDING 6. AUTHOR (S...public release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words.) A central vision of B2B e-commerce is that

  18. Vitamin supplementation of HIV-infected women improves postnatal child growth.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Saathoff, Elmar; Bosch, Ronald J; Hertzmark, Ellen; Baylin, Ana; Manji, Karim; Msamanga, Gernard; Hunter, David J; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2005-04-01

    Linear growth retardation and wasting are common in children born to HIV-infected women. Inexpensive interventions that could improve the postnatal growth pattern of such children are needed. The objective was to examine the effect of supplementing HIV-infected women with multivitamins or vitamin A and beta-carotene, during and after pregnancy, on the growth of their children during the first 2 y of life. We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled trial in 886 mother-infant pairs in Tanzania. At the first prenatal visit, HIV-infected women were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 daily oral regimens in a 2 x 2 factorial fashion: multivitamins (MV: thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, niacin, vitamin B-12, vitamin C, vitamin E, and folic acid), preformed vitamin A + beta-carotene (VA/BC), MV including VA/BC, or placebo. Supplementation continued during the first 2 y postpartum and thereafter. Children were weighed and measured monthly, and all received vitamin A supplements after 6 mo of age per the standard of care. Multivitamins had a significant positive effect on attained weight (459 g; 95% CI: 35, 882; P = 0.03) and on weight-for-age (0.42; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.77; P = 0.02) and weight-for-length (0.38; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.68; P = 0.01) z scores at 24 mo. VA/BC seemed to reduce the benefits of MV on these outcomes. No significant effects were observed on length, midupper arm circumference, or head circumference. Supplementation of HIV-infected women with multivitamins (vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E) during pregnancy and lactation is an effective intervention for improving ponderal growth in children.

  19. Unusual behaviour of (Np,Pu)B2C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimczuk, Tomasz; Boulet, Pascal; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Colineau, Eric; Bauer, Ernst; Falmbigl, Matthias; Rogl, Peter; Wastin, Franck

    2015-02-01

    Two transuranium metal boron carbides, NpB2C and PuB2C have been synthesized by argon arc melting. The crystal structures of the {Np,Pu}B2C compounds were determined from single-crystal X-ray data to be isotypic with the ThB2C-type (space group ?, a = 0.6532(2) nm; c = 1.0769(3) nm for NpB2C and a = 0.6509(2) nm; c = 1.0818(3) nm for PuB2C; Z = 9). Physical properties have been derived from polycrystalline bulk material in the temperature range from 2 to 300 K and in magnetic fields up to 9 T. Magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity data indicate the occurrence of antiferromagnetic ordering for NpB2C with a Neel temperature TN = 68 K. PuB2C is a Pauli paramagnet most likely due to a strong hybridization of s(p,d) electrons with the Pu-5f states. A pseudo-gap, as concluded from the Sommerfeld value and the electronic transport, is thought to be a consequence of the hybridization. The magnetic behaviour of {Np,Pu}B2C is consistent with the criterion of Hill.

  20. [Effectiveness of use in preventive nutrition the food ptoducts with contents of pectin and vitamins].

    PubMed

    Spiricheva, T V; Spirichev, V B; Kodentsova, V M; Beketova, N A; Pereverzeva, O G; Kosheleva, O V; Vrzhesinskaia, L A; Kharitonchik, L A; Shatniuk, L N; Mikheeva, G A; Iudin, A V; Ivanova, G S

    2011-01-01

    Daily inclusion in the diet of Pskov GRES workers the drinks or kissels containing 2 g pectin per daily serving (cup) during 6 months was accompanied by a statistically significant decline of their supply with vitamins C, B2, A and beta-carotene. This is reflected both in reducing the average vitamin concentration in blood serum and in the increase of the quota of people with deficiency of several vitamins. Additional inclusion of 13 vitamins in these drinks and kissels, in a dose about 80% of the RDA, has prevented the deterioration of vitamin status.

  1. The physical and chemical structure of Sagittarius B2. II. Continuum millimeter emission of Sgr B2(M) and Sgr B2(N) with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Schilke, P.; Schmiedeke, A.; Ginsburg, A.; Cesaroni, R.; Lis, D. C.; Qin, S.-L.; Müller, H. S. P.; Bergin, E.; Comito, C.; Möller, Th.

    2017-07-01

    Context. The two hot molecular cores Sgr B2(M) and Sgr B2(N), which are located at the center of the giant molecular cloud complex Sagittarius B2, have been the targets of numerous spectral line surveys, revealing a rich and complex chemistry. Aims: We seek to characterize the physical and chemical structure of the two high-mass star-forming sites Sgr B2(M) and Sgr B2(N) using high-angular resolution observations at millimeter wavelengths, reaching spatial scales of about 4000 au. Methods: We used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to perform an unbiased spectral line survey of both regions in the ALMA band 6 with a frequency coverage from 211 GHz to 275 GHz. The achieved angular resolution is 0.̋4, which probes spatial scales of about 4000 au, I.e., able to resolve different cores and fragments. In order to determine the continuum emission in these line-rich sources, we used a new statistical method, STATCONT, which has been applied successfully to this and other ALMA datasets and to synthetic observations. Results: We detect 27 continuum sources in Sgr B2(M) and 20 sources in Sgr B2(N). We study the continuum emission variation across the ALMA band 6 (I.e., spectral index) and compare the ALMA 1.3 mm continuum emission with previous SMA 345 GHz and VLA 40 GHz observations to study the nature of the sources detected. The brightest sources are dominated by (partially optically thick) dust emission, while there is an important degree of contamination from ionized gas free-free emission in weaker sources. While the total mass in Sgr B2(M) is distributed in many fragments, most of the mass in Sgr B2(N) arises from a single object, with filamentary-like structures converging toward the center. There seems to be a lack of low-mass dense cores in both regions. We determine H2 volume densities for the cores of about 107-109 cm-3 (or 105-107 M⊙ pc-3), I.e., one to two orders of magnitude higher than the stellar densities of super star clusters. We

  2. Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate deficiency is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia regardless of antioxidant, thiamine, riboflavin, cobalamine, and folate status in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Molina-López, Jorge; Florea, Daniela; Quintero-Osso, Bartolomé; de la Cruz, Antonio Pérez; Rodríguez-Elvira, Manuel; Del Pozo, Elena Planells

    2016-06-01

    Critically ill patients develop severe stress, inflammation and a clinical state that may raise the utilization and metabolic replacement of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate decreasing their body reserves. This study was designed to assess the nutritional pyridoxal-5'-phosphate status in critical care patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, comparing them with a group of healthy people, and studying it's association with factors involved in the pyridoxine and other B vitamins metabolism, as the total antioxidant capacity and Hcy as cardiovascular risk biomarker. Prospective, multicentre, comparative, observational and analytic study. One hundred and three critically ill patients from different hospitals, and eighty four healthy subjects from Granada, Spain, all with informed consent. Data from daily nutritional assessment, ICU severity scores, clinical and nutritional parameters, antioxidant status and homocysteine levels was taken at admission and at the seventh day of the ICU stay. Thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine and folate status proved deficient in a large number of patients, being significantly lower in comparison with control group, and significantly decreased at 7th day of ICU stay. Higher homocysteine was observed in patients compared with control group (p < 0.05) where 31.5 and 26.8 percent of subjects presented hyperhomocysteinemia at initial and final of study, respectively. Antioxidant status was lower than control group in two periods analysed, and decreased at 7th day of ICU stay (p < 0.05) being associated with PLP deficiency. PLP deficiency was also correlated with hyperhomocysteinemia at two times measured (r. -0.73, p < 0.001; r. -0.69, p < 0.001, respectively), showing at day 7 an odds ratio of 6.62 in our multivariate model. Critically ill patients with SIRS show deficient B vitamin and low antioxidant statuses. Despite association found between PLP deficiency and low antioxidant status in critically ill patients, PLP deficiency

  3. Integrated whole-genome and transcriptome sequence analysis reveals the genetic characteristics of a riboflavin-overproducing Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanglu; Shi, Ting; Chen, Tao; Wang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Yongcheng; Liu, Dingyu; Guo, Jiaxin; Fu, Jing; Feng, Lili; Wang, Zhiwen; Zhao, Xueming

    2018-06-02

    Commercial riboflavin production with Bacillus subtilis has been developed by combining rational and classical strain development for almost two decades, but how an improved riboflavin producer can be created rationally is still not completely understood. In this study, we demonstrate the combined use of integrated genomic and transcriptomic analysis of the genetic basis for riboflavin over-production in B. subtilis. This methodology succeeded in discerning the positive mutations in the mutagenesis derived riboflavin producer B. subtilis 24/pMX45 through whole-genome sequencing and transcriptome sequencing. These included RibC (G199D), ribD + (G+39A), PurA (P242L), CcpN(A44S), YvrH (R222Q) and two nonsense mutations YhcF (R90*) and YwaA (Q68*). Reintroducing these specific mutations into the wild-type strain recovered the riboflavin overproduction phenotype and subsequent metabolic engineering greatly improved riboflavin production, achieving an up to 3.4-fold increase of the riboflavin titer over the sequenced producer. A novel mutation, YvrH (R222Q), involved in a typical two-component regulatory system deregulated the purine de novo synthesis pathway and increased the pool of intracellular purine metabolites, which in turn increased riboflavin production. Taken together, we present a case study of combining genome and transcriptome analysis to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of a complex cellular property, which enabled the transfer of beneficial mutations to engineer a reference strain into an overproducer. Copyright © 2018 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. HEPATIC VITAMIN A IN THE RAT AS AFFECTED BY THE ADMINISTRATION OF DIBENZANTHRACENE

    PubMed Central

    Abels, Jules C.; Gorham, Alice T.; Eberlin, Shirley L.; Halter, Robert; Rhoads, C. P.

    1942-01-01

    1. The decreased concentrations of vitamin A in the livers of rats given dibenzanthracene probably are due to a particular effect of the carcinogen on the ability of the liver to store the vitamin and not to the production of general hepatic dysfunction. 2. The administration of dibenzanthracene to normal rats does not (a) increase significantly their hepatic content of total fat nor decrease that of phospholipid; (b) impair the ability of their livers to fabricate serum albumin; (c) impair the capacity of their livers to esterify cholesterol or phenol; (d) interfere with the hepatic synthesis and conjugation of glucuronic acid; or (e) interfere with the hepatic storage of riboflavin. 3. The simultaneous ingestion of yeast by the dibenzanthracene-treated rats further depletes their hepatic stores of vitamin A. This depletion conceivably is due to the fact that yeast alone also might deplete the liver of its vitamin A and thus a summation of two similar effects is attained. 4. The results suggest a competition between vitamin A and dibenzanthracene for some substance, possibly a protein, to which vitamin A may be bound in the liver. PMID:19871225

  5. One-carbon metabolite ratios as functional B-vitamin markers and in relation to colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Gylling, Björn; Myte, Robin; Ulvik, Arve; Ueland, Per M; Midttun, Øivind; Schneede, Jörn; Hallmans, Göran; Häggström, Jenny; Johansson, Ingegerd; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Palmqvist, Richard

    2018-05-22

    One-carbon metabolism biomarkers are easily measured in plasma, but analyzing them one at a time in relation to disease does not take into account the interdependence of the many factors involved. The relative dynamics of major one-carbon metabolism branches can be assessed by relating the functional B-vitamin marker total homocysteine (tHcy) to transsulfuration (total cysteine) and methylation (creatinine) outputs. We validated the ratios of tHcy to total cysteine (Hcy:Cys), tHcy to creatinine (Hcy:Cre), and tHcy to cysteine to creatinine (Hcy:Cys:Cre) as functional markers of B-vitamin status. We also calculated the associations of these ratios to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Furthermore, the relative contribution of potential confounders to the variance of the ratio-based B-vitamin markers was calculated by linear regression in a nested case-control study of 613 CRC cases and 1190 matched controls. Total B-vitamin status was represented by a summary score comprising Z-standardized plasma concentrations of folate, cobalamin, betaine, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, and riboflavin. Associations with CRC risk were estimated using conditional logistic regression. We found that the ratio-based B-vitamin markers all outperformed tHcy as markers of total B-vitamin status, in both CRC cases and controls. Additionally, associations with CRC risk were similar for the ratio-based B-vitamin markers and total B-vitamin status (approximately 25% lower risk for high versus low B-vitamin status). In conclusion, ratio-based B-vitamin markers were good predictors of total B-vitamin status and displayed similar associations as total B-vitamin status with CRC risk. Since tHcy and creatinine are routinely clinically analyzed, Hcy:Cre could be easily implemented in clinical practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 UICC.

  6. Mixomics analysis of Bacillus subtilis: effect of oxygen availability on riboflavin production.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junlang; Lei, Pan; Mohsin, Ali; Liu, Xiaoyun; Huang, Mingzhi; Li, Liang; Hu, Jianhua; Hang, Haifeng; Zhuang, Yingping; Guo, Meijin

    2017-09-12

    Riboflavin, an intermediate of primary metabolism, is one kind of important food additive with high economic value. The microbial cell factory Bacillus subtilis has already been proven to possess significant importance for the food industry and have become one of the most widely used riboflavin-producing strains. In the practical fermentation processes, a sharp decrease in riboflavin production is encountered along with a decrease in the dissolved oxygen (DO) tension. Influence of this oxygen availability on riboflavin biosynthesis through carbon central metabolic pathways in B. subtilis is unknown so far. Therefore the unveiled effective metabolic pathways were still an unaccomplished task till present research work. In this paper, the microscopic regulation mechanisms of B. subtilis grown under different dissolved oxygen tensions were studied by integrating 13 C metabolic flux analysis, metabolomics and transcriptomics. It was revealed that the glucose metabolic flux through pentose phosphate (PP) pathway was lower as being confirmed by smaller pool sizes of metabolites in PP pathway and lower expression amount of ykgB at transcriptional level. The latter encodes 6-phosphogluconolactonase (6-PGL) under low DO tension. In response to low DO tension in broth, the glucose metabolic flux through Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway was higher and the gene, alsS, encoding for acetolactate synthase was significantly activated that may result due to lower ATP concentration and higher NADH/NAD + ratio. Moreover, ResE, a membrane-anchored protein that is capable of oxygen regulated phosphorylase activity, and ResD, a regulatory protein that can be phosphorylated and dephosphorylated by ResE, were considered as DO tension sensor and transcriptional regulator respectively. This study shows that integration of transcriptomics, 13 C metabolic flux analysis and metabolomics analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of biosynthesized riboflavin's regulatory mechanisms in

  7. Plexin-B2 promotes invasive growth of malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Pingle, Sandeep C.; Kesari, Santosh; Wang, Huaien; Yong, Raymund L.; Zou, Hongyan; Friedel, Roland H.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive growth is a major determinant of the high lethality of malignant gliomas. Plexin-B2, an axon guidance receptor important for mediating neural progenitor cell migration during development, is upregulated in gliomas, but its function therein remains poorly understood. Combining bioinformatic analyses, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry of patient samples, we demonstrate that Plexin-B2 is consistently upregulated in all types of human gliomas and that its expression levels correlate with glioma grade and poor survival. Activation of Plexin-B2 by Sema4C ligand in glioblastoma cells induced actin-based cytoskeletal dynamics and invasive migration in vitro. This proinvasive effect was associated with activation of the cell motility mediators RhoA and Rac1. Furthermore, costimulation of Plexin-B2 and the receptor tyrosine kinase Met led to synergistic Met phosphorylation. In intracranial glioblastoma transplants, Plexin-B2 knockdown hindered invasive growth and perivascular spreading, and resulted in decreased tumor vascularity. Our results demonstrate that Plexin-B2 promotes glioma invasion and vascularization, and they identify Plexin-B2 as a potential novel prognostic marker for glioma malignancy. Targeting the Plexin-B2 pathway may represent a novel therapeutic approach to curtail invasive growth of glioblastoma. PMID:25762646

  8. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-2 - Closer connection exception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (e) of this section, the individual has a closer connection during the current year to a single... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Closer connection exception. 301.7701(b)-2...) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-2 Closer connection...

  9. 26 CFR 53.4942(b)-2 - Alternative tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternative tests. 53.4942(b)-2 Section 53.4942....4942(b)-2 Alternative tests. (a) Assets test—(1) In general. A private foundation will satisfy the assets test under the provisions of this paragraph if substantially more than half of the foundation's...

  10. Antiretroviral therapy provided to HIV-infected Malawian women in a randomized trial diminishes the positive effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements on breast-milk B vitamins.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lindsay H; Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; York, Emily R; Adair, Linda S; Flax, Valerie L; Tegha, Gerald; Chasela, Charles S; Kamwendo, Debbie; Jamieson, Denise J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-12-01

    Little information is available on B vitamin concentrations in human milk or on how they are affected by maternal B vitamin deficiencies, antiretroviral therapy, or maternal supplementation. The objective was to evaluate the effects of antiretroviral therapy and/or lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) on B vitamin concentrations in breast milk from HIV-infected women in Malawi. Breast milk was collected from 537 women recruited within the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study at 2 or 6 wk and 24 wk postpartum. Women were assigned to receive antiretrovirals and LNSs, antiretrovirals only, LNSs only, or a control. Antiretrovirals and LNSs were given to the mothers from weeks 0 to 28. The antiretrovirals were zidovudine/lamivudine and nelfinavir or lopinavir/ritonavir. LNSs provided 93-118% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, and vitamin B-12. Infants were exclusively breastfed. LNSs increased milk concentrations of all vitamins except thiamin, whereas antiretrovirals lowered concentrations of nicotinamide, pyridoxal, and vitamin B-12. Although antiretrovirals alone had no significant effect on riboflavin concentrations, they negatively affected the LNS-induced increase in this vitamin. Thiamin was not influenced by the study interventions. Concentrations of all B vitamins were much lower than usually accepted values. All B vitamins were low in milk, and all but thiamin were increased by maternal supplementation with LNSs. Antiretrovirals alone decreased concentrations of some B vitamins in milk. When LNS was given in addition to antiretrovirals, the negative effect of antiretrovirals offset the positive effect of LNSs for all vitamins except thiamin. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00164762. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Vasopressor meets vasodepressor: The AT1-B2 receptor heterodimer.

    PubMed

    Quitterer, Ursula; AbdAlla, Said

    2014-04-01

    The AT1 receptor for the vasopressor angiotensin II is one of the most important drug targets for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Sensitization of the AT1 receptor system is a common feature contributing to the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular disorders but underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. More than a decade ago, evidence was provided for control of AT1R activation by heterodimerization with the B2 receptor for the vasodepressor peptide, bradykinin, a physiological counterpart of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. AT1-B2 receptor heterodimerization was shown to enhance AT1R-stimulated signaling under pathophysiological conditions such as experimental and human pregnancy hypertension. Notably, AT1R signal sensitization of patients with preeclampsia hypertension was attributed to AT1R-B2R heterodimerization. Vice versa, transgenic mice lacking the AT1-B2 receptor heterodimer due to targeted deletion of the B2R gene showed a significantly reduced AT1R-stimulated vasopressor response compared to transgenic mice with abundant AT1R-B2R heterodimerization. Biophysical methods such as BRET and FRET confirmed those data by demonstrating efficient AT1-B2 receptor heterodimerization in transfected cells and transgenic mice. Recently, a study on AT1R-specific biased agonism directed the focus to the AT1-B2 receptor heterodimer again. The β-arrestin-biased [Sar1,Ile4,Ile8]-angiotensin II promoted not only the recruitment of β-arrestin to the AT1R but also stimulated the down-regulation of the AT1R-associated B2 receptor by co-internalization. Thereby specific targeting of the AT1R-B2R heterodimer became feasible and could open the way to a new class of drugs, which specifically interfere with pathological angiotensin II-AT1 receptor system activation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High-concentrate diets based on forages harvested at different maturity stages affect ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castagnino, D S; Kammes, K L; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2017-04-01

    Effects of plant maturity on apparent ruminal synthesis and post-ruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in two feeding trials. Diets containing alfalfa (Trial 1) or orchardgrass (Trial 2) silages harvested either (1) early cut, less mature (EC) or (2) late cut, more mature (LC) as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. In Trial 1, conducted with 16 cows (569±43 kg of empty BW (ruminal content removed) and 43.7±8.6 kg/day of 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield; mean±SD) in two 17-day treatment periods, both diets provided ~22% forage NDF and 27% total NDF, and the forage-to-concentrate ratios were 53 : 47 and 42 : 58 for EC and LC, respectively. In Trial 2, conducted with 13 cows (588±55 kg of empty BW and 43.7±7.7 kg/day of 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield; mean±SD) in two 18-day treatment periods, both diets provided ~25% forage NDF and 31% total NDF; the forage-to-concentrate ratios were 58 : 42 and 46 : 54 for EC and LC, respectively. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates and vitamin B12 were measured in feed and duodenal content. Apparent ruminal synthesis was calculated as the duodenal flow minus the intake. Diets based on EC alfalfa decreased the amounts of thiamin, niacin and folates reaching the duodenum, whereas diets based on EC orchardgrass increased riboflavin duodenal flow. Daily apparent ruminal synthesis of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin B6 were correlated negatively with their intake, suggesting a microbial regulation of their concentration in the rumen. Vitamin B12 apparent ruminal synthesis was correlated negatively with total volatile fatty acids concentration, but positively with ruminal pH and microbial N duodenal flow.

  13. Riboflavin transporter 3 involvement in infantile Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere disease: two novel mutations.

    PubMed

    Ciccolella, Marianna; Corti, Stefania; Catteruccia, Michela; Petrini, Stefania; Tozzi, Giulia; Rizza, Teresa; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Nizzardo, Monica; Bordoni, Andreina; Ronchi, Dario; D'Amico, Adele; Rizzo, Cristiano; Comi, Giacomo Pietro; Bertini, Enrico

    2013-02-01

    Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere (BVVL) syndrome is a rare disorder characterised by progressive pontobulbar palsy and sensorineural deafness. Causative mutations in genes encoding human riboflavin transporter 2 (hRFT2) and 3 (hRFT3) have been identified in BVVL patients. We report the clinical and molecular features of a severe BVVL patient in whom screening of SLC52A3/hRFT2 was negative. Sequence analysis identified two novel compound heterozygous mutations in SLC52A2/hRFT3, namely c.155C>T and c.1255G>A, leading to the amino acid changes p.S52F and p.G419S, respectively. Functional studies show that these defects impair the gene expression of the corresponding transporter, resulting in a significant reduction of riboflavin transport. These findings support the pathogenetic role of SLC52A2/hRFT3 in BVVL with important clinical and therapeutic implications.

  14. [Leigh syndrome and leukodystrophy due to partial succinate dehydrogenase deficiency: regression with riboflavin].

    PubMed

    Pinard, J M; Marsac, C; Barkaoui, E; Desguerre, I; Birch-Machin, M; Reinert, P; Ponsot, G

    1999-04-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) deficiency is rare. Clinical manifestations can appear in infancy with a marked impairment of psychomotor development with pyramidal signs and extrapyramidal rigidity. A 10-month-old boy developed severe neurological features, evoking a Leigh syndrome; magnetic resonance imaging showed features of leukodystrophy. A deficiency in the complex II respiratory chain (succinate dehydrogenase [SDH]) was shown. The course was remarkable by the regression of neurological impairment under treatment by riboflavin. The delay of psychomotor development, mainly involving language, was moderate at the age of 5 years. The relatively good prognosis of this patient, despite severe initial neurological impairment, may be due to the partial enzyme deficiency and/or riboflavin administration.

  15. Riboflavin Depletion Promotes Tumorigenesis in HEK293T and NIH3T3 Cells by Sustaining Cell Proliferation and Regulating Cell Cycle-Related Gene Transcription.

    PubMed

    Long, Lin; He, Jian-Zhong; Chen, Ye; Xu, Xiu-E; Liao, Lian-Di; Xie, Yang-Min; Li, En-Min; Xu, Li-Yan

    2018-05-07

    Riboflavin is an essential component of the human diet and its derivative cofactors play an established role in oxidative metabolism. Riboflavin deficiency has been linked with various human diseases. The objective of this study was to identify whether riboflavin depletion promotes tumorigenesis. HEK293T and NIH3T3 cells were cultured in riboflavin-deficient or riboflavin-sufficient medium and passaged every 48 h. Cells were collected every 5 generations and plate colony formation assays were performed to observe cell proliferation. Subcutaneous tumorigenicity assays in NU/NU mice were used to observe tumorigenicity of riboflavin-depleted HEK293T cells. Mechanistically, gene expression profiling and gene ontology analysis were used to identify abnormally expressed genes induced by riboflavin depletion. Western blot analyses, cell cycle analyses, and chromatin immunoprecipitation were used to validate the expression of cell cycle-related genes. Plate colony formation of NIH3T3 and HEK293T cell lines was enhanced >2-fold when cultured in riboflavin-deficient medium for 10-20 generations. Moreover, we observed enhanced subcutaneous tumorigenicity in NU/NU mice following injection of riboflavin-depleted compared with normal HEK293T cells (55.6% compared with 0.0% tumor formation, respectively). Gene expression profiling and gene ontology analysis revealed that riboflavin depletion induced the expression of cell cycle-related genes. Validation experiments also found that riboflavin depletion decreased p21 and p27 protein levels by ∼20%, and increased cell cycle-related and expression-elevated protein in tumor (CREPT) protein expression >2-fold, resulting in cyclin D1 and CDK4 levels being increased ∼1.5-fold, and cell cycle acceleration. We also observed that riboflavin depletion decreased intracellular riboflavin levels by 20% and upregulated expression of riboflavin transporter genes, particularly SLC52A3, and that the changes in CREPT and SLC52A3 correlated with

  16. Vitamins and Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Irene; Caroppo, Francesca; Alaibac, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    A tremendous amount of information was published over the past decades in relation to the role of vitamins in various neoplastic diseases. In particular, several studies showed an inverse relationship between selected vitamins intake and cancer risk. In this review we will focus on the role played by vitamins in melanoma with particular regard to vitamin A, D, K, E and C. Given that vitamin supplementation is easy, convenient, and readily accepted by patients, in the future the use of vitamins in chemoprevention and therapy of melanoma could be encouraged if supported by pre-clinical and clinical evidence. PMID:26213971

  17. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Precipitation behavior of B2-ordered aluminide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chang-Suk

    2006-12-01

    Fine dispersion of disordered phases is obtained in Ni-Al-Cr and Fe-Al-Co temary systems. A transmission electron microscope investigation has been performed on the precipitation of α-Cr in B2-ordered β-NiAl with different stoichiometry and α-Fe in B2-FeAl(Co) compound. Precipitation behavior and hardening were investigated by measuring the hardness variation. The hardness of NiAl and FeAl increases appreciably with the fine precipitation of α-Cr and α-Fe, and over-age softening occurs after prolonged aging. In the case of B2-NiAl(Cr), perfect lattice coherency is maintained at the interfaces between the α-Cr particles and the matrix during the initial stage of aging. After prolonged aging, a loss of coherency occurs by the attraction of matrix dislocations to the particle/matrix interface, followed by climbing around the particles. On the other hand, in the case of B2-FeAl(Co), the disordered α-Fe phase is present as a precipitate in the B2-FeAl(Co) matrix and has a cubic-cubic orientation with the matrix. At the early aging periods, prismatic dislocation loops formed in the B2-FeAl(Co) matrix. B2-FeAl(Co) matrix is typically hardened by the precipitation of α-Fe.

  18. SMART-on-FHIR implemented over i2b2

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Joshua C; Klann, Jeffery G; Wattanasin, Nich; Mendis, Michael; Chute, Christopher G; Mandl, Kenneth D; Murphy, Shawn N

    2017-01-01

    We have developed an interface to serve patient data from Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) repositories in the Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) format, referred to as a SMART-on-FHIR cell. The cell serves FHIR resources on a per-patient basis, and supports the “substitutable” modular third-party applications (SMART) OAuth2 specification for authorization of client applications. It is implemented as an i2b2 server plug-in, consisting of 6 modules: authentication, REST, i2b2-to-FHIR converter, resource enrichment, query engine, and cache. The source code is freely available as open source. We tested the cell by accessing resources from a test i2b2 installation, demonstrating that a SMART app can be launched from the cell that accesses patient data stored in i2b2. We successfully retrieved demographics, medications, labs, and diagnoses for test patients. The SMART-on-FHIR cell will enable i2b2 sites to provide simplified but secure data access in FHIR format, and will spur innovation and interoperability. Further, it transforms i2b2 into an apps platform. PMID:27274012

  19. Photoactivated riboflavin treatment of infectious keratitis using collagen cross-linking technology.

    PubMed

    Price, Marianne O; Tenkman, Lawrence R; Schrier, Amilia; Fairchild, Kelly M; Trokel, Stephen L; Price, Francis W

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate riboflavin/ultraviolet-A (UVA) as an adjunct treatment for infectious keratitis. This prospective, dual-center, interventional case series included cases of infectious keratitis that were treated by instilling riboflavin 0.1% solution for 30 minutes to saturate the cornea, followed by exposure to 365-nm UVA light (3 mW/cm(2)) for 15 to 45 minutes, with continued instillation of riboflavin. Eyes continued on standard antibiotic treatment. The primary outcome measures were the times to resolution of the infiltrate and the epithelial defect. Forty patients aged 14 to 86 years were enrolled. Seven (18%) eyes had a previous keratoplasty. Bacterial species were identified in 24 eyes, fungal in 7, protozoan in 2, viral in 1, and no organism in 6. The maximum infiltrate diameter ranged from 1 to 12 mm and the epithelial defect diameter was 0 to 8 mm before treatment. In 6 cases (2 bacterial, 3 fungal, and 1 without growth), the keratitis did not resolve successfully and the eye received a penetrating keratoplasty (PK). In 1 eye with prior PK, the infection resolved following treatment, but a regraft was required to address perforation of the PK incision. Riboflavin/UVA should be avoided in eyes with prior herpes simplex but otherwise posed no obvious safety risk in this series and appeared to be most effective when the infection depth was limited. The success rate was higher for bacterial infections than fungal infections. Randomized studies against antibiotics alone are needed to further evaluate efficacy. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Biofunctionalized Zinc Oxide Field Effect Transistors for Selective Sensing of Riboflavin With Current Modulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-27

    ZnO-FET was tuned by attaching a redox tag ( ferrocene ) to the 3’ terminus of the aptamer, resulting in positive current modulation upon exposure to...flexibility in aptamer detection systems can be added by attaching redox molecules, such as ferrocene or methylene blue, to the 3’ end of the DNA...AGA TCG TTC C-3’. Ferrocene terminated riboflavin aptamers were purchased from Friz BioChem (Germany) and HPLC purification with the following sequence

  1. B2B Models for DoD Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-30

    Internet, extranets, intranets, or private networks • In 2003 it represented about 11% of total B2B trade estimated at $13.5 trillion • Predicted to... B2B Models for DoD Acquisition 30 July 2007 by Magdi N. Kamel, Associate Professor Graduate School of Operational & Information Sciences...number. 1. REPORT DATE 30 JUL 2007 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE B2B Models for DoD

  2. Photo-dynamics of roseoflavin and riboflavin in aqueous and organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirak, P.; Penzkofer, A.; Mathes, T.; Hegemann, P.

    2009-03-01

    Roseoflavin (8-dimethylamino-8-demethyl- D-riboflavin) and riboflavin in aqueous and organic solvents are studied by optical absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence decay kinetics. Solvent polarity dependent absorption shifts are observed. The fluorescence quantum yields are solvent dependent. For roseoflavin the fluorescence decay shows a bi-exponential dependence (ps to sub-ps time constant, and 100 ps to a few ns time constant). The roseoflavin photo-dynamics is explained in terms of fast intra-molecular charge transfer (diabatic electron transfer) from the dimethylamino electron donor group to the pteridin carbonyl electron acceptor followed by intra-molecular charge recombination. The fast fluorescence component is due to direct locally-excited-state emission, and the slow fluorescence component is due to delayed locally-excited-state emission and charge transfer state emission. The fluorescence decay of riboflavin is mono-exponential. The S 1-state potential energy surface is determined by vibronic relaxation and solvation dynamics due to excited-state dipole moment changes (adiabatic optical electron transfer).

  3. Remarkable motor recovery after riboflavin therapy in adult-onset Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bashford, James A; Chowdhury, Fahmida A; Shaw, Chris E

    2017-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome in this woman with rapidly progressive pontobulbar palsy led to empirical high-dose oral riboflavin (1200 mg/day) therapy. This resulted in a dramatic improvement in her motor function from being anarthric, dysphagic, tetraparetic and in ventilatory failure to living independently with mild dysarthria and distal limb weakness. DNA sequencing of the SLC52A3 gene found compound heterozygous C-terminus mutations, V413A1/D461Y, consistent with recent reports of mutations within the riboflavin transporter genes (SLC52A2 and SLC52A3) in this condition. Early diagnosis and empirical riboflavin therapy can lead to major motor recovery in this condition, that can be sustained with long-term maintenance therapy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    PubMed Central

    Hamishehkar, Hadi; Ranjdoost, Farhad; Asgharian, Parina; Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Sanaie, Sarvin

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar search and assessed reference lists of the included studies which were published from 1993 through 2015. The studies, with an emphasis on RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials), were reviewed. As some vitamins such as fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E), and also some of the water-soluble vitamins like folic acid may cause adverse events and some like vitamin C is widely taken assuming that it has so many benefits and no harm, we included relevant studies with negative or undesired results regarding the effect of these vitamins on health. Our recommendation is that taking high-dose supplements of vitamins A, E, D, C, and folic acid is not always effective for prevention of disease, and it can even be harmful to the health. PMID:28101454

  5. Effect of water soluble vitamins on Zn transport of Caco-2 cells and their implications under oxidative stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Tupe, Rashmi Santosh; Agte, Vaishali Vilas

    2010-02-01

    The role of different water soluble vitamins in Zn metabolism beyond intestinal Zn absorption is poorly explored. Using Caco-2 cells, effects of different vitamins on intestinal Zn transport and their implications under oxidative stress (OS) were investigated. Cells were apically treated with Zn (25 muM) and vitamins (Folic acid (FA), Nicotinic acid (NA), Ascorbic acid (AA), riboflavin, thiamine, pyridoxine) for 60 min. The effect of most promising vitamins on zinc transport, antioxidant enzymes (Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase), and intracellular OS status (ROS generation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential) were investigated. OS was generated by tert-butyl hydro peroxide and results for each vitamin were compared with respective Zn containing controls with and without OS. Without OS, Zn transport was slightly enhanced in presence of NA, while it was significantly reduced by thiamine, riboflavin, and pyridoxine. Under OS, NA significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced Zn transport in dose-dependent manner, while, pyridoxine and AA moderately improved it. Under both conditions, Zn transport exhibited decreasing trend with increase of FA. The antioxidant enzyme and OS markers levels varied significantly in Zn + vitamins. With Zn + FA + OS, enzyme activities decreased maximally, with twofold increase in 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCF-DA) (P < 0.01) and lowering of rhodamine fluorescence (P < 0.05). In Zn + AA + OS, DCF-DA fluorescence increased (P < 0.05) but with NA, cellular enzymes, and antioxidant profile were improved. Results for the first time demonstrate advantageous effects of NA and deleterious consequences of FA with no effect by AA on Zn transport, especially under OS. These observed changes in the transport of Zn seem to have an impact on OS markers.

  6. Protective effects of B vitamins and antioxidants on the risk of arsenic-related skin lesions in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Zablotska, Lydia B; Chen, Yu; Graziano, Joseph H; Parvez, Faruque; van Geen, Alexander; Howe, Geoffrey R; Ahsan, Habibul

    2008-08-01

    An estimated 25-40 million of the 127 million people of Bangladesh have been exposed to high levels of naturally occurring arsenic from drinking groundwater. The mitigating effects of diet on arsenic-related premalignant skin lesions are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of the vitamin B group (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, and cobalamin) and antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E) on arsenic-related skin lesions. We performed a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS), 2000-2002, with individual-level, time-weighted measures of arsenic exposure from drinking water. A total of 14,828 individuals meeting a set of eligibility criteria were identified among 65,876 users of all 5,996 tube wells in the 25-km(2) area of Araihazar, Bangladesh; 11,746 were recruited into the study. This analysis is based on 10,628 subjects (90.5%) with nonmissing dietary data. Skin lesions were identified according to a structured clinical protocol during screening and confirmed with further clinical review. Riboflavin, pyridoxine, folic acid, and vitamins A, C, and E significantly modified risk of arsenic-related skin lesions. The deleterious effect of ingested arsenic, at a given exposure level, was significantly reduced (ranging from 46% reduction for pyridoxine to 68% for vitamin C) for persons in the highest quintiles of vitamin intake. Intakes of B-vitamins and antioxidants, at doses greater than the current recommended daily amounts for the country, may reduce the risk of arsenic-related skin lesions in Bangladesh.

  7. B-vitamins, carotenoids and α-/γ-tocopherol in raw and roasted nuts.

    PubMed

    Stuetz, Wolfgang; Schlörmann, Wiebke; Glei, Michael

    2017-04-15

    The concentrations of B-vitamins, carotenoids and tocopherols in nuts may differ between species and might be influenced by roasting. Thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and α-/γ-tocopherol were determined in different varieties of raw and roasted nuts using HPLC (fluorescence/UV-vis detection). The analysis revealed remarkable concentrations of thiamine and pyridoxine in pistachios (57%, 79% of the recommended daily intake/100g (RDI), respectively) and riboflavin in almonds (119% of the RDI). Pistachios were rich in lutein/zeaxanthin and contained highest β-carotene levels among nuts. Almonds and hazelnuts were abundant in α-tocopherol (>4-fold the RDI for tocopherol equivalents) while pistachios and walnuts were rich in γ-tocopherol. Roasting had a diminishing effect on thiamine, carotenoids and tocopherols especially in almonds and walnuts. Nuts could make a valuable contribution to a healthy diet in regard to B-vitamins, lutein/zeaxanthin and tocopherols. A reduction in micronutrient content by roasting is reliant on the nut variety and specific micronutrient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Low dietary choline and low dietary riboflavin during pregnancy influence reproductive outcomes and heart development in mice.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jessica; Deng, Liyuan; Mikael, Leonie G; Yan, Jian; Pickell, Laura; Wu, Qing; Caudill, Marie A; Rozen, Rima

    2010-04-01

    Embryonic development may be compromised by dietary and genetic disruptions in folate metabolism because of the critical role of folate in homocysteine metabolism, methylation, and nucleotide synthesis. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), choline, and riboflavin play distinct roles in homocysteine detoxification and generation of one-carbon donors for methylation. The effect of low dietary choline and riboflavin on pregnancy complications and heart development has not been adequately addressed. Our goal was to determine whether dietary deficiencies of choline and riboflavin in pregnant mice, with and without mild MTHFR deficiency, affect embryonic development. Female Mthfr(+/+) and Mthfr(+/-) mice were fed a control diet (CD), a choline-deficient diet (ChDD), or a riboflavin-deficient diet (RbDD) and were then mated with male Mthfr(+/-) mice. Embryos were collected 14.5 d postcoitum and examined for reproductive outcomes and cardiac defects. Plasma homocysteine was higher in ChDD- than in CD-fed females. Liver MTHFR enzyme activity was greater in ChDD-fed Mthfr(+/+) than in CD-fed Mthfr(+/+) females. The RbDD resulted in a higher percentage of delayed embryos and smaller embryos than did the CD. There were more heart defects, which were all ventricular septal defects, in embryos from the ChDD- and RbDD-fed females than from the CD-fed females. Dietary riboflavin and MTHFR deficiency resulted in decreased left ventricular wall thickness in embryonic hearts compared with embryos from CD-fed Mthfr(+/+) females. Low dietary choline and riboflavin affect embryonic growth and cardiac development in mice. Adequate choline and riboflavin may also play a role in the prevention of these pregnancy complications in women.

  9. Microwave surface resistance of MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, A. A.; Purnell, A.; Miyoshi, Y.; Bugoslavsky, Y.; Lockman, Z.; Berenov, A.; Zhai, H. Y.; Christen, H. M.; Paranthaman, M. P.; Lowndes, D. H.; Jo, M. H.; Blamire, M. G.; Hao, Ling; Gallop, J.; MacManus-Driscoll, J. L.; Cohen, L. F.

    2002-04-01

    The microwave power and frequency dependence of the surface resistance of MgB2 films and powder samples were studied. Sample quality is relatively easy to identify by the breakdown in the ω2 law for poor-quality samples at all temperatures. The performance of MgB2 at 10 GHz and 21 K was compared directly with that of high-quality YBCO films. The surface resistance of MgB2 was found to be approximately three times higher at low microwave power and showed an onset of nonlinearity at microwave surface fields ten times lower than the YBCO film. It is clear that MgB2 films are not yet optimized for microwave applications.

  10. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Cancer.gov

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  11. Facts about Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... county’s UF/IFAS Extension office. U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, ... of Health and Human Services & US Department of Agriculture, 2015). Food Vitamin D Vitamin D in IU ...

  12. Vitamin D Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... body forms vitamin D naturally after exposure to sunlight. But too much sun exposure can lead to ... problem) You don't get enough exposure to sunlight. Your liver or kidneys cannot convert vitamin D ...

  13. Facts about Vitamin A

    MedlinePlus

    ... for vitamin A are given as “Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAEs).” Using RAEs helps account for the difference ... Breastfeeding 1,300 mcg = micrograms RAE = Retinol Activity Equivalents *Pregnant women should avoid supplemental, preformed vitamin A. ...

  14. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... are unique to specific vitamin deficiencies. Folate-deficiency anemia risk factors include: Undergoing hemodialysis for kidney failure. ... the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack of intrinsic factor. Most ...

  15. Vitamin K and cancer.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Sofia; Ede, Jacob; Schött, Ulf

    2017-12-01

    Subclinical vitamin K deficits refer to carboxylation defects of different types of vitamin K-dependent hepatic and extrahepatic so-called Gla proteins without prolongation of the prothrombin time. This condition has been reported in different clinical situations due to insufficient supply or malabsorption of vitamin K as well as drug interactions. This review discusses the effects of different vitamin K subspecies on tumour growth and the possible anti-tumour effects of increased vitamin K intake. Blocking carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins with warfarin anticoagulation - what are the risks/benefits for carcinogenesis? Previous studies on both heparin and low molecular weight heparin blocking of the vitamin K-dependent factors X and II have shown tumour suppressive effects. Vitamin K has anti-inflammatory effects that could also impact carcinogenesis, but little data exists on this subject.

  16. Facts about Vitamin K

    MedlinePlus

    ... the amount of vitamin K they contain (USDA- ARS, 2015). Table 2. Sources of vitamin K. Food ... U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service USDA-ARS. (2015). National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release ...

  17. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePlus

    ... 23193625 . Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ... Saunders; 2016:chap 218. Salwen MJ. Vitamins and trace elements. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

  18. Vitamin B6

    MedlinePlus

    ... 23193625 . Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ... Saunders; 2016:chap 218. Salwen MJ. Vitamins and trace elements. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

  19. Vitamin A blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... A higher than normal value means you have excess vitamin A in your blood (toxic levels). This may ... Saunders; 2013:1175-1177. Ross AC, Tan L. Vitamin A deficiencies and excess. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, ...

  20. Vitamin D Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease. If your results show you have an excess of (too much) vitamin D, it is most likely due to taking ... 2 screens]. Available from: ... Merck & Co. Inc.; c2017. Vitamin D [cited 2017 Apr 10]; [about 2 screens]. ...

  1. [Impact of bariatric surgery on vitamin metabolisms in obese patients].

    PubMed

    Bodunova, N A; Askerkhanov, R G; Khatkov, I E; Sabelnikova, E A; Parfenov, A I; Tkachenko, E V; Varvanina, G G; Feydorov, I Yu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the impact of bariatric surgery (BS) on the level of vitamins in obese patients. One hundred obese patients (78 women and 22 men) aged 19 to 61 years were examined. Controlled gastric banding (CGB) was carried out in 20 patients (mean body mass index (BMI), 41.3 ± 8.2 kg/m2); gastric sleeve resection (GSR) in 40 patients, and gastric shunting (GS) in 40 (the mean BMI in these groups were 41.1 ± 17.8 and 45.9 ± 6.2 kg/m2, respectively). A control group consisted of 10 apparently healthy individuals (BMI, 24.9 ± 3.2 kg/m2). An enzyme immunoassay was used to determine the serum concentrations of vitamins B1, B2, B5, B6, B9, B12, C, and D, niacin, biotin, and retinol-binding protein (RBP) before and 1 year after surgery. All the three groups showed a considerable decrease in the levels of vitamins C, B5, B6, and D, and RBP both prior to and following BS. More than 50% of the patients who had undergone GSR had also a lower baseline niacin level. A year after CGB, GSR, and GS, the number of patents with deficiency of these vitamins remained the same or increased. The majority of patients with the same level of vitamin B2, niacin, and folic acid (FA) were observed to have its decrease a year postsurgery. The concentration of the other test vitamins was also reduced a year after all operations; however, it remained within the normal range. GS had no substantial impact on the concentrations of FA, vitamins B2, B12, B1, and biotin. The lower serum vitamin levels were not accompanied by clinical symptoms in most patients following BS. In 80% of the patients with obesity, the levels of vitamins C, B6, and D were decreased to a variable degree. After BS, there was a rise in the number of patients with low serum vitamin C, D, B6, B5, niacin, FA, and RBP concentrations, at the same time the number of patients with FA deficiency increased by more than twice. BS did not significantly affect the metabolism of vitamins B1 B2 B12, and biotin.

  2. Thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; Cullen, David A.; Andrew Payzant, E.

    2014-11-01

    The synthesis of novel hexagonal ReB2-type OsB2 ceramic powder was performed by high energy ball milling of elemental Os and B powders. Two different sources of B powder have been used for this mechanochemical synthesis. One B powder consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases and a mixture of 10B and 11B isotopes with a fine particle size, while another B powder was a purely crystalline (rhombohedral) material consisting of enriched 11B isotope with coarse particle size. The same Os powder was used for the synthesis in both cases. It was established that, in the first case, the hexagonal OsB2 phase was the main product of synthesis with a small quantity of Os2B3 phase present after synthesis as an intermediate product. In the second case, where coarse crystalline 11B powder was used as a raw material, only Os2B3 boride was synthesized mechanochemically. The thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2 powder was studied by heating under argon up to 876 °C and cooling in vacuo down to -225 °C. During the heating, the sacrificial reaction 2OsB2+3O2→2Os+2B2O3 took place due to presence of O2/water vapor molecules in the heating chamber, resulting in the oxidation of B atoms and formation of B2O3 and precipitation of Os metal out of the OsB2 lattice. As a result of such phase changes during heating, the lattice parameters of hexagonal OsB2 changed significantly. The shrinkage of the a lattice parameter was recorded in 276-426 °C temperature range upon heating, which was attributed to the removal of B atoms from the OsB2 lattice due to oxidation followed by the precipitation of Os atoms and formation of Os metal. While significant structural changes occurred upon heating due to presence of O2, the hexagonal OsB2 ceramic demonstrated good phase stability upon cooling in vacuo with linear shrinkage of the lattice parameters and no phase changes detected during cooling.

  3. Combustion synthesis of AlB2-Al2O3 composite powders with AlB2 nanowire structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pan; Xiao, Guoqing; Ding, Donghai; Ren, Yun; Yang, Shoulei; Lv, Lihua; Hou, Xing

    2018-05-01

    Using of Al and B2O3 powders as starting materials, and Mg-Al alloy as additives, AlB2-Al2O3 composite powders with AlB2 nanowire structures were successfully fabricated via combustion synthesis method in Ar atmosphere at a pressure of 1.5 MPa. The effect of different amount of Mg-Al alloy on the phase compositions and morphology of the combustion products was investigated. The results revealed that AlB2 and Al2O3 increased, whereas Al decreased with the content of Mg-Al alloy increasing. The impurities MgAl2O4 and AlB12 would exist in the sample with adding of 18 wt% Mg-Al alloy. Interestingly, FESEM/TEM/EDS results showed that AlB2 nanowires were observed in the products when the content of Mg-Al alloy is 6 wt% and 12 wt%. The more AlB2 nanowires can be found as the content of Mg-Al alloy increased. And the yield of AlB2 nanowires with the diameter of about 200 nanometers (nm) and the length up to several tens of micrometers (μm) in the combustion product is highest when the content of Mg-Al alloy is 12 wt%. The vapor, such as Mg-Al (g), B2O2 (g), AlO (g) and Al2O (g), produced during the process of combustion synthesis, reacted with each other to yield AlB2 nanowires by vapor-solid (VS) mechanism and the corresponding model was also proposed.

  4. Maternal one-carbon nutrient intake and cancer risk in offspring

    Dietary intake of one-carbon nutrients, particularly folate, vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and choline have been linked to the risk of cancers of the colon and breast in both human and animal studies. More recently, experimental and epidemiological data have emerged to suggest t...

  5. Novel high pressure hexagonal OsB2 by mechanochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhilin; Graule, Moritz; Orlovskaya, Nina; Andrew Payzant, E.; Cullen, David A.; Blair, Richard G.

    2014-07-01

    Hexagonal OsB2, a theoretically predicted high-pressure phase, has been synthesized for the first time by a mechanochemical method, i.e., high energy ball milling. X-ray diffraction indicated that formation of hexagonal OsB2 begins after 2.5 h of milling, and the reaction reaches equilibrium after 18 h of milling. Rietveld refinement of the powder data indicated that hexagonal OsB2 crystallizes in the P63/mmc space group (No. 194) with lattice parameters of a=2.916 Å and c=7.376 Å. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the appearance of the hexagonal OsB2 phase after high energy ball milling. in situ X-ray diffraction experiments showed that the phase is stable from -225 °C to 1050 °C. The hexagonal OsB2 powder was annealed at 1050 °C for 6 days in vacuo to improve crystallinity and remove strain induced during the mechanochemical synthesis. The structure partially converted to the orthorhombic phase (20 wt%) after fast current assisted sintering of hexagonal OsB2 at 1500 °C for 5 min. Mechanochemical approaches to the synthesis of hard boride materials allow new phases to be produced that cannot be prepared using conventional methods.

  6. Mechanical and thermal properties of bulk ZrB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamori, Fumihiro; Ohishi, Yuji; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken; Fukumoto, Ken-ichi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2015-12-01

    ZrB2 appears to have formed in the fuel debris at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster site, through the reaction between Zircaloy cladding materials and the control rod material B4C. Since ZrB2 has a high melting point of 3518 K, the ceramic has been widely studied as a heat-resistant material. Although various studies on the thermochemical and thermophysical properties have been performed for ZrB2, significant differences exist in the data, possibly due to impurities or the porosity within the studied samples. In the present study, we have prepared a ZrB2 bulk sample with 93.1% theoretical density by sintering ZrB2 powder. On this sample, we have comprehensively examined the thermal and mechanical properties of ZrB2 by the measurement of specific heat, ultrasonic sound velocities, thermal diffusivity, and thermal expansion. Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were also measured and found to be 13-23 GPa and 1.8-2.8 MPa m0.5, respectively. The relationships between these properties were carefully examined in the present study.

  7. Superconducting MgB2 wires with vanadium diffusion barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hušek, I.; Kováč, P.; Melišek, T.; Kulich, M.; Rosová, A.; Kopera, L.; Szundiová, B.

    2017-10-01

    Single-core MgB2 wires with a vanadium barrier and Cu stabilization have been made by the in situ powder-in-tube (PIT) and internal magnesium diffusion (IMD) into boron processes. Heat treatment of PIT wires was done at the temperature range of 650 °C-850 °C/30 min. Critical currents of differently treated MgB2/V/Cu wires have been measured and related with the structure of MgB2. It was found that critical current density of MgB2/V wire annealed above 700 °C decreases rapidly. The obtained results clearly show that vanadium is a well formable metal and can be applied as an effective diffusion barrier for MgB2 wires heat-treated at temperatures ≤700 °C. This temperature limit is well applicable for MgB2 wires with high current densities made by PIT and also by the IMD process.

  8. Glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) and superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) activities in riboflavin-deficient rats infected with Plasmodium berghei malaria.

    PubMed

    Adelekan, D A; Thurnham, D I

    1998-03-01

    Riboflavin deficiency interferes with the growth and multiplication of malaria parasites as well as the host response to malaria. The objective of the present work was to determine the effects of riboflavin deficiency on erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9; GPx) and superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1; SOD) in rats infected with Plasmodium berghei malaria. Riboflavin in its co-enzyme form, FAD, is required by glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.1) to regenerate GSH and GSH is an important cellular antioxidant both in its own right and also as a substrate for the enzyme GPx. Weanling rats were deprived of riboflavin for 8 weeks before intraperitoneal injection of 1 x 10(6) P. berghei parasites. Control animals were weight-matched to the respective riboflavin-deficient group. At 10 d post-infection, parasite counts were higher in the weight-matched control group than the riboflavin-deficient group (P = 0.004). GPx activity was higher in erythrocytes of rats parasitized with P. berghei than comparable non-infected rats regardless of riboflavin status (P < 0.05). As mature erythrocytes do not synthesize new protein, the higher GPx activities were probably due to the presence of the parasite protein. In erythrocytes from riboflavin-deficient rats, GPx activity tended to be lower than in those rats fed on diets adequate in riboflavin (weight-matched controls) whether parasitized or not, but the difference was not significant. Neither riboflavin deficiency nor malaria had any effect on erythrocyte SOD activity. It was concluded that riboflavin deficiency has no marked effect on erythrocyte GPx or SOD activity in the rat.

  9. Facts about Vitamin C

    MedlinePlus

    ... C also helps the body absorb iron from plant foods. What happens if we do not get enough vitamin C? Vitamin C is found in many foods we eat and deficiency is rare. Scurvy, the disease caused by vitamin C deficiency, ...

  10. Lattice Thermal Conductivity of Ultra High Temperature Ceramics ZrB2 and HfB2 from Atomistic Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, John W.; Murray, Daw S.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Atomistic Green-Kubo simulations are performed to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity for single crystals of the ultra high temperature ceramics ZrB2 and HfB2 for a range of temperatures. Recently developed interatomic potentials are used for these simulations. Heat current correlation functions show rapid oscillations which can be identified with mixed metal-Boron optical phonon modes. Agreement with available experimental data is good.

  11. Atomic Force Microscopy Probing of Receptor–Nanoparticle Interactions for Riboflavin Receptor Targeted Gold–Dendrimer Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Riboflavin receptors are overexpressed in malignant cells from certain human breast and prostate cancers, and they constitute a group of potential surface markers important for cancer targeted delivery of therapeutic agents and imaging molecules. Here we report on the fabrication and atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization of a core–shell nanocomposite consisting of a gold nanoparticle (AuNP) coated with riboflavin receptor-targeting poly(amido amine) dendrimer. We designed this nanocomposite for potential applications such as a cancer targeted imaging material based on its surface plasmon resonance properties conferred by AuNP. We employed AFM as a technique for probing the binding interaction between the nanocomposite and riboflavin binding protein (RfBP) in solution. AFM enabled precise measurement of the AuNP height distribution before (13.5 nm) and after chemisorption of riboflavin-conjugated dendrimer (AuNP–dendrimer; 20.5 nm). Binding of RfBP to the AuNP–dendrimer caused a height increase to 26.7 nm, which decreased to 22.8 nm when coincubated with riboflavin as a competitive ligand, supporting interaction of AuNP–dendrimer and its target protein. In summary, physical determination of size distribution by AFM imaging can serve as a quantitative approach to monitor and characterize the nanoscale interaction between a dendrimer-covered AuNP and target protein molecules in vitro. PMID:24571134

  12. Vitamin D and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hye Yun; Park, Kyung Mi; Lee, Mi Jung; Yang, Dong Ho; Kim, Sang Hoon; Lee, So-Young

    2017-09-01

    Vitamin D has the pleiotropic effects in multiple organ systems, and vitamin D deficiency was suggested to be associated with high blood pressure according to previous reports. Several interventional studies have examined the effect of vitamin D supplementation on high blood pressure patients, but the results have been inconsistent. In this article, we examined the literature that have proposed a mechanism involving vitamin D in the regulation of blood pressure and review previous observational and interventional studies that have shown the relationship between vitamin D and hypertension among various populations.

  13. Integrating Multimodal Radiation Therapy Data into i2b2.

    PubMed

    Zapletal, Eric; Bibault, Jean-Emmanuel; Giraud, Philippe; Burgun, Anita

    2018-04-01

     Clinical data warehouses are now widely used to foster clinical and translational research and the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) platform has become a de facto standard for storing clinical data in many projects. However, to design predictive models and assist in personalized treatment planning in cancer or radiation oncology, all available patient data need to be integrated into i2b2, including radiation therapy data that are currently not addressed in many existing i2b2 sites.  To use radiation therapy data in projects related to rectal cancer patients, we assessed the feasibility of integrating radiation oncology data into the i2b2 platform.  The Georges Pompidou European Hospital, a hospital from the Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris group, has developed an i2b2-based clinical data warehouse of various structured and unstructured clinical data for research since 2008. To store and reuse various radiation therapy data-dose details, activities scheduling, and dose-volume histogram (DVH) curves-in this repository, we first extracted raw data by using some reverse engineering techniques and a vendor's application programming interface. Then, we implemented a hybrid storage approach by combining the standard i2b2 "Entity-Attribute-Value" storage mechanism with a "JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) document-based" storage mechanism without modifying the i2b2 core tables. Validation was performed using (1) the Business Objects framework for replicating vendor's application screens showing dose details and activities scheduling data and (2) the R software for displaying the DVH curves.  We developed a pipeline to integrate the radiation therapy data into the Georges Pompidou European Hospital i2b2 instance and evaluated it on a cohort of 262 patients. We were able to use the radiation therapy data on a preliminary use case by fetching the DVH curve data from the clinical data warehouse and displaying them in a R chart.

  14. Dry cryomagnetic system with MgB2 coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abin, D. A.; Mineev, N. A.; Osipov, M. A.; Pokrovskii, S. V.; Rudnev, I. A.

    2017-12-01

    MgB2 may be the future superconducting wire material for industrial magnets due to it’s higher operation temperature and potentially lower cost than low temperature superconductors (LTS) have. We designed a compact cryomagnetic system with the use of MgB2. The possibility of creating a magnet with a central field of 5 T from a commercial MgB2 wire by the “react and wound” method was investigated. The magnetic system is cooled by a cryocooler through a copper bus. The magnet has a warm bore diameter of 4 cm. The design of a magnet consisting of three concentric solenoids is proposed: an internal one of high-temperature superconductor (HTS), an average of MgB2, and an external of NbTi. The operating current of the system is 100 A. Two pairs of current leads are used. A separate pair of current leads for power supplying NbTi coil allows testing of MgB2 and HTS coils in an external field. The load curves for each of the magnets are calculated.

  15. Electronic structure of scandium-doped MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Peña, Omar; Agrestini, Stefano

    2005-03-01

    Recently has been reported the synthesis of a new superconducting alloy based on MgB2, where Mg is partially substituted with Sc. In order to analyze the effect of Sc doping on the structural and superconducting properties of Mg1-xScxB2, we have performed a detailed study of the electronic structure for this new diboride. The calculations have been done using the first-principles LAPW method, within the supercell approach for modeling the doping. In this work we report results for the electronic band structure, Fermi surface, and density of states. The effect of the Sc-d orbitals on the structural and electronic properties of Mg1-xScxB2 is analyzed. Increasing the Sc concentration (x) the σ-band is gradually filled, because Sc have one valence electron more than Mg. Interestingly, the analysis of the band structure shows that even for ScB2 the top of the σ-band remain above the Fermi level, nevertheless the σ-band presents high dispersion and has an important contribution of d states. In this way, in addition to the band filling effect, Sc doping gradually reduces the two-dimensional character of the σ- band in Mg1-xScxB2 as a result of increasing the sp(B)-d(Sc) hybridization. This research was partially supported by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnolog'ia (CONACYT, M'exico) under Grant. No. 43830-F

  16. [Vitamins and oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Mazo, V K

    2013-01-01

    The central and local stress limiting systems, including the antioxidant defense system involved in defending the organism at the cellular and systemic levels from excess activation response to stress influence, leading to damaging effects. The development of stress, regardless of its nature [cold, increased physical activity, aging, the development of many pathologies (cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, ischemia, the effects of burns), immobilization, hypobaric hypoxia, hyperoxia, radiation effects etc.] leads to a deterioration of the vitamin status (vitamins E, A, C). Damaging effect on the antioxidant defense system is more pronounced compared to the stress response in animals with an isolated deficiency of vitamins C, A, E, B1 or B6 and the combined vitamins deficiency in the diet. Addition missing vitamin or vitamins restores the performance of antioxidant system. Thus, the role of vitamins in adaptation to stressors is evident. However, vitamins C, E and beta-carotene in high doses, significantly higher than the physiological needs of the organism, may be not only antioxidants, but may have also prooxidant properties. Perhaps this explains the lack of positive effects of antioxidant vitamins used in extreme doses for a long time described in some publications. There is no doubt that to justify the current optimal doses of antioxidant vitamins and other dietary antioxidants specially-designed studies, including biochemical testing of initial vitamin and antioxidant status of the organism, as well as monitoring their change over time are required.

  17. Vitamin C and Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-01-01

    In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further. PMID:28353648

  18. Vitamin C and Infections.

    PubMed

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-03-29

    In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose-response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6-8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3-4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  19. Simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins in SRM 1849 Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula powder by liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Robert J; Wolf, Wayne R

    2010-05-01

    Assessing dietary intake of vitamins from all sources, including foods, dietary supplements, and fortified foods, would be aided considerably by having analytical methodologies that are capable of simultaneous determination of several vitamins. Vitamins naturally present in foods may occur in different chemical forms, with levels ranging over several orders of magnitude. Vitamins in dietary supplements and fortified foods, however, are typically added in a single chemical form, and matrix issues are usually not as complex. These sources should thus be relatively amenable to approaches that aim for simultaneous determination of multiple vitamins. Our recent work has focused on development of liquid chromatography (LC)-UV/fluorescence and LC-tandem mass spectrometry methods for the simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins (thiamine, niacin, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, folic acid, biotin, and riboflavin) in dietary supplement tablets and fortified foods, such as formula powders and breakfast cereals. As part of the validation of our methods and collaboration in characterization of a new NIST SRM 1849 Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula powder, we report data on SRM 1849 using isotope dilution mass spectrometric methods. Use of available NIST Standard Reference Materials(R) as test matrices in our method development and validation gives a benchmark for future application of these methods. We compare three chromatographic approaches and provide data on stability of vitamin standard solutions for LC-based multiple vitamin determinations.

  20. Washout of water-soluble vitamins and of homocysteine during haemodialysis: effect of high-flux and low-flux dialyser membranes.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Judith; Domröse, Ute; Westphal, Sabine; Luley, Claus; Neumann, Klaus H; Dierkes, Jutta

    2008-10-01

    Vitamin deficiencies are common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) owing to dietary restrictions, drug-nutrient interactions, changes in metabolism, and vitamin losses during dialysis. The present study investigated the levels of serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate, plasma pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), serum cobalamin, blood thiamine, blood riboflavin, and plasma homocysteine (tHcy) before and after haemodialysis treatment. Vitamin and tHcy blood concentrations were measured in 30 patients with ESRD before and after dialysis session either with low-flux (n = 15) or high-flux (n = 15) dialysers. After the dialysis procedure, significantly lower concentrations of serum folate (37%), plasma PLP (35%), blood thiamine (6%) and blood riboflavin (7%) were observed. No significant changes were found for serum cobalamin or for RBC folate. There were no differences in the washout of water-soluble vitamins between treatments with low-flux and high-flux membranes. Furthermore, a 41% lower concentration in tHcy was observed. The percentage decrease in tHcy was significantly greater in the patients treated with high-flux dialysers (48% vs 37%; P < 0.01). The percentage change during dialysis was significantly inversely related to the molecular weight of the vitamins measured (r =-0.867, P < 0.01). This study showed significantly lower blood or serum levels of various water-soluble vitamins after dialysis, independently of the dialyser membrane. The monitoring of the vitamin status is essential in patients treated with high-flux dialysers as well as in patients treated with low-flux dialysers.

  1. Electromechanical properties of superconducting MgB2 wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, K.; Zhou, Y. X.; Hanna, M.; Alessandrini, M.; Putman, P. T.; Fang, H.

    2005-12-01

    The current-carrying capability of superconducting wires is degraded by stress. Therefore electromechanical properties are one of the key feedback parameters needed for progress in conductor applications. In this work, uniaxial tensile stresses and bending stresses were applied to Fe /MgB2 wires at room temperature, followed by measurement of critical current using a transport method at 4.2 K. Basic mechanical properties were calculated from the measured stress-strain characteristics. The irreversible tensile strain at which the critical current density of MgB2 wire starts to degrade was found to be 0.5%. In addition, the degradation of Ic with decreasing bending diameters was found to be very rapid for wires that were deformed after the heat treatment that forms the MgB2 compound, while not much degradation of Ic was found for wires that were bent before being annealed. SEM observations confirmed that cracks could be healed by post-annealing.

  2. Superconducting MgB2 films via precursor postprocessing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranthaman, M.; Cantoni, C.; Zhai, H. Y.; Christen, H. M.; Aytug, T.; Sathyamurthy, S.; Specht, E. D.; Thompson, J. R.; Lowndes, D. H.; Kerchner, H. R.; Christen, D. K.

    2001-06-01

    Superconducting MgB2 films with Tc=38.6 K were prepared using a precursor-deposition, ex situ postprocessing approach. Precursor films of boron, ˜0.5 μm thick, were deposited onto Al2O3 (102) substrates by electron-beam evaporation; a postanneal at 890 °C in the presence of bulk MgB2 and Mg metal produced highly crystalline MgB2 films. X-ray diffraction indicated that the films exhibit some degree of c-axis alignment, but are randomly oriented in plane. Transport current measurements of the superconducting properties show high values of the critical current density and yield an irreversibility line that exceeds that determined by magnetic measurements on bulk polycrystalline materials.

  3. A new superhard material: Osmium diboride OsB 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbache, M.; Stuparević, L.; Živković, D.

    2006-08-01

    Superhard materials have many industrial applications, wherever resistance to abrasion and wear are important. The synthesis of new superhard materials is one of the great challenges to scientists. We re-examined the phase diagram of the binary osmium-boron system and confirmed the existence of two hexagonal phases, OsB 1.1, Os 2B 3, and an orthorhombic phase, OsB 2. Almost nothing is known about the physical properties of osmium borides. Microhardness measurements show that OsB 2 is extremely hard. Ab initio calculations show that this is due to formation of covalent bonds between boron atoms. OsB 2 is also a low compressibility material. It can be used as hard coating.

  4. ORM-Based Semantics of B2B Transactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsters, H.; van Blommestein, F.

    After widespread implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning and Personal Information Management, the next wave in the application of ICT is headed towards business to business (B2B) communication. B2B has a number of specific aspects, one of them being negotiation. This aspect has been largely neglected by present implementations of standard EDI- or XML-messaging and by B2B webservice implementations. In this paper a precise model is given of the negotiation process. The requirements of a potential Buyer and the offer of a potential Seller are matched and, if the negotiation is successful, a contract is concluded. The negotiation process model is represented in ORM, extended with dynamic constraints. Our model may be implemented in the databases of the trading partners and in message- or service definitions.

  5. Ultraviolet A: Visible spectral absorbance of the human cornea after transepithelial soaking with dextran-enriched and dextran-free riboflavin 0.1% ophthalmic solutions.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Marco; Micali, Norberto; Villari, Valentina; Serrao, Sebastiano; Pucci, Giuseppe; Barberi, Riccardo; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the stromal concentration of 2 commercially available transepithelial riboflavin 0.1% solutions in human donor corneas with the use of spectrophotometry. University of Calabria, Rende, Italy. Experimental study. The absorbance spectra of 12 corneal tissues were measured in the 330 to 700 nm wavelength range using a purpose-designed spectrophotometry setup before and after transepithelial corneal soaking with a 15% dextran-enriched riboflavin 0.1% solution (n = 6) or a hypotonic dextran-free riboflavin 0.1% solution (n = 6). Both ophthalmic solutions contained ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and trometamol as enhancers. In addition, 4 deepithelialized corneal tissues underwent stromal soaking with a 20% dextran-enriched riboflavin 0.1% solution and were used as controls. All the riboflavin solutions were applied topically for 30 minutes. The stromal concentration of riboflavin was quantified by analysis of absorbance spectra of the cornea collected before and after application of each solution. The mean stromal riboflavin concentration was 0.012% ± 0.003% (SD), 0.0005% ± 0.0003% (P < .001), and 0.004% ± 0.001% (P < .01) in tissues soaked with 20% dextran-enriched, 15% dextran-enriched, and hypotonic dextran-free solutions, respectively. The difference of stromal riboflavin concentration between the 2 transepithelial solutions was statistically significant (P < .01). Dextran-enriched solutions required complete corneal deepithelialization to permit effective stromal soaking with riboflavin. Nevertheless, riboflavin in hypotonic dextran-free solution with enhancers permeates across stroma through an intact epithelium. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of Changes in Central Corneal Thickness During Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking, Using Isotonic Riboflavin Solutions With and Without Dextran, in the Treatment of Progressive Keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Zaheer, Naima; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khan, Shama; Khan, M Abdul Moqeet

    2018-03-01

    To compare intraoperative changes in central corneal thickness (CCT) during corneal cross-linking, using 2 different isotonic riboflavin solutions either with dextran or with hydroxy propyl methylcellulose, in the treatment of progressive keratoconus. In this retrospective study, we analyzed records of corneal thickness measurements, taken during various steps of cross-linking. Cross-linking was performed using either isotonic riboflavin with dextran (group A) or isotonic riboflavin with hydroxy propyl methylcellulose (without dextran) (group B). CCT measurements were recorded before and after epithelial removal, after saturation with respective isotonic riboflavin solution, after use of hypotonic riboflavin in selected cases, and after ultraviolet A (UV-A) application. A mixed-way analysis of variance was conducted on CCT readings within each group and between both groups, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. In group A (100 cases), after saturation with isotonic riboflavin, CCT was decreased by a mean of 51.4 μm (12.1%). In 64%, CCT was <400 μm and additional hypotonic riboflavin was used. After UV-A irradiation, CCT was decreased by a mean of 46.7 μm (11.4%). In group B (100 cases), after saturation with isotonic riboflavin, CCT was increased by a mean of 109.4 μm (26.1%). After UV-A exposure, CCT was increased by a mean of 59.2 μm (11.2%). There was a substantial main effect for time on CCT during corneal cross-linking (CXL), p < 0.001, within both groups. The main effect comparing CCT readings between groups A and B was also significant, p < 0.001. During cross-linking, isotonic riboflavin with dextran causes a significant decrease in corneal thickness, whereas dextran-free isotonic riboflavin causes a significant increase in corneal thickness, thus facilitating the procedure.

  7. Pathophysiology of motor dysfunction in a childhood motor neuron disease caused by mutations in the riboflavin transporter.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Manoj P; Farrar, Michelle A; Webster, Richard; Antony, Jayne; O'Brien, Katherine; Ouvrier, Robert; Kiernan, Matthew C; Burns, Joshua; Vucic, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere (BVVL) syndrome is a progressive motor and sensory neuronopathy secondary to mutations in SLC52A2 encoding the riboflavin transporter type 2 (RFVT2). The phenotype is characterized by early childhood onset hearing loss and sensory ataxia followed by progressive upper limb weakness, optic atrophy, bulbar weakness and respiratory failure. To gain further insight into disease pathophysiology and response to riboflavin supplementation, the present study investigated whether axonal ion channel or membrane abnormalities were a feature of BVVL. Axonal excitability studies and clinical assessments were prospectively undertaken on six patients with BVVL secondary to riboflavin transporter deficiency type 2 (age range 10-21 years) at baseline and after 12 months of riboflavin (1000 mg daily) therapy. At baseline, depolarizing and hyperpolarizing threshold electrotonus was 'fanned out' and superexcitability was increased, while the resting current-threshold gradient and refractoriness were significantly reduced in BVVL patients when compared to controls. Mathematical modeling suggested that functional alterations of myelin underlay these findings with an increase in myelin permeability. Riboflavin therapy resulted in partial normalization of the axonal excitability findings, paralleled by maintenance of muscle strength. The present study established that abnormalities in myelin permeability at the paranode was a feature of BVVL and were partially normalized with riboflavin therapy. This study reveals a novel pathophysiological process for motor nerve dysfunction in BVVL. It also indicates that nerve excitability studies may be further developed in larger cohorts as a potential biomarker to identify treatment response for BVVL patients. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Crystallographic and kinetic study of riboflavin synthase from Brucella abortus, a chemotherapeutic target with an enhanced intrinsic flexibility

    SciT

    Serer, María I.; Bonomi, Hernán R.; Guimarães, Beatriz G.

    This work reports crystal structures of trimeric riboflavin synthase from the pathogen B. abortus both as the apo protein and in complex with several ligands of interest. It is shown that ligand binding drives the assembly of the unique active site of the trimer, and these findings are complemented by a detailed kinetic study on this enzyme, in which marked inhibition by substrate and product was observed. Riboflavin synthase (RS) catalyzes the last step of riboflavin biosynthesis in microorganisms and plants, which corresponds to the dismutation of two molecules of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine to yield one molecule of riboflavin and one moleculemore » of 5-amino-6-ribitylamino-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Owing to the absence of this enzyme in animals and the fact that most pathogenic bacteria show a strict dependence on riboflavin biosynthesis, RS has been proposed as a potential target for antimicrobial drug development. Eubacterial, fungal and plant RSs assemble as homotrimers lacking C{sub 3} symmetry. Each monomer can bind two substrate molecules, yet there is only one active site for the whole enzyme, which is located at the interface between two neighbouring chains. This work reports the crystallographic structure of RS from the pathogenic bacterium Brucella abortus (the aetiological agent of the disease brucellosis) in its apo form, in complex with riboflavin and in complex with two different product analogues, being the first time that the structure of an intact RS trimer with bound ligands has been solved. These crystal models support the hypothesis of enhanced flexibility in the particle and also highlight the role of the ligands in assembling the unique active site. Kinetic and binding studies were also performed to complement these findings. The structural and biochemical information generated may be useful for the rational design of novel RS inhibitors with antimicrobial activity.« less

  9. Vitamin D Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Thacher, Tom D.; Clarke, Bart L.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency, which classically manifests as bone disease (either rickets or osteomalacia), is characterized by impaired bone mineralization. More recently, the term vitamin D insufficiency has been used to describe low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D that may be associated with other disease outcomes. Reliance on a single cutoff value to define vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is problematic because of the wide individual variability of the functional effects of vitamin D and interaction with calcium intakes. In adults, vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of fractures and falls. The evidence for other purported beneficial effects of vitamin D is primarily based on observational studies. We selected studies with the strongest level of evidence for clinical decision making related to vitamin D and health outcomes from our personal libraries of the vitamin D literature and from a search of the PubMed database using the term vitamin D in combination with the following terms related to the potential nonskeletal benefits of vitamin D: mortality, cardiovascular, diabetes mellitus, cancer, multiple sclerosis, allergy, asthma, infection, depression, psychiatric, and pain. Conclusive demonstration of these benefits awaits the outcome of controlled clinical trials. PMID:21193656

  10. A rapid solid-phase extraction fluorometric method for thiamine and riboflavin in salmonid eggs

    Zajicek, James L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Brown, Scott B.; Brown, Lisa R.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Fitzsimons, John D.

    2005-01-01

    A new method has been developed and successfully applied to the selective measurement of thiamine (nonphosphorylated), total thiamine (sum of thiamine, thiamine monophosphate [TMP], thiamine diphosphate [TDP], and thiamine triphosphate [TTP]), and potentially interfering riboflavin in acidic (2% trichloroacetic acid) extracts of selected salmonid and walleye egg samples. Acidic extracts of eggs were applied directly to end-capped C18, reversed-phase solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns and separated into three fractions by elution with mixtures of PO4 buffer (pH 2), methanol (10%), and acetonitrile (20%). All thiamine compounds recovered in the first two fractions were oxidized to their corresponding thiochromes with alkaline potassium hexacyanoferrate, and we measured the thiochrome fluorescence (excitation at 360 nm, emission at 460 nm) in a 96-well microplate reader. Riboflavin, recovered in third fraction (eluted with pH 2, 20% acetonitrile), was analyzed directly by measuring the fluorescence of this fraction (excitation at 450 nm, emission at 530 nm). Significant portions of the phosphate esters of thiamine (TMP, TDP, and presumably TTP), when present at low concentrations (< 10 nmol of total -thiamine per gram of egg), were not retained by the 100-mg SPE column, and were collected directly during sample loading and in a subsequent phosphoric acid rinse as fraction 1. Free thiamine (nonphosphorylated) and remaining portions of the TDP and TMP were then eluted in the second fraction with 10% methanol/PO4 buffer, whereas the un-ionized, relatively nonpolar riboflavin was eluted in the third fraction with 20% acetonitrile. This new method uses a traditional sample homogenization of egg tissue to extract thiamine compounds into 2% trichlororacetic acid solution; an inexpensive, commercially available SPE column; small amounts of sample (0.5-1 g); microliter volumes of solvents per sample; a traditional, relatively nonhazardous, oxidation of thiamine compounds to

  11. Differential Conductance Measurements of MgB2/I/Pb Heterojunctions and all-MgB2 Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusick, David; Eckhardt, Matthew; Dai, Wenqing; Li, Qi; Chen, Ke; Cunnane, Daniel; Zhuang, C. G.; Xi, X. X.; Naito, Michio; Ramos, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    We present our work characterizing several types of Magnesium Diboride Josephson junctions, including MgB2/I/Pb heterojunctions and all-MgB2 junctions. We will report on the I-V and dI/dV-V data collected at various temperatures using both a cryocooler-based experimental platform between 2 and 20 Kelvin and using a 3He probe platform between 0.3 and 1.0 Kelvin. These were both developed by undergraduates in a liberal arts university. Using high-sampling rates with a 24-bit data acquisition card and access to a broad of range of temperatures, we track and report energy gap distributions and temperature-dependent features of dI/dV peaks of MgB2, comparing these with theoretical predictions. R.C.R. acknowledges support from National Science Foundation Grant # DMR-1206561.

  12. The ultrastructure of rabbit sclera after scleral crosslinking with riboflavin and blue light of different intensities.

    PubMed

    Karl, Anett; Makarov, Felix N; Koch, Christian; Körber, Nicole; Schuldt, Carsten; Krüger, Martin; Reichenbach, Andreas; Wiedemann, Peter; Bringmann, Andreas; Iseli, Hans Peter; Francke, Mike

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to determine the ultrastructural changes of collagen fibrils and cells in the rabbit sclera after scleral crosslinking using riboflavin and blue light of different intensities. Scleral crosslinking is known to increase scleral stiffness and may inhibit the axial elongation of progressive myopic eyes. The equatorial parts of the sclera of one eye of six adult albino rabbits were treated with topical riboflavin solution (0.5 %) followed by irradiation with blue light (200, 400, 650 mW/cm(2)) for 20 min. After 3 weeks, the ultrastructure of scleral cells and the abundance of small- (10-100 nm) and large-diameter (>100 nm) collagen fibrils in fibril bundles of different scleral layers were examined with electron microscopy. In the scleral stroma of control eyes, the thickness of collagen fibrils showed a bimodal distribution. The abundance of small-diameter collagen fibrils decreased from the inner towards the outer sclera, while the amount of large-diameter fibrils and the scleral collagen content did not differ between different stroma layers. Treatment with riboflavin and blue light at 200 mW/cm(2) did not induce ultrastructural changes of cells and collagen fibrils in the scleral stroma. Treatment with blue light of higher intensities induced scleral cell activation in a scleral layer-dependent manner. In addition, outer scleral layers contained phagocytes that engulfed collagen fibrils and erythrocytes. Blue light of the highest intensity induced a reduction of the scleral collagen content, a decreased abundance of large-diameter collagen fibrils, and an increased amount of small-diameter fibrils in the whole scleral stroma. The data indicate that in rabbits, scleral crosslinking with riboflavin and blue light of 200 mW/cm(2) for 20 min is relatively safe and does not induce ultrastructural alterations of scleral cells and of the collagen composition of the scleral stroma. Irradiation with blue light of intensities between 200 and 400 mW/cm(2

  13. Hexagonal OsB 2: Sintering, microstructure and mechanical properties

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, Zhilin; Lugovy, Mykola; Orlovskaya, Nina; ...

    2015-02-07

    In this study, the metastable high pressure ReB 2-type hexagonal OsB 2 bulk ceramics was produced by spark plasma sintering. The phase composition, microstructure, and mechanical behavior of the sintered OsB 2 were studied by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, EDS, and nanoindentation. The produced ceramics was rather porous and contained a mixture of hexagonal (~80 wt.%) and orthorhombic (~20 wt.%) phases as identified by X-ray diffraction and EBSD analysis. Two boron-rich phases, which do not contain Os, were also identified by TEM and SEM/EDS analysis. Nanoindentation measurements yielded a hardness of 31 ± 9 GPa and Young’s modulusmore » of 574 ± 112 GPa, indicating that the material is rather hard and very stiff; but, it is very prone to crack formation and propagation, which is indicative of a very brittle nature of this material. Improvements in the sintering regime are required in order to produce dense, homogeneous and single phase hexagonal OsB 2 bulk ceramics.« less

  14. Strategies for maintaining patient privacy in i2b2.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Shawn N; Gainer, Vivian; Mendis, Michael; Churchill, Susanne; Kohane, Isaac

    2011-12-01

    The re-use of patient data from electronic healthcare record systems can provide tremendous benefits for clinical research, but measures to protect patient privacy while utilizing these records have many challenges. Some of these challenges arise from a misperception that the problem should be solved technically when actually the problem needs a holistic solution. The authors' experience with informatics for integrating biology and the bedside (i2b2) use cases indicates that the privacy of the patient should be considered on three fronts: technical de-identification of the data, trust in the researcher and the research, and the security of the underlying technical platforms. The security structure of i2b2 is implemented based on consideration of all three fronts. It has been supported with several use cases across the USA, resulting in five privacy categories of users that serve to protect the data while supporting the use cases. The i2b2 architecture is designed to provide consistency and faithfully implement these user privacy categories. These privacy categories help reflect the policy of both the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and the provisions of the National Research Act of 1974, as embodied by current institutional review boards. By implementing a holistic approach to patient privacy solutions, i2b2 is able to help close the gap between principle and practice.

  15. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-2 - Declining balance method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Declining balance method. 1.167(b)-2 Section 1... Declining balance method. (a) Application of method. Under the declining balance method a uniform rate is.... While salvage is not taken into account in determining the annual allowances under this method, in no...

  16. 45 CFR 5b.2 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.2... Federal functions, such as intermediaries and carriers performing functions under contracts and agreements... year) or intermittent services have been procured by the Department by contract pursuant to 3109 of...

  17. 26 CFR 1.663(b)-2 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., 1968. In the case of a trust for which an election was made under prior law, the fiduciary shall make... TAXES Estates and Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.663(b)-2 Election. (a) Manner and time of election; irrevocability—(1) When return is required to be filed. If a trust...

  18. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-2 - Declining balance method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declining balance method. 1.167(b)-2 Section 1... Declining balance method. (a) Application of method. Under the declining balance method a uniform rate is... declining balance rate may be determined without resort to formula. Such rate determined under section 167(b...

  19. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-2 - Declining balance method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Declining balance method. 1.167(b)-2 Section 1... Declining balance method. (a) Application of method. Under the declining balance method a uniform rate is... declining balance rate may be determined without resort to formula. Such rate determined under section 167(b...

  20. Dietary B Vitamin Intake Is Associated with Lower Urinary Monomethyl Arsenic and Oxidative Stress Marker 15-F2t-Isoprostane among New Hampshire Adults.

    PubMed

    Howe, Caitlin G; Li, Zhigang; Zens, Michael S; Palys, Thomas; Chen, Yu; Channon, Jacqueline Y; Karagas, Margaret R; Farzan, Shohreh F

    2017-12-01

    Background: Arsenic exposure has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Growing evidence suggests that B vitamins facilitate arsenic metabolism and may protect against arsenic toxicity. However, to our knowledge, few studies have evaluated this in US populations. Objective: Our objective was to examine whether higher B vitamin intake is associated with enhanced arsenic metabolism and lower concentrations of preclinical markers of CVD among New Hampshire adults. Methods: We used weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression to evaluate the collective impact of 6 dietary B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, folate, niacin, and vitamins B-6 and B-12) on 1 ) the proportion of arsenic metabolites in urine and 2 ) 6 CVD-related markers [including urinary 15-F 2t -isoprostane (15-F 2t -IsoP)] among 418 participants (26-75 y of age) from the New Hampshire Health Study. Contributions of arsenic metabolites to B vitamin-CVD marker associations were also explored in structural equation models. Results: In WQS models, the weighted sum of B vitamin intakes from food sources was inversely associated with the proportion of monomethyl arsenic species in urine (uMMA) (β: -1.03; 95% CI: -1.91, -0.15; P = 0.02). Thiamin and vitamins B-6 and B-12 contributed the most to this association, whereas riboflavin had a negligible effect. Higher overall B vitamin intake was also inversely associated with 15-F 2t -IsoP (β: -0.21; 95% CI: -0.32, -0.11; P < 0.01), with equal contributions from the 6 B vitamins, which was partially explained by differences in the proportion of uMMA (indirect effect β: -0.01; 95% CI: -0.04, -0.00). Conclusions: Among New Hampshire adults, higher intakes of certain B vitamins (particularly thiamin and vitamins B-6 and B-12 from food sources) may reduce the proportion of uMMA, an intermediate of arsenic metabolism that has been associated with an increased risk of CVD. Higher overall B vitamin intake may also reduce urinary 15-F 2t -IsoP, a

  1. OsB 2 and RuB 2, ultra-incompressible, hard materials: First-principles electronic structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodo, S.; Gotsis, H. J.; Russo, N.; Sicilia, E.

    2006-07-01

    Recently it has been reported that osmium diboride has an unusually large bulk modulus combined with high hardness, and consequently is a most interesting candidate as an ultra-incompressible and hard material. The electronic and structural properties of the transition metal diborides OsB 2 and RuB 2 have been calculated within the local density approximation (LDA). It is shown that the high hardness is the result of covalent bonding between transition metal d states and boron p states in the orthorhombic structure.

  2. [Impact of environmental pollution with variable valence metals on the pediatric population's provision with vitamins in an agroindustrial region].

    PubMed

    Krasikov, S I; Kuz'micheva, N A; Alekhina, E M

    2009-01-01

    The urinary and serum levels of vitamins B1, B2, B3, A, E, and C were analyzed in 300 children aged 2 to 7 years, who lived in the Orenburg Regions areas having a varying oxidative load. The most severe deficiency of vitamins was observed in the children residing in the regional area characterized by the highest oxidative load.

  3. Intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Said, Hamid M.

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge of the mechanisms and regulation of intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins under normal physiological conditions, and of the factors/conditions that affect and interfere with theses processes has been significantly expanded in recent years as a result of the availability of a host of valuable molecular/cellular tools. Although structurally and functionally unrelated, the water-soluble vitamins share the feature of being essential for normal cellular functions, growth and development, and that their deficiency leads to a variety of clinical abnormalities that range from anaemia to growth retardation and neurological disorders. Humans cannot synthesize water-soluble vitamins (with the exception of some endogenous synthesis of niacin) and must obtain these micronutrients from exogenous sources. Thus body homoeostasis of these micronutrients depends on their normal absorption in the intestine. Interference with absorption, which occurs in a variety of conditions (e.g. congenital defects in the digestive or absorptive system, intestinal disease/resection, drug interaction and chronic alcohol use), leads to the development of deficiency (and sub-optimal status) and results in clinical abnormalities. It is well established now that intestinal absorption of the water-soluble vitamins ascorbate, biotin, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamin is via specific carrier-mediated processes. These processes are regulated by a variety of factors and conditions, and the regulation involves transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional mechanisms. Also well recognized now is the fact that the large intestine possesses specific and efficient uptake systems to absorb a number of water-soluble vitamins that are synthesized by the normal microflora. This source may contribute to total body vitamin nutrition, and especially towards the cellular nutrition and health of the local colonocytes. The present review aims to outline our current

  4. Vitamin D and asthma.

    PubMed

    Paul, Grace; Brehm, John M; Alcorn, John F; Holguín, Fernando; Aujla, Shean J; Celedón, Juan C

    2012-01-15

    Vitamin D deficiency and asthma are common conditions that share risk factors such as African American ethnicity, inner-city residence, and obesity. This review provides a critical examination of current experimental and epidemiologic evidence of a causal association between vitamin D status and asthma or asthma morbidity, including potential protective mechanisms such as antiviral effects and enhanced steroid responsiveness. Because most published epidemiologic studies of vitamin D and asthma or asthma morbidity are observational, a recommendation for or against vitamin D supplementation as preventive or secondary treatment for asthma is not advisable and must await results of ongoing clinical trials. Should these trials confirm a beneficial effect of vitamin D, others will be needed to assess the role of vitamin D supplementation to prevent or treat asthma in different groups such as infants, children of school age, and ethnic minorities.

  5. Vitamin D and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Grace; Brehm, John M.; Alcorn, John F.; Holguín, Fernando; Aujla, Shean J.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and asthma are common conditions that share risk factors such as African American ethnicity, inner-city residence, and obesity. This review provides a critical examination of current experimental and epidemiologic evidence of a causal association between vitamin D status and asthma or asthma morbidity, including potential protective mechanisms such as antiviral effects and enhanced steroid responsiveness. Because most published epidemiologic studies of vitamin D and asthma or asthma morbidity are observational, a recommendation for or against vitamin D supplementation as preventive or secondary treatment for asthma is not advisable and must await results of ongoing clinical trials. Should these trials confirm a beneficial effect of vitamin D, others will be needed to assess the role of vitamin D supplementation to prevent or treat asthma in different groups such as infants, children of school age, and ethnic minorities. PMID:22016447

  6. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCQM-K62: Nutrients in infant/adult formula—Vitamins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpless, Katherine E.; Rimmer, Catherine A.; Phinney, Karen W.; Nelson, Bryant C.; Duewer, David L.; Wise, Stephen A.; Kim, Byungjoo; Liu, Jun; Huang, Ting; Zhang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Key comparison CCQM-K62 was designed to enable demonstration of the equivalence in capabilities for measurement of vitamins in a food matrix. A milk-based fortified human infant/adult formula was selected as the matrix based upon material availability and relevance. Because vitamins were added to the CCQM-K62 study material in a single form and at levels significantly higher than those that would be naturally occurring in the milk base, the ability of a laboratory to measure the study vitamins is only indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure vitamins in fortified foods. Target analytes were selected for study because of the ready availability of suitable standard materials and the range of their chemical properties: folic acid (vitamin B9) is a single water-soluble molecular entity that typically occurs at low levels and can be unstable, niacin (vitamin B3) is a single stable molecular entity and is typically present at higher concentrations than the other water-soluble vitamins, vitamin A has multiple molecular forms (including retinol and retinyl palmitate), is fat-soluble and typically occurs at relatively high levels. Results for participants measuring only folic acid or niacin are only indicative of their ability to make that measurement; results for participants measuring both folic acid and niacin are indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure folic acid, thiamine, niacin, and riboflavin in fortified foods but not vitamin C or other water-soluble vitamins. The ability to measure vitamin A (reported as retinol equivalents) in this material is also indicative of the participant's ability to measure vitamin E (as alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl acetate) but is not indicative of the ability to measure vitamins D and K, which typically occur at much lower concentrations. The relative degrees of equivalence of the reported measurements for all three analytes in CCQM-K62 were within 10%; however, since only two results were submitted for niacin

  7. The science behind vitamins.

    PubMed

    Linder, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The use of topically applied vitamins has become a ubiquitous part of clinical skin care. While a part of the skin's antioxidant system that assists in protecting it from oxidative damage, vitamins A, C, and E have also proven their ability to treat photoaging, acne, cutaneous inflammation, and hyperpigmentation ((Burgess, 2008). Understanding these vitamins' unique mechanisms of action and how they work in concert helps the clinician select the appropriate topicals for their patients.

  8. Vitamin D and Disease Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... The skin makes vitamin D after exposure to sunlight. We also absorb vitamin D from certain foods, ... not make enough vitamin D by exposure to sunlight* or get enough through their diets. They may ...

  9. Vitamin D in Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Kamen, Diane L.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D is an essential steroid hormone, with well-established effects on mineral metabolism, skeletal health, and recently established effects on the cardiovascular and immune systems. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent and evidence is mounting that it contributes to the morbidity and mortality of multiple chronic diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients with SLE avoid the sun because of photosensitive rashes and potential for disease flare, so adequate oral supplementation is critical. This review will describe the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with SLE, identify risk factors for deficiency, describe the consequences of deficiency, and review current vitamin D recommendations for patients with rheumatic diseases. PMID:20969555

  10. Simultaneous determination of eight water-soluble vitamins in supplemented foods by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Garballo, Antonio; Morales, Juan C; García-Ayuso, Luis E

    2006-06-28

    A fast, simple, and reliable method for the isolation and determination of the vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, folic acid, cyanocobalamin, and ascorbic acid in food samples is proposed. The most relevant advantages of the proposed method are the simultaneous determination of the eight more common vitamins in enriched food products and a reduction of the time required for quantitative extraction, because the method consists merely of the addition of a precipitation solution and centrifugation of the sample. Furthermore, this method saves a substantial amount of reagents as compared with official methods, and minimal sample manipulation is achieved due to the few steps required. The chromatographic separation is carried out on a reverse phase C18 column, and the vitamins are detected at different wavelengths by either fluorescence or UV-visible detection. The proposed method was applied to the determination of water-soluble vitamins in supplemented milk, infant nutrition products, and milk powder certified reference material (CRM 421, BCR) with recoveries ranging from 90 to 100%.

  11. Different variations of tissue B-group vitamin concentrations in short- and long-term starved rats.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Aya; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sano, Mitsue; Shibata, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged starvation changes energy metabolism; therefore, the metabolic response to starvation is divided into three phases according to changes in glucose, lipid and protein utilisation. B-group vitamins are involved in energy metabolism via metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids and amino acids. To determine how changes in energy metabolism alter B-group vitamin concentrations during starvation, we measured the concentration of eight kinds of B-group vitamins daily in rat blood, urine and in nine tissues including cerebrum, heart, lung, stomach, kidney, liver, spleen, testis and skeletal muscle during 8 d of starvation. Vitamin B1, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid, folate and biotin concentrations in the blood reduced after 6 or 8 d of starvation, and other vitamins did not change. Urinary excretion was decreased during starvation for all B-group vitamins except pantothenic acid and biotin. Less variation in B-group vitamin concentrations was found in the cerebrum and spleen. Concentrations of vitamin B1, vitamin B6, nicotinamide and pantothenic acid increased in the liver. The skeletal muscle and stomach showed reduced concentrations of five vitamins including vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and folate. Concentrations of two or three vitamins decreased in the kidney, testis and heart, and these changes showed different patterns in each tissue and for each vitamin. The concentration of pantothenic acid rapidly decreased in the heart, stomach, kidney and testis, whereas concentrations of nicotinamide were stable in all tissues except the liver. Different variations in B-group vitamin concentrations in the tissues of starved rats were found. The present findings will lead to a suitable supplementation of vitamins for the prevention of the re-feeding syndrome.

  12. Relationship between megadose vitamin supplementation and immunological function in a healthy elderly population.

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, J S; Garry, P J

    1983-01-01

    We studied the immunological effects of 'megadose' vitamin or mineral supplementation by comparing the immunological functions of healthy elderly subjects taking large amounts of specific nutrients to similar subjects not on supplements. There was a non-significant trend for those subjects taking megadoses of vitamin C to have increased cell-mediated immune responses as measured in vivo by skin test reactivity but not by in vitro mitogen responses. In addition, subjects taking megadoses of vitamin E or any of several B vitamins (B1, B2, B6, folate and niacin) had lower absolute circulating lymphocyte counts than did the rest of the population. The relative lack of effect of megadose vitamins on immunological function in this population compared to reports of short term trials of mega nutrients raises the possibility that some of the previously reported immuno-enhancing properties of megadose vitamins may be due to a non-specific adjuvant effect that disappears with time. PMID:6851251

  13. Delivery of Riboflavin-5'-Monophosphate Into the Cornea: Can Liposomes Provide Any Enhancement Effects?

    PubMed

    Kandzija, Neva; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V

    2017-10-01

    Keratoconus is a progressive condition caused by the thinning of the cornea, which eventually deforms the front surface of the eye into a cone shape leading to ghosting, multiple images, glare, and several other vision problems. Currently, keratoconus is treated with UV-induced riboflavin (Rb)-mediated collagen cross-linking, which requires a physical removal of the corneal epithelium under topical anesthesia. This study reports the penetration of Rb and its more water-soluble form, riboflavin-5'-monophosphate (RbP), into the bovine cornea ex vivo. Using ex vivo bovine corneal tissues and 0.8 mg/mL drug solutions in phosphate buffer, it was established that RbP penetration into the cornea within 3 h of diffusion experiment was greater (17.3 ± 0.8 μg) compared with Rb (10.4 ± 4.2 μg). In the cornea, RbP was found to convert to Rb, which is mediated with enzymes present in this tissue. Several formulations including the conventional and propylene glycol-containing liposomes with encapsulated RbP have been developed, and their effect on the drug penetration into the bovine cornea was evaluated. Encapsulation of RbP into the liposomes did not provide any statistically significant improvement in the penetration of RbP into the cornea. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Keratoconus corneal architecture after riboflavin/ultraviolet A cross-linking: Ultrastructural studies

    PubMed Central

    Almubrad, Turki; Paladini, Iacopo; Mencucci, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Study to investigate the effects of collagen cross-linking on the ultrastructural organization of the corneal stroma in the human keratoconus cornea (KC). Methods Three normal, three keratoconus (KC1, KC2, KC3), and three cross-linked keratoconus (CXL1, CXL2, CXL3) corneas were analyzed. The KC corneas were treated with a riboflavin-ultraviolet A (UVA) treatment (CXL) method described by Wollensak et al. Penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) was performed 6 months after treatment. All samples were processed for electron microscopy. Results The riboflavin-UVA-treated CXL corneal stroma showed interlacing lamellae in the anterior stroma followed by well-organized parallel running lamellae. The lamellae contained uniformly distributed collagen fibrils (CFs) decorated with normal proteoglycans (PGs). The CF diameter and interfibrillar spacing in the CXL cornea were significantly increased compared to those in the KC cornea. The PG area in the CXL corneas were significantly smaller than the PGs in the KC cornea. The epithelium and Bowman’s layer were also normal. On rare occasions, a thick basement membrane and collagenous pannus were also observed. Conclusions Corneal cross-linking leads to modifications of the cornea stroma. The KC corneal structure showed a modification in the CF diameter, interfibrillar spacing, and PG area. This resulted in a more uniform distribution of collagen fibrils, a key feature for corneal transparency. PMID:23878503

  15. Mutations in riboflavin transporter present with severe sensory loss and deafness in childhood.

    PubMed

    Srour, Myriam; Putorti, Maria Lisa; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Bolduc, Véronique; Shevell, Michael Israel; Poulin, Chantal; O'ferrall, Erin; Buhas, Daniela; Majewski, Jacek; Brais, Bernard

    2014-11-01

    We have identified a large consanguineous Lebanese family with 5 individuals with severe childhood-onset recessive sensory loss associated with deafness and variable optic atrophy. Autozygosity mapping was performed in all affected individuals, followed by whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 2 individuals. WES identified a homozygous missense mutation (c.916G>A, p.G306R) in the cerebral riboflavin transporter SLC52A2, recently shown to cause Brown-Vialetto-Van-Laere syndrome (BVVLS), which is considered primarily a motor neuronopathy. Our patients have a phenotype distinct from BVVLS, characterized by severe progressive sensory loss mainly affecting vibration and proprioception that evolves to include sensorineural hearing loss in childhood, variable degrees of optic atrophy, and marked upper extremity weakness and atrophy. Treatment of 3 patients with 400 mg/day riboflavin over 3 months produced definite clinical improvement. Mutations in SLC52A2 result in a recognizable phenotype distinct from BVVLS. Early recognition of this disorder is critical, given its potential treatability. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Electronic and elastic properties of new semiconducting oP(12)-type RuB(2) and OsB(2).

    PubMed

    Hao, Xianfeng; Xu, Yuanhui; Gao, Faming

    2011-03-30

    Using first-principles total energy calculations we investigate the structural, elastic and electronic properties of new hypothetical oP(12)-type phase RuB(2) and OsB(2). The calculations indicate that the oP(12)-type phase RuB(2) and OsB(2) are thermodynamically and mechanically stable. Remarkably, the new phases RuB(2) and OsB(2) are predicted to be semiconductors, and the appearance of band gaps is ascribed to the enhanced B-B covalent hybridization. Compared to metallic oP(6)-type RuB(2) and OsB(2) phases, the new phases possess similar mechanical properties and hardness. The combination of the probability of tunable electronic properties, strong stiffness and high hardness make RuB(2) and OsB(2) attractive and interesting for advanced applications. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  17. Oxidation of ZrB2-SiC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Halbig, Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the oxidation behavior of ZrB2-20 vol% SiC is examined. Samples were exposed in stagnant air in a zirconia furnace (Deltech, Inc.) at temperatures of 1327, 1627, and 1927 C for ten ten-minute cycles. Samples were removed from the furnace after one, five, and ten cycles. Oxidized material was characterized by mass change when possible, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Oxidation kinetics, oxide scale development, and matrix recession were monitored as a function of time and temperature. Oxidation and recession rates of ZrB2 - 20 vol% SiC were adequately modeled by parabolic kinetics. Oxidation rates of this material are rapid, allowing only very short-term application in air or other high oxygen partial pressure environments.

  18. Observation of pseudogap in MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, S.; Medicherla, V. R. R.; Ali, Khadiza; Singh, R. S.; Manfrinetti, P.; Wrubl, F.; Dhar, S. K.; Maiti, Kalobaran

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the electronic structure of a specially prepared highly dense conventional high temperature superconductor, MgB2, employing high resolution photoemission spectroscopy. The spectral evolution close to the Fermi energy is commensurate to BCS descriptions as expected. However, the spectra in the wider energy range reveal the emergence of a pseudogap much above the superconducting transition temperature indicating an apparent departure from the BCS scenario. The energy scale of the pseudogap is comparable to the energy of the E2g phonon mode responsible for superconductivity in MgB2 and the pseudogap can be attributed to the effect of electron-phonon coupling on the electronic structure. These results reveal a scenario of the emergence of the superconducting gap within an electron-phonon coupling induced pseudogap and have significant implications in the study of high temperature superconductors.

  19. Active Protection of an MgB2 Test Coil

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Keun; Hahn, Seungyong; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results of a study, experimental and computational, of a detect-and-activate-the-heater protection technique applied to a magnesium diboride (MgB2) test coil operated in semi-persistent mode. The test coil with a winding ID of 25 cm and wound with ~500-m long reacted MgB2 wire was operated at 4.2 K immersed in a bath of liquid helium. In this active technique, upon the initiation of a “hot spot” of a length ~10 cm, induced by a “quench heater,” a “protection heater” (PH) of ~600-cm long planted within the test coil is activated. The normal zone created by the PH is large enough to absorb the test coil’s entire initial stored energy and still keeps the peak temperature within the winding below ~260 K. PMID:22081754

  20. Neutron Microtomography of MgB2 Superconducting Multifilament Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trtik, Pavel; Scheuerlein, Christian; Alknes, Patrick; Meyer, Michael; Schmid, Florian; Lehmann, Eberhard

    Neutron imaging of sub-10-micrometres spatial resolution has been recently achieved in 2D mode within the framework of the Neutron Microscope project at the Paul Scherrer Institut. Here we report on the development of the PSI Neutron Microscope instrument and the results of the first microtomographic imaging experiment of multifilament superconducting MgB2 wire. The sample of MgB2 superconducting 37 multifilaments embedded in copper-nickel matrix was investigated -in microtomographic mode- with the scientific interest regarding the distribution of boron within the individual superconducting filaments (about 40 μm in diameter). The resulting tomographic dataset revealed the distribution of boron within the entire 0.8 mm thick multifilamental wire with the isotropic voxel size of 2.6 micrometres.

  1. Superconducting and Normal State Properties of OsB2*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yogesh; Niazi, A.; Zong, X.; Suh, B. J.; Vannette, M. W.; Prozorov, R.; Johnston, D. C.

    2007-03-01

    OsB2 is a layered superhard metallic material that was found to superconduct below Tc= 2.1 K.^1 We report the first detailed measurements of the static and dynamic magnetic susceptibilities χ, electrical resistivity, heat capacity Cp, penetration depth, and ^11B NMR on OsB2 to characterize its superconducting and normal state properties. The results confirm that OsB2 is a bulk superconductor below Tc= 2.1 K@. Its properties can be described by a close to weak-coupling s-wave BCS model with an electron-phonon coupling constant λ= 0.4--0.5, δ(0)/(kBTc) 1.9, a small Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ of order 5 or less, and a small zero-temperature critical magnetic field of roughly 500 Oe. The ^11B NMR measurements in the normal state show a nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time T1= 2.1 s at room temperature and a Korringa law with T1T = 610 s.K at lower T, and a correspondingly small T-independent Knight shift. These results indicate a small s character of the conduction electron wave function at the B site at the Fermi level. Our results will be compared to corresponding data for MgB2.1. J. K. Vandenberg et al., Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 889 (1975).^*Supported by the USDOE under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-82. Permanent address: Dept. Phys., The Catholic Univ. Korea.

  2. Mass Customized Technical Textiles in the B2B Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, R.; Barteld, M.; Grafmüller, L.; Mosig, T.; Weiß, M.

    2017-10-01

    Mass Customization is a great opportunity for textile companies for both staying competitive in high-wage countries and offering inexpensive, customized products. Within the area of Technical Textiles, this study focuses on the B2B sector and shows the status quo, potentials and strengths. Both management and technological issues are addressed. For the former, business models and the value co-creation process are dealt with, for the latter, the focus is on modelling.

  3. Determination of water-soluble vitamins in multivitamin dietary supplements and in artichokes by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Serni, Enrico; Audino, Valeria; Del Carlo, Sara; Manera, Clementina; Saccomanni, Giuseppe; Macchia, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Several procedures of extraction with solvents for the simultaneous determination of vitamin C and some vitamins belonging to the B group (thiamine, riboflavine, nicotinic acid and nicotinamide) in multivitamin preparations and in artichokes (Cynara cardunculus subsp. scolymus [L.] Hegi) were developed. Different experimental conditions were used, in terms of heat treatment, composition and pH of the extraction mixture, with particular attention to high-temperature steps; purification of the extracts with solid phase extraction and stabilisation through lyophilisation were discussed. Analyses of the extracts were conducted by capillary electrophoresis in micellar electrokinetic chromatography modality. Borate buffer at pH 8.2 was used, and sodium dodecyl sulphate was added to the background electrolyte as surfactant. A range of linearity was determined and calibration curves were plotted for all the analytes.

  4. Sunlight and Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Wacker, Matthias; Holick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is the sunshine vitamin that has been produced on this earth for more than 500 million years. During exposure to sunlight 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin absorbs UV B radiation and is converted to previtamin D3 which in turn isomerizes into vitamin D3. Previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 also absorb UV B radiation and are converted into a variety of photoproducts some of which have unique biologic properties. Sun induced vitamin D synthesis is greatly influenced by season, time of day, latitude, altitude, air pollution, skin pigmentation, sunscreen use, passing through glass and plastic, and aging. Vitamin D is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidneys into 25-hydroxyvitamin D which is a major circulating form and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D which is the biologically active form respectively. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D plays an important role in regulating calcium and phosphate metabolism for maintenance of metabolic functions and for skeletal health. Most cells and organs in the body have a vitamin D receptor and many cells and organs are able to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. As a result 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D influences a large number of biologic pathways which may help explain association studies relating vitamin D deficiency and living at higher latitudes with increased risk for many chronic diseases including autoimmune diseases, some cancers, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes. A three-part strategy of increasing food fortification programs with vitamin D, sensible sun exposure recommendations and encouraging ingestion of a vitamin D supplement when needed should be implemented to prevent global vitamin D deficiency and its negative health consequences. PMID:24494042

  5. Vitamin E Nicotinate

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Kimbell R.; Suzuki, Yuichiro J.

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin E refers to a family of compounds that function as lipid-soluble antioxidants capable of preventing lipid peroxidation. Naturally occurring forms of vitamin E include tocopherols and tocotrienols. Vitamin E in dietary supplements and fortified foods is often an esterified form of α-tocopherol, the most common esters being acetate and succinate. The vitamin E esters are hydrolyzed and converted into free α-tocopherol prior to absorption in the intestinal tract. Because its functions are relevant to many chronic diseases, vitamin E has been extensively studied in respect to a variety of diseases as well as cosmetic applications. The forms of vitamin E most studied are natural α-tocopherol and the esters α-tocopheryl acetate and α-tocopheryl succinate. A small number of studies include or focus on another ester form, α-tocopheryl nicotinate, an ester of vitamin E and niacin. Some of these studies raise the possibility of differences in metabolism and in efficacy between vitamin E nicotinate and other forms of vitamin E. Recently, through metabolomics studies, we identified that α-tocopheryl nicotinate occurs endogenously in the heart and that its level is dramatically decreased in heart failure, indicating the possible biological importance of this vitamin E ester. Since knowledge about vitamin E nicotinate is not readily available in the literature, the purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate published reports, specifically with respect to α-tocopheryl nicotinate with an emphasis on the differences from natural α-tocopherol or α-tocopheryl acetate. PMID:28335380

  6. Strength anomaly in B2 FeAl single crystals

    SciT

    Yoshimi, K.; Hanada, S.; Yoo, M.H.

    1994-12-31

    Strength and deformation microstructure of B2 Fe-39 and 48%Al single crystals (composition given in atomic percent), which were fully annealed to remove frozen-in vacancies, have been investigated at temperatures between room temperature and 1073K. The hardness of as-homogenized Fe-48Al is higher than that of as-homogenized Fe-39Al while after additional annealing at 698K the hardness of Fe-48Al becomes lower than that of Fe-39Al. Fe-39Al single crystals slowly cooled after homogenizing at a high temperature were deformed in compression as a function of temperature and crystal orientation. A peak of yield strength appears around 0.5T{sub m} (T{sub m} = melting temperature). Themore » orientation dependence of the critical resolved shear stress does not obey Schmid`s law even at room temperature and is quite different from that of b.c.c. metals and B2 intermetallics at low temperatures. At the peak temperature slip transition from <111>-type to <001>-type is found to occur macroscopically and microscopically, while it is observed in TEM that some of the [111] dislocations decompose into [101] and [010] on the (1096I) plane below the peak temperature. The physical sources for the positive temperature dependence of yield stress of B2 FeAl are discussed based on the obtained results.« less

  7. Fine-Filament MgB2 Superconductor Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantu, Sherrie

    2015-01-01

    Hyper Tech Research, Inc., has developed fine-filament magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconductor wire for motors and generators used in turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems. In Phase I of the project, Hyper Tech demonstrated that MgB2 multifilament wires (<10 micrometers) could reduce alternating current (AC) losses that occur due to hysteresis, eddy currents, and coupling losses. The company refined a manufacturing method that incorporates a magnesium-infiltration process and provides a tenfold enhancement in critical current density over wire made by a conventional method involving magnesium-boron powder mixtures. Hyper Tech also improved its wire-drawing capability to fabricate fine multifilament strands. In Phase II, the company developed, manufactured, and tested the wire for superconductor and engineering current density and AC losses. Hyper Tech also fabricated MgB2 rotor coil packs for a superconducting generator. The ultimate goal is to enable low-cost, round, lightweight, low-AC-loss superconductors for motor and generator stator coils operating at 25 K in next-generation turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems.

  8. Selenidation of epitaxial silicene on ZrB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggers, F. B.; Yamada-Takamura, Y.; Kovalgin, A. Y.; de Jong, M. P.

    2018-01-01

    The deposition of elemental Se on epitaxial silicene on ZrB2 thin films was investigated with synchrotron-based core-level photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy electron diffraction. The deposition of Se at room temperature caused the appearance of Si 2p peaks with chemical shifts of n × 0.51 ± 0.04 eV (n = 1-4), suggesting the formation of SiSe2. This shows that capping the silicene monolayer, without affecting its structural and electronic properties, is not possible with Se. The annealing treatments that followed caused the desorption of Se and Si, resulting in the etching of the Si atoms formerly part of the silicene layer, and the formation of bare ZrB2(0001) surface area. In addition, a ZrB2(0001)-(√7 × 3)R40.9° surface reconstruction was observed, attributed to a Se-termination of the surface of the transition metal diboride thin film.

  9. Agent-based services for B2B electronic commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Elizabeth; Ivezic, Nenad; Rhodes, Tom; Peng, Yun

    2000-12-01

    The potential of agent-based systems has not been realized yet, in part, because of the lack of understanding of how the agent technology supports industrial needs and emerging standards. The area of business-to-business electronic commerce (b2b e-commerce) is one of the most rapidly developing sectors of industry with huge impact on manufacturing practices. In this paper, we investigate the current state of agent technology and the feasibility of applying agent-based computing to b2b e-commerce in the circuit board manufacturing sector. We identify critical tasks and opportunities in the b2b e-commerce area where agent-based services can best be deployed. We describe an implemented agent-based prototype system to facilitate the bidding process for printed circuit board manufacturing and assembly. These activities are taking place within the Internet Commerce for Manufacturing (ICM) project, the NIST- sponsored project working with industry to create an environment where small manufacturers of mechanical and electronic components may participate competitively in virtual enterprises that manufacture printed circuit assemblies.

  10. Modernization of B-2 Data, Video, and Control Systems Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cmar, Mark D.; Maloney, Christian T.; Butala, Vishal D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA s third largest thermal-vacuum facility with propellant systems capability. B-2 has completed a modernization effort of its facility legacy data, video and control systems infrastructure to accommodate modern integrated testing and Information Technology (IT) Security requirements. Integrated systems tests have been conducted to demonstrate the new data, video and control systems functionality and capability. Discrete analog signal conditioners have been replaced by new programmable, signal processing hardware that is integrated with the data system. This integration supports automated calibration and verification of the analog subsystem. Modern measurement systems analysis (MSA) tools are being developed to help verify system health and measurement integrity. Legacy hard wired digital data systems have been replaced by distributed Fibre Channel (FC) network connected digitizers where high speed sampling rates have increased to 256,000 samples per second. Several analog video cameras have been replaced by digital image and storage systems. Hard-wired analog control systems have been replaced by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), fiber optic networks (FON) infrastructure and human machine interface (HMI) operator screens. New modern IT Security procedures and schemes have been employed to control data access and process control flows. Due to the nature of testing possible at B-2, flexibility and configurability of systems has been central to the architecture during modernization.

  11. Modernization of B-2 Data, Video, and Control Systems Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cmar, Mark D.; Maloney, Christian T.; Butala, Vishal D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA's third largest thermal-vacuum facility with propellant systems capability. B-2 has completed a modernization effort of its facility legacy data, video and control systems infrastructure to accommodate modern integrated testing and Information Technology (IT) Security requirements. Integrated systems tests have been conducted to demonstrate the new data, video and control systems functionality and capability. Discrete analog signal conditioners have been replaced by new programmable, signal processing hardware that is integrated with the data system. This integration supports automated calibration and verification of the analog subsystem. Modern measurement systems analysis (MSA) tools are being developed to help verify system health and measurement integrity. Legacy hard wired digital data systems have been replaced by distributed Fibre Channel (FC) network connected digitizers where high speed sampling rates have increased to 256,000 samples per second. Several analog video cameras have been replaced by digital image and storage systems. Hard-wired analog control systems have been replaced by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), fiber optic networks (FON) infrastructure and human machine interface (HMI) operator screens. New modern IT Security procedures and schemes have been employed to control data access and process control flows. Due to the nature of testing possible at B-2, flexibility and configurability of systems has been central to the architecture during modernization.

  12. Discovery of ^{13}CCC in SgrB2(M)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesen, Thomas; Mookerjea, Bhaswati; Stutzki, Jürgen; Breier, Alexander A.; Buechling, Thomas; Fuchs, Guido W.

    2017-06-01

    Small carbon chain molecules like linear C_3 are thought to play a crucial role in the formation of larger, complex molecules, including pre-biotic species. The formation pathways of organic molecules with carbon chains as backbones is by far not well understood. Studies of isotope fractionation have proven to be a useful tool of tracing chemical reaction pathways and to elucidate formation and destruction processes of interstellar molecules. Recent velocity-resolved observations in the far-infrared have resulted in the detection of C_3 ro-vibrational transitions in the warm envelopes of star-forming hot cores W31C, W49N and DR21(OH). Multiple far-infrared transitions of C_3 have also been detected towards the Galactic center molecular clouds SgrB2(M) and Sgr B2(N). Since C^+ is involved in an important step of the formation route of the C_3 molecule, it is likely that effects of isotopic fractionation of C^+ will manifest itself in the ^{12}C_3/^{13}CCC and ^{12}C_3/C^{13}CC ratios as well. Based on high resolution THz- laboratory measurements of C_3 and its ^{13}C-isotopologues conducted at the Kassel laboratories, we used the GREAT-receiver onboard SOFIA for a first ever detection of ^{13}CCC towards SgrB2(M). In this talk we present results and possible implications of the observation.

  13. Intraoperative corneal thickness measurements during corneal collagen cross-linking with isotonic riboflavin solution without dextran in corneal ectasia.

    PubMed

    Cınar, Yasin; Cingü, Abdullah Kürşat; Sahin, Alparslan; Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Yüksel, Harun; Caca, Ihsan

    2014-03-01

    Abstract Objective: To monitor the changes in corneal thickness during the corneal collagen cross-linking procedure by using isotonic riboflavin solution without dextran in ectatic corneal diseases. The corneal thickness measurements were obtained before epithelial removal, after epithelial removal, following the instillation of isotonic riboflavin solution without dextran for 30 min, and after 10 min of ultraviolet A irradiation. Eleven eyes of eleven patients with progressive keratoconus (n = 10) and iatrogenic corneal ectasia (n = 1) were included in this study. The mean thinnest pachymetric measurements were 391.82 ± 30.34 µm (320-434 µm) after de-epithelialization of the cornea, 435 ± 21.17 µm (402-472 µm) following 30 min instillation of isotonic riboflavin solution without dextran and 431.73 ± 20.64 µm (387-461 µm) following 10 min of ultraviolet A irradiation to the cornea. Performing corneal cross-linking procedure with isotonic riboflavin solution without dextran might not induce corneal thinning but a little swelling throughout the procedure.

  14. Alternative Electron-Transfer Channels Ensure Ultrafast Deactivation of Light-Induced Excited States in Riboflavin Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Zanetti-Polzi, Laura; Aschi, Massimiliano; Amadei, Andrea; Daidone, Isabella

    2017-07-20

    Flavoproteins, containing flavin chromophores, are enzymes capable of transferring electrons at very high speeds. The ultrafast photoinduced electron-transfer (ET) kinetics of riboflavin binding protein to the excited riboflavin was studied by femtosecond spectroscopy and found to occur within a few hundred femtoseconds [ Zhong and Zewail, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2001, 98, 11867-11872 ]. This ultrafast kinetics was attributed to the presence of two aromatic rings that could transfer the electron to riboflavin: the side chains of tryptophan 156 and tyrosine 75. However, the underlying ET mechanism remained unclear. Here, using a hybrid quantum mechanical-molecular dynamics approach, we perform ET dynamics simulations taking into account the motion of the protein and the solvent upon ET. This approach reveals that ET occurs via a major reaction channel involving tyrosine 75 (83%) and a minor one involving tryptophan 156 (17%). We also show that the protein environment is designed to ensure the fast quenching of the riboflavin excited state.

  15. Effects of methodological variation on assessment of riboflavin status using the erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient assay.

    PubMed

    Hill, Marilyn H E; Bradley, Angela; Mushtaq, Sohail; Williams, Elizabeth A; Powers, Hilary J

    2009-07-01

    Riboflavin status is usually measured as the in vitro stimulation with flavin adenine dinucleotide of the erythrocyte enzyme glutathione reductase, and expressed as an erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient (EGRAC). This method is used for the National Diet and Nutrition Surveys (NDNS) of the UK. In the period between the 1990 and 2003 surveys of UK adults, the estimated prevalence of riboflavin deficiency, expressed as an EGRAC value > or = 1.30, increased from 2 to 46 % in males and from 1 to 34 % in females. We hypothesised that subtle but important differences in the detail of the methodology between the two NDNS accounted for this difference. We carried out an evaluation of the performance of the methods used in the two NDNS and compared against an 'in-house' method, using blood samples collected from a riboflavin intervention study. Results indicated that the method used for the 1990 NDNS gave a significantly lower mean EGRAC value than both the 2003 NDNS method and the 'in-house' method (P < 0.0001). The key differences between the methods relate to the concentration of FAD used in the assay and the duration of the period of incubation of FAD with enzyme. The details of the EGRAC method should be standardised for use in different laboratories and over time. Additionally, it is proposed that consideration be given to re-evaluating the basis of the EGRAC threshold for riboflavin deficiency.

  16. Isolation and partial characterisation of human riboflavin carrier protein and the estimation of its levels during human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Natraj, U; George, S; Kadam, P

    1988-06-01

    Human cord serum contains protein(s) capable of binding to [14C]-riboflavin. Riboflavin-bound protein cross-reacts with anti-serum to chicken riboflavin carrier protein (cRCP). The carrier protein was isolated using affinity chromatography on a riboflavin AH Sepharose column. Bulk isolation and purification was also attempted by a combination of ion exchange, gel filtration and gel permeation chromatography on HPLC. The protein so isolated had a molecular weight of 36,000 +/- 2,000 daltons with an isoelectric point of 4.1. The levels of RCP in maternal serum during pregnancy were monitored using a sensitive heterologous radioimmunoassay system, using cRCP as standard and anti serum to cRCP. The levels of the protein increased after 4 months and remained significantly elevated up to 8 months. Although the level of the protein in the maternal serum remained low until 4 months, its level in amniotic fluid was elevated 2-3-fold as compared to that in serum.

  17. The effectiveness of riboflavin and ultraviolet light pathogen reduction technology in eliminating Trypanosoma cruzi from leukoreduced whole blood.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Marco, Teresa; Cancino-Faure, Beatriz; Girona-Llobera, Enrique; Alcover, M Magdalena; Riera, Cristina; Fisa, Roser

    2017-06-01

    The parasitic Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, which is mainly transmitted by insect vectors. Other infection routes, both in endemic and in nonendemic areas, include organ and marrow transplantation, congenital transmission, and blood transfusion. Asymptomatic chronic chagasic individuals may have a low and transient parasitemia in peripheral blood and, consequently, they can unknowingly transmit the disease via blood transfusion. Riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light pathogen reduction is a method to reduce pathogen transfusion transmission risk based on damage to the pathogen nucleic acids. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of this technology for the elimination of T. cruzi parasites in artificially contaminated whole blood units (WBUs) and thus for decreasing the risk of T. cruzi transfusion transmission. The contaminated WBUs were leukoreduced by filtration and treated with riboflavin and UV light. The level of pathogen reduction was quantified by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) as a viability assay. The RNA (cDNA) quantification of the parasites showed a more than 99% reduction of viable T. cruzi parasites after leukoreduction and a complete reduction (100%) after the riboflavin and UV light treatment. Riboflavin and UV light treatment and leukoreduction used in conjunction appears to eliminate significant amounts of viable T. cruzi in whole blood. Both strategies could complement other blood bank measures already implemented to prevent the transmission of T. cruzi via blood transfusion. © 2017 AABB.

  18. High temperature behavior of B2-based ruthenium aluminide systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fang

    Ru-modified NiAl-based bond coats have the potential to improve the durability of Superalloy-Thermal Barrier Coating systems (TBCs) for advanced gas turbine engines. A fundamental understanding of the high temperature mechanical behavior across the Ni-Al-Ru B2 phase field can provide direction for the development of these new bond coats for TBCs. The purpose of this study has been to describe the fundamental processes of creep deformation in single phase B2 Ru-Al-Ni ternary alloys which would form the basis for the bond coats. To accomplish this, five ternary alloys with compositions located within the B2 field across the NiAl-RuAl phase region were fabricated and investigated. Special emphasis was placed on characterizing creep deformation and describing the operative creep mechanisms in these alloys. At room temperature, brittle failure was observed in the Ni-rich alloys in compression, while improved strength and ductility were displayed in two Ru-rich ternary alloys at temperatures up to 700°C. Exceptional creep strength was observed in these alloys, as compared to other high melting temperature B2 intermetallics. A continuous increase of the melting temperature and creep resistance with the increasing of the Ru/Ni ratio in these alloys was observed. Post-creep dislocation analyses identified the presence of <100> and <110> edge dislocations in the Ni-rich alloys, while uniformly distributed jogged <100> screw dislocations predominated in the Ru-rich ternary alloys. A transition of the creep mechanism from viscous glide controlled to jogged screw motion in these Ru-Al-Ni ternary B2 alloys with increasing Ru/Ni ratio is demonstrated by the characteristics of the creep deformation process, stress change creep tests, post-creep dislocation analyses, and numerical modeling. Additionally, the knowledge of the cyclic oxidation behavior of ruthenium aluminide-based alloy is essential, as many high-temperature applications for which this intermetallic might be

  19. Detection of amino acetonitrile in Sgr B2(N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, A.; Menten, K. M.; Comito, C.; Müller, H. S. P.; Schilke, P.; Ott, J.; Thorwirth, S.; Hieret, C.

    2008-04-01

    Context: Amino acids are building blocks of proteins and therefore key ingredients for the origin of life. The simplest amino acid, glycine (NH2CH2COOH), has long been searched for in the interstellar medium but has not been unambiguously detected so far. At the same time, more and more complex molecules have been newly found toward the prolific Galactic center source Sagittarius B2. Aims: Since the search for glycine has turned out to be extremely difficult, we aimed at detecting a chemically related species (possibly a direct precursor), amino acetonitrile (NH2CH2CN). Methods: With the IRAM 30 m telescope we carried out a complete line survey of the hot core regions Sgr B2(N) and (M) in the 3 mm range, plus partial surveys at 2 and 1.3 mm. We analyzed our 30 m line survey in the LTE approximation and modeled the emission of all known molecules simultaneously. We identified spectral features at the frequencies predicted for amino acetonitrile lines having intensities compatible with a unique rotation temperature. We also used the Very Large Array to look for cold, extended emission from amino acetonitrile. Results: We detected amino acetonitrile in Sgr B2(N) in our 30 m telescope line survey and conducted confirmatory observations of selected lines with the IRAM Plateau de Bure and the Australia Telescope Compact Array interferometers. The emission arises from a known hot core, the Large Molecule Heimat, and is compact with a source diameter of 2 arcsec (0.08 pc). We derived a column density of 2.8 × 1016 cm-2, a temperature of 100 K, and a linewidth of 7 km s-1. Based on the simultaneously observed continuum emission, we calculated a density of 1.7 × 108 cm-3, a mass of 2340 M_⊙, and an amino acetonitrile fractional abundance of 2.2 × 10-9. The high abundance and temperature may indicate that amino acetonitrile is formed by grain surface chemistry. We did not detect any hot, compact amino acetonitrile emission toward Sgr B2(M) or any cold, extended emission

  20. Vitamin B6

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... food sources of vitamin B6: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for vitamin ...

  1. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... food sources of vitamin B12: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for vitamin ...

  2. Vitamin D Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... RDA through supplements and the foods you eat. Foods with natural vitamin D include: • Certain fish: salmon, sardines, mackerel, tuna • Cod liver oil • Shiitake mushrooms • Egg yolks Foods that often have added vitamin D include: • Dairy ...

  3. Vitamin D and Influenza

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    industrial absenteeism caused by colds and respiratory illness; days of missed work was reduced by 30%. (n=3031) Homes AD, et al. Industrial...greater than ~87nmol/L. Vitamin D from sunlight affects TB The 1903 Nobel prize was awarded for the discovery that vitamin D from sunlight could cure cutaneous TB….

  4. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However, sub...

  5. Safety of vitamin A.

    PubMed

    Bendich, A; Langseth, L

    1989-02-01

    Vitamin A adequacy is discussed in terms of the recommended allowances appropriate for the needs of the majority of individuals. Deficiency can result in xerophthalmia and permanent blindness and in increased mortality rates among children. Toxicity has been associated with the overconsumption of vitamin A supplements. Acute hypervitaminosis A may occur after ingestion of greater than or equal to 500,000 IU (over 100 times the RDA) by adults or proportionately less by children. Symptoms are usually reversible on cessation of overdosing. Factors influencing chronic hypervitaminosis A include dosing regimen, physical form of the vitamin, general health status, dietary factors such as ethanol and protein intake, and interactions with vitamins C, D, E, and K. Both excess and deficiency of vitamin A in pregnant animals was shown to be teratogenic. In humans, congenital malformations associated with maternal over-use of high doses of vitamin A were reported but no cause-and-effect relationship has been established. Deficiency of the vitamin during pregnancy has also been associated with congenital abnormalities. Reported incidences of vitamin A toxicity are rare and have averaged fewer than 10 cases per year from 1976 to 1987.

  6. Effects of dietary nitrogen levels and carbohydrate sources on apparent ruminal synthesis of some B vitamins in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Beaudet, V; Gervais, R; Graulet, B; Nozière, P; Doreau, M; Fanchone, A; Castagnino, D D S; Girard, C L

    2016-04-01

    Effects of nitrogen level and carbohydrate source on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were evaluated using 4 lactating Holstein cows distributed in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with treatments following a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Cows were fitted with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum. The treatments were 2 N levels and 2 carbohydrate sources. The diet with the high N level provided 14% crude protein, calculated to meet 110% of the protein requirements and an adequate supply in rumen-degradable protein, whereas the diet with the low N level contained 11% crude protein, calculated to meet 80% of the protein requirements with a shortage in rumen-degradable protein. Carbohydrate source treatments differed by their nature (i.e., high in starch from barley, corn, and wheat, or high in fiber from soybean hulls and dehydrated beet pulp). All 4 diets were isoenergetic, based on corn silage, and had the same forage-to-concentrate ratio (60:40, dry matter basis). Duodenal flow was determined using YbCl3 as a marker. Each B-vitamin ARS was calculated as duodenal flow minus daily intake. The intake of several B vitamins varied among treatments, but because the animals consumed a similar amount of feed every day (average of 20 kg of dry matter/d) the difference was mostly due to vitamin content of each ingredient and their relative proportion in the diets. Decreasing N concentration in the diet reduced vitamin B6 duodenal flow and increased its apparent ruminal degradation. It also decreased duodenal flow and ARS of folates. The high-starch diets increased duodenal flow and ruminal balance of riboflavin, vitamin B6, and folates, whereas the high-fiber diets increased vitamin B12 ARS and duodenal flow. These effects on apparent synthesis are possibly due to changes in ruminal fermentation. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fractographic Analysis of HfB2-SiC and ZrB2-SiC Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mecholsky, J.J., Jr.; Ellerby, D. T.; Johnson, S. M.; Stackpoole, M. M.; Loehman, R. E.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Hafnium diboride-silicon carbide and zirconium diboride-silicon carbide composites are potential materials for high temperature leading edge applications on reusable launch vehicles. In order to establish material constants necessary for evaluation of in-situ fracture, bars fractured in four point flexure were examined using fractographic principles. The fracture toughness was determined from measurements of the critical crack sizes and the strength values, and the crack branching constants were established to use in forensic fractography of materials for future flight applications. The fracture toughnesses range from about 13 MPam (sup 1/2) at room temperature to about 6 MPam (sup 1/2) at 1400 C for ZrB2-SiC composites and from about 11 MPam (sup 1/2) at room temperature to about 4 MPam (sup 1/2) at 1400 C for HfB2-SiC composites.

  8. Vitamin D and obesity.

    PubMed

    Vanlint, Simon

    2013-03-20

    Obesity is a significant health problem world-wide, particularly in developed nations. Vitamin D deficiency is pandemic, and has been implicated in a wide variety of disease states. This paper seeks to examine the consistently reported relationship between obesity and low vitamin D concentrations, with reference to the possible underlying mechanisms. The possibility that vitamin D may assist in preventing or treating obesity is also examined, and recommendations for future research are made. There is a clear need for adequately-powered, prospective interventions which include baseline measurement of 25D concentrations and involve adequate doses of supplemental vitamin D. Until such studies have been reported, the role of vitamin D supplementation in obesity prevention remains uncertain.

  9. Use of medicines by older people in a large British national survey, and their relation to vitamin status indices.

    PubMed

    Bates, C J; Walmsley, C M; Prentice, A; Finch, S

    1999-03-01

    To describe the extent of use of medicines by older people living in Britain, and to explore relationships with vitamin status indices. The National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 years and over collected data from a British sample during 1994-95. The present study has made novel use of it, to relate medicine use with biochemical indices of vitamin status. Eighty postcode areas, selected randomly from mainland Britain. 1506 people, 65 years and over gave information about use of medication, and a 4-day weighed food record. Three-quarters gave blood for status indices. 78% of those living in the community and 93% of those in institutions were using medication. Certain vitamin status indices: plasma retinol, erythrocyte folate and riboflavin, paradoxically suggested better status in users than in non-users of antihypertensive, gastrointestinal, central nervous system, corticosteroid or diabetic drugs. There was evidence of a link with renal insufficiency, especially for plasma retinol, but neither this nor increased nutrient intake, acute phase effects or haemoconcentration could explain the paradoxical associations. Caution is needed in interpreting certain vitamin status indices, especially in older people who are extensively using medicines. New vitamin indices are needed, to avoid confounding interferences.

  10. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum LZ227, a potential probiotic strain producing B-group vitamins.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Zhou, Qingqing; Gu, Qing

    2016-09-20

    B-group vitamins play an important role in human metabolism, whose deficiencies are associated with a variety of disorders and diseases. Certain microorganisms such as Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been shown to have capacities for B-group vitamin production and thus could potentially replace chemically synthesized vitamins for food fortification. A potential probiotic strain named Lactobacillus plantarum LZ227, which was isolated from raw cow milk in this study, exhibits the ability to produce B-group vitamins. Complete genome sequencing of LZ227 was performed to gain insights into the genetic elements involved in B-group vitamin production. The genome of LZ227 contains a circular 3,131,750-bp chromosome, three circular plasmids and two predicted linear plasmids. LZ227 also contains gene clusters for biosynthesis of both riboflavin and folate. This genome sequence provides a basis for further elucidation of its molecular genetics and probiotic functions, and will facilitate its applications as starter cultures in food industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Screening Natural Content of Water-Soluble B Vitamins in Fish: Enzymatic Extraction, HILIC Separation, and Tandem Mass Spectrometric Determination.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Niladri Sekhar; Kumar, K Ashok; Ajeeshkumar, K K; Kumari, K R Remya; Vishnu, K V; Anandan, Rangasamy; Mathew, Suseela; Ravishankar, C N

    2017-05-01

    Despite the potential of LC with tandem MS (MS/MS) in improving sensitivity and selectivity, analytical methods are scarce for the determination of protein-bound and phosphorylated forms of B vitamins in food. This prompted us to develop a method for LC-MS/MS determination of naturally occurring nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid, and cyanocobalamin in fish. Baseline separation of the vitamins was achieved in a hydrophilic interaction LC condition. An ultrasonication-assisted enzymatic extraction protocol for sample preparation was optimized and validated. The time required for extraction was significantly reduced (to 4 h), while maintaining good extraction efficiency. Acetonitrile content (80%, v/v) in the prepared sample was found to be optimum for excellent peak shape and sensitivity. The dynamic linear range of the vitamins ranged from 2.5 to 500 ng/g, and the regression coefficient values were greater than 0.99. LOQ values ranged from 0.4 to 50 ng/g for the different vitamins. The spike recovery values at 50 and 100 ng/g ranged from 87.5 to 97.5%. The intra- and interday precision values were satisfactory. Accuracy of the developed method was determined by analysis of a Certified Reference Material. The method could also be used for unambiguous determination of the natural content of the target vitamins in fish.

  12. Biomechanical Strengthening of the Human Cornea Induced by Nanoplatform-Based Transepithelial Riboflavin/UV-A Corneal Cross-Linking.

    PubMed

    Labate, Cristina; Lombardo, Marco; Lombardo, Giuseppe; De Santo, Maria Penelope

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanical stiffening effect induced by nanoplatform-based transepithelial riboflavin/UV-A cross-linking protocol using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Twelve eye bank donor human sclerocorneal tissues were investigated using a commercial atomic force microscope operated in force spectroscopy mode. Four specimens underwent transepithelial corneal cross-linking using a hypotonic solution of 0.1% riboflavin with biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin plus enhancers (trometamol and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and UV-A irradiation with a 10 mW/cm2 device for 9 minutes. After treatment, the corneal epithelium was removed using the Amoils brush, and the Young's modulus of the most anterior stroma was quantified as a function of scan rate by AFM. The results were compared with those collected from four specimens that underwent conventional riboflavin/UV-A corneal cross-linking and four untreated specimens. The average Young's modulus of the most anterior stroma after the nanoplatform-based transepithelial and conventional riboflavin/UV-A corneal cross-linking treatments was 2.5 times (P < 0.001) and 1.7 times (P < 0.001) greater than untreated controls respectively. The anterior stromal stiffness was significantly different between the two corneal cross-linking procedures (P < 0.001). The indentation depth decreased after corneal cross-linking treatments, ranging from an average of 2.4 ± 0.3 μm in untreated samples to an average of 1.2 ± 0.1 μm and 1.8 ± 0.1 μm after nanoplatform-based transepithelial and conventional cross-linking, respectively. The present nanotechnology-based transepithelial riboflavin/UV-A corneal cross-linking was effective to improve the biomechanical strength of the most anterior stroma of the human cornea.

  13. Molecular mechanisms of riboflavin responsiveness in patients with ETF-QO variations and multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Nanna; Frerman, Frank E; Corydon, Thomas J; Palmfeldt, Johan; Bross, Peter; Gregersen, Niels; Olsen, Rikke K J

    2012-08-01

    Riboflavin-responsive forms of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (RR-MADD) have been known for years, but with presumed defects in the formation of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) co-factor rather than genetic defects of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO). It was only recently established that a number of RR-MADD patients carry genetic defects in ETF-QO and that the well-documented clinical efficacy of riboflavin treatment may be based on a chaperone effect that can compensate for inherited folding defects of ETF-QO. In the present study, we investigate the molecular mechanisms and the genotype-phenotype relationships for the riboflavin responsiveness in MADD, using a human HEK-293 cell expression system. We studied the influence of riboflavin and temperature on the steady-state level and the activity of variant ETF-QO proteins identified in patients with RR-MADD, or non- and partially responsive MADD. Our results showed that variant ETF-QO proteins associated with non- and partially responsive MADD caused severe misfolding of ETF-QO variant proteins when cultured in media with supplemented concentrations of riboflavin. In contrast, variant ETF-QO proteins associated with RR-MADD caused milder folding defects when cultured at the same conditions. Decreased thermal stability of the variants showed that FAD does not completely correct the structural defects induced by the variation. This may cause leakage of electrons and increased reactive oxygen species, as reflected by increased amounts of cellular peroxide production in HEK-293 cells expressing the variant ETF-QO proteins. Finally, we found indications of prolonged association of variant ETF-QO protein with the Hsp60 chaperonin in the mitochondrial matrix, supporting indications of folding defects in the variant ETF-QO proteins.

  14. Neurologic Manifestations of Vitamin B Deficiency after Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Punchai, Suriya; Hanipah, Zubaidah Nor; Meister, Katherine M; Schauer, Philip R; Brethauer, Stacy A; Aminian, Ali

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, clinical presentation, and outcomes of neurologic disorders secondary to vitamin B deficiencies following bariatric surgery. Patients at a single academic institution who underwent bariatric surgery and developed neurologic complications secondary to low levels of vitamins B1, B2, B6, and B12 between the years 2004 and 2015 were studied. In total, 47 (0.7%) bariatric surgical patients (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass n = 36, sleeve gastrectomy n = 9, and duodenal switch n = 2) developed neurologic manifestations secondary to vitamin B deficiencies. Eleven (23%) patients developed postoperative anatomical complications contributed to poor oral intake. Median duration to onset of neurologic manifestation following surgery was 12 months (IQR, 5-32). Vitamin deficiencies reported in the cohort included B1 (n = 30), B2 (n = 1), B6 (n = 12), and B12 (n = 12) deficiency. The most common manifestations were paresthesia (n = 31), muscle weakness (n = 15), abnormal gait (n = 11), and polyneuropathy (n = 7). Four patients were diagnosed with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) which was developed after gastric bypass (n = 3) and sleeve gastrectomy (n = 1). Seven patients required readmission for management of severe vitamin B deficiencies. Overall, resolution of neurologic symptoms with nutritional interventions and pharmacotherapy was noted in 40 patients (85%). The WKS was not reversible, and all four patients had residual mild ataxia and nystagmus at the last follow-up time. Nutritional neurologic disorders secondary to vitamin B deficiency are relatively uncommon after bariatric surgery. While neurologic disorders are reversible in most patients (85%) with vitamin replacements, persistent residual neurologic symptoms are common in patients with WKS.

  15. Sequential determination of fat- and water-soluble vitamins in green leafy vegetables during storage.

    PubMed

    Santos, J; Mendiola, J A; Oliveira, M B P P; Ibáñez, E; Herrero, M

    2012-10-26

    The simultaneous analysis of fat- and water-soluble vitamins from foods is a difficult task considering the wide range of chemical structures involved. In this work, a new procedure based on a sequential extraction and analysis of both types of vitamins is presented. The procedure couples several simple extraction steps to LC-MS/MS and LC-DAD in order to quantify the free vitamins contents in fresh-cut vegetables before and after a 10-days storage period. The developed method allows the correct quantification of vitamins C, B(1), B(2), B(3), B(5), B(6), B(9), E and provitamin A in ready-to-eat green leafy vegetable products including green lettuce, ruby red lettuce, watercress, swiss chard, lamb's lettuce, spearmint, spinach, wild rocket, pea leaves, mizuna, garden cress and red mustard. Using this optimized methodology, low LOQs were attained for the analyzed vitamins in less than 100 min, including extraction and vitamin analysis using 2 optimized procedures; good repeatability and linearity was achieved for all vitamins studied, while recoveries ranged from 83% to 105%. The most abundant free vitamins found in leafy vegetable products were vitamin C, provitamin A and vitamin E. The richest sample on vitamin C and provitamin A was pea leaves (154 mg/g fresh weight and 14.4 mg/100g fresh weight, respectively), whereas lamb's lettuce was the vegetable with the highest content on vitamin E (3.1 mg/100 g fresh weight). Generally, some losses of vitamins were detected after storage, although the behavior of each vitamin varied strongly among samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. MTHFR 677TT genotype and disease risk: is there a modulating role for B-vitamins?

    PubMed

    Reilly, R; McNulty, H; Pentieva, K; Strain, J J; Ward, M

    2014-02-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a critical folate-metabolising enzyme which requires riboflavin as its co-factor. A common polymorphism (677C→T) in the MTHFR gene results in reduced MTHFR activity in vivo which in turn leads to impaired folate metabolism and elevated homocysteine concentrations. Homozygosity for this polymorphism (TT genotype) is associated with an increased risk of a number of conditions including heart disease and stroke, but there is considerable variability in the extent of excess risk in various reports. The present review will explore the evidence which supports a role for this polymorphism as a risk factor for a number of adverse health outcomes, and the potential modulating roles for B-vitamins in alleviating disease risk. The evidence is convincing in the case which links this polymorphism with hypertension and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, particularly preeclampsia. Furthermore, elevated blood pressure was found to be highly responsive to riboflavin intervention specifically in individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype. Future intervention studies targeted at these genetically predisposed individuals are required to further investigate this novel gene-nutrient interaction. This polymorphism has also been associated with an increased risk of neural tube defects (NTD) and other adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, the evidence in this area has been inconsistent. Preliminary evidence has suggested that there may be a much greater need for women with the MTHFR 677TT genotype to adhere to the specific recommendation of commencing folic acid prior to conception for the prevention of NTD, but this requires further investigation.

  17. Enhancement of bradykinin and resensitization of its B2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Marcic, B; Deddish, P A; Jackman, H L; Erdös, E G

    1999-03-01

    We studied the enhancement of the effects of bradykinin B2 receptor agonists by agents that react with active centers of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) independent of enzymatic inactivation. The potentiation and the desensitization and resensitization of B2 receptor were assessed by measuring [3H]arachidonic acid release and [Ca2+]i mobilization in Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected to express human ACE and B2 receptor, or in endothelial cells with constitutively expressed ACE and receptor. Administration of bradykinin or its ACE-resistant analogue desensitized the receptor, but it was resensitized (arachidonic acid release or [Ca2+]i mobilization) by agents such as enalaprilat (1 micromol/L). Enalaprilat was inactive in the absence of ACE expression. La3+ (100 micromol/L) inhibited the apparent resensitization, probably by blocking the entry of extracellular calcium. Enalaprilat resensitized the receptor via ACE to release arachidonic acid by bradykinin at a lower concentration (5 nmol/L) than required to mobilize [Ca2+]i (1 micromol/L). Monoclonal antibodies inhibiting the ACE N-domain active center and polyclonal antiserum potentiated bradykinin. The snake venom peptide BPP5a and metabolites of angiotensin and bradykinin (angiotensin-[1-9], angiotensin-[1-7], bradykinin-[1-8]; 1 micromol/L) enhanced arachidonic acid release by bradykinin. Angiotensin-(1-9) and -(1-7) also resensitized the receptor. Enalaprilat potentiated the bradykinin effect in cells expressing a mutant ACE with a single N-domain active site. Agents that reacted with a single active site, on the N-domain or on the C-domain, potentiated bradykinin not by blocking its inactivation but by inducing crosstalk between ACE and the receptor. Enalaprilat enhanced signaling via ACE by Galphai in lower concentration than by Galphaq-coupled receptor.

  18. Effective vortex pinning in MgB2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugoslavsky, Y.; Cowey, L.; Tate, T. J.; Perkins, G. K.; Moore, J.; Lockman, Z.; Berenov, A.; MacManus-Driscoll, J. L.; Caplin, A. D.; Cohen, L. F.; Zhai, H. Y.; Christen, H. M.; Paranthaman, M. P.; Lowndes, D. H.; Jo, M. H.; Blamire, M. G.

    2002-10-01

    We discuss the pinning properties of MgB2 thin films grown by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) and by electron-beam (EB) evaporation. Two mechanisms are identified that contribute most effectively to the pinning of vortices in randomly oriented films. The EB process produces low defected crystallites with a small grain size providing enhanced pinning at grain boundaries without any degradation of Tc. The PLD process produces films with structural disorder on a scale less than the coherence length that further improves pinning, but also depresses Tc.

  19. Bu-2470, a new peptide antibiotic complex. II. Structure determination of Bu-2470 A, B1, B2a and B2b.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, K; Yonemoto, T; Konishi, M; Matsumoto, K; Miyaki, T; Kawaguchi, H

    1983-06-01

    The structures of Bu-2470 A, B1, B2a, and B2b have been determined. Bu-2470 A is a simple octapeptide having no fatty acid moiety, while Bu-2470 B1, B2a and B2b are octapeptides that have been acylated with a beta-hydroxy C11 or C10 fatty acid. The octapeptide structure of Bu-2470 components was found identical with that of octapeptin C1, hence generic names of octapeptin C0, C2, C3 and C4 are proposed for Bu-2470 A, B1, B2a and B2b, respectively.

  20. [The influence of age and sex on fat- and water-soluble vitamins sufficiency of adulthood].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Spiricheva, T V; Pereverzeva, O G; Kosheleva, O V; Brzhesinskaia, O A; Kharitonchik, L A; Kodentsova, V M; Spirichev, V B

    2009-01-01

    Serum concentrations of vitamins A, B2, B6, C, E and beta-carotene were determined in 174 healthy individuals ages 22-59 years. It was been shown that only 11% of examined men and 24% of women were well provided with all vitamins-antioxidants and beta-carotene. 38% cent of women and 67% cent of men had the combined insufficiency of 2-3 antioxidants (more often of vitamin C, B2 and beta-carotene). Men presented significantly higher serum retinol concentrations and lower concentrations of vitamin C and beta-carotene--than women. Serum concentrations of retinol for women and tocopherols for both men and women increased by 0.3% and 0.4% per year, respectively.

  1. Definitions of Health Terms: Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... citrus, red and green peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, and greens. Some juices and cereals have added vitamin C. Source : NIH MedlinePlus Vitamin D Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Calcium is one of the main building blocks of bone. A lack of vitamin D ...

  2. [Comparative analysis of four kinds of vitamin B of milk of lactating mothers and maternal and infant nutritional status in Chinese urban and rural areas].

    PubMed

    Liu, Huihui; Han, Xiuxia; Liu, Liegang; Jiang, Dianchen; Yi, Mingji; Zheng, Yanfeng; Ma, Aiguo

    2014-05-01

    To understand the nutritional level of lactating mothers and infant by detecting the content of the vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, nicotinic of milk of urban and rural areas and to provide the basis for improving vitamin nutritional status of lactating women and their babies. Totally 92 pairs of breastfeeding healthy mothers and their children in Shandong Province were selected. 34 pairs were in a urban area and 58 pairs were in a rural area. Collect the milk of selected lactating mothers and the urine of the lactating mothers and their children. Detect the content of vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, nicotinic of milk of lactating mothers and the content of vitamin B1, vitamin B2, nicotinic of urine of lactating mothers and their children. The content of vitamin B2, vitamin B6 and niacin of milk of urban lactating mothers were significantly higher than that of rural lactating mothers. The results of detection showed the vitamin B2 of milk of urban lactating mothers was 149.77 microg/100 g, which was significantly higher than that of rural women in 85.09 microg/100 g (P < 0.05). Vitamin B6 and niacin contents were 15.29 microg/100 g, 40.83 microg/100 g, which were also higher than that in rural lactating milk (6.69 microg/100 g and 24.48 microg/100 g) (All values P < 0.05). However, vitamin B1 of milk of urban and rural lactating mothers were 5.54 microg/100 g and 4.80 microg/100 g respectively, which had no significant difference. Urine analysis showed vitamin B2 and niacin of urban mothers and children were significantly higher than that in rural area (P < 0.05). But the level of vitamin B1 of rural children was higher than that of urban children (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the vitamin B1 between urban and rural mothers. The insufficient percentages of vitamin B1, vitamin B2. niacin in urban mothers was 23.5%, 32.3% and 17.6%, and that in rural mothers were 29.3%, 82.8% and 53.4%. The deficiency percentage of vitamin B1, vitamin B2

  3. [Enrichment effect of vitamin-deficient diet of rats by polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 on vitamin biomarkers and antioxidant status].

    PubMed

    Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Beketova, V M; Kodentsova, O G; Pereverzeva, O G; Kosheleva, O V; Sokol'nikov, A A; Kulakova, S N; Baturina, V A; Soto, S Kh

    2013-01-01

    Using the model of combined vitamin deficiency based on 5-fold reduction of the amount of vitamin mixture in semi-synthetic diet and on vitamin E exclusion from the mixture, the influence of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on vitamin and antioxidant status has been investigated. The enrichment of rat diet with PUFA was achieved by replacing of sunflower oil (4.5% of the diet) on linseed oil. This substitute led to omega-3 PUFA elevation from 0.03 to 2.4 g per 100 g of food and PUFA and saturated fatty acids diet ratio increased from 1.3 to 1.9. The diet treatment with PUFA did not affect blood plasma retinol concentration and total vitamin A (retinol palmitate and retinol) rat liver content, while liver retinol significantly 1,5-fold elevated. Despite of preliminary equation of tocopherols content in vegetable oils (up to 60 IU per 100 g by adding dl-alpha-tocopherol to linseed oil) the consuming of linen oil deteriorated animal vitamin E supply. The liver alpha-tocopherol content significantly decreased by 14%, its blood plasma concentration insignificantly decreased by 26%, while the amount of beta - and gamma-tocopherol significantly increased in 5,4-fold. At the same deprivation of vitamin D in the diet of rats treated with linseed oil 25(OH)D blood plasma concentration was 1,3-fold higher compared with the animals treated with sunflower oil, but the difference did not reach significance reliable. In this case, this index had significant differences from that of the receiving adequate diet rats in control group, having 2-fold higher concentration of vitamin D transport form in blood plasma. PUFA enrichment of the combined vitamin-deficit diet did not affect liver level of vitamin C, vitamin B1 and vitamin B2. Contrary to the assumptions, the enrichment with PUFA of vitamin-deficient diet did not lead to a further increase of liver MDA level and a decrease of liver ascorbic acid content, which is typical for animals in combined vitamin deficiency. The

  4. Intake of B vitamins in childhood and adult life in relation to psychological distress among women in a British birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Gita D; McNaughton, Sarah A; O'Connell, Maria A; Prynne, Celia J; Kuh, Diana

    2009-02-01

    Lower levels of B vitamins (particularly folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6) may be associated with psychological distress. Little is known about the impact of childhood nutrition on psychological distress in adult life. We investigated whether prospectively measured childhood and adult dietary intakes of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 were related to the psychological distress of women in mid-age, taking into account socio-economic, behavioural and lifestyle factors. Prospective data were collected from a cohort of 636 British women followed up since their birth in 1946. Participants completed a 28-item, scaled version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) to measure psychological distress at age 53 years. Dietary intakes in childhood (at age four) were determined by 24h recall and in adulthood (at age 36, 43 and 53 years) by a 5d food record. Low dietary vitamin B12 intake at age 53 was associated with higher psychological distress at that age. Women in the lowest third of vitamin B12 intake in adulthood had a higher GHQ-28 score compared with those in the highest third (percentage change, adjusted regression coefficient, 21 (95% CI 3, 39)). There were no other significant associations between dietary B vitamin intake in childhood or adulthood and psychological distress in the cohort. Overall, there is evidence that intake of vitamin B12 at age 53 is related to adult psychological distress but there is no evidence for the effects of other adult B vitamin intakes or childhood intakes on psychological distress.

  5. The purification step is not crucial in EIA measurements of thromboxane B2 and 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Sadilkova, Lenka; Paluch, Zoltan; Mottlova, Jirina; Bednar, Frantisek; Alusik, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and particularly 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 (11-dTxB2) are widely used as prognostic risk markers of platelet activation in cardiovascular diseases. The main errors in TxB2 and 11-dTxB2 determination include either low concentrations of circulating TxB2 (1 - 2 pg/mL) and 11-dTxB2 (0.9 - 4.3 pg/mL) or rather high transiency (mean TxB2 half-life is approximately 5 minutes) as well as an incorrect pre-analytical phase set up. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a widely used purification step on the results of enzyme immunosorbent assay (EIA)--based measurement of the two selected thromboxanes. For the purpose of this study, 20 plasma samples (10 healthy donors, 10 patients under treatment with acetylsalicylic acid) were screened for TxB2 and 11-dTxB2 concentrations using commercial competitive EIA kits (Cayman Chemicals, Tallinn, Estonia; Neogen, Lexington, KY, USA) with or without the introduction of the purification procedure. The purification step does not significantly affect the results of EIA measurements of the two of TxA2 metabolites (TxB2, 11-dTxB2) in human plasma. The levels of TxB2 and 11-dTxB2 determined in the plasma samples were not significantly changed (p < 0.05) when the purification step was omitted compared to the purified samples. This study establishes a protocol allowing for reliable and reproducible plasma TxB2 and 11-dTxB2 EIA measurement for routine basic screening of platelet function.

  6. Characterization of MgB2 Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnane, D.; Kawamura, J. H.; Wolak, M. A.; Acharya, N.; Tan, T.; Xi, X. X.; Karasik, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Hot-Electron Bolometer (HEB) mixers have proven to be the best tool for high-resolution spectroscopy at the Terahertz frequencies. However, the current state of the art NbN mixers suffer from a small intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth as well as a low operating temperature. MgB2 is a promising material for HEB mixer technology in view of its high critical temperature and fast thermal relaxation allowing for a large IF bandwidth. In this work, we have fabricated and characterized thin-film (approximately 15 nanometers) MgB2-based spiral antenna-coupled HEB mixers on SiC substrate. We achieved the IF bandwidth greater than 8 gigahertz at 25 degrees Kelvin and the device noise temperature less than 4000 degrees Kelvin at 9 degrees Kelvin using a 600 gigahertz source. Using temperature dependencies of the radiation power dissipated in the device we have identified the optical loss in the integrated microantenna responsible as a cause of the limited sensitivity of the current mixer devices. From the analysis of the current-voltage (IV) characteristics, we have derived the effective thermal conductance of the mixer device and estimated the required local oscillator power in an optimized device to be approximately 1 microwatts.

  7. Anisotropic magnetocaloric response in AlFe 2B 2

    SciT

    Barua, R.; Lejeune, B. T.; Ke, L.

    Experimental investigations of the magnetocaloric response of the intermetallic layered AlFe 2B 2 compound along the principle axes of the orthorhombic cell were carried out using aligned plate-like crystallites with an anisotropic [101] growth habit. Results were confirmed to be consistent with density functional theory calculations. Field-dependent magnetization data confirm that the a-axis is the easy direction of magnetization within the (ac) plane. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy required to rotate the spin quantization vector from the c-to the a-axis direction is determined as K~0.9 MJ/m 3 at 50 K. Magnetic entropy change curves measured near the Curie transition temperature ofmore » 285 K reveal a large rotating magnetic entropy change of 1.3 J kg -1K -1 at μ 0H app = 2 T, consistent with large differences in magnetic entropy change ΔS mag measured along the a- and c-axes. Overall, this study provides insight of both fundamental and applied relevance concerning pathways for maximizing the magnetocaloric potential of AlFe 2B 2 for thermal management applications.« less

  8. Analysis of the Defect Structure of B2 Feal Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John; Noebe, Ronald D.; Amador, Carlos

    1995-01-01

    The Bozzolo, Ferrante and Smith (BFS) method for alloys is applied to the study of the defect structure of B2 FeAI alloys. First-principles Linear Muffin Tin Orbital calculations are used to determine the input parameters to the BFS method used in this work. The calculations successfully determine the phase field of the B2 structure, as well as the dependence with composition of the lattice parameter. Finally, the method is used to perform 'static' simulations where instead of determining the ground state configuration of the alloy with a certain concentration of vacancies, a large number of candidate ordered structures are studied and compared, in order to determine not only the lowest energy configurations but other possible metastable states as well. The results provide a description of the defect structure consistent with available experimental data. The simplicity of the BFS method also allows for a simple explanation of some of the essential features found in the concentration dependence of the heat of formation, lattice parameter and the defect structure.

  9. MgB2-based superconductors for fault current limiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovsky, V.; Prikhna, T.; Meerovich, V.; Eisterer, M.; Goldacker, W.; Kozyrev, A.; Weber, H. W.; Shapovalov, A.; Sverdun, V.; Moshchil, V.

    2017-02-01

    A promising solution of the fault current problem in power systems is the application of fast-operating nonlinear superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) with the capability of rapidly increasing their impedance, and thus limiting high fault currents. We report the results of experiments with models of inductive (transformer type) SFCLs based on the ring-shaped bulk MgB2 prepared under high quasihydrostatic pressure (2 GPa) and by hot pressing technique (30 MPa). It was shown that the SFCLs meet the main requirements to fault current limiters: they possess low impedance in the nominal regime of the protected circuit and can fast increase their impedance limiting both the transient and the steady-state fault currents. The study of quenching currents of MgB2 rings (SFCL activation current) and AC losses in the rings shows that the quenching current density and critical current density determined from AC losses can be 10-20 times less than the critical current determined from the magnetization experiments.

  10. Wind and React MgB2 Rotor Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnenstiehl, S. D.; Sumption, M. D.; Majoros, M.; Tomsic, M.; Rindfleisch, M.; Phillips, J.; Yue, J.; Collings, E. W.

    2008-03-01

    Five rotor coils (four plus a spare) intended for a prototype 2 MW generator were fabricated and tested. For each coil, multifilamentary MgB2 strand was wound around a stepped former in a wind and react mode using S-glass insulation in combination with vacuum epoxy impregnation. The stepped, ellipsoidal coils had maximum in-plane dimensions of 26.7 cm×13.1 cm and a total thickness of 5.4 cm, and were wound with approximately 580 m of MgB2 strand per coil. Each of the coils were measured separately for Ic and magnetic field in the bore at 4.2 K and for one coil Ic and B were also measured as a function of temperature. The bore field as a function of position along the z-axis was also determined near the critical current at 4.2 K. The coils typically reached 186 A at 4.2 K generating a 1.7 T field, while at 20 K the Ic was 117 A with a bore field of 1.1 T field.

  11. Quench dynamics in MgB2 Rutherford cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubero, A.; Navarro, R.; Kováč, P.; Kopera, L.; Rindfleisch, M.; Martínez, E.

    2018-04-01

    The generation and propagation of quench induced by a local heat disturbance or by overcurrents in MgB2 Rutherford cables have been studied experimentally. The analysed cable is composed of 12 strands of monocore MgB2/Nb/Cu10Ni wire and has a transposition length of about 27 mm. Measurements of intra- and inter-strand voltages have been performed to analyse the superconducting-to-normal transition behaviour of these cables during quench. In case of external hot-spots, two different time-dynamic regimes have been observed, a slow stage for the formation of the minimum propagation zone (MPZ), and a fast dynamics once the quench is triggered and propagates to the rest of the cable. Significant local variations of the quench propagation velocity across the strands around the MPZ have been observed, but with average quench propagation velocities closely correlated with the predictions given by one-dimensional-geometry models. For quench induced by overcurrents (i.e. with applied currents higher than the critical current) the nucleation of many normal zones distributed within the cable, which overlap during quench propagation, gives a distinctive and faster quench dynamics.

  12. B2FH, the Cosmic Microwave Background and Cosmology*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, G.

    In this talk I shall start by describing how we set about and carried out the work that led to the publication of Burbidge et al. (1957, hereafter B2FH). I then shall try and relate this work and the circumstances that surrounded it to the larger problem of the origin and formation of the universe. Here it is necessary to look back at the way that ideas developed and how, in many situations, astronomers went astray. Of course this is a personal view, though I very strongly believe that if he were still here, it is the approach that Fred Hoyle would take. I start by describing the problems originally encountered by Gamow and his associates in trying to decide where the helium was made. This leads me to a modern discussion of the origin of 2D, 3He, 4He and 7Li, originally described by B2FH as due to the x-process. While it is generally argued, following Gamow, Alpher, and Herman, that these isotopes were synthesised in a big bang I shall show that it is equally likely that these isotopes were made in active galactic nuclei, as was the cosmic microwave background (CMB), in a cyclic universe model. The key piece of observational evidence is that the amount of energy released in the conversion of hydrogen to helium in the universe is very close to the energy carried by the CMB, namely ~4.5 × 10-13 erg cm-3.

  13. Anisotropic magnetocaloric response in AlFe 2B 2

    DOE PAGES

    Barua, R.; Lejeune, B. T.; Ke, L.; ...

    2018-02-19

    Experimental investigations of the magnetocaloric response of the intermetallic layered AlFe 2B 2 compound along the principle axes of the orthorhombic cell were carried out using aligned plate-like crystallites with an anisotropic [101] growth habit. Results were confirmed to be consistent with density functional theory calculations. Field-dependent magnetization data confirm that the a-axis is the easy direction of magnetization within the (ac) plane. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy required to rotate the spin quantization vector from the c-to the a-axis direction is determined as K~0.9 MJ/m 3 at 50 K. Magnetic entropy change curves measured near the Curie transition temperature ofmore » 285 K reveal a large rotating magnetic entropy change of 1.3 J kg -1K -1 at μ 0H app = 2 T, consistent with large differences in magnetic entropy change ΔS mag measured along the a- and c-axes. Overall, this study provides insight of both fundamental and applied relevance concerning pathways for maximizing the magnetocaloric potential of AlFe 2B 2 for thermal management applications.« less

  14. Compressibility behaviour of conducting ceramic TiB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arpita Aparajita, A. N.; Kumar, N. R. Sanjay; Shekar, N. V. Chandra; Kalavathi, S.

    2017-09-01

    To address the large spread in the bulk modulus value of TiB2 reported in literature, high pressure compressibility study of a phase pure polycrystalline sample has been carried out using in situ high pressure x-ray diffraction technique (HPXRD) in angle dispersive mode. The study has been done up to 23 GPa at ambient temperature with methanol-ethanol-water (MEW) as pressure transmitting medium. The hexagonal lattice has been found to be stable in the pressure range studied. The isothermal bulk modulus is estimated to be 333(6) GPa by employing 3rd order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. The obtained high value of bulk modulus is understood in terms of band filling effect, and the nature of bonding between B-B and Ti-B in TiB2. Compressibility along ‘a’ and ‘c’ axis is found to be anisotropic with compressibility values of 0.93(2) TPa-1 and 1.14(2) TPa-1 respectively. From the estimated bond lengths for Ti-B and B-B it is found that B-B bonds are less compressible compared to Ti-B bonds which is in accordance with the respective nature of Ti-B and B-B bonds. A change in the rate of bond contraction was seen around 12 GPa which is due to the bond hardening for both Ti-B and B-B bonds with pressure.

  15. Vitamin C revisited.

    PubMed

    Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M; Spoelstra-de Man, Angelique Me; de Waard, Monique C

    2014-08-06

    This narrative review summarizes the role of vitamin C in mitigating oxidative injury-induced microcirculatory impairment and associated organ failure in ischemia/reperfusion or sepsis. Preclinical studies show that high-dose vitamin C can prevent or restore microcirculatory flow impairment by inhibiting activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase, augmenting tetrahydrobiopterin, preventing uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, and decreasing the formation of superoxide and peroxynitrite, and by directly scavenging superoxide. Vitamin C can additionally restore vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictors, preserve endothelial barrier by maintaining cyclic guanylate phosphatase and occludin phosphorylation and preventing apoptosis. Finally, high-dose vitamin C can augment antibacterial defense. These protective effects against overwhelming oxidative stress due to ischemia/reperfusion, sepsis or burn seems to mitigate organ injury and dysfunction, and promote recovery after cardiac revascularization and in critically ill patients, in the latter partially in combination with other antioxidants. Of note, several questions remain to be solved, including optimal dose, timing and combination of vitamin C with other antioxidants. The combination obviously offers a synergistic effect and seems reasonable during sustained critical illness. High-dose vitamin C, however, provides a cheap, strong and multifaceted antioxidant, especially robust for resuscitation of the circulation. Vitamin C given as early as possible after the injurious event, or before if feasible, seems most effective. The latter could be considered at the start of cardiac surgery, organ transplant or major gastrointestinal surgery. Preoperative supplementation should consider the inhibiting effect of vitamin C on ischemic preconditioning. In critically ill patients, future research should focus on the use of short-term high-dose intravenous vitamin

  16. Quantification of chromatographic effects of vitamin B supplementation in urine and implications for hydration assessment.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; Heavens, K R; Dennis, W E; Caruso, E M; Guerriere, K I; Charkoudian, N; Cheuvront, S N

    2015-07-15

    Changes in body water elicit reflex adjustments at the kidney, thus maintaining fluid volume homeostasis. These renal adjustments change the concentration and color of urine, variables that can, in turn, be used as biomarkers of hydration status. It has been suggested that vitamin supplementation alters urine color; it is unclear whether any such alteration would confound hydration assessment via colorimetric evaluation. We tested the hypothesis that overnight vitamin B2 and/or B12 supplementation alters urine color as a marker of hydration status. Thirty healthy volunteers were monitored during a 3-day euhydrated baseline, confirmed via first morning nude body mass, urine specific gravity, and urine osmolality. Volunteers then randomly received B2 (n = 10), B12 (n = 10), or B2 + B12 (n = 10) at ∼200 × recommended dietary allowance. Euhydration was verified on trial days (two of the following: body mass ± 1.0% of the mean of visits 1-3, urine specific gravity < 1.02, urine osmolality < 700 mmol/kg). Vitamin purity and urinary B2 concentration ([B2]) and [B12] were quantified via ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Two independent observers assessed urine color using an eight-point standardized color chart. Following supplementation, urinary [B2] was elevated; however, urine color was not different between nonsupplemented and supplemented trials. For example, in the B2 trial, urinary [B2] increased from 8.6 × 10(4) ± 7.7 × 10(4) to 5.7 × 10(6) ± 5.3 × 10(6) nmol/l (P < 0.05), and urine color went from 4 ± 1 to 5 ± 1 (P > 0.05). Both conditions met the euhydrated color classification. We conclude that a large overnight dose of vitamins B2 and B12 does not confound assessment of euhydrated status via urine color. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Exome sequencing results in successful riboflavin treatment of a rapidly progressive neurological condition

    PubMed Central

    Petrovski, Slavé; Shashi, Vandana; Petrou, Steven; Schoch, Kelly; McSweeney, Keisha Melodi; Dhindsa, Ryan S.; Krueger, Brian; Crimian, Rebecca; Case, Laura E.; Khalid, Roha; El-Dairi, Maysantoine A.; Jiang, Yong-Hui; Mikati, Mohamad A.; Goldstein, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Genetically targeted therapies for rare Mendelian conditions are improving patient outcomes. Here, we present the case of a 20-mo-old female suffering from a rapidly progressing neurological disorder. Although diagnosed initially with a possible autoimmune condition, analysis of the child's exome resulted in a diagnosis of Brown–Vialetto–Van Laere syndrome 2 (BVVLS2). This new diagnosis led to a change in the therapy plan from steroids and precautionary chemotherapy to high-dose riboflavin. Improvements were reported quickly, including in motor strength after 1 mo. In this case, the correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment would have been unlikely in the absence of exome sequencing and careful interpretation. This experience adds to a growing list of examples that emphasize the importance of early genome-wide diagnostics. PMID:27148561

  18. Assessment of UVA-Riboflavin Corneal Cross-Linking Using Small Amplitude Oscillatory Shear Measurements.

    PubMed

    Aslanides, Ioannis M; Dessi, Claudia; Georgoudis, Panagiotis; Charalambidis, Georgios; Vlassopoulos, Dimitris; Coutsolelos, Athanassios G; Kymionis, George; Mukherjee, Achyut; Kitsopoulos, Theofanis N

    2016-04-01

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV)-riboflavin cross-linking (CXL) has been measured primarily using the strip extensometry technique. We propose a simple and reliable methodology for the assessment of CXL treatment by using an established rheologic protocol based on small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) measurements. It provides information on the average cross-link density and the elastic modulus of treated cornea samples. Three fresh postmortem porcine corneas were used to study the feasibility of the technique, one serving as control and two receiving corneal collagen cross-linking treatment. Subsequently, five pairs of fresh postmortem porcine corneas received corneal collagen cross-linking treatment with riboflavin and UVA-irradiation (370 nm; irradiance of 3 mW/cm2) for 30 minutes (Dresden protocol); the contralateral porcine corneas were used as control samples. After the treatment, the linear viscoelastic moduli of the corneal samples were measured using SAOS measurements and the average cross-linking densities extracted. For all cases investigated, the dynamic moduli of the cross-linked corneas were higher compared to those of the corresponding control samples. The increase of the elastic modulus of the treated samples was between 122% and 1750%. The difference was statistically significant for all tested samples (P = 0.018, 2-tailed t-test). We report a simple and accurate methodology for quantifying the effects of cross-linking on porcine corneas treated with the Dresden protocol by means of SAOS measurements in the linear regime. The measured dynamic moduli, elastic and viscous modulus, represent the energy storage and energy dissipation, respectively. Hence, they provide a means to assess the changing physical properties of the cross-linked collagen networks after CXL treatment.

  19. Photodynamic UVA-riboflavin bacterial elimination in antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Makdoumi, Karim; Bäckman, Anders

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the bactericidal effect of clinical ultraviolet A (UVA) settings used in photoactivated chromophore for infectious keratitis (PACK)-collagen cross-linking (CXL) in antibiotic-resistant and non-resistant bacterial strains. Well-characterized bacterial strains from clinical isolates, without and with antibiotic resistance, were studied in a pairwise comparison. The evaluated pathogens were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis. Bacteria were dispersed in PBS and diluted to a concentration of approximately 4 × 10 5 /ml. Riboflavin was added to a concentration of 0.01%. By spreading the solution on a microscope slide, a fluid film layer, with a thickness of around 400 mm, was formed and UVA exposure followed. Eight separate exposures were made for each strain (n = 8). The degree of elimination in resistant and non-resistant pathogens was compared. The bactericidal efficacy of exposure differed between the tested microorganisms, and the mean elimination ranged between 60 and 92%, being most extensive in both of the evaluated Pseudomonas strains and least in the E. faecalis strains. Similar reductions were seen in antibiotic-resistant and non-resistant strains, with the exception of S. aureus, in which the resistant strain metchicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was eradicated in a greater extent than the non-resistant strain (P = 0.030). UVA-riboflavin settings used in PACK-CXL are effective in reducing both antibiotic-resistant and non-resistant bacteria. Antibiotic resistance does not appear to be protective against the photooxidative exposure. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  20. Riboflavin and ultraviolet light for pathogen reduction of murine cytomegalovirus in blood products.

    PubMed

    Keil, Shawn D; Saakadze, Natia; Bowen, Richard; Newman, James L; Karatela, Sulaiman; Gordy, Paul; Marschner, Susanne; Roback, John; Hillyer, Christopher D

    2015-04-01

    Two studies were performed to test the effectiveness of riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light treatment (Mirasol PRT, Terumo BCT) against murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). The first study utilized immune-compromised mice to measure the reduction of cell-free MCMV. A second study used a murine model to evaluate the ability of Mirasol PRT to prevent transfusion-transmitted (TT)-MCMV infection. Human plasma was inoculated with MCMV and then treated with Mirasol PRT. The viral titer was measured using an infectious dose 50% assay in nude mice. Mice were euthanized on Day 10 posttransfusion, and their spleens were tested for the presence of MCMV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Mirasol PRT was also evaluated to determine its effectiveness in preventing TT-MCMV in platelets (PLTs) stored in PLT additive solution. PLTs were inoculated with either cell-associated MCMV or cell-free MCMV and then treated with Mirasol PRT. Mice were transfused with treated or untreated product and were euthanized 14 days posttransfusion. Blood and spleens were assayed for MCMV DNA by real-time-PCR. Using nude mice to titer MCMV, a modest 2.1-log reduction was observed in plasma products after Mirasol PRT treatment. TT-MCMV was not observed in the mouse transfusion model when either cell-free or cell-associated MCMV was treated with Mirasol PRT; MCMV transmission was uniformly observed in mice transfused with untreated PLTs. These results suggest that using riboflavin and UV light treatment may be able to reduce the occurrence of transmission of human CMV from infectious PLTs and plasma units. © 2014 AABB.

  1. The comparative safety of genipin versus UVA-riboflavin crosslinking of rabbit corneas

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenjing; Tang, Yun; Qiao, Jing; Li, Haili; Rong, Bei; Yang, Songlin; Wu, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate, after 24 h, the safety of genipin or ultraviolet A (UVA)-riboflavin crosslinking of keratocytes and endothelial cells. Methods Fifteen New Zealand white rabbits were selected and divided into a PBS group (five rabbits), a 0.2% genipin crosslinking (GP-CXL) group (five rabbits), and a UVA-riboflavin crosslinking (UVA-CXL) group (five rabbits). In the GP-CXL and PBS groups, 0.2% genipin or PBS was applied to the corneal surface of the right eyes. In the UVA-CXL group, a clinical crosslinking procedure was used. Before and after surgery, the operated eyes of each group were characterized with confocal microscopy, and the corneal buttons were excised for endothelium staining and electron microscopy. Results The corneal endothelial cell density of the GP-CXL, UVA-CLX, and PBS groups changed. There was a statistically significant difference in thickness and changes in corneal endothelial cell density between the UVA-CXL group and the PBS group (p<0.05), and between the UVA-CXL group and the GP-CXL group (p<0.05), but no statistically significant difference between the GP-CXL group and the PBS group. Confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that there was keratocyte apoptosis in the anterior and middle stroma and endothelial cell damage in the UVA-CXL group. In the GP-CXL group, only active keratocytes were found and minimal endothelial cell damage. Conclusions Treatment of rabbit corneas with 0.2% genipin showed minimal toxicity toward keratocytes and endothelial cells. Genipin is safer than UVA-CXL for crosslinking of thin corneas. PMID:28761323

  2. Synergistic cytotoxic action of vitamin C and vitamin K3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Negoro, T; Satoh, K; Jiang, Y; Hashimoto, K; Kikuchi, H; Nishikawa, H; Miyata, T; Yamamoto, Y; Nakano, K; Yasumoto, E; Nakayachi, T; Mineno, K; Satoh, T; Sakagami, H

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the combination effect of sodium ascorbate (vitamin C) and menadione (vitamin K3) on the viability of various cultured cells. Human oral squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-2, HSC-3) and human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells were more sensitive to these vitamins as compared to normal cells (human gingival fibroblast HGF, human periodontal ligament fibroblast HPLF, human pulp cell HPC). The combination of vitamin C and vitamin K3 produced synergistic cytotoxicity against all these 6 cell lines. Treatment with vitamin C or vitamin K3, or their combination, induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation only in HL-60 cells, but not in the oral tumor cell lines (HSC-2, HSC-3, HSG). ESR spectroscopy showed that vitamins C and K3 produce radicals under alkaline conditions and that the combination of these two vitamins synergistically enhanced their respective radical intensities.

  3. A dynamic metabolic flux analysis of ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, with riboflavin as a by-product.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinhe; Kasbi, Mayssa; Chen, Jingkui; Peres, Sabine; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2017-12-01

    The present study reveals that supplementing sodium acetate (NaAc) strongly stimulates riboflavin production in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 with xylose as carbon source. Riboflavin production increased from undetectable concentrations to ∼0.2 g L -1 (0.53 mM) when supplementing 60 mM NaAc. Of interest, solvents production and biomass yield were also promoted with fivefold acetone, 2.6-fold butanol, and 2.4-fold biomass adding NaAc. A kinetic metabolic model, developed to simulate ABE biosystem, with riboflavin production, revealed from a dynamic metabolic flux analysis (dMFA) simultaneous increase of riboflavin (ribA) and GTP (precursor of riboflavin) (PurM) synthesis flux rates under NaAc supplementation. The model includes 23 fluxes, 24 metabolites, and 72 kinetic parameters. It also suggested that NaAc condition has first stimulated the accumulation of intracellular metabolite intermediates during the acidogenic phase, which have then fed the solventogenic phase leading to increased ABE production. In addition, NaAc resulted in higher intracellular levels of NADH during the whole culture. Moreover, lower GTP-to-adenosine phosphates (ATP, ADP, AMP) ratio under NaAc supplemented condition suggests that GTP may have a minor role in the cell energetic metabolism compared to its contribution to riboflavin synthesis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A survey of foodstuffs fortified with vitamins available on the market in Warsaw.

    PubMed

    Sicińska, Ewa; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Masalska, Katarzyna; Wronowski, Sylwester

    2013-01-01

    Foodstuffs fortified with vitamins and/or minerals are nowadays continually being developed, leading to an increasing diversity of these products being available on the market. This contributes to increased consumption of added nutrients, which can be an effective tool for improving public health. To identify and characterise products fortified with vitamins, available on the Warsaw foodstuff market, which can thereby be used as a source of information for the assessment of dietary micronutrient intake. Data were gathered using the information provided on labels from foodstuff products found in 14 Warsaw supermarkets during March to October 2012. There were 588 products found to be fortified with vitamins. The number of vitamins added ranged from one in 193 products to twelve in 14 products. The group of vitamins used for enrichment consisted of: A, D, E, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, niacin, pantothenic acid, folic acid and biotin. Juices, non-alcoholic beverages (29.4%) and cereal products (18.9%) constituted the largest product groups. In addition, fortified vitamins were also significantly present in sweets (15.8%), instant beverages and desserts (13.6%), milk products, fat spreads and soy products. The most frequently added vitamins were: vitamin C (58% products), vitamin B6 (46%) and B12 (45%), whilst the least frequently added was biotin (16%). The highest content of vitamins A and D were seen in fat spreads, whereas the highest levels of B vitamins, vitamin C and E were observed in certain sweets. The wide range of fortified products available can serve to increase vitamin intake in many population groups, especially in children and teenagers. In order that consumers can make informed choices in buying these product types, appropriate education is necessary to raise public awareness of the health issues involved.

  5. Urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant and lactating women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Sano, Mitsue; Suzuki, Kahoru; Hiratsuka, Chiaki; Aoki, Asami; Nagai, Chiharu

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins can be used as biomarkers for the nutritional status of these vitamins. To determine changes in the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins during pregnant and lactating stages, we surveyed and compared levels of nine water-soluble vitamins in control (non-pregnant and non-lactating women), pregnant and lactating women. Control women (n=37), women in the 2nd (16-27 wk, n=24) and 3rd trimester of pregnancy (over 28 wk, n=32), and early- (0-5 mo, n=54) and late-stage lactating (6-11 mo, n=49) women took part in the survey. The mean age of subjects was ~30 y, and mean height was ~160 cm. A single 24-h urine sample was collected 1 d after the completion of a validated, self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire to measure water-soluble vitamins or metabolites. The average intake of each water-soluble vitamin was ≍ the estimated average requirement value and adequate intake for the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes in all life stages, except for vitamin B6 and folate intakes during pregnancy. No change was observed in the urinary excretion levels of vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin or vitamin C among stages. Urine nicotinamide and folate levels were higher in pregnant women than in control women. Urine excretion level of vitamin B1 decreased during lactation and that of pantothenic acid decreased during pregnancy and lactation. These results provide valuable information for setting the Dietary Reference Intakes of water-soluble vitamins for pregnant and lactating women.

  6. Vitamin B6

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cordarone)Amiodarone (Cordarone) might increase your sensitivity to sunlight. Taking vitamin B6 along with amiodarone (Cordarone) might ... or rashes on areas of skin exposed to sunlight. Be sure to wear sunblock and protective clothing ...

  7. Vitamin B12 level

    MedlinePlus

    ... 21. Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ... first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D. ...

  8. Centaur Rocket in Space Propulsion Research Facility (B-2)

    1969-07-21

    A Centaur second-stage rocket in the Space Propulsion Research Facility, better known as B‒2, operating at NASA’s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. Centaur was designed to be used with an Atlas booster to send the Surveyor spacecraft to the moon in the mid-1960s. After those missions, the rocket was modified to launch a series of astronomical observation satellites into orbit and send space probes to other planets. Researchers conducted a series of systems tests at the Plum Brook test stands to improve the Centaur fuel pumping system. Follow up full-scale tests in the B-2 facility led to the eventual removal of the boost pumps from the design. This reduced the system’s complexity and significantly reduced the cost of a Centaur rocket. The Centaur tests were the first use of the new B-2 facility. B‒2 was the world's only high altitude test facility capable of full-scale rocket engine and launch vehicle system level tests. It was created to test rocket propulsion systems with up to 100,000 pounds of thrust in a simulated space environment. The facility has the unique ability to maintain a vacuum at the rocket’s nozzle while the engine is firing. The rocket fires into a 120-foot deep spray chamber which cools the exhaust before it is ejected outside the facility. B‒2 simulated space using giant diffusion pumps to reduce chamber pressure 10-6 torr, nitrogen-filled cold walls create cryogenic temperatures, and quartz lamps replicate the radiation of the sun.

  9. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2018-01-01

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Autism and vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Cannell, John Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Any theory of autism's etiology must take into account its strong genetic basis while explaining its striking epidemiology. The apparent increase in the prevalence of autism over the last 20 years corresponds with increasing medical advice to avoid the sun, advice that has probably lowered vitamin D levels and would theoretically greatly lower activated vitamin D (calcitriol) levels in developing brains. Animal data has repeatedly shown that severe vitamin D deficiency during gestation dysregulates dozens of proteins involved in brain development and leads to rat pups with increased brain size and enlarged ventricles, abnormalities similar to those found in autistic children. Children with the Williams Syndrome, who can have greatly elevated calcitriol levels in early infancy, usually have phenotypes that are the opposite of autism. Children with vitamin D deficient rickets have several autistic markers that apparently disappear with high-dose vitamin D treatment. Estrogen and testosterone have very different effects on calcitriol's metabolism, differences that may explain the striking male/female sex ratios in autism. Calcitriol down-regulates production of inflammatory cytokines in the brain, cytokines that have been associated with autism. Consumption of vitamin D containing fish during pregnancy reduces autistic symptoms in offspring. Autism is more common in areas of impaired UVB penetration such as poleward latitudes, urban areas, areas with high air pollution, and areas of high precipitation. Autism is more common in dark-skinned persons and severe maternal vitamin D deficiency is exceptionally common the dark-skinned. simple Gaussian distributions of the enzyme that activates neural calcitriol combined with widespread gestational and/or early childhood vitamin D deficiency may explain both the genetics and epidemiology of autism. If so, much of the disease is iatrogenic, brought on by medical advice to avoid the sun. Several types of studies could easily

  11. A Novel Class of Modular Transporters for Vitamins in Prokaryotes ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Hebbeln, Peter; Eudes, Aymerick; ter Beek, Josy; Rodionova, Irina A.; Erkens, Guus B.; Slotboom, Dirk J.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Osterman, Andrei L.; Hanson, Andrew D.; Eitinger, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The specific and tightly controlled transport of numerous nutrients and metabolites across cellular membranes is crucial to all forms of life. However, many of the transporter proteins involved have yet to be identified, including the vitamin transporters in various human pathogens, whose growth depends strictly on vitamin uptake. Comparative analysis of the ever-growing collection of microbial genomes coupled with experimental validation enables the discovery of such transporters. Here, we used this approach to discover an abundant class of vitamin transporters in prokaryotes with an unprecedented architecture. These transporters have energy-coupling modules comprised of a conserved transmembrane protein and two nucleotide binding proteins similar to those of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, but unlike ABC transporters, they use small integral membrane proteins to capture specific substrates. We identified 21 families of these substrate capture proteins, each with a different specificity predicted by genome context analyses. Roughly half of the substrate capture proteins (335 cases) have a dedicated energizing module, but in 459 cases distributed among almost 100 gram-positive bacteria, including numerous human pathogens, different and unrelated substrate capture proteins share the same energy-coupling module. The shared use of energy-coupling modules was experimentally confirmed for folate, thiamine, and riboflavin transporters. We propose the name energy-coupling factor transporters for the new class of membrane transporters. PMID:18931129

  12. Chemometric methods for the simultaneous determination of some water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Abdel-Maaboud I; Mohamed, Horria A; Mohamed, Niveen A; El-Zahery, Marwa R

    2011-01-01

    Two spectrophotometric methods, derivative and multivariate methods, were applied for the determination of binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures of the water-soluble vitamins thiamine HCI (I), pyridoxine HCI (II), riboflavin (III), and cyanocobalamin (IV). The first method is divided into first derivative and first derivative of ratio spectra methods, and the second into classical least squares and principal components regression methods. Both methods are based on spectrophotometric measurements of the studied vitamins in 0.1 M HCl solution in the range of 200-500 nm for all components. The linear calibration curves were obtained from 2.5-90 microg/mL, and the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.9991 to 0.9999. These methods were applied for the analysis of the following mixtures: (I) and (II); (I), (II), and (III); (I), (II), and (IV); and (I), (II), (III), and (IV). The described methods were successfully applied for the determination of vitamin combinations in synthetic mixtures and dosage forms from different manufacturers. The recovery ranged from 96.1 +/- 1.2 to 101.2 +/- 1.0% for derivative methods and 97.0 +/- 0.5 to 101.9 +/- 1.3% for multivariate methods. The results of the developed methods were compared with those of reported methods, and gave good accuracy and precision.

  13. Tocotrienols inhibit AKT and ERK activation and suppress pancreatic cancer cell proliferation by suppressing the ErbB2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Shin-Kang, Sonyo; Ramsauer, Victoria P; Lightner, Janet; Chakraborty, Kanishka; Stone, William; Campbell, Sharon; Reddy, Shrikanth A G; Krishnan, Koyamangalath

    2011-09-15

    Tocotrienols are members of the vitamin E family but, unlike tocopherols, possess an unsaturated isoprenoid side chain that confers superior anti-cancer properties. The ability of tocotrienols to selectively inhibit the HMG-CoA reductase pathway through posttranslational degradation and to suppress the activity of transcription factor NF-κB could be the basis for some of these properties. Our studies indicate that γ- and δ-tocotrienols have potent antiproliferative activity in pancreatic cancer cells (Panc-28, MIA PaCa-2, Panc-1, and BxPC-3). Indeed both tocotrienols induced cell death (>50%) by the MTT cell viability assay in all four pancreatic cancer cell lines. We also examined the effects of the tocotrienols on the AKT and the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathways by Western blotting analysis. γ- and δ-tocotrienol treatment of cells reduced the activation of ERK MAP kinase and that of its downstream mediator RSK (ribosomal protein S6 kinase) in addition to suppressing the activation of protein kinase AKT. Suppression of activation of AKT by γ-tocotrienol led to downregulation of p-GSK-3β and upregulation accompanied by nuclear translocation of Foxo3. These effects were mediated by the downregulation of Her2/ErbB2 at the messenger level. Tocotrienols but not tocopherols were able to induce the observed effects. Our results suggest that the tocotrienol isoforms of vitamin E can induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells through the suppression of vital cell survival and proliferative signaling pathways such as those mediated by the PI3-kinase/AKT and ERK/MAP kinases via downregulation of Her2/ErbB2 expression. The molecular components for this mechanism are not completely elucidated and need further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Single Lab Validation of a LC/UV/FLD/MS Method for Simultaneous Determination of Water-soluble Vitamins in Multi-Vitamin Dietary Supplements

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Single-Lab Validated Method using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with different detectors (diode array detector - DAD, fluorescence detector - FLD, and mass spectrometer - MS) for determination of seven B-complex vitamins (B1 - thiamin, B2 – ...

  15. Concentrations of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Blood and Urinary Excretion in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Iwakawa, Hiromi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Fukui, Tomiho; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Yukio; Shibata, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of water-soluble vitamins in blood and urinary excretion of 22 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2DM) and 20 healthy control participants. Macronutrient and vitamin intakes of type 2DM subjects were measured using a weighed food record method. Control participants consumed a semipurified diet for eight days. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine whether significant differences existed in vitamin concentrations in blood independent of age, sex, and other confounding factors. Concentrations of vitamins B2, B6, C, niacin, and folate in blood were significantly lower in type 2DM subjects than in controls, independent of confounding factors. Renal clearances of vitamins B6, C, niacin, and folate were significantly higher in type 2DM subjects than in controls. In conclusion, concentrations of vitamins B2, B6, C, niacin, and folate in blood were significantly lower in type 2DM subjects than in controls, independent of confounding factors; based on the evidence of increased urinary clearance of these vitamins, the lower levels were likely due to impaired reabsorption processes.

  16. Covalent Immobilization of (-)-Riboflavin on Polymer Functionalized Silica Particles: Application in the Photocatalytic E→Z Isomerization of Polarized Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Metternich, Jan B; Sagebiel, Sven; Lückener, Anne; Lamping, Sebastian; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Gilmour, Ryan

    2018-03-20

    The covalent immobilization of the biomimetic, photo-organocatalyst (-)-riboflavin on silica micro- and nanoparticles via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is disclosed. Given the effectiveness of (-)-riboflavin as a versatile, environmentally benign photocatalyst, an immobilization strategy based on acrylate-linker modification of the catalyst core and controlled polymerization on initiator pre-functionalized silica particles has been developed. Validation of this approach is demonstrated in the E→Z isomerization of a benchmark cinnamonitrile (Z/E up to 88:12) with 0.97 mol % catalyst loading. Characterization of the immobilized photocatalyst supports covalent embedding of the catalyst in the polymeric brushes on the silica particle surface. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey - The OTAP2014 study. V. Vitamin intake of the Hungarian population].

    PubMed

    Schreiberné Molnár, Erzsébet; Nagy-Lőrincz, Zsuzsanna; Nagy, Barbara; Bakacs, Márta; Kis, Orsolya; Sarkadi Nagy, Eszter; Martos, Éva

    2017-08-01

    The Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey was implemented on a sub-sample of the European Health Interview Survey. In this paper, the authors present the data on the vitamin intake of the Hungarian population. The survey represents the vitamin intake of the Hungarian non-institutionalised adult population of 18 years and older. There are significant differences between men's and women's vitamin intake. The intake of all water-soluble vitamins except for vitamin C is higher in men than in women, and the difference between the genders regarding the intake of vitamin E and D is significant. The intake of vitamin B 1, B 2 , B 6 , B 12 , niacin and vitamin C is in line with the recommendations, however, there is an unfavourable decrease in the intake of vitamin A and β-carotene in the case of men compared to the previous survey. Vitamin D and folic acid intakes are critically low, particularly in the elderly, and mainly in case of vitamin D. The population's intake of panthotenic acid and biotin did not reach the recommendations. In order to reach the dietary reference intakes and to prevent deficiencies, it is necessary to inform the population and to make healthy food choices available. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(33): 1302-1313.

  18. Effects of HfB2 and HfN Additions on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of TiB2-Based Ceramic Tool Materials

    PubMed Central

    An, Jing; Song, Jinpeng; Liang, Guoxing; Gao, Jiaojiao; Xie, Juncai; Cao, Lei; Wang, Shiying; Lv, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The effects of HfB2 and HfN additions on the microstructures and mechanical properties of TiB2-based ceramic tool materials were investigated. The results showed that the HfB2 additive not only can inhibit the TiB2 grain growth but can also change the morphology of some TiB2 grains from bigger polygons to smaller polygons or longer ovals that are advantageous for forming a relatively fine microstructure, and that the HfN additive had a tendency toward agglomeration. The improvement of flexural strength and Vickers hardness of the TiB2-HfB2 ceramics was due to the relatively fine microstructure; the decrease of fracture toughness was ascribed to the formation of a weaker grain boundary strength due to the brittle rim phase and the poor wettability between HfB2 and Ni. The decrease of the flexural strength and Vickers hardness of the TiB2-HfN ceramics was due to the increase of defects such as TiB2 coarse grains and HfN agglomeration; the enhancement of fracture toughness was mainly attributed to the decrease of the pore number and the increase of the rim phase and TiB2 coarse grains. The toughening mechanisms of TiB2-HfB2 ceramics mainly included crack bridging and transgranular fracture, while the toughening mechanisms of TiB2-HfN ceramics mainly included crack deflection, crack bridging, transgranular fracture, and the core-rim structure. PMID:28772821

  19. Rationale and design of the Tanzania Vitamin and HIV Infection Trial.

    PubMed

    Fawzi, W W; Msamanga, G I; Spiegelman, D; Urassa, E J; Hunter, D J

    1999-02-01

    We present the rationale and design of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin supplements among HIV-positive pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Higher levels of intake of vitamins A, B, C, and E may decrease the risk of vertical transmission and progression of HIV infection by enhancing maternal and infant immune function; by reducing viral load in the blood, breast milk, or lower genital tract secretions; and/or by strengthening the placental barrier to infection. Eligible pregnant women were randomized to receive vitamin A, multivitamins excluding A, vitamin A and multivitamins, or placebo. The main endpoints include vertical transmission of HIV infection, as assessed by examination of infection in infants using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and progression of HIV disease as measured by the WHO clinical staging system. Over a period of 2 years, 13,876 women were tested for HIV infection, with appropriate pre- and posttest counseling, to enroll 1085 consenting HIV-positive women. The trial assesses women and their children once a month for a minimum of 18 months after delivery or up to the end of this 5-year study. We examine recruitment strategies and means of enhancing cohort retention in long-term follow-up. We assess compliance with the use of supplements by direct questioning, by counting pills, and biochemically by using serum beta-carotene and urine riboflavin levels. Briefly, we discuss ethical issues related to the conduct of AIDS prevention trials in this setting. In sub-Saharan Africa, most HIV-infected persons lack access to the relevant antiretroviral and prophylactic drugs, and the region urgently needs low-cost treatments and preventive strategies. The Tanzania trial should provide valuable data to address the effect of vitamin supplements in the transmission and progression of HIV infection.

  20. Evaluation of conditioning time and temperature on gelatinized starch and vitamin retention in a pelleted swine diet.

    PubMed

    Lewis, L L; Stark, C R; Fahrenholz, A C; Bergstrom, J R; Jones, C K

    2015-02-01

    Two key feed processing parameters, conditioning temperature and time, were altered to determine their effects on concentration of gelatinized starch and vitamin retention in a pelleted finishing swine diet. Diet formulation (corn–soybean meal based with 30% distillers dried grains with solubles) was held constant. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial design plus a control with 2 conditioning temperatures (77 vs. 88°C) and 3 conditioner retention times (15, 30, and 60 s). In addition, a mash diet not subjected to conditioning served as a control for a total of 7 treatments. Samples were collected after conditioning but before pelleting (hot mash), after pelleting but before cooling (hot pellet), and after pelleting and cooling (cold pellet) and analyzed for percentage total starch, percentage gelatinized starch, and riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin D3 concentrations. Total percentage starch was increased by greater conditioning temperature (P = 0.041) but not time (P > 0.10), whereas higher temperature and longer time both increased (P < 0.05) percentage gelatinized starch, with increasing time resulting in a linear increase in percentage starch gelatinization (P = 0.013). The interaction between conditioning temperature and time increased percentage gelatinized starch (P = 0.003) but not percentage total starch (P > 0.10). Sample location also affected both percentage total starch and gelatinized starch (P < 0.05), with the greatest increase in percentage gelatinized starch occurring between hot mash and hot pellet samples. As expected, the pelleting process increased percentage gelatinized starch (P = 0.035; 7.3 vs. 11.7% gelatinized starch for hot mash vs. hot pellet samples, respectively), but there was no difference in total starch concentrations (P > 0.10). Finally, neither conditioning temperature nor time affected riboflavin, niacin, or vitamin D3 concentrations (P > 0.10). In summary, both increasing conditioningtemperature and time effect

  1. A novel mechanism of UV-A and riboflavin-mediated corneal cross-linking through induction of tissue transglutaminases.

    PubMed

    Kopsachilis, Nikolaos; Tsaousis, Konstantinos T; Tsinopoulos, Ioannis T; Kruse, Friedrich E; Welge-Luessen, Ulrich

    2013-07-01

    Collagen cross-linking using UV-A irradiation combined with the photosensitizer riboflavin is a new technique for treating progressive keratoconus. The purposes of this study were to examine whether primary human corneal keratocytes (HCKs) are capable of expressing and secreting fibronectin and tissue transglutaminase (tTgase), an enzyme cross-linking extracellular matrix protein, and to examine whether fibronectin and tTgase are increased after the treatment of HCK cells with UV-A irradiation combined with riboflavin (RFUV-A), thus providing another possible physiological mechanism of the cross-linking pathway. Cell cultures established from HCKs were treated with 0.025% riboflavin solution and UV-A (370 nm) irradiance 3 mW/cm2 for 30 minutes. Induction of fibronectin and tTgase was investigated by immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis. Cell viability was quantified by a microscopic live-dead assay. External tTgase activity was measured by the ability to form polymerized fibronectin and the incorporation of biotinylated cadaverine into fibronectin. Treatment of cultured HCK cells with RFUV-A increased the fibronectin and tTgase messenger RNA and protein levels. This effect was not observed in cells treated with riboflavin or UV-A radiation alone. Incorporation of biotinylated cadaverine was significantly increased when HCK cells were treated with RFUV-A. The enzymes tTgase and fibronectin are expressed by RFUV-A treatment in cultured HCK cells. This mechanism provides more information about the physiology of corneal cross-linking.

  2. Measuring Binding Affinity of Protein-Ligand Interaction Using Spectrophotometry: Binding of Neutral Red to Riboflavin-Binding Protein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenprakhon, Pirom; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2010-01-01

    The dissociation constant, K[subscript d], of the binding of riboflavin-binding protein (RP) with neutral red (NR) can be determined by titrating RP to a fixed concentration of NR. Upon adding RP to the NR solution, the maximum absorption peak of NR shifts to 545 nm from 450 nm for the free NR. The change of the absorption can be used to determine…

  3. Study to evaluate the impact of heat treatment on water soluble vitamins in milk.

    PubMed

    Asadullah; Khair-un-nisa; Tarar, Omer Mukhtar; Ali, Syed Abdul; Jamil, Khalid; Begum, Askari

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of domestic boiling practice on the contents of water soluble vitamins of loose milk and quantitative comparison of these vitamins in Ultra High Temperature (UHT) treated packaged milk with that of boiled loose milk. Loose milk samples were collected from various localities of Karachi city (Pakistan). These samples were boiled in simulated household conditions for 5, 10 and 15 minutes. Ultra High Temperature (UHT) treated packaged milk samples of various brands were obtained from the local market. The aliquots were analyzed for water-soluble vitamins using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique. The mean values and standard deviations for data were computed and compared as well as level of variations were also determined. Conventional boiling caused destruction of water soluble vitamins in milk i.e. vitamin 81 content in fresh milk decreased from 0.037 mg/100 g to 0.027 mg/100 g after 15 min boiling, whereas vitamin B2 from 0.115 to 0.084 mg/100 g, vitamin B3 0.062 to 0.044 mg/100 g, vitamin B6 0.025 to 0.019 mg/100 g and folic acid 3.38 to 2.40 microg/100 g. This accounted for a post-boiling decrease of about 27, 27, 29, 24 and 36% in vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and folic acid respectively. The values for vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and folic acid determined in boiled milk were significantly lower than UHT treated packaged milk samples by 25.9, 75.0, 54.5, 63.16 and 38.1% respectively. Conventional boiling caused drastic reduction in vitamin levels of loose milk samples. In comparison to this, UHT milk retained high levels of water soluble B-vitamins. Thus it could be envisaged that UHT treated milk provides better water soluble vitamins' nourishment than conventionally boiled milk (JPMA 60:909; 2010).

  4. A study of effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some vitamins for electron, H, He and C ion interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyükyıldız, M.

    2017-09-01

    The radiological properties of some vitamins such as Retinol, Beta-carotene, Riboflavin, Niacin, Niacinamide, Pantothenic acid, Pyridoxine, Pyridoxamine, Pyridoxal, Biotin, Folic acid, Ascorbic acid, Cholecalciferol, Alpha-tocopherol, Gamma-tocopherol, Phylloquinone have been investigated with respect to total electron interaction and some heavy charged particle interaction as means of effective atomic numbers (Z_{eff}) and electron densities (N_{eff}) for the first time. Calculations were performed for total electron interaction and heavy ions such as H, He and C ion interactions in the energy region 10keV-10MeV by using a logarithmic interpolation method. Variations in Z_{eff}'s and N_{eff}'s of given vitamins have been studied according to the energy of electron or heavy charged particles, and significant variations have been observed for all types of interaction in the given energy region. The maximum values of Z_{eff} have been found in the different energy regions for different interactions remarkably and variations in N_{eff} seem approximately to be the same with variation in Z_{eff} for the given vitamins as expected. Z_{eff} values of some vitamins were plotted together and compared with each other for electron, H, He and C interactions and the ratios of Z_{eff}/ < A > have been changed in the range of 0.25-0.36, 0.20-0.36, 0.22-0.35 and 0.20-0.35 for electron, H, He and C interactions, respectively.

  5. Erythrocyte concentrations of B1, B2, B6 but not plasma C and E are reliable indicators of nutrition status in the presence of systemic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ghashut, Rawia A; McMillan, Donald C; Kinsella, John; Talwar, Dinesh

    2017-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that the plasma concentration of vitamin D, carotenoids, zinc and selenium are associated with the magnitude of the systemic inflammatory response. In order to examine whether other vitamins may be affected and whether red cell concentrations are less affected by systemic inflammation the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the systemic inflammatory response on red cell measurements of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, and plasma concentration of vitamin C and E in a large cohort of patients referred for a nutritional screen. Patients referred for nutritional assessment of B1 (n = 551), B2 (n = 251), B6 (n = 313), ascorbic acid (n = 494) and α-tocopherol (n = 395) concentrations. These vitamins were measured using routine laboratory methods. The median concentrations of vitamin B1 grouped according to C-reactive protein concentrations ≤10, 11-80 and >80 mg/L were 543, 664 and 766 ng/g Hb respectively (p < 0.001, 41% higher). The median concentration of vitamin B1 grouped according to albumin concentrations ≥35, 25-34 and <25 g/l were 547, 664 and 701 ng/g Hb respectively (p < 0.001, 28% higher). The median concentrations of red cell vitamin B2 grouped according to CRP concentrations ≤10, 11-80 and >80 mg/L were 2.2, 2.3 and 2.4 nmol/g Hb respectively (p < 0.001, 9% higher). The median red cell concentrations of vitamin B2 grouped according to albumin concentrations ≥35, 25-34 and <25 g/l were 2.1, 2.4 and 2.3 nmol/g Hb respectively (p < 0.001, 14% higher). The median concentrations of red cell vitamin B6 grouped according to CRP concentrations ≤10, 11-80 and >80 mg/L were 534, 548 and 767 pmol/g Hb respectively (p < 0.001, 44% higher). The median red cell concentrations of vitamin B6 grouped according to albumin concentrations ≥35, 25-34 and <25 g/l were 462, 644 and 840 pmol/g Hb respectively (p < 0.001, 82% higher). In contrast, the median plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid

  6. Whole blood treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet light: quality assessment of all blood components produced by the buffy coat method.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Peter; Culibrk, Brankica; Karwal, Simrath; Serrano, Katherine; Levin, Elena; Bu, Daniel; Bhakta, Varsha; Sheffield, William P; Goodrich, Raymond P; Devine, Dana V

    2015-04-01

    Pathogen inactivation (PI) technologies are currently licensed for use with platelet (PLT) and plasma components. Treatment of whole blood (WB) would be of benefit to the blood banking community by saving time and costs compared to individual component treatment. However, no paired, pool-and-split study directly assessing the impact of WB PI on the subsequently produced components has yet been reported. In a "pool-and-split" study, WB either was treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light or was kept untreated as control. The buffy coat (BC) method produced plasma, PLT, and red blood cell (RBC) components. PLT units arising from the untreated WB study arm were treated with riboflavin and UV light on day of production and compared to PLT concentrates (PCs) produced from the treated WB units. A panel of common in vitro variables for the three types of components was used to monitor quality throughout their respective storage periods. PCs derived from the WB PI treatment were of significantly better quality than treated PLT components for most variables. RBCs produced from the WB treatment deteriorated earlier during storage than untreated units. Plasma components showed a 3% to 44% loss in activity for several clotting factors. Treatment of WB with riboflavin and UV before production of components by the BC method shows a negative impact on all three blood components. PLT units produced from PI-treated WB exhibited less damage compared to PLT component treatment. © 2014 AABB.

  7. Observation of oscillatory surface reactions of riboflavin, trolox, and singlet oxygen using single carbon nanotube fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sen, Fatih; Boghossian, Ardemis A; Sen, Selda; Ulissi, Zachary W; Zhang, Jingqing; Strano, Michael S

    2012-12-21

    Single-molecule fluorescent microscopy allows semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to detect the adsorption and desorption of single adsorbate molecules as a stochastic modulation of emission intensity. In this study, we identify and assign the signature of the complex decomposition and reaction pathways of riboflavin in the presence of the free radical scavenger Trolox using DNA-wrapped SWCNT sensors dispersed onto an aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) coated surface. SWCNT emission is quenched by riboflavin-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), but increases upon the adsorption of Trolox, which functions as a reductive brightening agent. Riboflavin has two parallel reaction pathways, a Trolox oxidizer and a photosensitizer for singlet oxygen and superoxide generation. The resulting reaction network can be detected in real time in the vicinity of a single SWCNT and can be completely described using elementary reactions and kinetic rate constants measured independently. The reaction mechanism results in an oscillatory fluorescence response from each SWCNT, allowing for the simultaneous detection of multiple reactants. A series-parallel kinetic model is shown to describe the critical points of these oscillations, with partition coefficients on the order of 10(-6)-10(-4) for the reactive oxygen and excited state species. These results highlight the potential for SWCNTs to characterize complex reaction networks at the nanometer scale.

  8. Effects of riboflavin deficiency and clofibrate treatment on the five acyl-CoA dehydrogenases in rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Veitch, K; Draye, J P; Van Hoof, F; Sherratt, H S

    1988-09-01

    Rats were maintained on a riboflavin-deficient diet or on a diet containing clofibrate (0.5%, w/w). The activities of the mitochondrial FAD-dependent straight-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (butyryl-CoA, octanoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-CoA) and the branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (isovaleryl-CoA and isobutyryl-CoA) involved in the degradation of branched-chain acyl-CoA esters derived from branched-chain amino acids were assayed in liver mitochondrial extracts prepared in the absence and presence of exogenous FAD. These activities were low in livers from riboflavin-deficient rats (11, 28, 16, 6 and less than 2% of controls respectively) when prepared in the absence of exogenous FAD, and were not restored to control values when prepared in 25 microM-FAD (29, 47, 28, 7 and 17%)