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Sample records for ribonucleotide reductase mediate

  1. The tyrosyl free radical in ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Gräslund, A; Sahlin, M; Sjöberg, B M

    1985-01-01

    The enzyme, ribonucleotide reductase, catalyses the formation of deoxyribonucleotides from ribonucleotides, a reaction essential for DNA synthesis in all living cells. The Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase, which is the prototype of all known eukaryotic and virus-coded enzymes, consists of two nonidentical subunits, proteins B1 and B2. The B2 subunit contains an antiferromagnetically coupled pair of ferric ions and a stable tyrosyl free radical. EPR studies show that the tyrosyl radical, formed by loss of ferric ions and a stable tyrosyl free radical. EPR studies show that the tyrosyl radical, formed by loss of an electron, has its unpaired spin density delocalized in the aromatic ring of tyrosine. Effects of iron-radical interaction indicate a relatively close proximity between the iron center and the radical. The EPR signal of the radical can be studied directly in frozen packed cells of E. coli or mammalian origin, if the cells are made to overproduce ribonucleotide reductase. The hypothetic role of the tyrosyl free radical in the enzymatic reaction is not yet elucidated, except in the reaction with the inhibiting substrate analogue 2'-azido-CDP. In this case, the normal tyrosyl radical is destroyed with concomitant appearance of a 2'-azido-CDP-localized radical intermediate. Attempts at spin trapping of radical reaction intermediates have turned out negative. In E. coli the activity of ribonucleotide reductase may be regulated by enzymatic activities that interconvert a nonradical containing form and the fully active protein B2. In synchronized mammalian cells, however, the cell cycle variation of ribonucleotide reductase, studied by EPR, was shown to be due to de novo protein synthesis. Inhibitors of ribonucleotide reductase are of medical interest because of their ability to control DNA synthesis. One example is hydroxyurea, used in cancer therapy, which selectively destroys the tyrosyl free radical. PMID:3007085

  2. E2F4 and ribonucleotide reductase mediate S-phase arrest in colon cancer cells treated with chlorophyllin.

    PubMed

    Chimploy, Korakod; Díaz, G Dario; Li, Qingjie; Carter, Orianna; Dashwood, Wan-Mohaiza; Mathews, Christopher K; Williams, David E; Bailey, George S; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2009-11-01

    Chlorophyllin (CHL) is a water-soluble derivative of chlorophyll that exhibits cancer chemopreventive properties, but which also has been studied for its possible cancer therapeutic effects. We report here that human colon cancer cells treated with CHL accumulate in S-phase of the cell cycle, and this is associated with reduced expression levels of p53, p21, and other G(1)/S checkpoint controls. At the same time, E2F1 and E2F4 transcription factors become elevated and exhibit increased DNA binding activity. In CHL-treated colon cancer cells, bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experiments provided evidence for the inhibition of DNA synthesis. Ribonucleotide reductase (RR), a pivotal enzyme for DNA synthesis and repair, was reduced at the mRNA and protein level after CHL treatment, and the enzymatic activity was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner both in vitro and in vivo. Immunoblotting revealed that expression levels of RR subunits R1, R2, and p53R2 were reduced by CHL treatment in HCT116 (p53(+/+)) and HCT116 (p53(-/-)) cells, supporting a p53-independent mechanism. Prior studies have shown that reduced levels of RR small subunits can increase the sensitivity of colon cancer cells to clinically used DNA-damaging agents and RR inhibitors. We conclude that by inhibiting R1, R2, and p53R2, CHL has the potential to be effective in the clinical setting, when used alone or in combination with currently available cancer therapeutic agents.

  3. Mediation by indole analogues of electron transfer during oxygen activation in variants of Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase R2 lacking the electron-shuttling tryptophan 48.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Lana; Kelch, Brian A; Pathickal, Betsy A; Baldwin, Jeffrey; Ley, Brenda A; Bollinger, J Martin

    2004-05-25

    Activation of dioxygen by the carboxylate-bridged diiron(II) cluster in the R2 subunit of class I ribonucleotide reductase from Escherichia coli results in the one-electron oxidation of tyrosine 122 (Y122) to a stable radical (Y122*). A key step in this reaction is the rapid transfer of a single electron from a near-surface residue, tryptophan 48 (W48), to an adduct between O(2) and diiron(II) cluster to generate a readily reducible cation radical (W48(+)(*)) and the formally Fe(IV)Fe(III) intermediate known as cluster X. Previous work showed that this electron injection step is blocked in the R2 variant with W48 replaced by phenylalanine [Krebs, C., Chen, S., Baldwin, J., Ley, B. A., Patel, U., Edmondson, D. E., Huynh, B. H., and Bollinger, J. M., Jr. (2000) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 12207-12219]. In this study, we show that substitution of W48 with alanine similarly disables the electron transfer (ET) but also permits its chemical mediation by indole compounds. In the presence of an indole mediator, O(2) activation in the R2-W48A variant produces approximately 1 equiv of stable Y122* and more than 1 equiv of the normal (micro-oxo)diiron(III) product. In the absence of a mediator, the variant protein generates primarily altered Fe(III) products and only one-fourth as much stable Y122* because, as previously reported for R2-W48F, most of the Y122* that is produced decays as a consequence of the inability of the protein to mediate reductive quenching of one of the two oxidizing equivalents of the initial diiron(II)-O(2) complex. Mediation of ET is effective in W48A variants containing additional substitutions that also impact the reaction mechanism or outcome. In the reaction of R2-W48A/F208Y, the presence of mediator suppresses formation of the Y208-derived diiron(III)-catecholate product (which is predominant in R2-F208Y in the absence of reductants) in favor of Y122*. In the reaction of R2-W48A/D84E, the presence of mediator affects the outcome of decay of the

  4. A Ferredoxin Disulfide Reductase Delivers Electrons to the Methanosarcina barkeri Class III Ribonucleotide Reductase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two subtypes of class III anaerobic ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) studied so far couple the reduction of ribonucleotides to the oxidation of formate, or the oxidation of NADPH via thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase. Certain methanogenic archaea contain a phylogenetically distinct third subtype of class III RNR, with distinct active-site residues. Here we report the cloning and recombinant expression of the Methanosarcina barkeri class III RNR and show that the electrons required for ribonucleotide reduction can be delivered by a [4Fe-4S] protein ferredoxin disulfide reductase, and a conserved thioredoxin-like protein NrdH present in the RNR operon. The diversity of class III RNRs reflects the diversity of electron carriers used in anaerobic metabolism. PMID:26536144

  5. A ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor with deoxyribonucleoside-reversible cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Crona, Mikael; Codó, Paula; Jonna, Venkateswara Rao; Hofer, Anders; Fernandes, Aristi P; Tholander, Fredrik

    2016-11-01

    Ribonucleotide Reductase (RNR) is the sole enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of ribonucleotides into deoxyribonucleotides. Even though RNR is a recognized target for antiproliferative molecules, and the main target of the approved drug hydroxyurea, few new leads targeted to this enzyme have been developed. We have evaluated a recently identified set of RNR inhibitors with respect to inhibition of the human enzyme and cellular toxicity. One compound, NSC73735, is particularly interesting; it is specific for leukemia cells and is the first identified compound that hinders oligomerization of the mammalian large RNR subunit. Similar to hydroxyurea, it caused a disruption of the cell cycle distribution of cultured HL-60 cells. In contrast to hydroxyurea, the disruption was reversible, indicating higher specificity. NSC73735 thus defines a potential lead candidate for RNR-targeted anticancer drugs, as well as a chemical probe with better selectivity for RNR inhibition than hydroxyurea.

  6. Structural Mechanism of Allosteric Activity Regulation in a Ribonucleotide Reductase with Double ATP Cones.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Renzo; Jonna, Venkateswara Rao; Kumar, Rohit; Nayeri, Niloofar; Lundin, Daniel; Sjöberg, Britt-Marie; Hofer, Anders; Logan, Derek T

    2016-06-07

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) reduce ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. Their overall activity is stimulated by ATP and downregulated by dATP via a genetically mobile ATP cone domain mediating the formation of oligomeric complexes with varying quaternary structures. The crystal structure and solution X-ray scattering data of a novel dATP-induced homotetramer of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa class I RNR reveal the structural bases for its unique properties, namely one ATP cone that binds two dATP molecules and a second one that is non-functional, binding no nucleotides. Mutations in the observed tetramer interface ablate oligomerization and dATP-induced inhibition but not the ability to bind dATP. Sequence analysis shows that the novel type of ATP cone may be widespread in RNRs. The present study supports a scenario in which diverse mechanisms for allosteric activity regulation are gained and lost through acquisition and evolutionary erosion of different types of ATP cone.

  7. Mechanism of inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase with motexafin gadolinium (MGd)

    SciTech Connect

    Zahedi Avval, Farnaz; Berndt, Carsten; Pramanik, Aladdin; Holmgren, Arne

    2009-02-13

    Motexafin gadolinium (MGd) is an expanded porphyrin anticancer agent which selectively targets tumor cells and works as a radiation enhancer, with promising results in clinical trials. Its mechanism of action is oxidation of intracellular reducing molecules and acting as a direct inhibitor of mammalian ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). This paper focuses on the mechanism of inhibition of RNR by MGd. Our experimental data present at least two pathways for inhibition of RNR; one precluding subunits oligomerization and the other direct inhibition of the large catalytic subunit of the enzyme. Co-localization of MGd and RNR in the cytoplasm particularly in the S-phase may account for its inhibitory properties. These data can elucidate an important effect of MGd on the cancer cells with overproduction of RNR and its efficacy as an anticancer agent and not only as a general radiosensitizer.

  8. Gene expression signature based screening identifies ribonucleotide reductase as a candidate therapeutic target in Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Kelli L.; Gordon, David J.

    2016-01-01

    There is a critical need in cancer therapeutics to identify targeted therapies that will improve outcomes and decrease toxicities compared to conventional, cytotoxic chemotherapy. Ewing sarcoma is a highly aggressive bone and soft tissue cancer that is caused by the EWS-FLI1 fusion protein. Although EWS-FLI1 is specific for cancer cells, and required for tumorigenesis, directly targeting this transcription factor has proven challenging. Consequently, targeting unique dependencies or key downstream mediators of EWS-FLI1 represent important alternative strategies. We used gene expression data derived from a genetically defined model of Ewing sarcoma to interrogate the Connectivity Map and identify a class of drugs, iron chelators, that downregulate a significant number of EWS-FLI1 target genes. We then identified ribonucleotide reductase M2 (RRM2), the iron-dependent subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), as one mediator of iron chelator toxicity in Ewing sarcoma cells. Inhibition of RNR in Ewing sarcoma cells caused apoptosis in vitro and attenuated tumor growth in an in vivo, xenograft model. Additionally, we discovered that the sensitivity of Ewing sarcoma cells to inhibition or suppression of RNR is mediated, in part, by high levels of SLFN11, a protein that sensitizes cells to DNA damage. This work demonstrates a unique dependency of Ewing sarcoma cells on RNR and supports further investigation of RNR inhibitors, which are currently used in clinical practice, as a novel approach for treating Ewing sarcoma. PMID:27557498

  9. Hydroxyurea-resistant vaccinia virus: overproduction of ribonucleotide reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Slabaugh, M.B.; Mathews, C.K.

    1986-11-01

    Repeated passage of vaccinia virus in increasing concentrations of hydroxyurea followed by plaque purification resulted in the isolation of variants capable of growth in 5 mM hydroxyurea, a drug concentration which inhibited the reproduction of wild-type vaccinia virus 1000-fold. Analyses of viral protein synthesis by using (/sup 35/S)methionine pulse-labeling at intervals throughout the infection cycle revealed that all isolates overproduced a 34,000-molecular-weight (MW) early polypeptide. Measurement of ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity after infection indicated that 4- to 10-fold more activity was induced by hydroxyurea-resistant viruses than by the wild-type virus. A two-step partial purification resulted in a substantial enrichment for the 34,000-MW protein from extracts of wild-type and hydroxyurea-resistant-virus-infected, but not mock-infected, cells. In the presence of the drug, the isolates incorporated (/sup 3/H)thymidine into DNA earlier and a rate substantially greater than that of the wild type, although the onset of DNA synthesis was delayed in both cases. The drug resistance trait was markedly unstable in all isolates. In the absence of selective pressure, plaque-purified isolated readily segregated progeny that displayed a wide range of resistance phenotypes. The results of this study indicate that vaccinia virus encodes a subunit of ribonucleotide reductase which is 34,000-MW early protein whose overproduction confers hydroxyurea resistance on reproducing viruses.

  10. Structural Basis for Activation of Class Ib Ribonucleotide Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Boal, Amie K.; Cotruvo, Jr., Joseph A.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2010-12-03

    The class Ib ribonucleotide reductase of Escherichia coli can initiate reduction of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides with either a Mn{sub 2}{sup III}-tyrosyl radical (Y{sm_bullet}) or a Fe{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet} cofactor in the NrdF subunit. Whereas Fe{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet} can self-assemble from Fe{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF and O{sub 2}, activation of Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF requires a reduced flavoprotein, NrdI, proposed to form the oxidant for cofactor assembly by reduction of O{sub 2}. The crystal structures reported here of E. coli Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF and Fe{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF reveal different coordination environments, suggesting distinct initial binding sites for the oxidants during cofactor activation. In the structures of Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF in complex with reduced and oxidized NrdI, a continuous channel connects the NrdI flavin cofactor to the NrdF Mn{sub 2}{sup II} active site. Crystallographic detection of a putative peroxide in this channel supports the proposed mechanism of Mn{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet} cofactor assembly.

  11. Transgenic overexpression of ribonucleotide reductase improves cardiac performance

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowski, Sarah G.; Kolwicz, Stephen C.; Korte, Frederick Steven; Luo, Zhaoxiong; Robinson-Hamm, Jacqueline N.; Page, Jennifer L.; Brozovich, Frank; Weiss, Robert S.; Tian, Rong; Murry, Charles E.; Regnier, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that cardiac myosin can use 2-deoxy-ATP (dATP) as an energy substrate, that it enhances contraction and relaxation with minimal effect on calcium-handling properties in vitro, and that contractile enhancement occurs with only minor elevation of cellular [dATP]. Here, we report the effect of chronically enhanced dATP concentration on cardiac function using a transgenic mouse that overexpresses the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (TgRR), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in de novo deoxyribonucleotide biosynthesis. Hearts from TgRR mice had elevated left ventricular systolic function compared with wild-type (WT) mice, both in vivo and in vitro, without signs of hypertrophy or altered diastolic function. Isolated cardiomyocytes from TgRR mice had enhanced contraction and relaxation, with no change in Ca2+ transients, suggesting targeted improvement of myofilament function. TgRR hearts had normal ATP and only slightly decreased phosphocreatine levels by 31P NMR spectroscopy, and they maintained rate responsiveness to dobutamine challenge. These data demonstrate long-term (at least 5-mo) elevation of cardiac [dATP] results in sustained elevation of basal left ventricular performance, with maintained β-adrenergic responsiveness and energetic reserves. Combined with results from previous studies, we conclude that this occurs primarily via enhanced myofilament activation and contraction, with similar or faster ability to relax. The data are sufficiently compelling to consider elevated cardiac [dATP] as a therapeutic option to treat systolic dysfunction. PMID:23530224

  12. Rnr4p, a novel ribonucleotide reductase small-subunit protein.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, P J; Chabes, A; Casagrande, R; Tian, X C; Thelander, L; Huffaker, T C

    1997-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductases catalyze the formation of deoxyribonucleotides by the reduction of the corresponding ribonucleotides. Eukaryotic ribonucleotide reductases are alpha2beta2 tetramers; each of the larger, alpha subunits possesses binding sites for substrate and allosteric effectors, and each of the smaller, beta subunits contains a binuclear iron complex. The iron complex interacts with a specific tyrosine residue to form a tyrosyl free radical which is essential for activity. Previous work has identified two genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, RNR1 and RNR3, that encode alpha subunits and one gene, RNR2, that encodes a beta subunit. Here we report the identification of a second gene from this yeast, RNR4, that encodes a protein with significant similarity to the beta-subunit proteins. The phenotype of rnr4 mutants is consistent with that expected for a defect in ribonucleotide reductase; rnr4 mutants are supersensitive to the ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor hydroxyurea and display an S-phase arrest at their restrictive temperature. rnr4 mutant extracts are deficient in ribonucleotide reductase activity, and this deficiency can be remedied by the addition of exogenous Rnr4p. As is the case for the other RNR genes, RNR4 is induced by agents that damage DNA. However, Rnr4p lacks a number of sequence elements thought to be essential for iron binding, and mutation of the critical tyrosine residue does not affect Rnr4p function. These results suggest that Rnr4p is catalytically inactive but, nonetheless, does play a role in the ribonucleotide reductase complex. PMID:9315671

  13. Ribonucleotide reductase activity is coupled to DNA synthesis via proliferating cell nuclear antigen.

    PubMed

    Salguero, Israel; Guarino, Estrella; Shepherd, Marianne E A; Deegan, Tom D; Havens, Courtney G; MacNeill, Stuart A; Walter, Johannes C; Kearsey, Stephen E

    2012-04-24

    Synthesis of deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) is required for both DNA replication and DNA repair and is catalyzed by ribonucleotide reductases (RNR), which convert ribonucleotides to their deoxy forms [1, 2]. Maintaining the correct levels of dNTPs for DNA synthesis is important for minimizing the mutation rate [3-7], and this is achieved by tight regulation of RNR [2, 8, 9]. In fission yeast, RNR is regulated in part by a small protein inhibitor, Spd1, which is degraded in S phase and after DNA damage to allow upregulation of dNTP supply [10-12]. Spd1 degradation is mediated by the activity of the CRL4(Cdt2) ubiquitin ligase complex [5, 13, 14]. This has been reported to be dependent on modulation of Cdt2 levels, which are cell cycle regulated, peaking in S phase, and which also increase after DNA damage in a checkpoint-dependent manner [7, 13]. We show here that Cdt2 level fluctuations are not sufficient to regulate Spd1 proteolysis and that the key step in this event is the interaction of Spd1 with the polymerase processivity factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), complexed onto DNA. This mechanism thus provides a direct link between DNA synthesis and RNR regulation.

  14. The Dimanganese(II) Site of Bacillus subtilis Class Ib Ribonucleotide Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Boal, Amie K.; Cotruvo, Jr., Joseph A.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2014-10-02

    Class Ib ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) use a dimanganese-tyrosyl radical cofactor, Mn{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet}, in their homodimeric NrdF ({beta}2) subunit to initiate reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. The structure of the Mn{sub 2}{sup II} form of NrdF is an important component in understanding O{sub 2}-mediated formation of the active metallocofactor, a subject of much interest because a unique flavodoxin, NrdI, is required for cofactor assembly. Biochemical studies and sequence alignments suggest that NrdF and NrdI proteins diverge into three phylogenetically distinct groups. The only crystal structure to date of a NrdF with a fully ordered and occupied dimanganese site is that of Escherichia coli Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF, prototypical of the enzymes from actinobacteria and proteobacteria. Here we report the 1.9 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of Bacillus subtilis Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF, representative of the enzymes from a second group, from Bacillus and Staphylococcus. The structures of the metal clusters in the {beta}2 dimer are distinct from those observed in E. coli Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF. These differences illustrate the key role that solvent molecules and protein residues in the second coordination sphere of the Mn{sub 2}{sup II} cluster play in determining conformations of carboxylate residues at the metal sites and demonstrate that diverse coordination geometries are capable of serving as starting points for Mn{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet} cofactor assembly in class Ib RNRs.

  15. Identification of structural domains within the large subunit of herpes simplex virus ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Conner, J; Cross, A; Murray, J; Marsden, H

    1994-12-01

    The large subunit (R1) of herpes simplex virus (HSV) ribonucleotide reductase is a bifunctional protein consisting of a unique N-terminal protein kinase domain and a ribonucleotide reductase domain. Previous studies showed that the two functional domains are linked by a protease sensitive site. Here we provide evidence for two subdomains, of 30K and 53K, within the reductase domain. The two fragments, which were produced by limited proteolysis and were resistant to further degradation, remained tightly associated in a complex containing two molecules of each. They were capable of binding the R2 subunit of HSV ribonucleotide reductase with approximately the same affinity as the intact protein but the complex did not complement the small subunit (R2) to give an active enzyme. At low concentrations (0.4 micrograms/ml) of trypsin or V8 protease, cleavage between the subdomains was prevented by the presence of the N-terminal protein kinase domain. At higher protease concentrations (1 micrograms/ml) the N-terminal domain is extensively proteolysed and the 30K and 53K domains were generated. Identical results were obtained using purified R1 isolated from infected cell extracts or following expression in Escherichia coli. The origin of the two domains was investigated by N-terminal sequencing of the 53K fragment and by examining their reactivity with a panel of R1-specific monoclonal antibodies which we isolated and epitope mapped for that purpose. The trypsin cleavage site was found to lie between arginine 575 and asparagine 576, and proteolysis in this region was not prevented by the presence of R2 or the nonapeptide YAGAVVNDL. We propose that the ribonucleotide reductase region of HSV R1 exists in a two domain structure, and that the interdomain linking region is protected by the unique N terminus.

  16. Photo-ribonucleotide reductase β2 by selective cysteine labeling with a radical phototrigger

    PubMed Central

    Pizano, Arturo A.; Lutterman, Daniel A.; Holder, Patrick G.; Teets, Thomas S.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    Photochemical radical initiation is a powerful tool for studying radical initiation and transport in biology. Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs), which catalyze the conversion of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides in all organisms, are an exemplar of radical mediated transformations in biology. Class Ia RNRs are composed of two subunits: α2 and β2. As a method to initiate radical formation photochemically within β2, a single surface-exposed cysteine of the β2 subunit of Escherichia coli Class Ia RNR has been labeled (98%) with a photooxidant ([Re ] = tricarbonyl(1,10-phenanthroline)(methylpyridyl)rhenium(I)). The labeling was achieved by incubation of S355C-β2 with the 4-(bromomethyl)pyridyl derivative of [Re] to yield the labeled species, [Re]-S355C-β2. Steady-state and time-resolved emission experiments reveal that the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited-state 3[Re ]∗ is not significantly perturbed after bioconjugation and is available as a phototrigger of tyrosine radical at position 356 in the β2 subunit; transient absorption spectroscopy reveals that the radical lives for microseconds. The work described herein provides a platform for photochemical radical initiation and study of proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) in the β2 subunit of RNR, from which radical initiation and transport for this enzyme originates. PMID:22171005

  17. dNTP deficiency induced by HU via inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase affects neural tube development.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zhen; Wang, Xiuwei; Dong, Yanting; Xu, Lin; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Bo

    2015-02-03

    Exposure to environmental toxic chemicals in utero during the neural tube development period can cause developmental disorders. To evaluate the disruption of neural tube development programming, the murine neural tube defects (NTDs) model was induced by interrupting folate metabolism using methotrexate in our previous study. The present study aimed to examine the effects of dNTP deficiency induced by hydroxyurea (HU), a specific ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor, during murine neural tube development. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with various doses of HU on gestation day (GD) 7.5, and the embryos were checked on GD 11.5. RNR activity and deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) levels were measured in the optimal dose. Additionally, DNA damage was examined by comet analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Cellular behaviors in NTDs embryos were evaluated with phosphorylation of histone H3 (PH-3) and caspase-3 using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The results showed that NTDs were observed mostly with HU treatment at an optimal dose of 225 mg/kg b/w. RNR activity was inhibited and dNTP levels were decreased in HU-treated embryos with NTDs. Additionally, increased DNA damage, decreased proliferation, and increased caspase-3 were significant in NTDs embryos compared to the controls. Results indicated that HU induced murine NTDs model by disturbing dNTP metabolism and further led to the abnormal cell balance between proliferation and apoptosis.

  18. Mechanism of ribonucleotide reductase from Herpes simplex virus type 1. Evidence for 3' carbon-hydrogen bond cleavage and inactivation by nucleotide analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Ator, M.A.; Stubbe, J.; Spector, T.

    1986-03-15

    Isotope effects of 2.5, 2.1, and 1.0 were measured on the conversion of (3'-3H)ADP, (3'-H)UDP, and (5-3H) UDP to the corresponding 2'-deoxynucleotides by herpes simplex virus type 1 ribonucleotide reductase. These results indicate that the reduction of either purine or pyrimidine nucleotides requires cleavage of the 3' carbon-hydrogen bond of the substrate. The substrate analogs 2'-chloro-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-diphosphate (ClUDP), 2'-deoxy-2'-fluorouridine 5'-diphosphate, and 2'-azido-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-diphosphate were time-dependent inactivators of the herpes simplex virus type 1 ribonucleotide reductase. Incubation of (3'-3H)ClUDP with the enzyme was accompanied by time-dependent release of 3H to the solvent. Reaction of (beta-32P)ClUDP with the reductase resulted in the production of inorganic pyrophosphate. These results are consistent with the enzyme-mediated cleavage of the 3' carbon-hydrogen bond of ClUDP and the subsequent conversion of the nucleotide to 2-methylene-3(2H)furanone, as previously reported with the Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase.

  19. Cloning and sequencing of the genes from Salmonella typhimurium encoding a new bacterial ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, A; Gibert, I; Barbé, J

    1994-01-01

    A plasmid library of Salmonella typhimurium was used to complement a temperature-sensitive nrdA mutant of Escherichia coli. Complementation was obtained with two different classes of plasmids, one carrying the E. coli nrdAB-like genes and the second containing an operon encoding a new bacterial ribonucleotide reductase. Plasmids harboring these new reductase genes also enable obligately anaerobic nrdB::Mud1 E. coli mutants to grow in the presence of oxygen. This operon consists of two open reading frames, which have been designated nrdE (2,145 bp) and nrdF (969 bp). The deduced amino acid sequences of the nrdE and nrdF products include the catalytically important residues conserved in ribonucleotide reductase enzymes of class I and show 25 and 28% overall identity with the R1 and R2 protein, respectively, of the aerobic ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase of E. coli. The 3' end of the sequenced 4.9-kb fragment corresponds to the upstream region of the previously published proU operon of both S. typhimurium and E. coli, indicating that the nrdEF genes are at 57 min on the chromosomal maps of these two bacterial species. Analysis of the nrdEF and proU sequences demonstrates that transcription of the nrdEF genes is in the clockwise direction on the S. typhimurium and E. coli maps. Images PMID:8195103

  20. Cloning, sequence determination, and regulation of the ribonucleotide reductase subunits from Plasmodium falciparum: a target for antimalarial therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, H; Salem, J S; Li, L S; Yang, F D; Mama, S; Wang, Z M; Fisher, A; Hamann, C S; Cooperman, B S

    1993-01-01

    Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, accounting for more than one million deaths annually. We have focused on the reduction of ribonucleotides to 2'-deoxyribonucleotides, catalyzed by ribonucleotide reductase, which represents the rate-determining step in DNA replication as a target for antimalarial agents. We report the full-length DNA sequence corresponding to the large (PfR1) and small (PfR2) subunits of Plasmodium falciparum ribonucleotide reductase. The small subunit (PfR2) contains the major catalytic motif consisting of a tyrosyl radical and a dinuclear Fe site. Whereas PfR2 shares 59% amino acid identity with human R2, a striking sequence divergence between human R2 and PfR2 at the C terminus may provide a selective target for inhibition of the malarial enzyme. A synthetic oligopeptide corresponding to the C-terminal 7 residues of PfR2 inhibits mammalian ribonucleotide reductase at concentrations approximately 10-fold higher than that predicted to inhibit malarial R2. The gene encoding the large subunit (PfR1) contains a single intron. The cysteines thought to be involved in the reduction mechanism are conserved. In contrast to mammalian ribonucleotide reductase, the genes for PfR1 and PfR2 are located on the same chromosome and the accumulation of mRNAs for the two subunits follow different temporal patterns during the cell cycle. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8415692

  1. Determination of triapine, a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, in human plasma by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Kunos, Charles A; Xu, Yan

    2015-09-01

    Triapine is an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). Studies have shown that triapine significantly decreases the activity of RNR and enhanced the radiation-mediated cytotoxicity in cervical and colon cancer. In this work, we have developed and validated a selective and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of triapine in human plasma. In this method, 2-[(3-fluoro-2-pyridinyl)methylene] hydrazinecarbothioamide (NSC 266749) was used as the internal standard (IS); plasma samples were prepared by deproteinization with acetonitrile; tripaine and the IS were separated on a Waters Xbridge Shield RP18 column (3.5 µm; 2.1 × 50 mm) using a mobile phase containing 25.0% methanol and 75.0% ammonium bicarbonate buffer (10.0 mM, pH 8.50; v/v); column eluate was monitored by positive turbo-ionspray tandem mass spectrometry; and quantitation of triapine was carried out in multiple-reaction-monitoring mode. The method developed had a linear calibration range of 0.250-50.0 ng/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.999 for triapine in human plasma. The IS-normalized recovery and the IS-normalized matrix factor of triapine were 101-104% and 0.89-1.05, respectively. The accuracy expressed as percentage error and precision expressed as coefficient of variation were ≤±6 and ≤8%, respectively. The validated LC-MS/MS method was applied to the measurement of triapine in patient samples from a phase I clinical trial.

  2. Functional Analysis of Ribonucleotide Reductase from Cordyceps militaris Expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tatsuya; Ahmad, Suparmin; Park, Enoch Y

    2017-01-10

    Cordyceps militaris produces cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine), which has various activities, including anti-oxidant, anti-tumoral, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) seems to be a candidate to produce cordycepin in C. militaris because RNR catalyzes the reduction of nucleotides to 2'-deoxynucleotides, whose structures are similar to that of cordycepin. However, the role of RNR has not been confirmed yet. In this study, complementary DNAs (cDNAs) of C. militaris RNR (CmRNR) large and small subunits (CmR1 and CmR2) were cloned from C. militaris NBRC9787 to investigate the function of CmRNR for its cordycepin production. C. militaris NBRC9787 began to produce cordycepin when grown in a liquid surface culture in medium composed of glucose and yeast extract for 15 days. CmR1 cDNA and CmR2 cDNA were obtained from its genomic DNA and from total RNA extracted from its mycelia after cultivation for 21 days, respectively. Recombinant CmR1 and CmR2 were expressed individually in Escherichia coli and purified. Purified recombinant CmR1 and CmR2 showed RNR activity toward adenosine diphosphate (ADP) only when two subunits were mixed but only show the reduction of ADP to 2'-deoxyADP. These results indicate that the pathway from ADP to 3'deoxyADP via CmRNR does not exist in C. militaris and cordycepin production in C. militaris may be mediated by other enzymes.

  3. Biochemical Characterization of the Split Class II Ribonucleotide Reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Crona, Mikael; Hofer, Anders; Astorga-Wells, Juan; Sjöberg, Britt-Marie; Tholander, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa can grow under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Its flexibility with respect to oxygen load is reflected by the fact that its genome encodes all three existing classes of ribonucleotides reductase (RNR): the oxygen-dependent class I RNR, the oxygen-indifferent class II RNR, and the oxygen-sensitive class III RNR. The P. aeruginosa class II RNR is expressed as two separate polypeptides (NrdJa and NrdJb), a unique example of a split RNR enzyme in a free-living organism. A split class II RNR is also found in a few closely related γ-Proteobacteria. We have characterized the P. aeruginosa class II RNR and show that both subunits are required for formation of a biologically functional enzyme that can sustain vitamin B12-dependent growth. Binding of the B12 coenzyme as well as substrate and allosteric effectors resides in the NrdJa subunit, whereas the NrdJb subunit mediates efficient reductive dithiol exchange during catalysis. A combination of activity assays and activity-independent methods like surface plasmon resonance and gas phase electrophoretic macromolecule analysis suggests that the enzymatically active form of the enzyme is a (NrdJa-NrdJb)2 homodimer of heterodimers, and a combination of hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments and molecular modeling suggests a plausible region in NrdJa that interacts with NrdJb. Our detailed characterization of the split NrdJ from P. aeruginosa provides insight into the biochemical function of a unique enzyme known to have central roles in biofilm formation and anaerobic growth. PMID:26225432

  4. Ribonucleotide Reduction in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Function and Expression of Genes Encoding Class Ib and Class II Ribonucleotide Reductases

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Stephanie S.; Warner, Digby F.; Tsenova, Liana; Timm, Juliano; McKinney, John D.; Kaplan, Gilla; Rubin, Harvey; Mizrahi, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, possesses a class Ib ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), encoded by the nrdE and nrdF2 genes, in addition to a putative class II RNR, encoded by nrdZ. In this study we probed the relative contributions of these RNRs to the growth and persistence of M. tuberculosis. We found that targeted knockout of the nrdF2 gene could be achieved only in the presence of a complementing allele, confirming that this gene is essential under normal, in vitro growth conditions. This observation also implied that the alternate class Ib small subunit encoded by the nrdF1 gene is unable to substitute for nrdF2 and that the class II RNR, NrdZ, cannot substitute for the class Ib enzyme, NrdEF2. Conversely, a ΔnrdZ null mutant of M. tuberculosis was readily obtained by allelic exchange mutagenesis. Quantification of levels of nrdE, nrdF2, nrdF1, and nrdZ gene expression by real-time, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR with molecular beacons by using mRNA from aerobic and O2-limited cultures showed that nrdZ was significantly induced under microaerophilic conditions, in contrast to the other genes, whose expression was reduced by O2 restriction. However, survival of the ΔnrdZ mutant strain was not impaired under hypoxic conditions in vitro. Moreover, the lungs of B6D2/F1 mice infected with the ΔnrdZ mutant had bacterial loads comparable to those of lungs infected with the parental wild-type strain, which argues against the hypothesis that nrdZ plays a significant role in the virulence of M. tuberculosis in this mouse model. PMID:14573627

  5. Ribonucleotide reductases reveal novel viral diversity and predict biological and ecological features of unknown marine viruses

    PubMed Central

    Sakowski, Eric G.; Munsell, Erik V.; Hyatt, Mara; Kress, William; Williamson, Shannon J.; Nasko, Daniel J.; Polson, Shawn W.; Wommack, K. Eric

    2014-01-01

    Virioplankton play a crucial role in aquatic ecosystems as top-down regulators of bacterial populations and agents of horizontal gene transfer and nutrient cycling. However, the biology and ecology of virioplankton populations in the environment remain poorly understood. Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are ancient enzymes that reduce ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides and thus prime DNA synthesis. Composed of three classes according to O2 reactivity, RNRs can be predictive of the physiological conditions surrounding DNA synthesis. RNRs are universal among cellular life, common within viral genomes and virioplankton shotgun metagenomes (viromes), and estimated to occur within >90% of the dsDNA virioplankton sampled in this study. RNRs occur across diverse viral groups, including all three morphological families of tailed phages, making these genes attractive for studies of viral diversity. Differing patterns in virioplankton diversity were clear from RNRs sampled across a broad oceanic transect. The most abundant RNRs belonged to novel lineages of podoviruses infecting α-proteobacteria, a bacterial class critical to oceanic carbon cycling. RNR class was predictive of phage morphology among cyanophages and RNR distribution frequencies among cyanophages were largely consistent with the predictions of the “kill the winner–cost of resistance” model. RNRs were also identified for the first time to our knowledge within ssDNA viromes. These data indicate that RNR polymorphism provides a means of connecting the biological and ecological features of virioplankton populations. PMID:25313075

  6. Marek’s disease virus encoded ribonucleotide reductase large subunit is essential for in vivo replication and plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease virus encodes a ribonucleotide reductase (RR) that consists of two subunits namely RR1 and RR2, both of which associate to form an active holoenzyme and both subunits are necessary for enzyme activity. It is an essential enzyme for the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleo...

  7. Structures of the Yeast Ribonucleotide Reductase Rnr2 and Rnr4 Homodimers

    SciTech Connect

    Sommerhalter, M.; Voegtli, W.C.; Perlstein, D.L.; Ge, J.; Stubbe, J.; Rosenzweig, A.C.

    2010-03-08

    Class I ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. Eukaryotic RNRs comprise two subunits, the R1 subunit, which contains substrate and allosteric effector binding sites, and the R2 subunit, which houses a catalytically essential diiron-tyrosyl radical cofactor. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are two variants of the R2 subunit, called Rnr2 and Rnr4. Rnr4 is unique in that it lacks three iron-binding residues conserved in all other R2s. Nevertheless, Rnr4 is required to activate Rnr2, and the functional species in vivo is believed to be a heterodimeric complex between the two proteins. The crystal structures of the Rnr2 and Rnr4 homodimers have been determined and are compared to that of the heterodimer. The homodimers are very similar to the heterodimer and to mouse R2 in overall fold, but there are several key differences. In the Rnr2 homodimer, one of the iron-binding helices, helix {alpha}B, is not well-ordered. In the heterodimer, interactions with a loop region connecting Rnr4 helices {alpha}A and {alpha}3 stabilize this Rnr2 helix, which donates iron ligand Asp 145. Sequence differences between Rnr2 and Rnr4 prevent the same interactions from occurring in the Rnr2 homodimer. These findings provide a structural rationale for why the heterodimer is the preferred complex in vivo. The active-site region in the Rnr4 homodimer reveals interactions not apparent in the heterodimer, supporting previous conclusions that this subunit does not bind iron. When taken together, these results support a model in which Rnr4 stabilizes Rnr2 for cofactor assembly and activity.

  8. E2F1 promote the aggressiveness of human colorectal cancer by activating the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Zejun; Gong, Chaoju; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Xiaomin; Mei, Lingming; Song, Mintao; Qiu, Lanlan; Luo, Shuchai; Zhu, Zhihua; Zhang, Ronghui; Gu, Hongqian; Chen, Xiang

    2015-08-21

    As the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit, the high expression of ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2 (RRM2) induces cancer and contributes to tumor growth and invasion. In several colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, we found that the expression levels of RRM2 were closely related to the transcription factor E2F1. Mechanistic studies were conducted to determine the molecular basis. Ectopic overexpression of E2F1 promoted RRM2 transactivation while knockdown of E2F1 reduced the levels of RRM2 mRNA and protein. To further investigate the roles of RRM2 which was activated by E2F1 in CRC, CCK-8 assay and EdU incorporation assay were performed. Overexpression of E2F1 promoted cell proliferation in CRC cells, which was blocked by RRM2 knockdown attenuation. In the migration and invasion tests, overexpression of E2F1 enhanced the migration and invasion of CRC cells which was abrogated by silencing RRM2. Besides, overexpression of RRM2 reversed the effects of E2F1 knockdown partially in CRC cells. Examination of clinical CRC specimens demonstrated that both RRM2 and E2F1 were elevated in most cancer tissues compared to the paired normal tissues. Further analysis showed that the protein expression levels of E2F1 and RRM2 were parallel with each other and positively correlated with lymph node metastasis (LNM), TNM stage and distant metastasis. Consistently, the patients with low E2F1 and RRM2 levels have a better prognosis than those with high levels. Therefore, we suggest that E2F1 can promote CRC proliferation, migration, invasion and metastasis by regulating RRM2 transactivation. Understanding the role of E2F1 in activating RRM2 transcription will help to explain the relationship between E2F1 and RRM2 in CRC and provide a novel predictive marker for diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. - Highlights: • E2F1 promotes RRM2 transactivation in CRC cells. • E2F1 promotes the proliferation of CRC cells by activating RRM2. • E2F1 promotes the migration and

  9. Genetic characterization and role in virulence of the ribonucleotide reductases of Streptococcus sanguinis.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, DeLacy V; Crump, Katie E; Makhlynets, Olga; Snyder, Melanie; Ge, Xiuchun; Xu, Ping; Stubbe, JoAnne; Kitten, Todd

    2014-02-28

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a cause of infective endocarditis and has been shown to require a manganese transporter called SsaB for virulence and O2 tolerance. Like certain other pathogens, S. sanguinis possesses aerobic class Ib (NrdEF) and anaerobic class III (NrdDG) ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) that perform the essential function of reducing ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. The accompanying paper (Makhlynets, O., Boal, A. K., Rhodes, D. V., Kitten, T., Rosenzweig, A. C., and Stubbe, J. (2014) J. Biol. Chem. 289, 6259-6272) indicates that in the presence of O2, the S. sanguinis class Ib RNR self-assembles an essential diferric-tyrosyl radical (Fe(III)2-Y(•)) in vitro, whereas assembly of a dimanganese-tyrosyl radical (Mn(III)2-Y(•)) cofactor requires NrdI, and Mn(III)2-Y(•) is more active than Fe(III)2-Y(•) with the endogenous reducing system of NrdH and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1). In this study, we have shown that deletion of either nrdHEKF or nrdI completely abolishes virulence in an animal model of endocarditis, whereas nrdD mutation has no effect. The nrdHEKF, nrdI, and trxR1 mutants fail to grow aerobically, whereas anaerobic growth requires nrdD. The nrdJ gene encoding an O2-independent adenosylcobalamin-cofactored RNR was introduced into the nrdHEKF, nrdI, and trxR1 mutants. Growth of the nrdHEKF and nrdI mutants in the presence of O2 was partially restored. The combined results suggest that Mn(III)2-Y(•)-cofactored NrdF is required for growth under aerobic conditions and in animals. This could explain in part why manganese is necessary for virulence and O2 tolerance in many bacterial pathogens possessing a class Ib RNR and suggests NrdF and NrdI may serve as promising new antimicrobial targets.

  10. The involvement of Arg265 of mouse ribonucleotide reductase R2 protein in proton transfer and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Narváez, Ana J; Voevodskaya, Nina; Thelander, Lars; Gräslund, Astrid

    2006-09-08

    Ribonucleotide reductase class I enzymes consist of two non-identical subunits, R1 and R2, the latter containing a diiron carboxylate center and a stable tyrosyl radical (Tyr*), both essential for catalysis. Catalysis is known to involve highly conserved amino acid residues covering a range of approximately 35 A and a concerted mechanism involving long range electron transfer, probably coupled to proton transfer. A number of residues involved in electron transfer in both the R1 and R2 proteins have been identified, but no direct model has been presented regarding the proton transfer side of the process. Arg265 is conserved in all known sequences of class Ia R2. In this study we have used site-directed mutagenesis to gain insight into the role of this residue, which lies close to the catalytically essential Asp266 and Trp103. Mutants to Arg265 included replacement by Ala, Glu, Gln, and Tyr. All mutants of Arg265 were found to have no or low catalytic activity with the exception of Arg265 to Glu, which shows approximately 40% of the activity of native R2. We also found that the Arg mutants were capable of stable tyrosyl radical generation, with similar kinetics of radical formation and R1 binding as native R2. Our results, supported by molecular modeling, strongly suggest that Arg265 is involved in the proton-coupled electron transfer pathway and may act as a proton mediator during catalysis.

  11. The Structural Basis for Peptidomimetic Inhibition of Eukaryotic Ribonucleotide Reductase: A Conformationally Flexible Pharmacophore

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hai; Fairman, James W.; Wijerathna, Sanath R.; Kreischer, Nathan R.; LaMacchia, John; Helmbrecht, Elizabeth; Cooperman, Barry S.; Dealwis, Chris

    2008-08-19

    Eukaryotic ribonucleotide reductase (RR) catalyzes nucleoside diphosphate conversion to deoxynucleoside diphosphate. Crucial for rapidly dividing cells, RR is a target for cancer therapy. RR activity requires formation of a complex between subunits R1 and R2 in which the R2 C-terminal peptide binds to R1. Here we report crystal structures of heterocomplexes containing mammalian R2 C-terminal heptapeptide, P7 (Ac-{sup 1}FTLDADF{sup 7}) and its peptidomimetic P6 ({sup 1}Fmoc(Me)PhgLDChaDF{sup 7}) bound to Saccharomyces cerevisiae R1 (ScR1). P7 and P6, both of which inhibit ScRR, each bind at two contiguous sites containing residues that are highly conserved among eukaryotes. Such binding is quite distinct from that reported for prokaryotes. The Fmoc group in P6 peptide makes several hydrophobic interactions that contribute to its enhanced potency in binding to ScR1. Combining all of our results, we observe three distinct conformations for peptide binding to ScR1. These structures provide pharmacophores for designing highly potent nonpeptide class I RR inhibitors.

  12. The bacteriophage T4 gene for the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase contains an intron.

    PubMed Central

    Sjöberg, B M; Hahne, S; Mathews, C Z; Mathews, C K; Rand, K N; Gait, M J

    1986-01-01

    The bacteriophage T4 gene nrdB codes for the small subunit of the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase. The T4 nrdB gene was localized between 136.1 kb and 137.8 kb in the T4 genetic map according to the deduced structural homology of the protein to the amino acid sequence of its bacterial counterpart, the B2 subunit of Escherichia coli. This positions the C-terminal end of the T4 nrdB gene approximately 2 kb closer to the T4 gene 63 than earlier anticipated from genetic recombinational analyses. The most surprising feature of the T4 nrdB gene is the presence of an approximately 625 bp intron which divides the structural gene into two parts. This is the second example of a prokaryotic structural gene with an intron. The first prokaryotic intron was reported in the nearby td gene, coding for the bacteriophage T4-specific thymidylate synthase enzyme. The nucleotide sequence at the exon-intron junctions of the T4 nrdB gene is similar to that of the junctions of the T4 td gene: the anticipated exon-intron boundary at the donor site ends with a TAA stop codon and there is an ATG start codon at the putative downstream intron-exon boundary of the acceptor site. In the course of this work the denA gene of T4 (endonuclease II) was also located. PMID:3530746

  13. Tangled Up in Knots: Structures of Inactivated Forms of E. coli Class Ia Ribonucleotide Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Zimanyi, Christina M.; Ando, Nozomi; Brignole, Edward J.; Asturias, Francisco J.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Drennan, Catherine L.

    2012-10-23

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) provide the precursors for DNA biosynthesis and repair and are successful targets for anticancer drugs such as clofarabine and gemcitabine. Recently, we reported that dATP inhibits E. coli class Ia RNR by driving formation of RNR subunits into {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 4} rings. Here, we present the first X-ray structure of a gemcitabine-inhibited E. coli RNR and show that the previously described {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 4} rings can interlock to form an unprecedented ({alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 4}){sub 2} megacomplex. This complex is also seen in a higher-resolution dATP-inhibited RNR structure presented here, which employs a distinct crystal lattice from that observed in the gemcitabine-inhibited case. With few reported examples of protein catenanes, we use data from small-angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy to both understand the solution conditions that contribute to concatenation in RNRs as well as present a mechanism for the formation of these unusual structures.

  14. The structural basis for peptidomimetic inhibition of eukaryotic ribonucleotide reductase: a conformationally flexible pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hai; Fairman, James W; Wijerathna, Sanath R; Kreischer, Nathan R; LaMacchia, John; Helmbrecht, Elizabeth; Cooperman, Barry S; Dealwis, Chris

    2008-08-14

    Eukaryotic ribonucleotide reductase (RR) catalyzes nucleoside diphosphate conversion to deoxynucleoside diphosphate. Crucial for rapidly dividing cells, RR is a target for cancer therapy. RR activity requires formation of a complex between subunits R1 and R2 in which the R2 C-terminal peptide binds to R1. Here we report crystal structures of heterocomplexes containing mammalian R2 C-terminal heptapeptide, P7 (Ac-1FTLDADF7) and its peptidomimetic P6 (1Fmoc(Me)PhgLDChaDF7) bound to Saccharomyces cerevisiae R1 (ScR1). P7 and P6, both of which inhibit ScRR, each bind at two contiguous sites containing residues that are highly conserved among eukaryotes. Such binding is quite distinct from that reported for prokaryotes. The Fmoc group in P6 peptide makes several hydrophobic interactions that contribute to its enhanced potency in binding to ScR1. Combining all of our results, we observe three distinct conformations for peptide binding to ScR1. These structures provide pharmacophores for designing highly potent nonpeptide class I RR inhibitors.

  15. The efficacy of the ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor Didox in preclinical models of AML.

    PubMed

    Cook, Guerry J; Caudell, David L; Elford, Howard L; Pardee, Timothy S

    2014-01-01

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy which leads to marrow failure, and ultimately death. There is a desperate need for new therapeutics for these patients. Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) is the rate limiting enzyme in DNA synthesis. Didox (3,4-Dihydroxybenzohydroxamic acid) is a novel RR inhibitor noted to be more potent than hydroxyurea. In this report we detail the activity and toxicity of Didox in preclinical models of AML. RR was present in all AML cell lines and primary patient samples tested. Didox was active against all human and murine AML lines tested with IC50 values in the low micromolar range (mean IC50 37 µM [range 25.89-52.70 µM]). It was active against primary patient samples at concentrations that did not affect normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Didox exposure resulted in DNA damage and p53 induction culminating in apoptosis. In syngeneic, therapy-resistant AML models, single agent Didox treatment resulted in a significant reduction in leukemia burden and a survival benefit. Didox was well tolerated, as marrow from treated animals was morphologically indistinguishable from controls. Didox exposure at levels that impaired leukemia growth did not inhibit normal HSC engraftment. In summary, Didox was well tolerated and effective against preclinical models of AML.

  16. The Efficacy of the Ribonucleotide Reductase Inhibitor Didox in Preclinical Models of AML

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Guerry J.; Caudell, David L.; Elford, Howard L.; Pardee, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy which leads to marrow failure, and ultimately death. There is a desperate need for new therapeutics for these patients. Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) is the rate limiting enzyme in DNA synthesis. Didox (3,4-Dihydroxybenzohydroxamic acid) is a novel RR inhibitor noted to be more potent than hydroxyurea. In this report we detail the activity and toxicity of Didox in preclinical models of AML. RR was present in all AML cell lines and primary patient samples tested. Didox was active against all human and murine AML lines tested with IC50 values in the low micromolar range (mean IC50 37 µM [range 25.89–52.70 µM]). It was active against primary patient samples at concentrations that did not affect normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Didox exposure resulted in DNA damage and p53 induction culminating in apoptosis. In syngeneic, therapy-resistant AML models, single agent Didox treatment resulted in a significant reduction in leukemia burden and a survival benefit. Didox was well tolerated, as marrow from treated animals was morphologically indistinguishable from controls. Didox exposure at levels that impaired leukemia growth did not inhibit normal HSC engraftment. In summary, Didox was well tolerated and effective against preclinical models of AML. PMID:25402485

  17. Generation of an attenuated Tiantan vaccinia virus by deletion of the ribonucleotide reductase large subunit.

    PubMed

    Kan, Shifu; Jia, Peng; Sun, Lili; Hu, Ningning; Li, Chang; Lu, Huijun; Tian, Mingyao; Qi, Yanxin; Jin, Ningyi; Li, Xiao

    2014-09-01

    Attenuation of the virulence of vaccinia Tiantan virus (VTT) underlies the strategy adopted for mass vaccination campaigns. This strategy provides advantages of safety and efficacy over traditional vaccines and is aimed at minimization of adverse health effects. In this study, a mutant form of the virus, MVTT was derived from VTT by deletion of the ribonucleotide reductase large subunit (R1) (TI4L). Compared to wild-type parental (VTT) and revertant (VTT-rev) viruses, virulence of the mutant MVTT was reduced by 100-fold based on body weight reduction and by 3,200-fold based on determination of the intracranial 50% lethal infectious dose. However, the immunogenicity of MVTT was equivalent to that of the parental VTT. We also demonstrated that the TI4L gene is not required for efficient replication. These data support the conclusion that MVTT can be used as a replicating virus vector or as a platform for the development of vaccines against infectious diseases and for cancer therapy.

  18. Cell death in response to antimetabolites directed at ribonucleotide reductase and thymidylate synthase

    PubMed Central

    Asuncion Valenzuela, Malyn M; Castro, Imilce; Gonda, Amber; Diaz Osterman, Carlos J; Jutzy, Jessica M; Aspe, Jonathan R; Khan, Salma; Neidigh, Jonathan W; Wall, Nathan R

    2015-01-01

    New agent development, mechanistic understanding, and combinatorial partnerships with known and novel modalities continue to be important in the study of pancreatic cancer and its improved treatment. In this study, known antimetabolite drugs such as gemcitabine (ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor) and 5-fluorouracil (thymidylate synthase inhibitor) were compared with novel members of these two drug families in the treatment of a chemoresistant pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1. Cellular survival data, along with protein and messenger ribonucleic acid expression for survivin, XIAP, cIAP1, and cIAP2, were compared from both the cell cytoplasm and from exosomes after single modality treatment. While all antimetabolite drugs killed PANC-1 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, neither family significantly altered the cytosolic protein level of the four inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) investigated. Survivin, XIAP, cIAP1, and cIAP2 were found localized to exosomes where no significant difference in expression was recorded. This inability for significant and long-lasting expression may be a reason why pancreatic cancer lacks responsiveness to these and other cancer-killing agents. Continued investigation is required to determine the responsibilities of these IAPs in their role in chemoresistance in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:25767396

  19. A New Type of YumC-Like Ferredoxin (Flavodoxin) Reductase Is Involved in Ribonucleotide Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jing; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The trxB2 gene, which is annotated as a thioredoxin reductase, was found to be essential for growth of Lactococcus lactis in the presence of oxygen. The corresponding protein (TrxB2) showed a high similarity with Bacillus subtilis YumC (E value = 4.0E−88), and YumC was able to fully complement the ΔtrxB2 mutant phenotype. YumC represents a novel type of ferredoxin (flavodoxin) reductase (FdR) with hitherto-unknown biological function. We adaptively evolved the ΔtrxB2 mutant under aerobic conditions to find suppressor mutations that could help elucidate the involvement of TrxB2 in aerobic growth. Genome sequencing of two independent isolates, which were able to grow as well as the wild-type strain under aerated conditions, revealed the importance of mutations in nrdI, encoding a flavodoxin involved in aerobic ribonucleotide reduction. We suggest a role for TrxB2 in nucleotide metabolism, where the flavodoxin (NrdI) serves as its redox partner, and we support this hypothesis by showing the beneficial effect of deoxynucleosides on aerobic growth of the ΔtrxB2 mutant. Finally, we demonstrate, by heterologous expression, that the TrxB2 protein functionally can substitute for YumC in B. subtilis but that the addition of deoxynucleosides cannot compensate for the lethal phenotype displayed by the B. subtilis yumC knockout mutant. PMID:26507228

  20. A bioinformatic analysis of ribonucleotide reductase genes in phage genomes and metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), the enzyme responsible for the formation of deoxyribonucleotides from ribonucleotides, is found in all domains of life and many viral genomes. RNRs are also amongst the most abundant genes identified in environmental metagenomes. This study focused on understanding the distribution, diversity, and evolution of RNRs in phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Hidden Markov Model profiles were used to analyze the proteins encoded by 685 completely sequenced double-stranded DNA phages and 22 environmental viral metagenomes to identify RNR homologs in cultured phages and uncultured viral communities, respectively. Results RNRs were identified in 128 phage genomes, nearly tripling the number of phages known to encode RNRs. Class I RNR was the most common RNR class observed in phages (70%), followed by class II (29%) and class III (28%). Twenty-eight percent of the phages contained genes belonging to multiple RNR classes. RNR class distribution varied according to phage type, isolation environment, and the host’s ability to utilize oxygen. The majority of the phages containing RNRs are Myoviridae (65%), followed by Siphoviridae (30%) and Podoviridae (3%). The phylogeny and genomic organization of phage and host RNRs reveal several distinct evolutionary scenarios involving horizontal gene transfer, co-evolution, and differential selection pressure. Several putative split RNR genes interrupted by self-splicing introns or inteins were identified, providing further evidence for the role of frequent genetic exchange. Finally, viral metagenomic data indicate that RNRs are prevalent and highly dynamic in uncultured viral communities, necessitating future research to determine the environmental conditions under which RNRs provide a selective advantage. Conclusions This comprehensive study describes the distribution, diversity, and evolution of RNRs in phage genomes and environmental viral metagenomes. The distinct distributions of

  1. Redox-Linked Conformational Control of Proton Coupled Electron Transfer: Y122 in the Ribonucleotide Reductase β2 Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Offenbacher, Adam R.; Burns, Lori A.; Sherrill, C. David; Barry, Bridgette A.

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosyl radicals play essential roles in biological proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the reduction of ribonucleotides and is vital in DNA replication in all organisms. Class Ia RNRs consist of α2 and β2 homodimeric subunits. In class 1a RNR, such as the E. coli enzyme, an essential tyrosyl radical (Y122O•)-diferric cofactor is located in β2. While Y122O• is extremely stable in free β2, Y122O• is highly reactive in the quaternary substrate-α2β2 complex and serves as a radical initiator in catalytic PCET between β2 and α2. In this report, we investigate the structural interactions that control the reactivity of Y122O• in a model system, isolated E. coli β2. Y122O• was reduced with hydroxyurea (HU), a radical scavenger that quenches the radical in a clinically relevant reaction. In the difference FT-IR spectrum, associated with this PCET reaction, amide I (CO) and amide II (CN/NH) bands were observed. Specific 13C-labeling of the tyrosine C1 carbon assigned a component of these bands to the Y122-T123 amide bond. Comparison to density functional calculations on a model dipeptide, tyrosine-threonine, and structural modeling demonstrated that PCET is associated with a Y122 rotation and a 7.2 Å translation of the Y122 phenolic oxygen. To test for the functional consequences of this structural change, a proton inventory defined the origin of the large solvent isotope effect (SIE=16.7±1.0 at 25°C) on this reaction. These data suggest that the one electron, HU-mediated reduction of Y122O• is associated with two, rate-limiting (full or partial) proton transfer reactions. One is attributable to HU oxidation (SIE=11.9, net H atom transfer), and the other is attributable to coupled, hydrogen-bonding changes in the Y122O•-diferric cofactor (SIE=1.4). These results illustrate the importance of redox-linked changes to backbone and ring dihedral angles in high potential PCET and provide evidence for

  2. Differential accumulation of ribonucleotide reductase subunits in clam oocytes: the large subunit is stored as a polypeptide, the small subunit as untranslated mRNA

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Within minutes of fertilization of clam oocytes, translation of a set of maternal mRNAs is activated. One of the most abundant of these stored mRNAs encodes the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (Standart, N. M., S. J. Bray, E. L. George, T. Hunt, and J. V. Ruderman, 1985, J. Cell Biol., 100:1968-1976). Unfertilized oocytes do not contain any ribonucleotide reductase activity; such activity begins to appear shortly after fertilization. In virtually all organisms, this enzyme is composed of two dissimilar subunits with molecular masses of approximately 44 and 88 kD, both of which are required for activity. This paper reports the identification of the large subunit of clam ribonucleotide reductase isolated by dATP-Sepharose chromatography as a relatively abundant 86-kD polypeptide which is already present in oocytes, and whose level remains constant during early development. The enzyme activity of this large subunit was established in reconstitution assays using the small subunit isolated from embryos by virtue of its binding to the anti-tubulin antibody YL 1/2. Thus the two components of clam ribonucleotide reductase are differentially stored in the oocyte: the small subunit in the form of untranslated mRNA and the large subunit as protein. When fertilization triggers the activation of translation of the maternal mRNA, the newly synthesized small subunit combines with the preformed large subunit to generate active ribonucleotide reductase. PMID:3536960

  3. The Novel Ribonucleotide Reductase Inhibitor COH29 Inhibits DNA Repair In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei-Chuan; Zhou, Bingsen; Zhang, Keqiang; Yuan, Yate-Ching; Un, Frank; Hu, Shuya; Chou, Chih-Ming; Chen, Chun-Han; Wu, Jun; Wang, Yan; Liu, Xiyong; Smith, D. Lynne; Li, Hongzhi; Liu, Zheng; Warden, Charles D.; Su, Leila; Malkas, Linda H.; Chung, Young Min; Hu, Mickey C.-T.

    2015-01-01

    COH29 [N-(4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylthiazol-2-yl)-3,4-dihydroxybenzamide], a novel antimetabolite drug developed at City of Hope Cancer Center, has anticancer activity that stems primarily from the inhibition of human ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). This key enzyme in deoxyribonucleotide biosynthesis is the target of established clinical agents such as hydroxyurea and gemcitabine because of its critical role in DNA replication and repair. Herein we report that BRCA-1–defective human breast cancer cells are more sensitive than wild-type BRCA-1 counterparts to COH29 in vitro and in vivo. Microarray gene expression profiling showed that COH29 reduces the expression of DNA repair pathway genes, suggesting that COH29 interferes with these pathways. It is well established that BRCA1 plays a role in DNA damage repair, especially homologous recombination (HR) repair, to maintain genome integrity. In BRCA1-defective HCC1937 breast cancer cells, COH29 induced more double-strand breaks (DSBs) and DNA-damage response than in HCC1937 + BRCA1 cells. By EJ5– and DR–green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter assay, we found that COH29 could inhibit nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) efficiency and that no HR activity was detected in HCC1937 cells, suggesting that repression of the NHEJ repair pathway may be involved in COH29-induced DSBs in BRCA1-deficient HCC1937 cells. Furthermore, we observed an accumulation of nuclear Rad51 foci in COH29-treated HCC1937 + BRCA1 cells, suggesting that BRCA1 plays a crucial role in repairing and recovering drug-induced DNA damage by recruiting Rad51 to damage sites. In summary, we describe here additional biologic effects of the RNR inhibitor COH29 that potentially strengthen its use as an anticancer agent. PMID:25814515

  4. Kinetics of Hydrogen Atom Abstraction from Substrate by an Active Site Thiyl Radical in Ribonucleotide Reductase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the conversion of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides in all organisms. Active E. coli class Ia RNR is an α2β2 complex that undergoes reversible, long-range proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) over a pathway of redox active amino acids (β-Y122 → [β-W48] → β-Y356 → α-Y731 → α-Y730 → α-C439) that spans ∼35 Å. To unmask PCET kinetics from rate-limiting conformational changes, we prepared a photochemical RNR containing a [ReI] photooxidant site-specifically incorporated at position 355 ([Re]-β2), adjacent to PCET pathway residue Y356 in β. [Re]-β2 was further modified by replacing Y356 with 2,3,5-trifluorotyrosine to enable photochemical generation and spectroscopic observation of chemically competent tyrosyl radical(s). Using transient absorption spectroscopy, we compare the kinetics of Y· decay in the presence of substrate and wt-α2, Y731F-α2 ,or C439S-α2, as well as with 3′-[2H]-substrate and wt-α2. We find that only in the presence of wt-α2 and the unlabeled substrate do we observe an enhanced rate of radical decay indicative of forward radical propagation. This observation reveals that cleavage of the 3′-C–H bond of substrate by the transiently formed C439· thiyl radical is rate-limiting in forward PCET through α and has allowed calculation of a lower bound for the rate constant associated with this step of (1.4 ± 0.4) × 104 s–1. Prompting radical propagation with light has enabled observation of PCET events heretofore inaccessible, revealing active site chemistry at the heart of RNR catalysis. PMID:25353063

  5. Structurally dependent redox property of ribonucleotide reductase subunit p53R2.

    PubMed

    Xue, Lijun; Zhou, Bingsen; Liu, Xiyong; Wang, Tieli; Shih, Jennifer; Qi, Christina; Heung, Yvonne; Yen, Yun

    2006-02-15

    p53R2 is a newly identified small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RR) and plays a key role in supplying precursors for DNA repair in a p53-dependent manner. Currently, we are studying the redox property, structure, and function of p53R2. In cell-free systems, p53R2 did not oxidize a reactive oxygen species (ROS) indicator carboxy-H2DCFDA, but another class I RR small subunit, hRRM2, did. Further studies showed that purified recombinant p53R2 protein has catalase activity, which breaks down H2O2. Overexpression of p53R2 reduced intracellular ROS and protected the mitochondrial membrane potential against oxidative stress, whereas overexpression of hRRM2 did not and resulted in a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. In a site-directed mutagenesis study, antioxidant activity was abrogated in p53R2 mutants Y331F, Y285F, Y49F, and Y241H, but not Y164F or Y164C. The fluorescence intensity in mutants oxidizing carboxy-H2DCFDA, in order from highest to lowest, was Y331F > Y285F > Y49F > Y241H > wild-type p53R2. This indicates that Y331, Y285, Y49, and Y241 in p53R2 are critical residues involved in scavenging ROS. Of interest, the ability to oxidize carboxy-H2DCFDA indicated by fluorescence intensity was negatively correlated with RR activity from wild-type p53R2, mutants Y331F, Y285F, and Y49F. Our findings suggest that p53R2 may play a key role in defending oxidative stress by scavenging ROS, and this antioxidant property is also important for its fundamental enzymatic activity.

  6. Inhibition of tumor cell ribonucleotide reductase by macrophage-derived nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Kwon, N S; Stuehr, D J; Nathan, C F

    1991-10-01

    Macrophage-derived nitric oxide (NO) is cytostatic to tumor cells and microbial pathogens. We tested whether one molecular target for the cytostatic action of NO may be ribonucleotide reductase (RR), a rate-limiting enzyme in DNA synthesis. In a concentration-dependent manner, NO gas and lysates of activated macrophages that generated comparable amounts of NO led to the same degree of inhibition of partially purified RR from L1210 mouse lymphoma cells. Lysates from nonactivated macrophages, which do not produce NO, were noninhibitory. With lysates from activated macrophages, RR was protected by omitting L-arginine or by adding the NO synthase inhibitors diphenyleneiodonium, N omega-methyl-L-arginine, or N omega-amino-L-arginine. L-Arginine, but not D-arginine, abolished the protective effect of N omega-amino-L-arginine. The prototypic pharmacologic inhibitor of RR is hydroxyurea. Its structural resemblance to N omega-hydroxy-L-arginine, a reaction intermediate of NO synthase, prompted us to test if hydroxyurea can generate NO. In the presence of H2O2 and CuSO4, hydroxyurea produced NO2-/NO3-, aerobic reaction products of NO. Addition of morpholine blocked NO2-/NO3- generation from hydroxyurea and led to formation of nitrosomorpholine, as detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Thus, hydroxyurea can produce an NO-like, nitrosating rectant. L1210 cell DNA synthesis was inhibited completely by activated macrophages or by hydroxyurea, and was partially restored to the same degree in both settings by providing deoxyribonucleosides to bypass the block in RR. Thus, both NO gas and NO generated by activated macrophage lysates inhibit tumor cell RR. The RR inhibitor hydroxyurea can also generate an NO-like species. Similar, partial restoration of tumor cell DNA synthesis by deoxyribonucleosides in the presence of activated macrophages or hydroxyurea suggests that cytostasis by activated macrophages and by hydroxyurea has comparable mechanisms, including, but

  7. Nucleoside Analogue Triphosphates Allosterically Regulate Human Ribonucleotide Reductase and Identify Chemical Determinants That Drive Substrate Specificity.

    PubMed

    Knappenberger, Andrew J; Ahmad, Md Faiz; Viswanathan, Rajesh; Dealwis, Chris G; Harris, Michael E

    2016-10-18

    Class I ribonucleotide reductase (RR) maintains balanced pools of deoxyribonucleotide substrates for DNA replication by converting ribonucleoside diphosphates (NDPs) to 2'-deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates (dNDPs). Binding of deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) effectors (ATP/dATP, dGTP, and dTTP) modulates the specificity of class I RR for CDP, UDP, ADP, and GDP substrates. Crystal structures of bacterial and eukaryotic RRs show that dNTP effectors and NDP substrates bind on either side of a flexible nine-amino acid loop (loop 2). Interactions with the effector nucleobase alter loop 2 geometry, resulting in changes in specificity among the four NDP substrates of RR. However, the functional groups proposed to drive specificity remain untested. Here, we use deoxynucleoside analogue triphosphates to determine the nucleobase functional groups that drive human RR (hRR) specificity. The results demonstrate that the 5-methyl, O4, and N3 groups of dTTP contribute to specificity for GDP. The O6 and protonated N1 of dGTP direct specificity for ADP. In contrast, the unprotonated N1 of adenosine is the primary determinant of ATP/dATP-directed specificity for CDP. Structural models from X-ray crystallography of eukaryotic RR suggest that the side chain of D287 in loop 2 is involved in binding of dGTP and dTTP, but not dATP/ATP. This feature is consistent with experimental results showing that a D287A mutant of hRR is deficient in allosteric regulation by dGTP and dTTP, but not ATP/dATP. Together, these data define the effector functional groups that are the drivers of human RR specificity and provide constraints for evaluating models of allosteric regulation.

  8. Yeast Dun1 Kinase Regulates Ribonucleotide Reductase Small Subunit Localization in Response to Iron Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sanvisens, Nerea; Romero, Antonia M; Zhang, Caiguo; Wu, Xiaorong; An, Xiuxiang; Huang, Mingxia; Puig, Sergi

    2016-04-29

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is an essential iron-dependent enzyme that catalyzes deoxyribonucleotide synthesis in eukaryotes. Living organisms have developed multiple strategies to tightly modulate RNR function to avoid inadequate or unbalanced deoxyribonucleotide pools that cause DNA damage and genome instability. Yeast cells activate RNR in response to genotoxic stress and iron deficiency by facilitating redistribution of its small heterodimeric subunit Rnr2-Rnr4 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it forms an active holoenzyme with large Rnr1 subunit. Dif1 protein inhibits RNR by promoting nuclear import of Rnr2-Rnr4. Upon DNA damage, Dif1 phosphorylation by the Dun1 checkpoint kinase and its subsequent degradation enhances RNR function. In this report, we demonstrate that Dun1 kinase triggers Rnr2-Rnr4 redistribution to the cytoplasm in response to iron deficiency. We show that Rnr2-Rnr4 relocalization by low iron requires Dun1 kinase activity and phosphorylation site Thr-380 in the Dun1 activation loop, but not the Dun1 forkhead-associated domain. By using different Dif1 mutant proteins, we uncover that Dun1 phosphorylates Dif1 Ser-104 and Thr-105 residues upon iron scarcity. We observe that the Dif1 phosphorylation pattern differs depending on the stimuli, which suggests different Dun1 activating pathways. Importantly, the Dif1-S104A/T105A mutant exhibits defects in nucleus-to-cytoplasm redistribution of Rnr2-Rnr4 by iron limitation. Taken together, these results reveal that, in response to iron starvation, Dun1 kinase phosphorylates Dif1 to stimulate Rnr2-Rnr4 relocalization to the cytoplasm and promote RNR function.

  9. NrdR Controls Differential Expression of the Escherichia coli Ribonucleotide Reductase Genes▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Torrents, Eduard; Grinberg, Inna; Gorovitz-Harris, Batia; Lundström, Hanna; Borovok, Ilya; Aharonowitz, Yair; Sjöberg, Britt-Marie; Cohen, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli possesses class Ia, class Ib, and class III ribonucleotide reductases (RNR). Under standard laboratory conditions, the aerobic class Ia nrdAB RNR genes are well expressed, whereas the aerobic class Ib nrdEF RNR genes are poorly expressed. The class III RNR is normally expressed under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions. In this paper, we show that the E. coli YbaD protein differentially regulates the expression of the three sets of genes. YbaD is a homolog of the Streptomyces NrdR protein. It is not essential for growth and has been renamed NrdR. Previously, Streptomyces NrdR was shown to transcriptionally regulate RNR genes by binding to specific 16-bp sequence motifs, NrdR boxes, located in the regulatory regions of its RNR operons. All three E. coli RNR operons contain two such NrdR box motifs positioned in their regulatory regions. The NrdR boxes are located near to or overlap with the promoter elements. DNA binding experiments showed that NrdR binds to each of the upstream regulatory regions. We constructed deletions in nrdR (ybaD) and showed that they caused high-level induction of transcription of the class Ib RNR genes but had a much smaller effect on induction of transcription of the class Ia and class III RNR genes. We propose a model for differential regulation of the RNR genes based on binding of NrdR to the regulatory regions. The model assumes that differences in the positions of the NrdR binding sites, and in the sequences of the motifs themselves, determine the extent to which NrdR represses the transcription of each RNR operon. PMID:17496099

  10. The unique N terminus of the herpes simplex virus type 1 large subunit is not required for ribonucleotide reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Conner, J; Macfarlane, J; Lankinen, H; Marsden, H

    1992-01-01

    Using purified bacterially expressed herpes simplex virus type 1 ribonucleotide reductase large subunit (R1) and the proteolytic enzymes chymotrypsin and trypsin, we have generated stable N-terminal truncations. Chymotrypsin removes 246 amino acids from the amino terminus to produce a fragment (dN246R1) which retains full enzymic activity and affinity for the small subunit (R2). Treatment of R1 with trypsin produces a 120K protein and a cleavage at amino acid residue 305 to produce a fragment (dN305R1) which remains associated with a 33K N-terminal polypeptide. Although this 33K-dN305R1 complex retains full binding affinity for R2 its reductase activity is reduced by approximately 50%. Increasing the concentration of trypsin removes the 33K N-terminal polypeptide resulting in dN305R1 which, when bound to R2, has full ribonucleotide reductase activity. Like R1, dN246R1 and dN305R1 each exist as dimers showing that the first 305 amino acids of R1 are not necessary for dimer formation. These results indicate that, in structural studies of subunit interaction, dN246R1 or dN305R1 can be considered as suitable replacements for intact R1.

  11. Bacillus subtilis Class Ib Ribonucleotide Reductase Is a Dimanganese(III)-Tyrosyl Radical Enzyme†

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis class Ib ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the conversion of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides, providing the building blocks for DNA replication and repair. It is composed of two proteins: α (NrdE) and β (NrdF). β contains the metallo-cofactor, essential for the initiation of the reduction process. The RNR genes are organized within the nrdI-nrdE-nrdF-ymaB operon. Each protein has been cloned, expressed, and purified from E. coli. As isolated, recombinant (r) rNrdF contained a diferric-tyrosyl radical (Fe(III)2-Y•) cofactor. Alternatively, this cluster could be self-assembled from apo-rNrdF, Fe(II), and O2. Apo-rNrdF loaded using 4 Mn(II)/β2, O2 and reduced NrdI (a flavodoxin), can form a dimanganese(III)-Y• (Mn(III)2-Y•) cofactor. In the presence of rNrdE/ATP/CDP, Mn(III)2-Y• and Fe(III)2-Y• rNrdF generate dCDP at 132 and 10 nmol min-1 mg-1 respectively (both normalized for 1 Y•/β2). To determine the endogenous cofactor of NrdF in B. subtilis, the entire operon was placed behind a Pspank(hy) promoter and integrated into the B. subtilis genome at the amyE site. All four genes were induced in cells grown in LB medium, with levels of NrdE and NrdF elevated 35 fold relative to the wild type (wt) strain. NrdE and NrdF co-purified in a 1:1 ratio from this engineered B. subtilis. The visible, EPR, and atomic absorption spectra of the purified NrdENrdF complex (eNrdF) exhibited characteristics of a Mn(III)2-Y• center with 2 Mn and 0.5 Y•/β2 and activity of 318-363 nmol min-1 mg-1 (normalized for 1 Y•/β2). These data strongly suggest that the B. subtilis class Ib RNR is a Mn(III)2-Y• enzyme. PMID:21561096

  12. O2 activation by non-heme diiron proteins: identification of a symmetric mu-1,2-peroxide in a mutant of ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Moënne-Loccoz, P; Baldwin, J; Ley, B A; Loehr, T M; Bollinger, J M

    1998-10-20

    Non-heme diiron clusters occur in a number of enzymes (e.g., ribonucleotide reductase, methane monooxygenase, and Delta9-stearoyl-ACP desaturase) that activate O2 for chemically difficult oxidation reactions. In each case, a kinetically labile peroxo intermediate is believed to form when O2 reacts with the diferrous enzyme, followed by O-O bond cleavage and the formation of high-valent iron intermediates [formally Fe(IV)] that are thought to be the reactive oxidants. Greater kinetic stability of a peroxodiiron(III) intermediate in protein R2 of ribonucleotide reductase was achieved by the iron-ligand mutation Asp84 --> Glu and the surface mutation Trp48 --> Phe. Here, we present the first definitive evidence for a bridging, symmetrical peroxo adduct from vibrational spectroscopic studies of the freeze-trapped intermediate of this mutant R2. Isotope-sensitive bands are observed at 870, 499, and 458 cm-1 that are assigned to the intraligand peroxo stretching frequency and the asymmetric and symmetric Fe-O2-Fe stretching frequencies, respectively. Similar results have been obtained in the resonance Raman spectroscopic study of a peroxodiferric species of Delta9-stearoyl-ACP desaturase [Broadwater, J. A., Ai, J., Loehr, T. M., Sanders-Loehr, J., and Fox, B. G. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 14664-14671]. Similarities among these adducts and transient species detected during O2 activation by methane monooxygenase hydroxylase, ferritin, and wild-type protein R2 suggest the symmetrical peroxo adduct as a common intermediate in the diverse oxidation reactions mediated by members of this class.

  13. The ribonucleotide reductase induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 involves minimally a complex of two polypeptides (136K and 38K).

    PubMed

    Frame, M C; Marsden, H S; Dutia, B M

    1985-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encodes a polypeptide of apparent mol. wt. 136 000 (Vmw136) known to be a component of the virus-specified ribonucleotide reductase. Monoclonal antibodies that precipitate this polypeptide also precipitate a polypeptide of mol. wt. 38 000 (Vmw38) from extracts of HSV-1-infected cells. The basis for this co-precipitation has been investigated using a monoclonal antibody directed against Vmw136 and an oligopeptide-induced antiserum directed against the carboxy terminus of Vmw38. We have also made use of a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant of HSV-1 which maps within the sequences encoding Vmw136 and which induces a thermolabile ribonucleotide reductase. Our experiments show (i) Vmw136 and Vmw38 form a complex in infected cells and (ii) the mutation in the ts mutant results in the two polypeptides being unable to form the complex at the non-permissive temperature. We speculate that association of the two polypeptides is necessary for ribonucleotide reductase activity. No evidence was found for involvement of host proteins in the proposed virus-induced ribonucleotide reductase complex. The terms RR1 and RR2 are suggested for the large and small subunits of the HSV-induced enzyme.

  14. Large subunit of the ribonucleotide reductase gene is a virulent factor and plays a critical role in Marek's disease virus pathogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) encodes a ribonucleotide reductase (RR) gene consisting of two subunits UL39 (RR1) and UL40 (RR2). Both RR1 and RR2 form an active holoenzyme and are necessary for enzyme activity. This gene was indentified by monoclonal antibody T81 in a gt11 MDV expression library and f...

  15. Cloning and characterization of subunit genes of ribonucleotide reductase, a cell-cycle-regulated enzyme, from Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, D; Schuster, S M; Chakrabarti, R

    1993-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (EC 1.17.4.1; RNR), a cell-cycle-regulated enzyme, catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides by the reduction of the corresponding ribonucleotides. The important role of the RNR in DNA synthesis and cell division makes this enzyme an excellent target for chemotherapy. However, nothing is known about this enzyme from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We have isolated cDNA clones encoding both the large and small RNR subunits. The sequences of full-length clones of the large and small RNR subunits revealed an open reading frame encoding 806 and 349 amino acids, respectively, and showed significant identity with other RNR sequences in the data base. RNA blot analysis showed that the size of the large and small RNR subunit transcripts are 5.4 kb and 2.2 kb, respectively. Both the RNR subunit transcripts fluctuate in level during the cell cycle, reaching a peak preceding maximal DNA synthesis activity. An oligodeoxynucleotide phosphorothioate that is complementary to sequences around the translational initiation codon of the small RNR subunit showed significant inhibition of growth, as measured by the inhibition in DNA synthesis. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8265664

  16. Bivariate flow cytometric analysis of DNA content versus immunopositivity for ribonucleotide reductase M1 subunit in the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, R; Bottone, M G; Danova, M; Pellicciari, C

    1998-06-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) is a cytoplasmatic enzyme catalyzing the reduction of all four ribonucleotides to their corresponding deoxyribonucleotides. Its activity strongly correlates to the rate of DNA synthesis. By using a specific monoclonal antibody against the large M1 subunit of RR, we assessed the expression of M1-RR versus DNA content by dual-parameter flow cytometry. The aim of this paper was to compare the variations in the immunopositivity for M1-RR during the cell cycle to the positivity for other cell cycle markers identifying either proliferating cells (Ki-67 and PCNA) or quiescent cells (statin). To do this, normal human embryonic fibroblasts in different growth conditions as well as several other mammalian cell lines (rat C6 glioma cells; mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and B16 melanoma cells; human epithelial EUE cells and mammary carcinoma MCF-7 cells) were used. The expression of M1-RR antigen was found to correlate positively with the expression of Ki-67 and PCNA, and negatively with the expression of statin. During early G1 phase, M1-RR becomes detectable by specific antibodies relatively later compared to PCNA and Ki-67; therefore, the lack of immunopositivity for M1-RR cannot be taken as an absolute indication of cell quiescence in G0.

  17. Protein kinase activity associated with the large subunit of herpes simplex virus type 2 ribonucleotide reductase (ICP10).

    PubMed Central

    Chung, T D; Wymer, J P; Smith, C C; Kulka, M; Aurelian, L

    1989-01-01

    The large subunit of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) ribonucleotide reductase (RR1) is demonstrated to possess serine/threonine-specific kinase activity. Computer-assisted sequence analysis identified regions within the amino terminus of ICP10 that are homologous to the catalytic domain of known protein kinases (PKs). An in vitro kinase assay confirmed the ability of ICP10, immunoprecipitated from either HSV-2-infected cells or from cells transfected with an ICP10 expression vector, to autophosphorylate and transphosphorylate exogenous substrates in the presence of ATP and Mg2+. The HSV-1 RR1 was shown to be negative for PK activity under these conditions. PK activity was localized to a 57-kDa amino-terminal region within ICP10 that lacked RR activity. Images PMID:2545912

  18. Avemar, a nontoxic fermented wheat germ extract, induces apoptosis and inhibits ribonucleotide reductase in human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Saiko, Philipp; Ozsvar-Kozma, Maria; Madlener, Sibylle; Bernhaus, Astrid; Lackner, Andreas; Grusch, Michael; Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Krupitza, Georg; Jaeger, Walter; Ammer, Kirsten; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Szekeres, Thomas

    2007-06-08

    Avemar (MSC) is a nontoxic fermented wheat germ extract demonstrated to significantly improve the survival rate in patients suffering from various malignancies. We investigated its effects in human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells. After 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation, Avemar inhibited the growth of HL-60 cells with IC50 values of 400, 190, and 160 microg/ml, respectively. Incubation with MSC caused dose-dependent induction of apoptosis in up to 85% of tumor cells. In addition, Avemar attenuated the progression from G2-M to G0-G1 phase of the cell cycle and was also found to significantly reduce the in situ activity of ribonucleotide reductase, the key enzyme of de novo DNA synthesis. We conclude that Avemar exerts a number of beneficial effects which could support conventional chemotherapy of human malignancies.

  19. Implications and problems in analysing cytotoxic activity of hydroxyurea in combination with a potential inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Nocentini, G; Barzi, A; Franchetti, P

    1990-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of hydroxyurea in combination with 2.2'-bipyridyl-6-carbothioamide (a potential inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase) on P388 murine leukemia is reported. Synergistic activity was studied using various interpretations of the isobologram method and the combination index method. We evaluated the pros and cons of these methods and their overall usefulness. In our opinion, to obtain all possible information from a compound association, it is important to choose a formally correct method that (a) can quantitatively evaluate synergism or antagonism, (b) may offer the possibility of averaging final results, (c) needs a minimal amount of experimental data, and (d) is rapid. Moreover, we emphasize both the utility of testing at least three molar ratios of compound association and the importance of carefully choosing the fractional inhibition used in calculating the combination effect. Such evaluation of drug combinations gives information essential to the preparation of new anticancer drug regimens and to the early assessment of biochemical interactions.

  20. Targeting Ribonucleotide Reductase M2 and NF-κB Activation with Didox to Circumvent Tamoxifen Resistance in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shah, Khyati N; Wilson, Elizabeth A; Malla, Ritu; Elford, Howard L; Faridi, Jesika S

    2015-11-01

    Tamoxifen is widely used as an adjuvant therapy for patients with estrogen receptor (ERα)-positive tumors. However, the clinical benefit is often limited because of the emergence of drug resistance. In this study, overexpression of ribonucleotide reductase M2 (RRM2) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells resulted in a reduction in the effectiveness of tamoxifen, through downregulation of ERα66 and upregulation of the 36-kDa variant of ER (ERα36). We identified that NF-κB, HIF1α, and MAPK/JNK are the major pathways that are affected by RRM2 overexpression and result in increased NF-κB activity and increased protein levels of EGFR, HER2, IKKs, Bcl-2, RelB, and p50. RRM2-overexpressing cells also exhibited higher migratory and invasive properties. Through time-lapse microscopy and protein profiling studies of tamoxifen-treated MCF-7 and T-47D cells, we have identified that RRM2, along with other key proteins, is altered during the emergence of acquired tamoxifen resistance. Inhibition of RRM2 using siRRM2 or the ribonucleotide reductase (RR) inhibitor didox not only eradicated and effectively prevented the emergence of tamoxifen-resistant populations but also led to the reversal of many of the proteins altered during the process of acquired tamoxifen resistance. Because didox also appears to be a potent inhibitor of NF-κB activation, combining didox with tamoxifen treatment cooperatively reverses ER-α alterations and inhibits NF-κB activation. Finally, inhibition of RRM2 by didox reversed tamoxifen-resistant in vivo tumor growth and decreased in vitro migratory and invasive properties, revealing a beneficial effect of combination therapy that includes RRM2 inhibition to delay or abrogate tamoxifen resistance.

  1. Spectroscopic Studies of the Iron and Manganese Reconstituted Tyrosyl Radical in Bacillus Cereus Ribonucleotide Reductase R2 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Tomter, Ane B.; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Bell, Caleb B.; Barra, Anne-Laure; Andersen, Niels H.; Solomon, Edward I.; Andersson, K. Kristoffer

    2012-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the rate limiting step in DNA synthesis where ribonucleotides are reduced to the corresponding deoxyribonucleotides. Class Ib RNRs consist of two homodimeric subunits: R1E, which houses the active site; and R2F, which contains a metallo cofactor and a tyrosyl radical that initiates the ribonucleotide reduction reaction. We studied the R2F subunit of B. cereus reconstituted with iron or alternatively with manganese ions, then subsequently reacted with molecular oxygen to generate two tyrosyl-radicals. The two similar X-band EPR spectra did not change significantly over 4 to 50 K. From the 285 GHz EPR spectrum of the iron form, a g1-value of 2.0090 for the tyrosyl radical was extracted. This g1-value is similar to that observed in class Ia E. coli R2 and class Ib R2Fs with iron-oxygen cluster, suggesting the absence of hydrogen bond to the phenoxyl group. This was confirmed by resonance Raman spectroscopy, where the stretching vibration associated to the radical (C-O, ν7a = 1500 cm−1) was found to be insensitive to deuterium-oxide exchange. Additionally, the 18O-sensitive Fe-O-Fe symmetric stretching (483 cm−1) of the metallo-cofactor was also insensitive to deuterium-oxide exchange indicating no hydrogen bonding to the di-iron-oxygen cluster, and thus, different from mouse R2 with a hydrogen bonded cluster. The HF-EPR spectrum of the manganese reconstituted RNR R2F gave a g1-value of ∼2.0094. The tyrosyl radical microwave power saturation behavior of the iron-oxygen cluster form was as observed in class Ia R2, with diamagnetic di-ferric cluster ground state, while the properties of the manganese reconstituted form indicated a magnetic ground state of the manganese-cluster. The recent activity measurements (Crona et al., (2011) J Biol Chem 286: 33053–33060) indicates that both the manganese and iron reconstituted RNR R2F could be functional. The manganese form might be very important, as it has 8 times higher

  2. A stable Fe{sup III}-Fe{sup IV} replacement of tyrosyl radical in a class I ribonucleotide reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Voevodskaya, N.; Lendzian, F.; Graeslund, A. . E-mail: astrid@dbb.su.se

    2005-05-20

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) of Chlamydia trachomatis is a class I RNR enzyme composed of two homodimeric components, proteins R1 and R2. In class I RNR, R1 has the substrate binding site, whereas R2 has a diferric site and normally in its active form a stable tyrosyl free radical. C. trachomatis RNR is unusual, because its R2 component has a phenylalanine in the place of the radical carrier tyrosine. Replacing the tyrosyl radical, a paramagnetic Fe{sup III}-Fe{sup IV} species (species X, normally a transient intermediate in the process leading to radical formation) may provide the oxidation equivalent needed to start the catalytic process via long range electron transfer from the active site in R1. Here EPR spectroscopy shows that in C. trachomatis RNR, species X can become essentially stable when formed in a complete RNR (R1/R2/substrate) complex, adding further weight to the possible role of this species X in the catalytic reaction.

  3. Radiosensitization of Human Cervical Cancer Cells by Inhibiting Ribonucleotide Reductase: Enhanced Radiation Response at Low-Dose Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Kunos, Charles A.; Colussi, Valdir C.; Pink, John; Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To test whether pharmacologic inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) by 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP, NSC no. 663249) enhances radiation sensitivity during low-dose-rate ionizing radiation provided by a novel purpose-built iridium-192 cell irradiator. Methods and Materials: The cells were exposed to low-dose-rate radiation (11, 23, 37, 67 cGy/h) using a custom-fabricated cell irradiator or to high-dose-rate radiation (330 cGy/min) using a conventional cell irradiator. The radiation sensitivity of human cervical (CaSki, C33-a) cancer cells with or without RNR inhibition by 3-AP was evaluated using a clonogenic survival and an RNR activity assay. Alteration in the cell cycle distribution was monitored using flow cytometry. Results: Increasing radiation sensitivity of both CaSki and C33-a cells was observed with the incremental increase in radiation dose rates. 3-AP treatment led to enhanced radiation sensitivity in both cell lines, eliminating differences in cell cytotoxicity from the radiation dose rate. RNR blockade by 3-AP during low-dose-rate irradiation was associated with low RNR activity and extended G{sub 1}-phase cell cycle arrest. Conclusions: We conclude that RNR inhibition by 3-AP impedes DNA damage repair mechanisms that rely on deoxyribonucleotide production and thereby increases radiation sensitivity of human cervical cancers to low-dose-rate radiation.

  4. A tyrosine–tryptophan dyad and radical-based charge transfer in a ribonucleotide reductase-inspired maquette

    PubMed Central

    Pagba, Cynthia V.; McCaslin, Tyler G.; Veglia, Gianluigi; Porcelli, Fernando; Yohannan, Jiby; Guo, Zhanjun; McDaniel, Miranda; Barry, Bridgette A.

    2015-01-01

    In class 1a ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), a substrate-based radical is generated in the α2 subunit by long-distance electron transfer involving an essential tyrosyl radical (Y122O·) in the β2 subunit. The conserved W48 β2 is ∼10 Å from Y122OH; mutations at W48 inactivate RNR. Here, we design a beta hairpin peptide, which contains such an interacting tyrosine–tryptophan dyad. The NMR structure of the peptide establishes that there is no direct hydrogen bond between the phenol and the indole rings. However, electronic coupling between the tyrosine and tryptophan occurs in the peptide. In addition, downshifted ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) frequencies are observed for the radical state, reproducing spectral downshifts observed for β2. The frequency downshifts of the ring and CO bands are consistent with charge transfer from YO· to W or another residue. Such a charge transfer mechanism implies a role for the β2 Y-W dyad in electron transfer. PMID:26627888

  5. A tyrosine-tryptophan dyad and radical-based charge transfer in a ribonucleotide reductase-inspired maquette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagba, Cynthia V.; McCaslin, Tyler G.; Veglia, Gianluigi; Porcelli, Fernando; Yohannan, Jiby; Guo, Zhanjun; McDaniel, Miranda; Barry, Bridgette A.

    2015-12-01

    In class 1a ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), a substrate-based radical is generated in the α2 subunit by long-distance electron transfer involving an essential tyrosyl radical (Y122O.) in the β2 subunit. The conserved W48 β2 is ~10 Å from Y122OH; mutations at W48 inactivate RNR. Here, we design a beta hairpin peptide, which contains such an interacting tyrosine-tryptophan dyad. The NMR structure of the peptide establishes that there is no direct hydrogen bond between the phenol and the indole rings. However, electronic coupling between the tyrosine and tryptophan occurs in the peptide. In addition, downshifted ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) frequencies are observed for the radical state, reproducing spectral downshifts observed for β2. The frequency downshifts of the ring and CO bands are consistent with charge transfer from YO. to W or another residue. Such a charge transfer mechanism implies a role for the β2 Y-W dyad in electron transfer.

  6. An S-phase specific release from a transcriptional block regulates the expression of mouse ribonucleotide reductase R2 subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Björklund, S; Skogman, E; Thelander, L

    1992-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) activity in mammalian cells is closely linked to DNA synthesis. The RR enzyme is composed of two non-identical subunits, proteins R1 and R2. Both proteins are required for holoenzyme activity, which is regulated by S-phase specific de novo synthesis and breakdown of the R2 subunit. In quiescent cells stimulated to proliferate and in elutriated cell populations enriched in the various cell cycle phases the R2 protein levels are correlated to R2 mRNA levels that are low in G0/G1-phase cells but increase dramatically at the G1/S border. Using an R2 promoter-luciferase reporter gene construct we demonstrate an unexpected early activation of the R2 promoter as cells pass from quiescence to proliferation. However, due to a transcriptional block, this promoter activation only results in very short R2 transcripts until cells enter the S-phase, when full-length R2 transcripts start to appear. The position for the transcriptional block was localized to a nucleotide sequence approximately 87 bp downstream from the first exon/intron boundary by S1 nuclease mapping of R2 transcripts from modified in vitro nuclear run-on experiments. These results identify blocking of transcription as a mechanism to control cell cycle regulated gene expression. Images PMID:1464320

  7. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the adenosylcobalamin-dependent ribonucleotide reductase from Lactobacillus leichmannii.

    PubMed Central

    Booker, S; Stubbe, J

    1993-01-01

    Ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase (RTPR, EC 1.17.4.2) from Lactobacillus leichmannii, a monomeric adenosylcobalamin-requiring enzyme, catalyzes the conversion of nucleoside triphosphates to deoxynucleoside triphosphates. The gene for this enzyme has been cloned and sequenced. In contrast to expectations based on mechanistic considerations, there is no statistically significant sequence homology with the Escherichia coli reductase that requires a dinuclear-iron center and tyrosyl radical cofactor. The RTPR has been overexpressed and purified to homogeneity, yielding 90 mg of protein from 2.5 g of bacteria. Initial characterization of the recombinant RTPR indicates that its properties are identical to those of the RTPR isolated from L. leichmannii. PMID:8397403

  8. Resistance of herpes simplex virus type 1 to peptidomimetic ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors: selection and characterization of mutant isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Bonneau, A M; Kibler, P; White, P; Bousquet, C; Dansereau, N; Cordingley, M G

    1996-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encodes its own ribonucleotide reductase (RR), which provides the high levels of deoxynucleoside triphosphates required for viral DNA replication in infected cells. HSV RR is composed of two distinct subunits, R1 and R2, whose association is required for enzymatic activity. Peptidomimetic inhibitors that mimic the C-terminal amino acids of R2 inhibit HSV RR by preventing the association of R1 and R2. These compounds are candidate antiviral therapeutic agents. Here we describe the in vitro selection of HSV type 1 KOS variants with three- to ninefold-decreased sensitivity to the RR inhibitor BILD 733. The resistant isolates have growth properties in vitro similar to those of wild-type KOS but are more sensitive to acyclovir, possibly as a consequence of functional impairment of their RRs. A single amino acid substitution in R1 (Ala-1091 to Ser) was associated with threefold resistance to BILD 733, whereas an additional substitution (Pro-1090 to Leu) was required for higher levels of resistance. These mutations were reintroduced into HSV type 1 KOS and shown to be sufficient to confer the resistance phenotype. Studies in vitro with RRs isolated from cells infected with these mutant viruses demonstrated that these RRs bind BILD 733 more weakly than the wild-type enzyme and are also functionally impaired, exhibiting an elevated dissociation constant (Kd) for R1-R2 subunit association and/or reduced activity (kcat). This work provides evidence that the C-terminal end of HSV R1 (residues 1090 and 1091) is involved in R2 binding interactions and demonstrates that resistance to subunit association inhibitors may be associated with compromised activity of the target enzyme. PMID:8551616

  9. Biophysical Characterization of Fluorotyrosine Probes Site-Specifically Incorporated into Enzymes: E. coli Ribonucleotide Reductase As an Example

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fluorinated tyrosines (FnY’s, n = 2 and 3) have been site-specifically incorporated into E. coli class Ia ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) using the recently evolved M. jannaschii Y-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pair. Class Ia RNRs require four redox active Y’s, a stable Y radical (Y·) in the β subunit (position 122 in E. coli), and three transiently oxidized Y’s (356 in β and 731 and 730 in α) to initiate the radical-dependent nucleotide reduction process. FnY (3,5; 2,3; 2,3,5; and 2,3,6) incorporation in place of Y122-β and the X-ray structures of each resulting β with a diferric cluster are reported and compared with wt-β2 crystallized under the same conditions. The essential diferric-FnY· cofactor is self-assembled from apo FnY-β2, Fe2+, and O2 to produce ∼1 Y·/β2 and ∼3 Fe3+/β2. The FnY· are stable and active in nucleotide reduction with activities that vary from 5% to 85% that of wt-β2. Each FnY·-β2 has been characterized by 9 and 130 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance and high-field electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopies. The hyperfine interactions associated with the 19F nucleus provide unique signatures of each FnY· that are readily distinguishable from unlabeled Y·’s. The variability of the abiotic FnY pKa’s (6.4 to 7.8) and reduction potentials (−30 to +130 mV relative to Y at pH 7.5) provide probes of enzymatic reactions proposed to involve Y·’s in catalysis and to investigate the importance and identity of hopping Y·’s within redox active proteins proposed to protect them from uncoupled radical chemistry. PMID:27276098

  10. Ixr1 Is Required for the Expression of the Ribonucleotide Reductase Rnr1 and Maintenance of dNTP Pools

    PubMed Central

    Tsaponina, Olga; Barsoum, Emad; Åström, Stefan U.; Chabes, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dun1 protein kinase is a downstream target of the conserved Mec1-Rad53 checkpoint pathway. Dun1 regulates dNTP pools during an unperturbed cell cycle and after DNA damage by modulating the activity of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) by multiple mechanisms, including phosphorylation of RNR inhibitors Sml1 and Dif1. Dun1 also activates DNA-damage-inducible genes by inhibiting the Crt1 transcriptional repressor. Among the genes repressed by Crt1 are three out of four RNR genes: RNR2, RNR3, and RNR4. The fourth RNR gene, RNR1, is also DNA damage-inducible, but is not controlled by Crt1. It has been shown that the deletion of DUN1 is synthetic lethal with the deletion of IXR1, encoding an HMG-box-containing DNA binding protein, but the reason for this lethality is not known. Here we demonstrate that the dun1 ixr1 synthetic lethality is caused by an inadequate RNR activity. The deletion of IXR1 results in decreased dNTP levels due to a reduced RNR1 expression. The ixr1 single mutants compensate for the reduced Rnr1 levels by the Mec1-Rad53-Dun1-Crt1–dependent elevation of Rnr3 and Rnr4 levels and downregulation of Sml1 levels, explaining why DUN1 is indispensible in ixr1 mutants. The dun1 ixr1 synthetic lethality is rescued by an artificial elevation of the dNTP pools. We show that Ixr1 is phosphorylated at several residues and that Ser366, a residue important for the interaction of HMG boxes with DNA, is required for Ixr1 phosphorylation. Ixr1 interacts with DNA at multiple loci, including the RNR1 promoter. Ixr1 levels are decreased in Rad53-deficient cells, which are known to have excessive histone levels. A reduction of the histone gene dosage in the rad53 mutant restores Ixr1 levels. Our results demonstrate that Ixr1, but not Dun1, is required for the proper RNR1 expression both during an unperturbed cell cycle and after DNA damage. PMID:21573136

  11. Role of Arginine 293 and Glutamine 288 in Communication between Catalytic and Allosteric Sites in Yeast Ribonucleotide Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Md. Faiz; Kaushal, Prem Singh; Wan, Qun; Wijerathna, Sanath R.; An, Xiuxiang; Huang, Mingxia; Dealwis, Chris Godfrey

    2012-11-01

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RRs) catalyze the rate-limiting step of de novo deoxynucleotide (dNTP) synthesis. Eukaryotic RRs consist of two proteins, RR1 ({alpha}) that contains the catalytic site and RR2 ({beta}) that houses a diferric-tyrosyl radical essential for ribonucleoside diphosphate reduction. Biochemical analysis has been combined with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), X-ray crystallography and yeast genetics to elucidate the roles of two loop 2 mutations R293A and Q288A in Saccharomyces cerevisiae RR1 (ScRR1). These mutations, R293A and Q288A, cause lethality and severe S phase defects, respectively, in cells that use ScRR1 as the sole source of RR1 activity. Compared to the wild-type enzyme activity, R293A and Q288A mutants show 4% and 15%, respectively, for ADP reduction, whereas they are 20% and 23%, respectively, for CDP reduction. ITC data showed that R293A ScRR1 is unable to bind ADP and binds CDP with 2-fold lower affinity compared to wild-type ScRR1. With the Q288A ScRR1 mutant, there is a 6-fold loss of affinity for ADP binding and a 2-fold loss of affinity for CDP compared to the wild type. X-ray structures of R293A ScRR1 complexed with dGTP and AMPPNP-CDP [AMPPNP, adenosine 5-({beta},{gamma}-imido)triphosphate tetralithium salt] reveal that ADP is not bound at the catalytic site, and CDP binds farther from the catalytic site compared to wild type. Our in vivo functional analyses demonstrated that R293A cannot support mitotic growth, whereas Q288A can, albeit with a severe S phase defect. Taken together, our structure, activity, ITC and in vivo data reveal that the arginine 293 and glutamine 288 residues of ScRR1 are crucial in facilitating ADP and CDP substrate selection.

  12. Ribonucleotide reductase large subunit M1 plays a different role in the invasion and metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zejun; Song, Rui; Gong, Chaoju; Zhang, Xiaomin; Ren, Guoping; Li, Jinfan; Chen, Yuexia; Qiu, Lanlan; Mei, Lingming; Zhang, Ronghui; Xiang, Xueping; Chen, Xiang; Shao, Jimin

    2016-03-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) has been reported to be associated with several types of cancer while the expression and role of RR in thyroid carcinoma (TC) has not been investigated. Here, we first examined the expression level of three RR subunit proteins (RRM1, RRM2, and RRM2B) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) patient samples by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that RRM1 was higher expressed in 95.2 % cancer tissues compared with their adjacent normal tissues in 146 PTC samples. The expression level of RRM1 was positively correlated with T stage, lymph node metastasis (LNM), extrathyroidal invasion (ETI), and TNM stage in PTC patients. However, in 12 UTC samples, RRM1 expression was negatively expressed in six cases. To further determine the biological role of RRM1 in TC, ectopic expression or siRNA-mediated knockdown of RRM1 were carried out in the high-differentiated thyroid carcinoma cell line TPC-1 and the poor-differentiated thyroid carcinoma cell line SW579, respectively. In TPC-1 and SW579 cells, overexpression and siRNA knockdown of RRM1 demonstrated that RRM1 promoted DNA synthesis and proliferation in both cell lines as shown by EdU incorporation and cell viability assays. However, RRM1 enhanced cell migration and invasion in TPC-1 cells but inhibited that in SW579 cells as shown by wound healing and transwell assays. Moreover, we also found that RRM1 promoted PTEN expression and reduced Akt phosphorylation in a RR-activity-independent manner in the low-differentiated TC cells but not in the high-differentiated TC cells. In contrast, RRM2 expression was higher expressed in both PTC and UTC patient samples, consisting with its oncogenic role in other cancers. Therefore, we suggest that RRM1 promotes thyroid carcinoma proliferation as a component of RR but may play a different role in the invasion and metastasis of differently differentiated thyroid carcinomas through a non-RR pathway, which could

  13. Rational Reprogramming of the R2 Subunit of Escherichia coli Ribonucleotide Reductase into a Self-Hydroxylating Monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, J.; Voegtli, W.C.; Khidekel, N.; Moënne-Loccoz, P.; Krebs, C.; Ley, B.A.; Huynh, B.H.; Loehr, T.M.; Rosenzweig, A.C.; Bollinger, Jr., J.M.

    2010-03-05

    The outcome of O{sub 2} activation at the diiron(II) cluster in the R2 subunit of Escherichia coli (class I) ribonucleotide reductase has been rationally altered from the normal tyrosyl radical (Y122) production to self-hydroxylation of a phenylalanine side-chain by two amino acid substitutions that leave intact the (histidine){sub 2}-(carboxylate){sub 4} ligand set characteristic of the diiron-carboxylate family. Iron ligand Asp (D) 84 was replaced with Glu (E), the amino acid found in the cognate position of the structurally similar diiron-carboxylate protein, methane monooxygenase hydroxylase (MMOH). We previously showed that this substitution allows accumulation of a {mu}-1,2-peroxodiiron(III) intermediate, which does not accumulate in the wild-type (wt) protein and is probably a structural homologue of intermediate P (H{sub peroxo}) in O{sub 2} activation by MMOH. In addition, the near-surface residue Trp (W) 48 was replaced with Phe (F), blocking transfer of the 'extra' electron that occurs in wt R2 during formation of the formally Fe(III)Fe(IV) cluster X. Decay of the {mu}-1,2-peroxodiiron(III) complex in R2-W48F/D84E gives an initial brown product, which contains very little Y122 and which converts very slowly (t{sub 1/2} {approx} 7 h) upon incubation at 0 C to an intensely purple final product. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the purple product indicates that F208 has undergone {epsilon}-hydroxylation and the resulting phenol has shifted significantly to become a ligand to Fe2 of the diiron cluster. Resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the purple product generated with {sup 16}O{sub 2} or {sub 18}O{sub 2} show appropriate isotopic sensitivity in bands assigned to O-phenyl and Fe-O-phenyl vibrational modes, confirming that the oxygen of the Fe(III)-phenolate species is derived from O{sub 2}. Chemical analysis, experiments involving interception of the hydroxylating intermediate with exogenous reductant, and Moessbauer and EXAFS characterization of the brown

  14. Structure-Based Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of 2'-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-2'-deoxyadenosine and the 5'-Diphosphate Derivative as Ribonucleotide Reductase Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, D.; Xu, H.; Wijerathna, S.R.; Dealwis, C.; Lee, R.E.

    2010-08-27

    Analysis of the recently solved X-ray crystal structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribonucleotide reductase I (ScRnr1) in complex with effectors and substrates led to the discovery of a conserved water molecule located at the active site that interacted with the 2'-hydroxy group of the nucleoside ribose. In this study 2'-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2'-deoxyadenosine 1 and the 5'-diphosphate derivative 2 were designed and synthesized to see if the conserved water molecule could be displaced by a hydroxymethylene group, to generate novel RNR inhibitors as potential antitumor agents. Herein we report the synthesis of analogues 1 and 2, and the co-crystal structure of adenosine diphosphate analogue 2 bound to ScRnr1, which shows the conserved water molecule is displaced as hypothesized.

  15. Reduction of the tyrosyl radical and the iron center in protein R2 of ribonucleotide reductase from mouse, herpes simplex virus and E. coli by p-alkoxyphenols.

    PubMed

    Pötsch, S; Sahlin, M; Langelier, Y; Gräslund, A; Lassmann, G

    1995-10-23

    The rate of reduction of the tyrosyl radical in the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (protein R2) from E. coli, mouse, and herpes simplex virus (HSV-2) by a series of p-alkoxyphenols with different alkyl chains, have been studied by stopped-flow UV-vis and stopped-flow EPR spectroscopy. The reduction and release of iron in R2 by the inhibitors was followed using bathophenanthroline as chelator of Fe2+. p-Alkoxyphenols reduce the mouse R2 tyrosyl radical 1-2 orders of magnitude faster than the HSV-2 and E. coli radical. In contrast to E. coli, the iron center in R2 from mouse and HSV-2 is reduced by the inhibitors. For mouse R2, the rate of reduction of the tyrosyl radical increases in parallel with increasing alkyl chain length of the inhibitor, an observation which may be important for the design of new antiproliferative drugs.

  16. Characterization of heterosubunit complexes formed by the R1 and R2 subunits of herpes simplex virus 1 and equine herpes virus 4 ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Conner, J

    2000-04-01

    We report on the separate PCR cloning and subsequent expression and purification of the large (R1) and small (R2) subunits from equine herpes virus type 4 (EHV-4) ribonucleotide reductase. The EHV-4 R1 and R2 subunits reconstituted an active enzyme and their abilities to complement the R1 and R2 subunits from the closely related herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ribonucleotide reductase, with the use of subunit interaction and enzyme activity assays, were analysed. Both EHV-4 R1/HSV-1 R2 and HSV-1 R1/EHV-4 R2 were able to assemble heterosubunit complexes but, surprisingly, neither of these complexes was fully active in enzyme activity assays; the EHV-4 R1/HSV-1 R2 and HSV-1 R1/EHV-4 R2 enzymes had 50% and 5% of their respective wild-type activities. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to alter two non-conserved residues located within the highly conserved and functionally important C-termini of the EHV-4 and HSV-1 R1 proteins. Mutation of Pro-737 to Lys and Lys-1084 to Pro in EHV-4 and HSV-1 R1 respectively had no effects on subunit assembly. Mutation of Pro-737 to Lys in EHV-4 R1 decreased enzyme activity by 50%; replacement of Lys-1084 by Pro in HSV-1 R1 had no effect on enzyme activity. Both alterations failed to restore full enzyme activities to the heterosubunit enzymes. Therefore probably neither of these amino acids has a direct role in catalysis. However, mutation of the highly conserved Tyr-1111 to Phe in HSV-1 R1 inactivated enzyme activity without affecting subunit interaction.

  17. Isolation and characterization of expressible cDNA clones encoding the M1 and M2 subunits of mouse ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Thelander, L; Berg, P

    1986-01-01

    Mammalian ribonucleotide reductase consists of two nonidentical subunits, proteins M1 and M2, which are differentially regulated during the cell cycle. We have isolated expressible cDNA clones of both subunits from an Okayama-Berg cDNA library made with mRNA from hydroxyurea-resistant, M2 protein-overproducing mouse TA3 cells. Expression of M2 protein could be demonstrated by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy after transfection of COS-7 monkey cells with the plasmid. Electrophoresis and blot analyses of the parent and hydroxyurea-resistant TA3 mRNA revealed two M2 transcripts, a major one of 2.1 kilobases and a minor one of about 1.6 kilobases. Restriction endonuclease mapping of the corresponding cDNAs indicated that the two mRNAs differed only in the length of the 3' untranslated ends. By contrast, there was only one mRNA corresponding to the M1 protein, and its mobility corresponded to about 3.1 kilobases. The hydroxyurea-resistant TA3 cells contained a 50- to 100-fold excess of the M2 mRNAs over that of the parent cells and a 10-fold excess of the M1 mRNA. However, a Southern blot analysis of the corresponding genomic DNA sequences showed that the M2 gene was amplified fivefold but the M1 gene was still single copy. The complete nucleotide sequence of the 2,111-base-pair-long M2 cDNA revealed an open reading frame coding for 390 amino acids, which corresponds to a molecular weight of 45,100. The mouse M2 protein sequence was quite homologous to the equivalent protein in the clam Spisula solidissima, while the homology to the smaller subunits of Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus type 2, and Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductases were less pronounced. Images PMID:3025593

  18. Use of a chemical trigger for electron transfer to characterize a precursor to cluster X in assembly of the iron-radical cofactor of Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Lana; Krebs, Carsten; Ley, Brenda A; Naik, Sunail; Huynh, Boi Hanh; Bollinger, J Martin

    2004-05-25

    A key step in generation of the catalytically essential tyrosyl radical (Y122(*)) in protein R2 of Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase is electron transfer (ET) from the near-surface residue, tryptophan 48 (W48), to a (Fe(2)O(2))(4+) complex formed by addition of O(2) to the carboxylate-bridged diiron(II) cluster. Because this step is rapid, the (Fe(2)O(2))(4+) complex does not accumulate and, therefore, has not been characterized. The product of the ET step is a "diradical" intermediate state containing the well-characterized Fe(IV)Fe(III) cluster, X, and a W48 cation radical (W48(+)(*)). The latter may be reduced from solution to complete the two-step transfer of an electron to the buried diiron site. In this study, a (Fe(2)O(2))(4+) state that is probably the precursor to the X-W48(+)(*) diradical state in the reaction of the wild-type protein (R2-wt) has been characterized by exploitation of the observation that in R2 variants with W48 replaced with alanine (A), the otherwise disabled ET step can be mediated by indole compounds. Mixing of the Fe(II) complex of R2-W48A/Y122F with O(2) results in accumulation of an intermediate state that rapidly converts to X upon mixing with 3-methylindole (3-MI). The state comprises at least two species, of which each exhibits an apparent Mössbauer quadrupole doublet with parameters characteristic of high-spin Fe(III) ions. The isomer shifts of these complexes and absence of magnetic hyperfine coupling in their Mössbauer spectra suggest that both are antiferromagnetically coupled diiron(III) clusters. The fact that both rapidly convert to X upon treatment with a molecule (3-MI) shown in the preceding paper to mediate ET in W48A R2 variants indicates that they are more oxidized than X by one electron, which suggests that they have a bound peroxide equivalent. Their failure to exhibit either the long-wavelength absorption (at 650-750 nm) or Mössbauer doublet with high isomer shift (>0.6 mm/s) that are characteristic of

  19. New Iminodiacetate-Thiosemicarbazone Hybrids and Their Copper(II) Complexes Are Potential Ribonucleotide Reductase R2 Inhibitors with High Antiproliferative Activity.

    PubMed

    Zaltariov, Mirela F; Hammerstad, Marta; Arabshahi, Homayon J; Jovanović, Katarina; Richter, Klaus W; Cazacu, Maria; Shova, Sergiu; Balan, Mihaela; Andersen, Niels H; Radulović, Siniša; Reynisson, Jóhannes; Andersson, K Kristoffer; Arion, Vladimir B

    2017-03-20

    As ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) plays a crucial role in nucleic acid metabolism, it is an important target for anticancer therapy. The thiosemicarbazone Triapine is an efficient R2 inhibitor, which has entered ∼20 clinical trials. Thiosemicarbazones are supposed to exert their biological effects through effectively binding transition-metal ions. In this study, six iminodiacetate-thiosemicarbazones able to form transition-metal complexes, as well as six dicopper(II) complexes, were synthesized and fully characterized by analytical, spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV-vis; (1)H and (13)C NMR), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction. The antiproliferative effects were examined in several human cancer and one noncancerous cell lines. Several of the compounds showed high cytotoxicity and marked selectivity for cancer cells. On the basis of this, and on molecular docking calculations one lead dicopper(II) complex and one thiosemicarbazone were chosen for in vitro analysis as potential R2 inhibitors. Their interaction with R2 and effect on the Fe(III)2-Y· cofactor were characterized by microscale thermophoresis, and two spectroscopic techniques, namely, electron paramagnetic resonance and UV-vis spectroscopy. Our findings suggest that several of the synthesized proligands and copper(II) complexes are effective antiproliferative agents in several cancer cell lines, targeting RNR, which deserve further investigation as potential anticancer drugs.

  20. 2.6 Å X-ray Crystal Structure of Human p53R2, a p53 Inducible Ribonucleotide Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Peter; Zhou, Bingsen; Ho, Nam; Yuan, Yate-Ching; Su, Leila; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Yen, Yun

    2009-01-01

    Human p53R2 (hp53R2) is a 351 residue p53-inducible ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) small subunit. It shares >80% sequence identity with hRRM2, the small RNR subunit responsible for normal maintenance of the deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) pool used for DNA replication, which is active during the S-phase in a cell-cycle dependent fashion. But rather than cyclic dNTP synthesis, hp53R2 has been shown to supply dNTPs for DNA repair to cells in G0-G1 in a p53-dependent fashion. The first x-ray crystal structure of hp53R2 is solved to 2.6 Å, in which monomers A and B exhibit mono- and bi-nuclear iron occupancy, respectively. The pronounced structural differences at three regions between hp53R2 and hRRM2 highlight the possible regulatory role in iron assimilation, and help explain previously observed physical and biochemical differences in the mobility and accessibility of the radical-iron center, as well as radical transfer pathways between the two enzymes. The sequence-structure-function correlations that differentiate hp53R2 and hRRM2 are revealed for the first time. Insight gained from this structural work will be used toward the identification of biological function, regulation mechanism and inhibitors selection in RNR small subunits. PMID:19728742

  1. CREB1 directly activates the transcription of ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2 and promotes the aggressiveness of human colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zejun; Lin, Aifen; Chen, Jiaoe; Zhang, Xiaomin; Liu, Hong; Li, Hongzhang; Hu, Yanyan; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Jiangang; Qiu, Lanlan; Mei, Lingming; Shao, Jimin; Chen, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    As the small subunit of Ribonucleotide reductase (RR), RRM2 displays a very important role in various critical cellular processes such as cell proliferation, DNA repair, and senescence, etc. Importantly, RRM2 functions like a tumor driver in most types of cancer but little is known about the regulatory mechanism of RRM2 in cancer development. In this study, we found that the cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) acted as a transcription factor of RRM2 gene in human colorectal cancer (CRC). CREB1 directly bound to the promoter of RRM2 gene and induced its transcriptional activation. Knockdown of CREB1 decreased the expression of RRM2 at both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, knockdown of RRM2 attenuated CREB1-induced aggressive phenotypes of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of the data from TCGA database and clinical CRC specimens with immunohistochemical staining also demonstrated a strong correlation between the co-expression of CREB1 and RRM2. Decreased disease survivals were observed in CRC patients with high expression levels of CREB1 or RRM2. Our results indicate CREB1 as a critical transcription factor of RRM2 which promotes tumor aggressiveness, and imply a significant correlation between CREB1 and RRM2 in CRC specimens. These may provide the possibility that CREB1 and RRM2 could be used as biomarkers or targets for CRC diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27801665

  2. Pulsed ELDOR spectroscopy measures the distance between the two tyrosyl dadicals in the R2 subunit of the E. coli ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Bennati, Marina; Weber, Axel; Antonic, Jelena; Perlstein, Deborah L; Robblee, John; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2003-12-10

    Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the conversion of nucleoside diphosphates (NDPs) to deoxynucleoside diphosphates (dNDPs). This RNR is composed of two homodimeric subunits: R1 and R2. R1 binds the NDPs in the active site, and R2 harbors the essential di-iron tyrosyl radical (Y*) cofactor. In this paper, we used PELDOR, a method that detects weak electron-electron dipolar coupling, to make the first direct measurement of the distance between the two Y*'s on each monomer of R2. In the crystal structure of R2, the Y*'s are reduced to tyrosines, and consequently R2 is inactive. In R2, where the Y*'s assume a well-defined geometry with respect to the protein backbone, the PELDOR method allows measurement of a distance of 33.1 +/- 0.2 A that compares favorably to the distance (32.4 A) between the center of mass of the spin density distribution of each Y* on each R2 monomer from the structure. The experiments provide the first direct experimental evidence for two Y*'s in a single R2 in solution.

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exhibits Deficient Biofilm Formation in the Absence of Class II and III Ribonucleotide Reductases Due to Hindered Anaerobic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, Anna; Pedraz, Lucas; Astola, Josep; Torrents, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lung infections by the ubiquitous and extremely adaptable opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa correlate with the formation of a biofilm, where bacteria grow in association with an extracellular matrix and display a wide range of changes in gene expression and metabolism. This leads to increased resistance to physical stress and antibiotic therapies, while enhancing cell-to-cell communication. Oxygen diffusion through the complex biofilm structure generates an oxygen concentration gradient, leading to the appearance of anaerobic microenvironments. Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are a family of highly sophisticated enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the deoxyribonucleotides, and they constitute the only de novo pathway for the formation of the building blocks needed for DNA synthesis and repair. P. aeruginosa is one of the few bacteria encoding all three known RNR classes (Ia, II, and III). Class Ia RNRs are oxygen dependent, class II are oxygen independent, and class III are oxygen sensitive. A tight control of RNR activity is essential for anaerobic growth and therefore for biofilm development. In this work we explored the role of the different RNR classes in biofilm formation under aerobic and anaerobic initial conditions and using static and continuous-flow biofilm models. We demonstrated the importance of class II and III RNR for proper cell division in biofilm development and maturation. We also determined that these classes are transcriptionally induced during biofilm formation and under anaerobic conditions. The molecular mechanism of their anaerobic regulation was also studied, finding that the Anr/Dnr system is responsible for class II RNR induction. These data can be integrated with previous knowledge about biofilms in a model where these structures are understood as a set of layers determined by oxygen concentration and contain cells with different RNR expression profiles, bringing us a step closer to the understanding of this

  4. Characterization of cell proliferation in the adult dentate under normal conditions and after kainate induced seizures using ribonucleotide reductase and BrdU.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Dahlström, Annica; Hansson, Hans-Arne

    2005-03-02

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), an enzyme for DNA synthesis, was recently used as a marker of proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone in normal adult mammalian brains. However, the duration of RNR expression in normal adult brain and the expression pattern of RNR in the adult dentate gyrus following brain injury have not been explored. In this study, we examined the duration of the RNR expression in newborn cells in the normal adult rat brain by analysis of RNR and BrdU double-labeled specimens at different time intervals after BrdU application. Secondly, we induced, in adult rats, seizures by kainic acid and investigated the changes in expression of RNR following seizures, and characterized the phenotype of RNR-positive cells using a variety of other markers. Our results revealed that RNR was detectable in proliferating cells from 2 h to at least 1 day. At 7 and 28 days after seizures, there was a fivefold increase in number of clusters of RNR-positive cells in the dentate gyrus, and a doubling of the number of BrdU-labeled cells in each cluster. Proliferating astrocytes and neuronal precursors were recognized in each RNR-positive cell cluster, and both types increased in number after seizures. Colocalization of RNR and activated caspase-3 was observed at 7 days, indicating that proliferating cells were susceptible to status epilepticus induced damage. RNR immunohistochemistry provides a useful approach in experiments investigating a change in cell proliferation, revealing the location, number, morphology and fate of newly formed cells after, e.g., brain injury.

  5. Enzymatic activity of coenzyme B(12) derivatives with altered axial nucleotides: probing the mechanochemical triggering hypothesis in ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Brown, K L; Zou, X; Li, J; Chen, G

    2001-11-05

    Theoretical studies (J. Inorg. Biochem. 2001, 83, 121) of the involvement of the bulky 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (Dmbz) ligand of coenzyme B(12) (5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, AdoCbl) in the mechanism of activation of the carbon-cobalt bond of the coenzyme for homolytic cleavage by AdoCbl-dependent enzymes (the "mechanochemical triggering" mechanisms) have shown that a purely steric, ground-state mechanism can supply only a few kilocalories per mole (of the observed 13-16 kcal mol(-1)) of activation, but that an electronic mechanism, operating to stabilize the transition state, can explain all of the observed catalytic effect. To address these mechanisms experimentally, analogues of AdoCbl in which the Dmbz ligand is replaced by benzimidazole (Ado(Bzim)Cbl) or by imidazole (Ado(Im)Cbl) have been prepared and characterized. Both of these analogues support turnover in the AdoCbl-dependent ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase (RTPR) from Lactobacillus leichmannii at 100% of the activity of AdoCbl itself, but the Ado(Im)Cbl analogue has a significantly higher K(m). 5'-Deoxyadenosylcobinamide, the analogue in which the axial nucleotide has been chemically removed, in contrast, is inactive in the spectrophotometric assay, which indicates that it has at most 1% of the activity of AdoCbl. Stopped-flow spectrophotometric measurements of the formation of cob(II)alamin at the enzyme active site show that RTPR binds Ado(Bzim)Cbl slightly more weakly than it does AdoCbl, but binds Ado(Im)Cbl 8-fold more weakly. While the equilibrium constant for cob(II)alamin formation is nearly the same for Ado(Bzim)Cbl and AdoCbl, it is 5-fold smaller for Ado(Im)Cbl. Finally, the forward rate constant for enzyme-induced Co-C bond homolysis was about the same for Ado(Bzim)Cbl and for AdoCbl but was 17-fold smaller for Ado(Im)Cbl. These results are consistent with a small contribution from ground-state mechanochemical triggering, but they do not in themselves rule out transition-state mechanical

  6. Evidence That the [beta] Subunit of Chlamydia trachomatis Ribonucleotide Reductase Is Active with the Manganese Ion of Its Manganese(IV)/Iron(III) Cofactor in Site 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dassama, Laura M.K.; Boal, Amie K.; Krebs, Carsten; Rosenzweig, Amy C.; Bollinger, Jr., J. Martin

    2014-10-02

    The reaction of a class I ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) begins when a cofactor in the {beta} subunit oxidizes a cysteine residue {approx}35 {angstrom} away in the {alpha} subunit, generating a thiyl radical. In the class Ic enzyme from Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), the cysteine oxidant is the Mn{sup IV} ion of a Mn{sup IV}/Fe{sup III} cluster, which assembles in a reaction between O{sub 2} and the Mn{sup II}/Fe{sup II} complex of {beta}. The heterodinuclear nature of the cofactor raises the question of which site, 1 or 2, contains the Mn{sup IV} ion. Because site 1 is closer to the conserved location of the cysteine-oxidizing tyrosyl radical of class Ia and Ib RNRs, we suggested that the Mn{sup IV} ion most likely resides in this site (i.e., {sup 1}Mn{sup IV}/{sup 2}Fe{sup III}), but a subsequent computational study favored its occupation of site 2 ({sup 1}Fe{sup III}/{sup 2}Mn{sup IV}). In this work, we have sought to resolve the location of the Mn{sup IV} ion in Ct RNR-{beta} by correlating X-ray crystallographic anomalous scattering intensities with catalytic activity for samples of the protein reconstituted in vitro by two different procedures. In samples containing primarily Mn{sup IV}/Fe{sup III} clusters, Mn preferentially occupies site 1, but some anomalous scattering from site 2 is observed, implying that both {sup 1}Mn{sup II}/{sup 2}Fe{sup II} and {sup 1}Fe{sup II}/{sup 2}Mn{sup II} complexes are competent to react with O{sub 2} to produce the corresponding oxidized states. However, with diminished Mn{sup II} loading in the reconstitution, there is no evidence for Mn occupancy of site 2, and the greater activity of these 'low-Mn' samples on a per-Mn basis implies that the {sup 1}Mn{sup IV}/{sup 2}Fe{sup III}-{beta} is at least the more active of the two oxidized forms and may be the only active form.

  7. Kinetic evidence that a radical transfer pathway in protein R2 of mouse ribonucleotide reductase is involved in generation of the tyrosyl free radical.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, P P; Rova, U; Katterle, B; Thelander, L; Gräslund, A

    1998-08-21

    Class I ribonucleotide reductases consist of two subunits, R1 and R2. The active site is located in R1; active R2 contains a diferric center and a tyrosyl free radical (Tyr.), both essential for enzymatic activity. The proposed mechanism for the enzymatic reaction includes the transport of a reducing equivalent, i.e. electron or hydrogen radical, across a 35-A distance between Tyr. in R2 and the active site in R1, which are connected by a hydrogen-bonded chain of conserved, catalytically essential amino acid residues. Asp266 and Trp103 in mouse R2 are part of this radical transfer pathway. The diferric/Tyr. site in R2 is reconstituted spontaneously by mixing iron-free apoR2 with Fe(II) and O2. The reconstitution reaction requires the delivery of an external reducing equivalent to form the diferric/Tyr. site. Reconstitution kinetics were investigated in mouse apo-wild type R2 and the three mutants D266A, W103Y, and W103F by rapid freeze-quench electron paramagnetic resonance with >/=4 Fe(II)/R2 at various reaction temperatures. The kinetics of Tyr. formation in D266A and W103Y is on average 20 times slower than in wild type R2. More strikingly, Tyr. formation is completely suppressed in W103F. No change in the reconstitution kinetics was found starting from Fe(II)-preloaded proteins, which shows that the mutations do not affect the rate of iron binding. Our results are consistent with a reaction mechanism using Asp266 and Trp103 for delivery of the external reducing equivalent. Further, the results with W103F suggest that an intact hydrogen-bonded chain is crucial for the reaction, indicating that the external reducing equivalent is a H. Finally, the formation of Tyr. is not the slowest step of the reaction as it is in Escherichia coli R2, consistent with a stronger interaction between Tyr. and the iron center in mouse R2. A new electron paramagnetic resonance visible intermediate named mouse X, strikingly similar to species X found in E. coli R2, was detected only

  8. The Composition and Structure of the Inorganic Core of Relaxed Intermediate X(Y122F) of E. coli Ribonucleotide Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Muralidharan

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the diferrous center of the β2 (R2) subunit of the class 1a Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductases (RNR) by reaction with O2 followed by one-electron reduction yields a spin-coupled, paramagnetic Fe(III)/Fe(IV) intermediate, denoted X, whose identity has been sought by multiple investigators for over a quarter century. To determine the composition and structure of X, the present study has applied 57Fe, 14,15N, 17O and 1H ENDOR measurements combined with quantitative measurements of 17O and 1H EPR line broadening studies to WT X, which is very short-lived, and to X prepared with the Y122F mutant, which has a lifetime of many seconds. Previous studies have established that over several seconds X(Y122F) relaxes to an equilibrium structure. The present report focuses on the relaxed structure. It establishes the following conclusions. (i) The 57Fe and 14N ENDOR spectra of X(WT) quenched at 42 ms, and X(Y122F) quenched at 8 ms and 4 s all are identical, indicating that the properties of the [Fe2, His2] coordination center of X is unchanged by the Y122F mutation, and is invariant during relaxation as the quench delay increases. (ii) 17O ENDOR and quantitative EPR from X enriched separately with H217O and 17O2(g), along with 1,2H ENDOR shows that relaxed X contains an Fe(III)-bound hydroxide oxygen derived from solvent and an oxo-bridge derived from O2 gas. (iii) The loss of hyperfine coupling to the second 17O from the 17O2 molecule during the relaxation process, and the absence of a bridging 17O from solvent, together indicate that the inorganic core of relaxed X has the composition, [(OH−)Fe(III)-O-Fe(IV)]: there is no second inorganic oxygenic bridge, neither oxo nor hydroxo. (iv) The geometric analysis of the 14N ENDOR data, together with recent EXAFS measurements (Dassama, L. M. et al.; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 16758) of the Fe-Fe distance, support the view that X contains a ‘diamond-core’ Fe(III)/Fe(IV) center, with the irons bridged by

  9. Use of 2,3,5-F3Y-β2 and 3-NH2Y-α2 to study PCET in E. coli Ribonucleotide Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Seyedsayamdost, Mohammad R.; Yee, Cyril S.; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    E. coli ribonucleotide reductase is an α2β2 complex that catalyzes the conversion of nucleoside 5′-diphosphates (NDPs) to deoxynucleotides (dNDPs). The active site for NDP reduction resides in α2, and the essential diferric-tyrosyl radical (Y122•) cofactor that initiates radical transfer to the active site cysteine in α2 (C439), 35 Å removed, is in β2. The oxidation is proposed to involve a hopping mechanism through aromatic amino acids (Y122→W48→Y356 in β2 to Y731→Y730→C439 in α2) and reversible proton coupled electron transfer (PCET). Recently 2,3,5-F3Y (F3Y) was site-specifically incorporated in place of Y356 in β2, and 3-NH2Y (NH2Y) in place of Y731 and Y730 in α2. A pH rate profile with F3Y356-β2 suggested that as the pH is elevated, the rate-determining step of RNR can be altered from a conformational change to PCET and that the altered driving force for F3Y oxidation, by residues adjacent to it in the pathway, is responsible for this change. Studies with NH2Y731(730)-α2/β2/CDP/ATP resulted in detection of NH2Y radical (NH2Y•) intermediates capable of dNDP formation. In this study, the reaction of F3Y356-β2/α2/CDP/ATP has been examined by stopped flow (SF) absorption and rapid freeze quench EPR spectroscopy and has failed to reveal any radical intermediates. F3Y356-β2/CDP/ATP has also been examined with NH2Y731-α2 (or NH2Y730-α2) by stopped-flow kinetics from pH 6.5–9.2 and revealed rate constants for NH2Y• formation that support a change in rate limiting step at elevated pH. The results together with kinetic simulations provide a guide for future studies to detect radical intermediates in the pathway. PMID:21182280

  10. Replacement of Y730 and Y731 in the α2 Subunit of Escherichia coli Ribonucleotide Reductase with 3-Aminotyrosine using an Evolved Suppressor tRNA/tRNA-Synthetase Pair

    PubMed Central

    Seyedsayamdost, Mohammad R.; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the essential tyrosyl radical (Y•) in E. coli ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), a number of enzymes involved in primary metabolism have been found that use transient or stable tyrosyl (Y) or tryptophanyl (W) radicals in catalysis. These enzymes engage in a myriad of charge transfer reactions that occur with exquisite control and specificity. The unavailability of natural amino acids that can perturb the reduction potential and/or protonation states of redox-active Y or W residues has limited the usefulness of site-directed mutagenesis methods to probe the attendant mechanism of charge transport at these residues. However, recent technologies designed to site-specifically incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins have now made viable the study of these mechanisms. The class Ia RNR from E. coli serves as a paradigm for enzymes that use amino acid radicals in catalysis. It catalyzes the conversion of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides and utilizes both stable and transient protein radicals. This reaction requires radical transfer from a stable tyrosyl radical (Y122•) in the β subunit to an active-site cysteine (C439) in the α subunit, where nucleotide reduction occurs. The distance between the sites is proposed to be >35 Å. A pathway between these sites has been proposed in which transient aromatic amino acid radicals mediate radical transport. To examine the pathway for radical propagation as well as requirements for coupled electron and proton transfers, a suppressor tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (RS) pair has been evolved that allows for site-specific incorporation of 3-aminotyrosine (NH2Y). NH2Y was chosen because it is structurally similar to Y with a similar phenolic pKa. However, at pH 7, it is more easily oxidized than Y by 190 mV (≈4.4 kcal/mol), thus allowing it to act as a radical trap. Here we present the detailed procedures involved in evolving an NH2Y-specific RS, assessing its efficiency in NH2Y insertion, generating

  11. Roles of DNA helicases and Exo1 in the avoidance of mutations induced by Top1-mediated cleavage at ribonucleotides in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Hengyao; Potenski, Catherine J.; Epshtein, Anastasiya; Sung, Patrick; Klein, Hannah L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The replicative DNA polymerases insert ribonucleotides into DNA at a frequency of approximately 1/6500 nucleotides replicated. The rNMP residues make the DNA backbone more susceptible to hydrolysis and can also distort the helix, impeding the transcription and replication machineries. rNMPs in DNA are efficiently removed by RNaseH2 by a process called ribonucleotides excision repair (RER). In the absence of functional RNaseH2, rNMPs are subject to cleavage by Topoisomerase I, followed by further processing to result in deletion mutations due to slippage in simple DNA repeats. The topoisomerase I-mediated cleavage at rNMPs results in DNA ends that cannot be ligated by DNA ligase I, a 5′OH end and a 2′–3′ cyclic phosphate end. In the budding yeast, the mutation level in RNaseH2 deficient cells is kept low via the action of the Srs2 helicase and the Exo1 nuclease, which collaborate to process the Top1-induced nick with subsequent non-mutagenic gap filling. We have surveyed other helicases and nucleases for a possible role in reducing mutagenesis at Top1 nicks at rNMPs and have uncovered a novel role for the RecQ family helicase Sgs1 in this process. PMID:26716562

  12. Roles of DNA helicases and Exo1 in the avoidance of mutations induced by Top1-mediated cleavage at ribonucleotides in DNA.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hengyao; Potenski, Catherine J; Epshtein, Anastasiya; Sung, Patrick; Klein, Hannah L

    2016-01-01

    The replicative DNA polymerases insert ribonucleotides into DNA at a frequency of approximately 1/6500 nucleotides replicated. The rNMP residues make the DNA backbone more susceptible to hydrolysis and can also distort the helix, impeding the transcription and replication machineries. rNMPs in DNA are efficiently removed by RNaseH2 by a process called ribonucleotides excision repair (RER). In the absence of functional RNaseH2, rNMPs are subject to cleavage by Topoisomerase I, followed by further processing to result in deletion mutations due to slippage in simple DNA repeats. The topoisomerase I-mediated cleavage at rNMPs results in DNA ends that cannot be ligated by DNA ligase I, a 5'OH end and a 2'-3' cyclic phosphate end. In the budding yeast, the mutation level in RNaseH2 deficient cells is kept low via the action of the Srs2 helicase and the Exo1 nuclease, which collaborate to process the Top1-induced nick with subsequent non-mutagenic gap filling. We have surveyed other helicases and nucleases for a possible role in reducing mutagenesis at Top1 nicks at rNMPs and have uncovered a novel role for the RecQ family helicase Sgs1 in this process.

  13. Structural Analysis of the Mn(IV)/Fe(III) Cofactor of Chlamydia Trachomatis Ribonucleotide Reductase By Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy And Density Functional Theory Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Younker, J.M.; Krest, C.M.; Jiang, W.; Krebs, C.; Bollinger, J.M.Jr.; Green, M.T.

    2009-05-28

    The class Ic ribonucleotide reductase from Chlamydia trachomatis (C{bar A}) uses a stable Mn(lV)/ Fe(lll) cofactor to initiate nucleotide reduction by a free-radical mechanism. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to postulate a structure for this cofactor. Fe and Mn K-edge EXAFS data yield an intermetallic distance of -2.92 {angstrom}. The Mn data also suggest the presence of a short 1.74 {angstrom} Mn-O bond. These metrics are compared to the results of DFT calculations on 12 cofactor models derived from the crystal structure of the inactive Fe2(lll/ III) form of the protein. Models are differentiated by the protonation states of their bridging and terminal OH{sub x} ligands as well as the location of the Mn(lV) ion (site 1 or 2). The models that agree best with experimental observation feature a{mu}-1, 3-carboxylate bridge (E120), terminal solvent (H{sub 2}O/OH) to site 1, one {mu}-O bridge, and one {mu}-OH bridge. The site-placement of the metal ions cannot be discerned from the available data.

  14. Production of the R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase from herpes simplex virus with prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems: higher activity of R2 produced by eukaryotic cells related to higher iron-binding capacity.

    PubMed Central

    Lamarche, N; Matton, G; Massie, B; Fontecave, M; Atta, M; Dumas, F; Gaudreau, P; Langelier, Y

    1996-01-01

    The R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase from herpes simplex virus type 2 was overproduced with prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems. The recombinant R2 purified by a two-step procedure exhibited a 3-fold higher activity when produced in eukaryotic cells. Precise quantification of the R2 concentration at each step of the purification indicated that the activity was not altered during the purification procedure. Moreover, we have observed that the level of R2 expression, in eukaryotic cells as well as in prokaryotic cells, did not influence R2 activity. Extensive characterization of the recombinant R2 purified from eukaryotic and prokaryotic expression systems has shown that both types of pure R2 preparations were similar in their 76 kDa dimer contents (more than 95%) and in their ability to bind the R1 subunit. However, we have found that the higher activity of R2 produced in eukaryotic cells is more probably related to a higher capability of binding the iron cofactor as well as a 3-fold greater ability to generate the tyrosyl free radical. PMID:8947477

  15. Comparison of the expression of human equilibrative nucleotide transporter 1 (hENT1) and ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1) genes in seven non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H B; Zhang, X F; Shi, F; Zhang, M Z; Xue, W L

    2016-05-06

    We investigated the variability in the expression of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) and ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1) in non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines. hENT1 and RRM1 mRNA expression levels in natural killer (NK) cells and seven non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines (YTS, SNK-6, Jeko-1, ly-1, Raji, Karpas, and Jurket) were studied using reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and the results were compared using the Student t-test. mRNA expression of hENT1 was detectable in YTS, SNK-6, Jeko-1, ly-1, Raji, Karpas, Jurket, and NK cells, which revealed variability in gene expression. There were significant differences in the mRNA expression values of hENT1 (P = 0.021) and RRM1 (P = 0.002) compared to those in NK cells. mRNA expression of both hENT1 and RRM1 was closely associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell proliferation. Differential expression analysis of hENT1 and RRM1 in non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines may provide novel drug leads for precision medicine.

  16. Electron injection through a specific pathway determines the outcome of oxygen activation at the diiron cluster in the F208Y mutant of Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase protein R2.

    PubMed

    Parkin, S E; Chen, S; Ley, B A; Mangravite, L; Edmondson, D E; Huynh, B H; Bollinger, J M

    1998-01-27

    Protein R2 of ribonucleotide reductase from Escherichia coli contains a dinuclear iron cluster, which reductively activates O2 to produce the enzyme's functionally essential tyrosyl radical by one-electron oxidation of residue Y122. A key step in this reaction is the rapid injection of a single electron from an exogenous reductant (Fe2+ or ascorbate) during formation of the radical-generating intermediate, cluster X, from the diiron(II) cluster and O2. As this step leaves only one of the two oxidizing equivalents of the initial diiron(II)-O2 adduct, it commits the reaction to a one-electron oxidation outcome and precludes possible two-electron alternatives (as occur in the related diiron bacterial alkane hydroxylases and fatty acyl desaturases). In the F208Y site-directed mutant of R2, Y208 is hydroxylated (a two-electron oxidation) in preference to the normal reaction [Aberg, A., Ormö, M., Nordlund, P., & Sjöberg, B. M. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 9845-9850], implying that this substitution blocks electron injection or (more likely) introduces an endogenous reductant (Y208) that effectively competes. Here we demonstrate that O2 activation in the F208Y mutant of R2 partitions between these two-electron (Y208 hydroxylation) and one-electron (Y122 radical production) outcomes and that the latter becomes predominant under conditions which favor electron injection (namely, high concentration of the reductant ascorbate). Moreover, we show that the sensitivity of the partition ratio to ascorbate concentration is strictly dependent on the integrity of a hydrogen-bond network involving the near surface residue W48: when this residue is substituted with F, Y208 hydroxylation predominates irrespective of ascorbate concentration. These data suggest that the hydrogen-bond network involving W48 is a specific electron-transfer pathway between the cofactor site and the protein surface.

  17. [Synthese of 1-(5-deoxy-beta-D-ribo-hexofuranosyl)cytosine and 1-(2,5-dideoxy-beta-D-erythro-hexofuranosyl)cytosine, and their phosphates. Specificity of an mammalian (rat) ribonucleotide-reductase].

    PubMed

    David, S; de Sennyey, G

    1979-12-01

    Mild, acidic hydrolysis of 3-O-benzoyl-1,2,:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-allofuranose gave a diol that was selectively benzoylated at O-6 in high yield by intermediate conversion to the stannylene derivative. The 3,6-dibenzoate was converted to the 5-O-tosyl derivative and thence to a mixture of iodides, which were reduced with tributylstannane to 3,6-di-O-benzoyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-ribo-hexofuranose (6). Acetolysis gave an anomeric mixture of diacetates, which, when treated with N-acetylbis(trimethylsilyl)cytosine gave the protected nucleoside, which was deprotected to free "homocytidine", 1-(5-deoxy-beta-D-ribo-hexofuranosyl)cytosine (11), by alklaine methanolysis. This was N-acetylated and then treated with acetone to give a protected nucleoside, which was labelled by oxidation to the aldehyde, reduction with sodium borotritide, and deprotection. Acidic methanolysis of 6 gave a mixture of methyl 2,6- and 3,6-di-O-benzoylfuranosides, the hydroxyl groups of which were treated by the tetrachloromethane-triphenylphosphine reagent to give the 2-chloro-2-deoxy (21) and 3-chloro-3-deoxy derivatives. Reduction of 21 gave methyl 3,6-di-O-benzoyl-2,5-dideoxy-D-erythro-furanoside, further transformed in 1-(2,5-dideoxy-beta-D-erythro-hexofuranosyl)cytosine mixed with the alpha anomer. Phosphates and diphosphates of the nucleosides were prepared by extensions of known methods. The phosphate and the diphosphate of 11 act neither as substrates nor as inhibitors of a ribonucleotide-reductase from rat asicites tumor.

  18. Spectroscopic and Electronic Structure Studies of Intermediate X in Ribonucleotide Reductase R2 and Two Variants: A Description of the FeIV-Oxo Bond in the FeIII-O-FeIV Dimer

    PubMed Central

    Mití, Nataša; Clay, Michael D.; Saleh, Lana; Solomon, Edward I.

    2008-01-01

    Spectroscopic and electronic structure studies of the class I Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) intermediate X and three computationally-derived model complexes are presented, compared and evaluated to determine the electronic and geometric structure of the FeIII-FeIV active site of intermediate X. Rapid freeze-quench (RFQ) EPR, absorption and MCD were used to trap intermediate X in R2 wild-type (WT) and two variants, W48A and Y122F/Y356F. RFQ-EPR spin quantitation was used to determine the relative contributions of intermediate X and radicals present, while RFQ-MCD was used to specifically probe the FeIII/FeIV active site, which displayed three FeIV d-d transitions between 16 700 – 22 600 cm-1, two FeIV d-d spin-flip transitions between 23 500 – 24 300 cm-1 and five oxo to FeIV and FeIII charge transfer (CT) transitions between 25 000 – 32 000 cm-1. The FeIV d-d transitions were perturbed in the two variants, confirming that all three d-d transitions derive from the d-π manifold. Furthermore, the FeIV d-π splittings in the WT are too large to correlate with a bis-μ-oxo structure. The assignment of the FeIV d-d transitions in WT intermediate X best correlates with a bridged μ-oxo/μ-hydroxo [FeIII(μ-O)(μ-OH)FeIV] structure. The μ-oxo/μ-hydroxo core structure provides an important σ/π superexchange pathway, which is not present in the bis-μ-oxo structure, to promote facile electron transfer from Y122 to the remote FeIV through the bent oxo bridge, thereby generating the tyrosyl radical for catalysis. PMID:17602477

  19. EPR studies on a stable sulfinyl radical observed in the iron-oxygen-reconstituted Y177F/I263C protein R2 double mutant of ribonucleotide reductase from mouse.

    PubMed

    Adrait, Annie; Ohrström, Maria; Barra, Anne-Laure; Thelander, Lars; Gräslund, Astrid

    2002-05-21

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides. The active enzyme contains a diiron center and a tyrosyl free radical required for enzyme activity. The radical is located at Y177 in the R2 protein of mouse RNR. The radical is formed concomitantly with the mu-oxo-bridged diferric center in a reconstitution reaction between ferrous iron and molecular oxygen in the protein. EPR at 9.6 and 285 GHz was used to investigate the reconstitution reaction in the double-mutant Y177F/I263C of mouse protein R2. The aim was to produce a protein-linked radical derived from the Cys residue in the mutant protein to investigate its formation and characteristics. The mutation Y177F hinders normal radical formation at Y177, and the I263C mutation places a Cys residue at the same distance from the iron center as Y177 in the native protein. In the reconstitution reaction, we observed small amounts of a transient radical with a probable assignment to a peroxy radical, followed by a stable sulfinyl radical, most likely located on C263. The unusual radical stability may be explained by the hydrophobic surroundings of C263, which resemble the hydrophobic pocket surrounding Y177 in native protein R2. The observation of a sulfinyl radical in RNR strengthens the relationship between RNR and another free radical enzyme, pyruvate formate-lyase, where a similar relatively stable sulfinyl radical has been observed in a mutant. Sulfinyl radicals may possibly be considered as stabilized forms of very short-lived thiyl radicals, proposed to be important intermediates in the radical chemistry of RNR.

  20. Stimulation of Chromosomal Rearrangements by Ribonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Conover, Hailey N; Lujan, Scott A; Chapman, Mary J; Cornelio, Deborah A; Sharif, Rabab; Williams, Jessica S; Clark, Alan B; Camilo, Francheska; Kunkel, Thomas A; Argueso, Juan Lucas

    2015-11-01

    We show by whole genome sequence analysis that loss of RNase H2 activity increases loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploid strains harboring the pol2-M644G allele encoding a mutant version of DNA polymerase ε that increases ribonucleotide incorporation. This led us to analyze the effects of loss of RNase H2 on LOH and on nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) in mutant diploid strains with deletions of genes encoding RNase H2 subunits (rnh201Δ, rnh202Δ, and rnh203Δ), topoisomerase 1 (TOP1Δ), and/or carrying mutant alleles of DNA polymerases ε, α, and δ. We observed an ∼7-fold elevation of the LOH rate in RNase H2 mutants encoding wild-type DNA polymerases. Strains carrying the pol2-M644G allele displayed a 7-fold elevation in the LOH rate, and synergistic 23-fold elevation in combination with rnh201Δ. In comparison, strains carrying the pol2-M644L mutation that decreases ribonucleotide incorporation displayed lower LOH rates. The LOH rate was not elevated in strains carrying the pol1-L868M or pol3-L612M alleles that result in increased incorporation of ribonucleotides during DNA synthesis by polymerases α and δ, respectively. A similar trend was observed in an NAHR assay, albeit with smaller phenotypic differentials. The ribonucleotide-mediated increases in the LOH and NAHR rates were strongly dependent on TOP1. These data add to recent reports on the asymmetric mutagenicity of ribonucleotides caused by topoisomerase 1 processing of ribonucleotides incorporated during DNA replication.

  1. Biliverdin Reductase Mediates Hypoxia-Induced EMT via PI3-Kinase and Akt

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Rui; Yao, Ying; Han, Min; Zhao, Xiaoqin; Liu, Xiao-Cheng; Wei, Juncheng; Luo, Yun; Zhang, Juan; Zhou, Jianfeng; Wang, Shixuan; Ma, Ding; Xu, Gang

    2008-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia in the renal parenchyma is thought to induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), leading to fibrogenesis and ultimately end-stage renal failure. Biliverdin reductase, recently identified as a serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase that may activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt, is upregulated in response to reactive oxygen species that may accompany hypoxia. We investigated this potential role of biliverdin reductase in hypoxia-induced renal tubular EMT. Expression of biliverdin reductase was upregulated in a human proximal tubule cell line (HK-2) cultured in hypoxic conditions (1% O2), and this was accompanied by reduced expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of the mesenchymal marker vimentin. Inhibiting PI3K reversed these changes, consistent with EMT. In normoxic conditions, overexpression of biliverdin reductase promoted similar characteristics of EMT, which were also reversed by inhibiting PI3K. Furthermore, using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knockdown biliverdin reductase, we demonstrated that the enzyme associates with phosphorylated Akt and mediates the hypoxia-induced EMT phenotype. In vivo, expression of biliverdin reductase increased in the tubular epithelia of 5/6-nephrectomized rats, and immunohistochemistry of serial sections demonstrated similar localization of phosphorylated Akt and biliverdin reductase. In conclusion, biliverdin reductase mediates hypoxia-induced EMT through a PI3K/Akt-dependent pathway. PMID:18184861

  2. Biotransformation of arsenic by bacterial strains mediated by oxido-reductase enzyme system.

    PubMed

    Vishnoi, N; Singh, D P

    2014-12-24

    The present study deals with the enzyme mediated biotransformation of arsenic in five arsenic tolerant strains (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Paenibacillus macerans and Escherichia coli). Biotransformation ability of these isolates was evaluated by monitoring arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. Results showed that arsenic oxidase activity was exclusively present in P. macerans and B. pumilus while B. subtilis, B. megaterium and E. coli strains showed presence of Arsenic oxido-reductase enzyme. The reversible nature of arsenic oxido- reductase suggested that same enzyme can carry out oxidation and reduction of arsenic depending upon the relative concentration of arsenic species. Lineweaver-Burk plot of the arsenite oxidase activity in P. macerans showed highest Km value (Km- 200 μM) and lower Vmax (0.012 μmol mg-1 protein min-1) indicating lowest affinity of the enzyme for arsenite. On the contrary, E. coli showed the lower Km value ( Km- 38.46 μM) and higher Vmax (0.044 μmol mg-1 protein min-1) suggesting for higher affinity for the arsenite. Lineweaver-Burk plot of arsenate reductase activity showed the presence of this enzyme in B. subtilis, B. megaterium and E. coli which were in the range of 200-360 μM Km and Vmax value between 0.256- 0.129 mmol mg-1 protein min-1. These results suggested that affinity of the as reductase enzyme is lowest for arsenate than that for the arsenite. Thus, arsenite oxidase system appears to be a predominant mechanism of cellular defense in these bacterial strains.

  3. Calmodulin-mediated suppression of 2-ketoisovalerate reductase in Beauveria bassiana beauvericin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Yoon, Deok-Hyo; Oh, Junsang; Hyun, Min-Woo; Han, Jae-Gu; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2016-11-01

    Ketoisovalerate reductase (KIVR, E.C. 1.2.7.7) mediates the specific reduction of 2-ketoisovalerate (2-Kiv) to d-hydroxyisovalerate (d-Hiv), a precursor for beauvericin biosynthesis. Beauvericin, a famous mycotoxin produced by many fungi, is a cyclooligomer depsipeptide, which has insecticidal, antimicrobial, antiviral, and cytotoxic activities. In this report, we demonstrated that Beauveria bassiana 2-ketoisovalerate reductase (BbKIVR) acts as a typical KIVR enzyme in the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana. In addition, we found that BbKIVR interacts with calmodulin (CaM) in vitro and in vivo. The functional role of CaM-binding to BbKIVR was to negatively regulate the BbKIVR activity in B. bassiana. Environmental stimuli such as light and salt stress suppressed BbKIVR activity in B. bassiana. Interestingly, this negative effect of BbKIVR activity by light and salt stress was recovered by CaM inhibitors, suggesting that the inhibitory mechanism is mediated through stimulation of CaM activity. Therefore, this work suggests that BbKIVR plays an important role in the beauvericin biosynthetic pathway mediated by environmental stimuli such as light and salt stress via the CaM signaling pathway.

  4. The enzymatic activity of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase is enhanced by NPM-ALK: new insights in ALK-mediated pathogenesis and the treatment of ALCL.

    PubMed

    Boccalatte, Francesco E; Voena, Claudia; Riganti, Chiara; Bosia, Amalia; D'Amico, Lucia; Riera, Ludovica; Cheng, Mangeng; Ruggeri, Bruce; Jensen, Ole N; Goss, Valerie L; Lee, Kimberly; Nardone, Julie; Rush, John; Polakiewicz, Roberto D; Comb, Michael J; Chiarle, Roberto; Inghirami, Giorgio

    2009-03-19

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma represents a subset of neoplasms caused by translocations that juxtapose the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) to dimerization partners. The constitutive activation of ALK fusion proteins leads to cellular transformation through a complex signaling network. To elucidate the ALK pathways sustaining lymphomagenesis and tumor maintenance, we analyzed the tyrosine-kinase protein profiles of ALK-positive cell lines using 2 complementary proteomic-based approaches, taking advantage of a specific ALK RNA interference (RNAi) or cell-permeable inhibitors. A well-defined set of ALK-associated tyrosine phosphopeptides, including metabolic enzymes, kinases, ribosomal and cytoskeletal proteins, was identified. Validation studies confirmed that vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase (ATIC) associated with nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK, and their phosphorylation required ALK activity. ATIC phosphorylation was documented in cell lines and primary tumors carrying ALK proteins and other tyrosine kinases, including TPR-Met and wild type c-Met. Functional analyses revealed that ALK-mediated ATIC phosphorylation enhanced its enzymatic activity, dampening the methotrexate-mediated transformylase activity inhibition. These findings demonstrate that proteomic approaches in well-controlled experimental settings allow the definition of informative proteomic profiles and the discovery of novel ALK downstream players that contribute to the maintenance of the neoplastic phenotype. Prediction of tumor responses to methotrexate may justify specific molecular-based chemotherapy.

  5. Effect of prostaglandin reductase 1 (PTGR1) on gastric carcinoma using lentivirus-mediated system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuo; Luo, Fen; Wang, Jun; Mao, Xiang; Chen, Zongyou; Wang, Zhiming; Guo, Fenghua

    2015-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is a digestive related malignant tumor with poor diagnosis and prognosis for advanced patients. PTGR1 (prostaglandin reductase 1), as a potential cancer biomarker, has not been reported in gastric carcinoma occurrence. To investigate the role of PTGR1 on gastric carcinoma cells, human PTGR1 was efficiently silenced by lentivirus-mediated system in MGC-803 cells confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot. Then cell proliferation, colony formation and cell cycle were determined after knockdown of PTGR1 by MTT assay, colony assay and flow cytometry, respectively and data suggested that PTGR1 down regulated MGC-803 cells significantly suppressed the proliferation and colony formation ability and induced cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase compared to controls (P < 0.001). Further investigation demonstrated knockdown of PTGR1 influenced cell proliferation and cell cycle via activating p21 and p53 signaling pathway described by Western blot assay. Our findings indicate that PTGR1 may be an oncogene in human gastric carcinoma and identified as a diagnosis and prognosis target for gastric carcinoma.

  6. Evidence for the dimerization-mediated catalysis of methionine sulfoxide reductase A from Clostridium oremlandii.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Kitaik; Kwak, Geun-Hee; Park, Yeon Seung; Lee, Kong-Joo; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Kim, Hwa-Young

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium oremlandii MsrA (CoMsrA) is a natively selenocysteine-containing methionine-S-sulfoxide reductase and classified into a 1-Cys type MsrA. CoMsrA exists as a monomer in solution. Herein, we report evidence that CoMsrA can undergo homodimerization during catalysis. The monomeric CoMsrA dimerizes in the presence of its substrate methionine sulfoxide via an intermolecular disulfide bond between catalytic Cys16 residues. The dimeric CoMsrA is resolved by the reductant glutaredoxin, suggesting the relevance of dimerization in catalysis. The dimerization reaction occurs in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In addition, the occurrence of homodimer formation in the native selenoprotein CoMsrA is confirmed. We also determine the crystal structure of the dimeric CoMsrA, having the dimer interface around the two catalytic Cys16 residues. A central cone-shaped hole is present in the surface model of dimeric structure, and the two Cys16 residues constitute the base of the hole. Collectively, our biochemical and structural analyses suggest a novel dimerization-mediated mechanism for CoMsrA catalysis that is additionally involved in CoMsrA regeneration by glutaredoxin.

  7. EF24 induces ROS-mediated apoptosis via targeting thioredoxin reductase 1 in gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiqian; Chen, Xi; Ying, Shilong; Feng, Zhiguo; Chen, Tongke; Ye, Qingqing; Wang, Zhe; Qiu, Chenyu; Yang, Shulin; Liang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in the world, and finding novel agents for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer is of urgent need. Diphenyl difluoroketone (EF24), a molecule having structural similarity to curcumin, exhibits potent anti-tumor activities by arresting cell cycle and inducing apoptosis. Although EF24 demonstrates potent anticancer efficacy in numerous types of human cancer cells, the cellular targets of EF24 have not been fully defined. We report here that EF24 may interact with the thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), an important selenocysteine (Sec)-containing antioxidant enzyme, to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells. By inhibiting TrxR1 activity and increasing intracellular ROS levels, EF24 induces a lethal endoplasmic reticulum stress in human gastric cancer cells. Importantly, knockdown of TrxR1 sensitizes cells to EF24 treatment. In vivo, EF24 treatment markedly reduces the TrxR1 activity and tumor cell burden, and displays synergistic lethality with 5-FU against gastric cancer cells. Targeting TrxR1 with EF24 thus discloses a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying the biological activity of EF24, and reveals that TrxR1 is a good target for gastric cancer therapy. PMID:26919110

  8. A cytochrome cd1-type nitrite reductase mediates the first step of denitrification in Alcaligenes eutrophus.

    PubMed

    Sann, R; Kostka, S; Friedrich, B

    1994-01-01

    Respiratory nitrite reductase (NIR) has been purified from the soluble extract of denitrifying cells of Alcaligenes eutrophus strain H16 to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity. The enzyme was induced under anoxic conditions in the presence of nitrite. Purified NIR showed typical features of a cytochrome cd1-type nitrite reductase. It appeared to be a dimer of kDa subunits, its activity was only weakly inhibited by the copper chelator diethyldithiocarbamate, and spectral analysis revealed absorption maxima which were characteristic for the presence of heme c and heme d1. The isoelectric point of 8.6 was considerably higher than the pI determined for cd1 nitrite reductases from pseudomonads. Eighteen amino acids at the N-terminus of the A. eutrophus NIR, obtained by protein sequencing, showed no significant homology to the N-terminal region of nitrite reductases from Pseudomonas stutzeri and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  9. The Neurosteroidogenic Enzyme 5α-Reductase Mediates Psychotic-Like Complications of Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Frau, Roberto; Bini, Valentina; Soggiu, Alessio; Scheggi, Simona; Pardu, Alessandra; Fanni, Silvia; Roncada, Paola; Puligheddu, Monica; Marrosu, Francesco; Caruso, Donatella; Devoto, Paola; Bortolato, Marco

    2017-02-15

    Acute sleep deprivation (SD) can trigger or exacerbate psychosis- and mania-related symptoms; the neurobiological basis of these complications, however, remains elusive. Given the extensive involvement of neuroactive steroids in psychopathology, we hypothesized that the behavioral complications of SD may be contributed by 5α-reductase (5αR), the rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of progesterone into the neurosteroid allopregnanolone. We first tested whether rats exposed to SD may exhibit brain-regional alterations in 5αR isoenzymes and neuroactive steroid levels; then, we assessed whether the behavioral and neuroendocrine alterations induced by SD may be differentially modulated by the administration of the 5αR inhibitor finasteride, as well as progesterone and allopregnanolone. SD selectively enhanced 5αR expression and activity, as well as AP levels, in the prefrontal cortex; furthermore, finasteride (10-100 mg/kg, IP) dose-dependently ameliorated PPI deficits, hyperactivity, and risk-taking behaviors, in a fashion akin to the antipsychotic haloperidol and the mood stabilizer lithium carbonate. Finally, PPI deficits were exacerbated by allopregnanolone (10 mg/kg, IP) and attenuated by progesterone (30 mg/kg, IP) in SD-subjected, but not control rats. Collectively, these results provide the first-ever evidence that 5αR mediates a number of psychosis- and mania-like complications of SD through imbalances in cortical levels of neuroactive steroids.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 15 February 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.13.

  10. The nitric oxide production in the moss Physcomitrella patens is mediated by nitrate reductase.

    PubMed

    Medina-Andrés, Rigoberto; Solano-Peralta, Alejandro; Saucedo-Vázquez, Juan Pablo; Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Pimentel-Cabrera, Jaime Arturo; Sosa-Torres, Martha Elena; Dubrovsky, Joseph G; Lira-Ruan, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    During the last 20 years multiple roles of the nitric oxide gas (•NO) have been uncovered in plant growth, development and many physiological processes. In seed plants the enzymatic synthesis of •NO is mediated by a nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like activity performed by a still unknown enzyme(s) and nitrate reductase (NR). In green algae the •NO production has been linked only to NR activity, although a NOS gene was reported for Ostreococcus tauri and O. lucimarinus, no other Viridiplantae species has such gene. As there is no information about •NO synthesis neither for non-vascular plants nor for non-seed vascular plants, the interesting question regarding the evolution of the enzymatic •NO production systems during land plant natural history remains open. To address this issue the endogenous •NO production by protonema was demonstrated using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The •NO signal was almost eliminated in plants treated with sodium tungstate, which also reduced the NR activity, demonstrating that in P. patens NR activity is the main source for •NO production. The analysis with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) confirmed endogenous NO production and showed that •NO signal is accumulated in the cytoplasm of protonema cells. The results presented here show for the first time the •NO production in a non-vascular plant and demonstrate that the NR-dependent enzymatic synthesis of •NO is common for embryophytes and green algae.

  11. The Nitric Oxide Production in the Moss Physcomitrella patens Is Mediated by Nitrate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Andrés, Rigoberto; Solano-Peralta, Alejandro; Saucedo-Vázquez, Juan Pablo; Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Pimentel-Cabrera, Jaime Arturo; Sosa-Torres, Martha Elena; Dubrovsky, Joseph G.; Lira-Ruan, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    During the last 20 years multiple roles of the nitric oxide gas (•NO) have been uncovered in plant growth, development and many physiological processes. In seed plants the enzymatic synthesis of •NO is mediated by a nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like activity performed by a still unknown enzyme(s) and nitrate reductase (NR). In green algae the •NO production has been linked only to NR activity, although a NOS gene was reported for Ostreococcus tauri and O. lucimarinus, no other Viridiplantae species has such gene. As there is no information about •NO synthesis neither for non-vascular plants nor for non-seed vascular plants, the interesting question regarding the evolution of the enzymatic •NO production systems during land plant natural history remains open. To address this issue the endogenous •NO production by protonema was demonstrated using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The •NO signal was almost eliminated in plants treated with sodium tungstate, which also reduced the NR activity, demonstrating that in P. patens NR activity is the main source for •NO production. The analysis with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) confirmed endogenous NO production and showed that •NO signal is accumulated in the cytoplasm of protonema cells. The results presented here show for the first time the •NO production in a non-vascular plant and demonstrate that the NR-dependent enzymatic synthesis of •NO is common for embryophytes and green algae. PMID:25742644

  12. Selenite reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is mediated by fumarate reductase in periplasm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dao-Bo; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Wu, Chao; Li, Wen-Wei; Li, Na; Yang, Zong-Chuang; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-01-01

    In situ reduction of selenite to elemental selenium (Se(0)), by microorganisms in sediments and soils is an important process and greatly affects the environmental distribution and the biological effects of selenium. However, the mechanism behind such a biological process remains unrevealed yet. Here we use Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a widely-distributed dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium with a powerful and diverse respiration capability, to evaluate the involvement of anaerobic respiration system in the microbial selenite reduction. With mutants analysis, we identify fumarate reductase FccA as the terminal reductase of selenite in periplasm. Moreover, we find that such a reduction is dependent on central respiration c-type cytochrome CymA. In contrast, nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, and the Mtr electron transfer pathway do not work as selenite reductases. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized role of anaerobic respiration reductases of S. oneidensis MR-1 in selenite reduction and geochemical cycles of selenium in sediments and soils. PMID:24435070

  13. Measuring ribonucleotide incorporation into DNA in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Anders R; Williams, Jessica S; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Ribonucleotides are incorporated into genomes by DNA polymerases, they can be removed, and if not removed, they can have deleterious and beneficial consequences. Here, we describe an assay to quantify stable ribonucleotide incorporation by DNA polymerases in vitro, and an assay to probe for ribonucleotides in each of the two DNA strands of the yeast nuclear genome.

  14. Measuring Ribonucleotide Incorporation into DNA In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Anders R.; Williams, Jessica S.; Kunkel, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    Ribonucleotides are incorporated into genomes by DNA polymerases, they can be removed, and if not removed, they can have deleterious and beneficial consequences. Here, we describe an assay to quantify stable ribonucleotide incorporation by DNA polymerases in vitro, and an assay to probe for ribonucleotides in each of the two DNA strands of the yeast nuclear genome. PMID:25916710

  15. Fumarate-Mediated Inhibition of Erythrose Reductase, a Key Enzyme for Erythritol Production by Torula corallina

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Kul; Koo, Bong-Seong; Kim, Sang-Yong

    2002-01-01

    Torula corallina, a strain presently being used for the industrial production of erythritol, has the highest erythritol yield ever reported for an erythritol-producing microorganism. The increased production of erythritol by Torula corallina with trace elements such as Cu2+ has been thoroughly reported, but the mechanism by which Cu2+ increases the production of erythritol has not been studied. This study demonstrated that supplemental Cu2+ enhanced the production of erythritol, while it significantly decreased the production of a major by-product that accumulates during erythritol fermentation, which was identified as fumarate by instrumental analyses. Erythrose reductase, a key enzyme that converts erythrose to erythritol in T. corallina, was purified to homogeneity by chromatographic methods, including ion-exchange and affinity chromatography. In vitro, purified erythrose reductase was significantly inhibited noncompetitively by increasing the fumarate concentration. In contrast, the enzyme activity remained almost constant regardless of Cu2+ concentration. This suggests that supplemental Cu2+ reduced the production of fumarate, a strong inhibitor of erythrose reductase, which led to less inhibition of erythrose reductase and a high yield of erythritol. This is the first report that suggests catabolite repression by a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate in T. corallina. PMID:12200310

  16. Glutathione reductase-mediated synthesis of tellurium-containing nanostructures exhibiting antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Pugin, Benoit; Cornejo, Fabián A; Muñoz-Díaz, Pablo; Muñoz-Villagrán, Claudia M; Vargas-Pérez, Joaquín I; Arenas, Felipe A; Vásquez, Claudio C

    2014-11-01

    Tellurium, a metalloid belonging to group 16 of the periodic table, displays very interesting physical and chemical properties and lately has attracted significant attention for its use in nanotechnology. In this context, the use of microorganisms for synthesizing nanostructures emerges as an eco-friendly and exciting approach compared to their chemical synthesis. To generate Te-containing nanostructures, bacteria enzymatically reduce tellurite to elemental tellurium. In this work, using a classic biochemical approach, we looked for a novel tellurite reductase from the Antarctic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain BNF22 and used it to generate tellurium-containing nanostructures. A new tellurite reductase was identified as glutathione reductase, which was subsequently overproduced in Escherichia coli. The characterization of this enzyme showed that it is an NADPH-dependent tellurite reductase, with optimum reducing activity at 30°C and pH 9.0. Finally, the enzyme was able to generate Te-containing nanostructures, about 68 nm in size, which exhibit interesting antibacterial properties against E. coli, with no apparent cytotoxicity against eukaryotic cells.

  17. Glutathione Reductase-Mediated Synthesis of Tellurium-Containing Nanostructures Exhibiting Antibacterial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Pugin, Benoit; Cornejo, Fabián A.; Muñoz-Díaz, Pablo; Muñoz-Villagrán, Claudia M.; Vargas-Pérez, Joaquín I.; Arenas, Felipe A.

    2014-01-01

    Tellurium, a metalloid belonging to group 16 of the periodic table, displays very interesting physical and chemical properties and lately has attracted significant attention for its use in nanotechnology. In this context, the use of microorganisms for synthesizing nanostructures emerges as an eco-friendly and exciting approach compared to their chemical synthesis. To generate Te-containing nanostructures, bacteria enzymatically reduce tellurite to elemental tellurium. In this work, using a classic biochemical approach, we looked for a novel tellurite reductase from the Antarctic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain BNF22 and used it to generate tellurium-containing nanostructures. A new tellurite reductase was identified as glutathione reductase, which was subsequently overproduced in Escherichia coli. The characterization of this enzyme showed that it is an NADPH-dependent tellurite reductase, with optimum reducing activity at 30°C and pH 9.0. Finally, the enzyme was able to generate Te-containing nanostructures, about 68 nm in size, which exhibit interesting antibacterial properties against E. coli, with no apparent cytotoxicity against eukaryotic cells. PMID:25193000

  18. Aldose reductase induced by hyperosmotic stress mediates cardiomyocyte apoptosis: differential effects of sorbitol and mannitol.

    PubMed

    Galvez, Anita S; Ulloa, Juan Alberto; Chiong, Mario; Criollo, Alfredo; Eisner, Verónica; Barros, Luis Felipe; Lavandero, Sergio

    2003-10-03

    Cells adapt to hyperosmotic conditions by several mechanisms, including accumulation of sorbitol via induction of the polyol pathway. Failure to adapt to osmotic stress can result in apoptotic cell death. In the present study, we assessed the role of aldose reductase, the key enzyme of the polyol pathway, in cardiac myocyte apoptosis. Hyperosmotic stress, elicited by exposure of cultured rat cardiac myocytes to the nonpermeant solutes sorbitol and mannitol, caused identical cell shrinkage and adaptive hexose uptake stimulation. In contrast, only sorbitol induced the polyol pathway and triggered stress pathways as well as apoptosis-related signaling events. Sorbitol resulted in activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p54 c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and protein kinase B. Furthermore, sorbitol treatment resulting in induction and activation of aldose reductase, decreased expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL, increased DNA fragmentation, and glutathione depletion. Apoptosis was attenuated by aldose reductase inhibition with zopolrestat and also by glutathione replenishment with N-acetylcysteine. In conclusion, our data show that hypertonic shrinkage of cardiac myocytes alone is not sufficient to induce cardiac myocyte apoptosis. Hyperosmolarity-induced cell death is sensitive to the nature of the osmolyte and requires induction of aldose reductase as well as a decrease in intracellular glutathione levels.

  19. Nitrate reductase-mediated NO production enhances Cd accumulation in Panax notoginseng roots by affecting root cell wall properties.

    PubMed

    Kan, Qi; Wu, Wenwei; Yu, Wenqian; Zhang, Jiarong; Xu, Jin; Rengel, Zed; Chen, Limei; Cui, Xiuming; Chen, Qi

    2016-04-01

    Panax notoginseng (Burk) F. H. Chen is a traditional medicinal herb in China. However, the high capacity of its roots to accumulate cadmium (Cd) poses a potential risk to human health. Although there is some evidence for the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in mediating Cd toxicity, the origin of Cd-induced NO and its function in plant responses to Cd remain unknown. In this study, we examined NO synthesis and its role in Cd accumulation in P. notoginseng roots. Cd-induced NO production was significantly decreased by application of the nitrate reductase inhibitor tungstate but not the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (N(G)-methyl-l-arginine acetate), indicating that nitrate reductase is the major contributor to Cd-induced NO production in P. notoginseng roots. Under conditions of Cd stress, sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor) increased Cd accumulation in root cell walls but decreased Cd translocation to the shoot. In contrast, the NO scavenger cPTIO (2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide) and tungstate both significantly decreased NO-increased Cd retention in root cell walls. The amounts of hemicellulose 1 and pectin, together with pectin methylesterase activity, were increased with the addition of SNP but were decreased by cPTIO and tungstate. Furthermore, increases or decreases in hemicellulose 1 and pectin contents as well as pectin methylesterase activity fit well with the increased or decreased retention of Cd in the cell walls of P. notoginseng roots. The results suggest that nitrate reductase-mediated NO production enhances Cd retention in P. notoginseng roots by modulating the properties of the cell wall.

  20. Regulation of Anticancer Styrylpyrone Biosynthesis in the Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus Requires Thioredoxin Mediated Transnitrosylation of S-nitrosoglutathione Reductase.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanxia; He, Meihong; Ding, Jianing; Xi, Qi; Loake, Gary J; Zheng, Weifa

    2016-11-21

    The medicinal macrofungus Inonotus obliquus widely utilized as folk medicine in Russia and Baltic countries is a source of phenylpropanoid-derived styrylpyrone polyphenols that can inhibit tumor proliferation. Insights into the regulatory machinery that controls I. obliquus styrylpyrone polyphenol biosynthesis will enable strategies to increase the production of these molecules. Here we show that Thioredoxin (Trx) mediated transnitrosylation of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) underpins the regulation of styrylpyrone production, driven by nitric oxide (NO) synthesis triggered by P. morii coculture. NO accumulation results in the S-nitrosylation of PAL and 4CL required for the synthesis of precursor phenylpropanoids and styrylpyrone synthase (SPS), integral to the production of styrylpyrone, inhibiting their activities. These enzymes are targeted for denitrosylation by Trx proteins, which restore their activity. Further, this Trx S-nitrosothiol (SNO) reductase activity was potentiated following S-nitrosylation of Trx proteins at a non-catalytic cysteine (Cys) residue. Intriguingly, this process was counterbalanced by Trx denitrosylation, mediated by Trx-dependent transnitrosylation of GSNOR. Thus, unprecedented interplay between Trx and GSNOR oxidoreductases regulates the biosynthesis of styrylpyrone polyphenols in I. obliquus.

  1. Regulation of Anticancer Styrylpyrone Biosynthesis in the Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus Requires Thioredoxin Mediated Transnitrosylation of S-nitrosoglutathione Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanxia; He, Meihong; Ding, Jianing; Xi, Qi; Loake, Gary J.; Zheng, Weifa

    2016-01-01

    The medicinal macrofungus Inonotus obliquus widely utilized as folk medicine in Russia and Baltic countries is a source of phenylpropanoid-derived styrylpyrone polyphenols that can inhibit tumor proliferation. Insights into the regulatory machinery that controls I. obliquus styrylpyrone polyphenol biosynthesis will enable strategies to increase the production of these molecules. Here we show that Thioredoxin (Trx) mediated transnitrosylation of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) underpins the regulation of styrylpyrone production, driven by nitric oxide (NO) synthesis triggered by P. morii coculture. NO accumulation results in the S-nitrosylation of PAL and 4CL required for the synthesis of precursor phenylpropanoids and styrylpyrone synthase (SPS), integral to the production of styrylpyrone, inhibiting their activities. These enzymes are targeted for denitrosylation by Trx proteins, which restore their activity. Further, this Trx S-nitrosothiol (SNO) reductase activity was potentiated following S-nitrosylation of Trx proteins at a non-catalytic cysteine (Cys) residue. Intriguingly, this process was counterbalanced by Trx denitrosylation, mediated by Trx-dependent transnitrosylation of GSNOR. Thus, unprecedented interplay between Trx and GSNOR oxidoreductases regulates the biosynthesis of styrylpyrone polyphenols in I. obliquus. PMID:27869186

  2. Ribonucleotides in DNA: Origins, repair and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jessica S.; Kunkel, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    While primordial life is thought to have been RNA-based (Cech, Cold Spring Harbor Perspect. Biol. 4 (2012) a006742), all living organisms store genetic information in DNA, which is chemically more stable. Distinctions between the RNA and DNA worlds and our views of “DNA” synthesis continue to evolve as new details emerge on the incorporation, repair and biological effects of ribonucleotides in DNA genomes of organisms from bacteria through humans. PMID:24794402

  3. GENERAL CONTROL NONREPRESSED PROTEIN5-Mediated Histone Acetylation of FERRIC REDUCTASE DEFECTIVE3 Contributes to Iron Homeostasis in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianya; Liu, Zhenshan; Xu, Jianqin; Yao, Yingyin; Peng, Huiru; Xin, Mingming; Ni, Zhongfu

    2015-01-01

    Iron homeostasis is essential for plant growth and development. Here, we report that a mutation in GENERAL CONTROL NONREPRESSED PROTEIN5 (GCN5) impaired iron translocation from the root to the shoot in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Illumina high-throughput sequencing revealed 879 GCN5-regulated candidate genes potentially involved in iron homeostasis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that five genes (At3G08040, At2G01530, At2G39380, At2G47160, and At4G05200) are direct targets of GCN5 in iron homeostasis regulation. Notably, GCN5-mediated acetylation of histone 3 lysine 9 and histone 3 lysine 14 of FERRIC REDUCTASE DEFECTIVE3 (FRD3) determined the dynamic expression of FRD3. Consistent with the function of FRD3 as a citrate efflux protein, the iron retention defect in gcn5 was rescued and fertility was partly restored by overexpressing FRD3. Moreover, iron retention in gcn5 roots was significantly reduced by the exogenous application of citrate. Collectively, these data suggest that GCN5 plays a critical role in FRD3-mediated iron homeostasis. Our results provide novel insight into the chromatin-based regulation of iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis. PMID:26002909

  4. Thioredoxin reductase 1 ablation sensitizes colon cancer cells to methylseleninate-mediated cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Honeggar, Matthew; Beck, Robert; Moos, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between selenium and cancer is complex because individuals with low serum selenium levels benefit from selenium supplementation, but those with high serum selenium levels are at increased risk for other diseases. This suggests that the use of selenocompounds might be limited to particular circumstances, such as adjuvant therapy. A contributor to this dichotomy may be the activity of certain selenium containing enzymes like the cytosolic thioredoxin reductase (TR1). We evaluated the cellular response to select selenocompounds that have anticancer activity when TR1 was attenuated by siRNA in RKO colon cancer cells. Methylseleninic acid (MSA), which is a substrate for TR1, enhanced cytotoxicity to colon cancer cells when TR1 was attenuated. MSA induced stress in the endoplasmic reticulum, as measured by GRP78 protein levels. However, this pathway did not appear to account for the change in cytotoxicity when TR1 was attenuated. Instead, knockdown of the cytosolic TR plus incubation with MSA increased autophagy, as measured by LC3B cleavage, and apoptosis, as measured by Annexin V and mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, the use of selenocompounds with anticancer activity, like MSA, might be utilized most effectively with agents that targets TR1 in chemotherapeutic applications. PMID:19782697

  5. Thioredoxin reductase 1 ablation sensitizes colon cancer cells to methylseleninate-mediated cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Honeggar, Matthew; Beck, Robert; Moos, Philip J.

    2009-12-15

    The relationship between selenium and cancer is complex because individuals with low serum selenium levels benefit from selenium supplementation, but those with high serum selenium levels are at increased risk for other diseases. This suggests that the use of selenocompounds might be limited to particular circumstances, such as adjuvant therapy. A contributor to this dichotomy may be the activity of certain selenium containing enzymes like the cytosolic thioredoxin reductase (TR1). We evaluated the cellular response to select selenocompounds that have anticancer activity when TR1 was attenuated by siRNA in RKO colon cancer cells. Methylseleninic acid (MSA), which is a substrate for TR1, enhanced cytotoxicity to colon cancer cells when TR1 was attenuated. MSA induced stress in the endoplasmic reticulum, as measured by GRP78 protein levels. However, this pathway did not appear to account for the change in cytotoxicity when TR1 was attenuated. Instead, knockdown of the cytosolic TR plus incubation with MSA increased autophagy, as measured by LC3B cleavage, and apoptosis, as measured by Annexin V and mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, the use of selenocompounds with anticancer activity, like MSA, might be utilized most effectively with agents that targets TR1 in chemotherapeutic applications.

  6. Nitric Oxide (NO) Generation from Heme/Copper Assembly Mediated Nitrite Reductase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hematian, Shabnam; Siegler, Maxime A.

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) as a cellular signaling molecule and vasodilator regulates a range of physiological and pathological processes. Nitrite (NO2−) is recycled in vivo to generate nitric oxide, particularly in physiologic hypoxia and ischemia. The cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) binuclear hemea3/CuB active site is one entity known to be responsible for cellular nitrite conversion to nitric oxide. We recently reported that a partially reduced heme/Cu assembly reduces nitrite ion, producing NO; the heme serves as the reductant and cupric ion provides a Lewis Acid interaction with nitrite, facilitating nitrite (N−O) bond cleavage (Hematian et al., J Am Chem Soc 134:18912–18915, 2012). To further investigate this nitrite reductase (NIR) chemistry, copper(II)-nitrito complexes with tri-and tetra-dentate ligands were used in this study, where either O,O'-bidentate or O-unidentate modes of nitrite binding to the cupric center are present. To study the role of the reducing ability of the ferrous heme center, two different tetraarylporphyrinate-iron(II) complexes, one with electron donating para-methoxy peripheral substituents, (TMPP)FeII, and the other with electron withdrawing 2,6-difluorophenyl substituents, (F8)FeII, were employed. The results show that differing nitrite coordination modes to copper(II) ion leads to varying kinetic behavior. Here, also, the ferrous heme is in all cases the source of the reducing equivalent required to take nitrite to nitric oxide, but the reduction ability of the heme center does not play a key role in the observed overall reaction rate. Based on our observations, reaction mechanisms are proposed and discussed in terms of heme/Cu heterobinuclear structures. PMID:24430198

  7. Nitric oxide generation from heme/copper assembly mediated nitrite reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Hematian, Shabnam; Siegler, Maxime A; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2014-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) as a cellular signaling molecule and vasodilator regulates a range of physiological and pathological processes. Nitrite (NO2 (-)) is recycled in vivo to generate nitric oxide, particularly in physiologic hypoxia and ischemia. The cytochrome c oxidase binuclear heme a 3/CuB active site is one entity known to be responsible for conversion of cellular nitrite to nitric oxide. We recently reported that a partially reduced heme/copper assembly reduces nitrite ion, producing nitric oxide; the heme serves as the reductant and the cupric ion provides a Lewis acid interaction with nitrite, facilitating nitrite (N-O) bond cleavage (Hematian et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134:18912-18915, 2012). To further investigate this nitrite reductase chemistry, copper(II)-nitrito complexes with tridentate and tetradentate ligands were used in this study, where either O,O'-bidentate or O-unidentate modes of nitrite binding to the cupric center are present. To study the role of the reducing ability of the ferrous heme center, two different tetraarylporphyrinate-iron(II) complexes, one with electron-donating para-methoxy peripheral substituents and the other with electron-withdrawing 2,6-difluorophenyl substituents, were used. The results show that differing modes of nitrite coordination to the copper(II) ion lead to differing kinetic behavior. Here, also, the ferrous heme is in all cases the source of the reducing equivalent required to convert nitrite to nitric oxide, but the reduction ability of the heme center does not play a key role in the observed overall reaction rate. On the basis of our observations, reaction mechanisms are proposed and discussed in terms of heme/copper heterobinuclear structures.

  8. Induction of methotrexate resistance by retroviral-mediated transfer of a mutant dihydrofolate reductase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Ricciardone, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX), a folate analog which inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), is an effective antineoplastic drug. However, MTX-induced myelosuppression limits the effectiveness of this agent. Selective induction of MTX resistance in bone marrow stem cells, prior to treatment with MTX, might prevent this toxicity and improve the therapeutic index of the drug. In these studies drug resistance was transferred to mouse and human bone marrow stem cells by retroviral expression vectors containing coding sequences of a mutant DHFR with a decreased affinity for MTX. Three retroviral expression vectors were analyzed. The CIS DR vector contained the mutant DHFR gene inserted into the replication-defective amphotropic 4070 virus, Cistor. The other vectors contained the mutant DHFR inserted into either the env region (SDHT1) or gag-pol region (SDHT2) of a replication-defective spleen focus-forming virus. All three constructs induced approximately a 200-fold resistance to MTX when transfected into NIH3T3 cells. Amphotropic infectious retroviruses were obtained by transfecting the mutant DHFR vectors into a packaging cell line, which supplied the gag, pol, and env proteins for virus production. Virus titers of 4.5 x 10/sup 3/ colony-forming units (CFU)/ml (CIS DR), 1.5 x 10/sup 4/ CFU/ml (SDHT2), and 5 x 10/sup 5/ CFU/ml (SDHT1) were measured by the transfer of MTX resistance to NIH3T3 cells. The amphotropic SDHT1 virus efficiently induced MTX resistance in cells of several species, including mouse NIH3T3 cells (5 x 10/sup 5/ CFU/ml), monkey CV1 cells (4 x 10/sup 3/ CFU/ml), and human MCF-7 cells (6 x 10/sup 4/ CFU/ml). When cocultured with SDHT1 virus-producing cells, both mouse and human bone marrow cells could be infected and rendered resistant to MTX. Mouse cytotoxic T lymphocytes and mouse helper T lymphocytes can also be made resistant to MTX.

  9. A Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Mediates Negative Signaling by Ammonium on Expression of Nitrate Reductase in Chlamydomonas[W

    PubMed Central

    de Montaigu, Amaury; Sanz-Luque, Emanuel; Galván, Aurora; Fernández, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Nitrate assimilation in plants and related organisms is a highly regulated and conserved pathway in which the enzyme nitrate reductase (NR) occupies a central position. Although some progress has been made in understanding the regulation of the protein, transcriptional regulation of the NR gene (NIA1) is poorly understood. This work describes a mechanism for the ammonium-mediated repression of NIA1. We report the characterization of a mutant defective in the repression of NIA1 and NR in response to ammonium and show that a gene (CYG56) coding for a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent guanylate cyclase (GC) was interrupted in this mutant. NO donors, cGMP analogs, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), and a calcium ionophore (A23187) repress the expression of NIA1 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii wild-type cells and also repress the expression of other ammonium-sensitive genes. In addition, the GC inhibitors LY83,583 (6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione) and ODQ (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one) release cells from ammonium repression. Intracellular NO and cGMP levels were increased in the presence of ammonium in wild-type cells. In the cyg56 mutant, NIA1 transcription was less sensitive to NO donors and A23187, but responded like the wild type to IBMX. Results presented here suggest that CYG56 participates in ammonium-mediated NIA1 repression through a pathway that involves NO, cGMP, and calcium and that similar mechanisms might be occurring in plants. PMID:20442374

  10. The role of thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase in plumbagin-induced, reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Geun Hye; Ryu, Jung Min; Jeon, Yu Jin; Choi, Joonhyeok; Han, Ho Jae; Lee, You-Mie; Lee, Sangkyu; Bae, Jong-Sup; Jung, Jong-Wha; Chang, Woochul; Kim, Lark Kyun; Jee, Jun-Goo; Lee, Min Young

    2015-10-15

    Plumbagin is a secondary metabolite that was first identified in the Plumbago genus of plants. It is a naphthoquinone compound with anti-atherosclerosis, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, contraceptive, cardiotonic, immunosuppressive, and neuroprotective activities. However, the mechanisms of plumbagin's activities are largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of plumbagin on HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells as well as LLC lung cancer cells, SiHa cervical carcinoma cells. Plumbagin significantly decreased HepG2 cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, treatment with plumbagin significantly increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3/7 activity. Using the similarity ensemble approach (SEA)-a state-of-the-art cheminformatic technique-we identified two previously unknown cellular targets of plumbagin: thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione reductase (GR). This was then confirmed using protein- and cell-based assays. We found that plumbagin was directly reduced by TrxR, and that this reduction was inhibited by the TrxR inhibitor, sodium aurothiomalate (ATM). Plumbagin also decreased the activity of GR. Plumbagin, and the GR inhibitor sodium arsenite all increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and this increase was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in HepG2 cells. Plumbagin increased TrxR-1 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression and pretreatment with NAC significantly attenuated the plumbagin-induced increase of TrxR-1 and HO-1 expression in HepG2 cells, LLC cells and SiHa cells. Pretreatment with NAC significantly prevented the plumbagin-induced decrease in cell viability in these cell types. In conclusion, plumbagin exerted its anticancer effect by directly interacting with TrxR and GR, and thus increasing intracellular ROS levels.

  11. NrdI Essentiality for Class Ib Ribonucleotide Reduction in Streptococcus pyogenes▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Ignasi; Torrents, Eduard; Sahlin, Margareta; Gibert, Isidre; Sjöberg, Britt-Marie

    2008-01-01

    The Streptococcus pyogenes genome harbors two clusters of class Ib ribonucleotide reductase genes, nrdHEF and nrdF*I*E*, and a second stand-alone nrdI gene, designated nrdI2. We show that both clusters are expressed simultaneously as two independent operons. The NrdEF enzyme is functionally active in vitro, while the NrdE*F* enzyme is not. The NrdF* protein lacks three of the six highly conserved iron-liganding side chains and cannot form a dinuclear iron site or a tyrosyl radical. In vivo, on the other hand, both operons are functional in heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli. The nrdF*I*E* operon requires the presence of the nrdI* gene, and the nrdHEF operon gained activity upon cotranscription of the heterologous nrdI gene from Streptococcus pneumoniae, while neither nrdI* nor nrdI2 from S. pyogenes rendered it active. Our results highlight the essential role of the flavodoxin NrdI protein in vivo, and we suggest that it is needed to reduce met-NrdF, thereby enabling the spontaneous reformation of the tyrosyl radical. The NrdI* flavodoxin may play a more direct role in ribonucleotide reduction by the NrdF*I*E* system. We discuss the possibility that the nrdF*I*E* operon has been horizontally transferred to S. pyogenes from Mycoplasma spp. PMID:18502861

  12. Ultraviolet-B-induced flavonoid accumulation in Betula pendula leaves is dependent upon nitrate reductase-mediated nitric oxide signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Dong, Ju-Fang; Jin, Hai-Hong; Sun, Li-Na; Xu, Mao-Jun

    2011-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule involved in many physiological processes in plants. Nitric oxide generation and flavonoid accumulation are two early reactions of plants to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation. However, the source of UV-B-triggered NO generation and the role of NO in UV-B-induced flavonoid accumulation are not fully understood. In order to evaluate the origin of UV-B-triggered NO generation, we examined the responses of nitrate reductase (NR) activity and the expression levels of NIA1 and NIA2 genes in leaves of Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) seedlings to UV-B irradiation. The data show that UV-B irradiation stimulates NR activity and induces up-regulation of NIA1 but does not affect NIA2 expression during UV-B-triggered NO generation. Pretreatment of the leaves with NR inhibitors tungstate (TUN) and glutamine (Gln) abolishes not only UV-B-triggered NR activities but also UV-B-induced NO generation. Furthermore, application of TUN and Gln suppresses UV-B-induced flavonoid production in the leaves and the suppression of NR inhibitors on UV-B-induced flavonoid production can be reversed by NO via its donor sodium nitroprusside. Together, the data indicate that NIA1 in the leaves of silver birch seedlings is sensitive to UV-B and the UV-B-induced up-regulation of NIA1 may lead to enhancement of NR activity. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that NR is involved in UV-B-triggered NO generation and NR-mediated NO generation is essential for UV-B-induced flavonoid accumulation in silver birch leaves.

  13. Parallel analysis of ribonucleotide-dependent deletions produced by yeast Top1 in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jang-Eun; Huang, Shar-yin N.; Burgers, Peter M.; Shuman, Stewart; Pommier, Yves; Jinks-Robertson, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Ribonucleotides are the most abundant non-canonical component of yeast genomic DNA and their persistence is associated with a distinctive mutation signature characterized by deletion of a single repeat unit from a short tandem repeat. These deletion events are dependent on DNA topoisomerase I (Top1) and are initiated by Top1 incision at the relevant ribonucleotide 3′-phosphodiester. A requirement for the re-ligation activity of Top1 led us to propose a sequential cleavage model for Top1-dependent mutagenesis at ribonucleotides. Here, we test key features of this model via parallel in vitro and in vivo analyses. We find that the distance between two Top1 cleavage sites determines the deletion size and that this distance is inversely related to the deletion frequency. Following the creation of a gap by two Top1 cleavage events, the tandem repeat provides complementarity that promotes realignment to a nick and subsequent Top1-mediated ligation. Complementarity downstream of the gap promotes deletion formation more effectively than does complementarity upstream of the gap, consistent with constraints to realignment of the strand to which Top1 is covalently bound. Our data fortify sequential Top1 cleavage as the mechanism for ribonucleotide-dependent deletions and provide new insight into the component steps of this process. PMID:27257064

  14. Anthracycline resistance mediated by reductive metabolism in cancer cells: The role of aldo-keto reductase 1C3

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, Jakub; Malcekova, Beata; Skarka, Adam; Novotna, Eva; Wsol, Vladimir

    2014-08-01

    Pharmacokinetic drug resistance is a serious obstacle that emerges during cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the possible role of aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) in the resistance of cancer cells to anthracyclines. First, the reducing activity of AKR1C3 toward anthracyclines was tested using incubations with a purified recombinant enzyme. Furthermore, the intracellular reduction of daunorubicin and idarubicin was examined by employing the transfection of A549, HeLa, MCF7 and HCT 116 cancer cells with an AKR1C3 encoding vector. To investigate the participation of AKR1C3 in anthracycline resistance, we conducted MTT cytotoxicity assays with these cells, and observed that AKR1C3 significantly contributes to the resistance of cancer cells to daunorubicin and idarubicin, whereas this resistance was reversible by the simultaneous administration of 2′-hydroxyflavanone, a specific AKR1C3 inhibitor. In the final part of our work, we tracked the changes in AKR1C3 expression after anthracycline exposure. Interestingly, a reciprocal correlation between the extent of induction and endogenous levels of AKR1C3 was recorded in particular cell lines. Therefore, we suggest that the induction of AKR1C3 following exposure to daunorubicin and idarubicin, which seems to be dependent on endogenous AKR1C3 expression, eventually might potentiate an intrinsic resistance given by the normal expression of AKR1C3. In conclusion, our data suggest a substantial impact of AKR1C3 on the metabolism of daunorubicin and idarubicin, which affects their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior. In addition, we demonstrate that the reduction of daunorubicin and idarubicin, which is catalyzed by AKR1C3, contributes to the resistance of cancer cells to anthracycline treatment. - Highlights: • Metabolism of anthracyclines by AKR1C3 was studied at enzyme and cellular levels. • Anthracycline resistance mediated by AKR1C3 was demonstrated in cancer cells. • Induction of AKR1C3

  15. Characterization of developmental and stress mediated expression of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) is an important enzyme for lignin biosynthesis as it catalyzes the first specific committed step in monolignol biosynthesis. We have cloned a full length coding sequence of CCR from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), which contains a 1,020-bp open reading frame (ORF), enco...

  16. The Thiol Reductase Activity of YUCCA6 Mediates Delayed Leaf Senescence by Regulating Genes Involved in Auxin Redistribution

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Joon-Yung; Kim, Mi R.; Jung, In J.; Kang, Sun B.; Park, Hee J.; Kim, Min G.; Yun, Dae-Jin; Kim, Woe-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Auxin, a phytohormone that affects almost every aspect of plant growth and development, is biosynthesized from tryptophan via the tryptamine, indole-3-acetamide, indole-3-pyruvic acid, and indole-3-acetaldoxime pathways. YUCCAs (YUCs), flavin monooxygenase enzymes, catalyze the conversion of indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) to the auxin (indole acetic acid). Arabidopsis thaliana YUC6 also exhibits thiol-reductase and chaperone activity in vitro; these activities require the highly conserved Cys-85 and are essential for scavenging of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the drought tolerance response. Here, we examined whether the YUC6 thiol reductase activity also participates in the delay in senescence observed in YUC6-overexpressing (YUC6-OX) plants. YUC6 overexpression delays leaf senescence in natural and dark-induced senescence conditions by reducing the expression of SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE 12 (SAG12). ROS accumulation normally occurs during senescence, but was not observed in the leaves of YUC6-OX plants; however, ROS accumulation was observed in YUC6-OXC85S plants, which overexpress a mutant YUC6 that lacks thiol reductase activity. We also found that YUC6-OX plants, but not YUC6-OXC85S plants, show upregulation of three genes encoding NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRA, NTRB, and NTRC), and GAMMA-GLUTAMYLCYSTEINE SYNTHETASE 1 (GSH1), encoding an enzyme involved in redox signaling. We further determined that excess ROS accumulation caused by methyl viologen treatment or decreased glutathione levels caused by buthionine sulfoximine treatment can decrease the levels of auxin efflux proteins such as PIN2-4. The expression of PINs is also reduced in YUC6-OX plants. These findings suggest that the thiol reductase activity of YUC6 may play an essential role in delaying senescence via the activation of genes involved in redox signaling and auxin availability. PMID:27242830

  17. Stretch Moduli of Ribonucleotide Embedded Short DNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Hsiang-Chih; Koh, Kyung Duk; Riedo, Elisa; Storici, Francesca

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of DNA is essential to comprehending the dynamics of many cellular functions. DNA deformations are involved in many mechanisms when genetic information needs to be stored and used. In addition, recent studies have found that Ribonucleotides (rNMPs) are among the most common non-standard nucleotides present in DNA. The presences of rNMPs in DNA might cause mutation, fragility or genotoxicity of chromosome but how they influence the structure and mechanical properties of DNA remains unclear. By means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) based single molecule spectroscopy, we measure the stretch moduli of double stranded DNAs (dsDNA) with 30 base pairs and 5 equally embedded rNMPs. The dsDNAs are anchored on gold substrate via thiol chemistry, while the AFM tip is used to pick up and stretch the dsDNA from its free end through biotin-streptavidin bonding. Our preliminary results indicate that the inclusion of rNMPs in dsDNA might significantly change its stretch modulus, which might be important in some biological processes.

  18. Ribonucleotide reduction - horizontal transfer of a required function spans all three domains

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ribonucleotide reduction is the only de novo pathway for synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. The reaction is catalysed by ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs), an ancient enzyme family comprised of three classes. Each class has distinct operational constraints, and are broadly distributed across organisms from all three domains, though few class I RNRs have been identified in archaeal genomes, and classes II and III likewise appear rare across eukaryotes. In this study, we examine whether this distribution is best explained by presence of all three classes in the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA), or by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of RNR genes. We also examine to what extent environmental factors may have impacted the distribution of RNR classes. Results Our phylogenies show that the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA) possessed a class I RNR, but that the eukaryotic class I enzymes are not directly descended from class I RNRs in Archaea. Instead, our results indicate that archaeal class I RNR genes have been independently transferred from bacteria on two occasions. While LECA possessed a class I RNR, our trees indicate that this is ultimately bacterial in origin. We also find convincing evidence that eukaryotic class I RNR has been transferred to the Bacteroidetes, providing a stunning example of HGT from eukaryotes back to Bacteria. Based on our phylogenies and available genetic and genomic evidence, class II and III RNRs in eukaryotes also appear to have been transferred from Bacteria, with subsequent within-domain transfer between distantly-related eukaryotes. Under the three-domains hypothesis the RNR present in the last common ancestor of Archaea and eukaryotes appears, through a process of elimination, to have been a dimeric class II RNR, though limited sampling of eukaryotes precludes a firm conclusion as the data may be equally well accounted for by HGT. Conclusions Horizontal gene transfer has clearly played an

  19. Acrolein-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling is mediated by alkylation of thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin 1.

    PubMed

    Randall, Matthew J; Spiess, Page C; Hristova, Milena; Hondal, Robert J; van der Vliet, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking remains a major health concern worldwide, and many of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke (CS) can be attributed to its abundant electrophilic aldehydes, such as acrolein (2-propenal). Previous studies indicate that acrolein readily reacts with thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), a critical enzyme involved in regulation of thioredoxin (Trx)-mediated redox signaling, by alkylation at its selenocysteine (Sec) residue. Because alkylation of Sec within TrxR1 has significant implications for its enzymatic function, we explored the potential importance of TrxR1 alkylation in acrolein-induced activation or injury of bronchial epithelial cells. Exposure of human bronchial epithelial HBE1 cells to acrolein (1-30 μM) resulted in dose-dependent loss of TrxR thioredoxin reductase activity, which coincided with its alkylation, as determined by biotin hydrazide labeling, and was independent of initial GSH status. To test the involvement of TrxR1 in acrolein responses in HBE1 cells, we suppressed TrxR1 using siRNA silencing or augmented TrxR1 by cell supplementation with sodium selenite. Acrolein exposure of HBE1 cells induced dose-dependent activation of the MAP kinases, extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38, and activation of JNK was markedly enhanced after selenite-mediated induction of TrxR1, and was associated with increased alkylation of TrxR1. Conversely, siRNA silencing of TrxR1 significantly suppressed the ability of acrolein to activate JNK, and also appeared to attenuate acrolein-dependent activation of ERK and p38. Alteration of initial TrxR1 levels by siRNA or selenite supplementation also affected initial Trx1 redox status and acrolein-mediated alkylation of Trx1, but did not significantly affect acrolein-mediated activation of HO-1 or cytotoxicity. Collectively, our findings indicate that alkylation of TrxR1 and/or Trx1 may contribute directly to acrolein-mediated activation of MAP kinases such as JNK, and

  20. The effect of a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor on androgen-mediated growth of the dog prostate.

    PubMed

    Wenderoth, U K; George, F W; Wilson, J D

    1983-08-01

    The administration of testosterone cypionate (0.4 mg/kg BW . day) to castrated male dogs caused a doubling of prostate weight within 4 weeks and an increase in the content of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the prostate. When the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor 17-N,N-diethylcarbamoyl-4-methyl-4-aza-5 alpha-androstan-3-one (3 mg/kg BW . day) was administered simultaneously with testosterone cypionate, prostatic testosterone content increased from 0.5 +/- 0.2 to 4.1 +/- 1.3 ng/mg DNA, the increase in prostatic dihydrotestosterone content was prevented, and prostatic size decreased to half the starting weight. These results suggest that dihydrotestosterone formation plays a role in prostatic growth.

  1. NADPH-Thioredoxin Reductase C Mediates the Response to Oxidative Stress and Thermotolerance in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Riego, Ana M; Mata-Cabana, Alejandro; Galmozzi, Carla V; Florencio, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    NADPH-thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC) is a bimodular enzyme composed of an NADPH-thioredoxin reductase and a thiioredoxin domain extension in the same protein. In plants, NTRC has been described to be involved in the protection of the chloroplast against oxidative stress damage through reduction of the 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (2-Cys Prx) as well as through other functions related to redox enzyme regulation. In cyanobacteria, the Anabaena NTRC has been characterized in vitro, however, nothing was known about its in vivo function. In order to study that, we have generated the first knockout mutant strain (ΔntrC), apart from the previously described in Arabidopsis. Detailed characterization of this strain reveals a differential sensitivity to oxidative stress treatments with respect to the wild-type Anabaena strain, including a higher level of ROS (reactive oxygen species) in normal growth conditions. In the mutant strain, different oxidative stress treatments such as hydrogen peroxide, methyl-viologen or high light irradiance provoke an increase in the expression of genes related to ROS detoxification, including AnNTRC and peroxiredoxin genes, with a concomitant increase in the amount of AnNTRC and 2-Cys Prx. Moreover, the role of AnNTRC in the antioxidant response is confirmed by the observation of a pronounced overoxidation of the 2-Cys Prx and a time-delay recovery of the reduced form of this protein upon oxidative stress treatments. Our results suggest the participation of this enzyme in the peroxide detoxification in Anabaena. In addition, we describe the role of Anabaena NTRC in thermotolerance, by the appearance of high molecular mass AnNTRC complexes, showing that the mutant strain is more sensitive to high temperature treatments.

  2. Structural and biochemical characterization of N[superscript 5]-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase and N[superscript 5]-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide mutase from Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Brugarolas, Pedro; Duguid, Erica M.; Zhang, Wen; Poor, Catherine B.; He, Chuan

    2012-05-08

    With the rapid rise of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, new strategies against S. aureus are urgently needed. De novo purine biosynthesis is a promising yet unexploited target, insofar as abundant evidence has shown that bacteria with compromised purine biosynthesis are attenuated. Fundamental differences exist within the process by which humans and bacteria convert 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR) to 4-carboxy-5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (CAIR). In bacteria, this transformation occurs through a two-step conversion catalyzed by PurK and PurE; in humans, it is mediated by a one-step conversion catalyzed by class II PurE. Thus, these bacterial enzymes are potential targets for selective antibiotic development. Here, the first comprehensive structural and biochemical characterization of PurK and PurE from S. aureus is presented. Structural analysis of S. aureus PurK reveals a nonconserved phenylalanine near the AIR-binding site that occupies the putative position of the imidazole ring of AIR. Mutation of this phenylalanine to isoleucine or tryptophan reduced the enzyme efficiency by around tenfold. The K{sub m} for bicarbonate was determined for the first time for a PurK enzyme and was found to be {approx}18.8 mM. The structure of PurE is described in comparison to that of human class II PurE. It is confirmed biochemically that His38 is essential for function. These studies aim to provide foundations for future structure-based drug-discovery efforts against S. aureus purine biosynthesis.

  3. Effects of Acyclovir, Foscarnet, and Ribonucleotides on Herpes Simplex Virus-1 DNA Polymerase: Mechanistic Insights and a Novel Mechanism for Preventing Stable Incorporation of Ribonucleotides into DNA.

    PubMed

    Vashishtha, Ashwani Kumar; Kuchta, Robert D

    2016-02-23

    We examined the impact of two clinically approved anti-herpes drugs, acyclovir and Forscarnet (phosphonoformate), on the exonuclease activity of the herpes simplex virus-1 DNA polymerase, UL30. Acyclovir triphosphate and Foscarnet, along with the closely related phosphonoacetic acid, did not affect exonuclease activity on single-stranded DNA. Furthermore, blocking the polymerase active site due to either binding of Foscarnet or phosphonoacetic acid to the E-DNA complex or polymerization of acyclovir onto the DNA also had a minimal effect on exonuclease activity. The inability of the exonuclease to excise acyclovir from the primer 3'-terminus results from the altered sugar structure directly impeding phosphodiester bond hydrolysis as opposed to inhibiting binding, unwinding of the DNA by the exonuclease, or transfer of the DNA from the polymerase to the exonuclease. Removing the 3'-hydroxyl or the 2'-carbon from the nucleotide at the 3'-terminus of the primer strongly inhibited exonuclease activity, although addition of a 2'-hydroxyl did not affect exonuclease activity. The biological consequences of these results are twofold. First, the ability of acyclovir and Foscarnet to block dNTP polymerization without impacting exonuclease activity raises the possibility that their effects on herpes replication may involve both direct inhibition of dNTP polymerization and exonuclease-mediated destruction of herpes DNA. Second, the ability of the exonuclease to rapidly remove a ribonucleotide at the primer 3'-terminus in combination with the polymerase not efficiently adding dNTPs onto this primer provides a novel mechanism by which the herpes replication machinery can prevent incorporation of ribonucleotides into newly synthesized DNA.

  4. Nitrate reductase-mediated early nitric oxide burst alleviates oxidative damage induced by aluminum through enhancement of antioxidant defenses in roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Sun, Chengliang; Lu, Lingli; Liu, Lijuan; Liu, Wenjing; Yu, Yan; Liu, Xiaoxia; Hu, Yan; Jin, Chongwei; Lin, Xianyong

    2014-03-01

    • Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule involved in the physiological processes of plants. The role of NO release in the tolerance strategies of roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum) under aluminum (Al) stress was investigated using two genotypes with different Al resistances. • An early NO burst at 3 h was observed in the root tips of the Al-tolerant genotype Jian-864, whereas the Al-sensitive genotype Yang-5 showed no NO accumulation at 3 h but an extremely high NO concentration after 12 h. Stimulating NO production at 3 h in the root tips of Yang-5 with the NO donor relieved Al-induced root inhibition and callose production, as well as oxidative damage and ROS accumulation, while elimination of the early NO burst by NO scavenger aggravated root inhibition in Jian-864. • Synthesis of early NO in roots of Jian-864 was mediated through nitrate reductase (NR) but not through NO synthase. Elevated antioxidant enzyme activities were induced by Al stress in both wheat genotypes and significantly enhanced by NO donor, but suppressed by NO scavenger or NR inhibitor. • These results suggest that an NR-mediated early NO burst plays an important role in Al resistance of wheat through modulating enhanced antioxidant defense to adapt to Al stress.

  5. Biliverdin reductase/bilirubin mediates the anti-apoptotic effect of hypoxia in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells through ERK1/2 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Shasha; Wang, Shuang; Ma, Jun; Yao, Lan; Xing, Hao; Zhang, Lei; Liao, Lin; Zhu, Daling

    2013-08-01

    Inhibition of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) apoptosis induced by hypoxia plays an important role in pulmonary arterial remodeling leading to aggravate hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the mechanisms of hypoxia acting on PASMC apoptosis remain exclusive. Biliverdin reductase (BVR) has many essential biologic roles in physiological and pathological processes. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether the hypoxia-induced inhibition on PASMC apoptosis is mediated by BVR. In the present work, we found BVR majorly localized in PASMCs and was up-regulated in levels of protein and mRNA by hypoxia. Then we studied the contribution of BVR to anti-apoptotic response of hypoxia in PASMCs. Our results showed that siBVR, blocking generation of bilirubin, reversed the effect of hypoxia on enhancing cell survival and apoptotic protein (Bcl-2, procasepase-9, procasepase-3) expression, preventing nuclear shrinkage, DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial depolarization in starved PASMCs, which were recovered by exogenous bilirubin. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of bilirubin on PASMC apoptosis under hypoxic condition was blocked by the inhibitor of ERK1/2 pathway. Taken together, our data indicate that BVR contributes to the inhibitory process of hypoxia on PASMC apoptosis, which is mediated by bilirubin through ERK1/2 pathway. Highlights: • BVR expresses in PASMC and is up-regulated by hypoxia in protein and mRNA levels. • BVR/bilirubin contribute to the inhibitive process of hypoxia on PASMC apoptosis. • Bilirubin protects PASMC from apoptosis under hypoxia via ERK1/2 pathway.

  6. Evidence that processing of ribonucleotides in DNA by topoisomerase 1 is leading-strand specific.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jessica S; Clausen, Anders R; Lujan, Scott A; Marjavaara, Lisette; Clark, Alan B; Burgers, Peter M; Chabes, Andrei; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    Ribonucleotides incorporated during DNA replication are removed by RNase H2-dependent ribonucleotide excision repair (RER). In RER-defective yeast, topoisomerase 1 (Top1) incises DNA at unrepaired ribonucleotides, initiating their removal, but this is accompanied by RNA-DNA-damage phenotypes. Here we show that these phenotypes are incurred by a high level of ribonucleotides incorporated by a leading strand-replicase variant, DNA polymerase (Pol) ɛ, but not by orthologous variants of the lagging-strand replicases, Pols α or δ. Moreover, loss of both RNases H1 and H2 is lethal in combination with increased ribonucleotide incorporation by Pol ɛ but not by Pols α or δ. Several explanations for this asymmetry are considered, including the idea that Top1 incision at ribonucleotides relieves torsional stress in the nascent leading strand but not in the nascent lagging strand, in which preexisting nicks prevent the accumulation of superhelical tension.

  7. Characterization of developmental- and stress-mediated expression of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ritesh; Choi, Bosung; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Park, Sang-Un; Bae, Hyeun-Jong; Natarajan, Savithiry; Bae, Hanhong

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) is an important enzyme for lignin biosynthesis as it catalyzes the first specific committed step in monolignol biosynthesis. We have cloned a full length coding sequence of CCR from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), which contains a 1,020-bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding 339 amino acids of 37.37 kDa, with an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.27 (JX524276, HcCCR2). BLAST result found that it has high homology with other plant CCR orthologs. Multiple alignment with other plant CCR sequences showed that it contains two highly conserved motifs: NAD(P) binding domain (VTGAGGFIASWMVKLLLEKGY) at N-terminal and probable catalytic domain (NWYCYGK). According to phylogenetic analysis, it was closely related to CCR sequences of Gossypium hirsutum (ACQ59094) and Populus trichocarpa (CAC07424). HcCCR2 showed ubiquitous expression in various kenaf tissues and the highest expression was detected in mature flower. HcCCR2 was expressed differentially in response to various stresses, and the highest expression was observed by drought and NaCl treatments.

  8. Thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase influence estrogen receptor α-mediated gene expression in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Abhi K; Ziegler, Yvonne S; McLeod, Ian X; Yates, John R; Nardulli, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells damages resident proteins, lipids, and DNA. In order to overcome the oxidative stress that occurs with ROS accumulation, cells must balance free radical production with an increase in the level of antioxidant enzymes that convert free radicals to less harmful species. We identified two antioxidant enzymes, thioredoxin (Trx) and Trx reductase (TrxR), in a complex associated with the DNA-bound estrogen receptor α (ERα). Western analysis and immunocytochemistry were used to demonstrate that Trx and TrxR are expressed in the cytoplasm and in the nuclei of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. More importantly, endogenously expressed ERα, Trx, and TrxR interact and ERα and TrxR associate with the native, estrogen-responsive pS2 and progesterone receptor genes in MCF-7 cells. RNA interference assays demonstrated that Trx and TrxR differentially influence estrogen-responsive gene expression and that together, 17β-estradiol, Trx, and TrxR alter hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels in MCF-7 cells. Our findings suggest that Trx and TrxR are multifunctional proteins that, in addition to modulating H2O2 levels and transcription factor activity, aid ERα in regulating the expression of estrogen-responsive genes in target cells. PMID:19620238

  9. Thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase influence estrogen receptor alpha-mediated gene expression in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rao, Abhi K; Ziegler, Yvonne S; McLeod, Ian X; Yates, John R; Nardulli, Ann M

    2009-12-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells damages resident proteins, lipids, and DNA. In order to overcome the oxidative stress that occurs with ROS accumulation, cells must balance free radical production with an increase in the level of antioxidant enzymes that convert free radicals to less harmful species. We identified two antioxidant enzymes, thioredoxin (Trx) and Trx reductase (TrxR), in a complex associated with the DNA-bound estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha). Western analysis and immunocytochemistry were used to demonstrate that Trx and TrxR are expressed in the cytoplasm and in the nuclei of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. More importantly, endogenously expressed ERalpha, Trx, and TrxR interact and ERalpha and TrxR associate with the native, estrogen-responsive pS2 and progesterone receptor genes in MCF-7 cells. RNA interference assays demonstrated that Trx and TrxR differentially influence estrogen-responsive gene expression and that together, 17beta-estradiol, Trx, and TrxR alter hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) levels in MCF-7 cells. Our findings suggest that Trx and TrxR are multifunctional proteins that, in addition to modulating H(2)O(2) levels and transcription factor activity, aid ERalpha in regulating the expression of estrogen-responsive genes in target cells.

  10. Effects of various compounds on lipid peroxidation mediated by detergent-solubilized rat liver NADPH-cytochrome C reductase.

    PubMed

    Kamataki, T; Sugita, O; Naminohira, S; Kitagawa, H

    1978-12-01

    A reconstituted lipid peroxidation system containing NADPH-cytochrome c reductase isolated from detergent-solubilized rat liver microsomes was used to determine the effects of several compounds, including drugs, on the lipid peroxidation activity. EDTA and ferrous ion were essential requirements for reconstitution of the activity. The addition of 1,10-phenanthroline to the system containing both EDTA and ferrous ion further enhanced the activity. Pyrocatecol, thymol, p-aminophenol, imipramine, p-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB) and alpha-tocopherol exhibited strong inhibition, aniline, N-monomethylaniline, aminopyrine, benzphetamine, SKF 525-A and NADP exhibited moderate inhibition, and phenol, benzoic acid, acetanilide and nicotinamide exhibited less or no inhibition at the concentrations lower than 1000 micron M. Metal ions such as Hg+, Hg2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Mn2+ and U6+ inhibited lipid peroxidation strongly. In addition, Cd2+, St2+ and Ca2+ exhibited less potent to moderate inhibition, and Ba2+ and Mg2+ were without effects on the activity. Among sulfhydryl compounds tested, dithiothreitol inhibited lipid peroxidation to a greater extent than did the other three compounds, glutathione, cysteine and mercaptoethanol.

  11. Characterization of Developmental- and Stress-Mediated Expression of Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductase in Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Park, Sang-Un; Bae, Hyeun-Jong; Natarajan, Savithiry

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) is an important enzyme for lignin biosynthesis as it catalyzes the first specific committed step in monolignol biosynthesis. We have cloned a full length coding sequence of CCR from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), which contains a 1,020-bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding 339 amino acids of 37.37 kDa, with an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.27 (JX524276, HcCCR2). BLAST result found that it has high homology with other plant CCR orthologs. Multiple alignment with other plant CCR sequences showed that it contains two highly conserved motifs: NAD(P) binding domain (VTGAGGFIASWMVKLLLEKGY) at N-terminal and probable catalytic domain (NWYCYGK). According to phylogenetic analysis, it was closely related to CCR sequences of Gossypium hirsutum (ACQ59094) and Populus trichocarpa (CAC07424). HcCCR2 showed ubiquitous expression in various kenaf tissues and the highest expression was detected in mature flower. HcCCR2 was expressed differentially in response to various stresses, and the highest expression was observed by drought and NaCl treatments. PMID:24723816

  12. Nucleotide pools dictate the identity and frequency of ribonucleotide incorporation in mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Hoberg, Emily; Szilagyi, Zsolt; Taylor, Robert W.; Gustafsson, Claes M.; Falkenberg, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated the presence of ribonucleotides in human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and in the present study we use a genome-wide approach to precisely map the location of these. We find that ribonucleotides are distributed evenly between the heavy- and light-strand of mtDNA. The relative levels of incorporated ribonucleotides reflect that DNA polymerase γ discriminates the four ribonucleotides differentially during DNA synthesis. The observed pattern is also dependent on the mitochondrial deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) pools and disease-causing mutations that change these pools alter both the absolute and relative levels of incorporated ribonucleotides. Our analyses strongly suggest that DNA polymerase γ-dependent incorporation is the main source of ribonucleotides in mtDNA and argues against the existence of a mitochondrial ribonucleotide excision repair pathway in human cells. Furthermore, we clearly demonstrate that when dNTP pools are limiting, ribonucleotides serve as a source of building blocks to maintain DNA replication. Increased levels of embedded ribonucleotides in patient cells with disturbed nucleotide pools may contribute to a pathogenic mechanism that affects mtDNA stability and impair new rounds of mtDNA replication. PMID:28207748

  13. Structure-function analysis of ribonucleotide bypass by B family DNA replicases

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, Anders R.; Murray, Michael S.; Passer, Andrew R.; Pedersen, Lars C.; Kunkel, Thomas A.

    2013-11-01

    Ribonucleotides are frequently incorporated into DNA during replication, they are normally removed, and failure to remove them results in replication stress. This stress correlates with DNA polymerase (Pol) stalling during bypass of ribonucleotides in DNA templates. Here we demonstrate that stalling by yeast replicative Pols δ and ε increases as the number of consecutive template ribonucleotides increases from one to four. The homologous bacteriophage RB69 Pol also stalls during ribonucleotide bypass, with a pattern most similar to that of Pol ε. Crystal structures of an exonuclease-deficient variant of RB69 Pol corresponding to multiple steps in single ribonucleotide bypass reveal that increased stalling is associated with displacement of Tyr391 and an unpreferred C2´-endo conformation for the ribose. Even less efficient bypass of two consecutive ribonucleotides in DNA correlates with similar movements of Tyr391 and displacement of one of the ribonucleotides along with the primer-strand DNA backbone. These structure–function studies have implications for cellular signaling by ribonucleotides, and they may be relevant to replication stress in cells defective in ribonucleotide excision repair, including humans suffering from autoimmune disease associated with RNase H2 defects.

  14. The reaction mechanism of N-benzoylimidazole with ribonucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y; Liu, X Y; Yang, Z W; Wang, Q W; Xu, Y Z; Wang, Q Z; Xu, J F

    1987-01-01

    The reaction of uridine 3'-phosphate with benzoylimidazole in the absence and presence of a strong base was followed up by 31P and 1H nmr as well as paper electrophoresis. Possible reaction courses were proposed, the reaction rate constants were calculated and the reaction mechanism was discussed. It is possible to selectively acylate ribonucleotides with benzoylimidazole by appropriate choice of the base used. PMID:3588294

  15. Thioredoxin reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Mustacich, D; Powis, G

    2000-01-01

    The mammalian thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs) are a family of selenium-containing pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductases with mechanistic and sequence identity, including a conserved -Cys-Val-Asn-Val-Gly-Cys- redox catalytic site, to glutathione reductases. TrxRs catalyse the NADPH-dependent reduction of the redox protein thioredoxin (Trx), as well as of other endogenous and exogenous compounds. The broad substrate specificity of mammalian TrxRs is due to a second redox-active site, a C-terminal -Cys-SeCys- (where SeCys is selenocysteine), that is not found in glutathione reductase or Escherichia coli TrxR. There are currently two confirmed forms of mammalian TrxRs, TrxR1 and TrxR2, and it is possible that other forms will be identified. The availability of Se is a key factor determining TrxR activity both in cell culture and in vivo, and the mechanism(s) for the incorporation of Se into TrxRs, as well as the regulation of TrxR activity, have only recently begun to be investigated. The importance of Trx to many aspects of cell function make it likely that TrxRs also play a role in protection against oxidant injury, cell growth and transformation, and the recycling of ascorbate from its oxidized form. Since TrxRs are able to reduce a number of substrates other than Trx, it is likely that additional biological effects will be discovered for TrxR. Furthermore, inhibiting TrxR with drugs may lead to new treatments for human diseases such as cancer, AIDS and autoimmune diseases. PMID:10657232

  16. ROS-Mediated Inhibition of S-nitrosoglutathione Reductase Contributes to the Activation of Anti-oxidative Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Izabella; Holzmeister, Christian; Wirtz, Markus; Geerlof, Arie; Fröhlich, Thomas; Römling, Gaby; Kuruthukulangarakoola, Gitto T.; Linster, Eric; Hell, Rüdiger; Arnold, Georg J.; Durner, Jörg; Lindermayr, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a signaling molecule in plants being involved in diverse physiological processes like germination, root growth, stomata closing and response to biotic and abiotic stress. S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) as a biological NO donor has a very important function in NO signaling since it can transfer its NO moiety to other proteins (trans-nitrosylation). Such trans-nitrosylation reactions are equilibrium reactions and depend on GSNO level. The breakdown of GSNO and thus the level of S-nitrosylated proteins are regulated by GSNO-reductase (GSNOR). In this way, this enzyme controls S-nitrosothiol levels and regulates NO signaling. Here we report that Arabidopsis thaliana GSNOR activity is reversibly inhibited by H2O2 in vitro and by paraquat-induced oxidative stress in vivo. Light scattering analyses of reduced and oxidized recombinant GSNOR demonstrated that GSNOR proteins form dimers under both reducing and oxidizing conditions. Moreover, mass spectrometric analyses revealed that H2O2-treatment increased the amount of oxidative modifications on Zn2+-coordinating Cys47 and Cys177. Inhibition of GSNOR results in enhanced levels of S-nitrosothiols followed by accumulation of glutathione. Moreover, transcript levels of redox-regulated genes and activities of glutathione-dependent enzymes are increased in gsnor-ko plants, which may contribute to the enhanced resistance against oxidative stress. In sum, our results demonstrate that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent inhibition of GSNOR is playing an important role in activation of anti-oxidative mechanisms to damping oxidative damage and imply a direct crosstalk between ROS- and NO-signaling. PMID:27891135

  17. Triclosan Resistance in a Bacterial Fish Pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, is Mediated by an Enoyl Reductase, FabV.

    PubMed

    Khan, Raees; Lee, Myung Hwan; Joo, Hae-Jin; Jung, Yong-Hoon; Ahmad, Shabir; Choi, Jin-Hee; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2015-04-01

    Triclosan, the widely used biocide, specifically targets enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR) in the bacterial fatty acid synthesis system. Although the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida exhibits triclosan resistance, the nature of this resistance has not been elucidated. Here, we aimed to characterize the triclosan resistance of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida causing furunculosis. The fosmid library of triclosan-resistant A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida was constructed to select a fosmid clone showing triclosan resistance. With the fosmid clone showing triclosan resistance, a subsequent secondary library search resulted in the selection of subclone pTSR-1. DNA sequence analysis of pTSR-1 revealed the presence of a chromosomal-borne fabV-encoding ENR homolog. The ENR of A. salmonicida (FabVas) exhibited significant homology with previously known FabV, including the catalytic domain YX(8)K. fabVas introduction into E. coli dramatically increased its resistance to triclosan. Heterologous expression of FabVas might functionally replace the triclosan-sensitive FabI in vivo to confer E. coli with triclosan resistance. A genome-wide search for fabVas homologs revealed the presence of an additional fabV gene (fabVas2) paralog in A. salmonicida strains and the fabVas orthologs from other gram-negative fish pathogens. Both of the potential FabV ENRs expressed similarly with or without triclosan supplement. This is the first report about the presence of two potential FabV ENRs in a single pathogenic bacterium. Our result suggests that triclosan-resistant ENRs are widely distributed in various bacteria in nature, and the wide use of this biocide can spread these triclosan-tolerant ENRs among fish pathogens and other pathogenic bacteria.

  18. Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase A Negatively Controls Microglia-Mediated Neuroinflammation via Inhibiting ROS/MAPKs/NF-κB Signaling Pathways Through a Catalytic Antioxidant Function

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hua; Wu, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ling; Hu, Zhuang-Li; Wang, Wen; Guan, Xin-Lei; Luo, Han; Ni, Ming; Yang, Jing-Wen; Li, Ming-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Oxidative burst is one of the earliest biochemical events in the inflammatory activation of microglia. Here, we investigated the potential role of methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA), a key antioxidant enzyme, in the control of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. Results: MsrA was detected in rat microglia and its expression was upregulated on microglial activation. Silencing of MsrA exacerbated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of microglia and the production of inflammatory markers, indicating that MsrA may function as an endogenous protective mechanism for limiting uncontrolled neuroinflammation. Application of exogenous MsrA by transducing Tat-rMsrA fusion protein into microglia attenuated LPS-induced neuroinflammatory events, which was indicated by an increased Iba1 (a specific microglial marker) expression and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and this attenuation was accompanied by inhibiting multiple signaling pathways such as p38 and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB). These effects were due to MsrA-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) elimination, which may be derived from a catalytic effect of MsrA on the reaction of methionine with ROS. Furthermore, the transduction of Tat-rMsrA fusion protein suppressed the activation of microglia and the expression of pro-inflammatory factors in a rat model of neuroinflammation in vivo. Innovation: This study provides the first direct evidence for the biological significance of MsrA in microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. Conclusion: Our data provide a profound insight into the role of endogenous antioxidative defense systems such as MsrA in the control of microglial function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 832–847. PMID:25602783

  19. Differential regulatory role of nitric oxide in mediating nitrate reductase activity in roots of tomato (Solanum lycocarpum)

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chong Wei; Du, Shao Ting; Zhang, Yong Song; Lin, Xian Yong; Tang, Cai Xian

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated to stimulate the activity of nitrate reductase (NR) in plant roots supplied with a low level of nitrate, and to affect proteins differently, depending on the ratio of NO to the level of protein. Nitrate has been suggested to regulate the level of NO in plants. This present study examined interactive effects of NO and nitrate level on NR activity in roots of tomato (Solanum lycocarpum). Methods NR activity, mRNA level of NR gene and concentration of NR protein in roots fed with 0·5 mm or 5 mm nitrate and treated with the NO donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and diethylamine NONOate sodium (NONOate), and the NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO), were measured in 25-d-old seedlings. Key Results Addition of SNP and NONOate enhanced but cPTIO decreased NR activity in the roots fed with 0·5 mm nitrate. The opposite was true for the roots fed with 5 mm nitrate. However, the mRNA level of the NR gene and the protein concentration of NR enzyme in the roots were not affected by SNP treatment, irrespective of nitrate pre-treatment. Nevertheless, a low rate of NO gas increased while cPTIO decreased the NR activities of the enzyme extracts from the roots at both nitrate levels. Increasing the rate of NO gas further increased NR activity in the enzyme extracts of the roots fed with 0·5 mm nitrate but decreased it when 5 mm nitrate was supplied. Interestingly, the stimulative effect of NO gas on NR activity could be reversed by NO removal through N2 flushing in the enzyme extracts from the roots fed with 0·5 mm nitrate but not from those with 5 mm nitrate. Conclusions The effects of NO on NR activity in tomato roots depend on levels of nitrate supply, and probably result from direct interactions between NO and NR protein. PMID:19376780

  20. The anti-necrosis role of hypoxic preconditioning after acute anoxia is mediated by aldose reductase and sorbitol pathway in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Ying; Ma, Zi-Min; Fan, Xue-Lai; Zhao, Tong; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Huang, Xin; Li, Ming-Ming; Xiong, Lei; Zhang, Kuan; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Fan, Ming

    2010-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that hypoxic preconditioning (HP) enhances the survival ability of the organism against the subsequent acute anoxia (AA). However, it is not yet clear whether necrosis induced by AA can be prevented by HP, and what are the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we examined the effect of HP (10% O(2), 48 h) on necrosis induced by AA (0% O(2), 24 h) in PC12 cells. We found that HP delayed the regulatory volume decrease and reduced cell swelling after 24 h of exposure to AA. Since aldose reductase (AR) is involved in cell volume regulation, we detected AR mRNA expression with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques. The AR mRNA level was dramatically elevated by HP. Furthermore, an HP-induced decrease in cell injury was reversed by berberine chloride (BB), the inhibitor of AR. In addition, sorbitol synthesized from glucose catalyzed by AR is directly related to cell volume regulation. Subsequently, we tested sorbitol content in the cytoplasm. HP clearly elevated sorbitol content, while BB inhibited the elevation induced by HP. Further study showed that a strong inhibitor of sorbitol permease, quinidine, completely reversed the protection induced by HP after AA. These data provide evidence that HP prevents necrosis induced by AA and is mediated by AR and sorbitol pathway.

  1. Annatto Constituent Cis-Bixin Has Selective Antimyeloma Effects Mediated by Oxidative Stress and Associated with Inhibition of Thioredoxin and Thioredoxin Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Tibodeau, Jennifer D.; Isham, Crescent R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In pursuit of the anticancer effects of seeds of the rain forest plant Bixa orellana (annatto), we found that its constituent cis-bixin induced cytotoxicity in a wide variety of tumor cell lines (IC50 values from 10 to 50 μM, 24-h exposures) and, importantly, also selectively killed freshly collected patient multiple myeloma cells and highly drug-resistant multiple myeloma cell lines. Mechanistic studies indicated that cis-bixin–induced cytotoxicity was greatly attenuated by co-treatment with glutathione or N-acetylcysteine (NAC); whereas fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) assays using the cell-permeable dyes 5-(and-6) chloromethyl-2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA), or dihydroethidium demonstrated that cis-bixin rapidly induced cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in dose- and time-dependent fashions, collectively implicating ROS as contributory to cis-bixin–induced cytotoxicity. In pursuit of potential contributors to ROS imposition by cis-bixin, we found that cis-bixin inhibited both thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1) activities at concentrations comparable to those required for cytotoxicity, implicating the inhibition of these redox enzymes as potentially contributing to its ability to impose cellular ROS and to kill cancer cells. Collectively, our studies indicate that the annatto constituent cis-bixin has intriguing selective antimyeloma activity that appears to be mediated through effects on redox signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 987–997. PMID:20170403

  2. Dimethyl sulfoxide elevates hydrogen peroxide-mediated cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by inhibiting the antioxidant function of methionine sulfoxide reductase A.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Geun-Hee; Choi, Seung Hee; Kim, Hwa-Young

    2010-09-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) can be reduced to dimethyl sulfide by MsrA, which stereospecifically catalyzes the reduction of methionine-S-sulfoxide to methionine. Our previous study showed that DMSO can competitively inhibit methionine sulfoxide reduction ability of yeast and mammalian MsrA in both in vitro and in vivo, and also act as a non-competitive inhibitor for mammalian MsrB2, specific for the reduction of methionine-R-sulfoxide, with lower inhibition effects. The present study investigated the effects of DMSO on the physiological antioxidant functions of methionine sulfoxide reductases. DMSO elevated hydrogen peroxide-mediated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell death, whereas it protected human SK-Hep1 cells against oxidative stress. DMSO reduced the protein-carbonyl content in yeast cells in normal conditions, but markedly increased protein-carbonyl accumulation under oxidative stress. Using Msr deletion mutant yeast cells, we demonstrated the DMSO's selective inhibition of the antioxidant function of MsrA in S. cerevisiae, resulting in an increase in oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity.

  3. Formylglycinamide Ribonucleotide Amidotransferase from Thermotoga maritima: Structural Insights into Complex Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Morar, Mariya; Hoskins, Aaron A.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Ealick, Steven E.

    2008-10-02

    In the fourth step of the purine biosynthetic pathway, formyl glycinamide ribonucleotide (FGAR) amidotransferase, also known as PurL, catalyzes the conversion of FGAR, ATP, and glutamine to formyl glycinamidine ribonucleotide (FGAM), ADP, P{sub i}, and glutamate. Two forms of PurL have been characterized, large and small. Large PurL, present in most Gram-negative bacteria and eukaryotes, consists of a single polypeptide chain and contains three major domains: the N-terminal domain, the FGAM synthetase domain, and the glutaminase domain, with a putative ammonia channel located between the active sites of the latter two. Small PurL, present in Gram-positive bacteria and archaea, is structurally homologous to the FGAM synthetase domain of large PurL, and forms a complex with two additional gene products, PurQ and PurS. The structure of the PurS dimer is homologous with the N-terminal domain of large PurL, while PurQ, whose structure has not been reported, contains the glutaminase activity. In Bacillus subtilis, the formation of the PurLQS complex is dependent on glutamine and ADP and has been demonstrated by size-exclusion chromatography. In this work, a structure of the PurLQS complex from Thermotoga maritima is described revealing a 2:1:1 stoichiometry of PurS:Q:L, respectively. The conformational changes observed in TmPurL upon complex formation elucidate the mechanism of metabolite-mediated recruitment of PurQ and PurS. The flexibility of the PurS dimer is proposed to play a role in the activation of the complex and the formation of the ammonia channel. A potential path for the ammonia channel is identified.

  4. Enzymatic Removal of Ribonucleotides from DNA Is Essential for Mammalian Genome Integrity and Development

    PubMed Central

    Reijns, Martin A.M.; Rabe, Björn; Rigby, Rachel E.; Mill, Pleasantine; Astell, Katy R.; Lettice, Laura A.; Boyle, Shelagh; Leitch, Andrea; Keighren, Margaret; Kilanowski, Fiona; Devenney, Paul S.; Sexton, David; Grimes, Graeme; Holt, Ian J.; Hill, Robert E.; Taylor, Martin S.; Lawson, Kirstie A.; Dorin, Julia R.; Jackson, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The presence of ribonucleotides in genomic DNA is undesirable given their increased susceptibility to hydrolysis. Ribonuclease (RNase) H enzymes that recognize and process such embedded ribonucleotides are present in all domains of life. However, in unicellular organisms such as budding yeast, they are not required for viability or even efficient cellular proliferation, while in humans, RNase H2 hypomorphic mutations cause the neuroinflammatory disorder Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. Here, we report that RNase H2 is an essential enzyme in mice, required for embryonic growth from gastrulation onward. RNase H2 null embryos accumulate large numbers of single (or di-) ribonucleotides embedded in their genomic DNA (>1,000,000 per cell), resulting in genome instability and a p53-dependent DNA-damage response. Our findings establish RNase H2 as a key mammalian genome surveillance enzyme required for ribonucleotide removal and demonstrate that ribonucleotides are the most commonly occurring endogenous nucleotide base lesion in replicating cells. PMID:22579044

  5. Profiling ribonucleotide and deoxyribonucleotide pools perturbed by gemcitabine in human non-small cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jian-Ru; Chen, Qian-Qian; Lam, Christopher Wai Kei; Wang, Cai-Yun; Wong, Vincent Kam Wai; Chang, Zee-Fen; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the dosage effect of gemcitabine, an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase (RR), on cellular levels of ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric method. As anticipated, after 4-h incubation of non-small cell lung cancer (A549) cells with gemcitabine at 0.5 and 2 μM, there were consistent reductions in levels of deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates (dNDP) and their corresponding deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTP). However, after 24-h exposure to 0.5 μM gemcitabine, the amounts of dNTP were increased by about 3 fold, whereas cells after 24-h 2 μM gemcitabine treatment exhibited deoxycytidine diphosphate (dCDP), deoxyadenosine diphosphate (dADP) and deoxyguanosine diphosphate (dGDP) levels less than 50% of control values, with deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP) and deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP) returning to the control level. Using cell cycle analysis, we found that 24-h incubation at 0.5 μM gemcitabine resulted in a significant increase in S phase arrest, while 2 μM treatment increased G0/G1 population. Our data demonstrated the correlation between the level of RR and the increased levels of dNTPs in the group of 0.5 μM treatment for 24-h with a markedly reduced level of dFdCTP. Accordingly, we proposed that the dosage of dFdC could determine the arrested phase of cell cycle, in turn affecting the recovery of dNTPs pools. PMID:27845436

  6. Regulation of Folate-Mediated One-Carbon Metabolism by Glycine N-Methyltransferase (GNMT) and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Cheng; Wu, Ming-Tsung; Lin, Yan-Jun; Tang, Feng-Yao; Ko, Hsin-An; Chiang, En-Pei

    2015-01-01

    Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism is an important therapeutic target of human diseases. We extensively investigated how gene-nutrient interactions may modulate human cancer risk in 2 major folate metabolic genes, MTHFR and GNMT. The biochemical impacts of MTHFR and GNMT on methyl group supply, global DNA methylation, nucleotide biosynthesis, DNA damage, and partitioning of the folate dependent 1-carbon group were carefully studied. The distinct model systems used included: EB virus-transformed lymphoblasts expressing human MTHFR polymorphic genotypes; liver-derived GNMT-null cell-lines with and without GNMT overexpression; and HepG2 cells with stabilized inhibition of MTHFR using shRNA, GNMT wildtype, heterozygotous (GNMT(het)) and knockout (GNMT(nul)) mice. We discovered that the MTHFR TT genotype significantly reduces folate-dependent remethylation under folate restriction, but it assists purine synthesis when folate is adequate. The advantage of de novo purine synthesis found in the MTHFR TT genotype may account for the protective effect of MTHFR in human hematological malignancies. GNMT affects transmethylation kinetics and S-adenosylmethionine (adoMet) synthesis, and facilitates the conservation of methyl groups by limiting homocysteine remethylation fluxes. Restoring GNMT assists methylfolate-dependent reactions and ameliorates the consequences of folate depletion. GNMT expression in vivo improves folate retention and bioavailability in the liver. Loss of GNMT impairs nucleotide biosynthesis. Over-expression of GNMT enhances nucleotide biosynthesis and improves DNA integrity by reducing uracil misincorporation in DNA both in vitro and in vivo. The systematic series of studies gives new insights into the underlying mechanisms by which MTHFR and GNMT may participate in human tumor prevention.

  7. Immune-mediated myopathy related to anti 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase antibodies as an emerging cause of necrotizing myopathy induced by statins.

    PubMed

    Lahaye, Clément; Beaufrére, Anne Marie; Boyer, Olivier; Drouot, Laurent; Soubrier, Martin; Tournadre, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) associated with statin use and anti 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) antibody is a new and emerging entity that supports a link between statin use and IMNM and raises the questions of distinct clinical phenotypes and treatment strategy. We describe the clinical and histopathological characteristics of a patient and discuss the spectrum of IMNM and statin-induced myopathies. A 65-year-old man was suffering from proximal muscle weakness and elevated CK levels, following exposure to statin therapy. The symptoms worsened despite discontinuation of the drug. At that point, no myositis-specific or -associated antibodies were detected. Malignancy screening did not reveal abnormalities. Muscle biopsy demonstrated a predominantly necrotizing myopathy with minimal lymphocytic infiltrates, MHC class I expression in necrotic muscle fibers, and complement deposition on scattered non-necrotic muscle fibers. Muscle protein analysis by western blot was normal. The patient did not improve with steroid and methotrexate and required monthly intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. Muscle strength gradually improved, CK levels normalized and IVIG were stopped 1 year later. Screening for anti-HMGCR antibodies, not available at the time of presentation, was highly positive. Identification of anti-HMGCR antibodies in statin-exposed patients with myopathy appears to be helpful both for differential diagnosis and for treatment strategy. In patients who did not improve after discontinuation of the statin treatment, a muscle biopsy should be performed as well as screening for anti-HMGCR antibodies. Patients with this disorder require aggressive immunosuppressive treatment.

  8. TRAIL-Based High Throughput Screening Reveals a Link between TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis and Glutathione Reductase, a Key Component of Oxidative Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Rozanov, Dmitri; Cheltsov, Anton; Sergienko, Eduard; Vasile, Stefan; Golubkov, Vladislav; Aleshin, Alexander E; Levin, Trevor; Traer, Elie; Hann, Byron; Freimuth, Julia; Alexeev, Nikita; Alekseyev, Max A; Budko, Sergey P; Bächinger, Hans Peter; Spellman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A high throughput screen for compounds that induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis identified ML100 as an active chemical probe, which potentiated TRAIL activity in prostate carcinoma PPC-1 and melanoma MDA-MB-435 cells. Follow-up in silico modeling and profiling in cell-based assays allowed us to identify NSC130362, pharmacophore analog of ML100 that induced 65-95% cytotoxicity in cancer cells and did not affect the viability of human primary hepatocytes. In agreement with the activation of the apoptotic pathway, both ML100 and NSC130362 synergistically with TRAIL induced caspase-3/7 activity in MDA-MB-435 cells. Subsequent affinity chromatography and inhibition studies convincingly demonstrated that glutathione reductase (GSR), a key component of the oxidative stress response, is a target of NSC130362. In accordance with the role of GSR in the TRAIL pathway, GSR gene silencing potentiated TRAIL activity in MDA-MB-435 cells but not in human hepatocytes. Inhibition of GSR activity resulted in the induction of oxidative stress, as was evidenced by an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxidation of mitochondrial membrane after NSC130362 treatment in MDA-MB-435 cells but not in human hepatocytes. The antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH) fully protected MDA-MB-435 cells from cell lysis induced by NSC130362 and TRAIL, thereby further confirming the interplay between GSR and TRAIL. As a consequence of activation of oxidative stress, combined treatment of different oxidative stress inducers and NSC130362 promoted cell death in a variety of cancer cells but not in hepatocytes in cell-based assays and in in vivo, in a mouse tumor xenograft model.

  9. Adrenergic activation of steroid 5alpha-reductase gene expression in rat C6 glioma cells: involvement of cyclic amp/protein kinase A-mediated signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Morita, Kyoji; Arimochi, Hideki; Tsuruo, Yoshihiro

    2004-01-01

    Steroid 5alpha-reductase (5alpha-R) is well known as the enzyme converting progesterone and other steroid hormones to their 5alpha-reduced metabolites and has been reported to be localized in both neuronal and glial cells in the brain. Previously, the enzyme activity in glial cells has been shown to be enhanced either by coculturing with neuronal cells or by adding the conditioned medium of neuronal cells, suggesting a possible implication of neuro-glial interactions in the regulation of neurosteroid metabolism in the brain. In the present studies, the effects of adrenergic agonists on 5alpha-R mRNA and protein levels in rat C6 glioma cells were examined as one of the model experiments for investigating the influence of neuronal activity on the expression of 5alpha-R gene in the glial cell. The direct challenge of beta-adrenergic agonists to glioma cells resulted in the rapid and transient elevation of 5alpha-R mRNA levels through the activation of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A-mediated signaling pathway. Further studies showed that cAMP-induced 5alpha-R mRNA expression was completely abolished by pretreatment of cells with actinomycin D and also indicated that the elevation of 5alpha-R mRNA levels was accompanied by an increase in enzyme protein in the cells. These findings provide strong evidence that the stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors might induce the transcriptional activation of 5alpha-R gene expression in glial cells, proposing the possibility that neuronal activity might be involved in the production of neuroactive 5alpha-reduced steroids in the brain.

  10. Promoter analysis of the DHCR24 (3β-hydroxysterol Δ24-reductase) gene: characterization of SREBP (sterol-regulatoryelement-binding protein)-mediated activation

    PubMed Central

    Daimiel, Lidia A.; Fernández-Suárez, María E.; Rodríguez-Acebes, Sara; Crespo, Lorena; Lasunción, Miguel A.; Gómez-Coronado, Diego; Martínez-Botas, Javier

    2012-01-01

    DHCR24 (3β-hydroxysterol Δ24-reductase) catalyses the reduction of the C-24 double bond of sterol intermediates during cholesterol biosynthesis. DHCR24 has also been involved in cell growth, senescence and cellular response to oncogenic and oxidative stress. Despite its important roles, little is known about the transcriptional mechanisms controlling DHCR24 gene expression. We analysed the proximal promoter region and the cholesterol-mediated regulation of DHCR24. A putative SRE (sterol-regulatory element) at −98/−90 bp of the transcription start site was identified. Other putative regulatory elements commonly found in SREBP (SRE-binding protein)-targeted genes were also identified. Sterol responsiveness was analysed by luciferase reporter assays of approximately 1 kb 5′-flanking region of the human DHCR24 gene in HepG2 and SK-N-MC cells. EMSAs (electrophoretic mobility-shift assays) and ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) assays demonstrated cholesterol-dependent recruitment and binding of SREBPs to the putative SRE. Given the presence of several CACCC-boxes in the DHCR24 proximal promoter, we assessed the role of KLF5 (Krüppel-like factor 5) in androgen-regulated DHCR24 expression. DHT (dihydrotestosterone) increased DHCR24 expression synergistically with lovastatin. However, DHT was unable to activate the DHCR24 proximal promoter, whereas KLF5 did, indicating that this mechanism is not involved in the androgen-induced stimulation of DHCR24 expression. The results of the present study allow the elucidation of the mechanism of regulation of the DHCR24 gene by cholesterol availability and identification of other putative cis-acting elements which may be relevant for the regulation of DHCR24 expression. PMID:23050906

  11. TRAIL-Based High Throughput Screening Reveals a Link between TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis and Glutathione Reductase, a Key Component of Oxidative Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Rozanov, Dmitri; Cheltsov, Anton; Sergienko, Eduard; Vasile, Stefan; Golubkov, Vladislav; Aleshin, Alexander E.; Levin, Trevor; Traer, Elie; Hann, Byron; Freimuth, Julia; Alexeev, Nikita; Alekseyev, Max A.; Budko, Sergey P; Bächinger, Hans Peter; Spellman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A high throughput screen for compounds that induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis identified ML100 as an active chemical probe, which potentiated TRAIL activity in prostate carcinoma PPC-1 and melanoma MDA-MB-435 cells. Follow-up in silico modeling and profiling in cell-based assays allowed us to identify NSC130362, pharmacophore analog of ML100 that induced 65-95% cytotoxicity in cancer cells and did not affect the viability of human primary hepatocytes. In agreement with the activation of the apoptotic pathway, both ML100 and NSC130362 synergistically with TRAIL induced caspase-3/7 activity in MDA-MB-435 cells. Subsequent affinity chromatography and inhibition studies convincingly demonstrated that glutathione reductase (GSR), a key component of the oxidative stress response, is a target of NSC130362. In accordance with the role of GSR in the TRAIL pathway, GSR gene silencing potentiated TRAIL activity in MDA-MB-435 cells but not in human hepatocytes. Inhibition of GSR activity resulted in the induction of oxidative stress, as was evidenced by an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxidation of mitochondrial membrane after NSC130362 treatment in MDA-MB-435 cells but not in human hepatocytes. The antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH) fully protected MDA-MB-435 cells from cell lysis induced by NSC130362 and TRAIL, thereby further confirming the interplay between GSR and TRAIL. As a consequence of activation of oxidative stress, combined treatment of different oxidative stress inducers and NSC130362 promoted cell death in a variety of cancer cells but not in hepatocytes in cell-based assays and in in vivo, in a mouse tumor xenograft model. PMID:26075913

  12. Defective removal of ribonucleotides from DNA promotes systemic autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Günther, Claudia; Kind, Barbara; Reijns, Martin A.M.; Berndt, Nicole; Martinez-Bueno, Manuel; Wolf, Christine; Tüngler, Victoria; Chara, Osvaldo; Lee, Young Ae; Hübner, Norbert; Bicknell, Louise; Blum, Sophia; Krug, Claudia; Schmidt, Franziska; Kretschmer, Stefanie; Koss, Sarah; Astell, Katy R.; Ramantani, Georgia; Bauerfeind, Anja; Morris, David L.; Cunninghame Graham, Deborah S.; Bubeck, Doryen; Leitch, Andrea; Ralston, Stuart H.; Blackburn, Elizabeth A.; Gahr, Manfred; Witte, Torsten; Vyse, Timothy J.; Melchers, Inga; Mangold, Elisabeth; Nöthen, Markus M.; Aringer, Martin; Kuhn, Annegret; Lüthke, Kirsten; Unger, Leonore; Bley, Annette; Lorenzi, Alice; Isaacs, John D.; Alexopoulou, Dimitra; Conrad, Karsten; Dahl, Andreas; Roers, Axel; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E.; Jackson, Andrew P.; Lee-Kirsch, Min Ae

    2014-01-01

    Genome integrity is continuously challenged by the DNA damage that arises during normal cell metabolism. Biallelic mutations in the genes encoding the genome surveillance enzyme ribonuclease H2 (RNase H2) cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), a pediatric disorder that shares features with the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here we determined that heterozygous parents of AGS patients exhibit an intermediate autoimmune phenotype and demonstrated a genetic association between rare RNASEH2 sequence variants and SLE. Evaluation of patient cells revealed that SLE- and AGS-associated mutations impair RNase H2 function and result in accumulation of ribonucleotides in genomic DNA. The ensuing chronic low level of DNA damage triggered a DNA damage response characterized by constitutive p53 phosphorylation and senescence. Patient fibroblasts exhibited constitutive upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes and an enhanced type I IFN response to the immunostimulatory nucleic acid polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid and UV light irradiation, linking RNase H2 deficiency to potentiation of innate immune signaling. Moreover, UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation was markedly enhanced in ribonucleotide-containing DNA, providing a mechanism for photosensitivity in RNase H2–associated SLE. Collectively, our findings implicate RNase H2 in the pathogenesis of SLE and suggest a role of DNA damage–associated pathways in the initiation of autoimmunity. PMID:25500883

  13. The FinR-regulated essential gene fprA, encoding ferredoxin NADP+ reductase: Roles in superoxide-mediated stress protection and virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Boonma, Siriwan; Romsang, Adisak; Duang-nkern, Jintana; Atichartpongkul, Sopapan; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa has two genes encoding ferredoxin NADP(+) reductases, denoted fprA and fprB. We show here that P. aeruginosa fprA is an essential gene. However, the ΔfprA mutant could only be successfully constructed in PAO1 strains containing an extra copy of fprA on a mini-Tn7 vector integrated into the chromosome or carrying it on a temperature-sensitive plasmid. The strain containing an extra copy of the ferredoxin gene (fdx1) could suppress the essentiality of FprA. Other ferredoxin genes could not suppress the requirement for FprA, suggesting that Fdx1 mediates the essentiality of FprA. The expression of fprA was highly induced in response to treatments with a superoxide generator, paraquat, or sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The induction of fprA by these treatments depended on FinR, a LysR-family transcription regulator. In vivo and in vitro analysis suggested that oxidized FinR acted as a transcriptional activator of fprA expression by binding to its regulatory box, located 20 bases upstream of the fprA -35 promoter motif. This location of the FinR box also placed it between the -35 and -10 motifs of the finR promoter, where the reduced regulator functions as a repressor. Under uninduced conditions, binding of FinR repressed its own transcription but had no effect on fprA expression. Exposure to paraquat or NaOCl converted FinR to a transcriptional activator, leading to the expression of both fprA and finR. The ΔfinR mutant showed an increased paraquat sensitivity phenotype and attenuated virulence in the Drosophila melanogaster host model. These phenotypes could be complemented by high expression of fprA, indicating that the observed phenotypes of the ΔfinR mutant arose from the inability to up-regulate fprA expression. In addition, increased expression of fprB was unable to rescue essentiality of fprA or the superoxide-sensitive phenotype of the ΔfinR mutant, suggesting distinct mechanisms of the FprA and FprB enzymes. PMID:28187184

  14. Investigating the intermediates in the reaction of ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase from Lactobacillus leichmannii : An application of HF EPR-RFQ technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzerova, Julia; Krymov, Vladimir; Gerfen, Gary J.

    2011-12-01

    In this investigation high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (HFEPR) in conjunction with innovative rapid freeze-quench (RFQ) technology is employed to study the exchange-coupled thiyl radical-cob(II)alamin system in ribonucleotide reductase from a prokaryote Lactobacillus leichmannii. The size of the exchange coupling ( Jex) and the values of the thiyl radical g tensor are refined, while confirming the previously determined (Gerfen et al. (1996) [20]) distance between the paramagnets. Conclusions relevant to ribonucleotide reductase catalysis and the architecture of the active site are presented. A key part of this work has been the development of a unique RFQ apparatus for the preparation of millisecond quench time RFQ samples which can be packed into small (0.5 mm ID) sample tubes used for CW and pulsed HFEPR - lack of this ability has heretofore precluded such studies. The technology is compatible with a broad range of spectroscopic techniques and can be readily adopted by other laboratories.

  15. Mechanism of Ribonucleotide Incorporation by Human DNA Polymerase η*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yan; Egli, Martin; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2016-01-01

    Ribonucleotides and 2′-deoxyribonucleotides are the basic units for RNA and DNA, respectively, and the only difference is the extra 2′-OH group on the ribonucleotide sugar. Cellular rNTP concentrations are much higher than those of dNTP. When copying DNA, DNA polymerases not only select the base of the incoming dNTP to form a Watson-Crick pair with the template base but also distinguish the sugar moiety. Some DNA polymerases use a steric gate residue to prevent rNTP incorporation by creating a clash with the 2′-OH group. Y-family human DNA polymerase η (hpol η) is of interest because of its spacious active site (especially in the major groove) and tolerance of DNA lesions. Here, we show that hpol η maintains base selectivity when incorporating rNTPs opposite undamaged DNA and the DNA lesions 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer but with rates that are 103-fold lower than for inserting the corresponding dNTPs. X-ray crystal structures show that the hpol η scaffolds the incoming rNTP to pair with the template base (dG) or 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine with a significant propeller twist. As a result, the 2′-OH group avoids a clash with the steric gate, Phe-18, but the distance between primer end and Pα of the incoming rNTP increases by 1 Å, elevating the energy barrier and slowing polymerization compared with dNTP. In addition, Tyr-92 was identified as a second line of defense to maintain the position of Phe-18. This is the first crystal structure of a DNA polymerase with an incoming rNTP opposite a DNA lesion. PMID:26740629

  16. Darwinian Behavior in a Cold, Sporadically Fed Pool of Ribonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A testable, explicit origin for Darwinian behavior, feasible on a chaotic early Earth, would aid origins discussion. Here I show that a pool receiving unreliable supplies of unstable ribonucleotide precursors can recurrently fill this role. By using numerical integration, the differential equations governing a sporadically fed pool are solved, yielding quantitative constraints for the proliferation of molecules that also have a chemical phenotype. For example, templated triphosphate nucleotide joining is >104 too slow, suggesting that a group more reactive than pyrophosphate activated primordial nucleotides. However, measured literature rates are sufficient if the Initial Darwinian Ancestor (IDA) resembles a 5′-5′ cofactor-like dinucleotide RNA, synthesized via activation with a phosphorimidazolide-like group. A sporadically fed pool offers unforeseen advantages; for example, the pool hosts a novel replicator which is predominantly unpaired, even though it replicates. Such free template is optimized for effective selection during its replication. Pool nucleotides are also subject to a broadly based selection that impels the population toward replication, effective selection, and Darwinian behavior. Such a primordial pool may have left detectable modern traces. A sporadically fed ribonucleotide pool also fits a recognizable early Earth environment, has recognizable modern descendants, and suits the early shape of the phylogenetic tree of Earthly life. Finally, analysis points to particular data now needed to refine the hypothesis. Accordingly, a kinetically explicit chemical hypothesis for a terran IDA can be justified, and informative experiments seem readily accessible. Key Words: Cofactor—RNA—Origin of life—Replication—Initial Darwinian Ancestor (IDA). Astrobiology 12, 870–883. PMID:22946838

  17. Tracking replication enzymology in vivo by genome-wide mapping of ribonucleotide incorporation.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Anders R; Lujan, Scott A; Burkholder, Adam B; Orebaugh, Clinton D; Williams, Jessica S; Clausen, Maryam F; Malc, Ewa P; Mieczkowski, Piotr A; Fargo, David C; Smith, Duncan J; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2015-03-01

    Ribonucleotides are frequently incorporated into DNA during replication in eukaryotes. Here we map genome-wide distribution of these ribonucleotides as markers of replication enzymology in budding yeast, using a new 5' DNA end-mapping method, hydrolytic end sequencing (HydEn-seq). HydEn-seq of DNA from ribonucleotide excision repair-deficient strains reveals replicase- and strand-specific patterns of ribonucleotides in the nuclear genome. These patterns support the roles of DNA polymerases α and δ in lagging-strand replication and of DNA polymerase ɛ in leading-strand replication. They identify replication origins, termination zones and variations in ribonucleotide incorporation frequency across the genome that exceed three orders of magnitude. HydEn-seq also reveals strand-specific 5' DNA ends at mitochondrial replication origins, thus suggesting unidirectional replication of a circular genome. Given the conservation of enzymes that incorporate and process ribonucleotides in DNA, HydEn-seq can be used to track replication enzymology in other organisms.

  18. In Situ Imidazole Activation of Ribonucleotides for Abiotic RNA Oligomerization Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burcar, Bradley T.; Jawed, Mohsin; Shah, Hari; McGown, Linda B.

    2015-06-01

    The hypothesis that RNA played a significant role in the origin of life requires effective and efficient abiotic pathways to produce RNA oligomers. The most successful abiotic oligomerization reactions to date have utilized high-energy, modified, or pre-activated ribonucleotides to generate strands of RNA up to 50-mers in length. In spite of their success, these modifications and pre-activation reactions significantly alter the ribonucleotides in ways that are highly unlikely to have occurred on a prebiotic Earth. This research seeks to address this problem by exploring an aqueous based method for activating the canonical ribonucleotides in situ using 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and imidazole. The reactions were run with and without a montmorillonite clay catalyst and compared to reactions that used ribonucleotides that were pre-activated with imidazole. The effects of pH and ribonucleotide concentration were also investigated. The results demonstrate the ability of in situ activation of ribonucleotides to generate linear RNA oligomers in solution, providing an alternative route to produce RNA for use in prebiotic Earth scenarios.

  19. Nitrate reductase from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides.

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, N L; Cardenas, J

    1982-01-01

    The facultative phototroph Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides DSM158 was incapable of either assimilating or dissimilating nitrate, although the organism could reduce it enzymatically to nitrite either anaerobically in the light or aerobically in the dark. Reduction of nitrate was mediated by a nitrate reductase bound to chromatophores that could be easily solubilized and functioned with chemically reduced viologens or photochemically reduced flavins as electron donors. The enzyme was solubilized, and some of its kinetic and molecular parameters were determined. It seemed to be nonadaptive, ammonia did not repress its synthesis, and its activity underwent a rapid decline when the cells entered the stationary growth phase. Studies with inhibitors and with metal antagonists indicated that molybdenum and possibly iron participate in the enzymatic reduction of nitrate. The conjectural significance of this nitrate reductase in phototrophic bacteria is discussed. PMID:6978883

  20. The Zea mays glycine-rich RNA-binding protein MA16 is bound to a ribonucleotide(s) by a stable linkage.

    PubMed

    Freire, Miguel Angel

    2012-09-01

    Expression of the gene encoding the maize glycine-rich RNA-binding protein MA16 is developmentally regulated and it is involved in environmental stress responses. The MA16 protein shows a wide spectrum of RNA-binding activities. On the basis of in vivo labelling, where a [³²P]phosphate label was linked to the MA16 protein, Freire and Pages (Plant Mol Biol 29:797-807, 1995) suggested that the protein may be post-translationally modified by phosphorylation. However, further analysis showed that the [³²P]phosphate label was sensitive to different treatments, suggesting that modification distinct from protein phosphorylation might occur in the MA16 protein. Biochemical analysis revealed that this [³²P]phosphate labelling was resistant to phenol extraction and denaturing SDS-PAGE but sensitive to micrococcal nuclease, RNase A and RNase T1 treatments. The mobility of [³⁵S] labelled MA16 protein on SDS-PAGE did not significantly changed after the nuclease treatments suggesting that the [³²P]phosphate label associated to MA16 protein could be a ribonucleotide or a very short ribonucleotide chain. In addition, immunoprecipitation of labelled extracts showed that the ribonucleotide(s) linked to the MA16 protein was removed by phosphorolytic activity. This activity could be catalysed by a phosphate-dependent ribonuclease. The C-terminus of MA16 protein harbouring a glycine-rich domain was predicted to be an intrinsically disordered region.

  1. High temperature triggers the metabolism of S-nitrosothiols in sunflower mediating a process of nitrosative stress which provokes the inhibition of ferredoxin-NADP reductase by tyrosine nitration.

    PubMed

    Chaki, Mounira; Valderrama, Raquel; Fernández-Ocaña, Ana M; Carreras, Alfonso; Gómez-Rodríguez, Maria V; López-Jaramillo, Javier; Begara-Morales, Juan C; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Luque, Francisco; Leterrier, Marina; Corpas, Francisco J; Barroso, Juan B

    2011-11-01

    High temperature (HT) is considered a major abiotic stress that negatively affects both vegetative and reproductive growth. Whereas the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is well established under HT, less is known about the metabolism of reactive nitrogen species (RNS). In sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings exposed to HT, NO content as well as S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) activity and expression were down-regulated with the simultaneous accumulation of total S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) including S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). However, the content of tyrosine nitration (NO(2) -Tyr) studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and by confocal laser scanning microscope was induced. Nitroproteome analysis under HT showed that this stress induced the protein expression of 13 tyrosine-nitrated proteins. Among the induced proteins, ferredoxin-NADP reductase (FNR) was selected to evaluate the effect of nitration on its activity after heat stress and in vitro conditions using 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) (peroxynitrite donor) as the nitrating agent, the FNR activity being inhibited. Taken together, these results suggest that HT augments SNOs, which appear to mediate protein tyrosine nitration, inhibiting FNR, which is involved in the photosynthesis process.

  2. Post-translational Regulation of Nitrate Reductase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrate reductase (NR) catalyzes the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, which is the first step in the nitrate assimilation pathway, but can also reduce nitrite to nitric oxide (NO), an important signaling molecule that is thought to mediate a wide array of of developmental and physiological processes...

  3. Renal reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:cytochrome c reductase-mediated metabolism of the carcinogen N-(4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl)acetamide

    SciTech Connect

    Mattammal, M.B.; Zenser, T.V.; Palmier, M.O.; Davis, B.B.

    1985-01-01

    N-(4-(5-Nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl)acetamide (NFTA) metabolism was examined in vitro using microsomes prepared from rat liver and renal cortex and from rabbit liver and renal cortex and outer and inner medulla. NFTA nitroreduction was observed with each tissue. Three mol of NADPH were used per mol of NFTA reduced. Substrate and inhibitor specificity suggested that the microsomal nitroreduction was due to NADPH:cytochrome c reductase. Metabolite(s) formed bound to protein, RNA, DNA, and synthetic polyribonucleotides. Maximum covalent binding was seen with polyguanylic acid. A guanosine-NFTA adduct was isolated. Binding was inhibited by sulfhydryl compounds and vitamin E. The (/sup 14/C)NFTA:glutathione or (/sup 3/H)glutathione:NFTA conjugates obtained from microsomal incubations showed identical chromatographic properties as the product obtained by the reaction of synthetic N-hydroxy-NFTA with (/sup 3/H)glutathione. Structures of synthetic N-hydroxy-NFTA and the microsomal reduction product 1-(4-(2-acetylaminothiazolyl))-3-cyano-1-propanone were established by mass spectrometry. The latter reduction product did not bind macromolecules. These results suggest that renal NADPH:cytochrome c reductase reduces NFTA to an N-hydroxy-NFTA intermediate that binds nucleophilic sites on macromolecules.

  4. NADH:Cytochrome b5 Reductase and Cytochrome b5 Can Act as Sole Electron Donors to Human Cytochrome P450 1A1-Mediated Oxidation and DNA Adduct Formation by Benzo[a]pyrene

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a human carcinogen that covalently binds to DNA after activation by cytochrome P450 (P450). Here, we investigated whether NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase (CBR) in the presence of cytochrome b5 can act as sole electron donor to human P450 1A1 during BaP oxidation and replace the canonical NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) system. We also studied the efficiencies of the coenzymes of these reductases, NADPH as a coenzyme of POR, and NADH as a coenzyme of CBR, to mediate BaP oxidation. Two systems containing human P450 1A1 were utilized: human recombinant P450 1A1 expressed with POR, CBR, epoxide hydrolase, and cytochrome b5 in Supersomes and human recombinant P450 1A1 reconstituted with POR and/or with CBR and cytochrome b5 in liposomes. BaP-9,10-dihydrodiol, BaP-7,8-dihydrodiol, BaP-1,6-dione, BaP-3,6-dione, BaP-9-ol, BaP-3-ol, a metabolite of unknown structure, and two BaP-DNA adducts were generated by the P450 1A1-Supersomes system, both in the presence of NADPH and in the presence of NADH. The major BaP-DNA adduct detected by 32P-postlabeling was characterized as 10-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-BaP (assigned adduct 1), while the minor adduct is probably a guanine adduct derived from 9-hydroxy-BaP-4,5-epoxide (assigned adduct 2). BaP-3-ol as the major metabolite, BaP-9-ol, BaP-1,6-dione, BaP-3,6-dione, an unknown metabolite, and adduct 2 were observed in the system using P450 1A1 reconstituted with POR plus NADPH. When P450 1A1 was reconstituted with CBR and cytochrome b5 plus NADH, BaP-3-ol was the predominant metabolite too, and an adduct 2 was also generated. Our results demonstrate that the NADH/cytochrome b5/CBR system can act as the sole electron donor both for the first and second reduction of P450 1A1 during the oxidation of BaP in vitro. They suggest that NADH-dependent CBR can replace NADPH-dependent POR in the P450 1A1-catalyzed metabolism of BaP. PMID:27404282

  5. Quinone Reductase 2 Is a Catechol Quinone Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Yue; Buryanovskyy, Leonid; Zhang, Zhongtao

    2008-09-05

    The functions of quinone reductase 2 have eluded researchers for decades even though a genetic polymorphism is associated with various neurological disorders. Employing enzymatic studies using adrenochrome as a substrate, we show that quinone reductase 2 is specific for the reduction of adrenochrome, whereas quinone reductase 1 shows no activity. We also solved the crystal structure of quinone reductase 2 in complexes with dopamine and adrenochrome, two compounds that are structurally related to catecholamine quinones. Detailed structural analyses delineate the mechanism of quinone reductase 2 specificity toward catechol quinones in comparison with quinone reductase 1; a side-chain rotational difference between quinone reductase 1 and quinone reductase 2 of a single residue, phenylalanine 106, determines the specificity of enzymatic activities. These results infer functional differences between two homologous enzymes and indicate that quinone reductase 2 could play important roles in the regulation of catecholamine oxidation processes that may be involved in the etiology of Parkinson disease.

  6. Antioxidative effects of diallyl trisulfide on hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity through regulation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor-mediated thioredoxin reductase 1 expression in C2C12 skeletal muscle myoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ji Sook; Kim, Gi-Yiung; Kim, Byung Woo; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2017-04-01

    Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is one of the major sulfur-containing compounds in garlic oil. In this study, we analyzed the effects of DATS against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in C2C12 myoblasts. DATS preconditioning significantly attenuated H2O2-induced growth inhibition and DNA damage, as well as apoptosis by decreasing the generation of ROS. Treatment with DATS alone effectively upregulated the expression of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), which was associated with the increased phosphorylation of Nrf2. However, the protective effects of DATS against H2O2-induced growth reduction and ROS accumulation were significantly abolished by auranofin, an inhibitor of TrxR activity. Moreover, DATS-mediated phosphorylation of Nrf2 and induction of TrxR1 were markedly reduced by genetic silencing of Nrf2. DATS treatment also induced the phosphorylation extracellular signal-regulating kinase (ERK), and analysis using specific inhibitors of cellular signaling pathways demonstrated that only ERK activation was involved in Nrf2 phosphorylation and TrxR1 induction. In addition, the cytoprotective potentials were abrogated in C2C12 cells pretreated with an ERK specific inhibitor. The results demonstrate that DATS protects against oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in C2C12 cells in part through the activation of Nrf2-mediated TrxR1 induction via the ERK signaling pathway.

  7. Single-Protein Tracking Reveals That NADPH Mediates the Insertion of Cytochrome P450 Reductase into a Biomimetic of the Endoplasmic Reticulum.

    PubMed

    Barnaba, Carlo; Martinez, Michael J; Taylor, Evan; Barden, Adam O; Brozik, James A

    2017-04-06

    Cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is the redox partner for most human cytochrome P450 enzymes. It is also believed that CPR is an integral membrane protein exclusively. Herein, we report that, contrary to this belief, CPR can exist as a peripheral membrane protein in the absence of NADPH and will transition to an integral membrane protein in the presence of stoichiometric amounts of NADPH or greater. All experiments were performed in a solid-supported cushioned lipid bilayer that closely matched the chemical composition of the human endoplasmic reticulum and served as an ER biomimetic. The phase characteristics and fluidity of the ER biomimetic was characterized with fluorescence micrographs and temperature-dependent fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. The interactions of CPR with the ER biomimetic were directly observed by tracking single CPR molecules using time-lapse single-molecule fluorescence imaging and subsequent analysis of tracks. These studies revealed dramatic changes in diffusion coefficient and the degree of partitioning of CPR as a function of NADPH concentration.

  8. Aldo-keto reductase 1C1 induced by interleukin-1β mediates the invasive potential and drug resistance of metastatic bladder cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Ryuji; Tsuda, Masumi; Yoshida, Kazuhiko; Tanino, Mishie; Kimura, Taichi; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Abe, Takashige; Shinohara, Nobuo; Nonomura, Katsuya; Tanaka, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    In treating bladder cancer, determining the molecular mechanisms of tumor invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance are urgent to improving long-term patient survival. One of the metabolic enzymes, aldo-keto reductase 1C1 (AKR1C1), plays an essential role in cancer invasion/metastasis and chemoresistance. In orthotopic xenograft models of a human bladder cancer cell line, UM-UC-3, metastatic sublines were established from tumors in the liver, lung, and bone. These cells possessed elevated levels of EMT-associated markers, such as Snail, Slug, or CD44, and exhibited enhanced invasion. By microarray analysis, AKR1C1 was found to be up-regulated in metastatic lesions, which was verified in metastatic human bladder cancer specimens. Decreased invasion caused by AKR1C1 knockdown suggests a novel role of AKR1C1 in cancer invasion, which is probably due to the regulation of Rac1, Src, or Akt. An inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1β, was found to increase AKR1C1 in bladder cancer cell lines. One particular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, flufenamic acid, antagonized AKR1C1 and decreased the cisplatin-resistance and invasion potential of metastatic sublines. These data uncover the crucial role of AKR1C1 in regulating both metastasis and drug resistance; as a result, AKR1C1 should be a potent molecular target in invasive bladder cancer treatment. PMID:27698389

  9. Ellman's-reagent-mediated regeneration of trypanothione in situ: substrate-economical microplate and time-dependent inhibition assays for trypanothione reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Chris J; Saravanamuthu, Ahilan; Eggleston, Ian M; Fairlamb, Alan H

    2003-01-01

    Trypanothione reductase (TryR) is a key enzyme involved in the oxidative stress management of the Trypanosoma and Leishmania parasites, which helps to maintain an intracellular reducing environment by reduction of the small-molecular-mass disulphide trypanothione (T[S](2)) to its di-thiol derivative dihydrotrypanothione (T[SH](2)). TryR inhibition studies are currently impaired by the prohibitive costs of the native enzyme substrate T[S](2). Such costs are particularly notable in time-dependent and high-throughput inhibition assays. In the present study we report a protocol that greatly decreases the substrate quantities needed for such assays. This is achieved by coupling the assay with the chemical oxidant 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), which can rapidly re-oxidize the T[SH](2) product back into the disulphide substrate T[S](2), thereby maintaining constant substrate concentrations and avoiding deviations from rate linearity due to substrate depletion. This has enabled the development of a continuous microplate assay for both classical and time-dependent TryR inhibition in which linear reaction rates can be maintained for 60 min or more using minimal substrate concentrations (<1 microM, compared with a substrate K (m) value of 30 microM) that would normally be completely consumed within seconds. In this manner, substrate requirements are decreased by orders of magnitude. The characterization of a novel time-dependent inhibitor, cis -3-oxo-8,9b-bis-(N(1)-acrylamidospermidyl)-1,2,3,4,4a,9b-hexahydrobenzofuran (PK43), is also described using these procedures. PMID:12416994

  10. The N-terminal Domain of Escherichia coli Assimilatory NADPH-Sulfite Reductase Hemoprotein Is an Oligomerization Domain That Mediates Holoenzyme Assembly.

    PubMed

    Askenasy, Isabel; Pennington, Joseph M; Tao, Yeqing; Marshall, Alan G; Young, Nicolas L; Shang, Weifeng; Stroupe, M Elizabeth

    2015-07-31

    Assimilatory NADPH-sulfite reductase (SiR) from Escherichia coli is a structurally complex oxidoreductase that catalyzes the six-electron reduction of sulfite to sulfide. Two subunits, one a flavin-binding flavoprotein (SiRFP, the α subunit) and the other an iron-containing hemoprotein (SiRHP, the β subunit), assemble to make a holoenzyme of about 800 kDa. How the two subunits assemble is not known. The iron-rich cofactors in SiRHP are unique because they are a covalent arrangement of a Fe4S4 cluster attached through a cysteine ligand to an iron-containing porphyrinoid called siroheme. The link between cofactor biogenesis and SiR stability is also ill-defined. By use of hydrogen/deuterium exchange and biochemical analysis, we show that the α8β4 SiR holoenzyme assembles through the N terminus of SiRHP and the NADPH binding domain of SiRFP. By use of small angle x-ray scattering, we explore the structure of the SiRHP N-terminal oligomerization domain. We also report a novel form of the hemoprotein that occurs in the absence of its cofactors. Apo-SiRHP forms a homotetramer, also dependent on its N terminus, that is unable to assemble with SiRFP. From these results, we propose that homotetramerization of apo-SiRHP serves as a quality control mechanism to prevent formation of inactive holoenzyme in the case of limiting cellular siroheme.

  11. The N-terminal Domain of Escherichia coli Assimilatory NADPH-Sulfite Reductase Hemoprotein Is an Oligomerization Domain That Mediates Holoenzyme Assembly*

    PubMed Central

    Askenasy, Isabel; Pennington, Joseph M.; Tao, Yeqing; Marshall, Alan G.; Young, Nicolas L.; Shang, Weifeng; Stroupe, M. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Assimilatory NADPH-sulfite reductase (SiR) from Escherichia coli is a structurally complex oxidoreductase that catalyzes the six-electron reduction of sulfite to sulfide. Two subunits, one a flavin-binding flavoprotein (SiRFP, the α subunit) and the other an iron-containing hemoprotein (SiRHP, the β subunit), assemble to make a holoenzyme of about 800 kDa. How the two subunits assemble is not known. The iron-rich cofactors in SiRHP are unique because they are a covalent arrangement of a Fe4S4 cluster attached through a cysteine ligand to an iron-containing porphyrinoid called siroheme. The link between cofactor biogenesis and SiR stability is also ill-defined. By use of hydrogen/deuterium exchange and biochemical analysis, we show that the α8β4 SiR holoenzyme assembles through the N terminus of SiRHP and the NADPH binding domain of SiRFP. By use of small angle x-ray scattering, we explore the structure of the SiRHP N-terminal oligomerization domain. We also report a novel form of the hemoprotein that occurs in the absence of its cofactors. Apo-SiRHP forms a homotetramer, also dependent on its N terminus, that is unable to assemble with SiRFP. From these results, we propose that homotetramerization of apo-SiRHP serves as a quality control mechanism to prevent formation of inactive holoenzyme in the case of limiting cellular siroheme. PMID:26088143

  12. Neuroprotective role for carbonyl reductase?

    PubMed

    Maser, Edmund

    2006-02-24

    Oxidative stress is increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and Creutzfeld-Jakob diseases or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Reactive oxygen species seem to play a significant role in neuronal cell death in that they generate reactive aldehydes from membrane lipid peroxidation. Several neuronal diseases are associated with increased accumulation of abnormal protein adducts of reactive aldehydes, which mediate oxidative stress-linked pathological events, including cellular growth inhibition and apoptosis induction. Combining findings on neurodegeneration and oxidative stress in Drosophila with studies on the metabolic characteristics of the human enzyme carbonyl reductase (CR), it is clear now that CR has a potential physiological role for neuroprotection in humans. Several lines of evidence suggest that CR represents a significant pathway for the detoxification of reactive aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation and that CR in humans is essential for neuronal cell survival and to confer protection against oxidative stress-induced brain degeneration.

  13. The MYC mRNA 3'-UTR couples RNA polymerase II function to glutamine and ribonucleotide levels.

    PubMed

    Dejure, Francesca R; Royla, Nadine; Herold, Steffi; Kalb, Jacqueline; Walz, Susanne; Ade, Carsten P; Mastrobuoni, Guido; Vanselow, Jens T; Schlosser, Andreas; Wolf, Elmar; Kempa, Stefan; Eilers, Martin

    2017-04-13

    Deregulated expression of MYC enhances glutamine utilization and renders cell survival dependent on glutamine, inducing "glutamine addiction". Surprisingly, colon cancer cells that express high levels of MYC due to WNT pathway mutations are not glutamine-addicted but undergo a reversible cell cycle arrest upon glutamine deprivation. We show here that glutamine deprivation suppresses translation of endogenous MYC via the 3'-UTR of the MYC mRNA, enabling escape from apoptosis. This regulation is mediated by glutamine-dependent changes in adenosine-nucleotide levels. Glutamine deprivation causes a global reduction in promoter association of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and slows transcriptional elongation. While activation of MYC restores binding of MYC and RNAPII function on most promoters, restoration of elongation is imperfect and activation of MYC in the absence of glutamine causes stalling of RNAPII on multiple genes, correlating with R-loop formation. Stalling of RNAPII and R-loop formation can cause DNA damage, arguing that the MYC 3'-UTR is critical for maintaining genome stability when ribonucleotide levels are low.

  14. Substitution of Ribonucleotides in the T7 RNA Polymerase Promoter Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinness, Kathleen E.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2001-01-01

    A systematic analysis was carried out to examine the effects of ribonucleotide substitution at various locations within the promoter element for T7 RNA polymerase. Ribonucleotides could be introduced at most positions without significantly decreasing transcription efficiency. A critical window of residues that were intolerant of RNA substitution was defined for both the non-template and template strands of the promoter. These residues are involved in important contacts with the AT-rich recognition loop, specificity loop, and P-intercalating hairpin of the polymerase. These results highlight the malleability of T7 RNA polymerase in recognizing its promoter element and suggest that promoters with altered backbone conformations may be used in molecular biology applications that employ T7 RNA polymerase for in vitro transcription.

  15. A ribonucleotide Origin for Life - Fluctuation and Near-ideal Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarus, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Oligoribonucleotides are potentially capable of Darwinian evolution - they may replicate and can express an independent chemical phenotype, as embodied in modern enzymatic cofactors. Using quantitative chemical kinetics on a sporadically fed ribonucleotide pool, unreliable supplies of unstable activated ribonucleotides A and B at low concentrations recurrently yield a replicating AB polymer with a potential chemical phenotype. Self-complementary replication in the pool occurs during a minority (here ≈ 35 %) of synthetic episodes that exploit coincidental overlaps between 4, 5 or 6 spikes of arbitrarily arriving substrates. Such uniquely productive synthetic episodes, in which near-ideal reaction sequences recur at random, account for most AB oligonucleotide synthesis, and therefore underlie the emergence of net replication under realistic primordial conditions. Because overlapping substrate spikes are unexpectedly frequent, and in addition, complex spike sequences appear disproportionately, a sporadically fed pool can host unexpectedly complex syntheses. Thus, primordial substrate fluctuations are not necessarily a barrier to Darwinism, but instead can facilitate early evolution.

  16. The structure of apo and holo forms of xylose reductase, a dimeric aldo-keto reductase from Candida tenuis.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Klimacek, Mario; Nidetzky, Bernd; Wilson, David K

    2002-07-16

    Xylose reductase is a homodimeric oxidoreductase dependent on NADPH or NADH and belongs to the largely monomeric aldo-keto reductase superfamily of proteins. It catalyzes the first step in the assimilation of xylose, an aldose found to be a major constituent monosaccharide of renewable plant hemicellulosic material, into yeast metabolic pathways. It does this by reducing open chain xylose to xylitol, which is reoxidized to xylulose by xylitol dehydrogenase and metabolically integrated via the pentose phosphate pathway. No structure has yet been determined for a xylose reductase, a dimeric aldo-keto reductase or a family 2 aldo-keto reductase. The structures of the Candida tenuis xylose reductase apo- and holoenzyme, which crystallize in spacegroup C2 with different unit cells, have been determined to 2.2 A resolution and an R-factor of 17.9 and 20.8%, respectively. Residues responsible for mediating the novel dimeric interface include Asp-178, Arg-181, Lys-202, Phe-206, Trp-313, and Pro-319. Alignments with other superfamily members indicate that these interactions are conserved in other dimeric xylose reductases but not throughout the remainder of the oligomeric aldo-keto reductases, predicting alternate modes of oligomerization for other families. An arrangement of side chains in a catalytic triad shows that Tyr-52 has a conserved function as a general acid. The loop that folds over the NAD(P)H cosubstrate is disordered in the apo form but becomes ordered upon cosubstrate binding. A slow conformational isomerization of this loop probably accounts for the observed rate-limiting step involving release of cosubstrate. Xylose binding (K(m) = 87 mM) is mediated by interactions with a binding pocket that is more polar than a typical aldo-keto reductase. Modeling of xylose into the active site of the holoenzyme using ordered waters as a guide for sugar hydroxyls suggests a convincing mode of substrate binding.

  17. Swinger RNAs with sharp switches between regular transcription and transcription systematically exchanging ribonucleotides: Case studies.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2015-09-01

    During RNA transcription, DNA nucleotides A,C,G, T are usually matched by ribonucleotides A, C, G and U. However occasionally, this rule does not apply: transcript-DNA homologies are detectable only assuming systematic exchanges between ribonucleotides. Nine symmetric (X ↔ Y, e.g. A ↔ C) and fourteen asymmetric (X ↔ Y ↔ Z, e.g. A ↔ C ↔ G) exchanges exist, called swinger transcriptions. Putatively, polymerases occasionally stabilize in unspecified swinger conformations, possibly similar to transient conformations causing punctual misinsertions. This predicts chimeric transcripts, part regular, part swinger-transformed, reflecting polymerases switching to swinger polymerization conformation(s). Four chimeric Genbank transcripts (three from human mitochondrion and one murine cytosolic) are described here: (a) the 5' and 3' extremities reflect regular polymerization, the intervening sequence exchanges systematically between ribonucleotides (swinger rule G ↔ U, transcript (1), with sharp switches between regular and swinger sequences; (b) the 5' half is 'normal', the 3' half systematically exchanges ribonucleotides (swinger rule C ↔ G, transcript (2), with an intercalated sequence lacking homology; (c) the 3' extremity fits A ↔ G exchanges (10% of transcript length), the 5' half follows regular transcription; the intervening region seems a mix of regular and A ↔ G transcriptions (transcript 3); (d) murine cytosolic transcript 4 switches to A ↔ U + C ↔ G, and is fused with A ↔ U + C ↔ G swinger transformed precursor rRNA. In (c), each concomitant transcript 5' and 3' extremities match opposite genome strands. Transcripts 3 and 4 combine transcript fusions with partial swinger transcriptions. Occasional (usually sharp) switches between regular and swinger transcriptions reveal greater coding potential than detected until now, suggest stable polymerase swinger conformations.

  18. Coupling of NAD+ biosynthesis and nicotinamide ribosyl transport: characterization of NadR ribonucleotide kinase mutants of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Merdanovic, Melisa; Sauer, Elizabeta; Reidl, Joachim

    2005-07-01

    Previously, we characterized a pathway necessary for the processing of NAD+ and for uptake of nicotinamide riboside (NR) in Haemophilus influenzae. Here we report on the role of NadR, which is essential for NAD+ utilization in this organism. Different NadR variants with a deleted ribonucleotide kinase domain or with a single amino acid change were characterized in vitro and in vivo with respect to cell viability, ribonucleotide kinase activity, and NR transport. The ribonucleotide kinase mutants were viable only in a nadV+ (nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase) background, indicating that the ribonucleotide kinase domain is essential for cell viability in H. influenzae. Mutations located in the Walker A and B motifs and the LID region resulted in deficiencies in both NR phosphorylation and NR uptake. The ribonucleotide kinase function of NadR was found to be feedback controlled by NAD+ under in vitro conditions and by NAD+ utilization in vivo. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the NR phosphorylation step is essential for both NR uptake across the inner membrane and NAD+ synthesis and is also involved in controlling the NAD+ biosynthesis rate.

  19. Coupling of NAD+ Biosynthesis and Nicotinamide Ribosyl Transport: Characterization of NadR Ribonucleotide Kinase Mutants of Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Merdanovic, Melisa; Sauer, Elizabeta; Reidl, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Previously, we characterized a pathway necessary for the processing of NAD+ and for uptake of nicotinamide riboside (NR) in Haemophilus influenzae. Here we report on the role of NadR, which is essential for NAD+ utilization in this organism. Different NadR variants with a deleted ribonucleotide kinase domain or with a single amino acid change were characterized in vitro and in vivo with respect to cell viability, ribonucleotide kinase activity, and NR transport. The ribonucleotide kinase mutants were viable only in a nadV+ (nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase) background, indicating that the ribonucleotide kinase domain is essential for cell viability in H. influenzae. Mutations located in the Walker A and B motifs and the LID region resulted in deficiencies in both NR phosphorylation and NR uptake. The ribonucleotide kinase function of NadR was found to be feedback controlled by NAD+ under in vitro conditions and by NAD+ utilization in vivo. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the NR phosphorylation step is essential for both NR uptake across the inner membrane and NAD+ synthesis and is also involved in controlling the NAD+ biosynthesis rate. PMID:15968050

  20. Hydroxyurea induces hydroxyl radical-mediated cell death in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Bryan W.; Kohanski, Michael A.; Simmons, Lyle A.; Winkler, Jonathan A.; Collins, James J.; Walker, Graham C.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Hydroxyurea (HU) specifically inhibits class I ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), depleting dNTP pools and leading to replication fork arrest. While HU inhibition of RNR has been recognized for decades, the mechanism by which it leads to cell death remains unknown. To investigate the mechanism of HU-induced cell death we used a systems-level approach to determine the genomic and physiological responses of E. coli to HU treatment. Our results suggest a model by which HU treatment rapidly induces a set of protective responses to manage genomic instability in the majority of the cell population. Continued HU stress activates iron uptake as well as the toxins MazF and RelE whose activity causes the synthesis of incompletely translated proteins and stimulation of the envelope stress response system. These effects alter the properties of one of the cell’s two terminal cytochrome oxidases in the electron transport chain, causing an increase in the production of superoxide. The increased superoxide production from the respiratory chain together with the increased iron uptake fuels the formation of hydroxyl radicals that contribute to HU-induced cell death. This work significantly expands our understanding of HU-mediated cell death and more broadly suggests a pathway whereby replication fork arrest leads to cell death. PMID:20005847

  1. Coupling of the guanosine glycosidic bond conformation and the ribonucleotide cleavage reaction: implications for barnase catalysis.

    PubMed

    Roca, Maite; De Maria, Leonardo; Wodak, Shoshana J; Moliner, Vicente; Tuñón, Iñaki; Giraldo, Jesús

    2008-02-01

    To examine the possible relationship of guanine-dependent GpA conformations with ribonucleotide cleavage, two potential of mean force (PMF) calculations were performed in aqueous solution. In the first calculation, the guanosine glycosidic (Gchi) angle was used as the reaction coordinate, and computations were performed on two GpA ionic species: protonated (neutral) or deprotonated (negatively charged) guanosine ribose O2 '. Similar energetic profiles featuring two minima corresponding to the anti and syn Gchi regions were obtained for both ionic forms. For both forms the anti conformation was more stable than the syn, and barriers of approximately 4 kcal/mol were obtained for the anti --> syn transition. Structural analysis showed a remarkable sensitivity of the phosphate moiety to the conformation of the Gchi angle, suggesting a possible connection between this conformation and the mechanism of ribonucleotide cleavage. This hypothesis was confirmed by the second PMF calculations, for which the O2 '--P distance for the deprotonated GpA was used as reaction coordinate. The computations were performed from two selected starting points: the anti and syn minima determined in the first PMF study of the deprotonated guanosine ribose O2'. The simulations revealed that the O2 ' attack along the syn Gchi was more favorable than that along the anti Gchi: energetically, significantly lower barriers were obtained in the syn than in the anti conformation for the O--P bond formation; structurally, a lesser O2 '--P initial distance, and a better suited orientation for an in-line attack was observed in the syn relative to the anti conformation. These results are consistent with the catalytically competent conformation of barnase-ribonucleotide complex, which requires a guanine syn conformation of the substrate to enable abstraction of the ribose H2 ' proton by the general base Glu73, thereby suggesting a coupling between the reactive substrate conformation and enzyme structure

  2. Complexed Structures of Formylglycinamide Ribonucleotide Amidotransferase from Thermotoga maritima Describe a Novel ATP Binding Protein Superfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Morar, Mariya; Anand, Ruchi; Hoskins, Aaron A.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Ealick, Steven E.

    2008-09-11

    Formylglycinamide ribonucleotide amidotransferase (FGAR-AT) catalyzes the ATP-dependent synthesis of formylglycinamidine ribonucleotide (FGAM) from formylglycinamide ribonucleotide (FGAR) and glutamine in the fourth step of the purine biosynthetic pathway. FGAR-AT is encoded by the purL gene. Two types of PurL have been detected. The first type, found in eukaryotes and Gram-negative bacteria, consists of a single 140 kDa polypeptide chain and is designated large PurL (lgPurL). The second type, small PurL (smPurL), is found in archaea and Gram-positive bacteria and consists of an 80 kDa polypeptide chain. SmPurL requires two additional gene products, PurQ and PurS, for activity. PurL is a member of a protein superfamily that contains a novel ATP-binding domain. Structures of several members of this superfamily are available in the unliganded form. We determined five different structures of FGAR-AT from Thermotoga maritima in the presence of substrates, a substrate analogue, and a product. These complexes have allowed a detailed description of the novel ATP-binding motif. The availability of a ternary complex enabled mapping of the active site, thus identifying potential residues involved in catalysis. The complexes show a conformational change in the active site compared to the unliganded structure. Surprising discoveries, an ATP molecule in an auxiliary site of the protein and the conformational changes associated with its binding, provoke speculation about the regulatory role of the auxiliary site in formation of the PurLSQ complex as well as the evolutionary relationship of PurLs from different organisms.

  3. Carbon-carbon double-bond reductases in nature.

    PubMed

    Huang, Minmin; Hu, Haihong; Ma, Li; Zhou, Quan; Yu, Lushan; Zeng, Su

    2014-08-01

    Reduction of C = C bonds by reductases, found in a variety of microorganisms (e.g. yeasts, bacteria, and lower fungi), animals, and plants has applications in the production of metabolites that include pharmacologically active drugs and other chemicals. Therefore, the reductase enzymes that mediate this transformation have become important therapeutic targets and biotechnological tools. These reductases are broad-spectrum, in that, they can act on isolation/conjugation C = C-bond compounds, α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, carboxylic acids, acid derivatives, and nitro compounds. In addition, several mutations in the reductase gene have been identified, some associated with diseases. Several of these reductases have been cloned and/or purified, and studies to further characterize them and determine their structure in order to identify potential industrial biocatalysts are still in progress. In this study, crucial reductases for bioreduction of C = C bonds have been reviewed with emphasis on their principal substrates and effective inhibitors, their distribution, genetic polymorphisms, and implications in human disease and treatment.

  4. Replication of vertebrate mitochondrial DNA entails transient ribonucleotide incorporation throughout the lagging strand

    PubMed Central

    Yasukawa, Takehiro; Reyes, Aurelio; Cluett, Tricia J; Yang, Ming-Yao; Bowmaker, Mark; Jacobs, Howard T; Holt, Ian J

    2006-01-01

    Using two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis, we show that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication of birds and mammals frequently entails ribonucleotide incorporation throughout the lagging strand (RITOLS). Based on a combination of two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoretic analysis and mapping of 5′ ends of DNA, initiation of RITOLS replication occurs in the major non-coding region of vertebrate mtDNA and is effectively unidirectional. In some cases, conversion of nascent RNA strands to DNA starts at defined loci, the most prominent of which maps, in mammalian mtDNA, in the vicinity of the site known as the light-strand origin. PMID:17066082

  5. Purification and characterization of assimilatory nitrite reductase from Candida utilis.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, S; Shaila, M S; Rao, G R

    1996-07-01

    Nitrate assimilation in many plants, algae, yeasts and bacteria is mediated by two enzymes, nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.2) and nitrite reductase (EC 1.7.7.1). They catalyse the stepwise reduction of nitrate to nitrite and nitrite to ammonia respectively. The nitrite reductase from an industrially important yeast, Candida utilis, has been purified to homogeneity. Purified nitrite reductase is a heterodimer and the molecular masses of the two subunits are 58 and 66 kDa. The native enzyme exhibits a molecular mass of 126 kDa as analysed by gel filtration. The identify of the two subunits of nitrite reductase was confirmed by immunoblotting using antibody for Cucurbita pepo leaf nitrite reductase. The presence of two different sized transcripts coding for the two subunits was confirmed by (a) in vitro translation of mRNA from nitrate-induced C. utilis followed by immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translated products with heterologous nitrite reductase antibody and (b) Northern-blot analysis. The 66 kDa subunit is acidic in nature which is probably due to its phosphorylated status. The enzyme is stable over a range of temperatures. Both subunits can catalyse nitrite reduction, and the reconstituted enzyme, at a higher protein concentration, shows an activity similar to that of the purified enzyme. Each of these subunits has been shown to contain a few unique peptides in addition to a large number of common peptides. Reduced Methyl Viologen has been found to be as effective an electron donor as NADPH in the catalytic process, a phenomenon not commonly seen for nitrite reductases from other systems.

  6. Fermentative production of ribonucleotides from whey by Kluyveromyces marxianus: effect of temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Húngaro, Humberto Moreira; Calil, Natalia Oliveira; Ferreira, Aline Siqueira; Chandel, Anuj Kumar; da Silva, Silvio Silvério

    2013-10-01

    Ribonucleotides have shown many promising applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of the present study was to produce ribonucleotides (RNA) by Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 8,554 utilizing cheese whey, a dairy industry waste, as a main substrate under batch fermentation conditions. The effects of temperature, pH, aeration rate, agitation and initial cellular concentration were studied simultaneously through factorial design for RNA, biomass production and lactose consumption. The maximum RNA production (28.66 mg/g of dry biomass) was observed at temperature 30°C, pH 5.0 and 1 g/l of initial cellular concentration after 2 h of fermentation. Agitation and aeration rate did not influence on RNA concentration (p > 0.05). Maximum lactose consumption (98.7%) and biomass production (6.0 g/l) was observed after 12 h of incubation. This study proves that cheese whey can be used as an adequate medium for RNA production by K. marxianus under the optimized conditions at industrial scale.

  7. Nitrate and periplasmic nitrate reductases

    PubMed Central

    Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney; Stolz, John F.; Basu, Partha

    2014-01-01

    The nitrate anion is a simple, abundant and relatively stable species, yet plays a significant role in global cycling of nitrogen, global climate change, and human health. Although it has been known for quite some time that nitrate is an important species environmentally, recent studies have identified potential medical applications. In this respect the nitrate anion remains an enigmatic species that promises to offer exciting science in years to come. Many bacteria readily reduce nitrate to nitrite via nitrate reductases. Classified into three distinct types – periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap), respiratory nitrate reductase (Nar) and assimilatory nitrate reductase (Nas), they are defined by their cellular location, operon organization and active site structure. Of these, Nap proteins are the focus of this review. Despite similarities in the catalytic and spectroscopic properties Nap from different Proteobacteria are phylogenetically distinct. This review has two major sections: in the first section, nitrate in the nitrogen cycle and human health, taxonomy of nitrate reductases, assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction, cellular locations of nitrate reductases, structural and redox chemistry are discussed. The second section focuses on the features of periplasmic nitrate reductase where the catalytic subunit of the Nap and its kinetic properties, auxiliary Nap proteins, operon structure and phylogenetic relationships are discussed. PMID:24141308

  8. Impact of ribonucleotide incorporation by DNA polymerases β and λ on oxidative base excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Crespan, Emmanuele; Furrer, Antonia; Rösinger, Marcel; Bertoletti, Federica; Mentegari, Elisa; Chiapparini, Giulia; Imhof, Ralph; Ziegler, Nathalie; Sturla, Shana J.; Hübscher, Ulrich; van Loon, Barbara; Maga, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a very frequent source of DNA damage. Many cellular DNA polymerases (Pols) can incorporate ribonucleotides (rNMPs) during DNA synthesis. However, whether oxidative stress-triggered DNA repair synthesis contributes to genomic rNMPs incorporation is so far not fully understood. Human specialized Pols β and λ are the important enzymes involved in the oxidative stress tolerance, acting both in base excision repair and in translesion synthesis past the very frequent oxidative lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-G). We found that Pol β, to a greater extent than Pol λ can incorporate rNMPs opposite normal bases or 8-oxo-G, and with a different fidelity. Further, the incorporation of rNMPs opposite 8-oxo-G delays repair by DNA glycosylases. Studies in Pol β- and λ-deficient cell extracts suggest that Pol β levels can greatly affect rNMP incorporation opposite oxidative DNA lesions. PMID:26917111

  9. Structural analysis of the active site geometry of N5-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Thoden, James B; Holden, Hazel M; Firestine, Steven M

    2008-12-16

    N(5)-Carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase (N(5)-CAIR synthetase) converts 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR), MgATP, and bicarbonate into N(5)-CAIR, MgADP, and P(i). The enzyme is required for de novo purine biosynthesis in microbes yet is not found in humans suggesting that it represents an ideal and unexplored target for antimicrobial drug design. Here we report the X-ray structures of N(5)-CAIR synthetase from Escherichia coli with either MgATP or MgADP/P(i) bound in the active site cleft. These structures, determined to 1.6-A resolution, provide detailed information regarding the active site geometry before and after ATP hydrolysis. In both structures, two magnesium ions are observed. Each of these is octahedrally coordinated, and the carboxylate side chain of Glu238 bridges them. For the structure of the MgADP/P(i) complex, crystals were grown in the presence of AIR and MgATP. No electron density was observed for AIR, and the electron density corresponding to the nucleotide clearly revealed the presence of ADP and P(i) rather than ATP. The bound P(i) shifts by approximately 3 A relative to the gamma-phosphoryl group of ATP and forms electrostatic interactions with the side chains of Arg242 and His244. Since the reaction mechanism of N(5)-CAIR synthetase is believed to proceed via a carboxyphosphate intermediate, we propose that the location of the inorganic phosphate represents the binding site for stabilization of this reactive species. Using the information derived from the two structures reported here, coupled with molecular modeling, we propose a catalytic mechanism for N(5)-CAIR synthetase.

  10. Profiling ribonucleotide modifications at full-transcriptome level: a step toward MS-based epitranscriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Rebecca E.; Quinn, Ryan; Sayre, Jackie L.

    2015-01-01

    The elucidation of the biological significance of RNA post-transcriptional modifications is hampered by the dearth of effective high-throughput sequencing approaches for detecting, locating, and tracking their levels as a function of predetermined experimental factors. With the goal of confronting this knowledge gap, we devised a strategy for completing global surveys of all ribonucleotide modifications in a cell, which is based on the analysis of whole cell extracts by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Our approach eschews chromatographic separation to promote instead the direct application of MS techniques capable of providing detection, differentiation, and quantification of post-transcriptional modifications (PTMs) in complex ribonucleotide mixtures. Accurate mass analysis was used to carry out database-aided identification of PTMs, whereas multistep tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) and consecutive reaction monitoring (CRM) provided the necessary structural corroboration. We demonstrated that heat-map plots afforded by ion mobility spectrometry mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) can provide comprehensive modification profiles that are unique for different cell types and metabolic states. We showed that isolated tRNA samples can be used as controlled sources of PTMs in standard-additions quantification. Intrinsic internal standards enable direct comparisons of heat-maps obtained under different experimental conditions, thus offering the opportunity to evaluate the global effects of such conditions on the expression levels of all PTMs simultaneously. This type of comparative analysis will be expected to support the investigation of the system biology of RNA modifications, which will be aimed at exploring mutual correlations of their expression levels and providing new valuable insights into their biological significance. PMID:25995446

  11. Zeatin reductase in Phaseolus embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.C.; Mok, David, W.S.; Mok, M.C. )

    1989-04-01

    Zeatin was converted to O-xylosylzeatin in embryos of Phaseolus vulgaris . O-xylosyldihydrozeatin was also identified as a zeatin metabolite. Incubation of embryo extracts with {sup 14}C-zeatin and {sup 14}C-O-xylosylzeatin revealed that reduction preceeds the O-xylosylation of zeatin. An enzyme responsible for reducing the N{sup 6}-side chain was isolated and partially purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation and affinity, gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. The NADPH dependent reductase was zeatin specific and did not recognize cis-zeatin, ribosylzeatin, i{sup 6}Ade or i{sup 6}Ado. Two forms of the reductase could be separated by either gel filtration or anion exchange HPLC. The HMW isozyme (Mr. 55,000) eluted from the anion exchange column later than the LMW isozyme (Mr. 25,000). Interspecific differences in zeatin reductase activity were also detected.

  12. Isolated menthone reductase and nucleic acid molecules encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney B; Davis, Edward M; Ringer, Kerry L

    2013-04-23

    The present invention provides isolated menthone reductase proteins, isolated nucleic acid molecules encoding menthone reductase proteins, methods for expressing and isolating menthone reductase proteins, and transgenic plants expressing elevated levels of menthone reductase protein.

  13. Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics Analysis of Ribonucleotide and RNA Metabolism in Human Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Teresa W-M; Tan, Jinlian; McKinney, Martin M; Lane, Andrew N

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a simple NMR-based method to determine the turnover of nucleotides and incorporation into RNA by stable isotope resolved metabolomics (SIRM) in A549 lung cancer cells. This method requires no chemical degradation of the nucleotides or chromatography. During cell growth, the free ribonucleotide pool is rapidly replaced by de novo synthesized nucleotides. Using [U-(13)C]-glucose and [U-(13)C,(15)N]-glutamine as tracers, we showed that virtually all of the carbons in the nucleotide riboses were derived from glucose, whereas glutamine was preferentially utilized over glucose for pyrimidine ring biosynthesis, via the synthesis of Asp through the Krebs cycle. Incorporation of the glutamine amido nitrogen into the N3 and N9 positions of the purine rings was also demonstrated by proton-detected (15)N NMR. The incorporation of (13)C from glucose into total RNA was measured and shown to be a major sink for the nucleotides during cell proliferation. This method was applied to determine the metabolic action of an anti-cancer selenium agent (methylseleninic acid or MSA) on A549 cells. We found that MSA inhibited nucleotide turnover and incorporation into RNA, implicating an important role of nucleotide metabolism in the toxic action of MSA on cancer cells.

  14. [Synergistic effect and quantification of 5'-ribonucleotides in a chicken soup].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrezy, Carla; Sangronis, Elba

    2006-09-01

    The international and national regulation permits the addition of flavour enhancers such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) and inosinic and guanilic acids and their fosfated salts (IMP or GMP, respectively) alone or combined to dehydrated mixtures of broths and soups in order to obtain a synergistic. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine, through a sensorial panel, the synergistic effect on the flavour of a dehydrated chicken soup to which flavour enhancers were added and (2) quantify the 5'-ribonucleotides in such matrix. The intensity of the chicken flavour was determined using a previously trained 6-member panel. The 5'-ribonucleotidos were determined using the HPLC technique. The results using the panel demonstrated that the combination of GMS, IMF and GMF used potentiates significantly (p < 0.05) the flavour of the dehydrated chicken soup, which allows the use of less quantity of them to obtain the same effect on the flavour. The chemical analysis of the 5'-ribonucleotidos in the dehydrated chicken soup reflected a percentage of recovery of 93.6% for MSG and 90.5% for IMF.

  15. Crystal Structure and Function of 5-Formaminoimidazole-4-carboxamide Ribonucleotide Synthetase from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; White, Robert H.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2008-08-06

    Purine biosynthesis requires 10 enzymatic steps in higher organisms, while prokaryotes require an additional enzyme for step 6. In most organisms steps 9 and 10 are catalyzed by the purH gene product, a bifunctional enzyme with both 5-formaminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (FAICAR) synthase and inosine monophosphate (IMP) cyclohydrolase activity. Recently it was discovered that Archaea utilize different enzymes to catalyze steps 9 and 10. An ATP-dependent FAICAR synthetase is encoded by the purP gene, and IMP cyclohydrolase is encoded by the purO gene. We have determined the X-ray crystal structures of FAICAR synthetase from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii complexed with various ligands, including the tertiary substrate complex and product complex. The enzyme belongs to the ATP grasp superfamily and is predicted to use a formyl phosphate intermediate formed by an ATP-dependent phosphorylation. In addition, we have determined the structures of a PurP orthologue from Pyrococcus furiosus, which is functionally unclassified, in three crystal forms. With approximately 50% sequence identity, P. furiosus PurP is structurally homologous to M. jannaschii PurP. A phylogenetic analysis was performed to explore the possible role of this functionally unclassified PurP.

  16. Molybdenum effector of fumarate reductase repression and nitrate reductase induction in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Iuchi, S; Lin, E C

    1987-01-01

    In Escherichia coli the presence of nitrate prevents the utilization of fumarate as an anaerobic electron acceptor. The induction of the narC operon encoding the nitrate reductase is coupled to the repression of the frd operon encoding the fumarate reductase. This coupling is mediated by nitrate as an effector and the narL product as the regulatory protein (S. Iuchi and E. C. C. Lin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:3901-3905, 1987). The protein-ligand complex appears to control narC positively but frd negatively. In the present study we found that a molybdenum coeffector acted synergistically with nitrate in the regulation of frd and narC. In chlD mutants believed to be impaired in molybdate transport (or processing), full repression of phi(frd-lac) and full induction of phi(narC-lac) by nitrate did not occur unless the growth medium was directly supplemented with molybdate (1 microM). This requirement was not clearly manifested in wild-type cells, apparently because it was met by the trace quantities of molybdate present as a contaminant in the mineral medium. In chlB mutants, which are known to accumulate the Mo cofactor because of its failure to be inserted as a prosthetic group into proteins such as nitrate reductase, nitrate repression of frd and induction of narC were also intensified by molybdate supplementation. In this case a deficiency of the molybdenum coeffector might have resulted from enhanced feedback inhibition of molybdate transport (or processing) by the elevated level of the unutilized Mo cofactor. In addition, mutations in chlE, which are known to block the synthesis of the organic moiety of the Mo cofactor, lowered the threshold concentration of nitrate (< 1 micromole) necessary for frd repression and narC induction. These changes could be explained simply by the higher intracellular nitrate attainable in cells lacking the ability to destroy the effector. PMID:3301812

  17. Genome-wide mapping of embedded ribonucleotides and other non-canonical nucleotides using emRiboSeq and EndoSeq

    PubMed Central

    Ding, James; Taylor, Martin S.; Jackson, Andrew P.; Reijns, Martin A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Ribonucleotides are the most common non-canonical nucleotides incorporated into the genome of replicating cells. They are efficiently removed by ribonucleotide excision repair initiated by Ribonuclease (RNase) H2 cleavage. In the absence of RNase H2, such embedded ribonucleotides can be used to track DNA polymerase activity in vivo. To determine their precise location in Saccharomyces cerevisiae we developed embedded Ribonucleotide Sequencing (emRiboSeq), which uses recombinant RNase H2 to selectively create ligatable 3’-hydroxyl groups, in contrast to alternative methods that utilize alkaline hydrolysis. EmRiboSeq allows reproducible, strand-specific and potentially quantitative detection of embedded ribonucleotides at single-nucleotide resolution. This protocol can be adapted for the genome-wide mapping of other non-canonical bases by replacing RNase H2 with specific nicking endonucleases, a method we term Endonuclease Sequencing (EndoSeq). With the protocol taking <5 days to complete, these methods allow the in vivo study of DNA replication and repair, including the identification of replication origins and termination regions. PMID:26313479

  18. Adoption and validation of Ribonucleotide Reductase (RNR)-based real-time assays for detection of HLB ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), aka Citrus Greening, is a well-known destructive disease that threatens the multi-billion dollar citrus industry in the United States and citrus production in other countries around the world. The presumptive causal agent of HLB, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas), is of...

  19. Deletion of Marek’s disease virus large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RR) impairs virus growth in vitro and in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated lymphotropic alphaherpesvirus, is the causative agent of a neoplastic disease in domestic chickens, called Marek’s disease (MD). In the unique long region of the MDV genome, open reading frames UL39 and UL40 encode the large and small subunits o...

  20. Elucidation of the bicarbonate binding site and insights into the carboxylation mechanism of (N(5))-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthase (PurK) from Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Tuntland, Micheal L; Santarsiero, Bernard D; Johnson, Michael E; Fung, Leslie W M

    2014-11-01

    Structures of (N(5))-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthase (PurK) from Bacillus anthracis with various combinations of ATP, ADP, Mg(2+), bicarbonate and aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR) in the active site are presented. The binding site of bicarbonate has only been speculated upon previously, but is shown here for the first time. The binding involves interactions with the conserved residues Arg272, His274 and Lys348. These structures provide insights into each ligand in the active site and allow a possible mechanism to be proposed for the reaction that converts bicarbonate and AIR, in the presence of ATP, to produce (N(5))-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide. The formation of a carboxyphosphate intermediate through ATP phosphoryl transfer is proposed, followed by carboxylation of AIR to give the product, facilitated by a cluster of conserved residues and an active-site water network.

  1. Mycobacterium smegmatis DinB2 misincorporates deoxyribonucleotides and ribonucleotides during templated synthesis and lesion bypass

    PubMed Central

    Ordonez, Heather; Shuman, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium smegmatis DinB2 is the founder of a clade of Y-family DNA polymerase that is naturally adept at utilizing rNTPs or dNTPs as substrates. Here we investigate the fidelity and lesion bypass capacity of DinB2. We report that DinB2 is an unfaithful DNA and RNA polymerase with a distinctive signature for misincorporation of dNMPs, rNMPs and oxoguanine nucleotides during templated synthesis in vitro. DinB2 has a broader mutagenic spectrum with manganese than magnesium, though low ratios of manganese to magnesium suffice to switch DinB2 to its more mutagenic mode. DinB2 discrimination against incorrect dNTPs in magnesium is primarily at the level of substrate binding affinity, rather than kpol. DinB2 can incorporate any dNMP or rNMP opposite oxo-dG in the template strand with manganese as cofactor, with a kinetic preference for synthesis of an A:oxo-dG Hoogsteen pair. With magnesium, DinB2 is adept at synthesizing A:oxo-dG or C:oxo-dG pairs. DinB2 effectively incorporates deoxyribonucleotides, but not ribonucleotides, opposite an abasic site, with kinetic preference for dATP as the substrate. We speculate that DinB2 might contribute to mycobacterial mutagenesis, oxidative stress and quiescence, and discuss the genetic challenges to linking the polymerase biochemistry to an in vivo phenotype. PMID:25352547

  2. Fatty acyl-CoA reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, Steven E.; Somerville, Chris R.

    1998-12-01

    The present invention relates to bacterial enzymes, in particular to an acyl-CoA reductase and a gene encoding an acyl-CoA reductase, the amino acid and nucleic acid sequences corresponding to the reductase polypeptide and gene, respectively, and to methods of obtaining such enzymes, amino acid sequences and nucleic acid sequences. The invention also relates to the use of such sequences to provide transgenic host cells capable of producing fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes.

  3. An electron transport system in maize roots for reactions of glutamate synthase and nitrite reductase : physiological and immunochemical properties of the electron carrier and pyridine nucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, A; Oaks, A; Jacquot, J P; Vidal, J; Gadal, P

    1985-06-01

    A non-heme iron containing protein which bears an antigenic similarity to ferredoxin from spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea L.) has been identified in extracts prepared from young roots of maize (Zea mays L., hybrid W64A x W182E). The ferredoxin-like root electron carrier could substitute for ferredoxin in a cytochrome c reduction system in which pyridine nucleotide (NADPH) reduces the root electron carrier in a reaction catalyzed by ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase (EC 1.6.7.1) from spinach leaves. However, the root electron carrier did not mediate the photoreduction of NADP(+) in an illuminated reconstituted chloroplast system.A pyridine nucleotide reductase which shares identical immunological determinants with the ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase from spinach leaves has also been characterized from maize roots. Root pyridine nucleotide reductase mediated the transfer of electrons from either NADPH or NADH to cytochrome c via ferredoxin or the root electron carrier. Under chemical reducing conditions with sodium dithionite and bicarbonate, the ferredoxin-like root electron carrier served as an electron carrier for the ferredoxin-requiring glutamate synthase (EC 1.4.7.1) and nitrite reductase (EC 1.7.7.1) obtained from maize roots or leaves. In the presence of root pyridine nucleotide reductase and root electron carrier, either NADPH or NADH served as the primary electron donor for glutamate synthesis in extracts from maize roots or leaves. The electron transport system originating with NADH or NADPH, was, however, not able to mediate the reduction of NO(2) (-) to NH(3).

  4. Structure of genes narL and narX of the nar (nitrate reductase) locus in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, V; Parales, J; Merkel, S M

    1989-01-01

    narL and narX mediate nitrate induction of nitrate reductase synthesis and nitrate repression of fumarate reductase synthesis. We report here the nucleotide sequences of narL and narX. The deduced protein sequences aid in defining distinct subclasses of regulators and sensors in the family of two-component regulatory proteins. PMID:2649492

  5. Cloning of a chicken liver cDNA encoding 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide carboxylase and 5-aminoimidazole-4-N-succinocarboxamide ribonucleotide synthetase by functional complementation of Escherichia coli pur mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Z D; Dixon, J E; Zalkin, H

    1990-01-01

    We have used functional complementation of Escherichia coli pur mutants to clone avian cDNA encoding 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR) carboxylase-5-aminoimidazole-4-N-succinocarboxamide ribonucleotide (SAICAR) synthetase, the bifunctional enzyme catalyzing steps 6 and 7 in the pathway for de novo purine nucleotide synthesis. Mutational analyses have been used to establish the structure-function relationship: NH2-SAICAR synthetase-AIR carboxylase-COOH. The amino acid sequence of the SAICAR synthetase domain is homologous to that of bacterial purC-encoded enzymes, and the sequence of the following AIR carboxylase domain is homologous to that of bacterial purE-encoded enzymes. In E. coli, AIR carboxylase is the product of genes purEK with the purK subunit postulated to have a role in CO2 binding. The avian enzyme lacks sequences corresponding to purK yet functions in E. coli. Functional complementation of E. coli pur mutants can be used to clone additional avian cDNAs for de novo purine nucleotide synthesis. Images PMID:1691501

  6. Inner nuclear membrane protein Lem2 facilitates Rad3-mediated checkpoint signaling under replication stress induced by nucleotide depletion in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong-Jie

    2016-04-01

    DNA replication checkpoint is a highly conserved cellular signaling pathway critical for maintaining genome integrity in eukaryotes. It is activated when DNA replication is perturbed. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, perturbed replication forks activate the sensor kinase Rad3 (ATR/Mec1), which works cooperatively with mediator Mrc1 and the 9-1-1 checkpoint clamp to phosphorylate the effector kinase Cds1 (CHK2/Rad53). Phosphorylation of Cds1 promotes autoactivation of the kinase. Activated Cds1 diffuses away from the forks and stimulates most of the checkpoint responses under replication stress. Although this signaling pathway has been well understood in fission yeast, how the signaling is initiated and thus regulated remains incompletely understood. Previous studies have shown that deletion of lem2(+) sensitizes cells to the inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase, hydroxyurea. However, the underlying mechanism is still not well understood. This study shows that in the presence of hydroxyurea, Lem2 facilitates Rad3-mediated checkpoint signaling for Cds1 activation. Without Lem2, all known Rad3-dependent phosphorylations critical for replication checkpoint signaling are seriously compromised, which likely causes the aberrant mitosis and drug sensitivity observed in this mutant. Interestingly, the mutant is not very sensitive to DNA damage and the DNA damage checkpoint remains largely intact, suggesting that the main function of Lem2 is to facilitate checkpoint signaling in response to replication stress. Since Lem2 is an inner nuclear membrane protein, these results also suggest that the replication checkpoint may be spatially regulated inside the nucleus, a previously unknown mechanism.

  7. Cyclohexanol and methylcyclohexanols. A family of inhibitors of hepatic HMGCoA reductase in vivo.

    PubMed

    Miciak, A; White, D A; Middleton, B

    1986-10-15

    Oral dosing of rats with cyclohexanol and methylcyclohexanols resulted in the inhibition of hepatic HMGCoA reductase. Neither cyclohexane or cyclohexane diols exerted any effects. Inhibition was not due to alcohol dehydrogenase mediated changes in redox state since 3,3',5-trimethylcyclohexanol (TMC), a non substrate for alcohol dehydrogenase, was a potent inhibitor of HMGCoA reductase. Following a single dose of TMC there was no alteration in total hepatic HMGCoA reductase activity for more than 6 hr after which the enzyme activity was depressed in a dose-dependent manner. The normal diurnal rhythm of HMGCoA reductase was reduced in amplitude following TMC administration but the phase was unaltered and the t 1/2 for activity decay following the peak of activity was unaffected. Prior to the inhibitory effect of a TMC dose becoming apparent in total HMGCoA reductase activity we found that the expressed activity of the enzyme (after isolation in F- medium to suppress endogenous protein phosphatase) was depressed by 43%. The inhibitory effect of TMC on total HMGCoA reductase activity seen 8 hr or more after dosing was reflected by inhibition of sterol synthesis in liver measured in vivo after [3H]-H2O administration.

  8. Nitrate Reductase Regulates Expression of Nitrite Uptake and Nitrite Reductase Activities in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 1

    PubMed Central

    Galván, Aurora; Cárdenas, Jacobo; Fernández, Emilio

    1992-01-01

    In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutants defective at the structural locus for nitrate reductase (nit-1) or at loci for biosynthesis of the molybdopterin cofactor (nit-3, nit-4, or nit-5 and nit-6), both nitrite uptake and nitrite reductase activities were repressed in ammonium-grown cells and expressed at high amounts in nitrogen-free media or in media containing nitrate or nitrite. In contrast, wild-type cells required nitrate induction for expression of high levels of both activities. In mutants defective at the regulatory locus for nitrate reductase (nit-2), very low levels of nitrite uptake and nitrite reductase activities were expressed even in the presence of nitrate or nitrite. Both restoration of nitrate reductase activity in mutants defective at nit-1, nit-3, and nit-4 by isolating diploid strains among them and transformation of a structural mutant upon integration of the wild-type nit-1 gene gave rise to the wild-type expression pattern for nitrite uptake and nitrite reductase activities. Conversely, inactivation of nitrate reductase by tungstate treatment in nitrate, nitrite, or nitrogen-free media made wild-type cells respond like nitrate reductase-deficient mutants with respect to the expression of nitrite uptake and nitrite reductase activities. Our results indicate that nit-2 is a regulatory locus for both the nitrite uptake system and nitrite reductase, and that the nitrate reductase enzyme plays an important role in the regulation of the expression of both enzyme activities. PMID:16668656

  9. Mechanisms Employed by Escherichia coli to Prevent Ribonucleotide Incorporation into Genomic DNA by Pol V

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, John P.; Vaisman, Alexandra; Kuban, Wojciech; Goodman, Myron F.; Woodgate, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli pol V (UmuD′2C), the main translesion DNA polymerase, ensures continued nascent strand extension when the cellular replicase is blocked by unrepaired DNA lesions. Pol V is characterized by low sugar selectivity, which can be further reduced by a Y11A “steric-gate” substitution in UmuC that enables pol V to preferentially incorporate rNTPs over dNTPs in vitro. Despite efficient error-prone translesion synthesis catalyzed by UmuC_Y11A in vitro, strains expressing umuC_Y11A exhibit low UV mutability and UV resistance. Here, we show that these phenotypes result from the concomitant dual actions of Ribonuclease HII (RNase HII) initiating removal of rNMPs from the nascent DNA strand and nucleotide excision repair (NER) removing UV lesions from the parental strand. In the absence of either repair pathway, UV resistance and mutagenesis conferred by umuC_Y11A is significantly enhanced, suggesting that the combined actions of RNase HII and NER lead to double-strand breaks that result in reduced cell viability. We present evidence that the Y11A-specific UV phenotype is tempered by pol IV in vivo. At physiological ratios of the two polymerases, pol IV inhibits pol V–catalyzed translesion synthesis (TLS) past UV lesions and significantly reduces the number of Y11A-incorporated rNTPs by limiting the length of the pol V–dependent TLS tract generated during lesion bypass in vitro. In a recA730 lexA(Def) ΔumuDC ΔdinB strain, plasmid-encoded wild-type pol V promotes high levels of spontaneous mutagenesis. However, umuC_Y11A-dependent spontaneous mutagenesis is only ∼7% of that observed with wild-type pol V, but increases to ∼39% of wild-type levels in an isogenic ΔrnhB strain and ∼72% of wild-type levels in a ΔrnhA ΔrnhB double mutant. Our observations suggest that errant ribonucleotides incorporated by pol V can be tolerated in the E. coli genome, but at the cost of higher levels of cellular mutagenesis. PMID:23144626

  10. Human carbonyl reductase (CBR) localized to band 21q22. 1 by high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization displays gene dosage effects in trisomy 21 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, N. ); Malfoy, B. ); Forrest, G.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Human carbonyl reductase (CBR) belongs to a group of NADPH-dependent enzymes called aldo-keto reductases. The enzyme can function as an aldo-keto reductase or as a quinone reductase with potential for modulating quinone-mediated oxygen free radicals. The CBR gene was mapped by high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization to band 21q22.12, very close to the SOD1 locus at position 2lq22.11. CBR displayed gene dosage effects in trisomy 21 human lymphoblasts at the DNA and mRNA levels. Lymphoblasts with increasing chromosome 21 ploidy also showed increased aldo-keto reductase activity and increased quinone reductase activity. Both aldo-keto reductase activity and quinone reductase activity have been shown to be associated with carbonyl reductase. The location of CBR near SOD1 and the increased enzyme activity and potential for free radical modulation in trisomy 21 cells implicate CBR as a candidate for contributing to the pathology of certain diseases such as Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease. 28 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Inhibition of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase by the model sulfur mustard vesicant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Joshua P.; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2010-09-01

    Inhalation of vesicants including sulfur mustard can cause significant damage to the upper airways. This is the result of vesicant-induced modifications of proteins important in maintaining the integrity of the lung. Cytochrome P450s are the major enzymes in the lung mediating detoxification of sulfur mustard and its metabolites. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase is a flavin-containing electron donor for cytochrome P450. The present studies demonstrate that the sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), is a potent inhibitor of human recombinant cytochrome P450 reductase, as well as native cytochrome P450 reductase from liver microsomes of saline and {beta}-naphthoflavone-treated rats, and cytochrome P450 reductase from type II lung epithelial cells. Using rat liver microsomes from {beta}-naphthoflavone-treated rats, CEES was found to inhibit CYP 1A1 activity. This inhibition was overcome by microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase from saline-treated rats, which lack CYP 1A1 activity, demonstrating that the CEES inhibitory activity was selective for cytochrome P450 reductase. Cytochrome P450 reductase also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) via oxidation of NADPH. In contrast to its inhibitory effects on the reduction of cytochrome c and CYP1A1 activity, CEES was found to stimulate ROS formation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sulfur mustard vesicants target cytochrome P450 reductase and that this effect may be an important mechanism mediating oxidative stress and lung injury.

  12. Structural Analysis of the Active Site Geometry of N[superscript 5]-Carboxyaminoimidazole Ribonucleotide Synthetase from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Thoden, James B.; Holden, Hazel M.; Firestine, Steven M.

    2009-09-11

    N{sub 5}-Carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase (N{sub 5}-CAIR synthetase) converts 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR), MgATP, and bicarbonate into N{sub 5}-CAIR, MgADP, and P{sub i}. The enzyme is required for de novo purine biosynthesis in microbes yet is not found in humans suggesting that it represents an ideal and unexplored target for antimicrobial drug design. Here we report the X-ray structures of N{sub 5}-CAIR synthetase from Escherichia coli with either MgATP or MgADP/P{sub i} bound in the active site cleft. These structures, determined to 1.6-{angstrom} resolution, provide detailed information regarding the active site geometry before and after ATP hydrolysis. In both structures, two magnesium ions are observed. Each of these is octahedrally coordinated, and the carboxylate side chain of Glu238 bridges them. For the structure of the MgADP/P{sub i} complex, crystals were grown in the presence of AIR and MgATP. No electron density was observed for AIR, and the electron density corresponding to the nucleotide clearly revealed the presence of ADP and P{sub i} rather than ATP. The bound P{sub i} shifts by approximately 3 {angstrom} relative to the {gamma}-phosphoryl group of ATP and forms electrostatic interactions with the side chains of Arg242 and His244. Since the reaction mechanism of N{sub 5}-CAIR synthetase is believed to proceed via a carboxyphosphate intermediate, we propose that the location of the inorganic phosphate represents the binding site for stabilization of this reactive species. Using the information derived from the two structures reported here, coupled with molecular modeling, we propose a catalytic mechanism for N{sub 5}-CAIR synthetase.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: 5-alpha reductase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... About half of these individuals adopt a male gender role in adolescence or early adulthood. Related Information ... 1730-5. Citation on PubMed Cohen-Kettenis PT. Gender change in 46,XY persons with 5alpha-reductase- ...

  14. A dissimilatory nitrite reductase in Paracoccus halodenitrificans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, M. A.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1984-01-01

    Paracoccus halodenitrificans produced a membrane-associated nitrite reductase. Spectrophotometric analysis showed it to be associated with a cd-cytochrome and located on the inner side of the cytoplasmic membrane. When supplied with nitrite, membrane preparations produced nitrous oxide and nitric oxide in different ratios depending on the electron donor employed. The nitrite reductase was maximally active at relatively low concentrations of sodium chloride and remained attached to the membranes at 100 mM sodium chloride.

  15. Structural and biochemical properties of cloned and expressed human and rat steroid 5. alpha. -reductases

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, S.; Russell, D.W. )

    1990-05-01

    The microsomal enzyme steroid 5{alpha}-reductase is responsible for the conversion of testosterone into the more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone. In man, this steroid acts on a variety of androgen-responsive target tissues to mediate such diverse endocrine processes as male sexual differentiation in the fetus and prostatic growth in men. Here we describe the isolation, structure, and expression of a cDNA encoding the human steroid 5{alpha}-reductase. A rat cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to screen a human prostate cDNA library. A 2.1-kilobase cDNA was identified and DNA sequence analysis indicated that the human steroid 5{alpha}-reductase was a hydrophobic protein of 259 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 29,462. A comparison of the human and rat protein sequences revealed a 60% identity. Transfection of expression vectors containing the human and rat cDNAs into simian COS cells resulted in the synthesis of high levels of steroid 5{alpha}-reductase enzyme activity. Both enzymes expressed in COS cells showed similar substrate specificities for naturally occurring steroid hormones. However, synthetic 4-azasteroids demonstrated marked differences in their abilities to inhibit the human and rat steroid 5{alpha}-reductases.

  16. Characterization of thyroidal glutathione reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Raasch, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Glutathione levels were determined in bovine and rat thyroid tissue by enzymatic conjugation with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene using glutathione S-transferase. Bovine thyroid tissue contained 1.31 {+-} 0.04 mM reduced glutathione (GSH) and 0.14 {+-} 0.02 mM oxidized glutathione (GSSG). In the rat, the concentration of GSH was 2.50 {+-} 0.05 mM while GSSG was 0.21 {+-} 0.03 mM. Glutathione reductase (GR) was purified from bovine thyroid to electrophoretic homogeneity by ion exchange, affinity and molecular exclusion chromatography. A molecular weight range of 102-109 kDa and subunit size of 55 kDa were determined for GR. Thyroidal GR was shown to be a favoprotein with one FAD per subunit. The Michaelis constants of bovine thyroidal GR were determined to be 21.8 {mu}M for NADPH and 58.8 {mu}M for GSSG. The effect of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (T{sub 4}) on in vivo levels of GR and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined in rat thyroid homogenates. Both enzymes were stimulated by TSH treatment and markedly reduced following T{sub 4} treatment. Lysosomal hydrolysis of ({sup 125}I)-labeled and unlabeled thyroglobulin was examined using size exclusion HPLC.

  17. Cerulenin-mediated apoptosis is involved in adenine metabolic pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Kyung-Sook; Sun, Nam-Kyu; Lee, Seung-Hee; Lee, Hyun-Jee; Choi, Shin-Jung; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Song, Ju-Hyun; Jang, Young-Joo; Song, Kyung-Bin; Yoo, Hyang-Sook; Simon, Julian . E-mail: jsimon@fhcrc.org; Won, Misun . E-mail: misun@kribb.re.kr

    2006-10-27

    Cerulenin, a fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitor, induces apoptosis of variety of tumor cells. To elucidate mode of action by cerulenin, we employed the proteomics approach using Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The differential protein expression profile of S. pombe revealed that cerulenin modulated the expressions of proteins involved in stresses and metabolism, including both ade10 and adk1 proteins. The nutrient supplementation assay demonstrated that cerulenin affected enzymatic steps transferring a phosphoribosyl group. This result suggests that cerulenin accumulates AMP and p-ribosyl-s-amino-imidazole carboxamide (AICAR) and reduces other necessary nucleotides, which induces feedback inhibition of enzymes and the transcriptional regulation of related genes in de novo and salvage adenine metabolic pathway. Furthermore, the deregulation of adenine nucleotide synthesis may interfere ribonucleotide reductase and cause defects in cell cycle progression and chromosome segregation. In conclusion, cerulenin induces apoptosis through deregulation of adenine nucleotide biosynthesis resulting in nuclear division defects in S. pombe.

  18. The aldo-keto reductase superfamily homepage.

    PubMed

    Hyndman, David; Bauman, David R; Heredia, Vladi V; Penning, Trevor M

    2003-02-01

    The aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) are one of the three enzyme superfamilies that perform oxidoreduction on a wide variety of natural and foreign substrates. A systematic nomenclature for the AKR superfamily was adopted in 1996 and was updated in September 2000 (visit www.med.upenn.edu/akr). Investigators have been diligent in submitting sequences of functional proteins to the Web site. With the new additions, the superfamily contains 114 proteins expressed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes that are distributed over 14 families (AKR1-AKR14). The AKR1 family contains the aldose reductases, the aldehyde reductases, the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and steroid 5beta-reductases, and is the largest. Other families of interest include AKR6, which includes potassium channel beta-subunits, and AKR7 the aflatoxin aldehyde reductases. Two new families include AKR13 (yeast aldose reductase) and AKR14 (Escherichia coli aldehyde reductase). Crystal structures of many AKRs and their complexes with ligands are available in the PDB and accessible through the Web site. Each structure has the characteristic (alpha/beta)(8)-barrel motif of the superfamily, a conserved cofactor binding site and a catalytic tetrad, and variable loop structures that define substrate specificity. Although the majority of AKRs are monomeric proteins of about 320 amino acids in length, the AKR2, AKR6 and AKR7 family may form multimers. To expand the nomenclature to accommodate multimers, we recommend that the composition and stoichiometry be listed. For example, AKR7A1:AKR7A4 (1:3) would designate a tetramer of the composition indicated. The current nomenclature is recognized by the Human Genome Project (HUGO) and the Web site provides a link to genomic information including chromosomal localization, gene boundaries, human ESTs and SNPs and much more.

  19. Chicken muscle aldose reductase: purification, properties and relationship to other chicken aldo/keto reductases.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D G; Davidson, W S

    1986-01-01

    An enzyme that catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a wide range of aromatic and hydroxy-aliphatic aldehydes was purified from chicken breast muscle. This enzyme shares many properties with mammalian aldose reductases including molecular weight, relative substrate specificity, Michaelis constants, an inhibitor specificity. Therefore, it seems appropriate to call this enzyme an aldose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21). Chicken muscle aldose reductase appears to be kinetically identical to an aldose reductase that has been purified from chicken kidney (Hara et al., Eur. J. Biochem. 133, 207-214) and to hen muscle L-glycol dehydrogenase (Bernado et al., Biochim. biophys. Acta 659, 189-198). The association of this aldose reductase with muscular dystrophy in the chick is discussed.

  20. Characterization of three mycobacterial DinB (DNA polymerase IV) paralogs highlights DinB2 as naturally adept at ribonucleotide incorporation

    PubMed Central

    Ordonez, Heather; Uson, Maria Loressa; Shuman, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    This study unveils Mycobacterium smegmatis DinB2 as the founder of a clade of Y-family DNA polymerase that is naturally adept at incorporating ribonucleotides by virtue of a leucine in lieu of a canonical aromatic steric gate. DinB2 efficiently scavenges limiting dNTP and rNTP substrates in the presence of manganese. DinB2's sugar selectivity factor, gauged by rates of manganese-dependent dNMP versus rNMP addition, is 2.7- to 3.8-fold. DinB2 embeds ribonucleotides during DNA synthesis when rCTP and dCTP are at equimolar concentration. DinB2 can incorporate at least 16 consecutive ribonucleotides. In magnesium, DinB2 has a 26- to 78-fold lower affinity for rNTPs than dNTPs, but only a 2.6- to 6-fold differential in rates of deoxy versus ribo addition (kpol). Two other M. smegmatis Y-family polymerases, DinB1 and DinB3, are characterized here as template-dependent DNA polymerases that discriminate strongly against ribonucleotides, a property that, in the case of DinB1, correlates with its aromatic steric gate side chain. We speculate that the unique ability of DinB2 to utilize rNTPs might allow for DNA repair with a ‘ribo patch’ when dNTPs are limiting. Phylogenetic analysis reveals DinB2-like polymerases, with leucine, isoleucine or valine steric gates, in many taxa of the phylum Actinobacteria. PMID:25200080

  1. Dimethyl Fumarate Induces Glutathione Recycling by Upregulation of Glutathione Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Christina; Dietrich, Michael; Herrmann, Ann-Kathrin; Schacht, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal degeneration in multiple sclerosis has been linked to oxidative stress. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an effective oral therapeutic option shown to reduce disease activity and progression in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. DMF activates the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) leading to increased synthesis of the major cellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and prominent neuroprotection in vitro. We previously demonstrated that DMF is capable of raising GSH levels even when glutathione synthesis is inhibited, suggesting enhanced GSH recycling. Here, we found that DMF indeed induces glutathione reductase (GSR), a homodimeric flavoprotein that catalyzes GSSG reduction to GSH by using NADPH as a reducing cofactor. Knockdown of GSR using a pool of E. coli RNase III-digested siRNAs or pharmacological inhibition of GSR, however, also induced the antioxidant response rendering it impossible to verify the suspected attenuation of DMF-mediated neuroprotection. However, in cystine-free medium, where GSH synthesis is abolished, pharmacological inhibition of GSR drastically reduced the effect of DMF on glutathione recycling. We conclude that DMF increases glutathione recycling through induction of glutathione reductase. PMID:28116039

  2. Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richey, C.; Chovanec, P.; Hoeft, S.E.; Oremland, R.S.; Basu, P.; Stolz, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii is capable of anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic growth by coupling the oxidation of arsenite (As(III)) to the reduction of nitrate and carbon dioxide. Analysis of its complete genome indicates that it lacks a conventional arsenite oxidase (Aox), but instead possesses two operons that each encode a putative respiratory arsenate reductase (Arr). Here we show that one homolog is expressed under chemolithoautotrophic conditions and exhibits both arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. We also demonstrate that Arr from two arsenate respiring bacteria, Alkaliphilus oremlandii and Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, is also biochemically reversible. Thus Arr can function as a reductase or oxidase. Its physiological role in a specific organism, however, may depend on the electron potentials of the molybdenum center and [Fe–S] clusters, additional subunits, or constitution of the electron transfer chain. This versatility further underscores the ubiquity and antiquity of microbial arsenic metabolism.

  3. Short- and long-term regulation of 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase by a 4-methylcoumarin.

    PubMed

    Trapani, Laura; Segatto, Marco; Simeoni, Veronica; Balducci, Valentina; Dhawan, Ashish; Parmar, Virinder S; Prasad, Ashok K; Saso, Luciano; Incerpi, Sandra; Pallottini, Valentina

    2011-07-01

    Dyslipidemia is one of the most significant risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Cholesterol homeostasis is regulated by both the receptor-mediated endocytosis of Low Density Lipoproteins by LDL receptors and de novo cholesterol synthesis via the rate-limiting enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Although statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase substrate competitors, have revolutionized the management of cardiovascular diseases by lowering serum LDL, their side effects range from myalgia to rhabdomyolysis. Treatment with antioxidant compounds could represent an efficient alternative in the modulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity. Indeed it has already been demonstrated that the rise in reactive oxygen species levels causes the complete dephosphorylation and, in turn activation of the enzyme. Many coumarins and their derivatives have the special ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species or show a lipid lowering potential. Here we evaluated whether the coumarin, 4-methylesculetin could exert both the ability to scavenge ROS and to modulate 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase in HepG2 cell line where the enzyme activity dysregulation induced by reactive oxygen species has already been reported. The antioxidant property of 4-methylesculetin led to the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activation state through the increase of the enzyme phosphorylation. In addition, this coumarin showed the ability to modulate 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase protein levels both by transcriptional and degradational events independent of its antioxidant activity.

  4. Crystal Structure of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae 3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-Phosphosulfate Reductase Complexed With Adenosine 3',5'-Bisphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Z.; Lemongello, D.; Segel, I.H.; Fisher, A.J.

    2009-05-28

    Most assimilatory bacteria, fungi, and plants species reduce sulfate (in the activated form of APS or PAPS) to produce reduced sulfur. In yeast, PAPS reductase reduces PAPS to sulfite and PAP. Despite the difference in substrate specificity and catalytic cofactor, PAPS reductase is homologous to APS reductase in both sequence and structure, and they are suggested to share the same catalytic mechanism. Metazoans do not possess the sulfate reduction pathway, which makes APS/PAPS reductases potential drug targets for human pathogens. Here, we present the 2.05 A resolution crystal structure of the yeast PAPS reductase binary complex with product PAP bound. The N-terminal region mediates dimeric interactions resulting in a unique homodimer assembly not seen in previous APS/PAPS reductase structures. The 'pyrophosphate-binding' sequence (47)TTAFGLTG(54) defines the substrate 3'-phosphate binding pocket. In yeast, Gly54 replaces a conserved aspartate found in APS reductases vacating space and charge to accommodate the 3'-phosphate of PAPS, thus regulating substrate specificity. Also, for the first time, the complete C-terminal catalytic motif (244)ECGIH(248) is revealed in the active site. The catalytic residue Cys245 is ideally positioned for an in-line attack on the beta-sulfate of PAPS. In addition, the side chain of His248 is only 4.2 A from the Sgamma of Cys245 and may serve as a catalytic base to deprotonate the active site cysteine. A hydrophobic sequence (252)RFAQFL(257) at the end of the C-terminus may provide anchoring interactions preventing the tail from swinging away from the active site as seen in other APS/PAPS reductases.

  5. Alteration of the alkaloid profile in genetically modified tobacco reveals a role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in nicotine N-demethylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme of the tetrahydrofolate (THF)-mediated one-carbon (C1) metabolic network. This enzyme catalyzes reduction of 5,10-methylene-THF to 5-methyl-THF. The latter donates its methyl group to homocysteine forming Met, which is then used for the syn...

  6. Evaluation of nitrate reductase activity in Rhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Streeter, J.G.; DeVine, P.J.

    1983-08-01

    Nitrate reductase activity was evaluated by four approaches, using four strains of Rhizobium japonicum and 11 chlorate-resistant mutants of the four strains. It was concluded that in vitro assays with bacteria or bacteroids provide the most simple and reliable assessment of the presence or absence of nitrate reductase. Nitrite reductase activity with methyl viologen and dithionite was found, but the enzyme activity does not confound the assay of nitrate reductase. 18 references

  7. N7-platinated ribonucleotides are not incorporated by RNA polymerases. New perspectives for a rational design of platinum antitumor drugs.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Michele; Romano, Alessandro; De Castro, Federica; Girelli, Chiara R; Antonucci, Daniela; Migoni, Danilo; Verri, Tiziano; Fanizzi, Francesco P

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we assessed the capacity of RNA polymerases to use platinated ribonucleotides as substrates for RNA synthesis by testing the incorporation of the model compound [Pt(dien)(N7-5'-GTP)] (dien=diethylenetriamine; GTP=5'-guanosine triphosphate) into a natural RNA sequence. The yield of in vitro transcription operated by T7 RNA polymerase, on the LacZ (Escherichia coli gene encoding for β-galactosidase) sequence, decreases progressively with decreasing the concentration of natural GTP, in favor of the platinated nucleotide, [Pt(dien)(N7-5'-GTP)]. Comparison of the T7 RNA polymerase transcription activities for [Pt(dien)(N7-5'-GTP)] compound incorporation reaction test, with respect to the effect of a decreasing concentration of natural GTP, showed no major differences. A specific inhibitory effect of compound [Pt(dien)(N7-5'-GTP)] (which may pair the complementary base on the DNA strand, without being incorporated in the RNA by the T7 RNA polymerase) was evidenced. Our findings therefore suggest that RNA polymerases, unlike DNA polymerases, are unable to incorporate N7-platinated nucleotides into newly synthesized nucleic acids. In this respect, specifically designed N7-platinated nucleotides based compounds could be used in alternative to the classical platinum based drugs. This approach may offer a possible strategy to target specifically DNA, without affecting RNA, and is potentially able to better modulate pharmacological activity.

  8. Isolation, sequence identification and tissue expression profile of two novel soybean (glycine max) genes-vestitone reductase and chalcone reductase.

    PubMed

    Liu, G Y

    2009-09-01

    The complete mRNA sequences of two soybean (glycine max) genes-vestitone reductase and chalcone reductase, were amplified using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. The sequence analysis of these two genes revealed that soybean vestitone reductase gene encodes a protein of 327 amino acids which has high homology with the vestitone reductase of Medicago sativa (77%). The soybean chalcone reductase gene encodes a protein of 314 amino acids that has high homology with the chalcone reductase of kudzu vine (88%) and medicago sativa (83%). The expression profiles of the soybean vestitone reductase and chalcone reductase genes were studied and the results indicated that these two soybean genes were differentially expressed in detected soybean tissues including leaves, stems, roots, inflorescences, embryos and endosperm. Our experiment established the foundation for further research on these two soybean genes.

  9. Fumarate Reductase Activity of Streptococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Aue, B. J.; Diebel, R. H.

    1967-01-01

    Some characteristics of a fumarate reductase from Streptococcus faecalis are described. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 7.4; optimal activity was observed when the ionic strength of the phosphate buffer was adjusted to 0.088. The Km value of the enzyme for reduced flavin mononucleotide was 2 × 10−4 m as determined with a 26-fold preparation. In addition to fumarate, the enzyme reduced maleate and mesaconate. No succinate dehydrogenase activity was detected, but succinate did act as an inhibitor of the fumarate reductase activity. Other inhibitors were malonate, citraconate, and trans-, trans-muconate. Metal-chelating agents did not inhibit the enzyme. A limited inhibition by sulfhydryl-binding agents was observed, and the preparations were sensitive to air oxidation and storage. Glycine, alanine, histidine, and possibly lysine stimulated fumarate reductase activity in the cell-free extracts. However, growth in media supplemented with glycine did not enhance fumarate reductase activity. The enzymatic activity appears to be constitutive. PMID:4960892

  10. Identification of the Arabidopsis CHL3 gene as the nitrate reductase structural gene NIA2.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, J Q; Crawford, N M

    1991-01-01

    Chlorate, the chlorine analog of nitrate, is a herbicide that has been used to select mutants impaired in the process of nitrate assimilation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, mutations at any one of eight distinct loci confer resistance to chlorate. The molecular identities of the genes at these loci are not known; however, one of these loci--chl3--maps very near the nitrate reductase structural gene NIA2. Through the isolation, characterization, and genetic analysis of new chlorate-resistant mutants generated by gamma irradiation, we have been able to demonstrate that the CHL3 gene and the NIA2 gene are identical. Three new chlorate-resistant mutants were identified that had deletions of the entire NIA2 gene. These nia2 null mutants were viable and still retained 10% of wild-type nitrate reductase activity in the leaves of the plants. All three deletion mutations were found to be new alleles of chl3. Introduction of the NIA2 gene back into these chl3 mutants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation partially complemented their mutant phenotype. From these data, we conclude that Arabidopsis has at least two functional nitrate reductase genes and that the NIA2 gene product accounts for the majority of the leaf nitrate reductase activity and chlorate sensitivity of Arabidopsis plants. PMID:1840922

  11. Copper-dependent inhibition and oxidative inactivation with affinity cleavage of yeast glutathione reductase.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Keiko; Tsubouchi, Ryoko; Fukayama, Minoru; Yoshino, Masataka

    2014-06-01

    Effects of copper on the activity and oxidative inactivation of yeast glutathione reductase were analyzed. Glutathione reductase from yeast was inhibited by cupric ion and more potently by cuprous ion. Copper ion inhibited the enzyme noncompetitively with respect to the substrate GSSG and NADPH. The Ki values of the enzyme for Cu(2+) and Cu(+) ion were determined to be 1 and 0.35 μM, respectively. Copper-dependent inactivation of glutathione reductase was also analyzed. Hydrogen peroxide and copper/ascorbate also caused an inactivation with the cleavage of peptide bond of the enzyme. The inactivation/fragmentation of the enzyme was prevented by addition of catalase, suggesting that hydroxyl radical produced through the cuprous ion-dependent reduction of oxygen is responsible for the inactivation/fragmentation of the enzyme. SDS-PAGE and TOF-MS analysis confirmed eight fragments, which were further determined to result from the cleavage of the Met17-Ser18, Asn20-Thr21, Glu251-Gly252, Ser420-Pro421, Pro421-Thr422 bonds of the enzyme by amino-terminal sequencing analysis. Based on the kinetic analysis and no protective effect of the substrates, GSSG and NADPH on the copper-mediated inactivation/fragmentation of the enzyme, copper binds to the sites apart from the substrate-sites, causing the peptide cleavage by hydroxyl radical. Copper-dependent oxidative inactivation/fragmentation of glutathione reductase can explain the prooxidant properties of copper under the in vivo conditions.

  12. Regulation of rat liver hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase by a new class of noncompetitive inhibitors. Effects of dichloroacetate and related carboxylic acids on enzyme activity.

    PubMed Central

    Stacpoole, P W; Harwood, H J; Varnado, C E

    1983-01-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA) markedly reduces circulating cholesterol levels in animals and in patients with combined hyperlipoproteinemia or homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). To investigate the mechanism of its cholesterol-lowering action, we studied the effects of DCA and its hepatic metabolites, glyoxylate and oxalate, on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG CoA reductase) obtained from livers of healthy, reverse light-cycled rats. Oral administration of DCA for 4 d decreased HMG CoA reductase activity 46% at a dose of 50 mg/kg per d, and 82% at a dose of 100 mg/kg per d. A 24% decrease in reductase activity was observed as early as 1 h after a single dose of 50 mg/kg DCA. The inhibitory effect of the drug was due to a fall in both expressed enzyme activity and the total number of reductase molecules present. DCA also decreased reductase activity when added to suspensions of isolated hepatocytes. With chronic administration, DCA inhibited 3H2O incorporation into cholesterol by 38% and into triglycerides by 52%. When liver microsomes were incubated with DCA, the pattern of inhibition of reductase activity was noncompetitive for both HMG CoA (inhibition constant [Ki] 11.8 mM) and NADPH (Ki 11.6 mM). Inhibition by glyoxylate was also noncompetitive for both HMG CoA (Ki 1.2 mM) and NADPH (Ki 2.7 mM). Oxalate inhibited enzyme activity only at nonsaturating concentrations of NADPH (Ki 5.6 mM). Monochloroacetate, glycollate, and ethylene glycol, all of which can form glyoxylate, also inhibited reductase activity. Using solubilized and 60-fold purified HMG CoA reductase, we found that the inhibitory effect of glyoxylate was reversible. Furthermore, the inhibition by glyoxylate was an effect exerted on the reductase itself, rather than on its regulatory enzymes, reductase kinase and reductase phosphatase. We conclude that the cholesterol-lowering effect of DCA is mediated, at least in part, by inhibition of endogenous cholesterol

  13. Fhit interaction with ferredoxin reductase triggers generation of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Trapasso, Francesco; Pichiorri, Flavia; Gaspari, Marco; Palumbo, Tiziana; Aqeilan, Rami I; Gaudio, Eugenio; Okumura, Hiroshi; Iuliano, Rodolfo; Di Leva, Giampiero; Fabbri, Muller; Birk, David E; Raso, Cinzia; Green-Church, Kari; Spagnoli, Luigi G; Venuta, Salvatore; Huebner, Kay; Croce, Carlo M

    2008-05-16

    Fhit protein is lost in most cancers, its restoration suppresses tumorigenicity, and virus-mediated FHIT gene therapy induces apoptosis and suppresses tumors in preclinical models. We have used protein cross-linking and proteomics methods to characterize a Fhit protein complex involved in triggering Fhit-mediated apoptosis. The complex includes Hsp60 and Hsp10 that mediate Fhit stability and may affect import into mitochondria, where it interacts with ferredoxin reductase, responsible for transferring electrons from NADPH to cytochrome P450 via ferredoxin. Viral-mediated Fhit restoration increases production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, followed by increased apoptosis of lung cancer cells under oxidative stress conditions; conversely, Fhit-negative cells escape apoptosis, carrying serious oxidative DNA damage that may contribute to an increased mutation rate. Characterization of Fhit interacting proteins has identified direct effectors of the Fhit-mediated apoptotic pathway that is lost in most cancers through loss of Fhit.

  14. Construction and characterization of nitrate reductase-based amperometric electrode and nitrate assay of fertilizers and drinking water.

    PubMed

    Glazier, S A; Campbell, E R; Campbell, W H

    1998-04-15

    The construction and characterization of a nitrate reductase-based amperometric electrode for determination of nitrate ion is described. The electrode consisted of nitrate reductase held by dialysis membrane onto a Nafion-coated glassy carbon electrode. Methyl viologen was allowed to absorb into the Nafion layer, which acted as a reservoir for the electron mediator. The utility of the electrode to assay fertilizer and water sample for nitrate was demonstrated. The assays conducted with this electrode compared well with colorimetric and potentiometric assays of the same samples.

  15. Control of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid production

    SciTech Connect

    Leys, E.J.; Kellems, R.E.

    1981-11-01

    The authors used methotrexate-resistant mouse cells in which dihydrofolate reductase levels are approximately 500 times normal to study the effect of growth stimulation on dihydrofolate reductase gene expression. As a result of growth stimulation, the relative rate of dihydrofolate reductase protein synthesis increased threefold, reaching a maximum between 25 and 30 h after stimulation. The relative rate of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid production (i.e., the appearance of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid in the cytoplasm) increased threefold after growth stimulation and was accompanied by a corresponding increase in the relative steady-state level of dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid in the nucleus. However, the increase in the nuclear level of dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid was not accompanied by a significant increase in the relative rate of transcription of the dihydrofolate reductase genes. These data indicated that the relative rate of appearance of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid in the cytoplasm depends on the relative stability of the dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid sequences in the nucleus and is not dependent on the relative rate of transcription of the dihydrofolate reductase genes.

  16. Augmentation of CFTR maturation by S-nitrosoglutathione reductase

    PubMed Central

    Sawczak, Victoria; Zaidi, Atiya; Butler, Maya; Bennett, Deric; Getsy, Paulina; Zeinomar, Maryam; Greenberg, Zivi; Forbes, Michael; Rehman, Shagufta; Jyothikumar, Vinod; DeRonde, Kim; Sattar, Abdus; Smith, Laura; Corey, Deborah; Straub, Adam; Sun, Fei; Palmer, Lisa; Periasamy, Ammasi; Randell, Scott; Kelley, Thomas J.; Lewis, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) reductase regulates novel endogenous S-nitrosothiol signaling pathways, and mice deficient in GSNO reductase are protected from airways hyperreactivity. S-nitrosothiols are present in the airway, and patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) tend to have low S-nitrosothiol levels that may be attributed to upregulation of GSNO reductase activity. The present study demonstrates that 1) GSNO reductase activity is increased in the cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial (CFBE41o−) cells expressing mutant F508del-cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) compared with the wild-type CFBE41o− cells, 2) GSNO reductase expression level is increased in the primary human bronchial epithelial cells expressing mutant F508del-CFTR compared with the wild-type cells, 3) GSNO reductase colocalizes with cochaperone Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein (Hop; Stip1) in human airway epithelial cells, 4) GSNO reductase knockdown with siRNA increases the expression and maturation of CFTR and decreases Stip1 expression in human airway epithelial cells, 5) increased levels of GSNO reductase cause a decrease in maturation of CFTR, and 6) a GSNO reductase inhibitor effectively reverses the effects of GSNO reductase on CFTR maturation. These studies provide a novel approach to define the subcellular location of the interactions between Stip1 and GSNO reductase and the role of S-nitrosothiols in these interactions. PMID:26637637

  17. FRUCTOSE-6-PHOSPHATE REDUCTASE FROM SALMONELLA GALLINARUM

    PubMed Central

    Zancan, Glaci T.; Bacila, Metry

    1964-01-01

    Zancan, Glaci T. (Universidade do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil), and Metry Bacila. Fructose-6-phosphate reductase from Salmonella gallinarum. J. Bacteriol. 87:614–618. 1964.—A fructose-6-phosphate reductase present in cell-free extracts of Salmonella gallinarum was purified approximately 42 times. The optimal pH for this enzyme is 8.0. The enzyme is specific for fructose-6-phosphate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The dissociation constants are 1.78 × 10−4m for fructose-6-phosphate and 8.3 × 10−5m for NADH. The Q10, reaction order, and equilibrium constant were determined. The enzyme is sensitive to p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, but not to o-iodosobenzoic acid nor to N-ethylmaleimide. PMID:14127579

  18. Reduced bone mass and muscle strength in male 5α-reductase type 1 inactivated mice.

    PubMed

    Windahl, Sara H; Andersson, Niklas; Börjesson, Anna E; Swanson, Charlotte; Svensson, Johan; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Sjögren, Klara; Shao, Ruijin; Lagerquist, Marie K; Ohlsson, Claes

    2011-01-01

    Androgens are important regulators of bone mass but the relative importance of testosterone (T) versus dihydrotestosterone (DHT) for the activation of the androgen receptor (AR) in bone is unknown. 5α-reductase is responsible for the irreversible conversion of T to the more potent AR activator DHT. There are two well established isoenzymes of 5α-reductase (type 1 and type 2), encoded by separate genes (Srd5a1 and Srd5a2). 5α-reductase type 2 is predominantly expressed in male reproductive tissues whereas 5α-reductase type 1 is highly expressed in liver and moderately expressed in several other tissues including bone. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of 5α-reductase type 1 for bone mass using Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice. Four-month-old male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice had reduced trabecular bone mineral density (-36%, p<0.05) and cortical bone mineral content (-15%, p<0.05) but unchanged serum androgen levels compared with wild type (WT) mice. The cortical bone dimensions were reduced in the male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice as a result of a reduced cortical periosteal circumference compared with WT mice. T treatment increased the cortical periosteal circumference (p<0.05) in orchidectomized WT mice but not in orchidectomized Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice. Male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice demonstrated a reduced forelimb muscle grip strength compared with WT mice (p<0.05). Female Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice had slightly increased cortical bone mass associated with elevated circulating levels of androgens. In conclusion, 5α-reductase type 1 inactivated male mice have reduced bone mass and forelimb muscle grip strength and we propose that these effects are due to lack of 5α-reductase type 1 expression in bone and muscle. In contrast, the increased cortical bone mass in female Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice, is an indirect effect mediated by elevated circulating androgen levels.

  19. Characterization of erythrose reductases from filamentous fungi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteins with putative erythrose reductase activity have been identified in the filamentous fungi Trichoderma reesei, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium graminearum by in silico analysis. The proteins found in T. reesei and A. niger had earlier been characterized as glycerol dehydrogenase and aldehyde reductase, respectively. Corresponding genes from all three fungi were cloned, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. Subsequently, they were used to establish optimal enzyme assay conditions. All three enzymes strictly require NADPH as cofactor, whereas with NADH no activity could be observed. The enzymatic characterization of the three enzymes using ten substrates revealed high substrate specificity and activity with D-erythrose and D-threose. The enzymes from T. reesei and A. niger herein showed comparable activities, whereas the one from F. graminearum reached only about a tenth of it for all tested substrates. In order to proof in vivo the proposed enzyme function, we overexpressed the erythrose reductase-encoding gene in T. reesei. An increased production of erythritol by the recombinant strain compared to the parental strain could be detected. PMID:23924507

  20. Incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides and ribonucleotides by a dNTP-binding cleft mutated reverse transcriptase in hepatitis B virus core particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hee-Young; Kim, Hye-Young; Jung, Jaesung; Park, Sun; Shin, Ho-Joon; Kim, Kyongmin

    2008-01-05

    Our recent observation that hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA polymerase (P) might initiate minus-strand DNA synthesis without primer [Kim et al., (2004) Virology 322, 22-30], raised a possibility that HBV P protein may have the potential to function as an RNA polymerase. Thus, we mutated Phe 436, a bulky amino acid with aromatic side chain, at the putative dNTP-binding cleft in reverse transcriptase (RT) domain of P protein to smaller amino acids (Gly or Val), and examined RNA polymerase activity. HBV core particles containing RT dNTP-binding cleft mutant P protein were able to incorporate {sup 32}P-ribonucleotides, but not HBV core particles containing wild type (wt), priming-deficient mutant, or RT-deficient mutant P proteins. Since all the experiments were conducted with core particles isolated from transfected cells, our results indicate that the HBV RT mutant core particles containing RT dNTP-binding cleft mutant P protein could incorporate both deoxyribonucleotides and ribonucleotides in replicating systems.

  1. Application of artificial neural network to investigate the effects of 5-fluorouracil on ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jianru; Chen, QianQian; Lam, Christopher Wai Kei; Wang, Caiyun; Wong, Vincent Kam Wai; Xu, Fengguo; Jiang, ZhiHong; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides are essential metabolites that play important roles in a broad range of key cellular functions. Their intracellular levels could also reflect the action of nucleoside analogues. We investigated the effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on ribonucleotide and deoxyribonucleotide pool sizes in cells upon exposure to 5-FU for different durations. Unsupervised and supervised artificial neural networks were compared for comprehensive analysis of global responses to 5-FU. As expected, deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) increased after 5-FU incubation due to the inhibition of thymine monophosphate (TMP) synthesis. Interestingly, the accumulation of dUMP could not lead to increased levels of deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) and deoxyuridine diphosphate (dUDP). After the initial fall in intracellular deoxythymidine triphosphate (TTP) concentration, its level recovered and increased from 48 h exposure to 5-FU, although deoxythymidine diphosphate (TDP) and TMP continued to decrease compared with the control group. These findings suggest 5-FU treatment caused unexpected changes in intracellular purine polls, such as increases in deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP), adenosine-triphosphate (ATP), guanosine triphosphate (GTP) pools. Further elucidation of the mechanism of action of 5-FU in causing these changes should enhance development of strategies that will increase the anticancer activity of 5-FU while decreasing its resistance. PMID:26578061

  2. Methionine sulfoxide reductase contributes to meeting dietary methionine requirements

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hang; Kim, Geumsoo; Levine, Rodney L.

    2012-01-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases are present in all aerobic organisms. They contribute to antioxidant defenses by reducing methionine sulfoxide in proteins back to methionine. However, the actual in vivo roles of these reductases are not well defined. Since methionine is an essential amino acid in mammals, we hypothesized that methionine sulfoxide reductases may provide a portion of the dietary methionine requirement by recycling methionine sulfoxide. We used a classical bioassay, the growth of weanling mice fed diets varying in methionine, and applied it to mice genetically engineered to alter the levels of methionine sulfoxide reductase A or B1. Mice of all genotypes were growth retarded when raised on chow containing 0.10% methionine instead of the standard 0.45% methionine. Retardation was significantly greater in knockout mice lacking both reductases. We conclude that the methionine sulfoxide reductases can provide methionine for growth in mice with limited intake of methionine, such as may occur in the wild. PMID:22521563

  3. Dynamics of Radical-Mediated Enzyme Catalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warncke, Kurt

    1997-11-01

    An emergent class of enzymes harnesses the extreme reactivity of electron-deficient free radical species to perform some of the most difficult reactions in biology. The regio- and stereo-selectivity achieved by these enzymes defies long-held ideas that radical reactions are non-specific. The common primary step in these catalyses is metal- or metallocenter-assisted generation of an electron-deficient organic "initiator radical". The initiator radical abstracts a hydrogen atom from the substrate, opening a new reaction channel for rearrangement to the product. Our aim is to elucidate the detailed molecular mechanisms of the radical pair separation and radical rearrangement steps. Radical pair separation and substrate radical rearrangement are tracked by using time-resolved (10-7 to 10-3 s) techniques of pulsed-electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (FT-EPR, ESEEM). Synchronous time-evolution of the reactions is attained by triggering with a visible laser pulse. Transient non-Boltzmann population of the states of the spin-coupled systems, and resultant electron spin polarization, facilitates study at or near room temperature under conditions where the enzymes are operative. The systems examined include ethanolamine deaminase, a vitamin B12 coenzyme-dependent enzyme, ribonucleotide reductase and photosynthetic reaction centers. The electronic and nuclear structural and kinetic information obtained from the pulsed-EPR studies is used to address how the initiator radicals are stabilized against deleterious recombination with the metal, and to distinguish the participation of concerted versus sequential rearrangement pathways.

  4. Structural Elucidation of Chalcone Reductase and Implications for Deoxychalcone Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Bomati, Erin K.; Austin, Michael B.; Bowman, Marianne E.; Dixon, Richard A.; Noel, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    4,2′,4′,6′-tetrahydroxychalcone (chalcone) and 4,2′,4′-trihydroxychalcone (deoxychalcone) serve as precursors of ecologically important flavonoids and isoflavonoids. Deoxychalcone formation depends on chalcone synthase and chalcone reductase; however, the identity of the chalcone reductase substrate out of the possible substrates formed during the multistep reaction catalyzed by chalcone synthase remains experimentally elusive. We report here the three-dimensional structure of alfalfa chalcone reductase bound to the NADP+ cofactor and propose the identity and binding mode of its substrate, namely the non-aromatized coumaryl-trione intermediate of the chalcone synthase-catalyzed cyclization of the fully extended coumaryl-tetraketide thioester intermediate. In the absence of a ternary complex, the quality of the refined NADP+-bound chalcone reductase structure serves as a template for computer-assisted docking to evaluate the likelihood of possible substrates. Interestingly, chalcone reductase adopts the three-dimensional structure of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily. The aldo/keto reductase fold is structurally distinct from all known ketoreductases of fatty acid biosynthesis, which instead belong to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. The results presented here provide structural support for convergent functional evolution of these two ketoreductases that share similar roles in the biosynthesis of fatty acids/polyketides. In addition, the chalcone reductase structure represents the first protein structure of a member of the aldo/ketoreductase 4 family. Therefore, the chalcone reductase structure serves as a template for the homology modeling of other aldo/ketoreductase 4 family members, including the reductase involved in morphine biosynthesis, namely codeinone reductase. PMID:15970585

  5. Nitrite Reductase NirBD Is Induced and Plays an Important Role during In Vitro Dormancy of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Shamim; Khan, Arshad; Sohaskey, Charles D.; Jagannath, Chinnaswamy

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the strongest reducers of nitrate among all mycobacteria. Reduction of nitrate to nitrite, mediated by nitrate reductase (NarGHJI) of M. tuberculosis, is induced during the dormant stage, and the enzyme has a respiratory function in the absence of oxygen. Nitrite reductase (NirBD) is also functional during aerobic growth when nitrite is the sole nitrogen source. However, the role of NirBD-mediated nitrite reduction during the dormancy is not yet characterized. Here, we analyzed nitrite reduction during aerobic growth as well as in a hypoxic dormancy model of M. tuberculosis in vitro. When nitrite was used as the sole nitrogen source in the medium, the organism grew and the reduction of nitrite was evident in both hypoxic and aerobic cultures of M. tuberculosis. Remarkably, the hypoxic culture of M. tuberculosis, compared to the aerobic culture, showed 32- and 4-fold-increased expression of nitrite reductase (NirBD) at the transcription and protein levels, respectively. More importantly, a nirBD mutant of M. tuberculosis was unable to reduce nitrite and compared to the wild-type (WT) strain had a >2-log reduction in viability after 240 h in the Wayne model of hypoxic dormancy. Dependence of M. tuberculosis on nitrite reductase (NirBD) was also seen in a human macrophage-based dormancy model where the nirBD mutant was impaired for survival compared to the WT strain. Overall, the increased expression and essentiality of nitrite reductase in the in vitro dormancy models suggested that NirBD-mediated nitrite reduction could be critical during the persistent stage of M. tuberculosis. PMID:23935045

  6. Limited proteolysis of the nitrate reductase from spinach leaves.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Y; Ogura, N; Nakagawa, H

    1988-12-25

    The functional structure of assimilatory NADH-nitrate reductase from spinach leaves was studied by limited proteolysis experiments. After incubation of purified nitrate reductase with trypsin, two stable products of 59 and 45 kDa were observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The fragment of 45 kDa was purified by Blue Sepharose chromatography. NADH-ferricyanide reductase and NADH-cytochrome c reductase activities were associated with this 45-kDa fragment which contains FAD, heme, and NADH binding fragment. After incubation of purified nitrate reductase with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, two major peaks were observed by high performance liquid chromatography size exclusion gel filtration. FMNH2-nitrate reductase and reduced methyl viologen-nitrate reductase activities were associated with the first peak of 170 kDa which consists of two noncovalently associated (75-90-kDa) fragments. NADH-ferricyanide reductase activity, however, was associated with the second peak which consisted of FAD and NADH binding sites. Incubation of the 45-kDa fragment with S. aureus V8 protease produced two major fragments of 28 and 14 kDa which contained FAD and heme, respectively. These results indicate that the molybdenum, heme, and FAD components of spinach nitrate reductase are contained in distinct domains which are covalently linked by exposed hinge regions. The molybdenum domain appears to be important in the maintenance of subunit interactions in the enzyme complex.

  7. Interaction of ribonucleotides with oxide and silicate minerals under varying environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuillie, C.; Sverjensky, D. A.; Hazen, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Large quantities of nucleic acids are found in natural environments, released after the death of an organism and subsequent cell lysis [1]. Nucleic acids are known to adsorb on mineral surfaces [2, 3, 4], which protect them from degradation, whether enzymatic [5, 6] or UV-mediated [7]. It may then contribute to the extracellular genetic pool available in soils to microorganisms for horizontal gene transfers [8]. In order to better understand the behaviour of extracellular nucleic acids in soils, we have investigated the interactions between nucleotides, 5'-GMP, 5'-CMP, 5'-AMP and 5'-UMP, and α-alumina as a model compound for Al in six-fold coordination in soil minerals. We carried out batch adsorption experiments over a wide range of pH, ionic strength and surface loading. Alumina adsorbs high amounts of nucleotides > 2 μmol/m2. In similar environmental conditions, swelling clays such as nontronite and montmorillonite adsorb less than 0.1 μmol/m2 if the total surface area is taken under consideration. However, if only the edges of clay particles are considered, the amount of nucleotides adsorbed reaches values between 1.2 and 2 μmol/m2 [9], similar to the alumina and consistent with ';oxide-like' surface sites on the edges of the clay particles. Surface complexation modeling enabled us to predict the speciation of the surface species on the alumina, as well as the stoichiometry and thermodynamic equilibrium constants for the adsorption of nucleotides. We used the extended triple-layer model (ETLM), that takes into account the electrical work linked to the desorption of chemisorbed water molecules during the formation of inner-sphere complexes. Two surface species are thought to form on the surface of corundum: a monodentate inner-sphere complex, dominant at pH < 7.5, and a bidentate outer-sphere complex, dominant at higher pH. Both complexes involve interactions between the negatively charged phosphate group and the positively charged surface of alumina. Our

  8. Three spinach leaf nitrate reductase-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase kinases that are required by reversible phosphorylation and/or Ca2+ ions.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, P; Pigaglio, E; Ferrer, A; Halfords, N G; MacKintosh, C

    1997-01-01

    In spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) leaf extracts, three protein kinases (PKI, PKII and PKIII) were identified each of which phosphorylated spinach nitrate reductase on serine-543, and inactivated the enzyme in the presence of nitrate reductase inhibitor, 14-3-3. PKIII was also very active in phosphorylating and inactivating Arabidopsis (Landsberg erecta) 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase 1 (HMGR1). PKI and PKII phosphorylated HMGR1 more slowly than PKIII, compared with their relative rates of phosphorylation of nitrate reductase. HMGR1 identical with those that are seen after phosphorylation of serine-577 by the sucrose non-fermenting (SNF1)-like PK, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Co A reductase kinase A (HRK-A), from cauliflower [Dale, Arró, Becerra, Morrice, Boronat, Hardie and Ferrer (1995) Eur. J. Biochem. 233, 506-513]. PKI was Ca2+-dependent when prepared in the absence of protein phosphatase (PP) inhibitors, and largely Ca2+-dependent when prepared in the presence of PP inhibitors (NaF and EGTA). The Ca2+-independent portion of PKI was inactivated by either PP2A or PP2C, while the Ca2+-dependent portion of PKI became increasingly activated during storage, which we presume was mimicking the effect of an unidentified PP. These findings indicate that PK1 is regulated by two functionally distinct phosphorylations. PKI had a molecular mass of 45 kDa on gel filtration and was active towards substrate peptides that terminated at the +2 residue from the phosphorylation site, whereas PKIII was inactive towards these peptides. PKII was Ca2+-stimulated under all conditions tested. PKIII was Ca2+-indepdented, inactivated by PP2A or PP2C, had a requirement for a hydrophobic residue in the +4 position of peptide substrates, had a molecular mass by gel filtration of approximately 140 kDa, and an antibody against the rye SNF1-related PK (RKIN1) recognized a 58 kDa subunit in fractions containing PKIII. These properties of PKIII are identical with those reported

  9. Serenoa repens (Permixon) inhibits the 5alpha-reductase activity of human prostate cancer cell lines without interfering with PSA expression.

    PubMed

    Habib, Fouad K; Ross, Margaret; Ho, Clement K H; Lyons, Valerie; Chapman, Karen

    2005-03-20

    The phytotherapeutic agent Serenoa repens is an effective dual inhibitor of 5alpha-reductase isoenzyme activity in the prostate. Unlike other 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, Serenoa repens induces its effects without interfering with the cellular capacity to secrete PSA. Here, we focussed on the possible pathways that might differentiate the action of Permixon from that of synthetic 5alpha-reductase inhibitors. We demonstrate that Serenoa repens, unlike other 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, does not inhibit binding between activated AR and the steroid receptor-binding consensus in the promoter region of the PSA gene. This was shown by a combination of techniques: assessment of the effect of Permixon on androgen action in the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line revealed no suppression of AR and maintenance of PSA protein expression at control levels. This was consistent with reporter gene experiments showing that Permixon failed to interfere with AR-mediated transcriptional activation of PSA and that both testosterone and DHT were equally effective at maintaining this activity. Our results demonstrate that despite Serenoa repens effective inhibition of 5alpha-reductase activity in the prostate, it did not suppress PSA secretion. Therefore, we confirm the therapeutic advantage of Serenoa repens over other 5alpha-reductase inhibitors as treatment with the phytotherapeutic agent will permit the continuous use of PSA measurements as a useful biomarker for prostate cancer screening and for evaluating tumour progression.

  10. Inhibition of aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 by unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Hara, Akira; Endo, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Soda, Midori; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Yashiro, Koji

    2016-11-01

    A human member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily, AKR1B10, is a cytosolic NADPH-dependent reductase toward various carbonyl compounds including reactive aldehydes, and is normally expressed in intestines. The enzyme is overexpressed in several extraintestinal cancers, and suggested as a potential target for cancer treatment. We found that saturated and cis-unsaturated fatty acids inhibit AKR1B10. Among the saturated fatty acids, myristic acid was the most potent, showing the IC50 value of 4.2 μM cis-Unsaturated fatty acids inhibited AKR1B10 more potently, and linoleic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids showed the lowest IC50 values of 1.1 μM. The inhibition by these fatty acids was reversible and kinetically competitive with respect to the substrate, showing the Ki values of 0.24-1.1 μM. These fatty acids, except for α-linoleic acid, were much less inhibitory to structurally similar aldose reductase. Site-directed mutagenesis study suggested that the fatty acids interact with several active site residues of AKR1B10, of which Gln114, Val301 and Gln303 are responsible for the inhibitory selectivity. Linoleic and arachidonic acids also effectively inhibited AKR1B10-mediated 4-oxo-2-nonenal metabolism in HCT-15 cells. Thus, the cis-unsaturated fatty acids may be used as an adjuvant therapy for treatment of cancers that up-regulate AKR1B10.

  11. Enzyme toolbox: novel enantiocomplementary imine reductases.

    PubMed

    Scheller, Philipp N; Fademrecht, Silvia; Hofelzer, Sebastian; Pleiss, Jürgen; Leipold, Friedemann; Turner, Nicholas J; Nestl, Bettina M; Hauer, Bernhard

    2014-10-13

    Reducing reactions are among the most useful transformations for the generation of chiral compounds in the fine-chemical industry. Because of their exquisite selectivities, enzymatic approaches have emerged as the method of choice for the reduction of C=O and activated C=C bonds. However, stereoselective enzymatic reduction of C=N bonds is still in its infancy-it was only recently described after the discovery of enzymes capable of imine reduction. In our work, we increased the spectrum of imine-reducing enzymes by database analysis. By combining the currently available knowledge about the function of imine reductases with the experimentally uncharacterized diversity stored in protein sequence databases, three novel imine reductases with complementary enantiopreference were identified along with amino acids important for catalysis. Furthermore, their reducing capability was demonstrated by the reduction of the pharmaceutically relevant prochiral imine 2-methylpyrroline. These novel enzymes exhibited comparable to higher catalytic efficiencies than previously described enzymes, and their biosynthetic potential is highlighted by the full conversion of 2-methylpyrroline in whole cells with excellent selectivities.

  12. Soluble ascorbate free radical reductase in the human lens.

    PubMed

    Bando, M; Obazawa, H

    1994-01-01

    A major and a minor ascorbate free radical (AFR) reductase were separated from the soluble fraction in the human lens cortex by DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange column chromatography. These AFR reductases also exhibited diaphorase activity using dichlorophenolindophenol and ferricyanide as electron acceptors. The major AFR reductase was partially purified by 5'AMP-Sepharose 4B affinity column chromatography. This partially purified AFR reductase showed a single band of diaphorase activity in native polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis. This activity band corresponded to the major protein observed in protein staining by Coomassie Brilliant Blue. However, the protein staining by Coomassie Brilliant Blue showed this activity band surrounded by diffused staining. Molecular weight of the partially purified AFR reductase was determined to be 32 kDa by gel filtration, and the apparent Km value for AFR was about 15 microM. This major lens AFR reductase could be distinguished from soluble Neurospora, Euglena and cucumber AFR reductases, and from two ubiquitous enzymes with reduction activity of AFR and/or foreign compounds, ie, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase and DT-diaphorase, by their molecular weights, Km values and/or ion-exchange chromatographic behaviors.

  13. Functional and Phylogenetic Divergence of Fungal Adenylate-Forming Reductases

    PubMed Central

    Kalb, Daniel; Lackner, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    A key step in fungal l-lysine biosynthesis is catalyzed by adenylate-forming l-α-aminoadipic acid reductases, organized in domains for adenylation, thiolation, and the reduction step. However, the genomes of numerous ascomycetes and basidiomycetes contain an unexpectedly large number of additional genes encoding similar but functionally distinct enzymes. Here, we describe the functional in vitro characterization of four reductases which were heterologously produced in Escherichia coli. The Ceriporiopsis subvermispora serine reductase Nps1 features a terminal ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) domain and thus belongs to a hitherto undescribed class of fungal multidomain enzymes. The second major class is characterized by the canonical terminal short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase domain and represented by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora Nps3 as the first biochemically characterized l-α-aminoadipic acid reductase of basidiomycete origin. Aspergillus flavus l-tyrosine reductases LnaA and LnbA are members of a distinct phylogenetic clade. Phylogenetic analysis supports the view that fungal adenylate-forming reductases are more diverse than previously recognized and belong to four distinct classes. PMID:25085485

  14. Optical observation of correlated motions in dihydrofolate reductase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengyang; Niessen, Katherine; Pace, James; Cody, Vivian; Markelz, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Enzyme function relies on its structural flexibility to make conformational changes for substrate binding and product release. An example of a metabolic enzyme where such structural changes are vital is dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). DHFR is essential in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes for the nucleotide biosynthesis by catalyzing the reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate. NMR dynamical measurements found large amplitude fast dynamics that could indicate rigid-body, twisting-hinge motion for ecDHFR that may mediate flux. The role of such long-range correlated motions in function was suggested by the observed sharp decrease in enzyme activity for the single point mutation G121V, which is remote from active sites. This decrease in activity may be caused by the mutation interfering with the long-range intramolecular vibrations necessary for rapid access to functional configurations. We use our new technique of crystal anisotropy terahertz microscopy (CATM), to observe correlated motions in ecDHFR crystals with the bonding of NADPH and methotrexate. We compare the measured intramolecular vibrational spectrum with calculations using normal mode analysis.

  15. Role of Helicobacter pylori methionine sulfoxide reductase in urease maturation

    PubMed Central

    Kuhns, Lisa G.; Mahawar, Manish; Sharp, Joshua S.; Benoit, Stéphane; Maier, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The persistence of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is due in part to urease and Msr (methionine sulfoxide reductase). Upon exposure to relatively mild (21% partial pressure of O2) oxidative stress, a Δmsr mutant showed both decreased urease specific activity in cell-free extracts and decreased nickel associated with the partially purified urease fraction as compared with the parent strain, yet urease apoprotein levels were the same for the Δmsr and wild-type extracts. Urease activity of the Δmsr mutant was not significantly different from the wild-type upon non-stress microaerobic incubation of strains. Urease maturation occurs through nickel mobilization via a suite of known accessory proteins, one being the GTPase UreG. Treatment of UreG with H2O2 resulted in oxidation of MS-identified methionine residues and loss of up to 70% of its GTPase activity. Incubation of pure H2O2-treated UreG with Msr led to reductive repair of nine methionine residues and recovery of up to full enzyme activity. Binding of Msr to both oxidized and non-oxidized UreG was observed by cross-linking. Therefore we conclude Msr aids the survival of H. pylori in part by ensuring continual UreG-mediated urease maturation under stress conditions. PMID:23181726

  16. Transcripts of anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase and measurement of catechin and epicatechin in tartary buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, Yeji; Li, Xiaohua; Cho, Jin Woong; Park, Phun Bum; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Naif; Kim, Sun-Ju; Suzuki, Tastsuro; Hyun Jho, Kwang; Park, Sang Un

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) play an important role in the monomeric units biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins (PAs) such as catechin and epicatechin in several plants. The aim of this study was to clone ANR and LAR genes involved in PAs biosynthesis and examine the expression of these two genes in different organs under different growth conditions in two tartary buckwheat cultivars, Hokkai T8 and T10. Gene expression was carried out by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and catechin and epicatechin content was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The expression pattern of ANR and LAR did not match the accumulation pattern of PAs in different organs of two cultivars. Epicatechin content was the highest in the flowers of both cultivars and it was affected by light in only Hokkai T8 sprouts. ANR and LAR levels in tartary buckwheat might be regulated by different mechanisms for catechin and epicatechin biosynthesis under light and dark conditions.

  17. Docking and molecular dynamics studies at trypanothione reductase and glutathione reductase active sites.

    PubMed

    Iribarne, Federico; Paulino, Margot; Aguilera, Sara; Murphy, Miguel; Tapia, Orlando

    2002-05-01

    A theoretical docking study on the active sites of trypanothione reductase (TR) and glutathione reductase (GR) with the corresponding natural substrates, trypanothione disulfide (T[S]2) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG), is reported. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out in order to check the robustness of the docking results. The energetic results are in agreement with previous experimental findings and show the crossed complexes have lower stabilization energies than the natural ones. To test DOCK3.5, four nitro furanic compounds, previously designed as potentially active anti-chagasic molecules, were docked at the GR and TR active sites with the DOCK3.5 procedure. A good correlation was found between differential inhibitory activity and relative interaction energy (affinity). The results provide a validation test for the use of DOCK3.5 in connection with the design of anti-chagasic drugs.

  18. Transcripts of Anthocyanidin Reductase and Leucoanthocyanidin Reductase and Measurement of Catechin and Epicatechin in Tartary Buckwheat

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, YeJi; Li, Xiaohua; Cho, Jin Woong; Park, Phun Bum; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Naif; Kim, Sun-Ju; Suzuki, Tastsuro; Hyun Jho, Kwang; Park, Sang Un

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) play an important role in the monomeric units biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins (PAs) such as catechin and epicatechin in several plants. The aim of this study was to clone ANR and LAR genes involved in PAs biosynthesis and examine the expression of these two genes in different organs under different growth conditions in two tartary buckwheat cultivars, Hokkai T8 and T10. Gene expression was carried out by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and catechin and epicatechin content was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The expression pattern of ANR and LAR did not match the accumulation pattern of PAs in different organs of two cultivars. Epicatechin content was the highest in the flowers of both cultivars and it was affected by light in only Hokkai T8 sprouts. ANR and LAR levels in tartary buckwheat might be regulated by different mechanisms for catechin and epicatechin biosynthesis under light and dark conditions. PMID:24605062

  19. Enzymatic reduction of complex redox dyes using NADH-dependent reductase from Bacillus subtilis coupled with cofactor regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bozic, Mojca; Pricelius, Sina; Guebitz, Georg M; Kokol, Vanja

    2010-01-01

    Conventional vat dyeing involves chemical reduction of dyes into their water-soluble leuco form generating considerable amounts of toxic chemicals in effluents. In the present study, a new beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide disodium salt (NADH)-dependent reductase isolated from Bacillus subtilis was used to reduce the redox dyes CI Acid Blue 74, CI Natural Orange 6, and CI Vat Blue 1 into their water-soluble leuco form. Enzymatic reduction was optimized in relation to pH and temperature conditions. The reductase was able to reduce Acid Blue 74 and Natural Orange 6 in the presence of the stoichiometrically consumed cofactor NADH; meanwhile, Vat Blue 1 required the presence of mediator 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone. Oxygen from air was used to reoxidize the dyes into their initial forms. The enzymatic reduction of the dyes was studied and the kinetic constants determined, and these were compared to the chemically-reduced leuco form. The enzyme responsible for the reduction showed homology to a NADH-dependent reductase from B. subtilis based on results from the MS/MS peptide mass mapping of the tryptically digested protein. Additionally, the reduction of Acid Blue 74 to its leuco form by reductase from B. subtilis was confirmed using NADH regenerated by the oxidation of formic acid with formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii in the same solution.

  20. Geranylgeraniol suppresses the viability of human DU145 prostate carcinoma cells and the level of HMG CoA reductase

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Nicolle V.; Yeganehjoo, Hoda; Katuru, Rajasekhar; DeBose-Boyd, Russell A.; Morris, Lindsey L.; Michon, Renee; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Mo, Huanbiao

    2014-01-01

    The rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, provides essential intermediates for the prenylation of nuclear lamins and Ras and dolichol-mediated glycosylation of growth factor receptors. The diterpene geranylgeraniol downregulates the level of HMG CoA reductase and suppresses the growth of human liver, lung, ovary, pancreas, colon, stomach, and blood tumors. We evaluated the growth-suppressive activity of geranylgeraniol in human prostate carcinoma cells. Geranylgeraniol induced dose-dependent suppression of the viability of human DU145 prostate carcinoma cells (IC50 = 80 ±18 μmol/L, n =5) following 72-h incubations in 96-well plates. Cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase with a concomitant decrease in cyclin D1 protein. Geranylgeraniol-induced apoptosis was detected by flow cytometric analysis, fluorescence microscopy following acridine orange and ethidium bromide dual staining, and caspase-3 activation. Geranylgeraniol-induced viability suppression was accompanied by concentration-dependent decrease in the level of HMG CoA reductase protein. As a nonsterol molecule that downregulates HMG CoA reductase in the presence of sterols, geranylgeraniol may have potential in the chemoprevention and/or therapy of human prostate cancer. PMID:24006306

  1. Production of (R)-Ethyl-4-Chloro-3-Hydroxybutanoate Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae YOL151W Reductase Immobilized onto Magnetic Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Choo, Jin Woo; Kim, Hyung Kwoun

    2015-11-01

    For the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals, chiral alcohols are useful intermediates. Among them, (R)-ethyl-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate ((R)-ECHB) is an important building block for the synthesis of L-carnitine. (R)-ECHB is produced from ethyl-4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (ECOB) by a reductase-mediated, enantioselective reduction reaction. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae YOL151W reductase that is expressed in Escherichia coli cells exhibited an enantioselective reduction reaction toward ECOB. By virtue of the C-terminal His-tag, the YOL151W reductase was purified from the cell-free extract using Ni(2+)-NTA column chromatography and immobilized onto Ni(2+)-magnetic microparticles. The physical properties of the immobilized reductase (Imm-Red) were measured using electron microscopy, a magnetic property measurement system, and a zeta potential system; the average size of the particles was approximately 1 μm and the saturated magnetic value was 31.76 emu/g. A neodymium magnet was used to recover the immobilized enzyme within 2 min. The Imm-Red showed an optimum temperature at 45°C and an optimum pH at 6.0. In addition, Bacillus megaterium glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) was produced in the E. coli cells and was used in the coupling reaction to regenerate the NADPH cofactor. The reduction/oxidation coupling reaction composed of the Imm-Red and GDH converted 20 mM ECOB exclusively into (R)- ECHB with an e.e.p value of 98%.

  2. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase: biochemical characterization and medical significance.

    PubMed

    Trimmer, Elizabeth E

    2013-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydofolate (CH2-H4folate) to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (CH3-H4folate). The enzyme employs a noncovalently-bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which accepts reducing equivalents from NAD(P)H and transfers them to CH2-H4folate. The reaction provides the sole source of CH3-H4folate, which is utilized by methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine from homocysteine. MTHFR plays a key role in folate metabolism and in the homeostasis of homocysteine; mutations in the enzyme lead to hyperhomocyst(e)inemia. A common C677T polymorphism in MTHFR has been associated with an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and depression in adults, and of neural tube defects in the fetus. The mutation also confers protection for certain types of cancers. This review presents the current knowledge of the enzyme, its biochemical characterization, and medical significance.

  3. Enhanced silver nanoparticle synthesis by optimization of nitrate reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; Gopalram, Shubaash; Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Deepak, Venkataraman; Pandian, Sureshbabu Ram Kumar; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2010-01-01

    Nanostructure materials are attracting a great deal of attention because of their potential for achieving specific processes and selectivity, especially in biological and pharmaceutical applications. The generation of silver nanoparticles using optimized nitrate reductase for the reduction of Ag(+) with the retention of enzymatic activity in the complex is being reported. This report involves the optimization of enzyme activity to bring about enhanced nanoparticle synthesis. Response surface methodology and central composite rotary design (CCRD) were employed to optimize a fermentation medium for the production of nitrate reductase by Bacillus licheniformis at pH 8. The four variables involved in the study of nitrate reductase were Glucose, Peptone, Yeast extract and KNO(3). Glucose had a significant effect on nitrate reductase production. The optimized medium containing (%) Glucose: 1.5, Peptone: 1, Yeast extract: 0.35 and KNO(3): 0.35 resulted in a nitrate reductase activity of 452.206 U/ml which is same as that of the central level. The medium A (showing least nitrate reductase activity) and the medium B (showing maximum nitrate reductase activity) were compared for the synthesis. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that the particles exhibited a peak at 431 nm and the A(431) for the medium B was 2-fold greater than that of the medium A. The particles were also characterized using TEM. The particles synthesized using the optimized enzyme activity ranged from 10 to 80 nm and therefore can be extended to various medicinal applications.

  4. Solubilization and Resolution of the Membrane-Bound Nitrite Reductase from Paracoccus Halodenitrificans into Nitrite and Nitric Oxide Reductases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Michael A.; Cronin, Sonja E.; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1984-01-01

    Membranes prepared from Paracoccus halodenitrificans reduced nitrite or nitric oxide to nitrous oxide. Extraction of these membranes with the detergent CHAPSO [3-(3-Chlolamidoporopyldimethylammonio)-1-(2- hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate)], followed by ammonium sulfate fractionation of the solubilized proteins, resulted in the separation of nitrite and nitric oxide reductase activities. The fraction containing nitrite reductase activity spectrally resembled a cd-type cytochrome. Several cytochromes were detected in the nitric oxide reductase fraction. Which, if any, of these cytochromes is associated with the reduction of nitric oxide is not clear at this time.

  5. Modulation of plant HMG-CoA reductase by protein phosphatase 2A

    PubMed Central

    Antolín-Llovera, Meritxell; Leivar, Pablo; Arró, Montserrat; Ferrer, Albert; Boronat, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The enzyme HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) has a key regulatory role in the mevalonate pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis, critical not only for normal plant development, but also for the adaptation to demanding environmental conditions. Consistent with this notion, plant HMGR is modulated by many diverse endogenous signals and external stimuli. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is involved in auxin, abscisic acid, ethylene and brassinosteroid signaling and now emerges as a positive and negative multilevel regulator of plant HMGR, both during normal growth and in response to a variety of stress conditions. The interaction with HMGR is mediated by B″ regulatory subunits of PP2A, which are also calcium binding proteins. The new discoveries uncover the potential of PP2A to integrate developmental and calcium-mediated environmental signals in the control of plant HMGR. PMID:21701259

  6. Enantioselective imine reduction catalyzed by imine reductases and artificial metalloenzymes.

    PubMed

    Gamenara, Daniela; Domínguez de María, Pablo

    2014-05-21

    Adding value to organic synthesis. Novel imine reductases enable the enantioselective reduction of imines to afford optically active amines. Likewise, novel bioinspired artificial metalloenzymes can perform the same reaction as well. Emerging proof-of-concepts are herein discussed.

  7. Exploration of Nitrate Reductase Metabolic Pathway in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Vinícius; Diniz, Carlos; Dorneles, Elaine M. S.; Barh, Debmalya

    2017-01-01

    Based on the ability of nitrate reductase synthesis, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is classified into two biovars: Ovis and Equi. Due to the presence of nitrate reductase, the Equi biovar can survive in absence of oxygen. On the other hand, Ovis biovar that does not have nitrate reductase is able to adapt to various ecological niches and can grow on certain carbon sources. Apart from these two biovars, some other strains are also able to carry out the reduction of nitrate. The enzymes that are involved in electron transport chain are also identified by in silico methods. Findings about pathogen metabolism can contribute to the identification of relationship between nitrate reductase and the C. pseudotuberculosis pathogenicity, virulence factors, and discovery of drug targets. PMID:28316974

  8. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... activity of the enzyme glutathione reductase in serum, plasma, or erythrocytes by such techniques as fluorescence and photometry. The results of this assay are used in the diagnosis of liver disease,...

  9. Comparative anatomy of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Jez, J M; Bennett, M J; Schlegel, B P; Lewis, M; Penning, T M

    1997-09-15

    The aldo-keto reductases metabolize a wide range of substrates and are potential drug targets. This protein superfamily includes aldose reductases, aldehyde reductases, hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and dihydrodiol dehydrogenases. By combining multiple sequence alignments with known three-dimensional structures and the results of site-directed mutagenesis studies, we have developed a structure/function analysis of this superfamily. Our studies suggest that the (alpha/beta)8-barrel fold provides a common scaffold for an NAD(P)(H)-dependent catalytic activity, with substrate specificity determined by variation of loops on the C-terminal side of the barrel. All the aldo-keto reductases are dependent on nicotinamide cofactors for catalysis and retain a similar cofactor binding site, even among proteins with less than 30% amino acid sequence identity. Likewise, the aldo-keto reductase active site is highly conserved. However, our alignments indicate that variation ofa single residue in the active site may alter the reaction mechanism from carbonyl oxidoreduction to carbon-carbon double-bond reduction, as in the 3-oxo-5beta-steroid 4-dehydrogenases (Delta4-3-ketosteroid 5beta-reductases) of the superfamily. Comparison of the proposed substrate binding pocket suggests residues 54 and 118, near the active site, as possible discriminators between sugar and steroid substrates. In addition, sequence alignment and subsequent homology modelling of mouse liver 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and rat ovary 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase indicate that three loops on the C-terminal side of the barrel play potential roles in determining the positional and stereo-specificity of the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. Finally, we propose that the aldo-keto reductase superfamily may represent an example of divergent evolution from an ancestral multifunctional oxidoreductase and an example of convergent evolution to the same active-site constellation as the short

  10. Human carbonyl reductase catalyzes reduction of 4-oxonon-2-enal.

    PubMed

    Doorn, Jonathan A; Maser, Edmund; Blum, Andreas; Claffey, David J; Petersen, Dennis R

    2004-10-19

    4-Oxonon-2-enal (4ONE) was demonstrated to be a product of lipid peroxidation, and previous studies found that it was highly reactive toward DNA and protein. The present study sought to determine whether carbonyl reductase (CR) catalyzes reduction of 4ONE, representing a potential pathway for metabolism of the lipid peroxidation product. Recombinant CR was cloned from a human liver cDNA library, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by metal chelate chromatography. Both 4ONE and its glutathione conjugate were found to be substrates for CR, and kinetic parameters were calculated. TLC analysis of reaction products revealed the presence of three compounds, two of which were identified as 4-hydroxynon-2-enal (4HNE) and 1-hydroxynon-2-en-4-one (1HNO). GC/MS analysis confirmed 4HNE and 1HNO and identified the unknown reaction product as 4-oxononanal (4ONA). Analysis of oxime derivatives of the reaction products via LC/MS confirmed the unknown as 4ONA. The time course for CR-mediated, NADPH-dependent 4ONE reduction and appearance of 4HNE and 1HNO was determined using HPLC, demonstrating 4HNE to be a major product and 1HNO and 4ONA to be minor products. Simulated structures of 4ONE in the active site of CR/NADPH calculated via docking experiments predict the ketone positioned as primary hydride acceptor. Results of the present study demonstrate that 4ONE is a substrate for CR/NADPH and the enzyme may represent a pathway for biotransformation of the lipid. Furthermore, these findings reveal that CR catalyzes hydride transfer selectively to the ketone but also to the aldehyde and C=C of 4ONE, resulting in 4HNE, 1HNO, and 4ONA, respectively.

  11. Tales of Dihydrofolate Binding to R67 Dihydrofolate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Homotetrameric R67 dihydrofolate reductase possesses 222 symmetry and a single active site pore. This situation results in a promiscuous binding site that accommodates either the substrate, dihydrofolate (DHF), or the cofactor, NADPH. NADPH interacts more directly with the protein as it is larger than the substrate. In contrast, the p-aminobenzoyl-glutamate tail of DHF, as monitored by nuclear magnetic resonance and crystallography, is disordered when bound. To explore whether smaller active site volumes (which should decrease the level of tail disorder by confinement effects) alter steady state rates, asymmetric mutations that decreased the half-pore volume by ∼35% were constructed. Only minor effects on kcat were observed. To continue exploring the role of tail disorder in catalysis, 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide-mediated cross-linking between R67 DHFR and folate was performed. A two-folate, one-tetramer complex results in the loss of enzyme activity where two symmetry-related K32 residues in the protein are cross-linked to the carboxylates of two bound folates. The tethered folate could be reduced, although with a ≤30-fold decreased rate, suggesting decreased dynamics and/or suboptimal positioning of the cross-linked folate for catalysis. Computer simulations that restrain the dihydrofolate tail near K32 indicate that cross-linking still allows movement of the p-aminobenzoyl ring, which allows the reaction to occur. Finally, a bis-ethylene-diamine-α,γ-amide folate adduct was synthesized; both negatively charged carboxylates in the glutamate tail were replaced with positively charged amines. The Ki for this adduct was ∼9-fold higher than for folate. These various results indicate a balance between folate tail disorder, which helps the enzyme bind substrate while dynamics facilitates catalysis. PMID:26637016

  12. Distribution of Prx-linked hydroperoxide reductase activity among microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kouji; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka; Yoda, Koji; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Nimura-Matsune, Kaori; Mura, Kiyoshi; Tokue, Chiyoko; Katoh, Tetzuya; Kawasaki, Shinji; Niimura, Youichi

    2004-01-01

    Peroxiredoxin (Prx) constitutes a large family of enzymes found in microorganisms, animals, and plants, but the detection of the activities of Prx-linked hydroperoxide reductases (peroxiredoxin reductases) in cell extracts, and the purification based on peroxide reductase activity, have only been done in bacteria and Trypanosomatidae. A peroxiredoxin reductase (NADH oxidase) from a bacterium, Amphibacillus, displayed only poor activities in the presence of purified Prx from Saccharomyces or Synechocystis, while it is highly active in the presence of bacterial Prx. These results suggested that an enzyme system different from that in bacteria might exist for the reduction of Prx in yeast and cyanobacteria. Prx-linked hydroperoxide reductase activities were detected in cell extracts of Saccharomyces, Synechocystis, and Chlorella, and the enzyme activities of Saccharomyces and Chlorella were induced under vigorously aerated culture conditions and intensive light exposure conditions, respectively. Partial purification of Prx-linked peroxidase from the induced yeast cells indicated that the Prx-linked peroxidase system consists of two protein components, namely, thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase. This finding is consistent with the previous report on its purification based on its protein protection activity against oxidation [Chae et al., J. Biol. Chem., 269, 27670-27678 (1994)]. In this study we have confirmed that Prx-linked peroxidase activity are widely distributed, not only in bacteria species and Trypanosomatidae, but also in yeast and photosynthetic microorganisms, and showed reconstitution of the activity from partially purified interspecies components.

  13. Oxygen-Insensitive Nitroreductases NfsA and NfsB of Escherichia coli Function under Anaerobic Conditions as Lawsone-Dependent Azo Reductases

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Jörg; Stolz, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Quinones can function as redox mediators in the unspecific anaerobic reduction of azo compounds by various bacterial species. These quinones are enzymatically reduced by the bacteria and the resulting hydroquinones then reduce in a purely chemical redox reaction the azo compounds outside of the cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the addition of lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) to anaerobically incubated cells of Escherichia coli resulted in a pronounced increase in the reduction rates of different sulfonated and polymeric azo compounds. In the present study it was attempted to identify the enzyme system(s) responsible for the reduction of lawsone by E. coli and thus for the lawsone-dependent anaerobic azo reductase activity. An NADH-dependent lawsone reductase activity was found in the cytosolic fraction of the cells. The enzyme was purified by column chromatography and the amino-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein was determined. The sequence obtained was identical to the sequence of an oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase (NfsB) described earlier from this organism. Subsequent biochemical tests with the purified lawsone reductase activity confirmed that the lawsone reductase activity detected was identical with NfsB. In addition it was proven that also a second oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase of E. coli (NfsA) is able to reduce lawsone and thus to function under adequate conditions as quinone-dependent azo reductase. PMID:12788749

  14. Microsecond subdomain folding in dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Arai, Munehito; Iwakura, Masahiro; Matthews, C Robert; Bilsel, Osman

    2011-07-08

    The characterization of microsecond dynamics in the folding of multisubdomain proteins has been a major challenge in understanding their often complex folding mechanisms. Using a continuous-flow mixing device coupled with fluorescence lifetime detection, we report the microsecond folding dynamics of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), a two-subdomain α/β/α sandwich protein known to begin folding in this time range. The global dimensions of early intermediates were monitored by Förster resonance energy transfer, and the dynamic properties of the local Trp environments were monitored by fluorescence lifetime detection. We found that substantial collapse occurs in both the locally connected adenosine binding subdomain and the discontinuous loop subdomain within 35 μs of initiation of folding from the urea unfolded state. During the fastest observable ∼550 μs phase, the discontinuous loop subdomain further contracts, concomitant with the burial of Trp residue(s), as both subdomains achieve a similar degree of compactness. Taken together with previous studies in the millisecond time range, a hierarchical assembly of DHFR--in which each subdomain independently folds, subsequently docks, and then anneals into the native conformation after an initial heterogeneous global collapse--emerges. The progressive acquisition of structure, beginning with a continuously connected subdomain and spreading to distal regions, shows that chain entropy is a significant organizing principle in the folding of multisubdomain proteins and single-domain proteins. Subdomain folding also provides a rationale for the complex kinetics often observed.

  15. Active sites of thioredoxin reductases: why selenoproteins?

    PubMed

    Gromer, Stephan; Johansson, Linda; Bauer, Holger; Arscott, L David; Rauch, Susanne; Ballou, David P; Williams, Charles H; Schirmer, R Heiner; Arnér, Elias S J

    2003-10-28

    Selenium, an essential trace element for mammals, is incorporated into a selected class of selenoproteins as selenocysteine. All known isoenzymes of mammalian thioredoxin (Trx) reductases (TrxRs) employ selenium in the C-terminal redox center -Gly-Cys-Sec-Gly-COOH for reduction of Trx and other substrates, whereas the corresponding sequence in Drosophila melanogaster TrxR is -Ser-Cys-Cys-Ser-COOH. Surprisingly, the catalytic competence of these orthologous enzymes is similar, whereas direct Sec-to-Cys substitution of mammalian TrxR, or other selenoenzymes, yields almost inactive enzyme. TrxRs are therefore ideal for studying the biology of selenocysteine by comparative enzymology. Here we show that the serine residues flanking the C-terminal Cys residues of Drosophila TrxRs are responsible for activating the cysteines to match the catalytic efficiency of a selenocysteine-cysteine pair as in mammalian TrxR, obviating the need for selenium. This finding suggests that the occurrence of selenoenzymes, which implies that the organism is selenium-dependent, is not necessarily associated with improved enzyme efficiency. Our data suggest that the selective advantage of selenoenzymes is a broader range of substrates and a broader range of microenvironmental conditions in which enzyme activity is possible.

  16. X-ray structural studies of quinone reductase 2 nanomolar range inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Pegan, Scott D.; Sturdy, Megan; Ferry, Gilles; Delagrange, Philippe; Boutin, Jean A.; Mesecar, Andrew D.

    2011-09-06

    Quinone reductase 2 (QR2) is one of two members comprising the mammalian quinone reductase family of enzymes responsible for performing FAD mediated reductions of quinone substrates. In contrast to quinone reductase 1 (QR1) which uses NAD(P)H as its co-substrate, QR2 utilizes a rare group of hydride donors, N-methyl or N-ribosyl nicotinamide. Several studies have linked QR2 to the generation of quinone free radicals, several neuronal degenerative diseases, and cancer. QR2 has been also identified as the third melatonin receptor (MT3) through in cellulo and in vitro inhibition of QR2 by traditional MT3 ligands, and through recent X-ray structures of human QR2 (hQR2) in complex with melatonin and 2-iodomelatonin. Several MT3 specific ligands have been developed that exhibit both potent in cellulo inhibition of hQR2 nanomolar, affinity for MT3. The potency of these ligands suggest their use as molecular probes for hQR2. However, no definitive correlation between traditionally obtained MT3 ligand affinity and hQR2 inhibition exists limiting our understanding of how these ligands are accommodated in the hQR2 active site. To obtain a clearer relationship between the structures of developed MT3 ligands and their inhibitory properties, in cellulo and in vitro IC{sub 50} values were determined for a representative set of MT3 ligands (MCA-NAT, 2-I-MCANAT, prazosin, S26695, S32797, and S29434). Furthermore, X-ray structures for each of these ligands in complex with hQR2 were determined allowing for a structural evaluation of the binding modes of these ligands in relation to the potency of MT3 ligands.

  17. Sulfite reductase protects plants against sulfite toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Brychkova, Galina; Fluhr, Robert; Sagi, Moshe

    2013-02-01

    Plant sulfite reductase (SiR; Enzyme Commission 1.8.7.1) catalyzes the reduction of sulfite to sulfide in the reductive sulfate assimilation pathway. Comparison of SiR expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Rheinlands Ruhm') and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants revealed that SiR is expressed in a different tissue-dependent manner that likely reflects dissimilarity in sulfur metabolism between the plant species. Using Arabidopsis and tomato SiR mutants with modified SiR expression, we show here that resistance to ectopically applied sulfur dioxide/sulfite is a function of SiR expression levels and that plants with reduced SiR expression exhibit higher sensitivity than the wild type, as manifested in pronounced leaf necrosis and chlorophyll bleaching. The sulfite-sensitive mutants accumulate applied sulfite and show a decline in glutathione levels. In contrast, mutants that overexpress SiR are more tolerant to sulfite toxicity, exhibiting little or no damage. Resistance to high sulfite application is manifested by fast sulfite disappearance and an increase in glutathione levels. The notion that SiR plays a role in the protection of plants against sulfite is supported by the rapid up-regulation of SiR transcript and activity within 30 min of sulfite injection into Arabidopsis and tomato leaves. Peroxisomal sulfite oxidase transcripts and activity levels are likewise promoted by sulfite application as compared with water injection controls. These results indicate that, in addition to participating in the sulfate assimilation reductive pathway, SiR also plays a role in protecting leaves against the toxicity of sulfite accumulation.

  18. 4'-Thio-oligo-beta-D-ribonucleotides: synthesis of beta-4'-thio-oligouridylates, nuclease resistance, base pairing properties, and interaction with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed Central

    Bellon, L; Barascut, J L; Maury, G; Divita, G; Goody, R; Imbach, J L

    1993-01-01

    We present the synthesis and the study of properties of a new series of modified oligonucleotides, namely 4'-thio-oligo-beta-D-ribonucleotides (4'-S-RNA). Homo-oligonucleotides of this class (4'-SU6 and 4'-SU12) were prepared from the previously known thionucleosides using the phosphoramidite methodology. The comparison of the substrate properties of 4'-SU6 and its natural analog U6 with respect to four nucleases indicates that the former is much more resistant than the latter. Such resistance to nucleases in addition to relatively high Tm values for 4'-SU12 hybridized with Poly(A) show that these new 4'-S-RNA are good candidates for potential antisense effects. The oligonucleotides 4'-SU6 and 4'-SU12 have been also evaluated as non sequence specific inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. All available evidences, based primarily on fluorescence measurements, are consistent with the binding of 4'-SU6 and 4'-SU12 to RT at a site which is different from the polymerase site of the enzyme. PMID:7683133

  19. Uterine glutathione reductase activity: modulation by estrogens and progesterone.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Flores, M; Baiza-Gutman, L A; Pedrón, N N; Hicks, J J

    1999-10-29

    The aim of this study was to determine whether glutathione reductase activity in uterine tissue is regulated by sex hormones. In spayed rats uterine glutathione reductase was significantly increased by exogenous estrogen (P< 0.01), progesterone (P< 0.01) or estrogen plus progesterone (P<0.01). When enzyme activity is expressed per mg protein, daily administration of estrogen or progesterone induces a progressive increase of this enzyme between 24 to 48 h or 24 to 72 h of treatment, respectively. Whereas the combination of both steroids causes an earlier and higher increase in glutathione reductase activity at 24 h of treatment. Estradiol singly or in combination with progesterone induced the highest protein concentration in the uterus. Whereas uterine DNA concentration is only significantly affected by estradiol. Our results suggest that uterine glutathione reductase is regulated by estradiol and progesterone and may be involved in maintaining levels of reduced glutathione in the uterus. This compound may be required for control of the redox state of thiol groups and in detoxification reactions involving H2O2 and electrophylic substances. The antioxidant action of estrogens is partially due to the stimulation of glutathione reductase.

  20. HMG-CoA reductase guides migrating primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Van Doren, M; Broihier, H T; Moore, L A; Lehmann, R

    1998-12-03

    The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase is best known for catalysing a rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis, but it also participates in the production of a wide variety of other compounds. Some clinical benefits attributed to inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase are now thought to be independent of any serum cholesterol-lowering effect. Here we describe a new cholesterol-independent role for HMG-CoA reductase, in regulating a developmental process: primordial germ cell migration. We show that in Drosophila this enzyme is highly expressed in the somatic gonad and that it is necessary for primordial germ cells to migrate to this tissue. Misexpression of HMG-CoA reductase is sufficient to attract primordial germ cells to tissues other than the gonadal mesoderm. We conclude that the regulated expression of HMG-CoA reductase has a critical developmental function in providing spatial information to guide migrating primordial germ cells.

  1. Bacterial morphinone reductase is related to Old Yellow Enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    French, C E; Bruce, N C

    1995-01-01

    Morphinone reductase, produced by Pseudomonas putida M10, catalyses the NADH-dependent saturation of the carbon-carbon double bond of morphinone and codeinone, and is believed to be involved in the metabolism of morphine and codeine. The structural gene encoding morphinone reductase, designated morB, was cloned from Ps. putida M10 genomic DNA by the use of degenerate oligonucleotide probes based on elements of the amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme. Sequence analysis and structural characteristics indicated that morphinone reductase is related to the flavoprotein alpha/beta-barrel oxidoreductases, and is particularly similar to Old Yellow Enzyme of Saccharomyces spp. and the related oestrogen-binding protein of Candida albicans. Expressed sequence tags from several plant species show high homology to these enzymes, suggesting the presence of a family of enzymes conserved in plants and fungi. Although related bacterial proteins are known, morphinone reductase appears to be more similar to the eukaryotic proteins. Morphinone reductase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and has potential applications for the industrial preparation of semisynthetic opiates. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 PMID:8554504

  2. Purification and properties of proline reductase from Clostridium sticklandii.

    PubMed

    Seto, B; Stadtman, T C

    1976-04-25

    Proline reductase of Clostridium sticklandii is a membrane-bound protein and is released by treatment with detergents. The enzyme has been purified to homogeneity and is estimated by gel filtration and sedimentation equilibrium centrifugation to have a molecular weight of 298,000 to 327,000. A minimum molecular weight of 30,000 to 31,000 was calculated on the basis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gel electrophoresis and amino acid composition. Amino acid analysis showed a preponderance of acidic amino acids. No tryptophan was detected in the protein either spectrophotometrically or by amino acid analysis. A total of 20 sulfhydryl groups measured by titration of the reduced protein with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) is in agreement with 20 cystic acid residues determined in hydrolysates of performic acid-oxidized protein. No molybdenum, iron, or selenium was found in the pure protein. Although NADH is the physiological electron donor for the proline reductase complex, the purified 300,000 molecular weight reductase component is inactive in the presence of NADH in vitro. Dithiothreitol, in contrast, can serve as electron donor both for unpurified (putative proline reductase complex) and purified proline reductase in vitro.

  3. Potential use of aldose reductase inhibitors to prevent diabetic complications.

    PubMed

    Zenon, G J; Abobo, C V; Carter, B L; Ball, D W

    1990-06-01

    Reviewed are (1) the biochemical basis and pathophysiology of diabetic complications and (2) the structure-activity relationships, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials, and adverse effects of aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs). ARIs are a new class of drugs potentially useful in preventing diabetic complications, the most widely studied of which have been cataracts and neuropathy. ARIs inhibit aldose reductase, the first, rate-limiting enzyme in the polyol metabolic pathway. In nonphysiological hyperglycemia the activity of hexokinase becomes saturated while that of aldose reductase is enhanced, resulting in intracellular accumulation of sorbitol. Because sorbitol does not readily penetrate the cell membrane it can persist within cells, which may lead to diabetic complications. ARIs are a class of structurally dissimilar compounds that include carboxylic acid derivatives, flavonoids, and spirohydantoins. The major pharmacologic action of an ARI involves competitive binding to aldose reductase and consequent blocking of sorbitol production. ARIs delay cataract formation in animals, but the role of aldose reductase in cataract formation in human diabetics has not been established. The adverse effects of ARIs include hypersensitivity reactions. Although the polyol pathway may not be solely responsible for diabetic complications, studies suggest that therapy with ARIs could be beneficial. Further research is needed to determine the long-term impact and adverse effects of ARIs in the treatment of diabetic complications.

  4. POLYPRENOL REDUCTASE2 Deficiency Is Lethal in Arabidopsis Due to Male Sterility[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gutkowska, Malgorzata; Buczkowska, Anna; Lichocka, Malgorzata; Nowakowska, Julita

    2015-01-01

    Dolichol is a required cofactor for protein glycosylation, the most common posttranslational modification modulating the stability and biological activity of proteins in all eukaryotic cells. We have identified and characterized two genes, PPRD1 and -2, which are orthologous to human SRD5A3 (steroid 5α reductase type 3) and encode polyprenol reductases responsible for conversion of polyprenol to dolichol in Arabidopsis thaliana. PPRD1 and -2 play dedicated roles in plant metabolism. PPRD2 is essential for plant viability; its deficiency results in aberrant development of the male gametophyte and sporophyte. Impaired protein glycosylation seems to be the major factor underlying these defects although disturbances in other cellular dolichol-dependent processes could also contribute. Shortage of dolichol in PPRD2-deficient cells is partially rescued by PPRD1 overexpression or by supplementation with dolichol. The latter has been discussed as a method to compensate for deficiency in protein glycosylation. Supplementation of the human diet with dolichol-enriched plant tissues could allow new therapeutic interventions in glycosylation disorders. This identification of PPRD1 and -2 elucidates the factors mediating the key step of the dolichol cycle in plant cells which makes manipulation of dolichol content in plant tissues feasible. PMID:26628744

  5. Bioelectrocatalysts: engineered oxidoreductase system for utilization of fumarate reductase in chemical synthesis, detection, and fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Doo Hyun; Vieille, C; Zeikus, J G

    2003-10-01

    Fumarate reductase was used as a model oxidoreductase to demonstrate continuous electrical cofactor reduction-oxidation during the bioelectrochemical synthesis and detection of chemicals. The enzyme preparation was immobilized onto a graphite felt electrode that was modified with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), neutral red, and fumarate reductase (which contained menaquinone) were covalently linked by peptide bonds to the CMC. The electron mediator neutral red allowed NAD and menaquinone to be recycled electrically during enzymatic chemical synthesis. Succinate detection by the bioelectrocatalyst was linear from 5 microM to 10 mM succinate. Fumarate synthesis using this bioelectrode was dependent on succinate utilization and resulted in proportional production of electricity and fumarate. Succinate synthesis using this bioelectrocatalyst was dependent on current and fumarate concentration. This bioelectrocatalyst system may enhance the utility of menaquinone- and/or pyridine nucleotide-linked oxidoreductases in diverse enzymatic fuel cells and sensors. It may also enhance the utility of oxidoreductase-based chemical synthesis systems because it eliminates the problem of cofactor recycling.

  6. Enzymatic function of hemoglobin as a nitrite reductase that produces NO under allosteric control

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhi; Shiva, Sruti; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Patel, Rakesh P.; Ringwood, Lorna A.; Irby, Cynthia E.; Huang, Kris T.; Ho, Chien; Hogg, Neil; Schechter, Alan N.; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxic vasodilation is a fundamental, highly conserved physiological response that requires oxygen and/or pH sensing coupled to vasodilation. While this process was first characterized more than 80 years ago, the precise identity and mechanism of the oxygen sensor and mediators of vasodilation remain uncertain. In support of a possible role for hemoglobin (Hb) as a sensor and effector of hypoxic vasodilation, here we show biochemical evidence that Hb exhibits enzymatic behavior as a nitrite reductase, with maximal NO generation rates occurring near the oxy-to-deoxy (R-to-T) allosteric structural transition of the protein. The observed rate of nitrite reduction by Hb deviates from second-order kinetics, and sigmoidal reaction progress is determined by a balance between 2 opposing chemistries of the heme in the R (oxygenated conformation) and T (deoxygenated conformation) allosteric quaternary structures of the Hb tetramer — the greater reductive potential of deoxyheme in the R state tetramer and the number of unligated deoxyheme sites necessary for nitrite binding, which are more plentiful in the T state tetramer. These opposing chemistries result in a maximal nitrite reduction rate when Hb is 40–60% saturated with oxygen (near the Hb P50), an apparent ideal set point for hypoxia-responsive NO generation. These data suggest that the oxygen sensor for hypoxic vasodilation is determined by Hb oxygen saturation and quaternary structure and that the nitrite reductase activity of Hb generates NO gas under allosteric and pH control. PMID:16041407

  7. Structure and catalytic mechanism of monodehydroascorbate reductase, MDHAR, from Oryza sativa L. japonica

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ae Kyung; Kim, Il-Sup; Do, Hackwon; Jeon, Byung Wook; Lee, Chang Woo; Roh, Soo Jung; Shin, Seung Chul; Park, Hyun; Kim, Young-Saeng; Kim, Yul-Ho; Yoon, Ho-Sung; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Kim, Han-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA) maintains redox homeostasis by scavenging reactive oxygen species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, especially plants. The enzyme monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) regenerates AsA by catalysing the reduction of monodehydroascorbate, using NADH or NADPH as an electron donor. The detailed recycling mechanism of MDHAR remains unclear due to lack of structural information. Here, we present the crystal structures of MDHAR in the presence of cofactors, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+), and complexed with AsA as well as its analogue, isoascorbic acid (ISD). The overall structure of MDHAR is similar to other iron-sulphur protein reductases, except for a unique long loop of 63–80 residues, which seems to be essential in forming the active site pocket. From the structural analysis and structure-guided point mutations, we found that the Arg320 residue plays a major substrate binding role, and the Tyr349 residue mediates electron transfer from NAD(P)H to bound substrate via FAD. The enzymatic activity of MDHAR favours NADH as an electron donor over NADPH. Our results show, for the first time, structural insights into this preference. The MDHAR-ISD complex structure revealed an alternative binding conformation of ISD, compared with the MDHAR-AsA complex. This implies a broad substrate (antioxidant) specificity and resulting greater protective ability of MDHAR. PMID:27652777

  8. A structural account of substrate and inhibitor specificity differences between two Naphthol reductases

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, D.-I.; Thompson, J.E.; Fahnestock, S.; Valent, B.; Jordan, D.B.

    2010-03-08

    Two short chain dehydrogenase/reductases mediate naphthol reduction reactions in fungal melanin biosynthesis. An X-ray structure of 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene reductase (4HNR) complexed with NADPH and pyroquilon was determined for examining substrate and inhibitor specificities that differ from those of 1,3,8-trihydroxynaphthalene reductase (3HNR). The 1.5 {angstrom} resolution structure allows for comparisons with the 1.7 {angstrom} resolution structure of 3HNR complexed with the same ligands. The sequences of the two proteins are 46% identical, and they have the same fold. The 30-fold lower affinity of the 4HNR-NADPH complex for pyroquilon (a commercial fungicide that targets 3HNR) in comparison to that of the 3HNR-NADPH complex can be explained by unfavorable interactions between the anionic carboxyl group of the C-terminal Ile282 of 4HNR and CH and CH{sub 2} groups of the inhibitor that are countered by favorable inhibitor interactions with 3HNR. 1,3,8-Trihydroxynaphthalene (3HN) and 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene (4HN) were modeled onto the cyclic structure of pyroquilon in the 4HNR-NADPH-pyroquilon complex to examine the 300-fold preference of the enzyme for 4HN over 3HN. The models suggest that the C-terminal carboxyl group of Ile282 has a favorable hydrogen bonding interaction with the C6 hydroxyl group of 4HN and an unfavorable interaction with the C6 CH group of 3HN. Models of 3HN and 4HN in the 3HNR active site suggest a favorable interaction of the sulfur atom of the C-terminal Met283 with the C6 CH group of 3HN and an unfavorable one with the C6 hydroxyl group of 4HN, accounting for the 4-fold difference in substrate specificities. Thus, the C-terminal residues of the two naphthol reductase are determinants of inhibitor and substrate specificities.

  9. Sulfur Isotope Effects of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, William D.; Bradley, Alexander S.; Santos, André A.; Pereira, Inês A. C.; Johnston, David T.

    2015-01-01

    The precise interpretation of environmental sulfur isotope records requires a quantitative understanding of the biochemical controls on sulfur isotope fractionation by the principle isotope-fractionating process within the S cycle, microbial sulfate reduction (MSR). Here we provide the only direct observation of the major (34S/32S) and minor (33S/32S, 36S/32S) sulfur isotope fractionations imparted by a central enzyme in the energy metabolism of sulfate reducers, dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DsrAB). Results from in vitro sulfite reduction experiments allow us to calculate the in vitro DsrAB isotope effect in 34S/32S (hereafter, 34εDsrAB) to be 15.3 ± 2‰, 2σ. The accompanying minor isotope effect in 33S, described as 33λDsrAB, is calculated to be 0.5150 ± 0.0012, 2σ. These observations facilitate a rigorous evaluation of the isotopic fractionation associated with the dissimilatory MSR pathway, as well as of the environmental variables that govern the overall magnitude of fractionation by natural communities of sulfate reducers. The isotope effect induced by DsrAB upon sulfite reduction is a factor of 0.3–0.6 times prior indirect estimates, which have ranged from 25 to 53‰ in 34εDsrAB. The minor isotope fractionation observed from DsrAB is consistent with a kinetic or equilibrium effect. Our in vitro constraints on the magnitude of 34εDsrAB is similar to the median value of experimental observations compiled from all known published work, where 34εr−p = 16.1‰ (r–p indicates reactant vs. product, n = 648). This value closely matches those of MSR operating at high sulfate reduction rates in both laboratory chemostat experiments (34εSO4−H2S =  17.3 ± 1.5‰, 2σ) and in modern marine sediments (34εSO4−H2S =  17.3 ± 3.8‰). Targeting the direct isotopic consequences of a specific enzymatic processes is a fundamental step toward a biochemical foundation for reinterpreting the biogeochemical and geobiological sulfur isotope records in

  10. Sulfur Isotope Effects of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, William D; Bradley, Alexander S; Santos, André A; Pereira, Inês A C; Johnston, David T

    2015-01-01

    The precise interpretation of environmental sulfur isotope records requires a quantitative understanding of the biochemical controls on sulfur isotope fractionation by the principle isotope-fractionating process within the S cycle, microbial sulfate reduction (MSR). Here we provide the only direct observation of the major ((34)S/(32)S) and minor ((33)S/(32)S, (36)S/(32)S) sulfur isotope fractionations imparted by a central enzyme in the energy metabolism of sulfate reducers, dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DsrAB). Results from in vitro sulfite reduction experiments allow us to calculate the in vitro DsrAB isotope effect in (34)S/(32)S (hereafter, [Formula: see text]) to be 15.3 ± 2‰, 2σ. The accompanying minor isotope effect in (33)S, described as [Formula: see text], is calculated to be 0.5150 ± 0.0012, 2σ. These observations facilitate a rigorous evaluation of the isotopic fractionation associated with the dissimilatory MSR pathway, as well as of the environmental variables that govern the overall magnitude of fractionation by natural communities of sulfate reducers. The isotope effect induced by DsrAB upon sulfite reduction is a factor of 0.3-0.6 times prior indirect estimates, which have ranged from 25 to 53‰ in (34)εDsrAB. The minor isotope fractionation observed from DsrAB is consistent with a kinetic or equilibrium effect. Our in vitro constraints on the magnitude of [Formula: see text] is similar to the median value of experimental observations compiled from all known published work, where (34)ε r-p = 16.1‰ (r-p indicates reactant vs. product, n = 648). This value closely matches those of MSR operating at high sulfate reduction rates in both laboratory chemostat experiments ([Formula: see text] 17.3 ± 1.5‰, 2σ) and in modern marine sediments ([Formula: see text] 17.3 ± 3.8‰). Targeting the direct isotopic consequences of a specific enzymatic processes is a fundamental step toward a biochemical foundation for reinterpreting the

  11. Selenium in thioredoxin reductase: a mechanistic perspective.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Brian M; Eckenroth, Brian E; Flemer, Stevenson; Hondal, Robert J

    2008-12-02

    Most high M(r) thioredoxin reductases (TRs) have the unusual feature of utilizing a vicinal disulfide bond (Cys(1)-Cys(2)) which forms an eight-membered ring during the catalytic cycle. Many eukaryotic TRs have replaced the Cys(2) position of the dyad with the rare amino acid selenocysteine (Sec). Here we demonstrate that Cys- and Sec-containing TRs are distinguished by the importance each class of enzymes places on the eight-membered ring structure in the catalytic cycle. This hypothesis was explored by studying the truncated enzyme missing the C-terminal ring structure in conjunction with oxidized peptide substrates to investigate the reduction and opening of this dyad. The peptide substrates were identical in sequence to the missing part of the enzyme, containing either a disulfide or selenylsulfide linkage, but were differentiated by the presence (cyclic) and absence (acyclic) of the ring structure. The ratio of these turnover rates informs that the ring is only of modest importance for the truncated mouse mitochondrial Sec-TR (ring/no ring = 32), while the ring structure is highly important for the truncated Cys-TRs from Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (ring/no ring > 1000). All three enzymes exhibit a similar dependence upon leaving group pK(a) as shown by the use of the acyclic peptides as substrates. These two factors can be reconciled for Cys-TRs if the ring functions to simultaneously allow for attack by a nearby thiolate while correctly positioning the leaving group sulfur atom to accept a proton from the enzymic general acid. For Sec-TRs the ring is unimportant because the lower pK(a) of the selenol relative to a thiol obviates its need to be protonated upon S-Se bond scission and permits physical separation of the selenol and the general acid. Further study of the biochemical properties of the truncated Cys and Sec TR enzymes demonstrates that the chemical advantage conferred on the eukaryotic enzyme by a selenol is the ability to

  12. Robinetinidol-flavone attenuates cholesterol synthesis in hepatoma cells via inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hai; Chao, Yu; Li, Ke; Li, Junxiang; Gong, Weihong; Huang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Robinetinidol-(4β,2')-tetrahydroxy-flavone (RBF) is an oligomeric condensed polyphenol that has been shown to exhibit anti-obesity effects in mice. However, little is know regarding its effect on cholesterol synthesis. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the effect of RBF on cholesterol synthesis. It was determined that RBF decreased serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats by 25.9 and 50.8%, respectively (P<0.001). These results strengthen evidence for the hypothesis that RBF exerts anti-atherogenic effects in vivo. Furthermore, RBF decreased cholesterol synthesis by 72%, when measured using a 3 h period of radiolabeled acetate incorporation into cholesterol, but not when using radiolabelled mevalonate, suggesting that RBF-mediated inhibition occurred largely at or above the level of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzymeA (HMG-CoA) reductase. The mechanism by which RBF inactivates HMG-CoA reductase may be attributed to the induction of phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-kinase, since these results showed that RBF increased phosphorylation of AMP-kinase and HMG-CoA reductase by 2.1- and 3.2-fold, respectively, within 30 min of addition. These results suggest that RBF may be a potential therapeutic agent for hypercholesteremia.

  13. Light-regulated expression of the nitrate-reductase and nitrite-reductase genes in tomato and in the phytochrome-deficient aurea mutant of tomato.

    PubMed

    Becker, T W; Foyer, C; Caboche, M

    1992-08-01

    The phytochrome-deficient aurea mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill) was used to investigate if phytochrome plays a role in the regulation of nitrate-reductase (NR, EC 1.6.6.1) and nitrite-reductase (NiR, EC 1.7.7.1) gene expression. We show that the expression of the tomato NR and NiR genes is stimulated by light and that this light response is mediated by the photoreceptor phytochrome. The red-light response of the NR and NiR genes was reduced in etiolated aurea seedlings when compared to isogenic wild-type cotyledons. The relative levels of NR mRNA and NiR transcripts and their diurnal fluctuations were identical in mature white-light-grown leaves of the wild-type and of the aurea mutant. The transcript levels for cab and RbcS (genes for the chlorophyll-a/b-binding protein of PSII and the small subunit of the enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, respectively) in aurea leaves grown in white light were indistinguishable from the respective transcript levels in the leaves of the wildtype grown under the same conditions. Despite a severe reduction in the chlorophyll content, the rate of net CO2 uptake by leaves of the aurea mutant was only slightly reduced when compared to the rate of net photosynthesis of wild-type leaves. This difference in the photosynthetic performances of wild-type and aurea mutant plants disappeared during aging of the plants. The increase in zeaxanthin and the concomitant decrease in violaxanthin in leaves of the aurea mutant compared with the same pigment levels in leaves of the wild-type indicate that the activity of the xanthophyll cycle is increased in aurea leaves as a consequence of the reduced CO2-fixation capacity of the mutant leaves.

  14. Kinetic and cellular characterization of novel inhibitors of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase.

    PubMed

    Sanghani, Paresh C; Davis, Wilhelmina I; Fears, Sharry L; Green, Scheri-Lyn; Zhai, Lanmin; Tang, Yaoping; Martin, Emil; Bryan, Nathan S; Sanghani, Sonal P

    2009-09-04

    S-Nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) is an alcohol dehydrogenase involved in the regulation of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) in vivo. Knock-out studies in mice have shown that GSNOR regulates the smooth muscle tone in airways and the function of beta-adrenergic receptors in lungs and heart. GSNOR has emerged as a target for the development of therapeutic approaches for treating lung and cardiovascular diseases. We report three compounds that exclude GSNOR substrate, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) from its binding site in GSNOR and cause an accumulation of SNOs inside the cells. The new inhibitors selectively inhibit GSNOR among the alcohol dehydrogenases. Using the inhibitors, we demonstrate that GSNOR limits nitric oxide-mediated suppression of NF-kappaB and activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase. Our findings reveal GSNOR inhibitors to be novel tools for regulating nitric oxide bioactivity and assessing the role of SNOs in vivo.

  15. Residues in the Distal Heme Pocket of Arabidopsis Non-Symbiotic Hemoglobins: Implication for Nitrite Reductase Activity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nitin; Astegno, Alessandra; Chen, Jian; Giorgetti, Alejandro; Dominici, Paola

    2016-04-28

    It is well-established that plant hemoglobins (Hbs) are involved in nitric oxide (NO) metabolism via NO dioxygenase and/or nitrite reductase activity. The ferrous-deoxy Arabidopsis Hb1 and Hb2 (AHb1 and AHb2) have been shown to reduce nitrite to NO under hypoxia. Here, to test the hypothesis that a six- to five-coordinate heme iron transition might mediate the control of the nitrite reduction rate, we examined distal pocket mutants of AHb1 and AHb2 for nitrite reductase activity, NO production and spectroscopic features. Absorption spectra of AHbs distal histidine mutants showed that AHb1 mutant (H69L) is a stable pentacoordinate high-spin species in both ferrous and ferric states, whereas heme iron in AHb2 mutant (H66L) is hexacoordinated low-spin with Lys69 as the sixth ligand. The bimolecular rate constants for nitrite reduction to NO were 13.3 ± 0.40, 7.3 ± 0.5, 10.6 ± 0.8 and 171.90 ± 9.00 M(-1)·s(-1) for AHb1, AHb2, AHb1 H69L and AHb2 H66L, respectively, at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. Consistent with the reductase activity, the amount of NO detected by chemiluminescence was significantly higher in the AHb2 H66L mutant. Our data indicate that nitrite reductase activity is determined not only by heme coordination, but also by a unique distal heme pocket in each AHb.

  16. Residues in the Distal Heme Pocket of Arabidopsis Non-Symbiotic Hemoglobins: Implication for Nitrite Reductase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitin; Astegno, Alessandra; Chen, Jian; Giorgetti, Alejandro; Dominici, Paola

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that plant hemoglobins (Hbs) are involved in nitric oxide (NO) metabolism via NO dioxygenase and/or nitrite reductase activity. The ferrous-deoxy Arabidopsis Hb1 and Hb2 (AHb1 and AHb2) have been shown to reduce nitrite to NO under hypoxia. Here, to test the hypothesis that a six- to five-coordinate heme iron transition might mediate the control of the nitrite reduction rate, we examined distal pocket mutants of AHb1 and AHb2 for nitrite reductase activity, NO production and spectroscopic features. Absorption spectra of AHbs distal histidine mutants showed that AHb1 mutant (H69L) is a stable pentacoordinate high-spin species in both ferrous and ferric states, whereas heme iron in AHb2 mutant (H66L) is hexacoordinated low-spin with Lys69 as the sixth ligand. The bimolecular rate constants for nitrite reduction to NO were 13.3 ± 0.40, 7.3 ± 0.5, 10.6 ± 0.8 and 171.90 ± 9.00 M−1·s−1 for AHb1, AHb2, AHb1 H69L and AHb2 H66L, respectively, at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. Consistent with the reductase activity, the amount of NO detected by chemiluminescence was significantly higher in the AHb2 H66L mutant. Our data indicate that nitrite reductase activity is determined not only by heme coordination, but also by a unique distal heme pocket in each AHb. PMID:27136534

  17. Indolin-2-one compounds targeting thioredoxin reductase as potential anticancer drug leads

    PubMed Central

    Kaminska, Kamila K.; Bertrand, Helene C.; Tajima, Hisashi; Stafford, William C.; Cheng, Qing; Chen, Wan; Wells, Geoffrey; Arner, Elias S.J.; Chew, Eng-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Several compounds bearing the indolinone chemical scaffold are known to possess anticancer properties. For example, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib is an arylideneindolin-2-one compound. The chemical versatility associated with structural modifications of indolinone compounds underlies the potential to discover additional derivatives possessing anticancer properties. Previously synthesized 3-(2-oxoethylidene)indolin-2-one compounds, also known as supercinnamaldehyde (SCA) compounds in reference to the parent compound 1 [1-methyl-3(2-oxopropylidene)indolin-2-one], bear a nitrogen-linked α,β-unsaturated carbonyl (Michael acceptor) moiety. Here we found that analogs bearing N-substituents, in particular compound 4 and 5 carrying an N-butyl and N-benzyl substituent, respectively, were strongly cytotoxic towards human HCT 116 colorectal and MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. These compounds also displayed strong thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) inhibitory activity that was likely attributed to the electrophilicity of the Michael acceptor moiety. Their selectivity towards cellular TrxR inhibition over related antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR), thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was mediated through targeting of the selenocysteine (Sec) residue in the highly accessible C-terminal active site of TrxR. TrxR inhibition mediated by indolin-2-one compounds led to cellular Trx oxidation, increased oxidative stress and activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1). These events also led to activation of p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, and cell death with apoptotic features of PARP cleavage and caspase 3 activation. In conclusion, these results suggest that indolin-2-one-based compounds specifically targeting TrxR may serve as novel drug leads for anticancer therapy. PMID:27244886

  18. A detoxifying oxygen reductase in the anaerobic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Vicente, João B; Tran, Vy; Pinto, Liliana; Teixeira, Miguel; Singh, Upinder

    2012-09-01

    We report the characterization of a bacterial-type oxygen reductase abundant in the cytoplasm of the anaerobic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Upon host infection, E. histolytica is confronted with various oxygen tensions in the host intestine, as well as increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species at the site of local tissue inflammation. Resistance to oxygen-derived stress thus plays an important role in the pathogenic potential of E. histolytica. The genome of E. histolytica has four genes that encode flavodiiron proteins, which are bacterial-type oxygen or nitric oxide reductases and were likely acquired by lateral gene transfer from prokaryotes. The EhFdp1 gene has higher expression in virulent than in nonvirulent Entamoeba strains and species, hinting that the response to oxidative stress may be one correlate of virulence potential. We demonstrate that EhFdp1 is abundantly expressed in the cytoplasm of E. histolytica and that the protein levels are markedly increased (up to ~5-fold) upon oxygen exposure. Additionally, we produced fully functional recombinant EhFdp1 and demonstrated that this enzyme is a specific and robust oxygen reductase but has poor nitric oxide reductase activity. This observation represents a new mechanism of oxygen resistance in the anaerobic protozoan pathogen E. histolytica.

  19. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864.7375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375...

  20. Thioredoxin and NADP-thioredoxin reductase from cultured carrot cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. C.; Cao, R. Q.; Kung, J. E.; Buchanan, B. B.

    1987-01-01

    Dark-grown carrot (Daucus carota L.) tissue cultures were found to contain both protein components of the NADP/thioredoxin system--NADP-thioredoxin reductase and the thioredoxin characteristic of heterotrophic systems, thioredoxin h. Thioredoxin h was purified to apparent homogeneity and, like typical bacterial counterparts, was a 12-kdalton (kDa) acidic protein capable of activating chloroplast NADP-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.82) more effectively than fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11). NADP-thioredoxin reductase (EC 1.6.4.5) was partially purified and found to be an arsenite-sensitive enzyme composed of two 34-kDa subunits. Carrot NADP-thioredoxin reductase resembled more closely its counterpart from bacteria rather than animal cells in acceptor (thioredoxin) specificity. Upon greening of the cells, the content of NADP-thioredoxin-reductase activity, and, to a lesser extent, thioredoxin h decreased. The results confirm the presence of a heterotrophic-type thioredoxin system in plant cells and raise the question of its physiological function.

  1. Obtaining partial purified xylose reductase from Candida guilliermondii

    PubMed Central

    Tomotani, Ester Junko; de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; Vitolo, Michele; de Almeida Felipe, Maria das Graças

    2009-01-01

    The enzymatic bioconversion of xylose into xylitol by xylose reductase (XR) is an alternative for chemical and microbiological processes. The partial purified XR was obtained by using the following three procedures: an agarose column, a membrane reactor or an Amicon Ultra-15 50K Centrifugal Filter device at yields of 40%, 7% and 67%, respectively. PMID:24031408

  2. Dissimilatory Nitrite Reductase Genes from Autotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Casciotti, Karen L.; Ward, Bess B.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of a copper-containing dissimilatory nitrite reductase gene (nirK) was discovered in several isolates of β-subdivision ammonia-oxidizing bacteria using PCR and DNA sequencing. PCR primers Cunir3 and Cunir4 were designed based on published nirK sequences from denitrifying bacteria and used to amplify a 540-bp fragment of the nirK gene from Nitrosomonas marina and five additional isolates of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Amplification products of the expected size were cloned and sequenced. Alignment of the nucleic acid and deduced amino acid (AA) sequences shows significant similarity (62 to 75% DNA, 58 to 76% AA) between nitrite reductases present in these nitrifiers and the copper-containing nitrite reductase found in classic heterotrophic denitrifiers. While the presence of a nitrite reductase in Nitrosomonas europaea is known from early biochemical work, preliminary sequence data from its genome indicate a rather low similarity to the denitrifier nirKs. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial nitrifier nirK sequences indicates that the topology of the nirK tree corresponds to the 16S rRNA and amoA trees. While the role of nitrite reduction in the metabolism of nitrifying bacteria is still uncertain, these data show that the nirK gene is present in closely related nitrifying isolates from many oceanographic regions and suggest that nirK sequences retrieved from the environment may include sequences from ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:11319103

  3. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864.7375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375...

  4. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864.7375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375...

  5. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864.7375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375...

  6. Dihydrofolate reductase: A potential drug target in trypanosomes and leishmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccotto, Fabio; Martin, Andrew C. R.; Laskowski, Roman A.; Thornton, Janet M.; Gilbert, Ian H.

    1998-05-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase has successfully been used as a drug target in the area of anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and anti-malarial chemotherapy. Little has been done to evaluate it as a drug target for treatment of the trypanosomiases and leishmaniasis. A crystal structure of Leishmania major dihydrofolate reductase has been published. In this paper, we describe the modelling of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei dihydrofolate reductases based on this crystal structure. These structures and models have been used in the comparison of protozoan, bacterial and human enzymes in order to highlight the different features that can be used in the design of selective anti-protozoan agents. Comparison has been made between residues present in the active site, the accessibility of these residues, charge distribution in the active site, and the shape and size of the active sites. Whilst there is a high degree of similarity between protozoan, human and bacterial dihydrofolate reductase active sites, there are differences that provide potential for selective drug design. In particular, we have identified a set of residues which may be important for selective drug design and identified a larger binding pocket in the protozoan than the human and bacterial enzymes.

  7. The Kinetics and Inhibition of the Enzyme Methemoglobin Reductase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splittgerber, A. G.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate biochemistry experiment which involves the preparation and kinetics of an oxidation-reduction enzyme system, methemoglobin reductase. A crude enzyme extract is prepared and assayed spectrophotometrically. The enzyme system obeys Michaelis-Menton kinetics with respect to both substrate and the NADH cofactor. (MLH)

  8. [Malate oxidation by mitochondrial succinate:ubiquinone-reductase].

    PubMed

    Belikova, Iu O; Kotliar, A B

    1988-04-01

    Succinate:ubiquinone reductase was shown to catalyze the oxidation of L- and D-stereoisomers of malate by artificial electron acceptors and ubiquinone. The rate of malate oxidation by succinate:ubiquinone reductase is by two orders of magnitude lower than that for the natural substrate--succinate. The values of kinetic constants for the oxidation of D- and L-stereoisomers of malate are equal to: V infinity = 0.1 mumol/min/mg protein, Km = 2 mM and V infinity = 0.05 mumol/min/mg protein, Km = 2 mM, respectively. The malate dehydrogenase activity is fully inhibited by the inhibitors of the dicarboxylate-binding site of the enzyme, i.e., N-ethylmaleimide and malonate and is practically insensitive to carboxin, a specific inhibitor of the ubiquinone-binding center. The enol form of oxaloacetate was shown to be the product of malate oxidation by succinate:ubiquinone reductase. The kinetics of inhibition of the enzyme activity by the ketone and enol forms of oxaloacetate was studied. Both forms of oxaloacetate effectively inhibit the succinate:ubiquinone reductase reaction.

  9. The arsenic hyperaccumulating Pteris vittata expresses two arsenate reductases

    PubMed Central

    Cesaro, Patrizia; Cattaneo, Chiara; Bona, Elisa; Berta, Graziella; Cavaletto, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic reduction of arsenate to arsenite is the first known step in arsenate metabolism in all organisms. Although the presence of one mRNA arsenate reductase (PvACR2) has been characterized in gametophytes of P. vittata, no arsenate reductase protein has been directly observed in this arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, yet. In order to assess the possible presence of arsenate reductase in P. vittata, two recombinant proteins, ACR2-His6 and Trx-His6-S-Pv2.5–8 were prepared in Escherichia coli, purified and used to produce polyclonal antibodies. The presence of these two enzymes was evaluated by qRT-PCR, immunoblotting and direct MS analysis. Enzymatic activity was detected in crude extracts. For the first time we detected and identified two arsenate reductase proteins (PvACR2 and Pv2.5–8) in sporophytes and gametophytes of P. vittata. Despite an increase of the mRNA levels for both proteins in roots, no difference was observed at the protein level after arsenic treatment. Overall, our data demonstrate the constitutive protein expression of PvACR2 and Pv2.5–8 in P. vittata tissues and propose their specific role in the complex metabolic network of arsenic reduction. PMID:26412036

  10. The arsenic hyperaccumulating Pteris vittata expresses two arsenate reductases.

    PubMed

    Cesaro, Patrizia; Cattaneo, Chiara; Bona, Elisa; Berta, Graziella; Cavaletto, Maria

    2015-09-28

    Enzymatic reduction of arsenate to arsenite is the first known step in arsenate metabolism in all organisms. Although the presence of one mRNA arsenate reductase (PvACR2) has been characterized in gametophytes of P. vittata, no arsenate reductase protein has been directly observed in this arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, yet. In order to assess the possible presence of arsenate reductase in P. vittata, two recombinant proteins, ACR2-His6 and Trx-His6-S-Pv2.5-8 were prepared in Escherichia coli, purified and used to produce polyclonal antibodies. The presence of these two enzymes was evaluated by qRT-PCR, immunoblotting and direct MS analysis. Enzymatic activity was detected in crude extracts. For the first time we detected and identified two arsenate reductase proteins (PvACR2 and Pv2.5-8) in sporophytes and gametophytes of P. vittata. Despite an increase of the mRNA levels for both proteins in roots, no difference was observed at the protein level after arsenic treatment. Overall, our data demonstrate the constitutive protein expression of PvACR2 and Pv2.5-8 in P. vittata tissues and propose their specific role in the complex metabolic network of arsenic reduction.

  11. [Inhibition of aldose reductase by Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Mao, X M; Zhang, J Q

    1993-10-01

    Seven Chinese herbal drugs were screened for experimental inhibition of lens aldose reductase activity, among which quercetin exhibited potent enzyme-inhibitory activities in vitro. Its IC50 value was 3.44 x 10(-7) mol/L. It may be helpful in the prophylaxis and treatment of diabetic complications.

  12. Characterization of mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase from C. elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, Brian M.; Hondal, Robert J. . E-mail: Robert.Hondal@uvm.edu

    2006-08-04

    Thioredoxin reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of the catalytic disulfide bond of thioredoxin. In mammals and other higher eukaryotes, thioredoxin reductases contain the rare amino acid selenocysteine at the active site. The mitochondrial enzyme from Caenorhabditis elegans, however, contains a cysteine residue in place of selenocysteine. The mitochondrial C. elegans thioredoxin reductase was cloned from an expressed sequence tag and then produced in Escherichia coli as an intein-fusion protein. The purified recombinant enzyme has a k {sub cat} of 610 min{sup -1} and a K {sub m} of 610 {mu}M using E. coli thioredoxin as substrate. The reported k {sub cat} is 25% of the k {sub cat} of the mammalian enzyme and is 43-fold higher than a cysteine mutant of mammalian thioredoxin reductase. The enzyme would reduce selenocysteine, but not hydrogen peroxide or insulin. The flanking glycine residues of the GCCG motif were mutated to serine. The mutants improved substrate binding, but decreased the catalytic rate.

  13. The arsenic hyperaccumulating Pteris vittata expresses two arsenate reductases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaro, Patrizia; Cattaneo, Chiara; Bona, Elisa; Berta, Graziella; Cavaletto, Maria

    2015-09-01

    Enzymatic reduction of arsenate to arsenite is the first known step in arsenate metabolism in all organisms. Although the presence of one mRNA arsenate reductase (PvACR2) has been characterized in gametophytes of P. vittata, no arsenate reductase protein has been directly observed in this arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, yet. In order to assess the possible presence of arsenate reductase in P. vittata, two recombinant proteins, ACR2-His6 and Trx-His6-S-Pv2.5-8 were prepared in Escherichia coli, purified and used to produce polyclonal antibodies. The presence of these two enzymes was evaluated by qRT-PCR, immunoblotting and direct MS analysis. Enzymatic activity was detected in crude extracts. For the first time we detected and identified two arsenate reductase proteins (PvACR2 and Pv2.5-8) in sporophytes and gametophytes of P. vittata. Despite an increase of the mRNA levels for both proteins in roots, no difference was observed at the protein level after arsenic treatment. Overall, our data demonstrate the constitutive protein expression of PvACR2 and Pv2.5-8 in P. vittata tissues and propose their specific role in the complex metabolic network of arsenic reduction.

  14. Biological and structural evaluation of 10R- and 10S-methylthio-DDACTHF reveals a new role for sulfur in inhibition of glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, Stephen; DeMartino, Jessica K.; Boger, Dale L.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    Glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase (GAR Tfase) is a folate-dependent enzyme in the de novo purine biosynthesis pathway, which has long been considered a potential target for development of anti-neoplastic therapeutics. Here we report the biological and X-ray crystallographic evaluations of both independent C10 diastereomers 10S and 10R methylthio-DDACTHF bound to human GAR Tfase, including the highest resolution apo GAR Tfase structure to date (1.52 Å). Both diastereomers are potent inhibitors (10R Ki = 210 nM, 10S Ki = 180 nM) of GAR Tfase and exhibit effective inhibition of human leukemia cell growth (IC50 = 80 and 50 nM, respectively). Their inhibitory activity was surprisingly high and these lipophilic C10-substituted analogs show distinct advantages over their hydrophilic counterparts, most strikingly in retaining potency in mutant human leukemia cell lines that lack reduced folate carrier protein activity (IC50 = 70 and 60 nM, respectively). Structural characterization reveals a new binding mode for these diasterisomers, in which the lipophilic thiomethyl groups penetrate deeper into a hydrophobic pocket within the folate-binding site. In silico docking simulations of three other sulfur-containing folate analogs also indicates that this hydrophobic cleft represents a favorable region for binding lipophilic substituents. Overall, these results suggest sulfur and its substitutions play an important role in not only the binding of anti-folates to GAR Tfase, but also in selectivity and cellular activity (growth inhibition), thereby presenting new possibilities for future design of potent and selective anti-folate drugs that target GAR Tfase. PMID:23869564

  15. Analysis of Ribonucleotide 5'-Triphosphate Analogs as Potential Inhibitors of Zika Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase by Using Nonradioactive Polymerase Assays.

    PubMed

    Lu, Gaofei; Bluemling, Gregory R; Collop, Paul; Hager, Michael; Kuiper, Damien; Gurale, Bharat P; Painter, George R; De La Rosa, Abel; Kolykhalov, Alexander A

    2017-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging human pathogen that is spreading rapidly through the Americas and has been linked to the development of microcephaly and to a dramatically increased number of Guillain-Barré syndrome cases. Currently, no vaccine or therapeutic options for the prevention or treatment of ZIKV infections exist. In the study described in this report, we expressed, purified, and characterized full-length nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) and the NS5 polymerase domain (NS5pol) of ZIKV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Using purified NS5, we developed an in vitro nonradioactive primer extension assay employing a fluorescently labeled primer-template pair. Both purified NS5 and NS5pol can carry out in vitro RNA-dependent RNA synthesis in this assay. Our results show that Mn(2+) is required for enzymatic activity, while Mg(2+) is not. We found that ZIKV NS5 can utilize single-stranded DNA but not double-stranded DNA as a template or a primer to synthesize RNA. The assay was used to compare the efficiency of incorporation of analog 5'-triphosphates by the ZIKV polymerase and to calculate their discrimination versus that of natural ribonucleotide triphosphates (rNTPs). The 50% inhibitory concentrations for analog rNTPs were determined in an alternative nonradioactive coupled-enzyme assay. We determined that, in general, 2'-C-methyl- and 2'-C-ethynyl-substituted analog 5'-triphosphates were efficiently incorporated by the ZIKV polymerase and were also efficient chain terminators. Derivatives of these molecules may serve as potential antiviral compounds to be developed to combat ZIKV infection. This report provides the first characterization of ZIKV polymerase and demonstrates the utility of in vitro polymerase assays in the identification of potential ZIKV inhibitors.

  16. The polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, methionine synthase, methionine synthase reductase, and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Daijun; Mei, Qiang; Luo, Han; Tang, Bo; Yu, Peiwu

    2012-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism may modulate the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but data from published studies are conflicting. The current meta-analysis was performed to address a more accurate estimation. A total of 41 (17,552 cases and 26,238 controls), 24(8,263 cases and 12,033 controls), 12(3,758 cases and 5,646 controls), and 13 (5,511 cases and 7,265 controls) studies were finally included for the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1289C, methione synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G, methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC, respectively. The data showed that the MTHFR 677T allele was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC (OR = 0.93, 95%CI 0.90-0.96), while the MTRR 66G allele was significantly associated with increased risk of CRC (OR = 1.11, 95%CI 1.01-1.18). Sub-group analysis by ethnicity revealed that MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC in Asians (OR = 0.80, 95%CI 0.72-0.89) and Caucasians (OR = 0.84, 95%CI 0.76-0.93) in recessive genetic model, while the MTRR 66GG genotype was found to significantly increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.03-1.36). No significant association was found between MTHFR A1298C and MTR A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC. Cumulative meta-analysis showed no particular time trend existed in the summary estimate. Probability of publication bias was low across all comparisons illustrated by the funnel plots and Egger's test. Collectively, this meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR 677T allele might provide protection against CRC in worldwide populations, while MTRR 66G allele might increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians. Since potential confounders could not be ruled out completely, further studies were needed to confirm these results.

  17. The Polymorphisms in Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase, Methionine Synthase, Methionine Synthase Reductase, and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Daijun; Mei, Qiang; Luo, Han; Tang, Bo; Yu, Peiwu

    2012-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism may modulate the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but data from published studies are conflicting. The current meta-analysis was performed to address a more accurate estimation. A total of 41 (17,552 cases and 26,238 controls), 24(8,263 cases and 12,033 controls), 12(3,758 cases and 5,646 controls), and 13 (5,511 cases and 7,265 controls) studies were finally included for the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1289C, methione synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G, methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC, respectively. The data showed that the MTHFR 677T allele was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC (OR = 0.93, 95%CI 0.90-0.96), while the MTRR 66G allele was significantly associated with increased risk of CRC (OR = 1.11, 95%CI 1.01-1.18). Sub-group analysis by ethnicity revealed that MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC in Asians (OR = 0.80, 95%CI 0.72-0.89) and Caucasians (OR = 0.84, 95%CI 0.76-0.93) in recessive genetic model, while the MTRR 66GG genotype was found to significantly increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.03-1.36). No significant association was found between MTHFR A1298C and MTR A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC. Cumulative meta-analysis showed no particular time trend existed in the summary estimate. Probability of publication bias was low across all comparisons illustrated by the funnel plots and Egger's test. Collectively, this meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR 677T allele might provide protection against CRC in worldwide populations, while MTRR 66G allele might increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians. Since potential confounders could not be ruled out completely, further studies were needed to confirm these results. PMID:22719222

  18. Stimulatory Effect of Insulin on 5α-Reductase Type 1 (SRD5A1) Expression through an Akt-Dependent Pathway in Ovarian Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kayampilly, Pradeep P.; Wanamaker, Brett L.; Stewart, James A.; Wagner, Carrie L.; Menon, K. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated levels of 5α-reduced androgens have been shown to be associated with hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia, the leading causes of ovulatory dysfunction in women. 5α-Dihydrotestosterone reduces ovarian granulosa cell proliferation by inhibiting FSH-mediated mitogenic signaling pathways. The present study examined the effect of insulin on 5α-reductase, the enzyme that catalyses the conversion of androgens to their 5α-derivatives. Granulosa cells isolated from immature rat ovaries were cultured in serum-free, phenol red-free DMEM-F12 media and treated with different doses of insulin (0, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 μg/ml) for different time intervals up to 12 h. The expression of 5α-reductase type 1 mRNA, the predominant isoform found in granulosa cells, showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in response to the insulin treatment up to 12 h compared with control. The catalytic activity of 5α-reductase enzyme was also stimulated in a dose-depended manner (P < 0.05). Inhibiting the Akt-dependent signaling pathway abolished the insulin-mediated increase in 5α-reductase mRNA expression, whereas inhibition of the ERK-dependent pathway had no effect. The dose-dependent increase in 5α-reductase mRNA expression as well as catalytic activity seen in response to insulin treatment was also demonstrated in the human granulosa cell line (KGN). In addition to increased mRNA expression, a dose-dependent increase in 5α-reductase protein expression in response to insulin was also seen in KGN cells, which corroborated well with that of mRNA expression. These results suggest that elevated levels of 5α-reduced androgens seen in hyperinsulinemic conditions might be explained on the basis of a stimulatory effect of insulin on 5α-reductase in granulosa cells. The elevated levels of these metabolites, in turn, might adversely affect growth and proliferation of granulosa cells, thereby impairing follicle growth and ovulation. PMID:20810561

  19. Inhibition of hepatic S-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and in vivo rates of lipogenesis by a mixture of pure cyclic monoterpenes.

    PubMed

    Middleton, B; Hui, K P

    1982-09-15

    A proprietary mixture of pure cyclic monoterpenes (Rowachol) inhibited hepatic HMGCoA reductase by 50-60% when measured 17 hr after the oral administration of a single dose to rats. The extent of this inhibition was independent of the normal activity range of HMGCoA reductase within its diurnal cycle and the same inhibition (65%) was found in 24 hr starved animals where the control reductase activity was less than 20% that of normal fed rats. De novo sterol and fatty acid synthesis in intact, fed rats was measured by incorporation of 3H from injected H2O. In rats treated with Rowachol the rate of sterol synthesis in vivo was inhibited 52% in liver and 44% in testis with no significant effects in other tissues. The synthesis of non sterol (isoprenoid) compounds in testis was unaffected and the inhibition of sterol synthesis in this tissue probably reflects decreased acquisition of newly synthesized material from liver rather than any effect on the endogenous process. In the same animals the rate of fatty acid synthesis was inhibited 55% in liver. These effects were associated with a significant depletion of liver glycogen which may account for the reduction in rate of fatty acid synthesis. We conclude that the reported cholelitholytic action of monoterpenes is associated with the physiological inhibition of hepatic sterol synthesis mediated by decrease HMGCoA reductase activity.

  20. Treatment of hirsutism with 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J R

    1986-05-01

    Much os the evidence gathered from studies of 5 alpha-reductase activity levels and androgen metabolism in the skin of hirsute women and the excretion of androgen metabolites by hirsute women indicates that 5 alpha-reduced androgens are probably of primary importance in hirsutism. Unfortunately, until very recently, the lack of a suitable 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor made it very difficult to adequately test the hypothesis that such an inhibitor might be useful in the treatment of hirsutism and certain other androgen-related diseases. No substance was available which had good, unambiguous activity in vivo as a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor. A number of 4-azasteroids have now been found to possess excellent 5 alpha-reductase inhibitory activity both in vitro and in vivo. Among other properties, several of these compounds show little or no affinity for the androgen receptor of rat prostate cytosol, they attenuate the growth promoting effect of T, but not DHT, on the ventral prostate of castrated male rats, they cause a marked reduction in prostatic DHT concentration in acutely treated rats and dogs and they bring about a significant decline in prostate size in chronically treated rats and dogs. It is expected that, in the near future, one or more of these highly active 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors will be tested in the clinic as a treatment for hirsutism. The results of those studies will be awaited with a great deal of interest since they should considerably advance our understanding of this disease and possibly contribute to its control.

  1. Assimilatory nitrate reductase from the green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii.

    PubMed

    De la Rosa, M A

    1983-01-01

    Assimilatory nitrate reductase (NAD(P)H-nitrate oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.6.2) from the green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii can be purified to homogeneity by dye-ligand chromatography on blue-Sepharose. The purified enzyme, whose turnover number is 623 s-1, presents an optimum pH of 7.5 and Km values of 13 microM, 23 microM and 0.15 mM for NADH, NADPH and nitrate, respectively. The NADH-nitrate reductase activity exhibits an iso ping pong bi bi kinetic mechanism. The molecular weight of the native nitrate reductase is 467 400, while that of its subunits is 58 750. These values suggest an octameric structure for the enzyme, which has been confirmed by electron microscopy. As deduced from spectrophotometric and fluorimetric studies, the enzyme contains FAD and cytochrome b-557 as prosthetic groups. FAD is not covalently bound to the protein and is easily dissociated in diluted solutions from the enzyme. Its apparent Km value is 4 nM, indicative of a high affinity of the enzyme for FAD. The results of the quantitative analyses of prosthetic groups indicate that nitrate reductase contains four molecules of flavin, four heme irons, and two atoms of molybdenum. The three components act sequentially transferring electrons from reduced pyridine nucleotides to nitrate, thus forming a short electron transport chain along the protein. A mechanism is proposed for the redox interconversion of the nitrate reductase activity. Inactivation seems to occur by formation of a stable complex of reduced enzyme with cyanide or superoxide, while reactivation is a consequence of reoxidation of the inactive enzyme. Both reactions imply the transfer of only one electron.

  2. Measurement of nitrous oxide reductase activity in aquatic sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.; Paulsen, S.

    1986-01-01

    Denitrification in aquatic sediments was measured by an N/sub 2/O reductase assay. Sediments consumed small added quantities of N/sub 2/O over short periods (a few hours). In experiments with sediment slurries, N/sub 2/O reductase activity was inhibited by 0/sub 2/, C/sub 2/H/sub 2/, heat treatment, and by high levels of nitrate (1 mM) or sulfide (10 mM). However, ambient levels of nitrate (<100 ..mu..M) did not influence activity, and moderate levels (about 150 ..mu..M) induced only a short lag before reductase activity began. Moderate levels of sulfide (<1 mM) had no effect on N/sub 2/O reductase activity. Nitrous oxide reductase displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics in sediments from freshwater, estuarine, and alkaline-saline environments. An in situ assay was devised in which a solution of N/sub 2/O was injected into sealed glass cores containing intact sediment. Two estimates of net rates of denitrification in San Francisco Bay under approximated in situ conditions were 0.009 and 0.041 mmol of N/sub 2/O per m/sup 2/ per h. Addition of chlorate to inhibit denitrification in these intact-core experiments (to estimate gross rates of N/sub 2/O consumption) resulted in approximately a 14% upward revision of estimates of net rates. These results were comparable to an in situ estimate of 0.022 mmol of N/sub 2/O per m/sup 2/ per h made with the acetylene block assay.

  3. Measurement of nitrous oxide reductase activity in aquatic sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.; Paulsen, S.

    1986-01-01

    Denitrification in aquatic sediments was measured by an N2O reductase assay. Sediments consumed small added quantities of N2O over short periods (a few hours). In experiments with sediment slurries, N2O reductase activity was inhibited by O2, C2H2, heat treatment, and by high levels of nitrate (1 mM) or sulfide (10 mM). However, ambient levels of nitrate (<100 μM) did not influence activity, and moderate levels (about 150 μM) induced only a short lag before reductase activity began. Moderate levels of sulfide (<1 mM) had no effect on N2O reductase activity. Nitrous oxide reductase displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics in sediments from freshwater (Km = 2.17 μM), estuarine (Km = 14.5 μM), and alkaline-saline (Km = 501 μM) environments. An in situ assay was devised in which a solution of N2O was injected into sealed glass cores containing intact sediment. Two estimates of net rates of denitrification in San Francisco Bay under approximated in situ conditions were 0.009 and 0.041 mmol of N2O per m2 per h. Addition of chlorate to inhibit denitrification in these intact-core experiments (to estimate gross rates of N2O consumption) resulted in approximately a 14% upward revision of estimates of net rates. These results were comparable to an in situ estimate of 0.022 mmol of N2O per m2 per h made with the acetylene block assay.

  4. Identification and characterization of 2-naphthoyl-coenzyme A reductase, the prototype of a novel class of dearomatizing reductases.

    PubMed

    Eberlein, Christian; Estelmann, Sebastian; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin; Müller, Michael; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Boll, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    The enzymatic dearomatization of aromatic ring systems by reduction represents a highly challenging redox reaction in biology and plays a key role in the degradation of aromatic compounds under anoxic conditions. In anaerobic bacteria, most monocyclic aromatic growth substrates are converted to benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA), which is then dearomatized to a conjugated dienoyl-CoA by ATP-dependent or -independent benzoyl-CoA reductases. It was unresolved whether or not related enzymes are involved in the anaerobic degradation of environmentally relevant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this work, a previously unknown dearomatizing 2-naphthoyl-CoA reductase was purified from extracts of the naphthalene-degrading, sulphidogenic enrichment culture N47. The oxygen-tolerant enzyme dearomatized the non-activated ring of 2-naphthoyl-CoA by a four-electron reduction to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthoyl-CoA. The dimeric 150 kDa enzyme complex was composed of a 72 kDa subunit showing sequence similarity to members of the flavin-containing 'old yellow enzyme' family. NCR contained FAD, FMN, and an iron-sulphur cluster as cofactors. Extracts of Escherichia coli expressing the encoding gene catalysed 2-naphthoyl-CoA reduction. The identified NCR is a prototypical enzyme of a previously unknown class of dearomatizing arylcarboxyl-CoA reductases that are involved in anaerobic PAH degradation; it fundamentally differs from known benzoyl-CoA reductases.

  5. Crystal structures of pinoresinol-lariciresinol and phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases and their relationship to isoflavone reductases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, Tongpil; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Bedgar, Diana L.; Youn, Buhyun; Lawrence, Paulraj K.; Gang, David R.; Halls, Steven C.; Park, HaJeung; Hilsenbeck, Jacqueline L.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.; Kang, ChulHee

    2003-01-01

    Despite the importance of plant lignans and isoflavonoids in human health protection (e.g. for both treatment and prevention of onset of various cancers) as well as in plant biology (e.g. in defense functions and in heartwood development), systematic studies on the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis have only recently begun. In this investigation, three NADPH-dependent aromatic alcohol reductases were comprehensively studied, namely pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR), phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and isoflavone reductase (IFR), which are involved in central steps to the various important bioactive lignans and isoflavonoids. Of particular interest was in determining how differing regio- and enantiospecificities are achieved with the different enzymes, despite each apparently going through similar enone intermediates. Initially, the three-dimensional x-ray crystal structures of both PLR_Tp1 and PCBER_Pt1 were solved and refined to 2.5 and 2.2 A resolutions, respectively. Not only do they share high gene sequence similarity, but their structures are similar, having a continuous alpha/beta NADPH-binding domain and a smaller substrate-binding domain. IFR (whose crystal structure is not yet obtained) was also compared (modeled) with PLR and PCBER and was deduced to have the same overall basic structure. The basis for the distinct enantio-specific and regio-specific reactions of PCBER, PLR, and IFR, as well as the reaction mechanism and participating residues involved (as identified by site-directed mutagenesis), are discussed.

  6. Immunological approach to the regulation of nitrate reductase in Monoraphidium braunii.

    PubMed

    Díez, J; López-Ruiz, A

    1989-02-01

    The effects of different culture conditions on nitrate reductase activity and nitrate reductase protein from Monoraphidium braunii have been studied, using two different immunological techniques, rocket immunoelectrophoresis and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, to determine nitrate reductase protein. The nitrogen sources ammonium and glutamine repressed nitrate reductase synthesis, while nitrite, alanine, and glutamate acted as derepressors. There was a four- to eightfold increase of nitrate reductase activity and a twofold increase of nitrate reductase protein under conditions of nitrogen starvation versus growth on nitrate. Nitrate reductase synthesis was repressed in darkness. However, when Monoraphidium was grown under heterotrophic conditions with glucose as the carbon and energy source, the synthesis of nitrate reductase was maintained. With ammonium or darkness, changes in nitrate reductase activity correlated fairly well with changes in nitrate reductase protein, indicating that in both cases loss of activity was due to repression and not to inactivation of the enzyme. Experiments using methionine sulfoximine, to inhibit ammonium assimilation, showed that ammonium per se and not a product of its metabolism was the corepressor of the enzyme. The appearance of nitrate reductase activity after transferring the cells to induction media was prevented by cycloheximide and by 6-methylpurine, although in this latter case the effect was observed only in cells preincubated with the inhibitor for 1 h before the induction period.

  7. Recominant Pinoresino-Lariciresinol Reductase, Recombinant Dirigent Protein And Methods Of Use

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Fujita, Masayuki , Gang; David R. , Sarkanen; Simo , Ford; Joshua D.

    2003-10-21

    Dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases have been isolated, together with cDNAs encoding dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences are provided from source species Forsythia intermedia, Thuja plicata, Tsuga heterophylla, Eucommia ulmoides, Linum usitatissimum, and Schisandra chinensis, which code for the expression of dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for dirigent proteins or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of dirigent proteins and/or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases.

  8. Recombinant pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase, recombinant dirigent protein, and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Fujita, Masayuki; Gang, David R.; Sarkanen, Simo; Ford, Joshua D.

    2001-04-03

    Dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases have been isolated, together with cDNAs encoding dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences are provided which code for the expression of dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for dirigent proteins or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of dirigent proteins and/or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases.

  9. Electron transport to periplasmic nitrate reductase (NapA) of Wolinella succinogenes is independent of a NapC protein.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jörg; Sänger, Monica; Schuster, Stephan C; Gross, Roland

    2003-07-01

    The rumen bacterium Wolinella succinogenes grows by respiratory nitrate ammonification with formate as electron donor. Whereas the enzymology and coupling mechanism of nitrite respiration is well known, nitrate reduction to nitrite has not yet been examined. We report here that intact cells and cell fractions catalyse nitrate and chlorate reduction by reduced viologen dyes with high specific activities. A gene cluster encoding components of a putative periplasmic nitrate reductase system (napA, G, H, B, F, L, D) was sequenced. The napA gene was inactivated by inserting a kanamycin resistance gene cassette. The resulting mutant did not grow by nitrate respiration and did not reduce nitrate during growth by fumarate respiration, in contrast to the wild type. An antigen was detected in wild-type cells using an antiserum raised against the periplasmic nitrate reductase (NapA) from Paracoccus pantotrophus. This antigen was absent in the W. succinogenes napA mutant. It is concluded that the periplasmic nitrate reductase NapA is the only respiratory nitrate reductase in W. succinogenes, although a second nitrate-reducing enzyme is apparently induced in the napA mutant. The nap cluster of W. succinogenes lacks a napC gene whose product is thought to function in quinol oxidation and electron transfer to NapA in other bacteria. The W. succinogenes genome encodes two members of the NapC/NirT family, NrfH and FccC. Characterization of corresponding deletion mutants indicates that neither of these two proteins is required for nitrate respiration. A mutant lacking the genes encoding respiratory nitrite reductase (nrfHA) had wild-type properties with respect to nitrate respiration. A model of the electron transport chain of nitrate respiration is proposed in which one or more of the napF, G, H and L gene products mediate electron transport from menaquinol to the periplasmic NapAB complex. Inspection of the W. succinogenes genome sequence suggests that ammonia formation from

  10. The X-ray crystal structure of APR-B, an atypical adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase from Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Clare E M; Hughes, Richard K; McManus, Michael T; Lawson, David M; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2013-11-15

    Sulfonucleotide reductases catalyse the first reductive step of sulfate assimilation. Their substrate specificities generally correlate with the requirement for a [Fe4S4] cluster, where adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductases possess a cluster and 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductases do not. The exception is the APR-B isoform of APS reductase from the moss Physcomitrella patens, which lacks a cluster. The crystal structure of APR-B, the first for a plant sulfonucleotide reductase, is consistent with a preference for APS. Structural conservation with bacterial APS reductase rules out a structural role for the cluster, but supports the contention that it enhances the activity of conventional APS reductases.

  11. Crystal structures of a subunit of the formylglycinamide ribonucleotide amidotransferase, PurS, from Thermus thermophilus , Sulfolobus tokodaii and Methanocaldococcus jannaschii

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yuzo; Yanai, Hisaaki; Kanagawa, Mayumi; Suzuki, Sakiko; Tamura, Satoko; Okada, Kiyoshi; Baba, Seiki; Kumasaka, Takashi; Agari, Yoshihiro; Chen, Lirong; Fu, Zheng-Qing; Chrzas, John; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Nakagawa, Noriko; Ebihara, Akio; Masui, Ryoji; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Sampei, Gen-ichi; Kawai, Gota

    2016-07-27

    The crystal structures of a subunit of the formylglycinamide ribonucleotide amidotransferase, PurS, fromThermus thermophilus,Sulfolobus tokodaiiandMethanocaldococcus jannaschiiwere determined and their structural characteristics were analyzed. For PurS fromT. thermophilus, two structures were determined using two crystals that were grown in different conditions. The four structures in the dimeric form were almost identical to one another despite their relatively low sequence identities. This is also true for all PurS structures determined to date. A few residues were conserved among PurSs and these are located at the interaction site with PurL and PurQ, the other subunits of the formylglycinamide ribonucleotide amidotransferase. Molecular-dynamics simulations of the PurS dimer as well as a model of the complex of the PurS dimer, PurL and PurQ suggest that PurS plays some role in the catalysis of the enzyme by its bending motion.

  12. The respiratory arsenate reductase from Bacillus selenitireducens strain MLS10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Afkar, E.; Lisak, J.; Saltikov, C.; Basu, P.; Oremland, R.S.; Stolz, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The respiratory arsenate reductase from the Gram-positive, haloalkaliphile, Bacillus selenitireducens strain MLS10 was purified and characterized. It is a membrane bound heterodimer (150 kDa) composed of two subunits ArrA (110 kDa) and ArrB (34 kDa), with an apparent Km for arsenate of 34 ??M and Vmax of 2.5 ??mol min-1 mg-1. Optimal activity occurred at pH 9.5 and 150 g l-1 of NaCl. Metal analysis (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) of the holoenzyme and sequence analysis of the catalytic subunit (ArrA; the gene for which was cloned and sequenced) indicate it is a member of the DMSO reductase family of molybdoproteins. ?? 2003 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductase in Soybean Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Chilson, Oscar P.; Kelly-Chilson, Anne E.; Schneider, Julie D.

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR) from Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids and cultured rhizobia were compared with those of the enzyme in soybean nodule host cytosol. Reductase from host cytosol differed from that in bacteroids in: (a) the effect of pH on enzymic activity, (b) the capacity to catalyze both reduction of pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid and NAD+-dependent proline oxidation, (c) apparent affinities for pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid, and (d) sensitivities to inhibition by NADP+ and proline. The K1 for proline inhibition of P5CR in bacteroid cytosol was 1.8 millimolar. The properties of P5CR in B. japonicum and bacteroid cytosol were similar. The specific activities of P5CR in the cytosolic fractions of the nodule host and the bacteroid compartment were also comparable. PMID:16668837

  14. Characterization of 12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid Reductase in Corn

    PubMed Central

    Vick, Brady A.; Zimmerman, Don C.

    1986-01-01

    12-Oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase, an enzyme of the biosynthetic pathway that converts linolenic acid to jasmonic acid, has been characterized from the kernel and seedlings of corn (Zea mays L.). The molecular weight of the enzyme, estimated by gel filtration, was 54,000. Optimum enzyme activity was observed over a broad pH range, from pH 6.8 to 9.0. The enzyme had a Km of 190 micromolar for its substrate, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid. The preferred reductant was NADPH, for which the enzyme exhibited a Km of 13 micromolar, compared with 4.2 millimolar for NADH. Reductase activity was low in the corn kernel but increased five-fold by the fifth day after germination and then gradually declined. PMID:16664582

  15. Utilization of iron-catecholamine complexes involving ferric reductase activity in Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Coulanges, V; Andre, P; Ziegler, O; Buchheit, L; Vidon, D J

    1997-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous potentially pathogenic organism requiring iron for growth and virulence. Although it does not produce siderophores, L. monocytogenes is able to obtain iron by using either exogenous siderophores produced by various microorganisms or natural catechol compounds widespread in the environment. In the presence of tropolone, an iron-chelating agent, growth of L. monocytogenes is completely inhibited. However, the growth inhibition can be relieved by the addition of dopamine or norepinephrine under their different isomeric forms, while the catecholamine derivatives 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol and normetanephrine did not relieve the inhibitory effect of tropolone. Preincubation of L. monocytogenes with chlorpromazine and yohimbine did not antagonize the growth-promoting effect of catecholamines in iron-complexed medium. In addition, norepinephrine stimulated the growth-promoting effect induced by human transferrin in iron-limited medium. Furthermore, dopamine and norepinephrine allowed 55Fe uptake by iron-deprived bacterial cells. The uptake of iron was energy dependent, as indicated by inhibition of 55Fe uptake at 0 degrees C as well as by preincubating the bacteria with KCN. Inhibition of 55Fe uptake by L. monocytogenes was also observed in the presence of Pt(II). Moreover, when assessed by a whole-cell ferric reductase assay, reductase activity of L. monocytogenes was inhibited by Pt(II). These data demonstrate that dopamine and norepinephrine can function as siderophore-like compounds in L. monocytogenes owing to their ortho-diphenol function and that catecholamine-mediated iron acquisition does not involve specific catecholamine receptors but acts through a cell-bound ferrireductase activity. PMID:9199450

  16. Structure of Hordeum vulgare NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase 2. Unwinding the reaction mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkensgaard, Kristine G.; Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Henriksen, Anette

    2009-09-01

    The first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, a protein involved in seed development and germination, has been determined. The structure is in a conformation that excludes NADPH binding and indicates that a domain reorientation facilitated by Trx binding precedes NADPH binding in the reaction mechanism. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are protein disulfide reductases that regulate the intracellular redox environment and are important for seed germination in plants. Trxs are in turn regulated by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs), which provide reducing equivalents to Trx using NADPH to recycle Trxs to the active form. Here, the first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, HvNTR2 from Hordeum vulgare (barley), is presented, which is also the first structure of a monocot plant NTR. The structure was determined at 2.6 Å resolution and refined to an R{sub cryst} of 19.0% and an R{sub free} of 23.8%. The dimeric protein is structurally similar to the structures of AtNTR-B from Arabidopsis thaliana and other known low-molecular-weight NTRs. However, the relative position of the two NTR cofactor-binding domains, the FAD and the NADPH domains, is not the same. The NADPH domain is rotated by 25° and bent by a 38% closure relative to the FAD domain in comparison with AtNTR-B. The structure may represent an intermediate between the two conformations described previously: the flavin-oxidizing (FO) and the flavin-reducing (FR) conformations. Here, analysis of interdomain contacts as well as phylogenetic studies lead to the proposal of a new reaction scheme in which NTR–Trx interactions mediate the FO to FR transformation.

  17. [Properties of a nitrite reductase inhibitor protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Karapetian, A V; Nalbandian, R M

    1993-08-01

    The amino acid composition and major physico-chemical properties of the "nonblue" copper protein isolated earlier from Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been determined. It has been found that the azurin oxidase, cytochrome c551 oxidase and superoxide dismutase activities of the enzyme are inhibited by this protein. The inhibition seems to be due to the protein interaction with the electron-accepting center of nitrite reductase.

  18. Aldose and aldehyde reductases : structure-function studies on the coenzyme and inhibitor-binding sites.

    SciTech Connect

    El-Kabbani, O.; Old, S. E.; Ginell, S. L.; Carper, D. A.; Biosciences Division; Monash Univ.; NIH

    1999-09-03

    PURPOSE: To identify the structural features responsible for the differences in coenzyme and inhibitor specificities of aldose and aldehyde reductases. METHODS: The crystal structure of porcine aldehyde reductase in complex with NADPH and the aldose reductase inhibitor sorbinil was determined. The contribution of each amino acid lining the coenzyme-binding site to the binding of NADPH was calculated using the Discover package. In human aldose reductase, the role of the non-conserved Pro 216 (Ser in aldehyde reductase) in the binding of coenzyme was examined by site-directed mutagenesis. RESULTS: Sorbinil binds to the active site of aldehyde reductase and is hydrogen-bonded to Trp 22, Tyr 50, His 113, and the non-conserved Arg 312. Unlike tolrestat, the binding of sorbinil does not induce a change in the side chain conformation of Arg 312. Mutation of Pro 216 to Ser in aldose reductase makes the binding of coenzyme more similar to that of aldehyde reductase. CONCLUSIONS: The participation of non-conserved active site residues in the binding of inhibitors and the differences in the structural changes required for the binding to occur are responsible for the differences in the potency of inhibition of aldose and aldehyde reductases. We report that the non-conserved Pro 216 in aldose reductase contributes to the tight binding of NADPH.

  19. Arsenic trioxide induced indirect and direct inhibition of glutathione reductase leads to apoptosis in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ray, Atish; Chatterjee, Sarmishtha; Mukherjee, Sandip; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2014-06-01

    Glutathione reductase (GR) is an essential enzyme which maintains the reduced state of a cell. Therefore GR malfunction is closely associated with several disorders related to oxidative damage. The present study reports toxic manifestation of arsenic trioxide in respect of GR leading to apoptosis. Isolated rat hepatocytes exposed to arsenic trioxide were analyzed for GR expression and activity. Arsenic resulted in a time dependent inhibition of GR mediated by the superoxide anion. The cellular demand of functional enzyme is achieved by concomitant rise in gene expression. However, direct inhibition of GR by arsenic trioxide was also evident. Furthermore, arsenic induced free radical mediated inhibition of GR was found to be partially uncompetitive and associated with time dependent decrease in the substrate binding rate. Externalization of phosphatidylserine, nuclear degradation, apoptosis inducing factor leakage, apoptosome formation, caspase activation, DNA damage and break down of PARP suggest consequential induction of apoptosis due to inhibition of GR. The implication of GR was further established from the reduced rate of caspase activation in the arsenic trioxide treated cell, supplemented with complete and incomplete enzyme systems.

  20. Early diagnosis and management of 5 alpha-reductase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Odame, I; Donaldson, M D; Wallace, A M; Cochran, W; Smith, P J

    1992-01-01

    Two siblings of Pakistani origin, karyotype 46 XY, were born with predominantly female external genitalia with minute phallus, bifid scrotum, urogenital sinus, and palpable gonads. The older sibling at the age of 8 days showed an adequate testosterone response to human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) stimulation. The diagnosis of 5 alpha-reductase deficiency was made at age 6 years when no 5 alpha-reduced glucocorticoid metabolites were detectable in urine even after tetracosactrin (Synacthen) stimulation. In the younger sibling the diagnosis of 5 alpha-reductase deficiency was provisionally made at the early age of 3 days on the basis of high urinary tetrahydrocortisol (THF)/allotetrahydrocortisol (5 alpha-THF) ratio and this ratio increased with age confirming the diagnosis. Plasma testosterone: dihydrotestosterone (DHT) ratio before and after hCG stimulation was within normal limits at age 3 days but was raised at age 9 months. Topical DHT cream application to the external genitalia promoted significant phallic growth in both siblings and in the older sibling corrective surgery was facilitated. In prepubertal male pseudohermaphrodites with normal or raised testosterone concentrations, phallic growth in response to DHT cream treatment could be an indirect confirmation of 5 alpha-reductase deficiency. Images Figure 1 PMID:1626992

  1. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Two Pseudomonas Flavoprotein Xenobiotic Reductases

    PubMed Central

    Blehert, David S.; Fox, Brian G.; Chambliss, Glenn H.

    1999-01-01

    The genes encoding flavin mononucleotide-containing oxidoreductases, designated xenobiotic reductases, from Pseudomonas putida II-B and P. fluorescens I-C that removed nitrite from nitroglycerin (NG) by cleavage of the nitroester bond were cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The P. putida gene, xenA, encodes a 39,702-Da monomeric, NAD(P)H-dependent flavoprotein that removes either the terminal or central nitro groups from NG and that reduces 2-cyclohexen-1-one but did not readily reduce 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). The P. fluorescens gene, xenB, encodes a 37,441-Da monomeric, NAD(P)H-dependent flavoprotein that exhibits fivefold regioselectivity for removal of the central nitro group from NG and that transforms TNT but did not readily react with 2-cyclohexen-1-one. Heterologous expression of xenA and xenB was demonstrated in Escherichia coli DH5α. The transcription initiation sites of both xenA and xenB were identified by primer extension analysis. BLAST analyses conducted with the P. putida xenA and the P. fluorescens xenB sequences demonstrated that these genes are similar to several other bacterial genes that encode broad-specificity flavoprotein reductases. The prokaryotic flavoprotein reductases described herein likely shared a common ancestor with old yellow enzyme of yeast, a broad-specificity enzyme which may serve a detoxification role in antioxidant defense systems. PMID:10515912

  2. The existence and significance of a mitochondrial nitrite reductase.

    PubMed

    Nohl, Hans; Staniek, Katrin; Kozlov, Andrey V

    2005-01-01

    The physiological functions of nitric oxide (NO) are well established. The finding that the endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) is NO was totally unexpected. It was shown that NO is a reaction product of an enzymatically catalyzed, overall, 5-electron oxidation of guanidinium nitrogen from L-arginine followed by the release of the free radical species NO. NO is synthesized by a single protein complex supported by cofactors, coenzymes (such as tetrahydrobiopterin) and cytochrome P450. The latter can uncouple from substrate oxidation producing O2*- radicals. The research groups of Richter [Ghafourifar P, Richter C. Nitric oxide synthase activity in mitochondria. FEBS Lett 1997; 418: 291-296.] and Boveris [Giulivi C, Poderoso JJ, Boveris A. Production of nitric oxide by mitochondria. J Biol Chem 1998; 273: 11038-11043.] identified a mitochondrial NO synthase (NOS). There are, however, increasing reports demonstrating that mitochondrial NO is derived from cytosolic NOS belonging to the Ca2+-dependent enzymes. NO was thought to control cytochrome oxidase. This assumption is controversial due to the life-time of NO in biological systems (millisecond range). We found a nitrite reductase in mitochondria which is of major interest. Any increase of nitrite in the tissue which is the first oxidation product of NO, for instance following NO donors, will stimulate NO-recycling via mitochondrial nitrite reductase. In this paper, we describe the identity and the function of mitochondrial nitrite reductase and the consequences of NO-recycling in the metabolic compartment of mitochondria.

  3. Phosphoglycerate kinase acts in tumour angiogenesis as a disulphide reductase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, Angelina J.; Jiang, Xing-Mai; Kisker, Oliver; Flynn, Evelyn; Underwood, Anne; Condron, Rosemary; Hogg, Philip J.

    2000-12-01

    Disulphide bonds in secreted proteins are considered to be inert because of the oxidizing nature of the extracellular milieu. An exception to this rule is a reductase secreted by tumour cells that reduces disulphide bonds in the serine proteinase plasmin. Reduction of plasmin initiates proteolytic cleavage in the kringle 5 domain and release of the tumour blood vessel inhibitor angiostatin. New blood vessel formation or angiogenesis is critical for tumour expansion and metastasis. Here we show that the plasmin reductase isolated from conditioned medium of fibrosarcoma cells is the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase. Recombinant phosphoglycerate kinase had the same specific activity as the fibrosarcoma-derived protein. Plasma of mice bearing fibrosarcoma tumours contained several-fold more phosphoglycerate kinase, as compared with mice without tumours. Administration of phosphoglycerate kinase to tumour-bearing mice caused an increase in plasma levels of angiostatin, and a decrease in tumour vascularity and rate of tumour growth. Our findings indicate that phosphoglycerate kinase not only functions in glycolysis but is secreted by tumour cells and participates in the angiogenic process as a disulphide reductase.

  4. The effect of quercetin and galangin on glutathione reductase.

    PubMed

    Paulíková, Helena; Berczeliová, Elena

    2005-12-01

    Quercetin and galangin can change the activity of glutathione reductase. Quercetin (a catechol structure in the B-ring) and galangin (any hydroxyl group in the B-ring) have different biological activities but, both possess high antioxidant abilities. Quercetin during the antioxidative action, is converted into an oxidized products (o-semiquinone and o-quinone), and subsequently glutathionyl adducts may be formed or SH-enzyme can be inhibited. We have tried to see whether inhibition of glutathione reductase (GR) can be influenced by preincubation of enzyme with NADPH (a creation of reduced form of enzyme, GRH(2)) and whether diaphorase activity of the enzyme is decreased by these flavonoids. The results confirmed that quercetin inhibits GRH(2) and inhibition is reduced by addition of EDTA or N-acetylcysteine. Both of flavonoids have no effect on diaphorase activity of glutathione reductase and this enzyme could increase the production of free radicals by catalysis of reduction of o-quinone during action of quercetin in vivo.

  5. Mediation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, David P.; Fairchild, Amanda J.; Fritz, Matthew S.

    2010-01-01

    Mediating variables are prominent in psychological theory and research. A mediating variable transmits the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable. Differences between mediating variables and confounders, moderators, and covariates are outlined. Statistical methods to assess mediation and modern comprehensive approaches are described. Future directions for mediation analysis are discussed. PMID:16968208

  6. Catalytic mechanism and substrate selectivity of aldo-keto reductases: insights from structure-function studies of Candida tenuis xylose reductase.

    PubMed

    Kratzer, Regina; Wilson, David K; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2006-09-01

    Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) constitute a large protein superfamily of mainly NAD(P)-dependent oxidoreductases involved in carbonyl metabolism. Catalysis is promoted by a conserved tetrad of active site residues (Tyr, Lys, Asp and His). Recent results of structure-function relationship studies for xylose reductase (AKR2B5) require an update of the proposed catalytic mechanism. Electrostatic stabilization by the epsilon-NH3+ group of Lys is a key source of catalytic power of xylose reductase. A molecular-level analysis of the substrate binding pocket of xylose reductase provides a case of how a very broadly specific AKR achieves the requisite selectivity for its physiological substrate and could serve as the basis for the design of novel reductases with improved specificities for biocatalytic applications.

  7. Over-Expression of a Tobacco Nitrate Reductase Gene in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Increases Seed Protein Content and Weight without Augmenting Nitrogen Supplying

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiao-Qiang; Nie, Xuan-Li; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Heavy nitrogen (N) application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR) in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, “Nongda146” and “Jimai6358”, by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed), respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s) in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying. PMID:24040315

  8. Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases Are Essential for Virulence of Salmonella Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Rouf, Syed Fazle; Kitowski, Vera; Böhm, Oliver M.; Rhen, Mikael; Jäger, Timo; Bange, Franz-Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Production of reactive oxygen species represents a fundamental innate defense against microbes in a diversity of host organisms. Oxidative stress, amongst others, converts peptidyl and free methionine to a mixture of methionine-S- (Met-S-SO) and methionine-R-sulfoxides (Met-R-SO). To cope with such oxidative damage, methionine sulfoxide reductases MsrA and MsrB are known to reduce MetSOs, the former being specific for the S-form and the latter being specific for the R-form. However, at present the role of methionine sulfoxide reductases in the pathogenesis of intracellular bacterial pathogens has not been fully detailed. Here we show that deletion of msrA in the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella (S.) enterica serovar Typhimurium increased susceptibility to exogenous H2O2, and reduced bacterial replication inside activated macrophages, and in mice. In contrast, a ΔmsrB mutant showed the wild type phenotype. Recombinant MsrA was active against free and peptidyl Met-S-SO, whereas recombinant MsrB was only weakly active and specific for peptidyl Met-R-SO. This raised the question of whether an additional Met-R-SO reductase could play a role in the oxidative stress response of S. Typhimurium. MsrC is a methionine sulfoxide reductase previously shown to be specific for free Met-R-SO in Escherichia (E.) coli. We tested a ΔmsrC single mutant and a ΔmsrBΔmsrC double mutant under various stress conditions, and found that MsrC is essential for survival of S. Typhimurium following exposure to H2O2, as well as for growth in macrophages, and in mice. Hence, this study demonstrates that all three methionine sulfoxide reductases, MsrA, MsrB and MsrC, facilitate growth of a canonical intracellular pathogen during infection. Interestingly MsrC is specific for the repair of free methionine sulfoxide, pointing to an important role of this pathway in the oxidative stress response of Salmonella Typhimurium. PMID:22073230

  9. Kinetic characteristics of ZENECA ZD5522, a potent inhibitor of human and bovine lens aldose reductase.

    PubMed

    Cook, P N; Ward, W H; Petrash, J M; Mirrlees, D J; Sennitt, C M; Carey, F; Preston, J; Brittain, D R; Tuffin, D P; Howe, R

    1995-04-18

    Aldose reductase (aldehyde reductase 2) catalyses the conversion of glucose to sorbitol, and methylglyoxal to acetol. Treatment with aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) is a potential approach to decrease the development of diabetic complications. The sulphonylnitromethanes are a recently discovered class of aldose reductase inhibitors, first exemplified by ICI215918. We now describe enzyme kinetic characterization of a second sulphonylnitromethane, 3',5'-dimethyl-4'-nitromethylsulphonyl-2-(2-tolyl)acetanilide (ZD5522), which is at least 10-fold more potent against bovine lens aldose reductase in vitro and which also has a greater efficacy for reduction of rat nerve sorbitol levels in vivo (ED95 = 2.8 mg kg-1 for ZD5522 and 20 mg kg-1 for ICI 215918). ZD5522 follows pure noncompetitive kinetics against bovine lens aldose reductase when either glucose or methylglyoxal is varied (K(is) = K(ii) = 7.2 and 4.3 nM, respectively). This contrasts with ICI 215918 which is an uncompetitive inhibitor (K(ii) = 100 nM) of bovine lens aldose reductase when glucose is varied. Against human recombinant aldose reductase, ZD5522 displays mixed noncompetitive kinetics with respect to both substrates (K(is) = 41 nM, K(ii) = 8 nM with glucose and K(is) = 52 nM, K(ii) = 3.8 nM with methylglyoxal). This is the first report of the effects of a sulphonylnitromethane on either human aldose reductase or utilization of methylglyoxal. These results are discussed with reference to a Di Iso Ordered Bi Bi mechanism for aldose reductase, where the inhibitors compete with binding of both the aldehyde substrate and alcohol product. This model may explain why aldose reductase inhibitors follow noncompetitive or uncompetitive kinetics with respect to aldehyde substrates, and X-ray crystallography paradoxically locates an ARI within the substrate binding site. Aldehyde reductase (aldehyde reductase 1) is closely related to aldose reductase. Inhibition of bovine kidney aldehyde reductase by ZD5522

  10. Anti-neuroinflammatory efficacy of the aldose reductase inhibitor FMHM via phospholipase C/protein kinase C-dependent NF-κB and MAPK pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Ke-Wu; Li, Jun; Dong, Xin; Wang, Ying-Hong; Ma, Zhi-Zhong; Jiang, Yong; Jin, Hong-Wei; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2013-11-15

    Aldose reductase (AR) has a key role in several inflammatory diseases: diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, AR inhibition seems to be a useful strategy for anti-inflammation therapy. In the central nervous system (CNS), microglial over-activation is considered to be a central event in neuroinflammation. However, the effects of AR inhibition in CNS inflammation and its underlying mechanism of action remain unknown. In the present study, we found that FMHM (a naturally derived AR inhibitor from the roots of Polygala tricornis Gagnep.) showed potent anti-neuroinflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting microglial activation and expression of inflammatory mediators. Mechanistic studies showed that FMHM suppressed the activity of AR-dependent phospholipase C/protein kinase C signaling, which further resulted in downstream inactivation of the IκB kinase/IκB/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inflammatory pathway. Therefore, AR inhibition-dependent NF-κB inactivation negatively regulated the transcription and expression of various inflammatory genes. AR inhibition by FMHM exerted neuroprotective effects in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuron–microglia co-cultures. These findings suggested that AR is a potential target for neuroinflammation inhibition and that FMHM could be an effective agent for treating or preventing neuroinflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • FMHM is a natural-derived aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor. • FMHM inhibits various neuroinflammatory mediator productions in vitro and in vivo. • FMHM inhibits neuroinflammation via aldose reductase/PLC/PKC-dependent NF-κB pathway. • FMHM inhibits neuroinflammation via aldose reductase/PLC/PKC-dependent MAPK pathway. • FMHM protects neurons against inflammatory injury in microglia-neuron co-cultures.

  11. Effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its main metabolite EXP-3174 in rats: possible role of CYP3A4 and P-gp inhibition by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Si-Hyung; Choi, Jun-Shik; Choi, Dong-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (atorvastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin) on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its active metabolite EXP-3174 in rats. Pharmacokinetic parameters of losartan and EXP-3174 in rats were determined after oral and intravenous administration of losartan (9 mg/kg) without and with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (1 mg/kg). The effect of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on P-gp and cytochrome (CYP) 3A4 activity were also evaluated. Atorvastatin, pravastatin and simvastatin inhibited CYP3A4 activities with IC₅₀ values of 48.0, 14.1 and 3.10 μmol/l, respectively. Simvastatin (1-10 μmol/l) enhanced the cellular uptake of rhodamine-123 in a concentration-dependent manner. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC₀₋∞) and the peak plasma concentration of losartan were significantly (p < 0.05) increased by 59.6 and 45.8%, respectively, by simvastatin compared to those of control. The total body clearance (CL/F) of losartan after oral administration with simvastatin was significantly decreased (by 34.8%) compared to that of controls. Consequently, the absolute bioavailability (F) of losartan after oral administration with simvastatin was significantly increased by 59.4% compared to that of control. The metabolite-parent AUC ratio was significantly decreased by 25.7%, suggesting that metabolism of losartan was inhibited by simvastatin. In conclusion, the enhanced bioavailability of losartan might be mainly due to inhibition of P-gp in the small intestine and CYP3A subfamily-mediated metabolism of losartan in the small intestine and/or liver and to reduction of the CL/F of losartan by simvastatin.

  12. Singlet Oxygen-Mediated Oxidation during UVA Radiation Alters the Dynamic of Genomic DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Graindorge, Dany; Martineau, Sylvain; Machon, Christelle; Arnoux, Philippe; Guitton, Jérôme; Francesconi, Stefania; Frochot, Céline; Sage, Evelyne; Girard, Pierre-Marie

    2015-01-01

    UVA radiation (320–400 nm) is a major environmental agent that can exert its deleterious action on living organisms through absorption of the UVA photons by endogenous or exogenous photosensitizers. This leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which in turn can modify reversibly or irreversibly biomolecules, such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. We have previously reported that UVA-induced ROS strongly inhibit DNA replication in a dose-dependent manner, but independently of the cell cycle checkpoints activation. Here, we report that the production of 1O2 by UVA radiation leads to a transient inhibition of replication fork velocity, a transient decrease in the dNTP pool, a quickly reversible GSH-dependent oxidation of the RRM1 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase and sustained inhibition of origin firing. The time of recovery post irradiation for each of these events can last from few minutes (reduction of oxidized RRM1) to several hours (replication fork velocity and origin firing). The quenching of 1O2 by sodium azide prevents the delay of DNA replication, the decrease in the dNTP pool and the oxidation of RRM1, while inhibition of Chk1 does not prevent the inhibition of origin firing. Although the molecular mechanism remains elusive, our data demonstrate that the dynamic of replication is altered by UVA photosensitization of vitamins via the production of singlet oxygen. PMID:26485711

  13. Singlet Oxygen-Mediated Oxidation during UVA Radiation Alters the Dynamic of Genomic DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Graindorge, Dany; Martineau, Sylvain; Machon, Christelle; Arnoux, Philippe; Guitton, Jérôme; Francesconi, Stefania; Frochot, Céline; Sage, Evelyne; Girard, Pierre-Marie

    2015-01-01

    UVA radiation (320-400 nm) is a major environmental agent that can exert its deleterious action on living organisms through absorption of the UVA photons by endogenous or exogenous photosensitizers. This leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which in turn can modify reversibly or irreversibly biomolecules, such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. We have previously reported that UVA-induced ROS strongly inhibit DNA replication in a dose-dependent manner, but independently of the cell cycle checkpoints activation. Here, we report that the production of 1O2 by UVA radiation leads to a transient inhibition of replication fork velocity, a transient decrease in the dNTP pool, a quickly reversible GSH-dependent oxidation of the RRM1 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase and sustained inhibition of origin firing. The time of recovery post irradiation for each of these events can last from few minutes (reduction of oxidized RRM1) to several hours (replication fork velocity and origin firing). The quenching of 1O2 by sodium azide prevents the delay of DNA replication, the decrease in the dNTP pool and the oxidation of RRM1, while inhibition of Chk1 does not prevent the inhibition of origin firing. Although the molecular mechanism remains elusive, our data demonstrate that the dynamic of replication is altered by UVA photosensitization of vitamins via the production of singlet oxygen.

  14. Transcriptional regulation of human and murine short-chain dehydrogenase/reductases (SDRs) - an in silico approach.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Bettina; Kisiela, Michael; Maser, Edmund

    2016-05-01

    Numerous physiological functions of the body are controlled by endogenous (e.g. steroids, retinoids, lipid mediators) or exogenous molecules (e.g. drugs, xenobiotics) that bind to transcription factors (TF). The biosynthesis and catabolism of these signaling molecules depend, apart from CYPs, on enzymes belonging to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. Moreover, the contribution of SDRs to the metabolism of therapeutic drugs and xenobiotics is increasingly recognized. However, only scarce information exists regarding the transcriptional regulation of most SDR proteins. This work aims to illustrate the role of nuclear receptors (NR) and TF related to oxidative stress, inflammation, hypoxia, and xenobiotics in the regulation of selected human and murine SDRs that play crucial roles in steroid, retinoid, eicosanoid, fatty acid, and xenobiotic metabolism. These include, for example, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, retinol dehydrogenases, and carbonyl reductases. Because existing experimental data are limited, an in silico analysis (TRANSFAC(®) Professional database) of the 5'-upstream sequences for putative response elements was performed. Experimental and in silico data suggest that pharmaceutical, environmental, or dietary NR ligands may alter SDR-mediated retinoid, steroid, and xenobiotic metabolism, likely affecting basic cellular events like energy expenditure, cell proliferation/differentiation, or aging processes. Also, some SDRs are possibly induced by their own substrates. Further experimental work is urgently needed to fully understand the NR-mediated transcriptional regulation of SDRs. This is essential for deducing their possible involvement in drug side effects and will help to identify new substrates and further physiological functions of these SDRs.

  15. Regulation of Nitrate Reductase Activity in Corn (Zea mays L.) Seedlings by Endogenous Metabolites 1

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, L. E.; Hageman, R. H.

    1967-01-01

    Primary and secondary metabolites of inorganic nitrogen metabolism were evaluated as inhibitors of nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.1) induction in green leaf tissue of corn seedlings. Nitrite, nitropropionic acid, ammonium ions, and amino acids were not effective as inhibitors of nitrate reductase activity or synthesis. Increasing α-amino nitrogen and protein content of intact corn seedlings by culture techniques significantly enhanced rather than decreased the potential for induction of nitrate reductase activity in excised seedlings. Secondary metabolites, derived from phenylalanine and tyrosine, were tested as inhibitors of induction of nitrate reductase. Of the 9 different phenylpropanoid compounds tested, only coumarin, trans-cinnamic and trans-o-hydroxycinnamic acids inhibited induction of nitrate reductase. While coumarin alone exhibited a relatively greater inhibitory effect on enzyme induction than on general protein synthesis (the latter measured by incorporation of labeled amino acids), this differential effect may have been dependent upon unequal rates of synthesis and accumulation with respect to the initial levels of nitrate reductase and general proteins. Because of the short half-life of nitrate reductase, inhibitors of protein synthesis in general could still achieve differential regulation of nitrogen metabolism. Coumarin did not inhibit nitrate reductase activity when added directly to the assay mixture at 5 mm. Carbamyl phosphate and its chemical derivative, cyanate, were found to be competitive (with nitrate) inhibitors of nitrate reductase. The data suggest that cyanate is the active inhibitor in the carbamyl phosphate preparations. PMID:16656715

  16. A flavone from Manilkara indica as a specific inhibitor against aldose reductase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Ryosuke; Ishizu, Takashi; Yagi, Akira

    2003-09-01

    Isoaffinetin (5,7,3',4',5'-pentahydroxyflavone-6-C-glucoside) was isolated from Manilkara indica as a potent inhibitor of lens aldose reductase by bioassay-directed fractionation. This C-glucosyl flavone showed specific inhibition against aldose reductases (rat lens, porcine lens and recombinant human) with no inhibition against aldehyde reductase and NADH oxidase. Kinetic analysis showed that isoaffinetin exhibited uncompetitive inhibition against both dl-glyceraldehyde and NADPH. A structure-activity relationship study revealed that the increasing number of hydroxy groups in the B-ring contributes to the increase in aldose reductase inhibition by C-glucosyl flavones.

  17. Ammonification in Bacillus subtilis Utilizing Dissimilatory Nitrite Reductase Is Dependent on resDE

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Tamara; Frankenberg, Nicole; Marino, Marco; Jahn, Dieter

    1998-01-01

    During anaerobic nitrate respiration Bacillus subtilis reduces nitrate via nitrite to ammonia. No denitrification products were observed. B. subtilis wild-type cells and a nitrate reductase mutant grew anaerobically with nitrite as an electron acceptor. Oxygen-sensitive dissimilatory nitrite reductase activity was demonstrated in cell extracts prepared from both strains with benzyl viologen as an electron donor and nitrite as an electron acceptor. The anaerobic expression of the discovered nitrite reductase activity was dependent on the regulatory system encoded by resDE. Mutation of the gene encoding the regulatory Fnr had no negative effect on dissimilatory nitrite reductase formation. PMID:9422613

  18. Structure of the Molybdenum Site of EEcherichia Coli Trimethylamine N-Oxide Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Nelson, K.Johnson; Rajagopalan, K.V.; George, G.N.

    2009-05-28

    We report a structural characterization of the molybdenum site of recombinant Escherichia coli trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) reductase using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The enzyme active site shows considerable similarity to that of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase, in that, like DMSO reductase, the TMAO reductase active site can exist in multiple forms. Examination of the published crystal structure of TMAO oxidase from Shewanella massilia indicates that the postulated Mo coordination structure is chemically impossible. The presence of multiple active site structures provides a potential explanation for the anomalous features reported from the crystal structure.

  19. Sulfa drugs inhibit sepiapterin reduction and chemical redox cycling by sepiapterin reductase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaojun; Jan, Yi-Hua; Mishin, Vladimir; Richardson, Jason R; Hossain, Muhammad M; Heindel, Ned D; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2015-03-01

    Sepiapterin reductase (SPR) catalyzes the reduction of sepiapterin to dihydrobiopterin (BH2), the precursor for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a cofactor critical for nitric oxide biosynthesis and alkylglycerol and aromatic amino acid metabolism. SPR also mediates chemical redox cycling, catalyzing one-electron reduction of redox-active chemicals, including quinones and bipyridinium herbicides (e.g., menadione, 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, and diquat); rapid reaction of the reduced radicals with molecular oxygen generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using recombinant human SPR, sulfonamide- and sulfonylurea-based sulfa drugs were found to be potent noncompetitive inhibitors of both sepiapterin reduction and redox cycling. The most potent inhibitors of sepiapterin reduction (IC50s = 31-180 nM) were sulfasalazine, sulfathiazole, sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole, and chlorpropamide. Higher concentrations of the sulfa drugs (IC50s = 0.37-19.4 μM) were required to inhibit redox cycling, presumably because of distinct mechanisms of sepiapterin reduction and redox cycling. In PC12 cells, which generate catecholamine and monoamine neurotransmitters via BH4-dependent amino acid hydroxylases, sulfa drugs inhibited both BH2/BH4 biosynthesis and redox cycling mediated by SPR. Inhibition of BH2/BH4 resulted in decreased production of dopamine and dopamine metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid, and 5-hydroxytryptamine. Sulfathiazole (200 μM) markedly suppressed neurotransmitter production, an effect reversed by BH4. These data suggest that SPR and BH4-dependent enzymes, are "off-targets" of sulfa drugs, which may underlie their untoward effects. The ability of the sulfa drugs to inhibit redox cycling may ameliorate ROS-mediated toxicity generated by redox active drugs and chemicals, contributing to their anti-inflammatory activity.

  20. Cytochrome P450 Reductase: A Harbinger of Diffusible Reduced Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Manoj, Kelath Murali; Gade, Sudeep Kumar; Mathew, Lazar

    2010-01-01

    The bi-enzymatic system of cytochrome P450 (CYP, a hemoprotein) and cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR, a diflavoenzyme) mediate the redox metabolism of diverse indigenous and xenobiotic molecules in various cellular and organ systems, using oxygen and NADPH. Curiously, when a 1∶1 ratio is seen to be optimal for metabolism, the ubiquitous CYP:CPR distribution ratio is 10 to 100∶1 or higher. Further, the NADPH equivalents consumed in these in vitro or in situ assemblies usually far exceeded the amount of substrate metabolized. We aimed to find the rationale to explain for these two oddities. We report here that CPR is capable of activating molecular oxygen on its own merit, generating diffusible reduced oxygen species (DROS). Also, in the first instance for a flavoprotein, CPR is shown to deplete peroxide via diffusible radical mediated process, thereby leading to the formation of water (but without significant evolution of oxygen). We also quantitatively demonstrate that the rate of oxygen activation and peroxide depletion by CPR accounts for the major reactivity in the CYP+CPR mixture. We show unambiguously that CPR is able to regulate the concentration of diffusible reduced oxygen species in the reaction milieu. These findings point out that CPR mediated processes are bound to be energetically ‘wasteful’ and potentially ‘hazardous’ owing to the unavoidable nature of the CPR to generate and deplete DROS. Hence, we can understand that CPR is distributed at low densities in cells. Some of the activities that were primarily attributed to the heme-center of CYP are now established to be a facet of the flavins of CPR. The current approach of modeling drugs to minimize “uncoupling” on the basis of erstwhile hypothesis stands questionable, considering the ideas brought forth in this work. PMID:20967245

  1. Excess NO Predisposes Mitochondrial Succinate-Cytochrome c Reductase to Produce Hydroxyl Radical†

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingfeng; Chen, Chwen-Lih; Alevriadou, B. Rita; Zweier, Jay L.; Chen, Yeong-Renn

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria–derived oxygen free radical(s) are important mediators of oxidative cellular injury. It is widely hypothesized that excess NO enhances O2•− generated by mitochondria under certain pathological conditions. In the mitochondrial electron transport chain, succinate-cytochrome c reductase (SCR) catalyzes the electron transfer reaction from succinate to cytochrome c. To gain the insights into the molecular mechanism of how NO overproduction may mediate the oxygen free radical generation by SCR, we employed isolated SCR, cardiac myoblast H9c2, and endothelial cells to study the interaction of NO with SCR in vitro and ex vivo. Under the conditions of enzyme turnover in the presence of NO donor (DEANO), SCR gained pro-oxidant function for generating hydroxyl radical as detected by EPR spin trapping using DEPMPO. The EPR signal associated with DEPMPO/•OH adduct was nearly completely abolished in the presence of catalase or an iron chelator and partially inhibited by SOD, suggesting the involvement of the iron-H2O2 dependent Fenton reaction or O2•−–dependent Haber-Weiss mechanism. Direct EPR measurement of SCR at 77 °K indicated the formation of a nonheme iron-NO complex, implying that electron leakage to molecular oxygen was enhanced at the FAD cofactor, and that excess NO predisposed SCR to produce •OH. In H9c2 cells, SCR dependent oxygen free radical generation was stimulated by NO released from DEANO or produced by the cells following exposure to hypoxia/reoxygenation. With shear exposure that led to overproduction of NO by the endothelium, SCR mediated oxygen free radical production was also detected in cultured vascular endothelial cells. PMID:21406178

  2. Components of glycine reductase from Eubacterium acidaminophilum. Cloning, sequencing and identification of the genes for thioredoxin reductase, thioredoxin and selenoprotein PA.

    PubMed

    Lübbers, M; Andreesen, J R

    1993-10-15

    The genes encoding thioredoxin reductase (trxB), thioredoxin (trxA), protein PA of glycine reductase (grdA) and the first 23 amino acids of the large subunit of protein PC of glycine reductase (grdC) belonging to the reductive deamination systems present in Eubacterium acidaminophilum were cloned and sequenced. The proteins were products of closely linked genes with 314 codons (thioredoxin reductase), 110 codons (thioredoxin), and 158 codons (protein PA). The protein previously called 'atypically small lipoamide dehydrogenase' or 'electron transferring flavoprotein' could now conclusively be identified as a thioredoxin reductase (subunit mass of 34781 Da) by the alignment with the enzyme of Escherichia coli showing the same typical order of the corresponding domains. The thioredoxin (molecular mass of 11742 Da) deviated considerably from the known consensus sequence, even in the most strongly conserved redox-active segment WCGPC that was now GCVPC. The selenocysteine of protein PA (molecular mass of 16609 Da) was encoded by TGA. The protein was highly similar to those of Clostridium purinolyticum and Clostridium sticklandii involved in glycine reductase. Thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin of E. acidaminophilum could be successfully expressed in E. coli.

  3. Ectopic Expression of a Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Gene Transactivates Parallel Pathways of Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis. Structure, Expression Analysis, and Genetic Control of Leucoanthocyanidin 4-Reductase and Anthocyanidin Reductase Genes in Lotus corniculatus1[W

    PubMed Central

    Paolocci, Francesco; Robbins, Mark P.; Madeo, Laura; Arcioni, Sergio; Martens, Stefan; Damiani, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are plant secondary metabolites and are composed primarily of catechin and epicatechin units in higher plant species. Due to the ability of PAs to bind reversibly with plant proteins to improve digestion and reduce bloat, engineering this pathway in leaves is a major goal for forage breeders. Here, we report the cloning and expression analysis of anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductase (LAR), two genes encoding enzymes committed to epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis, respectively, in Lotus corniculatus. We show the presence of two LAR gene families (LAR1 and LAR2) and that the steady-state levels of ANR and LAR1 genes correlate with the levels of PAs in leaves of wild-type and transgenic plants. Interestingly, ANR and LAR1, but not LAR2, genes produced active proteins following heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and are affected by the same basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that promotes PA accumulation in cells of palisade and spongy mesophyll. This study provides direct evidence that the same subclass of transcription factors can mediate the expression of the structural genes of both branches of PA biosynthesis. PMID:17098849

  4. Ectopic expression of a basic helix-loop-helix gene transactivates parallel pathways of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis. structure, expression analysis, and genetic control of leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductase and anthocyanidin reductase genes in Lotus corniculatus.

    PubMed

    Paolocci, Francesco; Robbins, Mark P; Madeo, Laura; Arcioni, Sergio; Martens, Stefan; Damiani, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are plant secondary metabolites and are composed primarily of catechin and epicatechin units in higher plant species. Due to the ability of PAs to bind reversibly with plant proteins to improve digestion and reduce bloat, engineering this pathway in leaves is a major goal for forage breeders. Here, we report the cloning and expression analysis of anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductase (LAR), two genes encoding enzymes committed to epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis, respectively, in Lotus corniculatus. We show the presence of two LAR gene families (LAR1 and LAR2) and that the steady-state levels of ANR and LAR1 genes correlate with the levels of PAs in leaves of wild-type and transgenic plants. Interestingly, ANR and LAR1, but not LAR2, genes produced active proteins following heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and are affected by the same basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that promotes PA accumulation in cells of palisade and spongy mesophyll. This study provides direct evidence that the same subclass of transcription factors can mediate the expression of the structural genes of both branches of PA biosynthesis.

  5. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductases.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Steven A; Walker, Alexander M; Vermerris, Wilfred; Sattler, Scott E; Kang, ChulHee

    2017-02-01

    Cinnamoyl-coenzyme A reductase (CCR) catalyzes the reduction of hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) esters using NADPH to produce hydroxycinnamyl aldehyde precursors in lignin synthesis. The catalytic mechanism and substrate specificity of cinnamoyl-CoA reductases from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), a strategic plant for bioenergy production, were deduced from crystal structures, site-directed mutagenesis, and kinetic and thermodynamic analyses. Although SbCCR1 displayed higher affinity for caffeoyl-CoA or p-coumaroyl-CoA than for feruloyl-CoA, the enzyme showed significantly higher activity for the latter substrate. Through molecular docking and comparisons between the crystal structures of the Vitis vinifera dihydroflavonol reductase and SbCCR1, residues threonine-154 and tyrosine-310 were pinpointed as being involved in binding CoA-conjugated phenylpropanoids. Threonine-154 of SbCCR1 and other CCRs likely confers strong substrate specificity for feruloyl-CoA over other cinnamoyl-CoA thioesters, and the T154Y mutation in SbCCR1 led to broader substrate specificity and faster turnover. Through data mining using our structural and biochemical information, four additional putative CCR genes were discovered from sorghum genomic data. One of these, SbCCR2, displayed greater activity toward p-coumaroyl-CoA than did SbCCR1, which could imply a role in the synthesis of defense-related lignin. Taken together, these findings provide knowledge about critical residues and substrate preference among CCRs and provide, to our knowledge, the first three-dimensional structure information for a CCR from a monocot species.

  6. Thioredoxin Glutathione Reductase-Dependent Redox Networks in Platyhelminth Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Mariana; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Platyhelminth parasites cause chronic infections that are a major cause of disability, mortality, and economic losses in developing countries. Maintaining redox homeostasis is a major adaptive problem faced by parasites and its disruption can shift the biochemical balance toward the host. Platyhelminth parasites possess a streamlined thiol-based redox system in which a single enzyme, thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR), a fusion of a glutaredoxin (Grx) domain to canonical thioredoxin reductase (TR) domains, supplies electrons to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thioredoxin (Trx). TGR has been validated as a drug target for schistosomiasis. Recent Advances: In addition to glutathione (GSH) and Trx reduction, TGR supports GSH-independent deglutathionylation conferring an additional advantage to the TGR redox array. Biochemical and structural studies have shown that the TR activity does not require the Grx domain, while the glutathione reductase and deglutathionylase activities depend on the Grx domain, which receives electrons from the TR domains. The search for TGR inhibitors has identified promising drug leads, notably oxadiazole N-oxides. Critical Issues: A conspicuous feature of platyhelminth TGRs is that their Grx-dependent activities are temporarily inhibited at high GSSG concentrations. The mechanism underlying the phenomenon and its biological relevance are not completely understood. Future Directions: The functional diversity of Trxs and Grxs encoded in platyhelminth genomes remains to be further assessed to thoroughly understand the TGR-dependent redox network. Optimization of TGR inhibitors and identification of compounds targeting other parasite redox enzymes are good options to clinically develop relevant drugs for these neglected, but important diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 735–745. PMID:22909029

  7. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T: Hypoplastic Left Heart and Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Spronk, Kimberly J; Olivero, Anthony D; Haw, Marcus P; Vettukattil, Joseph J

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of congenital heart defects is higher in infants with mutation of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. The MTHFR C677T gene decreases the bioavailability of folate and increases plasma homocysteine, a risk factor for thrombosis. There have been no reported cases in the literature on the clinical implications of this procoagulable state in the setting of cyanotic heart disease, which itself has prothrombotic predisposition. Two patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome developed postoperative thrombotic complications, both were homozygous for MTHFR C677T. We present these cases and highlight the implications of MTHFR mutation in the management of complex congenital heart disease.

  8. Terpenoids from Diplophyllum taxifolium with quinone reductase-inducing activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Jiao-Zhen; Zhou, Jin-Chuan; Shen, Tao; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2016-03-01

    Two new ent-prenylaromadendrane-type diterpenoids, diplotaxifols A (1) and B (2), a new ent-eudesmol, ent-eudesma-4(15),11(13)-dien-6α,12-diol (3), eight new eudesmanolides enantiomers (4-11) of the corresponding compounds from higher plants along with four known ent-eudesmanolides (12-15) were isolated from the 95% EtOH extract of Chinese liverwort Diplophyllum taxifolium. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS, NMR and IR spectral data, and confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The quinone reductase-inducing activity of the compounds was evaluated.

  9. Applications of Carboxylic Acid Reductases in Oleaginous Microbes

    SciTech Connect

    Resch, Michael G.; Linger, Jeffrey; McGeehan, John; Tyo, Keith; Beckham, Gregg

    2016-04-24

    Carboxylic acid reductases (CARs) are recently emerging reductive enzymes for the direct production of aldehydes from biologically-produced carboxylic acids. Recent work has demonstrated that these powerful enzymes are able to reduce a very broad range of volatile- to long-chain fatty acids as well as aromatic acids. Here, we express four CAR enzymes from different fungal origins to test their activity against fatty acids commonly produced in oleaginous microbes. These in vitro results will inform metabolic engineering strategies to conduct mild biological reduction of carboxylic acids in situ, which is conventionally done via hydrotreating catalysis at high temperatures and hydrogen pressures.

  10. A Novel NADPH-dependent flavoprotein reductase from Bacillus megaterium acts as an efficient cytochrome P450 reductase.

    PubMed

    Milhim, Mohammed; Gerber, Adrian; Neunzig, Jens; Hannemann, Frank; Bernhardt, Rita

    2016-08-10

    Cytochromes P450 (P450s) require electron transfer partners to catalyze substrate conversions. With regard to biotechnological approaches, the elucidation of novel electron transfer proteins is of special interest, as they can influence the enzymatic activity and specificity of the P450s. In the current work we present the identification and characterization of a novel soluble NADPH-dependent diflavin reductase from Bacillus megaterium with activity towards a bacterial (CYP106A1) and a microsomal (CYP21A2) P450 and, therefore, we referred to it as B. megaterium cytochrome P450 reductase (BmCPR). Sequence analysis of the protein revealed besides the conserved FMN-, FAD- and NADPH-binding motifs, the presence of negatively charged cluster, which is thought to represent the interaction domain with P450s and/or cytochrome c. BmCPR was expressed and purified to homogeneity in Escherichia coli. The purified BmCPR exhibited a characteristic diflavin reductase spectrum, and showed a cytochrome c reducing activity. Furthermore, in an in vitro reconstituted system, the BmCPR was able to support the hydroxylation of testosterone and progesterone with CYP106A1 and CYP21A2, respectively. Moreover, in view of the biotechnological application, the BmCPR is very promising, as it could be successfully utilized to establish CYP106A1- and CYP21A2-based whole-cell biotransformation systems, which yielded 0.3g/L hydroxy-testosterone products within 8h and 0.16g/L 21-hydroxyprogesterone within 6h, respectively. In conclusion, the BmCPR reported herein owns a great potential for further applications and studies and should be taken into consideration for bacterial and/or microsomal CYP-dependent bioconversions.

  11. Prostate Cancer Cells Differ in Testosterone Accumulation, Dihydrotestosterone Conversion, and Androgen Receptor Signaling Response to Steroid 5α-Reductase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yue; Godoy, Alejandro; Azzouni, Faris; Wilton, John H.; Ip, Clement; Mohler, James L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blocking 5α-reductase-mediated testosterone conversion to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) with finasteride or dutasteride is the driving hypothesis behind two prostate cancer prevention trials. Factors affecting intracellular androgen levels and the androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis need to be examined systematically in order to fully understand the outcome of interventions using these drugs. METHODS The expression of three 5α-reductase isozymes, as determined by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR, was studied in five human prostate cancer cell lines. Intracellular testosterone and DHT were analyzed using mass spectrometry. A luciferase reporter assay and AR-regulated genes were used to evaluate the modulation of AR activity. RESULTS Prostate cancer cells were capable of accumulating testosterone to a level 15–50 times higher than that in the medium. The profile and expression of 5α-reductase isozymes did not predict the capacity to convert testosterone to DHT. Finasteride and dutasteride were able to depress testosterone uptake in addition to lowering intracellular DHT. The inhibition of AR activity following drug treatment often exceeded the expected response due to reduced availability of DHT. The ability to maintain high intracellular testosterone might compensate for the shortage of DHT. CONCLUSIONS The biological effect of finasteride or dutasteride appears to be complex and may depend on the interplay of several factors, which include testosterone turnover, enzymology of DHT production, ability to use testosterone and DHT interchangeably, and propensity of cells for off-target AR inhibitory effect. PMID:23813697

  12. Enhancing activity and selectivity in a series of pyrrol-1-yl-1-hydroxypyrazole-based aldose reductase inhibitors: The case of trifluoroacetylation.

    PubMed

    Papastavrou, Nikolaos; Chatzopoulou, Maria; Ballekova, Jana; Cappiello, Mario; Moschini, Roberta; Balestri, Francesco; Patsilinakos, Alexandros; Ragno, Rino; Stefek, Milan; Nicolaou, Ioannis

    2017-04-21

    Aldose reductase (ALR2) has been the target of therapeutic intervention for over 40 years; first, for its role in long-term diabetic complications and more recently as a key mediator in inflammation and cancer. However, efforts to prepare small-molecule aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) have mostly yielded carboxylic acids with rather poor pharmacokinetics. To address this limitation, the 1-hydroxypyrazole moiety has been previously established as a bioisostere of acetic acid in a group of aroyl-substituted pyrrolyl derivatives. In the present work, optimization of this new class of ARIs was achieved by the addition of a trifluoroacetyl group on the pyrrole ring. Eight novel compounds were synthesized and tested for their inhibitory activity towards ALR2 and selectivity against aldehyde reductase (ALR1). All compounds proved potent and selective inhibitors of ALR2 (IC50/ALR2 = 0.043-0.242 μΜ, Selectivity index = 190-858), whilst retaining a favorable physicochemical profile. The most active (4g) and selective (4d) compounds were further evaluated for their ability to inhibit sorbitol formation in rat lenses ex vivo and to exhibit substrate-specific inhibition.

  13. Aldose Reductase-catalyzed Reduction of Aldehyde Phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sanjay; Spite, Matthew; Trent, John O.; West, Matthew B.; Ahmed, Yonis; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Oxidation of unsaturated phospholipids results in the generation of aldehyde side chains that remain esterified to the phospholipid backbone. Such “core” aldehydes elicit immune responses and promote inflammation. However, the biochemical mechanisms by which phospholipid aldehydes are metabolized or detoxified are not well understood. In the studies reported here, we examined whether aldose reductase (AR), which reduces hydrophobic aldehydes, metabolizes phospholipid aldehydes. Incubation with AR led to the reduction of 5-oxovaleroyl, 7-oxo-5-heptenoyl, 5-hydroxy-6-oxo-caproyl, and 5-hydroxy-8-oxo-6-octenoyl phospholipids generated upon oxidation of 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAPC). The enzyme also catalyzed the reduction of phospholipid aldehydes generated from the oxidation of 1-alkyl, and 1-alkenyl analogs of PAPC, and 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl phosphatidic acid or phosphoglycerol. Aldose reductase catalyzed the reduction of chemically synthesized 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POVPC) with a Km of 10 μM. Addition of POVPC to the culture medium led to incorporation and reduction of the aldehyde in COS-7 and THP-1 cells. Reduction of POVPC in these cells was prevented by the AR inhibitors sorbinil and tolrestat and was increased in COS-7 cells overexpressing AR. Together, these observations suggest that AR may be a significant participant in the metabolism of several structurally diverse phospholipid aldehydes. This metabolism may be a critical regulator of the pro-inflammatory and immunogenic effects of oxidized phospholipids. PMID:15465833

  14. Two fatty acyl reductases involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Binu; Ding, Bao-Jian; Moto, Ken’Ichi; Aldosari, Saleh A.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acyl reductases (FARs) constitute an evolutionarily conserved gene family found in all kingdoms of life. Members of the FAR gene family play diverse roles, including seed oil synthesis, insect pheromone biosynthesis, and mammalian wax biosynthesis. In insects, FAR genes dedicated to sex pheromone biosynthesis (pheromone-gland-specific fatty acyl reductase, pgFAR) form a unique clade that exhibits substantial modifications in gene structure and possesses unique specificity and selectivity for fatty acyl substrates. Highly selective and semi-selective ‘single pgFARs’ produce single and multicomponent pheromone signals in bombycid, pyralid, yponomeutid and noctuid moths. An intriguing question is how a ‘single reductase’ can direct the synthesis of several fatty alcohols of various chain lengths and isomeric forms. Here, we report two active pgFARs in the pheromone gland of Spodoptera, namely a semi-selective, C14:acyl-specific pgFAR and a highly selective, C16:acyl-specific pgFAR, and demonstrate that these pgFARs play a pivotal role in the formation of species-specific signals, a finding that is strongly supported by functional gene expression data. The study envisages a new area of research for disclosing evolutionary changes associated with C14- and C16-specific FARs in moth pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:27427355

  15. Human Neuroglobin Functions as a Redox-regulated Nitrite Reductase*

    PubMed Central

    Tiso, Mauro; Tejero, Jesús; Basu, Swati; Azarov, Ivan; Wang, Xunde; Simplaceanu, Virgil; Frizzell, Sheila; Jayaraman, Thottala; Geary, Lisa; Shapiro, Calli; Ho, Chien; Shiva, Sruti; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroglobin is a highly conserved hemoprotein of uncertain physiological function that evolved from a common ancestor to hemoglobin and myoglobin. It possesses a six-coordinate heme geometry with proximal and distal histidines directly bound to the heme iron, although coordination of the sixth ligand is reversible. We show that deoxygenated human neuroglobin reacts with nitrite to form nitric oxide (NO). This reaction is regulated by redox-sensitive surface thiols, cysteine 55 and 46, which regulate the fraction of the five-coordinated heme, nitrite binding, and NO formation. Replacement of the distal histidine by leucine or glutamine leads to a stable five-coordinated geometry; these neuroglobin mutants reduce nitrite to NO ∼2000 times faster than the wild type, whereas mutation of either Cys-55 or Cys-46 to alanine stabilizes the six-coordinate structure and slows the reaction. Using lentivirus expression systems, we show that the nitrite reductase activity of neuroglobin inhibits cellular respiration via NO binding to cytochrome c oxidase and confirm that the six-to-five-coordinate status of neuroglobin regulates intracellular hypoxic NO-signaling pathways. These studies suggest that neuroglobin may function as a physiological oxidative stress sensor and a post-translationally redox-regulated nitrite reductase that generates NO under six-to-five-coordinate heme pocket control. We hypothesize that the six-coordinate heme globin superfamily may subserve a function as primordial hypoxic and redox-regulated NO-signaling proteins. PMID:21296891

  16. A mutant of barley lacking NADH-hydroxypyruvate reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, R.; Lea, P. )

    1989-04-01

    A mutant of barley, LaPr 88/29, deficient in peroxisomal NADH-hydroxypyruvate reductase (HPR) activity has been identified. Compared to the wild type the activities of NADH-HPR and NADPH-HPR were severely reduced but the mutant was still capable of fixing CO{sub 2} at rates equivalent to 75% of that of the wild type in air. Although lacking an enzyme in the main photorespiratory pathway, there appeared to be little disruption to photorespiratory metabolism as ammonia release, CO{sub 2} efflux and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} release from L-(U-{sup 14}C) serine were similar in both mutant and wild type. LaPr 88/29 has been used to show that NADH-glyoxylate reductase (GR) and NADH-HPR are probably not catalyzed by the same enzyme in barley and that over 80% of the NADPH-HPR activity is due to the NADH-HPR enzyme. Immunological studies, using antibodies raised against spinach HPR, have shown that the NADH-dependent enzyme protein is absent in LaPr 88/29 but there appears to be enhanced synthesis of the NADPH-dependent enzyme protein.

  17. Fluorescent analogues of methotrexate: characterization and interaction with dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A A; Kempton, R J; Anstead, G M; Freisheim, J H

    1983-01-18

    The dansylated derivatives of lysine and ornithine analogues of methotrexate exhibit fluorescence properties characteristic of the dansyl moiety with an excitation at 328 nm and an emission maximum at 580 nm in aqueous media. As in the case of dansyl amino acids, the fluorescence emission is dependent upon the polarity of the medium. In solvents of low dielectric constant there is an enhancement of the dansyl fluorescence intensity as well as a shift to shorter wavelengths. The dansylated analogues show a reduction in the quantum yields as compared to N epsilon-dansyl-L-lysine and 5-(N,N-dimethylamino)-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid. The absorption spectra of the two dansyl analogues are similar to the spectra of the parent basic amino acid precursors but with reduced molar extinction values. The two fluorescent analogues of methotrexate were found to be potent inhibitors of purified dihydrofolate reductases from Lactobacillus casei and from chicken liver. The binding of these fluorescent analogues to either dihydrofolate reductase resulted in 10-15-nm blue shift of the ligand emission maxima and a 2-5-fold enhancement of the emission. These fluorescent properties of the bound ligands indicate a possible interaction of the dansyl moiety with a region on the enzyme molecule which is more hydrophobic relative to the surrounding solvent.

  18. ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    SciTech Connect

    Jouanneau, Y.; Roby, C.; Meyer, C.M.; Vignais, P.M. )

    1989-07-25

    In the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, nitrogenase is regulated by a reversible covalent modification of Fe protein or dinitrogenase reductase (Rc2). The linkage of the modifying group to inactive Rc2 was found to be sensitive to alkali and to neutral hydroxylamine. Complete release of the modifying group was achieved by incubation of inactive Rc2 in 0.4 or 1 M hydroxylamine. After hydroxylamine treatment of the Rc2 preparation, the modifying group could be isolated and purified by affinity chromatography and ion-exchange HPLC. The modifying group comigrated with ADP-ribose on both ion-exchange HPLC and thin-layer chromatography. Analyses by {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry provided further evidence that the modifying group was ADP-ribose. The NMR spectrum of inactive Rc2 exhibited signals characteristic of ADP-ribose; integration of these signals allowed calculation of a molar ration ADP-ribose/Rc2 of 0.63. A hexapeptide carrying the ADP-ribose moiety was purified from a subtilisin digest of inactive Rc2. The structure of this peptide, determined by amino acid analysis and sequencing, is Gly-Arg(ADP-ribose)-Gly-Val-Ile-Thr. This structure allows identification of the binding site for ADP-ribose as Arg 101 of the polypeptide chain of Rc2. It is concluded that nitrogenase activity in R. capsulatus is regulated by reversible ADP-ribosylation of a specific arginyl residue of dinitrogenase reductase.

  19. Increased nitrite reductase activity of fetal versus adult ovine hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Blood, Arlin B.; Tiso, Mauro; Verma, Shilpa T.; Lo, Jennifer; Joshi, Mahesh S.; Azarov, Ivan; Longo, Lawrence D.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Power, Gordon G.

    2009-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that nitrite, NO2−, serves as a circulating reservoir of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity that is activated during physiological and pathological hypoxia. One of the intravascular mechanisms for nitrite conversion to NO is a chemical nitrite reductase activity of deoxyhemoglobin. The rate of NO production from this reaction is increased when hemoglobin is in the R conformation. Because the mammalian fetus exists in a low-oxygen environment compared with the adult and is exposed to episodes of severe ischemia during the normal birthing process, and because fetal hemoglobin assumes the R conformation more readily than adult hemoglobin, we hypothesized that nitrite reduction to NO may be enhanced in the fetal circulation. We found that the reaction was faster for fetal than maternal hemoglobin or blood and that the reactions were fastest at 50–80% oxygen saturation, consistent with an R-state catalysis that is predominant for fetal hemoglobin. Nitrite concentrations were similar in blood taken from chronically instrumented normoxic ewes and their fetuses but were elevated in response to chronic hypoxia. The findings suggest an augmented nitrite reductase activity of fetal hemoglobin and that the production of nitrite may participate in the regulation of vascular NO homeostasis in the fetus. PMID:19028797

  20. Nitrate metabolism in tobacco leaves overexpressing Arabidopsis nitrite reductase.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Susie; Le Lay, Pascaline; Sanchez-Tamburrrino, Juan Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Primary nitrogen assimilation in plants includes the reduction of nitrite to ammonium in the chloroplasts by the enzyme nitrite reductase (NiR EC:1.7.7.1) or in the plastids of non-photosynthetic organs. Here we report on a study overexpressing the Arabidopsis thaliana NiR (AtNiR) gene in tobacco plants under the control of a constitutive promoter (CERV - Carnation Etched Ring Virus). The aim was to overexpress AtNiR in an attempt to alter the level of residual nitrite in the leaf which can act as precursor to the formation of nitrosamines. The impact of increasing the activity of AtNiR produced an increase in leaf protein and a stay-green phenotype in the primary transformed AtNiR population. Investigation of the T1 homozygous population demonstrated elevated nitrate reductase (NR) activity, reductions in leaf nitrite and nitrate and the amino acids proline, glutamine and glutamate. Chlorophyl content of the transgenic lines was increased, as evidenced by the stay-green phenotype. This reveals the importance of NiR in primary nitrogen assimilation and how modification of this key enzyme affects both the nitrogen and carbon metabolism of tobacco plants.

  1. Properties of the arsenate reductase of plasmid R773.

    PubMed

    Gladysheva, T B; Oden, K L; Rosen, B P

    1994-06-14

    Resistance to toxic oxyanions in Escherichia coli is conferred by the ars operon carried on plasmid R773. The gene products of this operon catalyze extrusion of antimonials and arsenicals from cells of E. coli, thus providing resistance to those toxic oxyanions. In addition, resistance to arsenate is conferred by the product of the arsC gene. In this report, purified ArsC protein was shown to catalyze reduction of arsenate to arsenite. The enzymatic activity of the ArsC protein required glutaredoxin as a source of reducing equivalents. Other reductants, including glutathione and thioredoxin, were not effective electron donors. A spectrophotometric assay was devised in which arsenate reduction was coupled to NADPH oxidation. The results obtained with the coupled assay corresponded to those found by direct reduction of radioactive arsenate to arsenite. The only substrate of the reaction was arsenate (Km = 8 mM); other oxyanions including phosphate, sulfate, and antimonate were not reduced. Phosphate and sulfate were weak inhibitors, while the product, arsenite, was a stronger inhibitor (Ki = 0.1 mM). Arsenate reductase activity exhibited a pH optimum of 6.3-6.8. These results indicate that the ArsC protein is a novel reductase, and elucidation of its enzymatic mechanism should be of interest.

  2. Sequence and properties of pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase from Enterobacter cloacae PB2.

    PubMed

    French, C E; Nicklin, S; Bruce, N C

    1996-11-01

    Pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase, which reductively liberates nitrite from nitrate esters, is related to old yellow enzyme. Pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase follows a ping-pong mechanism with competitive substrate inhibition by NADPH, is strongly inhibited by steroids, and is capable of reducing the unsaturated bond of 2-cyclohexen-1-one.

  3. Determination of the specific activities of methionine sulfoxide reductase A and B by capillary electrophoresis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the determination of methionine sulfoxide reductase A and methionine sulfoxide reductase B activities in mouse liver is described. The method is based on detection of the 4-(dimethylamino)azobenzene-4’-sulfonyl derivative of L-methionine (dabsyl Met), the ...

  4. QTL analysis of ferric reductase activity in the model legume lotus japonicus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physiological and molecular studies have demonstrated that iron accumulation from the soil into Strategy I plants can be limited by ferric reductase activity. An initial study of Lotus japonicus ecotypes Miyakojima MG-20 and Gifu B-129 identified significant leaf chlorosis and ferric reductase activ...

  5. Nitrate transport is independent of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases in barley seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has NADH-specific and NAD(P)H-bispecific nitrate reductase isozymes. Four isogenic lines with different nitrate reductase isozyme combinations were used to determine the role of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases on nitrate transport and assimilation in barley seedlings. Both nitrate reductase isozymes were induced by nitrate and were required for maximum nitrate assimilation in barley seedlings. Genotypes lacking the NADH isozyme (Az12) or the NAD(P)H isozyme (Az70) assimilated 65 or 85%, respectively, as much nitrate as the wild type. Nitrate assimilation by genotype (Az12;Az70) which is deficient in both nitrate reductases, was only 13% of the wild type indicating that the NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductase isozymes are responsible for most of the nitrate reduction in barley seedlings. For all genotypes, nitrate assimilation rates in the dark were about 55% of the rates in light. Hypotheses that nitrate reductase has direct or indirect roles in nitrate uptake were not supported by this study. Induction of nitrate transporters and the kinetics of net nitrate uptake were the same for all four genotypes indicating that neither nitrate reductase isozyme has a direct role in nitrate uptake in barley seedlings.

  6. Evidence for a role of human organic anion transporters in the muscular side effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Michio; Noshiro, Rie; Onozato, Maristela Lika; Tojo, Akihiro; Hasannejad, Habib; Huang, Xiu-Lin; Narikawa, Shinichi; Endou, Hitoshi

    2004-01-12

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of human organic anion transporters (human OATs) in the induction of drug-induced skeletal muscle abnormalities. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors have been clinically used for lowering plasma cholesterol levels, and are known to induce various forms of skeletal muscle abnormalities including myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that human OAT1 and human OAT3 are localized in the cytoplasmic membrane of the human skeletal muscles. The activities of human OATs were measured using mouse cell lines from renal proximal tubules stably expressing human OATs. Human OAT3, but not human OAT1, mediates the transport of pravastatin. Fluvastatin inhibited organic anion uptake mediated by human OAT1 in a mixture of competitive and noncompetitive manner, whereas simvastatin and fluvastatin noncompetitively inhibited the organic anion uptake mediated by human OAT3. In conclusion, the organic anion transporters OAT1 and OAT3 are localized in the cytoplasmic membrane of human skeletal muscles. Pravastatin, simvasatin, and fluvasatin inhibit human OATs activity. These results suggest that muscle organic anion transporters play a role in the muscular side effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors.

  7. Artemisinic acid inhibits melanogenesis through downregulation of C/EBP α-dependent expression of HMG-CoA reductase gene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongsung; Lee, Jienny; Jung, Eunsun; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Deokhoon

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol is associated with the regulation of melanogenesis which is the major physiological defense against solar irradiation. The present study was designed to determine the effects of artemisinic acid on melanogenesis and its mechanisms of action in human epidermal melanocytes. In this study, we found that artemisinic acid inhibited melanin content. The mRNA levels of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and its downstream genes tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2 were reduced by artemisinic acid treatment. Additionally, the mRNA levels of melanogenesis-related genes (c-KIT, stem cell factor (SCF), and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)) were down-regulated by artemisinic acid. Furthermore, cAMP production and protein kinase A (PKA) activity were suppressed by artemisinic acid. Moreover, attempts to elucidate a possible mechanism underlying the artemisinic acid-mediated effects revealed that artemisinic acid regulated melanogenesis by inhibiting cholesterol synthesis through downregulation of the hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA (HMG CoA) reductase gene, which was mediated through reduced expression of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) α gene. Taken together, these findings indicate that the inhibition of melanogenesis by artemisinic acid occurs through reduced expression of the HMG CoA reductase gene, which is mediated by C/EBP α inhibition and suggest that artemisinic acid may be useful as a hyperpigmentation inhibitor.

  8. Dihydrofolate reductase is required for the development of heart and outflow tract in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shuna; Gui, Yonghao; Jiang, Qiu; Song, Houyan

    2011-12-01

    Folic acid is very important for embryonic development and folic acid inhibition can cause congenital heart defects in vertebrates. Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a key enzyme in folate-mediated metabolism. The dysfunction of DHFR disrupts the key biological processes which folic acid participates in. DHFR gene is conserved during vertebrate evolution. It is important to investigate the roles of DHFR in cardiac developments. In this study, we showed that DHFR knockdown resulted in the abnormal developments of zebrafish embryos in the early stages. Obvious malformations in heart and outflow tract (OFT) were also observed in DHFR knockdown embryos. DHFR overexpression rescued the abnormal phenotypes in the DHFR knockdown group. DHFR knockdown had negative impacts on the expressions of NKX2.5 (NK2 transcription factor-related 5), MEF2C (myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C), TBX20 (T-box 20), and TBX1 (T-box 1) which are important transcriptional factors during cardiac development process, while DHFR overexpression had positive effects. DHFR was required for Hedgehog pathway. DHFR knockdown caused reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis, while its overexpression promoted cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis. Taken together, our study suggested that DHFR plays crucial roles in the development of heart and OFT in zebrafish by regulating gene transcriptions and affecting cell proliferation and apoptosis.

  9. The 15kDa selenoprotein and thioredoxin reductase 1 promote colon cancer by different pathways.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Petra A; Carlson, Bradley A; Yoo, Min-Hyuk; Naranjo-Suarez, Salvador; Xu, Xue-Ming; He, Yiwen; Asaki, Esther; Seifried, Harold E; Reinhold, William C; Davis, Cindy D; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Hatfield, Dolph L

    2015-01-01

    Selenoproteins mediate much of the cancer-preventive properties of the essential nutrient selenium, but some of these proteins have been shown to also have cancer-promoting effects. We examined the contributions of the 15kDa selenoprotein (Sep15) and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1) to cancer development. Targeted down-regulation of either gene inhibited anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth and formation of experimental metastases of mouse colon carcinoma CT26 cells. Surprisingly, combined deficiency of Sep15 and TR1 reversed the anti-cancer effects observed with down-regulation of each single gene. We found that inflammation-related genes regulated by Stat-1, especially interferon-γ-regulated guanylate-binding proteins, were highly elevated in Sep15-deficient, but not in TR1-deficient cells. Interestingly, components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were up-regulated in cells lacking both TR1 and Sep15. These results suggest that Sep15 and TR1 participate in interfering regulatory pathways in colon cancer cells. Considering the variable expression levels of Sep15 and TR1 found within the human population, our results provide insights into new roles of selenoproteins in cancer.

  10. Targeting and topology in the membrane of plant 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Campos, N; Boronat, A

    1995-01-01

    The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) catalyzes the synthesis of mevalonate. This is the first committed step of isoprenoid biosynthesis. A common feature of all known plant HMGR isoforms is the presence of two highly conserved hydrophobic sequences in the N-terminal quarter of the protein. Using an in vitro system, we showed that the two hydrophobic sequences of Arabidopsis HMGR1S function as internal signal sequences. Specific recognition of these sequences by the signal recognition particle mediates the targeting of the protein to microsomes derived from the endoplasmic reticulum. Arabidopsis HMGR is inserted into the microsomal membrane, and the two hydrophobic sequences become membrane-spanning segments. The N-terminal end and the C-terminal catalytic domain of Arabidopsis HMGR are positioned on the cytosolic side of the membrane, whereas only a short hydrophilic sequence is exposed to the lumen. Our results suggest that the plant HMGR isoforms known to date are primarily targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum and have the same topology in the membrane. This reinforces the hypothesis that mevalonate is synthesized only in the cytosol. The possibility that plant HMGRs might be located in different regions of the endomembrane system is discussed. PMID:8718626

  11. Aldo-keto reductase enzymes detoxify glyphosate and improve herbicide resistance in plants.

    PubMed

    Vemanna, Ramu S; Vennapusa, Amaranatha Reddy; Easwaran, Murugesh; Chandrashekar, Babitha K; Rao, Hanumantha; Ghanti, Kirankumar; Sudhakar, Chinta; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Udayakumar, M

    2016-09-09

    In recent years, concerns about the use of glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops have increased because of glyphosate residual levels in plants and development of herbicide-resistant weeds. In spite of identifying glyphosate detoxifying genes from microorganisms, the plant mechanism to detoxify glyphosate has not been studied. We characterized an Aldo-keto reductase gene from Pseudomonas (PsAKR1) and rice (OsAKR1) and showed, by docking studies, both PsAKR1 and OsAKR1 can efficiently bind to glyphosate. Silencing AKR1 homologs in rice and Nicotiana benthamiana or mutation of AKR1 in yeast and Arabidopsis showed increased sensitivity to glyphosate. External application of AKR proteins rescued glyphosate-mediated cucumber seedlings growth inhibition. Regeneration of tobacco transgenic lines expressing PsAKR1 or OsAKRI on glyphosate suggests that AKR can be used as selectable marker to develop transgenic crops. PsAKR1 or OsAKRI expressing tobacco and rice transgenic plants showed improved tolerance to glyphosate with reduced accumulation of shikimic acid without affecting the normal photosynthetic rates. These results suggested that AKR1 when overexpressed detoxifies glyphosate in planta. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) in human disease and therapy.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Scott D; Buxton, Iain L O

    2017-04-10

    S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), or ADH5, is an enzyme in the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) family. It is unique when compared to other ADH enzymes in that primary short-chain alcohols are not its principle substrate. GSNOR metabolizes S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), S-hydroxymethylglutathione (the spontaneous adduct of formaldehyde and glutathione), and some alcohols. GSNOR modulates reactive nitric oxide (•NO) availability in the cell by catalyzing the breakdown of GSNO, and indirectly regulates S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) through GSNO-mediated protein S-nitrosation. The dysregulation of GSNOR can significantly alter cellular homeostasis, leading to disease. GSNOR plays an important regulatory role in smooth muscle relaxation, immune function, inflammation, neuronal development and cancer progression, among many other processes. In recent years, the therapeutic inhibition of GSNOR has been investigated to treat asthma, cystic fibrosis and interstitial lung disease (ILD). The direct action of •NO on cellular pathways, as well as the important regulatory role of protein S-nitrosation, is closely tied to GSNOR regulation and defines this enzyme as an important therapeutic target.

  13. Biochemical and physiological analyses of NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase isozymes in Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Shun; Maruta, Takanori; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Takahiro

    2015-07-01

    At least four peroxiredoxins that are coupled with the thioredoxin (Trx) system have been shown to play a key role in redox metabolism in the unicellular phytoflagellate Euglena gracilis. In order to clarify Trx-mediated redox regulation in this alga, we herein identified three NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs) using a homologous search and characterized their enzymatic properties and physiological roles. Each Euglena NTR protein belonged to the small, large, and NTRC types, and were named EgNTR1, EgNTR2, and EgNTRC, respectively. EgNTR2 was phylogenetically different from the known NTRs in eukaryotic algae. EgNTR1 was predicted to be localized in mitochondria, EgNTR2 in the cytosol, and EgNTRC in plastids. The catalytic efficiency of EgNTR2 for NADPH was 30-46-fold higher than those of EgNTR1 and truncated form of EgNTRC, suggested that large type EgNTR2 reduced Trx more efficiently. The silencing of EgNTR2 gene expression resulted in significant growth inhibition and cell hypertrophy in Euglena cells. These results suggest that EgNTRs function in each cellular compartment and are physiologically important, particularly in the cytosol.

  14. S-nitrosoglutathione reductase affords protection against pathogens in Arabidopsis, both locally and systemically.

    PubMed

    Rustérucci, Christine; Espunya, M Carme; Díaz, Maykelis; Chabannes, Matthieu; Martínez, M Carmen

    2007-03-01

    Nitric oxide and S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) are widespread signaling molecules that regulate immunity in animals and plants. Levels of SNOs in vivo are controlled by nitric oxide synthesis (which in plants is achieved by different routes) and by S-nitrosoglutathione turnover, which is mainly performed by the S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR). GSNOR is encoded by a single-copy gene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; Martínez et al., 1996; Sakamoto et al., 2002). We report here that transgenic plants with decreased amounts of GSNOR (using antisense strategy) show enhanced basal resistance against Peronospora parasitica Noco2 (oomycete), which correlates with higher levels of intracellular SNOs and constitutive activation of the pathogenesis-related gene, PR-1. Moreover, systemic acquired resistance is impaired in plants overexpressing GSNOR and enhanced in the antisense plants, and this correlates with changes in the SNO content both in local and systemic leaves. We also show that GSNOR is localized in the phloem and, thus, could regulate systemic acquired resistance signal transport through the vascular system. Our data corroborate the data from other authors that GSNOR controls SNO in vivo levels, and shows that SNO content positively influences plant basal resistance and resistance-gene-mediated resistance as well. These data highlight GSNOR as an important and widely utilized component of resistance protein signaling networks conserved in animals and plants.

  15. Involvement of tyrosine phosphorylation in HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor-induced cell death in L6 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, T; Kumano, T; Nakagawa, H; Kuriyama, M

    1999-02-05

    Our previous studies have shown that the HMG-CoA reductase (HCR) inhibitor (HCRI), simvastatin, causes myopathy in rabbits and kills L6 myoblasts. The present study was designed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of HCRI-induced cell death. We have demonstrated that simvastatin induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of several cellular proteins within 10 min. These phosphorylations were followed by apoptosis, as evidenced by the occurrence of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and by morphological changes detected with Nomarski optics. Simvastatin-induced cell death was prevented by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The MTT assay revealed that the addition of mevalonic acid into the culture medium partially inhibited simvastatin-induced cell death. Thus, these results suggested that protein tyrosine phosphorylation might play an important role in the intracellular signal transduction pathway mediating the HCRI-induced death of myoblasts.

  16. Drug interactions with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins): the importance of CYP enzymes, transporters and pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Neuvonen, Pertti J

    2010-03-01

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) can cause skeletal muscle toxicity; the risk of toxicity is elevated by drug interactions and pharmacogenetic factors that increase the concentration of statins in the plasma. Statins are substrates for several membrane transporters that may mediate drug interactions. Inhibitors of the organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 can decrease the hepatic uptake of many statins, as well as the therapeutic index of these agents. Potent inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4 can significantly increase the plasma concentrations of the active forms of simvastatin, lovastatin and atorvastatin. Fluvastatin, which is metabolized by CYP2C9, is less prone to pharmacokinetic interactions, while pravastatin, rosuvastatin and pitavastatin are not susceptible to any CYP inhibition. An understanding of the mechanisms of statin interactions will help to minimize drug interactions and to develop statins that are less prone to adverse interactions.

  17. Comparison of finasteride (Proscar), a 5 alpha reductase inhibitor, and various commercial plant extracts in in vitro and in vivo 5 alpha reductase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, L; Primka, R L; Berman, C; Vergult, G; Gabriel, M; Pierre-Malice, M; Gibelin, B

    1993-01-01

    Human prostate was used as a source of 5 alpha reductase. Compounds were incubated with an enzyme preparation and [3H]testosterone. [3H]-dihydrotestosterone production was measured to calculate 5 alpha reductase activity. IC50 values (ng/ml) were finasteride = 1; Permixon = 5,600; Talso = 7,000; Strogen Forte = 31,000; Prostagutt = 40,000; and Tadenan = 63,000. Bazoton and Harzol had no activity at concentrations up to 500,000 ng/ml. In castrate rats stimulated with testosterone (T) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), finasteride, but not Permixon or Bazoton, inhibited T stimulated prostate growth, while none of the three compounds inhibited DHT stimulated growth. These results demonstrate that finasteride inhibits 5 alpha reductase, while Permixon and Bazoton have neither anti-androgen nor 5 alpha reductase inhibitory activity. In addition, in a 7 day human clinical trial, finasteride, but not Permixon or placebo, decreased serum DHT in men, further confirming the lack of 5 alpha reductase inhibition by Permixon. Finasteride and the plant extracts listed above do not inhibit the binding of DHT to the rat prostatic androgen receptor (concentrations to 100 micrograms/ml). Based on these results, it is unlikely that these plant extracts would shrink the prostate by inhibiting androgen action or 5 alpha reductase.

  18. Isolation of ascorbate free radical reductase from rabbit lens soluble fraction.

    PubMed

    Bando, Masayasu; Inoue, Takashi; Oka, Mikako; Nakamura, Kayako; Kawai, Kenji; Obazawa, Hajime; Kobayashi, Shizuko; Takehana, Makoto

    2004-12-01

    Ascorbate free radical (AFR) reductase with diaphorase activity was isolated from the rabbit lens soluble fraction to characterise some molecular properties of the enzyme. The isolation was accomplished using gel filtration (Sephadex G-75 superfine or Sephacryl S-200 HR), affinity chromatography (Affi-Gel Blue), native isoelectric focusing and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A major soluble AFR reductase was found at an isoelectric point of 8.4 and a molecular weight of 31 kDa, and a few minor enzymes were also detected in the range of pI 7.0-8.6. An unknown N-terminal partial amino acid sequence was determined in one peptide fragment prepared from the major enzyme fraction. From the sequence analysis, it is discussed that the lens soluble AFR reductase may differ from NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase reported to be involved in the membrane-bound AFR reductase activity of mitochondria, microsomes and plasma membrane.

  19. Trypanothione Reductase: A Viable Chemotherapeutic Target for Antitrypanosomal and Antileishmanial Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. Omar F.

    2007-01-01

    Trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are two debilitating disease groups caused by parasites of Trypanosoma and Leishmania spp. and affecting millions of people worldwide. A brief outline of the potential targets for rational drug design against these diseases are presented, with an emphasis placed on the enzyme trypanothione reductase. Trypanothione reductase was identified as unique to parasites and proposed to be an effective target against trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis. The biochemical basis of selecting this enzyme as a target, with reference to the simile and contrast to human analogous enzyme glutathione reductase, and the structural aspects of its active site are presented. The process of designing selective inhibitors for the enzyme trypanothione reductase has been discussed. An overview of the different chemical classes of inhibitors of trypanothione reductase with their inhibitory activities against the parasites and their prospects as future chemotherapeutic agents are briefly revealed. PMID:21901070

  20. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate potently inhibits the in vitro activity of hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase[S

    PubMed Central

    Cuccioloni, Massimiliano; Mozzicafreddo, Matteo; Spina, Michele; Tran, Chi Nhan; Falconi, Maurizio; Eleuteri, Anna Maria; Angeletti, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) is the rate-controlling enzyme of cholesterol synthesis, and owing to its biological and pharmacological relevance, researchers have investigated several compounds capable of modulating its activity with the hope of developing new hypocholesterolemic drugs. In particular, polyphenol-rich extracts were extensively tested for their cholesterol-lowering effect as alternatives, or adjuvants, to the conventional statin therapies, but a full understanding of the mechanism of their action has yet to be reached. Our work reports on a detailed kinetic and equilibrium study on the modulation of HMGR by the most-abundant catechin in green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Using a concerted approach involving spectrophotometric, optical biosensor, and chromatographic analyses, molecular docking, and site-directed mutagenesis on the cofactor site of HMGR, we have demonstrated that EGCG potently inhibits the in vitro activity of HMGR (Ki in the nanomolar range) by competitively binding to the cofactor site of the reductase. Finally, we evaluated the effect of combined EGCG-statin administration. PMID:21357570

  1. A new cotton SDR family gene encodes a polypeptide possessing aldehyde reductase and 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase activities.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu; Song, Wen-Qiang; Chen, Fang-Yuan; Qin, Yong-Mei

    2010-03-01

    To understand regulatory mechanisms of cotton fiber development, microarray analysis has been performed for upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Based on this, a cDNA (GhKCR3) encoding a polypeptide belonging to short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase family was isolated and cloned. It contains an open reading frame of 987 bp encoding a polypeptide of 328 amino acid residues. Following its overexpression in bacterial cells, the purified recombinant protein specifically uses NADPH to reduce a variety of short-chain aldehydes. A fragment between Gly180 and Gly191 was found to be essential for its catalytic activity. Though the GhKCR3 gene shares low sequence similarities to the ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae YBR159w that encodes 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase (KCR) catalyzing the second step of fatty acid elongation, it was surprisingly able to complement the yeast ybr159wDelta mutant. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that very long-chain fatty acids, especially C26:0, were produced in the ybr159wDelta mutant cells expressing GhKCR3. Applying palmitoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA as substrates, GhKCR3 showed KCR activity in vitro. Quantitative real time-PCR analysis indicated GhKCR3 transcripts accumulated in rapidly elongating fibers, roots, and stems. Our results suggest that GhKCR3 is probably a novel KCR contributing to very long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in plants.

  2. Polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and thymidylate synthase (TYMS) in multiple myeloma risk.

    PubMed

    Lima, Carmen S P; Ortega, Manoela M; Ozelo, Margareth C; Araujo, Renato C; De Souza, Cármino A; Lorand-Metze, Irene; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce M; Costa, Fernando F

    2008-03-01

    We tested whether the polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene, MTHFR C677T and A1298C, the methionine synthase gene, MTR A2756G, the methionine synthase reductase gene, MTRR A66G, and the thymidylate synthase gene, TYMS 2R-->3R, involved in folate and methionine metabolism, altered the risk for multiple myeloma (MM). Genomic DNA from 123MM patients and 188 controls was analysed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction digestion for the polymorphism analyses. The frequency of the MTR 2756 AG plus GG genotype was higher in patients than in controls (39.8% versus 23.4%, P=0.001). Individual carriers of the variant allele G had a 2.31 (95% CI: 1.38-3.87)-fold increased risk for MM compared with others. In contrast, similar frequencies of the MTHFR, the MTRR and the TYMS genotypes were seen in patients and controls. These results suggest, for the first time, a role for the MTR A2756G polymorphism in MM risk in our country, but should be confirmed by large-scale epidemiological studies with patients and controls age matched.

  3. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTRR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTR) gene polymorphisms and adult meningioma risk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Yan-Wen; Shi, Hua-Ping; Wang, Yan-Zhong; Li, Gui-Ling; Yu, Hai-Tao; Xie, Xin-You

    2013-11-01

    The causes of meningiomas are not well understood. Folate metabolism gene polymorphisms have been shown to be associated with various human cancers. It is still controversial and ambiguous between the functional polymorphisms of folate metabolism genes 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTRR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTR) and risk of adult meningioma. A population-based case–control study involving 600 meningioma patients (World Health Organization [WHO] Grade I, 391 cases; WHO Grade II, 167 cases; WHO Grade III, 42 cases) and 600 controls was done for the MTHFR C677T and A1298C, MTRR A66G, and MTR A2756G variants in Chinese Han population. The folate metabolism gene polymorphisms were determined by using a polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Meningioma cases had a significantly lower frequency of MTHFR 677 TT genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 0.49, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.33–0.74; P = 0.001] and T allele (OR = 0.80, 95 % CI 0.67–0.95; P = 0.01) than controls. A significant association between risk of meningioma and MTRR 66 GG (OR = 1.41, 95 % CI 1.02–1.96; P = 0.04) was also observed. When stratifying by the WHO grade of meningioma, no association was found. Our study suggested that MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G variants may affect the risk of adult meningioma in Chinese Han population.

  4. Curcumin is a tight-binding inhibitor of the most efficient human daunorubicin reductase--Carbonyl reductase 1.

    PubMed

    Hintzpeter, Jan; Hornung, Jan; Ebert, Bettina; Martin, Hans-Jörg; Maser, Edmund

    2015-06-05

    Curcumin is a major component of the plant Curcuma longa L. It is traditionally used as a spice and coloring in foods and is an important ingredient in curry. Curcuminoids have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and gained increasing attention as potential neuroprotective and cancer preventive compounds. In the present study, we report that curcumin is a potent tight-binding inhibitor of human carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1, Ki=223 nM). Curcumin acts as a non-competitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate 2,3-hexandione as revealed by plotting IC50-values against various substrate concentrations and most likely as a competitive inhibitor with respect to NADPH. Molecular modeling supports the finding that curcumin occupies the cofactor binding site of CBR1. Interestingly, CBR1 is one of the most effective human reductases in converting the anthracycline anti-tumor drug daunorubicin to daunorubicinol. The secondary alcohol metabolite daunorubicinol has significantly reduced anti-tumor activity and shows increased cardiotoxicity, thereby limiting the clinical use of daunorubicin. Thus, inhibition of CBR1 may increase the efficacy of daunorubicin in cancer tissue and simultaneously decrease its cardiotoxicity. Western-blots demonstrated basal expression of CBR1 in several cell lines. Significantly less daunorubicin reduction was detected after incubating A549 cell lysates with increasing concentrations of curcumin (up to 60% less with 50 μM curcumin), suggesting a beneficial effect in the co-treatment of anthracycline anti-tumor drugs together with curcumin.

  5. Naegleria fowleri: a free-living highly pathogenic amoeba contains trypanothione/trypanothione reductase and glutathione/glutathione reductase systems.

    PubMed

    Ondarza, Raúl N; Hurtado, Gerardo; Tamayo, Elsa; Iturbe, Angélica; Hernández, Eva

    2006-11-01

    This paper presents definitive data showing that the thiol-bimane compound isolated and purified by HPLC from Naegleria fowleri trophozoites unequivocally corresponds by matrix assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS, to the characteristic monoprotonated ion of trypanothione-(bimane)(2) [M(+)H(+)] of m/z 1104.57 and to the trypanothione-(bimane) of m/z 914.46. The trypanothione disulfide T(S)(2) was also found to have a molecular ion of m/z 723.37. Additionally HPLC demonstrated that thiol-bimane compounds corresponding to cysteine and glutathione were present in Naegleria. The ion patterns of the thiol-bimane compounds prepared from commercial trypanothione standard, Entamoeba histolytica and Crithidia luciliae are identical to the Naegleria thiol-bimane compound. Partially purified extracts from N. fowleri showed the coexistence of glutathione and trypanothione reductases activities. There is not doubt that the thiol compound trypanothione, which was previously thought to occur only in Kinetoplastida, is also present in the human pathogens E. histolytica and N. fowleri, as well as in the non-pathogenic euglenozoan E. gracilis. The presence of the trypanothione/trypanothione reductase system in N. fowleri creates the possibility of using this enzyme as a new "drug target" for rationally designed drugs to eliminate the parasite, without affecting the human host.

  6. Thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system of Streptomyces clavuligerus: sequences, expression, and organization of the genes.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, G; Yanko, M; Mislovati, M; Argaman, A; Schreiber, R; Av-Gay, Y; Aharonowitz, Y

    1993-01-01

    The genes that encode thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase of Streptomyces clavuligerus were cloned, and their DNA sequences were determined. Previously, we showed that S. clavuligerus possesses a disulfide reductase with broad substrate specificity that biochemically resembles the thioredoxin oxidoreductase system and may play a role in the biosynthesis of beta-lactam antibiotics. It consists consists of two components, a 70-kDa NADPH-dependent flavoprotein disulfide reductase with two identical subunits and a 12-kDa heat-stable protein general disulfide reductant. In this study, we found, by comparative analysis of their predicted amino acid sequences, that the 35-kDa protein is in fact thioredoxin reductase; it shares 48.7% amino acid sequence identity with Escherichia coli thioredoxin reductase, the 12-kDa protein is thioredoxin, and it shares 28 to 56% amino acid sequence identity with other thioredoxins. The streptomycete thioredoxin reductase has the identical cysteine redox-active region--Cys-Ala-Thr-Cys--and essentially the same flavin adenine dinucleotide- and NADPH dinucleotide-binding sites as E. coli thioredoxin reductase and is partially able to accept E. coli thioredoxin as a substrate. The streptomycete thioredoxin has the same cysteine redox-active segment--Trp-Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys--that is present in virtually all eucaryotic and procaryotic thioredoxins. However, in vivo it is unable to donate electrons to E. coli methionine sulfoxide reductase and does not serve as a substrate in vitro for E. coli thioredoxin reductase. The S. clavuligerus thioredoxin (trxA) and thioredoxin reductase (trxB) genes are organized in a cluster. They are transcribed in the same direction and separated by 33 nucleotides. In contrast, the trxA and trxB genes of E. coli, the only other organism in which both genes have been characterized, are physically widely separated. Images PMID:8349555

  7. Flavin reductase: sequence of cDNA from bovine liver and tissue distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, K S; Hultquist, D E

    1994-01-01

    Flavin reductase catalyzes electron transfer from reduced pyridine nucleotides to methylene blue or riboflavin, and this catalysis is the basis of the therapeutic use of methylene blue or riboflavin in the treatment of methemoglobinemia. A cDNA for a mammalian flavin reductase has been isolated and sequenced. Degenerate oligonucleotides, with sequences based on amino acid sequences of peptides derived from bovine erythrocyte flavin reductase, were used as primers in PCR to selectively amplify a partial cDNA that encodes the bovine reductase. The template used in the PCR was first strand cDNA synthesized from bovine liver total RNA using oligo(dT) primers. A PCR product was used as a specific probe to screen a bovine liver cDNA library. The sequence determined from two overlapping clones contains an open reading frame of 621 nucleotides and encodes 206 amino acids. The amino acid sequence deduced from the bovine liver flavin reductase cDNA matches the amino acid sequences determined for erythrocyte reductase-derived peptides, and the predicted molecular mass of 22,001 Da for the liver reductase agrees well with the molecular mass of 21,994 Da determined for the erythrocyte reductase by electrospray mass spectrometry. The amino acid sequence at the N terminus of the reductase has homology to sequences of pyridine nucleotide-dependent enzymes, and the predicted secondary structure, beta alpha beta, resembles the common nucleotide-binding structural motif. RNA blot analysis indicates a single 1-kilobase reductase transcript in human heart, kidney, liver, lung, pancreas, placenta, and skeletal muscle. Images PMID:7937764

  8. Enhanced Ascorbate Regeneration Via Dehydroascorbate Reductase Confers Tolerance to Photo-Oxidative Stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Tseng; Chiou, Chih-Wen; Chu, Yen-Lin; Hsiao, Yu; Tseng, Yu-Fei; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chen, Hsien-Jung; Chang, Hsin-Yang; Lee, Tse-Min

    2016-10-01

    The role of ascorbate (AsA) recycling via dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) in the tolerance of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to photo-oxidative stress was examined. The activity of DHAR and the abundance of the CrDHAR1 (Cre10.g456750) transcript increased after moderate light (ML; 750 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) or high light (HL; 1,800 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) illumination, accompanied by dehydroascorbate (DHA) accumulation, decreased AsA redox state, photo-inhibition, lipid peroxidation, H2O2 overaccumulation, growth inhibition and cell death. It suggests that DHAR and AsA recycling is limiting under high-intensity light stress. The CrDHAR1 gene was cloned and its recombinant CrDHAR1 protein was a monomer (25 kDa) detected by Western blot that exhibits an enzymatic activity of 965 µmol min(-1)( )mg(-1) protein. CrDHAR1 was overexpressed driven by a HSP70A:RBCS2 fusion promoter or down-regulated by artificial microRNA (amiRNA) to examine whether DHAR-mediated AsA recycling is critical for the tolerance of C. reinahartii cells to photo-oxidative stress. The overexpression of CrDHAR1 increased DHAR protein abundance and enzyme activity, AsA pool size, AsA:DHA ratio and the tolerance to ML-, HL-, methyl viologen- or H2O2-induced oxidative stress. The CrDHAR1-knockdown amiRNA lines that have lower DHAR expression and AsA recycling ability were sensitive to high-intensity illumination and oxidative stress. The glutathione pool size, glutathione:oxidized glutathione ratio and glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase activities were increased in CrDHAR1-overexpressing cells and showed a further increase after high-intensity illumination but decreased in wild-type cells after light stress. The present results suggest that increasing AsA regeneration via enhanced DHAR activity modulates the ascorbate-glutathione cycle activity in C. reinhardtii against photo-oxidative stress.

  9. The choice of reducing substrate is altered by replacement of an alanine by a proline in the FAD domain of a bispecific NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase from birch.

    PubMed Central

    Schöndorf, T; Hachtel, W

    1995-01-01

    Differences in the amino acid sequence between the bispecific NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase of birch (Betula pendula Roth) and the monospecific NADH-nitrate reductases of a variety of other higher plants have been found at the dinucleotide-binding site in the FAD domain. To pinpoint amino acid residues that determine the choice of reducing substrate, we introduced mutations into the cDNA coding for birch nitrate reductase. These mutations were aimed at replacing certain amino acids of the NAD(P)H-binding site by conserved amino acids located at identical positions in NADH-monospecific enzymes. The mutated cDNAs were integrated into the genome of tobacco by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants were grown on a medium containing ammonium as the sole nitrogen source to keep endogenous tobacco nitrate reductase activity low. Whereas some of the mutated enzymes showed a slight preference for NADPH, as does the nonmutated birch enzyme, the activity of some others greatly depended on the availability of NADH and was low with NADPH alone. Comparison of the mutations reveals that replacement of a single amino acid in the birch sequence (alanine871 by proline) is critical for the use of reducing substrate. PMID:7784504

  10. The choice of reducing substrate is altered by replacement of an alanine by a proline in the FAD domain of a bispecific NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase from birch.

    PubMed

    Schöndorf, T; Hachtel, W

    1995-05-01

    Differences in the amino acid sequence between the bispecific NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase of birch (Betula pendula Roth) and the monospecific NADH-nitrate reductases of a variety of other higher plants have been found at the dinucleotide-binding site in the FAD domain. To pinpoint amino acid residues that determine the choice of reducing substrate, we introduced mutations into the cDNA coding for birch nitrate reductase. These mutations were aimed at replacing certain amino acids of the NAD(P)H-binding site by conserved amino acids located at identical positions in NADH-monospecific enzymes. The mutated cDNAs were integrated into the genome of tobacco by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants were grown on a medium containing ammonium as the sole nitrogen source to keep endogenous tobacco nitrate reductase activity low. Whereas some of the mutated enzymes showed a slight preference for NADPH, as does the nonmutated birch enzyme, the activity of some others greatly depended on the availability of NADH and was low with NADPH alone. Comparison of the mutations reveals that replacement of a single amino acid in the birch sequence (alanine871 by proline) is critical for the use of reducing substrate.

  11. B-vitamins, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ward, Mary; Wilson, Carol P; Strain, J J; Horigan, Geraldine; Scott, John M; McNulty, Helene

    2011-07-01

    Hypertension is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke. A common polymorphism in the gene encoding the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), previously identified as the main genetic determinant of elevated homocysteine concentration and also recognized as a risk factor for CVD, appears to be independently associated with hypertension. The B-vitamin riboflavin is required as a cofactor by MTHFR and recent evidence suggests it may have a role in modulating blood pressure, specifically in those with the homozygous mutant MTHFR 677 TT genotype. If studies confirm that this genetic predisposition to hypertension is correctable by low-dose riboflavin, the findings could have important implications for the management of hypertension given that the frequency of this polymorphism ranges from 3 to 32 % worldwide.

  12. Crystal structure of isoflavone reductase from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqiang; He, Xianzhi; Lin, Jianqiao; Shao, Hui; Chang, Zhenzhan; Dixon, Richard A

    2006-05-19

    Isoflavonoids play important roles in plant defense and exhibit a range of mammalian health-promoting activities. Isoflavone reductase (IFR) specifically recognizes isoflavones and catalyzes a stereospecific NADPH-dependent reduction to (3R)-isoflavanone. The crystal structure of Medicago sativa IFR with deletion of residues 39-47 has been determined at 1.6A resolution. Structural analysis, molecular modeling and docking, and comparison with the structures of other NADPH-dependent enzymes, defined the putative binding sites for co-factor and substrate and potential key residues for enzyme activity and substrate specificity. Further mutagenesis has confirmed the role of Lys144 as a catalytic residue. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the enzymatic mechanism and substrate specificity of IFRs as well as the functions of IFR-like proteins.

  13. Vitamin K epoxide reductase: homology, active site and catalytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Goodstadt, Leo; Ponting, Chris P

    2004-06-01

    Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) recycles reduced vitamin K, which is used subsequently as a co-factor in the gamma-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in blood coagulation enzymes. VKORC1, a subunit of the VKOR complex, has recently been shown to possess this activity. Here, we show that VKORC1 is a member of a large family of predicted enzymes that are present in vertebrates, Drosophila, plants, bacteria and archaea. Four cysteine residues and one residue, which is either serine or threonine, are identified as likely active-site residues. In some plant and bacterial homologues the VKORC1 homologous domain is fused with domains of the thioredoxin family of oxidoreductases. These might reduce disulfide bonds of VKORC1-like enzymes as a prerequisite for their catalytic activities.

  14. Thioredoxin reductase 1 suppresses adipocyte differentiation and insulin responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiaoxiao; Giménez-Cassina, Alfredo; Petrus, Paul; Conrad, Marcus; Rydén, Mikael; Arnér, Elias S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), encoded by Txnrd1, was suggested to modulate glucose and lipid metabolism in mice. Here we discovered that TrxR1 suppresses insulin responsiveness, anabolic metabolism and adipocyte differentiation. Immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking Txnrd1 (Txnrd1−/−) displayed increased metabolic flux, glycogen storage, lipogenesis and adipogenesis. This phenotype coincided with upregulated PPARγ expression, promotion of mitotic clonal expansion and downregulation of p27 and p53. Enhanced Akt activation also contributed to augmented adipogenesis and insulin sensitivity. Knockdown of TXNRD1 transcripts accelerated adipocyte differentiation also in human primary preadipocytes. Furthermore, TXNRD1 transcript levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue from 56 women were inversely associated with insulin sensitivity in vivo and lipogenesis in their isolated adipocytes. These results suggest that TrxR1 suppresses anabolic metabolism and adipogenesis by inhibition of intracellular signaling pathways downstream of insulin stimulation. PMID:27346647

  15. B-factor Analysis and Conformational Rearrangement of Aldose Reductase.

    PubMed

    Balendiran, Ganesaratnam K; Pandian, J Rajendran; Drake, Evin; Vinayak, Anubhav; Verma, Malkhey; Cascio, Duilio

    2014-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent reduction of glucose reaction that is catalyzed by Aldose Reductase (AR) follows a sequential ordered kinetic mechanism in which the co-factor NADPH binds to the enzyme prior to the aldehyde substrate. The kinetic/structural experiments have found a conformational change involving a hinge-like movement of a surface loop (residues 213-224) which is anticipated to take place upon the binding of the diphosphate moiety of NADPH. The reorientation of this loop, expected to permit the release of NADP(+), represents the rate-limiting step of the catalytic mechanism. This study reveals: 1) The Translation/Libration/Screw (TLS) analysis of absolute B-factors of apo AR crystal structures indicates that the 212-224 loop might move as a rigid group. 2) Residues that make the flexible loop slide in the AR binary and ternary complexes. 3) The normalized B-factors separate this segment into three different clusters with fewer residues.

  16. Purification and characterization of 5-ketofructose reductase from Erwinia citreus.

    PubMed Central

    Schrimsher, J L; Wingfield, P T; Bernard, A; Mattaliano, R; Payton, M A

    1988-01-01

    5-Ketofructose reductase [D(-)fructose:(NADP+) 5-oxidoreductase] was purified to homogeneity from Erwinia citreus and demonstrated to catalyse the reversible NADPH-dependent reduction of 5-ketofructose (D-threo-2,5-hexodiulose) to D-fructose. The enzyme appeared as a single species upon analyses by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing with an apparent relative molecular mass of 40,000 and an isoelectric point of 4.4. The amino acid composition of the enzyme and the N-terminal sequence of the first 39 residues are described. The steady-state kinetic mechanism was an ordered one with NADPH binding first to the enzyme and then to 5-ketofructose, and the order of product release was D-fructose followed by NADP+. The reversible nature of the reaction offers the possibility of using this enzyme for the determination of D-fructose. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:3178725

  17. Structure of a bacterial homologue of vitamin K epoxide reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Weikai; Schulman, Sol; Dutton, Rachel J.; Boyd, Dana; Beckwith, Jon; Rapoport, Tom A.

    2010-03-19

    Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) generates vitamin K hydroquinone to sustain {gamma}-carboxylation of many blood coagulation factors. Here, we report the 3.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of VKOR from Synechococcus sp. The structure shows VKOR in complex with its naturally fused redox partner, a thioredoxin-like domain, and corresponds to an arrested state of electron transfer. The catalytic core of VKOR is a four transmembrane helix bundle that surrounds a quinone, connected through an additional transmembrane segment with the periplasmic thioredoxin-like domain. We propose a pathway for how VKOR uses electrons from cysteines of newly synthesized proteins to reduce a quinone, a mechanism confirmed by in vitro reconstitution of vitamin K-dependent disulphide bridge formation. Our results have implications for the mechanism of the mammalian VKOR and explain how mutations can cause resistance to the VKOR inhibitor warfarin, the most commonly used oral anticoagulant.

  18. Go green: the anti-inflammatory effects of biliverdin reductase.

    PubMed

    Wegiel, Barbara; Otterbein, Leo E

    2012-01-01

    Biliverdin (BV) has emerged as a cytoprotective and important anti-inflammatory molecule. Conversion of BV to bilirubin (BR) is catalyzed by biliverdin reductase (BVR) and is required for the downstream signaling and nuclear localization of BVR. Recent data by others and us make clear that BVR is a critical regulator of innate immune responses resulting from acute insult and injury and moreover, that a lack of BVR results in an enhanced proinflammatory phenotype. In macrophages, BVR is regulated by its substrate BV which leads to activation of the PI3K-Akt-IL-10 axis and inhibition of TLR4 expression via direct binding of BVR to the TLR4 promoter. In this review, we will summarize recent findings on the role of BVR and the bile pigments in inflammation in context with its activity as an enzyme, receptor, and transcriptional regulator.

  19. Identification of imine reductase-specific sequence motifs.

    PubMed

    Fademrecht, Silvia; Scheller, Philipp N; Nestl, Bettina M; Hauer, Bernhard; Pleiss, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Chiral amines are valuable building blocks for the production of a variety of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and other specialty chemicals. Only recently, imine reductases (IREDs) were discovered which catalyze the stereoselective reduction of imines to chiral amines. Although several IREDs were biochemically characterized in the last few years, knowledge of the reaction mechanism and the molecular basis of substrate specificity and stereoselectivity is limited. To gain further insights into the sequence-function relationships, the Imine Reductase Engineering Database (www.IRED.BioCatNet.de) was established and a systematic analysis of 530 putative IREDs was performed. A standard numbering scheme based on R-IRED-Sk was introduced to facilitate the identification and communication of structurally equivalent positions in different proteins. A conservation analysis revealed a highly conserved cofactor binding region and a predominantly hydrophobic substrate binding cleft. Two IRED-specific motifs were identified, the cofactor binding motif GLGxMGx(5 )[ATS]x(4) Gx(4) [VIL]WNR[TS]x(2) [KR] and the active site motif Gx[DE]x[GDA]x[APS]x(3){K}x[ASL]x[LMVIAG]. Our results indicate a preference toward NADPH for all IREDs and explain why, despite their sequence similarity to β-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases (β-HADs), no conversion of β-hydroxyacids has been observed. Superfamily-specific conservations were investigated to explore the molecular basis of their stereopreference. Based on our analysis and previous experimental results on IRED mutants, an exclusive role of standard position 187 for stereoselectivity is excluded. Alternatively, two standard positions 139 and 194 were identified which are superfamily-specifically conserved and differ in R- and S-selective enzymes.

  20. Evidence for a Hexaheteromeric Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase in Moorella thermoacetica

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Johanna; Wang, Shuning; Huang, Haiyan; Kahnt, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Moorella thermoacetica can grow with H2 and CO2, forming acetic acid from 2 CO2 via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. All enzymes involved in this pathway have been characterized to date, except for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MetF). We report here that the M. thermoacetica gene that putatively encodes this enzyme, metF, is part of a transcription unit also containing the genes hdrCBA, mvhD, and metV. MetF copurified with the other five proteins encoded in the unit in a hexaheteromeric complex with an apparent molecular mass in the 320-kDa range. The 40-fold-enriched preparation contained per mg protein 3.1 nmol flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), 3.4 nmol flavin mononucleotide (FMN), and 110 nmol iron, almost as predicted from the primary structure of the six subunits. It catalyzed the reduction of methylenetetrahydrofolate with reduced benzyl viologen but not with NAD(P)H in either the absence or presence of oxidized ferredoxin. It also catalyzed the reversible reduction of benzyl viologen with NADH (diaphorase activity). Heterologous expression of the metF gene in Escherichia coli revealed that the subunit MetF contains one FMN rather than FAD. MetF exhibited 70-fold-higher methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase activity with benzyl viologen when produced together with MetV, which in part shows sequence similarity to MetF. Heterologously produced HdrA contained 2 FADs and had NAD-specific diaphorase activity. Our results suggested that the physiological electron donor for methylenetetrahydrofolate reduction in M. thermoacetica is NADH and that the exergonic reduction of methylenetetrahydrofolate with NADH is coupled via flavin-based electron bifurcation with the endergonic reduction of an electron acceptor, whose identity remains unknown. PMID:25002540

  1. The modulation of carbonyl reductase 1 by polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Boušová, Iva; Skálová, Lenka; Souček, Pavel; Matoušková, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1), an enzyme belonging to the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases family, has been detected in all human tissues. CBR1 catalyzes the reduction of many xenobiotics, including important drugs (e.g. anthracyclines, nabumetone, bupropion, dolasetron) and harmful carbonyls and quinones. Moreover, it participates in the metabolism of a number of endogenous compounds and it may play a role in certain pathologies. Plant polyphenols are not only present in many human food sources, but are also a component of many popular dietary supplements and herbal medicines. Many studies reviewed herein have demonstrated the potency of certain flavonoids, stilbenes and curcuminoids in the inhibition of the activity of CBR1. Interactions of these polyphenols with transcriptional factors, which regulate CBR1 expression, have also been reported in several studies. As CBR1 plays an important role in drug metabolism as well as in the protection of the organism against potentially harmful carbonyls, the modulation of its expression/activity may have significant pharmacological and/or toxicological consequences. Some polyphenols (e.g. luteolin, apigenin and curcumin) have been shown to be very potent CBR1 inhibitors. The inhibition of CBR1 seems useful regarding the increased efficacy of anthracycline therapy, but it may cause the worse detoxification of reactive carbonyls. Nevertheless, all known information about the interactions of polyphenols with CBR1 have only been based on the results of in vitro studies. With respect to the high importance of CBR1 and the frequent consumption of polyphenols, in vivo studies would be very helpful for the evaluation of risks/benefits of polyphenol interactions with CBR1.

  2. d-Apiose Reductase from Aerobacter aerogenes1

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Donna L.; Kindel, Paul K.

    1970-01-01

    A strain of Aerobacter aerogenes PRL-R3 has been isolated which utilizes d-apiose as its sole source of carbon. A new enzyme, d-apiose reductase, was discovered in this strain. The enzyme was not present when the strain was grown on d-glucose. d-Apiose reductase catalyzes the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent interconversion of d-apiose and d-apiitol. The enzyme is specific for d-apiose and d-apiitol, with a few possible exceptions. The Km for d-apiose is 0.02 m. The Km for d-apiitol is 0.01 m. The enzyme is almost completely specific for the reduced and oxidized forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. When cell-free extracts were centrifuged at 100,000 × g for 1 hr, the enzyme remained in solution. Optimal activity for the reduction of d-apiose was obtained at pH 7.5 in glycylglycine buffer, whereas for the oxidation of d-apiitol it was obtained at pH 10.5 in glycine buffer. Enzymatic reduction of d-apiose was not appreciably affected by the presence of 0.02 m ethylenediaminetetraacetate. Paper chromatography and specific spray reagents were used to identify d-apiitol and d-apiose as the products of this reversible reaction. d-Apiose and d-apiitol did not serve as substrates for ribitol dehydrogenase and d-arabitol dehydrogenase from A. aerogenes PRL-R3. PMID:4314545

  3. Steroid 5β-Reductase from Leaves of Vitis vinifera: Molecular Cloning, Expression, and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Mona; Munkert, Jennifer; Campa, Manuela; Malnoy, Mickael; Martens, Stefan; Müller-Uri, Frieder

    2015-11-25

    A steroid 5β-reductase gene corresponding to the hypothetical protein LOC100247199 from leaves of Vitis vinifera (var. 'Chardonnay') was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein showed 5β-reductase activity when progesterone was used as a substrate. The reaction was stereoselective, producing only 5β-products such as 5β-pregnane-3,20-dione. Other small substrates (terpenoids and enones) were also accepted as substrates, indicating the highly promiscuous character of the enzyme class. Our results show that the steroid 5β-reductase gene, encoding an orthologous enzyme described as a key enzyme in cardenolide biosynthesis, is also expressed in leaves of the cardenolide-free plant V. vinifera. We emphasize the fact that, on some occasions, different reductases (e.g., progesterone 5β-reductase and monoterpenoid reductase) can also use molecules that are similar to the final products as a substrate. Therefore, in planta, the different reductases may contribute to the immense number of diverse small natural products finally leading to the flavor of wine.

  4. Purification, properties, and sequence of glycerol trinitrate reductase from Agrobacterium radiobacter.

    PubMed Central

    Snape, J R; Walkley, N A; Morby, A P; Nicklin, S; White, G F

    1997-01-01

    Glycerol trinitrate (GTN) reductase, which enables Agrobacterium radiobacter to utilize GTN and related explosives as sources of nitrogen for growth, was purified and characterized, and its gene was cloned and sequenced. The enzyme was a 39-kDa monomeric protein which catalyzed the NADH-dependent reductive scission of GTN (Km = 23 microM) to glycerol dinitrates (mainly the 1,3-isomer) with a pH optimum of 6.5, a temperature optimum of 35 degrees C, and no dependence on metal ions for activity. It was also active on pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), on isosorbide dinitrate, and, very weakly, on ethyleneglycol dinitrate, but it was inactive on isopropyl nitrate, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, ammonium ions, nitrate, or nitrite. The amino acid sequence deduced from the DNA sequence was homologous (42 to 51% identity and 61 to 69% similarity) to those of PETN reductase from Enterobacter cloacae, N-ethylmaleimide reductase from Escherichia coli, morphinone reductase from Pseudomonas putida, and old yellow enzyme from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, placing the GTN reductase in the alpha/beta barrel flavoprotein group of proteins. GTN reductase and PETN reductase were very similar in many respects except in their distinct preferences for NADH and NADPH cofactors, respectively. PMID:9401040

  5. Electron transfer and docking between cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase and different redox partners - A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Humberto A; Silveira, Célia M; Almeida, Rui M; Almeida, Ana; Besson, Stéphane; Moura, Isabel; Moura, José J G; Almeida, M Gabriela

    2016-09-01

    Cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductases (cd1NiRs) catalyze the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide in denitrifying bacteria, such as Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. Previous work demonstrated that the enzymatic activity depends on a structural pre-activation triggered by the entry of electrons through the electron transfer (ET) domain, which houses a heme c center. The catalytic activity of M. hydrocarbonoclasticus cd1NiR (Mhcd1NiR) was tested by mediated electrochemistry, using small ET proteins and chemical redox mediators. The rate of enzymatic reaction depends on the nature of the redox partner, with cytochrome (cyt) c552 providing the highest value. In situations where cyt c552 is replaced by either a biological (cyt c from horse heart) or a chemical mediator the catalytic response was only observed at very low scan rates, suggesting that the intermolecular ET rate is much slower. Molecular docking simulations with the 3D model structure of Mhcd1NiR and cyt c552 or cyt c showed that hydrophobic interactions favor the formation of complexes where the heme c domain of the enzyme is the principal docking site. However, only in the case of cyt c552 the preferential areas of contact and Fe-Fe distances between heme c groups of the redox partners allow establishing competent ET pathways. The coupling of the enzyme with chemical redox mediators was also found not to be energetically favorable. These results indicate that although low activity functional complexes can be formed between Mhcd1NiR and different types of redox mediators, efficient ET is only observed with the putative physiological electron donor cyt c552.

  6. Reduction of mitochondrial protein mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters by human glutathione reductase

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Aaron P.; Cheng, Zishuo; Ding, Huangen

    2015-01-01

    Human mitochondrial outer membrane protein mitoNEET is a newly discovered target of type II diabetes drug pioglitazone. Structurally, mitoNEET is a homodimer with each monomer containing an N-terminal transmembrane alpha helix tethered to mitochondrial outer membrane and a C-terminal cytosolic domain hosting a redox active [2Fe-2S] cluster. Genetic studies have shown that mitoNEET has a central role in regulating energy metabolism in mitochondria. However, specific function of mitoNEET remains largely elusive. Here we find that the mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters can be efficiently reduced by Escherichia coli thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase in an NADPH-dependent reaction. Purified human glutathione reductase has the same activity as E. coli thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase to reduce the mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters. However, rat thioredoxin reductase, a human thioredoxin reductase homolog that contains selenocysteine in the catalytic center, has very little or no activity to reduce the mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters. N-ethylmaleimide, a potent thiol modifier, completely inhibits human glutathione reductase to reduce the mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters, indicating that the redox active disulfide in the catalytic center of human glutathione reductase may be directly involved in reducing the mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters. Additional studies reveal that the reduced mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters in mouse heart cell extracts can be reversibly oxidized by hydrogen peroxide without disruption of the clusters, suggesting that the mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters may undergo redox transition to regulate energy metabolism in mitochondria in response to oxidative signals. PMID:25645953

  7. Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductase in Chlorella autotrophica and Chlorella saccharophila in Relation to Osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Laliberté, G; Hellebust, J A

    1989-11-01

    Pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase (EC 1.5.1.2), which catalyzes the reduction of P5C to proline, was partially purified from two Chlorella species; Chlorella autotrophica, a euryhaline marine alga that responds to increases in salinity by accumulating proline and ions, and Chlorella saccharophila, which does not accumulate proline for osmoregulation. From the elution profile of this enzyme from an anion exchange column in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.6), containing sorbitol and glycine betaine, it was shown that P5C reductase from C. autotrophica was a neutral protein whereas the enzyme from C. saccharophila was negatively charged. The kinetic mechanisms of the reductase was characteristic of a ping-pong mechanism with double competitive substrate inhibition. Both enzymes showed high specificity for NADH as cofactor. The affinities of the reductases for their substrates did not change when the cells were grown at different salinities. In both algae, the apparent K(m) values of the reductase for P5C and NADH were 0.17 and 0.10 millimolar, respectively. A fourfold increase in maximal velocity of the reductase was observed when C. autotrophica was transferred from 50 to 150% artificial sea water. Even though the reductase was inhibited by NaCl, KCl, and proline, it still showed appreciable activity in the presence of these compounds at molar concentrations. A possible role for the regulation of proline synthesis at the step catalyzed by P5C reductase is discussed in relation to the specificity of P5C reductase for NADH and its responses to salt treatments.

  8. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors decrease angiotensin II-induced vascular fibrosis: role of RhoA/ROCK and MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Rupérez, Mónica; Rodrigues-Díez, Raquel; Blanco-Colio, Luis Miguel; Sánchez-López, Elsa; Rodríguez-Vita, Juan; Esteban, Vanesa; Carvajal, Gisselle; Plaza, Juan José; Egido, Jesús; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta

    2007-08-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-coenzyme A (CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) present beneficial effects in cardiovascular diseases. Angiotensin II (Ang II) contributes to cardiovascular damage through the production of profibrotic factors, such as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Our aim was to investigate whether HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors could modulate Ang II responses, evaluating CTGF expression and the mechanisms underlying this process. In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) atorvastatin and simvastatin inhibited Ang II-induced CTGF production. The inhibitory effect of statins on CTGF upregulation was reversed by mevalonate and geranylgeranylpyrophosphate, suggesting that RhoA inhibition could be involved in this process. In VSMCs, statins inhibited Ang II-induced Rho membrane localization and activation. In these cells Ang II regulated CTGF via RhoA/Rho kinase activation, as shown by inhibition of Rho with C3 exoenzyme, RhoA dominant-negative overexpression, and Rho kinase inhibition. Furthermore, activation of p38MAPK and JNK, and redox process were also involved in Ang II-mediated CTGF upregulation, and were downregulated by statins. In rats infused with Ang II (100 ng/kg per minute) for 2 weeks, treatment with atorvastatin (5 mg/kg per day) diminished aortic CTGF and Rho activation without blood pressure modification. Rho kinase inhibition decreased CTGF upregulation in rat aorta, mimicking statin effect. CTGF is a vascular fibrosis mediator. Statins diminished extracellular matrix (ECM) overexpression caused by Ang II in vivo and in vitro. In summary, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors inhibit several intracellular signaling systems activated by Ang II (RhoA/Rho kinase and MAPK pathways and redox process) involved in the regulation of CTGF. Our results may explain, at least in part, some beneficial effects of statins in cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Steroidal pyrazolines evaluated as aromatase and quinone reductase-2 inhibitors for chemoprevention of cancer.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Mohamed M; Al-Omar, Mohamed A; Bhat, Mashooq A; Amr, Abdel-Galil E; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M

    2012-05-01

    The aromatase and quinone reductase-2 inhibition of synthesized heterocyclic pyrazole derivatives fused with steroidal structure for chemoprevention of cancer is reported herein. All compounds were interestingly less toxic than the reference drug (Cyproterone(®)). The aromatase inhibitory activities of these compounds were much more potent than the lead compound resveratrol, which has an IC(50) of 80 μM. In addition, all the compounds displayed potent quinone reductase-2 inhibition. Initially the acute toxicity of the compounds was assayed via the determination of their LD(50). The aromatase and quinone reductase-2 inhibitors resulting from this study have potential value in the treatment and prevention of cancer.

  10. Comparison of the Stereospecificity and Immunoreactivity of NADH-Ferricyanide Reductases in Plant Membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Fredlund, K. M.; Struglics, A.; Widell, S.; Askerlund, P.; Kader, J. C.; Moller, I. M.

    1994-01-01

    The substrate stereospecificity of NADH-ferricyanide reductase activities in the inner mitochondrial membrane and peroxisomal membrane of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) leaf plasma membrane, and red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) tonoplast were all specific for the [beta]-hydrogen of NADH, whereas the reductases in wheat root (Triticum aestivum L.) endoplasmic reticulum and potato tuber outer mitochondrial membrane were both [alpha]-hydrogen specific. In all isolated membrane fractions one or several polypeptides with an apparent size of 45 to 55 kD cross-reacted with antibodies raised against a microsomal NADH-ferricyanide reductase on western blots. PMID:12232391

  11. Cloning and characterization of the methyl coenzyme M reductase genes from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum.

    PubMed Central

    Bokranz, M; Bäumner, G; Allmansberger, R; Ankel-Fuchs, D; Klein, A

    1988-01-01

    The genes coding for methyl coenzyme M reductase were cloned from a genomic library of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg into Escherichia coli by using plasmid expression vectors. When introduced into E. coli, the reductase genes were expressed, yielding polypeptides identical in size to the three known subunits of the isolated enzyme, alpha, beta, and gamma. The polypeptides also reacted with the antibodies raised against the respective enzyme subunits. In M. thermoautotrophicum, the subunits are encoded by a gene cluster whose transcript boundaries were mapped. Sequence analysis revealed two more open reading frames of unknown function located between two of the methyl coenzyme M reductase genes. Images PMID:2448287

  12. Proanthocyanidin synthesis and expression of genes encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin reductase in developing grape berries and grapevine leaves.

    PubMed

    Bogs, Jochen; Downey, Mark O; Harvey, John S; Ashton, Anthony R; Tanner, Gregory J; Robinson, Simon P

    2005-10-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs), also called condensed tannins, can protect plants against herbivores and are important quality components of many fruits. Two enzymes, leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) and anthocyanidin reductase (ANR), can produce the flavan-3-ol monomers required for formation of PA polymers. We isolated and functionally characterized genes encoding both enzymes from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz). ANR was encoded by a single gene, but we found two highly related genes encoding LAR. We measured PA content and expression of genes encoding ANR, LAR, and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase in grape berries during development and in grapevine leaves, which accumulated PA throughout leaf expansion. Grape flowers had high levels of PA, and accumulation continued in skin and seeds from fruit set until the onset of ripening. VvANR was expressed throughout early flower and berry development, with expression increasing after fertilization. It was expressed in berry skin and seeds until the onset of ripening, and in expanding leaves. The genes encoding LAR were expressed in developing fruit, particularly in seeds, but had low expression in leaves. The two LAR genes had different patterns of expression in skin and seeds. During grape ripening, PA levels decreased in both skin and seeds, and expression of genes encoding ANR and LAR were no longer detected. The results indicate that PA accumulation occurs early in grape development and is completed when ripening starts. Both ANR and LAR contribute to PA synthesis in fruit, and the tissue and temporal-specific regulation of the genes encoding ANR and LAR determines PA accumulation and composition during grape berry development.

  13. Detoxifying Enzymes at the Cross-Roads of Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Drug Hypersensitivity: Role of Glutathione Transferase P1-1 and Aldose Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Gómez, Francisco J.; Díez-Dacal, Beatriz; García-Martín, Elena; Agúndez, José A. G.; Pajares, María A.; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Phase I and II enzymes are involved in the metabolism of endogenous reactive compounds as well as xenobiotics, including toxicants and drugs. Genotyping studies have established several drug metabolizing enzymes as markers for risk of drug hypersensitivity. However, other candidates are emerging that are involved in drug metabolism but also in the generation of danger or costimulatory signals. Enzymes such as aldo-keto reductases (AKR) and glutathione transferases (GST) metabolize prostaglandins and reactive aldehydes with proinflammatory activity, as well as drugs and/or their reactive metabolites. In addition, their metabolic activity can have important consequences for the cellular redox status, and impacts the inflammatory response as well as the balance of inflammatory mediators, which can modulate epigenetic factors and cooperate or interfere with drug-adduct formation. These enzymes are, in turn, targets for covalent modification and regulation by oxidative stress, inflammatory mediators, and drugs. Therefore, they constitute a platform for a complex set of interactions involving drug metabolism, protein haptenation, modulation of the inflammatory response, and/or generation of danger signals with implications in drug hypersensitivity reactions. Moreover, increasing evidence supports their involvement in allergic processes. Here, we will focus on GSTP1-1 and aldose reductase (AKR1B1) and provide a perspective for their involvement in drug hypersensitivity. PMID:27540362

  14. Inhibition of carbonyl reductase activity in pig heart by alkyl phenyl ketones.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Yorishige; Narumi, Rika; Shimada, Hideaki

    2007-02-01

    The inhibitory effects of alkyl phenyl ketones on carbonyl reductase activity were examined in pig heart. In this study, carbonyl reductase activity was estimated as the ability to reduce 4-benzoylpyridine to S(-)-alpha-phenyl-4-pyridylmethanol in the cytosolic fraction from pig heart (pig heart cytosol). The order of their inhibitory potencies was hexanophenone > valerophenone > heptanophenone > butyrophenone > propiophenone. The inhibitory potencies of acetophenone and nonanophenone were much lower. A significant relationship was observed between Vmax/Km values for the reduction of alkyl phenyl ketones and their inhibitory potencies for carbonyl reductase activity in pig heart cytosol. Furthermore, hexanophenone was a competitive inhibitor for the enzyme activity. These results indicate that several alkyl phenyl ketones including hexanophenone inhibit carbonyl reductase activity in pig heart cytosol, by acting as substrate inhibitors.

  15. Amplification and loss of dihydrofolate reductase genes in a Chinese hamster ovary cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, R.J.; Schimke, R.T.

    1981-12-01

    During stepwise increases in the methotrexate concentration in culture medium, the authors selected Chinese hamster ovary cells that contained elevated dihydrofolate reductase levels which were proportional to the number of dihydrofolate reductase gene copies (i.e., gene amplification). The authors studied the dihydrofolate reductase levels in individual cells that underwent the initial steps of methotrexate resistance by using the fluorescence-activated cell sorter technique. Such cells constituted a heterogeneous population with differing dihydrofolate reductase levels, and they characteristically lost the elevated enzyme levels when they were grown in the absence of methotrexate. The progeny of individual cells with high enzyme levels behaved differently and could lose all or variable numbers of the amplified genes.

  16. Mediating Ebonics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Robin R. Means; Daniel, Jack L.

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that Ebonics has been mediated in ways that clearly reveal American racial politics, which remain hostile to African Americans, describing the dominant strategies used to mediate Ebonics and locating those media strategies within the cultural context of racist circumstances, the racist political history of African Americans, and African…

  17. In vitro inhibition of human erythrocyte glutathione reductase by some new organic nitrates.

    PubMed

    Sentürk, Murat; Talaz, Oktay; Ekinci, Deniz; Cavdar, Hüseyin; Küfrevioğlu, Omer Irfan

    2009-07-01

    Glutathione reductase (GR), is responsible for the existence of GSH molecule, a crucial antioxidant against oxidative stress reagents. The antimalarial activities of some redox active compounds are attributed to their inhibition of antioxidant flavoenzyme glutathione reductase, and inhibitors are therefore expected to be useful for the treatment of malaria. Twelve organic nitrate derivatives were synthesized and treated with human erythrocyte GR. The molecules were identified as strong GR inhibitors and novel antimalaria candidates.

  18. Inhibition of biliverdin reductase increases ANG II-dependent superoxide levels in cultured renal tubular epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Young, Shelby C.; Storm, Megan V.; Speed, Joshua S.; Kelsen, Silvia; Tiller, Chelsea V.; Vera, Trinity; Drummond, Heather A.

    2009-01-01

    Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the renal medulla increases carbon monoxide and bilirubin production and decreases ANG II-mediated superoxide production. The goal of this study was to determine the importance of increases in bilirubin to the antioxidant effects of HO-1 induction in cultured mouse thick ascending loop of Henle (TALH) and inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD3) cells. Bilirubin levels were decreased by using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeted to biliverdin reductase (BVR), which is the cellular enzyme responsible for the conversion of biliverdin to bilirubin. Treatment of cultured TALH or IMCD-3 cells with BVR siRNA (50 or 100 nM) resulted in an 80% decrease in the level of BVR protein and decreased cellular bilirubin levels from 46 ± 5 to 23 ± 4 nM (n = 4). We then determined the effects of inhibition of BVR on ANG II-mediated superoxide production. Superoxide production induced by ANG II (10−9 M) significantly increased in both TALH and IMCD-3 cells. Treatment of TALH cells with BVR siRNA resulted in a significant increase in ouabain-sensitive rubidium uptake from 95 ± 6 to 122 ± 5% control (n = 4, P < 0.05). Lastly, inhibition of BVR with siRNA did not prevent the decrease in superoxide levels observed in cells pretreated with the HO-1 inducer, hemin. We conclude that decreased levels of cellular bilirubin increase ANG II-mediated superoxide production and sodium transport; however, increases in bilirubin are not necessary for HO-1 induction to attenuate ANG II-mediated superoxide production. PMID:19759334

  19. A-to-I RNA Editing Up-regulates Human Dihydrofolate Reductase in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masataka; Fukami, Tatsuki; Gotoh, Saki; Nakajima, Miki

    2017-03-24

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) plays a key role in folate metabolism and is a target molecule of methotrexate. An increase in the cellular expression level of DHFR is one of the mechanisms of tumor resistance to methotrexate. The present study investigated the possibility that adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing, which causes nucleotide conversion by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, might modulate DHFR expression. In human breast adenocarcinoma-derived MCF-7 cells, 26 RNA editing sites were identified in the 3'-UTR of DHFR. Knockdown of ADAR1 decreased the RNA editing levels of DHFR and resulted in a decrease in the DHFR mRNA and protein levels, indicating that ADAR1 up-regulates DHFR expression. Using a computational analysis, miR-25-3p and miR-125a-3p were predicted to bind to the non-edited 3'-UTR of DHFR but not to the edited sequence. The decrease in DHFR expression by the knockdown of ADAR1 was restored by transfection of antisense oligonucleotides for these miRNAs, suggesting that RNA editing mediated up-regulation of DHFR requires the function of these miRNAs. Interestingly, we observed that the knockdown of ADAR1 decreased cell viability and increased the sensitivity of MCF-7 cells to methotrexate. ADAR1 expression levels and the RNA editing levels in the 3'-UTR of DHFR in breast cancer tissues were higher than those in adjacent normal tissues. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that ADAR1 positively regulates the expression of DHFR by editing the miR-25-3p and miR-125a-3p binding sites in the 3'-UTR of DHFR, enhancing cellular proliferation and resistance to methotrexate.

  20. Deletion of Aldose Reductase from Mice Inhibits Diabetes-Induced Retinal Capillary Degeneration and Superoxide Generation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jie; Du, Yunpeng; Petrash, J. Mark; Sheibani, Nader; Kern, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Pharmacologic inhibition of aldose reductase (AR) previously has been studied with respect to diabetic retinopathy with mixed results. Since drugs can have off-target effects, we studied the effects of AR deletion on the development and molecular abnormalities that contribute to diabetic retinopathy. Since recent data suggests an important role for leukocytes in the development of the retinopathy, we determined also if AR in leukocytes contributes to leukocyte-mediated death of retinal endothelial cells in diabetes. Methods Wild-type (WT; C57BL/6J) and AR deficient (AR−/−) mice were made diabetic with streptozotocin. Mice were sacrificed at 2 and 10 months of diabetes to evaluate retinal vascular histopathology, to quantify retinal superoxide production and biochemical and physiological abnormalities in the retina, and to assess the number of retinal endothelial cells killed by blood leukocytes in a co-culture system. Results Diabetes in WT mice developed the expected degeneration of retinal capillaries, and increased generation of superoxide by the retina. Leukocytes from diabetic WT mice also killed more retinal endothelial cells than did leukocytes from nondiabetic animals (p<0.0001). Deletion of AR largely (P<0.05) inhibited the diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries, as well as the increase in superoxide production by retina. AR-deficiency significantly inhibited the diabetes-induced increase in expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in retina, but had no significant effect on expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), phosphorylated p38 MAPK, or killing of retinal endothelial cells by leukocytes. Conclusions AR contributes to the degeneration of retinal capillaries in diabetic mice. Deletion of the enzyme inhibits the diabetes-induced increase in expression of iNOS and of superoxide production, but does not correct a variety of other pro-inflammatory abnormalities associated with the development of

  1. Exogenous methyl jasmonate treatment increases glucosinolate biosynthesis and quinone reductase activity in kale leaf tissue.

    PubMed

    Ku, Kang-Mo; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Juvik, John A

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) spray treatments were applied to the kale varieties 'Dwarf Blue Curled Vates' and 'Red Winter' in replicated field plantings in 2010 and 2011 to investigate alteration of glucosinolate (GS) composition in harvested leaf tissue. Aqueous solutions of 250 µM MeJA were sprayed to saturation on aerial plant tissues four days prior to harvest at commercial maturity. The MeJA treatment significantly increased gluconasturtiin (56%), glucobrassicin (98%), and neoglucobrassicin (150%) concentrations in the apical leaf tissue of these genotypes over two seasons. Induction of quinone reductase (QR) activity, a biomarker for anti-carcinogenesis, was significantly increased by the extracts from the leaf tissue of these two cultivars. Extracts of apical leaf tissues had greater MeJA mediated increases in phenolics, glucosinolate concentrations, GS hydrolysis products, and QR activity than extracts from basal leaf tissue samples. The concentration of the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, sulforphane was significantly increased in apical leaf tissue of the cultivar 'Red Winter' in both 2010 and 2011. There was interaction between exogenous MeJA treatment and environmental conditions to induce endogenous JA. Correlation analysis revealed that indole-3-carbanol (I3C) generated from the hydrolysis of glucobrassicin significantly correlated with QR activity (r = 0.800, P<0.001). Concentrations required to double the specific QR activity (CD values) of I3C was calculated at 230 µM, which is considerably weaker at induction than other isothiocyanates like sulforphane. To confirm relationships between GS hydrolysis products and QR activity, a range of concentrations of MeJA sprays were applied to kale leaf tissues of both cultivars in 2011. Correlation analysis of these results indicated that sulforaphane, NI3C, neoascorbigen, I3C, and diindolylmethane were all significantly correlated with QR activity. Thus, increased QR activity may be due to combined

  2. Molecular characterization of five patients with homocystinuria due to severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Urreizti, R; Moya-García, A A; Pino-Ángeles, A; Cozar, M; Langkilde, A; Fanhoe, U; Esteves, C; Arribas, J; Vilaseca, M A; Pérez-Dueñas, B; Pineda, M; González, V; Artuch, R; Baldellou, A; Vilarinho, L; Fowler, B; Ribes, A; Sánchez-Jiménez, F; Grinberg, D; Balcells, S

    2010-11-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a major role in folate metabolism. Disturbed function of the enzyme results in hyperhomocysteinemia and causes severe vascular and neurological disorders and developmental delay. Five patients suspected of having non-classical homocystinuria due to MTHFR deficiency were examined with respect to their symptoms, MTHFR enzyme activity and genotypes of the MTHFR gene. All patients presented symptoms of severe central nervous system disease. Two patients died, at the ages of 15 months and 14 years. One patient is currently 32 years old, and is being treated with betaine and folinic acid. The other two patients, with an early diagnosis and a severe course of the disease, are currently improving under treatment. MTHFR enzyme activity in the fibroblasts of four of the patients was practically undetectable. We found four novel mutations, three of which were missense changes c.664G> T (p.V218L), c.1316T> C (p.F435S) and c.1733T> G (p.V574G), and the fourth was the 1-bp deletion c.1780delC (p.L590CfsX72). We also found the previously reported nonsense mutation c.1420G> T (p.E470X). All the patients were homozygous. Molecular modelling of the double mutant allele (p.V218L; p.A222V) revealed that affinity for FAD was not affected in this mutant. For the p.E470X mutation, the evidence pointed to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. In general, genotype-phenotype analysis predicts milder outcomes for patients with missense changes than for those in which mutations led to severe alterations of the MTHFR protein.

  3. X-ray structure of trypanothione reductase from Crithidia fasciculata at 2. 4- angstrom resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kuriyan, J.; Xiangpeng Kong; Krishna, T.S.R.; Murgolo, N.J.; Field, H.; Cerami, A.; Henderson, G.B. ); Sweet, R.M. )

    1991-10-01

    Trypanosomes and related protozoan parasites lack glutathione reductase and possess instead a closely related enzyme that serves as the reductant of a bis(glutathione)-spermidien conjugate, trypanothione. The human and parasite enzymes have mutually exclusive substrate specificities, providing a route for the design of therapeutic agents by specific inhibition of the parasite enzyme. The authors report here the three-dimensional structure of trypanothione reductase from Crithidia fasciculata and show that it closely resembles the structure of human glutathione reductase. In particular, the core structure surrounding the catalytic machinery is almost identical in the two enzymes. However, significant differences are found at the substrate binding sites. A cluster of basic residues in glutathione reductase is replaced by neutral, hydrophobic, or acidic residues in trypanothione reductase, consistent with the nature of the spermidine linkage and the change in overall charge of the substrate from {minus}2 to +1, respectively. The binding site is more open in trypanothione reductase due to rotations of about 4{degree} in the domains that form in site, with relative shifts of as much as 2-3 {angstrom} in residues that can interact with potential inhibitors and complement previous modeling and mutagenesis studies on the two enzymes.

  4. Genetic and Physiologic Characterization of Ferric/Cupric Reductase Constitutive Mutants of Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Nyhus, Karin J.; Jacobson, Eric S.

    1999-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that causes meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Because iron acquisition is critical for growth of a pathogen in a host, we studied the regulation of the ferric reductase and ferrous uptake system of this organism. We isolated 18 mutants, representing four independent loci, with dysregulated ferric reductase. The mutant strains had >10-fold higher than wild-type WT reductase activity in the presence of iron. Two of the strains also had >7-fold higher than WT iron uptake in the presence of iron but were not markedly iron sensitive. Both were sensitive to the oxidative stresses associated with superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. One strain exhibited only 23% of the WT level of iron uptake in the absence of iron and grew poorly without iron supplementation of the medium, phenotypes consistent with an iron transport deficiency; it was sensitive to superoxide but not to hydrogen peroxide. The fourth strain had high reductase activity but normal iron uptake; it was not very sensitive to oxidative stress. We also demonstrated that the ferric reductase was regulated by copper and could act as a cupric reductase. Sensitivity to oxidants may be related to iron acquisition by a variety of mechanisms and may model the interaction of the yeast with the immune system. PMID:10225895

  5. Ascorbate free radical reductases and diaphorases in soluble fractions of the human lens.

    PubMed

    Bando, M; Obazawa, H

    1995-12-01

    Major and minor ascorbate free radical (AFR) reductases, with diaphorase activity, and three other diaphorases were separated from the human lens soluble fraction by DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange column chromatography. They were characterized for adsorptivity to ion-exchange and 5'AMP-Sepharose 4B affinity columns, kinetic properties, and substrate specificity. The latter diaphorases were closely correlated with NADH-cytochrome beta 5 reductase. The major and minor AFR reductases were regarded as a major diaphorase group different from two ubiquitous diaphorases, i.e., NADH-cytochrome beta 5 reductase and DT-diaphorase. A major AFR reductase was partially purified approximately 50 fold over the lens soluble fraction by ion-exchange, affinity, and gel filtration (Sephacryl S-200 HR) column chromatography. From the partially purified enzyme, 2 bands, one sharp and one diffuse, were obtained by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two proteins, of 20 and 24 kDa, were identified in the active enzyme bands by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This suggests that the 20 and/or 24 kDa proteins may be components of the major AFR reductase.

  6. The role of glutathione reductase and related enzymes on cellular redox homoeostasis network.

    PubMed

    Couto, Narciso; Wood, Jennifer; Barber, Jill

    2016-06-01

    In this review article we examine the role of glutathione reductase in the regulation, modulation and maintenance of cellular redox homoeostasis. Glutathione reductase is responsible for maintaining the supply of reduced glutathione; one of the most abundant reducing thiols in the majority of cells. In its reduced form, glutathione plays key roles in the cellular control of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species act as intracellular and extracellular signalling molecules and complex cross talk between levels of reactive oxygen species, levels of oxidised and reduced glutathione and other thiols, and antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase determine the most suitable conditions for redox control within a cell or for activation of programmed cell death. Additionally, we discuss the translation and expression of glutathione reductase in a number of organisms including yeast and humans. In yeast and human cells, a single gene expresses more than one form of glutathione reductase, destined for residence in the cytoplasm or for translocation to different organelles; in plants, however, two genes encoding this protein have been described. In general, insects and kinetoplastids (a group of protozoa, including Plasmodia and Trypanosoma) do not express glutathione reductase or glutathione biosynthetic enzymes. Instead, they express either the thioredoxin system or the trypanothione system. The thioredoxin system is also present in organisms that have the glutathione system and there may be overlapping functions with cross-talk between the two systems. Finally we evaluate therapeutic targets to overcome oxidative stress associated cellular disorders.

  7. Androgen Regulation of 5α-Reductase Isoenzymes in Prostate Cancer: Imp