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Sample records for rice cutgrass grown

  1. DITCH PLANT PRODUCTIVITY UNDER VARIABLE FLOODING: A STUDY OF RICE CUTGRASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetated drainages are an effective method for removal of pollutants associated with agricultural runoff. Leersia oryzoides (Rice Cutgrass), a plant common to agricultural ditches, may be particularly effective in the remediation; however, the responses of L. oryzoides to flooding are undocumented...

  2. Nutrient and growth responses of Leersia oryzoides, rice cutgrass, to varying degrees of soil saturation and water nitrogen concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leersia oryzoides (rice cutgrass) is an obligate wetland plant common to agricultural ditches. The objective of this greenhouse study was to quantify the allocation of nutrients and biomass to different plant components exposed to various soil moisture and aqueous N input regimes. Plants in the con...

  3. Macronutrient (N,P,K) and redoximorphic metal (Fe,Mn) allocation in Leersia oryzoides (rice cutgrass) grown under different flood regimes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetated drainages are an effective method for removal of pollutants associated with agricultural runoff. Leersia oryzoides, a plant common to agricultural ditches, may be particularly effective in remediation; however, research characterizing responses of L. oryzoides to flooding are limited. Soil...

  4. Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: health hazard.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-02-01

    Dietary exposure to heavy metals is a matter of concern for human health risk through the consumption of rice, vegetables and other major foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia. The mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Australian grown rice were 7.5 µg kg(-1), 21 µg kg(-1), 144 µg kg(-1), 2.9 mg kg(-1), 24.4 mg kg(-1), 166 µg kg(-1), 375 µg kg(-1), and 17.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. Except Cd, heavy metal concentrations in Australian grown rice were higher than Bangladeshi rice on sale in Australia. However, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in Indian rice on sale in Australia were higher than Australian grown rice. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in Vietnamese rice, and that of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in Thai rice on sale in Australia were also higher than Australian grown rice. Heavy metal concentrations in Pakistani rice on sale in Australia were substantially lower than that in Australian grown rice. In Australian grown rice varieties, the concentrations of heavy metals were considerably higher in brown rice varieties than white rice varieties, indicating Australian brown rice as a potential source of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables on sale in Australia were also determined. Some of the Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables contained heavy metals higher than Australian standard maximum limits indicating them as potential sources of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. Further investigation is required to estimate health risks of heavy metals from rice and vegetables consumption for Australian consumers.

  5. Glycemic index of American-grown jasmine rice classified as high.

    PubMed

    Truong, Teresa H; Yuet, Wei Cheng; Hall, Micki D

    2014-06-01

    The primary objective was to determine the glycemic index (GI) of jasmine rice grown in the United States (US). Secondary objective was to compare the GI of US grown jasmine rice to those grown in Thailand. Twelve healthy subjects were served all four brands of jasmine rice and a reference food (glucose), each containing 50 g of available carbohydrate. Fingerstick blood glucose was measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after consumption following a fasting state. The GI was calculated using the standard equation. The GI values for test foods ranged from 96 to 116 and were all classified as high GI foods. No difference in GI was found between American-grown and Thailand-grown jasmine rice. Although not statistically significant, observations show glycemic response among Asian American participants may be different. GI should be considered when planning meals with jasmine rice as the main source carbohydrate.

  6. Rice root physiological and morphological traits of diverse genotypes grown in different media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is currently grown in 200 countries and supports one-half of the human population. It is a staple food and the chief source of nutrition in developing countries of South America, Asia and Africa. Plant roots influence mineral uptake and may influence rice grain mineral composi...

  7. Mechanisms Controlling Arsenic Uptake in Rice Grown in Mining Impacted Regions in South China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ying; Yan, Qiuyan; Shim, Hojae

    2014-01-01

    Foods produced on soils impacted by Pb-Zn mining activities are a potential health risk due to plant uptake of the arsenic (As) associated with such mining. A field survey was undertaken in two Pb-Zn mining-impacted paddy fields in Guangdong Province, China to assess As accumulation and translocation, as well as other factors influencing As in twelve commonly grown rice cultivars. The results showed that grain As concentrations in all the surveyed rice failed national food standards, irrespective of As speciation. Among the 12 rice cultivars, “SY-89” and “DY-162” had the least As in rice grain. No significant difference for As concentration in grain was observed between the rice grown in the two areas that differed significantly for soil As levels, suggesting that the amount of As contamination in the soil is not necessarily the overriding factor controlling the As content in the rice grain. The iron and manganese plaque on the root surface curtailed As accumulation in rice roots. Based on our results, the accumulation of As within rice plants was strongly associated with such soil properties such as silicon, phosphorus, organic matter, pH, and clay content. Understanding the factors and mechanisms controlling As uptake is important to develop mitigation measures that can reduce the amount of As accumulated in rice grains produced on contaminated soils. PMID:25251438

  8. Arsenic speciation in Australian-grown and imported rice on sale in Australia: implications for human health risk.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-06-25

    Rice is an important route of arsenic (As) exposure to humans, especially populations with rice-based diets. Human health risk of As varies greatly with rice variety and country of origin. The purpose of the present study was to determine total and speciated As in Australian-grown and imported rice on sale in Australia to assess their health risk to consumers. The total As (tAs) concentrations in Australian-grown organic brown, medium grain brown, and organic white rice were 438±23, 287±03, and 283±18 μg kg(-1) dry weight (d wt), respectively. In Bangladeshi, Indian, Pakistani, and Thai rice imported and on sale in Australia, tAs concentrations were 56±05, 92±10, 82±06 and 172±24 μg kg(-1), respectively. Asian rice contained mainly inorganic As (iAs; 86-99%), whereas 18-26% of the tAs in Australian-grown rice was dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Relatively higher concentrations of tAs in Australian-grown rice than that in imported rice of Asian origin suggest that Australian-grown rice may be a health risk for the consumers. It was estimated that Australian-grown organic brown rice can contribute up to 98% of the FAO/WHO recommended maximum tolerable daily intake limit of iAs (2.1 μg kg(-1) body wt day(-1)) for Asian immigrants. However, other Australian consumers including European immigrants are unlikely to be at risk to As from rice diets due to their lower rice consumption rates than that of Asian immigrants. The risk assessment showed that imported rice on sale in Australia was likely to pose a lower health risk to consumers than Australian-grown rice.

  9. Arsenic accumulation and speciation in rice grown in arsanilic acid-elevated paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Geng, Anjing; Wang, Xu; Wu, Lishu; Wang, Fuhua; Chen, Yan; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Zhan; Zhao, Xiaoli

    2017-03-01

    P-arsanilic acid (AsA) is a emerging but less concerned contaminant used in animal feeding operations, for it can be degraded to more toxic metabolites after being excreted by animals. Rice is the staple food in many parts of the world, and also more efficient in accumulating arsenic (As) compared to other cereals. However, the uptake and transformation of AsA by rice is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the potential risk of using AsA as a feed additive and using the AsA contaminated animal manure as a fertilizer. Five rice cultivars were grown in soil containing 100mg AsA/kg soil, after harvest, As species and their concentrations in different tissues were determined. Total As concentration of the hybrid rice cultivar was more than conventional rice cultivars for whole rice plant. For rice organs, the highest As concentration was found in roots. AsA could be absorbed by rice, partly degraded and converted to arsenite, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenate. The number of As species and their concentrations in each cultivar were related to their genotypes. The soil containing 100mg AsA/kg or more is unsuitable for growing rice. The use of AsA and the disposal of animal manure requires detailed attention.

  10. Genomic analysis of Xanthomonas oryzae isolates from rice grown in the United States reveals substantial divergence from known X. oryzae pathovars.

    PubMed

    Triplett, L R; Hamilton, J P; Buell, C R; Tisserat, N A; Verdier, V; Zink, F; Leach, J E

    2011-06-01

    The species Xanthomonas oryzae is comprised of two designated pathovars, both of which cause economically significant diseases of rice in Asia and Africa. Although X. oryzae is not considered endemic in the United States, an X. oryzae-like bacterium was isolated from U.S. rice and southern cutgrass in the late 1980s. The U.S. strains were weakly pathogenic and genetically distinct from characterized X. oryzae pathovars. In the current study, a draft genome sequence from two U.S. Xanthomonas strains revealed that the U.S. strains form a novel clade within the X. oryzae species, distinct from all strains known to cause significant yield loss. Comparative genome analysis revealed several putative gene clusters specific to the U.S. strains and supported previous reports that the U.S. strains lack transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effectors. In addition to phylogenetic and comparative analyses, the genome sequence was used for designing robust U.S. strain-specific primers, demonstrating the usefulness of a draft genome sequence in the rapid development of diagnostic tools.

  11. Accumulation of mercury in rice grain and cabbage grown on representative Chinese soils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-fa; Wu, Cheng-xian; Rafiq, Muhammad T; Aziz, Rukhsanda; Hou, Dan-di; Ding, Zhe-li; Lin, Zi-wen; Lou, Lin-jun; Feng, Yuan-yuan; Li, Ting-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e

    2013-12-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to investigate the accumulation properties of mercury (Hg) in rice grain and cabbage grown in seven soil types (Udic Ferrisols, Mollisol, Periudic Argosols, Latosol, Ustic Cambosols, Calcaric Regosols, and Stagnic Anthrosols) spiked with different concentrations of Hg (CK, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, and 4.00 mg/kg). The results of this study showed that Hg accumulation of plants was significantly affected by soil types. Hg concentration in both rice grain and cabbage increased with soil Hg concentrations, but this increase differed among the seven soils. The stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that pH, Mn(II), particle size distribution, and cation exchange capacity have a close relationship with Hg accumulation in plants, which suggested that physicochemical characteristics of soils can affect the Hg accumulation in rice grain and cabbage. Critical Hg concentrations in seven soils were identified for rice grain and cabbage based on the maximum safe level for daily intake of Hg, dietary habits of the population, and Hg accumulation in plants grown in different soil types. Soil Hg limits for rice grain in Udic Ferrisols, Mollisol, Periudic Argosols, Latosol, Ustic Cambosols, Calcaric Regosols, and Stagnic Anthrosols were 1.10, 2.00, 2.60, 2.78, 1.53, 0.63, and 2.17 mg/kg, respectively, and critical soil Hg levels for cabbage are 0.27, 1.35, 1.80, 1.70, 0.69, 1.68, and 2.60 mg/kg, respectively.

  12. Comparison between rice husk ash grown in different regions for stabilizing fly ash from a solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Benassi, L; Bosio, A; Dalipi, R; Borgese, L; Rodella, N; Pasquali, M; Depero, L E; Bergese, P; Bontempi, E

    2015-08-15

    The Stabilization of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash by rice husk ash (RHA) is under intense study as an effective strategy to recover and reuse industrial and agricultural waste together. We compare the metal entrapment performances of RHA from different Asian rice sources – namely from Japonica rice grown in Italy and Indica rice grown in India – Physicochemical and morphological characterization of the final stabilized material show that the same thermal treatment may result in marked structural differences in the silica contained in the two RHA. Remarkably, one of them displays a crystalline silica content, although obtained by a thermal treatment below 800 °C. We also find that the presence of an alkali metal ion (potassium) in the rice husk plays a crucial role in the attainment of the final silica phase. These physicochemical differences are mirrored by different stabilization yields by the two RHA.

  13. Comparison of physical and chemical properties of medium-grain rice cultivars grown in California and Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Cameron, D K; Wang, Y-J; Moldenhauer, K A

    2008-03-01

    The physical attributes, chemical composition, and physicochemical properties of 2 medium-grain rice cultivars from Arkansas (Bengal, Medark) and from California (M202, M204) were compared when grown in their respective locations and grown together in Arkansas to better understand the impacts of heredity and environment on medium-grain rice quality. Variations existed in grain dimensions, particularly length distribution, among cultivars and between crop years. When grown separately, the Arkansas cultivars tended to have higher protein and lipid contents but lower amylose contents than the California cultivars. M204 contained a significantly higher apparent amylose content (21.0%) compared with the other 3 cultivars (14.3% to 16.4%). The Arkansas rice cultivars exhibited higher pasting and gelatinization temperatures and produced harder gels and less sticky cooked rice. However, when the 4 cultivars were grown together in Arkansas, differences in protein and amylose contents, gelatinization and pasting properties, and cooked rice texture decreased. This study demonstrated that genetics, location, and crop year all contributed to variations in rice chemical and physical characteristics.

  14. Characterization of mercury species in brown and white rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in water-saving paddies.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Feng, Xinbin; Dong, Bin; Shang, Lihai; Yin, Runsheng; Yuan, Xiaobo

    2011-05-01

    In China, total Hg (HgT) and methylmercury (MeHg) were quantified in rice grain grown in three sites using water-saving rice cultivation methods, and in one Hg-contaminated site, where rice was grown under flooded conditions. Polished white rice concentrations of HgT (water-saving: 3.3±1.6 ng/g; flooded: 110±9.2 ng/g) and MeHg (water-saving 1.3±0.56 ng/g; flooded: 12±2.4 ng/g) were positively correlated with root-soil HgT and MeHg contents (HgT: r2=0.97, MeHg: r2=0.87, p<0.05 for both), which suggested a portion of Hg species in rice grain was derived from the soil, and translocation of Hg species from soil to rice grain was independent of irrigation practices and Hg levels, although other factors may be important. Concentrations of HgT and other trace elements were significantly higher in unmilled brown rice (p<0.05), while MeHg content was similar (p>0.20), indicating MeHg infiltrated the endosperm (i.e., white rice) more efficiently than inorganic Hg(II).

  15. Effect of biochars and microorganisms on cadmium accumulation in rice grains grown in Cd-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Suksabye, Parinda; Pimthong, Apinya; Dhurakit, Prapai; Mekvichitsaeng, Phenjun; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contaminated in rice grains is a serious problem because most Asians consume rice on a daily basis. Rice grown in Cd-contaminated soil normally did not have high concentration of Cd. However, soil samples used in this study had high concentrations of Cd. The purpose of this study was to clearly see the effects of biochar and microorganism addition in rice growing in Cd-contaminated soil. The initial Cd concentration in Cd-contaminated soil used in this study was about 650 mg kg(-1). Cadmium concentration in rice plants grown in Cd-contaminated soil with the addition of 1% (w/w) different biochars such as sawdust fly ash (SDFA), bagasse fly ash (BGFA), and rice husk ash (RHA) was investigated. The results showed that SDFA was the best biochar in terms of reducing cadmium accumulation in rice grains when compared to BGFA and RHA under the same conditions. In addition, rice plants grown in Cd-contaminated soil with the addition of various nonpathogenic microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Beauveria bassiana were also studied. The results showed that the addition of 2% (v/v) microorganisms can reduce Cd accumulation in grains. It was found that grains obtained from Cd-contaminated soil with the addition of P. aeruginosa had the lowest cadmium concentration compared to the ones from soil amended with other strains. This was due to the fact that P. aeruginosa adsorbed more Cd itself into its cells than other strains. The rice plants grown in Cd-contaminated soil with the addition of biochars and microorganisms were also compared. The results showed that adding 2% (v/v) microorganisms seemed to reduce Cd accumulation in rice grains better than adding 1% (w/w) biochars. In addition, the amounts of calcium and magnesium in rice grains and the dry weight of plant in Cd-contaminated soil amended with P. aeruginosa were the highest in comparison to other microorganisms, biochars, and the soil without any amendments (Cd

  16. DITCH PLANT PRODUCTIVITY UNDER VARIABLE FLOODING: A STUDY OF RICE CUTGRASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetated drainages are an effective method for removal of pollutants associated with agricultural runoff. Leersia oryzoides, a plant common to agricultural ditches, may be particularly effective in remediation; however, the responses of L. oryzoides to flooding are undocumented. The objective of ...

  17. DITCH PLANT RESPONSE TO VARIABLE FLOODING: A CASE STUDY OF LEERSIA ORYZOIDES (RICE CUTGRASS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetated drainages are an effective method for removal of pollutants associated with agricultural runoff. Leersia oryzoides, a plant common to agricultural ditches, may be particularly effective in the remediation process; however, responses of L. oryzoides to flooding are undocumented. The objec...

  18. Metaproteomic identification of diazotrophic methanotrophs and their localization in root tissues of field-grown rice plants.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zhihua; Okubo, Takashi; Kubota, Kengo; Kasahara, Yasuhiro; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Anda, Mizue; Ikeda, Seishi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2014-08-01

    In a previous study by our group, CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation were simultaneously activated in the roots of wild-type rice plants in a paddy field with no N input; both processes are likely controlled by a rice gene for microbial symbiosis. The present study examined which microorganisms in rice roots were responsible for CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation under the field conditions. Metaproteomic analysis of root-associated bacteria from field-grown rice (Oryza sativa Nipponbare) revealed that nitrogenase complex-containing nitrogenase reductase (NifH) and the alpha subunit (NifD) and beta subunit (NifK) of dinitrogenase were mainly derived from type II methanotrophic bacteria of the family Methylocystaceae, including Methylosinus spp. Minor nitrogenase proteins such as Methylocella, Bradyrhizobium, Rhodopseudomonas, and Anaeromyxobacter were also detected. Methane monooxygenase proteins (PmoCBA and MmoXYZCBG) were detected in the same bacterial group of the Methylocystaceae. Because these results indicated that Methylocystaceae members mediate both CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation, we examined their localization in rice tissues by using catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). The methanotrophs were localized around the epidermal cells and vascular cylinder in the root tissues of the field-grown rice plants. Our metaproteomics and CARD-FISH results suggest that CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation are performed mainly by type II methanotrophs of the Methylocystaceae, including Methylosinus spp., inhabiting the vascular bundles and epidermal cells of rice roots.

  19. Variation of grain Cd and Zn concentrations of 110 hybrid rice cultivars grown in a low-Cd paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Li, Lianqing; Pan, Genxing

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced Cd uptake and Zn depletion in rice grains and high potential for food Cd exposure by the high-yielding hybrid cultivars of China had been addressed. A field experiment was conducted in 2006 to determine the difference in grain Cd and Zn between cultivars. Total 110 cultivars including super rice and common hybrid rice cultivars were grown on a single paddy soil (Entic Haplaquept) with a neutral reaction and low total Cd content. Grain Cd and Zn concentrations were determined with graphite atomic adsorption spectrophotometer (GFAAS) and flame atomic adsorption spectrophotometer (AAS) respectively. Wide variation of Cd content in grain was found in a range of 0.004-0.057 mg/kg, while the Zn content in a range of 10.25-30.06 mg/kg among the cultivars. Higher Cd but lower Zn concentration in grains of super rice cultivars was observed compared to the common hybrid ones. A highly significant positive linear correlation of grain Cd/Zn with grain Cd was found for super rice and common hybrid cultivars, meanwhile much higher slope for these hybrid cultivars than the reported non-hybrid cultivars was also observed. Using the limit value of the Chinese chemical guidelines for foods (MOHC and SSC, 2005), calculated potential risk of food Cd exposure with "Zn hungry" through diet intake was prominent with all the studied 110 hybrid rice cultivars, possessing high potential health problems for rice production in South China using the super rice cultivars. Breeding of genotypes of rice cultivars with low grain Cd and low Cd/Zn ratio is needed for rice production in acidic red soils where Cd bioavailability is prevalently high.

  20. Mechanisms of Fe biofortification and mitigation of Cd accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown hydroponically with Fe chelate fertilization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Tang, Ye-Tao; Zhou, Can; Xie, Shu-Ting; Xiao, Shi; Baker, Alan J M; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2017-05-01

    Cadmium contaminated rice from China has become a global food safety issue. Some research has suggested that chelate addition to substrates can affect metal speciation and plant metal content. We investigated the mitigation of Cd accumulation in hydroponically-grown rice supplied with EDTANa2Fe(II) or EDDHAFe(III). A japonica rice variety (Nipponbare) was grown in modified Kimura B solution containing three concentrations (0, 10, 100 μΜ) of the iron chelates EDTANa2Fe(II) or EDDHAFe(III) and 1 μΜ Cd. Metal speciation in solution was simulated by Geochem-EZ; growth and photosynthetic efficiency of rice were evaluated, and accumulation of Cd and Fe in plant parts was determined. Net Cd fluxes in the meristematic zone, growth zone, and maturation zone of roots were monitored by a non-invasive micro-test technology. Expression of Fe- and Cd-related genes in Fe-sufficient or Fe-deficient roots and leaves were studied by QRT-PCR. Compared to Fe deficiency, a sufficient or excess supply of Fe chelates significantly enhanced rice growth by elevating photosynthetic efficiency. Both Fe chelates increased the Fe content and decreased the Cd content of rice organs, except for the Cd content of roots treated with excess EDDHAFe(III). Compared to EDDHAFe(III), EDTANa2Fe(II) exhibited better mitigation of Cd accumulation in rice by generating the EDTANa2Cd complex in solution, decreasing net Cd influx and increasing net Cd efflux in root micro-zones. Application of EDTANa2Fe(II) and EDDHAFe(III) also reduced Cd accumulation in rice by inhibiting expression of genes involved in transport of Fe and Cd in the xylem and phloem. The 'win-win' situation of Fe biofortification and Cd mitigation in rice was achieved by application of Fe chelates. Root-to-stem xylem transport of Cd and redistribution of Cd in leaves by phloem transport can be regulated in rice through the use of Fe chelates that influence Fe availability and Fe-related gene expression. Fe fertilization decreased Cd

  1. Growth and yield response of field-grown tropical rice to increasing carbon dioxide and air temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ziska, L.H.; Namuco, O.; Moya, T.; Quilang, J.

    1997-01-01

    Although the response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and air temperature has been examined at the greenhouse or growth chamber level, no field studies have been conducted under the tropical, irrigated conditions where the bulk of the world`s rice is grown. At the International Rice Research Institute, rice (cv. IR 72) was grown from germination until maturity for the 1994 wet and 1995 dry seasons at three different CO{sub 2} concentrations (ambient, ambient + 200, and ambient + 300 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1}) resulted in a significant increase in total plant biomass (+31%, +40%) and crop yield (+15%, + 27%) compared with the ambient control. The increase in crop yield was associated with an increase in the number of panicles per square meter and a greater percentage of filled spikelets. Simultaneous increases in CO{sub 2} and air temperature did not alter the biomass at maturity (relative to elevated CO{sub 2} alone), but plant development was accelerated at the higher growth temperature regardless of CO{sub 2} concentration. Grain yield, however, became insensitive to CO{sub 2} concentration at the higher growth temperature. Increasing both CO{sub 2} and air temperature also reduced grain quality (e.g., protein content). The combination of CO{sub 2} and temperature effects suggests that, in warmer regions (i.e., >34{degrees}C) where rice is grown, quantitative and qualitative changes in rice supply are possible if both CO{sub 2} and air temperature continue to increase. 24 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Variations in heavy metal accumulation, growth and yield of rice plants grown at different sewage sludge amendment rates.

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Agrawal, M

    2010-05-01

    Use of sewage sludge in agriculture is an alternative disposal technique for this waste. The present field study was conducted to assess the suitability of sewage sludge amendment in soil for rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Pusa sugandha 3) by evaluating the heavy metal accumulation, growth, biomass and yield responses of plants grown at 0, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, 12 kgm(-2) sewage sludge amendment (SSA) rate. Sewage sludge amendment modified the physico-chemical properties of soil, thus increasing the availability of heavy metals in soil and consequently with higher accumulation in plant parts. Root length decreased, whereas shoot length, number of leaves, leaf area and total biomass increased significantly when grown under various SSA rates. Yield of rice increased by 60%, 111%, 125%, 134% and 137% at 3, 4.5, 6, 9 and 12 kgm(-2) SSA, respectively, as compared to those grown in unamended soil. Sewage sludge amendment rates above 4.5 kgm(-2) though increased the yield of rice, but caused risk of food chain contamination as concentrations of Ni and Cd in rice grains were found to be above the Indian safe limits (1.5 mgkg(-1)) of human consumption above 4.5 kgm(-2) SSA and of Pb (2.5 mgkg(-1)) above 6 kgm(-2) SSA. Since aboveground parts of the rice also showed higher concentration than the permissible levels of Ni, Cd and Pb at 4.5 kgm(-2) SSA rate, it cannot be used as fodder. The rice husk may be used as bioresource for energy production. Efforts should be made to treat the effluents from small scale industries before discharge into the sewerage system.

  3. Metaproteomic Identification of Diazotrophic Methanotrophs and Their Localization in Root Tissues of Field-Grown Rice Plants

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Zhihua; Okubo, Takashi; Kubota, Kengo; Kasahara, Yasuhiro; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Anda, Mizue; Ikeda, Seishi

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study by our group, CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation were simultaneously activated in the roots of wild-type rice plants in a paddy field with no N input; both processes are likely controlled by a rice gene for microbial symbiosis. The present study examined which microorganisms in rice roots were responsible for CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation under the field conditions. Metaproteomic analysis of root-associated bacteria from field-grown rice (Oryza sativa Nipponbare) revealed that nitrogenase complex-containing nitrogenase reductase (NifH) and the alpha subunit (NifD) and beta subunit (NifK) of dinitrogenase were mainly derived from type II methanotrophic bacteria of the family Methylocystaceae, including Methylosinus spp. Minor nitrogenase proteins such as Methylocella, Bradyrhizobium, Rhodopseudomonas, and Anaeromyxobacter were also detected. Methane monooxygenase proteins (PmoCBA and MmoXYZCBG) were detected in the same bacterial group of the Methylocystaceae. Because these results indicated that Methylocystaceae members mediate both CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation, we examined their localization in rice tissues by using catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). The methanotrophs were localized around the epidermal cells and vascular cylinder in the root tissues of the field-grown rice plants. Our metaproteomics and CARD-FISH results suggest that CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation are performed mainly by type II methanotrophs of the Methylocystaceae, including Methylosinus spp., inhabiting the vascular bundles and epidermal cells of rice roots. PMID:24928870

  4. Iron and zinc isotope fractionation during uptake and translocation in rice (Oryza sativa) grown in oxic and anoxic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Tim; Markovic, Tamara; Kirk, Guy J. D.; Schönbächler, Maria; Rehkämper, Mark; Zhao, Fangjie J.; Weiss, Dominik J.

    2015-11-01

    Stable isotope fractionation is emerging quickly as a powerful novel technique to study metal uptake and translocation in plants. Fundamental to this development is a thorough understanding of the processes that lead to isotope fractionation under differing environmental conditions. In this study, we investigated Zn and Fe isotope fractionation in rice grown to maturity in anaerobic and aerobic soils under greenhouse conditions. The overall Zn isotope fractionation between the soil and above ground plant material was negligible in aerobic soil but significant in anaerobic soil with isotopically lighter Zn in the rice plant. The observed range of fractionation is in line with previously determined fractionations of Zn in rice grown in hydroponic solutions and submerged soils and emphasizes the effect of taking up different chemical forms of Zn, most likely free and organically complexed Zn. The Zn in the grain was isotopically lighter than in the rest of the above ground plant in rice grown in aerobic and anaerobic soils alike. This suggests that in the course of the grain loading and during the translocation within the plant important biochemical and/or biophysical processes occur. The isotope fractionation observed in the grains would be consistent with an unidirectional controlled transport from shoot to grain with a fractionation factor of α ≈ 0.9994. Iron isotopes showed an isotopic lighter signature in shoot and grain compared to the bulk soil or the leachate in aerobic and anaerobic soils alike. The negative direction of isotopic fractionation is consistent with possible changes in the redox state of Fe occurring during the uptake and translocation processes. The isotope fractionation pattern between shoots and grain material are different for Zn and Fe which finally suggests that different mechanisms operate during translocation and grain-loading in rice for these two key micronutrients.

  5. Root morphology, hydraulic conductivity and plant water relations of high-yielding rice grown under aerobic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Yoichiro; Okami, Midori

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Increasing physical water scarcity is a major constraint for irrigated rice (Oryza sativa) production. ‘Aerobic rice culture’ aims to maximize yield per unit water input by growing plants in aerobic soil without flooding or puddling. The objective was to determine (a) the effect of water management on root morphology and hydraulic conductance, and (b) their roles in plant–water relationships and stomatal conductance in aerobic culture. Methods Root system development, stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf water potential (Ψleaf) were monitored in a high-yielding rice cultivar (‘Takanari’) under flooded and aerobic conditions at two soil moisture levels [nearly saturated (> –10 kPa) and mildly dry (> –30 kPa)] over 2 years. In an ancillary pot experiment, whole-plant hydraulic conductivity (soil-leaf hydraulic conductance; Kpa) was measured under flooded and aerobic conditions. Key Results Adventitious root emergence and lateral root proliferation were restricted even under nearly saturated conditions, resulting in a 72–85 % reduction in total root length under aerobic culture conditions. Because of their reduced rooting size, plants grown under aerobic conditions tended to have lower Kpa than plants grown under flooded conditions. Ψleaf was always significantly lower in aerobic culture than in flooded culture, while gs was unchanged when the soil moisture was at around field capacity. gs was inevitably reduced when the soil water potential at 20-cm depth reached –20 kPa. Conclusions Unstable performance of rice in water-saving cultivations is often associated with reduction in Ψleaf. Ψleaf may reduce even if Kpa is not significantly changed, but the lower Ψleaf would certainly occur in case Kpa reduces as a result of lower water-uptake capacity under aerobic conditions. Rice performance in aerobic culture might be improved through genetic manipulation that promotes lateral root branching and rhizogenesis as well as deep

  6. The effect of fertilization on cesium concentration of rice grown in a paddy field in Fukushima Prefecture in 2011 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Yoshihiro; Kajikawa, Masataka; Nishida, Sho; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Tanoi, Keitaro; Furukawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Toru

    2014-01-01

    After the accident of the Fukushima 1 nuclear power plant in March 2011, radioactive cesium was released and paddy field in a wide area of Fukushima Prefecture was contaminated. To reduce radioactive Cs uptake by rice, it is important to understand factors that affect Cs uptake in rice. Here we describe our study in 2011 and 2012 to investigate Cs concentration in two rice cultivars, Koshihikari and Hitomebore, the top two cultivars in Fukushima prefecture, grown under different fertilizer conditions in the contaminated paddy field. Our study demonstrated that high nitrogen and low potassium conditions increase Cs concentrations both in straw and brown rice.

  7. Development of an Improved Irrigation Subroutine in SWAT to Simulate the Hydrology of Rice Paddy Grown under Submerged Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraleedharan, B. V.; Kathirvel, K.; Narasimhan, B.; Nallasamy, N. D.

    2014-12-01

    Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a basin scale, distributed hydrological model commonly used to predict the effect of management decisions on the hydrologic response of watersheds. Hydrologic response is decided by the various components of water balance. In the case of watersheds located in south India as well as in several other tropical countries around the world, paddy is one of the dominant crop controlling the hydrologic response of a watershed. Hence, the suitability of SWAT in replicating the hydrology of paddy fields needs to be verified. Rice paddy fields are subjected to flooding method of irrigation, while the irrigation subroutines in SWAT are developed to simulate crops grown under non flooding conditions. Moreover irrigation is represented well in field scale models, while it is poorly represented within watershed models like SWAT. Reliable simulation of flooding method of irrigation and hydrology of the fields will assist in effective water resources management of rice paddy fields which are one of the major consumers of surface and ground water resources. The current study attempts to modify the irrigation subroutine in SWAT so as to simulate flooded irrigation condition. A field water balance study was conducted on representative fields located within Gadana, a subbasin located in Tamil Nadu (southern part of India) and dominated by rice paddy based irrigation systems. The water balance of irrigated paddy fields simulated with SWAT was compared with the water balance derived by rice paddy based crop growth model named ORYZA. The variation in water levels along with the soil moisture variation predicted by SWAT was evaluated with respect to the estimates derived from ORYZA. The water levels were further validated with field based water balance measurements taken on a daily scale. It was observed that the modified irrigation subroutine was able to simulate irrigation of rice paddy within SWAT in a realistic way compared to the existing method.

  8. Gasified rice hull biochar is a source of phosphorus and potassium for container-grown plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar materials have been reported to improve the chemical, physical, and biological properties of mineral soils and soilless substrates. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of gasified rice hull biochar (GRHB) on available nutrients in a container substrate. Two experimen...

  9. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum grown on germinated brown rice.

    PubMed

    Hasnat, Abul; Pervin, Mehnaz; Lim, Beong Ou

    2013-06-07

    In this study, the acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum grown on germinated brown rice (GLBR) were evaluated. In antioxidant assays in vitro, GLBR was found to have strong metal chelating activity, DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Cell-based antioxidant methods were used, including lipid peroxidation on brain homogenate and AAPH-induced erythrocyte haemolysis. In antioxidant assays in vivo, mice were administered with GLBR and this significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the mice sera, livers and brains. The amount of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were 43.14 mg GAE/g and 13.36 mg CE/g dry mass, respectively. GLBR also exhibited acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. In addition, HPLC analyses of GLBR extract revealed the presence of different phenolic compounds. These findings demonstrate the remarkable potential of GLBR extract as valuable source of antioxidants which exhibit interesting acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

  10. [Effect of iron plaque formation of root surface on as uptake by rice seedlings grown on different types of soils].

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Lin, Xian-yong; Cheng, Wang-da

    2010-02-01

    The objective of study was to investigate the effect of the amount of iron plaque of root surface on As uptake by rice seedlings grown on 14 types of soils. These results indicated that there were significant differences in the amounts of iron plaque (1.15-61.97 mg/g) formed on rice root surface among different soils. The amount of non-crystalloid Fe oxide in different submerged soils is one of main influencing factors. There was a significant positive correlation between As concentrations in iron plaque (0-1376 mg/kg) and the amount of iron plaque (r = 0.85, n=14, p < 0.05), but no significant correlation with the extractable As concentration of 14 types of soils. There were also significant positive correlation between As concentrations in shoot (0.400-12.98 mg/kg) and root (3.860-576.2 mg/kg) and the amounts of iron plaque respectively but not significant correlation with the extractable As concentrations of 14 types of soils (r = 0.88, n=14, p < 0.05; r = 0.91, n=14, p < 0.05). Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between specific arsenic uptake (0.005-0.670 mg/g) and the amount of iron plaque (r = 0.91, n=14, p < 0.05). However, there was no significant correlation between shoot-As% and the amount of iron plaque. These results showed that the iron plaque on root surface was the pool of As in rhizosphere and increased As uptake but did not affect As transportation from rice root to shoot.

  11. Diurnal and developmental changes in energy allocation of absorbed light at PSII in field-grown rice.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Satoshi; Uebayashi, Nozomu; Tazoe, Youshi; Ikeuchi, Masahiro; Homma, Koki; Sato, Fumihiko; Endo, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The allocation of absorbed light energy in PSII to electron transport and heat dissipation processes in rice grown under waterlogged conditions was estimated with the lake model of energy transfer. With regard to diurnal changes in energy allocation, the peak of the energy flux to electron transport, J(PSII), occurred in the morning and the peak of the energy flux to heat dissipation associated with non-photochemical quenching of Chl fluorescence, J(NPQ), occurred in the afternoon. With regard to seasonal changes in energy allocation, J(PSII) in the rapidly growing phase was greater than that in the ripening phase, even though the leaves of rice receive less light in the growing phase than in the ripening period in Japan. This seasonal decrease in J(PSII) was accompanied by an increase in J(NPQ). One of the reasons for the lower J(PSII) in the ripening phase might be a more sever afternoon suppression of J(PSII). To estimate energy dissipation due to photoinhibition of PSII, J(NPQ) was divided into J(fast), which is associated with fast-recovering NPQ mainly due to qE, and J(slow), which is mainly due to photoinhibition. The integrated daily energy loss by photoinhibiton was calculated to be about 3-8% of light energy absorption in PSII. Strategies for the utilization of light energy adopted by rice are discussed. For example, very efficient photosynthesis under non-saturating light in the rapidly growing phase is proposed.

  12. Identification of an anticancer compound against HT-29 cells from Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Tae-Il; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Park, Dong Ki; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2013-01-01

    Objective To isolate and identify the anticancer compound against proliferation of human colon cancer cells from ethyl acetate (EtOAC) extract of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice (PB). Methods EtOAC extract of PB was partitioned with n-hexane, EtOAC, and water-saturated n-butanol. Anticancer compound of n-hexane layer was isolated and identified by HPLC and NMR, respectively. Cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells was tested by SRB assay. Results The n-hexane layer obtained after solvent fractionation of PB EtOAC extracts showed a potent anticancer activity against the HT-29 cell line. Atractylenolide I, a eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactone, a major anticancer substance of PB, was isolated from the n-hexane layer by silica gel column chromatography and preparative-HPLC. This structure was elucidated by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic data. Atractylenolide I has not been reported in mushrooms or rice as of yet. The isolated compound dose-dependently inhibited the growth of HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Conclusions Atractylenolide I might contribute to the anticancer effect of PB. PMID:24075343

  13. Assessment of arsenic in Australian grown and imported rice varieties on sale in Australia and potential links with irrigation practises and soil geochemistry.

    PubMed

    Fransisca, Yunnita; Small, Darryl M; Morrison, Paul D; Spencer, Michelle J S; Ball, Andrew S; Jones, Oliver A H

    2015-11-01

    Chronic dietary exposure to arsenic, particularly the inorganic forms (defined as elemental arsenic, predominantly As(3+) and As(5+), and all its inorganic compounds except arsine), is a matter of concern for human health. Ingestion of arsenic usually occurs via contaminated water but recent studies show there is also a risk of exposure from food, particularly Asian rice (Oryza sativa). Australia is a rice growing country, contributing around 2% of the world rice trade, and a large proportion of the population consumes rice regularly. In the present study we investigated concentrations of arsenic in both Australian grown and imported rice on sale in Australia and examined the potential links with irrigation practises and soil geochemistry. The results indicated a wide spread of arsenic levels of 0.09-0.33 mg kg(-1), with Australian grown Arborio and sushi varieties of O. sativa containing the highest mean value of ∼0.22 mg kg(-1). Arsenic levels in all samples were below the 1 mg kg(-1) limit set by Food Standards Australia New Zealand.

  14. Increasing CO2 differentially affects essential and non-essential amino acid concentration of rice grains grown in cadmium-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huibin; Song, Zhengguo; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Zhongqi; Tang, Shirong

    2016-09-01

    Environmental pollution by both ambient CO2 and heavy metals has been steadily increasing, but we do not know how fluctuating CO2 concentrations influence plant nutrients under high Cd pollution, especially in crops. Here, we studied the effects of elevated CO2 and Cd accumulation on proteins and amino acids in rice under Cd stress. In this pot experiment, we analyzed the amino-acid profile of 20 rice cultivars that accumulate Cd differently; the plants were grown in Cd-containing soils under ambient conditions and elevated CO2 levels. We found that although Cd concentrations appeared to be higher in most cultivars under elevated CO2 than under ambient CO2, the effect was significant only in seven cultivars. Combined exposure to Cd and elevated CO2 strongly decreased rice protein and amino acid profiles, including essential and non-essential amino acids. Under elevated CO2, the ratios of specific amino acids were either higher or lower than the optimal ratios provided by FAO/WHO, suggesting that CO2 may flatten the overall amino-acid profile, leading to an excess in some amino acids and deficiencies in others when the rice is consumed. Thus, Cd-tainted rice limits the concentration of essential amino acids in rice-based diets, and the combination with elevated CO2 further exacerbates the problem.

  15. Studies on physico-chemical and cooking characteristics of rice bean varieties grown in NE region of India.

    PubMed

    Bepary, Rejaul Hoque; Wadikar, D D; Neog, Seuji Borah; Patki, P E

    2017-03-01

    Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) is grown in South and Southeast Asia, and the bean has gained importance due to its nutritional strength in terms of dietary fiber, quality protein and minerals. In current study, the nutritional and functional components, cooking and thermo-gravimetric properties of eleven rice bean varieties from NE India were investigated. Results revealed that the major nutrients among the varieties ranged as follows: 54.21-60.49% carbohydrates, 15.64-21.60% protein, 1.22-2.3% fat, 5.53-6.56% crude fibre, 3.34-3.8% ash; while the functional, anti-nutritional factors and mineral were present as 1189.32-1645.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g polyphenols, 205.38-432.14 mg/100 g phytic acid, 23.14-34.12 mg/100 g oxalate, 690.7-1589.5 mg/100 g saponins, 49.90-158.17 μg/100 g hydrocyanide, 111.51-168 calcium, 5.50-10.44 zinc, 3.72-8.37 iron. Principal component analysis revealed that varieties with higher calcium, iron and ash content had lower cooking time, swelling ratio, and cooked grain hardness. It is also revealed that varieties with higher weight loss at sixth stage in thermogravimetric graph had lower carbohydrate and higher protein content. Nagadal variety had higher fat, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, copper and chromium content and better cooking quality as compared to the other varieties. The study revealed that Nagadal variety was superior to other varieties with respect to mineral content, cooking and thermal properties and hence have better potential in the development of value added products.

  16. Antrodia camphorata Grown on Germinated Brown Rice Suppresses Melanoma Cell Proliferation by Inducing Apoptosis and Cell Differentiation and Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Song, Minjung; Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata grown on germinated brown rice (CBR) was prepared to suppress melanoma development. CBR extracts were divided into hexane, EtOAc, BuOH, and water fractions. Among all the fractions, EtOAc fraction showed the best suppressive effect on B16F10 melanoma cell proliferation by CCK-8 assay. It also showed the increased cell death and the changed cellular morphology after CBR treatment. Annexin V-FITC/PI, flow cytometry, and western blotting were performed to elucidate anticancer activity of CBR. The results showed that CBR induced p53-mediated apoptotic cell death of B16F10. CBR EtOAc treatment increased melanin content and melanogenesis-related proteins of MITF and TRP-1 expressions, which supports its anticancer activity. Its potential as an anticancer agent was further investigated in tumor-xenografted mouse model. In melanoma-xenografted mouse model, melanoma tumor growth was significantly suppressed under CBR EtOAc fraction treatment. HPLC analysis of CBR extract showed peak of adenosine. In conclusion, CBR extracts notably inhibited B16F10 melanoma cell proliferation through the p53-mediated apoptosis induction and increased melanogenesis. These findings suggest that CBR EtOAc fraction can act as an effective anticancer agent to treat melanoma. PMID:23533475

  17. Characterization of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes on the basis of morpho-physiological and biochemical traits grown under aerobic situation in rainfed ecosystem .

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Dwivedi, Sharad Kumar; Singh, S S; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sundaram, R K; Shivani; Mall, A K

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of aerobic situation on yield, physiological and biochemical traits of advanced breeding lines of rice. Experiment was conducted with two set of rice genotypes under two water regimes (aerobic and irrigated), during three consecutive wet seasons 2010-2012. Significant decrease in yield was observed in rice genotypes grown under aerobic situation as compared to the irrigated ones. Promising rice genotypes having the ability to maintain high plant biomass, harvest index, early vegetative vigour, improved physiological and biochemical traits in terms of relative water content (RWC), leaf area index (LAI), total soluble sugar, starch, protien and proline content help to sustain higher grain yield under aerobic situation. The yield gap between aerobic and irrigated rice ranged between 24% to 68%. Grain yield showed positive correlation with harvest index (0.434), test weight (0.647), plant biomass (0.411) and effective tiller numbers (0.473), whereas spikelet sterility was negative associated (-0.380). The current study suggested that promising genotypes viz., IR77298-14-1-2-130-2, IR84899-B-182-3-1-1-2, IR84887-B-157-38-1-1-3 and IR 84899-B-179-1-1-1-2 for aerobic situation, showing yield advantage due to better performance of physiological and biochemical traits, might be adopted in large area of rainfed ecosystem as well as in irrigated areas where water scarcity was a major problem.

  18. Variation in grain arsenic assessed in a diverse panel of rice (Oryza sativa) grown in multiple sites.

    PubMed

    Norton, Gareth J; Pinson, Shannon R M; Alexander, Jill; McKay, Susan; Hansen, Helle; Duan, Gui-Lan; Rafiqul Islam, M; Islam, Shofiqul; Stroud, Jacqueline L; Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve P; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Lahner, Brett; Yakubova, Elena; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Tarpley, Lee; Eizenga, Georgia C; Salt, David E; Meharg, Andrew A; Price, Adam H

    2012-02-01

    • Inorganic arsenic (As(i) ) in rice (Oryza sativa) grains is a possible threat to human health, with risk being strongly linked to total dietary rice consumption and consumed rice As(i) content. This study aimed to identify the range and stability of genetic variation in grain arsenic (As) in rice. • Six field trials were conducted (one each in Bangladesh and China, two in Arkansas, USA over 2 yr, and two in Texas, USA comparing flooded and nonflood treatments) on a large number of common rice cultivars (c. 300) representing genetic diversity among international rice cultivars. • Within each field there was a 3-34 fold range in grain As concentration which varied between rice subpopulations. Importantly, As(i) correlated strongly with total As among a subset of 40 cultivars harvested in Bangladesh and China. • Genetic variation at all field sites was a large determining factor for grain As concentration, indicating that cultivars low in grain As could be developed through breeding. The temperate japonicas exhibited lower grain As compared with other subpopulations. Effects for year, location and flooding management were also statistically significant, suggesting that breeding strategies must take into account environmental factors.

  19. Comparative study of endophytic and endophytic diazotrophic bacterial communities across rice landraces grown in the highlands of northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rangjaroen, Chakrapong; Rerkasem, Benjavan; Teaumroong, Neung; Sungthong, Rungroch; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2014-01-01

    Communities of bacterial endophytes within the rice landraces cultivated in the highlands of northern Thailand were studied using fingerprinting data of 16S rRNA and nifH genes profiling by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The bacterial communities' richness, diversity index, evenness, and stability were varied depending on the plant tissues, stages of growth, and rice cultivars. These indices for the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria within the landrace rice Bue Wah Bo were significantly the lowest. The endophytic bacteria revealed greater diversity by cluster analysis with seven clusters compared to the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria (three clusters). Principal component analysis suggested that the endophytic bacteria showed that the community structures across the rice landraces had a higher stability than those of the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria. Uncultured bacteria were found dominantly in both bacterial communities, while higher generic varieties were observed in the endophytic diazotrophic bacterial community. These differences in bacterial communities might be influenced either by genetic variation in the rice landraces or the rice cultivation system, where the nitrogen input affects the endophytic diazotrophic bacterial community.

  20. Variations and constancy of mercury and methylmercury accumulation in rice grown at contaminated paddy field sites in three Provinces of China.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Shi, J B; Wang, X; Meng, M; Huang, L; Qi, X L; He, B; Ye, Z H

    2013-10-01

    Many paddy fields have been contaminated by mercury (Hg) in mining areas of China. In this study, twenty-six rice cultivars and three Hg contaminated paddy fields in different geographic regions were selected for field trials and aimed to investigate the variations and similarities in total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) accumulations in brown rice (seeds) across sites. Our results revealed widescale cultivar variation in THg (13-52 ng g(-1) at Wanshan) and MeHg (3.5-23 ng g(-1)) accumulation and %MeHg (17.7-89%) in seeds. The ability to translocate is an important factor in the levels of THg and MeHg in seed. Cultivar tended to stability in THg accumulation across sites. Some cultivars accumulated lower concentrations of both THg and MeHg in seeds at fields seriously contaminated by Hg. Present results suggest that appropriate cultivar selection is a possible way to reduce THg and MeHg accumulation in seeds of rice grown in Hg-contaminated regions.

  1. Assessing the impact of ambient ozone on growth and yield of a rice (Oryza sativa L.) and a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar grown in the Yangtze Delta, China, using three rates of application of ethylenediurea (EDU).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoke; Zheng, Qiwei; Yao, Fangfang; Chen, Zhan; Feng, Zhaozhong; Manning, W J

    2007-07-01

    Foliar applications of ethylenediurea (abbreviated as EDU) were made at 0, 150, 300 or 450 ppm to field-grown rice and wheat in the Yangtze Delta in China. Rice and wheat responded differently to ambient ozone and EDU applications. For wheat, some growth characteristics, such as yield, seed number per plant, seed set rate and harvest index, increased significantly at 300 ppm EDU treatment, while for rice no parameters measured were statistically different regarding EDU application. The reason may be that the wheat cultivar used may be more sensitive to ozone than the rice cultivar. EDU was effective in demonstrating ozone effects on the wheat cultivar, but not on the rice cultivar. Cultivar sensitivity might be an important consideration when assessing the effects of ambient ozone on plants.

  2. Genetic diversity of amylose content and RVA pasting parameters in 20 rice accessions grown in Hainan, China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chuan; Chen, Yaling; Tang, Fufu; Xu, Feifei; Huang, Yan; Chen, Hao; Bao, Jinsong

    2014-10-15

    Starch physicochemical properties determine the eating and cooking quality of rice. The genetic diversity in the apparent amylose content (AAC) and pasting viscosity parameters of 20 geographically diverse rice accessions were investigated. It was found that AAC and pasting viscosities differed widely among different accessions, but each accession performed relatively stably across two environments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that all traits were predominantly controlled by genotypic variance, but the genotype×environment interaction effects were also significant except for AAC and PT. Significant correlations were found for each parameter between 2years (P<0.001). Association mapping identified a total of 22 main-effect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for all traits except for CPV. This study showed that starch physicochemical properties of rice were highly stable and mainly controlled by genetic factors, and gave insight into the molecular improvement of eating quality using marker assisted breeding with the identified QTLs/genes.

  3. Changes in the thermal dissipation and the electron flow in the water-water cycle in rice grown under conditions of physiologically low temperature.

    PubMed

    Hirotsu, Naoki; Makino, Amane; Ushio, Ayuko; Mae, Tadahiko

    2004-05-01

    Effects of low temperature on chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence, gas exchange rate, the amounts of xanthophyll cycle pigments (Xp) and the activities of several antioxidant enzymes were examined in the 8th leaf of two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars (japonica and indica types) and rbcS antisense rice. All plants were grown hydroponically at 25/20 degrees C (day/night), and then exposed to 20/17 degrees C (day/night) after full expansion of the 8th leaf, or exposed to either 20/17 degrees C or 15/13 degrees C (day/night) during the expansion of the 8th leaf. All plants exposed to low temperatures showed a decrease in CO(2) assimilation rate without photoinhibition, and increases in the fraction of thermal dissipation in PSII, and in the electron flux through the water-water cycle (WWC) were observed. Although the increase of thermal dissipation was associated with increases in the ratio of carotenoids to Chl, the ratio of Xp to carotenoids and the de-epoxidation state of Xp, the increase of the electron flux of WWC was not accompanied by an increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Such photoprotective responses did not differ between during and after full expansion of the leaf, and did not differ among the three genotypes. Quantitative analyses on the dissipation of excess light energy showed that thermal dissipation makes a larger contribution than WWC. Thus, although low temperature led to a decrease in CO(2) assimilation, rice potentially coped with the excess light energy by increasing the thermal dissipation and the electron flux of WWC under low temperature irrespective of leaf development and genotypes.

  4. Arsenic affects mineral nutrients in grains of various Indian rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes grown on arsenic-contaminated soils of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Sanjay; Tripathi, R D; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Singh, Ragini; Kumar, Amit; Tripathi, Preeti; Dave, Richa; Rai, U N; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, P K; Tuli, R; Adhikari, B; Bag, M K

    2010-09-01

    The exposure of paddy fields to arsenic (As) through groundwater irrigation is a serious concern that may not only lead to As accumulation to unacceptable levels but also interfere with mineral nutrients in rice grains. In the present field study, profiling of the mineral nutrients (iron (Fe), phosphorous, zinc, and selenium (Se)) was done in various rice genotypes with respect to As accumulation. A significant genotypic variation was observed in elemental retention on root Fe plaque and their accumulation in various plant parts including grains, specific As uptake (29-167 mg kg(-1) dw), as well as As transfer factor (4-45%). Grains retained the least level of As (0.7-3%) with inorganic As species being the dominant forms, while organic As species, viz., dimethylarsinic acid and monomethylarsonic acid, were non-detectable. In all tested varieties, the level of Se was low (0.05-0.12 mg kg(-1) dw), whereas that of As was high (0.4-1.68 mg kg(-1) dw), considering their safe/recommended daily intake limits, which may not warrant their human consumption. Hence, their utilization may increase the risk of arsenicosis, when grown in As-contaminated areas.

  5. Soil and water warming accelerates phenology and down-regulation of leaf photosynthesis of rice plants grown under free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE).

    PubMed

    Adachi, Minaco; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Fukayama, Hiroshi; Tokida, Takeshi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Matsunami, Toshinori; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Sameshima, Ryoji; Okada, Masumi

    2014-02-01

    To enable prediction of future rice production in a changing climate, we need to understand the interactive effects of temperature and elevated [CO2] (E[CO2]). We therefore examined if the effect of E[CO2] on the light-saturated leaf photosynthetic rate (Asat) was affected by soil and water temperature (NT, normal; ET, elevated) under open-field conditions at the rice free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) facility in Shizukuishi, Japan, in 2007 and 2008. Season-long E[CO2] (+200 µmol mol(-1)) increased Asat by 26%, when averaged over two years, temperature regimes and growth stages. The effect of ET (+2°C) on Asat was not significant at active tillering and heading, but became negative and significant at mid-grain filling; Asat in E[CO2]-ET was higher than in ambient [CO2] (A[CO2])-NT by only 4%. Photosynthetic down-regulation at E[CO2] also became apparent at mid-grain filling; Asat compared at the same [CO2] in the leaf cuvette was significantly lower in plants grown in E[CO2] than in those grown in A[CO2]. The additive effects of E[CO2] and ET decreased Asat by 23% compared with that of A[CO2]-NT plants. Although total crop nitrogen (N) uptake was increased by ET, N allocation to the leaves and to Rubisco was reduced under ET and E[CO2] at mid-grain filling, which resulted in a significant decrease (32%) in the maximum rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation on a leaf area basis. Because the change in N allocation was associated with the accelerated phenology in E[CO2]-ET plants, we conclude that soil and water warming accelerates photosynthetic down-regulation at E[CO2].

  6. Photosynthetic changes of flag leaves during senescence stage in super high-yield hybrid rice LYPJ grown in field condition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuwen; Zhang, Jingjing; Yu, Jing; Jiang, Xiaohan; Sun, Lingang; Wu, Min; Chen, Guoxiang; Lv, Chuangen

    2014-09-01

    Photosynthetic activities and thylakoid membrane protein patterns as well as the ultrastructure of chloroplasts in flag leaves were investigated during the senescence processes in high-yield hybrid rice LYPJ under field condition. The earlier decrease of PS I activity than PS II in LYPJ was primarily due to the significant degradation of PS I chlorophyll-protein complex. The degradation rate for each chlorophyll-protein complex was different and the order for the stability of thylakoid membrane complexes during flag leaf senescence in rice LYPJ was: LHCII > OEC > PSII core antenna > PSII core > PSI core > LHCI, which was partly supported by the BN-PAGE gel combined with immunoblot analysis. A decrease in the chlorophyll a/b ratio at the senescence stage was observed to coincide with stability of the LHCII subunits. Ultrastructural investigations revealed that the chloroplasts have large loosen stacking grana without interconnecting stroma thylakoids during the senescence processes. It was hypothesized that the stability of grana thylakoids harboring the major LHCII under high radiation condition in summer might played a key role in the dissipation of excess light energy. This alternative strategy would protect photosynthetic apparatus from photodamage and might be causally related to the high yield of this rice cultivar.

  7. Deciphering Phosphate Deficiency-Mediated Temporal Effects on Different Root Traits in Rice Grown in a Modified Hydroponic System

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Manisha; Sanagala, Raghavendrarao; Rai, Vandna; Jain, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi), an essential macronutrient for growth and development of plant, is often limiting in soils. Plants have evolved an array of adaptive strategies including modulation of root system architecture (RSA) for optimal acquisition of Pi. In rice, a major staple food, RSA is complex and comprises embryonically developed primary and seminal roots and post-embryonically developed adventitious and lateral roots. Earlier studies have used variant hydroponic systems for documenting the effects of Pi deficiency largely on primary root growth. Here, we report the temporal effects of Pi deficiency in rice genotype MI48 on 15 ontogenetically distinct root traits by using easy-to-assemble and economically viable modified hydroponic system. Effects of Pi deprivation became evident after 4 days- and 7 days-treatments on two and eight different root traits, respectively. The effects of Pi deprivation for 7 days were also evident on different root traits of rice genotype Nagina 22 (N22). There were genotypic differences in the responses of primary root growth along with lateral roots on it and the number and length of seminal and adventitious roots. Notably though, there were attenuating effects of Pi deficiency on the lateral roots on seminal and adventitious roots and total root length in both these genotypes. The study thus revealed both differential and comparable effects of Pi deficiency on different root traits in these genotypes. Pi deficiency also triggered reduction in Pi content and induction of several Pi starvation-responsive (PSR) genes in roots of MI48. Together, the analyses validated the fidelity of this modified hydroponic system for documenting Pi deficiency-mediated effects not only on different traits of RSA but also on physiological and molecular responses. PMID:27200025

  8. Organic Rice Production: Challenges and Opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The market demand for organically produced rice has grown steadily with the majority of the acreage now being located in Texas and California. A wide range of organic products are marketed including conventional long and medium grain rice, aromatic or scented rice, rice with colored bran, and rice f...

  9. Proteomic analysis for low and high nitrogen-responsive proteins in the leaves of rice genotypes grown at three nitrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Hakeem, Khalid Rehman; Chandna, Ruby; Ahmad, Altaf; Qureshi, Mohd Irfan; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2012-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient for plants. Increase in crop production is associated with increase in N fertilizers. Excessive use of N fertilizers and the low nitrogen utilization efficiency by crop plants is a major cause for environmental damage. Therefore, to reduce the N-fertilizer pollution, there is an urgent need to improve nitrogen use efficiency. Identification and/or development of genotypes which can grow and yield well at low nitrogen levels may provide a solution. Understanding the molecular mechanism of differential nitrogen use efficiency of the genotypes may provide some clues. Keeping the above facts in mind, in this study we have identified the high N-responsive and low N-responsive contrasting rice genotypes, out of 20 genotypes that were grown at low (1 mM), moderate (10 mM), and high (25 mM) levels of N (KNO(3)). Proteome analysis of leaves revealed that the proteins involved in the energy production/regulation and metabolism in plant leaf tissues are differentially expressed under N treatments. Moreover, some disease-resistant and stress-induced proteins were found to be overexpressed at high levels of N. The present study could be useful in identifying proteins responding to different levels of nitrogen fertilization, which may open new avenues for a better understanding of N use efficiency, and for developing new strategies to enhance N efficiency in cereal crops.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity on mice of extract of Ganoderma lucidum grown on rice via modulation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways.

    PubMed

    Hasnat, Md Abul; Pervin, Mehnaz; Cha, Kyu Min; Kim, Si Kwan; Lim, Beong Ou

    2015-06-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular medicinal mushroom with anti-inflammatory potential. In the present study, the aim was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect and mode of action of G. lucidum grown on germinated brown rice (GLBR) in a mouse model of colitis. It was shown that GLBR suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and decreased the expression of COX-2, TNF-α, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 mRNAs. GLBR also inhibited activation of p38, ERK, JNK, MAPKs, and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB). In a mouse model of colitis, colonic mucosal injury was evaluated using macroscopic, biochemical, and histopathological testing. Disease activity index (DAI), macroscopic score, and histological score significantly decreased upon GLBR treatment. Moreover, immunofluorescence studies indicated that DSS activates nuclear translocation of NF-κB in colon tissue, which is attenuated by GLBR extract. These findings suggest that GLBR is protective against colitis via inhibition of MAPK phosphorylation and NF-κB activation.

  11. Ethanol Extract of Antrodia camphorata Grown on Germinated Brown Rice Suppresses Inflammatory Responses in Mice with Acute DSS-Induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of Antrodia camphorata (AC) grown on germinated brown rice (CBR) extract was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. CBR suppressed the release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) E2 from lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-)stimulated RAW264.7 cells. CBR inhibited the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-(COX-)2 proteins, and it activated p38-MAPK, extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK), and NF-κB in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expression was reduced in CBR-treated RAW264.7 cells. In concert with in vitro data, CBR suppressed the levels of dextran-sulfate-sodium-(DSS-)induced iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the colon tissue. CBR treatment inhibited activated p38-MAPK, ERK, and NF-κB proteins in the colon tissue of DSS-induced mice. TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression was reduced in DSS+CBR-treated mice. The disease activity index and histological scores were significantly lower in CBR-treated mice (500 mg/kg/day) than in DSS-treated mice (P < 0.05 versus DSS). This is the first report of anti-inflammatory activity of CBR in DSS-induced acute colitis. These results suggest that CBR is a promising, potential agent for preventing acute colitis through the inhibition of NF-κB signaling and its upstream signaling molecules, including MAPKs. PMID:23818935

  12. Comparison and heritability of major rice end-use quality traits among diverse accessions grown in both tropical and temperate USA environments and genetic marker implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing environment has been well-documented as playing a large role in effecting the end-use quality traits of rice. Apparent amylose content (AAC) and gelatinization temperature (GT) are considered to be the two most important end-use quality characteristics in rice, defining the major classes tha...

  13. Cadmium phytoavailability to rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in representative Chinese soils. A model to improve soil environmental quality guidelines for food safety.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Muhammad T; Aziz, Rukhsanda; Yang, Xiaoe; Xiao, Wendan; Rafiq, Muhammad K; Ali, Basharat; Li, Tingqiang

    2014-05-01

    Food chain contamination by cadmium (Cd) is globally a serious health concern resulting in chronic abnormalities. Rice is a major staple food of the majority world population, therefore, it is imperative to understand the relationship between the bioavailability of Cd in soils and its accumulation in rice grain. Objectives of this study were to establish environment quality standards for seven different textured soils based on human dietary toxicity, total Cd content in soils and bioavailable portion of Cd in soil. Cadmium concentrations in polished rice grain were best related to total Cd content in Mollisols and Udic Ferrisols with threshold levels of 0.77 and 0.32mgkg(-1), respectively. Contrastingly, Mehlich-3-extractable Cd thresholds were more suitable for Calcaric Regosols, Stagnic Anthrosols, Ustic Cambosols, Typic Haplustalfs and Periudic Argosols with thresholds values of 0.36, 0.22, 0.17, 0.08 and 0.03mgkg(-1), respectively. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that phytoavailability of Cd to rice grain was strongly correlated with Mehlich-3-extractable Cd and soil pH. The empirical model developed in this study explains the combined effects of soil properties and extractable soil Cd content on the phytoavailability of Cd to polished rice grain. This study indicates that accumulation of Cd in rice is influenced greatly by soil type, which should be considered in assessment of soil safety for Cd contamination in rice. This investigation concluded that the selection of proper soil type for food crop production can help us to avoid the toxicity of Cd in our daily diet.

  14. Seed Priming Alters the Production and Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Intermediates in Rice Seedlings Grown under Sub-optimal Temperature and Nutrient Supply.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Cao, Weidong; Wu, Lishu; Geng, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    The production and detoxification of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) play an important role in the plant response to nutrient and environmental stresses. The present study demonstrated the behavior of growth, ROIs-production and their detoxification in primed and non-primed rice seedlings under chilling stress (18°C) and nitrogen-(N), phosphorus-(P), or potassium-(K) deprivation. The results revealed that chilling stress as well as deprivation of any mineral nutrient severely hampered the seedling growth of rice, however, seed priming treatments (particularly selenium- or salicylic acid-priming), were effective in enhancing the rice growth under stress conditions. The N-deprivation caused the maximum reduction in shoot growth, while the root growth was only decreased by P- or K-deprivation. Although, N-deprivation enhanced the root length of rice, the root fresh weight was unaffected. Rate of lipid peroxidation as well as the production of ROIs, was generally increased under stress conditions; the K-deprived seedlings recorded significantly lower production of ROIs than N- or P-deprived seedlings. The responses of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in rice seedlings to chilling stress were variable with nutrient management regime. All the seed priming were found to trigger or at least maintain the antioxidant defense system of rice seedlings. Notably, the levels of ROIs were significantly reduced by seed priming treatments, which were concomitant with the activities of ROIs-producing enzymes (monoamine oxidase and xanthine oxidase), under all studied conditions. Based on these findings, we put forward the hypothesis that along with role of ROIs-scavenging enzymes, the greater tolerance of primed rice seedlings can also be due to the reduced activity of ROIs-producing enzymes.

  15. Seed Priming Alters the Production and Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Intermediates in Rice Seedlings Grown under Sub-optimal Temperature and Nutrient Supply

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Cao, Weidong; Wu, Lishu; Geng, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    The production and detoxification of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) play an important role in the plant response to nutrient and environmental stresses. The present study demonstrated the behavior of growth, ROIs-production and their detoxification in primed and non-primed rice seedlings under chilling stress (18°C) and nitrogen-(N), phosphorus-(P), or potassium-(K) deprivation. The results revealed that chilling stress as well as deprivation of any mineral nutrient severely hampered the seedling growth of rice, however, seed priming treatments (particularly selenium- or salicylic acid-priming), were effective in enhancing the rice growth under stress conditions. The N-deprivation caused the maximum reduction in shoot growth, while the root growth was only decreased by P- or K-deprivation. Although, N-deprivation enhanced the root length of rice, the root fresh weight was unaffected. Rate of lipid peroxidation as well as the production of ROIs, was generally increased under stress conditions; the K-deprived seedlings recorded significantly lower production of ROIs than N- or P-deprived seedlings. The responses of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in rice seedlings to chilling stress were variable with nutrient management regime. All the seed priming were found to trigger or at least maintain the antioxidant defense system of rice seedlings. Notably, the levels of ROIs were significantly reduced by seed priming treatments, which were concomitant with the activities of ROIs-producing enzymes (monoamine oxidase and xanthine oxidase), under all studied conditions. Based on these findings, we put forward the hypothesis that along with role of ROIs-scavenging enzymes, the greater tolerance of primed rice seedlings can also be due to the reduced activity of ROIs-producing enzymes. PMID:27092157

  16. Genome Wide Association Mapping of Grain Arsenic, Copper, Molybdenum and Zinc in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Grown at Four International Field Sites

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Gareth J.; Douglas, Alex; Lahner, Brett; Yakubova, Elena; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Pinson, Shannon R. M.; Tarpley, Lee; Eizenga, Georgia C.; McGrath, Steve P.; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Islam, M. Rafiqul; Islam, Shofiqul; Duan, Guilan; Zhu, Yongguan; Salt, David E.; Meharg, Andrew A.; Price, Adam H.

    2014-01-01

    The mineral concentrations in cereals are important for human health, especially for individuals who consume a cereal subsistence diet. A number of elements, such as zinc, are required within the diet, while some elements are toxic to humans, for example arsenic. In this study we carry out genome-wide association (GWA) mapping of grain concentrations of arsenic, copper, molybdenum and zinc in brown rice using an established rice diversity panel of ∼300 accessions and 36.9 k single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The study was performed across five environments: one field site in Bangladesh, one in China and two in the US, with one of the US sites repeated over two years. GWA mapping on the whole dataset and on separate subpopulations of rice revealed a large number of loci significantly associated with variation in grain arsenic, copper, molybdenum and zinc. Seventeen of these loci were detected in data obtained from grain cultivated in more than one field location, and six co-localise with previously identified quantitative trait loci. Additionally, a number of candidate genes for the uptake or transport of these elements were located near significantly associated SNPs (within 200 kb, the estimated global linkage disequilibrium previously employed in this rice panel). This analysis highlights a number of genomic regions and candidate genes for further analysis as well as the challenges faced when mapping environmentally-variable traits in a highly genetically structured diversity panel. PMID:24586963

  17. Genome wide association mapping of grain arsenic, copper, molybdenum and zinc in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown at four international field sites.

    PubMed

    Norton, Gareth J; Douglas, Alex; Lahner, Brett; Yakubova, Elena; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Pinson, Shannon R M; Tarpley, Lee; Eizenga, Georgia C; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Islam, M Rafiqul; Islam, Shofiqul; Duan, Guilan; Zhu, Yongguan; Salt, David E; Meharg, Andrew A; Price, Adam H

    2014-01-01

    The mineral concentrations in cereals are important for human health, especially for individuals who consume a cereal subsistence diet. A number of elements, such as zinc, are required within the diet, while some elements are toxic to humans, for example arsenic. In this study we carry out genome-wide association (GWA) mapping of grain concentrations of arsenic, copper, molybdenum and zinc in brown rice using an established rice diversity panel of ∼ 300 accessions and 36.9 k single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The study was performed across five environments: one field site in Bangladesh, one in China and two in the US, with one of the US sites repeated over two years. GWA mapping on the whole dataset and on separate subpopulations of rice revealed a large number of loci significantly associated with variation in grain arsenic, copper, molybdenum and zinc. Seventeen of these loci were detected in data obtained from grain cultivated in more than one field location, and six co-localise with previously identified quantitative trait loci. Additionally, a number of candidate genes for the uptake or transport of these elements were located near significantly associated SNPs (within 200 kb, the estimated global linkage disequilibrium previously employed in this rice panel). This analysis highlights a number of genomic regions and candidate genes for further analysis as well as the challenges faced when mapping environmentally-variable traits in a highly genetically structured diversity panel.

  18. Investigating the Potential for Rice Production with Sprinkler Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almost all rice (Oryza sativa L.) produced in the US Mid-South is grown in a flooded culture that requires considerably more irrigation water than other crops grown in the region. One approach investigated for reducing the water requirements for rice involved producing rice with sprinkler irrigation...

  19. Cost-effective enhanced iron bioavailability in rice grain grown on calcareous soil by sulfur mediation and its effect on heavy metals mineralization.

    PubMed

    Ramzani, Pia Muhammad Adnan; Khalid, Muhammad; Anjum, Shazia; Khan, Waqas-Ud-Din; Ali, Shafaqat; Hannan, Fakhir; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Calcareous soil, high pH, and low organic matter are the major factors that limit iron (Fe) availability to rice crop. The present study was planned with the aim to biofortified rice grain with Fe, by integrated use of chemical and organic amendments in pH-manipulated calcareous soil. The soil pH was reduced (pHL2) by using elemental sulfur (S) at the rate of 0.25 % (w/w). The organic amendments, biochar (BC) and poultry manure (PM) [1 % (w/w)], along with ferrous sulfate at the rate of 7.5 mg kg(-1) soil were used. The incorporation of Fe with BC in soil at pHL2 significantly improved plant biomass, photosynthetic rate, and paddy yield up to 99, 97, and 36 %, respectively, compared to control. A significant increase in grain Fe (190 %), protein (58 %), and ferritin (400 %) contents was observed while anti-nutrients, i.e., polyphenols (37 %) and phytate (21 %) were significantly decreased by the addition of Fe and BC in soil at pHL2 relative to control. Among the organic amendments, PM significantly increased Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr concentrations in rice grain relative to control but their concentration values were below as compared to the toxic limits of hazard quotients and hazard index (HQ and HI). Hence, this study implies that Fe applied with BC in the soil at pHL2 can be considered as an effective strategy to augment Fe bioavailability and to reduce non-essential heavy metal accumulation in rice grain.

  20. Non-Destructive Monitoring of Rice by Hyperspectral In-Field Spectrometry and Uav-Based Remote Sensing: Case Study of Field-Grown Rice in North Rhine-Westphalia Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willkomm, M.; Bolten, A.; Bareth, G.

    2016-06-01

    In the context of an increasing world population, the demand for agricultural crops is continuously rising. Especially rice plays a key role in food security, not only in Asia. To increase crop production of rice, either productivity of plants has to be improved or new cultivation areas have to be found. In this context, our study investigated crop growth of paddy rice (Oryza Sativa J.) in Germany. An experimental field in the vegetation period of 2014 with two nitrogen treatments was conducted using remote sensing methods. The research project focussed on two main aspects: (1) the potential of UAV-based and hyperspectral remote sensing methods to monitor selected growth parameters at different phenological stages; (2) the potential of paddy rice cultivation under the present climate condition in western Germany. We applied a low-cost UAV-system (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) to generate high resolution Crop Surface Models (CSM). These were compared with hyperspectral in-field measurements and directly measured agronomic parameters (fresh and dry aboveground biomass (AGB), leaf-area-index (LAI) and plant nitrogen concentration (PNC)). For all acquisition dates we could determine single in-field structures in the CSM (e.g. distribution of hills) and different growth characteristics between the nitrogen treatments. Especially in the second half of the growing season, the plants with higher nitrogen availability were about 25 - 30 % larger. The plant height in the CSM correlates particularly with fresh AGB and the LAI (R2 > 0.8). Thus, the conducted methods for plant growth monitoring can be a contribution for precision agriculture approaches.

  1. Mapping and validation of quantitative trait loci associated with tiller production in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice has two main subspecies under world-wide production; the indica rices, grown primarily in tropical rice-growing regions, tiller profusely compared to the japonica rices which are grown in temperate and subtropical regions, including the U.S. All breeders seek to increase yield potential by opt...

  2. Characterizing irrigation water requirements for rice production from the Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated rice irrigation water use in the University of Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program between the years of 2003 and 2011. Irrigation water use averaged 747 mm (29.4 inches) over the nine years. A significant 40% water savings was reported for rice grown under a zero gr...

  3. Effect of land preparation methods on growth, seed yields of Jasmine 105 paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) and growth of weeds, grown in Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Srisa-Ard, K

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was carried out on a grower's paddy field, Ban Som Hoeng Village, Kantarawichai, Mahasarakham Province, Northeast Thailand with the use of Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults) in the rainy season of the 2006 (May to November) to investigate effect of land preparation methods on rice plant heights, amounts of weeds and seed yields of Jasmine 105 aromatic paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.). The experiment was laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. The results showed that plant height due to treatments was significantly highest for T3 but T3 was similar to T2, whilst T1 (control) was the least. Mean values of dry weight of narrow leaf type of weeds, in most cases, were significantly lowest with T3 followed by T2 and T3, particularly at the final two sampling periods. Broad leaf type of weeds was significantly highest with T2 throughout the experimental period, whilst T1 and T3, in most cases, were similar. Unfilled seeds were significantly highest with T3 but similar to T1 but T2 was the lowest, whilst filled seeds were significantly highest with T3, both T1 and T2 gave a similar weight. Numbers of panicles m(-2) were significantly highest with T3 but T3 was similar to T2, whilst T1 was the least. Seed size or 1000-seed weight was significantly highest with T3, whilst T2 and T1 were similar. Seed yield was highest and highly significant with T3 (1,136.25 kg ha(-1)) but T3 was similar to T2 (1,083.31 kg ha(-1)), whilst T1 was the lowest (487.50 kg ha(-1)). Land preparation method of T3 treatment may be recommended as the first choice, whilst T2 may be used as an alternative choice.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions, irrigation water use, and arsenic concentrations; a common thread in rice water management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice has historically been grown as a flooded crop in the United States. As competition for water resources has grown, there is interest in reducing water use in rice production so as to maintain a viable and sustainable rice industry into the future. An irrigation study was established in 2011 at ...

  5. Diagnostics of the red rice problem in the U.S.A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice was first grown in the United States in what is now North Carolina and South Carolina at the end of the 17th century. At the beginning of the 20th century, rice was being grown in North and South Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana (LA), and Arkansas (AR). Different red rice biotypes, including “str...

  6. Identification of rice blast resistance genes using international monogenic differentials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases of rice that severely affects crop production in Jilin Province, Northeast China, where temperate japonica rice is primarily grown. In the present study, 44 representative local blast isolat...

  7. Evapotranspiration measurement and modeling in Mid-South irrigated rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly 75% of US rice is grown in the humid mid-South. Rice requires more water to produce than other crops (corn, soybean, and cotton). The identification of rice evapotranspiration and irrigation demand is paramount to understand regional water use and water allocation. Drill-seeded, commercial si...

  8. Antrodia camphorata grown on germinated brown rice inhibits HT-29 human colon carcinoma proliferation through inducing G0/G1 phase arrest and apoptosis by targeting the β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Ki; Lim, Yoong Ho; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-08-01

    Antrodia camphorata (AC) has been used as a traditional medicine to treat food and drug intoxication, diarrhea, abdominal pain, hypertension, pruritis (skin itch), and liver cancer in East Asia. In this study, we investigated anticancer activities of AC grown on germinated brown rice (CBR) in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. We found that the inhibitory efficacy of CBR 80% ethanol (EtOH) extract on HT-29 and CT-26 cell proliferation was more effective than ordinary AC EtOH 80% extract. Next, 80% EtOH extract of CBR was further separated into four fractions; hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), butanol (BuOH), and water. Among them, CBR EtOAc fraction showed the strongest inhibitory activity against HT-29 cell proliferation. Therefore, CBR EtOAc fraction was chosen for further studies. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining data indicated that CBR EtOAc fraction induced apoptosis. Induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest on human colon carcinoma cell was observed in CBR EtOAc fraction-treated cells. We found that CBR decreased the level of proteins involved in G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. CBR EtOAc fraction inhibited the β-catenin signaling pathway, supporting its suppressive activity on the level of cyclin D1. High performance liquid chromatography analysis data indicated that CBR EtOAc fraction contained adenosine. This is the first investigation that CBR has a greater potential as a novel chemopreventive agent than AC against colon cancer. These data suggest that CBR might be useful as a chemopreventive agent against colorectal cancer.

  9. The 3,000 rice genomes project: new opportunities and challenges for future rice research.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Yang; Wang, Jun; Zeigler, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Rice is the world's most important staple grown by millions of small-holder farmers. Sustaining rice production relies on the intelligent use of rice diversity. The 3,000 Rice Genomes Project is a giga-dataset of publically available genome sequences (averaging 14× depth of coverage) derived from 3,000 accessions of rice with global representation of genetic and functional diversity. The seed of these accessions is available from the International Rice Genebank Collection. Together, they are an unprecedented resource for advancing rice science and breeding technology. Our immediate challenge now is to comprehensively and systematically mine this dataset to link genotypic variation to functional variation with the ultimate goal of creating new and sustainable rice varieties that can support a future world population that will approach 9.6 billion by 2050.

  10. Origin, dispersal, cultivation and variation of rice.

    PubMed

    Khush, G S

    1997-09-01

    There are two cultivated and twenty-one wild species of genus Oryza. O. sativa, the Asian cultivated rice is grown all over the world. The African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima is grown on a small scale in West Africa. The genus Oryza probably originated about 130 million years ago in Gondwanaland and different species got distributed into different continents with the breakup of Gondwanaland. The cultivated species originated from a common ancestor with AA genome. Perennial and annual ancestors of O. sativa are O. rufipogon and O. nivara and those of O. glaberrima are O. longistaminata, O. breviligulata and O. glaberrima probably domesticated in Niger river delta. Varieties of O. sativa are classified into six groups on the basis of genetic affinity. Widely known indica rices correspond to group I and japonicas to group VI. The so called javanica rices also belong to group VI and are designated as tropical japonicas in contrast to temperate japonicas grown in temperate climate. Indica and japonica rices had a polyphyletic origin. Indicas were probably domesticated in the foothills of Himalayas in Eastern India and japonicas somewhere in South China. The indica rices dispersed throughout the tropics and subtropics from India. The japonica rices moved northward from South China and became the temperate ecotype. They also moved southward to Southeast Asia and from there to West Africa and Brazil and became tropical ecotype. Rice is now grown between 55 degrees N and 36 degrees S latitudes. It is grown under diverse growing conditions such as irrigated, rainfed lowland, rainfed upland and floodprone ecosystems. Human selection and adaptation to diverse environments has resulted in numerous cultivars. It is estimated that about 120,000 varieties of rice exist in the world. After the establishment of International Rice Research Institute in 1960, rice varietal improvement was intensified and high yielding varieties were developed. These varieties are now planted to 70

  11. Tropical Legume Crop Rotation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Effects on Agronomic and Nitrogen Efficiency of Rice

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Motior M.; Islam, Aminul M.; Azirun, Sofian M.; Boyce, Amru N.

    2014-01-01

    Bush bean, long bean, mung bean, and winged bean plants were grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 2, 4, and 6 g N m−2 preceding rice planting. Concurrently, rice was grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 4, 8, and 12 g N m−2. No chemical fertilizer was used in the 2nd year of crop to estimate the nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE), nitrogen recovery efficiency (NRE), N uptake, and rice yield when legume crops were grown in rotation with rice. Rice after winged bean grown with N at the rate of 4 g N m−2 achieved significantly higher NRE, NAE, and N uptake in both years. Rice after winged bean grown without N fertilizer produced 13–23% higher grain yield than rice after fallow rotation with 8 g N m−2. The results revealed that rice after winged bean without fertilizer and rice after long bean with N fertilizer at the rate of 4 g N m−2 can produce rice yield equivalent to that of rice after fallow with N fertilizer at rates of 8 g N m−2. The NAE, NRE, and harvest index values for rice after winged bean or other legume crop rotation indicated a positive response for rice production without deteriorating soil fertility. PMID:24971378

  12. Tropical legume crop rotation and nitrogen fertilizer effects on agronomic and nitrogen efficiency of rice.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Motior M; Islam, Aminul M; Azirun, Sofian M; Boyce, Amru N

    2014-01-01

    Bush bean, long bean, mung bean, and winged bean plants were grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 2, 4, and 6 g N m(-2) preceding rice planting. Concurrently, rice was grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 4, 8, and 12 g N m(-2). No chemical fertilizer was used in the 2nd year of crop to estimate the nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE), nitrogen recovery efficiency (NRE), N uptake, and rice yield when legume crops were grown in rotation with rice. Rice after winged bean grown with N at the rate of 4 g N m(-2) achieved significantly higher NRE, NAE, and N uptake in both years. Rice after winged bean grown without N fertilizer produced 13-23% higher grain yield than rice after fallow rotation with 8 g N m(-2). The results revealed that rice after winged bean without fertilizer and rice after long bean with N fertilizer at the rate of 4 g N m(-2) can produce rice yield equivalent to that of rice after fallow with N fertilizer at rates of 8 g N m(-2). The NAE, NRE, and harvest index values for rice after winged bean or other legume crop rotation indicated a positive response for rice production without deteriorating soil fertility.

  13. Production of rice straw hydrolysis enzymes by the fungi Trichoderma reesei and Humicola insolens using rice straw as a carbon source.

    PubMed

    Kogo, Takashi; Yoshida, Yuki; Koganei, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Taisuke; Ogihara, Jun; Kasumi, Takafumi

    2017-02-11

    Rice straw was evaluated as a carbon source for the fungi, Trichoderma reesei and Humicola insolens, to produce enzymes for rice straw hydrolysis. The enzyme activity of T. reesei and H. insolens cultivated in medium containing non-treated rice straw were almost equivalent to the enzyme of T. reesei cultivated in Avicel medium, a form of refined cellulose. The enzyme activity of T. reesei cultivated in medium containing NH4OH-treated rice straw was 4-fold higher than enzyme from cultures grown in Avicel medium. In contrast, H. insolens enzyme from cultures grown in NH4OH-treated rice straw had significantly lower activity compared with non-treated rice straw or Avicel. The combined use of T. reesei and H. insolens enzymes resulted in a significant synergistic enhancement in enzymatic activity. Our data suggest that rice straw is a promising low-cost carbon source for fungal enzyme production for rice straw hydrolysis.

  14. Characterization of molecular identity and pathogenicity of rice blast fungus in Hunan province of China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterization of molecular identity and pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus benefits the deployment of effective blast resistance (R) genes. In order to identify blast resistance genes in rice producing areas where most of the hybrid rice is grown in Hunan province, 182 M. oryzae strains were ...

  15. Reducing water use for rice production with remote monitoring and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is an important food crop worldwide and farmers in the Lower Mississippi Water Resource Area of the U.S. grew 68% of the total U.S. crop. U.S.-produced rice is grown almost exclusively in a flooded culture and the water applied to rice has resulted in high energy costs and water shortages in so...

  16. Cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility gene provides direct evidence for some hybrid rice recently evolving into weedy rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingxu; Lu, Zuomei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Peng, Yufa; Valverde, Bernal E.; Qiang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Weedy rice infests paddy fields worldwide at an alarmingly increasing rate. There is substantial evidence indicating that many weedy rice forms originated from or are closely related to cultivated rice. There is suspicion that the outbreak of weedy rice in China may be related to widely grown hybrid rice due to its heterosis and the diversity of its progeny, but this notion remains unsupported by direct evidence. We screened weedy rice accessions by both genetic and molecular marker tests for the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes (Wild abortive, WA, and Boro type, BT) most widely used in the production of indica and japonica three-line hybrid rice as a diagnostic trait of direct parenthood. Sixteen weedy rice accessions of the 358 tested (4.5%) contained the CMS-WA gene; none contained the CMS-BT gene. These 16 accessions represent weedy rices recently evolved from maternal hybrid rice derivatives, given the primarily maternal inheritance of this trait. Our results provide key direct evidence that hybrid rice can be involved in the evolution of some weedy rice accessions, but is not a primary factor in the recent outbreak of weedy rice in China. PMID:26012494

  17. Cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility gene provides direct evidence for some hybrid rice recently evolving into weedy rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxu; Lu, Zuomei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Peng, Yufa; Valverde, Bernal E; Qiang, Sheng

    2015-05-27

    Weedy rice infests paddy fields worldwide at an alarmingly increasing rate. There is substantial evidence indicating that many weedy rice forms originated from or are closely related to cultivated rice. There is suspicion that the outbreak of weedy rice in China may be related to widely grown hybrid rice due to its heterosis and the diversity of its progeny, but this notion remains unsupported by direct evidence. We screened weedy rice accessions by both genetic and molecular marker tests for the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes (Wild abortive, WA, and Boro type, BT) most widely used in the production of indica and japonica three-line hybrid rice as a diagnostic trait of direct parenthood. Sixteen weedy rice accessions of the 358 tested (4.5%) contained the CMS-WA gene; none contained the CMS-BT gene. These 16 accessions represent weedy rices recently evolved from maternal hybrid rice derivatives, given the primarily maternal inheritance of this trait. Our results provide key direct evidence that hybrid rice can be involved in the evolution of some weedy rice accessions, but is not a primary factor in the recent outbreak of weedy rice in China.

  18. An overview of global rice production, supply, trade, and consumption.

    PubMed

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Sugimoto, Jonathan D; Montgomery, Scott; Maberly, Glen F

    2014-09-01

    Rice is the staple food for over half the world's population. Approximately 480 million metric tons of milled rice is produced annually. China and India alone account for ∼50% of the rice grown and consumed. Rice provides up to 50% of the dietary caloric supply for millions living in poverty in Asia and is, therefore, critical for food security. It is becoming an important food staple in both Latin America and Africa. Record increases in rice production have been observed since the start of the Green Revolution. However, rice remains one of the most protected food commodities in world trade. Rice is a poor source of vitamins and minerals, and losses occur during the milling process. Populations that subsist on rice are at high risk of vitamin and mineral deficiency. Improved technologies to fortify rice have the potential to address these deficiencies and their associated adverse health effects. With the rice industry consolidating in many countries, there are opportunities to fortify a significant share of rice for distribution or for use in government safety net programs that target those most in need, especially women and children. Multisectoral approaches are needed for the promotion and implementation of rice fortification in countries.

  19. Barnyard grass-induced rice allelopathy and momilactone B.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2011-07-01

    Here, we investigated chemical-mediated interaction between crop and weeds. Allelopathic activity of rice seedlings exhibited 5.3-6.3-fold increases when rice and barnyard grass seedlings were grown together, where there may be the competitive interference between rice and barnyard grass for nutrients. Barnyard grass is one of the most noxious weeds in rice cultivation. The momilactone B concentration in rice seedlings incubated with barnyard grass seedlings was 6.9-fold greater than that in rice seedlings incubated independently. Low nutrient growth conditions also increased allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentrations in rice seedlings. However, the increases in the low nutrient-induced allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration were much lower than those in barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration. Root exudates of barnyard grass seedlings increased allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration in rice seedlings at concentrations greater than 30 mg/L of the root exudates, and increasing the exudate concentration increased the activity and momilactone B concentration. Therefore, barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity of rice seedlings may be caused not only by nutrient competition between two species, but also by components in barnyard grass root exudates. As momilactone B shows strong allelopathic activities, barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity of rice may be due to the increased concentration of momilactone B in rice seedlings. The present research suggests that rice may respond to the presence of neighboring barnyard grass by sensing the components in barnyard grass root exudates and increasing allelopathic activity by production of elevated concentration of momilactone B. Thus, rice allelopathy may be one of the inducible defense mechanisms by chemical-mediated plant interaction between rice and barnyard grass, and the induced-allelopathy may provide a competitive advantage for

  20. Crop management strategies and disease resistance control the severity of false smut and kernel smut of rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    False smut and kernel smut are common diseases of rice capable of severe epidemics with dramatic yield losses. The importance of rice smuts is often overlooked in the US, and highly susceptible varieties are now being grown on the majority of production acres in the southern rice producing states. O...

  1. The impact of herbicide-resistant rice technology on phenotypic diversity and population structure of United States weedy rice.

    PubMed

    Burgos, Nilda Roma; Singh, Vijay; Tseng, Te Ming; Black, Howard; Young, Nelson D; Huang, Zhongyun; Hyma, Katie E; Gealy, David R; Caicedo, Ana L

    2014-11-01

    The use of herbicide-resistant (HR) Clearfield rice (Oryza sativa) to control weedy rice has increased in the past 12 years to constitute about 60% of rice acreage in Arkansas, where most U.S. rice is grown. To assess the impact of HR cultivated rice on the herbicide resistance and population structure of weedy rice, weedy samples were collected from commercial fields with a history of Clearfield rice. Panicles from each weedy type were harvested and tested for resistance to imazethapyr. The majority of plants sampled had at least 20% resistant offspring. These resistant weeds were 97 to 199 cm tall and initiated flowering from 78 to 128 d, generally later than recorded for accessions collected prior to the widespread use of Clearfield rice (i.e. historical accessions). Whereas the majority (70%) of historical accessions had straw-colored hulls, only 30% of contemporary HR weedy rice had straw-colored hulls. Analysis of genotyping-by-sequencing data showed that HR weeds were not genetically structured according to hull color, whereas historical weedy rice was separated into straw-hull and black-hull populations. A significant portion of the local rice crop genome was introgressed into HR weedy rice, which was rare in historical weedy accessions. Admixture analyses showed that HR weeds tend to possess crop haplotypes in the portion of chromosome 2 containing the ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE gene, which confers herbicide resistance to Clearfield rice. Thus, U.S. HR weedy rice is a distinct population relative to historical weedy rice and shows modifications in morphology and phenology that are relevant to weed management.

  2. Abandoned Rice Fields Make Streams Go Dry in Upland Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayawickreme, D.

    2015-12-01

    In South Asia, new economic realities are driving many rural rice farmers out of agriculture. With increasing neglect, abandonment, and rising conversions of centuries old rice fields into other uses, ecological and environmental consequences of these transitions are becoming progressively clear. Field observations in Sri Lanka's central highlands suggest that small shifts in rice to non-rice land uses in headwater watersheds can have a domino effect on the productivity and viability of rice fields and other ecological systems downstream by inflicting groundwater recharge reductions, lowering groundwater yields, and causing other hydrological changes. Preliminary analysis shows that although rice itself is a very water intensive crop, the presence of rain-fed upland rice-fields is hugely beneficial to the watersheds they reside. In particular, water benefits of rice appear to be derived from ponded conditions (3-5 inches of standing water) in which rice is grown, and the contribution rice fields makes to enhance water retention and storage capacity of their watersheds during the monsoon season that coincide with the cropping season. In the absence of well managed rice-fields, hilly upland landscapes produce more runoff and retain little rainwater during the wet season. Furthermore, after centuries of intensive use, much of South Asia's rice fields are nutrient poor and minimally productive without fertilizer applications and other interventions. Consequently, when abandoned, soil erosion and other impacts that affect aquatic ecosystems and watershed health also emerge. Despite these multiple concerns however, little research is currently done to better understand the environmental significance of rice cultivations that are a dominant land-use in many South Asian landscapes. The aim of this presentation is to stir interest among the scientific community to engage more broadly in rice, water, and environmental change research in the face of new economic realities in

  3. Rice Agriculture in the River Parishes: The Historical Archeology of the Vacherie Site (16 SJ 40), St. James Parish, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    successfully along the Gulf coast because of the climate. Rice was preferable to maize as a substitute for wheat. In a letter to the King dated May 12, 1733...Williamson 1940:11). Row rice was grown on the outer edge of the natural levee, where the wet clay soils prohibited the growing of sugar or maize . The...Another variation of upland rice farming involved planting the rice between rows of maize . This practice remained common 47 along Bayou Teche and

  4. Differentiation of rice cultivar for grain arsenic content associated with soil and water management in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of arsenic (As) in rice grains play an important role in improvement of food quality and minimization of any potential risk from dietary exposure. Twenty-one worldwide cultivars including both indica and japonica subspecies were grown under two water treatments, saturated soil and consiste...

  5. Phytoremediation of metolachlor by transgenic rice plants expressing human CYP2B6.

    PubMed

    Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Sakiko; Ohkawa, Hideo; Ohkawa, Yasunobu

    2005-11-16

    We introduced the human cytochrome P450 gene CYP2B6 into rice plants (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare), and the CYP2B6-expressing rice plants became more tolerant to various herbicides than nontransgenic Nipponbare rice plants. In particular, CYP2B6 rice plants grown in soil showed tolerance to the chloroacetanilide herbicides alachlor and metolachlor. We evaluated the degradation of metolachlor by CYP2B6 rice plants to confirm the metabolic activity of the introduced CYP2B6. Although both CYP2B6 and nontransgenic Nipponbare rice plants could decrease the amount of metolachlor in plant tissue and culture medium, CYP2B6 rice plants could remove much greater amounts. In a greenhouse, the ability of CYP2B6 rice plants to remove metolachlor was confirmed in large-scale experiments, in which these plants appeared able to decrease residual quantities of metolachlor in water and soil.

  6. How does contamination of rice soils with Cd and Zn cause high incidence of human Cd disease in subsistence rice farmers?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown on Zn mine waste contaminated soils has caused unequivocal Cd effects on kidney and occasional bone disease (itai-itai) in subsistence rice farmers, but high intake of Cd from other foods has not caused similar effects. Research has clarified two important topics about ...

  7. Genetic shift in local rice populations during rice breeding programs in the northern limit of rice cultivation in the world.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Kenji; Obara, Mari; Ikegaya, Tomohito; Tamura, Kenichi

    2015-09-01

    The rapid accumulation of pre-existing mutations may play major roles in the establishment and shaping of adaptability for local regions in current rice breeding programs. The cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., which originated from tropical regions, is now grown worldwide due to the concerted efforts of breeding programs. However, the process of establishing local populations and their origins remain unclear. In the present study, we characterized DNA polymorphisms in the rice variety KITAAKE from Hokkaido, one of the northern limits of rice cultivation in the world. Indel polymorphisms were attributed to transposable element-like insertions, tandem duplications, and non-TE deletions as the original mutation events in the NIPPONBARE and KITAAKE genomes. The allele frequencies of the KITAAKE alleles markedly shifted to the current variety types among the local population from Hokkaido in the last two decades. The KITAAKE alleles widely distributed throughout wild rice and cultivated rice over the world. These have accumulated in the local population from Hokkaido via Japanese landraces as the ancestral population of Hokkaido. These results strongly suggested that combinations of pre-existing mutations played a role in the establishment of adaptability. This approach using the re-sequencing of local varieties in unique environmental conditions will be useful as a genetic resource in plant breeding programs in local regions.

  8. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F.; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs. PMID:25653837

  9. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs.

  10. Aflatoxins in Rice Artificially Contaminated with Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus under Natural Storage in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Satoshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masahiko; Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Toshihide; Ikeda, Satoru

    2016-06-01

    Aflatoxin (AFT) contamination is frequent in foods grown in tropical regions, including rice. Although AFTs are generally not found in temperate-region foods, global warming has affected typical temperate-region climates, potentially permitting the contamination of foods with AFT-producing Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus). Here we investigated the AFT production in rice during storage under natural climate conditions in Japan. We examined AFTs in brown rice and rough rice artificially contaminated with A. flavus for 1 year in Japan, and we subjected AFTs in white rice to the same treatment in airtight containers and examined the samples in warm and cold seasons, simulating the storage of white rice in general households. In the brown rice, AFTs increased after 2 months (March) and peaked after 9 months (October). The AFT contamination in the rough rice was minimal. After the polishing and cooking of the brown rice, AFTs were undetectable. In the white rice stored in airtight containers, AFTs increased after 1 month (August) and peaked after 2 months (September). Minimal AFTs were detected in the cold season. Thus, AFT contamination in rice may occur in temperate regions following A. flavus contamination. The storage of rice as rough rice could provide be useful for avoiding AFT contamination.

  11. Mitigation of arsenic accumulation in rice with water management and silicon fertilization.

    PubMed

    Li, R Y; Stroud, J L; Ma, J F; McGrath, S P; Zhao, F J

    2009-05-15

    Rice represents a major route of As exposure in populations that depend on a rice diet. Practical measures are needed to mitigate the problem of excessive As accumulation in paddy rice. Two potential mitigation methods, management of the water regime and Si fertilization, were investigated under greenhouse conditions. Growing rice aerobically during the entire rice growth duration resulted in the leastAs accumulation. Maintaining aerobic conditions during either vegetative or reproductive stage of rice growth also decreased As accumulation in rice straw and grain significantly compared with rice grown under flooded conditions. The effect of water management regimes was consistent with the observed effect of flooding-induced arsenite mobilization in the soil solution. Aerobic treatments increased the percentage of inorganic As in grain, but the concentrations of inorganic As remained lower than in the flooded rice. Silicon fertilization decreased the total As concentration in straw and grain by 78 and 16%, respectively, even though Si addition increased As concentration in the soil solution. Silicon also significantly influenced As speciation in rice grain and husk by enhancing methylation. Silicon decreased the inorganic As concentration in grain by 59% while increasing the concentration of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) by 33%. There were also significant differences between two rice genotypes in grain As speciation. This study demonstrated that water management Si fertilization, and selection of rice cultivars are effective measures that can be used to reduce As accumulation in rice.

  12. Genetic and field management strategies to enhance the nutritional value of rice grains and limit accumulation of undesirable elements such as arsenic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancing the nutritional value of rice grains is of particular interest because rice is a primary dietary component for more than half of the world’s population, and is a primary source of nutrients in many underdeveloped countries. Because rice can be grown under both flooded and unflooded field ...

  13. A digital photography and analysis system for estimation of root and shoot development in rice weed suppression studies in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice germplasm with an inherent ability to suppress weeds can potentially improve the economics and sustainability of weed control in rice. We devised a simple, rapid, and inexpensive digital imaging system to quantify several shoot and root growth characteristics in field-grown rice plants that ha...

  14. Accumulation of arsenic in tissues of rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) and its distribution in fractions of rice grain.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H; Rahman, M Mahfuzur; Rahman, M Arifur; Miah, M A M

    2007-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the accumulation and distribution of arsenic in different fractions of rice grain (Oryza sativa L.) collected from arsenic affected area of Bangladesh. The agricultural soil of study area has become highly contaminated with arsenic due to the excessive use of arsenic-rich underground water (0.070+/-0.006 mg l(-1), n=6) for irrigation. Arsenic content in tissues of rice plant and in fractions of rice grain of two widely cultivated rice varieties, namely BRRI dhan28 and BRRI hybrid dhan1, were determined. Regardless of rice varieties, arsenic content was about 28- and 75-folds higher in root than that of shoot and raw rice grain, respectively. In fractions of parboiled and non-parboiled rice grain of both varieties, the order of arsenic concentrations was; rice hull>bran-polish>brown rice>raw rice>polish rice. Arsenic content was higher in non-parboiled rice grain than that of parboiled rice. Arsenic concentrations in parboiled and non-parboiled brown rice of BRRI dhan28 were 0.8+/-0.1 and 0.5+/-0.0 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively while those of BRRI hybrid dhan1 were 0.8+/-0.2 and 0.6+/-0.2 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. However, parboiled and non-parboiled polish rice grain of BRRI dhan28 contained 0.4+/-0.0 and 0.3+/-0.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight of arsenic, respectively while those of BRRI hybrid dhan1 contained 0.43+/-0.01 and 0.5+/-0.0 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Both polish and brown rice are readily cooked for human consumption. The concentration of arsenic found in the present study is much lower than the permissible limit in rice (1.0 mg kg(-1)) according to WHO recommendation. Thus, rice grown in soils of Bangladesh contaminated with arsenic of 14.5+/-0.1 mg kg(-1) could be considered safe for human consumption.

  15. Association of arsenic concentration and speciation with straighthead disease in US produced rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent reports have indicated that rice when grown under anaerobic flooded field conditions can accumulate high levels of grain arsenic (As). This is a public health concern due to the high daily consumption of rice by some populations. The As-based herbicide (monosodium methanearsonate, MSMA) has ...

  16. Developing rice mapping populations as a genetic resource for validation of GWAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) is divided into two major subspecies, Indica and Japonica with the temperate and tropical japonica subpopulations being part of Japonica. These two subpopulations encompass the majority of the rice grown in the USA. Recently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) iden...

  17. Effect of rice cultivation systems on indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community structure.

    PubMed

    Watanarojanaporn, Nantida; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Tittabutr, Panlada; Longtonglang, Aphakorn; Young, J Peter W; Teaumroong, Neung

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in an agricultural ecosystem are necessary for proper management of beneficial symbiosis. Here we explored how the patterns of the AMF community in rice roots were affected by rice cultivation systems (the system of rice intensification [SRI] and the conventional rice cultivation system [CS]), and by compost application during growth stages. Rice plants harvested from SRI-managed plots exhibited considerably higher total biomass, root dry weight, and seed fill than those obtained from conventionally managed plots. Our findings revealed that all AMF sequences observed from CS plots belonged (only) to the genus Glomus, colonizing in rice roots grown under this type of cultivation, while rice roots sown in SRI showed sequences belonging to both Glomus and Acaulospora. The AMF community was compared between the different cultivation types (CS and SRI) and compost applications by principle component analysis. In all rice growth stages, AMF assemblages of CS management were not separated from those of SRI management. The distribution of AMF community composition based on T-RFLP data showed that the AMF community structure was different among four cultivation systems, and there was a gradual increase of Shannon-Weaver indices of diversity (H') of the AMF community under SRI during growth stages. The results of this research indicated that rice grown in SRI-managed plots had more diverse AMF communities than those grown in CS plots.

  18. Localization and speciation of arsenic and trace elements in rice tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Euan; Kempson, Ivan; Juhasz, Albert L.; Weber, John; Skinner, William M.; Gräfe, Markus

    2009-09-14

    The consumption of arsenic (As) contaminated rice is an important exposure route for humans in countries where rice cultivation employs As contaminated irrigation water. Arsenic toxicity and mobility are a function of its chemical-speciation. The distribution and identification of As in the rice plant are hence necessary to determine the uptake, transformation and potential risk posed by As contaminated rice. In this study we report on the distribution and chemical-speciation of As in rice (Oryza sativa Quest) by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements of rice plants grown in As contaminated paddy water. Investigations of {mu}XRF images from rice tissues found that As was present in all rice tissues, and its presence correlated with the presence of iron at the root surface and copper in the rice leaf. X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis of rice tissues identified that inorganic As was the predominant form of As in all rice tissues studied, and that arsenite became increasingly dominant in the aerial portion of the rice plant.

  19. The Impact of Herbicide-Resistant Rice Technology on Phenotypic Diversity and Population Structure of United States Weedy Rice1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Burgos, Nilda Roma; Singh, Vijay; Tseng, Te Ming; Black, Howard; Young, Nelson D.; Huang, Zhongyun; Hyma, Katie E.; Gealy, David R.; Caicedo, Ana L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbicide-resistant (HR) Clearfield rice (Oryza sativa) to control weedy rice has increased in the past 12 years to constitute about 60% of rice acreage in Arkansas, where most U.S. rice is grown. To assess the impact of HR cultivated rice on the herbicide resistance and population structure of weedy rice, weedy samples were collected from commercial fields with a history of Clearfield rice. Panicles from each weedy type were harvested and tested for resistance to imazethapyr. The majority of plants sampled had at least 20% resistant offspring. These resistant weeds were 97 to 199 cm tall and initiated flowering from 78 to 128 d, generally later than recorded for accessions collected prior to the widespread use of Clearfield rice (i.e. historical accessions). Whereas the majority (70%) of historical accessions had straw-colored hulls, only 30% of contemporary HR weedy rice had straw-colored hulls. Analysis of genotyping-by-sequencing data showed that HR weeds were not genetically structured according to hull color, whereas historical weedy rice was separated into straw-hull and black-hull populations. A significant portion of the local rice crop genome was introgressed into HR weedy rice, which was rare in historical weedy accessions. Admixture analyses showed that HR weeds tend to possess crop haplotypes in the portion of chromosome 2 containing the ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE gene, which confers herbicide resistance to Clearfield rice. Thus, U.S. HR weedy rice is a distinct population relative to historical weedy rice and shows modifications in morphology and phenology that are relevant to weed management. PMID:25122473

  20. Linkage Mapping of Stem Saccharification Digestibility in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Cangmei; Sun, Lili; Ali, Imran; Huang, Linli; Yu, Chunyan; Simister, Rachael; Steele-King, Clare; Gan, Yinbo; McQueen-Mason, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the staple food of almost half of the world population, and in excess 90% of it is grown and consumed in Asia, but the disposal of rice straw poses a problem for farmers, who often burn it in the fields, causing health and environmental problems. However, with increased focus on the development of sustainable biofuel production, rice straw has been recognized as a potential feedstock for non-food derived biofuel production. Currently, the commercial realization of rice as a biofuel feedstock is constrained by the high cost of industrial saccharification processes needed to release sugar for fermentation. This study is focused on the alteration of lignin content, and cell wall chemotypes and structures, and their effects on the saccharification potential of rice lignocellulosic biomass. A recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population derived from a cross between the lowland rice variety IR1552 and the upland rice variety Azucena with 271 molecular markers for quantitative trait SNP (QTS) analyses was used. After association analysis of 271 markers for saccharification potential, 1 locus and 4 pairs of epistatic loci were found to contribute to the enzymatic digestibility phenotype, and an inverse relationship between reducing sugar and lignin content in these recombinant inbred lines was identified. As a result of QTS analyses, several cell-wall associated candidate genes are proposed that may be useful for marker-assisted breeding and may aid breeders to produce potential high saccharification rice varieties. PMID:27415441

  1. Effects of climate change on suitable rice cropping areas, cropping systems and crop water requirements in southern China

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Qing; Yang, Xiaoguang; Dai, Shuwei; Chen, Guangsheng; Li, Yong; Zhang, Caixia

    2015-06-05

    Here, we discuss that rice is one of the main crops grown in southern China. Global climate change has significantly altered the local water availability and temperature regime for rice production. In this study, we explored the influence of climate change on suitable rice cropping areas, rice cropping systems and crop water requirements (CWRs) during the growing season for historical (from 1951 to 2010) and future (from 2011 to 2100) time periods. The results indicated that the land areas suitable for rice cropping systems shifted northward and westward from 1951 to 2100 but with different amplitudes.

  2. Effects of O/sub 2/ concentration on rice seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Alpi, A.; Beevers, H.

    1983-01-01

    The ability of rice, wheat, and oat seedlings to germinate and grow as the O/sub 2/ concentration was lowered to zero was compared. The germination of rice was completely unaffected by O/sub 2/ supply, whereas that of oats and wheat was strongly retarded at levels below 5% O/sub 2/. In contrast to the coleoptiles of oats and wheat and to roots of all three species where growth was progressively diminished as the O/sub 2/ concentration was lowered, that of the rice coleoptile was progressively increased. However, the dry weight and content of protein, sugars, and cellulose were all depressed in the rice coleoptile in anoxia, and the levels of several respiratory enzymes, particularly those of mitochondria, were also much lower than those of the coleoptiles grown in air. In 1% O/sub 2/, the growth of the rice coleoptile was similar to that in air. The effect of ethanol concentration on germination and growth of rice was measured. Coleoptile growth was reduced when the ethanol concentration exceeded 40 millimolarity, and root growth was somewhat more sensitive. Coleoptiles of all three species grown in air were transferred to N/sub 2/ and ethanol accumulation was measured over 24 hours. The rate of ethanol accumulation in oats was close to that in rice, and in all three species the amounts of ethanol lost to the surrounding medium were those expected from simple diffusion from the tissue. The ability of the rice coleoptile to grow in anoxia is apparently not due to a particularly low rate of ethanol formation or to unusual ethanol tolerance. Any explanation of the success of rice in anoxia must encompass the much lower rate of ATP synthesis than that in air and account for the biochemical deficiencies of the coleoptile.

  3. Selenium speciation in soil and rice: influence of water management and Se fertilization.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Fen; Lombi, Enzo; Stroud, Jacqueline L; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2010-11-24

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for half of the world's population, but the selenium (Se) concentrations in rice grain are low in many rice-growing regions. This study investigated the effects of water management on the Se speciation dynamics in the soil solution and Se uptake and speciation in rice in a pot experiment. A control containing no Se or 0.5 mg kg(-1) of soil of selenite or selenate was added to the soil, and plants were grown under aerobic or flooded conditions. Flooding soil increased soluble Se concentration when no Se or selenite was added to the soil, but decreased it markedly when selenate was added. Selenate was the main species in the +selenate treatment, whereas selenite and selenomethionine selenium oxide were detected in the flooded soil solutions of the control and +selenite treatments. Grain Se concentration was 49% higher in the flooded than in the aerobic treatments without Se addition. In contrast, when selenate or selenite was added, the aerobically grown rice contained 25- and 2-fold, respectively, more Se in grain than the anaerobically grown rice. Analysis of Se in rice grain using enzymatic hydrolysis followed by HPLC-ICP-MS and in situ X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) showed selenomethionine to be the predominant Se species. The study showed that selenate addition to aerobic soil was the most effective way to increase Se concentration in rice grain.

  4. The role of irrigation techniques in arsenic bioaccumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Spanu, Antonino; Daga, Leonardo; Orlandoni, Anna Maria; Sanna, Gavino

    2012-08-07

    The bioaccumulation of arsenic compounds in rice is of great concern worldwide because rice is the staple food for billions of people and arsenic is one of the most toxic and carcinogenic elements at even trace amounts. The uptake of arsenic compounds in rice comes mainly from its interaction with system soil/water in the reducing conditions typical of paddy fields and is influenced by the irrigation used. We demonstrate that the use of sprinkler irrigation produces rice kernels with a concentration of total arsenic about fifty times lower when compared to rice grown under continuous flooding irrigation. The average total amount of arsenic, measured by a fully validated ICP-MS method, in 37 rice grain genotypes grown with sprinkler irrigation was 2.8 ± 2.5 μg kg(-1), whereas the average amount measured in the same genotypes grown under identical conditions, but using continuous flooding irrigation was 163 ± 23 μg kg(-1). In addition, we find that the average concentration of total arsenic in rice grains cultivated under sprinkler irrigation is close to the total arsenic concentration found in irrigation waters. Our results suggest that, in our experimental conditions, the natural bioaccumulation of this element in rice grains may be completely circumvented by adopting an appropriate irrigation technique.

  5. Morphological Study of the Relationships between Weedy Rice Accessions (Oryza sativa Complex) and Commercial Rice Varieties in Pulau Pinang Rice Granary Area

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Zainudin PMD; Man, Azmi; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman

    2010-01-01

    Weedy rice (WR) is found in many direct-seeded rice fields. WR possesses morphological characteristics that are similar to cultivated rice varieties in the early stage of growth, making them more difficult to control than other weeds. A comparative morphological study was conducted by collecting WR accessions from four sites within the Pulau Pinang rice growing areas. The objective of the study was to characterise WR accessions of the Pulau Pinang rice granary by comparing their morphological characteristics to those of commercially grown rice in the area. Their morphometric relations were established by comparing 17 morphological characteristics of the WR accessions and the commercial varieties. A total of 36 WR morphotypes were identified from these 4 sites based on 17 characteristics, which included grain shattering habit and germination rate. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that 45.88% of the variation observed among the WR accessions and commercial varieties were within the first 3 axes. PB6, PP2 and SGA5 WR accessions had a higher number of tillers and longer panicle lengths, culm heights and leaf lengths compared to the commercial rice. The grain sizes of the commercial varieties were slightly longer, and the chlorophyll contents at 60–70 days after sowing (DAS) were higher than those of the WR accessions. Results from this study are useful for predicting potential WR accession growth, which might improve WR management and agriculture practices that control WR in the future. PMID:24575197

  6. Research in rice fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Between 1987 and 1999, 2.4-3 million acres of rice were planted annually nationwide. Rice fields are a major component of the contemporary landscapes in the Gulf Coastal Plain, the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, and Central Valley of California. In 1998, approximately 600,000 acres of rice were planted in Louisiana. In the Louisiana plant commodities report for 1998, total value for rice was over $350 million; sugarcane was the only plant commodity that exceeded this value. Louisiana has over 2,000 rice farmers supporting over 12,000 jobs in the state. Rice fields in the United States receive high use by wildlife, especially shorebirds, wading birds, and waterfowl. Waterbirds use rice fields for food, shelter, and breeding habitat.

  7. Rice consumption contributes to arsenic exposure in US women

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Gruber, Joann F.; Punshon, Tracy; Sayarath, Vicki; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Baker, Emily R.; Jackson, Brian P.; Folt, Carol L.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging data indicate that rice consumption may lead to potentially harmful arsenic exposure. However, few human data are available, and virtually none exist for vulnerable periods such as pregnancy. Here we document a positive association between rice consumption and urinary arsenic excretion, a biomarker of recent arsenic exposure, in 229 pregnant women. At a 6-mo prenatal visit, we collected a urine sample and 3-d dietary record for water, fish/seafood, and rice. We also tested women's home tap water for arsenic, which we combined with tap water consumption to estimate arsenic exposure through water. Women who reported rice intake (n = 73) consumed a median of 28.3 g/d, which is ∼0.5 cup of cooked rice each day. In general linear models adjusted for age and urinary dilution, both rice consumption (g, dry mass/d) and arsenic exposure through water (μg/d) were significantly associated with natural log-transformed total urinary arsenic (, , both P < 0.0001), as well as inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid (each P < 0.005). Based on total arsenic, consumption of 0.56 cup/d of cooked rice was comparable to drinking 1 L/d of 10 μg As/L water, the current US maximum contaminant limit. US rice consumption varies, averaging ∼0.5 cup/d, with Asian Americans consuming an average of >2 cups/d. Rice arsenic content and speciation also vary, with some strains predominated by dimethylarsinic acid, particularly those grown in the United States. Our findings along with others indicate that rice consumption should be considered when designing arsenic reduction strategies in the United States. PMID:22143778

  8. Cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties; impacted by rice temperature during milling.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois

    2015-03-01

    Rice milling plays a key factor in determining rice quality and value. Therefore accurate quality assessments are critical to the rice industry. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of exposing rice to elevated temperatures during milling, on cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties. Two long (Cybonnett and Francis) and one medium (Jupiter) rice (oryzae sativa L.) cultivars were milled using McGill laboratory mill for 30 and 40 s after warmed up the mill before milling. Four different milling temperatures per milling duration were achieved. Cooked rice texture properties were assessed using a uniaxial compression test and rice flour pasting properties measured using a TA-2000 rheometer. Results of this study showed that exposure of rice to high temperatures during milling significantly decreased cooked rice firmness. An increase in milled rice temperature after milling from 10.0 to 13.3 °C resulted in a 5.4 and 8.1 N decrease in cooked rice firmness. Although not always significant, the increase in milled rice temperature during milling resulted in an increase in cooked rice stickiness. The increase in milling temperature also showed significant increase in rice flour pasting properties. Changes in rice functional characteristics were attributed to the changes occurring to rice chemical constituents due to temperature exposure as indicated by the increase in rice protein hydrophobicity. Proteins are known to affect rice starch water holding capacity and other starch gelatinization properties.

  9. Lack of Zn inhibition of Cd accumulation by rice (Oryza sativa L.) supports non-Zn transporter uptake of Cd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown on Cd contaminated soils has been linked to health problems in subsistence rice farmers in Japan and China. For other crops, normal geogenic Zn inhibits the increased uptake of Cd on contaminated soils. A study was conducted using a multi-chelator buffered nutrient sol...

  10. Effects of landscape features on waterbird use of rice fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, S.; Elphick, C.S.; Guadagnin, D.; Taft, O.; Amano, T.

    2010-01-01

    Literature is reviewed to determine the effects of landscape features on waterbird use of fields in regions where rice (Oryza sativa) is grown. Rice-growing landscapes often consist of diverse land uses and land cover, including rice fields, irrigation ditches, other agricultural fields, grasslands, forests and natural wetlands. Numerous studies indicate that local management practices, such as water depth and timing of flooding and drawdown, can strongly influence waterbird use of a given rice field. However, the effects of size and distribution of rice fields and associated habitats at a landscape scale have received less attention. Even fewer studies have focused on local and landscape effects simultaneously. Habitat connectivity, area of rice, distance to natural wetlands, and presence and distance to unsuitable habitat can be important parameters influencing bird use of rice fields. However, responses to a given landscape vary with landscape structure, scale of analysis, among taxa and within taxa among seasons. A lack of multi-scale studies, particularly those extending beyond simple presence and abundance of a given species, and a lack of direct tests comparing the relative importance of landscape features with in-field management activities limits understanding of the importance of landscape in these systems and hampers waterbird conservation and management.

  11. Selenium Characterization in the Global Rice Supply Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul N.; Lombi, Enzo; Sun, Guo-Xin; Scheckel, Kirk; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Feng, Xinbin; Zhu, Jianming; Carey, Anne-Marie; Adomako, Eureka; Lawgali, Youseff; Deacon, Claire; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2009-08-13

    For up to 1 billion people worldwide, insufficient dietary intake of selenium (Se) is a serious health constraint. Cereals are the dominant Se source for those on low protein diets, as typified by the global malnourished population. With crop Se content constrained largely by underlying geology, regional soil Se variations are often mirrored by their locally grown staples. Despite this, the Se concentrations of much of the world's rice, the mainstay of so many, is poorly characterized, for both total Se content and Se speciation. In this study, 1092 samples of market sourced polished rice were obtained. The sampled rice encompassed dominant rice producing and exporting countries. Rice from the U.S. and India were found to be the most enriched, while mean average levels were lowest in Egyptian rice: {approx}32-fold less than their North American equivalents. By weighting country averages by contribution to either global production or export, modeled baseline values for both were produced. Based on a daily rice consumption of 300 g day{sup -1}, around 75% of the grains from the production and export pools would fail to provide 70% of daily recommended Se intakes. Furthermore, Se localization and speciation characterization using X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF) and X-ray absorption near edge structure ({mu}-XANES) techniques were investigated in a Se-rich sample. The results revealed that the large majority of Se in the endosperm was present in organic forms.

  12. Teosinte Branched 1 modulates tillering in rice plants.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Seon; Woo, Mi-Ok; Koh, Eun-Byeol; Lee, Joohyun; Ham, Tae-Ho; Seo, Hak Soo; Koh, Hee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Tillering is an important trait of cereal crops that optimizes plant architecture for maximum yield. Teosinte Branched 1 (TB1) is a negative regulator of lateral branching and an inducer of female inflorescence formation in Zea mays (maize). Recent studies indicate that TB1 homologs in Oryza sativa (rice), Sorghum bicolor and Arabidopsis thaliana act downstream of the auxin and MORE AUXILIARY GROWTH (MAX) pathways. However, the molecular mechanism by which rice produces tillers remains unknown. In this study, transgenic rice plants were produced that overexpress the maize TB1 (mTB1) or rice TB1 (OsTB1) genes and silence the OsTB1 gene through RNAi-mediated knockdown. Because lateral branching in rice is affected by the environmental conditions, the phenotypes of transgenic plants were observed in both the greenhouse and the paddy field. Compared to wild-type plants, the number of tillers and panicles was reduced and increased in overexpressed and RNAi-mediated knockdown OsTB1 rice plants, respectively, under both environmental conditions. However, the effect was small for plants grown in paddy fields. These results demonstrate that both mTB1 and OsTB1 moderately regulate the tiller development in rice.

  13. [Influence of weeds in Echinochloa on growth and yield of rice].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Chang; Li, Yong-Feng; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Xia

    2014-11-01

    In order to investigate effects of different barnyardgrass species on growth and yiled of rice, two rice cultivars, Xinliangyou 6 hao (an indica hybrid cultivar) and Nanjing 46 (a japonica cultivar), were co-cultured with four barnyardgrass species grown at a density of six plants · m(-2) from 10 days after transplanting to maturity. The treatments were designed as follow: weed free (control), rice with Echinochloa crusgalli var. mitis (T1), rice with E. crusgalli (T2), rice with E. crusgali var. zelayensis (T3), and rice with E. colonum (T4). The result showed that barnyardgrass-induced reductions in grain yield of rice were obviously different among the four treatments. T1, T2 and T3 treatments reduced the grain yield of indicia cultivar by 19.2%, 10.8% and 21.9%, and the respective reductions in japonica cultivar were 39.7%, 25.3% and 47.3%, re- spectively. However, no significant difference was detected for T4 treatment. During rice co-culture with barnyardgrass, T1, T2 and T3 significantly reduced rice dry matter accumulation at maturity, flag leaf photosynthetic rate, root oxidation activity and the activity of adenosine triphosphate enzyme (ATPsse) in rice grains at the filling stage, and the magnitude of decrease was in the order of T3 > T1 > T2, while no significant difference was observed between T4 and CK. In addition, all treatments had no effects on the final tiller number and plant height of rice. It indicated that the negative effect of barnyardgrass on rice growth and yield differed among the four species of barnyardgrass, in the order of T3 > T1 > T2 > T4. Barnyardgrass reduced the flag leaf photosynthetic rate of rice, both root oxidation activity and ATPsse activity in grains, which resulted in the reduction in final productivity of rice when co-cultured with barnyardgrass.

  14. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  15. Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A1234

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jian; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Genetically engineered “Golden Rice” contains up to 35 μg β-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice β-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status. Objective: The objective was to determine the vitamin A value of intrinsically labeled dietary Golden Rice in humans. Design: Golden Rice plants were grown hydroponically with heavy water (deuterium oxide) to generate deuterium-labeled [2H]β-carotene in the rice grains. Golden Rice servings of 65–98 g (130–200 g cooked rice) containing 0.99–1.53 mg β-carotene were fed to 5 healthy adult volunteers (3 women and 2 men) with 10 g butter. A reference dose of [13C10]retinyl acetate (0.4–1.0 mg) in oil was given to each volunteer 1 wk before ingestion of the Golden Rice dose. Blood samples were collected over 36 d. Results: Our results showed that the mean (±SD) area under the curve for the total serum response to [2H]retinol was 39.9 ± 20.7 μg·d after the Golden Rice dose. Compared with that of the [13C10]retinyl acetate reference dose (84.7 ± 34.6 μg·d), Golden Rice β-carotene provided 0.24–0.94 mg retinol. Thus, the conversion factor of Golden Rice β-carotene to retinol is 3.8 ± 1.7 to 1 with a range of 1.9–6.4 to 1 by weight, or 2.0 ± 0.9 to 1 with a range of 1.0–3.4 to 1 by moles. Conclusion: β-Carotene derived from Golden Rice is effectively converted to vitamin A in humans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00680355. PMID:19369372

  16. Relating raw rice color and composition to cooked rice color.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, the color of milled rice is economically important. The whiter the rice the more it is preferred by consumers and the more value it has in the market place. Little attention has been given to relating raw rice color to cooked milled rice color and, specifically, to determining the i...

  17. Physiological and morphological responses of Ischaemum rugosum Salisb. (wrinkled grass) to different nitrogen rates and rice seeding rates.

    PubMed

    Awan, Tahir Hussain; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh; Cruz, Pompe C Sta

    2014-01-01

    Ischaemum rugosum is a competitive weed in direct-seeded rice systems. Developing integrated weed management strategies that promote the suppression of weeds by crop density, cultivar selection, and nutrition requires better understanding of the extent to which rice interferes with the growth of this weed and how it responds to resource limitation due to rice interference. The growth of I. rugosum was studied when grown with four rice seeding rates (0, 25, 50, and 100 kg ha(-1)) and four nitrogen (N) rates (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg ha(-1)). Compared to the weed plants grown alone, weed tiller number was reduced by 63-80%, leaf number by 68-77%, leaf area by 69-77%, leaf biomass by 72-84%, and inflorescence biomass by 81-93% at the rice seeding rates of 25-100 kg ha(-1). All these parameters increased with increasing rates of N from 0 to 150 kg ha(-1). At weed maturity, I. rugosum plants were 100% taller than rice at 0 kg N ha(-1), whereas, with added N, the weeds were only 50% taller than rice. Weed biomass increased by 82-160%, whereas rice biomass increased by 92-229%, with the application of 50-150 kg N ha(-1). Added N favored rice biomass production more than it did the weed. Rice interference reduced the height and biomass of I. rugosum, but did not suppress its growth completely. I. rugosum showed the ability to reduce the effects of rice interference by increasing leaf area, leaf weight ratio, and specific leaf area, and by decreasing the root-shoot weight ratio in comparison to the weed plants grown alone. The results suggest that rice crop interference alone may reduce I. rugosum growth but may not provide complete control of this weed. The need for integrated weed management practices to effectively control this weed species is highlighted.

  18. Soybean-Enriched Snacks Based on African Rice

    PubMed Central

    Marengo, Mauro; Akoto, Hannah F.; Zanoletti, Miriam; Carpen, Aristodemo; Buratti, Simona; Benedetti, Simona; Barbiroli, Alberto; Johnson, Paa-Nii T.; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther O.; Saalia, Firibu K.; Bonomi, Francesco; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Manful, John; Iametti, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean proteins play a main role in defining the properties of the protein network in the products. At the same content in soybean flour, use of parboiled rice flour increases the snack’s hardness. Electronic nose and electronic tongue discriminated samples containing a higher amount of soybean flour from those with a lower soybean flour content. PMID:28231133

  19. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  20. Making rice even healthier!

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is a naturally healthy food, but what if it could be made even healthier? Would Americans eat more rice if it could be advertised to be a 'New and Improved' source of calcium to promote bone growth, or iron to prevent anemia? Grocery stores are full of foods that are vitamin enhanced to attract...

  1. Phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated soil by Pteris vittata L. II. Effect on arsenic uptake and rice yield.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Asit; Purakayastha, T J; Patra, A K; Sanyal, S K

    2012-07-01

    A greenhouse experiment evaluated the effect of phytoextraction of arsenic from a contaminated soil by Chinese Brake Fern (Pteris vittata L.) and its subsequent effects on growth and uptake of arsenic by rice (Oryza sativa L.) crop. Pteris vittata was grown for one or two growing cycles of four months each with two phosphate sources, using single super phosphate (SSP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP). Rice was grown on phytoextracted soils followed by measurements of biomass yield (grain, straw, and root), arsenic concentration and, uptake by individual plant parts. The biomass yield (grain, straw and rice) of rice was highest in soil phytoextracted with Pteris vittata grown for two cycles and fertilized with diammonium phosphate (DAP). Total arsenic uptake in contaminated soil ranged from 8.2 to 16.9 mg pot(-1) in first growing cycle and 5.5 to 12.0 mg pot(-1) in second growing cycle of Pteris vittata. There was thus a mean reduction of 52% in arsenic content of rice grain after two growing cycle of Pteris vittata and 29% after the one growing cycle. The phytoextraction of arsenic contaminated soil by Pteris vittata was beneficial for growing rice resulted in decreased arsenic content in rice grain of <1 ppm. There was a mean improvement in rice grain yield 14% after two growing cycle and 8% after the one growing cycle of brake fern.

  2. Speciation and phytoavailability of cadmium in soil treated with cadmium-contaminated rice straw.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Huang, Dao-You; Zhu, Qi-Hong; Zhu, Han-Hua; Liu, Shou-Long; Luo, Zun-Chang; Cao, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Ji-Yu; Rao, Zhong-Xiu; Shen, Xin

    2015-02-01

    When grown on Cd-contaminated soil, rice typically accumulates considerable Cd in straw, and which may return to the soil after harvest. This work was undertaken to assess the pollution risk of Cd associated to the Cd-contaminated rice straw after incorporating into an uncontaminated soil. With the Cd-contaminated rice straw added at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % (w/w), an incubation experiment (28 days) with non-planting and a followed pot experiment sequent with two planting (rice and Chinese cabbage, transplanted after 28-day incubation) were carried out to investigate the changes of soil Cd speciation and phytoavailability. The results indicated that the Cd-contaminated rice straw addition significantly increased soil pH and dissolved organic carbon during the 28-day incubation. For the high availability of Cd in contaminated rice straw, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable Cd significantly increased, and the percentages of acetic acid extractable and reducible Cd in soil significantly enhanced after the addition of Cd-contaminated rice straw. However, the Cd-contaminated rice straw addition inhibited the rice growth and induced the decrease of Cd in rice grain and straw by 12.8 to 70.2 % and 39.3 to 57.3 %, respectively, whereas the Cd contents increased by 13.9 to 84.1 % in Chinese cabbage that planted after rice harvest. In conclusion, Cd associated with Cd-contaminated rice straw was highly available after incorporating into the soil, and thus the Cd pollution risk via the Cd-contaminated rice straw incorporation should be evaluated in the Cd-contaminated paddy region.

  3. Ethylene signaling in rice and Arabidopsis: conserved and diverged aspects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Lu, Xiang; Ma, Biao; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2015-04-01

    Ethylene as a gas phytohormone plays significant roles in the whole life cycle of plants, ranging from growth and development to stress responses. A linear ethylene signaling pathway has been established in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis. However, the ethylene signaling mechanism in monocotyledonous plants such as rice is largely unclear. In this review, we compare the ethylene response phenotypes of dark-grown seedlings of Arabidopsis, rice, and other monocotyledonous plants (maize, wheat, sorghum, and Brachypodium distachyon) and pinpoint that rice has a distinct phenotype of root inhibition but coleoptile promotion in etiolated seedlings upon ethylene treatment. We further summarize the homologous genes of Arabidopsis ethylene signaling components in these monocotyledonous plants and discuss recent progress. Although conserved in most aspects, ethylene signaling in rice has evolved new features compared with that in Arabidopsis. These analyses provide novel insights into the understanding of ethylene signaling in the dicotyledonous Arabidopsis and monocotyledonous plants, particularly rice. Further characterization of rice ethylene-responsive mutants and their corresponding genes will help us better understand the whole picture of ethylene signaling mechanisms in plants.

  4. Cytological and molecular analysis of nonhost resistance in rice to wheat powdery mildew and leaf rust pathogens.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yulin; Yao, Juanni; Zhang, Hongchang; Huang, Lili; Kang, Zhensheng

    2015-07-01

    Cereal powdery mildews caused by Blumeria graminis and cereal rusts caused by Puccinia spp. are constant disease threats that limit the production of almost all important cereal crops. Rice is an intensively grown agricultural cereal that is atypical because of its immunity to all powdery mildew and rust fungi. We analyzed the nonhost interactions between rice and the wheat powdery mildew fungus B. graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) and the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina (Ptr) to identify the basis of nonhost resistance (NHR) in rice against cereal powdery mildew and rust fungi at cytological and molecular levels. No visible symptoms were observed on rice leaves inoculated with Bgt or Ptr. Microscopic observations showed that both pathogens exhibited aberrant differentiation and significantly reduced penetration frequencies on rice compared to wheat. The development of Bgt and Ptr was also completely arrested at early infection stages in cases of successful penetration into rice leaves. Attempted infection of rice by Bgt and Ptr induced similar defense responses, including callose deposition, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and hypersensitive response in rice epidermal and mesophyll cells, respectively. Furthermore, a set of defense-related genes were upregulated in rice against Bgt and Ptr infection. Rice is an excellent monocot model for genetic and molecular studies. Therefore, our results demonstrate that rice is a useful model to study the mechanisms of NHR to cereal powdery mildew and rust fungi, which provides useful information for the development of novel and durable strategies to control these important pathogens.

  5. Are Symbiotic Methanotrophs Key Microbes for N Acquisition in Paddy Rice Root?

    PubMed Central

    Minamisawa, Kiwamu; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko; Bao, Zhihua; Shinoda, Ryo; Okubo, Takashi; Ikeda, Seishi

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between biogeochemical processes and microbial functions in rice (Oryza sativa) paddies have been the focus of a large number of studies. A mechanistic understanding of methane–nitrogen (CH4–N) cycle interactions is a key unresolved issue in research on rice paddies. This minireview is an opinion paper for highlighting the mechanisms underlying the interactions between biogeochemical processes and plant-associated microbes based on recent metagenomic, metaproteomic, and isotope analyses. A rice symbiotic gene, relevant to rhizobial nodulation and mycorrhization in plants, likely accommodates diazotrophic methanotrophs or the associated bacterial community in root tissues under low-N fertilizer management, which may permit rice plants to acquire N via N2 fixation. The amount of N fixed in rice roots was previously estimated to be approximately 12% of plant N based on measurements of 15N natural abundance in a paddy field experiment. Community analyses also indicate that methanotroph populations in rice roots are susceptible to environmental conditions such as the microclimate of rice paddies. Therefore, CH4 oxidation by methanotrophs is a driving force in shaping bacterial communities in rice roots grown in CH4-rich environments. Based on these findings, we propose a hypothesis with unanswered questions to describe the interplay between rice plants, root microbiomes, and their biogeochemical functions (CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation). PMID:26960961

  6. Proposal of a growth chamber for growing Super-Dwarf Rice in Space Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Tsukamoto, Koya; Yamashita, Youichirou; Hirai, Takehiro

    Space agriculture needs to be considered to supply food for space crew who stay in space over an extended time period. So far crops such as wheat, onion, oat, pea and lettuce grew to explore the possibility of space agriculture. Although rice is a staple food for most of the world, research on rice cultivation in space has not been done much. Rice grains are nutrient-rich with carbohydrate, protein and dietary fiber. Moreover, rice is a high yield crop and harvested grains have a long shelf life. However, the plant height of standard rice cultivars is relatively long, requiring much space. In addition, rice plants require higher light intensities for greater yield. For these reasons, it is difficult to establish facilities for rice culture in a limited space with a low cost. We propose to employee a super-dwarf cultivar and a small growth chamber with a new type of LEDs. The super-dwarf rice is a short-grain japonica variety and the plant height is approximately 20 cm that is one-fifth as tall as standard cultivars. The LED light used as a light source for this study can provide full spectrum of 380 nm to 750 nm. Air temperature and humidity were controlled by a Peltier device equipped in the chamber. The characteristics of the new type of LEDs and other equipments of the chamber and the ground based performance of super-dwarf rice plants grown in the chamber will be reported.

  7. Pathogen effectors and plant immunity determine specialization of the blast fungus to rice subspecies

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jingjing; Huang, Huichuan; Meusnier, Isabelle; Adreit, Henri; Ducasse, Aurélie; Bonnot, François; Pan, Lei; He, Xiahong; Kroj, Thomas; Fournier, Elisabeth; Tharreau, Didier; Gladieux, Pierre; Morel, Jean-Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how fungi specialize on their plant host is crucial for developing sustainable disease control. A traditional, centuries-old rice agro-system of the Yuanyang terraces was used as a model to show that virulence effectors of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzaeh play a key role in its specialization on locally grown indica or japonica local rice subspecies. Our results have indicated that major differences in several components of basal immunity and effector-triggered immunity of the japonica and indica rice varieties are associated with specialization of M. oryzae. These differences thus play a key role in determining M. oryzae host specificity and may limit the spread of the pathogen within the Yuanyang agro-system. Specifically, the AVR-Pia effector has been identified as a possible determinant of the specialization of M. oryzae to local japonica rice. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19377.001 PMID:28008850

  8. Foliar application of two silica sols reduced cadmium accumulation in rice grains.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuanping; Li, Fangbai; Luo, Chunling; Liu, Xinming; Wang, Shihua; Liu, Tongxu; Li, Xiangdong

    2009-01-30

    In the present study, pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of foliar application of two silica (Si) sols on the alleviation of cadmium (Cd) toxicity in contaminated soil to rice. Results showed that the foliar application of Si sols significantly increased the dry weight of grains (without husk) and shoots in rice grown in Cd contaminated soil, whereas the Cd concentration in the grains and shoots decreased obviously. The total accumulation of Cd in rice grains also decreased with the application of both of the Si sols, but no significant effect was found on the Cd accumulation in the shoots. For the optimal effect, Si-sol-B should be foliar applied at the tillering-stage during rice growth. The mechanism of Si foliar application to alleviate the toxicity and accumulation of Cd in grains of rice may be related to the probable Cd sequestration in the shoot cell walls.

  9. Discrimination of red and white rice bran from Indonesia using HPLC fingerprint analysis combined with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Aryani; Rafi, Mohamad; Darusman, Latifah K

    2017-04-15

    HPLC fingerprint analysis combined with chemometrics was developed to discriminate between the red and the white rice bran grown in Indonesia. The major component in rice bran is γ-oryzanol which consisted of 4 main compounds, namely cycloartenol ferulate, cyclobranol ferulate, campesterol ferulate and β-sitosterol ferulate. Separation of these four compounds along with other compounds was performed using C18 and methanol-acetonitrile with gradient elution system. By using these intensity variations, principal component and discriminant analysis were performed to discriminate the two samples. Discriminant analysis was successfully discriminated the red from the white rice bran with predictive ability of the model showed a satisfactory classification for the test samples. The results of this study indicated that the developed method was suitable as quality control method for rice bran in terms of identification and discrimination of the red and the white rice bran.

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduced the ratios of inorganic/organic arsenic in rice grains.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Chen, X W; Wong, M H

    2016-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) - Rhizophagus intraradices was inoculated to rice to investigate its effects on arsenic (As) uptake, grain As speciation, and rhizospheric As concentration of six rice cultivars grown in As-amended soil (60 mg As kg(-1) soil). The AMF inoculation induced either positive, neutral or negative responses in rice grown in As contaminated soil, suggesting that functional diversity may exist in AMF symbiosis when As is taken up and transferred. The ratios of inorganic/organic As concentrations in rice grains of all cultivars were significantly reduced by AMF, that involved the transformation of inorganic As into less toxic organic form dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in rice. AMF decreased significantly total As and inorganic As concentrations in rice grains of Handao 3. Positive correlations (R(2) = 0.30-0.56, P < 0.05) between As in the rhizospheric soil solution and As in rice grain at different periods were observed. This inferred that the As survey of soil solution can be an effective measure for evaluating As in grains.

  11. Engineering analysis of ERTS data for rice in the Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnair, A. J. (Principal Investigator); Heydt, H. L.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Rice is an important food worldwide. Worthwhile goals, particularly for developing nations, are the capability to recognize from satellite imagery: (1) areas where rice is grown, and (2) growth status (irrigation, vigor, yield). A two-step procedure to achieve this is being investigated. Ground truth, and ERTS-1 imagery (four passes) covering 80% of a rice growth cycle for some Philippine sites, have been analyzed. One-D and three-D signature extraction, and synthesis of an initial site recognition/status algorithm have been performed. Results are encouraging. but additional passes and sites must be analyzed. Good position information for extracted data is a must.

  12. Anaerobic conditions improve germination of a gibberellic acid deficient rice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frantz, Jonathan M.; Bugbee, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Dwarf plants are useful in research because multiple plants can be grown in a small area. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is especially important since its relatively simple genome has recently been sequenced. We are characterizing a gibberellic acid (GA) mutant of rice (japonica cv 'Shiokari,' line N-71) that is extremely dwarf (20 cm tall). Unfortunately, this GA mutation is associated with poor germination (70%) under aerobic conditions. Neither exogenous GA nor a dormancy-breaking heat treatment improved germination. However, 95% germination was achieved by germinating the seeds anaerobically, either in a pure N2 environment or submerged in unstirred tap water. The anaerobic conditions appear to break a mild post-harvest dormancy in this rice cultivar. Copyright 2002 Crop Science Society of America.

  13. Photoperiod shift effects on yield characteristics of rice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, G. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Edible yield must be maximized for each crop species selected for inclusion in the Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS) proposed by NASA to support long-term manned space missions. In a greenhouse study aimed at increasing biomass partitioning to rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain, plants of the high yielding semi-dwarf rice cultivar Ai-Nan-Tsao were started in pots under 8-h photoperiods at a density of 212 plants m-2. After different periods of time under 8-h photoperiods, pots were switched to continuous light for the remainder of the cropping cycle. Continuous light did not delay time to first panicle emergence (60 d) or time to harvest (83 d). There was a positive correlation between the length of continuous light treatments and nongrain biomass. Grain yield (1.6 +/- 0.2 g plant-1) did not increase in continuous light. Yield-efficiency rate (grain weight per length of cropping cycle, canopy volume, and weight of nongrain shoot biomass) was used to compare treatments. Small Ai-Nan-Tsao rice canopies grown under 8-h photoperiods were more efficient producers of grain than canopies grown under continuous light for a portion of the rice cropping cycle.

  14. Graphic Grown Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ann

    2009-01-01

    It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

  15. Escape to Ferality: The Endoferal Origin of Weedy Rice from Crop Rice through De-Domestication

    PubMed Central

    Gettler, Kyle A.; Burgos, Nilda R.; Fischer, Albert J.

    2016-01-01

    Domestication is the hallmark of evolution and civilization and harnesses biodiversity through selection for specific traits. In regions where domesticated lines are grown near wild relatives, congeneric sources of aggressive weedy genotypes cause major economic losses. Thus, the origins of weedy genotypes where no congeneric species occur raise questions regarding management effectiveness and evolutionary mechanisms responsible for weedy population success. Since eradication in the 1970s, California growers avoided weedy rice through continuous flood culture and zero-tolerance guidelines, preventing the import, presence, and movement of weedy seeds. In 2003, after decades of no reported presence in California, a weedy rice population was confirmed in dry-seeded fields. Our objectives were to identify the origins and establishment of this population and pinpoint possible phenotypes involved. We show that California weedy rice is derived from a different genetic source among a broad range of AA genome Oryzas and is most recently diverged from O. sativa temperate japonica cultivated in California. In contrast, other weedy rice ecotypes in North America (Southern US) originate from weedy genotypes from China near wild Oryza, and are derived through existing crop-wild relative crosses. Analyses of morphological data show that California weedy rice subgroups have phenotypes like medium-grain or gourmet cultivars, but have colored pericarp, seed shattering, and awns like wild relatives, suggesting that reversion to non-domestic or wild-like traits can occur following domestication, despite apparent fixation of domestication alleles. Additionally, these results indicate that preventive methods focused on incoming weed sources through contamination may miss burgeoning weedy genotypes that rapidly adapt, establish, and proliferate. Investigating the common and unique evolutionary mechanisms underlying global weed origins and subsequent interactions with crop relatives sheds

  16. Escape to Ferality: The Endoferal Origin of Weedy Rice from Crop Rice through De-Domestication.

    PubMed

    Kanapeckas, Kimberly L; Vigueira, Cynthia C; Ortiz, Aida; Gettler, Kyle A; Burgos, Nilda R; Fischer, Albert J; Lawton-Rauh, Amy L

    Domestication is the hallmark of evolution and civilization and harnesses biodiversity through selection for specific traits. In regions where domesticated lines are grown near wild relatives, congeneric sources of aggressive weedy genotypes cause major economic losses. Thus, the origins of weedy genotypes where no congeneric species occur raise questions regarding management effectiveness and evolutionary mechanisms responsible for weedy population success. Since eradication in the 1970s, California growers avoided weedy rice through continuous flood culture and zero-tolerance guidelines, preventing the import, presence, and movement of weedy seeds. In 2003, after decades of no reported presence in California, a weedy rice population was confirmed in dry-seeded fields. Our objectives were to identify the origins and establishment of this population and pinpoint possible phenotypes involved. We show that California weedy rice is derived from a different genetic source among a broad range of AA genome Oryzas and is most recently diverged from O. sativa temperate japonica cultivated in California. In contrast, other weedy rice ecotypes in North America (Southern US) originate from weedy genotypes from China near wild Oryza, and are derived through existing crop-wild relative crosses. Analyses of morphological data show that California weedy rice subgroups have phenotypes like medium-grain or gourmet cultivars, but have colored pericarp, seed shattering, and awns like wild relatives, suggesting that reversion to non-domestic or wild-like traits can occur following domestication, despite apparent fixation of domestication alleles. Additionally, these results indicate that preventive methods focused on incoming weed sources through contamination may miss burgeoning weedy genotypes that rapidly adapt, establish, and proliferate. Investigating the common and unique evolutionary mechanisms underlying global weed origins and subsequent interactions with crop relatives sheds

  17. Shaping a better rice plant.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathan

    2010-06-01

    Two studies describe how regulatory variation at the rice gene OsSPL14 can lead to altered plant morphology and improve grain yield. These studies support the possibility of improving rice yield through changing plant architecture.

  18. Dark septate endophyte decreases stress on rice plants.

    PubMed

    Santos, Silvana Gomes Dos; Silva, Paula Renata Alves da; Garcia, Andres Calderin; Zilli, Jerri Édson; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro

    Abiotic stress is one of the major limiting factors for plant development and productivity, which makes it important to identify microorganisms capable of increasing plant tolerance to stress. Dark septate endophytes can be symbionts of plants. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of dark septate endophytes isolates to reduce the effects of water stress in the rice varieties Nipponbare and Piauí. The experiments were performed under gnotobiotic conditions, and the water stress was induced with PEG. Four dark septate endophytes were isolated from the roots of wild rice (Oryza glumaepatula) collected from the Brazilian Amazon. Plant height as well as shoot and root fresh and dry matter were measured. Leaf protein concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activity were also estimated. The dark septate endophytes were grown in vitro in Petri dishes containing culture medium; they exhibited different levels of tolerance to salinity and water stress. The two rice varieties tested responded differently to inoculation with dark septate endophytes. Endophytes promoted rice plant growth both in the presence and in the absence of a water deficit. Decreased oxidative stress in plants in response to inoculation was observed in nearly all inoculated treatments, as indicated by the decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity. Dark septate endophytes fungi were shown to increase the tolerance of rice plants to stress caused by water deficiency.

  19. Genetic structure and isolation by distance in a landrace of Thai rice

    PubMed Central

    Pusadee, Tonapha; Jamjod, Sansanee; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Rerkasem, Benjavan; Schaal, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    Rice is among the 3 most important crops worldwide. While much of the world's rice harvest is based on modern high-yield varieties, traditional varieties of rice grown by indigenous groups have great importance as a resource for future crop improvement. These local landraces represent an intermediate stage of domestication between a wild ancestor and modern varieties and they serve as reservoirs of genetic variation. Such genetic variation is influenced both by natural processes such as selection and drift, and by the agriculture practices of local farmers. How these processes interact to shape and change the population genetics of landrace rice is unknown. Here, we determine the population genetic structure of a single variety of landrace rice, Bue Chomee, cultivated by Karen people of Thailand. Microsatellite markers reveal high level of genetic variation despite predominant inbreeding in the crop. Bue Chomee rice shows slight but significant genetic differentiation among Karen villages. Moreover, genetically determined traits such as flowering time can vary significantly among villages. An unanticipated result was the overall pattern of genetic differentiation across villages which conforms to an isolation by distance model of differentiation. Isolation by distance is observed in natural plant species where the likelihood of gene flow is inversely related to distance. In Karen rice, gene flow is the result of farmers' seed sharing networks. Taken together, these data suggest that landrace rice is a dynamic genetic system that responds to evolutionary forces, both natural and those imposed by humans. PMID:19651617

  20. Characterization of functional trait diversity among Indian cultivated and weedy rice populations

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, M.; Singh, Raghwendra; Kumar, B.; Chauhan, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Weedy rice, a menace in rice growing areas globally, is biosimilar having attributes similar to cultivated and wild rice, and therefore is difficult to manage. A study was initiated to characterize the functional traits of 76 weedy rice populations and commonly grown rice cultivars from different agro-climatic zones for nine morphological, five physiological, and three phenological parameters in a field experiment under an augmented block design. Comparison between weedy and cultivated rice revealed a difference in duration (days) from panicle emergence to heading as the most variable trait and awn length as the least variable one, as evidenced from their coefficients of variation. The results of principal component analysis revealed the first three principal components to represent 47.3% of the total variation, which indicates an important role of transpiration, conductance, leaf-air temperature difference, days to panicle emergence, days to heading, flag leaf length, SPAD (soil-plant analysis development), grain weight, plant height, and panicle length to the diversity in weedy rice populations. The variations existing in weedy rice population are a major reason for its wider adaptability to varied environmental conditions and also a problem while trying to manage it. PMID:27072282

  1. Sulfur Fertilization Changes the Community Structure of Rice Root-, and Soil- Associated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Sachiko; Bao, Zhihua; Okubo, Takashi; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Seishi; Shinoda, Ryo; Anda, Mizue; Kondo, Ryuji; Mori, Yumi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2016-01-01

    Under paddy field conditions, biological sulfur oxidation occurs in the oxidized surface soil layer and rhizosphere, in which oxygen leaks from the aerenchyma system of rice plants. In the present study, we examined community shifts in sulfur-oxidizing bacteria associated with the oxidized surface soil layer and rice roots under different sulfur fertilization conditions based on the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene in order to explore the existence of oligotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the paddy rice ecosystem. Rice plants were grown in pots with no fertilization (control) or CaCO3 or CaSO4 fertilization. A principal-coordinates analysis (PCoA) showed that CaSO4 fertilization markedly affected bacterial communities associated with rice roots and soil, whereas no significant differences were observed in plant growth among the fertilizer treatments examined. In rice roots, the relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and TM7 was significantly higher in CaSO4-fertilized pots than in control pots. Alphaproteobacteria, Bradyrhizobiaceae, and Methylocystaceae members were significantly more abundant in CaSO4-fertilized roots than in control roots. On the other hand, the abundance of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria was lower in CaSO4-fertilized soil than in control soil. These results indicate that the bacteria associated with rice roots and soil responded to the sulfur amendment, suggesting that more diverse bacteria are involved in sulfur oxidation in the rice paddy ecosystem than previously considered. PMID:26947443

  2. Sulfur Fertilization Changes the Community Structure of Rice Root-, and Soil- Associated Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Sachiko; Bao, Zhihua; Okubo, Takashi; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Seishi; Shinoda, Ryo; Anda, Mizue; Kondo, Ryuji; Mori, Yumi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2016-01-01

    Under paddy field conditions, biological sulfur oxidation occurs in the oxidized surface soil layer and rhizosphere, in which oxygen leaks from the aerenchyma system of rice plants. In the present study, we examined community shifts in sulfur-oxidizing bacteria associated with the oxidized surface soil layer and rice roots under different sulfur fertilization conditions based on the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene in order to explore the existence of oligotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the paddy rice ecosystem. Rice plants were grown in pots with no fertilization (control) or CaCO3 or CaSO4 fertilization. A principal-coordinates analysis (PCoA) showed that CaSO4 fertilization markedly affected bacterial communities associated with rice roots and soil, whereas no significant differences were observed in plant growth among the fertilizer treatments examined. In rice roots, the relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and TM7 was significantly higher in CaSO4-fertilized pots than in control pots. Alphaproteobacteria, Bradyrhizobiaceae, and Methylocystaceae members were significantly more abundant in CaSO4-fertilized roots than in control roots. On the other hand, the abundance of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria was lower in CaSO4-fertilized soil than in control soil. These results indicate that the bacteria associated with rice roots and soil responded to the sulfur amendment, suggesting that more diverse bacteria are involved in sulfur oxidation in the rice paddy ecosystem than previously considered.

  3. Arsenic hazard in Cambodian rice from a market-based survey with a case study of Preak Russey village, Kandal Province.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Peter J; Polya, David A; Cooke, David A

    2015-08-01

    This study comprises a market-based survey to assess the arsenic (As) hazard of Cambodian rice, encompassing rice from seven Cambodian provinces, comparisons with rice imported from China, Vietnam and Thailand, and assessments of 15 rice varieties. Rice samples (n = 157) were collected from four large markets in Kandal Province and analysed for As using inductively coupled mass spectrometry. The mean As concentration for Cambodian rice (0.185 µg g(-1), range 0.047-0.771 µg g(-1)) was higher than that for imported rice from Vietnam and Thailand (0.162 and 0.157 µg g(-1), respectively) with mean As concentrations highest in rice from Prey Veng Province resulting in a daily dose of 1.77 µg kg(-1) b.w. (body weight) d(-1). Between unmilled rice varieties, Cambodian-grown White Sticky Rice had the highest mean As concentration (0.234 µg g(-1)), whilst White Sticky Rice produced in Thailand had the lowest (0.125 µg g(-1)), suggesting that localised conditions have greater bearing over rice As concentrations than differences in As uptake between individual varieties themselves. A rice and water consumption survey for 15 respondents in the village of Preak Russey revealed mean consumption rates of 522 g d(-1) of rice and 1.9 L d(-1) of water. At water As concentrations >1000 µg L(-1), the relative contribution to the daily dose from rice is low. When water As concentrations are lowered to 50 µg L(-1), daily doses from rice and water are both generally below the 3.0 µg kg(-1) b.w. d(-1) benchmark daily limit for a 0.5% increase in lung cancer, yet when combined they exceeded this value in all but three respondents.

  4. Arsenic accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.): human exposure through food chain.

    PubMed

    Azizur Rahman, M; Hasegawa, H; Mahfuzur Rahman, M; Mazid Miah, M A; Tasmin, A

    2008-02-01

    Although human exposure to arsenic is thought to be caused mainly through arsenic-contaminated underground drinking water, the use of this water for irrigation enhances the possibility of arsenic uptake into crop plants. Rice is the staple food grain in Bangladesh. Arsenic content in straw, grain and husk of rice is especially important since paddy fields are extensively irrigated with underground water having high level of arsenic concentration. However, straw and husk are widely used as cattle feed. Arsenic concentration in rice grain was 0.5+/-0.02 mg kg(-1) with the highest concentrations being in grains grown on soil treated with 40 mg As kg(-1) soil. With the average rice consumption between 400 and 650 g/day by typical adults in the arsenic-affected areas of Bangladesh, the intake of arsenic through rice stood at 0.20-0.35 mg/day. With a daily consumption of 4 L drinking water, arsenic intake through drinking water stands at 0.2mg/day. Moreover, when the rice plant was grown in 60 mg of As kg(-1) soil, arsenic concentrations in rice straw were 20.6+/-0.52 at panicle initiation stage and 23.7+/-0.44 at maturity stage, whereas it was 1.6+/-0.20 mg kg(-1) in husk. Cattle drink a considerable amount of water. So alike human beings, arsenic gets deposited into cattle body through rice straw and husk as well as from drinking water which in turn finds a route into the human body. Arsenic intake in human body from rice and cattle could be potentially important and it exists in addition to that from drinking water. Therefore, a hypothesis has been put forward elucidating the possible food chain pathways through which arsenic may enter into human body.

  5. Rice: Characterizing the Environmental Response of a Gibberellic Acid-Deficient Rice for Use as a Model Crop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frantz, Jonathan M.; Pinnock, Derek; Klassen, Steve; Bugbee, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a useful model crop plant. Rice was the first crop plant to have its complete genome sequenced. Unfortunately, even semi-dwarf rice cultivars are 60 to 90 an tail, and large plant populations cannot be grown in the confined volumes of greenhouses and growth chambers. We recently identified an extremely short (20 em tall) rice line, which is an ideal model for larger rice cultivars. We called this line "Super Dwarf rice." Here we report the response of Super Dwarf to temperature, photoperiod, photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and factors that can affect time to head emergence. Vegetative biomass increased 6% per degree Celsius, with increasing temperature from 27 to 31 C. Seed yield decreased by 2% per degree Celsius rise in temperature, and as a result, harvest index decreased from 60 to 54%. The time to heading increased by 2 d for every hour above a 12-h photoperiod. Yield increased with increasing PPF up to the highest level tested at 1800 micro-mol/sq m/s (12-h photoperiod; 77.8 mol/sq m/d). Yield efficiency (grams per mole of photons) increased to 900 micro-mol/sq m/s and then slightly decreased at 1800 micro-mol/sq m/s . Heading was delayed by addition of gibberellic acid 3 (GA,) to the root zone but was hastened under mild N stress. Overall, short stature, high yield, high harvest index, and no extraordinary environmental requirements make Super Dwarf rice an excellent model plant for yield studies in controlled environments.

  6. Effects of nitrogen form on growth, CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthetic electron allocation in cucumber and rice plants*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan-hong; Zhang, Yi-li; Wang, Xue-min; Cui, Jin-xia; Xia, Xiao-jian; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jing-quan

    2011-01-01

    Cucumber and rice plants with varying ammonium (NH4 +) sensitivities were used to examine the effects of different nitrogen (N) sources on gas exchange, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence quenching, and photosynthetic electron allocation. Compared to nitrate (NO3 −)-grown plants, cucumber plants grown under NH4 +-nutrition showed decreased plant growth, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular carbon dioxide (CO2) level, transpiration rate, maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, and O2-independent alternative electron flux, and increased O2-dependent alternative electron flux. However, the N source had little effect on gas exchange, Chl a fluorescence parameters, and photosynthetic electron allocation in rice plants, except that NH4 +-grown plants had a higher O2-independent alternative electron flux than NO3 −-grown plants. NO3 − reduction activity was rarely detected in leaves of NH4 +-grown cucumber plants, but was high in NH4 +-grown rice plants. These results demonstrate that significant amounts of photosynthetic electron transport were coupled to NO3 − assimilation, an effect more significant in NO3 −-grown plants than in NH4 +-grown plants. Meanwhile, NH4 +-tolerant plants exhibited a higher demand for the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for NO3 − reduction, regardless of the N form supplied, while NH4 +-sensitive plants had a high water-water cycle activity when NH4 + was supplied as the sole N source. PMID:21265044

  7. Methane potential and biodegradability of rice straw, rice husk and rice residues from the drying process.

    PubMed

    Contreras, L M; Schelle, H; Sebrango, C R; Pereda, I

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural solid residues are a potential renewable energy source. Rice harvesting and production in Sancti Spíritus province, Cuba, currently generates residues without an environmentally sustainable disposal route. Rice residues (rice straw, rice husk and rice residues from the drying process) are potentially an important carbon source for anaerobic digestion. For this paper, rice residues were placed for 36 days retention time in anaerobic batch reactor environments at both mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) conditions. Biogas and methane yield were determined as well as biogas composition. The results showed that rice straw as well as rice residues from the drying process had the highest biogas and methane yield. Temperature played an important role in determining both biogas yield and kinetics. In all cases, rice straw produced the highest yields; under mesophilic conditions the biogas yield was 0.43 m(3) kg(VS)(-1), under thermophilic conditions biogas yield reached 0.52 m(3) kg(VS)(-1). In the case of the rice husk, the biodegradability was very low. Methane content in all batches was kept above 55% vol. All digested material had a high carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio, even though significant biodegradation was recorded with the exception of rice husk. A first-order model can be used to describe the rice crop residues fermentation effectively.

  8. Effect of rice variety and nutrient management on rice productivity in organic rice system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for organic rice has been increasing for decades. However, the information on sustainable organic rice production systems is still lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of soil amendment products, nitrogen rate, and variety on rice grain yield, yield components, ...

  9. Phytochromes are the sole photoreceptors for perceiving red/far-red light in rice

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Makoto; Inagaki, Noritoshi; Xie, Xianzhi; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Baba-Kasai, Akiko; Tanabata, Takanari; Shinomura, Tomoko

    2009-01-01

    Phytochromes are believed to be solely responsible for red and far-red light perception, but this has never been definitively tested. To directly address this hypothesis, a phytochrome triple mutant (phyAphyBphyC) was generated in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare) and its responses to red and far-red light were monitored. Since rice only has three phytochrome genes (PHYA, PHYB and PHYC), this mutant is completely lacking any phytochrome. Rice seedlings grown in the dark develop long coleoptiles while undergoing regular circumnutation. The phytochrome triple mutants also show this characteristic skotomorphogenesis, even under continuous red or far-red light. The morphology of the triple mutant seedlings grown under red or far-red light appears completely the same as etiolated seedlings, and they show no expression of the light-induced genes. This is direct evidence demonstrating that phytochromes are the sole photoreceptors for perceiving red and far-red light, at least during rice seedling establishment. Furthermore, the shape of the triple mutant plants was dramatically altered. Most remarkably, triple mutants extend their internodes even during the vegetative growth stage, which is a time during which wild-type rice plants never elongate their internodes. The triple mutants also flowered very early under long day conditions and set very few seeds due to incomplete male sterility. These data indicate that phytochromes play an important role in maximizing photosynthetic abilities during the vegetative growth stage in rice. PMID:19706555

  10. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions, water use and grain arsenic levels in rice systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture is faced with the challenge of providing healthy food for a growing population while minimizing environmental consequences. Rice (Oryza sativa), the staple crop for the largest number of people on earth, is grown under flooded soil conditions and uses more water and has higher greenhous...

  11. Rice Water use efficiency and yield under continuous and intermittent irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, rice (Oryza sativa L.) is predominantly grown using continuous fl ood irrigation, which requires large quantities of fresh water. Due to increasing scarcity and demand for water, modern agricultural systems need to produce more food with less water. Th e ...

  12. SUPPLEMENTAL ULTRAVIOLET-B RADIATION DOES NOT REDUCE GROWTH OR GRAIN YIELD IN RICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Negative effects of enhanced UV-B radiation have been demonstrated in plants, but impacts under realistic field conditions remain uncertain. Adverse impacts to major crops, such as rice (Oryza sativa L.), that are grown in areas with currently high ambient levels of UV-B, could h...

  13. Determining the basis of nonhost resistance in rice to cereal rusts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal rusts are a constant disease threat that limits the production of almost all agricultural cereals. Rice is atypical in that it is an intensively grown agricultural cereal that is immune to rust pathogens. This immunity is manifested by nonhost resistance (NHR), the mechanisms of which are poo...

  14. Phytoremediation of the herbicides atrazine and metolachlor by transgenic rice plants expressing human CYP1A1, CYP2B6, and CYP2C19.

    PubMed

    Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Sakiko; Ohkawa, Hideo; Ohkawa, Yasunobu

    2006-04-19

    This study evaluated the expression of human cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A1, CYP2B6, and CYP2C19 in rice plants (Oryza sativa cv. Nipponbare) introduced using the plasmid pIKBACH. The transgenic rice plants (pIKBACH rice plants) became more tolerant toward various herbicides than nontransgenic Nipponbare rice plants. Rice plants expressing pIKBACH grown in soil showed tolerance to the herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, and norflurazon and to a mixture of the three herbicides. The degradation of atrazine and metolachlor by pIKBACH rice plants was evaluated to confirm the metabolic activity of the introduced P450s. Although both pIKBACH and nontransgenic Nipponbare rice plants could decrease the amounts of the herbicides in plant tissue and culture medium, pIKBACH rice plants removed greater amounts in greenhouse experiments. The ability of pIKBACH rice plants to remove atrazine and metolachlor from soil was confirmed in large-scale experiments. The metabolism of herbicides by pIKBACH rice plants was enhanced by the introduced P450 species. Assuming that public and commercial acceptance is forthcoming, pIKBACH rice plants may become useful tools for the breeding of herbicide-tolerant crops and for phytoremediation of environmental pollution by organic chemicals.

  15. Rare earth elements and (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotopic characterization of Indian Basmati rice as potential tool for its geographical authenticity.

    PubMed

    Lagad, Rupali A; Singh, Sunil K; Rai, Vinai K

    2017-02-15

    The increasing demand for premium priced Indian Basmati rice (Oryza sativa) in world commodity market causing fraudulent activities like adulteration, mislabelling. In order to develop authentication method for Indian Basmati rice, (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios and REEs composition of Basmati rice, soil and water samples were determined and evaluated their ability as geographical tracer in the present study. In addition, the possible source of Sr in rice plant has also been examined. Basmati rice samples (n=82) showed (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios in the range 0.71143-0.73448 and concentrations of 10 REEs (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb) in ppb levels. Statistical analysis showed strong correlation between (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios of rice, silicate and carbonate fractions of soil. Good correlation and closeness of (87)Sr/(86)Sr of rice with water indicate its uptake in rice from water. Rice grown in southern Uttar Pradesh contains higher (87)Sr/(86)Sr compared to other region of Indo-Gangetic Plain due to higher (87)Sr/(86)Sr of the Ganga compared to other rivers. (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios can be used as a tracer for differentiating Indian Basmati rice from the other country originated rice samples.

  16. On the Role of Abscisic Acid and Gibberellin in the Regulation of Growth in Rice 1

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann-Benning, Susanne; Kende, Hans

    1992-01-01

    Submergence induces rapid elongation of rice coleoptiles (Oryza sativa L.) and of deepwater rice internodes. This adaptive feature helps rice to grow out of the water and to survive flooding. Earlier, we found that the growth response of submerged deepwater rice plants is mediated by ethylene and gibberellin (GA). Ethylene promotes growth, at least in part, by increasing the responsiveness of the internodal tissue to GA. In the present work, we examined the possibility that increased responsiveness to GA was based on a reduction in endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) levels. Submergence and treatment with ethylene led, within 3 hours, to a 75% reduction in the level of ABA in the intercalary meristem and the growing zone of deepwater rice internodes. The level of GA1 increased fourfold during the same time period. An interaction between GA and ABA could also be shown by application of the hormones. ABA inhibited growth of submerged internodes, and GA counteracted this inhibition. Our results indicate that the growth rate of deepwater rice internodes is determined by the ratio of an endogenous growth promoter (GA) and a growth inhibitor (ABA). We also investigated whether ABA is involved in regulating the growth of rice coleoptiles. Rice seedlings were grown on solutions containing fluridone, an inhibitor of carotenoid and, indirectly, of ABA biosynthesis. Treatment with fluridone reduced the level of ABA in coleoptiles and first leaves by more than 75% and promoted coleoptile growth by more than 60%. Little or no enhancement of growth by fluridone was observed in barley, oat, or wheat. The involvement of ABA in determining the growth rate of rice coleoptiles and deepwater rice internodes may be related to the semiaquatic growth habit of this plant. PMID:16668983

  17. Rice: chemistry and technology.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice has taken center stage this last decade, not only as an important provider of nourishment for the world’s population, but as a grain now recognized as having many unique nutritional and functional attributes with potential to be captured in a multitude of value-added food and non-food applicati...

  18. Rice bran phytonutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bran layer of the whole grain rice contains potential health-beneficial compounds. These include vitamin E homologs (tocopherols, tocotrienols), oryzanol fractions, simple phenolics and poly-phenolics. These are antioxidants that are believed to provide protection against diseases such as cancer...

  19. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  20. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  1. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  2. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  3. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  4. Rice Glycosyltransferase (GT) Phylogenomic Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ronald, Pamela

    The Ronald Laboratory staff at the University of California-Davis has a primary research focus on the genes of the rice plant. They study the role that genetics plays in the way rice plants respond to their environment. They created the Rice GT Database in order to integrate functional genomic information for putative rice Glycosyltransferases (GTs). This database contains information on nearly 800 putative rice GTs (gene models) identified by sequence similarity searches based on the Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZy) database. The Rice GT Database provides a platform to display user-selected functional genomic data on a phylogenetic tree. This includes sequence information, mutant line information, expression data, etc. An interactive chromosomal map shows the position of all rice GTs, and links to rice annotation databases are included. The format is intended to "facilitate the comparison of closely related GTs within different families, as well as perform global comparisons between sets of related families." [From http://ricephylogenomics.ucdavis.edu/cellwalls/gt/genInfo.shtml] See also the primary paper discussing this work: Peijian Cao, Laura E. Bartley, Ki-Hong Jung and Pamela C. Ronalda. Construction of a Rice Glycosyltransferase Phylogenomic Database and Identification of Rice-Diverged Glycosyltransferases. Molecular Plant, 2008, 1(5): 858-877.

  5. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in rice field soil and on rice roots.

    PubMed

    Wind, T; Stubner, S; Conrad, R

    1999-05-01

    Rice plants that were grown in flooded rice soil microcosms were examined for their ability to exhibit sulfate reducing activity. Washed excised rice roots showed sulfate reduction potential when incubated in anaerobic medium indicating the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Rice plants, that were incubated in a double-chamber (phylloshpere and rhizosphere separated), showed potential sulfate reduction rates in the anoxic rhizosphere compartment. These rates decreased when oxygen was allowed to penetrate through the aerenchyma system of the plants into the anoxic root compartment, indicating that sulfate reducers on the roots were partially inhibited by oxygen or that sulfate was regenerated by oxidation of reduced S-compounds. The potential activity of sulfate reducers on rice roots was consistent with MPN enumerations showing that H2-utilizing sulfate-reducing bacteria were present in high numbers on the rhizoplane (4.1 x 10(7) g-1 root fresh weight) and in the adjacent rhizosperic soil (2.5 x 10(7) g-1 soil dry weight). Acetate-oxidizing sulfate reducers, on the other hand, showed highest numbers in the unplanted bulk soil (1.9 x 10(6) g-1 soil dry weight). Two sulfate reducing bacteria were isolated from the highest dilutions of the MPN series and were characterized physiologically and phylogenetically. Strain F1-7b which was isolated from the rhizoplane with H2 as electron donor was related to subgroup II of the family Desulfovibrionaceae. Strain EZ-2C2, isolated from the rhizoplane on acetate, grouped together with Desulforhabdus sp. and Syntrophobacter wolinii. Other strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria originated from bulk soil of rice soil microcosms and were isolated using different electron donors. From these isolates, strains R-AcA1, R-IbutA1, R-PimA1 and R-AcetonA170 were Gram-positive bacteria which were affiliated with the genus Desulfotomaculum. The other isolates were members of subgroup II of the Desulfovibrionaceae (R-SucA1 and R-LacA1), were

  6. Growing rice aerobically markedly decreases mercury accumulation by reducing both Hg bioavailability and the production of MeHg.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xun; Ye, Zhihong; Li, Bing; Huang, Linan; Meng, Mei; Shi, Jianbo; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-01-01

    Rice consumption represents a major route of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) exposure for those living in certain areas of inland China. In this study we investigated the effects of water management on bioavailable Hg, MeHg, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB, abundance and community composition) in rhizosphere soil, and total Hg (THg) and MeHg in rice plants grown under glasshouse and paddy field conditions. Aerobic conditions greatly decreased the amount of THg and MeHg taken up by rice plants and affected their distribution in different plant tissues. There were positive correlations between bioavailable Hg and THg in brown rice and roots and between numbers of SRB and MeHg in brown rice, roots, and rhizosphere soil. Furthermore, the community composition of SRB was dramatically influenced by the water management regimes. Our results demonstrate that the greatly reduced bioavailability of Hg and production of MeHg are due to decreased SRB numbers and proportion of Hg methylators in the rhizosphere under aerobic conditions. These are the main reasons for the reduced Hg and MeHg accumulation in aerobically grown rice. Water management is indicated as an effective measure that can be used to reduce Hg and MeHg uptake by rice plants from Hg-contaminated paddy fields.

  7. Refinement of light-responsive transcript lists using rice oligonucleotide arrays: evaluation of gene-redundancy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ki-Hong; Dardick, Christopher; Bartley, Laura E; Cao, Peijian; Phetsom, Jirapa; Canlas, Patrick; Seo, Young-Su; Shultz, Michael; Ouyang, Shu; Yuan, Qiaoping; Frank, Bryan C; Ly, Eugene; Zheng, Li; Jia, Yi; Hsia, An-Ping; An, Kyungsook; Chou, Hui-Hsien; Rocke, David; Lee, Geun Cheol; Schnable, Patrick S; An, Gynheung; Buell, C Robin; Ronald, Pamela C

    2008-10-06

    Studies of gene function are often hampered by gene-redundancy, especially in organisms with large genomes such as rice (Oryza sativa). We present an approach for using transcriptomics data to focus functional studies and address redundancy. To this end, we have constructed and validated an inexpensive and publicly available rice oligonucleotide near-whole genome array, called the rice NSF45K array. We generated expression profiles for light- vs. dark-grown rice leaf tissue and validated the biological significance of the data by analyzing sources of variation and confirming expression trends with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We examined trends in the data by evaluating enrichment of gene ontology terms at multiple false discovery rate thresholds. To compare data generated with the NSF45K array with published results, we developed publicly available, web-based tools (www.ricearray.org). The Oligo and EST Anatomy Viewer enables visualization of EST-based expression profiling data for all genes on the array. The Rice Multi-platform Microarray Search Tool facilitates comparison of gene expression profiles across multiple rice microarray platforms. Finally, we incorporated gene expression and biochemical pathway data to reduce the number of candidate gene products putatively participating in the eight steps of the photorespiration pathway from 52 to 10, based on expression levels of putatively functionally redundant genes. We confirmed the efficacy of this method to cope with redundancy by correctly predicting participation in photorespiration of a gene with five paralogs. Applying these methods will accelerate rice functional genomics.

  8. "Tinni" rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) production: an integrated sociocultural agroecosystem in eastern Uttar Pradesh of India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranjay K; Turner, Nancy J; Pandey, C B

    2012-01-01

    This study reports how Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and informal cultural institutions have conserved key varieties of the wildgrowing rice, 'tinni' (red rice, or brownbeard rice, Oriza rufipogon Griff.), within the Bhar community of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The study was conducted, using conventional and participatory methods, in 10 purposively selected Bhar villages. Two distinct varieties of tinni ('tinni patali' and 'tinni moti') with differing habitats and phenotypic characters were identified. Seven microecosystems (Kari, Badaila, Chammo, Karmol, Bhainsiki, Bhainsala and Khodailia) were found to support these varieties in differing proportions. Tinni rice can withstand more extreme weather conditions (the highest as well as lowest temperatures and rainfall regimes) than the 'genetically improved' varieties of rice (Oriza sativa L.) grown in the region. Both tinni varieties are important bioresources for the Bhar's subsistence livelihoods, and they use distinctive conservation approaches in their maintenance. Bhar women are the main custodians of tinni rice agrobiodiversity, conserving tinni through an institution called Sajha. Democratic decision-making at meetings organized by village elders determines the market price of the tinni varieties. Overall, the indigenous institutions and women's participation seem to have provided safeguards from excessive exploitation of tinni rice varieties. The maintenance of tinni through cultural knowledge and institutions serves as an example of the importance of locally maintained crop varieties in contributing to people's resilience and food security in times of rapid social and environmental change.

  9. "Tinni" Rice ( Oryza rufipogon Griff.) Production: An Integrated Sociocultural Agroecosystem in Eastern Uttar Pradesh of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ranjay K.; Turner, Nancy J.; Pandey, C. B.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports how Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and informal cultural institutions have conserved key varieties of the wildgrowing rice, ` tinni' (red rice, or brownbeard rice, Oriza rufipogon Griff.), within the Bhar community of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The study was conducted, using conventional and participatory methods, in 10 purposively selected Bhar villages. Two distinct varieties of tinni (` tinni patali' and ` tinni moti') with differing habitats and phenotypic characters were identified. Seven microecosystems (Kari, Badaila, Chammo, Karmol, Bhainsiki, Bhainsala and Khodailia) were found to support these varieties in differing proportions. Tinni rice can withstand more extreme weather conditions (the highest as well as lowest temperatures and rainfall regimes) than the `genetically improved' varieties of rice ( Oriza sativa L.) grown in the region. Both tinni varieties are important bioresources for the Bhar's subsistence livelihoods, and they use distinctive conservation approaches in their maintenance. Bhar women are the main custodians of tinni rice agrobiodiversity, conserving tinni through an institution called Sajha. Democratic decision-making at meetings organized by village elders determines the market price of the tinni varieties. Overall, the indigenous institutions and women's participation seem to have provided safeguards from excessive exploitation of tinni rice varieties. The maintenance of tinni through cultural knowledge and institutions serves as an example of the importance of locally maintained crop varieties in contributing to people's resilience and food security in times of rapid social and environmental change.

  10. Soil amendments and cultivar selection can improve rice yield in salt-influenced (tsunami-affected) paddy fields in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Reichenauer, Thomas G; Panamulla, Sunil; Subasinghe, Siripala; Wimmer, Bernhard

    2009-10-01

    The tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean in December 2004 caused devastation of agricultural soils by salt water over wide areas. Many rice fields located close to the coast were affected by the flood of seawater. Electric conductivity (EC) of soils in tsunami-affected rice fields was found to be higher compared to unaffected fields 2 years after the tsunami. Four soil amendments (gypsum, dolomite, cinnamon ash and rice-husk-charcoal) were tested for their influence on improving the yield parameters of rice grown in a tsunami-affected and a non-affected area. Yield parameters were compared with an untreated control of the same cultivar (AT362) and with a salt resistant rice variety (AT354). The salt resistant variety had the highest grain yield. The two amendments gypsum and rice-husk-charcoal led to an increase in grain yield compared to the untreated control, whereas dolomite and cinnamon ash had no significant effect on grain yield.

  11. The Impact of Climate on the Spread of Rice to North-Eastern China: A New Look at the Data from Shandong Province

    PubMed Central

    d’Alpoim Guedes, Jade; Jin, Guiyun; Bocinsky, R. Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Moving crops outside of their original centers of domestication was sometimes a challenging process. Because of its substantial heat requirements, moving rice agriculture outside of its homelands of domestication was not an easy process for farmers in the past. Using crop niche models, we examine the constraints faced by ancient farmers and foragers as they moved rice to its most northerly extent in Ancient China: Shandong province. Contrary to previous arguments, we find that during the climatic optimum rice could have been grown in the region. Climatic cooling following this date had a clear impact on the distribution of rice, one that may have placed adaptive pressure on rice to develop a temperate phenotype. Following the development of this temperate phenotype, rice agriculture could once again become implanted in select areas of north-eastern China. PMID:26125619

  12. Effects of Seeding Rates and Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Density on Damage in Two Medium Grain Varieties of Rice.

    PubMed

    Aghaee, Mohammad-Amir; Espino, Luis; Goding, Kevin; Goldman, Evan; Godfrey, Larry D

    2016-04-01

    Rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel) is a common pest of rice production in the United States whose larvae cause yield loss by feeding on the roots. We conducted studies from 2011–2013 on M-202 and M-206, two commonly grown California medium grain rice varieties, to determine if M-206 demonstrated tolerance to rice water weevil damage. Observations from field studies suggested the possibility of a level of tolerance in M-206 that was more prevalent at high seeding rates. We did this study using two different experimental units, open and ring plots. In both units, we quantified grain yields across four levels, 56, 112, 168, and 224 kg/ha, of seeding rates to detect potential yield recovery by M-206. In the open plots, we used naturally occurring weevil populations compared with controls that reduced the populations with insecticides. In the ring plots, we tested three levels of weevil infestation, none, low, and high, to look at the weevil density effects on yield and scarred plants. Our studies showed that M-206 and M-202 had generally similar densities of immature weevils and yield. Compensation for yield loss did not occur at higher seeding rates. These results suggest that M-206 does not have the ability to tolerate rice water weevil damage better than M-202. There was weak evidence that the number of scarred plants increased as plant density was reduced. The results are discussed in relation to the utility of this study to grower choices of varieties for long-term rice water weevil management.

  13. Accelerated Solvent Extraction of Insecticides from Rice Hulls, Rice Bran, and Polished Rice Grains.

    PubMed

    Teló, Gustavo Mack; Senseman, Scott Allen; Marchesan, Enio; Camargo, Edinalvo Rabaioli; Carson, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of pesticide residues in irrigated rice grains is important for food security. In this study, we analyzed accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) conditions for the extraction of thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole insecticides from rice hulls, rice bran, and polished rice grains. Several variables, including extraction solvent, extraction temperature, extraction pressure, cell size, static extraction time, and sample concentration, were investigated. The average recoveries of the three matrixes were between 89.7 and 109.7% at the fortification level of 0.75 mg/kg. The optimum ASE operating conditions were acetonitrile (100%) as extraction solvent, extraction temperature of 75°C for rice hulls and 100°C for rice bran and polished rice grains, extraction cell pressure of 10.3 MPa, 22 mL cell size, and two extraction cycles. The total extraction time was approximately 25 min. The extracted volume was evaporated to dryness and the residues were redissolved in 2 mL acetonitrile after 1 min of vortex-shaking. Thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole were analyzed by ultra-HPLC with tandem MS. In conclusion, ASE in rice hulls, rice bran, and polished rice grains offers the possibility of a fast and simple method for obtaining a quantitative extraction of the studied pesticides.

  14. Genetic diversity for mycorrhizal symbiosis and phosphate transporters in rice.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kwanho; Mattes, Nicolas; Catausan, Sheryl; Chin, Joong Hyoun; Paszkowski, Uta; Heuer, Sigrid

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a major plant nutrient and developing crops with higher P-use efficiency is an important breeding goal. In this context we have conducted a comparative study of irrigated and rainfed rice varieties to assess genotypic differences in colonization with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and expression of different P transporter genes. Plants were grown in three different soil samples from a rice farm in the Philippines. The data show that AM symbiosis in all varieties was established after 4 weeks of growth under aerobic conditions and that, in soil derived from a rice paddy, natural AM populations recovered within 6 weeks. The analysis of AM marker genes (AM1, AM3, AM14) and P transporter genes for the direct Pi uptake (PT2, PT6) and AM-mediated pathway (PT11, PT13) were largely in agreement with the observed root AM colonization providing a useful tool for diversity studies. Interestingly, delayed AM colonization was observed in the aus-type rice varieties which might be due to their different root structure and might confer an advantage for weed competition in the field. The data further showed that P-starvation induced root growth and expression of the high-affinity P transporter PT6 was highest in the irrigated variety IR66 which also maintained grain yield under P-deficient field conditions.

  15. Effect of coated urea on cadmium accumulation in Oryza sativa L. grown in contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Wu, Zisong; Zhu, Qihong; Zhu, Hanhua; Zhang, Yangzhu; Huang, Daoyou

    2015-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of three types of coated urea on the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in contaminated soil. Pot-culture experiments were conducted in a greenhouse from July to November 2012 on the rice cultivar "Hua Hang Si Miao" in Guangzhou (China). The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and three replications. The treatments were control (CK) (N 0 mg/kg), prilled urea (PU) (N 200 mg/kg), polymer-coated urea (PCU) (N 200 mg/kg), and sulfur-coated urea (SCU) (N 200 mg/kg). Our results indicated that applications of PCU and SCU slightly increased the dry weight of rice grains. The application of SCU significantly decreased the CaCl2 and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP)-extractable Cd concentrations by 15.4 and 56.1%, respectively. Sequential extractions showed that PCU and SCU applications led to a significant decrease in Cd in the exchangeable fraction and an increase in the bound iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) oxides fractions. Cd concentrations in grains treated with PCU were reduced by 11.7%, whereas SCU significantly reduced Cd concentrations by 29.1%. SCU reduced Cd transfer from the straws to the grain. Our results demonstrated that PCU and SCU may be effective in mitigating Cd accumulation in rice grown in acidic Cd-contaminated soil, especially in plants receiving SCU.

  16. Studies on nutrient uptake of rice and characteristics of soil microorganisms in a long-term fertilization experiments for irrigated rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-chun; Wang, Guang-huo

    2005-02-01

    The ecosystem characteristics of soil microorganism and the nutrient uptake of irrigated rice were investigated in a split-block experiment with different fertilization treatments, including control (no fertilizer application), PK, NK, NP, NPK fertilization, in the main block, and conventional rice and hybrid rice comparison, in the sub block. Average data of five treatments in five years indicated that the indigenous N supply (INS) capacity ranged from 32.72 to 93.21 kg/ha; that indigenous P supply (IPS) capacity ranged from 7.42 to 32.25 kg/ha; and that indigenous K supply (IKS) capacity ranged from 16.24 to 140.51 kg/ha, which showed that soil available nutrient pool depletion might occur very fast and that P, K deficiency has become a constraint to increasing yields of consecutive crops grown without fertilizer application. It was found that soil nutrient deficiency and unbalanced fertilization to rice crop had negative effect on the diversity of the microbial community and total microbial biomass in the soil. The long-term fertilizer experiment (LTFE) also showed that balanced application of N, P and K promoted microbial biomass growth and improvement of community composition. Unbalanced fertilization reduced microbial N and increased C/N ratio of the microbial biomass. Compared with inbred rice, hybrid rice behavior is characterized by physiological advantage in nutrient uptake and lower internal K use efficiency.

  17. Effect of flaring of natural gas in oil fields of Assam on rice cultivation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K K; Hazarika, S; Kalita, B; Sharma, B

    2011-07-01

    Assam (India) is endowed with natural resources like oil, coal and natural gas. The crude oil, one of the most precious natural resources, is found in the districts of upper Assam. During the process of extraction of crude oil, low-pressure natural gas is burnt in the air. Most of the oil wells in upper Assam are located near rice fields and therefore, rice crop grown near the oil wells is exposed to light uninterruptedly causing grain sterility resulting significant loss in grain yield. To identify promising varieties for these areas, we studied the effect of flare on rice varieties with different photoperiod sensitivity. The high light intensity and increased light hours were the factors responsible for substantial loss in grain yield near the flare resulting from delay in flower initiation, reduction of panicle length, having less number of grains per panicle and more grain sterility. To prevent significant loss in yield, photoperiod-sensitive traditional and improved rice varieties should not be grown up to the distance of 80 and 100 m, respectively from the boundary wall of the flare pit. Modern weakly-photoperiod sensitive varieties like Ranjti and Mahsuri can be grown 40 m away from the wall while modern photoperiod insensitive variety like Jaya, can be cultivated 20 m away from the wall without significant loss in yield.

  18. Inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice from Fukushima Prefecture after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice produced in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, for 3 years from the nuclear accident in 2011. In 2011, three types of verifications, preliminary survey, main inspection, and emergency survey, revealed that rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 500 Bq/kg (the provisional regulation level until March 2012 in Japan) was identified in the areas north and west of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The internal exposure of an average adult eating rice grown in the area north of the nuclear plant was estimated as 0.05 mSv/year. In 2012, Fukushima Prefecture authorities decided to investigate the radiocesium concentration levels in all rice using custom-made belt conveyor testers. Notably, rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 100 Bq/kg (the new standard since April 2012 in Japan) were detected in only 71 and 28 bags out of the total 10,338,000 in 2012 and 11,001,000 in 2013, respectively. We considered that there were almost no rice exceeding 100 Bq/kg produced in Fukushima Prefecture after 3 years from the nuclear accident, and the safety of Fukushima's rice were ensured because of the investigation of all rice. PMID:25731663

  19. Inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice from Fukushima Prefecture after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2015-03-03

    We summarize the inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice produced in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, for 3 years from the nuclear accident in 2011. In 2011, three types of verifications, preliminary survey, main inspection, and emergency survey, revealed that rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 500 Bq/kg (the provisional regulation level until March 2012 in Japan) was identified in the areas north and west of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The internal exposure of an average adult eating rice grown in the area north of the nuclear plant was estimated as 0.05 mSv/year. In 2012, Fukushima Prefecture authorities decided to investigate the radiocesium concentration levels in all rice using custom-made belt conveyor testers. Notably, rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 100 Bq/kg (the new standard since April 2012 in Japan) were detected in only 71 and 28 bags out of the total 10,338,000 in 2012 and 11,001,000 in 2013, respectively. We considered that there were almost no rice exceeding 100 Bq/kg produced in Fukushima Prefecture after 3 years from the nuclear accident, and the safety of Fukushima's rice were ensured because of the investigation of all rice.

  20. Evidence for divergence of response in Indica, Japonica, and wild rice to high CO2 × temperature interaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Diane R; Bunce, James A; Tomecek, Martha B; Gealy, David; McClung, Anna; McCouch, Susan R; Ziska, Lewis H

    2016-07-01

    High CO2 and high temperature have an antagonistic interaction effect on rice yield potential and present a unique challenge to adapting rice to projected future climates. Understanding how the differences in response to these two abiotic variables are partitioned across rice germplasm accessions may be key to identifying potentially useful sources of resilient alleles for adapting rice to climate change. In this study, we evaluated eleven globally diverse rice accessions under controlled conditions at two carbon dioxide concentrations (400 and 600 ppm) and four temperature environments (29 °C day/21 °C night; 29 °C day/21 °C night with additional heat stress at anthesis; 34 °C day/26 °C night; and 34 °C day/26 °C night with additional heat stress at anthesis) for a suite of traits including five yield components, five growth characteristics, one phenological trait, and four photosynthesis-related measurements. Multivariate analyses of mean trait data from these eight treatments divide our rice panel into two primary groups consistent with the genetic classification of INDICA/INDICA-like and JAPONICA populations. Overall, we find that the productivity of plants grown under elevated [CO2 ] was more sensitive (negative response) to high temperature stress compared with that of plants grown under ambient [CO2 ] across this diversity panel. We report differential response to CO2 × temperature interaction for INDICA/INDICA-like and JAPONICA rice accessions and find preliminary evidence for the beneficial introduction of exotic alleles into cultivated rice genomic background. Overall, these results support the idea of using wild or currently unadapted gene pools in rice to enhance breeding efforts to secure future climate change adaptation.

  1. Outcrossing Potential between U.S. Blackhull Red Rice and Indica Rice Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy red rice is a major weed pest of rice in the southern U.S. Outcrossing between red rice and commercial tropical japonica rice cultivars has resulted in new weed biotypes that further hinder the effectiveness of weed management. In recent years, indica rice has been used increasingly as a ger...

  2. Growth and Productivity Response of Hybrid Rice to Application of Animal Manures, Plant Residues and Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Amanullah; Khan, Shams-Ul-Tamraiz; Iqbal, Asif; Fahad, Shah

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of organic sources (animal manures vs. plant residues at the rate of 10 t ha(-1) each) on the productivity of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) production under different levels of phosphorus (0, 30, 60, and 90 kg P ha(-1)) fertilization. Two separate field experiments were conducted. In experiment (1), impact of three animal manures sources (cattle, sheep, and poultry manures) and P levels were studied along with one control plot (no animal manure and P applied) was investigated. In experiment (2), three plant residues sources (peach leaves, garlic residues, and wheat straw) and P levels were studied along with one control plot (no plant residues and P applied). Both the experiments were carried out on small land farmer field at District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (Northwest Pakistan) during summer 2015. The results revealed that in both experiments the control plot had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) less productivity than the average of all treated plots with organic sources and P level. The increase in P levels in both experiments (animal manure vs. plant residues) resulted in higher rice productivity (90 > 60 > 30 > 0 kg P ha(-1)). In the experiment under animal manures, application of poultry manure increased rice productivity as compared with sheep and cattle manures (poultry > sheep > cattle manures). In the experiment under plant residues, application of peach leaves or garlic residues had higher rice productivity than wheat straw (peach leaves = garlic residues > wheat straw). On average, rice grown under animal manures produced about 20% higher grain yield than rice grown under crop residues. We conclude from this study that application of 90 kg P ha(-1) along with combined application of animal manures, especially poultry manure increases rice productivity. Also, the use of either garlic residues or peach leaves, never applied before as organic manures, can increase crop productivity and will help

  3. Investigating the Contribution of the Phosphate Transport Pathway to Arsenic Accumulation in Rice1[W

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhongchang; Ren, Hongyan; McGrath, Steve P.; Wu, Ping; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic (As) accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa) may pose a significant health risk to consumers. Plants take up different As species using various pathways. Here, we investigated the contribution of the phosphate (Pi) transport pathway to As accumulation in rice grown hydroponically or under flooded soil conditions. In hydroponic experiments, a rice mutant defective in OsPHF1 (for phosphate transporter traffic facilitator1) lost much of the ability to take up Pi and arsenate and to transport them from roots to shoots, whereas transgenic rice overexpressing either the Pi transporter OsPht1;8 (OsPT8) or the transcription factor OsPHR2 (for phosphate starvation response2) had enhanced abilities of Pi and arsenate uptake and translocation. OsPT8 was found to have a high affinity for both Pi and arsenate, and its overexpression increased the maximum influx by 3- to 5-fold. In arsenate-treated plants, both arsenate and arsenite were detected in the xylem sap, with the proportion of the latter increasing with the exposure time. Under the flooded soil conditions, the phf1 mutant took up less Pi whereas the overexpression lines took up more Pi. But there were no similar effects on As accumulation and distribution. Rice grain contained predominantly dimethylarsinic acid and arsenite, with arsenate being a minor species. These results suggest that the Pi transport pathway contributed little to As uptake and transport to grain in rice plants grown in flooded soil. Transgenic approaches to enhance Pi acquisition from paddy soil through the overexpression of Pi transporters may not increase As accumulation in rice grain. PMID:21715673

  4. Growth and Productivity Response of Hybrid Rice to Application of Animal Manures, Plant Residues and Phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Amanullah; Khan, Shams-ul-Tamraiz; Iqbal, Asif; Fahad, Shah

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of organic sources (animal manures vs. plant residues at the rate of 10 t ha−1 each) on the productivity of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) production under different levels of phosphorus (0, 30, 60, and 90 kg P ha−1) fertilization. Two separate field experiments were conducted. In experiment (1), impact of three animal manures sources (cattle, sheep, and poultry manures) and P levels were studied along with one control plot (no animal manure and P applied) was investigated. In experiment (2), three plant residues sources (peach leaves, garlic residues, and wheat straw) and P levels were studied along with one control plot (no plant residues and P applied). Both the experiments were carried out on small land farmer field at District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (Northwest Pakistan) during summer 2015. The results revealed that in both experiments the control plot had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) less productivity than the average of all treated plots with organic sources and P level. The increase in P levels in both experiments (animal manure vs. plant residues) resulted in higher rice productivity (90 > 60 > 30 > 0 kg P ha−1). In the experiment under animal manures, application of poultry manure increased rice productivity as compared with sheep and cattle manures (poultry > sheep > cattle manures). In the experiment under plant residues, application of peach leaves or garlic residues had higher rice productivity than wheat straw (peach leaves = garlic residues > wheat straw). On average, rice grown under animal manures produced about 20% higher grain yield than rice grown under crop residues. We conclude from this study that application of 90 kg P ha−1 along with combined application of animal manures, especially poultry manure increases rice productivity. Also, the use of either garlic residues or peach leaves, never applied before as organic manures, can increase crop productivity and will help

  5. Effects of different treatments of fly ash and mining soil on growth and antioxidant protection of Indian wild rice.

    PubMed

    Bisoi, Sidhanta Sekhar; Mishra, Swati S; Barik, Jijnasa; Panda, Debabrata

    2017-05-04

    The aim of the present study was investigation of the effects of fly ash and mining soil on growth and antioxidant protection of two cultivars of Indian wild rice (Oryza nivara and Oryza rufipogon) for possible phytoremediation and restoration of metal-contaminated site. In this study, Indian wild rice showed significant changes in germination, growth, and biochemical parameters after exposure to different ratio of fly ash and mining soil with garden soil. There was significant reduction of germination, fresh weight, dry weight, leaf chlorophyll content, leaf area, Special Analysis Device Chlorophyll (SPAD) Index, proteins, and activities of antioxidant enzymes in both cultivars of the wild rice grown in 100% fly ash and mining soil compared to the plants grown in 100% garden soil. Results from this study showed that in both cultivars of wild rice, all growth and antioxidant parameters increased when grown in 50% fly ash and mining soil. Taken together, Indian wild rice has the capacity to tolerate 50% of fly ash and mining soil, and can be considered as a good candidate for possible phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  6. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  7. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  8. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  9. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  10. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  11. Arsenic bioavailability to rice is elevated in Bangladeshi paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Khan, K Asaduzzaman; Stroud, Jacqueline L; Zhu, Yong-Guan; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2010-11-15

    Some paddy soils in the Bengal delta are contaminated with arsenic (As) due to irrigation of As-laden groundwater, which may lead to yield losses and elevated As transfer to the food chain. Whether these soils have a higher As bioavailability than other soils containing either geogenic As or contaminated by mining activities was investigated in a pot experiment. Fourteen soils varying in the source and the degree (4-138 mg As kg 1⁻¹) of As contamination were collected, 10 from Bangladeshi paddy fields (contaminated by irrigation water) and two each from China and the UK (geogenic or mining impacted), for comparison. Bangladeshi soils had higher percentages of the total As extractable by ammonium phosphate (specifically sorbed As) than other soils and also released more As into the porewater upon flooding. Porewater As concentrations increased with increasing soil As concentrations more steeply in Bangladeshi soils, with arsenite being the dominant As species. Rice growth and grain yield decreased markedly in Bangladeshi soils containing > 13 mg As kg 1⁻¹, but not in the other soils. Phosphate-extractable or porewater As was a better indicator of As bioavailability than total soil As. Rice straw As concentrations increased with increasing soil As concentrations; however, As phytotoxicity appeared to result in lower grain As concentrations. The relative proportions of inorganic As and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in grain varied among soils, and the percentage DMA was larger in greenhouse-grown plants than grain samples collected from the paddy fields of the same soil and the same rice cultivar, indicating a strong environmental influence on As species found in rice grain. This study shows that Bangladeshi paddy soils contaminated by irrigation had a higher As bioavailability than other soils, resulting in As phytotoxicity in rice and substantial yield losses.

  12. Responses of Super Rice (Oryza sativa L.) to Different Planting Methods for Grain Yield and Nitrogen-Use Efficiency in the Single Cropping Season

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Song; Wang, Danying; Xu, Chunmei; Ji, Chenglin; Zhang, Xiaoguo; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Xiufu; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2014-01-01

    To break the yield ceiling of rice production, a super rice project was developed in 1996 to breed rice varieties with super high yield. A two-year experiment was conducted to evaluate yield and nitrogen (N)-use response of super rice to different planting methods in the single cropping season. A total of 17 rice varieties, including 13 super rice and four non-super checks (CK), were grown under three N levels [0 (N0), 150 (N150), and 225 (N225) kg ha−1] and two planting methods [transplanting (TP) and direct-seeding in wet conditions (WDS)]. Grain yield under WDS (7.69 t ha−1) was generally lower than TP (8.58 t ha−1). However, grain yield under different planting methods was affected by N rates as well as variety groups. In both years, there was no difference in grain yield between super and CK varieties at N150, irrespective of planting methods. However, grain yield difference was dramatic in japonica groups at N225, that is, there was an 11.3% and 14.1% average increase in super rice than in CK varieties in WDS and TP, respectively. This suggests that high N input contributes to narrowing the yield gap in super rice varieties, which also indicates that super rice was bred for high fertility conditions. In the japonica group, more N was accumulated in super rice than in CK at N225, but no difference was found between super and CK varieties at N0 and N150. Similar results were also found for N agronomic efficiency. The results suggest that super rice varieties have an advantage for N-use efficiency when high N is applied. The response of super rice was greater under TP than under WDS. The results suggest that the need to further improve agronomic and other management practices to achieve high yield and N-use efficiency for super rice varieties in WDS. PMID:25111805

  13. Responses of super rice (Oryza sativa L.) to different planting methods for grain yield and nitrogen-use efficiency in the single cropping season.

    PubMed

    Chen, Song; Wang, Danying; Xu, Chunmei; Ji, Chenglin; Zhang, Xiaoguo; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Xiufu; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2014-01-01

    To break the yield ceiling of rice production, a super rice project was developed in 1996 to breed rice varieties with super high yield. A two-year experiment was conducted to evaluate yield and nitrogen (N)-use response of super rice to different planting methods in the single cropping season. A total of 17 rice varieties, including 13 super rice and four non-super checks (CK), were grown under three N levels [0 (N0), 150 (N150), and 225 (N225) kg ha-1] and two planting methods [transplanting (TP) and direct-seeding in wet conditions (WDS)]. Grain yield under WDS (7.69 t ha-1) was generally lower than TP (8.58 t ha-1). However, grain yield under different planting methods was affected by N rates as well as variety groups. In both years, there was no difference in grain yield between super and CK varieties at N150, irrespective of planting methods. However, grain yield difference was dramatic in japonica groups at N225, that is, there was an 11.3% and 14.1% average increase in super rice than in CK varieties in WDS and TP, respectively. This suggests that high N input contributes to narrowing the yield gap in super rice varieties, which also indicates that super rice was bred for high fertility conditions. In the japonica group, more N was accumulated in super rice than in CK at N225, but no difference was found between super and CK varieties at N0 and N150. Similar results were also found for N agronomic efficiency. The results suggest that super rice varieties have an advantage for N-use efficiency when high N is applied. The response of super rice was greater under TP than under WDS. The results suggest that the need to further improve agronomic and other management practices to achieve high yield and N-use efficiency for super rice varieties in WDS.

  14. Estimating high mosquito-producing rice fields using spectral and spatial data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. L.; Beck, L. R.; Washino, R. K.; Hibbard, K. A.; Salute, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    The cultivation of irrigated rice provides ideal larval habitat for a number of anopheline vectors of malaria throughout the world. Anopheles freeborni, a potential vector of human malaria, is associated with the nearly 240,000 hectares of irrigated rice grown annually in Northern and Central California; therefore, this species can serve as a model for the study of rice field anopheline population dynamics. Analysis of field data revealed that rice fields with early season canopy development, that are located near bloodmeal sources (i.e., pastures with livestock) were more likely to produce anopheline larvae than fields with less developed canopies located further from pastures. Remote sensing reflectance measurements of early-season canopy development and geographic information system (GIS) measurements of distanes between rice fields and pastures with livestock were combined to distinguish between high and low mosquito-producing rice fields. Using spectral and distance measures in either a discriminant or Bayesian analysis, the identification of high mosquito-producing fields was made with 85 percent accuracy nearly two months before anopheline larval populations peaked. Since omission errors were also minimized by these approaches, they could provide a new basis for directing abatement techniques for the control of malaria vectors.

  15. High vapor pressure deficit drives salt-stress-induced rice yield losses in India.

    PubMed

    Tack, Jesse; Singh, Rakesh K; Nalley, Lawton L; Viraktamath, Basavaraj C; Krishnamurthy, Saraswathipura L; Lyman, Nate; Jagadish, Krishna S V

    2015-04-01

    Flooded rice is grown across wide geographic boundaries from as far north as Manchuria and as far south as Uruguay and New South Wales, primarily because of its adaptability across diverse agronomic and climatic conditions. Salt-stress damage, a common occurrence in delta and coastal rice production zones, could be heightened by the interactions between high temperature and relative humidity (vapor pressure deficit--VPD). Using temporal and spatial observations spanning 107 seasons and 19 rice-growing locations throughout India with varying electrical conductivity (EC), including coastal saline, inland saline, and alkaline soils, we quantified the proportion of VPD inducing salinity damage in rice. While controlling for time-invariant factors such as trial locations, rice cultivars, and soil types, our regression analysis indicates that EC has a nonlinear detrimental effect on paddy rice yield. Our estimates suggest these yield reductions become larger at higher VPD. A one standard deviation (SD) increase in EC from its mean value is associated with 1.68% and 4.13% yield reductions at median and maximum observed VPD levels, respectively. Yield reductions increase roughly sixfold when the one SD increase is taken from the 75th percentile of EC. In combination, high EC and VPD generate near catastrophic crop loss as predicted yield approaches zero. If higher VPD levels driven by global warming materialize in conjunction with rising sea levels or salinity incursion in groundwater, this interaction becomes an important and necessary predictor of expected yield losses and global food security.

  16. Screening for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Rice: Salt, Cold, and Drought.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Diego M; Almadanim, M Cecília; Lourenço, Tiago; Abreu, Isabel A; Saibo, Nelson J M; Oliveira, M Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the primary source of food for more than half of the world population. Most rice varieties are severely injured by abiotic stresses, with strong social and economic impact. Understanding rice responses to stress may help breeding for more tolerant varieties. However, papers dealing with stress experiments often describe very different experimental designs, thus making comparisons difficult. The use of identical setups is the only way to generate comparable data. This chapter is organized into three sections, describing the experimental conditions established at the Genomics of Plant Stress (GPlantS) unit of ITQB to assess the response of rice plants to three different abiotic stresses--high salinity, cold stress, and drought. All sections include a detailed description of the materials and methodology, as well as useful notes gathered from the GPlantS team's experience. We use rice seedlings as plants at this stage show high sensitivity to abiotic stresses. For the salt and cold stress assays we use hydroponic cultures, while for the drought assay plants are grown in soil and subjected to water withholding. All setups enable visual score determination and are suitable for sample collection along the imposition of stress. The proposed methodologies are simple and affordable to implement in most labs, allowing the discrimination of several rice genotypes at the molecular and phenotypic level.

  17. Effects of ripening temperature on starch structure and gelatinization, pasting, and cooking properties in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Chun, Areum; Lee, Ho-Jin; Hamaker, Bruce R; Janaswamy, Srinivas

    2015-04-01

    The effect of ripening temperature on rice (Oryza sativa) grain quality was evaluated by assessing starch structure and gelatinization, pasting, and cooking properties. As the ripening temperature increased, the amylose content and number of short amylopectin chains decreased, whereas intermediate amylopectin chains increased, resulting in higher gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy in the starch. These results suggested that an increase in cooking temperature and time would be required for rice grown at higher temperatures. A high ripening temperature increased the peak, trough, and final viscosities and decreased the setback due to the reduction in amylose and the increase in long amylopectin chains. With regard to starch crystallinity and amylopectin molecular structure, the highest branches and compactness were observed at 28/20 °C. Rice that was grown at temperatures above 28/20 °C showed a deterioration of cooking quality and a tendency toward decreased palatability in sensory tests.

  18. Characterization of Grain Quality and Starch Fine Structure of Two Japonica Rice (Oryza Sativa) Cultivars with Good Sensory Properties at Different Temperatures during the Filling Stage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changquan; Zhou, Lihui; Zhu, Zhengbin; Lu, Huwen; Zhou, Xingzhong; Qian, Yiting; Li, Qianfeng; Lu, Yan; Gu, Minghong; Liu, Qiaoquan

    2016-05-25

    Temperature during the growing season is a critical factor affecting grain quality. High temperatures at grain filling affect kernel development, resulting in reduced yield, increased chalkiness, reduced amylose content, and poor milling quality. Here, we investigated the grain quality and starch structure of two japonica rice cultivars with good sensory properties grown at different temperatures during the filling stage under natural field conditions. Compared to those grown under normal conditions, rice grains grown under hot conditions showed significantly reduced eating and cooking qualities, including a higher percentage of grains with chalkiness, lower protein and amylose contents, and higher pasting properties. Under hot conditions, rice starch contained reduced long-chain amylose (MW 10(7.1) to 10(7.4)) and significantly fewer short-chain amylopectin (DP 5-12) but more intermediate- (DP 13-34) and long- (DP 45-60) chain amylopectin than under normal conditions, as well as higher crystallinity and gelatinization properties.

  19. Pore Mn²⁺ dynamics of the rhizosphere of flooded and non-flooded rice during a long wet and drying phase in two rice growing soils.

    PubMed

    Haque, K M Shamsul; Eberbach, Philip L; Weston, Leslie A; Dyall-Smith, Mike; Howitt, Julia A

    2015-09-01

    Flooded rice soils produce elevated concentrations of soluble manganous manganese (Mn(2+)) that could be potentially toxic to subsequent crops. To provide insight into how soil pore Mn(2+) changes its concentration in a rice and post rice drying soil, we used an artificial microcosm system to follow Mn(2+) concentrations in two different soil types (red sodosol and grey vertosol) and under two irrigation regimes (flooded and saturated). Soil pore water was collected from four different depths of soil (2.5 cm, 7.5 cm, 15 cm and 25 cm) and Mn(2+) concentrations were analysed during and after the rice phase over a one year cycle. Mn(2+) increased with the advancement of anaerobic conditions at all soil depths, but the concentration was higher in flooded soil compared to saturated soil. Initially, the highest concentration of Mn(2+) was found at a depth of 7.5 cm, while at the later stage of rice growth, more Mn(2+) was found in the deepest sampling depth (25 cm). Plants grown in saturated soils showed a delay in flowering of approximately 3 weeks compared to flooded cultures. Moreover, plants grown in flooded soil produced more tillers and leaf area than those grown in saturated soil. Peak concentrations of soil Mn(2+) were associated with the reproductive stage of rice growth. Mn(2+) concentrations decreased after drainage of water. In post rice soils, Mn(2+) remained elevated for some time (lag phase), and then rapidly declined. Regression analysis revealed that the process of oxidation of Mn(2+) to Mn(4+) following water drainage decreased with soil depth.

  20. Evaluations of allelopathic effect of Echinochloa colona weed on rice (Oryza sativa L. 'Vandana').

    PubMed

    Swain, D; Paroha, Seema; Singh, Monika; Subudhi, H N

    2012-09-01

    Echinochloa colona (L.) Link is a very problematic weed in up land and medium land rice causing significant reduction in yield. In the present investigation, laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the nature of interaction E. colona on germination and growth of the up land rice cultivar 'Vandana'. The effects of decomposing and decomposed aqueous leachates (1-10% w/v) obtained from the dried biomass of 20, 30, 40 and 60 days old Ecolona plants were studied on rice using petridish bioassay technique with three different types of culture media like filter paper, soil, and soil + activated charcoal. The decomposing leachates of E. colona showed strong toxic effect on root and shoot growth of rice, the highest being noted with 10% leachates of 60 days old plant residue. It inhibited root and shoot growth by 100% and 43.9% respectively as compared to control. The corresponding decomposed leachates inhibited rice germination by 90% and root and shoot growth by 70 and 25% respectively. These toxic effects of leachates showed in filter paper medium were significantly reduced in soil and soil plus activated charcoal media proving their allelopathic nature. In a field experiment, E. colona and rice were grown in proportions of 1:1, 1: 2 and 1:4, the total plant density being maintained at 100 pants m(-2). The height and dry matter of rice were adversely affected with increasing in E. colona population. From another similar field trial, data on dry matter of 20, 30, 40, and 60 days old plants were taken and their plant relative yield (PRY) and relative yield total (RYT) values were calculated. The PRY and RYT values were found to be less than unit (< 1) throughout the growth period studied which suggested the presence of severe antagonistic interspecific interaction between rice and E. colona due to allelopathy.

  1. Mechanism of Safening Action of Dymuron and Its Two Monomethyl Analogues against Bensulfuron-methyl Injury to Rice (Oryza sativa)

    PubMed

    Omokawa; Wu; Hatzios

    1996-05-01

    The comparative efficacy and mechanism of action of the herbicide dymuron and its two optically active monomethyl analogues, (R)-1-(alpha-methylbenzyl)-3-(p-tolylurea) (R-MBTU) and S-MBTU, as safeners of rice against injury from bensulfuron-methyl were investigated. Bioassays using etiolated seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L., cv. Lemont), grown either in agar or in liquid media containing bensulfuron-methyl, showed that this sulfonylurea herbicide is a potent inhibitor of rice root growth (I50 = 120 nM). Similar studies with the herbicide dymuron and its two optically active monomethyl analogues (R-MTBU and S-MTBU) showed that at 10 μM, dymuron and R-MBTU reduced rice root length by 25 and 17%, respectively, whereas S-MBTU had no effect on root growth of Lemont rice. Combined treatments with bensulfuron-methyl and dymuron or each of its two analogues confirmed that S-MTBU is an excellent safener of rice against bensulfuron-methyl, far more effective than either dymuron or R-MTBU. The protective action of S-MTBU appeared to result mainly from a drastic reduction in the uptake of bensulfuron-methyl by safened rice seedlings. Dymuron and R-MTBU reduced also the uptake of bensulfuron-methyl by rice seedlings, but to a lesser extent than S-MTBU. Quantitative changes in the metabolism of bensulfuron-methyl by safened rice seedlings were also observed, but did not appear to support the involvement of enhanced herbicide metabolism in the safening action of S-MBTU, R-MBTU, and dymuron. The major metabolites of bensulfuron-methyl detected in both safened and unsafened rice seedlings were tentatively identified as methyl-(4-hydroxy-6-methoxypyrimidin-2-yl-carbamoylsulfamoyl)-o-toluate; methyl-(aminosulfonyl)-o-toluate; and 1H-2,3-benzothiazin-4-(3H)-one-2,2-dioxide.

  2. Biological Control Activities of Rice-Associated Bacillus sp. Strains against Sheath Blight and Bacterial Panicle Blight of Rice.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Bishnu K; Karki, Hari Sharan; Groth, Donald E; Jungkhun, Nootjarin; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Potential biological control agents for two major rice diseases, sheath blight and bacterial panicle blight, were isolated from rice plants in this study. Rice-associated bacteria (RABs) isolated from rice plants grown in the field were tested for their antagonistic activities against the rice pathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Burkholderia glumae, which cause sheath blight and bacterial panicle blight, respectively. Twenty-nine RABs were initially screened based on their antagonistic activities against both R. solani and B. glumae. In follow-up retests, 26 RABs of the 29 RABs were confirmed to have antimicrobial activities, but the rest three RABs did not reproduce any observable antagonistic activity against R. solani or B. glumae. According to16S rDNA sequence identity, 12 of the 26 antagonistic RABs were closest to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, while seven RABs were to B. methylotrophicus and B, subtilis, respectively. The 16S rDNA sequences of the three non-antagonistic RABs were closest to Lysinibacillus sphaericus (RAB1 and RAB12) and Lysinibacillus macroides (RAB5). The five selected RABs showing highest antimicrobial activities (RAB6, RAB9, RAB16, RAB17S, and RAB18) were closest to B. amyloliquefaciens in DNA sequence of 16S rDNA and gyrB, but to B. subtilis in that of recA. These RABs were observed to inhibit the sclerotial germination of R. solani on potato dextrose agar and the lesion development on detached rice leaves by artificial inoculation of R. solani. These antagonistic RABs also significantly suppressed the disease development of sheath blight and bacterial panicle blight in a field condition, suggesting that they can be potential biological control agents for these rice diseases. However, these antagonistic RABs showed diminished disease suppression activities in the repeated field trial conducted in the following year probably due to their reduced antagonistic activities to the pathogens during the long-term storage in -70C, suggesting that

  3. Biological Control Activities of Rice-Associated Bacillus sp. Strains against Sheath Blight and Bacterial Panicle Blight of Rice

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Bishnu K.; Karki, Hari Sharan; Groth, Donald E.; Jungkhun, Nootjarin; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Potential biological control agents for two major rice diseases, sheath blight and bacterial panicle blight, were isolated from rice plants in this study. Rice-associated bacteria (RABs) isolated from rice plants grown in the field were tested for their antagonistic activities against the rice pathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Burkholderia glumae, which cause sheath blight and bacterial panicle blight, respectively. Twenty-nine RABs were initially screened based on their antagonistic activities against both R. solani and B. glumae. In follow-up retests, 26 RABs of the 29 RABs were confirmed to have antimicrobial activities, but the rest three RABs did not reproduce any observable antagonistic activity against R. solani or B. glumae. According to16S rDNA sequence identity, 12 of the 26 antagonistic RABs were closest to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, while seven RABs were to B. methylotrophicus and B, subtilis, respectively. The 16S rDNA sequences of the three non-antagonistic RABs were closest to Lysinibacillus sphaericus (RAB1 and RAB12) and Lysinibacillus macroides (RAB5). The five selected RABs showing highest antimicrobial activities (RAB6, RAB9, RAB16, RAB17S, and RAB18) were closest to B. amyloliquefaciens in DNA sequence of 16S rDNA and gyrB, but to B. subtilis in that of recA. These RABs were observed to inhibit the sclerotial germination of R. solani on potato dextrose agar and the lesion development on detached rice leaves by artificial inoculation of R. solani. These antagonistic RABs also significantly suppressed the disease development of sheath blight and bacterial panicle blight in a field condition, suggesting that they can be potential biological control agents for these rice diseases. However, these antagonistic RABs showed diminished disease suppression activities in the repeated field trial conducted in the following year probably due to their reduced antagonistic activities to the pathogens during the long-term storage in -70C, suggesting that

  4. Protein Crystals Grown in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A collage of protein and virus crystals, many of which were grown on the U.S. Space Shuttle or Russian Space Station, Mir. The crystals include the proteins canavalin; mouse monoclonal antibody; a sweet protein, thaumatin; and a fungal protease. Viruses are represented here by crystals of turnip yellow mosaic virus and satellite tobacco mosaic virus. The crystals are photographed under polarized light (thus causing the colors) and range in size from a few hundred microns in edge length up to more than a millimeter. All the crystals are grown from aqueous solutions and are useful for X-ray diffraction analysis. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

  5. Effect of external iron and arsenic species on chelant-enhanced iron bioavailability and arsenic uptake in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, M Mamunur; Kadohashi, K; Maki, T; Hasegawa, H

    2011-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of external iron status and arsenic species on chelant-enhanced iron bioavailability and arsenic uptake. Rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) were used as model plant, and were grown in artificially contaminated sandy soils irrigated with Murashige and Skoog (MS) culture solution. Arsenate uptake in roots and shoots of rice seedlings were affected significantly (p>0.05) while dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) was not by the additional iron and chelating ligand treatments. Regardless of iron concentrations in the soil solution, HIDS increased arsenic uptake for roots more than EDTA and EDDS. Chelating ligands and arsenic species also influenced iron uptake in rice roots. Irrespective of arsenic species, HIDS was found to be more effective in the increase of iron bioavailability and uptake in rice roots compared to other chelants. There was a significant positive correlation (r=0.78, p<0.05) between arsenate and iron concentrations in the roots of rice seedlings grown with or without additional iron indicating that arsenate inhibit iron uptake. In contrast, there was no correlation between iron and DMAA uptake in roots. Poor correlation between iron and arsenic in shoots indicated that iron uptake in shoots was neither affected by additional iron nor by arsenic species. Compared to the control, chelating ligands increased iron uptake in shoots of rice seedlings significantly (p<0.05). Regardless of additional iron and arsenic species, iron uptake in rice shoots did not differed among EDTA, EDDS, and HIDS treatments.

  6. Break-down of the molluscicide N-tritylmorpholine in soil and rice*

    PubMed Central

    Beynon, K. I.; Wright, A. N.

    1967-01-01

    The molluscicide N-tritylmorpholine (Frescon, WL 8008) is likely to be applied to flowing water systems in bilharziasis control programmes. The treated water in irrigation systems will sometimes be applied to growing crops, such as rice, and the nature of the terminal residues of N-tritylmorpholine in rice has therefore been investigated. Crops were grown under greenhouse conditions in soil treated with water containing 14C-and3H-N-tritylmorpholine, using dosage levels very much greater than those that will generally be used in the field. The major radiocomponent in the rice plants was triphenylcarbinol (triphenylmethanol), together with smaller amounts of unchanged N-tritylmorpholine and o-, m-, and p-hydroxytriphenylcarbinol. The hydroxytriphenylcarbinols were present as the free hydroxy compounds and as plant conjugates. Residues of the parent molluscicide and its break-down products are not considered likely to present a toxic hazard to animals or men that eat the crops. PMID:5300055

  7. Interactive effects of different inorganic As and Se species on their uptake and translocation by rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; Duan, Gui-Lan; Huang, Yi-Zong; Liu, Yun-Xia; Sun, Guo-Xin

    2014-03-01

    There is a lack of information on the interactive relationship of absorption and transformation between two inorganic arsenic (As) species and two inorganic selenium (Se) species in rice grown under hydroponic condition. Interactive effects of inorganic As (As(III)) and (As(V)) and Se (Se(IV)and Se(VI)) species on their uptake, accumulation, and translocation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings were investigated in hydroponic culture. The results clearly showed the interactive effects of inorganic As and Se on their uptake by rice. The presence of Se reduced the sum of As species in the rice shoots regardless of Se speciation. If Se is present as Se(IV), then is it is accompanied by a corresponding increase of the sum of As species, but if Se is present as Se(VI), then there is no change in the sum of As species in rice roots. These effects are observed regardless of initial As speciation. When the rice plants are exposed to Se(IV), the presence of As increases the sum of Se species in the roots, and decreases the sum of Se species in the corresponding shoots. This effect is more pronounced for As(III) than for As(V). There is no effect on Se during exposure to Se(VI). Co-existence of As also increased SeMet in rice roots.

  8. Soil Incorporation of Silica-Rich Rice Husk Decreases Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Grain.

    PubMed

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; Morris, Andrew H; Gill, Rattandeep; Kearns, Kelli A; Mann, Jessica N; Paukett, Michelle; Leskanic, Corey

    2016-05-18

    Arsenic decreases rice yield, and inorganic grain As threatens human health; thus, strategies to decrease rice As are critically needed. Increased plant-available silica (Si) can decrease rice As, yet the source of Si matters. Rice husk, an underutilized and Si-rich byproduct of rice production that contains less labile C and an order of magnitude less As than rice straw, may be an economically viable Si resource to decrease rice As, yet the impact of rice husk incorporation on As in the rice-soil nexus has not been reported. This proof-of-concept study shows that rice husk incorporation to soil (1% w/w) decreases inorganic grain As by 25-50% without negatively affecting grain Cd, yield, or dissolved CH4 levels. Rice husk is a critical yet perhaps overlooked resource to improve soil quality through enhanced nutrient availability and attenuate human health risks through consumption of As-laden grain.

  9. Alcohol dehydrogenase and an inactivator from rice seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Shimomura, S.; Beevers, H.

    1983-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was measured in the various organs of rice seedlings (Oryza sativa) growing in air. In extracts from ungerminated seeds, the ADH is stable, but in extracts from seedlings more than 2 days old the enzyme initially present loses activity in a time- and temperature-dependent fashion, due to the presence of an inactivating component which increases with age in roots and shoots. The inactivation can be prevented completely by dithiothreitol, and when this is included in the extraction medium the apparent loss of total ADH in roots and shoots with age is not observed. In seedlings grown in N/sub 2/, ADA levels in coleoptile extracts are higher than those in air, the enzyme is stable, and no inactivator can be detected. When seedlings grown for 5 days in air were transferred to N/sub 2/ for 3 days, ADA levels increased and there was a decline in inactivator activity. Transfer back to air after 1 day in N/sub 2/ led to loss of the accumulated ADH and increase in inactivator. These reciprocal changes and the fact that the inactivator is absent from coleoptiles of seedlings grown in N/sub 2/ appear to suggest a regulator role for the inactivator in vivo. However, it is clear that high levels of inactivator and ADH can exist in cells of seedlings grown in air for long periods without loss of enzyme activity, and it is argued that they must normally be separately compartmented.

  10. Rice-arsenate interactions in hydroponics: whole genome transcriptional analysis.

    PubMed

    Norton, Gareth J; Lou-Hing, Daniel E; Meharg, Andrew A; Price, Adam H

    2008-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) varieties that are arsenate-tolerant (Bala) and -sensitive (Azucena) were used to conduct a transcriptome analysis of the response of rice seedlings to sodium arsenate (AsV) in hydroponic solution. RNA extracted from the roots of three replicate experiments of plants grown for 1 week in phosphate-free nutrient with or without 13.3 muM AsV was used to challenge the Affymetrix (52K) GeneChip Rice Genome array. A total of 576 probe sets were significantly up-regulated at least 2-fold in both varieties, whereas 622 were down-regulated. Ontological classification is presented. As expected, a large number of transcription factors, stress proteins, and transporters demonstrated differential expression. Striking is the lack of response of classic oxidative stress-responsive genes or phytochelatin synthases/synthatases. However, the large number of responses from genes involved in glutathione synthesis, metabolism, and transport suggests that glutathione conjugation and arsenate methylation may be important biochemical responses to arsenate challenge. In this report, no attempt is made to dissect differences in the response of the tolerant and sensitive variety, but analysis in a companion article will link gene expression to the known tolerance loci available in the BalaxAzucena mapping population.

  11. Reducing GHG emissions in rice systems: Opportunities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linquist, B.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture is faced with the challenge of providing healthy food for a growing population at minimal environmental cost. Rice (Oryza sativa), the staple crop for the largest number of people on earth, is grown under flooded soil conditions has higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than most crops. This is primarily due to high methane emissions. In this talk I will focus on recent work and reviews on efforts to reduce GHG emissions from rice systems while at the same time maintaining or increasing the productivity of these systems. Specifically, the role of water, straw and nutrient management will be discussed. A great deal of research has gone into evaluating alternate-wetting and drying (AWD) irrigation management. AWD has tremendous potential to reduce GHG emissions; however I will examine how it needs to be practiced to achieve these goals, as well as limitations to its use such as where it can be practiced and possible effects on soil C. Straw management is critical as it provides a key carbon source for methanogens. Straw, however, is difficult to manage and has limited alternative uses. Various forms of nutrient management have also been proposed to reduced GHG emissions in rice systems. I will provide an overview of these and discuss their potential.

  12. Rice photosynthetic productivity and PSII photochemistry under nonflooded irrigation.

    PubMed

    He, Haibing; Yang, Ru; Jia, Biao; Chen, Lin; Fan, Hua; Cui, Jing; Yang, Dong; Li, Menglong; Ma, Fu-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Nonflooded irrigation is an important water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its photosynthetic mechanism. The aims of this work were to investigate photosynthetic characteristics of rice during grain filling stage under three nonflooded irrigation treatments: furrow irrigation with plastic mulching (FIM), furrow irrigation with nonmulching (FIN), and drip irrigation with plastic mulching (DI). Compared with the conventional flooding (CF) treatment, those grown in the nonflooded irrigation treatments showed lower net photosynthetic rate (PN), lower maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), and lower effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII). And the poor photosynthetic characteristics in the nonflooded irrigation treatments were mainly attributed to the low total nitrogen content (TNC). Under non-flooded irrigation, the PN, Fv/Fm, and ΦPSII significantly decreased with a reduction in the soil water potential, but these parameters were rapidly recovered in the DI and FIM treatments when supplementary irrigation was applied. Moreover, The DI treatment always had higher photosynthetic productivity than the FIM and FIN treatments. Grain yield, matter translocation, and dry matter post-anthesis (DMPA) were the highest in the CF treatment, followed by the DI, FIM, and FIN treatments in turn. In conclusion, increasing nitrogen content in leaf of rice plants could be a key factor to improve photosynthetic capacity in nonflooded irrigation.

  13. Rice Photosynthetic Productivity and PSII Photochemistry under Nonflooded Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    He, Haibing; Yang, Ru; Jia, Biao; Chen, Lin; Fan, Hua; Cui, Jing; Yang, Dong; Li, Menglong; Ma, Fu-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Nonflooded irrigation is an important water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its photosynthetic mechanism. The aims of this work were to investigate photosynthetic characteristics of rice during grain filling stage under three nonflooded irrigation treatments: furrow irrigation with plastic mulching (FIM), furrow irrigation with nonmulching (FIN), and drip irrigation with plastic mulching (DI). Compared with the conventional flooding (CF) treatment, those grown in the nonflooded irrigation treatments showed lower net photosynthetic rate (PN), lower maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), and lower effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII). And the poor photosynthetic characteristics in the nonflooded irrigation treatments were mainly attributed to the low total nitrogen content (TNC). Under non-flooded irrigation, the PN, Fv/Fm, and ΦPSII significantly decreased with a reduction in the soil water potential, but these parameters were rapidly recovered in the DI and FIM treatments when supplementary irrigation was applied. Moreover, The DI treatment always had higher photosynthetic productivity than the FIM and FIN treatments. Grain yield, matter translocation, and dry matter post-anthesis (DMPA) were the highest in the CF treatment, followed by the DI, FIM, and FIN treatments in turn. In conclusion, increasing nitrogen content in leaf of rice plants could be a key factor to improve photosynthetic capacity in nonflooded irrigation. PMID:24741364

  14. Rice scene radiation research plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heilman, J.

    1982-01-01

    Data requirements, tasks to be accomplished, and the technical approaches to be used in identifying the characteristics of rice for crop inventories are listed as well as methods for estimating crop development and assessing its conditions.

  15. Rice in an interdependent world.

    PubMed

    Falck, V T

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the outcome of the increasing need and dependence on rice as an essential food, and the potential hazards of this trajectory in an interdependent world, and to propose the need for a supranational system to guide decisions made in areas of mutual dependency among nations. All rice producing countries of the world should be responsible for assuring sufficient quantities and qualities of rice for the world's population. However, there are hazards related to emphasis on rice yields associated with the neglect of overall nutritional needs and also the potential for environmental impact given the need for sustainable development. Scientific measurement and data analyses of interdependent supranational variables are needed to guide policies and practices to insure conditions for life will be favorable for people everywhere.

  16. Plant physiological and soil characteristics associated with methane and nitrous oxide emission from rice paddy.

    PubMed

    Baruah, K K; Gogoi, Boby; Gogoi, P

    2010-01-01

    Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are important greenhouse gases causing global warming and climate change. Efforts were made to analyze the CH4 and N2O flux in relation to plant and soil factors from rice (Oryza sativa L.) paddy. Ten popularly grown rice varieties namely Rashmisali, Bogajoha, Basmuthi, Lalkalamdani, Choimora (traditional varieties); Mahsuri, Moniram, Kushal, Gitesh and Profulla (high yielding varieties = HYV) were grown during monsoon season of July 2006. The CH4 and N2O emissions were measured the date of transplanting onwards at weekly interval along with soil and plant parameters. The seasonal integrated CH4 and N2O emission (Esif) from rice ranged from 8.13 g m(-2) to 13.00 g m(-2) and 121.63 mg N2O-N m(-2) to 189.46 mg N2O-N m(-2), respectively. Variety Gitesh emitted less N2O and CH4 amongst all the rice varieties. Both CH4 and N2O emission exhibited a significant positive correlation with leaf area, leaf number, tiller number and root dry weight. Soil organic carbon of the experimental field was associated with both CH4 and N2O emission whereas nitrate-N content of soil was associated with N2O emission. Methane emission showed significant positive correlations with soil temperature and crop photosynthetic rate. Traditional rice varieties with profuse vegetative growth recorded higher CH4 and N2O fluxes compared to HYVs. Gitesh and Kushal having low seasonal CH4 and N2O emission with higher yield potential can be recommended as low greenhouse gas emitting rice varieties.

  17. Differentiation of weedy traits in ALS-resistant red rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice is a weedy form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) that competes aggressively with rice in the southern U.S., reduces yields and contaminates rice grains. The introduction of ClearfieldTM rice, a nontransgenic, herbicide-resistant rice cultivar a decade ago has led to increased use of imazet...

  18. Detection algorithm for multiple rice seeds images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, F.; Ying, Y. B.

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a digital image analysis algorithm for detection of multiple rice seeds images. The rice seeds used for this study involved a hybrid rice seed variety. Images of multiple rice seeds were acquired with a machine vision system for quality inspection of bulk rice seeds, which is designed to inspect rice seeds on a rotating disk with a CCD camera. Combining morphological operations and parallel processing gave improvements in accuracy, and a reduction in computation time. Using image features selected based on classification ability; a highly acceptable defects classification was achieved when the algorithm was implemented for all the samples to test the adaptability.

  19. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  20. Evaluation of Host-Plant Resistance of Selected Rice Genotypes to the Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Vyavhare, Suhas S; Gealy, David R; Way, Michael O; Tabien, Rodante E; Pearson, Rebecca A

    2016-08-30

    The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, is the most important insect pest of rice in the United States. Management of L. oryzophilus mainly depends upon the use of insecticides due to the lack of effective alternative management tactics. A 3-yr field study was conducted to determine if difference exists among rice genotypes and cultivars of inbred tropical japonica subspecies commercially grown in the southern United States [Cocodrie (PI 606331), CL171, and CL151 (PI 654463)] and the germplasm lines of indica subspecies adapted to tropical climates of Asia [WC 4644 (PI 312777), TNI (PI 495830), Rondo (PI 615022), 4612 (PI 615039), TeQing (PI 536047), and 4593 (PI 615031)] for resistance to L. oryzophilus Experiments were established as a split-plot design with cultivars as main plots and insecticide treatment as subplots. No significant differences were observed in number of L. oryzophilus larvae recovered across cultivars and genotypes, indicating no significant variation in their preference to L. oryzophilus oviposition. Insecticide treatment had a significant impact on L. oryzophilus larval density. However, grain yield did not vary significantly between treated and untreated plots for any of the cultivars and genotypes. The amount of yield loss in response to L. oryzophilus infestation did not vary significantly across genotypes and cultivars, indicating no variation among these genotypes for resistance to L. oryzophilus.

  1. Evaluation of Host-Plant Resistance of Selected Rice Genotypes to the Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Vyavhare, Suhas S; Gealy, David R; Way, Michael O; Tabien, Rodante E; Pearson, Rebecca A

    2016-12-01

    The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, is the most important insect pest of rice in the United States. Management of L. oryzophilus mainly depends upon the use of insecticides due to the lack of effective alternative management tactics. A 3-yr field study was conducted to determine if difference exists among rice genotypes and cultivars of inbred tropical japonica subspecies commercially grown in the southern United States [Cocodrie (PI 606331), CL171, and CL151 (PI 654463)] and the germplasm lines of indica subspecies adapted to tropical climates of Asia [WC 4644 (PI 312777), TNI (PI 495830), Rondo (PI 615022), 4612 (PI 615039), TeQing (PI 536047), and 4593 (PI 615031)] for resistance to L. oryzophilus Experiments were established as a split-plot design with cultivars as main plots and insecticide treatment as subplots. No significant differences were observed in number of L. oryzophilus larvae recovered across cultivars and genotypes, indicating no significant variation in their preference to L. oryzophilus oviposition. Insecticide treatment had a significant impact on L. oryzophilus larval density. However, grain yield did not vary significantly between treated and untreated plots for any of the cultivars and genotypes. The amount of yield loss in response to L. oryzophilus infestation did not vary significantly across genotypes and cultivars, indicating no variation among these genotypes for resistance to L. oryzophilus.

  2. Does growth under elevated CO₂ moderate photoacclimation in rice?

    PubMed

    Hubbart, Stella; Bird, Susannah; Lake, Janice A; Murchie, Erik H

    2013-06-01

    Acclimation of plant photosynthesis to light irradiance (photoacclimation) involves adjustments in levels of pigments and proteins and larger scale changes in leaf morphology. To investigate the impact of rising atmospheric CO₂ on crop physiology, we hypothesize that elevated CO₂ interacts with photoacclimation in rice (Oryza sativa). Rice was grown under high light (HL: 700 µmol m⁻²  s⁻¹), low light (LL: 200 µmol m⁻²  s⁻¹), ambient CO₂ (400 µl l⁻¹) and elevated CO₂ (1000 µl l⁻¹). Leaf six was measured throughout. Obscuring meristem tissue during development did not alter leaf thickness indicating that mature leaves are responsible for sensing light during photoacclimation. Elevated CO₂ raised growth chamber photosynthesis and increased tiller formation at both light levels, while it increased leaf length under LL but not under HL. Elevated CO₂ always resulted in increased leaf growth rate and tiller production. Changes in leaf thickness, leaf area, Rubisco content, stem and leaf starch, sucrose and fructose content were all dominated by irradiance and unaffected by CO₂. However, stomata responded differently; they were significantly smaller in LL grown plants compared to HL but this effect was significantly suppressed under elevated CO₂. Stomatal density was lower under LL, but this required elevated CO₂ and the magnitude was adaxial or abaxial surface-dependent. We conclude that photoacclimation in rice involves a systemic signal. Furthermore, extra carbohydrate produced under elevated CO₂ is utilized in enhancing leaf and tiller growth and does not enhance or inhibit any feature of photoacclimation with the exception of stomatal morphology.

  3. Kennedy at Rice University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    President Kennedy speaks before a crowd of 35,000 people at Rice University in the football field. The following are excerpts from his speech. ' ...We set sail on his new sea because there is a new knowledge to be gained, and new rights to be won, and they must be won and used for the progress of all people. ...Whether it will become a force for good or ill depends on man, and only if the United States occupies a position of pre-eminence can we help decide whether this new ocean will be a sea of peace or a new terrifying theater of war. But I do say space can be explored and mastered without feeding the fires of war, without repeating the mistakes that man has made with extending his writ around this globe of ours. ...There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation may never come again. But why, some say the Moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask, why climb the highest mountian? Why - 35 years ago - why fly the Atlantic? Why does Rice play Texas? We choose to go to the Moon, we choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one in which we intend to win, and the others too.'

  4. Kennedy at Rice University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    President Kennedy speaks before a crowd of 35,000 people at Rice University in the football field. The following are excerpts from his speech. ' ...We set sail on his new sea because there is a new knowledge to begained, and new rights to be won, and they must be won and used for the progress of all people. Whether it will become a force for good or ill depends on man, and only if the United States occupies a position of pre-eminence can we help decide whether this new ocean will be a sea of peace or a new terrifying theater of war. But I do say space can be explored and mastered without feeding the fires of war, without repeating the mistakes that man has made with extending his wirt around this globe of ours. There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation may never come again. But why, some say the Moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask, why climb the highest mountain? Why 35 years ago why fly the Atlantic? Why does Rice play Texas? We choose to go to the Moon, we choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one in which we attend to win, and the others , too.'

  5. Pullulanase from rice endosperm.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Susumu; Konno, Haruyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) in non-germinating seeds was compared with that in germinating seeds. Moreover, pullulanase from the endosperm of rice (Oryza sativa L., cv. Hinohikari) seeds was isolated and its properties investigated. The pI value of pullulanase from seeds after 8 days of germination was almost equal to that from non-germinating seeds, which shows that these two enzymes are the same protein. Therefore, the same pullulanase may play roles in both starch synthesis during ripening and starch degradation during germination in rice seeds. The enzyme was isolated by a procedure that included ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-cellulofine column chromatography, preparative isoelectric focusing, and preparative disc gel electrophoresis. The enzyme was homogeneous by SDS/PAGE. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 100 000 based on its mobility on SDS/PAGE and 105 000 based on gel filtration with TSKgel super SW 3000, which showed that it was composed of a single unit. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was 4.7. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by beta-cyclodextrin. The enzyme was not activated by thiol reagents such as dithiothreitol, 2-mercaptoethanol or glutathione. The enzyme most preferably hydrolyzed pullulan and liberated only maltotriose. The pullulan hydrolysis was strongly inhibited by the substrate at a concentration higher than 0.1%. The degree of inhibition increased with an increase in the concentration of pullulan. However, the enzyme hydrolyzed amylopectin, soluble starch and beta-limit dextrin more rapidly as their concentrations increased. The enzyme exhibited alpha-glucosyltransfer activity and produced an alpha-1,6-linked compound of two maltotriose molecules from pullulan.

  6. Kinetic analysis of purified recombinant rice N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase and peak melatonin production in etiolated rice shoots.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangkyu; Byeon, Yeong; Kim, Young-Soon; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2013-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase (osASMT), the last enzyme in the synthesis of melatonin, was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. We then characterized its enzyme kinetics, which is the first time this has been performed in plants. Purified glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fused recombinant osASMT (GST-osASMT) and GST-free osASMT showed specific enzyme activities of 6.6 and 12.6 pmol/min per mg protein, respectively. When evaluated by the Lineweaver-Burk equation, GST-free osASMT exhibited a K(m) of 864 μm. An in vitro enzyme assay of purified osASMT showed melatonin formation to be proportional to the enzyme and substrate concentrations, as well as time. Unlike animal ASMT, high substrate concentrations did not inhibit the activity of osASMT. Finally, melatonin biosynthesis in rice seedlings was affected by light intensity, with etiolated shoots grown in continuous darkness producing more melatonin than shoots grown in continuous light. The level of melatonin in relation to the light intensity closely paralleled the mRNA level of osASMT in the shoots, suggesting that endogenous melatonin is upregulated in darkness, as is the case in animals.

  7. Genetic analysis of atypical U.S. red rice phenotypes: indications of prior gene flow in rice fields?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice is a troublesome weed problem in rice fields of the southern U.S. Outcrossing between rice and red rice occurs at low rates, resulting in a broad array of plant types. SSR markers were used to evaluate the genetic backgrounds of atypical red rice types obtained from rice farms in comparis...

  8. Outcrossing potential between U.S. red rice (Oryza sativa) and Chinese indica rice (Oryza sativa) lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice in southern U.S. rice fields remains a widespread, economically challenging problem despite nearly a decade of rice production systems that include true-breeding rice cultivars and indica-derived hybrid rice with resistance to imazethapyr. Both of these herbicide-resistant rice systems hav...

  9. Red rice (Oryza sativa L.) emergence characteristics and influence on rice (O. sativa) yield at different planting dates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated rice yield losses due to red rice infestation vary by cultivar, red rice density, and duration of interference. The competition effects of red rice could be influenced further by emergence characteristics, red rice biotype, and planting time of cultivated rice. We aimed to characterize th...

  10. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Poritosh; Orikasa, Takahiro; Okadome, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR), germinated brown rice (GBR) and partially-milled rice (PMR) contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR). Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR) seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled), and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society. PMID:21776212

  11. Diversity of global rice markets and the science required for consumer-targeted rice breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of different quality traits that make up the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice ...

  12. Volatiles induction in rice stink bug host grasses and rice plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice stink bug (RSB), Oebalus pugnax F., is an important pest of heading rice in the United States. Little is known about plant volatiles production following herbivory by the rice stink bug. RSB feeding induced volatiles production in different RSB host grasses and rice varieties, and may help expl...

  13. Utilization of weedy rice for development of japonica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang; Ma, Dian Rong; Xu, Zheng Jin; Deng, Hua Feng; Chen, Wen Fu; Yuan, Long Ping

    2011-05-01

    Two representative weedy rice lines, three typical japonica varieties and three typical indica varieties were used for 6 pairs of reciprocal crosses. The morphological traits of twelve F(1) hybrid lines, their parents and four elite cultivars were investigated for heterosis over mid-parent (HM), over parent (HP) and competitive heterosis (CH) analysis. Traits detected in weedy rice lines seemed larger than those in cultivars and excellent heterosis was produced in weedy rice crossing with japonica rice. Although weedy rice kept closer relationships with japonica rice compared to indica rice. But the heterosis of reciprocal crosses between weedy rice and japonica was closed to those of crosses between indica rice and japonica rice. In six of one hundred and eighteen weedy rice lines, the fertility restore gene for BT type cytoplasmic male sterility (BT-CMS) were detected. Weedy rice was very valuable germplasm resources with the abundant polymorphism. Meanwhile, the disadvantage, lodging, shattering and incompact plant type, should be modified by hybridization, backcross and multiple cross with japonica rice. Although it is difficult to use weedy rice directly, weedy rice may be available to breed both male sterile line and restorer line through improvement, developing japonica hybrid rice.

  14. The impact of planting date on management of the rice water weevil in Louisiana rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus, is the most destructive insect pest of rice in the United States. Early planting of rice to avoid damaging infestations of the rice water weevil has long been suggested as a management tactic. A five-year study was conducted to characterize the influ...

  15. Genetic diversity for rice grain mineral concentrations observed among genetically and geographically giverse rice accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With about half of the world’s people dependent on rice as their main food source, improving the nutritional value of rice could have major impact on human health. While rice in the USA is often artificially fortified, natural enhancement of the rice grain’s nutritional value, i.e. from genetic impr...

  16. A three-season field study on the in-situ remediation of Cd-contaminated paddy soil using lime, two industrial by-products, and a low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivar.

    PubMed

    Yan-Bing, He; Dao-You, Huang; Qi-Hong, Zhu; Shuai, Wang; Shou-Long, Liu; Hai-Bo, He; Han-Hua, Zhu; Chao, Xu

    2017-02-01

    To mitigate the serious problem of Cd-contaminated paddy soil, we investigated the remediation potential of combining in-situ immobilization with a low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivar. A three-season field experiment compared the soil pH, available Cd and absorption of Cd by three rice cultivars with different Cd accumulation abilities grown in Cd-contaminated paddy soil amended with lime (L), slag (S), and bagasse (B) alone or in combination. The three amendments applied alone and in combination significantly increased soil pH, reduced available Cd and absorption of Cd by rice with no effect on grain yield. Among these, the LS and LSB treatments reduced the brown rice Cd content by 38.3-69.1% and 58.3-70.9%, respectively, during the three seasons. Combined with planting of a low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivar (Xiang Zaoxian 32) resulted in a Cd content in brown rice that met the contaminant limit (≤0.2mgkg(-1)). However, the grain yield of the low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivar was approximately 30% lower than the other two rice cultivars. Applying LS or LSB as amendments combined with planting a low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivar is recommended for the remediation of Cd-contaminated paddy soil. The selection and breeding of low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivars with high grain production requires further research.

  17. Proteomic analysis of rice anthers under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Sarhadi, Elham; Bazargani, Mitra Mohammadi; Sajise, Andres Godwin; Abdolahi, Shapour; Vispo, Naireen Aiza; Arceta, Marydee; Nejad, Ghasem Mohammadi; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2012-09-01

    Salinity is a major factor that limits rice production worldwide. Rice is considered generally to be sensitive to salt stress during the reproductive stage. To determine the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance at the reproductive stage, anther proteomic patterns for two contrasting rice genotypes IR64 (salt sensitive) and Cheriviruppu (salt tolerant) under salt stress were compared. Plants were grown in a greenhouse and salt stress (100 mM NaCl) was imposed at the booting stage. Anther samples were collected from control and salt-treated plants at the anthesis stage. The Na(+)/K(+) ratio in IR64 anthers under salt stress was >1.7 times greater than that under control conditions, whereas no significant change was observed in Cheriviruppu. We also observed an 83% reduction in IR64 pollen viability, whereas this reduction was only 23% in Cheriviruppu. Of 454 protein spots detected reproducibly on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels, 38 showed significant changes in at least one genotype in response to stress. Using Mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF) analysis, we identified 18 protein spots that were involved in several processes that might increase plant adaptation to salt stress, such as carbohydrate/energy metabolism, anther wall remodelling and metabolism, and protein synthesis and assembly. Three isoforms of fructokinase-2 were upregulated only in Cheriviruppu under salt stress. This upregulation might result in increased starch content in pollen, which would support pollen growth and development under salt stress. The results also suggested that anther and pollen wall remodelling/metabolism proteins contribute to the tolerance of rice to salt stress.

  18. Biogeochemical cycling of Si in a California rice cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfferth, A.; Kocar, B. D.; Lee, J.; Fendorf, S.

    2012-12-01

    Silicon is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust, but the number of studies on the biogeochemical cycling of Si does not reflect its environmental ubiquity. While not an "essential" plant nutrient, Si is important for many plants, particularly monocots, for structural integrity and protection against disease and environmental stress. For rice, Si fertilization with N and P increases yield significantly more than N and P alone. While total Si in soil is high, much of this Si is tied up in the crystal lattice of primary and secondary minerals and is only slowly released through chemical weathering. Thus, plant-available Si may be limited particularly in highly weathered soils in humid environments where long-term chemical weathering has lead to desilicification of the soils (e.g., in Southeast Asia where most rice is grown). In such Si-depleted environments, the biocycling of Si through decaying plant litter (i.e., phytoliths) and subsequent plant uptake has proven an important component of the terrestrial biogeochemical cycling of Si. Here, we investigate the dynamics of Si cycling over a two-year period in a rice paddy in Northern California where soil incorporation of harvested rice straw has impacted the terrestrial biogeochemical cycling of Si. We use Ge/Si ratios in pore-waters to infer the contribution of chemical weathering vs. dissolution of plant phytoliths on the plant-available Si pool. We found that the Ge/Si ratios change over the growing and fallow seasons reflecting different rates of Si release through phytolith dissolution and plant uptake.

  19. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    PubMed

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2016-07-20

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg(-1), dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and <0.005; Mg = 1130 and 265; Mn = 18.2 and 9.6; Se = 0.025 and 0.028; and Zn = 17.0 and 14.4. In brown and white rice samples, respectively, median PA concentrations were 5438 and 1906 mg kg(-1), and median PA:Zn molar ratios were 29 and 13. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements (mg kg(-1), dry weight) in brown and white rice samples, respectively, were: As = 0.030 and 0.006; Cd  ≤ 0.002 and 0.006; Pb = 0.008 and 0.008. Approximately 95 % of As was found to be inorganic As, where this could be quantified. Malawian rice, like the more widely consumed staple grain maize, contains inadequate Ca, I, Se or Zn to meet dietary requirements. Biofortification strategies could

  20. Hydrology and Species-Specific Effects of Bacopa monnieri and Leersia oryzoides on Soil and Water Chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an eight week greenhouse experiment, Bacopa monnieri (Water Hyssop) and Leersia oryzoides (Rice Cutgrass) were compared for nutrient assimilation as well as soil and water chemistry under variable flooding regimes using a nutrient solution rich in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Soil redox poten...

  1. Dissipation and effects of tricyclazole on soil microbial communities and rice growth as affected by amendment with alperujo compost.

    PubMed

    García-Jaramillo, M; Redondo-Gómez, S; Barcia-Piedras, J M; Aguilar, M; Jurado, V; Hermosín, M C; Cox, L

    2016-04-15

    The presence of pesticides in surface and groundwater has grown considerably in the last decades as a consequence of the intensive farming activity. Several studies have shown the benefits of using organic amendments to prevent losses of pesticides from runoff or leaching. A particular soil from the Guadalquivir valley was placed in open air ponds and amended at 1 or 2% (w/w) with alperujo compost (AC), a byproduct from the olive oil industry. Tricyclazole dissipation, rice growth and microbial diversity were monitored along an entire rice growing season. An increase in the net photosynthetic rate of Oryza sativa plants grown in the ponds with AC was observed. These plants produced between 1100 and 1300kgha(-1) more rice than plants from the unamended ponds. No significant differences were observed in tricyclazole dissipation, monitored for a month in soil, surface and drainage water, between the amended and unamended ponds. The structure and diversity of bacteria and fungi communities were also studied by the use of the polymerase chain reaction denaturing gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) from DNA extracted directly from soil samples. The banding pattern was similar for all treatments, although the density of bands varied throughout the time. Apparently, tricyclazole did not affect the structure and diversity of bacteria and fungi communities, and this was attributed to its low bioavailability. Rice cultivation under paddy field conditions may be more efficient under the effects of this compost, due to its positive effects on soil properties, rice yield, and soil microbial diversity.

  2. Rice protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome with transient specific IgE to boiled rice but not to retort-processed rice.

    PubMed

    Yasutomi, Motoko; Kosaka, Takuya; Kawakita, Akiko; Hayashi, Hisako; Okazaki, Shintaro; Murai, Hiroki; Miyagawa, Kazuhiko; Mayumi, Mitsufumi; Ohshima, Yusei

    2014-02-01

    Described herein is the case of an 8-month-old girl with atypical food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome due to rice. She presented with vomiting and poor general activity 2 h after ingestion of boiled rice. Oral food challenge test using high-pressure retort-processed rice was negative, but re-exposure to boiled rice elicited gastrointestinal symptoms. On western blot analysis the patient's serum was found to contain IgE bound to crude protein extracts from rice seed or boiled rice, but not from retort-processed rice. The major protein bands were not detected in the electrophoresed gel of retort-processed rice extracts, suggesting decomposition by high-temperature and high-pressure processing. Oral food challenge for diagnosing rice allergy should be performed with boiled rice to avoid a false negative. Additionally, some patients with rice allergy might be able to ingest retort-processed rice as a substitute for boiled rice.

  3. Integrated crop management practices for maximizing grain yield of double-season rice crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Depeng; Huang, Jianliang; Nie, Lixiao; Wang, Fei; Ling, Xiaoxia; Cui, Kehui; Li, Yong; Peng, Shaobing

    2017-01-01

    Information on maximum grain yield and its attributes are limited for double-season rice crop grown under the subtropical environment. This study was conducted to examine key characteristics associated with high yielding double-season rice crop through a comparison between an integrated crop management (ICM) and farmers’ practice (FP). Field experiments were conducted in the early and late seasons in the subtropical environment of Wuxue County, Hubei Province, China in 2013 and 2014. On average, grain yield in ICM was 13.5% higher than that in FP. A maximum grain yield of 9.40 and 10.53 t ha‑1 was achieved under ICM in the early- and late-season rice, respectively. Yield improvement of double-season rice with ICM was achieved with the combined effects of increased plant density and optimized nutrient management. Yield gain of ICM resulted from a combination of increases in sink size due to more panicle number per unit area and biomass production, further supported by the increased leaf area index, leaf area duration, radiation use efficiency, crop growth rate, and total nitrogen uptake compared with FP. Further enhancement in the yield potential of double-season rice should focus on increasing crop growth rate and biomass production through improved and integrated crop management practices.

  4. Evaluating Leaf and Canopy Reflectance of Stressed Rice Plants to Monitor Arsenic Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Bandaru, Varaprasad; Daughtry, Craig S.; Codling, Eton E.; Hansen, David J.; White-Hansen, Susan; Green, Carrie E.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic contamination is a serious problem in rice cultivated soils of many developing countries. Hence, it is critical to monitor and control arsenic uptake in rice plants to avoid adverse effects on human health. This study evaluated the feasibility of using reflectance spectroscopy to monitor arsenic in rice plants. Four arsenic levels were induced in hydroponically grown rice plants with application of 0, 5, 10 and 20 µmol·L−1 sodium arsenate. Reflectance spectra of upper fully expanded leaves were acquired over visible and infrared (NIR) wavelengths. Additionally, canopy reflectance for the four arsenic levels was simulated using SAIL (Scattering by Arbitrarily Inclined Leaves) model for various soil moisture conditions and leaf area indices (LAI). Further, sensitivity of various vegetative indices (VIs) to arsenic levels was assessed. Results suggest that plants accumulate high arsenic amounts causing plant stress and changes in reflectance characteristics. All leaf spectra based VIs related strongly with arsenic with coefficient of determination (r2) greater than 0.6 while at canopy scale, background reflectance and LAI confounded with spectral signals of arsenic affecting the VIs’ performance. Among studied VIs, combined index, transformed chlorophyll absorption reflectance index (TCARI)/optimized soil adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI) exhibited higher sensitivity to arsenic levels and better resistance to soil backgrounds and LAI followed by red edge based VIs (modified chlorophyll absorption reflectance index (MCARI) and TCARI) suggesting that these VIs could prove to be valuable aids for monitoring arsenic in rice fields. PMID:27322304

  5. Integrated crop management practices for maximizing grain yield of double-season rice crop

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Depeng; Huang, Jianliang; Nie, Lixiao; Wang, Fei; Ling, Xiaoxia; Cui, Kehui; Li, Yong; Peng, Shaobing

    2017-01-01

    Information on maximum grain yield and its attributes are limited for double-season rice crop grown under the subtropical environment. This study was conducted to examine key characteristics associated with high yielding double-season rice crop through a comparison between an integrated crop management (ICM) and farmers’ practice (FP). Field experiments were conducted in the early and late seasons in the subtropical environment of Wuxue County, Hubei Province, China in 2013 and 2014. On average, grain yield in ICM was 13.5% higher than that in FP. A maximum grain yield of 9.40 and 10.53 t ha−1 was achieved under ICM in the early- and late-season rice, respectively. Yield improvement of double-season rice with ICM was achieved with the combined effects of increased plant density and optimized nutrient management. Yield gain of ICM resulted from a combination of increases in sink size due to more panicle number per unit area and biomass production, further supported by the increased leaf area index, leaf area duration, radiation use efficiency, crop growth rate, and total nitrogen uptake compared with FP. Further enhancement in the yield potential of double-season rice should focus on increasing crop growth rate and biomass production through improved and integrated crop management practices. PMID:28079051

  6. Identification and Functional Analysis of Light-Responsive Unique Genes and Gene Family Members in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ki-Hong; Lee, Jinwon; Dardick, Chris; Seo, Young-Su; Cao, Peijian; Canlas, Patrick; Phetsom, Jirapa; Xu, Xia; Ouyang, Shu; An, Kyungsook; Cho, Yun-Ja; Lee, Geun-Cheol; Lee, Yoosook; An, Gynheung; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2008-01-01

    Functional redundancy limits detailed analysis of genes in many organisms. Here, we report a method to efficiently overcome this obstacle by combining gene expression data with analysis of gene-indexed mutants. Using a rice NSF45K oligo-microarray to compare 2-week-old light- and dark-grown rice leaf tissue, we identified 365 genes that showed significant 8-fold or greater induction in the light relative to dark conditions. We then screened collections of rice T-DNA insertional mutants to identify rice lines with mutations in the strongly light-induced genes. From this analysis, we identified 74 different lines comprising two independent mutant lines for each of 37 light-induced genes. This list was further refined by mining gene expression data to exclude genes that had potential functional redundancy due to co-expressed family members (12 genes) and genes that had inconsistent light responses across other publicly available microarray datasets (five genes). We next characterized the phenotypes of rice lines carrying mutations in ten of the remaining candidate genes and then carried out co-expression analysis associated with these genes. This analysis effectively provided candidate functions for two genes of previously unknown function and for one gene not directly linked to the tested biochemical pathways. These data demonstrate the efficiency of combining gene family-based expression profiles with analyses of insertional mutants to identify novel genes and their functions, even among members of multi-gene families. PMID:18725934

  7. Different farming and water regimes in Italian rice fields affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal soil communities.

    PubMed

    Lumini, Erica; Vallino, Marta; Alguacil, Maria M; Romani, Marco; Bianciotto, Valeria

    2011-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) comprise one of the main components of soil microbiota in most agroecosystems. These obligate mutualistic symbionts colonize the roots of most plants, including crop plants. Many papers have indicated that different crop management practices could affect AMF communities and their root colonization. However, there is little knowledge available on the influence of conventional and low-input agriculture on root colonization and AMF molecular diversity in rice fields. Two different agroecosystems (continuous conventional high-input rice monocropping and organic farming with a five-year crop rotation) and two different water management regimes have been considered in this study. Both morphological and molecular analyses were performed. The soil mycorrhizal potential, estimated using clover trap cultures, was high and similar in the two agroecosystems. The diversity of the AMF community in the soil, calculated by means of PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) and 18S rDNA sequencing on clover trap cultures roots, was higher for the organic cultivation. The rice roots cultivated in the conventional agrosystem or under permanent flooding showed no AMF colonization, while the rice plants grown under the organic agriculture system showed typical mycorrhization patterns. Considered together, our data suggest that a high-input cropping system and conventional flooding depress AMF colonization in rice roots and that organic managements could help maintain a higher diversity of AMF communities in soil.

  8. Coupling AVHRR imagery with biogeochemical models of methane emission from rice crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliouras, Eleni Joyce

    2000-10-01

    Rice is a staple food source for much of the world and most of it is grown in paddies which remain flooded for a large part of the growing season. This anaerobic environment is ideal for the activities of methanogenic bacteria, that are responsible for the production of methane gas, some of which is released into the atmosphere. In order to better understand the role that rice cropping plays in the levels of atmospheric methane, several models have been developed to predict the methane flux from the paddies. These models generally utilize some type of nominal plant growth curve based on one or two pieces of ground truth data. Ideally, satellite data could be used instead to provide these models with an estimate of biomass change over the growing season, eliminating the need for related ground truth. A technique proposed to accomplish this is presented here, and results that demonstrate its success when applied to rice cropping areas of Texas are discussed. Also presented is a method for utilizing satellite data to map rice cropping areas that could eventually aid in a scheme for populating a GIS-type database with information on exact rice cropping areas. Such a database could then be directly tied to the methane emission models to obtain flux estimates for extensive regional areas.

  9. Arsenic Concentrations in Rice and Associated Health Risks Along the Upper Mekong Delta, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barragan, L.; Seyfferth, A.; Fendorf, S.

    2011-12-01

    The consumption of arsenic contaminated food, such as rice, can be a significant portion of daily arsenic exposure, even for populations already exposed through drinking water. While arsenic contamination of rice grains has been documented in parts of Southern Asia, (e.g. Bangladesh), little research has been conducted on arsenic contamination of Cambodian-grown rice. We collected rice plant samples at various locations within the upper Mekong River Delta near Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and we analyzed total arsenic concentrations in plant digests of grains, husk, and straw. In addition, we used CaCl2-, DTPA-, and oxalate-extractable arsenic to define plant-available soil pools. We found variability of arsenic concentration in the plants, with grain arsenic ranging from 0.046 to 0.214 μg g-1; other researchers have shown that concentrations higher than 0.1 μg g-1 could be a concern for human health. Although more extensive sampling is needed to assess the risk of arsenic exposure from rice consumption on a country-wide basis, our work clearly illustrates the risk within regions of the Mekong Delta.

  10. Do soil Fe transformation and secretion of low-molecular-weight organic acids affect the availability of Cd to rice?

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Yang, Yazhou; Liu, Danqing; Zhang, Chunhua; Ge, Ying

    2015-12-01

    The bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) to rice may be complicated by chemical and biological factors in the rhizosphere. The aim of this work is to investigate how soil iron (Fe) redox transformations and low-molecular-weight organic acid (LMWOA) exudation from root affect Cd accumulation in rice. Two soils (a paddy soil and a saline soil) with different physicochemical properties were used in this study. Soil redox conditions were changed by flooding and addition of organic matter (OM). Two days after the soil treatments, rice seedlings were transplanted in a vermiculite-soil system and grown for 10 days. We measured pH and Eh, LMWOA, Fe and Cd contents in rice, and their fractions in the soils and vermiculite. Cadmium accumulation in rice declined in both soils upon the flooding and OM treatment. Iron dissolution in the paddy soil and its deposition in the rhizosphere significantly increased upon the OM addition, but the concentration of Fe plaque on the rice root significantly declined. Conversely, although Fe transformed into less active fractions in the saline soil, Fe accumulation on the surface and in the tissue of root was considerably enhanced. The secretion of LMWOA was remarkably induced when the OM was amended in the saline soil, but the same effect was not observed in the paddy soil. Reduction of Cd uptake by rice could be attributed to different factors in the two soils. For the paddy soil, the lowered Cd bioavailability was likely due to the competition of Fe and Cd for the binding sites on the vermiculite surface. For the saline soil, however, rice responded to the low Fe mobility through more LMWOA exudation and Fe plaque formation, and their increases could explain the decrease of rice Cd.

  11. Thermal characteristics of ohmically heated rice starch and rice flours.

    PubMed

    An, H J; King, J M

    2007-01-01

    Thermal properties of conventionally and ohmically heated rice starch and rice flours at various frequencies and voltages were studied. There was an increase in gelatinization temperature for conventionally heated rice starches since they were pregelatinized and became more rigid due to starch-chain interactions. In addition, there was a decrease in enthalpy (energy needed) for conventionally and ohmically heated starches during gelatinization; thus, the samples required less energy for gelatinization during DSC analysis. Ohmically heated commercial starch showed the greatest decrease in enthalpy probably because of the greatest extent of pregelatinization through ohmic heating. Brown rice flour showed the greatest gelatinization temperature resulting from the delay of starch granule swelling by lipid and protein. Enthalpy of ohmically heated starches at 20 V/cm was the lowest, which was most likely due to the lower voltage resulting in a more complete pregelatinization from a longer heating time required to reach 100 degrees C. Ohmic treatment at 70 V/cm decreased onset gelatinization temperature of white flour; therefore, it produced rice flour that swelled faster, whereas the conventionally heated sample showed a better thermal resistance.

  12. Refinement of Light-Responsive Transcript Lists Using Rice Oligonucleotide Arrays: Evaluation of Gene-Redundancy

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ki-Hong; Dardick, Christopher; Bartley, Laura E.; Cao, Peijian; Phetsom, Jirapa; Canlas, Patrick; Seo, Young-Su; Shultz, Michael; Ouyang, Shu; Yuan, Qiaoping; Frank, Bryan C.; Ly, Eugene; Zheng, Li; Jia, Yi; Hsia, An-Ping; An, Kyungsook; Chou, Hui-Hsien; Rocke, David; Lee, Geun Cheol; Schnable, Patrick S.; An, Gynheung; Buell, C. Robin; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of gene function are often hampered by gene-redundancy, especially in organisms with large genomes such as rice (Oryza sativa). We present an approach for using transcriptomics data to focus functional studies and address redundancy. To this end, we have constructed and validated an inexpensive and publicly available rice oligonucleotide near-whole genome array, called the rice NSF45K array. We generated expression profiles for light- vs. dark-grown rice leaf tissue and validated the biological significance of the data by analyzing sources of variation and confirming expression trends with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We examined trends in the data by evaluating enrichment of gene ontology terms at multiple false discovery rate thresholds. To compare data generated with the NSF45K array with published results, we developed publicly available, web-based tools (www.ricearray.org). The Oligo and EST Anatomy Viewer enables visualization of EST-based expression profiling data for all genes on the array. The Rice Multi-platform Microarray Search Tool facilitates comparison of gene expression profiles across multiple rice microarray platforms. Finally, we incorporated gene expression and biochemical pathway data to reduce the number of candidate gene products putatively participating in the eight steps of the photorespiration pathway from 52 to 10, based on expression levels of putatively functionally redundant genes. We confirmed the efficacy of this method to cope with redundancy by correctly predicting participation in photorespiration of a gene with five paralogs. Applying these methods will accelerate rice functional genomics. PMID:18836531

  13. Expression of a gene encoding mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase in rice increases under submerged conditions.

    PubMed

    Nakazono, M; Tsuji, H; Li, Y; Saisho, D; Arimura, S; Tsutsumi, N; Hirai, A

    2000-10-01

    It is known that alcoholic fermentation is important for survival of plants under anaerobic conditions. Acetaldehyde, one of the intermediates of alcoholic fermentation, is not only reduced by alcohol dehydrogenase but also can be oxidized by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). To determine whether ALDH plays a role in anaerobic metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Nipponbare), we characterized a cDNA clone encoding mitochondrial ALDH from rice (Aldh2a). Analysis of sub-cellular localization of ALDH2a protein using green fluorescent protein and an in vitro ALDH assay using protein extracts from Escherichia coli cells that overexpressed ALDH2a indicated that ALDH2a functions in the oxidation of acetaldehyde in mitochondria. A Southern-blot analysis indicated that mitochondrial ALDH is encoded by at least two genes in rice. We found that the Aldh2a mRNA was present at high levels in leaves of dark-grown seedlings, mature leaf sheaths, and panicles. It is interesting that expression of the rice Aldh2a gene, unlike the expression of the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Aldh2a gene, was induced in rice seedlings by submergence. Experiments with ruthenium red, which is a blocker of Ca(2+) fluxes in rice as well as maize (Zea mays), suggest that the induction of expression of Adh1 and Pdc1 by low oxygen stress is regulated by elevation of the cytosolic Ca(2+) level. However, the induction of Aldh2a gene expression may not be controlled by the cytosolic Ca(2+) level elevation. A possible involvement of ALDH2a in the submergence tolerance of rice is discussed.

  14. Evaluation of effectiveness of seed priming with selenium in rice during germination under arsenic stress.

    PubMed

    Moulick, Debojyoti; Ghosh, Dibakar; Chandra Santra, Subhas

    2016-12-01

    Due to extensive use of arsenic (As) contaminated ground water in rice cultivation As toxicity has become a growing concern to rice growers of south east Asian countries. The presence of As in soil and irrigation water causes impaired crop growth and development. Selenium (Se) at lower concentration (1.0 mg L(-1)) is reported to be stimulatory on crop growth and it has also an antagonistic behavior with As. With this rationale the present study was conducted to investigate into the potentiality of seed priming technology with Se to ameliorate the As stress on rice seed germination and seedling growth. The seed germination percentage, seedling growth, total phenolics, proline and malonaldehyde content as well as total As uptake pattern of rice seedlings grown under As stressed condition were measured. The As induced toxicity markedly reduced the germination percentage by 70%, whereas, Se supplementation through seed priming enhanced the rice seed germination by 9% and root and shoot length vis-a-vis seedling biomass accumulation by 1.3, 1.6 and 1.4 fold respectively. The inhibitory effect of As stress was more on root growth than that of shoot. The toxicity due to arsenite stress was higher than the arsenate stress. Seed priming with Se enhanced seed germination and seedling growth by reducing As uptake, suppressing the oxidative damage through increase in antioxidants accumulation in rice seedlings. Seed primed with 0.8 mg Se L(-1) was more effective in improving rice seed germination and seedling growth, compared to 1.0 mg Se L(-1).

  15. Aeromonas salmonicida grown in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Garduño, R A; Thornton, J C; Kay, W W

    1993-01-01

    The virulent fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida was rapidly killed in vivo when restricted inside a diffusion chamber implanted intraperitoneally in rainbow trout. After a period of regrowth, the survivors had acquired resistance to host-mediated bacteriolysis, phagocytosis, and oxidative killing, properties which were subsequently lost by growth in vitro. Resistance to bacteriolysis and phagocytosis was associated with a newly acquired capsular layer revealed by acidic polysaccharide staining and electron microscopy. This capsular layer shielded the underlying, regular surface array (S-layer) from immunogold labeling with a primary antibody to the S-layer protein. Resistance to oxidative killing was mediated by a mechanism not associated with the presence of the capsular layer. An attenuated vaccine strain of A. salmonicida grown in vivo failed to express the capsular layer. Consequently, the in vivo-grown cells of this attenuated strain remained as sensitive to bacteriolysis, and as avidly adherent to macrophages, as the in vitro-grown cells. The importance of these new virulence determinants and their relation to the known virulence factors of A. salmonicida are discussed. Images PMID:8359906

  16. New market opportunities for rice grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding efforts for rice have been focusing on increasing yield and improving quality (milling yield and grain quality), while maintaining cooked rice sensory properties to meet consumer preferences. These breeding targets will no doubt continue as the main foci for the rice industry. However, the ...

  17. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aroma and flavor of cooked rice are major criteria for preference among consumers. Small variations in these sensory properties can make rice highly desired or unacceptable to consumers. Human sensory analyses have identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental ana...

  18. Understanding rice heterosis using deep sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterosis is a complex biological phenomenon where the offspring show better performance compared to the inbred parents. Although rice breeders have used heterosis in hybrid rice production for nearly 40 years, the genetic and molecular mechanism underlying the heterosis in rice is still poorly und...

  19. Is ALL Rice Bran Created Equal?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of whole grain rice is increasing in the U.S. This increase is likely due to increased consumer awareness of the importance of whole grains in the diet. Whole grain rice is superior nutritionally compared to milled rice because, except for carbohyrates, it contains more phytochemicals an...

  20. Red Yeast Rice

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu; Karl, Mitchell; Santini, Antonello

    2017-01-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterol-reducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, non-augmented, standardized amount of monacolins. PMID:28257063

  1. Rice, indica (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Hiei, Yukoh; Ishida, Yuji; Komari, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Indica varieties, which are generally recalcitrant to tissue culture and transformation, occupy 80 % of rice cultivation area in the world. Therefore, transformation method for indica rice must be improved greatly so that global rice production would take full advantage of cutting-edge biotechnology. An efficient protocol for indica transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is hereby described. Immature embryos collected from plants in a greenhouse are cocultivated with A. tumefaciens after pretreatment with heat and centrifuging. The protocol was successfully tested in many elite indica cultivars such as IR8, IR24, IR58025B, IR64, IR72, Suweon 258, and Nanjing 11, yielding between 5 and 15 of independent transgenic plants per immature embryo. The use of immature embryos is recommended because gene transfer to them could be much more efficient and much less genotype dependent than gene transfer to callus.

  2. Transport of Soil Halides through Rice Paddies: A Viable Mechanism for Rapid Dispersion of the Soil Halide Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redeker, K. R.; Manley, S.; Wang, N.; Cicerone, R.

    2002-05-01

    On short time scales (1-10 years) soil halide concentrations have been assumed to be primarily driven by leaching and deposition processes. Recent results however, have shown that terrestrial plants volatilize soil halides in the form of methyl halides. Emissions of methyl chloride, methyl bromide and methyl iodide represent major pathways for delivery of inorganic halogen radicals to the atmosphere. Inorganic halogen radicals destroy ozone in the stratosphere and modify the oxidative capacity of the lower atmosphere. We have previously shown that rice paddies emit methyl halides and that emissions depend on growth stage of the rice plant as well as field water management. We show here that rice grown in a greenhouse at UCI is capable of volatilizing and/or storing up to 30%, 5%, and 10% of the available chloride, bromide and iodide within the top meter of soil. The percent of plant tissue halide volatilized as methyl halide over the course of the season is calculated to be 0.05%, 0.25% and 85.0% for chloride, bromide and iodide. We compare our greenhouse soil halide concentrations to other commercial rice fields around the world and estimate the e-folding time for soil halides within each region. We suggest that rice agriculture is the driving removal mechanism for halides within rice paddies and that terrestrial plants play a larger role in global cycling of halides than previously estimated.

  3. Characterization of a disease susceptibility locus for exploring an efficient way to improve rice resistance against bacterial blight.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qi; Mao, Weihua; Xie, Wenya; Liu, Qinsong; Cao, Jianbo; Yuan, Meng; Zhang, Qinglu; Li, Xianghua; Wang, Shiping

    2017-03-01

    Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the most harmful bacterial disease of rice worldwide. Previously, we characterized major disease resistance (MR) gene xa25, which confers race-specific resistance to Xoo strain PXO339. The xa25 is a recessive allele of the SWEET13 locus, but SWEET13's interaction with PXO339 and how efficiently using this locus for rice breeding still need to be defined. Here we show that the SWEET13 allele from rice Zhenshan 97 is a susceptibility gene to PXO339. Using this allele's promoter to regulate xa25 resulted in disease, suggesting that the promoter is a key determinant in SWEET13 caused disease in Zhanshan 97 after PXO339 infection. PXO339 transcriptionally induces SWEET13 to cause disease. Partial suppressing SWEET13 expression leads to a high level of resistance to PXO339. Thus, the transcriptionally suppressed SWEET13 functions as xa25 in resistance to PXO339. Hybrid rice is widely grown in many countries. However, recessive MR genes have not been efficiently used for disease resistance breeding in hybrid rice production for both parents of the hybrid have to carry the same recessive gene. However, the suppressed SWEET13 functions dominantly, which will have advantage to improve the resistance of hybrid rice to xa25-incomptible Xoo.

  4. Increase of As release and phytotoxicity to rice seedlings in As-contaminated paddy soils by Si fertilizer application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Hsing; Huang, Hsuan-Han; Syu, Chien-Hui; Lin, Tzu-Huei; Lee, Dar-Yuan

    2014-07-15

    Silicon (Si) was shown to be able to reduce arsenic (As) uptake by rice in hydroponic culture or in low As soils using high Si application rates. However, the effect of Si application on As uptake of rice grown in As-contaminated soils using Si fertilizer recommendation rate has not been investigated. In this study, the effect of Si application using Si fertilizer recommendation rate on As release and phytotoxicity in soils with different properties and contents of As was examined. The results show that the concentrations of As in soil solutions increased after Si applications due to competitive adsorption between As and Si on soil solids and the Si concentrations in soil solutions were also elevated to beneficial levels for rice growth. The rice seedlings accumulated more As and its growth was inhibited by Si application in As contaminated/spiked soils. The results indicate that there is an initial aggravation in As toxicity before the beneficial effects of Si fertilizing to rice were revealed when Si application based on fertilizer recommendation rate to As-contaminated paddy soils. Therefore, for As-contaminated paddy soils with high levels of As, the application of Si fertilizer could result in increasing As phytotoxicity and uptake by rice.

  5. Rice epigenomics and epigenetics: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangsong; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2013-05-01

    During recent years rice genome-wide epigenomic information such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which are important for genome activity has been accumulated. The function of a number of rice epigenetic regulators has been studied, many of which are found to be involved in a diverse range of developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Analysis of epigenetic variations among different rice varieties indicates that epigenetic modification may lead to inheritable phenotypic variation. Characterizing phenotypic consequences of rice epigenomic variations and the underlining chromatin mechanism and identifying epialleles related to important agronomic traits may provide novel strategies to enhance agronomically favorable traits and grain productivity in rice.

  6. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks.

  7. Iron biofortification of myanmar rice.

    PubMed

    Aung, May Sann; Masuda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Yamakawa, Takashi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2013-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75 and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high-yields or high-qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high-Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II)-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  8. Objective evaluation of whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes using a portable spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hajime; Asanome, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Keitaro; Sano, Tomoyoshi; Saito, Hiroshi; Abe, Yohei; Chuba, Masaru; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    The whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes was evaluated using a portable spectrophotometer with a whiteness index (WI). Also, by using boiled rice for measurement of Mido values by Mido Meter, it was possible to infer the whiteness of cooked rice without rice cooking. In the analysis of varietal differences of cooked rice, 'Tsuyahime', 'Koshihikari' and 'Koshinokaori' showed high whiteness, while 'Satonoyuki' had inferior whiteness. The whiteness of rice cakes made from 'Koyukimochi' and 'Dewanomochi' was higher than the whiteness of those made from 'Himenomochi' and 'Koganemochi'. While there was a significant correlation (r = 0.84) between WI values and whiteness scores of cooked rice by the sensory test, no correlation was detected between the whiteness scores and Mido values, indicating that the values obtained by a spectrophotometer differ from those obtained by a Mido Meter. Thus, a spectrophotometer may be a novel device for measurement of rice eating quality.

  9. The Glycemic Index of Rice and Rice Products: A Review, and Table of GI Values.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Bhupinder; Ranawana, Viren; Henry, Jeyakumar

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the principle staple and energy source for nearly half the world's population and therefore has significant nutrition and health implications. Rice is generally considered a high glycemic index (GI) food, however, this depends on varietal, compositional, processing, and accompaniment factors. Being a major contributor to the glycemic load in rice eating populations, there is increasing concern that the rising prevalence of insulin resistance is as a result of the consumption of large amounts of rice. Devising ways and means of reducing the glycemic impact of rice is therefore imperative. This review gathers studies examining the GI of rice and rice products and provides a critical overview of the current state of the art. A table collating published GI values for rice and rice products is also included.

  10. Incorporating rice residues into paddy soils affects methylmercury accumulation in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huike; Zhong, Huan; Wu, Jialu

    2016-06-01

    Paddy fields are characterized by frequent organic input (e.g., fertilization and rice residue amendment), which may affect mercury biogeochemistry and bioaccumulation. To explore potential effects of rice residue amendment on methylmercury (MMHg) accumulation in rice, a mercury-contaminated paddy soil was amended with rice root (RR), rice straw (RS) or composted rice straw (CS), and planted with rice. Incorporating RS or CS increased grain MMHg concentration by 14% or 11%. The observed increases could be attributed to the elevated porewater MMHg levels and thus enhanced MMHg uptake by plants, as well as increased MMHg translocation to grain within plants. Our results indicated for the first time that rice residue amendment could significantly affect MMHg accumulation in rice grain, which should be considered in risk assessment of MMHg in contaminated areas.

  11. Impacts of seeding rate on interactions between rice and rice water weevils.

    PubMed

    Stout, M J; Harrell, D; Tindall, K V; Bond, J

    2009-10-01

    The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, is the most widely distributed and destructive early season insect pest of rice, Oryza sativa L., in the United States. Economic losses result primarily from feeding by the larval stage of this insect on the roots of flooded rice plants. Prior studies suggest that infestations of rice water weevil larvae are more severe at low plant densities. Moreover, because feeding by the rice water weevil reduces rice plant tillering, a process particularly important to yield at low seeding rates, infestations by weevil larvae may have a greater impact on rice yields when rice is seeded at low rates. In total, six experiments were conducted over a 3-yr period in Louisiana and Missouri to investigate the impacts of rice seeding rate on levels of infestations by, and yield losses from, the rice water weevil. An inverse relationship between seeding rate and densities of rice water weevil larvae and pupae on a per area basis was found in two of the six experiments. Furthermore, in two of the three experiments conducted with 'Bengal' (a susceptible cultivar) in Louisiana, percentages of yield loss were significantly higher at lower seeding rates than at higher seeding rates. Overall, these results indicate that rice sown at low rates is more vulnerable to infestation by rice water weevils and more susceptible to yield losses from weevil injury. The significance of these findings in light of recent trends toward the use of lower seeding rates in drill-seeded rice is discussed.

  12. Weedy (red) rice: An emerging constraint to global rice production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ongoing increases in the human population necessitate that rice will continue to be an essential aspect of food security for the 21st century. While production must increase in the coming decades to meet demand, such increases will be accompanied by diminished natural resources and rising productio...

  13. Insights into molecular mechanism of blast resistance in weedy rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy rice is a serious pest in direct-seeded rice fields in the U.S. and worldwide. Under suitable conditions, weedy rice can reduce crop yields up to 70%. However, weedy rice may carry novel disease resistance genes. Rice blast disease caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a major disease wo...

  14. Alleviation of water stress effects on MR220 rice by application of periodical water stress and potassium fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zain, Nurul Amalina Mohd; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Mahmood, Maziah; Puteh, Adam; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz

    2014-02-05

    The use of periodical water stress and potassium fertilization may enhance rice tolerance to drought stress and improve the crop's instantaneous water use efficiency without much yield reduction. This study was conducted to assess the effects of different periodical water stress combined with potassium fertilization regimes on growth, yield, leaf gas exchanges and biochemical changes in rice grown in pots and compare them with standard local rice grower practices. Five treatments including (1) standard local grower's practice (control, 80CF = 80 kg K2O/ha + control flooding); (2) 120PW15 = 120 kg K2O/ha + periodical water stress for 15 days; (3) 120DS15V = 120 kg K2O/ha + drought stress for 15 days during the vegetative stage; (4) 120DS25V = 120 kg K2O/ha + drought stress for 25 days and (5) 120DS15R = 120 kg K2O/ha + drought stress for 15 days during the reproductive stage, were evaluated in this experiment. Control and 120PW15 treatments were stopped at 100 DAS, and continuously saturated conditions were applied until harvest. It was found that rice under 120PW15 treatment showed tolerance to drought stress evidenced by increased water use efficiency, peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT) and proline levels, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm) and lower minimal fluorescence (fo), compared to other treatments. Path coefficient analysis revealed that most of parameters contribute directly rather than indirectly to rice yield. In this experiment, there were four factors that are directly involved with rice yield: grain soluble sugar, photosynthesis, water use efficiency and total chlorophyll content. The residual factors affecting rice yield are observed to be quite low in the experiment (0.350), confirming that rice yield was mostly influenced by the parameters measured during the study.

  15. Methane emissions from drill-seeded, delayed-flood rice production on a silt-loam soil in arkansas.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Christopher W; Brye, Kristofor R; Norman, Richard J; Gbur, Edward E; Mattice, John D; Parkin, Timothy B; Roberts, Trenton L

    2013-07-01

    Rice ( L.) production is unique among staple food crops because the majority of the growing season typically occurs under flooded-soil conditions. Flooding the soil leads to anaerobic conditions, which are a precursor to methane (CH) production. However, no known research has investigated CH emissions from the drill-seeded, delayed-flood rice production system common in Arkansas, the leading rice-producing state in the United States. Therefore, research was conducted in 2011 to determine the effects of vegetation (rice and bare soil), chamber location (in- and between-rice rows), and nitrogen (N) fertilization (optimal and no N) on CH emissions from a silt-loam soil. Methane fluxes measured weekly from flooding until flood release were affected by vegetation, chamber location, and sample date ( < 0.05). In-row CH fluxes were <0.7 mg CH-C m h until 20 d after flooding (DAF) and <1.0 mg CH-C m h from between-row and bare soil until 41 DAF and were unaffected by fertilization over time. The largest weekly measured CH flux (31.9 mg CH-C m h) was observed from in-row rice at 41 DAF. Post-flood-release CH fluxes were affected by vegetation, fertilization, chamber placement, and sample date ( < 0.05) and accounted for approximately 3 to 7% of the season-long CH emissions. Methane emissions averaged 195 kg CH-C ha per growing season and were unaffected by fertilization. Direct measurement of CH emissions from drill-seeded, delayed-flood rice grown on a silt-loam soil will improve the accuracy of assessments of the carbon footprint and long-term sustainability of rice.

  16. Agriculture Education. Soybeans and Rice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural education. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) soybeans, (2) rice, and (3) orientation. Each of the 17 units of instruction follows a typical format: terminal objective, specific…

  17. An Innovative Modeling and Measurement Approach to Improve Rice Water Use Efficiency in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazar, A.; Little, C.; Rejmanek, H.; Tindula, G.; Snyder, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    California is amongst the top rice producing states in the USA, and more than 95 percent of California's rice is grown in the Sacramento Valley. Based on older literature, the rice water requirement (ETc), ranges between 914 and 1,100 mm. In this study, the actual rice water requirement was measured using the residual of the energy balance method over three paddy rice fields during 2011-2013 seasons in the Sacramento Valley. Net radiation and ground heat flux density were measured, and both eddy covariance (EC) and the surface renewal (SR) technique were employed to determine the sensible heat flux density. The surface renewal method uses high frequency temperature measurements from fine wire thermocouples above the canopy. Mean amplitude and duration of the ramps over half hour periods were determined using a structure function and the characteristics are employed to estimate the direction and magnitude of sensible heat flux using the ratio of the amplitude to the ramp duration as the change in temperature per unit time and the volumetric heat capacity of the air to estimate the magnitude of the heat flux. In the study, 76.2 mm diameter chromel-constantan thermocouples were used to measure high frequency temperature at 10 Hz. The results indicate that there is considerable variability in rice water use both spatially and temporally. The average three-year measured ET of the experimental fields located in Butte County was 734 and 725 mm; and in Colusa County was 771 mm. A typical crop coefficient (Kc) curve was derived from the measured ETc and reference ET (ETo) data. Spatial estimates of monthly climate data from the Sacramento Valley were used to calculate monthly mean ETo, and smooth curve fits of the monthly data gave estimates of typical daily ETo. The daily ETc was calculated as the product of ETo and Kc, and seasonal ETc was calculated by summing the daily ETc values. The results reveal that the seasonal rice ETc was less than earlier estimates. Surface

  18. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P < 0.01) between rice plant parameters, rice yield and soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal

  19. Temperature modulates the cell wall mechanical properties of rice coleoptiles by altering the molecular mass of hemicellulosic polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Yukiko; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hoson, Takayuki

    2003-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the mechanism inducing the difference in the cell wall extensibility of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Koshihikari) coleoptiles grown under various temperature (10-50 degrees C) conditions. The growth rate and the cell wall extensibility of rice coleoptiles exhibited the maximum value at 30-40 degrees C, and became smaller as the growth temperature rose or dropped from this temperature range. The amounts of cell wall polysaccharides per unit length of coleoptile increased in coleoptiles grown at 40 degrees C, but not at other temperature conditions. On the other hand, the molecular size of hemicellulosic polysaccharides was small at temperatures where the cell wall extensibility was high (30-40 degrees C). The autolytic activities of cell walls obtained from coleoptiles grown at 30 and 40 degrees C were substantially higher than those grown at 10, 20 and 50 degrees C. Furthermore, the activities of (1-->3),(1-->4)-beta-glucanases extracted from coleoptile cell walls showed a similar tendency. When oat (1-->3),(1-->4)-beta-glucans with high molecular mass were incubated with the cell wall enzyme preparations from coleoptiles grown at various temperature conditions, the extensive molecular mass downshifts were brought about only by the cell wall enzymes obtained from coleoptiles grown at 30-40 degrees C. There were close correlations between the cell wall extensibility and the molecular mass of hemicellulosic polysaccharides or the activity of beta -glucanases. These results suggest that the environmental temperature regulates the cell wall extensibility of rice coleoptiles by modifying mainly the molecular mass of hemicellulosic polysaccharides. Modulation of the activity of beta-glucanases under various temperature conditions may be involved in the alteration of the molecular size of hemicellulosic polysaccharides.

  20. Aging activity of DDE in dissimilar rice soils in a greenhouse experiment.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fen Xia; Yu, Gui Fen; Wang, Fang; Yang, Xing Lun; Jiang, Xin

    2008-04-01

    A green-house study was conducted in late 2005 to investigate the aging behavior of p,p'-DDE in two types of soil, Hydragric Anthrosols (An) and Hydragric Acrisols (Ac), according to the World Reference Base (WRB) [FAO/ISRIC/ISSS. 1998. World reference base for soil resources. World soil resources reports, Rome. p. 87]. Paddy rice and dry rice were grown in submerged paddy soils and non-submerged upland soils, respectively. The concentration of extractable p,p'-DDE in fresh DDE-spiked soils was 746.2ngg(-1). During the first few weeks of the experiment, the extractability of p,p'-DDE became increasingly low as the aging period prolonged. However, certain amount of p,p'-DDE that had been captured by soil minerals and organic matter (OM) could be released and became extractable in the later period. The extractability of p,p'-DDE in submerged soils was significantly lower than that in non-submerged soil, because flooding could increase the binding of pollutants to soil particles. The plantation of both dry rice and paddy rice slowed down the aging process of p,p'-DDE. After one month's growth of rice, p,p'-DDE bound to soil particles was released and became extractable. The OM and silt content of An are higher than that of Ac, resulting in more bound residues and relative lower extractability of p,p'-DDE in An. In addition, the extractability of p,p'-DDE could be reduced by the addition of rice straw to soils.

  1. Rice available to waterfowl in harvested fields in the Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.; Sharp, D.E.; Gilmer, D.S.; Mulvaney, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    Rice fields in the Sacramento Valley, California were sampled in 1985 and 1986 to determine the weight of rice seed remaining in the fields immediately after harvest and again after the fields were burned. No significant differences were found between years (P>0.05). The pooled mean was 388 kg/ha in harvested fields and 276 kg/ha in burned fields. These values are less than estimates previously available. The values for harvested fields both years were no different (P>0.05) than values obtained by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Surveys of rice fields in December both years showed that most fields were left either harvested (26-32%) or burned (37-40%) through the winter. Fields flooded for duck hunting made up 15% of the total. The proportion of fields plowed by December increased from 14% in 1985 to 22% in 1986. Sixty-three percent of all fields that had been flooded for hunting were drained within two weeks after the end of the hunting season. Harvest yield field size levee type (contour, lasered), straw status (spread, windrowed), harvest date, and rice variety did not affect the quantity of seeds remaining after harvest (P>0.05). One harvester model, the Hardy Harvester, left more rice in fields than did others we tested (P<0.001). Specific management programs are recommended to mitigate annual variation in rice seed availability to waterfowl caused by differences in total hectares grown (15% less in 1986) and in the proportion of fields burned and plowed.

  2. OsWRKY74, a WRKY transcription factor, modulates tolerance to phosphate starvation in rice

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY transcription factor family has 109 members in the rice genome, and has been reported to be involved in the regulation of biotic and abiotic stress in plants. Here, we demonstrated that a rice OsWRKY74 belonging to group III of the WRKY transcription factor family was involved in tolerance to phosphate (Pi) starvation. OsWRKY74 was localized in the nucleus and mainly expressed in roots and leaves. Overexpression of OsWRKY74 significantly enhanced tolerance to Pi starvation, whereas transgenic lines with down-regulation of OsWRKY74 were sensitive to Pi starvation. Root and shoot biomass, and phosphorus (P) concentration in rice OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants were ~16% higher than those of wild-type (WT) plants in Pi-deficient hydroponic solution. In soil pot experiments, >24% increases in tiller number, grain weight and P concentration were observed in rice OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants compared to WT plants when grown in P-deficient medium. Furthermore, Pi starvation-induced changes in root system architecture were more profound in OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants than in WT plants. Expression patterns of a number of Pi-responsive genes were altered in the OsWRKY74-overexpressing and RNA interference lines. In addition, OsWRKY74 may also be involved in the response to deficiencies in iron (Fe) and nitrogen (N) as well as cold stress in rice. In Pi-deficient conditions, OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants exhibited greater accumulation of Fe and up-regulation of the cold-responsive genes than WT plants. These findings highlight the role of OsWRKY74 in modulation of Pi homeostasis and potential crosstalk between P starvation and Fe starvation, and cold stress in rice. PMID:26663563

  3. Comparison of QTLs for rice seedling morphology under different water supply conditions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bingsong; Yang, Ling; Mao, Chuanzao; Huang, Youjun; Wu, Ping

    2008-08-01

    The variation of seedling characteristics under different water supply conditions is strongly associated with drought resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and a better elucidation of its genetics is helpful for improving rice drought resistance. Ninetysix doubled-haploid (DH) rice lines of an indica and japonica cross were grown in both flooding and upland conditions and QTLs for morphological traits at seedling stage were examined using 208 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 76 microsatellite (SSR) markers. A total of 32 putative QTLs were associated with the four seedling traits: average of three adventitious root lengths (ARL), shoot height (SH), shoot biomass (SW), and root to shoot dry weight ratio (RSR). Five QTLs detected were the same under control and upland conditions. The ratio between the mean value of the seedling trait under upland and flooding conditions was used for assessing drought tolerance. A total of six QTLs for drought tolerance were detected. Comparative analysis was performed for the QTLs detected in this case and those reported from two other populations with the same upland rice variety Azucena as parent. Several identical QTLs for seedling elongation across the three populations with the positive alleles from the upland rice Azucena were detected, which suggests that the alleles of Azucena might be involved in water stress-accelerated elongation of rice under different genetic backgrounds. Five cell wall-related candidate genes for OsEXP1, OsEXP2, OsEXP4, EXT, and EGase were mapped on the intervals carrying the QTLs for seedling traits.

  4. Effects of water management on arsenic and cadmium speciation and accumulation in an upland rice cultivar.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengjie; Ouyang, Younan; Wu, Longhua; Shen, Libo; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of water regimes on the speciation and accumulation of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in Brazilian upland rice growing in soils polluted with both As and Cd. In the pot experiment constant and intermittent flooding treatments gave 3-16 times higher As concentrations in soil solution than did aerobic conditions but Cd showed the opposite trend. Compared to arsenate, there were more marked changes in the arsenite concentrations in the soil solution as water management shifted, and therefore arsenite concentrations dominated the As speciation and bioavailability in the soil. In the field experiment As concentrations in the rice grains increased from 0.14 to 0.21 mg/kg while Cd concentrations decreased from 0.21 to 0.02 mg/kg with increasing irrigation ranging from aerobic to constantly flooding conditions. Among the various water regimes the conventional irrigation treatment produced the highest rice grain yield of 6.29 tons/ha. The As speciation analysis reveals that the accumulation of dimethylarsinic acid (from 11.3% to 61.7%) made a greater contribution to the increase in total As in brown rice in the intermittent and constant flooding treatments compared to the intermittent-aerobic treatment. Thus, water management exerted opposite effects on Cd and As speciation and bioavailability in the soil and consequently on their accumulation in the upland rice. Special care is required when irrigation regime methods are employed to mitigate the accumulation of metal(loid)s in the grain of rice grown in soils polluted with both As and Cd.

  5. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  6. Mutualistic fungal endophytes produce phytohormones and organic acids that promote japonica rice plant growth under prolonged heat stress*

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Shahzad, Raheem; Ullah, Ihsan; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies the potential role in heat-stress mitigation of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Paecilomyces formosus LWL1 in japonica rice cultivar Dongjin. The japonica rice was grown in controlled chamber conditions with and without P. formosus LWL1 under no stress (NS) and prolonged heat stress (HS) conditions. Endophytic association under NS and HS conditions significantly improved plant growth attributes, such as plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, P. formosus LWL1 protected the rice plants from HS compared with controls, indicated by the lower endogenous level of stress-signaling compounds such as abscisic acid (25.71%) and jasmonic acid (34.57%) and the increase in total protein content (18.76%–33.22%). Such fungal endophytes may be helpful for sustainable crop production under high environmental temperatures. PMID:26642184

  7. Systemic Infection of Maize, Sorghum, Rice, and Beet Seedlings with Fumonisin-Producing and Nonproducing Fusarium verticillioides Strains

    PubMed Central

    Dastjerdi, Raana; Karlovsky, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Two fumonisin-nonproducing strains of Fusarium verticillioides and their fumonisin producing progenitors were tested for aggressiveness toward maize, sorghum, rice, and beetroot seedlings grown under greenhouse conditions. None of the plants showed obvious disease symptoms after root dip inoculation. Fungal biomass was determined by species-specific real-time PCR. No significant (P = 0.05) differences in systemic colonization were detected between the wild type strains and mutants not producing fumonisins. F. verticillioides was not detected in any of the non-inoculated control plants. The fungus grew from roots to the first two internodes/leaves of maize, rice and beet regardless of fumonisin production. The systemic growth of F. verticillioides in sorghum was limited. The results showed that fumonisin production was not required for the infection of roots of maize, rice and beet by F. verticillioides. PMID:26672472

  8. Rice domestication: histories and mysteries.

    PubMed

    Gross, Briana L

    2012-09-01

    Domesticated rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the world's most important food crops, culturally, nutritionally and economically (Khush 1997). Thus, it is no surprise that there is intense curiosity about its genetic and geographical origins, its response to selection under domestication, and the genetic structure of its wild relative, Oryza rufipogon. Studies of Oryza attempting to answer these questions have accompanied each stage of the development of molecular markers, starting with allozymes and continuing to genome sequencing. While many of these studies have been restricted to small sample sizes, in terms of either the number of markers used or the number and distribution of the accessions, costs are now low enough that researchers are including large numbers of molecular markers and accessions. How will these studies relate to previous findings and long-held assumptions about rice domestication and evolution? If the paper in this issue of Molecular Ecology (Huang et al. 2012) is any indication, there will be some considerable surprises in store. In this study, a geographically and genomically thorough sampling of O. rufipogon and O. sativa revealed two genetically distinct groups of wild rice and also indicated that only one of these groups appears to be related to domesticated rice. While this fits well with previous studies indicating that there are genetic subdivisions within O. rufipogon, it stands in contrast to previous findings that the two major varieties of O. sativa (indica and japonica) were domesticated from two (or more) subpopulations of wild rice.

  9. Harvesting microalgae grown on wastewater.

    PubMed

    Udom, Innocent; Zaribaf, Behnaz H; Halfhide, Trina; Gillie, Benjamin; Dalrymple, Omatoyo; Zhang, Qiong; Ergas, Sarina J

    2013-07-01

    The costs and life cycle impacts of microalgae harvesting for biofuel production were investigated. Algae were grown in semi-continuous culture in pilot-scale photobioreactors under natural light with anaerobic digester centrate as the feed source. Algae suspensions were collected and the optimal coagulant dosages for metal salts (alum, ferric chloride), cationic polymer (Zetag 8819), anionic polymer (E-38) and natural coagulants (Moringa Oleifera and Opuntia ficus-indica cactus) were determined using jar tests. The relative dewaterability of the algae cake was estimated by centrifugation. Alum, ferric chloride and cationic polymer could all achieve >91% algae recovery at optimal dosages. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis results revealed that cationic polymer had the lowest cost but the highest environmental impacts, while ferric chloride had the highest cost and lowest environmental impacts. Based on the LCA results, belt presses are the recommended algae dewatering technology prior to oil extraction.

  10. Isoflavone content and profile comparisons of cooked soybean-rice mixtures: electric rice cooker versus electric pressure rice cooker.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Yu, Bo-Ra; Park, Inmyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2014-12-10

    This study examined the effects of heat and pressure on the isoflavone content and profiles of soybeans and rice cooked together using an electric rice cooker (ERC) and an electric pressure rice cooker (EPRC). The total isoflavone content of the soybean-rice mixture after ERC and EPRC cooking relative to that before cooking was ∼90% in soybeans and 14-15% in rice. Malonylglucosides decreased by an additional ∼20% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those cooked using the ERC, whereas glucosides increased by an additional ∼15% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those in ERC-cooked soybeans. In particular, malonylgenistin was highly susceptible to isoflavone conversion during soybean-rice cooking. Total genistein and total glycitein contents decreased in soybeans after ERC and EPRC cooking, whereas total daidzein content increased in EPRC-cooked soybeans (p < 0.05). These results may be useful for improving the content of nutraceuticals, such as isoflavones, in soybeans.

  11. Tier I Rice Model - Version 1.0 - Guidance for Estimating Pesticide Concentrations in Rice Paddies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes a Tier I Rice Model (Version 1.0) for estimating surface water exposure from the use of pesticides in rice paddies. The concentration calculated can be used for aquatic ecological risk and drinking water exposure assessments.

  12. High-throughput measurement of rice tillers using a conveyor equipped with x-ray computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wanneng; Xu, Xiaochun; Duan, Lingfeng; Luo, Qingming; Chen, Shangbin; Zeng, Shaoqun; Liu, Qian

    2011-02-01

    Tillering is one of the most important agronomic traits because the number of shoots per plant determines panicle number, a key component of grain yield. The conventional method of counting tillers is still manual. Under the condition of mass measurement, the accuracy and efficiency could be gradually degraded along with fatigue of experienced staff. Thus, manual measurement, including counting and recording, is not only time consuming but also lack objectivity. To automate this process, we developed a high-throughput facility, dubbed high-throughput system for measuring automatically rice tillers (H-SMART), for measuring rice tillers based on a conventional x-ray computed tomography (CT) system and industrial conveyor. Each pot-grown rice plant was delivered into the CT system for scanning via the conveyor equipment. A filtered back-projection algorithm was used to reconstruct the transverse section image of the rice culms. The number of tillers was then automatically extracted by image segmentation. To evaluate the accuracy of this system, three batches of rice at different growth stages (tillering, heading, or filling) were tested, yielding absolute mean absolute errors of 0.22, 0.36, and 0.36, respectively. Subsequently, the complete machine was used under industry conditions to estimate its efficiency, which was 4320 pots per continuous 24 h workday. Thus, the H-SMART could determine the number of tillers of pot-grown rice plants, providing three advantages over the manual tillering method: absence of human disturbance, automation, and high throughput. This facility expands the application of agricultural photonics in plant phenomics.

  13. High-throughput measurement of rice tillers using a conveyor equipped with x-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanneng; Xu, Xiaochun; Duan, Lingfeng; Luo, Qingming; Chen, Shangbin; Zeng, Shaoqun; Liu, Qian

    2011-02-01

    Tillering is one of the most important agronomic traits because the number of shoots per plant determines panicle number, a key component of grain yield. The conventional method of counting tillers is still manual. Under the condition of mass measurement, the accuracy and efficiency could be gradually degraded along with fatigue of experienced staff. Thus, manual measurement, including counting and recording, is not only time consuming but also lack objectivity. To automate this process, we developed a high-throughput facility, dubbed high-throughput system for measuring automatically rice tillers (H-SMART), for measuring rice tillers based on a conventional x-ray computed tomography (CT) system and industrial conveyor. Each pot-grown rice plant was delivered into the CT system for scanning via the conveyor equipment. A filtered back-projection algorithm was used to reconstruct the transverse section image of the rice culms. The number of tillers was then automatically extracted by image segmentation. To evaluate the accuracy of this system, three batches of rice at different growth stages (tillering, heading, or filling) were tested, yielding absolute mean absolute errors of 0.22, 0.36, and 0.36, respectively. Subsequently, the complete machine was used under industry conditions to estimate its efficiency, which was 4320 pots per continuous 24 h workday. Thus, the H-SMART could determine the number of tillers of pot-grown rice plants, providing three advantages over the manual tillering method: absence of human disturbance, automation, and high throughput. This facility expands the application of agricultural photonics in plant phenomics.

  14. Detection and quantification of trace elements in rice and rice products using x-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foran, Kelly A.; Fleming, David E. B.

    2015-12-01

    We used X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to examine the presence of arsenic (As) and other trace elements (manganese, iron, nickel, copper, and zinc) in rice and rice products. A portable XRF analyzer was used to test samples, and amplitudes for the analyzed elements were identified in the resulting data. The detection limit of the system was sufficiently low to detect As in some rice and rice product samples.

  15. Expression of Zinc Transporter Genes in Rice as Influenced by Zinc-Solubilizing Enterobacter cloacae Strain ZSB14.

    PubMed

    Krithika, Selvaraj; Balachandar, Dananjeyan

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency in major food crops has been considered as an important factor affecting the crop production and subsequently the human health. Rice (Oryza sativa) is sensitive to Zn deficiency and thereby causes malnutrition to most of the rice-eating Asian populations. Application of zinc solubilizing bacteria (ZSB) could be a sustainable agronomic approach to increase the soil available Zn which can mitigate the yield loss and consequently the nutritional quality of rice. Understanding the molecular interactions between rice and unexplored ZSB is useful for overcoming Zn deficiency problems. In the present study, the role of zinc solubilizing bacterial strain Enterobacter cloacae strain ZSB14 on regulation of Zn-regulated transporters and iron (Fe)-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) genes in rice under iron sufficient and deficient conditions was assessed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. The expression patterns of OsZIP1, OsZIP4, and OsZIP5 in root and shoot of rice were altered due to the Zn availability as dictated by Zn sources and ZSB inoculation. Fe sufficiency significantly reduced the root and shoot OsZIP1 expression, but not the OsZIP4 and OsZIP5 levels. Zinc oxide in the growth medium up-regulated all the assessed ZIP genes in root and shoot of rice seedlings. When ZSB was inoculated to rice seedlings grown with insoluble zinc oxide in the growth medium, the expression of root and shoot OsZIP1, OsZIP4, and OsZIP5 was reduced. In the absence of zinc oxide, ZSB inoculation up-regulated OsZIP1 and OsZIP5 expressions. Zinc nutrition provided to the rice seedling through ZSB-bound zinc oxide solubilization was comparable to the soluble zinc sulfate application which was evident through the ZIP genes' expression and the Zn accumulation in root and shoot of rice seedlings. These results demonstrate that ZSB could play a crucial role in zinc fertilization and fortification of rice.

  16. Expression of Zinc Transporter Genes in Rice as Influenced by Zinc-Solubilizing Enterobacter cloacae Strain ZSB14

    PubMed Central

    Krithika, Selvaraj; Balachandar, Dananjeyan

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency in major food crops has been considered as an important factor affecting the crop production and subsequently the human health. Rice (Oryza sativa) is sensitive to Zn deficiency and thereby causes malnutrition to most of the rice-eating Asian populations. Application of zinc solubilizing bacteria (ZSB) could be a sustainable agronomic approach to increase the soil available Zn which can mitigate the yield loss and consequently the nutritional quality of rice. Understanding the molecular interactions between rice and unexplored ZSB is useful for overcoming Zn deficiency problems. In the present study, the role of zinc solubilizing bacterial strain Enterobacter cloacae strain ZSB14 on regulation of Zn-regulated transporters and iron (Fe)-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) genes in rice under iron sufficient and deficient conditions was assessed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. The expression patterns of OsZIP1, OsZIP4, and OsZIP5 in root and shoot of rice were altered due to the Zn availability as dictated by Zn sources and ZSB inoculation. Fe sufficiency significantly reduced the root and shoot OsZIP1 expression, but not the OsZIP4 and OsZIP5 levels. Zinc oxide in the growth medium up-regulated all the assessed ZIP genes in root and shoot of rice seedlings. When ZSB was inoculated to rice seedlings grown with insoluble zinc oxide in the growth medium, the expression of root and shoot OsZIP1, OsZIP4, and OsZIP5 was reduced. In the absence of zinc oxide, ZSB inoculation up-regulated OsZIP1 and OsZIP5 expressions. Zinc nutrition provided to the rice seedling through ZSB-bound zinc oxide solubilization was comparable to the soluble zinc sulfate application which was evident through the ZIP genes’ expression and the Zn accumulation in root and shoot of rice seedlings. These results demonstrate that ZSB could play a crucial role in zinc fertilization and fortification of rice. PMID:27092162

  17. Growth inhibition and effect on photosystem by three imidazolium chloride ionic liquids in rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijun; Zhang, Shuxian; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Caidong

    2015-04-09

    The effects of three imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs) including 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid ([OMIM]Cl), 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid ([DMIM]Cl) and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid ([C12MIM]Cl) were studied in hydroponically grown rice seedlings. The growth inhibition rate increased and the Hill reaction activity of isolated rice chloroplasts decreased with increasing ILs concentrations. The IC50,5d for stem length was 0.70 mg/L of [OMIM]Cl, 0.15 mg/L of [DMIM]Cl, and 0.055 mg/L of [C12MIM]Cl, respectively. The SOD, POD and CAT activities of chloroplast exhibited initial increases followed by decreases in activity with increasing ILs concentrations. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters such as the maximum effective quantum yield of PSII(Fv/Fm), the potential activity of PSII(Fv/F0), the yield of photochemical quantum [Y(II)], the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), the non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) and the relative electron transport ratio (rETR) were affected, showing that ILs will damage the PSII. The results demonstrated that imidazolium chloride ILs are phytotoxic to rice growth and their photosystem, the toxicity increased as the alkyl chain length increased with the following order: [OMIM]Cl<[DMIM]Cl<[C12MIM]Cl. The results will help to better understand the possible role of the defense mechanism in rice caused by ILs exposure.

  18. C4 Photosynthesis in the Rice Paddy: Insights from the Noxious Weed Echinochloa glabrescens1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Covshoff, Sarah; Szecowka, Marek; Hughes, Thomas E.; Kelly, Steven; Bailey, Karen J.; Sage, Tammy L.; Pachebat, Justin A.; Leegood, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The C4 pathway is a highly complex trait that increases photosynthetic efficiency in more than 60 plant lineages. Although the majority of C4 plants occupy disturbed, arid, and nutrient-poor habitats, some grow in high-nutrient, waterlogged conditions. One such example is Echinochloa glabrescens, which is an aggressive weed of rice paddies. We generated comprehensive transcriptome datasets for C4 E. glabrescens and C3 rice to identify genes associated with adaption to waterlogged, nutrient-replete conditions, but also used the data to better understand how C4 photosynthesis operates in these conditions. Leaves of E. glabrescens exhibited classical Kranz anatomy with lightly lobed mesophyll cells having low chloroplast coverage. As with rice and other hygrophytic C3 species, leaves of E. glabrescens accumulated a chloroplastic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase protein, albeit at reduced amounts relative to rice. The arid-grown species Setaria italica (C4) and Brachypodium distachyon (C3) were also found to accumulate chloroplastic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. We identified a molecular signature associated with C4 photosynthesis in nutrient-replete, waterlogged conditions that is highly similar to those previously reported from C4 plants that grow in more arid conditions. We also identified a cohort of genes that have been subjected to a selective sweep associated with growth in paddy conditions. Overall, this approach highlights the value of using wild species such as weeds to identify adaptions to specific conditions associated with high-yielding crops in agriculture. PMID:26527656

  19. Sprinkler irrigation of rice fields reduces grain arsenic but enhances cadmium.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Meharg, Andrew A; Smolders, Erik; Manzano, Rebeca; Becerra, Daniel; Sánchez-Llerena, Javier; Albarrán, Ángel; López-Piñero, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that rice cultivated under flooded conditions has higher concentrations of arsenic (As) but lower cadmium (Cd) compared to rice grown in unsaturated soils. To validate such effects over long terms under Mediterranean conditions a field experiment, conducted over 7 successive years was established in SW Spain. The impact of water management on rice production and grain arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) was measured, and As speciation was determined to inform toxicity evaluation. Sprinkler irrigation was compared to traditional flooding. Both irrigation techniques resulted in similar grain yields (~3000 kg grain ha(-1)). Successive sprinkler irrigation over 7 years decreased grain total As to one-sixth its initial concentration in the flooded system (0.55 to 0.09 mg As kg(-1)), while one cycle of sprinkler irrigation also reduced grain total As by one-third (0.20 mg kg(-1)). Grain inorganic As concentration increased up to 2 folds under flooded conditions compared to sprinkler irrigated fields while organic As was also lower in sprinkler system treatments, but to a lesser extent. This suggests that methylation is favored under water logging. However, sprinkler irrigation increased Cd transfer to grain by a factor of 10, reaching 0.05 mg Cd kg(-1) in 7 years. Sprinkler systems in paddy fields seem particularly suited for Mediterranean climates and are able to mitigate against excessive As accumulation, but our evidence shows that an increased Cd load in rice grain may result.

  20. Gravitropism of maize and rice coleoptiles: dependence on the stimulation angle.

    PubMed

    Iino, M; Tarui, Y; Uematsu, C

    1996-10-01

    Gravitropism of maize and rice coleoptiles was investigated with respect to its dependence on the angle of displacement or the initial stimulation angle (ISA). Close examination of curvature kinetics and the response to a drop in stimulation angle (SA) indicated that the gravtropic response during an early but substantial part of the curvature development is directly related to the ISA, there being no effect of the reduction of SA resulting from the curvature response itself. On the basis of this finding, the relationship between the steady SA and the curvature rate was determined. In maize, the curvature rate increased linearly with the sines of SAs up to an SA of 90 degrees. Rice coleoptiles, however, showed a saturation curve in the same range of SAs. The saturation profile was nearly identical between coleoptiles grown in air and those submerged in water, although the latter elongated much faster. Rice coleoptiles appeared to be far more sensitive to gravity than maize coleoptiles. It is concluded that the sensitivity to gravity, assessed through dependence on ISA, is a property inherent to a given gravitropic organ. Long-term measurements of curvature indicated that the coleoptiles bend back past the vertical. This overshooting was marked in submerged rice coleoptiles.

  1. Salt overly sensitive pathway members are influenced by diurnal rhythm in rice.

    PubMed

    Soni, Praveen; Kumar, Gautam; Soda, Neelam; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L; Pareek, Ashwani

    2013-07-01

    The diurnal rhythm controls many aspects of plant physiology such as flowering, photosynthesis and growth. Rice is one of the staple foods for world's population. Abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, heat and cold severely affect rice production. Under salinity stress, maintenance of ion homeostasis is a major challenge, which also defines the tolerance level of a given genotype. Salt overly sensitive (SOS) pathway is well documented to play a key role in maintaining the Na(+) homeostasis in plant cell. However, it is not reported yet whether the transcriptional regulation of genes of this pathway are influenced by diurnal rhythm. In the present work, we have studied the diurnal pattern of transcript abundance of SOS pathway genes in rice at seedling stage.To rule out the effect of temperature fluctuations on the expression patterns of these genes, the seedlings were grown under constant temperature. We found that OsSOS3 and OsSOS2 exhibited a rhythmic and diurnal expression pattern, while OsSOS1did not have any specific pattern of expression. This analysis establishes a cross-link between diurnal rhythm and SOS pathway and suggests that SOS pathway is influenced by diurnal rhythm in rice.

  2. Foliar application with nano-silicon alleviates Cd toxicity in rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shihua; Wang, Fayuan; Gao, Shuangcheng

    2015-02-01

    Nanofertilizers may be more effective than regular fertilizers in improving plant nutrition, enhancing nutrition use efficiency, and protecting plants from environmental stress. A hydroponic pot experiment was conducted to study the role of foliar application with 2.5 mM nano-silicon in alleviating Cd stress in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv Youyou 128) grown in solution added with or without 20 μM CdCl2. The results showed that Cd treatment decreased the growth and the contents of Mg, Fe, Zn, chlorophyll a, and glutathione (GSH), accompanied by a significant increase in Cd accumulation. However, foliar application with nano-Si improved the growth, Mg, Fe, and Zn nutrition, and the contents of chlorophyll a of the rice seedlings under Cd stress and decreased Cd accumulation and translocation of Cd from root to shoot. Cd treatment produced oxidative stress to rice seedlings indicated by a higher lipid peroxidation level (as malondialdehyde (MDA)) and higher activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), and a lower GSH content. However, those nano-Si-treated plants had lower MDA but higher GSH content and different antioxidant enzyme activities, indicating a higher Cd tolerance in them. The results suggested that nano-Si application alleviated Cd toxicity in rice by decreasing Cd accumulation, Cd partitioning in shoot and MDA level and by increasing content of some mineral elements (Mg, Fe, and Zn) and antioxidant capacity.

  3. Eliminating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil for rice cultivation using plant growth promoting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Radziah, Othman; Shamshuddin, Jusop; Razi, Ismail Mohd

    2015-02-20

    Aluminum toxicity is widely considered as the most important limiting factor for plants growing in acid sulfate soils. A study was conducted in laboratory and in field to ameliorate Al toxicity using plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), ground magnesium limestone (GML) and ground basalt. Five-day-old rice seedlings were inoculated by Bacillus sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophila, Burkholderia thailandensis and Burkholderia seminalis and grown for 21 days in Hoagland solution (pH 4.0) at various Al concentrations (0, 50 and 100 μM). Toxicity symptoms in root and leaf were studied using scanning electron microscope. In the field, biofertilizer (PGPB), GML and basalt were applied (4 t·ha-1 each). Results showed that Al severely affected the growth of rice. At high concentrations, the root surface was ruptured, leading to cell collapse; however, no damages were observed in the PGPB inoculated seedlings. After 21 days of inoculation, solution pH increased to >6.0, while the control treatment remained same. Field study showed that the highest rice growth and yield were obtained in the bio-fertilizer and GML treatments. This study showed that Al toxicity was reduced by PGPB via production of organic acids that were able to chelate the Al and the production of polysaccharides that increased solution pH. The release of phytohormones further enhanced rice growth that resulted in yield increase.

  4. The role of momilactones in rice allelopathy.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Peters, Reuben J

    2013-02-01

    Large field screening programs and laboratory experiments in many countries have indicated that rice is allelopathic and releases allelochemical(s) into its environment. A number of compounds, such as phenolic acids, fatty acids, phenylalkanoic acids, hydroxamic acids, terpenes, and indoles, have been identified as potential rice allelochemicals. However, the studies reviewed here demonstrate that the labdane-related diterpenoid momilactones are the most important, with momilactone B playing a particularly critical role. Rice plants secrete momilactone B from their roots into the neighboring environments over their entire life cycle at phytotoxic levels, and momilactone B seems to account for the majority of the observed rice allelopathy. In addition, genetic studies have shown that selective removal of the momilactones only from the complex mixture found in rice root exudates significantly reduces allelopathy, demonstrating that these serve as allelochemicals, the importance of which is reflected in the presence of a dedicated momilactone biosynthetic gene cluster in the rice genome.

  5. Oscillating Transcriptome during Rice-Magnaporthe Interaction.

    PubMed

    Sharma, T R; Das, Alok; Thakur, Shallu; Devanna, B N; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Jain, Priyanka; Vijayan, Joshitha; Kumar, Shrawan

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast disease caused by the fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases of rice. Deciphering molecular mechanism of host-pathogen interactions is of great importance in devising disease management strategies. Transcription being the first step for gene regulation in eukaryotes, basic understanding of the transcriptome is sine qua non for devising effective management strategy. The availability of genome sequences of rice and M. oryzae has facilitated the process to a large extent. The current review summarizes recent understanding of rice-blast pathosystem, application of transcriptomics approaches to understand the interactions employing different platforms, major determinants in the interaction and possibility of using certain candidate for conditioning enhanced disease resistance (Effector Triggered Immunity and PAMP Triggered Immunity) and downstream signalling in rice. A better understanding of the interaction elements and effective strategies hold potential to reduce yield losses in rice caused by M. oryzae.

  6. Novel transgenic rice-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Yuki, Yoshikazu

    2015-04-01

    Oral vaccination can induce both systemic and mucosal antigen-specific immune responses. To control rampant mucosal infectious diseases, the development of new effective oral vaccines is needed. Plant-based vaccines are new candidates for oral vaccines, and have some advantages over the traditional vaccines in cost, safety, and scalability. Rice seeds are attractive for vaccine production because of their stability and resistance to digestion in the stomach. The efficacy of some rice-based vaccines for infectious, autoimmune, and other diseases has been already demonstrated in animal models. We reported the efficacy in mice, safety, and stability of a rice-based cholera toxin B subunit vaccine called MucoRice-CTB. To advance MucoRice-CTB for use in humans, we also examined its efficacy and safety in primates. The potential of transgenic rice production as a new mucosal vaccine delivery system is reviewed from the perspective of future development of effective oral vaccines.

  7. Effects of rice harvest moisture on kernel damage and milled rice surface free fatty acid levels.

    PubMed

    Parker, Amanda M; Proctor, Andrew; Eason, Robert L; Jain, Vishal

    2007-01-01

    Surface free fatty acid (FFA) on milled rice is a key factor in determining rice quality and acceptability to the brewing industry. Rice FFA oxidizes, causing off-flavors and odors to develop, compromising the brewing quality of milled rice. The effect of harvest moisture (13%, 16%, and 20%), harvester type (1688 Case and 9500 John Deere), and rice variety (Cocodrie and Bengal) on harvest damaged rough rice and milled rice surface FFA after drying to 12% moisture and 6 mo rough rice storage was examined. The Case harvester produced more damaged kernels than the John Deere harvester, but this was not reflected in surface FFA development. There were no significant FFA differences in variety or harvester type. Rice harvested at a higher moisture content (20%) produced significantly greater FFA values, with a peak near 0.1%, than rice harvested at lower moisture contents (13% and 16%), which had FFA values near 0.08%. Retention of bran by damaged kernels at high harvest moisture probably was responsible for promoting surface FFA development, but if bran was lost at lower harvest moistures, surface FFA, development was limited. Harvest moisture affected milled rice FFA, although rough rice was dried to 12% immediately after harvesting.

  8. Global Gene Expression of Rice after Infections with Rice Blast and Sheath blight Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa) production worldwide has been challenged by increased new virulent pathogens. Over the years, genetic diversity needed for fighting diseases has been decreasing in cultivated rice around the globe. This presents a real challenge for rice crop protection. In an effort to develo...

  9. Effect of volunteer rice infestation on grain quality and yield of rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volunteer rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants arise from shattered seeds of the previous crop, which could reduce the yield of cultivated rice and the commercial value of harvested grain. Volunteer rice plants from a cultivar other than the current crop produce grains that may differ in physico-chemical t...

  10. Relative competitive ability of rice with strawhull and blackhull red rice biotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed interference depends largely upon the species composition of the weed community and an ability to compete with the cultured crop. Weedy red rice is a major weed pest of rice in the southern U.S. The focus of this study was to evaluate the competitive ability of rice against common, genetically ...

  11. Introgression of Clearfield(TM) rice crop traits into weedy red rice outcrosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to determine the impact of introgression of crop alleles into weedy rice populations. Seeds of 89 weedy rice accessions collected from Arkansas fields in 11 counties, with a history of Clearfield(TM) rice production, were planted in 2011 and treated with two applications of im...

  12. Loss‐of‐function mutation of rice SLAC7 decreases chloroplast stability and induces a photoprotection mechanism in rice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaolei; Wu, Jiemin; Chen, Taiyu; Tie, Weiwei; Chen, Hao; Zhou, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Plants absorb sunlight to power the photochemical reactions of photosynthesis, which can potentially damage the photosynthetic machinery. However, the mechanism that protects chloroplasts from the damage remains unclear. In this work, we demonstrated that rice (Oryza sativa L.) SLAC7 is a generally expressed membrane protein. Loss‐of‐function of SLAC7 caused continuous damage to the chloroplasts of mutant leaves under normal light conditions. Ion leakage indicators related to leaf damage such as H2O2 and abscisic acid levels were significantly higher in slac7‐1 than in the wild type. Consistently, the photosynthesis efficiency and Fv/Fm ratio of slac7‐1 were significantly decreased (similar to photoinhibition). In response to chloroplast damage, slac7‐1 altered its leaf morphology (curled or fused leaf) by the synergy between plant hormones and transcriptional factors to decrease the absorption of light, suggesting that a photoprotection mechanism for chloroplast damage was activated in slac7‐1. When grown in dark conditions, slac7‐1 displayed a normal phenotype. SLAC7 under the control of the AtSLAC1 promoter could partially complement the phenotypes of Arabidopsis slac1 mutants, indicating a partial conservation of SLAC protein functions. These results suggest that SLAC7 is essential for maintaining the chloroplast stability in rice. PMID:25739330

  13. Increased fitness of rice plants to abiotic stress via habitat adapted symbiosis: a strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change.

    PubMed

    Redman, Regina S; Kim, Yong Ok; Woodward, Claire J D A; Greer, Chris; Espino, Luis; Doty, Sharon L; Rodriguez, Rusty J

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients.Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions.The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20-30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization).These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands.

  14. Increased fitness of rice plants to abiotic stress via habitat adapted symbiosis: A strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Redman, R.S.; Kim, Y.-O.; Woodward, C.J.D.A.; Greer, C.; Espino, L.; Doty, S.L.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients. Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions. The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20–30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization). These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands.

  15. Total and inorganic arsenic in Iranian rice.

    PubMed

    Cano-Lamadrid, Marina; Munera-Picazo, Sandra; Burló, Francisco; Hojjati, Mohammad; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2015-05-01

    It is well known that arsenic (As) exposure, particularly to inorganic species (i-As), has adverse effects on humans. Nowadays, the European Union (EU) has still not regulated the maximum residue limit of As in commercial samples of rice and rice-based products, although it is actively working on the topic. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is collecting data on total arsenic (t-As) and i-As from different rice-producing regions not only from EU countries but also from other parts of the world to finally set up this maximum threshold. As Iran is a rice-producing country, the aim of this work was to evaluate the contents of t-As and i-As in 15 samples of Iranian white, nonorganic, and aromatic rice collected from the most important rice-producing regions of the country. The means of t-As and i-As were 120 and 82 μg/kg, respectively. The experimental i-As mean in Iranian rice was below the Chinese standard for the i-As in rice, 150 μg/kg, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) limit, 200 μg/kg. Therefore, Iranian rice seems to have reasonable low i-As content and it is safe to be marketed in any market, including China and the EU.

  16. Arsenic in rice: a cause for concern.

    PubMed

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie; Decsi, Tamas; Domellöf, Magnus; Fewtrell, Mary; Mis, Nataša Fidler; Mihatsch, Walter; Molgaard, Christian; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure, we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all of the rice products, strict regulation should be enforced regarding arsenic content. Moreover, infants and young children should consume a balanced diet including a variety of grains as carbohydrate sources. Although rice protein-based infant formulas are an option for infants with cows' milk protein allergy, the inorganic arsenic content should be declared and the potential risks should be considered when using these products.

  17. Wheat products as acceptable substitutes for rice.

    PubMed

    Yu, B H; Kies, C

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the acceptability to semi-trained US American and Asian palatability panelist, of four wheat products processed to be possible replacers of rice in human diets. Products evaluated using rice as the control standard of excellence were steamed whole wheat, couscous (steamed, extracted wheat flour semolina), rosamarina (rice shaped, extracted wheat flour pasta), and bulgar (steamed, pre-cooked partly debranned, cracked wheat). Using a ten point hedonic rating scale, both groups of panelists gave rosamarina closely followed by couscous, most favorable ratings although these ratings were somewhat lower than that of the positive control, steamed polished rice. Bulgar wheat was given the lowest evaluation and was, in general, found to be an unacceptable replacement for rice by both American and Asian judges because of its dark, 'greasy' color and distinctive flavor. In their personal dietaries, judges included rice from 0.25 to 18 times per week with the Asian judges consuming rice significantly more times per week than did the American judges (10.8 +/- 4.71 vs 1.75 +/- 1.65, p < 0.01). However, rice consumption patterns, nationality, race, or sex of the judges was not demonstrated to affect scoring of the wheat products as rice replacers.

  18. Nutritionally-important starch fractions of rice cultivars grown in southern United States.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary starches can be classified into three major fractions, according to in vitro digestibility: rapidly digestible (RDS), slowly digestible (SDS), and resistant starch (RS). Literature indicates that SDS and/or RS have significant implications on human health, particularly, glucose metabolism, ...

  19. Silicon isotope fractionation between rice plants and nutrient solution and its significance to the study of the silicon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, T. P.; Tian, S. H.; Sun, L.; Wu, L. H.; Zhou, J. X.; Chen, Z. Y.

    2008-12-01

    The silicon isotope fractionation between rice plant and nutrient solution was studied experimentally. Rice plants were grown to maturity with the hydroponic culture in a naturally lit glasshouse. The nutrient solution was sampled for 14 times during the whole rice growth period. The rice plants were collected at various growth stages and different parts of the plants were sampled separately. The silica contents of the samples were determined by the gravimetric method and the silicon isotope compositions were measured using the SiF 4 method. In the growth process, the silicon content in the nutrient solution decreased gradually from 16 mM at starting stage to 0.1-0.2 mM at harvest and the amount of silica in single rice plant increased gradually from 0.00013 g at start to 4.329 g at harvest. Within rice plant the SiO 2 fraction in roots reduced continuously from 0.23 at the seedling stage, through 0.12 at the tiller stage, 0.05 at the jointing stage, 0.023 at the heading stage, to 0.009 at the maturity stage. Accordingly, the fraction of SiO 2 in aerial parts increased from 0.77, through 0.88, 0.95, 0.977, to 0.991 for the same stages. The silicon content in roots decreased from the jointing stage, through the heading stage, to the maturity stage, parallel to the decrease of silicon content in the nutrient solution. At the maturity stage, the silicon content increased from roots, through stem and leaves, to husks, but decreased drastically from husks to grains. These observations show that transpiration and evaporation may play an important role in silica transportation and precipitation within rice plants. It was observed that the δ30Si of the nutrient solution increased gradually from -0.1‰ at start to 1.5‰ at harvest, and the δ30Si of silicon absorbed by bulk rice plant increased gradually from -1.72‰ at start to -0.08‰ at harvest, reflecting the effect of the kinetic silicon isotope fractionation during silicon absorption by rice plants from nutrient

  20. Improved Understanding of the Photosynthetic Response of Seven Rice Genotypes with Different Drought Sensitivity using Light and CO2 Response Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, B.; Basu, S.; Bereznyakov, D.; Pereira, A.; Naithani, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Drought across different agro-climatic regions of the world has the capacity to drastically impact the yield potential of rice. Consequently, there is growing interest in developing drought tolerant rice varieties with high yield. We parameterized two photosynthesis models based on light and CO2 response curves for seven different rice genotypes with different drought survival mechanisms: sensitive (Nipponbar, TEJ), resistance (Bengal, TRJ), avoidance by osmotic adjustment (Kaybonnet, TRJ; IRAT177, TRJ; N22, Aus; Vandana, Aus; and O Glabberrima, 316603). All rice genotypes were grown in greenhouse conditions (24 °C ± 3°C air temperature and ~ 600 μmol m-2 s-1 light intensity) with light/dark cycles of 10/14 h in water filled trays simulating flooded conditions. Measurements were conducted on fully grown plants (35 - 60 days old) under simulated flooded and drought conditions. Preliminary results have shown that the drought sensitive genotype, Nipponbare has the lowest photosynthetic carboxylation capacity (Vcmax) and a similar electron transport rate (Jmax) compared to the drought resistant genotype IRAT 177. Mitochondrial respiration (Rd) of all the genotypes were similar while quantum yield of the drought sensitive genotype was greater than that of the drought resistant genotypes. While both drought tolerant and drought sensitive rice genotypes have the same photosynthetic yield, from an irrigation perspective the former would require less 'drop per grain'. This has enormous economic and management implications on account of dwindling water resources across the world due to drought.

  1. Elemental bioimaging of tissue level trace metal distributions in rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.) from a mining area in China.

    PubMed

    Basnet, Priyanka; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri; Wu, Fengchang; Fu, Zhiyou; Zhang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Rice is a staple food and major source of nutrients, but it also bioaccumulates toxic elements. In this study, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine tissue-level trace metal spatial distribution in rice (Oryza sativa) seeds from the active Xikuangshan Sb mine area in China. Whole grain quantified elemental bioimages showed the highest concentration of Zn (1755 mg/kg) in the embryo andmicro zones of elevated Sb, As, Pb, Cd as high as 280, 57, 31 and 830 mg/kg, respectively on the husk/bran/endosperm tissues. Bioimages suggest that both Sb and Cd may be competing with Zn for binding sites. Both Sb(III) and Sb(V) species were detected in seeds from upstream and downstream fields indicating the presence of toxic Sb(III). Brown rice is a good source of Zn, but white rice is a safer option if rice is grown in a polluted area.

  2. Effect of the interaction between light and touch stimuli on inducing curling seminal roots in rice seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chia-Hao; Chen, Hsiang-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Root development is sensitive to environmental stimuli. We have recently reported that the light signal could promote the helical growth of seminal roots and drive the wavy root morphology in rice (Oryza sativa L.) young seedlings. The light-stimulated wavy roots were mostly performed in indica-type rice varieties (e.g., Taichung Native 1; TCN1) but not in japonica rice (e.g., Tainung 67; TNG67). Here, we demonstrated that the light-driven circumutation trajectory of TCN1 seminal roots could be changed if the seedling roots were grown in the medium containing high concentration of Phytagel. The data showed the root morphology would be modulated from wavy to curling when the Phytagel concentration was increased to 2%. However, the touch-stimulated curling root phenotype could not be performed in dark. In addition, the touch-induced curling roots were not appeared in the TNG67 rice cultivar. Although touch stimuli could not induce wavy/curling root phenotype in dark, it could modify the light-promoted helical growth to conduct curling roots in TCN1 rice seedlings. Thus, it was suggested that there is a crosstalk mechanism between touching-induced root curling and light-stimulated root waving. PMID:21912213

  3. [Effects of ozone stress on photosynthesis and dry matter production of rice II -you 084 under different Planting densities].

    PubMed

    Peng, Bin; Lai, Shang-kun; Li, Pan-lin; Wang, Yun-xia; Zhu, Jian-guo; Yang, Lian-xin; Wang, Yu-long

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of ozone stress on photosynthesis, dry matter production, non-structural carbohydrate and yield formation of rice, a free air ozone concentration enrichment (FACE) experiment was conducted. A super hybrid rice cultivar II-you 084 with 3 spacing levels, low plant density (LD, 16 hills per m2), medium (MD, 24 hills per m2) and high plant density (HD, 32 hills per m2), was grown in the field at current and elevated ozone concentrations (current × 1.5). The results were as follows: Elevated ozone significantly reduced leaf SPAD value of UI-you 084 by 6%, 11% and 13%, at 63, 77, and 86 days after transplanting, respectively. The declines in leaf net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate at filling stage increased significantly on ozone stress over time. Ozone stress decreased dry matter production of rice by 46% from heading stage to plant maturity, thus reduced biomass yield by 25%. Elevated ozone decreased the concentration and accumulation of soluble carbohydrate and starch in stem of II-you 084 at jointing, heading and plant maturity, but significantly increased the dry matter transportation rate. No significant interaction was observed between ozone and planting density for photosynthesis, dry matter production and non-structural carbohydrate of rice. The above results indicated that elevated ozone reduced photosynthesis and growth of rice II-you 084 at late growth stage, which had no relationship with planting density.

  4. Calcium Supplementation Improves Na+/K+ Ratio, Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems in Salt-Stressed Rice Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Anisur; Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the regulatory role of exogenous calcium (Ca) in developing salt stress tolerance in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 13-day-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan47) seedlings were exposed to 200 mM NaCl alone and combined with 2 mM CaCl2 and 2 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, a Ca scavenger) for 3 days. The salt stress caused growth inhibition, chlorosis and water shortage in the rice seedlings. The salt-induced stress disrupted ion homeostasis through Na+ influx and K+ efflux, and decreased other mineral nutrient uptake. Salt stress caused oxidative stress in seedlings through lipid peroxidation, loss of plasma membrane integrity, higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and methylglyoxal (MG) formation. The salt-stressed seedlings supplemented with exogenous Ca recovered from water loss, chlorosis and growth inhibition. Calcium supplementation in the salt-stressed rice seedlings improved ion homeostasis by inhibition of Na+ influx and K+ leakage. Exogenous Ca also improved ROS and MG detoxification by improving the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems, respectively. On the other hand, applying EGTA along with salt and Ca again negatively affected the seedlings as EGTA negated Ca activity. It confirms that, the positive responses in salt-stressed rice seedlings to exogenous Ca were for Ca mediated improvement of ion homeostasis, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system. PMID:27242816

  5. OsFRDL1 expressed in nodes is required for distribution of iron to grains in rice

    PubMed Central

    Yokosho, Kengo; Yamaji, Naoki; Ma, Jian Feng

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is essential for plant growth and development, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its distribution to different organs are poorly understood. We found that OsFRDL1 (FERRIC REDUCTASE DEFECTIVE LIKE 1), a plasma membrane-localized transporter for citrate, was highly expressed in the upper nodes of rice at the reproductive growth stage. OsFRDL1 was expressed in most cells of enlarged vascular bundles, diffuse vascular bundles, and the interjacent parenchyma cell bridges of uppermost node I, as well as vascular tissues of the leaf blade, leaf sheath, peduncle, rachis, husk, and stamen. Knockout of OsFRDL1 decreased pollen viability and grain fertility when grown in a paddy field. Iron was deposited in the parenchyma cell bridges, a few of the cell layers of the parenchyma tissues outside of the bundle sheath of enlarged vascular bundles in node I in both the wild-type rice and osfrdl1 mutant, but the mutant accumulated more Fe than the wild-type rice in this area. A stem-fed experiment with stable isotope 57Fe showed that the distribution of Fe in the anther and panicle decreased in the knockout line, but that in the flag leaf it increased compared with the wild-type rice. Taken together, our results show that OsFRDL1 expressed in the upper nodes is required for the distribution of Fe in the panicles through solubilizing Fe deposited in the apoplastic part of nodes in rice. PMID:27555544

  6. Effect of arsenite-oxidizing bacterium B. laterosporus on arsenite toxicity and arsenic translocation in rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gui-Di; Xie, Wan-Ying; Zhu, Xi; Huang, Yi; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Qiu, Zong-Qing; Lv, Zhen-Mao; Wang, Wen-Na; Lin, Wen-Xiong

    2015-10-01

    Arsenite [As (III)] oxidation can be accelerated by bacterial catalysis, but the effects of the accelerated oxidation on arsenic toxicity and translocation in rice plants are poorly understood. Herein we investigated how an arsenite-oxidizing bacterium, namely Brevibacillus laterosporus, influences As (III) toxicity and translocation in rice plants. Rice seedlings of four cultivars, namely Guangyou Ming 118 (GM), Teyou Hang II (TH), Shanyou 63 (SY) and Minghui 63 (MH), inoculated with or without the bacterium were grown hydroponically with As (III) to investigate its effects on arsenic toxicity and translocation in the plants. Percentages of As (III) oxidation in the solutions with the bacterium (100%) were all significantly higher than those without (30-72%). The addition of the bacterium significantly decreased As (III) concentrations in SY root, GM root and shoot, while increased the As (III) concentrations in the shoot of SY, MH and TH and in the root of MH. Furthermore, the As (III) concentrations in the root and shoot of SY were both the lowest among the treatments with the bacterium. On the other hand, its addition significantly alleviated the As (III) toxicity on four rice cultivars. Among the treatments amended with B. laterosporus, the bacterium showed the best remediation on SY seedlings, with respect to the subdued As (III) toxicity and decreased As (III) concentration in its roots. These results indicated that As (III) oxidation accelerated by B. laterosporus could be an effective method to alleviate As (III) toxicity on rice seedlings.

  7. Sample-directed pseudotargeted method for the metabolic profiling analysis of rice seeds based on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjie; Zhao, Chunxia; Zeng, Zhongda; Luo, Ping; Zhao, Yanni; Zhao, Jieyu; Li, Lili; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2016-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world. Metabolite composition in rice seeds varies significantly depending on genetic variety, climatic alternation and agricultural practice. Metabolomics is a powerful tool to reveal the metabolic response of rice to various conditions. In this work, a rice seed sample-directed pseudotargeted metabolomics method was first established and validated based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. A total of 749 and 617 ion pairs in positive and negative modes were achieved, respectively. Among them, about 200 metabolites were identified or tentatively identified. The developed method showed better linearity and repeatability than those of non-targeted metabolomics method. Good intra-day and inter-day precisions, recoveries and wide linear range were also obtained. Furthermore, the method was applied for the investigation of metabolic variation of rice seeds with two wild cultivars and their transgenic lines that were grown in two locations. Principal component analysis indicated that the effects of cultivar and location on metabolic variations were far more than those of gene modification. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test revealed that most metabolites were influenced by cultivar, location and gene modifications together.

  8. Changes in CH4 emission from rice fields from 1960 to 1990s: 1. Impacts of modern rice technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gon, Hugo Denier

    2000-03-01

    Four countries (Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, and Nepal) were taken as an example to assess the impact of changes in rice cultivation on methane emissions from rice fields since the 1960s. The change of rice area by type of culture from 1960-1990s is estimated, and its relative contribution to national harvested rice area is calculated and multiplied with an emission factor, to derive the relative methane emission per unit rice land. Relative methane emission per ha rice land has increased since 1960 for all four countries, largely due to an increase in irrigated rice area and partly due to a decrease in upland rice area. Patterns of rice area changes and related emission changes differ considerably among countries. On the basis of the rice area increases between 1960 and the 1990s, significant increases in methane emissions from rice fields due to increases in total rice cultivated area are not to be expected in the future. The impact of modern rice variety adoption is assessed by relating methane emissions to rice production. The organic matter returned to the paddy soil is largely determined by rice biomass production which, given a certain yield, is different for traditional and modern rice varieties. By calculating total organic matter returned to rice paddy soils and assuming a constant fraction to be emitted as methane, rice production and methane emission can be related. The analysis indicates that (1) up to now, rice yield increases in countries with high modern rice variety adoption have not resulted in increased methane emissions per unit of harvested area and, (2) global annual emission from rice fields may be considerably lower than generally assumed. The introduction of modern rice varieties can be regarded as a historical methane emission mitigation strategy because higher rice yields resulted in lower or equal methane emissions.

  9. Changes in CH4 emission from rice fields from 1960 to 1990s. 1. Impacts of modern rice technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Gon, Hugo Denier

    2000-03-01

    Four countries (Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, and Nepal) were taken as an example to assess the impact of changes in rice cultivation on methane emissions from rice fields since the 1960s. The change of rice area by type of culture from 1960-1990s is estimated, and its relative contribution to national harvested rice area is calculated and multiplied with an emission factor, to derive the relative methane emission per unit rice land. Relative methane emission per ha rice land has increased since 1960 for all four countries, largely due to an increase in irrigated rice area and partly due to a decrease in upland rice area. Patterns of rice area changes and related emission changes differ considerably among countries. On the basis of the rice area increases between 1960 and the 1990s, significant increases in methane emissions from rice fields due to increases in total rice cultivated area are not to be expected in the future. The impact of modern rice variety adoption is assessed by relating methane emissions to rice production. The organic matter returned to the paddy soil is largely determined by rice biomass production which, given a certain yield, is different for traditional and modern rice varieties. By calculating total organic matter returned to rice paddy soils and assuming a constant fraction to be emitted as methane, rice production and methane emission can be related. The analysis indicates that (1) up to now, rice yield increases in countries with high modern rice variety adoption have not resulted in increased methane emissions per unit of harvested area and, (2) global annual emission from rice fields may be considerably lower than generally assumed. The introduction of modern rice varieties can be regarded as a historical methane emission mitigation strategy because higher rice yields resulted in lower or equal methane emissions.

  10. The role of nodes in arsenic storage and distribution in rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Moore, Katie L; Miller, Anthony J; McGrath, Steve P; Ma, Jian Feng; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge of arsenic (As) accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is important for minimizing As transfer to the food chain. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of rice nodes in As storage and distribution. Synchrotron μX-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) was used to map As distribution in the top node and internode of a lsi2 mutant defective in silicon/arsenite efflux carrier and its wild-type (WT) grown in soil. Lsi2 expression in different tissues during grain filling was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. Arsenite or dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was supplied to excised panicles to investigate the roles of Lsi2 and phytochelatins (PC) in As distribution. μ-XRF mapping revealed As storage in the phloem of different vascular bundles in the top node and internode. Soil-grown plants of lsi2 had markedly decreased As accumulation in the phloem compared with the WT. Lsi2 was strongly expressed, not only in the roots but also in the nodes. When excised panicles were exposed to As(III), the lsi2 mutant distributed more As to the node and flag leaf but less As to the grain compared with the WT, while there was no significant difference in DMA distribution. Inhibition of PC synthesis by l-buthionine-sulphoximine decreased As(III) deposition in the top node but increased As accumulation in the grain and flag leaf. The results suggest that rice nodes serve as a filter restricting As(III) distribution to the grain. Furthermore, Lsi2 plays a role in As(III) distribution in rice nodes and phytochelatins are important compounds for As(III) storage in the nodes.

  11. Assessment of rice leaf chlorophyll content using visible bands at different growth stages at both the leaf and canopy scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saberioon, M. M.; Amin, M. S. M.; Anuar, A. R.; Gholizadeh, A.; Wayayok, A.; Khairunniza-Bejo, S.

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen is an important variable for paddy farming management. The objectives of this study were to develop and test a new method to determine the status of nitrogen and chlorophyll content in rice leaf by analysing and considering all visible bands derived from images captured using a conventional digital camera. The images from the 6-pannel leaf colour chart were acquired using Basler Scout scA640-70fc under light-emitting diode lighting, in which principal component analysis was used to retain the lower order principal component to develop a new index. Digital photographs of the upper most collared leaf of rice (Oriza sativa L.), grown over a range of soils with different nitrogen treatments, were processed into 11 indices and IPCA through six growth stages. Also a conventional digital camera mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle was used to acquire images over the rice canopy for the purpose of verification. The result indicated that the conventional digital camera at the both leaf (r = -0.81) and the canopy (r = 0.78) scale could be used as a sensor to determine the status of chlorophyll content in rice plants through different growth stages. This indicates that conventional low-cost digital cameras can be used for determining chlorophyll content and consequently for monitoring nitrogen content of the growing rice plant, thus offering a potentially inexpensive, fast, accurate and suitable tool for rice growers. Additionally, results confirmed that a low cost LARS system would be well suited for high spatial and temporal resolution images and data analysis for proper assessment of key nutrients in rice farming in a fast, inexpensive and non-destructive way.

  12. Uptake of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Oryza sativa L. Grown in Soil Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Patowary, Rupshikha; Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Devi, Arundhuti; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in crude oil contaminated sites are transferred to roots, shoots and finally the grains of rice crops (Oryza sativa L.) grown in those sites. Soil was artificially contaminated with crude oil at concentrations of 0, 1000, 5000, 10,000, and 15,000 mg/kg, followed by planting of rice seedlings. After harvest, TPH in plant samples were measured, and it was determined that the uptake of TPH by the plants gradually increased as the concentration of oil in soil increased. Further, from GC-MS analysis, it was observed that PAHs including naphthalene and phenanthrene bioaccumulated in rice plant parts. Vital physico-chemical properties of soil were also altered due to crude oil contamination. Our study revealed that rice plants grown in crude oil polluted sites can uptake TPH including PAHs, thus emphasising the importance of prior investigation of soil condition before cultivation of crops.

  13. Gene flow from transgenic rice to red rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the field.

    PubMed

    Busconi, M; Baldi, G; Lorenzoni, C; Fogher, C

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we simulate a transgenic rice crop highly infested with red rice to examine transgene transfer from a transgenic line (A2504) resistant to glufosinate ammonium to cohabitant red rice. The red rice was sown along with the transgenic line at the highest density found in naturally infested crops in the region. Agricultural practices similar to those used to control red rice infestation in northern Italy rice fields were used to reproduce the local rice production system. During the first 2 years, the field was treated with herbicide at the appropriate time; in the first year the dosage of herbicide was three times the recommended amount. In this first year, detectable red rice plants that escaped herbicide treatment were manually removed. Nevertheless, two herbicide-resistant hybrid plants (named 101 and 104) were identified in the experimental field during the second year of cultivation. Phenotypic and molecular characterisation suggests the hybrid nature of these two plants, deriving from crossing events involving A2504, respectively, with red rice (plant 101) and the buffer cultivar Gladio (plant 104). The progeny of two subsequent generations of the two plants were examined and the presence of the transgene detected, indicating stable transfer of the transgene across generations. In conclusion, despite control methods, red rice progeny tolerant to the herbicide can be expected following use of transgenic rice and, consequently, difficulties in controlling this weed with chemicals will emerge in a relatively short time.

  14. From QTL to variety-harnessing the benefits of QTLs for drought, flood and salt tolerance in mega rice varieties of India through a multi-institutional network.

    PubMed

    Singh, Renu; Singh, Yashi; Xalaxo, Suchit; Verulkar, S; Yadav, Neera; Singh, Shweta; Singh, Nisha; Prasad, K S N; Kondayya, K; Rao, P V Ramana; Rani, M Girija; Anuradha, T; Suraynarayana, Y; Sharma, P C; Krishnamurthy, S L; Sharma, S K; Dwivedi, J L; Singh, A K; Singh, P K; Nilanjay; Singh, N K; Kumar, Rajesh; Chetia, S K; Ahmad, T; Rai, M; Perraju, P; Pande, Anita; Singh, D N; Mandal, N P; Reddy, J N; Singh, O N; Katara, J L; Marandi, B; Swain, P; Sarkar, R K; Singh, D P; Mohapatra, T; Padmawathi, G; Ram, T; Kathiresan, R M; Paramsivam, K; Nadarajan, S; Thirumeni, S; Nagarajan, M; Singh, A K; Vikram, Prashant; Kumar, Arvind; Septiningshih, E; Singh, U S; Ismail, A M; Mackill, D; Singh, Nagendra K

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a staple cereal of India cultivated in about 43.5Mha area but with relatively low average productivity. Abiotic factors like drought, flood and salinity affect rice production adversely in more than 50% of this area. Breeding rice varieties with inbuilt tolerance to these stresses offers an economically viable and sustainable option to improve rice productivity. Availability of high quality reference genome sequence of rice, knowledge of exact position of genes/QTLs governing tolerance to abiotic stresses and availability of DNA markers linked to these traits has opened up opportunities for breeders to transfer the favorable alleles into widely grown rice varieties through marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB). A large multi-institutional project, "From QTL to variety: marker-assisted breeding of abiotic stress tolerant rice varieties with major QTLs for drought, submergence and salt tolerance" was initiated in 2010 with funding support from Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, in collaboration with International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. The main focus of this project is to improve rice productivity in the fragile ecosystems of eastern, northeastern and southern part of the country, which bear the brunt of one or the other abiotic stresses frequently. Seven consistent QTLs for grain yield under drought, namely, qDTY1.1, qDTY2.1, qDTY2.2, qDTY3.1, qDTY3.2, qDTY9.1 and qDTY12.1 are being transferred into submergence tolerant versions of three high yielding mega rice varieties, Swarna-Sub1, Samba Mahsuri-Sub1 and IR 64-Sub1. To address the problem of complete submergence due to flash floods in the major river basins, the Sub1 gene is being transferred into ten highly popular locally adapted rice varieties namely, ADT 39, ADT 46, Bahadur, HUR 105, MTU 1075, Pooja, Pratikshya, Rajendra Mahsuri, Ranjit, and Sarjoo 52. Further, to address the problem of soil salinity, Saltol, a major QTL for salt tolerance is being transferred into

  15. Ethanol sensitivity of rice and oat coleoptiles.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2002-05-01

    The ability to avoid the ethanol-induced injury was evaluated in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptiles. The growth of the rice and oat coleoptiles was inhibited by ethanol exogenously applied at concentrations greater than 200 and 30 mM, respectively. At 300 mM ethanol, oat coleoptiles were brown and flaccid but rice coleoptiles did not show any visible symptoms of toxicity. The acetaldehyde level in rice and oat coleoptiles was increased by exogenously applied ethanol and the increases were greater in oat than in rice coleoptiles under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. At 300 mM ethanol, the acetaldehyde concentrations in the rice and oat coleoptiles were 46 and 87 nmol g-1 FW under aerobic conditions, respectively, and 52 and 124 nmol g-1 FW under anaerobic conditions, respectively. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1) in the direction of ethanol to acetaldehyde was greater in oat than in rice coleoptiles and ADH protein in oat coleoptiles was more induced by exogenously applied ethanol than that in rice coleoptiles. These results suggest that in vivo conversion rate of ethanol to acetaldehyde by ADH is lower in rice than oat coleoptiles, which may be one of the reasons that ethanol sensitivity of rice is much lower than that of oat coleoptiles. The great ability of rice to avoid the ethanol-induced injuries may contribute its anoxia tolerance when glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation replace the Krebs cycle as the main source of energy under anaerobic conditions.

  16. Environmental factors that affect the ability of amylose to contribute to retrogradation in gels made from rice flour.

    PubMed

    Philpot, Kim; Martin, Margrit; Butardo, Vito; Willoughby, Doug; Fitzgerald, Melissa

    2006-07-12

    Retrogradation in rice is a trait that describes the hardening of cooked rice after storage or cooling, and it has significant implications for many consumers of rice, since many people cook rice in the morning and consume it several hours later or the next day. Tools to select against retrogradation in breeding programs are yet to be described. Here, we aim to determine the effect on retrogradation of storage time and temperature and the role of starch, protein, and lipids using gels made from Koshihikari grown in either Australia or Japan. Immediately after cooking, cooling from 60 to 40 degrees C had a minimal effect on firmness, but cooling to 20 degrees C led to significantly firmer gels. Storing the gels at low temperatures did not have an additional effect on the firmness as compared with storing the gels at 20, 40, or 60 degrees C. The removal of proteins led to significantly softer gels at all storage treatments but did not affect the change in firmness on cooling. The removal of lipids increased the rate of retrogradation and the firmness of gels significantly for all treatments. Koshihikari grown in Japan retrograded much less than Koshihikari grown in Australia. The amount of amylose that could be washed from gels made from Australian flour was much greater than for gels made from Japanese flour. After storage, only low molecular weight amylose chains were released from the gel and only after rewarming them to 60 degrees C. Despite the fact that flours from both origins were 18% amylose, the amount of long amylose chains that were complexed with lipids was much greater for the Japanese rice, and the unavailability of the complexed long amylose chains explained the lack of retrogradation in the Japanese rice. Once the long chains were released from amylose-lipid complexes, the Japanese rice retrograded. Thus, the environmental factor affecting retrogradation in this variety is type or amount of lipids synthesized, and the degree of retrogradation was

  17. A Review of Microsatellite Markers and Their Applications in Rice Breeding Programs to Improve Blast Disease Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Miah, Gous; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Ismail, Mohd R.; Puteh, Adam B.; Rahim, Harun A.; Islam, Kh. Nurul; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the use of molecular markers has played an increasing role in rice breeding and genetics. Of the different types of molecular markers, microsatellites have been utilized most extensively, because they can be readily amplified by PCR and the large amount of allelic variation at each locus. Microsatellites are also known as simple sequence repeats (SSR), and they are typically composed of 1–6 nucleotide repeats. These markers are abundant, distributed throughout the genome and are highly polymorphic compared with other genetic markers, as well as being species-specific and co-dominant. For these reasons, they have become increasingly important genetic markers in rice breeding programs. The evolution of new biotypes of pests and diseases as well as the pressures of climate change pose serious challenges to rice breeders, who would like to increase rice production by introducing resistance to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent advances in rice genomics have now made it possible to identify and map a number of genes through linkage to existing DNA markers. Among the more noteworthy examples of genes that have been tightly linked to molecular markers in rice are those that confer resistance or tolerance to blast. Therefore, in combination with conventional breeding approaches, marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be used to monitor the presence or lack of these genes in breeding populations. For example, marker-assisted backcross breeding has been used to integrate important genes with significant biological effects into a number of commonly grown rice varieties. The use of cost-effective, finely mapped microsatellite markers and MAS strategies should provide opportunities for breeders to develop high-yield, blast resistance rice cultivars. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning the linkage of microsatellite markers to rice blast resistance genes, as well as to explore the use of MAS in rice breeding

  18. Dissecting the genetic diversity in African rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African cultivated rice, Oryza glaberrima, and its progenitor, O. barthii are excellent sources of important genes for rice improvement because they exhibit tolerance to several abiotic and biotic stresses. Development of advance backcross (ABC) populations between an unadapted donor parent and ada...

  19. Ricecraft: Rice Is for More Than Eating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice Council of America, Houston, TX.

    Rice can be the basis for mosaics, flower arrangements, games, toys, and many things children would like to make. It can add new dimensions to making candles, coasters, and jewelry. Working with rice can aid in the development of appreciation of texture, symmetry, coordination, imagination and, at the same time, result in hand-made gifts for…

  20. Low oil-uptake rice batters.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice starch and flour are popular for use in foods, because they are known to be nutritious, gluten-free, and hypoallergenic – properties which make them particularly desirable for use in infant foods, and in products for people with celiac disease (gluten intolerance). One application for rice sta...

  1. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  2. Connecting with Rice: Carolina Lowcountry and Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jerry T.; Collins, Larianne; Wise, Susan S.; Caughman, Monti

    2012-01-01

    Though lasting less than 200 years, large-scale rice production in South Carolina and Georgia "probably represented the most significant utilization of the tidewater zone for crop agriculture ever attained in the United States." Rice is a specialty crop where successful cultivation relied heavily upon "adaptation" to nature via…

  3. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  4. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  5. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  6. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  7. Simulating rice response to climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, U.; Padilla, J.L. |

    1995-12-31

    The response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to elevated CO{sub 2} concentration and temperature increase was simulated using the CERES-rice model. CERES-rice belongs to the International Benchmark Sites Network for Agrotechnology Transfer (IBSNAT) family of crop and nutrient dynamics models. Long-term historical data from the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) wetland site was used to quantify the climatic change effects. The model simulated such beneficial effects of CO{sub 2} enrichment as increased grain yields, reduced transpiration, increased water use efficiency, improved use of intercepted radiation, reduced N losses, and higher N use efficiency. The trends were reversed for all of the above parameters with increase in temperature. CERES-rice simulated these negative trends in low input rice production as well. Based on the model`s prediction, some of the negative effects of temperature increase in warmer regions of the world could be offset by use of rice varieties that are tolerant to high temperature-induced spikelet sterility, and planting varieties with longer growth duration, particularly, longer grain filling duration. With improved varieties and good management future impact of climate change could be capitalized to have positive effects on rice production. Although the model has been extensively tested, it is critical to validate it with field data from extreme temperature and CO{sub 2} level studies. 33 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  9. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Descriptive sensory analysis has identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental analyses have found over 200 volatile compounds present in rice. However, after over 30 years of research, little is known about the relationships between the numerous volatile compounds and a...

  10. Important sensory properties differentiating premium rice cultivars.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In rice-consuming countries worldwide, specific cultivars are recognized as premium, “gold standard” cultivars, while others are recognized as being superior, but not the best. It has been difficult to ascertain whether preferences for premium rice cultivars are driven by discernable differences in...

  11. Influence of intermittent irrigation, red rice biotype, and rice grain type on outcrossing between red rice and imidazolinone-resistant rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whether outcrossing rates between red rice and imazethapyr resistant rice are affected as a function of irrigation management is unclear. Potentially, differences between conventionally-flooded (CNV) and intermittently flooded (INT) systems could affect plant water deficits, as well as vegetative a...

  12. Grain Unloading Of Arsenic Species In Rice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dim...

  13. Elucidation of molecular dynamics of invasive species of rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated rice fields are aggressively invaded by weedy rice in the U.S. and worldwide. Weedy rice results in loss of yield and seed contamination. The molecular dynamics of the evolutionary adaptive traits of weedy rice are not fully understood. To understand the molecular basis and identify the i...

  14. 7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which consists of 50 percent or more of paddy kernels...

  15. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  16. 7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which consists of 50 percent or more of paddy kernels...

  17. 7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) from which the hulls and...

  18. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  19. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  20. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  1. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  2. 7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which consists of 50 percent or more of paddy kernels...

  3. Modification of physical properties of freeze-dried rice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, C. S.

    1971-01-01

    Freeze cycling process consists of alternately freezing and thawing precooked rice for two cycles, rice is then frozen and freeze-dehydrated in vacuum sufficient to remove water from rice by sublimitation. Process modifies rice grain structure and porosity, enabling complete rehydration in one minute in hot water.

  4. 7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which consists of 50 percent or more of paddy kernels...

  5. 7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) from which the hulls and...

  6. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  7. 7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which consists of 50 percent or more of paddy kernels...

  8. 7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) from which the hulls and...

  9. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  10. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  11. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  12. 7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) from which the hulls and...

  13. 7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) from which the hulls and...

  14. Golden Rice is an effective source for vitamin A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetically engineered "Golden Rice" contains up to 35 ug Beta-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice Beta-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A s...

  15. Identification of Some Degradation Products of Golden Rice Beta- carotene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Golden Rice (GR2) is genetically modified rice, which can contain as high as 37 ug of beta-carotene per g of dry rice. It was developed to combat vitamin A deficiency (VAD), a major malnutrition problem in many parts of the developing world, especially in South and South Eastern Asia, where rice is ...

  16. Signatures of adaptation in the weedy rice genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy rice is a common problem of by product of domestication that has evolved multiple times from cultivated and wild rice relatives. Here we use whole genome sequences to examine the origin and adaptation of the two major US weedy red rice strains, with a comparison to Chinese weedy red rice. We f...

  17. Rice Bran: Production, Composition, Functionality and Food Applications, Physiological Benefits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal and human studies show cholesterol-lowering with rice bran in hypercholesterolemic individuals. Specific rice bran fractions showing hypocholesterolemic activity include rice bran oil, unsaponifiable matter, dietary fiber and protein. There is a dose response to the level of rice bran and r...

  18. Rice blast research: improving our arsenal and using it

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease is a constant threat to U.S. rice production, and there have been sporadic outbreaks of the disease for many decades. However, the U.S. southern rice growing area has been fortunate because the pathogen population has been relatively stable compared to other rice producing areas i...

  19. Spatial variability of chlorophyll and nitrogen content of rice from hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moharana, Shreedevi; Dutta, Subashisa

    2016-12-01

    Chlorophyll and nitrogen are the most essential parameters for paddy crop growth. Spectroradiometric measurements were collected at canopy level during critical growth period of rice. Chemical analysis was performed to quantify the total leaf content. By exploiting the ground based measurements, regression models were established for chlorophyll and nitrogen aimed indices with their corresponding crop growth variables. Vegetation index models were developed for mapping these parameters from Hyperion imagery in an agriculture system. It was inferred that the present Simple Ratio (SR) and Leaf Nitrogen Concentration (LNC) indices, which followed a linear and nonlinear relationship respectively, were completely different from published Tian et al. (2011). The nitrogen content varied widely from 1 to 4% and only 2 to 3% for paddy crop using present modified index models and Tian et al. (2011) respectively. The modified LNC index model performed better than the established Tian et al. (2011) model as far as estimated nitrogen content from Hyperion imagery was concerned. Furthermore, within the observed chlorophyll range obtained from the studied rice varieties grown in the rice agriculture system, the index models (LNC, OASVI, Gitelson, mSR and MTCI) performed well in the spatial distribution of rice chlorophyll content from Hyperion imagery. Spatial distribution of total chlorophyll content varied widely from 1.77 to 5.81 mg/g (LNC), 3.0 to 13 mg/g (OASVI), 0.5 to 10.43 mg/g (Gitelson), 2.18 to 10.61 mg/g (mSR) and 2.90 to 5.40 mg/g (MTCI). The spatial information of these parameters will help in proper nutrient management, yield forecasting, and will serve as inputs for crop growth and forecasting models for a precision rice agriculture system.

  20. Tissue Localization of a Submergence-Induced 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Synthase in Rice1

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhongyi; de Almeida Engler, Janice; Rouan, Dominique; Michiels, Frank; Van Montagu, Marc; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    At least two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase genes (ACS) are implicated in the submergence response of rice (Oryza sativa). Previously, the OS-ACS5 gene has been shown to be induced during short- as well as long-term complete submergence of seedlings and to be controlled by a balance of gibberellin and abscisic acid in both lowland and deepwater rice. This study demonstrates that OS-ACS5 mRNA is localized in specific tissues and cells both during normal development and in response to complete submergence. The temporal and spatial regulation of OS-ACS5 expression is presented by in situ hybridization and histochemical analysis of β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in transgenic rice carrying an OS-ACS5-gus fusion. Whole-mount in situ hybridization revealed that in air-grown rice seedlings, OS-ACS5 was expressed at a low level in the shoot apex, meristems, leaf, and adventitious root primordia, and in vascular tissues of nonelongated stems and leaf sheaths. In response to complete submergence, the expression in vascular bundles of young stems and leaf sheaths was strongly induced. The results of histochemical GUS assays were consistent with those found by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Our findings suggest that OS-ACS5 plays a role in vegetative growth of rice under normal conditions and is also recruited for enhanced growth upon complete submergence. The possible implication of OS-ACS5 in root-shoot communication during submergence stress and its putative role in aerenchyma formation upon low-oxygen stress are discussed. PMID:12011339

  1. Selenium addition alters mercury uptake, bioavailability in the rhizosphere and root anatomy of rice (Oryza sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xun; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee; Fu, Shi; Ametkhan, Aray; Ouyang, Yun; Ye, Zhihong

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Mercury (Hg) is an extremely toxic pollutant, especially in the form of methylmercury (MeHg), whereas selenium (Se) is an essential trace element in the human diet. This study aimed to ascertain whether addition of Se can produce rice with enriched Se and lowered Hg content when growing in Hg-contaminated paddy fields and, if so, to determine the possible mechanisms behind these effects. Methods Two cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa, japonica and indica) were grown in either hydroponic solutions or soil rhizobags with different Se and Hg treatments. Concentrations of total Hg, MeHg and Se were determined in the roots, shoots and brown rice, together with Hg uptake kinetics and Hg bioavailability in the soil. Root anatonmy was also studied. Key Results The high Se treatment (5 μg g–1) significantly increased brown rice yield by 48 % and total Se content by 2·8-fold, and decreased total Hg and MeHg by 47 and 55 %, respectively, compared with the control treatments. The high Se treatment also markedly reduced ‘water-soluble’ Hg and MeHg concentrations in the rhizosphere soil, decreased the uptake capacity of Hg by roots and enhanced the development of apoplastic barriers in the root endodermis. Conclusions Addition of Se to Hg-contaminated soil can help produce brown rice that is simultaneously enriched in Se and contains less total Hg and MeHg. The lowered accumulation of total Hg and MeHg appears to be the result of reduced bioavailability of Hg and production of MeHg in the rhizosphere, suppression of uptake of Hg into the root cells and an enhancement of the development of apoplastic barriers in the endodermis of the roots. PMID:24948669

  2. Colonization of rice roots with methanogenic archaea controls photosynthesis-derived methane emission.

    PubMed

    Pump, Judith; Pratscher, Jennifer; Conrad, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    The methane emitted from rice fields originates to a large part (up to 60%) from plant photosynthesis and is formed on the rice roots by methanogenic archaea. To investigate to which extent root colonization controls methane (CH4 ) emission, we pulse-labeled rice microcosms with (13) CO2 to determine the rates of (13) CH4 emission exclusively derived from photosynthates. We also measured emission of total CH4 ((12+13) CH4 ), which was largely produced in the soil. The total abundances of archaea and methanogens on the roots and in the soil were analysed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of the archaeal 16S rRNA gene and the mcrA gene coding for a subunit of the methyl coenzyme M reductase respectively. The composition of archaeal and methanogenic communities was determined with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). During the vegetative growth stages, emission rates of (13) CH4 linearly increased with the abundance of methanogenic archaea on the roots and then decreased during the last plant growth stage. Rates of (13) CH4 emission and the abundance of methanogenic archaea were lower when the rice was grown in quartz-vermiculite with only 10% rice soil. Rates of total CH4 emission were not systematically related to the abundance of methanogenic archaea in soil plus roots. The composition of the archaeal communities was similar under all conditions; however, the analysis of mcrA genes indicated that the methanogens differed between the soil and root. Our results support the hypothesis that rates of photosynthesis-driven CH4 emission are limited by the abundance of methanogens on the roots.

  3. Starch Content in Leaf Sheath Controlled by CO2-Responsive CCT Protein is a Potential Determinant of Photosynthetic Capacity in Rice.

    PubMed

    Morita, Ryutaro; Inoue, Kanako; Ikeda, Ken-Ichi; Hatanaka, Tomoko; Misoo, Shuji; Fukayama, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    CO2-responsive CCT protein (CRCT) is the suggested positive regulator of starch synthesis in vegetative organs, particularly the leaf sheath of rice. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the starch level in the leaf sheath on the photosynthetic rate in the leaf blade using CRCT overexpression and RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown transgenic rice grown under ambient (38 Pa) or elevated (100 Pa) CO2 conditions. In leaf sheath, the starch content was markedly changed in relation to CRCT expression levels under both CO2 conditions. In contrast, the soluble sugar and starch contents of the leaf blade were markedly increased in the knockdown line grown under elevated CO2 conditions. The overexpression or RNAi knockdown of CRCT did not cause large effects on the photosynthetic rate of the transgenic lines grown under ambient CO2 condition. However, the photosynthetic rate of the overexpression line was enhanced, while that of the knockdown line was substantially decreased under elevated CO2 conditions. These photosynthetic rates were weakly correlated with the nitrogen contents and negatively correlated with the total non-structural carbohydrate contents. Thus, the capacity for starch synthesis in leaf sheath, which is controlled by CRCT, can indirectly affect the carbohydrate content, and then the photosynthetic rate in the leaf blade of rice grown under elevated CO2 conditions.

  4. Infection of rice plants by rice black streaked dwarf virus improves an egg parasitoid, Anagrus nilaparvatae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), of rice planthoppers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongxing; He, Xiaochan; Zheng, Xusong; Yang, Yajun; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zhongxian

    2014-10-01

    The effects of rice plants infected by rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) on the host preference, duration of immature stages, sex ratio, and adult longevity and parasitic capacity of an egg parasitoid, Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang, of rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, were evaluated. Tests of response to plant volatiles using an olfactometer showed that A. nilaparvatae preferred rice plants harboring rice brown planthopper eggs over plants free of rice brown planthopper eggs. However, both the response to plant volatiles and the host selectivity test showed no significant differences in host preference between RBSDV-infected plants and healthy plants when both contained rice brown planthopper eggs. The developmental duration at immature stage of the male A. nilaparvatae in rice brown planthopper eggs on RBSDV-infected rice plants was significantly prolonged, and the parasitic capacity of rice brown planthopper eggs was significantly increased in comparison with the A. nilaparvatae parasite in rice brown planthopper eggs on healthy rice plants. There were no significant differences between RBSDV-infected rice plants and healthy rice plants in other ecological fitness parameters, including the developmental duration of female adults, female percentage, and adult longevity of A. nilaparvatae.

  5. Residues of chlorantraniliprole in rice field ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Ming; Chai, Wei-Gang; Wu, Yin-Liang

    2012-04-01

    The fate of chlorantraniliprole was studied in rice field ecosystem, and a simple and reliable analytical method was developed for determination of chlorantraniliprole in soil, rice straw, paddy water and brown rice. Chlorantraniliprole residues were extracted from samples with acetonitrile. The extract was cleaned up with QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method, and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The average recoveries were 76.9-82.4% from soil, 83.6-89.3% from rice straw, 95.2-103.1% from paddy water and 84.9-87.7% from brown rice. The relative standard deviation was less than 15%. The limits of detection (LODs) of chlorantraniliprole calculated as a sample concentration (S/N ratio of 3) were 0.012 μg L(-1) for paddy water, 0.15 μg kg(-1) for soil, brown rice and rice straw. The results of the kinetics study of chlorantraniliprole residue showed that chlorantraniliprole degradation in soil, water and rice straw coincided with C=0.01939e(-0.0434t), C=0.01425e(-0.8111t), and C=1.171e(-0.198t), respectively; the half-lives were about 16.0 d, 0.85 d and 3.50 d, respectively. The degradation rate of chlorantraniliprole in water was the fastest, followed by rice straw. The final residues of chlorantraniliprole on brown rice were lower than maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.02 mg kg(-1) after 14 d Pre-Harvest Interval (PHI). Therefore, a dosage of 150 mL a.i.hm(-2) was recommended, which could be considered as safe to human beings and animals.

  6. Arsenic concentrations in local aromatic and high-yielding hybrid rice cultivars and the potential health risk: a study in an arsenic hotspot.

    PubMed

    Sandhi, Arifin; Greger, Maria; Landberg, Tommy; Jacks, Gunnar; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2017-04-01

    The presence of high levels of arsenic (As) in rice fields has negative effects on the health of those consuming rice as their subsistence food. This study determined the variation in total As concentration in local aromatic rice (LAR) (kalijira) and two high-yielding varieties (HYVs) (BRRI dhan 32 and BRRI dhan 28) grown in paddy fields in Matlab, Bangladesh, an As hotspot with elevated As levels in groundwater. Mature rice grain samples and soil samples were collected from different paddy fields, and the As concentrations in both the de-husked grains and the husks of the three rice cultivars were analysed to identify the safest of the three cultivars for human consumption. The results showed that the total As concentration was higher (0.09-0.21 mg As kg(-1)) in the de-husked grains of LAR than in the husks, while the opposite was found for the HYV rice. Moreover, the As concentration in soil samples was 2 to 5-fold higher for the LAR than for the HYVs, but the As accumulation factor (AF) was lower in the LAR (0.2-0.4%) than in the HYVs (0.9-1%). Thus, LAR can be considered the safest of the three cultivars for human consumption owing to its low AF value. Furthermore, due to the low AF, growing LAR instead of HYVs in soils with slightly elevated As levels could help improve the food safety level in the food chain.

  7. Effects of manganese oxide-modified biochar composites on arsenic speciation and accumulation in an indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhihong; Qiu, Weiwen; Wang, Fei; Lei, Ming; Wang, Di; Song, Zhengguo

    2017-02-01

    A pot experiment was used to investigate arsenic (As) speciation and accumulation in rice, as well as its concentration in both heavily contaminated and moderately contaminated soils amended with manganese oxide-modified biochar composites (MBC) and biochar alone (BC). In heavily As-contaminated soil, application of BC and MBC improved the weight of above-ground part and rice root, whereas in moderately As-contaminated soil, the application of MBC and low rate BC amendment increased rice root, grain weight and the biomass of the plant. Arsenic reduction in different parts of rice grown in MBC-amended soils was greater than that in plants cultivated in BC-amended soils. Such reduction can be attributed to the oxidation of arsenite, As(III), to arsenate, As(V), by Mn-oxides, which also had a strong adsorptive capacity for As(V). MBC amended to As-contaminated soil had a positive effect on amino acids. The Fe and Mn levels in the iron-manganese plaque that formed on the rice root surface differed among the treatments. MBC addition significantly increased Mn content (p < 0.05); the application of 2.0% MBC increased Mn content 36- and 10-fold compared to the control in heavily and moderately As-contaminated soils, respectively. The results indicate that application of Mn oxide-modified biochar to As-contaminated paddy soil could effectively remediate contaminated soil and reduce As accumulation in edible parts of rice.

  8. Influence of tillage practices and straw incorporation on soil aggregates, organic carbon, and crop yields in a rice-wheat rotation system

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ke; Yang, Jianjun; Xue, Yong; Lv, Weiguang; Zheng, Xianqing; Pan, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a fixed-site field experiment was conducted to study the influence of different combinations of tillage and straw incorporation management on carbon storage in different-sized soil aggregates and on crop yield after three years of rice-wheat rotation. Compared to conventional tillage, the percentages of >2 mm macroaggregates and water-stable macroaggregates in rice-wheat double-conservation tillage (zero-tillage and straw incorporation) were increased 17.22% and 36.38% in the 0–15 cm soil layer and 28.93% and 66.34% in the 15–30 cm soil layer, respectively. Zero tillage and straw incorporation also increased the mean weight diameter and stability of the soil aggregates. In surface soil (0–15 cm), the maximum proportion of total aggregated carbon was retained with 0.25–0.106 mm aggregates, and rice-wheat double-conservation tillage had the greatest ability to hold the organic carbon (33.64 g kg−1). However, different forms occurred at higher levels in the 15–30 cm soil layer under the conventional tillage. In terms of crop yield, the rice grown under conventional tillage and the wheat under zero tillage showed improved equivalent rice yields of 8.77% and 6.17% compared to rice-wheat double-cropping under zero tillage or conventional tillage, respectively. PMID:27812038

  9. Breeding for blast-disease-resistant and high-yield Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) mutants using low-energy ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadtanapuk, S.; Teraarusiri, W.; Phanchaisri, B.; Yu, L. D.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam was applied on mutation induction for plant breeding of blast-disease-resistant Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105). Seeds of the wild-type rice were bombarded in vacuum by nitrogen ion beam at energy of 60-80 keV to a beam fluence range of 2 × 1016-2 × 1017 ions/cm2. The ion-bombarded rice seeds were grown in soil for 2 weeks as transplanted rice in plastic pots at 1 seedling/pot. The seedlings were then screened for blast resistance by Pyricularia grisea inoculation with 106 spores/ml concentrations. The blast-resistant rice mutant was planted up to F6 generation with the consistent phenotypic variation. The high percentage of the blast-disease-resistant rice was analyzed with DNA fingerprint. The HAT-RAPD (high annealing temperature-random amplified polymorphic DNA) marker revealed the modified polymorphism fragment presenting in the mutant compared with wild type (KDML 105). The cDNA fingerprints were investigated and the polymorphism fragment was subcloned into pGEM-T easy vector and then sequenced. The sequence of this fragment was compared with those already contained in the database, and the fragment was found to be related to the Spotted leaf protein 11 (Spl11).

  10. On the role of β-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) in metabolism of free cyanide and ferri-cyanide by rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Lu, Peng-Cheng; Yu, Zhen

    2012-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the contribution of β-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) to the botanical metabolism of free cyanide and iron cyanides. Seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. XZX 45) were grown hydroponically and then amended with free cyanide (KCN) or ferri-cyanide [K(3)Fe(CN)(6)] into the growth media. Total cyanide, free cyanide, and Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) in aqueous solution were analyzed to identify the speciation of K(3)Fe(CN)(6). Activity of CAS in different parts of the rice seedlings was also assayed in vivo and results indicated that dissociation of K(3)Fe(CN)(6) to free cyanide in solution was negligible. Almost all of the applied KCN was removed by rice seedlings and the metabolic rates were concentration dependent. Phyto-transport of K(3)Fe(CN)(6) was apparent, but appreciable amounts of cyanide were recovered in plant tissues. The metabolic rates of K(3)Fe(CN)(6) were also positively correlated to the concentrations supplied. Rice seedlings exposed to KCN showed a considerable increase in the CAS activity and roots had higher CAS activity than shoots, indicating that CAS plays an important role in the botanical assimilation of KCN. However, no measurable change of CAS activity in different parts of rice seedlings exposed to K(3)Fe(CN)(6) was detected, suggesting that K(3)Fe(CN)(6) is likely metabolized by rice directly through an unknown pathway rather than the β-cyanoalanine pathway.

  11. Influence of tillage practices and straw incorporation on soil aggregates, organic carbon, and crop yields in a rice-wheat rotation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ke; Yang, Jianjun; Xue, Yong; Lv, Weiguang; Zheng, Xianqing; Pan, Jianjun

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a fixed-site field experiment was conducted to study the influence of different combinations of tillage and straw incorporation management on carbon storage in different-sized soil aggregates and on crop yield after three years of rice-wheat rotation. Compared to conventional tillage, the percentages of >2 mm macroaggregates and water-stable macroaggregates in rice-wheat double-conservation tillage (zero-tillage and straw incorporation) were increased 17.22% and 36.38% in the 0–15 cm soil layer and 28.93% and 66.34% in the 15–30 cm soil layer, respectively. Zero tillage and straw incorporation also increased the mean weight diameter and stability of the soil aggregates. In surface soil (0–15 cm), the maximum proportion of total aggregated carbon was retained with 0.25–0.106 mm aggregates, and rice-wheat double-conservation tillage had the greatest ability to hold the organic carbon (33.64 g kg‑1). However, different forms occurred at higher levels in the 15–30 cm soil layer under the conventional tillage. In terms of crop yield, the rice grown under conventional tillage and the wheat under zero tillage showed improved equivalent rice yields of 8.77% and 6.17% compared to rice-wheat double-cropping under zero tillage or conventional tillage, respectively.

  12. Influence of tillage practices and straw incorporation on soil aggregates, organic carbon, and crop yields in a rice-wheat rotation system.

    PubMed

    Song, Ke; Yang, Jianjun; Xue, Yong; Lv, Weiguang; Zheng, Xianqing; Pan, Jianjun

    2016-11-04

    In this study, a fixed-site field experiment was conducted to study the influence of different combinations of tillage and straw incorporation management on carbon storage in different-sized soil aggregates and on crop yield after three years of rice-wheat rotation. Compared to conventional tillage, the percentages of >2 mm macroaggregates and water-stable macroaggregates in rice-wheat double-conservation tillage (zero-tillage and straw incorporation) were increased 17.22% and 36.38% in the 0-15 cm soil layer and 28.93% and 66.34% in the 15-30 cm soil layer, respectively. Zero tillage and straw incorporation also increased the mean weight diameter and stability of the soil aggregates. In surface soil (0-15 cm), the maximum proportion of total aggregated carbon was retained with 0.25-0.106 mm aggregates, and rice-wheat double-conservation tillage had the greatest ability to hold the organic carbon (33.64 g kg(-1)). However, different forms occurred at higher levels in the 15-30 cm soil layer under the conventional tillage. In terms of crop yield, the rice grown under conventional tillage and the wheat under zero tillage showed improved equivalent rice yields of 8.77% and 6.17% compared to rice-wheat double-cropping under zero tillage or conventional tillage, respectively.

  13. Changes in rice allelopathy and rhizosphere microflora by inhibiting rice phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Fang, Changxun; Zhuang, Yuee; Xu, Tiecheng; Li, Yingzhe; Li, Yue; Lin, Wenxiong

    2013-02-01

    Gene expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in allelopathic rice PI312777 was inhibited by RNA interference (RNAi). Transgenic rice showed lower levels of PAL gene expression and PAL activity than wild type rice (WT). The concentrations of phenolic compounds were lower in the root tissues and root exudates of transgenic rice than in those of wild type plants. When barndyardgrass (BYG) was used as the receiver plant, the allelopathic potential of transgenic rice was reduced. The sizes of the bacterial and fungal populations in rice rhizospheric soil at the 3-, 5-, and 7-leaf stages were estimated by using quantitative PCR (qPCR), which showed a decrease in both populations at all stages of leaf development analyzed. However, PI312777 had a larger microbial population than transgenic rice. In addition, in T-RFLP studies, 14 different groups of bacteria were detected in WT and only 6 were detected in transgenic rice. This indicates that there was less rhizospheric bacterial diversity associated with transgenic rice than with WT. These findings collectively suggest that PAL functions as a positive regulator of rice allelopathic potential.

  14. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Liangliang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Weizheng; Guo, Liang; Cheng, Yongxu; Li, Jiayao; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Zewen; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Cheng, Lei; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Because rice feeds half of the world’s population, a secure global food supply depends on sustainable rice production. Here we test whether the co-cultivation of rice and fish into one “rice-fish system” (RFS; fish refers to aquatic animals in this article) could help sustain rice production. We examined intensive and traditional RFSs that have been widely practiced in China. We found that rice yields did not decrease when fish yield was below a threshold value in each intensive RFS. Below the thresholds, moreover, fish yields in intensive RFSs can be substantially higher than those in traditional RFS without reducing rice yield. Relative to rice monoculture, the use of fertilizer-nitrogen and pesticides decreased, and the farmers’ net income increased in RFSs. The results suggest that RFSs can help sustain rice production, and suggest that development of co-culture technologies (i.e. proper field configuration for fish and rice) is necessary to achieve the sustainability.

  15. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production?

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liangliang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Weizheng; Guo, Liang; Cheng, Yongxu; Li, Jiayao; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Zewen; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Cheng, Lei; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Because rice feeds half of the world’s population, a secure global food supply depends on sustainable rice production. Here we test whether the co-cultivation of rice and fish into one “rice-fish system” (RFS; fish refers to aquatic animals in this article) could help sustain rice production. We examined intensive and traditional RFSs that have been widely practiced in China. We found that rice yields did not decrease when fish yield was below a threshold value in each intensive RFS. Below the thresholds, moreover, fish yields in intensive RFSs can be substantially higher than those in traditional RFS without reducing rice yield. Relative to rice monoculture, the use of fertilizer-nitrogen and pesticides decreased, and the farmers’ net income increased in RFSs. The results suggest that RFSs can help sustain rice production, and suggest that development of co-culture technologies (i.e. proper field configuration for fish and rice) is necessary to achieve the sustainability. PMID:27349875

  16. RPAN: rice pan-genome browser for ∼3000 rice genomes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chen; Hu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Tianqing; Lu, Kuangchen; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Wensheng; Shi, Jianxin; Wang, Chunchao; Lu, Jinyuan; Zhang, Dabing; Li, Zhikang; Wei, Chaochun

    2017-01-01

    A pan-genome is the union of the gene sets of all the individuals of a clade or a species and it provides a new dimension of genome complexity with the presence/absence variations (PAVs) of genes among these genomes. With the progress of sequencing technologies, pan-genome study is becoming affordable for eukaryotes with large-sized genomes. The Asian cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., is one of the major food sources for the world and a model organism in plant biology. Recently, the 3000 Rice Genome Project (3K RGP) sequenced more than 3000 rice genomes with a mean sequencing depth of 14.3×, which provided a tremendous resource for rice research. In this paper, we present a genome browser, Rice Pan-genome Browser (RPAN), as a tool to search and visualize the rice pan-genome derived from 3K RGP. RPAN contains a database of the basic information of 3010 rice accessions, including genomic sequences, gene annotations, PAV information and gene expression data of the rice pan-genome. At least 12 000 novel genes absent in the reference genome were included. RPAN also provides multiple search and visualization functions. RPAN can be a rich resource for rice biology and rice breeding. It is available at http://cgm.sjtu.edu.cn/3kricedb/ or http://www.rmbreeding.cn/pan3k. PMID:27940610

  17. Rice Domestication Revealed by Reduced Shattering of Archaeological rice from the Lower Yangtze valley

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yunfei; Crawford, Gary W.; Jiang, Leping; Chen, Xugao

    2016-01-01

    Plant remains dating to between 9000 and 8400 BP from a probable ditch structure at the Huxi site include the oldest rice (Oryza sativa) spikelet bases and associated plant remains recovered in China. The remains document an early stage of rice domestication and the ecological setting in which early cultivation was taking place. The rice spikelet bases from Huxi include wild (shattering), intermediate, and domesticated (non-shattering) forms. The relative frequency of intermediate and non-shattering spikelet bases indicates that selection for, at the very least, non-shattering rice was underway at Huxi. The rice also has characteristics of japonica rice (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica), helping to clarify the emergence of a significant lineage of the crop. Seeds, phytoliths and their context provide evidence of increasing anthropogenesis and cultivation during the occupation. Rice spikelet bases from Kuahuqiao (8000–7700 BP), Tianluoshan (7000–6500 BP), Majiabang (6300–6000 BP), and Liangzhu (5300–4300 BP) sites indicate that rice underwent continuing selection for reduced shattering and japonica rice characteristics, confirming a prolonged domestication process for rice. PMID:27324699

  18. Glycaemic index of some commercially available rice and rice products in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Ranawana, D V; Henry, C J K; Lightowler, H J; Wang, D

    2009-01-01

    The glycaemic response to nine types of rice (white basmati, brown basmati, white and brown basmati, easy-cook basmati, basmati and wild rice, long-grain rice, easy-cook long-grain rice, Thai red rice, Thai glutinous rice) and two types of rice vermicelli (Guilin rice vermicelli, Jiangxi rice vermicelli) commercially available in the United Kingdom were compared against a glucose standard in a non-blind, randomized, repeated-measure, crossover design trial. Fourteen healthy subjects (six males, eight females), mean age 38 (standard deviation 16) years and mean body mass index 21.3 (standard deviation 2.3) kg/m(2), were recruited for the study. Subjects were served portions of the test foods and a standard food (glucose), on separate occasions, each containing 50 g available carbohydrates. Capillary blood glucose was measured from finger-prick samples in fasted subjects (-5 and 0 min) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the consumption of each test food. For each type of food, its glycaemic index (GI) was calculated geometrically by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose curve as a percentage of each subject's average incremental area under the blood glucose curve for the standard food. The 10 foods exhibited a range of GI values from 37 to 92. The study indicated that rice noodles, long-grain rice, easy-cook long-grain rice and white basmati rice were low-GI foods, whilst all of the other foods were medium-GI and high-GI foods. The information presented in this paper may be useful in helping people select low-GI foods from the customary foods consumed by the British and Asian populations.

  19. 7 CFR 319.55a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam. 319.55a Section 319.55a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Quarantine § 319.55a Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw...

  20. 7 CFR 319.55a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam. 319.55a Section 319.55a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Quarantine § 319.55a Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw...

  1. 7 CFR 319.55a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam. 319.55a Section 319.55a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Quarantine § 319.55a Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw...

  2. 7 CFR 319.55a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam. 319.55a Section 319.55a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Quarantine § 319.55a Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw...

  3. 7 CFR 319.55a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam. 319.55a Section 319.55a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Quarantine § 319.55a Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw...

  4. Analysis of rice blast resistance gene Pi-z in rice germplasm using pathogenicity assays and DNA markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pi-z(t) gene in rice confers resistance to a wide range of races of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. The objective of this study was to characterize Pi-z(t) in 117 rice germplasm accessions using DNA markers and pathogenicity assays. The existence of Pi-z(t) in rice germplasm was detec...

  5. Evolutionary dynamics and structure of the rice blast resistance locus Pi-ta in wild, cultivated, and US weedy rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pi-ta gene in rice has been used to control rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryza, in rice growing areas worldwide for decades. To understand the evolutionary process and natural selection of Pi-ta during rice domestication, we first examined sequences of the genomic region of Pi-ta in geograph...

  6. Molecule diagram from space-grown crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Researchers' at Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute, in Buffalo, N.Y. have analyzed the molecular structures of insulin crystals grown during Space Shuttle experiments and are unlocking the mystery of how insulin works.

  7. Insulating panels with rice husk

    SciTech Connect

    Salas, J.; Veras, J.

    1986-01-01

    This study includes the quantitative results of tests caried out on 7.5 x 15.0 cm cylindrical test pieces and fullsized panels with a cement and rice husk, produced by using means belonging to the so-called ''appropriate technologies''. These results are summarized and analyzed with a view to providing a possible alternative for substituting other insulating materials, which are generally imported, in developing countries. The technical results presented point towards a promising future for the task undertaken, within the context of a research project on ''materials, technologies and prototypes for very low-cost housing'' which, in a - multinational capacity, is being developed at the Instituto E. Torroja.

  8. Association of Rice and Rice-Product Consumption With Arsenic Exposure Early in Life

    PubMed Central

    Karagas, Margaret R.; Punshon, Tracy; Sayarath, Vicki; Jackson, Brian P.; Folt, Carol L.; Cottingham, Kathryn L.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Rice—a typical first food and major ingredient in various infant foods—contains inorganic arsenic (As), but the extent of As exposure from these foods has not been well characterized in early childhood. OBJECTIVE To determine the types and frequency of rice and rice-containing products consumed by infants in the first year of life and the association with As biomarker concentrations. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Included were infants from singleton births of pregnant women enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study from 2011 to 2014 whose parents were interviewed during their first year of life. Enrolled women from selected clinics were aged 18 to 45 years, living in the same residence since their last menstrual period, in households served by a private water system, and had no plans to move during pregnancy. Data on infants’ intake of rice and rice products were collected from interviews with their parents at 4, 8, and 12 months’ follow-up and from a 3-day food diary at 12 months from March 2013 to August 2014. EXPOSURES Infants’ intake of rice and rice products. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Total urinary As and the sum of As species measured using inductively coupled mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Commonly reported infant rice snacks were tested for As. RESULTS We obtained dietary data on 759 of 951 infants (79.8% participation rate). Of these, 391 infants (51.7%) were male, and the mean (SD) gestational age was 39.4 (1.7) weeks. An estimated 80% were introduced to rice cereal during their first year. At 12 months, 32.6% of infants (42 of 129) were fed rice snacks. Among infants aged 12 months who did not eat fish or seafood, the geometric mean total urinary As concentrations were higher among those who ate infant rice cereal (9.53 μg/L) or rice snacks (4.97 μg/L) compared with those who did not eat rice or rice products (2.85 μg/L; all P < .01). Infant rice

  9. Association of Increased Grain Iron and Zinc Concentrations with Agro-morphological Traits of Biofortified Rice

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Moyano, Laura T.; Bonneau, Julien P.; Sánchez-Palacios, José T.; Tohme, Joseph; Johnson, Alexander A. T.

    2016-01-01

    Biofortification of rice (Oryza sativa L.) with micronutrients is widely recognized as a sustainable strategy to alleviate human iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) deficiencies in developing countries where rice is the staple food. Constitutive overexpression of the rice nicotianamine synthase (OsNAS) genes has been successfully implemented to increase Fe and Zn concentrations in unpolished and polished rice grain. Intensive research is now needed to couple this high-micronutrient trait with high grain yields. We investigated associations of increased grain Fe and Zn concentrations with agro-morphological traits of backcross twice second filial (BC2F2) transgenic progeny carrying OsNAS1 or OsNAS2 overexpression constructs under indica/japonica and japonica/japonica genetic backgrounds. Thirteen agro-morphological traits were evaluated in BC2F2 transgenic progeny grown under hydroponic conditions. Concentrations of eight mineral nutrients (Fe, Zn, copper, manganese, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus) in roots, stems/sheaths, non-flag leaves, flag leaves, panicles, and grain were also determined. A distance-based linear model (DistLM) was utilized to extract plant tissue nutrient predictors accounting for the largest variation in agro-morphological traits differing between transgenic and non-transgenic progeny. Overall, the BC2F2 transgenic progeny contained up to 148% higher Fe and 336% higher Zn concentrations in unpolished grain compared to non-transgenic progeny. However, unpolished grain concentrations surpassing 23 μg Fe g-1 and 40 μg Zn g-1 in BC2F2 indica/japonica progeny, and 36 μg Fe g-1 and 56 μg Zn g1 in BC2F2 japonica/japonica progeny, were associated with significant reductions in grain yield. DistLM analyses identified grain-Zn and panicle-magnesium as the primary nutrient predictors associated with grain yield reductions in the indica/japonica and japonica/japonica background, respectively. We subsequently produced polished grain from high

  10. Arsenic Transport in Rice and Biological Solutions to Reduce Arsenic Risk from Rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanshan; Han, Yong-He; Cao, Yue; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Ma, Lena Q

    2017-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) feeds ∼3 billion people. Due to the wide occurrence of arsenic (As) pollution in paddy soils and its efficient plant uptake, As in rice grains presents health risks. Genetic manipulation may offer an effective approach to reduce As accumulation in rice grains. The genetics of As uptake and metabolism have been elucidated and target genes have been identified for genetic engineering to reduce As accumulation in grains. Key processes controlling As in grains include As uptake, arsenite (AsIII) efflux, arsenate (AsV) reduction and AsIII sequestration, and As methylation and volatilization. Recent advances, including characterization of AsV uptake transporter OsPT8, AsV reductase OsHAC1;1 and OsHAC1;2, rice glutaredoxins, and rice ABC transporter OsABCC1, make many possibilities to develop low-arsenic rice.

  11. Phylogeography of Asian wild rice, Oryza rufipogon, reveals multiple independent domestications of cultivated rice, Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Londo, Jason P; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Hung, Kuo-Hsiang; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh; Schaal, Barbara A

    2006-06-20

    Cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., represents the world's most important staple food crop, feeding more than half of the human population. Despite this essential role in world agriculture, the history of cultivated rice's domestication from its wild ancestor, Oryza rufipogon, remains unclear. In this study, DNA sequence variation in three gene regions is examined in a phylogeographic approach to investigate the domestication of cultivated rice. Results indicate that India and Indochina may represent the ancestral center of diversity for O. rufipogon. Additionally, the data suggest that cultivated rice was domesticated at least twice from different O. rufipogon populations and that the products of these two independent domestication events are the two major rice varieties, Oryza sativa indica and Oryza sativa japonica. Based on this geographical analysis, O. sativa indica was domesticated within a region south of the Himalaya mountain range, likely eastern India, Myanmar, and Thailand, whereas O. sativa japonica was domesticated from wild rice in southern China.

  12. Arsenic Transport in Rice and Biological Solutions to Reduce Arsenic Risk from Rice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanshan; Han, Yong-He; Cao, Yue; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Ma, Lena Q.

    2017-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) feeds ∼3 billion people. Due to the wide occurrence of arsenic (As) pollution in paddy soils and its efficient plant uptake, As in rice grains presents health risks. Genetic manipulation may offer an effective approach to reduce As accumulation in rice grains. The genetics of As uptake and metabolism have been elucidated and target genes have been identified for genetic engineering to reduce As accumulation in grains. Key processes controlling As in grains include As uptake, arsenite (AsIII) efflux, arsenate (AsV) reduction and AsIII sequestration, and As methylation and volatilization. Recent advances, including characterization of AsV uptake transporter OsPT8, AsV reductase OsHAC1;1 and OsHAC1;2, rice glutaredoxins, and rice ABC transporter OsABCC1, make many possibilities to develop low-arsenic rice. PMID:28298917

  13. Urinary excretion of arsenic following rice consumption.

    PubMed

    Meharg, A A; Williams, P N; Deacon, C M; Norton, G J; Hossain, M; Louhing, D; Marwa, E; Lawgalwi, Y; Taggart, M; Cascio, C; Haris, P

    2014-11-01

    Patterns of arsenic excretion were followed in a cohort (n = 6) eating a defined rice diet, 300 g per day d.wt. where arsenic speciation was characterized in cooked rice, following a period of abstinence from rice, and other high arsenic containing foods. A control group who did not consume rice were also monitored. The rice consumed in the study contained inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) at a ratio of 1:1, yet the urine speciation was dominated by DMA (90%). At steady state (rice consumption/urinary excretion) ∼40% of rice derived arsenic was excreted via urine. By monitoring of each urine pass throughout the day it was observed that there was considerable variation (up to 13-fold) for an individual's total arsenic urine content, and that there was a time dependent variation in urinary total arsenic content. This calls into question the robustness of routinely used first pass/spot check urine sampling for arsenic analysis.

  14. Heavy metals in rice and garden vegetables and their potential health risks to inhabitants in the vicinity of an industrial zone in Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongbin; Chen, Jianjiang; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Hui; Qiao, Li; Men, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Contamination of soil and agricultural products by heavy metals resulting from rapid industrial development has caused major concern. In this study, we investigated heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Hg and Cd) concentrations in rice and garden vegetables, as well as in cultivated soils, in a rural-industrial developed region in southern Jiangsu, China, and estimated the potential health risks of metals to the inhabitants via consumption of locally produced rice and garden vegetables. A questionnaire-based survey on dietary consumption rates of foodstuffs showed that rice and vegetables accounted for 64% of total foodstuffs consumed, and over 60% of rice and vegetables were grown in the local region. Average concentrations of Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb were 0.75, 2.64, 12.00, 0.014, 0.006 and 0.054 mg/kg dw (dry weight) in rice and were 0.67, 1.18, 4.34, 0.011, 0.002 and 0.058 mg/kg fw (fresh weight) in garden vegetables, respectively. These values were all below the maximum allowable concentration in food in China except for Cr in vegetables. Leafy vegetables had higher metal concentrations than solanaceae vegetables. Average daily intake of Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb through the consumption of rice and garden vegetables were 5.66, 16.90, 74.21, 0.10, 0.04 and 0.43 microg/(kg x day), respectively. Although Hazard Quotient values of individual metals were all lower than 1, when all six metal intakes via self-planted rice and garden vegetables were combined, the Hazard Index value was close to 1. Potential health risks from exposure to heavy metals in self-planted rice and garden vegetables need more attention.

  15. Critical Importance of alpha-glucosidase contained in rice kernel for alcohol fermentation of rice polish.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Kazuhide; Aramaki, Isao

    2002-01-01

    In our previous study, we proposed a new alcoholic beverage called nuka-sake, which is made from uncooked rice polish without any enzyme source such as koji. In nuka-sake brewing, the uncooked rice polish serves not only as the fermentation material but also as the enzyme source. In the present study, the results of both laboratory-scale nuka-sake brewing runs with various grades of rice polish and analysis of amylolitic enzyme distribution in rice polish suggested that alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20) is a key enzyme of parallel fermentation in nuka-sake brewing. Miglitol, a specific inhibitor of alpha-glucosidase, strongly inhibited glucose production from rice polish. To obtain further evidence regarding the contribution of alpha-glucosidase, this enzyme was purified from rice grain kernels (Yamadanishiki cultivar) and supplied for both rice polish saccharification and nuka-sake brewing. The purified alpha-glucosidase promoted both glucose production from rice polish and alcohol fermentation in nuka-sake brewing. Based on these results, it was considered that the alpha-glucosidase contained in rice polish plays an important role in glucose production. This role may be a rate-limiting factor for parallel fermentation in nuka-sake brewing. Moreover, oligosaccarides accumulated during the saccharification of uncooked rice polish, implying the contribution of not only alpha-glucosidase but also alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1). Through this result, it can be speculated that the starch contained in rice polish will be decomposed to glucose as a result of the action of alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase contained in rice polish.

  16. 40 CFR 406.60 - Applicability; description of the parboiled rice processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... parboiled rice processing subcategory. 406.60 Section 406.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rice Processing Subcategory § 406.60 Applicability; description of the parboiled rice processing... rice is cleaned, cooked and dried before being milled....

  17. 40 CFR 406.60 - Applicability; description of the parboiled rice processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... parboiled rice processing subcategory. 406.60 Section 406.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rice Processing Subcategory § 406.60 Applicability; description of the parboiled rice processing... rice is cleaned, cooked and dried before being milled....

  18. 40 CFR 406.60 - Applicability; description of the parboiled rice processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... parboiled rice processing subcategory. 406.60 Section 406.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rice Processing Subcategory § 406.60 Applicability; description of the parboiled rice processing... rice is cleaned, cooked and dried before being milled....

  19. 40 CFR 406.60 - Applicability; description of the parboiled rice processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... parboiled rice processing subcategory. 406.60 Section 406.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rice Processing Subcategory § 406.60 Applicability; description of the parboiled rice processing... rice is cleaned, cooked and dried before being milled....

  20. 40 CFR 406.60 - Applicability; description of the parboiled rice processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... parboiled rice processing subcategory. 406.60 Section 406.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rice Processing Subcategory § 406.60 Applicability; description of the parboiled rice processing... rice is cleaned, cooked and dried before being milled....

  1. Understanding the evolution of rice technology in China - from traditional agriculture to GM rice today.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an historical survey of the evolution of rice technology in China, from the traditional farming system to genetically modified rice today. Using sociotechnological analytical framework, it analyses rice technology as a socio-technical ensemble - a complex interaction of material and social elements, and discusses the specificity of technology development and its socio-technical outcomes. It points to two imperatives in rice variety development: wholesale transporting agricultural technology and social mechanism to developing countries are likely lead to negative consequences; indigenous innovation including deploying GM technology for seed varietal development and capturing/cultivating local knowledge will provide better solutions.

  2. A map of rice genome variation reveals the origin of cultivated rice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuehui; Kurata, Nori; Wei, Xinghua; Wang, Zi-Xuan; Wang, Ahong; Zhao, Qiang; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Kunyan; Lu, Hengyun; Li, Wenjun; Guo, Yunli; Lu, Yiqi; Zhou, Congcong; Fan, Danlin; Weng, Qijun; Zhu, Chuanrang; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yongchun; Feng, Lei; Furuumi, Hiroyasu; Kubo, Takahiko; Miyabayashi, Toshie; Yuan, Xiaoping; Xu, Qun; Dong, Guojun; Zhan, Qilin; Li, Canyang; Fujiyama, Asao; Toyoda, Atsushi; Lu, Tingting; Feng, Qi; Qian, Qian; Li, Jiayang; Han, Bin

    2012-10-25

    Crop domestications are long-term selection experiments that have greatly advanced human civilization. The domestication of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) ranks as one of the most important developments in history. However, its origins and domestication processes are controversial and have long been debated. Here we generate genome sequences from 446 geographically diverse accessions of the wild rice species Oryza rufipogon, the immediate ancestral progenitor of cultivated rice, and from 1,083 cultivated indica and japonica varieties to construct a comprehensive map of rice genome variation. In the search for signatures of selection, we identify 55 selective sweeps that have occurred during domestication. In-depth analyses of the domestication sweeps and genome-wide patterns reveal that Oryza sativa japonica rice was first domesticated from a specific population of O. rufipogon around the middle area of the Pearl River in southern China, and that Oryza sativa indica rice was subsequently developed from crosses between japonica rice and local wild rice as the initial cultivars spread into South East and South Asia. The domestication-associated traits are analysed through high-resolution genetic mapping. This study provides an important resource for rice breeding and an effective genomics approach for crop domestication research.

  3. Creation of transgenic rice plants producing small interfering RNA of Rice tungro spherical virus.

    PubMed

    Le, Dung Tien; Chu, Ha Duc; Sasaya, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV), also known as Rice waika virus, does not cause visible symptoms in infected rice plants. However, the virus plays a critical role in spreading Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV), which is the major cause of severe symptoms of rice tungro disease. Recent studies showed that RNA interference (RNAi) can be used to develop virus-resistance transgenic rice plants. In this report, we presented simple procedures and protocols needed for the creation of transgenic rice plants capable of producing small interfering RNA specific against RTSV sequences. Notably, our study showed that 60 out of 64 individual hygromycin-resistant lines (putative transgenic lines) obtained through transformation carried transgenes designed for producing hairpin double-stranded RNA. Northern blot analyses revealed the presence of small interfering RNA of 21- to 24-mer in 46 out of 56 confirmed transgenic lines. Taken together, our study indicated that transgenic rice plants carrying an inverted repeat of 500-bp fragments encoding various proteins of RTSV can produce small interfering RNA from the hairpin RNA transcribed from that transgene. In light of recent studies with other viruses, it is possible that some of these transgenic rice lines might be resistant to RTSV.

  4. Lead in rice: analysis of baseline lead levels in market and field collected rice grains.

    PubMed

    Norton, Gareth J; Williams, Paul N; Adomako, Eureka E; Price, Adam H; Zhu, Yongguan; Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve; Deacon, Claire M; Villada, Antia; Sommella, Alessia; Lu, Ying; Ming, Lei; De Silva, P Mangala C S; Brammer, Hugh; Dasgupta, Tapash; Islam, M Rafiqul; Meharg, Andrew A

    2014-07-01

    In a large scale survey of rice grains from markets (13 countries) and fields (6 countries), a total of 1578 rice grain samples were analysed for lead. From the market collected samples, only 0.6% of the samples exceeded the Chinese and EU limit of 0.2 μg g(-1) lead in rice (when excluding samples collected from known contaminated/mine impacted regions). When evaluating the rice grain samples against the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) provisional total tolerable intake (PTTI) values for children and pregnant women, it was found that only people consuming large quantities of rice were at risk of exceeding the PTTI from rice alone. Furthermore, 6 field experiments were conducted to evaluate the proportion of the variation in lead concentration in rice grains due to genetics. A total of 4 of the 6 field experiments had significant differences between genotypes, but when the genotypes common across all six field sites were assessed, only 4% of the variation was explained by genotype, with 9.5% and 11% of the variation explained by the environment and genotype by environment interaction respectively. Further work is needed to identify the sources of lead contamination in rice, with detailed information obtained on the locations and environments where the rice is sampled, so that specific risk assessments can be performed.

  5. Interaction between C 4 barnyard grass and C 3 upland rice under elevated CO 2: Impact of mycorrhizae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianjun; Xu, Liming; Chen, Xin; Hu, Shuijin

    2009-03-01

    Atmospheric CO 2 enrichment may impact arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) development and function, which could have subsequent effects on host plant species interactions by differentially affecting plant nutrient acquisition. However, direct evidence illustrating this scenario is limited. We examined how elevated CO 2 affects plant growth and whether mycorrhizae mediate interactions between C 4 barnyard grass ( Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv.) and C 3 upland rice ( Oryza sativa L.) in a low nutrient soil. The monocultures and combinations with or without mycorrhizal inoculation were grown at ambient (400 ± 20 μmol mol -1) and elevated CO 2 (700 ± 20 μmol mol -1) levels. The 15N isotope tracer was introduced to quantify the mycorrhizally mediated N acquisition of plants. Elevated CO 2 stimulated the growth of C 3 upland rice but not that of C 4 barnyard grass under monoculture. Elevated CO 2 also increased mycorrhizal colonization of C 4 barnyard grass but did not affect mycorrhizal colonization of C 3 upland rice. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased the shoot biomass ratio of C 4 barnyard grass to C 3 upland rice under both CO 2 concentrations but had a greater impact under the elevated than ambient CO 2 level. Mycorrhizae decreased relative interaction index (RII) of C 3 plants under both ambient and elevated CO 2, but mycorrhizae increased RII of C 4 plants only under elevated CO 2. Elevated CO 2 and mycorrhizal inoculation enhanced 15N and total N and P uptake of C 4 barnyard grass in mixture but had no effects on N and P acquisition of C 3 upland rice, thus altering the distribution of N and P between the species in mixture. These results implied that CO 2 stimulation of mycorrhizae and their nutrient acquisition may impact competitive interaction of C 4 barnyard grass and C 3 upland rice under future CO 2 scenarios.

  6. Selenate-enriched urea granules are a highly effective fertilizer for selenium biofortification of paddy rice grain.

    PubMed

    Premarathna, Lakmalie; McLaughlin, Mike J; Kirby, Jason K; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Stacey, Samuel; Chittleborough, David J

    2012-06-13

    This study examined the effects of applied selenium (Se) species, time of application, method of application, and soil water management regimen on the accumulation of Se in rice plants. Plants were grown to maturity in a temperature- and humidity-controlled growth chamber using three water management methods: field capacity (FC), submerged until harvest, and submerged and drained 2 weeks before harvest. Two Se species, selenate (SeO4(2-)) and selenite (SeO3(2-)), were applied at a rate equivalent to 30 g ha(-1). Four application methods were employed as follows: (i) Se applied at soil preparation, (ii) Se-enriched urea granules applied to floodwater at heading; (iii) foliar Se applied at heading; and (iv) fluid fertilizer Se applied to soil or floodwater at heading. Total Se concentrations in rice grains, husks, leaves, culms, and roots were measured, as well as Se speciation in grains from the Se-enriched urea granule treatment. Highest Se concentrations in the grain occurred with SeO4(2-) and with fertilizer applied at heading stage; SeO4(2-)-enriched urea granules applied at heading increased grain Se concentrations 5-6-fold (by 450-600 μg kg(-1)) compared to the control (no fertilizer Se applied) in all water treatments. Under paddy conditions other Se fertilization strategies were much less effective. Drainage before harvesting caused Se to accumulate in/on rice roots, possibly through adsorption onto iron plaque on roots. Rice grains contained Se mainly in the organic form as selenomethionine (SeM), which comprised >90% of the total grain Se in treatments fertilized with SeO4(2-)-enriched urea granules. The results of this study clearly show that of the fertilizer strategies tested biofortification of Se in rice grains can best be achieved in lowland rice by broadcast application of SeO4(2-)-enriched urea granules to floodwater at heading stage.

  7. Investigation of rice proteomic change in response to microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weining

    Gravity is one of the environmental factors that control development and growth of plants. Plant cells which are not part of specialized tissues such as the root columella can also sense gravity. Space environment, such as space shuttle missions, space labortories and space stations, etc. provide unique oppotunities to study the microgravity response of plant. During the Shenzhou 8 mission in November 2011, we cultured rice cali on the spaceship and the samples were fixed 4 days after launch. The flying samples in the static position (micro g, mug) and in the centrifuge which provide 1 g force to mimic the 1 g gravity in space, were recovered and the proteome changes were analyzed by iTRAQ. In total, 4840 proteins were identified, including 2085 proteins with function annotation by GO analysis. 431 proteins were changed >1.5 fold in space µg /ground group, including 179 up-regulated proteins and down-regulated 252 proteins. 321 proteins were changed >1.5 fold in space muµg / space 1 g group, among which 205 proteins were the same differentially expressed proteins responsive to microgravity. Enrichment of the differnetially expressed proteins by GO analysis showed that the ARF GTPase activity regulation proteins were enriched when compared the space µg with space 1 g sample, whereas the nucleic acid binding and DNA damage repairing proteins were enriched when compared the space µg and ground sample. Microscopic comparison of the rice cali showed that the space grown cells are more uniformed in size and proliferation, suggesting that cell proliferation pattern was changed in space microgravity conditions.

  8. Metabolite profiling of two low phytic acid (lpa) rice mutants.

    PubMed

    Frank, Thomas; Meuleye, Bertrand Seumo; Miller, Andreas; Shu, Qing-Yao; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2007-12-26

    Two low phytic acid (lpa) rice mutant lines, Os-lpa-XS110-1 and Os-lpa-XS110-2, were grown together with their parent wild-type variety Xiushui 110 in four field trials. HPLC analysis of inositol phosphates in the seeds produced demonstrated that compared to the wild-type, the reduction in phytic acid content in Os-lpa-XS110-1 (-46%) was more pronounced than that in Os-lpa-XS110-2 (-23%). Lower inositol phosphates (InsP 3, InsP 4, InsP 5) were not detected in the mutants. The lpa mutants and the wild-type rice were subjected to comparative metabolite profiling by capillary gas chromatography. On average, 34% (Os-lpa-XS110-1) and 42% (Os-lpa-XS110-2) of the detected peaks were statistically significantly different between wild-type and mutants. However, only a few of these differences could be consistently observed for all field trials. Identification and quantification of the consistently different metabolites revealed that contents of myo-inositol and raffinose were increased in Os-lpa-XS110-1 but decreased in Os-lpa-XS110-2 compared to the wild-type. In addition, Os-lpa-XS110-1 exhibited increased levels of galactose and galactinol. Consideration of these metabolic changes in light of the routes involved in the biosynthesis of phytic acid indicated a disturbance in the early biosynthetic pathway of phytic acid in Os-lpa-XS110-2 (similar to the lpa-1 type mutation in maize) and a mutation event affecting phosphorylation of myo-inositol in Os-lpa-XS110-1 (similar to the lpa-3-type mutation).

  9. Mapping paddy rice planting area in rice-wetland coexistent areas through analysis of Landsat 8 OLI and MODIS images.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuting; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Li, Xiangping

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of paddy rice fields is necessary for the studies of trace gas emissions, water source management, and food security. The phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, which identifies the unique flooding stage of paddy rice, has been widely used. However, identification and mapping of paddy rice in rice-wetland coexistent areas is still a challenging task. In this study, we found that the flooding/transplanting periods of paddy rice and natural wetlands were different. The natural wetlands flood earlier and have a shorter duration than paddy rice in the Panjin Plain, a temperate region in China. We used this asynchronous flooding stage to extract the paddy rice planting area from the rice-wetland coexistent area. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data was used to derive the temperature-defined plant growing season. Landsat 8 OLI imagery was used to detect the flooding signal and then paddy rice was extracted using the difference in flooding stages between paddy rice and natural wetlands. The resultant paddy rice map was evaluated with in-situ ground-truth data and Google Earth images. The estimated overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 95% and 0.90, respectively. The spatial pattern of OLI-derived paddy rice map agrees well with the paddy rice layer from the National Land Cover Dataset from 2010 (NLCD-2010). The differences between RiceLandsat and RiceNLCD are in the range of ±20% for most 1-km grid cell. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, via integrating MODIS and Landsat 8 OLI images, to map paddy rice fields in complex landscapes of paddy rice and natural wetland in the temperate region.

  10. Mapping paddy rice planting area in rice-wetland coexistent areas through analysis of Landsat 8 OLI and MODIS images

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuting; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Li, Xiangping

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of paddy rice fields is necessary for the studies of trace gas emissions, water source management, and food security. The phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, which identifies the unique flooding stage of paddy rice, has been widely used. However, identification and mapping of paddy rice in rice-wetland coexistent areas is still a challenging task. In this study, we found that the flooding/transplanting periods of paddy rice and natural wetlands were different. The natural wetlands flood earlier and have a shorter duration than paddy rice in the Panjin Plain, a temperate region in China. We used this asynchronous flooding stage to extract the paddy rice planting area from the rice-wetland coexistent area. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data was used to derive the temperature-defined plant growing season. Landsat 8 OLI imagery was used to detect the flooding signal and then paddy rice was extracted using the difference in flooding stages between paddy rice and natural wetlands. The resultant paddy rice map was evaluated with in-situ ground-truth data and Google Earth images. The estimated overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 95% and 0.90, respectively. The spatial pattern of OLI-derived paddy rice map agrees well with the paddy rice layer from the National Land Cover Dataset from 2010 (NLCD-2010). The differences between RiceLandsat and RiceNLCD are in the range of ±20% for most 1-km grid cell. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, via integrating MODIS and Landsat 8 OLI images, to map paddy rice fields in complex landscapes of paddy rice and natural wetland in the temperate region. PMID:27688742

  11. Biofilm production by Zymomonas mobilis enhances ethanol production and tolerance to toxic inhibitors from rice bran hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Todhanakasem, Tatsaporn; Sangsutthiseree, Atit; Areerat, Kamonchanok; Young, Glenn M; Thanonkeo, Pornthap

    2014-09-25

    Microorganisms play a significant role in bioethanol production from lignocellulosic material. A challenging problem in bioconversion of rice bran is the presence of toxic inhibitors in lignocellulosic acid hydrolysate. Various strains of Zymomonas mobilis (ZM4, TISTR 405, 548, 550 and 551) grown under biofilm or planktonic modes were used in this study to examine their potential for bioconversion of rice bran hydrolysate and ethanol production efficiencies. Z. mobilis readily formed bacterial attachment on plastic surfaces, but not on glass surfaces. Additionally, the biofilms formed on plastic surfaces steadily increased over time, while those formed on glass were speculated to cycle through accumulation and detachment phases. Microscopic analysis revealed that Z. mobilis ZM4 rapidly developed homogeneous biofilm structures within 24 hours, while other Z. mobilis strains developed heterogeneous biofilm structures. ZM4 biofilms were thicker and seemed to be more stable than other Z. mobilis strains. The percentage of live cells in biofilms was greater than that for planktonic cells (54.32 ± 7.10% vs. 28.69 ± 3.03%), suggesting that biofilms serve as a protective niche for growth of bacteria in the presence of toxic inhibitors in the rice bran hydrolysate. The metabolic activity of ZM4 grown as a biofilm was also higher than the same strain grown planktonically, as measured by ethanol production from rice bran hydrolysate (13.40 ± 2.43 g/L vs. 0.432 ± 0.29 g/L, with percent theoretical ethanol yields of 72.47 ± 6.13% and 3.71 ± 5.24% respectively). Strain TISTR 551 was also quite metabolically active, with ethanol production by biofilm and planktonically grown cells of 8.956 ± 4.06 g/L and 0.0846 ± 0.064 g/L (percent theoretical yields were 48.37 ± 16.64% and 2.046 ± 1.58%, respectively). This study illustrates the potential for enhancing ethanol production by utilizing bacterial biofilms in the bioconversion of a readily available and normally unusable

  12. Oryzabase. An integrated biological and genome information database for rice.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Nori; Yamazaki, Yukiko

    2006-01-01

    The aim of Oryzabase is to create a comprehensive view of rice (Oryza sativa) as a model monocot plant by integrating biological data with molecular genomic information (http://www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/rice/oryzabase/top/top.jsp). The database contains information about rice development and anatomy, rice mutants, and genetic resources, especially for wild varieties of rice. The anatomical description of rice development is unique and is the first known representation for rice. Developmental and anatomical descriptions include in situ gene expression data serving as stage and tissue markers. The systematic presentation of a large number of rice mutant and mutant trait genes is indispensable, as is description of research in wild strains, core collections, and their detailed characterization. Several genetic, physical, and expression maps with full genome and cDNA sequences are also combined with biological data in Oryzabase. These datasets, when pooled together, could provide a useful tool for gaining greater knowledge about the life cycle of rice, the relationship between phenotype and gene function, and rice genetic diversity. For exchanging community information, Oryzabase publishes the Rice Genetics Newsletter organized by the Rice Genetics Cooperative and provides a mailing service, rice-e-net/rice-net.

  13. [Effects of rice plants on methane emission from paddy fields].

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhongjun; Cai, Zucong

    2003-11-01

    Methane emission from rice paddy fields is the net result of the combination of many processes, i.e., CH4 production, CH4 oxidation and CH4 transportation in paddy soil. Rice plants play a key role in the CH4 emission from paddy fields, particularly in all the processes involved. The positive and negative effects of rice plants on CH4 emission from paddy fields are well recognized as the main factors influencing the temporal variation of CH4 emission flux in paddy field. Process-based studies about the effects of rice plants on methane emission from paddy fields were summarized, and different roles of rice plants on this emission were discussed. Root exudates and litters of rice plants could serve as the substrate for methanogenesis and enhance the CH4 production of paddy soils, resulting in a high CH4 emission peak, particularly in rice late growing season. Rhizospheric CH4 oxidation induced by rice root-excreted oxygen constitutes a main biogenic sink of CH4, which could account for 36-90% of CH4 produced in paddy soil over the entire growing season of rice. Up to 80% and more of CH4 released from rice field during a growing season could be emitted by rice plant-mediated transport. The fully developed aerenchyma of rice plants could be of importance in CH4 emission during rice growing seasons, and responsible for the CH4 emission peak observed at rice early growing season.

  14. Rice: a high or low glycemic index food?

    PubMed

    Miller, J B; Pang, E; Bramall, L

    1992-12-01

    We determined the glycemic (GI) and insulin-index (II) values for 12 rice products, using eight healthy subjects. The products were brown and white versions of three commercial varieties of rice [two varieties with normal amylose content (20%) and the other with 28% amylose], a waxy rice (0-2% amylose), a converted rice, a quick-cooking brown rice, puffed rice cakes, rice pasta, and rice bran. The GI of the rices ranged from 64 +/- 9 to 93 +/- 11, where glucose = 100. The high amylose rice gave a lower GI and II (P < 0.01) than did the normal-amylose and waxy-rice varieties. The converted rice and most other rice products gave a high GI. Insulin indices correlated positively with GI (r = 0.75, P < 0.05), although they were lower than expected. These results indicate that many varieties of rice, whether white, brown, or parboiled, should be classified as high GI foods. Only high-amylose varieties are potentially useful in low-GI diets.

  15. The effect of the external medium on the gravitropic curvature of rice (Oryza sativa, Poaceae) roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staves, M. P.; Wayne, R.; Leopold, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    The roots of rice seedlings, growing in artificial pond water, exhibit robust gravitropic curvature when placed perpendicular to the vector of gravity. To determine whether the statolith theory (in which intracellular sedimenting particles are responsible for gravity sensing) or the gravitational pressure theory (in which the entire protoplast acts as the gravity sensor) best accounts for gravity sensing in rice roots, we changed the physical properties of the external medium with impermeant solutes and examined the effect on gravitropism. As the density of the external medium is increased, the rate of gravitropic curvature decreases. The decrease in the rate of gravicurvature cannot be attributed to an inhibition of growth, since rice roots grown in 100 Osm/m3 (0.248 MPa) solutions of different densities all support the same root growth rate but inhibit gravicurvature increasingly with increasing density. By contrast, the sedimentation rate of amyloplasts in the columella cells is unaffected by the external density. These results are consistent with the gravitational pressure theory of gravity sensing, but cannot be explained by the statolith theory.

  16. Hydraulic Properties of Rice and the Response of Gas Exchange to Water Stress1

    PubMed Central

    Stiller, Volker; Lafitte, H. Renee; Sperry, John S.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the role of xylem cavitation, plant hydraulic conductance, and root pressure in the response of rice (Oryza sativa) gas exchange to water stress. In the field (Philippines), the percentage loss of xylem conductivity (PLC) from cavitation exceeded 60% in leaves even in watered controls. The PLC versus leaf water potential relationship indicated diurnal refilling of cavitated xylem. The leaf water potential causing 50 PLC (P50) was –1.6 MPa and did not differ between upland versus lowland rice varieties. Greenhouse-grown varieties (Utah) were more resistant to cavitation with a 50 PLC of –1.9 MPa but also showed no difference between varieties. Six-day droughts caused concomitant reductions in leaf-specific photosynthetic rate, leaf diffusive conductance, and soil-leaf hydraulic conductance that were associated with cavitation-inducing water potentials and the disappearance of nightly root pressure. The return of root pressure after drought was associated with the complete recovery of leaf diffusive conductance, leaf-specific photosynthetic rate, and soil-leaf hydraulic conductance. Root pressure after the 6-d drought (61.2 ± 8.8 kPa) was stimulated 7-fold compared with well-watered plants before drought (8.5 ± 3.8 kPa). The results indicate: (a) that xylem cavitation plays a major role in the reduction of plant hydraulic conductance during drought, and (b) that rice can readily reverse cavitation, possibly aided by nocturnal root pressure. PMID:12857848

  17. Different Bacterial Populations Associated with the Roots and Rhizosphere of Rice Incorporate Plant-Derived Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Marcela; Yuan, Quan; Conrad, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with the roots of plants have an important function in plant growth and in soil carbon sequestration. Rice cultivation is the second largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric CH4, which is a significant greenhouse gas. Up to 60% of fixed carbon formed by photosynthesis in plants is transported below ground, much of it as root exudates that are consumed by microorganisms. A stable isotope probing (SIP) approach was used to identify microorganisms using plant carbon in association with the roots and rhizosphere of rice plants. Rice plants grown in Italian paddy soil were labeled with 13CO2 for 10 days. RNA was extracted from root material and rhizosphere soil and subjected to cesium gradient centrifugation followed by 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing to identify microorganisms enriched with 13C. Thirty operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were labeled and mostly corresponded to Proteobacteria (13 OTUs) and Verrucomicrobia (8 OTUs). These OTUs were affiliated with the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria classes of Proteobacteria and the “Spartobacteria” and Opitutae classes of Verrucomicrobia. In general, different bacterial groups were labeled in the root and rhizosphere, reflecting different physicochemical characteristics of these locations. The labeled OTUs in the root compartment corresponded to a greater proportion of the 16S rRNA sequences (∼20%) than did those in the rhizosphere (∼4%), indicating that a proportion of the active microbial community on the roots greater than that in the rhizosphere incorporated plant-derived carbon within the time frame of the experiment. PMID:25616793

  18. Effect of carbon nanomaterials on the germination and growth of rice plants.

    PubMed

    Nair, Remya; Mohamed, M Sheikh; Gao, Wei; Maekawa, Toru; Yoshida, Yasuhiko; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Kumar, D Sakthi

    2012-03-01

    For the successful diverse applications of different nanomaterials in life sciences, it is necessary to understand the ultimate fate, distribution and potential environmental impacts of manufactured nanomaterials. Phytotoxicity studies using higher plants is an important criterion for understanding the toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. We studied the effects of engineered carbon nanomaterials of various dimensionalities (carbon nanotubes, C60, graphene) on the germination of rice seeds. A pronounced increase in the rate of germination was observed for rice seeds in the presence of some of these carbon nanostructures, in particular the nanotubes. Increased water content was observed in the carbon nanomaterial treated seeds during germination compared to controls. The germinated seeds were then grown in a basal growth medium supplemented with carbon nanomaterials for studying their impact on further seedling growth. Treated seedlings appeared to be healthier with well-developed root and shoot systems compared to control seedlings. Our results indicate the possible use for carbon nanomaterials as enhancers in the growth of rice seedlings.

  19. Diel activity of sucrose phosphate synthase in rice. [Oryza sativa L

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, M.W.; Bowes, G.; Rowland-Bamford, A.J.; Allen, L.H. )

    1991-05-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) was grown in growth chambers at 28/23C day/night temperatures with 16-h photoperiod at 600 umol m{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. Diel sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity, at 21 days after planting, was measured at saturating substrate concentrations. Data suggests that SPS activity increased during illumination to a maximum of 0.8 nmol mg{sup {minus}1} protein min{sup {minus}1} after 5h. Throughout the remainder of the light period there was a slow decline in activity. Upon darkening, activity further declined to 0.4 nmol mg{sup {minus}1} protein min{sup {minus}1}, a basal level that was maintained throughout the night. It appears that rice SPS undergoes light/dark transitions, suggesting there may be two kinetic forms of SPS. Changes in SPS activity will be discussed in relation to kinetic studies, and also CO{sub 2} enrichment of rice during growth.

  20. Rice in deep water: "How to take heed against a sea of troubles"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, Margret

    Plants are aerobic organisms for which oxygen shortage poses a severe problem. Waterlogging and flooding are the main causes of anaerobiosis and can lead to damage or even death of the plant. Rice is well adapted to semi-aquatic conditions. It is the only cereal that can be grown in flooded areas such as the great river deltas of Asia. In rice, two major strategies have evolved to cope with conditions of flooding. One is to escape submergence and thereby avoid anaerobiosis as much as possible. This is achieved through elongation growth and through extensive aeration of submerged plant parts by way of internal and external air spaces. The second adaptation is a metabolic one which includes the efficient use of carbohydrate resources and maintenance of energy charge when the cells do become anaerobic. The mainly ethanolic fermentation pathway found in anaerobic rice avoids acidification of the cytoplasm and thereby contributes to the maintenance of cell integrity. Genetic analysis indicates that the submergence tolerance trait, which is based on metabolic changes, is encoded by only one or a few as yet unidentified gene(s). Identifying these genes is a major goal in anaerobic stress research.

  1. The rice Mybleu transcription factor increases tolerance to oxygen deprivation in Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Mattana, Monica; Vannini, Candida; Espen, Luca; Bracale, Marcella; Genga, Annamaria; Marsoni, Milena; Iriti, Marcello; Bonazza, Veronica; Romagnoli, Francesco; Baldoni, Elena; Coraggio, Immacolata; Locatelli, Franca

    2007-09-01

    Mybleu is a natural incomplete transcription factor of rice (Oryza sativa), consisting of a partial Myb repeat followed by a short leucine zipper. We previously showed its localization to the apical region of rice roots and coleoptiles. Specifically, in coleoptiles, Mybleu is expressed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, whereas in roots, it is expressed only under aerobic conditions. Mybleu is able to dimerize with canonical leucine zippers and to activate transcription selectively. To investigate Mybleu function in vivo, we transformed Arabidopsis thaliana and evaluated several morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters. In agreement with a hypothesized role of Mybleu in cell elongation in the differentiation zone, we found that the constitutive expression of this transcription factor in Arabidopsis induced elongation in the primary roots and in the internodal region of the floral stem; we also observed a modification of the root apex morphology in transformed lines. Based on the high expression of Mybleu in anaerobic rice coleoptiles, we studied the role of this transcription factor in transgenic plants grown under low-oxygen conditions. We found that overexpression of this transcription factor increased tolerance to oxygen deficit. In transgenic plants, this effect may depend both on the maintenance of a higher metabolism during stress and on the higher expression levels of certain genes involved in the anaerobic response.

  2. Rice Root Architectural Plasticity Traits and Genetic Regions for Adaptability to Variable Cultivation and Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Nitika; Raman, K Anitha; Torres, Rolando O; Audebert, Alain; Dardou, Audrey; Kumar, Arvind; Henry, Amelia

    2016-08-01

    Future rice (Oryza sativa) crops will likely experience a range of growth conditions, and root architectural plasticity will be an important characteristic to confer adaptability across variable environments. In this study, the relationship between root architectural plasticity and adaptability (i.e. yield stability) was evaluated in two traditional × improved rice populations (Aus 276 × MTU1010 and Kali Aus × MTU1010). Forty contrasting genotypes were grown in direct-seeded upland and transplanted lowland conditions with drought and drought + rewatered stress treatments in lysimeter and field studies and a low-phosphorus stress treatment in a Rhizoscope study. Relationships among root architectural plasticity for root dry weight, root length density, and percentage lateral roots with yield stability were identified. Selected genotypes that showed high yield stability also showed a high degree of root plasticity in response to both drought and low phosphorus. The two populations varied in the soil depth effect on root architectural plasticity traits, none of which resulted in reduced grain yield. Root architectural plasticity traits were related to 13 (Aus 276 population) and 21 (Kali Aus population) genetic loci, which were contributed by both the traditional donor parents and MTU1010. Three genomic loci were identified as hot spots with multiple root architectural plasticity traits in both populations, and one locus for both root architectural plasticity and grain yield was detected. These results suggest an important role of root architectural plasticity across future rice crop conditions and provide a starting point for marker-assisted selection for plasticity.

  3. A Polyethylene Glycol-Mediated Protoplast Transformation System for Production of Fertile Transgenic Rice Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Hayashimoto, Akio; Li, Zhijian; Murai, Norimoto

    1990-01-01

    We have established an efficient procedure for protoplast transformation and regeneration of fertile transgenic plants of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars Nipponbare and Taipei 309. Protoplasts were mixed with a plant-expressible hygromycin resistance gene and treated with 25% (w/v) polyethylene glycol. Stringent selection of transformed colonies was applied to 14-day-old regenerated protoplasts in the presence of 95 micromolar of hygromycin B for 12 days. After selection, 450 and 200 resistant colonies were recovered per million treated Taipei 309 and Nipponbare protoplasts, respectively. Southern hybridization analysis of hygromycin-resistant cell lines and regenerated plants indicated that 1 to 10 copies of transferred DNA were integrated at 1 to 4 loci of the rice genome. Southern DNA analysis suggests that the introduced plasmid DNA may form concatemers by intermolecular recombination prior to integration. Four Taipei 309 and 39 Nipponbare transgenic rice plants were regenerated and grown to maturity in the greenhouse. Two Taipei 309 and 35 Nipponbare plants set viable seeds. Agronomic traits of Taipei 309 transgenic plants and inheritance of the hygromycin resistance trait by progeny of the selfed transgenic plants were analyzed. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16667593

  4. Formation of Organically Bound Deuterium at Each Growing Stage of Rice

    SciTech Connect

    Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Kumakura, Yasuharu; Amano, Hikaru; Fukui, Masami

    2005-07-15

    Potted rice plants were exposed to deuterated water vapor, as a substitute of tritium, for 4 hours at five different times during the grain-ripening period to estimate the influence of the growth stage on the formation and retention of organically bound deuterium (OBD) in rice. The plants were grown outside before and after the exposure experiments and were exposed to deuterated water vapor in a laboratory in a small chamber equipped with controllers of temperature, humidity and light intensity. Deuterium concentrations in free water and organic matter in rice leaves, stems and grains were investigated up to the harvest time. The deuterium in free water in the grains remained for a longer time after the end of exposure than in the leaves and stems. The mass of OBD in grain at harvest showed the highest value when the exposure was carried out in the early stage of the ripening period. When the exposure was carried out after 26 days from the heading, the increase of OBD in the grain was small.

  5. Molecular biology of rice tungro viruses.

    PubMed

    Hull, R

    1996-01-01

    Rice tungro, the most important virus disease of rice in South and Southeast Asia, is caused by a complex of two viruses, rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV). RTBV is a plant pararetrovirus with bacilliform particles, the structure of which is based on T = 3 icosahedral symmetry cut across the threefold axis.The particles encapsidate a circular double-stranded DNA of 8 kbp that encodes four proteins. The current information on the properties, functions, and expression of these proteins is discussed, as is the evidence for replication by reverse transcription. Two major strains of RTBV have been recognized, one from the Indian subcontinent and the other from Southeast Asia. RTSV particles contain a single-stranded RNA genome of 12 kb that encodes a large polyprotein and possibly one or two smaller proteins. The properties and processing of the polyprotein are described and the resemblance to picornaviruses noted.

  6. Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (RICE) | New ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    RICE use pistons that alternatively move back and forth to convert pressure into rotating motion. They're commonly used at power and manufacturing plants to generate electricity and to power pumps and compressors.

  7. President Kennedy's Speech at Rice University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This video tape presents unedited film footage of President John F. Kennedy's speech at Rice University, Houston, Texas, September 12, 1962. The speech expresses the commitment of the United States to landing an astronaut on the Moon.

  8. Rice plant development: from zygote to spikelet.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Nonomura, Ken-Ichi; Ikeda, Kyoko; Yamaki, Shinichiro; Inukai, Yoshiaki; Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Kitano, Hidemi; Nagato, Yasuo

    2005-01-01

    Rice is becoming a model plant in monocotyledons and a model cereal crop. For better understanding of the rice plant, it is essential to elucidate the developmental programs of the life cycle. To date, several attempts have been made in rice to categorize the developmental processes of some organs into substages. These studies are based exclusively on the morphological and anatomical viewpoints. Recent advancement in genetics and molecular biology has given us new aspects of developmental processes. In this review, we first describe the phasic development of the rice plant, and then describe in detail the developmental courses of major organs, leaf, root and spikelet, and specific organs/tissues. Also, for the facility of future studies, we propose a staging system for each organ.

  9. [Red yeast rice: An unsafe food supplement?

    PubMed

    Steffen, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Red yeast rice is the fermentation product of the mould Monascus ruber and is traditionally used in East Asia to dye and conserve food. Its main pharmacologically active compound, monakolin K, was isolated from red yeast rice and is used as an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis under the INN lovastatin. Lovastatin and several other statins are marketed as drugs whereas red yeast rice is offered as a food supplement. As statins can cause severe side effects, such as muscle damage and kidney failure, the dosing and information about interactions with drugs and food is essential for the use of these products. Furthermore, red yeast rice can contain the mycotoxin citrinin and several other substances that are not yet toxicologically evaluated.

  10. Activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase in rice seedlings during cyanide metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Zhang, Fu-Zhong

    2012-07-30

    A study was conducted to investigate activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) in plants during cyanide metabolism. Young rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv. XZX 45) were grown in the nutrient solutions containing KNO(3) or NH(4)Cl and treated with free cyanide (KCN). Cyanide in solutions and in plant materials was analyzed to estimate the phyto-assimilation potential. Activities of NR and GS in different parts of rice seedlings were assayed in vivo. Seedlings grown on NH(4)(+) showed significantly higher relative growth rate than those on NO(3)(-) (p<0.05) in the presence of exogenous cyanide. The metabolic rates of cyanide by seedlings were all positively correlated to the concentrations supplied. A negligible difference was observed between the two treatments with nitrate and ammonium (p>0.05). Enzymatic assays showed that cyanide (≥0.97mg CN L(-1)) impaired NR activity significantly in both roots and shoots (p<0.05). The effect of cyanide on GS activity in roots was more evident at 1.93mg CN L(-1), suggesting that NR activity was more susceptible to change from cyanide application than GS activity. The results observed here suggest that the exogenous cyanide, which to a certain level has a beneficial role in plant nutrition.

  11. Biochemical and molecular characterization of potential phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in acid sulfate soils and their beneficial effects on rice growth.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Shamshuddin, Jusop; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Othman, Radziah; Latif, Md Abdul; Ismail, Mohd Razi

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the total microbial population, the occurrence of growth promoting bacteria and their beneficial traits in acid sulfate soils. The mechanisms by which the bacteria enhance rice seedlings grown under high Al and low pH stress were investigated. Soils and rice root samples were randomly collected from four sites in the study area (Kelantan, Malaysia). The topsoil pH and exchangeable Al ranged from 3.3 to 4.7 and 1.24 to 4.25 cmol(c) kg(-1), respectively, which are considered unsuitable for rice production. Total bacterial and actinomycetes population in the acidic soils were found to be higher than fungal populations. A total of 21 phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) including 19 N2-fixing strains were isolated from the acid sulfate soil. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three potential PSB strains based on their beneficial characteristics were identified (Burkholderia thailandensis, Sphingomonas pituitosa and Burkholderia seminalis). The isolated strains were capable of producing indoleacetic acid (IAA) and organic acids that were able to reduce Al availability via a chelation process. These PSB isolates solubilized P (43.65%) existing in the growth media within 72 hours of incubation. Seedling of rice variety, MR 219, grown at pH 4, and with different concentrations of Al (0, 50 and 100 µM) was inoculated with these PSB strains. Results showed that the bacteria increased the pH with a concomitant reduction in Al concentration, which translated into better rice growth. The improved root volume and seedling dry weight of the inoculated plants indicated the potential of these isolates to be used in a bio-fertilizer formulation for rice cultivation on acid sulfate soils.

  12. Value-added uses of co-products from the milling of rice.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to the polished whole white rice, various co-products, including rice bran and broken rice, are generated during the milling of rice. In spite of plentiful supply and high nutrition, rice bran, and to a lesser extent, broken rice kernels are under-priced and under-utilized. The present ...

  13. Introgression of resistance-conferring ALS mutations in herbicide-resistant weedy rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy red rice (Oryza sativa) competes aggressively with rice, reducing yields and grain quality. Clearfield™ rice, a nontransgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) rice introduced in 2002 to control weedy rice, has resulted in some ALS-resistant weedy rice apparently due to gene flow. Studies were conduct...

  14. Evolutionary insights into the origins of weediness in U.S. red rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy red rice is a widespread, economically challenging problem in Southern U.S. rice fields. The two major U.S. red rice types, strawhull and blackhull, are thought to have arisen independently from Asian rice populations in the distant past. Red rice is a weedy relative of rice, a genomic model...

  15. Direct and reverse pollen-mediated gene flow between GM rice and red rice weed

    PubMed Central

    Serrat, X.; Esteban, R.; Peñas, G.; Català, M. M.; Melé, E.; Messeguer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Potential risks of genetically modified (GM) crops must be identified before their commercialization, as happens with all new technologies. One of the major concerns is the proper risk assessment of adventitious presence of transgenic material in rice fields due to cross-pollination. Several studies have been conducted in order to quantify pollen-mediated gene flow from transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) to both conventional rice and red rice weed (O. sativa f. spontanea) under field conditions. Some of these studies reported GM pollen-donor rice transferring GM traits to red rice. However, gene flow also occurs in the opposite direction, in a phenomenon that we have called reverse gene flow, resulting in transgenic seeds that have incorporated the traits of wild red rice. We quantified reverse gene flow using material from two field trials. A molecular analysis based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms was carried out, being complemented with a phenotypic identification of red rice traits. In both field trials, the reverse gene flow detected was greater than the direct gene flow. The rate of direct gene flow varied according to the relative proportions of the donor (GM rice) and receptor (red rice) plants and was influenced by wind direction. The ecological impact of reverse gene flow is limited in comparison with that of direct gene flow because non-shattered and non-dormant seeds would be obtained in the first generation. Hybrid seed would remain in the spike and therefore most of it would be removed during harvesting. Nevertheless, this phenomenon must be considered in fields used for elite seed production and in developing countries where farmers often keep some seed for planting the following year. In these cases, there is a higher risk of GM red rice weed infestation increasing from year to year and therefore a proper monitoring plan needs to be established.

  16. [Effects of rice cleaning and cooking process on the residues of flutolanil, fenobucarb, silafluofen and buprofezin in rice].

    PubMed

    Satoh, Motoaki; Sakaguchi, Masayuki; Kobata, Masakazu; Sakaguchi, Yoko; Tanizawa, Haruna; Miura, Yuri; Sasano, Ryoichi; Nakanishi, Yutaka

    2003-02-01

    We studied the effect of cleaning and cooking on the residues of flutolanil, fenobucarb, silafluofen and buprofezin in rice. The rice had been sprayed in a paddy field in Wakayama city, with 3 kinds of pesticide application protocols: spraying once at the usual concentration of pesticides, repeated spraying (3 times) with the usual concentration of pesticides and spraying once with 3 times the usual concentration of pesticides. The residue levels of pesticide decreased during the rice cleaning process. Silafluofen, which has a higher log Pow value, remained in the hull of the rice. Fenobucarb, which has a lower log Pow value, penetrated inside the rice. The residue concentration of pesticide in polished rice was higher than that in pre-washed rice processed ready for cooking. During the cooking procedure, the reduction of pesticides in polished rice was higher than that in brown rice.

  17. Iron biofortification of rice using different transgenic approaches

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    More than 2 billion people suffer from iron (Fe) deficiency, and developing crop cultivars with an increased concentration of micronutrients (biofortification) can address this problem. In this review, we describe seven transgenic approaches, and combinations thereof, that can be used to increase the concentration of Fe in rice seeds. The first approach is to enhance the Fe storage capacity of grains through expression of the Fe storage protein ferritin under the control of endosperm-specific promoters. Using this approach, the concentration of Fe in the seeds of transformants was increased by approximately 2-fold in polished seeds. The second approach is to enhance Fe translocation by overproducing the natural metal chelator nicotianamine; using this approach, the Fe concentration was increased by up to 3-fold in polished seeds. The third approach is to enhance Fe influx to the endosperm by expressing the Fe(II)-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2 under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter and sucrose transporter promoter, which increased the Fe concentration by up to 4-fold in polished seeds. The fourth approach is introduction of the barley mugineic acid synthesis gene IDS3 to enhance Fe uptake and translocation within plants, which resulted in a 1.4-fold increase in the Fe concentration in polished seeds during field cultivation. In addition to the above approaches, Fe-biofortified rice was produced using a combination of the first, second, and third approaches. The Fe concentration in greenhouse-grown T2 polished seeds was 6-fold higher and that in paddy field-grown T3 polished seeds was 4.4-fold higher than in non-transgenic seeds without any reduction in yield. When the first and fourth approaches were combined, the Fe concentration was greater than that achieved by introducing only the ferritin gene, and Fe-deficiency tolerance was observed. With respect to Fe biofortification, the introduction of multiple Fe homeostasis genes is more effective

  18. Iron biofortification of rice using different transgenic approaches.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Hiroshi; Aung, May Sann; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2013-12-19

    More than 2 billion people suffer from iron (Fe) deficiency, and developing crop cultivars with an increased concentration of micronutrients (biofortification) can address this problem. In this review, we describe seven transgenic approaches, and combinations thereof, that can be used to increase the concentration of Fe in rice seeds. The first approach is to enhance the Fe storage capacity of grains through expression of the Fe storage protein ferritin under the control of endosperm-specific promoters. Using this approach, the concentration of Fe in the seeds of transformants was increased by approximately 2-fold in polished seeds. The second approach is to enhance Fe translocation by overproducing the natural metal chelator nicotianamine; using this approach, the Fe concentration was increased by up to 3-fold in polished seeds. The third approach is to enhance Fe influx to the endosperm by expressing the Fe(II)-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2 under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter and sucrose transporter promoter, which increased the Fe concentration by up to 4-fold in polished seeds. The fourth approach is introduction of the barley mugineic acid synthesis gene IDS3 to enhance Fe uptake and translocation within plants, which resulted in a 1.4-fold increase in the Fe concentration in polished seeds during field cultivation. In addition to the above approaches, Fe-biofortified rice was produced using a combination of the first, second, and third approaches. The Fe concentration in greenhouse-grown T2 polished seeds was 6-fold higher and that in paddy field-grown T3 polished seeds was 4.4-fold higher than in non-transgenic seeds without any reduction in yield. When the first and fourth approaches were combined, the Fe concentration was greater than that achieved by introducing only the ferritin gene, and Fe-deficiency tolerance was observed. With respect to Fe biofortification, the introduction of multiple Fe homeostasis genes is more effective

  19. Mycotoxin production on rice, pulses and oilseeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Fouzia; Samajpati, N.

    Mycotoxin-producing fungi were isolated from contaminated grains of rice, pulses and oilseeds sold in the local markets of Calcutta for human consumption. It was found that aflatoxin B1 was produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, aflatoxin G1 by A. flavus, ochratoxin by Aspergillus ochraceous, sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus japonicus and citrinin by Penicillium citrinum. Aflatoxin B1 (333-10416μg/kg) was produced by Aspergillus spp. in rice, pulses and oilseeds.

  20. Stimulation by Hyphopichia burtonii and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in irradiated maize and rice grains

    SciTech Connect

    Cuero, R.G.; Smith, J.E.; Lacey, J.

    1987-05-01

    Aspergillus flavus was grown on maize and rice extract agars and on irradiated viable cracked maize and rice grains, either in pure culture or in dual culture with wild strains of either Hyphopichia burtonii or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Aflatoxin production by A. flavus and its growth and interactions with the other microorganisms were studied at three water activities (a/sub w/) (0.98, 0.95, and 0.90) and two temperatures (25 and 16/sup 0/C). Both H. burtonii and B. amyloliquefaciens markedly stimulated growth and aflotoxin production by A. flavus on cracked maize, especially at 25/sup 0/C and 0.95 and 0.98 a/sub w/. No aflatoxin was detected in pure cultures of A. flavus on cracked rice after 12 days of incubation at 25/sup 0/C, but some was produced by mixed cultures at 16/sup 0/C and 0.98 a/sub w/. The morphological interactions among A. flavus, H. burtonii, and B. amyloliquefaciens were also examined on maize and rice extract agars under similar controlled conditions.

  1. Foliar uptake of radiocaesium from irrigation water by paddy rice (Oryza sativa): an overlooked pathway in contaminated environments.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Shinichiro; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve; Hees, May Van; Wannijn, Jean; Smolders, Erik

    2017-04-01

    Flooded (paddy) rice (Oryza sativa) can take up ions from the irrigation water by foliar uptake via the exposed stem base. We hypothesised that the stem base uptake of radiocaesium (RCs) is a pathway for rice grown in RCs-contaminated environments. We developed a bi-compartmental device which discriminates the stem base from root RCs uptake from solutions, thereby using RCs isotopes ((137) Cs and (134) Cs) with < 2% solution leak between the compartments. Radiocaesium uptake was linear over time (0-24 h). Radiocaesium uptake to the entire plant, expressed per dry weight of the exposed parts, was sixfold higher for the roots than for the exposed stem base. At equal RCs concentrations in both compartments, the exposed stem base and root uptake contributed almost equally to the total shoot RCs concentrations. Reducing potassium supply to the roots not only increased the root RCs uptake but also increased RCs uptake by the stem base. This study was the first to experimentally demonstrate active and internally regulated RCs uptake by the stem base of rice. Scenario calculations for the Fukushima-affected area predict that RCs in irrigation water could be an important source of RCs in rice as indirectly suggested from field data.

  2. Effect of lambda cyhalothrin on Calothrix sp. (GUEco 1001), an autochthonous cyanobacterium of rice fields of Brahmaputra floodplain.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kiran; Baruah, P P

    2015-12-01

    Pesticide contamination in the rice fields has manifested into a serious global environmental concern. Application of pesticides in the rice fields has deleterious effects on non-target organisms including nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria which help to maintain the rice field fertility. In the present research endeavor, the effect of lambda cyhalothrin (5% EC), a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, has been studied on the growth and pigments content of Calothrix sp. (GUEco 1001), an indigenous strain isolated from rice grown areas of Brahmaputra floodplain. To study the toxic effect of lambda cyhalothrin, the test organism was exposed to varying concentrations of the insecticide i.e., 20 ppm, 40 ppm, 80 ppm, and 160 ppm based upon the determination of LC50 for a period of 20 days. The result obtained in the laboratory showed a progressive decrease in the growth and pigments content by the test organism with increasing concentrations of the lambda cyhalothrin against time dose-dependent manner. At high dose (160 ppm), the test organism showed significant decrease in dry weight biomass (54.5%), chlorophyll-a (68%), carotenoids (38%), phycocyanin (80%), and nitrogen contents (55%) over the control. A little but insignificant stimulatory effect on growth and chlorophyll-a contents was recorded in 20 ppm treatment of the insecticide that, however, was reversed in case of carotenoids and phycocyanin contents.

  3. Response of rice genotype to straighthead disease as influenced by arsenic level and water management practices in soil.

    PubMed

    Hua, Bin; Yan, Wengui; Yang, John

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) uptake by rice plants and the straighthead disease induced by As-based herbicide are of environmental concerns. Bioavailability or mobility of inorganic As in soil has been reported to be significantly influenced by soil minerals such as iron (hydr) oxide; however, the interactions of organic As such as monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) with soil minerals are little studied, thus largely unknown. In an effort to minimize the As uptake by rice and determine rice cultivar response to soil MSMA level, a field experiment was conducted on three rice cultivars grown in both MSMA-treated and -untreated soils under continuous or intermittent flood water management practices. Results indicated that the grain yield and the occurrence of straighthead disease were cultivar-dependent and influenced by soil As level and water management practices. Straighthead-resistant cultivars yielded more and had lower grain As than the susceptible ones. Elevated soil As with continuous flood management significantly reduced the grain yield of susceptible cultivars by >89% due to substantially increased straighthead, which were induced by increased As content in grains. Yield reduction by MSMA treatment could be partially mitigated with intermittent flood water practice. The As accumulation was found to be associated with soil iron redox transformation influenced by the water management. This study demonstrates that the selection of less As-susceptible cultivars and intermittent flood water practice could be effective means to lower the As accumulation in grains and minimize the occurrence of the As-induced straighthead symptom and yield reduction.

  4. Odor-active compounds in cooked rice cultivars from Camargue (France) analyzed by GC-O and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Maraval, Isabelle; Mestres, Christian; Pernin, Karine; Ribeyre, Fabienne; Boulanger, Renaud; Guichard, Elisabeth; Gunata, Ziya

    2008-07-09

    Volatile compounds of cooked rice from scented (Aychade, Fidji) and nonscented (Ruille) cultivars grown in the Camargue area in France were compared to that of a marketed Asian scented one (Thai) by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-O analyses of the organic extracts resulted in the perception of 40 odorous compounds. Only two compounds, oct-1-en-3-one and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, were almost always perceived. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that most of the difference between rice odors was linked to quantitative differences with only 11 compounds being specific to some of the rice. Sixty compounds were identified and quantified by GC-MS, including a few new odor-active components. Principal component analysis enabled us to differentiate scented cultivars from a nonscented one, and scented rice cultivars from Camargue from a Thai sample. Calculated odor-active values evidenced that the Thai sample odor differed from that of scented Camargue cultivars because of the degradation of lipids and of cinnamic acid compounds.

  5. Production of Aflatoxin on Rice

    PubMed Central

    Shotwell, Odette L.; Hesseltine, C. W.; Stubblefield, R. D.; Sorenson, W. G.

    1966-01-01

    A method has been developed for the production of aflatoxin by growing Aspergillus flavus strain NRRL 2999 on the solid substrate rice. Optimal yields, more than 1 mg of aflatoxin B1 per g of starting material, were obtained in 5 days at 28 C. A crude product containing aflatoxins was isolated by chloroform extraction and precipitation with hexane from concentrated solutions. The crude product consisted of 50% aflatoxin in the following ratio: B1-B2-G1-G2, 100:0.15:0.22:0.02. Aflatoxin B1 was separated from almost all the impurities and from the other aflatoxins by chromatography on silica gel with 1% ethyl alcohol in chloroform. Analytically pure aflatoxin B1 was recrystallized from chloroform-hexane mixtures. Images Fig. 1 PMID:5970829

  6. Stability of Detached Grown Germanium Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Vujisic, L.; Szofran, F. R.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Detachment of the melt meniscus from the crucible during semiconductor Bridgman growth experiments has been observed in recent years, especially under microgravity experiments. Under earth conditions, the hydrostatic pressure counteracts the mechanism, whereby it is more difficult to achieve detached Bridgman growth. Attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions have been discussed in the literature and have been the subject of recent experiments in our own group. The advantage of crystals grown without wall contact is obvious: In general, they possess a higher crystal quality than conventional Bridgman grown crystals with wall contact. However, due to the interaction of different parameters such as the wetting behavior of the melt with the crucible, and the dependence of the growth angle with the shape of the melt meniscus, the mechanism leading to detachment is very complicated and not completely understood. We have grown several doped and undoped Germanium crystals with the detached Bridgman and the normal Bridgman growth technique. Pyrolytic boron nitride containers were used for all growth experiments. In the detached grown crystals the typical gap thickness between the pBN crucible and the crystal is in the range of 10 to 100 micrometers, which was determined by performing profilometer measurements. Etch pit density measurements were also performed and a comparison between detached and attached grown crystals will be given. An interesting feature was detected on the surface of a detached grown crystal. Strong surface striations with an average axial distance of 0.5 mm were observed around the whole circumference. The maximum fluctuation of the gap thickness is in the range of 5-10 micrometers. These variations of the detached gap along the crystal axis can be explained by a kind of stiction of the melt/crucible interface and thus by a variation of the meniscus shape. This phenomenon leading to the fluctuation of the gap thickness will be

  7. Stability of Detached Grown Germanium Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Motakef, S.; Szofran, F. R.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Detachment of the melt meniscus from the crucible during semiconductor Bridgman growth experiments has been observed in recent years especially, under microgravity experiments. Under earth conditions, the hydrostatic pressure counteracts the mechanism, whereby it is more difficult to achieve detached Bridgman growth. Attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions have been discussed in the literature and have been the subject of recent experiments in our own group. The advantage of crystals grown without wall contact is obvious: In general, they possess a higher crystal quality than conventional Bridgman grown crystals with wall contact. However, due to the interaction of different parameters such as the wetting behavior of the melt with the crucible, and the dependence of the growth angle with the shape of the melt meniscus, the mechanism leading to detachment is very complicated and not completely understood. We have grown several doped and undoped Germanium crystals with the detached Bridgman and the normal Bridgman growth technique. Pyrolytic boron nitride containers were used for all growth experiments. In the detached grown crystals the typical gap thickness between the pBN crucible and the crystal is in the range of 10 to 100 microns, which was determined by performing profilometer measurements. Etch pit density measurements were also performed and a comparison between detached and attached grown crystals will be given. An interesting feature was detected on the surface of a detached grown crystal. Strong surface striations with an average axial distance of 0.5mm were observed around the whole circumference. The maximum fluctuation of the gap thickness is in the range of 5-10 microns. These variations of the detached gap along the crystal axis can be explained by a kind of stiction of the melt/crucible interface and thus by a variation of the meniscus shape. This phenomenon leading to the fluctuation of the gap thickness will be

  8. Ion implanted epitaxially grown ZnSe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The epitaxial growth of ZnSe on (100) Ge using the close-spaced transport process is described. Substrate temperature of 575 C and source temperatures of 675 C yield 10 micron, single crystal layers in 10 hours. The Ge substrates provides a nonreplenishable chemical transport agent and the epitaxial layer thickness is limited to approximately 10 microns. Grown epitaxial layers show excellent photoluminescence structure at 77 K. Grown layers exhibit high resistivity, and annealing in Zn vapor at 575 C reduces the resistivity to 10-100 ohms-cm. Zinc vapor annealing quenches the visible photoluminescence.

  9. Characterization of rice blast resistance gene Pi61(t) in rice germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of resistance (R) genes to races of Magnaporthe oryzae in rice germplasm is essential for the development of rice cultivars with long lasting blast resistance. In the present study, one major quantitative trait locus, qPi93-3, was fine mapped using a recombinant inbred line (RIL), F8 ...

  10. Identification of broad spectrum rice blast resistance genes with IRRI Rice monogenic lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease, caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, is the most destructive rice disease worldwide. This disease is managed with a combination of the use of resistant cultivars, application of fungicides, and improved cultural practices. Among them, the use of resistant cultivars is the mos...

  11. Genomic dissection of small RNAs in wild rice (Oryza rufipogon): lessons for rice domestication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Yan, Chenghai; Gui, Yiejie; Wei, Xinghua; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Guo, Longbiao; Fan, Longjiang

    2012-11-01

    The lack of a MIRNA set and genome sequence of wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) has prevented us from determining the role of MIRNA genes in rice domestication. In this study, a genome, three small RNA populations and a degradome of O. rufipogon were sequenced by Illumina platform and the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) were investigated by miRNA chips. A de novo O. rufipogon genome was assembled using c. 55× coverage of raw sequencing data and a total of 387 MIRNAs were identified in the O. rufipogon genome based on c. 5.2 million unique small RNA reads from three different tissues of O. rufipogon. Of these, O. rufipogon MIRNAs, 259 were not found in the cultivated rice, suggesting a loss of these MIRNAs in the cultivated rice. We also found that 48 MIRNAs were novel in the cultivated rice, suggesting that they were potential targets of domestication selection. Some miRNAs showed significant expression differences between wild and cultivated rice, suggesting that expression of miRNA could also be a target of domestication, as demonstrated for the miR164 family. Our results illustrated that MIRNA genes, like protein-coding genes, might have been significantly shaped during rice domestication and could be one of the driving forces that contributed to rice domestication.

  12. Simultaneous rough rice drying and rice bran stabilization using infrared radiation heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to develop a new rice drying method by using IR heating followed by tempering. Freshly harvested medium grain rice (M206) samples with different initial moisture contents (IMCs) were used in this study. The samples were dried for one- and two-passes by using a catalyt...

  13. Electrophysiological responses of the rice leaffolder, cnaphalocrocis medinalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae), to rice plant volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The electrophysiological activities of 38 synthetic volatiles that were known to be released from the rice plants (Poaceae: Oryza spp.) were studied using electroantennogram (EAG) recording technique on male and female antennae of the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: ...

  14. Feasibility of Simultaneous Rough Rice Drying and Disinfestations by Infrared Radiation Heating and Rice Milling Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the drying characteristics, milling quality and effectiveness of disinfestation of rough rice under conditions of infrared (IR) radiation heating. Freshly harvested medium grain rice (M202) samples with low (20.6%) and high (25.0%) moisture contents (M...

  15. Germinated brown rice as a value added rice product: A review.

    PubMed

    Patil, Swati Bhauso; Khan, Md Khalid

    2011-12-01

    Rice is a staple food for over half of the world's population. Germinated brown rice (GBR) is considered whole food because only the outermost layer i.e. the hull of the rice kernel is removed which causes least damage to its nutritional value. Brown rice can be soaked in water at 30 °C for specified hours for germination to get GBR. Soaking for 3 h and sprouting for 21 h has been found to be optimum for getting the highest gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in GBR, which is the main reason behind the popularity of GBR. The intake of GBR instead of white rice ameliorates the hyperglycemia, boosts the immune system, lowers blood pressure, inhibits development of cancer cells and assists the treatment of anxiety disorders. Germination process could be used as enzymatic modification of starch that affects pasting properties of GBR flour. GBR would improve the bread quality when substituted for wheat flour. It is concluded that GBR has potential to become innovative rice by preserving all nutrients in the rice grain for human consumption in order to create the highest value from rice.

  16. Current progress on genetic interactions of rice with rice blast and sheath blight fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of genetic interactions between rice and its pathogenic fungi Magnaporthe oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani should lead to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of host resistance, and the improvement of strategies to manage rice blast and sheath blight diseases. Presently dozens of ri...

  17. Development and characterization of a emulsions containing purple rice bran and brown rice oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aims of this study were to characterize purple rice bran oil (PRBO) as extracted from the bran, and to produce and characterize a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil. An emulsion was prepared using PRBO (10%), sodium caseinate (5%) and water (85%). The mixture was sonicated followed ...

  18. Head rice rate measurement based on concave point matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuan; Wu, Wei; Yang, Tianle; Liu, Tao; Chen, Wen; Chen, Chen; Li, Rui; Zhou, Tong; Sun, Chengming; Zhou, Yue; Li, Xinlu

    2017-01-01

    Head rice rate is an important factor affecting rice quality. In this study, an inflection point detection-based technology was applied to measure the head rice rate by combining a vibrator and a conveyor belt for bulk grain image acquisition. The edge center mode proportion method (ECMP) was applied for concave points matching in which concave matching and separation was performed with collaborative constraint conditions followed by rice length calculation with a minimum enclosing rectangle (MER) to identify the head rice. Finally, the head rice rate was calculated using the sum area of head rice to the overall coverage of rice. Results showed that bulk grain image acquisition can be realized with test equipment, and the accuracy rate of separation of both indica rice and japonica rice exceeded 95%. An increase in the number of rice did not significantly affect ECMP and MER. High accuracy can be ensured with MER to calculate head rice rate by narrowing down its relative error between real values less than 3%. The test results show that the method is reliable as a reference for head rice rate calculation studies.

  19. Head rice rate measurement based on concave point matching

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yuan; Wu, Wei; Yang, Tianle; Liu, Tao; Chen, Wen; Chen, Chen; Li, Rui; Zhou, Tong; Sun, Chengming; Zhou, Yue; Li, Xinlu

    2017-01-01

    Head rice rate is an important factor affecting rice quality. In this study, an inflection point detection-based technology was applied to measure the head rice rate by combining a vibrator and a conveyor belt for bulk grain image acquisition. The edge center mode proportion method (ECMP) was applied for concave points matching in which concave matching and separation was performed with collaborative constraint conditions followed by rice length calculation with a minimum enclosing rectangle (MER) to identify the head rice. Finally, the head rice rate was calculated using the sum area of head rice to the overall coverage of rice. Results showed that bulk grain image acquisition can be realized with test equipment, and the accuracy rate of separation of both indica rice and japonica rice exceeded 95%. An increase in the number of rice did not significantly affect ECMP and MER. High accuracy can be ensured with MER to calculate head rice rate by narrowing down its relative error between real values less than 3%. The test results show that the method is reliable as a reference for head rice rate calculation studies. PMID:28128315

  20. Expressing the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc increased flavonoid content in the seed of white pericarp rice and purple pericarp rice.

    PubMed

    Song, Y E; Wang, X; Shen, Z W; Xu, Y; Li, J Y

    2013-11-01

    The colour of red, purple, brown and white occurs in pericarp of rice. Here, the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc under control of the promoter of the rice glutelin gene Gt1 was introduced in the white pericarp rice "Chao2-10" and purple pericarp rice "Qingjiaozidao". The results demonstrated that some transgenic "Chao2-10" rice pericarps became brown, and the total flavonoid contents in the unpolished rice of the two transgenic rices increased significantly compared with their respective controls. Unpolished rice kernel thickness and weight in the two transgenic rices decreased slightly.

  1. Effect of temperature on Chinese rice wine brewing with high concentration presteamed whole sticky rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dengfeng; Zhang, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Weili; Hu, Jianhua; Xu, Baoguo; Lin, Chi-Chung; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23 °C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L) was obtained at 18 °C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33 °C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines.

  2. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Weili; Hu, Jianhua; Xu, Baoguo; Lin, Chi-Chung; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L) was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines. PMID:24672788

  3. Microscopic Aspects of Silicon-Mediated Rice Resistance to Leaf Scald.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Leonardo; Paschoalino, Rayane Silva; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of silicon (Si) on the potentiation of rice resistance against leaf scald at the microscopic level. Rice plants ('Primavera') were grown in a nutrient solution containing 0 (-Si) or 2 mM (+Si) Si. The foliar Si concentration of the +Si plants (3.6 dag/kg) increased in comparison with the -Si plants (0.3 dag/kg). An X-ray microanalysis revealed that the leaf tissue of +Si plants infected with Microdochium oryzae had higher peaks and deposition of insoluble Si than that of -Si plants. The high foliar Si concentration for the +Si plants reduced the expansion of leaf scald lesions. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that fungal hyphae and appressorium-like structures of M. oryzae were more abundant in the leaf surface of -Si plants relative to +Si plants. At both histopathological and ultrastructural levels, fungal hyphae grew abundantly into the leaf tissue of -Si plants. By contrast, rice cell walls were rarely degraded and fungal hyphae were often surrounded by amorphous granular material in the leaf tissue of +Si plants. Conidiophores emerged from stomata 36 h after fungal penetration, and conidia were noticed inside the leaf tissue of the -Si plants in great abundance. The collective results of the present study showed a high concentration and deposition of Si and a considerable deposition of phenolic-like compounds in the leaf tissue of +Si plants. These results indicate that the potentiation of the phenylpropanoid pathway in these plants supplied with Si was favorable for the increase in rice resistance to leaf scald.

  4. Cultivar variability of iron uptake mechanisms in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Margarida P; Santos, Carla; Gomes, Ana; Vasconcelos, Marta W

    2014-12-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the most important staple food in the world. It is rich in genetic diversity and can grow in a wide range of environments. Iron (Fe) deficiency is a major abiotic stress in crop production and in aerobic soils, where Fe forms insoluble complexes, and is not readily available for uptake. To cope with Fe deficiency, plants developed mechanisms for Fe uptake, and although rice was described as a Strategy II plant, recent evidence suggests that it is capable of utilizing mechanisms from both Strategies. The main objective of this work was to compare two cultivars, Bico Branco (japonica) and Nipponbare (tropical japonica), to understand if the regulation of Fe uptake mechanisms could be cultivar (cv.)dependent. Plants of both cultivars were grown under Fe-deficient and -sufficient conditions and physiological and molecular responses to Fe deficiency were evaluated. Bico Branco cv. developed more leaf chlorosis and was more susceptible to Fe deficiency, retaining more nutrients in roots, than Nipponbare cv., which translocated more nutrients to shoots. Nipponbare cv. presented higher levels of Fe reductase activity, which was significantly up-regulated by Fe deficiency, and had higher expression levels of the Strategy I-OsFRO2 gene in roots, while Bico Branco cv. induced more genes involved in Strategy II.These new findings show that rice cultivars have different responses to Fe deficiency and that the induction of Strategy I or II may be rice cultivar-dependent, although the utilization of the reduction mechanisms seems to be an ubiquitous advantage.

  5. Do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect cadmium uptake kinetics, subcellular distribution and chemical forms in rice?

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Luo, Na; Zhang, Li Jun; Zhao, Hai Ming; Li, Yan Wen; Cai, Quan Ying; Wong, Ming Hung; Mo, Ce Hui

    2016-11-15

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants were inoculated with two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) - Rhizophagus intraradices (RI) and Funneliformis mosseae (FM) and grown for 60days to ensure strong colonization. Subsequently, a short-term hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of AMF on cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics, subcellular distribution and chemical forms in rice exposed to six Cd levels (0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1mM) for three days. The results showed that the uptake kinetics of Cd fitted the Michaelis-Menten model well (R(2)>0.89). AMF significantly decreased the Cd concentrations both in shoots and roots in Cd solutions. Furthermore, the decrement of Cd concentrations by FM was significantly higher than RI treatment in roots. AMF reduced the Cd concentrations markedly in the cell wall fractions at high Cd substrate (≥0.025mM). The main subcellular fraction contributed to Cd detoxification was cell wall at low Cd substrate (<0.05mM), while vacuoles at high Cd substrate (≥0.05mM). Moreover, the concentrations and proportions of Cd in inorganic and water-soluble form also reduced by AMF colonization at high Cd substrate (≥0.05mM), both in shoots and roots. This suggested that AMF could convert Cd into inactive forms which were less toxic. Therefore, AMF could enhance rice resistance to Cd through altering subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd in rice.

  6. Fingerprint of Seasonal Relative humidity in Rice (Oryza sativa L.): Potential for Paleoclimate Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, R.; Ghosh, P.

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal variability of relative humidity (RH) condition during southwest monsoon (SWM) is strongly related with availability of moisture for rainfall over the continental region. There are ongoing efforts to reconstruct the past monsoonal condition based on geochemical and isotopic records as proxies [1]. However, limited archives have been successfully retrieved for reconstructing moisture condition during SWM [2]. Potential of plants as climate archives and the mechanism involved in transfer of climate signature to the stable isotope composition of oxygen (δ18O) has been demonstarted successfully [3]. Here we are introducing δ18O of rice grain bulk organic matter (δ18OOM) as a new proxy for precise determination of RH during SWM. Rice is a seasonal crop and widely cultivated over the Indian subcontinent during SWM. Here we present δ18OOM of rice grains collected from 15 locations from different climatic zones over the Indian subcontinent, ranging from semi-arid to humid-perhumid. These samples were collected from the harvest of the crop grown at the time of SWM for the period 2012-2014. Each of these climatic zones are characterized by unique range of RH values, which is expected to leave distinct oxygen isotopic signature in the rice grain OM. We compared the δ18OOM values with δ18O of precipitation water, RH and temperature during the period of cultivation. Precipitation δ18O values were obtained from were obtained from OPIC [4]. Our observations document a significant relationship between δ18OOM and RH (R2 =0.62, p<0.001). When the RH level fluctuated from 65% to 88%, δ18OOM tended to vary between 31.5 ‰ to 15.4‰. However, the humid regions with rainfed crop showed significant relationship between δ18OOM and precipitation δ18O. Remaining stations being fed by the both rain and irrigation from river/ groundwater, dampen the rainfall isotope signature in δ18OOM. This approach can be extended in deriving RH of regions of rice cultivation by

  7. Production of Beauveria bassiana Fungal Spores on Rice to Control the Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Posada-Flórez, Francisco J

    2008-01-01

    Two isolates of fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were grown on cooked rice using diphasic liquid-solid fermentation in plastic bags to produce and harvest spore powder. The cultures were dried and significant differences were found for isolates and time of harvest. The spores were harvested manually and mechanically and after the cultures were dried for nine days, when moisture content was near 10%. After harvesting, spores were submitted to quality control to assess concentration, germination, purity, moisture content, particle size and pathogenicity to the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Spore productivity on cooked rice was less than 1×1010 spores/g using both manually and mechanically harvesting methodologies. Germination at 24 hours was over 75% and pathogenicity against H. hampei was over 92.5%. This methodology is suitable for laboratory and field studies, but not for industrial production when a high concentration of spores are required for formulation and field applications.

  8. Cadmium accumulation retard activity of functional components of photo assimilation and growth of rice cultivars amended with vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Abin; Prasad, M N V

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) uptake mediated alterations in functional components of photo assimilation during conversion of cow dung and poultry cast to vermicompost were studied in two Indian rice cultivars; MO 16 and MTU 7029. It was found that higher amount of Cd accumulate in plants grown in soil amended with vermicompost which in turn damaged functional components in photo assimilation. Enhancement of root growth was recognized as reason for Cd accumulation. Metabolic alterations noticed among plants were not taken place during application of raw materials used for vermicomposting such as cow dung and poultry cast amendment. Rice varieties accumulated Cd differentially where MTU 7029 accumulated more Cd compare to MO 16. It was also noticed that existence of negative correlation between zinc status of the plant and Cd accumulation.

  9. Development of Ozone Technology Rice Storage Systems (OTRISS) for Quality Improvement of Rice Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur, M.; Kusdiyantini, E.; Wuryanti, W.; Winarni, T. A.; Widyanto, S. A.; Muharam, H.

    2015-06-01

    This research has been carried out by using ozone to address the rapidly declining quality of rice in storage. In the first year, research has focused on the rice storage with ozone technology for small capacity (e.g., household) and the medium capacity (e.g., dormitories, hospitals). Ozone was produced by an ozone generator with Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Ozone technology rice storage system (OTRISS) is using ozone charateristic which is a strong oxidizer. Ozone have a short endurance of existence and then decompose, as a result produce oxygen and radicals of oxygen. These characteristics could kill microorganisms and pests, reduce air humidity and enrich oxygen. All components used in SPBTO assembled using raw materials available in the big cities in Indonesia. Provider of high voltage (High Voltage Power Supply, 40-70 kV, 23 KH, AC) is one of components that have been assembled and tested. Ozone generator is assembled with 7 reactors of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Rice container that have been prepared for OTRISS have adjusted so can be integrated with generator, power supply and blower to blow air. OTRISS with a capacity of 75 kg and 100 kg have been made and tested. The ability of ozone to eliminate bacteria and fungi have been tested and resulted in a decrease of microorganisms at 3 log CFU/g. Testing in food chemistry showed that ozone treatment of rice had not changed the chemical content that still meet the standard of chemical content and nutritional applicable to ISO standard milled rice. The results of this study are very likely to be used as an alternative to rice storage systems in warehouse. Test and scale-up is being carried out in a mini warehouse whose condition is mimicked to rice in National Rice Storage of Indonesia (Bulog) to ensure quality. Next adaptations would be installed in the rice storage system in the Bulog.

  10. Relationship between disease resistance and rice oxalate oxidases in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian Yong; Nie, Zhuan Hua; Wang, Wen Juan; Leung, David W M; Xu, Da Gao; Chen, Bai Ling; Chen, Zhe; Zeng, Lie Xian; Liu, E E

    2013-01-01

    Differential expression of rice oxalate oxidase genes (OsOxO1-4) in rice leaves (Oryza sativa L.) in response to biotic stress was assayed using RT-PCR. OsOxO4 was induced transiently at 12 h in plants inoculated with the pathogens of bacterial blight and that of the wounding control. Inoculation with the rice blast pathogen induced OsOxO2 expression compared to the mock spray control. Overexpressing OsOxO1 or OsOxO4 in rice resulted in elevated transcript levels of the respective transgene as well as OsOxO3 in leaves compared to that in untransformed wild type (WT). In a line of RNA-i transgenic rice plants (i-12), expression of all four OsOxO genes except that of OsOxO2 was severely inhibited. Oxalate oxidase (OxO, EC 1.2.3.4) activity in plants overexpressing OsOxO1 or OsOxO4 was substantially higher than that in WT and the RNA-i lines. It was found that transgenic rice plants with substantially higher OxO activity were not more resistant to rice blast and bacterial blight than WT. In contrast, some RNA-i lines with less OxO activity seemed to be more resistant to rice blast while some overexpressing lines were more susceptible to rice blast than WT. Therefore, OxO might not be a disease resistance factor in rice.

  11. Integrated rice-duck farming mitigates the global warming potential in rice season.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guochun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Qiangsheng; Yu, Xichen; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-01-01

    Integrated rice-duck farming (IRDF), as a mode of ecological agriculture, is an important way to realize sustainable development of agriculture. A 2-year split-plot field experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of IRDF on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and its ecological mechanism in rice season. This experiment was conducted with two rice farming systems (FS) of IRDF and conventional farming (CF) under four paddy-upland rotation systems (PUR): rice-fallow (RF), annual straw incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWS), annual straw-based biogas residues incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWB), and rice-green manure (RGM). During the rice growing seasons, IRDF decreased the CH4 emission by 8.80-16.68%, while increased the N2O emission by 4.23-15.20%, when compared to CF. Given that CH4 emission contributed to 85.83-96.22% of global warming potential (GWP), the strong reduction in CH4 emission led to a significantly lower GWP of IRDF as compared to CF. The reason for this trend was because IRDF has significant effect on dissolved oxygen (DO) and soil redox potential (Eh), which were two pivotal factors for CH4 and N2O emissions in this study. The IRDF not only mitigates the GWP, but also increases the rice yield by 0.76-2.43% compared to CF. Moreover, compared to RWS system, RF, RWB and RGM systems significantly reduced CH4 emission by 50.17%, 44.89% and 39.51%, respectively, while increased N2O emission by 10.58%, 14.60% and 23.90%, respectively. And RWS system had the highest GWP. These findings suggest that mitigating GWP and improving rice yield could be simultaneously achieved by the IRDF, and employing suitable PUR would benefit for relieving greenhouse effect.

  12. HapRice, an SNP haplotype database and a web tool for rice.

    PubMed

    Yonemaru, Jun-ichi; Ebana, Kaworu; Yano, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis is a promising tool to examine the genetic diversity of rice populations and genetic traits of scientific and economic importance. Next-generation sequencing technology has accelerated the re-sequencing of diverse rice varieties and the discovery of genome-wide SNPs. Notably, validation of these SNPs by a high-throughput genotyping system, such as an SNP array, could provide a manageable and highly accurate SNP set. To enhance the potential utility of genome-wide SNPs for geneticists and breeders, analysis tools need to be developed. Here, we constructed an SNP haplotype database, which allows visualization of the allele frequency of all SNPs in the genome browser. We calculated the allele frequencies of 3,334 SNPs in 76 accessions from the world rice collection and 3,252 SNPs in 177 Japanese rice accessions; all these SNPs have been validated in our previous studies. The SNP haplotypes were defined by the allele frequency in each cultivar group (aus, indica, tropical japonica and temperate japonica) for the world rice accessions, and in non-irrigated and three irrigated groups (three variety registration periods) for Japanese rice accessions. We also developed web tools for finding polymorphic SNPs between any two rice accessions and for the primer design to develop cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers at any SNP. The 'HapRice' database and the web tools can be accessed at http://qtaro.abr.affrc.go.jp/index.html. In addition, we established a core SNP set consisting of 768 SNPs uniformly distributed in the rice genome; this set is of a practically appropriate size for use in rice genetic analysis.

  13. Grown-ups Ought To Know Better.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brightman, Samuel C.

    Among the articles by Sam Brightman collected in this volume from the newsletter, "Adult & Continuing Education Today (ACET)" are the following: "Grown-Ups Ought to Know Better"; "Adult Education: The Only Sure Factor Is Growth"; "Adult Education Important in This Election Year"; "Will Nursery School External Degree Programs Come Next?";…

  14. Efflux Of Nitrate From Hydroponically Grown Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. C.; Aslam, M.; Ward, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiments to measure influx, and efflux of nitrate from hydroponically grown wheat seedlings. Ratio between efflux and influx greater in darkness than in light; increased with concentration of nitrate in nutrient solution. On basis of experiments, authors suggest nutrient solution optimized at lowest possible concentration of nitrate.

  15. Luminescence from Erbium Oxide Grown on Silicon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    H9.14 Luminescence from erbium oxide grown on silicon E. Nogales’, B. Mrndez , J.Piqueras’, R.Plugaru2 , J. A. Garcfa3 and T. J. Tate4 ’ Universidad ... Complutense de Madrid, Dpto. Ffsica de Materiales, 28040 Madrid, Spain.2Inst. of Microtechnology, Bucharest, Romania.3Universidad del Pais Vasco, Dpto

  16. Molecule diagram from earth-grown crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Like many chemicals in the body, the three-dimensional structure of insulin is extremely complex. When grown on the ground, insulin crystals do not grow as large or as ordered as researchers desire--obscuring the blueprint of the insulin molecules.

  17. Effect of zinc sulfate fortification in germinated brown rice on seed zinc concentration, bioavailability, and seed germination.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanyan; Shohag, M J I; Wang, Yuyan; Lu, Lingli; Wu, Chunyong; Yang, Xiaoe

    2012-02-22

    Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world's population and, hence, the main source of a vital micronutrient, zinc (Zn). Unfortunately, the bioavailability of Zn from rice is very low not only due to low content but also due to the presence of some antinutrients such as phytic acid. We investigated the effect of germination and Zn fortification treatment on Zn bioavailability of brown rice from three widely grown cultivars using the Caco-2 cell model to find a suitable fortification level for producing germinated brown rice. The results of this study showed that Zn content in brown rice increased significantly (p < 0.05) as the external Zn concentrations increased from 25 to 250 mg/L. In contrast, no significant influence (p > 0.05) on germination percentage of rice was observed when the Zn supply was lower than 150 mg/L. Zn fortification during the germination process has a significant impact on the Zn content and finally Zn bioavailability. These findings may result from the lower molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn and higher Zn content in Zn fortified germinated brown rice, leading to more bioavailable Zn. Likewise, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was found among cultivars with respect to the capacity for Zn accumulation and Zn bioavailability; these results might be attributed to the difference in the molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn and the concentration of Zn among the cultivars evaluated. Based on global intake of Zn among the world population, we recommend germinated brown rice fortified with 100 mg/L ZnSO(4) as a suitable concentration to use in the germination process, which contains high Zn concentration and Zn bioavailability. In the current study, the cultivar Bing91185 fortified with Zn through the germination process contained a high amount as well as bioavailable Zn, which was identified as the most promising cultivar for further evaluation to determine its efficiency as an improved source of Zn for target populations.

  18. 'Red Yeast Rice' Statin Alternative Not Harmless Either, Study Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163221.html 'Red Yeast Rice' Statin Alternative Not Harmless Either, Study Says The ... A natural cholesterol-lowering supplement called red yeast rice could pose the same health risks to users ...

  19. Developing and delivering biofortified Rice to the consumer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofortified rice varieties include those that have been enhanced for protein, vitamins, minerals, or other nutritional compounds. Delivering biofortified rice varieties carries with it extra challenges as compared to conventional varieties. Nutritional compounds must be present at significantly hig...

  20. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that a dwarfing disease on different cereal crops in China is due to rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV).

    PubMed

    Bai, Feng-Wei; Yan, Jian; Qu, Zhi-cai; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Jia; Ye, Ming-Ming; Shen, Da-leng

    2002-10-01

    A viral disease with dwarfing symptoms is associated with severe damage of different cereal crops including rice, maize, wheat and sorghum grown in China. It is believed that the pathogenic agent of the disease on rice and sorghum is rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), however, the cause of maize dwarf disease in China is still inconclusive. In this report, dsRNA was isolated from virus particles obtained from the diseased plants of rice, maize, wheat and sorghum from two Chinese provinces. Full-length cDNAs of genome segments 9 (S9) and 10 (S 10) were obtained through a RT-PCR approach. Sequence analysis showed that the S9 sequences of Chinese isolates and Japanese RBSDV isolate were very similar to each other (89.1-89.6% identity at the nucleotide level, 92.3-92.9% and 95.8-98.6% identity at the amino acid level for ORF1 and ORF2, respectively). In addition, the S10 sequences of Chinese isolates and Japanese RBSDV were very similar to each other (93.0-95.4% identical nucleotides and 96.2-97.0% identical amino acids, respectively). However, there were lower similarities for S9 and S10 sequences between Chinese isolates and an Italian Maize Rough Dwarf Virus (MRDV) isolate. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Chinese viral isolates found to infect rice, maize, wheat and sorghum and leading to similar cereal dwarfing manifestations could be grouped to the same virus species, RBSDV.