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  1. Assault by burning in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Das, Kishore Kumar; Khondokar, M Sazzad; Quamruzzaman, M; Ahmed, Syed Shamsuddin; Peck, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Assault by burning in Dhaka, Bangladesh, occurs in a variety of forms, resulting from various causes and motives. A total of 311 cases of intentional burns from the Burn Unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2004 to May 2011 (6 years) were studied by retrospective and prospective observational review. The majority of victims (68%) were female. Concentrated sulphuric acid was the most commonly used chemical for attack. Disfigurement was the principal complication (mortality, 4%). Dowry-related issues, divorce and other marital quarrels were frequent backgrounds for assault by burning. Kerosene oil was used to ignite 78 girls or young women, most often related to conflicts over dowry (mortality 97%). A total of 102 victims (32%) in all burn groups were attacked because of dowry-related issues. Intentional contact burns were often inflicted on domestic servants. Although physical morbidity and mortality were not reported in contact and other types of burns, psychological disturbances were reported in all victims. A few victims had been assaulted prior to receiving burns, and fractures and deformities were also present on examination at the time of presentation for burn treatment. Ophthalmic injury, with frequent visual impairment, was very common in cases of chemical attack. Legal and social support for victims and their families are frequently inadequate to compensate for losses. Clearly, more attention in our community should be focussed on the prevention of burn assaults, adequate compensation and medical care for victims, as well as speedy retribution for perpetrators.

  2. Perceptions of Ayurvedic medicine by citizens in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Yoshida, Yasuko; Alim, Md Abdul

    2016-02-01

    Bangladesh is now facing the public health problems of deficiency of iron and iodine, especially for women. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of Bangladesh has implemented strong countermeasures to enhance the health condition of the nation. On the other hand, based on the concept of the Declaration of Alma-Ata, complementary and alternative medicine should be used more vigorously to enhance public health in the world. The usage of complementary and alternative medicine such as ayurvedic medicine (AM) should be increased in Bangladesh. Therefore we conducted the study on perceptions of AM by citizens in Dhaka, Bangladesh in order to promote and enhance the effective usage of AM, including herbal medicines as medical resources, from December 2010 to January 2011. This study showed younger citizens (61.1%) did not get more benefit from AM than elder citizens (48.0%). On the other hand, younger citizens (76.8%) did not get more harm from AM than elder citizens (70.1%). We think that in terms of effectiveness of AM, the younger generation in Dhaka seems to be more skeptical to AM than the elder generation in Dhaka, even though the younger generation are more satisfied with AM than the elder generation. With viewpoint of enhancement of usage of AM in Dhaka, we think that scientifically sound information on AM should be collected rigorously and brought to the citizens vigorously to remove the skeptical feeling of AM from younger citizen in Dhaka. In terms of the effective utilization of limited medical resources, AM should be used appropriately in Bangladesh, Asia and the world.

  3. Variability of annual daily maximum rainfall of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahammed, Faisal; Hewa, Guna Alankarage; Argue, John R.

    2014-02-01

    This paper deals with a study on rainfall characterises of Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh for the period of 1953 to 2009. Data were collected from Bangladesh Meteorological Department in January 2011 and found 2.84% missing data. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted on annual rainfall, annual daily and monthly maximum rainfall. We applied Gumbel distribution function to estimate return periods of extreme rainfall events and found that annual daily maximum rainfall equal or greater than 425 mm had a return period of 100 years. Normal distribution function was adopted to forecast rainfall variability due to global climate change and found that annual daily maximum rainfall equal or greater than 200 mm might occur in any 12 years during the period of 2010 to 2066. The outcomes of this paper can be used in better understanding rainfall patterns of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

  4. Multimedia lead exposure and associated risk assessment in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Sarwar, M.

    1998-12-31

    Motor vehicles consume the largest amount of leaded gasoline in Bangladesh. The number of vehicles and fuel consumption have increased significantly in recent years. These vehicles, which are believed to be the major sources of lead emissions in Dhaka, may cause an excessive level of lead exposure in children. The paper describes the results of a study conducted to determine risk associated with the multimedia lead exposure for children in Dhaka. Specifically, data related to lead content in air and soil in Dhaka were collected and used to estimate the blood lead levels in children. The Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetics Model, developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), was used. Bangladesh is yet to adopt any blood lead standards. The results of the study indicated that the model predicted geometric blood lead levels in children in Dhaka are significantly below the blood lead standard recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). It was also found that children in Dhaka are not expected to contain blood lead levels higher than the WHO recommended standard.

  5. Pollutant dispersion characteristics in Dhaka city, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Khandaker M. A.; Easa, Said M.

    2012-02-01

    Air pollution is a major environmental concern in major cities around the world. The major causes of air pollution include rapid industrialization/urbanization and increased non environment-friendly energy production. This paper analyses the atmospheric pollutant such as carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) dispersion characteristics of Dhaka city. The yearly and diurnal variations of pollutant concentration are described by taking into consideration of both meteorological and emission source parameters highlighting washout effect due to rainfall and inversion phenomena. Concentration of PM (both PM2.5 and PM10) and CO in the ambient air are measured for a period of one year with Airmetric Minivol air samplers and Gas Chromatographic (GC) technique, respectively. The trend over the year shows an increase in the monthly average hourly PM and CO concentrations in winter months (November to March) when both PM10 and PM2.5 annual average concentrations (about 130 and 95 μg m-3, respectively) exhibit levels exceeding World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines as well as exceed more than twice the national standards of annual PM10 (50 μg m-3) and PM2.5 (15 μg m-3) concentrations. Such high pollutant concentrations may have significant health implications for residents of Dhaka city. It is also found that the PM concentration increases with the increase of wind speed during dry winter season and is also influenced by transboundary air pollution. The data and subsequent recommendations can be useful in formulating air quality management strategies for the Dhaka city.

  6. Current state of traffic pollution in Bangladesh and metropolitan Dhaka

    SciTech Connect

    Karim, Masud; Matsui, Hiroshi; Ohno, Takashi; Hoque, S.

    1997-12-31

    Limited resources, invested for the development of transport facilities, such as infrastructure and vehicles, coupled with the rapid rise in transport demand, existence of a huge number of non-motorized vehicles on roads, lack of application of adequate and proper traffic management schemes are producing severe transport problems in almost all the urban areas of Bangladesh. Worsening situation of traffic congestion in the streets and sufferings of the inhabitants from vehicle emissions demand extensive research in this field. However, no detailed study concerning traffic congestion and pollution problems for urban areas of Bangladesh has yet been done. Therefore, it has become increasingly important to examine the present state of the problem. This research is a preliminary evaluation of the current situation of traffic pollution problem in Bangladesh. The daily total emissions of NO{sub x}, HC, CO, PM, and SO{sub x} are estimated using the daily fuel consumption and total traffic flows in Dhaka city. Estimated daily emissions are 42, 39, 314, 14, and 42 t/d for NO{sub x}, HC, CO, PM, and SO{sub x}, respectively. The emissions estimated using two different methods revealed good correlation. Daily average concentration of NO{sub x} (NO{sub 2}, NO) were measured at 30 street locations in Dhaka city during September and November, 1996. The results showed extremely high concentrations of NO{sub 2} and NO in these locations.

  7. Key issues in controlling air pollutants in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K.; Hopke, Philip K.

    2011-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) sampling for both coarse and fine fractions was conducted in a semi-residential site (AECD) in Dhaka from February 2005 to December 2006. The samples were analyzed for mass, black carbon (BC), and elemental compositions. The resulting data set were analyzed for sources by Positive Matrix Factorization (EPA-PMF). From previous studies, it is found that, the air quality became worse in the dry winter period compared to the rainy season because of higher particulate matter concentration in the ambient air. Therefore, seasonal source contributions were determined from seasonally segregated data using EPA-PMF modeling so that further policy interventions can be undertaken to improve air quality. From the source apportionment results, it is observed that vehicular emissions and emission from brick kiln are the major contributors to air pollution in Dhaka especially in the dry seasons, while contribution from emissions from metal smelters increases during rainy seasons. The Government of Bangladesh is considering different interventions to reduce the emissions from those sources by adopting conversion of diesel/petrol vehicles to CNG, increasing traffic speed in the city and by introducing green technologies for brick production. However, in order to reduce the transboundary effect it is necessary to take action regionally.

  8. An ongoing earthquake sequence near Dhaka, Bangladesh, from regional recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, M.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Kim, W.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes in and around the syntaxial region between the continent-continent collision of the Himalayan arc and oceanic subduction of the Sunda arc result primarily from the convergence of India and Eurasia-Sunda plates along two fronts. The northern front, the convergence of the Indian and Eurasian plates, has produced the Himalayas. The eastern front, the convergence of the Indian and Sunda plates, ranges from ocean-continent subduction at the Andaman Arc and Burma Arc, and transitions to continent-continent collision to the north at the Assam Syntaxis in northeast India. The India-Sunda convergence at the Burma Arc is extremely oblique. The boundary-normal convergence rate is ~17 mm/yr while the boundary-parallel rate is ~45 mm/yr including the well-known Sagaing strike-slip fault, which accommodates about half the shear component. This heterogeneous tectonic setting produces multiple earthquake sources that need to be considered when assessing seismic hazard and risk in this region. The largest earthquakes, just as in other subduction systems, are expected to be interplate events that occur on the low-angle megathrusts, such as the Mw 9.2 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the 1762 earthquake along the Arakan margin. These earthquakes are known to produce large damage over vast areas, but since they account for large fault motions they are relatively rare. The majority of current seismicity in the study area is intraplate. Most of the seismicity associated with the Burma Arc subduction system is in the down-going slab, including the shallow-dipping part below the megathrust flooring the accretionary wedge. The strike of the wedge is ~N-S and Dhaka lies at its outer limit. One particular source relevant to seismic risk in Dhaka is illuminated by a multi-year sequence of earthquakes in Bangladesh less than 100 km southeast of Dhaka. The population in Dhaka (now at least 15 million) has been increasing dramatically due to rapid urbanization. The vulnerability

  9. Delivery Practices of Traditional Birth Attendants in Dhaka Slums, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Fronczak, N.; Arifeen, S.E.; Moran, A.C.; Caulfield, L.E.; Baqui, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes associations among delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, and early postpartum morbidity in women in slum areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. During November 1993–May 1995, data on delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, delivery-related complications, and postpartum morbidity were collected through interviews with 1,506 women, 489 home-based birth attendants, and audits in 20 facilities where the women from this study gave birth. Associations among maternal characteristics, birth practices, delivery-location, and early postpartum morbidity were specifically explored. Self-reported postpartum morbidity was associated with maternal characteristics, delivery-related complications, and some birthing practices. Dais with more experience were more likely to use potentially-harmful birthing practices which increased the risk of postpartum morbidity among women with births at home. Postpartum morbidity did not differ by birth-location. Safe motherhood programmes must develop effective strategies to discourage potentially-harmful home-based delivery practices demonstrated to contribute to morbidity. PMID:18402192

  10. Cohesive subgroups and drug user networks in Dhaka City, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Gayen, Tarun Kanti; Gayen, Kaberi; Raeside, Robert; Elliott, Lawrie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to explore group drug taking behaviour in a slum area of Dhaka, Bangladesh. We set out to examine the relationships between those who met, at least weekly, to take illegal drugs together, and how these relationships might shape their drug behaviour. Sociometric and behavioural data were collected using questionnaires via semi-structured interviews. We found that the likelihood of injecting drugs and sharing needles increased with age, duration of group membership and length of drug use. Drug users were classified into two clusters: one was more cohesive and comprised longer-term users, who were more likely to inject drugs and had poorer physical and mental health. The other cluster comprised younger, better educated members who were more transient, less cohesive, less likely to inject drugs and had better health. Qualitative data suggested that members of the first cluster were less accepting of outsiders and confirmed more to group norms. We conclude that emotionally bonded cohesive subgroups acquire norms, which reinforce problematic drug-using behaviour. Thus, health initiatives need to consider group relationships and norms and those initiatives which work with networks may be more effective and more appropriate for low-income countries.

  11. Delivery practices of traditional birth attendants in Dhaka slums, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Fronczak, N; Arifeen, S E; Moran, A C; Caulfield, L E; Baqui, A H

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes associations among delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, and early postpartum morbidity in women in slum areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. During November 1993-May 1995, data on delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, delivery-related complications, and postpartum morbidity were collected through interviews with 1,506 women, 489 home-based birth attendants, and audits in 20 facilities where the women from this study gave birth. Associations among maternal characteristics, birth practices, delivery-location, and early postpartum morbidity were specifically explored. Self-reported postpartum morbidity was associated with maternal characteristics, delivery-related complications, and some birthing practices. Dais with more experience were more likely to use potentially-harmful birthing practices which increased the risk of postpartum morbidity among women with births at home. Postpartum morbidity did not differ by birth-location. Safe motherhood programmes must develop effective strategies to discourage potentially-harmful home-based delivery practices demonstrated to contribute to morbidity.

  12. Whether and where to Enrol? Choosing a Primary School in the Slums of Urban Dhaka, Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Slums account for around a third of the population of Dhaka, Bangladesh, and are thought to be growing rapidly. But there is little in the research literature about education of children who live in slums and it is doubtful whether they are covered in official statistics such as those on enrolment rates. This paper addresses this gap with…

  13. Treatment referral system for tuberculosis patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, S; Hirayama, T; Islam, A; Ishikawa, N; Afsana, K

    2015-12-21

    Objectif : Evaluer le système de référence dans les programmes de DOTS urbains dans la ville de Dhaka, Bangladesh, et sa banlieue et à identifier les opportunités de renforcer ce système.Schéma : Une étude rétrospective de cohorte a interviewé les patients ayant eu un diagnostic de TB et les prestataires de soins des centres de diagnostic et de traitement (DOTS). Les outils de recherche ont inclus des questionnaires structurés pré testés et de registres de référence de patients TB.Résultats : Un total de 4974 patients TB a été référé aux différents centres de traitement. Seulement 1756 (35%) des fiches de référence des homologues ont été retournées. Parmi eux, 250 patients ont été sélectionnés au hasard pour un entretien. Parmi eux, 165 patients sont allés dans les centres DOTS, 69 n'y sont pas allés et 16 n'ont pas pu être retrouvés. On a découvert des variations statistiquement significatives en matière de niveau d'instruction, de lieu de résidence et d'identification du centre DOTS après conseil (P < 0,05). Les personnes ayant un revenu mensuel plus faible (RR = 7,84 ; RR = 5,03), la distance par rapport au centre (RR = 36,21) et prenant leur traitement dans une pharmacie et divers autres lieux ont eu un risque plus élevé (RR = 3 ; RR = 28,48) de prendre un traitement irrégulier.Conclusion : Un bon nombre de patients référés ont été enregistrés et ont mis en route le traitement mais ne sont pas retournés au centre de traitement indiqué. Un conseil adapté et le fait de tenir compte des préférences du patient pendant la référence sont essentiels pour répondre aux contraintes d'accès, pour l'adhésion au traitement et pour un meilleur résultat du traitement.

  14. Seasonal Distribution and Climatic Correlates of Dengue Disease in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Morales, Ivonne; Salje, Henrik; Saha, Samir; Gurley, Emily S

    2016-06-01

    Dengue has been regularly reported in Dhaka, Bangladesh, since a large outbreak in 2000. However, to date, we have limited information on the seasonal distribution of dengue disease and how case distribution correlates with climate. Here, we analyzed dengue cases detected at a private diagnostic facility in Dhaka during 2010-2014. We calculated Pearson cross-correlation coefficients to examine the relationship between the timing of cases and both rainfall and temperature. There were 2,334 cases diagnosed during the study period with 76% over the age of 15 years. Cases were reported in every month of the study; however, 90% of cases occurred between June and November. Increases in rainfall were correlated with increases in cases 2 months later (correlation of 0.7). The large proportion of adult cases is consistent with substantial population susceptibility and suggests Dhaka remains at risk for outbreaks. Although cases occurred year-round, public health preparedness should be focused during peak months.

  15. Trends in atmospheric particulate matter in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and the vicinity.

    PubMed

    Rana, Md Masud; Sulaiman, Norela; Sivertsen, Bjarne; Khan, Md Firoz; Nasreen, Sabera

    2016-09-01

    Dhaka and its neighboring areas suffer from severe air pollution, especially during dry season (November-April). We investigated temporal and directional variations in particulate matter (PM) concentrations in Dhaka, Gazipur, and Narayanganj from October 2012 to March 2015 to understand different aspects of PM concentrations and possible sources of high pollution in this region. Ninety-six-hour backward trajectories for the whole dry season were also computed to investigate incursion of long-range pollution into this area. We found yearly PM10 concentrations in this area about three times and yearly PM2.5 concentrations about six times greater than the national standards of Bangladesh. Dhaka and its vicinity experienced several air pollution episodes in dry season when PM2.5 concentrations were 8-13 times greater than the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value. Higher pollution and great contribution of PM2.5 most of the time were associated with the north-westerly wind. Winter (November to January) was found as the most polluted season in this area, when average PM10 concentrations in Dhaka, Gazipur, and Narayanganj were 257.1, 240.3, and 327.4 μg m(-3), respectively. Pollution levels during wet season (May-October) were, although found legitimate as per the national standards of Bangladesh, exceeded WHO guideline value in 50 % of the days of that season. Trans-boundary source identifications using concentration-weighted trajectory method revealed that the sources in the eastern Indian region bordering Bangladesh, in the north-eastern Indian region bordering Nepal and in Nepal and its neighboring areas had high probability of contributing to the PM pollutions at Gazipur station.

  16. ANTIGENIC AND GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF INFLUENZA B VIRUSES IN 2012 FROM SLUMS, DHAKA, BANGLADESH.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Sultana, Nazneen; Ahmed, Firoz; Rahman, M Majibur; Rahman, Sabita Rezwana

    2015-07-01

    Nasal and throat swab samples were collected from 400 subjects with influenza-like illness during June to September, 2012 from two heavily crowded slums, Rayerbazar and Hazaribagh, situated southeast of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Forty-one samples were positive for influenza B virus using quantitative RT-PCR, but no influenza A virus was detected. Antigenic characterization revealed that the influenza B viruses were of Yamagata and Victoria lineages, which was confirmed from genetic analysis of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes. Co-circulation of influenza B viruses of both Yamagata and Victoria lineages in the slums of Dhaka indicates that introduction of a tetravalent vaccine formulation that includes both of these influenza B virus lineages would be more effective in this population.

  17. Migration, health, and socioenvironmental safety net among children of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Molla, Neelima Afroz; Ali, Ghaffar; Mollah, Kabirul Ahsan; Wongwit, Waranya; Shipin, Oleg; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Nur, Husna Parvin

    2016-10-31

    This study quantifies the diarrhea burden among migrant children under age 5 (who have migrated due to environmental degradation) in Dhaka. We used a multifactor socioepidemiological as well as environmental approach with pretested questionnaires and observations. It was found that 52% of the children were affected by diarrhea. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost was reduced manifold with the increase of mothers' behavioral determinants. Health losses were 1,718 fold with significant coefficient (β) in the migrant group. DALYs lost were significantly associated with socioenvironmental factors such as mother's illiteracy (β = .18; p < .001), no hand wash before eating (β = .08; p = .004), and no hand wash after defecation (β = .10; p < .001). This puts emphasis clearly on the awareness at household level, especially of mothers and children under age 5 in Dhaka, Bangladesh, in formulating migration-related policies.

  18. Willingness to pay for waste management improvement in Dhaka city, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Rafia; Hanaki, Keisuke; Hasegawa-Kurisu, Kiyo

    2009-01-01

    We employed the contingent valuation method to estimate the willingness to pay of the respondents to improve the waste collection system in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Our objective was to estimate how WTP differs between respondents who received or did not receive door to door waste collection. The methodology consisted of asking people directly about their willingness to pay an additional waste collection service charge to cover the costs of a new waste management project. The mean value of WTP for areas that received waste collection service areas was higher than for residents of areas that did not but the difference was not statistically significant. The aggregate value of WTP of the respondents in Dhaka city was 7.6 million Taka (USD0.1 million).

  19. Groundwater Depletion in Dhaka City, Bangladesh: A Spatio-temporal Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerin, T.; Ishtiaque, A.

    2015-12-01

    Dhaka city, having a population of more than fifteen million, exclusively depends on groundwater as a source of quality drinking water. In recent decades the city is encountering groundwater diminution and the declining scenario is dissimilar in different parts of the city. This paper aims to discuss the groundwater depletion in different parts of Dhaka city from 1990 to 2012 along with the causes and consequences. Groundwater level data of different locations of Dhaka city were collected from Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB). The data were processed and analyzed using SPSS and Excel Worksheet; a contour map was generated using ArcGIS 10.0 to outline the contemporary groundwater scenario of Dhaka city and the spatial analyst tool, Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) was used to prepare the map. In addition, experts' opinions were collected using an in-depth interview strategy in order to provide a better understanding of the causes and consequences of groundwater depletion. The research results show that groundwater in Dhaka city is depleting at an alarming rate; the central part has the worst situation followed by the south-western part. In contrast, northern part has relatively better groundwater condition. Moreover, the peripheral zone exhibits a better condition because of the existence of rivers and wetlands. The interviews reveal that population density and overexploitation are mainly responsible for groundwater depletion; however, various other factors such as the deliberate establishment of deep tube wells, reduction of recharge capacity due to rapid growth of urban structures altogether results in huge drop of water level throughout the city. Rapid decline in groundwater augments the city's exposure towards multiple risks including land subsidence, groundwater pollution and most importantly, paucity of available fresh water that might ultimately results into an urban disaster. Potential solutions to ameliorate this situation include urban greening

  20. Subsurface information for risk-sensitive urban spatial planning in Dhaka Metropolitan City, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Andreas; Aziz Patwary, Mohammad Abdul; Bahls, Rebecca; Asaduzzaman, Atm; Ludwig, Rüdiger; Ashraful Kamal, Mohammad; Nahar Faruqa, Nurun; Jabeen, Sarwat

    2016-04-01

    Dhaka Metropolitan City (including Dhaka and five adjacent municipal areas) is one of the fastest developing urban regions in the world. Densely build-up areas in the developed metropolitan area of Dhaka City are subject to extensive restructuring as common six- or lower storied buildings are replaced by higher and heavier constructions. Additional stories are built on existing houses, frequently exceeding the allowable bearing pressure on the subsoil as supported by the foundations. In turn, newly developing city areas are projected in marshy terrains modified by extensive, largely unengineered landfills. In most areas, these terrains bear unfavorable building ground conditions within 30 meters. Within a collaborative technical cooperation project between Bangladesh and Germany, BGR supports GSB in the provision of geo-information for the Capital Development Authority (RAJUK). For general urban planning, RAJUK successively develops a detailed area plan (DAP) at scale 1 : 50000 for the whole Dhaka Metropolitan City area (approx. 1700 km2). Geo-information have not been considered in the present DAP. Within the project, geospatial information in form of a geomorphic map, a digital terrain model and a 3-D subsurface model covering the whole city area have been generated at a scale of 1 : 50000. An extensive engineering geological data base consisting of more than 2200 borehole data with associated Standard Penetration Testing (SPT) and lab data has been compiled. With the field testing (SPT) and engineering geological lab data, the 3-D subsurface model can be parameterized to derive important spatial subsurface information for urban planning like bearing capacity evaluations for different foundation designs or soil liquefaction potential assessments for specific earthquake scenarios. In conjunction with inundation potential evaluations for different flooding scenarios, comprehensive building ground suitability information can be derived to support risk

  1. Introducing leaky-well concept for stormwater quantity control in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahammed, Faisal; Hewa, Guna Alankarage; Argue, John R.

    2013-03-01

    Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh with rapid and unplanned urbanization, is subjected to annual average rainfall of 2,076 mm. The intensity of rainfall during 10 years recurrence interval and 1 h duration of the city is 98 mm/h. The stormwater drainage systems of the city are often unable to manage peak runoff volume and hence urban flooding is common after medium to heavy rainfall events. A proposal to introduce leaky-wells using water sensitive urban design (WSUD) principles was investigated for Dhaka's drainage network to transfer the present unsatisfactory situation into one which is sustainable. The regime in balance strategy was considered to control the stormwater for 100 years recurrence interval. We applied scaling theory to 57 years (1953-2009) daily rainfall data for the estimation of sub-daily rainfall intensity values. It was found that two leaky-wells; each with depth H = 2.0 m and diameter D = 2.0 m, in 500 m2 allotment can improve the situation. The emptying (drain) time of the proposed device is around 1.25 days, which meets the standard criterion. Groundwater table, soil hydraulic conductivity and topographic slope of Dhaka also support for installations of leaky-wells.

  2. Access to and Exclusion from Primary Education in Slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Bangladesh's urban population is rising fast. In the capital, Dhaka, some 4 million people live in slums. They are lacking in wealth, power and social connections; probably under-counted in national surveys; and under-served by both government and non-government organisations, many of whom still see poverty as a rural issue or see the urban poor…

  3. Perception and attitude of medical doctors in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with regard to Ayurvedic medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Alim, Md. Abdul; Alam, Zakia; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Yoshida, Yasuko; Manikdrs, Shahabuddin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The World Health Organization (WHO) Traditional Medicine Strategy (2014–2023) aimed to help member states promote the safe and effective use of traditional medicine. While economic conditions have markedly improved in Bangladesh, the country is experiencing significant public health problems. Because of limited medical resources, there is a strong incentive to enhance complementary and alternative medicine usage in Bangladesh. Therefore, this study aimed to confirm the perceptions and attitudes of medical doctors (MDs) in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with regard to Ayurvedic medicine (AM). A total number of 159 MDs in Dhaka were interviewed by face-to-face between February and June 2015. The study revealed that 62.0% of MDs had treated patients with AM and 55.3% believed that AM should be regarded as its own specialty, whereas 39.7% of MDs believed that AM should be part of the conventional medical curriculum and 32.7% thought that AM did not seem scientific. In terms of gender, 45.3% of male MDs agreed or strongly agreed that AM only had a placebo effect. On the other hand, 65.8% of female MDs disagreed or strongly disagreed it. In terms of age, 77.0% of MDs aged 36 or elder (elder MDs) believed they were more likely to recommend AM use and 80.3% of elder MDs believed that the government should encourage more initiatives to promote AM. To enhance AM use, scientifically robust information on the efficacy, safety and scientific basis of AM should be more effectively conveyed to male MDs. PMID:28303062

  4. Perception and attitude of medical doctors in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with regard to Ayurvedic medicine.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Alim, Md Abdul; Alam, Zakia; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Yoshida, Yasuko; Manikdrs, Shahabuddin

    2017-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Traditional Medicine Strategy (2014-2023) aimed to help member states promote the safe and effective use of traditional medicine. While economic conditions have markedly improved in Bangladesh, the country is experiencing significant public health problems. Because of limited medical resources, there is a strong incentive to enhance complementary and alternative medicine usage in Bangladesh. Therefore, this study aimed to confirm the perceptions and attitudes of medical doctors (MDs) in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with regard to Ayurvedic medicine (AM). A total number of 159 MDs in Dhaka were interviewed by face-to-face between February and June 2015. The study revealed that 62.0% of MDs had treated patients with AM and 55.3% believed that AM should be regarded as its own specialty, whereas 39.7% of MDs believed that AM should be part of the conventional medical curriculum and 32.7% thought that AM did not seem scientific. In terms of gender, 45.3% of male MDs agreed or strongly agreed that AM only had a placebo effect. On the other hand, 65.8% of female MDs disagreed or strongly disagreed it. In terms of age, 77.0% of MDs aged 36 or elder (elder MDs) believed they were more likely to recommend AM use and 80.3% of elder MDs believed that the government should encourage more initiatives to promote AM. To enhance AM use, scientifically robust information on the efficacy, safety and scientific basis of AM should be more effectively conveyed to male MDs.

  5. Injecting drug users and their health seeking behavior: a cross-sectional study in dhaka, bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shariful Islam, Sheikh Mohammed; Biswas, Tuhin; Bhuiyan, Faiz Ahmed; Islam, Md Serajul; Rahman, Mohammad Mizanur; Nessa, Hurun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aim. Injecting drug users (IDUs) are amongst the most vulnerable people to acquisition of HIV/AIDS. This study aims to collect information on IDUs and their health seeking behavior in Bangladesh. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 IDUs attending a drug rehabilitation center in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were collected on sociodemographics, drug use, health seeking behavior, knowledge of injecting drugs, and sexual behavior. Results. The mean ± SD and median (IQR) age of the participants were 32.5 ± 21.3 and 33 (27-38) years, respectively, with only 9.2% females. Injection buprenorphine was the drug of choice for 40% of participants, and 58% of the participants first started drug use with smoking cannabis. 73.3% of participants shared needles sometimes and 57.5% were willing to use the needle exchange programs. 60% of the participants had no knowledge about the diseases spread by injection. Condom use during the last intercourse with regular partners was 11.7% and with any partners 15.8%. Conclusion. IDUs in Bangladesh are a high-risk group for HIV/AIDS due to lack of knowledge and risky behaviors. Education and interventions specifically aimed at IDUs are needed, because traditional education may not reach IDUs or influence their behavior.

  6. Injecting Drug Users and Their Health Seeking Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Tuhin; Bhuiyan, Faiz Ahmed; Islam, Md. Serajul; Rahman, Mohammad Mizanur; Nessa, Hurun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aim. Injecting drug users (IDUs) are amongst the most vulnerable people to acquisition of HIV/AIDS. This study aims to collect information on IDUs and their health seeking behavior in Bangladesh. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 IDUs attending a drug rehabilitation center in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were collected on sociodemographics, drug use, health seeking behavior, knowledge of injecting drugs, and sexual behavior. Results. The mean ± SD and median (IQR) age of the participants were 32.5 ± 21.3 and 33 (27–38) years, respectively, with only 9.2% females. Injection buprenorphine was the drug of choice for 40% of participants, and 58% of the participants first started drug use with smoking cannabis. 73.3% of participants shared needles sometimes and 57.5% were willing to use the needle exchange programs. 60% of the participants had no knowledge about the diseases spread by injection. Condom use during the last intercourse with regular partners was 11.7% and with any partners 15.8%. Conclusion. IDUs in Bangladesh are a high-risk group for HIV/AIDS due to lack of knowledge and risky behaviors. Education and interventions specifically aimed at IDUs are needed, because traditional education may not reach IDUs or influence their behavior. PMID:25692067

  7. Diarrheal epidemics in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during three consecutive floods: 1988, 1998, and 2004.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Brian S; Harris, Jason B; Khan, Ashraful I; Larocque, Regina C; Sack, David A; Malek, Mohammad A; Faruque, Abu S G; Qadri, Firdausi; Calderwood, Stephen B; Luby, Stephen P; Ryan, Edward T

    2006-06-01

    We examined demographic, microbiologic, and clinical data from patients presenting during 1988, 1998, and 2004 flood-associated diarrheal epidemics at a diarrhea treatment hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Compared with non-flood periods, individuals presenting during flood-associated epidemics were older, more severely dehydrated, and of lower socioeconomic status. During flood-associated epidemics, Vibrio cholerae was the most commonly identified cause of diarrhea, and the only diarrheal pathogen whose incidence proportionally increased in each epidemic compared with seasonally matched periods. Rotavirus was the second most frequently identified flood-associated pathogen, although the proportion of cases caused by rotavirus infection decreased during floods compared with matched periods. Other causes of diarrhea did not proportionally change, although more patients per day presented with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella species-associated diarrhea during floods compared with matched periods. Our findings suggest that cholera is the predominant cause of flood-associated diarrheal epidemics in Dhaka, but that other organisms spread by the fecal-oral route also contribute.

  8. Ruminants Contribute Fecal Contamination to the Urban Household Environment in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Harris, Angela R; Pickering, Amy J; Harris, Michael; Doza, Solaiman; Islam, M Sirajul; Unicomb, Leanne; Luby, Stephen; Davis, Jennifer; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2016-05-03

    In Dhaka, Bangladesh, the sensitivity and specificity of three human, three ruminant, and one avian source-associated QPCR microbial source tracking assays were evaluated using fecal samples collected on site. Ruminant-associated assays performed well, whereas the avian and human assays exhibited unacceptable cross-reactions with feces from other hosts. Subsequently, child hand rinses (n = 44) and floor sponge samples (n = 44) from low-income-households in Dhaka were assayed for fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci, Bacteroidales, and Escherichia coli) and a ruminant-associated bacterial target (BacR). Mean enterococci concentrations were of 100 most probable number (MPN)/2 hands and 1000 MPN/225 cm(2) floor. Mean concentrations of Bacteroidales were 10(6) copies/2 hands and 10(5) copies/225 cm(2) floor. E. coli were detected in a quarter of hand rinse and floor samples. BacR was detected in 18% of hand rinse and 27% of floor samples. Results suggest that effective household fecal management should account not only for human sources of contamination but also for animal sources. The poor performance of the human-associated assays in the study area calls into the question the feasibility of developing a human-associated marker in urban slum environments, where domestic animals are exposed to human feces that have been disposed in pits and open drains.

  9. Rotavirus infections and climate variability in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, M; Armstrong, B; Wagatsuma, Y; Faruque, A S G; Hayashi, T; Sack, D A

    2008-09-01

    Attempts to explain the clear seasonality of rotavirus infections have been made by relating disease incidence to climate factors; however, few studies have disentangled the effects of weather from other factors that might cause seasonality. We investigated the relationships between hospital visits for rotavirus diarrhoea and temperature, humidity and river level, in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using time-series analysis adjusting for other confounding seasonal factors. There was strong evidence for an increase in rotavirus diarrhoea at high temperatures, by 40.2% for each 1 degrees C increase above a threshold (29 degrees C). Relative humidity had a linear inverse relationship with the number of cases of rotavirus diarrhoea. River level, above a threshold (4.8 m), was associated with an increase in cases of rotavirus diarrhoea, by 5.5% per 10-cm river-level rise. Our findings provide evidence that factors associated with high temperature, low humidity and high river-level increase the incidence of rotavirus diarrhoea in Dhaka.

  10. Projecting the impact of climate change on dengue transmission in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Banu, Shahera; Hu, Wenbiao; Guo, Yuming; Hurst, Cameron; Tong, Shilu

    2014-02-01

    Weather variables, mainly temperature and humidity influence vectors, viruses, human biology, ecology and consequently the intensity and distribution of the vector-borne diseases. There is evidence that warmer temperature due to climate change will influence the dengue transmission. However, long term scenario-based projections are yet to be developed. Here, we assessed the impact of weather variability on dengue transmission in a megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh and projected the future dengue risk attributable to climate change. Our results show that weather variables particularly temperature and humidity were positively associated with dengue transmission. The effects of weather variables were observed at a lag of four months. We projected that assuming a temperature increase of 3.3°C without any adaptation measure and changes in socio-economic condition, there will be a projected increase of 16,030 dengue cases in Dhaka by the end of this century. This information might be helpful for the public health authorities to prepare for the likely increase of dengue due to climate change. The modelling framework used in this study may be applicable to dengue projection in other cities.

  11. Interaction of Mean Temperature and Daily Fluctuation Influences Dengue Incidence in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sharmin, Sifat; Glass, Kathryn; Viennet, Elvina; Harley, David

    2015-01-01

    Local weather influences the transmission of the dengue virus. Most studies analyzing the relationship between dengue and climate are based on relatively coarse aggregate measures such as mean temperature. Here, we include both mean temperature and daily fluctuations in temperature in modelling dengue transmission in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. We used a negative binomial generalized linear model, adjusted for rainfall, anomalies in sea surface temperature (an index for El Niño-Southern Oscillation), population density, the number of dengue cases in the previous month, and the long term temporal trend in dengue incidence. In addition to the significant associations of mean temperature and temperature fluctuation with dengue incidence, we found interaction of mean and temperature fluctuation significantly influences disease transmission at a lag of one month. High mean temperature with low fluctuation increases dengue incidence one month later. Besides temperature, dengue incidence was also influenced by sea surface temperature anomalies in the current and previous month, presumably as a consequence of concomitant anomalies in the annual rainfall cycle. Population density exerted a significant positive influence on dengue incidence indicating increasing risk of dengue in over-populated Dhaka. Understanding these complex relationships between climate, population, and dengue incidence will help inform outbreak prediction and control.

  12. Assessment of impact on health of children working in the garbage dumping site in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Lahiry, Gargy; Rahman, Tania; Hasan, A K M Mahbub; Dutta, Alak K; Arif, Md; Howlader, Zakir H

    2011-12-01

    Waste dumping is one of the major causes of environment pollution in Bangladesh. This study was designed to assess the impact on health of children working in one of the garbage dumping sites in Dhaka. Blood samples were collected from exposed (n = 20, aged: 8-15 years, exposed to dumped garbage from 6 months to 6 years) and control subjects (n = 15, age matched and never worked in the garbage dumping site). Oxidative stress markers like lipid hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyl content were measured. Alkaline comet assay was performed to assess the possible damage in DNA. To check the consequences of possible toxic exposure, we performed liver function tests of the study subjects. Oxidative stress-mediated damage of macromolecules was found to be significantly increased in the exposed children. Liver function tests were found normal. Thus, the children working in garbage dumping site are in severe health risk.

  13. Sexual and reproductive health behaviors of female sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Anadil; Sultana, Salima; Alam, Nazmul; Somrongthong, Ratana

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to document sexual and reproductive health (SRH) practices among female sex workers (FSWs) including abortion, pregnancy, use of maternal healthcare services and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with the aim of developing recommendations for action. Methods A total of 731 FSWs aged between 15 and 49 years were surveyed using a stratified sampling in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A workshop with 23 participants consisted of policy makers, researchers, program implementers was conducted to formulate recommendations. Results About 61.3% of 731 FSWs reported SRH-related experiences in the past one year, including abortion (15.5%), ongoing pregnancy (9.0%), childbirth (8.3%) or any symptoms of STIs (41.6%). Among FSWs who had an abortion (n = 113), the most common methods included menstrual regulation through manual vacuum aspiration (47.8%), followed by Dilation and Curettage procedure (31%) and oral medicine from pharmacies (35.4%). About 57.5% of 113 cases reported post abortion complications. Among FSWs with delivery in the past year (n = 61), 27.7% attended the recommended four or more antenatal care visits and more than half did not have any postnatal visit. Adopting sustainable and effective strategies to provide accessible and adequate SRH services for FSWs was prioritized by workshop participants. Conclusion There was substantial unmet need for SRH care among FSWs in urban areas in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Therefore, it is important to integrate SRH services for FSWs in the formal healthcare system or integration of abortion and maternal healthcare services within existing HIV prevention services. PMID:28369093

  14. Tracing recharge to aquifers beneath an Asian megacity with Cl/Br and stable isotopes: the example of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoque, M. A.; McArthur, J. M.; Sikdar, P. K.; Ball, J. D.; Molla, T. N.

    2014-06-01

    Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, is home to a population of 15 million people, whose water supply is 85% drawn from groundwater in aquifers that underlie the city. Values of Cl/Br >500 are common in groundwater beneath western Dhaka in areas <3 km from the river, and in rivers and sewers around and within the city. The study shows that groundwater beneath western Dhaka is strongly influenced by infiltration of effluent from leaking sewers and unsewered sanitation, and by river-bank infiltration from the Turag-Buriganga river system which bounds the western limit of the city. River-bank infiltration from other rivers around Dhaka is minor. Values of Cl/Br and Cl concentrations reveal that 23 % of wells sampled in Dhaka are influenced by saline connate water in amounts up to 1%. This residual natural salinity compromises the use of electrical conductivity of groundwater as a method for defining pathways of recharge by contaminated surface waters. Concentrations of As, B, Ba, Cd, Cu, F, Ni, NO3, Pb, Sb, Se and U in groundwater samples are less than WHO health-based guideline values for drinking water.

  15. Water Quality vs. Sanitation Accessibility: What is the most effective intervention point for preventing cholera in Dhaka, Bangladesh?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, M. S.; Gute, D.; Faruque, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Every year, 3 to 5 million individuals contract cholera, an acute diarrheal infection that is caused by the ingestion of food or water containing the Vibrio cholerae bacterium. Because cholera is a waterborne disease, it can be transmitted quickly in environments with inadequate water and sanitation systems where infected waste can easily pollute drinking water. Today, Bangladesh continues to struggle with endemic cholera. Donor organizations address water and sanitation via localized initiatives, including the installation of community water collection sites (i.e. tubewells; water-boiling points; etc.). At this small-scale level, water quality and sanitation accessibility can be improved independently of one another, and when resources are limited, donors must invest in the most effective disease prevention options. This study used laboratory-confirmed cholera incidence data (2000-2009) collected by the International Centre of Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh at their on-site hospital to compare the efficacy of interventions addressing water quality versus sanitation accessibility in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data regarding use of sanitary latrines and boiling of drinking water were extracted from sequential patient interviews conducted at the Dhaka facility and used as surrogate variables for sanitation accessibility and water quality respectively. Our analysis indicates that boiling water is 10 times more effective at preventing cholera than the use of a sanitary latrine. This finding suggests that regulating water quality is perhaps more critical to cholera prevention than increasing sanitation accessibility in an urban environment like that of Dhaka. At present, WaterAid - one of Bangladesh's most significant water and sanitation donor organizations - invests the majority of its budget on improving sanitation accessibility. The World Health Organization and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals also prioritize sanitation accessibility. However, in

  16. Impacts of policy and market incentives for solid waste recycling in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Matter, Anne; Ahsan, Mehedi; Marbach, Michelle; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Solid waste mismanagement in Dhaka, Bangladesh, illustrates a well-known market failure which can be summarized as: waste is a resource in the wrong place. Inorganic materials such as plastic or paper can be used to feed the demand for recycled materials in the industrial sector. Organic materials can be converted and used in the nutrient-starved agricultural sector which is currently heavily depending on chemical fertilizers. They are also a feedstock to generate renewable energy in the form of biogas for this energy-starved country relying on diminishing natural gas reserves and increasing import of coal. Reality however does not capitalize on this potential; instead the waste is a burden for municipal authorities who spend large portions of their budgets attempting to transport it out of the city for discharge into landfills. The major part of these materials still remains uncollected in the residential areas and is discarded indiscriminately in open spaces, polluting the residents' living environment including water, soil and air resources, in the city and beyond. Bangladeshi authorities have, to some extent, recognized this market failure and have developed policies to encourage the development of waste recycling activities. It is also important to note that this market failure is only partial: a large, mostly informal recycling sector has developed in Bangladesh, focusing on inorganic recyclables of market value. The fact that this sector remains largely informal means that these actors perceive significant barriers to formalization. Comparatively, the organic waste recycling sector is less driven by market mechanisms. Competition from chemical fertilizers and fossil fuels is fierce and hinders the development of market opportunities for compost and renewable energy. Nevertheless commercial production of compost and biogas from organic municipal waste is formalized and benefiting from policy incentives.

  17. Patterns of Use and Perceptions of Harm of Smokeless Tobacco in Navi Mumbai, India and Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Mutti, Seema; Reid, Jessica L.; Gupta, Prakash C.; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Dhumal, Gauri; Nargis, Nigar; Hussain, AKM Ghulam; Hammond, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: Globally, smokeless tobacco use is disproportionately concentrated in low-income and middle-income countries like India and Bangladesh. Objectives: The current study examined comparative patterns of use and perceptions of harm for different smokeless tobacco products among adults and youth in Navi Mumbai, India, and Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: Face-to-face interviews were conducted on tablets with adult (19 years and older) smokeless tobacco users and youth (16–18 years) users and non-users in Navi Mumbai (n = 1002), and Dhaka (n = 1081). Results: A majority (88.9%) of smokeless tobacco users reported daily use. Approximately one-fifth (20.4%) of the sample were mixed-users (used both smoked and smokeless tobacco), of which about half (54.4%) reported that they primarily used smokeless over smoked forms like cigarettes or bidis. The proportion of users planning to quit was higher in India than in Bangladesh (75.7% vs. 49.8%, p < 0.001). Gutkha was the most commonly used smokeless product in India, and pan masala in Bangladesh. Among users in Bangladesh, the most commonly reported reason for using their usual product was the belief that it was “less harmful” than other types. Perceptions of harm also differed with respect to a respondent's usual product. Bangladeshi respondents reported more negative attitudes toward smokeless tobacco compared to Indian respondents. Conclusions: The findings highlight the high daily use of smokeless tobacco, and the high prevalence of false beliefs about its harms. This set of findings reinforces the need to implement effective tobacco control strategies in low and middle-income countries like India and Bangladesh. PMID:27890978

  18. Geo-information for sustainable urban development of Greater Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Andreas; Asaduzzaman, Atm; Bahls, Rebecca; Ludwig, Rüdiger; Ashraful Kamal, Mohammad; Nahar Faruqa, Nurun

    2015-04-01

    Greater Dhaka City (including Dhaka and five adjacent municipal areas) is one of the fastest developing urban regions in the world. Densely build-up areas in the developed metropolitan area of Dhaka City are subject to extensive restructuring as common six-storied buildings are replaced by higher and heavier constructions. Additional stories are built on existing houses, frequently exceeding the allowable bearing pressure on the subsoil as supported by the foundations. In turn, newly developing areas are projected in marshy areas modified by extensive, largely unengineered landfills. In many areas, these terrains bear unfavorable building ground conditions, and reliable geospatial information is a major prerequisite for risk-sensitive urban planning. Within a collaborative technical cooperation project between Bangladesh and Germany, BGR supports GSB in the provision of geo-information for the Capital Development authority (RAJUK). For general urban planning, RAJUK successively develops a detailed area plan (DAP) at scale 1 : 50000 for the whole Greater Dhaka City area. Geospatial information have not been considered in the present DAP. Within the project, GSB prepared a detailed geomorphologic map matching the DAP both in areal extent and scale. The geomorphological setting can be used as an important spatial proxy for the characterization of the subsurface since highly segmented, elevated terraces consisting of consolidated sandy Pliocene deposits overlain by stiff Plio-Pleistocene sediments are sharply bordered by low lying-areas. The floodplain and marsh areas are consisting of thick, mechanically weak Holocene fluvial sandy-silty sediments that are sometimes alternated by organic layers. A first expert-based engineering geological reclassification of the geomorphological map resulting in five building ground suitability classes is highly supported by the spatial analysis of extensive archive borehole information consisting of depth-continuous standard

  19. Urban flood problems in Dhaka, Bangladesh: slum residents' choices for relocation to flood-free areas.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Harun; Hunt, Len M; Haider, Wolfgang

    2007-07-01

    This article applies a stated preference choice model to assess trade-offs that residents of two squatter settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh might consider if they were given choices for relocation to flood-free areas. The respondents were asked to choose repeatedly from a set of choice cards, which displayed different configurations of financial incentives for relocation, such as free or inexpensive land, loans or nonrepayable grants, and provisions for temporary or permanent employment opportunities. The survey results indicated that despite extensive experience with flood problems, many residents of Mirpur and Vasantek found that certain configurations of economic incentives were not attractive enough for them to relocate to flood-free areas. At the same time, they would prefer a reduction in the risk of flooding at their current location. The economic incentives that would best assist in increasing voluntary relocation of residents from their current locations included free land, nonrepayable grants (Taka 20,000), and long-term employment opportunities. Further, differences in geographic location (i.e., Mirpur vs. Vasantek), income levels, and membership in neighborhood communities were linked with the tendency of residents to stay at their current location.

  20. Emerging changes in reproductive behaviour among married adolescent girls in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2006-05-01

    Structural and social inequalities, a harsh political economy and neglect on the part of the state have made married adolescent girls an extremely vulnerable group in the urban slum environment in Bangladesh. The importance placed on newly married girls' fertility results in high fertility rates and low rates of contraceptive use. Ethnographic fieldwork among married adolescent girls, aged 15-19, was carried out in a Dhaka slum from December 2001-January 2003, including 50 in-depth interviews and eight case studies from among 153 married adolescent girls, and observations and discussions with family and community members. Cultural and social expectations meant that 128 of the girls had borne children before they were emotionally or physically ready. Twenty-seven had terminated their pregnancies, of whom 11 reported they were forced to do so by family members. Poverty, economic conditions, marital insecurity, politics in the household, absence of dowry and rivalry among family, co-wives and in-laws made these young women acquiesce to decisions made by others in order to survive. Young married women's status is changing in urban slum conditions. When their economical productivity takes priority over their reproductive role, the effects on reproductive decision-making within families may be considerable. This paper highlights the vulnerability of young women as they pragmatically make choices within the social and structural constraints in their lives.

  1. Study on the flood simulation techniques for estimation of health risk in Dhaka city, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M.; Suetsugi, T.; Sunada, K.; ICRE

    2011-12-01

    Although some studies have been carried out on the spread of infectious disease with the flooding, the relation between flooding and the infectious expansion has not been clarified yet. The improvement of the calculation precision of inundation and its relation with the infectious disease, surveyed epidemiologically, are therefore investigated in a case study in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. The inundation was computed using a flood simulation model that is numerical 2D-model. The "sensitivity to inundation" of hydraulic factors such as drainage channel, dike, and the building occupied ratio was examined because of the lack of digital data set related to flood simulation. Each element in the flood simulation model was incorporated progressively and results were compared with the calculation result as inspection materials by the inundation classification from the existing study (Mollah et al., 2007). The results show that the influences by ''dyke'' and "drainage channel" factors are remarkable to water level near each facility. The inundation level and duration have influence on wide areas when "building occupied ratio" is also considered. The correlation between maximum inundation depth and health risk (DALY, Mortality, Morbidity) was found, but the validation of the inundation model for this case has not been performed yet. The flood simulation model needs to be validated by observed inundation depth. The drainage facilities such as sewer network or the pumping system will be also considered in the further research to improve the precision of the inundation model.

  2. Impact of tannery effluents on the aquatic environment of the Buriganga River in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Hasan, Imtiaj; Rajia, Sultana; Khan, Nazneen; Kabir, Kazi Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    This study presents an overview of the existence and effects of six heavy metals, chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), and aluminum (Al), in tannery effluents released to the Buriganga River in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The pollutants were found in three different sources, such as effluents from tanneries, contaminated river water and three species of fish-climbing perch (Anabas testudineus), spotted snakehead (Channa punctata), and Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) caught from the river. Tannery effluents, water, and fish samples were collected from three different factories, five sample stations, and three different harvesting points, respectively. Effluents from all three factories contained significant amounts of heavy metals, especially Cr (374.19 ppm in average), whereas lesser amounts were found in the tissues of the three fish species studied. The trends in tissue elemental concentrations of fish were Cr > Pb > Al > Hg > Mn > Cd. In most cases (Cr, Cd, Mn, and Al), heavy metal concentrations were found to be greater in climbing perch than in Black tilapia and spotted snakehead. Although the river water contained high concentrations of harmful heavy metals, the fish species under study had concentrations well below the permissible Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization levels for those metals and seemed to be safe for human consumption.

  3. Long term observation of surface O3 and its precursors in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikder, Helena Akhter; Nasiruddin, Mohammed; Suthawaree, Jeeranut; Kato, Shungo; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    2013-03-01

    Continuous ground-based measurements of O3 and its precursors were conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh during April 2002-December 2005 in order to investigate ozone precursor characteristics and their distribution. Seasonal and diurnal variations of the O3, CO, NOx and SO2 concentrations - are studied and their possible causes are identified. It is shown that most of the trace gases have peak concentrations in winter and base in monsoon period. Two major emission sources, vehicles and brick kilns, are attributed to the high levels of trace gases in winter. O3 formation was mainly due to local activity and relied on photochemical processes with precursors. The occurrence patterns and the shape of a distribution of trace gases are obtained from histogram distribution. In most cases, the frequency distributions of observed trace gases show a peak to the lower concentration ranges (e.g. 0-10 ppb for O3, 0-500 ppb for CO, 0-20 ppb for NO, NO2 and 0-10 ppb for SO2) with a long tail to the right and unimodal in most of the cases.CO, NOx and SO2 are significantly correlated throughout the entire data set, reflecting the overall influence of anthropogenic emissions.

  4. Socioeconomic and Ecological Factors Influencing Aedes aegypti Prevalence, Abundance, and Distribution in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Dhar-Chowdhury, Parnali; Haque, C Emdad; Lindsay, Robbin; Hossain, Shakhawat

    2016-06-01

    This study examined household risk factors and prevalence, abundance, and distribution of immature Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and their association with socioeconomic and ecological factors at urban zonal and household levels in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. During the 2011 monsoon, 826 households in 12 randomly selected administrative wards were surveyed for vector mosquitoes. Results revealed that the abundance and distribution of immature Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and pupae-per-person indices did not vary significantly among the zones with varied socioeconomic status. Of 35 different types of identified wet containers, 30 were infested, and among the 23 pupae-positive container types, nine were defined as the "most productive" for pupae including: disposable plastic containers (12.2% of 550), sealable plastic barrels (12.0%), tires (10.4%), abandoned plastic buckets (9.6%), flower tub and trays (8.5%), refrigerator trays (6.5%), plastic bottles (6.4%), clay pots (4.9%), and water tanks (1.6%). When the function of the containers was assessed, ornamental, discarded, and household repairing and reconstruction-related container categories were found significantly associated with the number of pupae in the households. The purpose of storing water and income variables were significant predictors of possession of containers that were infested by vector mosquitoes.

  5. Quality assessment of industrially processed fruit juices available in dhaka city, bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Tasnim, F; Anwar Hossain, M; Kamal Hossain, M; Lopa, D; Formuzul Haque, K M

    2010-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the nutritional and microbiological quality of industrially processed packed fruit juices of mango (Mangifera indica) and orange (Citrus sinensis) from nine different manufacturing companies in Dhaka City. The highest quantity of total sugar (17.62%) and reducing sugar (9.99%) was recorded in mango juices while the lowest in orange juices (10.41% and 2.24% respectively) of different companies. In this study, protein contents were comparatively higher in mango juices than in orange juices. The pH of all samples varied from 3.50±0.10 to 4.70±0.05. Vitamin C content was comparatively higher in mango juices. The levels of metals tested namely, arsenic, lead, copper and zinc in the juices were within the limits of Bangladesh Standard and Testing Institute (BSTI) for fruit juices. The microbiological qualities of all the products were within the limits of the Gulf standards (the recommended Microbiological Standards for any fruit juice sold in the Gulf Region). Based on the above results, it is suggested that processed juices be prepared under hygienic conditions.

  6. Trends in water level and flooding in Dhaka, Bangladesh and their impact on mortality.

    PubMed

    Thiele-Eich, Insa; Burkart, Katrin; Simmer, Clemens

    2015-01-22

    Climate change is expected to impact flooding in many highly populated coastal regions, including Dhaka (Bangladesh), which is currently among the fastest growing cities in the world. In the past, high mortality counts have been associated with extreme flood events. We first analyzed daily water levels of the past 100 years in order to detect potential shifts in extremes. A distributed lag non-linear model was then used to examine the connection between water levels and mortality. Results indicate that for the period of 2003-2007, which entails two major flood events in 2004 and 2007, high water levels do not lead to a significant increase in relative mortality, which indicates a good level of adaptation and capacity to cope with flooding. However, following low water levels, an increase in mortality could be found. As our trend analysis of past water levels shows that minimum water levels have decreased during the past 100 years, action should be taken to ensure that the exposed population is also well-adapted to drought.

  7. Socioeconomic and Ecological Factors Influencing Aedes aegypti Prevalence, Abundance, and Distribution in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Dhar-Chowdhury, Parnali; Haque, C. Emdad; Lindsay, Robbin; Hossain, Shakhawat

    2016-01-01

    This study examined household risk factors and prevalence, abundance, and distribution of immature Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and their association with socioeconomic and ecological factors at urban zonal and household levels in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. During the 2011 monsoon, 826 households in 12 randomly selected administrative wards were surveyed for vector mosquitoes. Results revealed that the abundance and distribution of immature Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and pupae-per-person indices did not vary significantly among the zones with varied socioeconomic status. Of 35 different types of identified wet containers, 30 were infested, and among the 23 pupae-positive container types, nine were defined as the “most productive” for pupae including: disposable plastic containers (12.2% of 550), sealable plastic barrels (12.0%), tires (10.4%), abandoned plastic buckets (9.6%), flower tub and trays (8.5%), refrigerator trays (6.5%), plastic bottles (6.4%), clay pots (4.9%), and water tanks (1.6%). When the function of the containers was assessed, ornamental, discarded, and household repairing and reconstruction-related container categories were found significantly associated with the number of pupae in the households. The purpose of storing water and income variables were significant predictors of possession of containers that were infested by vector mosquitoes. PMID:27022149

  8. Monitoring the Urban Growth of Dhaka (bangladesh) by Satellite Imagery in Flooding Risk Management Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitelli, G.; Franci, F.; Mandanici, E.

    2013-01-01

    There is large consensus that demographic changes, the lack of appropriate environmental policies and sprawling urbanization result in high vulnerability and exposure to the natural disasters. This work reports some experiences of using multispectral satellite imagery to produce landuse/cover maps for the Dhaka city, the capital of Bangladesh, which is subject to frequent flooding events.The activity was conducted in collaboration with the non-profit organization ITHACA (Information Technology for Humanitarian Assistance, Cooperation and Action). The Landsat images acquired in 2000, 2002 and 2009 were used to evaluate the urban growth in order to support risk assessment studies; to identify areas routinely flooded during the monsoon season, the image of October 2009 (the most critical month for the effects of rain) was compared with two images acquired in January and February 2010. The analysis between 2000 and 2009 was able to quantify a very rapid growth of the metropolis, with an increase in built-up areas from 75 to 111 km2. The analysis highlights also a sharp rise of Bare soil class, likely related to the construction of embankments for the creation of new building space; consequently a decrease of cultivated land was observed. In particular, these artificial islands have been invading flooding areas. The change detection procedure also showed that the flooding in October 2009 affected about 20% (115 out of 591 km2) of the entire study area; furthermore these areas became wetlands and farmland over the next three/four months.

  9. Coverage and acceptability of cholera vaccine among high-risk population of urban Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Jasim; Wahed, Tasnuva; Saha, Nirod Chandra; Kaukab, Sheikh Shah Tanvir; Khan, Iqbal Ansary; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Saha, Amit; Chowdhury, Fahima; Clemens, John David; Qadri, Firdausi

    2014-09-29

    The oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol), along with other interventions, is a potential new measure to prevent or control cholera. A mass cholera-vaccination programme was launched in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh, during February-April 2011 targeting about 173,041 people who are at high risk of cholera. This cross-sectional, descriptive study assessed the coverage and acceptability of the vaccine. The study used a quantitative household survey and qualitative data-collection techniques comprising focus-group discussions, in-depth interviews, and observations for assessment. The findings revealed that 88% of the target population received the first dose of the vaccine, and 79% received the second dose. Absence of persons at home was a prominent cause of not administering the first (71%) and the second dose (67%). Thirty-three percent of the respondents (n=9308) did not like the taste of the vaccine. Only 1.3% and 3% recipients of the first dose and the second dose of the vaccine respectively reported adverse effects within 28 days of vaccination, and the adverse effects included vomiting or vomiting tendency and diarrhoea. To improve the coverage of the cholera vaccine, exploration of effective solutions to reach the unvaccinated population is required. The vaccine may be more acceptable to the community through changing its taste.

  10. Trends in Water Level and Flooding in Dhaka, Bangladesh and Their Impact on Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Thiele-Eich, Insa; Burkart, Katrin; Simmer, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to impact flooding in many highly populated coastal regions, including Dhaka (Bangladesh), which is currently among the fastest growing cities in the world. In the past, high mortality counts have been associated with extreme flood events. We first analyzed daily water levels of the past 100 years in order to detect potential shifts in extremes. A distributed lag non-linear model was then used to examine the connection between water levels and mortality. Results indicate that for the period of 2003–2007, which entails two major flood events in 2004 and 2007, high water levels do not lead to a significant increase in relative mortality, which indicates a good level of adaptation and capacity to cope with flooding. However, following low water levels, an increase in mortality could be found. As our trend analysis of past water levels shows that minimum water levels have decreased during the past 100 years, action should be taken to ensure that the exposed population is also well-adapted to drought. PMID:25648177

  11. Investigation of severe water problem in urban areas of a developing country: the case of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Mst Shamsun; Zhang, Jing; Ueda, Akira; Yoshihisa, Fujishiro

    2014-12-01

    The present study evaluated water supply geochemistry in Dhaka City, Bangladesh, to provide detailed trace level (subppb) water quality data that include major ions, low dissolved oxygen (DO) and toxic trace metals for sustainable development. Dhaka Groundwater, which almost uniformly meets the World Health Organization guideline, has become the preferred source. Due to groundwater depletion and an ever-increasing need to meet water demands by city residents, Dhaka water supply and sewerage authority has initiated the treatment of river water, despite the fact that very little is known about the geochemical structure, and trace metal content in the Dhaka water supply. Major ion composition of water samples was determined, and the results used to generate Stiff diagrams. The diagrams served to visually compare water from different sources based on units of mass/volume. Hydrochemical facies analysis showed supply ground and surface waters are comprised predominately of Ca-Na-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Na-Mg-HCO3-Cl types. Spatial distribution of ions, and Na/Cl and Na/SiO2 molar ratio indicated that silicate weathering is the dominant geochemical process. Chemical data revealed that toxic Cr metal mobilization is associated with chemical hazards from the leather industry. The vulnerability of deep wells to contamination by As is governed by the geometry of induced groundwater flow paths and the geochemical conditions encountered between the shallow and deep regions of the aquifer. Quantifying total arsenic (As) and As from interlocking geochemical cycles (Fe, Mn) may assist in interpreting As dynamics in Dhaka well water. The surface source water was hypoxic to anoxic low DO associated with very high concentrations of biological oxygen demands, and electrical conductivity compared to industrial and non-industrial urban processes and standard activity guidelines. The results of this study should be applied to future research focused on the potential to improve water quality in

  12. Temporal variations and spatial distribution of ambient PM2.2 and PM10 concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Begum, Bilkis A; Biswas, Swapan K; Hopke, Philip K

    2006-04-01

    Concentrations and characteristics of airborne particulate matter (PM(10), PM(2.2) and BC) on air quality have been studied at two air quality-monitoring stations in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. One site is at the Farm Gate area, a hot spot with very high pollutant concentrations because of its proximity to major roadways. The other site is at a semi-residential area located at the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka Campus, (AECD) with relatively less traffic. The samples were collected using a 'Gent' stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2.2 mum and 2.2-10 mum sizes. Samples of fine (PM(2.2)) and coarse (PM(2.2-10)) airborne particulate matter fractions collected from 2000 to 2003 were studied. It has been observed that fine particulate matter has a decreasing trend, from prior year measurements, because of Government policy interventions like phase-wise plans to take two-stroke three-wheelers off the roads in Dhaka and finally banned from January 1, 2003. Other policy interventions were banning of old buses and trucks to ply on Dhaka city promotion of the using compressed natural gas (CNG), introducing air pollution control devices in vehicles, etc. It was found that both local (mostly from vehicular emissions) and possibly some regional emission sources are responsible for high PM(2.2) and BC concentrations in Dhaka. PM(2.2), PM(2.2-10) and black carbon concentration levels depend on the season, wind direction and wind speed. Transport related emissions are the major source of BC and long-range transportation from fossil fuel related sources and biomass burning could be another substantial source of BC.

  13. Risk Factors of Tendo-Achilles Injury in Football, Cricket and Badminton Players at Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, M J; Giasuddin, A S M; Khalil, M I

    2015-04-01

    Achilles tendon is the tendon connecting the heel with the calf muscles. Tendo-achilles injury (TAI) in players is common in games. The frequency of TAI is unknown and aetiology is controversial: The present descriptive cross-sectional study was done to determine the prevalence of TAI and associated factors contributing to it in football, cricket and badminton. From January to June 2012, male players (n = 131), age -17-35 years, were selected by purposive sampling technique from renowned sporting clubs at Dhaka, Bangladesh. TAI was diagnosed through structured questionnaire and interviewing the respondents. The analysis by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) programme revealed that 11.5% players suffered from TAI, i.e. prevalence was 115 per 1000 respondents. Most injuries (70/131; 53.4%) occurred in the playground and (59/131; 45.3%) happened in practice field. Injuries among the players of third division were higher, i.e. about 36% (p = 0.000). TAI was significantly dependent on occupation (p = 0.046), BMI (p = 0.008), divisional status (p = 0.023), game type (p = 0.043), ground condition (p = 0.05) and injury severity (p = 0.000). The injured players referred for treatment to the physiotherapist was highest (9/15, i.e. 60%) followed by the physicians (5/15, i.e. 33%) (p = 0.000). The associations of TAI with various factors were discussed suggesting effective measures be taken and treatment, particularly physiotherapy, be given to injured players. However, there is a need of team work with sports medicine specialist also to enable the injured players to continue their professional games.

  14. Impacts of policy and market incentives for solid waste recycling in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Matter, Anne; Ahsan, Mehedi; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Bangladesh’s industry and population are growing rapidly, producing more urban waste. • Recycling reduces the solid waste management burden of Municipalities. • A wide array of informal and formal actors is involved in collection and recycling. • Demand for recycled materials and renewable energy creates market incentives. • Policy incentives exist, but they only reach the formal industry. - Abstract: Solid waste mismanagement in Dhaka, Bangladesh, illustrates a well-known market failure which can be summarized as: waste is a resource in the wrong place. Inorganic materials such as plastic or paper can be used to feed the demand for recycled materials in the industrial sector. Organic materials can be converted and used in the nutrient-starved agricultural sector which is currently heavily depending on chemical fertilizers. They are also a feedstock to generate renewable energy in the form of biogas for this energy-starved country relying on diminishing natural gas reserves and increasing import of coal. Reality however does not capitalize on this potential; instead the waste is a burden for municipal authorities who spend large portions of their budgets attempting to transport it out of the city for discharge into landfills. The major part of these materials still remains uncollected in the residential areas and is discarded indiscriminately in open spaces, polluting the residents’ living environment including water, soil and air resources, in the city and beyond. Bangladeshi authorities have, to some extent, recognized this market failure and have developed policies to encourage the development of waste recycling activities. It is also important to note that this market failure is only partial: a large, mostly informal recycling sector has developed in Bangladesh, focusing on inorganic recyclables of market value. The fact that this sector remains largely informal means that these actors perceive significant barriers to formalization

  15. The effect of intrapartum antibiotics on early-onset neonatal sepsis in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a propensity score matched analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We estimate the effect of antibiotics given in the intrapartum period on early-onset neonatal sepsis in Dhaka, Bangladesh using propensity score techniques. Methods We followed 600 mother-newborn pairs as part of a cohort study at a maternity center in Dhaka. Some pregnant women received one dose of intravenous antibiotics during labor based on clinician discretion. Newborns were followed over the first seven days of life for early-onset neonatal sepsis defined by a modified version of the World Health Organization Young Infants Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses criteria. Using propensity scores we matched women who received antibiotics with similar women who did not. A final logistic regression model predicting sepsis was run in the matched sample controlling for additional potential confounders. Results Of the 600 mother-newborn pairs, 48 mothers (8.0%) received antibiotics during the intrapartum period. Seventy-seven newborns (12.8%) were classified with early-onset neonatal sepsis. Antibiotics appeared to be protective (odds ratio 0.381, 95% confidence interval 0.115–1.258), however this was not statistically significant. The results were similar after adjusting for prematurity, wealth status, and maternal colonization status (odds ratio 0.361, 95% confidence interval 0.106–1.225). Conclusions Antibiotics administered during the intrapartum period may reduce the risk of early-onset neonatal sepsis in high neonatal mortality settings like Dhaka. PMID:24742087

  16. A regional groundwater-flow model for sustainable groundwater-resource management in the south Asian megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Md Bayzidul; Firoz, A. B. M.; Foglia, Laura; Marandi, Andres; Khan, Abidur Rahman; Schüth, Christoph; Ribbe, Lars

    2017-01-01

    The water resources that supply most of the megacities in the world are under increased pressure because of land transformation, population growth, rapid urbanization, and climate-change impacts. Dhaka, in Bangladesh, is one of the largest of 22 growing megacities in the world, and it depends on mainly groundwater for all kinds of water needs. The regional groundwater-flow model MODFLOW-2005 was used to simulate the interaction between aquifers and rivers in steady-state and transient conditions during the period 1981-2013, to assess the impact of development and climate change on the regional groundwater resources. Detailed hydro-stratigraphic units are described according to 150 lithology logs, and a three-dimensional model of the upper 400 m of the Greater Dhaka area was constructed. The results explain how the total abstraction (2.9 million m3/d) in the Dhaka megacity, which has caused regional cones of depression, is balanced by recharge and induced river leakage. The simulated outcome shows the general trend of groundwater flow in the sedimentary Holocene aquifers under a variety of hydrogeological conditions, which will assist in the future development of a rational and sustainable management approach.

  17. Cross-sectional study exploring barriers to adverse drug reactions reporting in community pharmacy settings in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Mohammad Nurul; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Dewan, Syed Masudur Rahman; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul; Moghal, Mizanur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess community pharmacists'/pharmacy technicians' knowledge and perceptions about adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and barriers towards the reporting of such reactions in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Method A cross-sectional study was planned to approach potential respondents for the study. A self-administered questionnaire was delivered to community pharmacists/pharmacy technicians (N=292) practising in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Results The overall response to the survey was 69.5% (n=203). The majority of the sample was comprised of pharmacy technicians (152, 74.9%) who possessed a diploma in pharmacy, followed by pharmacists (37, 18.2%) and others (12, 5.9%). Overall, 72 (35.5%) of the respondents disclosed that they had experienced an ADR at their pharmacy, yet more than half (105, 51.7%) were not familiar with the existence of an ADR reporting body in Bangladesh. Exploring the barriers to the reporting of ADRs, it was revealed that the top four barriers to ADR reporting were ‘I do not know how to report (Relative Importance Index (RII)=0.998)’, ‘reporting forms are not available (0.996)’, ‘I am not motivated to report (0.997)’ and ‘Unavailability of professional environment to discuss about ADR (RII=0.939)’. In addition to these, a majority (141, 69.46%) were not confident about the classification of ADRs (RII=0.889) and were afraid of legal liabilities associated with reporting ADRs (RII=0.806). Moreover, a lack of knowledge about pharmacotherapy and the detection of ADRs was another major factor hindering their reporting (RII=0.731). Conclusions The Directorate of Drug Administration in Bangladesh needs to consider the results of this study to help it improve and simplify ADR reporting in Bangladeshi community pharmacy settings. PMID:27489151

  18. Impact of flooding on feeding practices of infants and young children in Dhaka, Bangladesh Slums: what are the coping strategies?

    PubMed

    Goudet, Sophie M; Griffiths, Paula L; Bogin, Barry A; Selim, Nasima

    2011-04-01

    Previous research has shown that urban slums are hostile environments for the growth of infants and young children (IYC). Flooding is a hazard commonly found in Dhaka slums (Bangladesh) which negatively impacts IYC's nutritional and health status. This paper aims 1) to identify the impact of flooding on IYC's feeding practices, and 2) to explore the coping strategies developed by caregivers. Qualitative data (participant observation and semi-structured interviews) and quantitative data (household questionnaire and anthropometric measurements) collected in slums in Dhaka (n=18 mothers, n=5 community health workers, and n=55 children) were analysed. The subjects of the interviews were mothers and Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) community health workers living and working in the slums. Research findings showed that breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices for IYC were poor and inappropriate due to lack of knowledge, time, and resources in normal times and worse during flooding. One coping strategy developed by mothers purposely to protect their IYC's nutritional status was to decrease their personal food intake. Our research findings suggest that mothers perceived the negative impact of flooding on their IYC's nutritional health but did not have the means to prevent it. They could only maintain their health through coping strategies which had other negative consequences. The results suggests a holistic approach combining 1) provision of relief for nutritionally vulnerable groups during flooding, 2) support to mothers in their working role, 3) breastfeeding counseling and support to lactating mothers with difficulties, and 4) preventing malnutrition in under 2 year old children.

  19. Multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria in frozen food (ready to cook food) of animal origin sold in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Fouzia; Kamrunnahar; Afroz, Hafsa; Jahan, Afroz; Fakruddin, Md.; Datta, Suvamoy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bacterial load and antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates obtained from (ready to cook) frozen food samples of animal origin in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods A total of 20 samples of frozen ready to cook food of animal origin were purchased from different separate grocery stores in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Bacteria were isolated and identified based on the basis of biochemical properties. Results A total of 57 isolates has been isolated from 20 samples, of them 35.08% were Gram positive and 64.92% were Gram negative organisms. Highest percentages of isolated organisms were Staphylococcocus spp. (24.56%), Alcaligene spp. (17.54%), Klebshiella spp. (12.28%) and the lowest percentages of organisms were Enterococcus spp., Actinobacillus spp. and Proteus spp. Antibiogram results clearly showed that levofloxacin and imipenem were the most effective drug against the isolates. The less effective antibiotics were chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid and resistance was highest against ciprofloxacin. The most contaminated food was chicken nuggets. Conclusions This type of frozen food contaminated with multi-antibiotic resistant microorganisms can be potential vehicles for transmitting food-borne diseases. PMID:25183094

  20. Dengue Disease Risk Mental Models in the City of Dhaka, Bangladesh: Juxtapositions and Gaps Between the Public and Experts.

    PubMed

    Dhar-Chowdhury, Parnali; Haque, C Emdad; Driedger, S Michelle

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide, more than 50 million cases of dengue fever are reported every year in at least 124 countries, and it is estimated that approximately 2.5 billion people are at risk for dengue infection. In Bangladesh, the recurrence of dengue has become a growing public health threat. Notably, knowledge and perceptions of dengue disease risk, particularly among the public, are not well understood. Recognizing the importance of assessing risk perception, we adopted a comparative approach to examine a generic methodology to assess diverse sets of beliefs related to dengue disease risk. Our study mapped existing knowledge structures regarding the risk associated with dengue virus, its vector (Aedes mosquitoes), water container use, and human activities in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. "Public mental models" were developed from interviews and focus group discussions with diverse community groups; "expert mental models" were formulated based on open-ended discussions with experts in the pertinent fields. A comparative assessment of the public's and experts' knowledge and perception of dengue disease risk has revealed significant gaps in the perception of: (a) disease risk indicators and measurements; (b) disease severity; (c) control of disease spread; and (d) the institutions responsible for intervention. This assessment further identifies misconceptions in public perception regarding: (a) causes of dengue disease; (b) dengue disease symptoms; (c) dengue disease severity; (d) dengue vector ecology; and (e) dengue disease transmission. Based on these results, recommendations are put forward for improving communication of dengue risk and practicing local community engagement and knowledge enhancement in Bangladesh.

  1. Chemical Composition and Emission Sources of the Fine Particulate Matters in a Southeast Asian Mega City (Dhaka, Bangladesh)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution has significant impact on human health, climate change, agriculture, visibility reduction, and also on the atmospheric chemistry. There are many studies already reported about the direct relation of the human mortality and morbidity with the increase of the atmospheric particulate matters. Especially, fine particulate matters can easily enter into the human respiratory system and causes many diseases. Particulate matters have the properties to absorb the solar radiation and impact on the climate. Dhaka, Bangladesh is a densely populated mega-city in the world. About 16 million inhabitants are living within an area of 360 square kilometers. Air quality situation has been degrading due to unplanned growth, increasing vehicles, severe traffic jams, brick kilns, industries, construction, and also transboundary air pollution. A rapidly growing number of vehicles has worsen the air quality in spite of major policy interventions, e.g., ban of two-stroke and three-wheeled vehicles, phase out of 20 years old vehicles, conversion to compressed natural gas (CNGs), etc. Introduction of CNGs to reduce air pollution was not the solution for fine particles at all, as evidence shows that CNGs and diesel engines are the major sources of fine particles. High concentration of the air pollutants in Dhaka city such as PM, carbonaceous species (black and organic carbon), CO, etc. has already been reported. PM2.5 mass, chemical composition (e.g., BC, OC, SO42-, NO3-, trace elements, etc.), aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and emission sources of our recent measurements at the highly polluted south East Asian Mega city (Dhaka) Bangladesh will be presented in the conference. PM2.5 samples were collected on filters with Digital PM2.5 sampler (Switzerland) and Air photon, USA. BC was measured from filters (with thermal and optical method) and also real time with an Aethalometer AE42 (Magee Scitific., USA). Water soluble ions were determined from filters with ion chromatogram. AOD

  2. Microbiological quality of selected street food items vended by school-based street food vendors in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Al Mamun, Mohammad; Rahman, Shah Mahfuzur; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury

    2013-09-16

    A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the microbiological quality of local food items vended by the school-based street food vendors in Dhaka City. A total of 80 schools from 19 school-zones of Dhaka City and its outskirts were chosen for the study. A total of 110 food samples, one each from 110 school-based street food vendors, were collected for laboratory analysis. Face to face interviews were conducted with the food vendors using a pre-tested questionnaire. The food samples were analyzed for coliform counts in the Public Health Laboratory, Institute of Public Health, Dhaka, which is a national level central food testing laboratory in Bangladesh. Microbiological criteria recommended by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) were considered to classify food samples as 'satisfactory' (total coliforms <100 per g or ml) and 'unsatisfactory' (total coliforms ≥ 100 per g or ml). Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the association of selected socio-demographic characteristics of school-based street food vendors with the presence of unsatisfactory levels of coliforms in their food items. Of the 110 school-based street food samples analyzed in the laboratory, 44% were unsatisfactory. Among different items of street vended foods, 54% of sliced fruits samples, 59% of jhalmuri samples, 29% of chotpotis samples, 53% of vajavuji samples, and all (100%) sharbat samples were unsatisfactory, while all samples from achar (100%) and ice cream (100%) were found to be satisfactory. Logistic regression models showed that the food samples collected from the vendors belonging to the age group '15-24 years' and the vendors possessing an educational status higher than primary level were less likely to be unsatisfactory, while the food samples collected from the vendors having a daily income of more than 200 Bangladeshi Taka (equivalent to 3.00 USD) were more likely to be unsatisfactory. Our study findings reflected

  3. Demographic Correlates of Constant Condom Use among Sex Workers in Tangail, Dhaka, Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eva, Nilufar Akter; Munakata, Tsunetsugu; Onuoha, Francis N.

    2007-01-01

    Consistent condom use, particularly by promiscuous individuals, is a major safeguard against sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. This study examines some demographic factors that may affect such use among Bangladeshi female commercial sex workers at a brothel in Tangail (n = 196; mean age = 23.44 years), and the streets of Dhaka (n…

  4. Free-roaming dog population estimation and status of the dog population management and rabies control program in Dhaka City, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Tenzin, Tenzin; Ahmed, Rubaiya; Debnath, Nitish C; Ahmed, Garba; Yamage, Mat

    2015-05-01

    Beginning January 2012, a humane method of dog population management using a Catch-Neuter-Vaccinate-Release (CNVR) program was implemented in Dhaka City, Bangladesh as part of the national rabies control program. To enable this program, the size and distribution of the free-roaming dog population needed to be estimated. We present the results of a dog population survey and a pilot assessment of the CNVR program coverage in Dhaka City. Free-roaming dog population surveys were undertaken in 18 wards of Dhaka City on consecutive days using mark-resight methods. Data was analyzed using Lincoln-Petersen index-Chapman correction methods. The CNVR program was assessed over the two years (2012-2013) whilst the coverage of the CNVR program was assessed by estimating the proportion of dogs that were ear-notched (processed dogs) via dog population surveys. The free-roaming dog population was estimated to be 1,242 (95 % CI: 1205-1278) in the 18 sampled wards and 18,585 dogs in Dhaka City (52 dogs/km2) with an estimated human-to-free-roaming dog ratio of 828:1. During the two year CNVR program, a total of 6,665 dogs (3,357 male and 3,308 female) were neutered and vaccinated against rabies in 29 of the 92 city wards. A pilot population survey indicated a mean CNVR coverage of 60.6% (range 19.2-79.3%) with only eight wards achieving > 70% coverage. Given that the coverage in many neighborhoods was below the WHO-recommended threshold level of 70% for rabies eradications and since the CNVR program takes considerable time to implement throughout the entire Dhaka City area, a mass dog vaccination program in the non-CNVR coverage area is recommended to create herd immunity. The findings from this study are expected to guide dog population management and the rabies control program in Dhaka City and elsewhere in Bangladesh.

  5. Impact of Ramadan on clinical and microbiologic parameters of patients seen at a diarrheal hospital in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1996-2012.

    PubMed

    Leung, Daniel T; Das, Sumon K; Malek, M A; Qadri, Firdausi; Faruque, A S G; Ryan, Edward T

    2014-02-01

    Ramadan is a month in the Islamic calendar when Muslims fast during daylight hours. We used data from the surveillance system of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka Hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country, to compare the etiology and clinical presentation of patients who presented with diarrhea during Ramadan to that of control periods, defined as the 30 days immediately before Ramadan. The proportion of infecting pathogens was largely the same, although Shigella spp. were less likely to be identified during Ramadan. Clinical presentations during Ramadan among adult Muslim diarrheal patients were also comparable to those admitted during control periods. A subgroup of cholera patients who presented after sunset during Ramadan had a shorter duration of diarrhea and higher prevalence of severe thirst, drowsiness, and severe dehydration. Our findings suggest that Ramadan has few effects on the profile of enteric pathogens and clinical features of adults seeking medical care for diarrhea.

  6. Diarrheal Illness and Healthcare Seeking Behavior among a Population at High Risk for Diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Iqbal Ansary; Patel, Sweta; Siddiq, Ashraf Uddin; Saha, Nirod Chandra; Khan, Ashraful I; Saha, Amit; Cravioto, Alejandro; Clemens, John; Qadri, Firdausi; Ali, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains one of the major causes of death in Bangladesh. We studied diarrheal disease risk and healthcare seeking behavior among populations at high risk for diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey conducted during April and September 2010. The prevalence of diarrhea was calculated by age-group and sex. A generalized estimating equation with logit link function was used to predict diarrheal disease risk and seeking care from a professional healthcare provider. Of 316,766 individuals, 10% were young children (<5 years). The prevalence of diarrhea was 16 per 1000 persons among all ages; young children accounted for 44 per 1000 persons. Prevalence of diarrhea was significantly higher (p=.003) among younger males (<15 years) compared to that among younger females. In contrast, prevalence of diarrhea was significantly higher (p<.0001) among older females (≥15 years) compared to that among older males. An increased risk for diarrhea was observed in young children, males, and those staying in rented houses, lower family members in the house, using non-sanitary toilets, living in the area for short times, living in a community with less educated persons, living in a community with less use of safe water source for drinking, or living close to the hospital. About 80% of those with diarrhea sought care initially from a non-professional healthcare provider. Choice of the professional healthcare provider was driven by age of the patient, educational status of the household head, and hygienic practices by the household. The study reaffirms that young children are at greater risk for diarrhea. Like other developing countries most people in this impoverished setting of Dhaka are less likely to seek care from a professional healthcare provider than from a non-professional healthcare provider, which could be attributed to a higher number of diarrheal deaths among young children in Bangladesh. Dissemination of information on health

  7. Diarrheal Illness and Healthcare Seeking Behavior among a Population at High Risk for Diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Iqbal Ansary; Patel, Sweta; Siddiq, Ashraf Uddin; Saha, Nirod Chandra; Khan, Ashraful I.; Saha, Amit; Cravioto, Alejandro; Clemens, John; Qadri, Firdausi; Ali, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains one of the major causes of death in Bangladesh. We studied diarrheal disease risk and healthcare seeking behavior among populations at high risk for diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey conducted during April and September 2010. The prevalence of diarrhea was calculated by age-group and sex. A generalized estimating equation with logit link function was used to predict diarrheal disease risk and seeking care from a professional healthcare provider. Of 316,766 individuals, 10% were young children (<5 years). The prevalence of diarrhea was 16 per 1000 persons among all ages; young children accounted for 44 per 1000 persons. Prevalence of diarrhea was significantly higher (p=.003) among younger males (<15 years) compared to that among younger females. In contrast, prevalence of diarrhea was significantly higher (p<.0001) among older females (≥15 years) compared to that among older males. An increased risk for diarrhea was observed in young children, males, and those staying in rented houses, lower family members in the house, using non-sanitary toilets, living in the area for short times, living in a community with less educated persons, living in a community with less use of safe water source for drinking, or living close to the hospital. About 80% of those with diarrhea sought care initially from a non-professional healthcare provider. Choice of the professional healthcare provider was driven by age of the patient, educational status of the household head, and hygienic practices by the household. The study reaffirms that young children are at greater risk for diarrhea. Like other developing countries most people in this impoverished setting of Dhaka are less likely to seek care from a professional healthcare provider than from a non-professional healthcare provider, which could be attributed to a higher number of diarrheal deaths among young children in Bangladesh. Dissemination of information on health

  8. Prevalence and determinants of chronic malnutrition among preschool children: a cross-sectional study in Dhaka City, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Aklima; Yamamoto, Shelby Suzanne; Malik, Ahmad Azam; Haque, M Aminul

    2011-10-01

    Chronic malnutrition is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among preschool children and the future productivity of nations. To understand the prevalence of chronic malnutrition and to identify the factors affecting height-for-age z-score (HAZ) among preschool children, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 380 randomly-selected children aged less than five years in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Results of analysis of this study data revealed that the prevalence of stunting among preschool children in Dhaka city was 39.5%, with 25% severely stunted and 14% moderately stunted (p<0.001). Results of bivariate analysis revealed that socioeconomic and demographic factors were most significantly associated with the stunting of children. Children were found to be well-nourished if their parents had a tertiary-level education or higher and if the mother held a job and had good knowledge of nutrition. Well-nourishment of the children were also associated with the height of mothers (above 148 cm), good family educational background, normal birthweight, greater frequency of food intake (more than six times/day), and fewer fever episodes in the last six months. Results of multivariate linear regression models showed that height of mothers, birthweight of children, education of fathers, knowledge of mothers on nutrition, and frequency of feeding were the most significant factors that had an independent and direct influence on the stunting of children. To achieve the Millennium Development Goal target of 34% malnutrition prevalence by 2015, it is important to have specific government intervention to focus on the causes that directly influence the stunting of children.

  9. Evaluation of health risk and arsenic levels in vegetables sold in markets of Dhaka (Bangladesh) and Salamanca (Spain) by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Anawar, Hossain Md; Garcia-Sanchez, A; Hossain, Md Nur; Akter, Shamima

    2012-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine arsenic (As) levels in vegetables collected from the markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh and for comparison from Salamanca, Spain by HGAAS under optimal conditions, and the potential health risk from consumption of these vegetables. The mean and range of the total As concentration in the vegetables from the markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh were 114 and 1.0-293 μg/kg, respectively. Total As concentration in 77% of Bangladesh vegetables measured was higher than that recommended by the standard. The mean and range of As concentrations for vegetables grown in Spain were 65 and bdl-130 μg/kg, respectively, for Salamanca, 102 and bdl-423 μg/kg, respectively, for Almeria. The As content of the Bangladesh vegetables was approximately twofold to threefold higher than those observed for the vegetables from Almeria and Salamanca (Spain), but in some cases, were similar or less. Daily consumption of As-rich vegetables may result in an additional source of As in the diet, based on the provisional tolerable intake of As for adults recommended by WHO.

  10. Observational study on the concentration distributions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} in Dhaka, Bangladesh under severe air pollution condition in winter

    SciTech Connect

    Azad, A.K.; Kitada, T.

    1996-12-31

    Dhaka is the capital and the biggest city of Bangladesh, and is expanding very rapidly. Emissions from heavy traffic and many small industries and commercial complexes, newly developed in and around the city, are polluting the air of Dhaka city. The air pollution is severe especially in winter due to adverse meteorological conditions such as low wind speed and dry, stably-stratified air, which restricts the mixing height to low levels and prevent dispersion of pollutants. But so far no study of air pollution of Dhaka city has been done. We have first measured SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} concentrations in Dhaka city in a large scale and derived their spatial distributions over Dhaka. Molecular diffusion tubes, which do not require power sources and are produced at low cost, have been used to measure the concentration distributions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} at 64 sites in Dhaka city and its suburbs during the period of December-January of 1995-96. The diffusion tube samplers were calibrated using 6 automated air pollution monitoring stations in Aichi-prefecture, Japan. The calibration curve and the distribution of the concentration data acquired by automatic measurement instrument at each location showed that the error range of measurements with the molecular diffusion tube samplers was 2-27%. The samples were analyzed using ion-chromatography and spectrophotometer to determine the concentrations of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} respectively. The contamination of unexposed tubes under field conditions was determined and the value of the blank test was subtracted from the measurements of the diffusion tube samplers. The effects of wind turbulence and temperature were reduced using polyflon filters.

  11. Cholera forecast for Dhaka, Bangladesh, with the 2015-2016 El Niño: Lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Pamela P; Reiner, Robert C; Cash, Benjamin A; Rodó, Xavier; Shahjahan Mondal, Mohammad; Roy, Manojit; Yunus, Mohammad; Faruque, A S G; Huq, Sayeeda; King, Aaron A; Pascual, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    A substantial body of work supports a teleconnection between the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and cholera incidence in Bangladesh. In particular, high positive anomalies during the winter (Dec-Feb) in sea surface temperatures (SST) in the tropical Pacific have been shown to exacerbate the seasonal outbreak of cholera following the monsoons from August to November. Climate studies have indicated a role of regional precipitation over Bangladesh in mediating this long-distance effect. Motivated by this previous evidence, we took advantage of the strong 2015-2016 El Niño event to evaluate the predictability of cholera dynamics for the city in recent times based on two transmission models that incorporate SST anomalies and are fitted to the earlier surveillance records starting in 1995. We implemented a mechanistic temporal model that incorporates both epidemiological processes and the effect of ENSO, as well as a previously published statistical model that resolves space at the level of districts (thanas). Prediction accuracy was evaluated with "out-of-fit" data from the same surveillance efforts (post 2008 and 2010 for the two models respectively), by comparing the total number of cholera cases observed for the season to those predicted by model simulations eight to twelve months ahead, starting in January each year. Although forecasts were accurate for the low cholera risk observed for the years preceding the 2015-2016 El Niño, the models also predicted a high probability of observing a large outbreak in fall 2016. Observed cholera cases up to Oct 2016 did not show evidence of an anomalous season. We discuss these predictions in the context of regional and local climate conditions, which show that despite positive regional rainfall anomalies, rainfall and inundation in Dhaka remained low. Possible explanations for these patterns are given together with future implications for cholera dynamics and directions to improve their prediction for the city.

  12. Cholera forecast for Dhaka, Bangladesh, with the 2015-2016 El Niño: Lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Pamela P.; Reiner, Robert C.; Cash, Benjamin A.; Rodó, Xavier; Shahjahan Mondal, Mohammad; Roy, Manojit; Yunus, Mohammad; Faruque, A. S. G.; Huq, Sayeeda; King, Aaron A.; Pascual, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    A substantial body of work supports a teleconnection between the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and cholera incidence in Bangladesh. In particular, high positive anomalies during the winter (Dec-Feb) in sea surface temperatures (SST) in the tropical Pacific have been shown to exacerbate the seasonal outbreak of cholera following the monsoons from August to November. Climate studies have indicated a role of regional precipitation over Bangladesh in mediating this long-distance effect. Motivated by this previous evidence, we took advantage of the strong 2015–2016 El Niño event to evaluate the predictability of cholera dynamics for the city in recent times based on two transmission models that incorporate SST anomalies and are fitted to the earlier surveillance records starting in 1995. We implemented a mechanistic temporal model that incorporates both epidemiological processes and the effect of ENSO, as well as a previously published statistical model that resolves space at the level of districts (thanas). Prediction accuracy was evaluated with “out-of-fit” data from the same surveillance efforts (post 2008 and 2010 for the two models respectively), by comparing the total number of cholera cases observed for the season to those predicted by model simulations eight to twelve months ahead, starting in January each year. Although forecasts were accurate for the low cholera risk observed for the years preceding the 2015–2016 El Niño, the models also predicted a high probability of observing a large outbreak in fall 2016. Observed cholera cases up to Oct 2016 did not show evidence of an anomalous season. We discuss these predictions in the context of regional and local climate conditions, which show that despite positive regional rainfall anomalies, rainfall and inundation in Dhaka remained low. Possible explanations for these patterns are given together with future implications for cholera dynamics and directions to improve their prediction for the city

  13. Seasonal concentrations and determinants of indoor particulate matter in a low-income community in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Gurley, Emily S; Salje, Henrik; Homaira, Nusrat; Ram, Pavani K; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A; Bresee, Joseph; Moss, William J; Luby, Stephen P; Breysse, Patrick; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2013-02-01

    Indoor exposure to particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of acute lower respiratory tract infections, which are the leading cause of death in young children in Bangladesh. Few studies, however, have measured children's exposures to indoor PM over time. The World Health Organization recommends that daily indoor concentrations of PM less than 2.5μm in diameter (PM(2.5)) not exceed 25μg/m(3). This study aimed to describe the seasonal variation and determinants of concentrations of indoor PM(2.5) in a low-income community in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh. PM(2.5) was measured in homes monthly during May 2009 to April 2010. We calculated the time-weighted average, 90th percentile PM(2.5) concentrations and the daily hours PM(2.5) exceeded 100μg/m(3). Linear regression models were used to estimate the associations between fuel use, ventilation, indoor smoking, and season to each metric describing indoor PM(2.5) concentrations. Time-weighted average PM(2.5) concentrations were 190μg/m(3) (95% CI 170-210). Sixteen percent of 258 households primarily used biomass fuels for cooking and PM(2.5) concentrations in these homes had average concentrations 75μg/m(3) (95% CI 56-124) greater than other homes. PM(2.5) concentrations were also associated with burning both biomass and kerosene, indoor smoking, and ventilation, and were more than twice as high during winter than during other seasons. Young children in this community are exposed to indoor PM(2.5) concentrations 7 times greater than those recommended by World Health Organization guidelines. Interventions to reduce biomass burning could result in a daily reduction of 75μg/m(3) (40%) in time-weighted average PM(2.5) concentrations.

  14. Air quality and climate impacts due to CNG conversion of motor vehicles in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Wadud, Zia; Khan, Tanzila

    2013-12-17

    Dhaka had recently experienced rapid conversion of its motor vehicle fleet to run on compressed natural gas (CNG). This paper quantifies ex-post the air quality and climate benefits of the CNG conversion policy, including monetary valuations, through an impact pathway approach. Around 2045 (1665) avoided premature deaths in greater Dhaka (City Corporation) can be attributed to air quality improvements from the CNG conversion policy in 2010, resulting in a saving of around USD 400 million. Majority of these health benefits resulted from the conversion of high-emitting diesel vehicles. CNG conversion was clearly detrimental from climate change perspective using the changes in CO2 and CH4 only (CH4 emissions increased); however, after considering other global pollutants (especially black carbon), the climate impact was ambiguous. Uncertainty assessment using input distributions and Monte Carlo simulation along with a sensitivity analysis show that large uncertainties remain for climate impacts. For our most likely estimate, there were some climate costs, valued at USD 17.7 million, which is an order of magnitude smaller than the air quality benefits. This indicates that such policies can and should be undertaken on the grounds of improving local air pollution alone and that precautions should be taken to reduce the potentially unintended increases in GHG emissions or other unintended effects.

  15. 'I won't be able to go home being pregnant': sex work and pregnancy in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Katz, Karen R; McDowell, Misti; Johnson, Laura; Aziz, Sultana

    2016-07-01

    Sex workers report high rates of unintended pregnancy that are inconsistent with widespread reports of condom use. Greater understanding of the implications of an unintended pregnancy and barriers to contraceptive use is needed to better meet the broader sexual and reproductive health needs of this population. We conducted in-depth interviews with 20 women sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Findings reveal that most women are trying to conform to societal norms and protect their reputations. They fear pregnancy would reveal that they are having unsanctioned sex and that they are sex workers. This could lead to ostracism from families and society, resulting in homelessness and abandonment by partners. Pregnancy may affect a sex worker's ability to work and leave her unable to meet financial obligations. All study participants were using condoms but most acknowledged they could not use them consistently. They had all tried other contraceptive methods, notably injectables and the pill, but some noted experience of side-effects, difficulties in adherence and the desire to use other methods. Understanding the context of sex workers' lives is an important step in informing stakeholders about the range of services needed to improve their sexual and reproductive health.

  16. Concurrent Pneumonia in Children Under 5 Years of Age Presenting to a Diarrheal Hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Leung, Daniel T; Das, Sumon K; Malek, M A; Qadri, Firdausi; Faruque, A S G; Chisti, Mohammod J; Ryan, Edward T

    2015-10-01

    Respiratory and gastrointestinal infections are the top killers of children worldwide, and their co-occurrence is reported but not well understood. Our aim was to determine the risk factors for concurrent presentation of diarrhea and pneumonia (DP) in a resource-limited setting in Bangladesh. We used data from the Diarrheal Disease Surveillance System of the icddr,b Dhaka Hospital to identify children < 60 months of age with diarrhea and concurrent pneumonia, defined as a history of cough, an abnormal lung examination, and tachypnea. For the years 1996-2007, out of total 14,628 diarrheal patients surveyed, there were 607 (4%) patients who satisfied criteria for pneumonia. Those with DP had a higher mortality rate (4% versus 0.05%, odds ratio [OR] = 86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 26-286) and a longer hospital stay (mean 84 versus 26 hours, difference 58 hours, 95% CI = 52-64 hours) than those with diarrhea (D) only. In multivariable logistic regression comparing cases (N = 607) with controls matched for month and year of admission at a ratio of 1:3 (N = 1,808), we found that DP was associated with younger age, male gender, severe acute malnutrition (SAM), less maternal education, lower family income, and lack of current breast-feeding history.

  17. Impact of neighborhood biomass cooking patterns on episodic high indoor particulate matter concentrations in clean fuel homes in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Salje, H; Gurley, E S; Homaira, N; Ram, P K; Haque, R; Petri, W; Moss, W J; Luby, S P; Breysse, P; Azziz-Baumgartner, E

    2014-04-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5 ) from the burning of biomass is associated with increased risk of respiratory disease. In Dhaka, Bangladesh, households that do not burn biomass often still experience high concentrations of PM2.5 , but the sources remain unexplained. We characterized the diurnal variation in the concentrations of PM2.5 in 257 households and compared the risk of experiencing high PM2.5 concentrations in biomass and non-biomass users. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were estimated every minute over 24 h once a month from April 2009 through April 2010. We found that households that used gas or electricity experienced PM2.5 concentrations exceeding 1000 μg/m(3) for a mean of 35 min within a 24-h period compared with 66 min in biomass-burning households. In both households that used biomass and those that had no obvious source of particulate matter, the probability of PM2.5 exceeding 1000 μg/m(3) were highest during distinct morning, afternoon, and evening periods. In such densely populated settings, indoor pollution in clean fuel households may be determined by biomass used by neighbors, with the highest risk of exposure occurring during cooking periods. Community interventions to reduce biomass use may reduce exposure to high concentrations of PM2.5 in both biomass and non-biomass using households.

  18. Laboratory evaluation of selected larvicides and insect growth regulators against field-collected Culex quinquefasciatus larvae from urban Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ali, A; Chowdhury, M A; Hossain, M I; Mahmud-Ul-Ameen; Habiba, D B; Aslam, A F

    1999-03-01

    Five organophosphates (OPs) (chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos methyl, fenthion, malathion, and temephos), 3 pyrethroids (bifenthrin, cypermethrin, and permethrin), 1 phenyl pyrazole (fipronil), 2 microbial pesticides (Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. israelensis [B.t.i.] and Bacillus sphaericus), and 3 insect growth regulators (IGRs) (diflubenzuron, methoprene, and pyriproxyfen) were evaluated against field-collected Culex quinquefasciatus larvae from urban Dhaka, Bangladesh. The LC90 values of all OPs, except for temephos (LC90 = 0.0096 ppm), were high, ranging from 0.13 ppm (fenthion) to 2.882 ppm (chlorpyrifos methyl). Pyrethroid LC90 values were 0.021 ppm (bifenthrin), 0.00061 (cypermethrin), and 0.017 ppm (permethrin). Fipronil exhibited a superior activity with LC90 value of 0.000896 ppm. Technical powders of B.t.i. and B. sphaericus (VectoBac TP and VectoLex TP) were considered highly effective against the Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The IGRs also were effective with pyriproxyfen (LC90 = 0.0011 ppm), being 3 times and 47 times more active than diflubenzuron (LC90 = 0.0034 ppm) and methoprene (LC90 = 0.052 ppm), respectively. In general, toxicity ranking of chemicals and microbials tested was phenyl pyrazole > IGRs > pyrethroids > microbials > OPs.

  19. Diagnosis and management of febrile children using the WHO/UNICEF guidelines for IMCI in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Factor, S. H.; Schillinger, J. A.; Kalter, H. D.; Saha, S.; Begum, H.; Hossain, A.; Hossain, M.; Dewitt, V.; Hanif, M.; Khan, N.; Perkins, B.; Black, R. E.; Schwartz, B.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the fever module in the WHO/UNICEF guidelines for the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) identifies children with bacterial infections in an area of low malaria prevalence. METHODS: Physicians assessed a systematic sample of 669 sick children aged 2-59 months who presented to the outpatient department of Dhaka Shishu Hospital, Bangladesh. FINDINGS: Had IMCI guidelines been used to evaluate the children, 78% of those with bacterial infections would have received antibiotics: the majority of children with meningitis (100%), pneumonia (95%), otitis media (95%) and urinary tract infection (83%); and 50% or less of children with bacteraemia (50%), dysentery (48%), and skin infections (30%). The current fever module identified only one additional case of meningitis. Children with bacteraemia were more likely to be febrile, feel hot, and have a history of fever than those with dysentery and skin infections. Fever combined with parental perception of fast breathing provided a more sensitive fever module for the detection of bacteraemia than the current IMCI module. CONCLUSIONS: In an area of low malaria prevalence, the IMCI guidelines provide antibiotics to the majority of children with bacterial infections, but improvements in the fever module are possible. PMID:11799441

  20. Concurrent Pneumonia in Children under 5 Years of Age Presenting to a Diarrheal Hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Daniel T.; Das, Sumon K.; Malek, M. A.; Qadri, Firdausi; Faruque, A. S. G.; Chisti, Mohammod J.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory and gastrointestinal infections are the top killers of children worldwide, and their co-occurrence is reported but not well understood. Our aim was to determine the risk factors for concurrent presentation of diarrhea and pneumonia (DP) in a resource-limited setting in Bangladesh. We used data from the Diarrheal Disease Surveillance System of the icddr,b Dhaka Hospital to identify children < 60 months of age with diarrhea and concurrent pneumonia, defined as a history of cough, an abnormal lung examination, and tachypnea. For the years 1996–2007, out of total 14,628 diarrheal patients surveyed, there were 607 (4%) patients who satisfied criteria for pneumonia. Those with DP had a higher mortality rate (4% versus 0.05%, odds ratio [OR] = 86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 26–286) and a longer hospital stay (mean 84 versus 26 hours, difference 58 hours, 95% CI = 52–64 hours) than those with diarrhea (D) only. In multivariable logistic regression comparing cases (N = 607) with controls matched for month and year of admission at a ratio of 1:3 (N = 1,808), we found that DP was associated with younger age, male gender, severe acute malnutrition (SAM), less maternal education, lower family income, and lack of current breast-feeding history. PMID:26149863

  1. Seasonal and Interannual Trends in Largest Cholera Endemic Megacity: Water Sustainability - Climate - Health Challenges in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akanda, Ali S.; Jutla, Antarpreet; Faruque, Abu S. G.; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

    2014-05-01

    The last three decades of surveillance data shows a drastic increase of cholera prevalence in the largest cholera-endemic city in the world - Dhaka, Bangladesh. Emerging megacities in the region, especially those located in coastal areas also remain vulnerable to large scale drivers of cholera outbreaks. However, there has not been any systematic study on linking long-term disease trends with related changes in natural or societal variables. Here, we analyze the 30-year dynamics of urban cholera prevalence in Dhaka with changes in climatic or anthropogenic forcings: regional hydrology, flooding, water usage, changes in distribution systems, population growth and density in urban settlements, as well as shifting climate patterns and frequency of natural disasters. An interesting change is observed in the seasonal trends of cholera prevalence; while an endemic upward trend is seen in the dry season, the post-monsoon trend is epidemic in nature. In addition, the trend in the pre-monsoon dry season is significantly stronger than the post-monsoon wet season; and thus spring is becoming the dominant cholera season of the year. Evidence points to growing urbanization and rising population in unplanned settlements along the city peripheries. The rapid pressure of growth has led to an unsustainable and potentially disastrous situation with negligible-to-poor water and sanitation systems compounded by changing climatic patterns and increasing number of extreme weather events. Growing water scarcity in the dry season and lack of sustainable water and sanitation infrastructure for urban settlements have increased endemicity of cholera outbreaks in spring, while record flood events and prolonged post-monsoon inundation have contributed to increased epidemic outbreaks in fall. We analyze our findings with the World Health Organization recommended guidelines and investigate large scale water sustainability challenges in the context of climatic and anthropogenic changes in the

  2. Analysis of urban land use in the megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh: Roof-top detection in the context of assessing solar photovoltaic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaegermeyr, J.; Kabir, H.; Endlicher, W.

    2009-12-01

    The megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh is considered to be one of the world’s fastest growing urban centers. With nearly 14 million people Dhaka currently faces tremendous power crisis. The available power supply of Dhaka Megacity is currently 1000-1200 MW against the maximum demand of nearly 2000 MW. The objective of this study is to classify land cover of Dhaka to locate roof-top areas which are adequate for solar photovoltaic applications. Usually this task is performed with additional building-heights data. With lack of that, we present an object-based classification approach which is based on high resolution Quickbird data only. Extensive formal buildings in Dhaka mostly have flat roof-tops made from concrete which are well suited for PV applications. The classification is focused to detect these ‘Bright Roof-Tops’ to assess a lower limit for potential PV areas. With that conservative approach bright roof-top areas of 10.554 km2 out of the city’s 134.282 km2 could be found. The overall classification accuracy is 0.918, the producer’s accuracy of ‘Bright Roof-Tops’ is 0.833. Preliminary result of the PhD work of Humayun Kabir indicates that the application of only 75 Wp stand-alone solar modules on these available bright roof-tops can generate nearly 1,000 MW of electricity. The application of solar modules with high capacity (i.e., >200 Wp) preferably through grid-connected PV systems can substantially meet-up the city’s power demand, although several techno-economic and socio-political factors are certainly involved.

  3. Pregnant women's and community health workers' perceptions of root causes of malnutrition among infants and young children in the slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Goudet, Sophie M; Faiz, Sabina; Bogin, Barry A; Griffiths, Paula L

    2011-07-01

    Research in Bangladesh shows that malnutrition among infants and young children is most severe in urban slums. We examined the root causes of malnutrition as perceived by pregnant women and community health workers. We conducted 10 focus group discussions in the slums of Dhaka in 2008 and 2009. Participants accurately perceived inappropriate care, inappropriate environment, inappropriate food, and flooding to be major causes. Recurrent flooding has not traditionally been identified by experts as a cause of malnutrition. We recommend further research to address the nutritional risks flooding creates for vulnerable slum populations.

  4. Pregnant Women's and Community Health Workers' Perceptions of Root Causes of Malnutrition Among Infants and Young Children in the Slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Faiz, Sabina; Bogin, Barry A.; Griffiths, Paula L.

    2011-01-01

    Research in Bangladesh shows that malnutrition among infants and young children is most severe in urban slums. We examined the root causes of malnutrition as perceived by pregnant women and community health workers. We conducted 10 focus group discussions in the slums of Dhaka in 2008 and 2009. Participants accurately perceived inappropriate care, inappropriate environment, inappropriate food, and flooding to be major causes. Recurrent flooding has not traditionally been identified by experts as a cause of malnutrition. We recommend further research to address the nutritional risks flooding creates for vulnerable slum populations. PMID:21653248

  5. Identification of Essential Containers for Aedes Larval Breeding to Control Dengue in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ferdousi, Farhana; Yoshimatsu, Shoji; Ma, Enbo; Sohel, Nazmul; Wagatsuma, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF), one of the most important emerging arboviral diseases, is transmitted through the bite of container breeding mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. A household entomological survey was conducted in Dhaka from August through October 2000 to inspect water-holding containers in indoor, outdoor, and rooftop locations for Aedes larvae. The objective of this study was to determine mosquito productivity of each container type and to identify some risk factors of households infested with Aedes larvae. Of 9,222 households inspected, 1,306 (14.2%) were positive for Aedes larvae. Of 38,777 wet containers examined, 2,272 (5.8%) were infested with Aedes larvae. Containers used to hold water, such as earthen jars, tanks, and drums were the most common containers for larval breeding. Tires in outdoor and rooftop locations of the households were also important for larval breeding. Although present in abundance, buckets were of less importance. Factors such as independent household, presence of a water storage system in the house, and fully/partly shaded outdoors were found to be significantly associated with household infestation of Aedes larvae. Identification and subsequent elimination of the most productive containers in a given area may potentially reduce mosquito density to below a level at which dengue transmission may be halted. PMID:26865829

  6. Species composition and habitat characterization of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in semi-urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bashar, Kabirul; Rahman, Md Sayfur; Nodi, Ila Jahan; Howlader, Abdul Jabber

    2016-03-01

    Mosquito larvae are purely aquatic and develop in water bodies, the type of which is more or less specific to each species. Therefore, a study was carried out to identify the habitat characters of different mosquito species along with their species composition in semi-urban area of Dhaka in Bangladesh during the month of May and June 2012. A total of 6088 mosquito larvae belonging to 12 species (Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles vagus, Culex gelidus, Culex hutchinsoni, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Mansonia annulifera, Mansonia uniformis, and Toxorhynchites splendens) under 5 genera were collected from 14 different types of habitats. Culex quinquefsciatus was the dominant (21.7/500 ml) species followed by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (10.53/500 ml). Dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a were the preeminent predictors for the abundance of all collected mosquito larvae except Ae. aegypti. Water temperature was positively associated with the breeding of An. vagus (r = 0.421, p = <0.001), An. barbirostris (r = 0.489, p = <0.001) and An. peditaeniatus (r = 0.375, p = <0.001). Water depth, distance from nearest house, emergent plant coverage, and alkalinity were found as the basis of larval abundance. Every Culex species and Tx. splendens (r = 0.359, p = 0.001) were found positively associated with chemical oxygen demand, while Mn. annulifera showed negative association (r = -0.115, p = 0.0297). This study also highlighted that various physicochemical factors affect the presence or abundance of mosquito larvae.

  7. Species composition and habitat characterization of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in semi-urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Bashar, Kabirul; Rahman, Md. Sayfur; Nodi, Ila Jahan; Howlader, Abdul Jabber

    2016-01-01

    Mosquito larvae are purely aquatic and develop in water bodies, the type of which is more or less specific to each species. Therefore, a study was carried out to identify the habitat characters of different mosquito species along with their species composition in semi-urban area of Dhaka in Bangladesh during the month of May and June 2012. A total of 6088 mosquito larvae belonging to 12 species (Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles vagus, Culex gelidus, Culex hutchinsoni, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Mansonia annulifera, Mansonia uniformis, and Toxorhynchites splendens) under 5 genera were collected from 14 different types of habitats. Culex quinquefsciatus was the dominant (21.7/500 ml) species followed by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (10.53/500 ml). Dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a were the preeminent predictors for the abundance of all collected mosquito larvae except Ae. aegypti. Water temperature was positively associated with the breeding of An. vagus (r = 0.421, p = <0.001), An. barbirostris (r = 0.489, p = <0.001) and An. peditaeniatus (r = 0.375, p = <0.001). Water depth, distance from nearest house, emergent plant coverage, and alkalinity were found as the basis of larval abundance. Every Culex species and Tx. splendens (r = 0.359, p = 0.001) were found positively associated with chemical oxygen demand, while Mn. annulifera showed negative association (r = −0.115, p = 0.0297). This study also highlighted that various physicochemical factors affect the presence or abundance of mosquito larvae. PMID:27241953

  8. Who serves the urban poor? A geospatial and descriptive analysis of health services in slum settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Alayne M; Islam, Rubana; Ahmed, Tanvir

    2015-01-01

    In Bangladesh, the health risks of unplanned urbanization are disproportionately shouldered by the urban poor. At the same time, affordable formal primary care services are scarce, and what exists is almost exclusively provided by non-government organizations (NGOs) working on a project basis. So where do the poor go for health care? A health facility mapping of six urban slum settlements in Dhaka was undertaken to explore the configuration of healthcare services proximate to where the poor reside. Three methods were employed: (1) Social mapping and listing of all Health Service Delivery Points (HSDPs); (2) Creation of a geospatial map including Global Positioning System (GPS) co-ordinates of all HSPDs in the six study areas and (3) Implementation of a facility survey of all HSDPs within six study areas. Descriptive statistics are used to examine the number, type and concentration of service provider types, as well as indicators of their accessibility in terms of location and hours of service. A total of 1041 HSDPs were mapped, of which 80% are privately operated and the rest by NGOs and the public sector. Phamacies and non-formal or traditional doctors make up 75% of the private sector while consultation chambers account for 20%. Most NGO and Urban Primary Health Care Project (UPHCP) static clinics are open 5–6 days/week, but close by 4–5 pm in the afternoon. Evening services are almost exclusively offered by private HSDPs; however, only 37% of private sector health staff possess some kind of formal medical qualification. This spatial analysis of health service supply in poor urban settlements emphasizes the importance of taking the informal private sector into account in efforts to increase effective coverage of quality services. Features of informal private sector service provision that have facilitated market penetration may be relevant in designing formal services that better meet the needs of the urban poor. PMID:25759453

  9. Who serves the urban poor? A geospatial and descriptive analysis of health services in slum settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Adams, Alayne M; Islam, Rubana; Ahmed, Tanvir

    2015-03-01

    In Bangladesh, the health risks of unplanned urbanization are disproportionately shouldered by the urban poor. At the same time, affordable formal primary care services are scarce, and what exists is almost exclusively provided by non-government organizations (NGOs) working on a project basis. So where do the poor go for health care? A health facility mapping of six urban slum settlements in Dhaka was undertaken to explore the configuration of healthcare services proximate to where the poor reside. Three methods were employed: (1) Social mapping and listing of all Health Service Delivery Points (HSDPs); (2) Creation of a geospatial map including Global Positioning System (GPS) co-ordinates of all HSPDs in the six study areas and (3) Implementation of a facility survey of all HSDPs within six study areas. Descriptive statistics are used to examine the number, type and concentration of service provider types, as well as indicators of their accessibility in terms of location and hours of service. A total of 1041 HSDPs were mapped, of which 80% are privately operated and the rest by NGOs and the public sector. Phamacies and non-formal or traditional doctors make up 75% of the private sector while consultation chambers account for 20%. Most NGO and Urban Primary Health Care Project (UPHCP) static clinics are open 5-6 days/week, but close by 4-5 pm in the afternoon. Evening services are almost exclusively offered by private HSDPs; however, only 37% of private sector health staff possess some kind of formal medical qualification. This spatial analysis of health service supply in poor urban settlements emphasizes the importance of taking the informal private sector into account in efforts to increase effective coverage of quality services. Features of informal private sector service provision that have facilitated market penetration may be relevant in designing formal services that better meet the needs of the urban poor.

  10. Effect of Active Case Finding on Prevalence and Transmission of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Dhaka Central Jail, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Banu, Sayera; Rahman, Md. Toufiq; Uddin, Mohammad Khaja Mafij; Khatun, Razia; Khan, Md. Siddiqur Rahman; Rahman, Md. Mojibur; Uddin, Syed Iftekhar; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Heffelfinger, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding tuberculosis (TB) transmission dynamics is essential for establishing effective TB control strategies in settings where the burden and risk of transmission are high. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of active screening on controlling TB transmission and also to characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains for investigating transmission dynamics in a correctional setting. Methods The study was carried out in Dhaka Central Jail (DCJ), from October 2005 to February 2010. An active case finding strategy for pulmonary TB was established both at the entry point to the prison and inside the prison. Three sputum specimens were collected from all pulmonary TB suspects and subjected to smear microscopy, culture, and drug susceptibility testing as well as genotyping which included deletion analysis, spoligotyping and analysis of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU). Results A total of 60,585 inmates were screened during the study period. We found 466 inmates with pulmonary TB of whom 357 (77%) had positive smear microscopy results and 109 (23%) had negative smear microscopy results but had positive results on culture. The number of pulmonary TB cases declined significantly, from 49 cases during the first quarter to 8 cases in the final quarter of the study period (p=0.001). Deletion analysis identified all isolates as M. tuberculosis and further identified 229 (70%) strains as ‘modern’ and 100 (30%) strains as ‘ancestral’. Analysis of MIRU showed that 347 strains (85%) exhibited unique patterns, whereas 61 strains (15%) clustered into 22 groups. The largest cluster comprised eight strains of the Beijing M. tuberculosis type. The rate of recent transmission was estimated to be 9.6%. Conclusions Implementation of active screening for TB was associated with a decline in TB cases in DCJ. Implementation of active screening in prison settings might substantially reduce the national burden of TB in Bangladesh

  11. Status of Serum Calcium, Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone and Hematological Indices Among Lead Exposed Jewelry Workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, I; Goswami, K; Ali, Md Suhrab

    2017-03-01

    Jewelry utilizes lead either directly or as a base metal. Costume jewelry requires lead before molding and plating the product with valuable metals. Therefore, such ornaments have a great potential to release heavy metals having health hazards. Also, jewelry makers engaged in preparing German silver, an alloy, apply lead in smelting, alloying, rolling and milling silver wires and pieces. The metal is taken up by blood, soft tissues and bone. The biological effects of lead are dependent upon the level and duration of exposure. Lead inhibits three enzymes of heme biosynthesis- δ-amino-levulinic-acid dehydratase (ALAD), coproporphyrin oxidase, and ferrochelatase, impairing heme synthesis and depressing serum level of erythropoietin resulting in decreased hemoglobin synthesis. Lead exposure also affects calcium metabolism and impair the synthesis of Calcitriol. In the present study, jewelry makers from Dhaka, Bangladesh, were shown to have significantly high levels of lead, protein, albumin, and parathormone in their blood, and significantly high amount of zinc-protoporphyrin and δ-amino-levulinic-acid in their urine. The control group, on the other hand showed significantly higher amounts of calcium (both total and ionized form) Vitamin D3 and non-activated erythrocyte ALAD in their blood, along with hemoglobin. It might be due to inhibition of 1-α-hydroxylase enzyme in renal tubules. Lead causes nephro-toxicity and inhibits 1-α- hydroxylase enzyme leading to decreased calcitriol synthesis resulting in impaired calcium absorption across gastro-intestinal tract and renal tubules. Low Vitamin D3 and significantly increased Parathyroid hormone (PTH) in study group has been found.

  12. Hydrogeological analysis of the upper Dupi Tila Aquifer, towards the implementation of a managed aquifer-recharge project in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Wiegand, Bettina A.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Ptak, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    A preliminary feasibility assessment of managed aquifer-recharge (MAR) techniques was undertaken for Dhaka City, Bangladesh. Considering the top impermeable-layer (TIL) thickness and the land-use classification, four primary MAR techniques have been suggested: (1) soil-aquifer treatment (SAT) for TIL thickness 0-8 m, (2) cascade-type recharge trenches/pits for TIL thickness 9-30 m, (3) aquifer storage, transfer and recovery (ASR/ASTR) for TIL thickness 31-52 m, and (4) use of natural wetlands to recharge water collected from open spaces. The study suggests that recharge trenches and pits will be the most appropriate MAR techniques, which can be implemented in most parts of the recharge area (ca. 277 km2). In case of a recharge trench, the lower parts (15-20 m) that are in direct contact with the aquifer can be backfilled with biosand filters with a reactive layer containing metallic iron (Fe0) to offer pre-treatment of the infiltrated water. In addition to the suggested four techniques, the regional groundwater flow direction, from the northwest and northeast towards Dhaka City, may allow use of the aquifer as a natural treatment and transport medium for groundwater, if spreading basins are installed in the greater Dhaka area.

  13. A Bayesian approach for estimating under-reported dengue incidence with a focus on non-linear associations between climate and dengue in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sharmin, Sifat; Glass, Kathryn; Viennet, Elvina; Harley, David

    2016-05-13

    Determining the relation between climate and dengue incidence is challenging due to under-reporting of disease and consequent biased incidence estimates. Non-linear associations between climate and incidence compound this. Here, we introduce a modelling framework to estimate dengue incidence from passive surveillance data while incorporating non-linear climate effects. We estimated the true number of cases per month using a Bayesian generalised linear model, developed in stages to adjust for under-reporting. A semi-parametric thin-plate spline approach was used to quantify non-linear climate effects. The approach was applied to data collected from the national dengue surveillance system of Bangladesh. The model estimated that only 2.8% (95% credible interval 2.7-2.8) of all cases in the capital Dhaka were reported through passive case reporting. The optimal mean monthly temperature for dengue transmission is 29℃ and average monthly rainfall above 15 mm decreases transmission. Our approach provides an estimate of true incidence and an understanding of the effects of temperature and rainfall on dengue transmission in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

  14. Coping with changing conditions: alternative strategies for the delivery of maternal and child health and family planning services in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Routh, S.; el Arifeen, S.; Jahan, S. A.; Begum, A.; Thwin, A. A.; Baqui, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    The door-to-door distribution of contraceptives and information on maternal and child health and family planning (MCH-FP) services, through bimonthly visits to eligible couples by trained fieldworkers, has been instrumental in increasing the contraceptive prevalence rate and immunization coverage in Bangladesh. The doorstep delivery strategy, however, is labour-intensive and costly. More cost-effective service delivery strategies are needed, not only for family planning services but also for a broader package of reproductive and other essential health services. Against this backdrop, operations research was conducted by the Centre for Health and Population Research at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) from January 1996 to May 1997, in collaboration with government agencies and a leading national nongovernmental organization, with a view to developing and field-testing alternative approaches to the delivery of MCH-FP services in urban areas. Two alternative strategies featuring the withdrawal of home-based distribution and the delivery of basic health care from fixed-site facilities were tested in two areas of Dhaka. The clinic-based service delivery strategy was found to be a feasible alternative to the resource-intensive doorstep system in urban Dhaka. It did not adversely affect programme performance and it allowed the needs of clients to be addressed holistically through a package of essential health and family planning services. PMID:11242821

  15. Measurement of the atmospheric aerosol particle size distribution in a highly polluted mega-city in Southeast Asia (Dhaka-Bangladesh)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus; Mamoon, Hassan Al; Ullah, Md. Basir; Ullah, Shah M.

    2012-11-01

    Aerosol particle size distribution was measured with an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) spectrometer continuously from January 21 to April 24, 2006 in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Particles number, surface and mass distributions data were stored automatically with Aerosol Instrument Manager (AIM) software on average every half an hour in a computer attached to the APS. The grand total average of number, surface and mass concentrations were 8.2 × 103 ± 7.8 × 103 particles cm-3, 13.3 × 103 ± 11.8 × 103 μm2 cm-3 and 3.04 ± 2.10 mg m-3, respectively. Fine particles with diameter smaller than 1.0 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD) dominated the number concentration, accounted for 91.7% of the total particles indicating vehicular emissions were dominating in Dhaka air either from fossil fuel burning or compressed natural gas (CNGs). The surface and mass concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 μm AD were about 56.0% and 26.4% of the total particles, respectively. Remarkable seasonal differences were observed between winter and pre-monsoon seasons with the highest monthly average in January and the lowest in April. Aerosol particles in winter were 3.79 times higher for number, 3.15 times for surface and 2.18 times for mass distributions than during the pre-monsoon season. Weekends had lower concentrations than weekdays due to less vehicular traffic in the streets. Aerosol particles concentrations were about 15.0% (ranging from 9.4% to 17.3%) higher during traffic peak hours (6:00am-8:00pm) than off hours (8:00pm-6:00am). These are the first aerosol size distribution measurements with respect to number, surface and mass concentrations in real time at Dhaka, Bangladesh.

  16. Barriers to Timely and Safe Blood Transfusion for PPH Patients: Evidence from a Qualitative Study in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Sadika; Anwar, Iqbal; Akter, Rashida; Kumkum, Feroza Akhter; Nisha, Monjura Khatun; Ashraf, Fatema; Islam, Ferdousi; Begum, Nazneen; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Austin, Anne; Islam, Syed Shariful; Rahman, Aminur

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives In Bangladesh, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality accounting for 31% of all blood transfusions in the country. Although safe blood transfusion is one of the 8 signal functions of Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric Care (CEmOC) strategy, most of the designated public sector CEmOC facilities do not have on-site blood storage system. Emergent blood is mainly available from external blood banks. As a result, emergent patients are to rely on an unregulated network of brokers for blood which may raise question about blood safety. This study explored lived experiences of patients’ attendants, managers, providers, and blood brokers before and after the implementation of an on-line Blood Information and Management Application (BIMA) in regards to barriers and facilitators of blood transfusion for emergent patients. Methods Data were collected at Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH), a tertiary-level teaching hospital before (January 2014) and after (March 2015) the introduction of an online BIMA system. Data collection methods included 24 key informant interviews (KIIs) and 40 in-depth interviews (IDIs). KIIs were conducted with formal health service providers, health managers and unlicensed blood brokers. IDIs were conducted with the relatives and husbands of women who suffered PPH, and needed emergency blood. Results Patients’ attendants were unaware of patients’ blood type and availability of blood in emergency situation. Newly introduced online BIMA system could facilitate blood transfusion process for poor patients at lower cost and during any time of day and night. However, service providers and service recipients were heavily dependent on a network of unlicensed blood brokers for required blood for emergent PPH patients. Blood collected through unlicensed blood brokers is un-screened, unregulated and probably unsafe. Blood brokers feel that they are providing a needed service, acknowledged a

  17. Ferritin and Soluble Transferrin Receptors in Type 2 Diabetic and Non-diabetic Post-menopausal Women in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Md Ruhul, A; Sharmin, H; Luthfor, A; Farzana, S; Liaquat, A

    2010-12-01

    This cross-sectional comparative study was aimed at investigating the iron status of a group of post-menopausal women with and without diabetes. Thirty-five post-menopausal women in each group were selected purposively from among patients attending the out-patient department of Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), a specialist hospital, and two of its satellite clinics, all in Dhaka. Patients were enrolled based on their existing records. The subjects were matched on age, menstrual status and fasting status at blood draw. Ferritin, serum soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR) and fasting plasma glucose were measured by standard methods. Dietary information was collected by a specific food frequency questionnaire. No significant difference in plasma ferritin [62.02 ng/ml, (range: 4.68-288.89) vs 54.25 ng/ml (range: 4.58-137.17); p=0.28] was observed between the groups. But a higher level of plasma sTfR was found in diabetic women [(21.12 nmol/l (range: 7.91-39.79) vs 17.63 nmol/l (range: 10.30-110.00); p<0.01]. TFR-F index showed no difference between diabetic and control (p=0.25). Significantly a lower hemoglobin level [10.58±0.67 g/dl vs11.76±1.5 g/dl; p<0.01] was detected in diabetic women. Plasma sTfR (log) did not show any significant association with the dietary parameters and iron indices. No significant association between fasting glucose, ferritin and sTfR was seen except for haemoglobin (r=0.39, p=0.05). Total iron intake recorded was more than the requirement, and was significantly higher in control group [38.11mg/day (range: 19.83-105.63) vs 56.65 mg/day (range: 29.75-109.54); p<0.01)]. More than 97 % of total iron was of plant origin. No differences in heme iron [0.85 mg/day (range: 0.09-4.07) vs. 0.96 mg/day (range: 0.04-4.34), p= 0.17] and vitamin C intake was observed between the groups. Iron indices of non-diabetic women were within the normal range. A higher level of sTfR and a

  18. Pharmacokinetics of High-Dose Weekly Oral Vitamin D3 Supplementation during the Third Trimester of Pregnancy in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Daniel E.; Al Mahmud, Abdullah; Raqib, Rubhana; Akhtar, Evana; Black, Robert E.; Baqui, Abdullah H.

    2013-01-01

    A pharmacokinetic study was conducted to assess the biochemical dose-response and tolerability of high-dose prenatal vitamin D3 supplementation in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N). Pregnant women at 27–30 weeks gestation (n = 28) were randomized to 70,000 IU once + 35,000 IU/week vitamin D3 (group PH: pregnant, higher dose) or 14,000 IU/week vitamin D3 (PL: pregnant, lower dose) until delivery. A group of non-pregnant women (n = 16) was similarly administered 70,000 IU once + 35,000 IU/week for 10 weeks (NH: non-pregnant, higher-dose). Rise (∆) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration ([25(OH)D]) above baseline was the primary pharmacokinetic outcome. Baseline mean [25(OH)D] were similar in PH and PL (35 nmol/L vs. 31 nmol/L, p = 0.34). A dose-response effect was observed: ∆[25(OH)D] at modeled steady-state was 19 nmol/L (95% CI, 1 to 37) higher in PH vs. PL (p = 0.044). ∆[25(OH)D] at modeled steady-state was lower in PH versus NH but the difference was not significant (−15 nmol/L, 95% CI −34 to 5; p = 0.13). In PH, 100% attained [25(OH)D] ≥ 50 nmol/L and 90% attained [25(OH)D] ≥ 80 nmol/L; in PL, 89% attained [25(OH)D] ≥ 50 nmol/L but 56% attained [25(OH)D] ≥ 80 nmol/L. Cord [25(OH)D] (n = 23) was slightly higher in PH versus PL (117 nmol/L vs. 98 nmol/L; p = 0.07). Vitamin D3 was well tolerated; there were no supplement-related serious adverse clinical events or hypercalcemia. In summary, a regimen of an initial dose of 70,000 IU and 35,000 IU/week vitamin D3 in the third trimester of pregnancy was non-hypercalcemic and attained [25(OH)D] ≥ 80 nmol/L in virtually all mothers and newborns. Further research is required to establish the safety of high-dose vitamin D3 in pregnancy and to determine if supplement-induced [25(OH)D] elevations lead to maternal-infant health benefits. PMID:23482056

  19. Evidence of a dominant lineage of Vibrio cholerae-specific lytic bacteriophages shed by cholera patients over a 10-year period in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Seed, Kimberley D; Bodi, Kip L; Kropinski, Andrew M; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Camilli, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Lytic bacteriophages are hypothesized to contribute to the seasonality and duration of cholera epidemics in Bangladesh. However, the bacteriophages contributing to this phenomenon have yet to be characterized at a molecular genetic level. In this study, we isolated and sequenced the genomes of 15 bacteriophages from stool samples from cholera patients spanning a 10-year surveillance period in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Our results indicate that a single novel bacteriophage type, designated ICP1 (for the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh cholera phage 1) is present in all stool samples from cholera patients, while two other bacteriophage types, one novel (ICP2) and one T7-like (ICP3), are transient. ICP1 is a member of the Myoviridae family and has a 126-kilobase genome comprising 230 open reading frames. Comparative sequence analysis of ICP1 and related isolates from this time period indicates a high level of genetic conservation. The ubiquitous presence of ICP1 in cholera patients and the finding that the O1 antigen of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) serves as the ICP1 receptor suggest that ICP1 is extremely well adapted to predation of human-pathogenic V. cholerae O1.

  20. Using remote sensing and GIS to detect and monitor land use and land cover change in Dhaka Metropolitan of Bangladesh during 1960-2005.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Ashraf M; Yamaguchi, Yasushi

    2009-03-01

    This paper illustrates the result of land use/cover change in Dhaka Metropolitan of Bangladesh using topographic maps and multi-temporal remotely sensed data from 1960 to 2005. The Maximum likelihood supervised classification technique was used to extract information from satellite data, and post-classification change detection method was employed to detect and monitor land use/cover change. Derived land use/cover maps were further validated by using high resolution images such as SPOT, IRS, IKONOS and field data. The overall accuracy of land cover change maps, generated from Landsat and IRS-1D data, ranged from 85% to 90%. The analysis indicated that the urban expansion of Dhaka Metropolitan resulted in the considerable reduction of wetlands, cultivated land, vegetation and water bodies. The maps showed that between 1960 and 2005 built-up areas increased approximately 15,924 ha, while agricultural land decreased 7,614 ha, vegetation decreased 2,336 ha, wetland/lowland decreased 6,385 ha, and water bodies decreased about 864 ha. The amount of urban land increased from 11% (in 1960) to 344% in 2005. Similarly, the growth of landfill/bare soils category was about 256% in the same period. Much of the city's rapid growth in population has been accommodated in informal settlements with little attempt being made to limit the risk of environmental impairments. The study quantified the patterns of land use/cover change for the last 45 years for Dhaka Metropolitan that forms valuable resources for urban planners and decision makers to devise sustainable land use and environmental planning.

  1. The use of vouchers in HIV prevention, referral treatment, and care for young MSM and young transgender people in Dhaka, Bangladesh: experience from ‘HIM’ initiative

    PubMed Central

    Oyewale, Tajudeen O.; Ahmed, Shale; Ahmed, Farid; Tazreen, Mona; Uddin, Ziya; Rahman, Anisur; Oyediran, Kola A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The study described the effectiveness of a voucher scheme to access sexual and reproductive health and HIV services among young MSM and transgender people aged 15–24 years in Dhaka, Bangladesh, a country with HIV prevalence of less than 0.1%. Methods Descriptive and analytical methods were used to assess the net effects of biodemographic factors of the respondents on the voucher scheme. Effectiveness of the scheme was contextualized as target population coverage, and turnaround time of voucher redemption to access services. Results and discussion A total of 210 (87.9%) out of the 239 vouchers distributed were redeemed. The mean age of the identified young people was 19.6 years (SD = +2.6 years). The coverage of the scheme against the target population of 200 young MSM and 936 young transgender people was 88% (n = 175) and 4% (n = 35) respectively, with P < 0.001. The median turnaround time for voucher redemption was 7 days. The predictors of voucher turnaround time were age, education, and population group (P < 0.001). HIV testing and counselling was accessed by 160 (76%) respondents, one was positive and linked to antiretroviral treatment and 110 (52%) were diagnosed and treated for sexually transmitted infections. Conclusion The voucher scheme was effective in linking young MSM with sexual and reproductive health and HIV services in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The findings are consistent with the low HIV prevalence in the country. The scheme is, however, not optimal for linking young transgender people with services. PMID:26945145

  2. Using artificial neural network and satellite data to predict rice yield in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhand, Kawsar; Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Roytman, Leonid; Kogan, Felix; Goldberg, Mitch

    2015-09-01

    Rice production in Bangladesh is a crucial part of the national economy and providing about 70 percent of an average citizen's total calorie intake. The demand for rice is constantly rising as the new populations are added in every year in Bangladesh. Due to the increase in population, the cultivation land decreases. In addition, Bangladesh is faced with production constraints such as drought, flooding, salinity, lack of irrigation facilities and lack of modern technology. To maintain self sufficiency in rice, Bangladesh will have to continue to expand rice production by increasing yield at a rate that is at least equal to the population growth until the demand of rice has stabilized. Accurate rice yield prediction is one of the most important challenges in managing supply and demand of rice as well as decision making processes. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used to construct a model to predict Aus rice yield in Bangladesh. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)-based remote sensing satellite data vegetation health (VH) indices (Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and Temperature Condition Index (TCI) are used as input variables and official statistics of Aus rice yield is used as target variable for ANN prediction model. The result obtained with ANN method is encouraging and the error of prediction is less than 10%. Therefore, prediction can play an important role in planning and storing of sufficient rice to face in any future uncertainty.

  3. Hydrogeological evaluation of an over-exploited aquifer in Dhaka, Bangladesh towards the implementation of groundwater artificial recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizur Rahman, M.; Rusteberg, Bernd; Sauter, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The population of Dhaka City is presently about 12 million and according to present trends in population growth, that number will most likely increase to 17.2 million by the year 2025. A serious water crisis is expected due to the extremely limited quality and quantity of water resources in the region. Previous studies have shown that the current trend in groundwater resource development is non-sustainable due to over-exploitation of the regional aquifer system, resulting in rapidly decreasing groundwater levels of about 2 to 3 meters per year. Today, annual groundwater extraction clearly exceeds natural groundwater recharge. New water management strategies are needed to guarantee future generations of Dhaka City a secured and sustained water supply as well as sustainable development of the city. The implementation of groundwater artificial recharge (AR) is one potential measure. As the first step towards a new water management strategy for Dhaka City, the authors report on the hydrogeological conditions of the greater Dhaka region and from this are able to present the location of potential recharge sites and identify appropriate recharge technologies for AR implementation. The aquifers of greater Dhaka can be grouped in three major categories: Holocene Deposit, Pleistocene Deposit and Plio-Pleistocene Deposit. The aquifers are generally thick and multilayered with relatively high transmissivity and storage coefficients. AR is considered feasible due to the fact these aquifers are alluvium deposit aquifers which characteristically have moderate to high hydraulic conductivity. Low costs for recovery of recharged water and large recharge volume capacity are generally associated with aquifers of unconsolidated sediments. Spatial analysis of the region has shown that Karaniganj, Kotoali, Savar, Dhamrai, Singair upazila, which are situated in greater Dhaka region and close to Dhaka City, could serve as recharge sites to the subsurface by pond infiltration technique. A

  4. Shifting prevalence of major diarrheal pathogens in patients seeking hospital care during floods in 1998, 2004, and 2007 in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Harris, Aaron M; Chowdhury, Fahima; Begum, Yasmin Ara; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Faruque, Abu S G; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Harris, Jason B; Ryan, Edward T; Cravioto, Alejandro; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi

    2008-11-01

    Bangladesh experienced severe flooding and diarrheal epidemics in 2007. We compared flood data from 2007 with 2004 and 1998 for diarrheal patients attending the ICDDR,B hospital in Dhaka. In 2007, Vibrio cholerae O1 (33%), rotavirus (12%), and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) (12%) were most prevalent. More severe dehydration was seen in 2007 compared with 2004 and 1998 (P < 0.001). In 2007, V. cholerae O1 Inaba (52%) and Ogawa (48%) were seen, whereas in 2004 and 1998 it was primarily Inaba and the Ogawa types, respectively (P < 0.001). In 2007, 51% of ETEC produced the heat labile toxin (LT) (P < 0.001 compared with 2004), 22% expressed the heat stable (ST) (P < 0.001), and 27% were ST/LT positive (P = 0.231). The CS7 colonization factor (CF) was the most prevalent in 2007 (20% compared with 6% in 2004; P = 0.05). Our findings demonstrate alterations in clinical features and phenotypic changes of major bacterial pathogens in the recent Bangladesh flood.

  5. Estimation of diarrhoea incidence through flooding simulation in low-income community areas in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M.; Suetsugi, T.; Sunada, K.; Ichikawa, Y.; Kondo, N.; Nishida, K.

    2012-12-01

    An increase in waterborne illnesses related to floodings has been reported all over the world, especially in developing countries. In Dhaka City, floodings occur almost every year due to severe rainfall compounded by inadequate sewerage systems. Waterborne illnesses spread easily in an unhygienic environment. This study develops a method to estimate the incidences of diarrhoea associated with floodings using a flooding analysis. We performed a flooding analysis using a numerical flooding simulation model and investigated the relationship between floodwater depth and diarrhoea incidence. The incidence of diarrhoea was assessed through a mortality and morbidity survey conducted in 10 low-income communities in flood-prone areas of Dhaka City. The results revealed that there is a positive correlation between floodwater depth and indices of diarrhoea incidence. This indicates that a flooding analysis method can be used to estimate diarrhoea incidence.

  6. Meso-scale on-road vehicle emission inventory approach: a study on Dhaka City of Bangladesh supporting the 'cause-effect' analysis of the transport system.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Asif; Allan, Andrew; Zito, Rocco

    2016-03-01

    The study aims to develop an emission inventory (EI) approach and conduct an inventory for vehicular sources in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. A meso-scale modelling approach was adopted for the inventory; the factors that influence the emissions and the magnitude of emission variation were identified and reported on, which was an innovative approach to account emissions unlike the conventional inventory approaches. Two techniques for the emission inventory were applied, viz. (i) a combined top-down and bottom-up approach that considered the total vehicle population and the average diurnal on-road vehicle speed profile in the city and (ii) a bottom-up approach that accounted for road link-specific emissions of the city considering diurnal traffic volume and speed profiles of the respective roads. For the bottom-up approach, road link-specific detailed data were obtained through field survey in 2012, where mid-block traffic count of the day, vehicle speed profile, road network and congestion data were collected principally. The emission variances for the change in transport system characteristics (like change in fuel type, AC usage pattern, increased speed and reduced congestion/stopping) were predicted and analysed in this study; congestion influenced average speed of the vehicles, and fuel types in the vehicles were identified as the major stressors. The study performance was considered reasonable when comparing with the limited number of similar studies conducted earlier. Given the increasing trend of private vehicles each year coupled with increasing traffic congestion, the city is under threat of increased vehicular emissions unless a good management strategy is implemented. Although the inventory is conducted for Dhaka and the result may be important locally, the approach adopted in this research is innovative in nature to be followed for conducting research on other urban transport systems.

  7. Factors driving customers to seek health care from pharmacies for acute respiratory illness and treatment recommendations from drug sellers in Dhaka city, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Fahmida; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Iuliano, A Danielle; Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Ahmed, Makhdum; Haider, Sabbir; Rahman, Mahmudur; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Background Pharmacies in Bangladesh serve as an important source of health service. A survey in Dhaka reported that 48% of respondents with symptoms of acute respiratory illness (ARI) identified local pharmacies as their first point of care. This study explores the factors driving urban customers to seek health care from pharmacies for ARI, their treatment adherence, and outcome. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 selected pharmacies within Dhaka from June to December 2012. Study participants were patients or patients’ relatives aged >18 years seeking care for ARI from pharmacies without prescription. Structured interviews were conducted with customers after they sought health service from drug sellers and again over phone 5 days postinterview to discuss treatment adherence and outcome. Results We interviewed 302 customers patronizing 76 pharmacies; 186 (62%) sought care for themselves and 116 (38%) sought care for a sick relative. Most customers (215; 71%) were males. The majority (90%) of customers sought care from the study pharmacy as their first point of care, while 18 (6%) had previously sought care from another pharmacy and 11 (4%) from a physician for their illness episodes. The most frequently reported reasons for seeking care from pharmacies were ease of access to pharmacies (86%), lower cost (46%), availability of medicine (33%), knowing the drug seller (20%), and convenient hours of operation (19%). The most commonly recommended drugs were acetaminophen dispensed in 76% (228) of visits, antihistamine in 69% (208), and antibiotics in 42% (126). On follow-up, most (86%) of the customers had recovered and 12% had sought further treatment. Conclusion People with ARI preferred to seek care at pharmacies rather than clinics because these pharmacies were more accessible and provided prompt treatment and medicine with no service charge. We recommend raising awareness among drug sellers on proper dispensing practices and enforcement of

  8. Chlorination of Household Drinking Water Among Cholera Patients' Households to Prevent Transmission of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in Dhaka, Bangladesh: CHoBI7 Trial.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mahamud-Ur; George, Christine Marie; Monira, Shirajum; Mahmud, Toslim; Rahman, Zillur; Mustafiz, Munshi; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Zohura, Fatema; Begum, Farzana; Biswas, Shwapon Kumar; Akhter, Shamima; Zhang, Xiaotong; Sack, David; Sack, R Bradley; Alam, Munirul

    2016-12-07

    Household members of cholera patients are at a 100 times higher risk of cholera infections than the general population because of shared contaminated drinking water sources and secondary transmission through poor household hygiene practices. In this study, we investigated the bactericidal concentration of free chlorine required to inactivate Vibrio cholerae in household drinking water in Dhaka, Bangladesh. In laboratory experiments, we found that the concentrations of free chlorine required to inactivate 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL of V. cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 were 0.1 mg/L and 0.2 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of free chlorine generated by a single chlorine tablet (sodium dichloroisocyanurate [33 mg]) after a 30-minute reaction time in a 10-L sealed vessel containing Dhaka city municipal supply water was 1.8 mg/L; and the concentration declined to 0.26 mg/L after 24 hours. In field measurements, water collected from 165 households enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a chlorine and handwashing with soap intervention (Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days [CHoBI7]), we observed significantly higher free chlorine concentrations in the 82 intervention arm households (mean = 1.12 mg/L, standard deviation [SD] = 0.52, range = 0.07-2.6 mg/L) compared with the 83 control households (0.017 mg/L, SD = 0.01, range = 0-0.06 mg/L) (P < 0.001) during spot check visits. These findings suggest that point-of-use chlorine tablets present an effective approach to inactivate V. cholerae from drinking water in households of cholera patients in Dhaka city. This result is consistent with the findings from the RCT of CHoBI7 which found that this intervention led to a significant reduction in symptomatic cholera infections among household members of cholera patients and no stored drinking water samples with detectable V. cholerae.

  9. Integrated multi-criteria decision making techniques AHP with Geographic Information System for Modelling of suitable Landfill location: a case study in Keraniganj of Dhaka city, Bangladesh.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study is approaches a GIS based multi-criteria decision making technique to select potential land fill in Keraniganj of Dhaka city in Bangladesh. Site selection of landfill for Municipal solid waste is an important concern for the urban government in whole world. Dhaka city is highly dense populated city in Bangladesh and municipal solid waste generation rate is increase rapidly day by day. These large amount of generated municipal waste needs appropriate landfill considering environmental, geological, social and technical aspect of the region. The traditional process of site selection process is much difficult, time consuming and costly and needs to replace by a new approaches. An integration of Geographical Information System (GIS) and Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) method is best combination to solve complex decision and used to select suitable site. Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP) is world widely most popular decision making MCE technique. In this study AHP used as a multi-criteria decision making to compare five suitability attributes with each other and evaluate weight according to attributes potentiality. Various type raster map layer created using GIS tool for this study. Five suitability raster was assigned with the AHP calculated weight value. A combined weighted spatial layer obtained name as suitability map which is overlapped with a restriction raster map, as result a final suitable map was obtained. The result shows that 12.2% of the area is suitable for constructing landfill site where 4.9% is very high suitable, 2.6% is moderate suitable and 4.7% is low suitable. The final site is constructed after detail field investigation, other technical investigation, land ownership status and public acceptancy. Suitable site selection for non-hazardous landfill is not easy and its needs to consider many environmental factor at time. GIS tool combining with many decision making tool such as multi-criteria evaluation can solve this problem. A combining

  10. Differences in field effectiveness and adoption between a novel automated chlorination system and household manual chlorination of drinking water in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Amy J; Crider, Yoshika; Amin, Nuhu; Bauza, Valerie; Unicomb, Leanne; Davis, Jennifer; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    The number of people served by networked systems that supply intermittent and contaminated drinking water is increasing. In these settings, centralized water treatment is ineffective, while household-level water treatment technologies have not been brought to scale. This study compares a novel low-cost technology designed to passively (automatically) dispense chlorine at shared handpumps with a household-level intervention providing water disinfection tablets (Aquatab), safe water storage containers, and behavior promotion. Twenty compounds were enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and randomly assigned to one of three groups: passive chlorinator, Aquatabs, or control. Over a 10-month intervention period, the mean percentage of households whose stored drinking water had detectable total chlorine was 75% in compounds with access to the passive chlorinator, 72% in compounds receiving Aquatabs, and 6% in control compounds. Both interventions also significantly improved microbial water quality. Aquatabs usage fell by 50% after behavioral promotion visits concluded, suggesting intensive promotion is necessary for sustained uptake. The study findings suggest high potential for an automated decentralized water treatment system to increase consistent access to clean water in low-income urban communities.

  11. Differences in Field Effectiveness and Adoption between a Novel Automated Chlorination System and Household Manual Chlorination of Drinking Water in Dhaka, Bangladesh: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Amy J.; Crider, Yoshika; Amin, Nuhu; Bauza, Valerie; Unicomb, Leanne; Davis, Jennifer; Luby, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    The number of people served by networked systems that supply intermittent and contaminated drinking water is increasing. In these settings, centralized water treatment is ineffective, while household-level water treatment technologies have not been brought to scale. This study compares a novel low-cost technology designed to passively (automatically) dispense chlorine at shared handpumps with a household-level intervention providing water disinfection tablets (Aquatab), safe water storage containers, and behavior promotion. Twenty compounds were enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and randomly assigned to one of three groups: passive chlorinator, Aquatabs, or control. Over a 10-month intervention period, the mean percentage of households whose stored drinking water had detectable total chlorine was 75% in compounds with access to the passive chlorinator, 72% in compounds receiving Aquatabs, and 6% in control compounds. Both interventions also significantly improved microbial water quality. Aquatabs usage fell by 50% after behavioral promotion visits concluded, suggesting intensive promotion is necessary for sustained uptake. The study findings suggest high potential for an automated decentralized water treatment system to increase consistent access to clean water in low-income urban communities. PMID:25734448

  12. Influence of gender roles and rising food prices on poor, pregnant women’s eating and food provisioning practices in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal malnutrition in Bangladesh is a persistent health issue and is the product of a number of complex factors, including adherence to food 'taboos’ and a patriarchal gender order that limits women’s mobility and decision-making. The recent global food price crisis is also negatively impacting poor pregnant women’s access to food. It is believed that those who are most acutely affected by rising food prices are the urban poor. While there is an abundance of useful quantitative research centered on maternal nutrition and food insecurity measurements in Bangladesh, missing is an understanding of how food insecurity is experienced by people who are most vulnerable, the urban ultra-poor. In particular, little is known of the lived experience of food insecurity among pregnant women in this context. This research investigated these lived experiences by exploring food provisioning strategies of urban, ultra-poor, pregnant women. This knowledge is important as discussions surrounding the creation of new development goals are currently underway. Methods Using a focused-ethnographic approach, household food provisioning experiences were explored. Data from participant observation, a focus group discussion and semi-structured interviews were collected in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Interviews were undertaken with 28 participants including 12 pregnant women and new mothers, two husbands, nine non-pregnant women, and five health care workers. Results The key findings are: 1) women were aware of the importance of good nutrition and demonstrated accurate, biomedically-based knowledge of healthy eating practices during pregnancy; 2) the normative gender rules that have traditionally constrained women’s access to nutritional resources are relaxing in the urban setting; however 3) women are challenged in accessing adequate quality and quantities of food due to the increase in food prices at the market. Conclusions Rising food prices and resultant food

  13. Cost of behavior change communication channels of Manoshi -a maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) program in urban slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The cost of behavior change communication (BCC) interventions has not been rigorously studied in Bangladesh. This study was conducted to assess the implementation costs of a BCC intervention in a maternal, neonatal and child health program (Manoshi) run by BRAC, which has been operating in the urban slums of Dhaka since 2007. The study estimates the costs of BCC tools per exposure among the different types of BCC channels: face-to-face, group counseling, and mass media. Methods The study was conducted from November 2010 to April 2011 in the Dhaka urban slum area. A micro-costing approach was applied using primary and secondary data sources to estimate the cost of BCC tools. Primary data were collected through interviews with service-providers and managers from the Manoshi program, observations of group counseling, and mass media events. Results Per exposure, the cost of face-to-face counseling was found to be 3.08 BDT during pregnancy detection, 3.11 BDT during pregnancy confirmation, 12.42 BDT during antenatal care, 18.96 BDT during delivery care and 22.65 BDT during post-natal care. The cost per exposure of group counseling was 22.71 BDT (95% CI 21.30-24.87) for Expected Date of Delivery (EDD) meetings, 14.25 BDT (95% CI 12.37-16.12) for Women Support Group meetings, 17.83 BDT (95% CI 14.90-20.77) for MNCH committee meetings and 6.62 BDT (95% CI 5.99-7.26) for spouse forum meetings. We found the cost per exposure for mass media interventions was 9.54 BDT (95% CI 7.30-12.53) for folk songs, 26.39 BDT (95% CI 23.26-32.56) for street dramas, 0.39 BDT for TV-broadcasting and 7.87 BDT for billboards. Considering all components reaching the target audience under each broader type of channel, the total cost per exposure was found to be 60.22 BDT (0.82 USD) for face-to-face counseling, 61.40 BDT (0.82 USD) for group counseling and 44.19 BDT (0.61 USD) for mass media. Conclusions The total cost for group counseling was the highest per exposure, followed by face

  14. Using NOAA/AVHRR based remote sensing data and PCR method for estimation of Aus rice yield in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Akhand, Kawsar; Roytman, Leonid; Kogan, Felix; Goldberg, Mitch

    2015-06-01

    Rice is a dominant food crop of Bangladesh accounting about 75 percent of agricultural land use for rice cultivation and currently Bangladesh is the world's fourth largest rice producing country. Rice provides about two-third of total calorie supply and about one-half of the agricultural GDP and one-sixth of the national income in Bangladesh. Aus is one of the main rice varieties in Bangladesh. Crop production, especially rice, the main food staple, is the most susceptible to climate change and variability. Any change in climate will, thus, increase uncertainty regarding rice production as climate is major cause year-to-year variability in rice productivity. This paper shows the application of remote sensing data for estimating Aus rice yield in Bangladesh using official statistics of rice yield with real time acquired satellite data from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor and Principal Component Regression (PCR) method was used to construct a model. The simulated result was compared with official agricultural statistics showing that the error of estimation of Aus rice yield was less than 10%. Remote sensing, therefore, is a valuable tool for estimating crop yields well in advance of harvest, and at a low cost.

  15. Tablets are preferred and more acceptable than powdered prenatal calcium supplements among pregnant women in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Jo-Anna B; Roth, Daniel E; Al Mahmud, Abdullah; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Islam, Munirul; Zlotkin, Stanley H

    2014-07-01

    Prenatal calcium supplementation is recommended by the WHO to decrease the risk of preeclampsia in women with low dietary calcium intake; yet, this recommendation has not been successfully implemented to date. One component of an effective population-based prenatal calcium intervention will be the selection of a widely accepted calcium vehicle to promote consistent, long-term consumption of the supplement. We aimed to evaluate preference and acceptability of 4 different options for delivering prenatal calcium (conventional tablets, chewable tablets, unflavored powder, and flavored powder) to pregnant women in urban Bangladesh. In a modified discrete-choice trial, pregnant women (n = 132) completed a 4-d "run-in period" in which each delivery vehicle was sampled once, followed by a 21-d "selection period" during which participants were instructed to freely select a single delivery vehicle of their choice each day. Preference was empirically defined as the probability that each delivery vehicle was selected on a given day, and measured from participants' daily delivery vehicle selections; acceptability was assessed by using mid- and post-trial questionnaires. Conventional tablets demonstrated the highest probability of selection (62%); the probability of selection of chewable tablets (19%), flavored powder (12%), and unflavored powder (5%) were all significantly lower than for conventional tablets (P < 0.001). The palatability and product characteristics of the conventional tablets were more acceptable than for the other 3 delivery vehicles. Our rigorous methodologic approach used both quantitative and self-reported measures that consistently identified the most preferred and accepted prenatal calcium delivery form. Through observation of pregnant women's actual supplement use, and perceptions of acceptability (i.e., ease of use, palatability), we demonstrated that conventional tablets are likely to be the most accepted and successful calcium delivery vehicle in

  16. Site Suitability Analysis for Dissemination of Salt-tolerant Rice Varieties in Southern Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, D. D.; Singh, A. N.; Singh, U. S.

    2014-11-01

    Bangladesh is a country of 14.4 million ha geographical area and has a population density of more than 1100 persons per sq. km. Rice is the staple food crop, growing on about 72 % of the total cultivated land and continues to be the most important crop for food security of the country. A project "Sustainable Rice Seed Production and Delivery Systems for Southern Bangladesh" has been executed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in twenty southern districts of Bangladesh. These districts grow rice in about 2.9 million ha out of the country's total rice area of 11.3 million ha. The project aims at contributing to the Government of Bangladesh's efforts in improving national and household food security through enhanced and sustained productivity by using salinity-, submergence- and drought- tolerant and high yielding rice varieties. Out of the 20 project districts, 12 coastal districts are affected by the problem of soil salinity. The salt-affected area in Bangladesh has increased from about 0.83 million ha in 1973 to 1.02 million ha in 2000, and 1.05 million ha in 2009 due to the influence of cyclonic storms like "Sidr", "Laila" and others, leading to salt water intrusion in croplands. Three salinity-tolerant rice varieties have recently been bred by IRRI and field tested and released by the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) and Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA). These varieties are BRRI dhan- 47 and Bina dhan-8 and - 10. However, they can tolerate soil salinity level up to EC 8-10 dSm-1, whereas the EC of soils in several areas are much higher. Therefore, a large scale dissemination of these varieties can be done only when a site suitability analysis of the area is carried out. The present study was taken up with the objective of preparing the site suitability of the salt-tolerant varieties for the salinity-affected districts of southern Bangladesh. Soil salinity map prepared by Soil Resources Development Institute of

  17. Knowledge and awareness of children's food safety among school-based street food vendors in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Al Mamun, Mohammad; Rahman, Shah Md Mahfuzur; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury

    2013-04-01

    We carried out a cross-sectional study to determine the level of knowledge and awareness regarding children's food safety issues among the school-based street food vendors in Dhaka city. A total of 250 school-based street food vendors were interviewed employing a pre-tested structured questionnaire comprising foodborne illness and food hygiene-related questions. We used a scoring system based on the responses obtained from them, and categorized the overall level of knowledge and awareness into "adequate" and "inadequate." Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the association between selected sociodemographic characteristics and the level of knowledge and awareness. The most common food item vended by school-based street food vendors was chotpoti/fuchka (37.2%). The median number of schoolchildren customers was 120 per vendor per day. All (100%) vendors were male with a mean age of 30.95±8.8 years, and their mean daily income was 131.16±62.54 Bangladeshi Taka (1.97±0.94 USD). Most (40.1%) of the respondents belonged to the age group 25-34 years, and the majority (43.6%) did not have any formal education. More than two-thirds (68%) vendors could not show adequate level of knowledge and awareness of children's food safety issues. The most common source of obtaining food safety information by vendors was electronic media (91.8%). Elderly (≥45 years) vendors were 17.73 times more likely to have adequate level of knowledge and awareness than the vendors belonging to age group 15-24 years (p<0.001; adjusted OR=17.73; 95% CI=4.38-71.73). Individuals who had an education of higher than primary level were 9.87 times more likely to possess adequate level of knowledge and awareness than those who did not have any formal education (p<0.01; adjusted OR=9.87; 95% CI=2.07-46.93). The majority of school-based street food vendors showed an inadequate level of knowledge and awareness of children's food safety issues.

  18. Frequency of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) among re-treatment cases in NIDCH, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Noor, Rashed; Akhter, Safia; Rahman, Farjana; Munshi, Saurab Kishore; Kamal, S M Mostofa; Feroz, Farahnaaz

    2013-04-01

    Emergence of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) in Bangladesh has increased as a result of the inadequate management of TB-infected individuals. The present study attempted to detect the frequency of multidrug resistance (MDR) among the TB patients categorically from relapse, category I failure, category II failure, and return after default category I and II cases, using the conventional drug susceptibility test. Among 100 sputum specimens from all four categories, 81 and 84 positive cases were identified under light-emitting diode fluorescence microscope and the Lowenstein-Jensen (L-J) culture method, respectively. Of 84 culture-positive cases, elevated resistance was observed against isoniazid (89.3 %) and rifampicin (91.7 %) compared to that against streptomycin (53.6 %) and ethambutol (47.7 %). Resistance against ofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and kanamycin was 8.3, 5.9, and 2.4 %, consecutively. Fifty-nine cases were found to be MDR-TB. Two of these cases, which showed resistance against kanamycin and ofloxacin, were further identified as XDR. The proportion of XDR cases was more likely to be in the return after default category I and II cases.

  19. Prevalence of depression and its associated factors in patients with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional study in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Rawal, Lal B; Niessen, Louis W

    2015-10-01

    Depression is a common feature in patients with type 2 diabetes and often remains undetected and untreated, causing increased morbidity and mortality. We explored the prevalence of co-morbid depression and its associated factors, including major life-events among patients with type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 515 patients with type 2 diabetes between September 2013 and July 2014 in a tertiary hospital in Dhaka city. We assessed depression using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) with predefined cut-off scores of 5, 10, 15 and 20 to indicate minimal, mild, moderate, moderately-severe, and severe depression. Associations between depression and its associated factors were explored using univariate and multivariate regression. Overall, 61.9% participants had depressive symptoms, and the prevalence was higher among females (70.9%) compared to males (50.6%). One-third (35.7%) of participants had mild depression and 36.2% had moderate to severe depression. In the multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated with depression were: age≤60 years (OR: 2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.6; p≤0.006), female gender (OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.3-3.0; p≤0.002), those having 1-3 complications (OR=2.3, 95% CI=1.2-4.3; p=0.010), experienced loss of business or crop failure (OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.6; p=0.006), major family conflicts (OR=2.2, 95% CI=1.4-3.5; p≤0.001), separation or deaths of family members or divorce (OR=2.2, 95% CI=1.4-3.5; p≤0.001), and those who experienced unavailability of food or medicines (OR=2.2, 95% CI=1.0-4.5; p=0.038). Patients with diabetes, especially females, those having other complications, and major life-events should routinely be screened for symptoms of depression with adequate management of these conditions.

  20. Typhoid Fever and its association with environmental factors in the Dhaka Metropolitan Area of Bangladesh: a spatial and time-series approach.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Ashraf M; Corner, Robert; Hashizume, Masahiro; Ongee, Emmanuel T

    2013-01-01

    Typhoid fever is a major cause of death worldwide with a major part of the disease burden in developing regions such as the Indian sub-continent. Bangladesh is part of this highly endemic region, yet little is known about the spatial and temporal distribution of the disease at a regional scale. This research used a Geographic Information System to explore, spatially and temporally, the prevalence of typhoid in Dhaka Metropolitan Area (DMA) of Bangladesh over the period 2005-9. This paper provides the first study of the spatio-temporal epidemiology of typhoid for this region. The aims of the study were: (i) to analyse the epidemiology of cases from 2005 to 2009; (ii) to identify spatial patterns of infection based on two spatial hypotheses; and (iii) to determine the hydro-climatological factors associated with typhoid prevalence. Case occurrences data were collected from 11 major hospitals in DMA, geocoded to census tract level, and used in a spatio-temporal analysis with a range of demographic, environmental and meteorological variables. Analyses revealed distinct seasonality as well as age and gender differences, with males and very young children being disproportionately infected. The male-female ratio of typhoid cases was found to be 1.36, and the median age of the cases was 14 years. Typhoid incidence was higher in male population than female (χ(2) = 5.88, p<0.05). The age-specific incidence rate was highest for the 0-4 years age group (277 cases), followed by the 60+ years age group (51 cases), then there were 45 cases for 15-17 years, 37 cases for 18-34 years, 34 cases for 35-39 years and 11 cases for 10-14 years per 100,000 people. Monsoon months had the highest disease occurrences (44.62%) followed by the pre-monsoon (30.54%) and post-monsoon (24.85%) season. The Student's t test revealed that there is no significant difference on the occurrence of typhoid between urban and rural environments (p>0.05). A statistically significant inverse association was

  1. Ponds and Rice Fields: The Hydrology and Chemistry of Aquifer Recharge in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, R. B.; Harvey, C. F.

    2007-12-01

    The shallow aquifer in Bangladesh, which provides drinking water for millions and irrigation water for innumerable rice fields, is severely contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic. Water balance calculations show that surface ponds and irrigated rice fields are the primary sources of recharge to this contaminated aquifer. Recharge from an individual rice field is both temporally and spatially heterogeneous, whereas flow from a pond is more constant and uniform through the pond sediments. Rice field recharge is focused through bunds (the berms surrounding the field), and depends on irrigation intervals. Field flow patterns are controlled by cracks and the development of an unsaturated zone. The water chemistry of these two recharge sources is distinctly different. Compared to the rice fields, ponds contribute recharge with a higher organic carbon load and increased concentrations of solutes associated with anoxic microbial respiration. The differences in the recharge behavior and solute loads of these two sources may explain the spatial patterns of groundwater chemistry that control arsenic concentrations.

  2. Accumulation of heavy metals in soil and their transfer to leafy vegetables in the region of Dhaka Aricha Highway, Savar, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Aktaruzzaman, M; Fakhruddin, A N M; Chowdhury, M A Z; Fardous, Z; Alam, M K

    2013-04-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in environmental matrices is a potential risk to living system due to their uptake by plants and subsequent introduction into the food chain. A study was conducted to investigate the heavy metals concentration in soils and leafy vegetables samples along the Dhaka Aricha Road to assess their potential ecological risk. Heavy metals concentration was analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Concentrations ofallthetestedheavy metals except Cd in soil samples were below the permissible level. The mean concentration of Cd was found 3.99 +/- 1.85 mg kg(-1). Concentrations of all the tested heavy metals except Cd and Cr in vegetables samples were lower than recommended level. Mean concentration of Cd and Cr were found 1.00 +/- 0.68 mg kg(-1) and 2.32 +/- 0.84 mg kg(-1), respectively. Based on the Potential Ecological Risk Index, Cd posed very high risk to the local ecosystem due to its higher Risk Factor, > 320 and based on Transfer Factor of Pb and Cd were found higher accumulator among the tested metals. The results of present study revealed that the bioconcentration of heavy metals along the Dhaka Aricha Road posed high risk to the ecosystem. Considering the Transfer Factor of Cd and Pb it can be suggested that plants and leafy vegetables grow in the soil near Dhaka Aricha Road should not be used as food or feed.

  3. Spatial distribution and temporal variability of arsenic in irrigated rice fields in Bangladesh. 2. Paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Jessica; Voegelin, Andreas; Roberts, Linda C; Hug, Stephan J; Saha, Ganesh C; Ali, M Ashraf; Badruzzaman, A Borhan M; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2007-09-01

    Arsenic-rich groundwater from shallow tube wells is widely used for the irrigation of boro rice in Bangladesh and West Bengal. In the long term this may lead to the accumulation of As in paddy soils and potentially have adverse effects on rice yield and quality. In the companion article in this issue, we have shown that As input into paddy fields with irrigation water is laterally heterogeneous. To assess the potential for As accumulation in soil, we investigated the lateral and vertical distribution of As in rice field soils near Sreenagar (Munshiganj, Bangladesh) and its changes over a 1 year cycle of irrigation and monsoon flooding. At the study site, 18 paddy fields are irrigated with water from a shallow tube well containing 397 +/- 7 microg L(-1) As. The analysis of soil samples collected before irrigation in December 2004 showed that soil As concentrations in paddy fields did not depend on the length of the irrigation channel between well and field inlet. Within individual fields, however, soil As contents decreased with increasing distance to the water inlet, leading to highly variable topsoil As contents (11-35 mg kg(-1), 0-10 cm). Soil As contents after irrigation (May 2005) showed that most As input occurred close to the water inlet and that most As was retained in the top few centimeters of soil. After monsoon flooding (December 2005), topsoil As contents were again close to levels measured before irrigation. Thus, As input during irrigation was at least partly counteracted by As mobilization during monsoon flooding. However, the persisting lateral As distribution suggests net arsenic accumulation over the past 15 years. More pronounced As accumulation may occur in regions with several rice crops per year, less intense monsoon flooding, or different irrigation schemes. The high lateral and vertical heterogeneity of soil As contents must be taken into account in future studies related to As accumulation in paddy soils and potential As transfer into rice.

  4. Hydrology of a groundwater-irrigated rice field in Bangladesh: Seasonal and daily mechanisms of infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Rebecca B.; Polizzotto, Matthew L.; Badruzzaman, A. Borhan M.; Ali, M. Ashraf; Zhang, Zhongyuan; Harvey, Charles F.

    2009-09-01

    Flow through a groundwater-irrigated rice field in Bangladesh was characterized with data collected from a transect of tensiometers and time domain reflectometry sensors, novel tracer tests, infiltration tests, soil core analyses, and calculated water budgets. The combined data captured the dynamic hydrologic behavior of the rice field over an entire growing season, which included many irrigation events. Recharge to the aquifer flowed from the surface of the rice field through preferential flow paths located in the subsoil beneath the plowed surface of the field and in the bunds, the raised boundaries around the perimeter of the field. Water that remained within the soil matrix did not recharge the aquifer. Bund flow was the dominant loss for the field because the bulk hydraulic conductivity of the soil beneath the bunds was greater than that in the plowed and planted region of the rice field. Each year, farmers plow the rice fields, destroying cracks and decreasing the conductivity of the shallow soil, but leave the bunds unplowed because they follow property boundaries. We determined bund flow with a daily water balance and confirmed its importance by comparing irrigation losses among fields of different sizes and geometries and hence different ratios of perimeter to area. The perimeter-to-area ratio predicted the fraction of water lost down the bunds for these and other fields located throughout Southeast Asia. Finally, we determined the economic and environmental benefits of reducing bund flow.

  5. Factors associated with relapse into drug use among male and female attendees of a three-month drug detoxification–rehabilitation programme in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine relapse rates and associated factors among people who use drugs (PWUDs) attending abstinence-oriented drug treatment clinics in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods A cohort of male and female PWUDs admitted to the 3-month drug detoxification-rehabilitation treatment programmes of three non-governmental organisation-run drug treatment clinics in Dhaka, Bangladesh were interviewed on admission and over the following 5 months, which included the first 2 months after discharge. The study subjects comprised 150 male and 110 female PWUDs who had been taking opiates/opioids, cannabis or other drugs (including sedatives) before admission, had provided informed consent and were aged ≥16 years. Interviews were conducted using semi-structured questionnaires at four time points; on admission, at discharge and at 1 and 2 months after discharge. Relapse rates were assessed by the Kaplan–Meier method. Factors associated with relapse on enrolment and after discharge were determined using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results A greater proportion of female than male subjects relapsed over the study period (71.9% versus 54.5%, p < 0.01). For men, baseline factors associated with relapse were living with other PWUDs (relative hazard ratio [RHR] = 2.27), living alone (RHR = 2.35) and not having sex with non-commercial partners (RHR = 2.27); whereas for women these were previous history of drug treatment (RHR = 1.94), unstable housing (RHR = 2.44), higher earnings (RHR = 1.89), preferring to smoke heroin (RHR = 3.62) and injecting buprenorphine/pethidine (RHR = 3.00). After discharge, relapse for men was associated with unstable housing (RHR = 2.78), living alone (RHR = 3.69), higher earnings (RHR = 2.48) and buying sex from sex workers (RHR = 2.29). Women’ relapses were associated with not having children to support (RHR = 3.24) and selling sex (RHR = 2.56). Conclusions The relapse rate was higher for female PWUDs. For both male and female

  6. Are children living on dead-end streets more active? Near-home street patterns and school-going children's time spent outdoors in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Monsur, Muntazar; Mansur, Mohaimen; Islam, Mohammed Zakiul

    2016-12-06

    This study aimed to investigate relationships between near-home street patterns and children's time spent outdoors (TSO). Participants were 60 (n=60) school-age Dhaka children, 7-11years old (16 girls and 44 boys) selected by a two-phase cluster sampling method. Data were collected from September 2010 to June 2011 by visiting each of 60 children's homes. Children's mean TSOs (in minutes) were reported by parents' face-to-face interviews, and near-home street pattern data were collected by systematic direct observations. The researchers also collected data on seven socio-demographic variables and three neighborhood built-environment variables. A backward selection based multiple linear regression was used to examine association between children's TSO and near-home street patterns. Results (adjusted R(2)=0.66 for weekdays and 0.68 for weekend) suggested that children's TSO were significantly associated with near-home street type: dead-end instead of through streets (28min on weekdays, p<0.01 and 66min on weekend, p<0.01). The width of the street, level of its branching and availability of an open space or playground near the house are also positively associated with TSO. Near-home street features significantly contribute to TSO in school-going children of Dhaka.

  7. Shelter-Based Community Libraries: In Search of Alternative Livelihoods for Pavement Dwellers in Dhaka City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasiruddin, Md.

    2013-01-01

    Each night, around 20,000 people--both adults and children--make the streets of Dhaka (the capital city of Bangladesh) their home. Living amongst the noise, rubbish, and traffic, thousands of families walk down the streets of Dhaka, looking for a safe place to rest for just a few hours each night. Trapped in a vicious cycle of poverty, the…

  8. Increased severity in patients presenting to hospital with diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh Since emergence of the hybrid strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 is not unique to cholera patients

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Fahima; Kuchta, Alison; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Faruque, ASG; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Ryan, Edward T.; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-01-01

    In 2001, a hybrid strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor that expresses a classical cholera toxin (CT) emerged and this hybrid variant rapidly replaced the previous El Tor strain around the world. The global emergence of this variant coincided with anecdotal reports that cholera patients were presenting with more severe dehydration and disease in many locations. We compared severity of disease in cholera patients from before and after emergence of the hybrid strain at a diarrheal hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We did indeed find that cholera patients presented with more severe dehydration and severe disease in the latter period; however, this was also true for “all non-cholera patients” as well. In addition, in sub-analyses of patients who presented with rotavirus and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), we found similar results. Comparing the two periods for differences in patient characteristics, nutritional status, vaccination status and income, we were unable to detect a plausible cause for patients presenting with more severe disease in the latter period. Because we observed a shift in severity for both cholera and non-cholera, our results indicate that the altered El Tor strain cannot fully explain the differences in cholera severity before and after 2001 PMID:26409202

  9. Durbolota (weakness), chinta rog (worry illness), and poverty: explanations of white discharge among married adolescent women in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2007-03-01

    I carried out ethnographic fieldwork among 153 married adolescent girls, aged 15-19, in a Dhaka slum from December 2001 to January 2003, including 50 in-depth interviews and eight case studies. I also held discussions with family and community members. In this article, I focus on popular understandings of vaginal discharge being caused by durbolota (weakness) and chinta rog (worry illness), as mentioned by young women. Eighty-eight young women reported that they had experienced white discharge, blaming it on a number of factors such as stress and financial hardships, tensions in the household, marital instability, hunger anxiety, and reproductive burdens. For married adolescent women in the urban slum, white discharge has many levels of meaning linked to the broader social, political, and material inequalities in their everyday lives.

  10. Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The population of Bangladesh was 104 million in 1986, with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The country's infant mortality rate is 12.1%, and life expectancy stands at 54 years. The literacy rate is 29%. The work force of 34.1 million is distributed among agriculture (74%), industry (11%), and services (15%). The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$15.3 billion, with a real annual growth rate of 3.6% and a per capita GDP of $151. As one of the world's poorest and most densely populated countries, Bangladesh must struggle to produce domestically and import enough food to feed its rapidly increasing population. The country's transportation, communications, and power infrastructure is relatively poorly developed. Since 1971, an emphasis has been placed on developing new industrial capacity and rehabilitating the economy. The statist economic model, including nationalization of the key jute industry, had resulted in inefficiency and economic stagnation. At present, rapid population growth, inefficiency in the public sector, and restricted natural resources and capital continue to impede economic development. On the other hand, economic policies aimed at encouraging private enterprise and investment, denationalizing public industries, reinstating budgetary discipline, and mobilizing domestic resources are beginning to have an impact. Underemployment remains a serious problem, and there are growing concerns regarding the ability of the agricultural sector to absorb additional manpower. To reach the goal of 10% annual industrial growth for the 1986-89 period, the government is aggressively seeking foreign investment.

  11. Experimental magnetism research in Dhaka, Hanoi and Uppsala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordblad, Per

    2015-04-01

    Promoting basic science in developing countries is the aim of the International Science Program at Uppsala University, Sweden. This program, that some years ago celebrated its 50th anniversary, has been the main supporting agency of my more than 30 years of collaboration with research groups in Dhaka at Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology and the Atomic Energy Commission, and research groups in Hanoi at the Vietnamese Academy of Science. Our common research on magnetism and magnetic materials has been built upon: (i) Longer visits (about half of their total PhD studies) by PhD students from Hanoi and Dhaka at Uppsala University that ends by PhD exams from their home Universities; (ii) short time visits (up to 2 months) by senior scientists to Uppsala for discussions and measurements; (iii) short visits by me and colleagues from Uppsala in Hanoi and Dhaka for discussions, workshops and conferences; (iv) mutual visits of scientists from Bangladesh and Vietnam to each other and neighboring countries (mostly India) for specific experiments and learning new methods and (v) some support for purchase of research equipment. The work with Dhaka and Hanoi and other countries has resulted in: development of internationally competitive research groups in Hanoi and Dhaka that independently publish in international journals, several PhDs that continue their work at the home institutes, numerous common publications in international scientific journals and not the least lasting professional and personal connections between scientists in Bangladesh, Vietnam, Thailand, Eritrea, India and Sweden.

  12. Living on the Edge of Stagnant Water: An Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Construction-Phase Drainage Congestion Along Dhaka City Flood Control Embankment, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasid, Harun; Mallsk, Azim U.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental impacts of the construction-phase drainage congestion along the Dhaka City Flood Control Embankment were assessed by a pilot questionnaire survey (in 1991) among the target population adjacent to the embankment. The results of the survey indicated that, despite significant alleviation of river flooding, the majority of the respondents experienced a new type of flood problem in the form of stagnant water inside the embankment, immediately following its construction. Not only had this stagnant water flooded and damaged their property, it had exposed them to a number of other environmental problems, such as accumulation of municipal sewage, foul odors, mosquitoes, and growth of water hyacinth. The study found that the respondents’ assessments of these environmental problems differed significantly according to the magnitude of the impact of stagnant water upon two subgroups within the target population. A postsurvey follow-up in 1994 indicated that this problem of drainage congestion had largely been alleviated by completing the construction of a number of drainage regulators. The study concludes by stressing the importance of synchronizing the construction of drainage structures with that of the embankment systems and by underlining policy implications for flood-vulnerable land use adjacent to embankments.

  13. Performance of different herbicides in dry-seeded rice in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sharif; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2014-01-01

    A field study was conducted in the boro season of 2011-12 and aman season of 2012 at Jessore, Bangladesh, to evaluate the performance of sequential applications of preemergence herbicides (oxadiargyl 80 g ai ha(-1), pendimethalin 850 g ai ha(-1), acetachlor + bensulfuranmethyl 240 g ai ha(-1), and pyrazosulfuron 15 g ai ha(-1)) followed by a postemergence herbicide (ethoxysulfuron 18 g ai ha(-1)) in dry-seeded rice. All evaluated herbicides reduced weed density and biomass by a significant amount. Among herbicides, pendimethalin, oxadiargyl, and acetachlor + bensulfuranmethyl performed very well against grasses; pyrazosulfuron, on the other hand, was not effective. The best herbicide for broadleaf weed control was oxadiargyl (65-85% control); pendimethalin and acetachlor + bensulfuraonmethyl were not effective for this purpose. The best combination for weed control was oxadiargyl followed by ethoxysulfuron in the boro season and oxadiargyl followed by a one-time hand weeding in the aman season. Compared with the partial weedy plots (hand weeded once), oxadiargyl followed by ethoxysulfuron (4.13 t ha(-1)) provided a 62% higher yield in the boro season while oxadiargyl followed by a one-time hand weeding (4.08 t ha(-1)) provided a 37% higher yield in the aman season.

  14. Forensic medicine in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Muhammad Nurul; Islam, Mohammed Nasimul

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss the current medico-legal practice and future plan to improve the medico-legal service of Bangladesh which is rooted in the remnants of British medical jurisprudence. It includes clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology. In Bangladesh all unnatural deaths are to be reported at the nearest police station and an appointed police officer should visit the scene of crime for investigation and to arrange postmortem if required. The forensic services of the country are delivered partly by academic staffs of Government Medical Colleges and the rest by the Civil Surgeons. Sometimes, residential medical officers in the district hospitals perform the medico-legal work. Most of them have no forensic qualifications except a long exposure in the medico-legal field. Currently academic and professional postgraduate courses are available. The chemical examiner's laboratory is situated at Dhaka with the facility of quantitative tests only. The Government of Bangladesh is trying to standardize the existing system. A Workshop on medico-legal services has been organized regularly by The Medico-legal Society of Bangladesh. A DNA profiling laboratory at the Dhaka Medical College is in the process of being set up. Such progress will be a milestone in the development of the medico-legal service in Bangladesh. However, with a few exceptions, teaching and training facilities are still lacking.

  15. Rice Field Geochemistry and Hydrology: An Explanation for Why Groundwater Irrigated Fields in Bangladesh are Net Sinks of Arsenic from Groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Rebecca B.; St. Vincent, Allison P.; Roberts, Linda C.; Badruzzaman, A. Borhan M.; Ali, M. Ashraf; Harvey, Charles F.

    2011-01-01

    Irrigation of rice fields in Bangladesh with arsenic-contaminated groundwater transfers tens of cubic kilometers of water and thousands of tons of arsenic from aquifers to rice fields each year. Here we combine observations of infiltration patterns with measurements of porewater chemical composition from our field site in Munshiganj Bangladesh to characterize the mobility of arsenic in soils beneath rice fields. We find that very little arsenic delivered by irrigation returns to the aquifer, and that recharging water mobilizes little, if any, arsenic from rice field subsoils. Arsenic from irrigation water is deposited on surface soils and sequestered along flow paths that pass through bunds, the raised soil boundaries around fields. Additionally, timing of flow into bunds limits the transport of biologically available organic carbon from rice fields into the subsurface where it could stimulate reduction processes that mobilize arsenic from soils and sediments. Together, these results explain why groundwater irrigated rice fields act as net sinks of arsenic from groundwater. PMID:21332196

  16. Food chain aspects of arsenic contamination in Bangladesh: effects on quality and productivity of rice.

    PubMed

    Duxbury, J M; Mayer, A B; Lauren, J G; Hassan, N

    2003-01-01

    The total arsenic content of 150 paddy rice samples collected from Barisal, Comilla, Dinajpur, Kaunia, and Rajshahi districts, and from the BRRI experimental station at Rajshahi city in the boro and aman seasons of 2000 was determined by hydride generation-inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP). Arsenic concentrations varied from 10 to 420 microg/kg at 14% moisture content. Rice yields and grain arsenic concentrations were 1.5 times higher in the boro (winter) than the summer (monsoon) season, consistent with the much greater use of groundwater for irrigation in the boro season. Mean values for the boro and aman season rices were 183 and 117 microg/kg, respectively. The variation in arsenic concentrations in rice was only partially consistent with the pattern of arsenic concentrations in drinking water tube wells. There was no evidence from yield or panicle sterility data of arsenic toxicity to rice. Processing of rice (parboiling and milling) reduced arsenic concentrations in rice by an average of 19% in 21 samples collected from households. Human exposure to arsenic through rice would be equivalent to half of that in water containing 50 microg/kg for 14% of the paddy rice samples at rice and water intake levels of 400 g and 4 L/cap/day, respectively.

  17. Effect of Weed Management and Seed Rate on Crop Growth under Direct Dry Seeded Rice Systems in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sharif; Salim, Muhammad; Chauhan, Bhagirath S.

    2014-01-01

    Weeds are a major constraint to the success of dry-seeded rice (DSR). The main means of managing these in a DSR system is through chemical weed control using herbicides. However, the use of herbicides alone may not be sustainable in the long term. Approaches that aim for high crop competitiveness therefore need to be exploited. One such approach is the use of high rice seeding rates. Experiments were conducted in the aman (wet) seasons of 2012 and 2013 in Bangladesh to evaluate the effect of weed infestation level (partially-weedy and weed-free) and rice seeding rate (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 kg ha−1) on weed and crop growth in DSR. Under weed-free conditions, higher crop yields (5.1 and 5.2 t ha−1 in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively) were obtained at the seeding rate of 40 kg ha−1 and thereafter, yield decreased slightly beyond 40 kg seed ha−1. Under partially-weedy conditions, yield increased by 30 to 33% (2.0–2.2 and 2.9–3.2 t ha−1 in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively) with increase in seeding rate from 20 to 100 kg ha−1. In the partially-weedy plots, weed biomass decreased by 41–60% and 54–56% at 35 days after sowing and at crop anthesis, respectively, when seeding rate increased from 20 to 100 kg ha−1. Results from our study suggest that increasing seeding rates in DSR can suppress weed growth and reduce grain yield losses from weed competition. PMID:25000520

  18. Effect of weed management and seed rate on crop growth under direct dry seeded rice systems in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sharif; Salim, Muhammad; Chauhan, Bhagirath S

    2014-01-01

    Weeds are a major constraint to the success of dry-seeded rice (DSR). The main means of managing these in a DSR system is through chemical weed control using herbicides. However, the use of herbicides alone may not be sustainable in the long term. Approaches that aim for high crop competitiveness therefore need to be exploited. One such approach is the use of high rice seeding rates. Experiments were conducted in the aman (wet) seasons of 2012 and 2013 in Bangladesh to evaluate the effect of weed infestation level (partially-weedy and weed-free) and rice seeding rate (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 kg ha(-1)) on weed and crop growth in DSR. Under weed-free conditions, higher crop yields (5.1 and 5.2 t ha(-1) in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively) were obtained at the seeding rate of 40 kg ha(-1) and thereafter, yield decreased slightly beyond 40 kg seed ha(-1). Under partially-weedy conditions, yield increased by 30 to 33% (2.0-2.2 and 2.9-3.2 t ha(-1) in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively) with increase in seeding rate from 20 to 100 kg ha(-1). In the partially-weedy plots, weed biomass decreased by 41-60% and 54-56% at 35 days after sowing and at crop anthesis, respectively, when seeding rate increased from 20 to 100 kg ha(-1). Results from our study suggest that increasing seeding rates in DSR can suppress weed growth and reduce grain yield losses from weed competition.

  19. Bangladesh: Political and Strategic Developments and U.S. Interests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Investment Framework Agreement ( TIFA ), Bangladeshi concerns over environment, labor, and intellectual property provisions have made Bangladesh reluctant to...move forward with a TIFA . Bangladesh announced in March 2010 that it would welcome any proposed alternative. U.S. Ambassador James Moriarty has...Dhaka Open to Any Move ‘Alternative to TIFA ,” The Financial Express, March 13, 2010. 4 Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, “Remarks with Bangladesh

  20. Modeling of urban solid waste management system: The case of Dhaka city

    SciTech Connect

    Sufian, M.A.; Bala, B.K.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics computer model to predict solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation from solid waste and to assess the needs for waste management of the urban city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Simulated results show that solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation potential from solid waste increase with time. Population, uncleared waste, untreated waste, composite index and public concern are projected to increase with time for Dhaka city. Simulated results also show that increasing the budget for collection capacity alone does not improve environmental quality; rather an increased budget is required for both collection and treatment of solid wastes of Dhaka city. Finally, this model can be used as a computer laboratory for urban solid waste management (USWM) policy analysis.

  1. Fighting poverty: the economic adjustment of female migrants in Dhaka.

    PubMed

    Huq-hussain, S

    1995-10-01

    Data from a field survey of slum and squatter settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh, are used to examine the social adjustment of poor, female migrants to work, occupational choice, work satisfaction, income, control over income, and women's role in the family economy. A "poor household," defined in terms of nutritional intake, included those families receiving under 2122 cal/person/day. 44% of the urban population in Bangladesh do not obtain the daily nutritional requirement. Findings indicate that 61% of all female migrants expected to find work on arrival in the city. 44% of female migrants were willing to take any kind of work available at the time of arrival. Over 66% of all females found work in less than 6 months. Almost 25% took 6 months to a year to find a job, and 15% found work after a year's time. Recent migrants, who were older, found work quicker. 16% of female migrants found their job with help from relatives and friends (23% of recent migrants and 14% of long-term migrants). Among female migrants who sought a job on their own, 14% found work within 6 months. 3% found work between 6 months and a year. The rest were engaged in family and home-based work or found a job much later. In Dhaka, most women migrants worked in the service or informal sector. 40% of the sample worked as domestics, 38% worked in the informal sector, 16% worked in other informal work, and 5% worked in export-based garment industries. Most female migrants lived in the British Dhaka zone and the post-British Dhaka zone. Those living in the Mughal Dhaka zone tended to work in home-based informal activities. Garment industry workers tended to have more education. Women in the informal sector did not receive cash income. Just over 33% received income in kind, about 25% received a low income, and another 25% received a moderate income. In 71% of cases, husbands or fathers handled the money. 29% handled income on their own. Their own earnings went mostly for survival needs. Over 70% changed

  2. Speech intelligibility in the community mosques of Dhaka City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najmul Imam, Sheikh Muhammad

    2002-11-01

    A mosque facilitates a Muslim community through different religious activities like congregational prayers, recitation and theological education. Speech in a mosque usually generates through bare voice though sound amplification system is also applied. Since no musical instrument is used in any liturgy, a mosque involves only speech acoustics. The community mosques of Dhaka city, the densely populated capital of Bangladesh, are usually designed and constructed by common people inspired from religious virtues. Seeking consultancy for acoustical design is almost never done. As an obvious consequence, there is a common crisis of speech intelligibility in different mosques, except those saved for their smaller volume and other parameters generated by chance. In a very few cases, a trial and error method is applied to solve the problem. But in most of the cases, the problem remains unsolved, putting the devotees in endless sufferings. This paper identifies the type and magnitudes of the prevailing crisis of speech intelligibility of these community mosques through instrumental measurements and questionnaire survey. This paper is also intended to establish certain research rationale and hypothesis for further research, which will propose certain parameters in acoustical design for mosques of Dhaka city in particular and of Bangladesh in general.

  3. Food Adulteration and Consumer Awareness in Dhaka City, 1995-2011

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We conducted this study to investigate the magnitude of food adulteration during 1995–2011 and consumer awareness in Dhaka city. We reviewed results of food sample testing by Public Health Food Laboratory of Dhaka City Corporation, Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institution, Consumers Association of Bangladesh publications, reports from lay press, including those on mobile magistrate court operations. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 96 residents of Dhaka city, using a structured questionnaire in 2006. The overall proportion of food samples adulterated decreased during 2001-2005, and 40-54% of daily-consumed food was adulterated during 1995-2011. More than 35 food items were commonly adulterated. Consumers considered expiry date and quality or freshness as the best criteria while buying packaged and open food items respectively; only 11 (12%) respondents considered approval of regulatory authority for buying packaged food items. More than half of the food consumed in Dhaka city is adulterated, which warrants actions by the Government, the industry, and the consumers. PMID:25395908

  4. Food adulteration and consumer awareness in Dhaka City, 1995-2011.

    PubMed

    Nasreen, Sharifa; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2014-09-01

    We conducted this study to investigate the magnitude of food adulteration during 1995-2011 and consumer awareness in Dhaka city. We reviewed results of food sample testing by Public Health Food Laboratory of Dhaka City Corporation, Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institution, Consumers Association of Bangladesh publications, reports from lay press, including those on mobile magistrate court operations. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 96 residents of Dhaka city, using a structured questionnaire in 2006. The overall proportion of food samples adulterated decreased during 2001-2005, and 40-54% of daily-consumed food was adulterated during 1995-2011. More than 35 food items were commonly adulterated. Consumers considered expiry date and quality or freshness as the best criteria while buying packaged and open food items respectively; only 11 (12%) respondents considered approval of regulatory authority for buying packaged food items. More than half of the food consumed in Dhaka city is adulterated, which warrants actions by the Government, the industry, and the consumers.

  5. Sealing rice field boundaries in Bangladesh: a pilot study demonstrating reductions in water use, arsenic loading to field soils, and methane emissions from irrigation water.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Rebecca B; Pracht, Lara E; Polizzotto, Matthew L; Badruzzaman, A Borhan M; Ali, M Ashraf

    2014-08-19

    Irrigation of rice fields in Bangladesh with arsenic-contaminated and methane-rich groundwater loads arsenic into field soils and releases methane into the atmosphere. We tested the water-savings potential of sealing field bunds (raised boundaries around field edges) as a way to mitigate these negative outcomes. We found that, on average, bund sealing reduced seasonal water use by 52 ± 17% and decreased arsenic loading to field soils by 15 ± 4%; greater savings in both water use and arsenic loading were achieved in fields with larger perimeter-to-area ratios (i.e., smaller fields). Our study is the first to quantify emission of methane from irrigation water in Bangladesh, a currently unaccounted-for methane source. Irrigation water applied to unsealed fields at our site emits 18 to 31 g of methane per square-meter of field area per season, potentially doubling the atmospheric input of methane from rice cultivation. Bund sealing reduced the emission of methane from irrigation water by 4 to 19 g/m(2). While the studied outcomes of bund sealing are positive and compelling, widespread implementation of the technique should consider other factors, such as effect on yields, financial costs, and impact on the hydrologic system. We provide an initial and preliminary assessment of these implementation factors.

  6. Effect of rice-cooking water to the daily arsenic intake in Bangladesh: results of field surveys and rice-cooking experiments.

    PubMed

    Ohno, K; Matsuo, Y; Kimura, T; Yanase, T; Rahman, M H; Magara, Y; Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y

    2009-01-01

    The effect of rice-cooking water to the daily arsenic intake of Bangladeshi people was investigated. At the first field survey, uncooked rice and cooked rice of 29 families were collected. Their arsenic concentrations were 0.22+/-0.11 and 0.26+/-0.15 mg/kg dry wt, respectively. In 15 families, arsenic concentration in rice increased after cooking. Good correlation (R(2)=0.89) was observed between arsenic in rice-cooking water and the difference of arsenic concentration in rice by cooking. In the second survey, we collected one-day duplicated food of 18 families. As a result, we estimated that six of 18 families likely used the arsenic contaminated water for cooking rice even they drank less arsenic-contaminated water for drinking purpose. We also conducted rice-cooking experiments in the laboratory, changing arsenic concentration in rice-cooking water. Clear linear relationships were obtained between the arsenic in rice-cooking water and the difference of arsenic concentration in rice by cooking. Factors that affect arsenic concentration in cooked rice are suggested as follows: (1) arsenic concentration in uncooked rice, (2) that in rice-cooking water, (3) difference in water content of rice before and after cooking, and (4) types of rice, especially, the difference between parboiled and non-parboiled rice.

  7. Homeless in Dhaka: violence, sexual harassment, and drug-abuse.

    PubMed

    Koehlmoos, Tracey Pérez; Uddin, Md Jasim; Ashraf, Ali; Rashid, Mashida

    2009-08-01

    Bangladesh has experienced one of the highest urban population growth rates (around 7% per year) over the past three decades. Dhaka, the capital city, attracts approximately 320,000 migrants from rural areas every year. The city is unable to provide shelter, food, education, healthcare, and employment for its rapidly-expanding population. An estimated 3.4 million people live in the overcrowded slums of Dhaka, and many more live in public spaces lacking the most basic shelter. While a small but growing body of research describes the lives of people who live in urban informal settlements or slums, very little research describes the population with no housing at all. Anecdotally, the homeless population in Dhaka is known to face extortion, erratic unemployment, exposure to violence, and sexual harassment and to engage in high-risk behaviours. However, this has not been systematically documented. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted to better understand the challenges in the lives of the homeless population in 11 areas of Dhaka during a 13-month period from June 2007 to June 2008. A modified cluster-sampling method was used for selecting 32 clusters of 14 female and male respondents, for a sample of 896. In addition to sociodemographic details, this paper focuses specifically on violence, drug-abuse, and sexual harassment. The findings showed that physical assaults among the homeless, particularly among women, were a regular phenomenon. Eighty-three percent of female respondents (n=372) were assaulted by their husbands, station masters, and male police officers. They were subjected to lewd gestures, unwelcome advances, and rape. Male respondents reported being physically assaulted while trying to collect food, fighting over space, or while stealing, by police officers, miscreants, or other homeless people. Sixty-nine percent of the male respondents (n=309) used locally-available drugs, such as marijuana and heroin, and two-thirds of injecting drug

  8. Long-term comparison of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio cholerae O1 and Shigella species between urban and rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Klontz, Erik H; Das, Sumon Kumar; Ahmed, Dilruba; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Malek, Mohammad Abdul; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Klontz, Karl C

    2014-05-01

    From 2000 to 2012, Vibrio cholerae O1 and Shigella species isolates from urban Dhaka and rural Matlab were tested for resistance to all clinically relevant antibiotics in Bangladesh. Resistances in urban and rural Bangladesh tended to rise and fall together, especially a few years after the introduction of new resistance.

  9. Geographical diversity in seasonality of major diarrhoeal pathogens in Bangladesh observed between 2010 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Das, S K; Begum, D; Ahmed, S; Ferdous, F; Farzana, F D; Chisti, M J; Latham, J R; Talukder, K A; Rahman, M M; Begum, Y A; Faruque, A S G; Malek, M A; Qadri, F; Ahmed, T; Alam, N

    2014-12-01

    The study aimed to determine the geographical diversity in seasonality of major diarrhoeal pathogens among 21 138 patients enrolled between 2010 and 2012 in two urban and two rural sites in Bangladesh under the surveillance system of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b). Distinct patterns in seasonality were found for rotavirus diarrhoea which peaked in winter across the sites (December and January) and dipped during the rainy season (May) in urban Dhaka, August in Mirpur and July in Matlab, equated by time-series analysis using quasi-Poisson regression model. Significant seasonality for shigellosis was observed in Dhaka and rural Mirzapur. Cholera had robust seasonality in Dhaka and Matlab in the hot and rainy seasons. For enterotoxogenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) diarrhoea, clearly defined seasonality was observed in Dhaka (summer). Understanding the seasonality of such pathogens can improve case management with appropriate therapy, allowing policy-makers to identify periods of high disease burden.

  10. Biofortified β-carotene rice improves vitamin A intake and reduces the prevalence of inadequacy among women and young children in a simulated analysis in Bangladesh, Indonesia, and the Philippines1

    PubMed Central

    Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Atmarita, Atmarita; Gironella, Glen M; Muslimatun, Siti; Carriquiry, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A deficiency continues to be a major public health problem affecting developing countries where people eat mostly rice as a staple food. In Asia, rice provides up to 80% of the total daily energy intake. Objective: We used existing data sets from Bangladesh, Indonesia, and the Philippines, where dietary intakes have been quantified at the individual level to 1) determine the rice and vitamin A intake in nonpregnant, nonlactating women of reproductive age and in nonbreastfed children 1–3 y old and 2) simulate the amount of change that could be achieved in the prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin A if rice biofortified with β-carotene were consumed instead of the rice consumed at present. Design: We considered a range of 4–20 parts per million (ppm) of β-carotene content and 10–70% substitution levels for the biofortified rice. Software was used to estimate usual rice and vitamin A intake for the simulation analyses. Results: In an analysis by country, the substitution of biofortified rice for white rice in the optimistic scenario (20 ppm and 70% substitution) decreased the prevalence of vitamin A inadequacy from baseline 78% in women and 71% in children in Bangladesh. In Indonesia and the Philippines, the prevalence of inadequacy fell by 55–60% in women and dropped by nearly 30% in children from baseline. Conclusions: The results of the simulation analysis were striking in that even low substitution levels and modest increases in the β-carotene of rice produced a meaningful decrease in the prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin A. Increasing the substitution levels had a greater impact than increasing the β-carotene content by >12 ppm. PMID:27510534

  11. Managing burn patients in a fire disaster: Experience from a burn unit in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mashreky, S R; Bari, S; Sen, S L; Rahman, A; Khan, T F; Rahman, F

    2010-09-01

    Although burn disaster is not a frequent event, with urbanisation and industrialisation, burn disaster is becoming an emerging problem in Bangladesh. On 3 June 2010, a fire disaster killed 124 people in Neemtali, Dhaka, Bangladesh. This paper narrates the management of burn patients of this disaster in the burn unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital. The burn unit managed 192 burn victims of the disaster. Forty-two victims were admitted and 150 of them received primary care at the emergency room and were sent back home. Ten patients among 42 in-patients died. The in-patient mortality was 23.8%. Burn unit in Dhaka Medical College Hospital is the only burn management centre in Bangladesh. Proper planning and coordinated effort by all sectors and persons concerned were the key elements in this successful management.

  12. Microfinance Participation and Marital Violence in Bangladesh: A Qualitative Inquiry.

    PubMed

    Murshid, Nadine Shaanta; Zippay, Allison

    2016-09-15

    This study explores the experiences of marital violence within the context of microfinance participation among a sample of women living in poverty in Bangladesh. Status inconsistency theory suggests that the higher incomes and female independence that may occur with microfinance participation may threaten or destabilize marital norms in Bangladesh, and have implications in terms of increased violence. We use qualitative data from in-depth interviews with 30 women residing in a slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to assess the circumstances in which there may be an association between microfinance participation and marital violence and elucidate the context in which this interaction occurs.

  13. HIV and AIDS in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Azim, Tasnim; Khan, Sharful Islam; Haseen, Fariha; Huq, Nafisa Lira; Henning, Lars; Pervez, Md. Moshtaq; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Sarafian, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    Bangladesh initiated an early response to the HIV epidemic starting in the mid-1980s. Since then, the res-ponse has been enhanced considerably, and many HIV-prevention interventions among the most at-risk populations and the general youth are being undertaken. Alongside prevention activities, gathering of data has been a key activity fostered by both the Government and individual development partners. This paper reviews available sources of data, including routine surveillance (HIV and behavioural among most at-risk populations), general population surveys, and various research studies with the aim to understand the dynamics of the HIV epidemic in Bangladesh. Available data show that the HIV epidemic is still at relatively low levels and is concentrated mainly among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Dhaka city. In addition, when the passively-reported cases were analyzed, another population group that appears to be especially vulnerable is migrant workers who leave their families and travel abroad for work. However, all sources of data confirm that risk behaviours that make individuals vulnerable to HIV are high—this is apparent within most at-risk populations and the general population (adult males and youth males and females). Based on the current activities and the sources of data, modelling exercises of the future of the HIV epidemic in Dhaka suggest that, if interventions are not enhanced further, Bangladesh is likely to start with an IDU-driven epidemic, similar to other neighbouring countries, which will then move to other population groups, including sex workers, males who have sex with males, clients of sex workers, and ultimately their families. This review reiterates the often repeated message that if Bangladesh wants to be an example of how to avert an HIV epidemic, it needs to act now using evidence-based programming. PMID:18831227

  14. Effect of arsenic on photosynthesis, growth and yield of five widely cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Azizur Rahman, M; Hasegawa, H; Mahfuzur Rahman, M; Nazrul Islam, M; Majid Miah, M A; Tasmen, A

    2007-04-01

    A glass house experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soil arsenic on photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll-a and -b, and their correlations with rice yield and growth. The experiment was designed with three replications of six arsenic treatments viz. control, 10, 20, 30, 60, 90 mg of As kg(-1) soil. Arsenic concentration in initial soil, to which the above mentioned concentrations of arsenic were added, was 6.44+/-0.24 mg kg(-1). Both chlorophyll-a and -b contents in rice leaf decreased significantly (p<0.05) with the increase of soil arsenic concentrations. No rice plant survived up to maturity stage in soil treated with 60 and 90 mg of As kg(-1). The highest chlorophyll-a and -b contents were observed in control treatment (2.62+/-0.24 and 2.07+/-0.14 mg g(-1) were the average values of chlorophyll-a and -b, respectively of the five rice varieties) while 1.50+/-0.20 and 1.04+/-0.08 mg g(-1) (average of five rice varieties) of chlorophyll-a and -b, respectively were the lowest. The content of photosynthetic pigments in these five rice varieties did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from each other in control treatment though they differed significantly (p<0.05) from each other in 30 mg of As kg(-1) soil treatment. Among the five rice varieties, chlorophyll content in BRRI dhan 35 was found to be mostly affected with the increase of soil arsenic concentration while BRRI hybrid dhan 1 was least affected. Well correlations were observed between chlorophyll content and rice growth and yield suggesting that arsenic toxicity affects the photosynthesis which ultimately results in the reduction of rice growth and yield.

  15. Stable Isotope (18O, 2H) and Arsenic Distribution in the Shallow Aquifers in Araihazar, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Datta, S.; Stute, M.; Dhar, R.; Hoque, M. A.; Rahman, M. W.; Ahmed, K. M.; Schlosser, P.; van Geen, A.

    2005-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that in Bangladesh alone, an estimated 50 million people have been exposed to Arsenic levels that exceed the WHO guideline of 10 μgL-1 for drinking water by up to two orders of magnitude. There is still debate on what processes control the spatial heterogeneity of dissolved As concentrations. One recent suggestion has been that surface waters enriched in labile organic matter and transferred to greater depths by irrigation pumping may be an important factor. We have monitored for a year the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition of precipitation in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and of surface waters and groundwaters in a 25 km2 study area in Araihazar, 20 km east of Dhaka. The data show a large spatial and temporal heterogeneity, with δ18O covering a range of up to 12 ‰. The isotopic composition of precipitation falls on the global meteoric water line (GMWL), while most surface waters collected from rivers, ponds and irrigated rice fields plot below and to the right of the meteoric water line, suggesting that evaporation is an important mechanism in this system. Surface waters show a strong evaporative enrichment during the dry season of up to 10 ‰ in δ18O and then show increased mixing with precipitation during the wet season. The groundwater isotopic composition obtained at 6 multi level well sites covers the range between the GMWL and moderately evaporated surface waters. These data indicate that some groundwaters are recharged directly by precipitation while others show evidence of recharge from evaporated surface waters during the wet and at the beginning of the dry season. For several well nests, the sources of groundwater vary in a systematic way as a function of depth. Highly evaporated irrigation water from rice fields in the dry season does not seem to contribute much to groundwater recharge. The degree of evaporation expressed as deuterium excess does not correlate with As concentrations in the groundwater samples. This finding

  16. Acceptability of the rainwater harvesting system to the slum dwellers of Dhaka City.

    PubMed

    Islam, M M; Chou, F N-F; Kabir, M R

    2010-01-01

    Urban area like Dhaka City, in Bangladesh, has scarcity of safe drinking water which is one of the prominent basic needs for human kind. This study explored the acceptability of harvested rainwater in a densely populated city like Dhaka, using a simple and low cost technology. A total of 200 random people from four slums of water-scarce Dhaka City were surveyed to determine the dwellers' perception on rainwater and its acceptability as a source of drinking water. The questionnaire was aimed at finding the socio-economic condition and the information on family housing, sanitation, health, existing water supply condition, knowledge about rainwater, willingness to accept rainwater as a drinking source etc. A Yield before Spillage (YBS) model was developed to know the actual rainwater availability and storage conditions which were used to justify the effective tank size. Cost-benefit analysis and feasibility analysis were performed using the survey results and the research findings. The survey result and overall study found that the low cost rainwater harvesting technique was acceptable to the slum dwellers as only the potential alternative source of safe drinking water.

  17. Women's empowerment and regional variation of contraceptive norms in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Deb, Suman; Kabir, Ahmad; Kawsar, L A

    2010-01-01

    Using data derived from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), this study investigates the regional variation of contraceptive norms according to the empowerment status of women in Bangladesh. The result suggests that contraceptive norms vary from region to region. Logistic regression analysis suggests that there exists a positive relationship between women's empowerment and use of contraceptive methods in all regions except Barisal and Chittagong. The result also indicates that women's empowerment has a significant positive effect on contraceptive norms in the Dhaka, Khulna, and Rajshahi regions.

  18. Renewable energy and rural development activities experience in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Barua, D.C.

    1997-12-01

    The per capita per year fuel consumption in Bangladesh is only 56 kg oil equivalent. The supply of electricity by Bangladesh power development board (BPDB) and Dhaka electricity supply authority (DESA) is mainly confined to cities and towns. Rural Electrification Board (REB) distributes electricity to the rural people through cooperatives. The rural cooperatives cover only 10% of the total population. Only about 15% of the total population is directly connected to the electricity. In order to meet the increasing energy demand for development of agriculture and industry and for the generation of better employment opportunities, it will be necessary to harness all the available alternative sources of energy immediately.

  19. A New Species of Frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae) Discovered from the Mega City of Dhaka.

    PubMed

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Merilä, Juha

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of frog of the genus Zakerana discovered from the urban core of Dhaka, Bangladesh, one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Although the new species is morphologically similar to the geographically proximate congeners in the Bangladeshi cricket frog group, we show that it can be distinguished from all congeners on the basis of morphological characters, advertisement calls and variation in two mitochondrial DNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). Apart from several diagnostic differences in body proportions, the new species differs from other Zakerana species in having a flattened snout (from ventral view) projecting over the lower jaw, and diagnostic trapezoid-shaped red markings on the vocal sac in males. Molecular genetic analyses show that the new species is highly divergent (3.1-20.1% sequence divergence) from all congeneric species, and forms a well-supported clade with its sister species, Zakerana asmati. The discovery of a new amphibian species from the urban core of Dhaka together with several recent descriptions of new amphibian species from Bangladesh may indicate that more amphibian species remain to be discovered from this country.

  20. A New Species of Frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae) Discovered from the Mega City of Dhaka

    PubMed Central

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Merilä, Juha

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of frog of the genus Zakerana discovered from the urban core of Dhaka, Bangladesh, one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Although the new species is morphologically similar to the geographically proximate congeners in the Bangladeshi cricket frog group, we show that it can be distinguished from all congeners on the basis of morphological characters, advertisement calls and variation in two mitochondrial DNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). Apart from several diagnostic differences in body proportions, the new species differs from other Zakerana species in having a flattened snout (from ventral view) projecting over the lower jaw, and diagnostic trapezoid-shaped red markings on the vocal sac in males. Molecular genetic analyses show that the new species is highly divergent (3.1–20.1% sequence divergence) from all congeneric species, and forms a well-supported clade with its sister species, Zakerana asmati. The discovery of a new amphibian species from the urban core of Dhaka together with several recent descriptions of new amphibian species from Bangladesh may indicate that more amphibian species remain to be discovered from this country. PMID:26934699

  1. Spotlight: Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    1984-06-01

    Bangladesh, formally known as East Pakistan and a country that achieved independence in 1971, is the most densely populated nation (1800/sq mile) in the world (excluding small city states and islands). The population is about 85% Muslim with the balance chiefly Hindu. About 90% of the population depends either directly of indirectly upon agriculture for subsistence. About 3/4 of the cultivated land is used for rice production and much of the remainder for jute. Jute, used for carpet backings and sacks is Bangladesh's most important means of raising export capital. There has been a decline in world demand for jute. Fertile soil holds promise of future increases in food production, but very serious shortages persist. The agricultural situation will only improve when a rural network of fertilizer distribution facilities, extension services, dikes, and irrigation can be established. Such a program would require large capital outlays which are not likely to be available. At this time about 60% of the country's import requirements must be funded by foreign aid. Much of this aid is provided to help fill existing food gaps. Another problem is that about half of the rural population is landless. This means that a large number of persons must attempt to subsist by such activities as selling water or firewood. Population growth, identified as an urgent national priority, has been an important factor in Five Year Plans since the early 1960s. A major policy goal is to extend family planning services to the rural areas more effectively. Several fertility surveys, conducted since 1975, indicate a low, although rising, level of contraceptive use. In 1975, 5% of married women were using a modern contraceptive method and another 3% a traditional method. A 1981 government survey shows that 11% were using an efficient method and 8% traditional methods. A total fertility rate of about 7 was estimated based upon a 1979 survey. World Bank projections show an eventual population exceeding

  2. Climatic factors influencing dengue cases in Dhaka city: A model for dengue prediction

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Md. Nazmul; Munshi, Saif Ullah; Anwar, Nazneen; Alam, Md. Shah

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Transmission of dengue virus depends on the presence of Aedes mosquito. Mosquito generation and development is known to be influenced by the climate. This study was carried out to examine whether the climatic factors data can be used to predict yearly dengue cases of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Methods: Monthly reported dengue cases and climate data for the years 2000–2008 were obtained from the Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS) and Meteorological Department of Dhaka, Bangladesh, respectively. Data for the period 2000 to 2007 were used for development of a model through multiple linear regressions. Retrospective validation of the model was done with 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2008 data. Log transformation of the dependent variable was done to normalize data for linear regression. Average monthly humidity, rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature were used as independent variables and number of dengue cases reported monthly was used as dependent variable. Accuracy of the model for predicting outbreak was assessed through receiver operative characteristics (ROC) curve. Results: Climatic factors, i.e. rainfall, maximum temperature and relative humidity were significantly correlated with monthly reported dengue cases. The model incorporating climatic data of two-lag month explained 61 per cent of variation in number of reported dengue cases and this model was found to predict dengue outbreak (≥ 200 cases) with considerable accuracy [area under ROC curve = 0.89, 95%CI = (0.89-0.98)]. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the climate had a major effect on the occurrence of dengue infection in Dhaka city. Though the prediction model had some limitations in predicting the monthly number of dengue cases, it could forecast possible outbreak two months in advance with considerable accuracy. PMID:22885261

  3. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-21 Years of research.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mukherjee, Amitava; Alauddin, Mohammad; Hassan, Manzurul; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shymapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Roy, Shibtosh; Quamruzzman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Morshed, Salim; Islam, Tanzima; Sorif, Shaharir; Selim, Md; Islam, Md Razaul; Hossain, Md Monower

    2015-01-01

    Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Bangladesh first identified their groundwater arsenic contamination in 1993. But before the international arsenic conference in Dhaka in February 1998, the problem was not widely accepted. Even in the international arsenic conference in West-Bengal, India in February, 1995, representatives of international agencies in Bangladesh and Bangladesh government attended the conference but they denied the groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India first identified arsenic patient in Bangladesh in 1992 and informed WHO, UNICEF of Bangladesh and Govt. of Bangladesh from April 1994 to August 1995. British Geological Survey (BGS) dug hand tube-wells in Bangladesh in 1980s and early 1990s but they did not test the water for arsenic. Again BGS came back to Bangladesh in 1992 to assess the quality of the water of the tube-wells they installed but they still did not test for arsenic when groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in West Bengal in Bengal delta was already published in WHO Bulletin in 1988. From December 1996, SOES in collaboration with Dhaka Community Hospital (DCH), Bangladesh started analyzing hand tube-wells for arsenic from all 64 districts in four geomorphologic regions of Bangladesh. So far over 54,000 tube-well water samples had been analyzed by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). From SOES water analysis data at present we could assess status of arsenic groundwater contamination in four geo-morphological regions of Bangladesh and location of possible arsenic safe groundwater. SOES and DCH also made some preliminary work with their medical team to identify patients suffering from arsenic related diseases. SOES further analyzed few thousands biological samples (hair, nail, urine and skin scales) and foodstuffs for arsenic to know arsenic body burden and people sub

  4. Natural hazards and climate change in Dhaka: future trends, social adaptation and informal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele-Eich, I.; Aßheuer, T.; Simmer, C.; Braun, B.

    2009-04-01

    Similar to many megacities in the world, Dhaka is regularly threatened by natural hazards. Risks associated with floods and cyclones in particular are expected to increase in the years to come because of global climate change and rapid urbanization. Greater Dhaka is expected to grow from 13.5 million inhabitants in 2007 to 22 million inhabitants by 2025. The vast majority of this growth will take place in informal settlements. Due to the setting of Greater Dhaka in a deltaic plain, the sprawl of slums is primarily taking place in wetlands, swamps and other flood-prone areas. Slum dwellers and informal businesses are vulnerable, but have somehow learned to cope with seasonal floods and developed specific adaptation strategies. An increase of precipitation extremes and tropical cyclones, however, would put considerable stress on the adaptability of the social and economic system. DhakaHazard, a joint research project of the Department of Meteorology at the University of Bonn and the Department of Geography at the University of Cologne, takes up these issues in an interdisciplinary approach. The project, which begun in November 2008, aims to achieve two main objectives: To link analyses of informal social and economic adaptation strategies to models on future climate change and weather extremes. To estimate more accurately the future frequency and magnitude of weather extremes and floods which are crucial for the future adaptability of informal systems. To fulfill these objectives, scientists at the Meteorological Institute are studying the evolution of natural hazards in Bangladesh, while researchers at the Department of Geography are undertaking the task of assessing these hazards from a social point of view. More specifically, the meteorologists are identifying global and regional weather conditions resulting in flooding of the Greater Dhaka region, while possible variations in flood-inducing weather patterns are analyzed by evaluating their frequency and magnitude

  5. Using lot quality assurance sampling to improve immunization coverage in Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Y.; Hoque, S.; Siddiqi, M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine areas of low vaccination coverage in five cities in Bangladesh (Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi, and Syedpur). METHODS: Six studies using lot quality assurance sampling were conducted between 1995 and 1997 by Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival and the Bangladesh National Expanded Programme on Immunization. FINDINGS: BCG vaccination coverage was acceptable in all lots studied; however, the proportion of lots rejected because coverage of measles vaccination was low ranged from 0% of lots in Syedpur to 12% in Chittagong and 20% in Dhaka's zones 7 and 8. The proportion of lots rejected because an inadequate number of children in the sample had been fully vaccinated varied from 11% in Syedpur to 30% in Dhaka. Additionally, analysis of aggregated, weighted immunization coverage showed that there was a high BCG vaccination coverage (the first administered vaccine) and a low measles vaccination coverage (the last administered vaccine) indicating a high drop-out rate, ranging from 14% in Syedpur to 36% in Dhaka's zone 8. CONCLUSION: In Bangladesh, where resources are limited, results from surveys using lot quality assurance sampling enabled managers of the National Expanded Programme on Immunization to identify areas with poor vaccination coverage. Those areas were targeted to receive focused interventions to improve coverage. Since this sampling method requires only a small sample size and was easy for staff to use, it is feasible for routine monitoring of vaccination coverage. PMID:11436470

  6. Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

  7. External validation of the DHAKA score and comparison with the current IMCI algorithm for the assessment of dehydration in children with diarrhoea: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Adam C; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Modi, Payal; Nasrin, Sabiha; Atika, Bita; Rege, Soham; Robertson, Sarah; Schmid, Christopher H; Alam, Nur H

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Dehydration due to diarrhoea is a leading cause of child death worldwide, yet no clinical tools for assessing dehydration have been validated in resource-limited settings. The Dehydration: Assessing Kids Accurately (DHAKA) score was derived for assessing dehydration in children with diarrhoea in a low-income country setting. In this study, we aimed to externally validate the DHAKA score in a new population of children and compare its accuracy and reliability to the current Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) algorithm. Methods DHAKA was a prospective cohort study done in children younger than 60 months presenting to the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, with acute diarrhoea (defined by WHO as three or more loose stools per day for less than 14 days). Local nurses assessed children and classified their dehydration status using both the DHAKA score and the IMCI algorithm. Serial weights were obtained and dehydration status was established by percentage weight change with rehydration. We did regression analyses to validate the DHAKA score and compared the accuracy and reliability of the DHAKA score and IMCI algorithm with receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and the weighted κ statistic. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02007733. Findings Between March 22, 2015, and May 15, 2015, 496 patients were included in our primary analyses. On the basis of our criterion standard, 242 (49%) of 496 children had no dehydration, 184 (37%) of 496 had some dehydration, and 70 (14%) of 496 had severe dehydration. In multivariable regression analyses, each 1-point increase in the DHAKA score predicted an increase of 0·6% in the percentage dehydration of the child and increased the odds of both some and severe dehydration by a factor of 1·4. Both the accuracy and reliability of the DHAKA score were significantly greater than those of the IMCI algorithm. Interpretation The DHAKA score

  8. Evaluation of aquifer environment under Hazaribagh leather processing zone of Dhaka city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahid, Anwar; Balke, K.-D.; Hassan, M. Qumrul; Flegr, Matthias

    2006-07-01

    Hazaribagh is a densely populated area of Dhaka city where about 185 leather processing industries have been operating and discharging solid and liquid wastes directly to the low-lying areas, river and natural canals without proper treatment. The area is covered by alluvial deposits of Holocene age and is underlain by Pleistocene Madhupur clay. The Dupi Tila Formation of Mio-Pliocene age underlain by this yellowish gray to brick red clay bed serves as the main water-bearing aquifer of Dhaka city. To assess the environmental degradation as well as the groundwater environment, major anions, cations and heavy metals of water samples, heavy metals and organic carbon content of sediment samples were analyzed in this study. Analyses of tannery effluent detect high concentration of Na+, Mg2+, Cl- and SO{4/2-} followed by Ca2+, NH{4/+} and K+ with remarkable contents of some trace elements, mainly Cr, Fe, Mn, S, Ni and Pb. Higher accumulations of Cr, Al and Fe are observed in topsoil samples with significant amounts of Mn, Zn, Ni and Cu. Concentrations of ions and all the investigated trace elements of sampled groundwater were within the maximum allowable limit for drinking water of the Department of Environment, Bangladesh (DoE), and World Health Organization (WHO). However, excessive concentrations of Cr, Pb, etc., have already been reported in the shallow groundwater (10-20 m) of the area. Due to excessive withdrawal the vulnerability of groundwater contamination in deeper parts cannot be avoided for the future.

  9. Fuel properties and engine performance of biodiesel from waste cooking oil collected in Dhaka city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, R. B.; Islam, R.; Uddin, M. N.; Ehsan, Md.

    2016-07-01

    Waste cooking oil can be a potential source of biodiesel that has least effect on the edible oil consumption. Increasing number of hotel-restaurants and more active monitoring by health authorities have increased the generation of waste cooking oil significantly in densely populated cities like Dhaka. If not used or disposed properly, waste cooking oil itself may generate lot of environmental issues. In this work, waste cooking oils from different restaurants within Dhaka City were collected and some relevant properties of these waste oils were measured. Based on the samples studied one with the highest potential as biodiesel feed was identified and processed for engine performance. Standard trans-esterification process was used to produce biodiesel from the selected waste cooking oil. Biodiesel blends of B20 and B40 category were made and tested on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance parameters included - bhp, bsfc and exhaust emission for rated and part load conditions. Results give a quantitative assessment of the potential of using biodiesel from waste cooking oil as fuel for diesel engines in Bangladesh.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Dhaka city population.

    PubMed

    Islam, M S; Hossain, M M; Pasha, M M; Azad, A K; Murshed, K M

    2013-07-01

    This prospective, cross-sectional population based survey was carried out in the Respiratory wing, Department of Medicine, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh to see the prevalence and risk factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among Dhaka City Population in Bangladesh. The total sample size was 900 at the age of 35 years or above. Spirometry was performed according to ATS criteria. Data related to smoking history, respiratory symptoms, co-morbidities, physical examination findings, spirometry values and other investigation reports were noted in the questionnaire. The mean age was 45.26±10.08 (Mean±SD); of them, male 76.9% and female 23.1%. Among them, smoker was 481 with a smoking duration of 10 pack year 27.8% and non smoker were 419. Spirometric screening yielded diagnosis of COPD in 11.4% (103/900). Using operational severity criteria adopted from Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) mild, moderate, severe and very severe COPD were found in 42.7%, 27.2%, 20.4% and 9.7% respectively. The hall mark symptom of COPD exertional dyspnea was seen in 10.4%, non-specific symptoms like cough and sputum were found in 40% and 19% respectively. Physical sign like vesicular breath sound with prolonged expiration and ronchi were found in 6.1% and 4.1% respectively. In this study, age (Mean±SD in years) (57.34±11.74), Sex (Male: Female = 4:1), low BMI (Mean±SD) (21.56±3.83), Smoker 56(20.2%) and low Socio-economic condition 54(13.6%) found to be risk factor of COPD. Regression analysis revealed that age (p<0.001), sex (p<0.001), smoking duration (p<0.001) and low socioeconomic condition (p<0.05) as independent risk factors for COPD.

  11. Profile of lichen planus in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khondker, L; Wahab, M A; Khan, S I

    2010-04-01

    Lichen planus is one of the common inflammatory disorders of skin, mucous membrane, nail and hair characterized by violaceous, polish, pruritic, polygonal, flat-topped papules usually distributed bilaterally symmetrically over the extremities. Our objectives in this study were to explore the prevalence of lichen planus in large area of Dhaka in Bangladesh and to establish the clinical characteristics of lichen planus. This descriptive type of cross sectional study was carried out from September 2006 to August 2008 in the Department of Dermatology and Venereology of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) and Combined Military Hospital (CMH) in Dhaka. Patients suffering from lichen planus were selected as study population. By face to face interview and clinical observations, data were collected from sample. A total 120 patients of lichen planus were selected, on the basis of age, 30(25%) were 10-30 years of age, 75(62.56%) were 30-50 years and 16(13.33%) were over 50 years of age. The mean age of the patient was 40+/-4 years. Out of 120 patients, 80(66.66%) were male and 60(33.33%) were female and eight patients (6.67%) had positive family history among highest age group (30 to 50 years). In case of duration of disease, highest percentage (68%) of cases was 15 days to 6 months and considering clinical sign, koebnerization was present 45(37.5%) cases and Wickhams striae 22(18.33%) cases. Regarding site of onset of lesion, lesions were highest 100(83.33%) in upper limbs, next lower limbs, trunk, oral mucosa etc. The distribution of clinical pattern of lichen planus showing classic pattern (68.33%) was the most common type, followed by hypertrophic, actinic, ashy dermatoses, lichen plano-pilaris, erosive or ulcerative etc. This clinico-epidemiological study of lichen planus attending in the different hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh has shown that lichen planus is usually associated with 30 to 50 years of age group, with

  12. Poverty, violence, and family disorganization: Three "Hydras" and their role in children's street movement in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Reza, Md Hasan

    2016-05-01

    The increasing number of children running away from home in Bangladesh is a major concern, and in need of critical attention. This yearlong study explores why children leave home with a sample of street children in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Purposive sampling from three locations in Dhaka yielded a sample of 75 homeless children aged 10-17. For each participant, a 60-90min in-depth qualitative interview was conducted multiple times. While the dominant explanations rely on poverty or abuse, the findings of this study reveal that the cause is actually three heads of a Hydra monster: poverty, abuse, and family disorganization and their interactions. It shows that the primary reasons for children breaking from their family are all interrelated. The findings from this study are likely to add knowledge regarding the issues and may lead to preventative interventions for street children and their families.

  13. Subtypes of dissociative (conversion) disorder in two tertiary hospitals in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, M S; Mullick, S I; Sobhan, M A; Khanam, M; Nahar, J S; Salam, M A; Ali, R; Islam, M; Kabir, M S

    2010-01-01

    Dissociative (conversion) disorders are common among the patients attending in and out patients of Psychiatry Department of tertiary hospitals in Bangladesh. This study was done to see the subtypes of dissociative (conversion) disorder according to International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). This is a descriptive, cross sectional study done on 100 consecutive patients from the Departments of Psychiatry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka and Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH). Study period was July 2005 to June 2006. Among the patients of dissociative (conversion) disorder, mixed dissociative (conversion) disorder was found highest 34%, followed by dissociative convulsion 33%, dissociative motor disorders 19%, dissociative anaesthesia and sensory loss 5%, dissociative amnesia 4%, dissociative fugue 3%. However, the researcher did not find any multiple personality disorder which is relatively common in North America. This finding reflected that there are differences in prevalence of sub types of dissociative disorders in Bangladesh and Western countries.

  14. Vulnerability of low-arsenic aquifers to municipal pumping in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappett, P. S. K.; Mailloux, B. J.; Choudhury, I.; Khan, M. R.; Michael, H. A.; Barua, S.; Mondal, D. R.; Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.; Ahmed, K. M.; Bostick, B.; Harvey, C. F.; Shamsudduha, M.; Shuai, P.; Mihajlov, I.; Mozumder, R.; van Geen, A.

    2016-08-01

    Sandy aquifers deposited >12,000 years ago, some as shallow as 30 m, have provided a reliable supply of low-arsenic (As) drinking water in rural Bangladesh. This study concerns the potential risk of contaminating these aquifers in areas surrounding the city of Dhaka where hydraulic heads in aquifers >150 m deep have dropped by 70 m in a few decades due to municipal pumping. Water levels measured continuously from 2012 to 2014 in 12 deep (>150 m), 3 intermediate (90-150 m) and 6 shallow (<90 m) community wells, 1 shallow private well, and 1 river piezometer show that the resulting drawdown cone extends 15-35 km east of Dhaka. Water levels in 4 low-As community wells within the 62-147 m depth range closest to Dhaka were inaccessible by suction for up to a third of the year. Lateral hydraulic gradients in the deep aquifer system ranged from 1.7 × 10-4 to 3.7 × 10-4 indicating flow towards Dhaka throughout 2012-2014. Vertical recharge on the edge of the drawdown cone was estimated at 0.21 ± 0.06 m/yr. The data suggest that continued municipal pumping in Dhaka could eventually contaminate some relatively shallow community wells.

  15. Countrywide radiation dose in different locations, dwellings and free spaces of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Shyamal Ranjan; Alam, Md Kowsar

    2014-12-01

    The research work was aimed to determine the fatal cancer risk due to the radiation exposure on population of Bangladesh. The total risk is somewhat higher. However, the average total fatal probability coefficient was found to be 101 cases per million people, the range of which was from 78 to 144 per million people. The lowest risk was found for the people of Srimangal (Maulavibazar) and Sandweep, while the risk was highest for the people of Nachole (Chapai Nawabgonj) and Badalgachhi (Naogaon), the two locations are in the Borendra region. The risk factors were found to be around average level for the people of Dhaka, Chittagong and Rajshahi. Since a very significant portion of people of Bangladesh live in these areas, the calculated average risk factor become more meaningful. Moreover, as both the average effective dose equivalents and the population density in Bangladesh are higher than those of the countries compared, the people of Bangladesh are in more risk than those countries.

  16. Vaccination coverage survey in Dhaka District.

    PubMed

    Khan, M N A; Rahman, M L; Awal Miah, A; Islam, M S; Musa, S A J M; Tofail, F

    2005-08-01

    A survey was conducted in Dhaka District to measure the level of routine immunization coverage of children (12-23 months), to assess the tetanus toxoid (TT) immunization coverage among mothers of children (12-23 month), to evaluate EPI program continuity (dropout rates) and quality (percent of Invalid doses, vaccination card availability etc.) For this purpose, a thirty cluster cross-sectional survey was conducted in October 2002 to assess the immunization coverage in Dhaka. In this survey 30 clusters were randomly selected from a list of villages in 63 Unions of Dhaka following probability proportion to size (PPS) sampling procedure. A total of 210 children was studied using pre-tested structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was employed using software SPSS package for data analysis. The study showed that the routine immunization coverage in Dhaka among children by 12 months of age by card + history was 97% for BCG, 97% for Diphtheria, Pertussis Tetanus (DPT 1) and Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV 1), 75% for DPT3 and OPV3 and 67% for measles. Sixty six percent of all children surveyed had received valid doses of all vaccines by 12 months (fully immunized child). Programme access as measured by crude DPT1 coverage was better in Keranigonj (97%). Vaccination cards retention rate for children was 84%. Invalid DPT (1,2 or 3) doses were given to 25% of vaccinated children; 18% of measles doses were invalid. Surprisingly, major cause for invalid doses were not due to early immunizations or due to card lost but for giving tick in the card, instead of writing a valid date. DPT1 and DPT3 and DPT1- Measles drop out rates were 5% and 13% respectively. Major reason parents gave for never vaccinating their children (zero dose children) was (43%), major reasons for incomplete vaccination was lack of knowledge regarding subsequent doses (46%). TT surveys were also conducted for mothers of the children surveyed for vaccination coverage (mothers between 15-49 year old). Valid TT

  17. History and Perspectives of Nuclear Medicine in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Raihan

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh is one of the smaller states in Asia. But it has a long and rich history of nuclear medicine for over sixty years. The progress in science and technology is always challenging in a developing country. In 1958, work for the first Nuclear Medicine facility was commenced in Dhaka in a tin-shed known as 'Radioisotope Centre' and was officially inaugurated in 1962. Since the late 50s of the last century nuclear medicine in Bangladesh has significantly progressed through the years in its course of development, but still the facilities are inadequate. At present there are 20 nuclear medicine establishments with 3 PET-CTs, 42 gamma camera/SPECTs with 95 physicians, 20 physicists, 10 radiochemists and 150 technologists. The Society of Nuclear Medicine, Bangladesh (SNMB) was formed in 1993 and publishing its official journal since 1997. Bangladesh also has close relationships with many international organizations like IAEA, ARCCNM, AOFNMB, ASNM, WFNMB and WARMTH. The history and the present scenario of the status of nuclear medicine in Bangladesh are being described here.

  18. Characteristics of Multidrug Resistant Shigella and Vibrio cholerae O1 Infections in Patients Treated at an Urban and a Rural Hospital in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sumon Kumar; Klontz, Erik H.; Azmi, Ishrat J.; Ud-Din, Abu I. M. S.; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Afrad, Mokibul Hassan; Malek, Mohammad Abdul; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Das, Jui; Talukder, Kaisar Ali; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Klontz, Karl C.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the frequency of multidrug resistant (MDR) infections with Shigella spp. and Vibrio cholerae O1 at an urban (Dhaka) and rural (Matlab) hospital in Bangladesh. We also compared sociodemographic and clinical features of patients with MDR infections to those with antibiotic-susceptible infections at both sites. Analyses were conducted using surveillance data from the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), for the years 2000–2012. Compared to patients with antibiotic-susceptible for Shigella infections, those in Dhaka with MDR shigellosis were more likely to experience diarrhea for >24 hours, while, in Matlab, they were more likely to stay inhospital >24 hours. For MDR shigellosis, Dhaka patients were more likely than those in Matlab to have dehydration, stool frequency >10/day, and diarrheal duration >24 hours. Patients with MDR Vibrio cholerae O1 infections in Dhaka were more likely than those in Matlab to experience dehydration and stool frequency >10/day. Thus, patients with MDR shigellosis and Vibrio cholerae O1 infection exhibited features suggesting more severe illness than those with antibiotic-susceptible infections. Moreover, Dhaka patients with MDR shigellosis and Vibrio cholerae O1 infections exhibited features indicating more severe illness than patients in Matlab. PMID:24455398

  19. Peptic Ulcer Disease in Bangladesh: A Multi-centre Study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, C K; Khan, M R; Alam, F; Shil, B C; Kabir, M S; Mahmuduzzaman, M; Das, S C; Masud, H; Roy, P K

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of peptic ulcer has steadily declined through out the world. This decreasing trend is also noticeable in this subcontinent. The point prevalence of peptic ulcer (PUD) in Bangladesh was around 15% in eighties. The aim of this study was to see the present prevalence of peptic ulcer at endoscopy and to identify changing trends in the occurrence of peptic ulcer in Bangladesh. This retrospective analysis of the endoscopic records of multiple tertiary referral centres of Dhaka city were done from January 2012 to July 2013. A total of 5608 subjects were the study samples. We included those patients having peptic ulcer in the form of duodenal ulcer, benign gastric ulcer including pre-pyloric ulcer and gastric outlet obstruction due to peptic ulcer. Duodenal ulcer and benign gastric ulcer were found in 415(7.4%) and 184(3.28%) patients respectively and gastric outlet obstruction due to peptic ulcer was found in 23(0.40%) patients.

  20. Simulation of urban and regional air pollution in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntaseer Billah Ibn Azkar, M. A.; Chatani, Satoru; Sudo, Kengo

    2012-04-01

    We have developed a regional scale air quality simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) - Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) to assess the suitability of such an advanced modeling system for predicting the air quality of Bangladesh and its surrounding region. The Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (REAS) was used as the emission input in this modeling approach. Both meteorological and chemical model performance were evaluated with observations including satellite data. Comparison between simulated and observed meteorological parameters revealed that the WRF can generate the necessary meteorological inputs for CMAQ. Comparison of observed and simulated concentrations of different air pollutants revealed that CMAQ greatly underestimates the concentrations of key pollutants. Comparison with satellite observations revealed that CMAQ reproduces the spatial distribution of NO2with some underestimation in Bangladesh and India. The simulated AOD and satellite-retrieved AOD showed good temporal and spatial agreement mutually, with a correlation coefficient of 0.58. Sensitivity simulation using higher horizontal resolution emission data made by re-gridding the REAS inventory with the population distribution improved the CMAQ performance. Nevertheless, CMAQ underestimated the pollutant concentrations in Dhaka. Uncertainties in the emission inventory and in the lack of time variation in emissions input mainly contributed to the model underestimation. Model predictions show that 36-72% PM10 and 15-60% PM2.5 in Dhaka might be contributed from brick kiln emissions in monthly average of January 2004. The chemical composition of PM2.5showed that the considerable amounts of secondary aerosols in Dhaka and carbonaceous components (particularly organic carbon) are most responsible for the model underestimation. Results suggest that improvements of emission inputs and more detailed sensitivity analysis of CMAQ model are important to assess the reliability

  1. Clonal transmission, dual peak, and off-season cholera in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, Munirul; Islam, Atiqul; Bhuiyan, Nurul A; Rahim, Niaz; Hossain, Anowar; Khan, G Yeahia; Ahmed, Dilruba; Watanabe, Haruo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Faruque, Abu S G; Akanda, Ali S; Islam, Shafiqul; Sack, R Bradley; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is an estuarine bacterium associated with a single peak of cholera (March-May) in coastal villages of Bangladesh. For an unknown reason, however, cholera occurs in a unique dual peak (March-May and September-November) pattern in the city of Dhaka that is bordered by a heavily polluted freshwater river system and flood embankment. In August 2007, extreme flooding was accompanied by an unusually severe diarrhea outbreak in Dhaka that resulted in a record high illness. This study was aimed to understand the unusual outbreak and if it was related to the circulation of a new V. cholerae clone. Nineteen V. cholerae isolated during the peak of the 2007 outbreak were subjected to extensive phenotypic and molecular analyses, including multi-locus genetic screening by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequence-typing of the ctxB gene, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Factors associated with the unusual incidence of cholera were determined and analysis of the disease severity was done. Overall, microbiological and molecular data confirmed that the hypervirulent V. cholerae was O1 biotype El Tor (ET) that possessed cholera toxin (CT) of the classical biotype. The PFGE (NotI) and dendrogram clustering confirmed that the strains were clonal and related to the pre-2007 variant ET from Dhaka and Matlab and resembled one of two distinct clones of the variant ET confirmed to be present in the estuarine ecosystem of Bangladesh. Results of the analyses of both diarrheal case data for three consecutive years (2006-2008) and regional hydroclimatology over three decades (1980-2009) clearly indicate that the pattern of cholera occurring in Dhaka, and not seen at other endemic sites, was associated with flood waters transmitting the infectious clone circulating via the fecal-oral route during and between the dual seasonal cholera peaks in Dhaka. Circular river systems and flood embankment likely facilitate transmission of infectious V. cholerae throughout the

  2. Clonal transmission, dual peak, and off-season cholera in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Munirul; Islam, Atiqul; Bhuiyan, Nurul A.; Rahim, Niaz; Hossain, Anowar; Khan, G. Yeahia; Ahmed, Dilruba; Watanabe, Haruo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Faruque, Abu S. G.; Akanda, Ali S.; Islam, Shafiqul; Sack, R. Bradley; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is an estuarine bacterium associated with a single peak of cholera (March–May) in coastal villages of Bangladesh. For an unknown reason, however, cholera occurs in a unique dual peak (March–May and September–November) pattern in the city of Dhaka that is bordered by a heavily polluted freshwater river system and flood embankment. In August 2007, extreme flooding was accompanied by an unusually severe diarrhea outbreak in Dhaka that resulted in a record high illness. This study was aimed to understand the unusual outbreak and if it was related to the circulation of a new V. cholerae clone. Nineteen V. cholerae isolated during the peak of the 2007 outbreak were subjected to extensive phenotypic and molecular analyses, including multi-locus genetic screening by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequence-typing of the ctxB gene, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Factors associated with the unusual incidence of cholera were determined and analysis of the disease severity was done. Overall, microbiological and molecular data confirmed that the hypervirulent V. cholerae was O1 biotype El Tor (ET) that possessed cholera toxin (CT) of the classical biotype. The PFGE (NotI) and dendrogram clustering confirmed that the strains were clonal and related to the pre-2007 variant ET from Dhaka and Matlab and resembled one of two distinct clones of the variant ET confirmed to be present in the estuarine ecosystem of Bangladesh. Results of the analyses of both diarrheal case data for three consecutive years (2006–2008) and regional hydroclimatology over three decades (1980–2009) clearly indicate that the pattern of cholera occurring in Dhaka, and not seen at other endemic sites, was associated with flood waters transmitting the infectious clone circulating via the fecal-oral route during and between the dual seasonal cholera peaks in Dhaka. Circular river systems and flood embankment likely facilitate transmission of infectious V. cholerae

  3. Genetic characteristics of drug-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 causing endemic cholera in Dhaka, 2006-2011.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Shah M; Mannan, Shahnewaj B; Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Islam, M Tarequl; Sadique, Abdus; Watanabe, Haruo; Sack, R Bradley; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R; Cravioto, Alejandro; Alam, Munirul

    2012-12-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor (ET), causing the seventh cholera pandemic, was recently replaced in Bangladesh by an altered ET possessing ctxB of the Classical (CL) biotype, which caused the first six cholera pandemics. In the present study, V. cholerae O1 strains associated with endemic cholera in Dhaka between 2006 and 2011 were analysed for major phenotypic and genetic characteristics. Of 54 representative V. cholerae isolates tested, all were phenotypically ET and showed uniform resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) and furazolidone (FR). Resistance to tetracycline (TE) and erythromycin (E) showed temporal fluctuation, varying from year to year, while all isolates were susceptible to gentamicin (CN) and ciprofloxacin (CIP). Year-wise data revealed erythromycin resistance to be 33.3 % in 2006 and 11 % in 2011, while tetracycline resistance accounted for 33, 78, 0, 100 and 27 % in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively; interestingly, all isolates tested were sensitive to TE in 2011, as observed in 2008. All V. cholerae isolates tested possessed genetic elements such as SXT, ctxAB, tcpA(ET), rstR(ET) and rtxC; none had IntlI (Integron I). Double mismatch amplification mutation assay (DMAMA)-PCR followed by DNA sequencing and analysis of the ctxB gene revealed a point mutation at position 58 (C→A), which has resulted in an amino acid substitution from histidine (H) to asparagine (N) at position 20 (genotype 7) since 2008. Although the multi-resistant strains having tetracycline resistance showed minor genetic divergence, V. cholerae strains were clonal, as determined by a PFGE (NotI)-based dendrogram. This study shows 2008-2010 to be the time of transition from ctxB genotype 1 to genotype 7 in V. cholerae ET causing endemic cholera in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

  4. Development and acceptability testing of ready-to-use supplementary food made from locally available food ingredients in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inadequate energy and micronutrient intake during childhood is a major public health problem in developing countries. Ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) made of locally available food ingredients can improve micronutrient status and growth of children. The objective of this study was to develop RUSF using locally available food ingredients and test their acceptability. Methods A checklist was prepared of food ingredients available and commonly consumed in Bangladesh that have the potential of being used for preparing RUSF. Linear programming was used to determine possible combinations of ingredients and micronutrient premix. To test the acceptability of the RUSF compared to Pushti packet (a cereal based food-supplement) in terms of amount taken by children, a clinical trial was conducted among 90 children aged 6–18 months in a slum of Dhaka city. The mothers were also asked to rate the color, flavor, mouth-feel, and overall liking of the RUSF by using a 7-point Hedonic Scale (1 = dislike extremely, 7 = like extremely). Results Two RUSFs were developed, one based on rice-lentil and the other on chickpea. The total energy obtained from 50 g of rice-lentil, chickpea-based RUSF and Pushti packet were 264, 267 and 188 kcal respectively. Children were offered 50 g of RUSF and they consumed (mean ± SD) 23.8 ± 14 g rice-lentil RUSF, 28.4 ± 15 g chickpea based RUSF. Pushti packet was also offered 50 g but mothers were allowed to add water, and children consumed 17.1 ± 14 g. Mean feeding time for two RUSFs and Pushti packet was 20.9 minutes. Although the two RUSFs did not differ in the amount consumed, there was a significant difference in consumption between chickpea-based RUSF and Pushti packet (p = 0.012). Using the Hedonic Scale the two RUSFs were more liked by mothers compared to Pushti packet. Conclusions Recipes of RUSF were developed using locally available food ingredients. The study results suggest that rice

  5. The urban poor in Dhaka City: their struggles and coping strategies during the floods of 1998.

    PubMed

    Rashid, S F

    2000-09-01

    Bangladesh experienced one of the worst floods in recorded history in 1998. This paper focuses on the needs and coping strategies of the urban poor in Dhaka City, which had been very badly affected. The city's roads were completely under water, and most areas were water-logged with drainage and sewage systems blocked. Rising water levels compelled many slum dwellers to move to temporary shelters and relief camps. Women and children were the worst affected. The lack of sanitation facilities and privacy forced women and children to defecate in their own homes. There was an acute scarcity of safe drinking-water, and food prices rose dramatically. Diarrhoea, fever and colds were the most common illnesses affecting the poor. The floods left many of them unemployed, and in some families, the result was increased tension and incidents of domestic violence. In some areas, members felt pressured to repay micro-credit loans. Most NGOs, however, suspended loan repayments. During this period, a committee was set up to co-ordinate and work towards addressing some of the main post-flood problems.

  6. Genetic and field management strategies to for limiting accumulation of arsenic in rice grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2002, high levels of arsenic were reported in rice produced in Bangladesh using soil and water naturally high in arsenic. Study of arsenic in rice produced in additional countries, including the USA, soon followed. Grain-arsenic is higher in rice than other crops because the flooding of rice pa...

  7. Feeding a Hungry World: Focus on Rice in Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary; And Others

    This unit introduces students to the diversity of rice culture and rice-based farming systems in Asia and the Pacific. Students examine issues related to the needs of the future global population. Six rice-producing countries are under study: Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Japan, Philippines, and Thailand. The lessons include: (1) "Rice in…

  8. Work stress: its components and its association with self-reported health outcomes in a garment factory in Bangladesh-Findings from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Steinisch, Maria; Yusuf, Rita; Li, Jian; Rahman, Omar; Ashraf, Hasan M; Strümpell, Christian; Fischer, Joachim E; Loerbroks, Adrian

    2013-11-01

    Bangladesh is one of the leading exporters of ready-made garments (RMG) worldwide producing at very low cost almost exclusively for Western markets. Empirical evidence on psychologically adverse working conditions and their association with health in the RMG setting remains sparse. Drawing on insights from previous ethnographic research, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological study among 332 RMG workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. High work-related demands and poor interpersonal resources represented key components of work stress and were important determinants of poor health. The key work stress components observed in this study partly differed from those identified in Western work place settings.

  9. NASA/NOAA implementation of the USAID-sponsored satellite ground station and data processing facility for Bangladesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, J. C.; Vermillion, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of a project to transfer multiple environmental satellite data reception, processing, and interpretation capabilities from the U.S. to Bangladesh. The goal of the project is to improve the management of resources related primarily to agriculture, water development, forestry, and fisheries. It is also hoped to improve the existing cyclone/storm surge warning system. An account is given of the interagency and international cooperation underlying the project. The remote-sensing installation in Dhaka, Bangladesh, is described, and the most likely system applications are summarized. Attention is also given to the special requirements concerning this type of technology transfer, and an assessment is made of the project's practical value to Bangladesh.

  10. Multiple outbreaks of puffer fish intoxication in Bangladesh, 2008.

    PubMed

    Homaira, Nusrat; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P; Rahman, Mostafizur; Haider, Mohammad Sabbir; Faruque, Labib Imran; Khan, Dawlat; Parveen, Shahana; Gurley, Emily S

    2010-08-01

    During April and June 2008, we investigated three outbreaks of marine puffer fish intoxication in three districts of Bangladesh (Narshingdi, Natore, and Dhaka). We also explored trade of marine puffer fish in Cox's Bazaar, a coastal area of the country. We identified 95 people who had consumed puffer fish; 63 (66%) developed toxicity characterized by tingling sensation in the body, perioral numbness, dizziness, and weakness, 14 of them died. All three outbreaks were caused by consumption of large (0.2-1.5 kg) marine puffer fish, sold in communities where people were unfamiliar with the marine variety of the fish and its toxicity. Coastal fishermen reported that some local businessmen distributed the fresh fish to non-coastal parts of the country, where people were unfamiliar with the larger variety, to make a quick profit. Lack of knowledge about marine puffer toxicity contributed to the outbreaks. Health communication campaigns will enhance people's knowledge and may prevent future outbreaks.

  11. Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahsan, Mohammad Tariq; Burnip, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on inclusive education in Bangladesh for children with special needs. Bangladesh is not behind other developed countries in enacting laws and declarations in favour of inclusive education, but a lack of resources is the main barrier in implementing inclusive education. Special education and integrated education models exist in…

  12. Rescue and Emergency Management of a Man-Made Disaster: Lesson Learnt from a Collapse Factory Building, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Animesh; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman; Humaira, Tasnuva; Dalal, Koustuv

    2015-01-01

    A tragic disaster occurred on April 24, 2013, in Bangladesh, when a nine storied building in a suburban area collapsed and killed 1115 people and injured many more. The study describes the process of rescue operation and emergency management services provided in the event. Data were collected using qualitative methods including in-depth interviews and a focus group discussion with the involved medical students, doctors, volunteers, and local people. Immediately after the disaster, rescue teams came to the place from Bangladesh Armed Forces, Bangladesh Navy, Bangladesh Air Force, and Dhaka Metropolitan and local Police and doctors, medical students, and nurses from nearby medical college hospitals and private hospitals and students from colleges and universities including local civil people. Doctors and medical students provided 24-hour services at the disaster place and in hospitals. Minor injured patients were treated at health camps and major injured patients were immediately carried to nearby hospital. Despite the limitations of a low resource setting, Bangladesh faced a tremendous challenge to manage the man-made disaster and experienced enormous support from different sectors of society to manage the disaster carefully and saved thousands of lives. This effort could help to develop a standard emergency management system applicable to Bangladesh and other counties with similar settings. PMID:25954767

  13. Rescue and emergency management of a man-made disaster: lesson learnt from a collapse factory building, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Animesh; Rahman, Aminur; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman; Humaira, Tasnuva; Dalal, Koustuv

    2015-01-01

    A tragic disaster occurred on April 24, 2013, in Bangladesh, when a nine storied building in a suburban area collapsed and killed 1115 people and injured many more. The study describes the process of rescue operation and emergency management services provided in the event. Data were collected using qualitative methods including in-depth interviews and a focus group discussion with the involved medical students, doctors, volunteers, and local people. Immediately after the disaster, rescue teams came to the place from Bangladesh Armed Forces, Bangladesh Navy, Bangladesh Air Force, and Dhaka Metropolitan and local Police and doctors, medical students, and nurses from nearby medical college hospitals and private hospitals and students from colleges and universities including local civil people. Doctors and medical students provided 24-hour services at the disaster place and in hospitals. Minor injured patients were treated at health camps and major injured patients were immediately carried to nearby hospital. Despite the limitations of a low resource setting, Bangladesh faced a tremendous challenge to manage the man-made disaster and experienced enormous support from different sectors of society to manage the disaster carefully and saved thousands of lives. This effort could help to develop a standard emergency management system applicable to Bangladesh and other counties with similar settings.

  14. Bacterial Shedding in Household Contacts of Cholera Patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Ana A.; Begum, Yasmin; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I.; Leung, Daniel T.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Charles, Richelle C.; Ryan, Edward T.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Qadri, Firdausi; Harris, Jason B.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Vibrio cholerae infections within the same household are common. Household contacts of patients with cholera were observed with daily clinical assessments and collection of rectal swab cultures for nine days after presentation of the index case. During the follow-up period, 71 (24%) of 294 household contacts developed a positive V. cholerae rectal swab, signifying bacterial shedding. The average length of bacterial shedding was 2.0 days (95% confidence interval 1.7–2.4). However, 16 (5%) of 294 contacts shed V. cholerae for ≥ 4 days. In a multivariate analysis, malnutrition was predictive of long-term shedding (odds ratio = 1.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.3–13, P = 0.02). High rates of V. cholerae infection and bacterial shedding among household contacts of cholera patients represent an opportunity for intervention to reduce V. cholerae transmission. PMID:25114012

  15. Planning Meeting on Community Learning Centres (Dhaka, Bangladesh, September 21-26, 1998). Final Report (APPEAL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    The Community Learning Centre Project has been approved within the framework of UNESCO's Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL), and supports one of APPEAL's priority areas, community participation and ownership. Community learning centers, managed by local institutions outside the formal school system, provide literacy and learning…

  16. Housing Satisfaction Related to Health and Importance of Services in Urban Slums: Evidence from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanuzdana, Arina; Khan, Mobarak; Kraemer, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Quality of housing plays one of the key roles in a public health research, since inadequate housing may have direct or indirect negative impact on health. Higher satisfaction with housing was shown to be associated with higher income, higher age, a smaller family, higher education, being female and being an owner of a dwelling. The aim of our…

  17. Economic and Environmental Assessment of a 1 MW Grid Connected Rooftop Solar PV System for Energy Efficient Building in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Sanjib; Hosain, Rubayet; Rahman, Toufiqur; Rabbi, Ahmead Fazle

    This paper evaluates the potentiality of a 1 MW grid connected rooftop solar PV system for an Energy Efficient Building in Bangladesh, which was estimated by utilizing NASA SSE solar radiation data, PVsyst simulation software and RETScreen simulation software. Economic and environmental viability for a ten-storied building with roof area of 6,500 m2 in the Capital City of Bangladesh, Dhaka was assessed by using the RETScreen simulation software. The yearly electricity production of the proposed system was 1,581 MWh estimated by PVsyst where the technical prospective of gird-connected solar PV in Bangladesh was calculated as about 50,174 MW. The economic assessments were determined the simple payback in such a way that the generated electricity first fulfills the demand of the building, and then the rest of the energy is supplied to the grid. The result indicates that the roof top solar PV system for an Energy efficient building in Dhaka city has a favorable condition for development both in economic and environmental point of view.

  18. Greenhouse gas footprint and the carbon flow associated with different solid waste management strategy for urban metabolism in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, K M Nazmul

    2017-02-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) and associated climate change consequences are gripping attention globally, while MSW management as a vital subsystem of urban metabolism significantly influences the urban carbon cycles. This study evaluates the GHG emissions and carbon flow of existing and proposed MSW management in Bangladesh through scenario analysis, including landfill with landfill gas (LFG) recovery, waste to energy (WtE), and material recovery facility (MRF). The analysis indicates that, scenario H2 and H5 emitted net GHGs -152.20kg CO2 eq. and -140.32kg CO2 eq., respectively, in comparison with 420.88kg CO2 eq. of scenario H1 for managing per ton of wastes during the reference year 2015. The annual horizontal carbon flux of the waste input was 319Gg and 158Gg during 2015 in Dhaka and Chittagong, respectively. An integrated strategy of managing the wastes in the urban areas of Bangladesh involving WtE incineration plant and LFG recovery to generate electricity as well as MRF could reverse back 209.46Gg carbon and 422.29Gg carbon to the Chittagong and Dhaka urban system, respectively. This study provides valuable insights for the MSW policy framework and revamp of existing MSW management practices with regards to reduction of GHGs emissions from the waste sector in Bangladesh.

  19. Monitoring of metal pollution in waterways across Bangladesh and ecological and public health implications of pollution.

    PubMed

    Kibria, Golam; Hossain, Md Maruf; Mallick, Debbrota; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf

    2016-12-01

    Using innovative artificial mussels technology for the first time, this study detected eight heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn) on a regular basis in waterways across Bangladesh (Chittagong, Dhaka and Khulna). Three heavy metals, viz. Co, Cr and Hg were always below the instrumental detection levels in all the sites during the study period. Through this study, seven metal pollution "hot spots" have been identified, of which, five "hot spots" (Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb) were located in the Buriganga River, close to the capital Dhaka. Based on this study, the Buriganga River can be classified as the most polluted waterway in Bangladesh compared to waterways monitored in Khulna and Chittagong. Direct effluents discharged from tanneries, textiles are, most likely, reasons for elevated concentrations of heavy metals in the Buriganga River. In other areas (Khulna), agriculture and fish farming effluents may have caused higher Cu, U and Zn in the Bhairab and Rupsa Rivers, whereas untreated industrial discharge and ship breaking activities can be linked to elevated Cd in the coastal sites (Chittagong). Metal pollution may cause significant impacts on water quality (irrigation, drinking), aquatic biodiversity (lethal and sub-lethal effects), food contamination/food security (bioaccumulation of metals in crops and seafood), human health (diseases) and livelihoods of people associated with wetlands.

  20. Cancer Control in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  1. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  2. [Bacteriological survey of diarrheal epidemics in the 1998 Bangladesh floods].

    PubMed

    Tanabe, K; Nakamura, S; Kunii, O

    1999-09-01

    In 1998, the worst flood disaster in Bangladesh ravaged more than half of its land and diarrheal epidemics broke out. We examined fecal specimens of diarrheal patients at rural hospitals in Chandpor district located 140 km southeast of Dhaka to analyze the enteric bacterial pathogens in post-flood period October. Of the 76 patients stools examined, Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor, serotype Ogawa, and Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal were detected in 25 (33%) and in 14 (18%) respectively. Other enteropathogenic bacteria confirmed were Vibrio cholerae O5, Vibrio fluvialis and Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O44. Neither Shigella nor Salmonella species was detected in this study. A drug susceptibility test was performed using TC, DOXY, CPFX, NA, and AMPC disks to cholera Vibrios. The O1 Vibrios showed the same susceptible pattern as O139 excluding NA susceptibility. TC resistant strain among the Vibrios was not detected though TC is a common therapeutic drug for diarrhea in this area. Our result clearly suggested that the epidemic potentiality of O139 still existed in rural Bangladesh.

  3. Searching for an optimum solution to the Bangladesh arsenic crisis.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Bruce K; Caldwell, John C; Mitra, S N; Smith, Wayne

    2003-05-01

    Searching for an optimum solution to the Bangladesh arsenic crisis: Thirty years ago Bangladesh experienced very high levels of infant and child mortality, much of it due to water-borne disease in deltaic conditions where surface water was highly polluted. In what appeared to be one of the great public health achievements, 95% of the population were converted to drinking bacteria-free tubewell water from underground aquifers. Recently, it has been shown that perhaps 20% of this water is arsenic contaminated and alternatives to tubewell water have been sought. This paper reports on two national surveys collaboratively carried out in 2000 by the Health Transition Centre, Australian National University and Mitra and Associates, Dhaka: A census of tubewells and a household survey of tubewell use and arseniosis. The study found that the tubewell revolution has been promoted not only by health considerations but also by the demand for a household water facility and the desire by women to reduce workloads associated with using surface water. Because of this, and because the population had absorbed the message about safe tubewell water, it is argued that the movement away from the use of tubewell water should be as limited as possible, even if this means using safe tubewells which are often found in the neighbourhood. To enable such a move the most urgent need is not changing the source of water but comprehensive national water testing providing essential information to households about which wells are safe and which are not.

  4. Prevalence and Determinants of the Gender Differentials Risk Factors of Child Deaths in Bangladesh: Evidence from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Md. Mosharaf; Mani, Kulanthayan K. C.; Islam, Md. Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of child deaths is a potential indicator to assess the health condition of a country, and represents a major health challenge in Bangladesh. Although the country has performed exceptionally well in decreasing the mortality rate among children under five over the last few decades, mortality still remains relatively high. The main objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and determinants of the risk factors of child mortality in Bangladesh. Methods The data were based on a cross-sectional study collected from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), 2011. The women participants numbered 16,025 from seven divisions of Bangladesh – Rajshahi, Dhaka, Chittagong, Barisal, Khulna, Rangpur and Sylhet. The 𝟀2 test and logistic regression model were applied to determine the prevalence and factors associated with child deaths in Bangladesh. Results In 2011, the prevalence of child deaths in Bangladesh for boys and girls was 13.0% and 11.6%, respectively. The results showed that birth interval and birth order were the most important factors associated with child death risks; mothers’ education and socioeconomic status were also significant (males and females). The results also indicated that a higher birth order (7 & more) of child (OR=21.421 & 95%CI=16.879-27.186) with a short birth interval ≤ 2 years was more risky for child mortality, and lower birth order with longer birth interval >2 were significantly associated with child deaths. Other risk factors that affected child deaths in Bangladesh included young mothers of less than 25 years (mothers’ median age (26-36 years): OR=0.670, 95%CI=0.551-0.815), women without education compared to those with secondary and higher education (OR =0 .711 & .628, 95%CI=0.606-0.833 & 0.437-0.903), mothers who perceived their child body size to be larger than average and small size (OR= 1.525 & 1.068, 95%CI=1.221-1.905 & 0.913-1.249), and mothers who delivered their child by non

  5. Country watch: Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Haque, M E

    1998-01-01

    Since students in Bangladesh receive no formal sex education in school and cultural norms constrain the discussion of sex and sexuality between adolescents and their older friends and family, there is considerable misinformation and misconception in Bangladesh upon sex and reproductive health, especially among adolescents. The success of a highly popular, 15-episode weekly radio program on sexuality broadcast in 1996 shed light upon the need in Bangladesh for sex and reproductive health education, and led the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB) to develop and produce a television talk show series on the issue. Once Bangladesh Television (BTV) was convinced to air the program with sex as a component, in each of 5 episodes, boys and girls gave their perspectives on growing up, gender discrimination, teasing girls, boy-girl relationships, and drug abuse. During each show, parents, teachers, and psychiatrists discussed the young people's comments. The ability of the participating adolescents, young adults, and others to share their fears, concerns, opinions, and other feelings on television should have a major impact upon Bangladeshi society.

  6. Teacher Perceptions of Inquiry and STEM Education in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahidullah, Kazi K.

    This dissertation reports lower secondary science teachers perceptions of current practice in Dhaka, Bangladesh concerning inquiry and STEM Education in order to establish a baseline of data for reform of science education in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has been trying to incorporate inquiry-based science curricula since the 1970s. Over time, the science curricula also aligned with different international science education movements such as Science for All, Scientific Literacy, Science, Technology, and Society. Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) is the most recent science education movement in international science education. This study explored current practices and perceptions of lower secondary science teachers in order to establish a baseline of current practice so that future reform recommendations may be pursued and recommendations made for Bangladesh to overcome the inquiry-based challenges and to incorporate new STEM-based science education trends happening in the US and throughout the world. The study explored science teachers perceptions and readiness to transform their science classrooms based on self-reported survey. The survey utilized Likert-type scale with range 1 (very strongly disagree) to 6 (very strongly agree) among four hundred lower secondary science teachers, teacher training college faculty, and university faculty. The data is presented in four different categories: curriculum, instruction, assessment, and professional development. Results indicated that the participants understand and practice a certain level of inquiry in their science classrooms, though they do not have adequate professional development. Participants also stated that they do not have sufficient instructional materials and the curriculum is not articulated enough to support inquiry. On the other hand, the participants reported that they understand and practice a certain degree of inquiry and STEM-based science education, but they also state that the

  7. Burkholderia pseudomallei: Its Detection in Soil and Seroprevalence in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Robayet, Jamshedul Alam Mohammad; Mohiuddin, Md.; Hasan, Md. Rokib

    2016-01-01

    Background Melioidosis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an endemic disease in Bangladesh. No systematic study has yet been done to detect the environmental source of the organism and its true extent in Bangladesh. The present study attempted to isolate B. pseudomallei in soil samples and to determine its seroprevalence in several districts in Bangladesh. Methodology and Results Soil samples were collected from rural areas of four districts of Bangladesh from where culture confirmed melioidosis cases were detected earlier. Multiple soil samples, collected from 5–7 sampling points of 3–5 sites of each district, were cultured in Ashdown selective media. Suspected colonies of B. pseudomallei were identified by biochemical and serological test, and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using 16s rRNA specific primers. Blood samples were collected from 940 healthy individuals of four districts to determine anti- B. pseudomallei IgG antibody levels by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using sonicated crude antigen. Out of 179 soil samples, B. pseudomallei was isolated from two samples of Gazipur district which is located 58 km north of capital Dhaka city. Both the isolates were phenotypically identical, arabinose negative and showed specific 550bp band in PCR. Out of 940 blood samples, anti- B. pseudomallei IgG antibody, higher than the cut-off value (>0.8), was detected in 21.5% individuals. Seropositivity rate was 22.6%-30.8% in three districts from where melioidosis cases were detected earlier, compared to 9.8% in a district where no melioidosis case was either detected or reported (p<0.01). Seropositivity increased with the advancement of age from 5.3% to 30.4% among individuals aged 1–10 years and > 50 years respectively. The seropositivity rates were 26.0% and 20.6% in male and female respectively, while it was 20–27% among different occupational groups. No significant association was observed with gender (χ2 = 3.441, p = 0.064) or any

  8. Mental health in the slums of Dhaka - a geoepidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Urban health is of global concern because the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. Although mental health problems (e.g. depression) in developing countries are highly prevalent, such issues are not yet adequately addressed in the rapidly urbanising megacities of these countries, where a growing number of residents live in slums. Little is known about the spectrum of mental well-being in urban slums and only poor knowledge exists on health promotive socio-physical environments in these areas. Using a geo-epidemiological approach, the present study identified factors that contribute to the mental well-being in the slums of Dhaka, which currently accommodates an estimated population of more than 14 million, including 3.4 million slum dwellers. Methods The baseline data of a cohort study conducted in early 2009 in nine slums of Dhaka were used. Data were collected from 1,938 adults (≥ 15 years). All respondents were geographically marked based on their households using global positioning systems (GPS). Very high-resolution land cover information was processed in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain additional exposure information. We used a factor analysis to reduce the socio-physical explanatory variables to a fewer set of uncorrelated linear combinations of variables. We then regressed these factors on the WHO-5 Well-being Index that was used as a proxy for self-rated mental well-being. Results Mental well-being was significantly associated with various factors such as selected features of the natural environment, flood risk, sanitation, housing quality, sufficiency and durability. We further identified associations with population density, job satisfaction, and income generation while controlling for individual factors such as age, gender, and diseases. Conclusions Factors determining mental well-being were related to the socio-physical environment and individual level characteristics. Given that mental well-being is

  9. Impact of dropout of female volunteer community health workers: An exploration in Dhaka urban slums

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The model of volunteer community health workers (CHWs) is a common approach to serving the poor communities in developing countries. BRAC, a large NGO in Bangladesh, is a pioneer in this area, has been using female CHWs as core workers in its community-based health programs since 1977. After 25 years of implementing of the CHW model in rural areas, BRAC has begun using female CHWs in urban slums through a community-based maternal health intervention. However, BRAC experiences high dropout rates among CHWs suggesting a need to better understand the impact of their dropout which would help to reduce dropout and increase program sustainability. The main objective of the study was to estimate impact of dropout of volunteer CHWs from both BRAC and community perspectives. Also, we estimated cost of possible strategies to reduce dropout and compared whether these costs were more or less than the costs borne by BRAC and the community. Methods We used the ‘ingredient approach’ to estimate the cost of recruiting and training of CHWs and the so-called ‘friction cost approach’ to estimate the cost of replacement of CHWs after adapting. Finally, we estimated forgone services in the community due to CHW dropout applying the concept of the friction period. Results In 2009, average cost per regular CHW was US$ 59.28 which was US$ 60.04 for an ad-hoc CHW if a CHW participated a three-week basic training, a one-day refresher training, one incentive day and worked for a month in the community after recruitment. One month absence of a CHW with standard performance in the community meant substantial forgone health services like health education, antenatal visits, deliveries, referrals of complicated cases, and distribution of drugs and health commodities. However, with an additional investment of US$ 121 yearly per CHW BRAC could save another US$ 60 invested an ad-hoc CHW plus forgone services in the community. Conclusion Although CHWs work as volunteers in Dhaka

  10. A spatial epidemiological analysis of self-rated mental health in the slums of Dhaka

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The deprived physical environments present in slums are well-known to have adverse health effects on their residents. However, little is known about the health effects of the social environments in slums. Moreover, neighbourhood quantitative spatial analyses of the mental health status of slum residents are still rare. The aim of this paper is to study self-rated mental health data in several slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh, by accounting for neighbourhood social and physical associations using spatial statistics. We hypothesised that mental health would show a significant spatial pattern in different population groups, and that the spatial patterns would relate to spatially-correlated health-determining factors (HDF). Methods We applied a spatial epidemiological approach, including non-spatial ANOVA/ANCOVA, as well as global and local univariate and bivariate Moran's I statistics. The WHO-5 Well-being Index was used as a measure of self-rated mental health. Results We found that poor mental health (WHO-5 scores < 13) among the adult population (age ≥15) was prevalent in all slum settlements. We detected spatially autocorrelated WHO-5 scores (i.e., spatial clusters of poor and good mental health among different population groups). Further, we detected spatial associations between mental health and housing quality, sanitation, income generation, environmental health knowledge, education, age, gender, flood non-affectedness, and selected properties of the natural environment. Conclusions Spatial patterns of mental health were detected and could be partly explained by spatially correlated HDF. We thereby showed that the socio-physical neighbourhood was significantly associated with health status, i.e., mental health at one location was spatially dependent on the mental health and HDF prevalent at neighbouring locations. Furthermore, the spatial patterns point to severe health disparities both within and between the slums. In addition to examining health

  11. Determinants of Salivary Cotinine among Smokeless Tobacco Users: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Huque, Rumana; Shah, Sarwat; Mushtaq, Nasir; Siddiqi, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction More than 80% of all smokeless tobacco (ST) products in the world are consumed in South Asia; yet little is known about their consumption behaviour, addictiveness, and toxic properties. This paper, for the first time, describes associations between salivary cotinine concentrations among ST users in Bangladesh and their socio-demographic characteristics and tobacco use behaviours. Methods In a survey of ST users in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we purposively recruited 200 adults who were non-smokers but consumed ST on a regular basis. In-person interviews were conducted to obtain information about socio-demographic and ST use behaviours, and saliva samples were collected to measure cotinine concentration. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to test associations between the log transformed salivary cotinine concentration and other study variables. Results The geometric mean of cotinine concentration among ST users was 380ng/ml (GSD:2). Total duration of daily ST use in months had a statistically significant association with cotinine concentration. Other ST use characteristics including type and quantity of ST use, swallowing of tobacco juice, urges and strength of urges and attempts to cut down on tobacco use were not found to be associated with cotinine concentration in a multivariable model. Conclusion This is the first report from Bangladesh studying cotinine concentration among ST users and it points towards high levels of addiction. This warrants effective tobacco control policies to help ST cessation and prevention. PMID:27504912

  12. Criminal poisoning of commuters in Bangladesh: prospective and retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Majumder, M Mahbub Alam; Basher, Ariful; Faiz, M Abul; Kuch, Ulrich; Pogoda, Werner; Kauert, Gerold F; Toennes, Stefan W

    2008-08-25

    Travel-related poisoning is an emerging social and public health emergency in Bangladesh but its cause and significance have not been determined. To investigate this syndrome we performed a prospective clinical study and retrospective analysis of hospital records in a general medicine unit of a public tertiary care teaching hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using toxicological analysis by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF MS). The participants of the prospective study were 130 consecutive patients aged 16-80 years who were admitted with central nervous system depression (Glasgow Coma Score 3-14) after using public transportation, in the absence of other abnormalities, from January through June 2004, and a convenience sample of 15 such patients admitted during 3 days in May 2006. In 2004-2006, travel-related poisoning increased from 6.1 to 9.5% of all admissions (210-309 of 3266-3843 per year), representing 46.6-55.7% of all admitted poisoning cases. Incidents were associated with bus (76%), taxi, train, and air travel, or local markets; 98% of patients remembered buying or accepting food or drinks before losing consciousness. Direct financial damage (missing property) was diverse and frequently existential. Among 94 urine samples analyzed by FPIA, 74% tested positive for benzodiazepines. Among 15 urine samples analyzed by LC-TOF MS, lorazepam was detected in all; five also contained diazepam or metabolites; nitrazepam was present in three. FPIA results obtained for these 15 samples were below the recommended cut-off in eight (53%; lorazepam only). Our findings show that the massive medicosocial emergency of travel-related poisoning in Bangladesh is the result of drug-facilitated organized crime and that benzodiazepine drugs are used to commit these crimes, suggesting modifications to the local emergency management of the victims of this type of poisoning. They also highlight the

  13. Surface water pollution in three urban territories of Nepal, India, and Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Karn, S K; Harada, H

    2001-10-01

    In South Asian countries such as Nepal, India, and Bangladesh, pollution of rivers is more severe and critical near urban stretches due to huge amounts of pollution load discharged by urban activities. The Bagmati River in the Kathmandu valley, the Yamuna River at Delhi, and peripheral rivers (mainly Buriganga River) of Dhaka suffer from severe pollution these days. The observed dry season average of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in all these rivers is in the range of 20-30 mg/liter and total coliform are as high as 104-105 MPN/100 ml. Per capita pollution load discharge of urban areas has been estimated to be about 31, 19, and 25 g BOD/capita/day in Bagmati, Yamuna, and the rivers of Dhaka, respectively. Regression analysis reveals pollution loads steadily increasing nearly in step with the trend in urbanization. The dissolved oxygen (DO) level of the Bagmati and Buriganga rivers is declining at an average annual rate of nearly 0.3 mg/liter/year. Unplanned urbanization and industrialization occurring in these cities may be largely responsible for this grave situation. Inadequate sewerage, on-site sanitation, and wastewater treatment facilities in one hand, and lack of effective pollution control measures and their strict enforcement on the other are the major causes of rampant discharge of pollutants in the aquatic systems.

  14. Quantitative assessment of medical waste generation in the capital city of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Patwary, Masum A; O'Hare, William Thomas; Street, Graham; Maudood Elahi, K; Hossain, Syed Shahadat; Sarker, Mosharraf H

    2009-08-01

    There is a concern that mismanagement of medical waste in developing countries may be a significant risk factor for disease transmission. Quantitative estimation of medical waste generation is needed to estimate the potential risk and as a basis for any waste management plan. Dhaka City, the capital of Bangladesh, is an example of a major city in a developing country where there has been no rigorous estimation of medical waste generation based upon a thorough scientific study. These estimates were obtained by stringent weighing of waste in a carefully chosen, representative, sample of HCEs, including non-residential diagnostic centres. This study used a statistically designed sampling of waste generation in a broad range of Health Care Establishments (HCEs) to indicate that the amount of waste produced in Dhaka can be estimated to be 37+/-5 ton per day. The proportion of this waste that would be classified as hazardous waste by World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines was found to be approximately 21%. The amount of waste, and the proportion of hazardous waste, was found to vary significantly with the size and type of HCE.

  15. Quantitative assessment of medical waste generation in the capital city of Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Patwary, Masum A. O'Hare, William Thomas Street, Graham Maudood Elahi, K. Hossain, Syed Shahadat Sarker, Mosharraf H.

    2009-08-15

    There is a concern that mismanagement of medical waste in developing countries may be a significant risk factor for disease transmission. Quantitative estimation of medical waste generation is needed to estimate the potential risk and as a basis for any waste management plan. Dhaka City, the capital of Bangladesh, is an example of a major city in a developing country where there has been no rigorous estimation of medical waste generation based upon a thorough scientific study. These estimates were obtained by stringent weighing of waste in a carefully chosen, representative, sample of HCEs, including non-residential diagnostic centres. This study used a statistically designed sampling of waste generation in a broad range of Health Care Establishments (HCEs) to indicate that the amount of waste produced in Dhaka can be estimated to be 37 {+-} 5 ton per day. The proportion of this waste that would be classified as hazardous waste by World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines was found to be approximately 21%. The amount of waste, and the proportion of hazardous waste, was found to vary significantly with the size and type of HCE.

  16. Informed consent: knowledge, attitude and practice of the researchers in a postgraduate institute of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, M A; Jaigirdar, Q H; Ullah, M A; Yunus, A B; Rashid, H A

    2009-07-01

    A prospective experimental study was conducted in a postgraduate institute in Dhaka, Bangladesh, from April '05 to September '05. A total of 214 doctors of a postgraduate medical institute were included in the study who was involved in research works. A written questionnaire was given to the respondents to assess their knowledge, attitude and practice about informed consent (IC). The data was analyzed statistically. Chi-Square test was done to see the level of significance. Regarding knowledge of IC, we found maximum participants were more or less knowledgeable about it. The attitude of the respondents was also in favour of taking IC. In practice, most of them had taken informed consent that was verbal (39.3%) and written (47.6%). But some of the researcher (13.1%) had not taken any informed consent. By the present study, it may be concluded that the researchers of the concerned institute were aware of IC.

  17. Himalayan Foothills, Bangladesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This remarkably clear, pre-monsoon view of the Himalayan foothills of Bangladesh (26.0N, 89.5E) shows the deforestation of the lower slopes for agriculture and pasture lands. The cleared lower slopes are generally used for tea cultivation. The intensity of agricultural land use, mostly in the form of small, family subsistance farms on the Ganges Plain is evident over most of the scene. Note also, the aircraft contrail and Tista River.

  18. [Family planning in Bangladesh].

    PubMed

    Saito, S

    1981-03-01

    The author participated in the family planning project in Bangladesh from August 1, 1977 to December 31, 1979. The population of Bangladesh was 81 million in 1977 with annual increase of 3%, and the government was aiming at zero population growth. The government guidelines emphasized family planning as an effort integrated with other community programs. The use of adult education classes, mass media, and agricultural field workers and the training of paramedical personnel were proposed. The project members' activities involved motivating the public to delay marriages, to space births and to limit the family size to two children (average family size 6.5 children) as well as distributing contraceptives, promoting IUD and sterilization. Sterilization campaign for women in DNN district, 30 km south of Dacca, was carried out as follows. The women who had signed up in advance arrived at the elementary school classroom, where 2 medical teams performed operations using the teachers' desks and the equipment rented from a hospital in Dacca. The general procedure involved a physical examination by a female doctor, checking blood pressure, changing into a brand new native gown, premedication by injection, total anesthesia and operation itself. The equipment was sterilized by boiling. The patients were carried on the stretchers to the other classroom where they recuperated, staying overnight on the straw mats on the mud floor. They went home on foot the next day. The shortage of food and resources, high unemployment rate and low standard of living are some of the social problems Bangladesh faces along with overpopulation.

  19. Arsenic in Bangladesh Groundwater: from Science to Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geen, A.; Ahmed, K. M.; Graziano, J. H.

    2004-12-01

    A large proportion of the populations of Bangladesh and other South Asian countries is at risk of contracting cancers and other debilitating diseases due to exposure to high concentrations of naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater supplied by millions of tube wells. Starting in January 2000, and in partnership with several Bangladeshi institutions, an interdisciplinary team of health, earth, and social scientists from Columbia University has focused its efforts to address this crisis on a 25 km2 region in Araihazar upazila, about 20 km northeast of Dhaka. The project started with the recording of the position and depth of ~6600 wells in the area, the collection of groundwater samples from these wells, and laboratory analyses for arsenic and a suite of other constituents. This was followed by the recruitment of 12,000 adult inhabitants of the area for a long-term cohort study of the effects of arsenic exposure, as well as cross-sectional studies of their children. This presentation will focus on (1) the extreme degree of spatial variability of arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh groundwater, (2) the notion that spatial variability hampers mitigation in the sense that it complicates predictions but also offers an opportunity for mitigation because many households live within walking or drilling distance of safe water, and (3) the implication of recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of arsenic mobilization for potential temporal changes in groundwater arsenic. In addition, (4) a unique data set documenting the response of 6500 households to 4 years of mitigation in Araihazar, supported by documented reductions in exposure to arsenic based on urine analyses, will be presented. The presentation will conclude with (5) a proposal for scaling up mitigation efforts to the rest of the country by targeting safe aquifers with information transmitted to the village level from a central data base using cellular phones.

  20. Speciation And Localization Of Arsenic In White And Brown Rice Grains

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) was utilized to locate arsenic (As) in polished (white) and unpolished (brown) rice grains from the United States, China, and Bangladesh. In white rice As was generally dispersed throughout the grain, the bulk of which constitutes the...

  1. A new micro-chamber method for selecting sheath blight tolerant rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dr. Shannon Pinson’s role as an applied Plant Geneticist is to develop new knowledge and techniques that allow breeders to be more efficient and successful at developing improved rice varieties. While visiting various rice researchers in Bangladesh in 2002, Dr. Pinson gained some knowledge and ideas...

  2. Seroprevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in a high-risk group of individuals in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, A K M Anisur; Dirk, Berkvens; Fretin, David; Saegerman, Claude; Ahmed, Muzahed Uddin; Muhammad, Noor; Hossain, Akram; Abatih, Emmanuel

    2012-03-01

    Brucellosis is an occupational hazard of livestock farmers, dairy workers, veterinarians, slaughterhouse workers, and laboratory personnel, all of whom are considered to belong to the high-risk occupational group (HROG). A study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis, identify risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity, and detect Brucella at genus level using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) among people in the HROG in the Dhaka division of Bangladesh. A sample of 500 individuals from the HROG was collected from three districts of Dhaka division of Bangladesh. A multiple random effects logistic regression model was used to identify potential risk factors. Two types of real-time PCR methods were applied to detect Brucella genus-specific DNA using serum from seropositive patients. The prevalence of brucellosis based on the three tests was observed to be 4.4% based on a parallel interpretation. The results of the multiple random effects logistic regression analysis with random intercept for district revealed that the odds of brucellosis seropositivity among individuals who had been in contact with livestock for more than 26 years was about 14 times higher as compared to those who had less than 5 years of contact with livestock. In addition, when the contact was with goats, the odds of brucellosis seropositivity were about 60 times higher as compared to when contact was with cattle only. Noticeable variation in brucellosis seropositivity among humans within the three districts was noted. All of the 13 individuals who tested positive for the serological tests were also positive in two types of real-time PCR using the same serum samples. Livestock farmers of brucellosis positive herds had a significantly higher probability to be seropositive for brucellosis. The study emphasized that contact with livestock, especially goats, is a significant risk factor for the transmission of brucellosis among individuals in the HROG.

  3. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Lead Poisoning in Young Children in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ahua, Emmanuel; Saha, Pradip K.

    2012-01-01

    Lead poisoning is a major public-health problem in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the extent of and risk factors for elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) in children in Bangladesh during September 2007–July 2009. The study included 919 children aged less than 16 years. The children were recruited from six urban locations in Dhaka and one rural area in Chirirbandar, Dinajpur. In total, 495 (54%) children had high BLLs (>10 µg/dL), with higher BLLs observed among children aged 5-9 years compared to children of other ages (p<0.001). The BLLs among children in urban Dhaka were significantly higher than those in rural areas (13.45±8.21 µg/dL vs 7.29±6.25 µg/dL, p<0.001). The high BLLs correlated with low body mass index (r=-0.23, p<0.001) and low haemoglobin status (r=-0.10, p=0.02). On bivariate analysis, proximity to industry (p<0.001), drinking-water from municipal supply or tubewell (p<0.001), brass or lead water-taps (p<0.001), use of melamine plate (p=0.001), and indigenous medicinal (kabiraji) treatments (p=0.004) significantly correlated with higher BLLs. Proximity to industry and the use of indigenous medicines remained significant predictors of high BLLs after controlling for the confounders. Several risk factors appropriate for future educational interventions to prevent exposure to lead poisoning were identified. PMID:23304906

  4. InSAR measurements of compaction and subsidence in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Stephanie A.; Overeem, Irina; Steckler, Michael S.; Syvitski, James P. M.; Seeber, Leonardo; Akhter, S. Humayun

    2014-08-01

    Many of the world's largest river deltas are sinking due to sediment loading, compaction, and tectonics but also recently because of groundwater extraction, hydrocarbon extraction, and reduced aggradation. Little is known, however, about the full spatial variability of subsidence rates in complex delta systems. This study reconstructs subsidence rates in the eastern portion of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD), Bangladesh, covering more than 10,000 km2 at a high spatial resolution of 100 m. The map was produced using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) covering the period 2007 to 2011. Eighteen Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased-Array L-band SAR scenes were used to generate 30 interferograms calibrated with GPS. Interferograms were stacked to yield average subsidence rates over the study period. Small Baseline Subset-InSAR was then applied to validate the results against an additional GPS record from Dhaka, Bangladesh. Land subsidence of 0 to > 10 mm/yr is seen in Dhaka, with variability likely related to local variations in shallow subsurface sediment properties. Outside of the city, rates vary from 0 to > 18 mm/yr, with the lowest rates appearing primarily in Pleistocene Madhupur Clay and the highest rates in Holocene organic-rich muds. Results demonstrate that subsidence in this delta is primarily controlled by local stratigraphy, with rates varying by more than an order of magnitude depending on lithology. The ability of L-band InSAR to differentiate between stratigraphic units in this humid, vegetated subtropical river delta demonstrates the power of interferometry as a tool for studying the subsurface in deltaic environments.

  5. Trace metals accumulation in soil irrigated with polluted water and assessment of human health risk from vegetable consumption in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Atikul; Romić, Davor; Akber, Md Ali; Romić, Marija

    2017-01-18

    Trace metals accumulation in soil irrigated with polluted water and human health risk from vegetable consumption was assessed based on the data available in the literature on metals pollution of water, soil, sediment and vegetables from the cites of Bangladesh. The quantitative data on metal concentrations, their contamination levels and their pollution sources have not been systematically gathered and studied so far. The data on metal concentrations, sources, contamination levels, sample collection and analytical tools used were collected, compared and discussed. The USEPA-recommended method for health risk assessment was used to estimate human risk from vegetable consumption. Concentrations of metals in water were highly variable, and the mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu and As in water were found to be higher than the FAO irrigation water quality standard. In most cases, mean concentrations of metals in soil were higher than the Bangladesh background value. Based on geoaccumulation index (I geo) values, soils of Dhaka city are considered as highly contaminated. The I geo shows Cd, As, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cr contamination of agricultural soils and sediments of the cities all over the Bangladesh. Polluted water irrigation and agrochemicals are identified as dominant sources of metals in agricultural soils. Vegetable contamination by metals poses both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to the public. Based on the results of the pollution and health risk assessments, Cd, As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni are identified as the priority control metals and the Dhaka city is recommended as the priority control city. This study provides quantitative evidence demonstrating the critical need for strengthened wastewater discharge regulations in order to protect residents from heavy metal discharges into the environment.

  6. Present scenario of landing and distribution of fish in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M; Khatun, S; Hossain, M B; Hassan, M N; Nowsad, A A K M

    2013-11-15

    The present study was designed to know the landing and distribution pathways of fish and types and nature of stakeholders involved in fish distribution chain in Bangladesh. A total of 237 fish landing centers and 5440 markets were detected. The number of landing center and market were highest in Chittagong and Dhaka division respectively. Stakeholders in fish distribution, viz., arotdars, paikers and retailers were found to be 6219, 39506 and 122922, respectively. A 84.71% of the landing centers were found to be operated year round while 15.29% were seasonal. The major fish production zones and major gateways of the country where inland capture and culture and marine capture fish landed were identified. In any locality 62.83% of the landed fish were transported within 100 km area and 5.73% of fish were transported beyond 500 km. The quantity of fish harvested from river, beel, Kaptai lake floodplain, pond, baor, coastal area/sea and shrimp/prawn farm were 5.25, 4.41, 0.13, 35.03, 38.22, 0.23, 10.93 and 5.80%, respectively. The common constraints identified were lack of adequate infrastructure facilities in the landing center and market, unhygienic environment, influence of middlemen, money lending at high rate etc. For the betterment of fish landing and distribution, appropriate authority should pay proper attention so that both quality and fair price are ensured.

  7. Solid waste recycling in Rajshahi city of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bari, Q Hamidul; Hassan, K Mahbub; Haque, M Ehsanul

    2012-11-01

    Efficient recycling of solid wastes is now a global concern for a sustainable and environmentally sound management. In this study, traditional recycling pattern of solid waste was investigated in Rajshahi municipality which is the fourth largest city of Bangladesh. A questionnaire survey had been carried out in various recycle shops during April 2010 to January 2011. There were 140 recycle shops and most of them were located in the vicinity of Stadium market in Rajshahi. About 1906 people were found to be involved in recycling activities of the city. The major fraction of recycled wastes were sent to capital city Dhaka for further manufacture of different new products. Only a small amount of wastes, specially plastics, were processed in local recycle factories to produce small washing pots and bottle caps. Everyday, an estimated 28.13 tons of recycled solid wastes were handled in Rajshahi city area. This recycled portion accounted for 8.25% of the daily total generated wastes (341 ton d(-1)), 54.6% of total recyclable wastes (51.49 ton d(-1)) and 68.29% of readily recyclable wastes (41.19 ton d(-1)). Major recycled materials were found to be iron, glass, plastic, and papers. Only five factories were involved in preliminary processing of recyclable wastes. Collecting and processing secondary materials, manufacturing recycled-content products, and then buying recycled products created a circle or loop that ensured the overall success of recycling and generated a host of financial, environmental, and social returns.

  8. Profile of infertility status of male in Dhaka city.

    PubMed

    Khondker, L; Khan, S I; Ahamed, R S

    2012-07-01

    A cross sectional study was done to determine the important etiological profile of infertility status of male in Dhaka city. A total of eighty seven patients of male infertility were selected purposively. Among them, highest percentage of patients, 44(50.6%) were in between the 21-30 years old, 36(41.4%) had 6-10 years of post- marriage duration, 56(64.4%) patients stated that they stayed with their wife interruptedly, 54(62.1%) had primary infertility and 33(37.9%) had secondary infertility. It was found that among the patients 6(5.50%) had anti-sperm antibody, 45(40.9%) had sexually transmitted disease (STD), 41(37.3%) had varicocele, 2(1.80%) had loss of libido, 4(3.6%) had premature ejaculation and 12(10.9%) had hydrocele. It was observed that 14(12.7%) were tobacco user, 26(23.6%) were obese, 12(10.9%) had malnutrition, 7(6.4%) had exposure to heat etc and it was found that 61(70.1%) had free testosterone below the normal level and 51(58.6%) had prolactin level above the normal level. The semen analysis revealed that 48(55.2 %) had abnormal morphology of sperm, 26(29.9%) had feebly motile sperm and 27(31%) had non-motile sperm, 36(41.4%) had oligospermia, 6(6.9%) had azoospermia and 17(19.5%) had oligoasthenozoospermia.

  9. Use of Only Oral Rehydration Salt Solution for Successful Management of a Young Infant with Serum Sodium of 201 mmol/L in an Urban Diarrhoeal Diseases Hospital, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Pietroni, Mark A.C.; Alom, Mohammad Samsul; Smith, Jonathan Harvey

    2012-01-01

    A boy aged 4 months 7 days was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b, Dhaka, Bangladesh, with the problems of acute watery diarrhoea with some dehydration, pneumonia, lethargy, and hypernatraemia (serum sodium of 201 mmol/L). Correction for hypernatraemia was tried by using only oral rehydration salt (ORS) solution. Seizures occurred during correction of the hypernatraemia. These were difficult to control and required three doses of injection lorazepam, a loading dose of injection phenobarbitone, followed by injection phenytoin and finally two doses of injection mannitol (even though there was no clinical or imaging evidence by ultrasonography or computed tomography of cerebral oedema). The correction was continued with ORS, and all the anticonvulsants were successfully weaned without any further seizures, and the patient recovered without any overt neurological sequelae. We present a case report of extreme hypernatraemia, which was successfully managed using only ORS. PMID:23082639

  10. Changing patient population in Dhaka Hospital and Matlab Hospital of icddr,b.

    PubMed

    Das, S K; Rahman, A; Chisti, M J; Ahmed, S; Malek, M A; Salam, M A; Bardhan, P K; Faruque, A S G

    2014-02-01

    The Diarrhoeal Disease Surveillance System of icddr,b noted increasing number of patients ≥60 years at urban Dhaka and rural Matlab from 2001 to 2012. Shigella and Vibrio cholerae were more frequently isolated from elderly people than children under 5 years and adults aged 5-59 in both areas. The resistance observed to various drugs of Shigella in Dhaka and Matlab was trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (72-63%), ampicillin (43-55%), nalidixic acid (58-61%), mecillinam (12-9%), azithromycin (13-0%), ciprofloxacin (11-13%) and ceftriaxone (11-0%). Vibrio cholerae isolated in Dhaka and Matlab was resistant to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (98-94%), furazolidone (100%), erythromycin (71-53%), tetracycline (46-44%), ciprofloxacin (3-10%) and azithromycin (3-0%).

  11. Hydrogeochemical Analysis of an Overexploited Aquifer In Bangladesh Toward Managed Aquifer Recharge Project Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. A.; Wiegand, B. A.; Pervin, M.; Sauter, M.

    2012-12-01

    In most parts of the upper Dupitila aquifer (Dhaka City, Bangladesh) the average groundwater depletion reaches 2-3 m/year due to increasing water demands of the growing population. To counteract overexploitation of the aquifer, a more sustainable water management is required. The analysis of the local water resources system suggests that Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) would help to restore groundwater resources to strengthen water supply of Dhaka City, e.g., by using collected urban monsoon runoff and excess surface water from rivers. To assess possible effects of surface water or rainwater injection on groundwater quality, a comprehensive hydrogeochemical survey of the Dupitila aquifer is required. This paper presents hydrogeochemical data to document the current status of groundwater quality and to evaluate potential groundwater pollution by mobilization of hazardous chemicals as a result of changes in the hydrochemical equilibria. We performed a comprehensive review of available secondary data sources and will present new results from hydrochemical and Sr isotope investigations of water samples that were conducted within this study. Currently, groundwater quality in the upper Dupitila aquifer is characterized by variations in the electrical conductivity in the range of 200 to 1100 μS/cm, which may indicate some anthropogenic contamination by leakage from waste disposal including the sewage network and from surface water infiltration into the groundwater aquifer. Dissolved oxygen concentrations range from 1.0 to 4.9 mg/L (average 2.5 mg/L) in the upper Dupitila aquifer, while the lower Dupilita aquifer shows dissolved oxygen concentrations in the range 0 to 0.7 mg/L. Concentrations of major ions show some variation primarily due to a sedimentologically/mineralogically heterogeneous aquifer composition (sand, gravel, clay horizons), but may also be affected by anthropogenic processes. The groundwater composition is predominated by Ca-Mg-HCO3 and saturation values

  12. Human rabies in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M; Ahmed, K; Bulbul, T; Hossain, S; Rahman, A; Biswas, M N U; Nishizono, A

    2012-11-01

    Rabies is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, where most of the population live in rural areas. However, there is little epidemiological information on rabies in rural Bangladesh. This study was conducted in 30 upazilas (subdistricts) covering all six divisions of the country, to determine the levels of rabies and animal bites in Bangladesh. The total population of these upazilas was 6 992 302. A pretested questionnaire was used and data were collected by interviewing the adult members of families. We estimated that in Bangladesh, 166 590 [95% confidence interval (CI) 163 350-170 550] people per year are bitten by an animal. The annual incidence of rabies deaths in Bangladesh was estimated to be 1·40 (95% CI 1·05-1·78)/100 000 population. By extrapolating this, we estimated that 2100 (95% CI 1575-2670) people die annually from rabies in Bangladesh. More than three-quarters of rabies patients died at home. This community-based study provides new information on rabies epidemiology in Bangladesh.

  13. Arsenic dynamics in porewater of an intermittently irrigated paddy field in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Linda C; Hug, Stephan J; Voegelin, Andreas; Dittmar, Jessica; Kretzschmar, Ruben; Wehrli, Bernhard; Saha, Ganesh C; Badruzzaman, A Borhan M; Ali, M Ashraf

    2011-02-01

    In Bangladesh, irrigation of dry season rice (boro) with arsenic-contaminated groundwater is leading to increased As levels in soils and rice, and to concerns about As-induced yield reduction. Arsenic concentrations and speciation in soil porewater are strongly influenced by redox conditions, and thus by water management during rice growth. We studied the dynamics of As, Fe, P, Si, and other elements in porewater of a paddy field near Sreenagar (Munshiganj), irrigated according to local practice, in which flooding was intermittent. During early rice growth, As porewater concentrations reached up to 500 μg L(-1) and were dominated by As(III), but As release was constrained to the lower portion of the soil above the plow pan. In the later part of the season, soil conditions were oxic throughout the depth range relevant to rice roots and porewater concentrations only intermittently increased to ∼150 μg L(-1) As(V) following irrigation events. Our findings suggest that intermittent irrigation, currently advocated in Bangladesh for water-saving purposes, may be a promising means of reducing As input to paddy soils and rice plant exposure to As.

  14. Cross-sectional test of the Fama-French three-factor model: Evidence from Bangladesh stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Md. Zobaer; Kamil, Anton Abdulbasah

    2014-09-01

    Stock market is an important part of a country's economy. It supports the country's economic development and progress by encouraging the efficiency and profitability of firms. This research was designed to examine the risk-return association of companies in the Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) market of Bangladesh by using the Fama-French three-factor model structure. The model is based on three factors, which are stock beta, SMB (difference in returns of the portfolio with small market capitalisation minus that with big market capitalisation) and HML (difference in returns of the portfolio with high book-to-market ratio minus that with low book-to-market ratio). This study focused on the DSE market as it is one of the frontier emerging stock markets of South Asia. For this study, monthly stock returns from 71 non-financial companies were used for the period of January 2002 to December 2011. DSI Index was used as a proxy for the market portfolio and Bangladesh government 3-Month T-bill rate was used as the proxy for the risk-free asset. It was found that large capital stocks outperform small capital stocks and stocks with lower book-to-market ratios outperform stocks with higher book-to-market ratios in the context of Bangladesh stock market.

  15. [A demographic profile of Bangladesh].

    PubMed

    D'souza, S

    1985-01-01

    Population trends in Bangladesh are reviewed. Consideration is given to population density, food supply, and methods of resolving the country's population problems. The author concludes that programs designed to raise the status of women have the best chance of success.

  16. State and the Low Cost Housing for the Poor: Fall of Bashentek Rehabilitation Project (BRP) in Dhaka City--Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Rasel; Saha, Amit Kumar; Rabbani, Golam; Pervin, Irin; Shamma, Wasifa Tasnim; Khan, Sazzad Hossain

    2015-01-01

    In the era of neoliberalism now the people especially the lower income group of people is suffering a lot for the scarcity of housing. After migrating from the rural areas for a better life they discovered themselves in the slum like areas of the city as they are not capable to afford housing in the influential areas of the city due to higher…

  17. Single dose vitamin A treatment in acute shigellosis in Bangladesh children: randomised double blind controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, S.; Biswas, R.; Kabir, I.; Sarker, S.; Dibley, M.; Fuchs, G.; Mahalanabis, D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a single large oral dose of vitamin A in treating acute shigellosis in children in Bangladesh. DESIGN: Randomised double blind controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Dhaka Hospital, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. SUBJECTS: 83 children aged 1-7 years with bacteriologically proved shigellosis but no clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency; 42 were randomised to treatment with vitamin A and 41 formed a control group. INTERVENTION: Children were given a single oral dose of 200,000 IU of vitamin A plus 25 IU vitamin E or a control preparation of 25 IU vitamin E. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical cure on study day 5 and bacteriological cure. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics of the subjects in the two treatment groups were similar. Significantly more children in the vitamin A group than in the control group achieved clinical cure (19/42 (45%) v 8/14 (20%); chi 2 = 5.14, 1 df, P = 0.02; risk ratio = 0.68 (95% confidence interval; 0.50 to 0.93)). When cure was determined bacteriologically, the groups had similar rates (16/42 (38%) v 16/41 (39%); chi 2 = 0.02, 1 df, P = 0.89; risk ratio = 0.98 (0.70 to 1.39)). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin A reduces the severity of acute shigellosis in children living in areas where vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem. PMID:9492664

  18. Immunoproteomic analysis of antibody in lymphocyte supernatant in patients with typhoid fever in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Charles, Richelle C; Liang, Li; Khanam, Farhana; Sayeed, M Abu; Hung, Chris; Leung, Daniel T; Baker, Stephen; Ludwig, Albrecht; Harris, Jason B; Larocque, Regina C; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Felgner, Philip L; Ryan, Edward T

    2014-03-01

    We have previously shown that an assay based on detection of anti-Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi antibodies in supernatant of lymphocytes harvested from patients presenting with typhoid fever (antibody in lymphocyte supernatant [ALS] assay) can identify 100% of patients with blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever in Bangladesh. In order to define immunodominant proteins within the S. Typhi membrane preparation used as antigen in these prior studies and to identify potential biomarkers unique to S. Typhi bacteremic patients, we probed microarrays containing 2,724 S. Typhi proteins with ALS collected at the time of clinical presentation from 10 Bangladeshis with acute typhoid fever. We identified 62 immunoreactive antigens when evaluating both the IgG and IgA responses. Immune responses to 10 of these antigens discriminated between individuals with acute typhoid infection and healthy control individuals from areas where typhoid infection is endemic, as well as Bangladeshi patients presenting with fever who were subsequently confirmed to have a nontyphoid illness. Using an ALS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format and purified antigen, we then confirmed that immune responses against the antigen with the highest immunoreactivity (hemolysin E [HlyE]) correctly identified individuals with acute typhoid or paratyphoid fever in Dhaka, Bangladesh. These observations suggest that purified antigens could be used with ALS and corresponding acute-phase activated B lymphocytes in diagnostic platforms to identify acutely infected patients, even in areas where enteric fever is endemic.

  19. Immunoproteomic Analysis of Antibody in Lymphocyte Supernatant in Patients with Typhoid Fever in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Li; Khanam, Farhana; Sayeed, M. Abu; Hung, Chris; Leung, Daniel T.; Baker, Stephen; Ludwig, Albrecht; Harris, Jason B.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Qadri, Firdausi; Felgner, Philip L.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that an assay based on detection of anti-Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi antibodies in supernatant of lymphocytes harvested from patients presenting with typhoid fever (antibody in lymphocyte supernatant [ALS] assay) can identify 100% of patients with blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever in Bangladesh. In order to define immunodominant proteins within the S. Typhi membrane preparation used as antigen in these prior studies and to identify potential biomarkers unique to S. Typhi bacteremic patients, we probed microarrays containing 2,724 S. Typhi proteins with ALS collected at the time of clinical presentation from 10 Bangladeshis with acute typhoid fever. We identified 62 immunoreactive antigens when evaluating both the IgG and IgA responses. Immune responses to 10 of these antigens discriminated between individuals with acute typhoid infection and healthy control individuals from areas where typhoid infection is endemic, as well as Bangladeshi patients presenting with fever who were subsequently confirmed to have a nontyphoid illness. Using an ALS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format and purified antigen, we then confirmed that immune responses against the antigen with the highest immunoreactivity (hemolysin E [HlyE]) correctly identified individuals with acute typhoid or paratyphoid fever in Dhaka, Bangladesh. These observations suggest that purified antigens could be used with ALS and corresponding acute-phase activated B lymphocytes in diagnostic platforms to identify acutely infected patients, even in areas where enteric fever is endemic. PMID:24371257

  20. Cholera and shigellosis in Bangladesh: similarities and differences in population dynamics under climate forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, M.; Cash, B.; Reiner, R.; King, A.; Emch, M.; Yunus, M.; Faruque, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    The influence of climate variability on the population dynamics of infectious diseases is considered a large scale, regional, phenomenon, and as such, has been previously addressed for cholera with temporal models that do not incorporate fine-scale spatial structure. In our previous work, evidence for a role of ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) on cholera in Bangladesh was elucidated, and shown to influence the regional climate through precipitation. With a probabilistic spatial model for cholera dynamics in the megacity of Dhaka, we found that the action of climate variability (ENSO and flooding) is localized: there is a climate-sensitive urban core that acts to propagate risk to the rest of the city. Here, we consider long-term surveillance data for shigellosis, another diarrheal disease that coexists with cholera in Bangladesh. We compare the patterns of association with climate variables for these two diseases in a rural setting, as well as the spatial structure in their spatio-temporal dynamics in an urban one. Evidence for similar patterns is presented, and discussed in the context of the differences in the routes of transmission of the two diseases and the proposed role of an environmental reservoir in cholera. The similarities provide evidence for a more general influence of hydrology and of socio-economic factors underlying human susceptibility and sanitary conditions.

  1. Neonatal Transport - Experience of a Tertiary Care Hospital of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Dey, S K; Sharker, S; Jahan, I; Moni, S C; Shabuj, K H; Chisti, M J; Mannan, M A; Shahidullah, M

    2017-01-01

    Safe transportation is mostly an unnoticed neonatal health issue in Bangladesh and no documentation is available regarding the existing practices. So this study was intended to document transport status of the referred newborn to a tertiary care hospital. This observational study included 150 out born neonates over 12 months period transported from various places to NICU, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) from May 2015 to April 2016. A structured data collection form was used to record information categorized into pre-transport, during transport and at admission. At admission detailed clinical assessment of the baby was done and recorded. Outcome was determined as discharge or death. Of 150 transported neonates, two-third were preterm 115(77%) & LBW 113(75%). Common indications for referral were prematurity and sepsis. Most of the patients were referred from private hospital 107(71%). Majority of newborns (86%) were referred from hospitals of Dhaka city while only 14% were referred from outside Dhaka. Referral notes were supplied in most of the cases 134(89%) but comprehensive information was obtainable only in 3 cases. Although main transport vehicle was ambulance 130(87%), medical personnel accompanied the sick baby only in 6(4%) of cases. The distance traveled was less than 10 kilometers (kms) in 95(63%) and more than 100 km in 10(7%) of enrolled neonates. Transport time was less than 1 hour in 72(48%), 1-6 hours in 66(44%) and more than 6 hours in 12(8%) of cases. Nearly two third of newborn were transported after office period, 107(72%). At admission 21(14%) babies had hypothermia, 8(7.62%) hypoglycemia, 16(11%), poor perfusion 28(19%), low saturation 27(18%). Hyperthermia & hyperglycemia were observed in 8(5%) & 7(5%) cases respectively. Of the total 150 babies referred, 17(11%) died. While comparing with discharged newborn, died newborn were more frequent sufferer of hypothermia (p value 0.007) and low saturation (p value 0.049) at

  2. Analysis and Monitoring of the Spatio-temporal Aerosol Patterns over Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamun, M.; Islam, M.

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays climate change is the burning issue and atmospheric aerosols are vital parameter of the global climate system. So, atmospheric aerosols are one of the hot topics for present scientific research. Most remote sensing methods retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) to assess the aerosols and their various effects on environmental and climate system. However, there is lack of studies dealing with monitoring of aerosol patterns over Bangladesh. In this research, we have analyzed the spatial and temporal variations in aerosol load over Bangladesh, using MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Level 3 remote sensing data. A Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to generate a backward trajectory in order to identify the origins of air masses, with the aim of understanding these spatial and temporal variabilities in aerosol concentrations. During the last decade, AODs have increased across Bangladesh and revealed a higher AOD concentration in western part but a much cleaner environment in eastern part. An assessment of monthly mean variations in AOD has exhibited maximum AODs in June and minimum AODs in October. Looking over seasonal variations during the last decade over Bangladesh showed maximum AOD values during the summer, while minimum AOD values showed during the post monsoon also an evidence of a decreasing AOD trend showed during the monsoon can be owing to an increase in monsoonal rainfall in Bangladesh, while all other seasons showed increasing trends. Northwestern part of Bangladesh has showed at the top of AOD concentration in winter season during the year 2010. Dense fog activities in northern part of Bangladesh may be the causes of this high AOD distribution. We also documented, the regional AOD variations over seven different divisions of Bangladesh, for which Dhaka and Sylhet divisions showed decreasing trends where all others showed increasing trends. Annual mean AODs have highest levels in

  3. Determinants of Shallow Groundwater As Variability in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radloff, K. A.; Zheng, Y.; Stute, M.; Rahman, M.; Mihajlov, I.; Siu, H.; Huq, M.; Choudhury, I.; Ahmed, K.; van Geen, A.

    2010-12-01

    ] gradient observed reflects the gradual removal of As by groundwater flow over hundreds to thousands of years. The onset of irrigation and industrial pumping at this site has induced a reversal in flow, consequently groundwater now moves from high [As] into low [As] areas. This change could result in rising [As] to levels >50 μg/L in the village within the next few decades. The rapid economic development of Bangladesh could induce similar changes in groundwater flow, and thus As concentrations, elsewhere. This suggests that periodic monitoring of shallow wells low in As within regions of where the As content of groundwater is variable is particularly important. The size of the pool of As adsorbed on the sediment also indicates that current attempts to flush Bangladeshi aquifers “clean” through increased pumping will likely be ineffective. 1. BBS/UNICEF. Bangladesh: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2009. (Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2009).

  4. Bangladesh becomes "success story".

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    The State Minister for Health and Family of Bangladesh, Dr. Mohammed Amanullah, highlighted some of the successes being achieved by his country in lowering fertility and improving the lives of the people since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Some of these successes include practical measures to eliminate violence against women; introduction of a quota for women in public sector employment; and launching of the Health and Population Sector Program to provide a one-stop, full range of essential reproductive health, family planning and child health services through an integrated delivery mechanism. Moreover, the Minister informed the Forum participants that their success is attributable to many factors which include support from the government, from non-governmental organizations, civil society, mass media, religious and other community leaders, intersectoral collaboration, microcredit and income-generation activities.

  5. Malnutrition Is Associated with Protection from Rotavirus Diarrhea: Evidence from a Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Verkerke, Hans; Sobuz, Shihab; Ma, Jennie Z.; Petri, Sarah E.; Reichman, Dan; Qadri, Firdausi; Haque, Rashidul

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus is a leading cause of dehydrating diarrhea and death among infants and children globally, particularly in communities of the developing world. While numerous studies have described the complex relationships among infectious diarrhea, growth faltering, and poverty, the impact of nutritional status on susceptibility to rotavirus diarrhea is not well understood. In a longitudinal study conducted over the first 3 years of life among 626 slum-dwelling infants enrolled at birth in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we observed that common measures of healthy growth and development were positively associated with a risk of symptomatic rotavirus infection. This finding runs counter to the idea that improving childhood nutrition will implicitly decrease the incidence of symptomatic infection by enteric pathogens. As childhood nutrition improves worldwide, rotavirus infection may remain a public health challenge, making universal vaccination of even greater importance. PMID:27510830

  6. Safer sex negotiation and its association with condom use among clients of female sex workers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Salikon, Roslan Hj

    2015-03-01

    This study examines safer sex negotiation and its association with condom use among clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangladesh. Data were collected from 484 FSWs living in Dhaka city following a convenient sampling procedure. Overall, 47% of the clients were suggested to use condom during last sexual intercourse and 21% did so. Both bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses yielded significantly increased risk of negotiation for safer sex with clients among FSWs with higher education. The power bargaining significantly (P < .001) increased the risk of condom use by 2.15 times (95% confidence interval = 1.28-3.59). The odds of condom use were significantly higher among the FSWs with higher education, unmarried, hotel-based, and among those with higher level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. The Bangladeshi FSWs have little control over their profession. HIV prevention programs should aim to encourage FSWs through information, education, and communication program to insist on condom use among clients.

  7. Prevalence and characterization of multidrug-resistant zoonotic Enterobacter spp. in poultry of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Shuvro Prokash; Sultana, Munawar; Hossain, M Anwar

    2013-05-01

    Poultry and poultry products are major contributors of zoonotic pathogens. Limited data are available on Enterobacter spp. as a potent zoonotic pathogen in poultry. The present study is a first endeavor on the emergence of multidrug-resistant zoonotic Enterobacter spp. and its prevalence arising from poultry in Bangladesh. Cloacal swabs from poultry samples of five different farms at Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh were collected and from 106 isolates, 18 presumptive Enterobacter spp. were obtained. Antibiogram using 19 used antibiotics belonging to 15 major groups revealed that all of the 18 isolates were completely resistant to penicillin and rifampicin, but differed in their drug resistance pattern against ampicillin (94.4%), clindamycin (94.4%), erythromycin (94.4%), vancomycin (88.9%), sulfonamides (72.2%), imipenem (66.6%), streptomycin (55.6%), nitrofurantoin (33.3%), doxycycline (33.3%), tetracyclines (33.3%), cefepime (11.1%), and gentamicin (5.6%). All Enterobacter spp. were found to be plasmid free, implying that multidrug-resistant properties are chromosomal borne. The vanA and sulI were detected by polymerase chain reaction assay in 17 and 13 isolates, respectively. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA distributed the 18 multidrug-resistant Enterobacter spp. into three genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of the representatives of the three genotypes using partial 16S rRNA gene sequence (approximately 900 bp) showed that the genotypically diverse groups belonged to Enterobacter hormaechei, E. cloacae, and E. cancerogenus, respectively. The clinical significance of the close relative Enterobacter spp. is indicative of their zoonotic potential. Therefore, urgent intervention is required to limit the emergence and spread of these bacteria in poultry feed as well as prudent use of antibiotics among poultry farmers in Bangladesh.

  8. Bacterial and viral pathogen spectra of acute respiratory infections in under-5 children in hospital settings in Dhaka city

    PubMed Central

    Bhuyan, Golam Sarower; Hossain, Mohammad Amir; Sarker, Suprovath Kumar; Rahat, Asifuzzaman; Islam, Md Tarikul; Haque, Tanjina Noor; Begum, Noorjahan; Qadri, Syeda Kashfi; Muraduzzaman, A. K. M.; Islam, Nafisa Nawal; Islam, Mohammad Sazzadul; Sultana, Nusrat; Jony, Manjur Hossain Khan; Khanam, Farhana; Mowla, Golam; Matin, Abdul; Begum, Firoza; Shirin, Tahmina; Ahmed, Dilruba; Saha, Narayan; Qadri, Firdausi

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to examine for the first time the spectra of viral and bacterial pathogens along with the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated bacteria in under-5 children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in hospital settings of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Nasal swabs were collected from 200 under-five children hospitalized with clinical signs of ARIs. Nasal swabs from 30 asymptomatic children were also collected. Screening of viral pathogens targeted ten respiratory viruses using RT-qPCR. Bacterial pathogens were identified by bacteriological culture methods and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined following CLSI guidelines. About 82.5% (n = 165) of specimens were positive for pathogens. Of 165 infected cases, 3% (n = 6) had only single bacterial pathogens, whereas 43.5% (n = 87) cases had only single viral pathogens. The remaining 36% (n = 72) cases had coinfections. In symptomatic cases, human rhinovirus was detected as the predominant virus (31.5%), followed by RSV (31%), HMPV (13%), HBoV (11%), HPIV-3 (10.5%), and adenovirus (7%). Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequently isolated bacterial pathogen (9%), whereas Klebsiella pneumaniae, Streptococcus spp., Enterobacter agglomerans, and Haemophilus influenzae were 5.5%, 5%, 2%, and 1.5%, respectively. Of 15 multidrug-resistant bacteria, a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate and an Enterobacter agglomerans isolate exhibited resistance against more than 10 different antibiotics. Both ARI incidence and predominant pathogen detection rates were higher during post-monsoon and winter, peaking in September. Pathogen detection rates and coinfection incidence in less than 1-year group were significantly higher (P = 0.0034 and 0.049, respectively) than in 1–5 years age group. Pathogen detection rate (43%) in asymptomatic cases was significantly lower compared to symptomatic group (P<0.0001). Human rhinovirus, HPIV-3, adenovirus, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Klebsiella pneumaniae had

  9. Operational feasibility of using whole blood in the rapid HIV testing algorithm of a resource-limited settings like Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Munshi, Saif U.; Oyewale, Tajudeen O.; Begum, Shahnaz; Uddin, Ziya; Tabassum, Shahina

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum-based rapid HIV testing algorithm in Bangladesh constitutes operational challenge to scaleup HIV testing and counselling (HTC) in the country. This study explored the operational feasibility of using whole blood as alternative to serum for rapid HIV testing in Bangladesh. Methods Whole blood specimens were collected from two study groups. The groups included HIV-positive patients (n = 200) and HIV-negative individuals (n = 200) presenting at the reference laboratory in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The specimens were subjected to rapid HIV tests using the national algorithm with A1 = Alere Determine (United States), A2 = Uni-Gold (Ireland), and A3 = First Response (India). The sensitivity and specificity of the test results, and the operational cost were compared with current serum-based testing. Results The sensitivities [95% of confidence interval (CI)] for A1, A2, and A3 tests using whole blood were 100% (CI: 99.1–100%), 100% (CI: 99.1–100%), and 97% (CI: 96.4–98.2%), respectively, and specificities of all test kits were 100% (CI: 99.1–100%). Significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the cost of establishing HTC centre and consumables by 94 and 61%, respectively, were observed. The cost of administration and external quality assurance reduced by 39 and 43%, respectively. Overall, there was a 36% cost reduction in total operational cost of rapid HIV testing with blood when compared with serum. Conclusion Considering the similar sensitivity and specificity of the two specimens, and significant cost reduction, rapid HIV testing with whole blood is feasible. A review of the national HIV rapid testing algorithm with whole blood will contribute toward improving HTC coverage in Bangladesh. PMID:26945143

  10. Accumulation of arsenic in tissues of rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) and its distribution in fractions of rice grain.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H; Rahman, M Mahfuzur; Rahman, M Arifur; Miah, M A M

    2007-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the accumulation and distribution of arsenic in different fractions of rice grain (Oryza sativa L.) collected from arsenic affected area of Bangladesh. The agricultural soil of study area has become highly contaminated with arsenic due to the excessive use of arsenic-rich underground water (0.070+/-0.006 mg l(-1), n=6) for irrigation. Arsenic content in tissues of rice plant and in fractions of rice grain of two widely cultivated rice varieties, namely BRRI dhan28 and BRRI hybrid dhan1, were determined. Regardless of rice varieties, arsenic content was about 28- and 75-folds higher in root than that of shoot and raw rice grain, respectively. In fractions of parboiled and non-parboiled rice grain of both varieties, the order of arsenic concentrations was; rice hull>bran-polish>brown rice>raw rice>polish rice. Arsenic content was higher in non-parboiled rice grain than that of parboiled rice. Arsenic concentrations in parboiled and non-parboiled brown rice of BRRI dhan28 were 0.8+/-0.1 and 0.5+/-0.0 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively while those of BRRI hybrid dhan1 were 0.8+/-0.2 and 0.6+/-0.2 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. However, parboiled and non-parboiled polish rice grain of BRRI dhan28 contained 0.4+/-0.0 and 0.3+/-0.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight of arsenic, respectively while those of BRRI hybrid dhan1 contained 0.43+/-0.01 and 0.5+/-0.0 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Both polish and brown rice are readily cooked for human consumption. The concentration of arsenic found in the present study is much lower than the permissible limit in rice (1.0 mg kg(-1)) according to WHO recommendation. Thus, rice grown in soils of Bangladesh contaminated with arsenic of 14.5+/-0.1 mg kg(-1) could be considered safe for human consumption.

  11. Levels and correlates of maternal nutritional status in urban Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Baqui, A H; Arifeen, S E; Amin, S; Black, R E

    1994-05-01

    Researchers analyzed anthropometric data from 2417 nonpregnant mothers, socioeconomic data from 2048 mothers, reproductive history data from 1314 mothers, and socioeconomic and reproductive history data from 1185 mothers to determine the levels and correlates of maternal nutritional status of nonpregnant mothers in the slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Mean weight, height, middle-upper-arm-circumference (MUAC), and body mass index (BMI) of the 2417 mothers stood at 41.8 kg, 148.8 cm, 232.5 mm, and 18.8, respectively. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that mothers' schooling and household economic status had a significant positive effect on weight, MUAC, and BMI (p .05 and .01, respectively). Schooling had a significant positive association with mothers' height (p .05), but household economic status did not. Maternal height and weight had a significant negative association with child death (p .001 and .05, respectively). Mothers equal to or less than 155 cm had an increased risk of child death (odds ratio [OR] = 1.4-2.64), with those less than 140 cm in height having the greatest risk of child death (OR = 2.64). Short stature linked to child loss indicates a possible intergenerational influence of poor childhood nutrition, suggesting that improvement of nutritional status for girls would improve child health in the next generation. Sophisticated and long-term planning is needed, however, to achieve improved nutritional status of girls due to various obstacles (e.g., son preference, poverty, food scarcity, and high prevalence of infectious diseases). In the meantime, maternal and child health workers should target shorter mothers (i.e., 145 cm) for appropriate prenatal and obstetric care, since they face the greatest risk of child death.

  12. Hybrid machine learning technique for forecasting Dhaka stock market timing decisions.

    PubMed

    Banik, Shipra; Khodadad Khan, A F M; Anwer, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Forecasting stock market has been a difficult job for applied researchers owing to nature of facts which is very noisy and time varying. However, this hypothesis has been featured by several empirical experiential studies and a number of researchers have efficiently applied machine learning techniques to forecast stock market. This paper studied stock prediction for the use of investors. It is always true that investors typically obtain loss because of uncertain investment purposes and unsighted assets. This paper proposes a rough set model, a neural network model, and a hybrid neural network and rough set model to find optimal buy and sell of a share on Dhaka stock exchange. Investigational findings demonstrate that our proposed hybrid model has higher precision than the single rough set model and the neural network model. We believe this paper findings will help stock investors to decide about optimal buy and/or sell time on Dhaka stock exchange.

  13. Hybrid Machine Learning Technique for Forecasting Dhaka Stock Market Timing Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Banik, Shipra; Khodadad Khan, A. F. M.; Anwer, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Forecasting stock market has been a difficult job for applied researchers owing to nature of facts which is very noisy and time varying. However, this hypothesis has been featured by several empirical experiential studies and a number of researchers have efficiently applied machine learning techniques to forecast stock market. This paper studied stock prediction for the use of investors. It is always true that investors typically obtain loss because of uncertain investment purposes and unsighted assets. This paper proposes a rough set model, a neural network model, and a hybrid neural network and rough set model to find optimal buy and sell of a share on Dhaka stock exchange. Investigational findings demonstrate that our proposed hybrid model has higher precision than the single rough set model and the neural network model. We believe this paper findings will help stock investors to decide about optimal buy and/or sell time on Dhaka stock exchange. PMID:24701205

  14. Women in physics in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Shamima K.

    2013-03-01

    Bangladesh has had a glorious physics tradition since the beginning of the last century, when the physicist S.N. Bose published a groundbreaking paper with Albert Einstein on Bose-Einstein statistics. However, women in Bangladesh traditionally have not been able to make their way in the realm of science in general and physics in particular. Since Bangladesh achieved independence in 1971, the situation has gradually changed and more and more women choose physics as an academic discipline. The percentage of women students in physics rose from 10% in 1970 to almost 30% in 2010. In recent years, women physicists have actively participated in many activities promoting science and technology, creating awareness among the public about the importance of physics education. The present status of women physicists in academic, research, and administrative programs in the government and private sectors in Bangladesh is reported. The greater inclusion of women scientists, particularly physicists, in policy-making roles on important issues of global and national interest is suggested.

  15. Returns to Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asadullah, Mohammad Niaz

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports labour market returns to education in Bangladesh using data from recent nationwide household survey. Returns are estimated separately for rural and urban samples, males, females and private-sector employees. Substantial heterogeneity in returns is observed; for example, estimates are higher for urban (than rural sample) and…

  16. English Language Teaching Profile: Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This profile of the English language teaching situation in Bangladesh discusses the role of English in the community and within the educational system. The amount of time devoted to English is discussed, as well as the syllabus used, the teaching staff, teacher training, and teaching materials. English instruction outside the educational system is…

  17. Anthropogenic influences on groundwater arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Rebecca B.; Ashfaque, Khandaker N.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Ashraf Ali, M.; Shoemaker, Julie K.; Harvey, Charles F.

    2010-01-01

    The origin of dissolved arsenic in the Ganges Delta has puzzled researchers ever since the report of widespread arsenic poisoning two decades ago. Today, microbially mediated oxidation of organic carbon is thought to drive the geochemical transformations that release arsenic from sediments, but the source of the organic carbon that fuels these processes remains controversial. At a typical site in Bangladesh, where groundwater-irrigated rice fields and constructed ponds are the main sources of groundwater recharge, we combine hydrologic and biogeochemical analyses to trace the origin of contaminated groundwater. Incubation experiments indicate that recharge from ponds contains biologically degradable organic carbon, whereas recharge from rice fields contains mainly recalcitrant organic carbon. Chemical and isotopic indicators as well as groundwater simulations suggest that recharge from ponds carries this degradable organic carbon into the shallow aquifer, and that groundwater flow, drawn by irrigation pumping, transports pond water to the depth where dissolved arsenic concentrations are greatest. Results also indicate that arsenic concentrations are low in groundwater originating from rice fields. Furthermore, solute composition in arsenic-contaminated water is consistent with that predicted using geochemical models of pond-water-aquifer-sediment interactions. We therefore suggest that the construction of ponds has influenced aquifer biogeochemistry, and that patterns of arsenic contamination in the shallow aquifer result from variations in the source of water, and the complex three-dimensional patterns of groundwater flow.

  18. Influence of multi-industrial activities on trace metal contamination: an approach towards surface water body in the vicinity of Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ).

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Golam; Miah, M Arzu; Anawar, Hossain M; Chowdhury, Didarul A; Ahmad, Jasim U

    2012-07-01

    Industrial wastewater discharged into aquatic ecosystems either directly or because of inadequate treatment of process water can increase the concentrations of pollutants such as toxic metals and others, and subsequently deteriorate water quality, environmental ecology and human health in the Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ), the largest industrial belt of 6-EPZ in Bangladesh. Therefore, in order to monitor the contamination levels, this study collected water samples from composite effluent points inside DEPZ and the surrounding surface water body connected to effluent disposal sites and determined the environmental hazards by chemical analysis and statistical approach. The water samples were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine 12 trace metals such as As, Ag, Cr, Co, Cu, Li, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, V and Zn in order to assess the influence of multi-industrial activities on metal concentrations. The composite effluents and surface waters from lagoons were characterized by a strong colour and high concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity, pH, total alkalinity, total hardness, total organic carbon, Turb., Cl(-), total suspended solids and total dissolved solids, which were above the limit of Bangladesh industrial effluent standards, but dissolved oxygen concentration was lower than the standard value. The measurement of skewness and kurtosis values showed asymmetric and abnormal distribution of the elements in the respective phases. The mean trend of variation was found in a decreasing order: Zn > Cu > Sr > Pb > Ni > Cr > Li > Co > V > Se > As > Ag in composite industrial effluents and Zn > Cu > Sr > Pb > Ni > Cr > Li > V > As > Ag > Co > Se in surface waters near the DEPZ. The strong correlations between effluent and surface water metal contents indicate that industrial wastewaters discharged from DEPZ have a strong influence on the contamination of the surrounding water bodies by toxic

  19. Using remote sensing satellite data and artificial neural network for prediction of potato yield in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhand, Kawsar; Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Roytman, Leonid; Kogan, Felix

    2016-09-01

    Potato is one of the staple foods and cash crops in Bangladesh. It is widely cultivated in all of the districts and ranks second after rice in production. Bangladesh is the fourth largest potato producer in Asia and is among the world's top 15 potato producing countries. The weather condition for potato cultivation is favorable during the sowing, growing and harvesting period. It is a winter crop and is cultivated during the period of November to March. Bangladesh is mainly an agricultural based country with respect to agriculture's contribution to GDP, employment and consumption. Potato is a prominent crop in consideration of production, its internal demand and economic value. Bangladesh has a big economic activities related to potato cultivation and marketing, especially the economic relations among farmers, traders, stockers and cold storage owners. Potato yield prediction before harvest is an important issue for the Government and the stakeholders in managing and controlling the potato market. Advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based satellite data product vegetation health indices VCI (vegetation condition index) and TCI (temperature condition index) are used as predictors for early prediction. Artificial neural network (ANN) is used to develop a prediction model. The simulated result from this model is encouraging and the error of prediction is less than 10%.

  20. The Northern Rupture of the 1762 Arakan Meghathrust Earthquake and other Potential Earthquake Sources in Bangladesh.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, S. H.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It occupies a major part of the Bengal Basin, which contains the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD), the largest and one of the most active of world deltas, and is located along the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt. As such it is vulnerable to many natural hazards, especially earthquakes. The country sits at the junction of three tectonic plates - Indian, Eurasian, and the Burma 'sliver' of the Sunda plate. These form two boundaries where plates converge- the India-Eurasia plate boundary to the north forming the Himalaya Arc and the India-Burma plate boundary to the east forming the Indo-Burma Arc. The India-Burma plate boundary is exceptionally wide because collision with the GBD feeds an exception amount of sediment into the subduction zone. Thus the Himalayan continent collision orogeny along with its syntaxes to the N and NE of Bangladesh and the Burma Arc subduction boundary surround Bangladesh on two sides with active faults of regional scale, raising the potential for high-magnitude earthquakes. In recent years Bangladesh has experienced minor to moderate earthquakes. Historical records show that major and great earthquakes have ravaged the country and the neighboring region several times over the last 450 years. Field observations of Tertiary structures along the Chittagong-Teknaf coast reveal that the rupture of 1762 Arakan megathrust earthquake extended as far north as the Sitakund anticline to the north of the city of Chittagong. This earthquake brought changes to the landscape, uplifting the Teknaf peninsula and St. Martin's Island by about 2-2.5 m, and activated two mud volcanos along the axis of the Sitakund anticline, where large tabular blocks of exotic crystalline limestone, were tectonically transported from a deep-seated formation along with the eruptive mud. Vast area of the coast including inland areas east of the lower Meghna River were inundated. More than 500 peoples died near

  1. Determination of Insulin Secretory Defect and Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ferdous, J; Ahmed, S; Laila, R; Islam, M T; Rahaman, M F; Snigdha, K R; Sarkar, S; Khan, A S; Sarkar, A K

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is defined as a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. This study was undertaken to explore the basic defect in type 2 diabetes patients in Bangladesh. This was an observational study with case control design, was conducted in the Biomedical Research Group, Research Division, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka, Bangladesh, during the period of July 2008 to June 2009. A total of 153 subjects were included in study of which 63 belonged to type 2 diabetes mellitus group and 90 were healthy controls. Fasting and 2 hours postprandial blood glucose, serum insulin, HOMA%B, HOMA%S, QuickI, Glucose /insulin ratio, TG were measured and age, BMI, WHR were recorded. Waist-hip ratio (WHR), was significantly higher in T2DM as compared to control subjects [WHR, mean±SD, 0.94±0.12 vs. 0.88±0.06, p<0.001]; Glucose and insulin ratio of T2DM was significantly higher as compared to control subject [Glu: Ins, Median (range) of 0.54 (0.17-2.33) vs. 0.37(0.06-1.52)]. Insulin secretion (HOMA%B) was significantly lower in diabetic as compared to control subjects [HOMA%B, median (range), 71(4.90-391) vs. 180(59-634) p<0.001]; The quantitative insulin sensitivity check Index (QUICKI) of diabetic subjects were significantly higher as compared to control [QUICKI median (range) 39.90(4.80-138.10) vs. 0.55(0.36-0.85), <0.001]. Triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (Chol) were significantly higher [(mg/dl), (mean±SD), TG (142±80.14) vs. (142±80.14); Chol (189±50.76) vs. (172±45), p=0.029] in T2DM as compared to control subjects. Those with diabetes showed significant association with insulin secretory defect (HOMA%B, p=0.006) and insulin resistance as assessed by GINR (p<0.001) and QuickI (p<0.001) but not by HOMA%S (p=0.127). The present data suggest that both insulin secretory defect and insulin

  2. Development of community based curriculum on ophthalmology for under graduate medical course in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, A K; Hussain, A Z M I

    2012-08-01

    The curriculum represents the expression of educational ideas in practice. Ophthalmic education is the corner stone to improve eye care globally. Curriculum needs continuous modification varying in different geographic locations. Though 90% of common conditions are either preventable or curable but emphasis on the common conditions is inadequate. This is a stepwise descriptive study aiming to develop a community based ophthalmology curriculum for undergraduate medical course in Bangladesh conducted during March 2007 to February 2008 at UniSA School of Public Health and Life Sciences, University of South Asia, Banani, Dhaka. Delphi technique, a modified qualitative method was used to accumulate data and reaching a consensus opinion for developing the curriculum. Study approach includes two iterative rounds and finally a workshop. Iteration of round-I was "What are the eye diseases with overall knowledge of their management one MBBS physician should acquire"; followed by a list of eye diseases and topics for expert opinion. The response was collated. Iteration round-II was "How much a MBBS student should have percentage of knowledge, attitude and skills on each topic while being taught". The response was collated and presented to panel of expert ophthalmologists for discussion and validation. In the round-I Delphi, 400 (62%) out to total 641 ophthalmologist were randomly selected dividing in categories (62% in each) of Professor-22, Associate Professor-12, Assistant Professor-26, Consultant-27, ophthalmologists working in NGO-56 and ophthalmologists in private sector-257. Sixty (15%) responded with opinion. In the round-II, 200 (31%) including 60 of round-I, selected randomly but proportionately as before. Forty five (22.5%) responded with opinion. Result collated. The results and opinion of respondents were presented at a workshop attended by 24 (80%), out of 30 invited expert ophthalmic specialists for discussion, criticism, opinion, addition, modification and

  3. Prediction of epidemic cholera due to Vibrio cholerae O1 in children younger than 10 years using climate data in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, F; Ishimura, S; Wagatsuma, Y; Higashi, T; Hayashi, T; Faruque, A S G; Sack, D A; Nishibuchi, M

    2008-01-01

    To determine if a prediction of epidemic cholera using climate data can be made, we performed autoregression analysis using the data recorded in Dhaka City, Bangladesh over a 20-year period (1983-2002) comparing the number of children aged <10 years who were infected with Vibrio cholerae O1 to the maximum and minimum temperatures and rainfall. We formulated a simple autoregression model that predicts the monthly number of patients using earlier climate variables. The monthly number of patients predicted by this model agreed well with the actual monthly number of patients where the Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.95. Arbitrarily defined, 39.4% of the predicted numbers during the study period were within 0.8-1.2 times the observed numbers. This prediction model uses the climate data recorded 2-4 months before. Therefore, our approach may be a good basis for establishing a practical early warning system for epidemic cholera.

  4. Effectiveness of Water Infrastructure for River Flood Management: Part 2 - Flood Risk Assessment and Its Changes in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y.; Gusyev, M.; Arifuzzaman, B.; Khairul, I.; Iwami, Y.; Takeuchi, K.

    2015-06-01

    A case study of Bangladesh presents a methodological possibility based on a global approach for assessing river flood risk and its changes considering flood hazard, exposure, basic vulnerability and coping capacity. This study consists of two parts in the issue of flood change: hazard assessment (Part 1) and risk assessment (Part 2). In Part 1, a hazard modeling technology was introduced and applied to the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) basin to quantify the change of 50- and 100-year flood hazards in Bangladesh under the present (1979-2003) and future (2075-2099) climates. Part 2 focuses on estimating nationwide flood risk in terms of affected people and rice crop damage due to a 50-year flood hazard identified in Part 1, and quantifying flood risk changes between the presence and absence of existing water infrastructure (i.e., embankments). To assess flood risk in terms of rice crop damage, rice paddy fields were extracted and flood stage-damage curves were created for maximum risk scenarios as a demonstration of risk change in the present and future climates. The preliminary results in Bangladesh show that a tendency of flood risk change strongly depends on the temporal and spatial dynamics of exposure and vulnerability such as distributed population and effectiveness of water infrastructure, which suggests that the proposed methodology is applicable anywhere in the world.

  5. Determinants of academics' job satisfaction: empirical evidence from private universities in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Masum, Abdul Kadar Muhammad; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Beh, Loo-See

    2015-01-01

    The job satisfaction of academics is related to a number of variables of complex function such as demographic characters, the work itself, pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional opportunities, relationship with co-workers and others. Academics may be simultaneously satisfied with some facets of the job and dissatisfied with others. This paper aims at determining the influential factors that contribute to the enhancement or reduction of academics' job satisfaction among private universities in Bangladesh with special reference to Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh. A total of 346 respondents are considered from ten private universities using non-probability sampling. A pre-tested and closed-ended questionnaire using a seven-point Likert scale is used for data collection. In this study, descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation, multiple regression, and factor analysis are exercised as statistical tools. A conceptual model of job satisfaction is developed and applied for academics' job satisfaction. The results reveal that compensation package, supervisory support, job security, training and development opportunities, team cohesion, career growth, working conditions, and organizational culture and policies are positively associated with the academics' job satisfaction. Amongst them, three factors stood out as significant contributors for job satisfaction of academics i.e. compensation package, job security, and working conditions. Therefore, the management of private universities should focus their effort on these areas of human resource management for maintaining academics' job satisfaction and employee retention. The study will be useful for university management in improving overall job satisfaction as it suggests some strategies for employee satisfaction practices.

  6. Determinants of Academics' Job Satisfaction: Empirical Evidence from Private Universities in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Masum, Abdul Kadar Muhammad; Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Beh, Loo-See

    2015-01-01

    The job satisfaction of academics is related to a number of variables of complex function such as demographic characters, the work itself, pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional opportunities, relationship with co-workers and others. Academics may be simultaneously satisfied with some facets of the job and dissatisfied with others. This paper aims at determining the influential factors that contribute to the enhancement or reduction of academics’ job satisfaction among private universities in Bangladesh with special reference to Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh. A total of 346 respondents are considered from ten private universities using non-probability sampling. A pre-tested and closed-ended questionnaire using a seven-point Likert scale is used for data collection. In this study, descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation, multiple regression, and factor analysis are exercised as statistical tools. A conceptual model of job satisfaction is developed and applied for academics’ job satisfaction. The results reveal that compensation package, supervisory support, job security, training and development opportunities, team cohesion, career growth, working conditions, and organizational culture and policies are positively associated with the academics’ job satisfaction. Amongst them, three factors stood out as significant contributors for job satisfaction of academics i.e. compensation package, job security, and working conditions. Therefore, the management of private universities should focus their effort on these areas of human resource management for maintaining academics’ job satisfaction and employee retention. The study will be useful for university management in improving overall job satisfaction as it suggests some strategies for employee satisfaction practices. PMID:25699518

  7. Reactive Transport Modeling of Subsurface Arsenic Removal Systems in Rural Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, M.; Rahman, M. M.; van Breukelen, B. M.; Ahmed, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in the groundwater of the shallow aquifers of Bangladesh are a major public health concern. Subsurface Arsenic Removal (SAR) is a relatively new treatment option that can potentially be a cost effective method for arsenic removal for community-based drinking water supplies. The basic idea of SAR is to extract water, aerate it, and re-inject it, after which groundwater with reduced arsenic concentrations may be extracted. The main process for As reduction is sorption to Hydrous Ferric Oxides (HFO) that forms after injection of the aerated water. The purpose of this poster is to investigate the major geochemical processes responsible for the (im)mobilization of As during SAR operation. SAR was applied at a test site in Muradnagar upazila in Comilla district about 100 km southeast of Dhaka in Bangladesh. Multiple extraction/aeration/re-injection cycles were performed and water samples were analyzed. A PHREEQC reactive transport model (RTM) was used in a radial flow setting to try to reproduce the measurements. Kinetic oxidation/dissolution reactions, cation exchange, and surface complexation were simulated. The simulation of different reactions enables the possibility to discern the reaction parameters involved in the im(mobilization) of As. The model fit has reasonable agreement with the observed data for major ions and trace elements. The model suggests an increasing sorption capacity due to the gradual development of HFO precipitates resulting from the injection phases. Modeled breakthrough curves of As, Fe(II), and Mn, match the measured increase of As, Fe(II), and Mn removal with successive cycles. The model illustrates that the pH of groundwater during SAR operation has a great impact on As sorption in the subsurface. The surface complexation modeling suggests that competitive displacement of As by H4SiO4 is an important factor limiting As removal during SAR operation.

  8. How many hours do people sleep in Bangladesh? A country-representative survey.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Fakir M; Khan, Safayet; Akter, Tahera; Jhohura, Fatema T; Reja, Saifur; Islam, Akramul; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated total sleep time in the Bangladeshi population and identified the proportion of the population at greater risk of developing chronic diseases due to inadequate sleep. Using a cross-sectional survey, total sleep time was captured and analysed in 3968 respondents aged between 6 and 106 years in 24 (of 64) districts in Bangladesh. Total sleep time was defined as the hours of total sleep in the previous 24 h. We used National Sleep Foundation (2015) guidelines to determine the recommended sleep hours in different age categories. Less or more than the recommended total sleep time (in hours) was considered 'shorter' and 'longer' sleep time, respectively. Linear and multinomial logistic regression models were used to determine the relationship between demographic variables and estimated risk of shorter and longer total sleep time. The mean (±standard deviation) total sleep time of children (6-13 years), teenagers (14-17 years), young adults and adults (18-64 years) and older adults (≥65 years) were 8.6 (±1.1), 8.1 (±1.0), 7.7 (±0.9) and 7.8 (±1.4) h, respectively, which were significantly different (P < 0.01). More than half of school-age children (55%) slept less than, and 28.2% of older adults slept longer than, recommended. Residents in all divisions (except Chittagong) in Bangladesh were less likely to sleep longer than in the Dhaka division. Rural populations had a 3.96× greater chance of sleeping for a shorter time than urban residents. The Bangladeshi population tends to sleep for longer and/or shorter times than their respective recommended sleep hours, which is detrimental to health.

  9. Regional structural analysis and velocity model (Vp) of the Chittagong-Myanmar Fold and Thrust Belt, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgi, P.; Hubbard, J.; Peterson, D. E.; Akhter, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    Bangladesh sits on the seismically active Chittagong-Myanmar Fold and Thrust Belt (CMFB), a partially exposed accretionary prism associated with the India-Eurasia collision. Ground shaking due to local and regional earthquakes presents a potential hazard to Bangladesh, one of the most populated areas in the world. In order to constrain this hazard, we first investigate potential seismic sources (active faults), and second we analyze the material through which seismic energy propagates. To address potential earthquake sources, we focus on the Comilla Anticline, which is the frontal-most exposed structure of the CMFB as well as the most proximal to the capital city of Dhaka. We present several industry-acquired and depth-converted seismic reflection profiles, which exhibit an asymmetric detachment fold rising from a relatively deep décollement (5-6 km). Because there is no strong evidence for an associated emergent thrust, this actively growing fold may have low seismic potential. We place this work into a regional context by integrating previous research of CMFB structures to create a regional structural model, which reveals laterally varying wedge geometry. To address ground shaking, the second component of this work, we assess stacking velocities from our seismic reflection data in conjunction with sonic log velocities from several locations in Bangladesh. These data show varying velocity versus depth trends by region. Following similar, data-rich studies performed in the Los Angeles and adjacent basins, we use data and theory-driven fitting techniques to analyze depth-velocity trends for these different regions, and interpolate to create a laterally varying regional seismic velocity model. Velocities generally slow from east to west, consistent with the younging trend as we move from older, exhumed CMFB formations to recent and undeformed deposits.

  10. Pressures on Dupi-tila Aquifer of Dhaka City and Possible Response Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firoz, A.; Foglia, L.; Marandi, A.; Islam, M. B.; Ribbe, L.; Schueth, C.

    2015-12-01

    Dhaka is a large growing megacity that depends on groundwater for mostly all kind of water needs. Consequently, overwhelming abstraction of groundwater has been causing a linear to exponential drop in groundwater level and substantial aquifer dewatering of the Dupi-Tila aquifer of Dhaka basin. Total water demand in Dhaka city varies from 2100 to 2300 Million Cubic Meter per Day (MCMD) with seasonal variation for a population of about 16 million. Analysis reveals that upper parts of the aquifer are already dewatered throughout the area, and the water level has dropped to 30 m below sea level in the south central part of the city, where the ground surface elevation is 5.7 m. Natural retention area and natural drainage areas are hindering by the unplanned and haphazard vertical and horizontal growth of the city which is ultimately fragmenting infiltration and aquifer recharge. This study uses MODFLOW-2005 to simulate three-dimensional, steady-state groundwater flow, while the inverse modeling approach of UCODE_2005 has been used for parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis. Furthermore, a through hydrogeological model has been constructed from 150 borehole lithological information for geological characterization of the aquifers. This study stresses the importance of the total water balance of the study area and how recharge and water pumping affect the total water balance. The calibrated model results exhibit the total water abstraction is about 2302 MCMD. The model results further reveals that, there is extreme decline of groundwater level in the extent of -37 meters below the mean sea level at the inner core of the city area and the trend of declining remains same over the years. The surrounding rivers play an important role to balance the water budget and there is stable connection between the rivers and aquifer. The outcome of the research will contribute to develop a rational and sustainable management approach for the groundwater resources management in

  11. Effects of floods on the use and condition of pit latrines in rural bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, B A; Huttly, S R; Aziz, K M; Hasan, Z; Patwary, M Y

    1989-12-01

    The severe floods of 1987 in Bangladesh had devastating effects on many development activities. Here, the use and condition of improved sanitation facilities (double pit water sealed latrines) during the 1987 peak flood period are presented. Two surveys on the use and condition of the latrines were carried out in May (pre-flood) and September (post-flood) 1987 in a rural area 60 km north of Dhaka, with a population of about 4500. General usage of the latrines by the population aged five years or more decreased from 88% to 78% (p < 0.001) after the flood. Only 40% of the 343 latrines which were in use and had no damaged component at the time of the pre-flood survey still had no damaged components after the floods. Fencing was the component which suffered the most damage. It was the only component which was installed and maintained by the users, project staff being responsible for all other components. The estimated post-flood repair cost was approximately US $4.0 per latrine. Development of an affordable and durable fencing is recommended.

  12. Safe usage of cosmetics in Bangladesh: a quality perspective based on microbiological attributes.

    PubMed

    Noor, Rashed; Zerin, Nagma; Das, Kamal Kanta; Nitu, Luthfun Naher

    2015-12-01

    The present review attempted to emphasize on the microbiological quality of the commonly used cosmetics item by the majority of the Bangladeshi community. The abundance of contaminating microorganisms has been quantitatively discussed and the possible health risk has been focused upon usage of these items. Only a very few research efforts have been conducted on the cosmetic items in Bangladesh so far. The microbiological contamination aspects have been portrayed in this review using the information collected from a substantial number of cosmetic items which were earlier subjected to extensive microbiological and biochemical analyses. The prevalence of bacteria, fungi and the specific pathogenic microorganisms has been discussed based on research so far locally conducted on the finished items sold in markets, especially within the Dhaka metropolis. The laboratory scale experiments revealed the presence of enormous number of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi within the commonly used cosmetics. Conversely, the anti-bacterial activity was noticed in some of the products which might be in favor of the user safety. The prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms in the cosmetic items certainly raises a substantial public health issue. The necessity of the routine microbiological testing of the commonly used cosmetic items as well as the legislative measures to mitigate the contamination problem is thus of great significance.

  13. Association between depression and diabetes amongst adults in Bangladesh: a hospital based case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Ferrari, Uta; Seissler, Jochen; Niessen, Louis; Lechner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Methods A matched case–control study was conducted among 591 consecutive patients with diabetes attending a tertiary hospital in Dhaka and 591 controls matched for age, sex and area of residence without diabetes not related with the index–case. Depression was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire–9. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to examine the association between depression and diabetes. Results The mean age (±standard deviation) of the participants was 50.4 ± 11.4 years, with a male to female ratio of 43:57. The prevalence of depression was 45.2% and 19.8% among cases and controls, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, mild as well as moderate to severe depression were significantly associated with diabetes and independent of sociodemographic factors and co–morbidity (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4–2.9 and adjusted OR = 6.4, 95% CI = 3.4–12.3; P < 0.001 for both). Conclusion The high prevalence and strong association of depression in individuals with diabetes in Bangladesh suggests that depression should be routinely screened for patients with diabetes at the clinics and that management strategies adequate for resource–poor settings need to be developed. Further research to determine the pathophysiological role of depression in the development of diabetes is merited. PMID:26649173

  14. Child care hygiene practices of women migrating from rural to urban areas of bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Begum, Housne Ara; Moneesha, Shanta Shyamolee; Sayem, Amir Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Children's hygiene is very important for better health but there is a paucity of studies in this area. This questionnaire study examined the child care hygiene practices of mothers of young children. A total of 354 women from slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh, who migrated from rural to urban areas were selected for this study. The mean score on hygiene practice was 6.21 of 10 items (SD = 2.113). Low (score = 3) and high hygiene practice (score = 7-10) were practiced by 12.4% and 45.8% of participants, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that independent variables explained 39.9% of variance in hygiene practices. Eight variables have significant effect: participant's education (0.108; P < .05), time spent since marriage to first birth (0.030; P < .05), number of children (-0.105; P < .05), number of antenatal visits (0.319; P < .001), microcredit status (0.214; P < .001), breastfeeding (0.224; P < .001), husband's monthly income (0.146; P < .001), and household economic status (-0.0114; P < .05). The overall hygiene practice indicates the necessity of awareness building initiatives.

  15. Effect of antenatal zinc supplementation on impetigo in infants in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Darmstadt, Gary L; Osendarp, Saskia J M; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Feldman, Candace; Van Raaij, Joop M A; Baqui, Abdullah H; Hautvast, J G A J; Fuchs, George J

    2012-04-01

    We sought to determine the effects of maternal zinc supplementation on skin infections among infants in poor urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted among 199 and 221 Bangladeshi infants whose mothers were administered 30 mg daily of zinc or placebo, respectively. The mothers received zinc supplementation from 12-16 weeks' gestation until delivery, and the infants were followed up until 6 months of age. Among the infants of mothers who received zinc supplementation during the antenatal period, 10.6% had at least 1 episode of impetigo compared with 19.6% of the infants of mothers in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Infants in the treatment group had a 54% reduction in incidence rate of episodes of impetigo when compared with infants in the placebo group (P = 0.01). The effect of zinc supplementation was more pronounced among male infants (64% reduction) and intrauterine growth restricted and low birth weight infants (73% reduction) and among infants of mothers with increased parity (60% reduction) or decreased socioeconomic status (71% reduction).

  16. Factors determining vulnerability to diarrhoea during and after severe floods in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Masahiro; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Faruque, Abu S G; Hayashi, Taiichi; Hunter, Paul R; Armstrong, Ben; Sack, David A

    2008-09-01

    This paper identifies groups vulnerable to the effect of flooding on hospital visits due to diarrhoea during and after a flood event in 1998 in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The number of observed cases of cholera and non-cholera diarrhoea per week was compared to expected normal numbers during the flood and post-flood periods, obtained as the season-specific average over the two preceding and subsequent years using Poisson generalised linear models. The expected number of diarrhoea cases was estimated in separate models for each category of potential modifying factors: sex, age, socio-economic status and hygiene and sanitation practices. During the flood, the number of cholera and non-cholera diarrhoea cases was almost six and two times higher than expected, respectively. In the post-flood period, the risk of non-cholera diarrhoea was significantly higher for those with lower educational level, living in a household with a nonconcrete roof, drinking tube-well water (vs. tap water), using a distant water source and unsanitary toilets. The risk for cholera was significantly higher for those drinking tube-well water and those using unsanitary toilets. This study confirms that low socio-economic groups and poor hygiene and sanitation groups were most vulnerable to flood-related diarrhoea.

  17. Experience with Clinically Diagnosed Down Syndrome Children Admitted with Diarrhea in an Urban Hospital in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Das, Rina; Sarker, Anupam; Saha, Haimanti; Bin Shahid, Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayeem; Shahunja, K M; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer

    2015-01-01

    There is lack of information in the medical literature on clinically diagnosed Down syndrome children presenting with diarrhea. Our aim was to describe our experience with Down syndrome patients admitted with diarrhea by evaluating the factors associated with Down syndrome presenting with diarrheal illness. In this retrospective chart analysis, we enrolled all the diarrheal children aged 0-59 months admitted to the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr, b), from March 2011 to February 2013. Down syndrome children with diarrhea constituted cases and randomly selected threefold diarrheal children without Down syndrome constituted controls. Among 8422 enrolled children 32 and 96 were the cases and the controls, respectively. Median age (months) of the cases and the controls was comparable (7.6 (4.0, 15.0) versus 9.0 (5.0, 16.8); p = 0.496). The cases more often presented with severe acute malnutrition, developmental delay, congenital heart disease, hypothyroidism, sepsis, hypocalcemia, developed hospital acquired infection (HAI) during hospitalization, and required prolonged stay at hospital compared to the controls (for all p < 0.05). Thus, diarrheal children with clinically diagnosed Down syndrome should be investigated for these simple clinical parameters for their prompt management that may prevent HAI and prolonged hospital stay.

  18. Arsenic in Drinking Water, Transition Cell Cancer and Chronic Cystitis in Rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Mohammad Golam; Cherry, Nicola

    2015-10-28

    In earlier analyses, we demonstrated dose-response relationships between renal and lung cancer and local arsenic concentrations in wells used by Bangladeshi villagers. We used the same case-referent approach to examine the relation of arsenic to biopsy confirmed transition cell cancer (TCC) of the ureter, bladder or urethra in these villagers. As the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has conclude that arsenic in drinking water causes bladder cancer, we expected to find higher risk with increasing arsenic concentration. We used histology/cytology results from biopsies carried out at a single clinic in Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2008 to October 2011. We classified these into four groups, TCC (n = 1466), other malignancies (n = 145), chronic cystitis (CC) (n = 844) and other benign (n = 194). Arsenic concentration was estimated from British Geological Survey reports. Odds ratios were calculated by multilevel logistic regression adjusted for confounding and allowing for geographic clustering. We found no consistent trend for TCC with increasing arsenic concentration but the likelihood of a patient with benign disease having CC was significantly increased at arsenic concentrations >100 µg/L. We conclude that the expected relationship of TCC to arsenic was masked by over-matching that resulted from the previously unreported relationship between arsenic and CC. We hypothesize that CC may be a precursor of TCC in high arsenic areas.

  19. Thin layer solar drying of rough rice

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, M.A.; Bala, B.K. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a set of simple empirical equations for natural air flow solar drying of rough rice in mixed-mode type dryer, box-type dryer and open floor drying system. The moisture contents predicted by the equations were in good agreement with the observed values. The effect of drying air temperature on the drying rate constants for these three cases were found to be insignificant. The equilibrium moisture content appeared to be the most important variable controlling the drying rate. The highest drying rate was observed in case of mixed-mode dryer. The drying rate of box dryer was next to that of mixed-mode dryer. This study shows that the introduction of solar dryer for drying of rough rice is highly recommended in Bangladesh.

  20. Bangladesh: planning intermediate growth centers.

    PubMed

    1981-12-01

    In Bangladesh the current level of urbanization--about 10% of a total population of 90 million--is still low compared with most of the developing countries of the world. Yet, urban growth has been very rapid. From 1960 to 1980 the urban population more than tripled. Much of this growth can be attributed to the fact that the agricultural sector cannot absorb any further population, and nonagricultural employment is available only in urban areas. Additionally, almost 1/2 of the rural population is practically landless. These factors along with natural calamities such as the floods, cyclones, and shifting river beds which displace thousands of rural people, contribute to rural-urban migration. Since 1971 the population of Dacca has quadrupled, creating problems of unmanageable proportions. A lack of adequate city services leads to serious health and sanitation problems. The characteristics distinguishing developing countries from those countries already industrialized at the time of most rapid urbanization are outlined. The growth trend of urban areas in Bangladesh indicates the emergence of some 20 cities, one with a population of more than 5 million and 5 others with populations of 1-2 million. These cities will compare with large metropolitan cities of developed countries only in their number of residents, not in terms of their physical infrastructure, services, or modern amenities. To cope with the problems of rapid urbanization, Bangladesh is adopting policies, strategies, and programs in 3 broad areas: the reduction of population growth rates in urban and rural areas; the development of an urban settlement system with wider and more equitable distribution of urban growth and containment of larger cities within manageable limits; and the improvement of infrastructures and services in urban areas. In regard to the goal of reducing population growth rates, attempts are being made to provide greater access to family planning information, education, and suitable

  1. Arsenic Attenuation By Oxidized Aquifer Sediments in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Stollenwerk, K.G.; Breit, G.N.; Welch, A.H.; Yount, J.C.; Whitney, J.W.; Foster, A.L.; Uddin, M.N.; Majumder, R.K.; Ahmed, N.; /Geological Survey, Denver /Geological Survey, Carson City /Geological Survey, Menlo Park /Geological Survey, Dhanka

    2007-07-13

    Recognition of arsenic (As) contamination of shallow fluvio-deltaic aquifers in the Bengal Basin has resulted in increasing exploitation of groundwater from deeper aquifers that generally contain low concentrations of dissolved As. Pumping-induced infiltration of high-As groundwater could eventually cause As concentrations in these aquifers to increase. This study investigates the adsorption capacity for As of sediment from a low-As aquifer near Dhaka, Bangladesh. A shallow, chemically-reducing aquifer at this site extends to a depth of 50 m and has maximum As concentrations in groundwater of 900 {micro}g/L. At depths greater than 50 m, geochemical conditions are more oxidizing and groundwater has < 5 {micro}g/L As. There is no thick layer of clay at this site to inhibit vertical transport of groundwater. Arsenite [As(III)] is the dominant oxidation state in contaminated groundwater; however, data from laboratory batch experiments show that As(III) is oxidized to arsenate [As(V)] by manganese (Mn) minerals that are present in the oxidized sediment. Thus, the long-term viability of the deeper aquifers as a source of water supply is likely to depend on As(V) adsorption. The adsorption capacity of these sediments is a function of the oxidation state of As and the concentration of other solutes that compete for adsorption sites. Arsenite that was not oxidized did adsorb, but to a much lesser extent than As(V). Phosphate (P) caused a substantial decrease in As(V) adsorption. Increasing pH and concentrations of silica (Si) had lesser effects on As(V) adsorption. The effect of bicarbonate (HCO{sub 3}) on As(V) adsorption was negligible. Equilibrium constants for adsorption of As(V), As(III), P, Si, HCO3, and H were determined from the experimental data and a quantitative model developed. Oxidation of As(III) was modeled with a first-order rate constant. This model was used to successfully simulate As(V) adsorption in the presence of multiple competing solutes. Results

  2. Arsenic attenuation by oxidized aquifer sediments in Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stollenwerk, K.G.; Breit, G.N.; Welch, A.H.; Yount, J.C.; Whitney, J.W.; Foster, A.L.; Uddin, M.N.; Majumder, R.K.; Ahmed, N.

    2007-01-01

    Recognition of arsenic (As) contamination of shallow fluvio-deltaic aquifers in the Bengal Basin has resulted in increasing exploitation of groundwater from deeper aquifers that generally contain low concentrations of dissolved As. Pumping-induced infiltration of high-As groundwater could eventually cause As concentrations in these aquifers to increase. This study investigates the adsorption capacity for As of sediment from a low-As aquifer near Dhaka, Bangladesh. A shallow, chemically-reducing aquifer at this site extends to a depth of 50??m and has maximum As concentrations in groundwater of 900????g/L. At depths greater than 50??m, geochemical conditions are more oxidizing and groundwater has < 5????g/L As. There is no thick layer of clay at this site to inhibit vertical transport of groundwater. Arsenite [As(III)] is the dominant oxidation state in contaminated groundwater; however, data from laboratory batch experiments show that As(III) is oxidized to arsenate [As(V)] by manganese (Mn) minerals that are present in the oxidized sediment. Thus, the long-term viability of the deeper aquifers as a source of water supply is likely to depend on As(V) adsorption. The adsorption capacity of these sediments is a function of the oxidation state of As and the concentration of other solutes that compete for adsorption sites. Arsenite that was not oxidized did adsorb, but to a much lesser extent than As(V). Phosphate (P) caused a substantial decrease in As(V) adsorption. Increasing pH and concentrations of silica (Si) had lesser effects on As(V) adsorption. The effect of bicarbonate (HCO3) on As(V) adsorption was negligible. Equilibrium constants for adsorption of As(V), As(III), P, Si, HCO3, and H were determined from the experimental data and a quantitative model developed. Oxidation of As(III) was modeled with a first-order rate constant. This model was used to successfully simulate As(V) adsorption in the presence of multiple competing solutes. Results from these

  3. Climate change -- Its impacts on Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Sobhan, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    Predictions regarding the possible effects of global warming on Bangladesh`s climate are uncertain. However, the predictions for 2030 made by four General Circulation Models all suggest that there might be increased precipitation, with estimates ranging between 5 and 100% increases in rainfall. Increases of these magnitudes, if they were to occur, would have significant implications for agriculture, flooding, river sediment loads, and flood protection works. Increased flooding of the coastal areas of countries like Bangladesh is a possibility, and enormous health and economic distress and human suffering may follow. With the change in temperature, there may be unpredictable change in bacterial and viral morphology with health hazards of unpredictable limits. It has been estimated that a 100 cm rise in sea level in the Bay of Bengal would result in 12--18% of land areas of Bangladesh being lost to the sea, including most of the Sundarbans. Although it is difficult to predict the timing and magnitude of all the global changes including sea-level rise, climate change, etc., it is anticipated that one of the most serious consequence for Bangladesh would be the reduction of already minimal land: person ratio and consequently exacerbating pressure on the remaining natural resources. Bangladesh is in favor of an international agreement for assistance to vulnerable countries like Bangladesh to take necessary preparations and adopt measures to survive a sea-level rise, climate change, increased flooding, and more frequent storm surges.

  4. Inequality in Disability in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Tareque, Md. Ismail; Begum, Sharifa; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate inequality in disability in Bangladesh. Methods The study used both household level and individual level data from a large nationally representative data set, Bangladesh’s Household Income and Expenditure Survey - 2010. Principal component analysis was used to construct a wealth index based on household assets from household level data. Then, using data from 49,809 individuals aged 5 years and over, chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to test the association between wealth level and disability. Findings Women and older people are significantly more likely to report having disabilities than men and younger people. For middle and rich families, respectively, there is a 14 percent lower likelihood of reporting disabilities than for poor families. Changes in the probability of having disabilities are linear with increasing wealth. In addition, the study identifies some significant factors affecting disability, namely, age, sex, education, marital status, and place of residence including divisional differences. Conclusion In Bangladesh, worse health among the poor argues for policies prioritizing this group while at the same time giving special attention to women and the elderly. PMID:25075513

  5. Converting Bangladesh's influential religious leaders.

    PubMed

    Neaz, A

    1996-01-01

    While the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB) introduced family planning to Bangladesh in 1953, very little progress was achieved before the 1980s. It was noticed during the 1980s that despite solid service delivery efforts with interpersonal communication at the community level and expanding choices of contraceptive methods, program success was impeded by religious leader opposition. Religious leader claims that family planning was against Islam reinforce male opposition to contraception. In an effort to win the support of religious leaders, the FPAB established an Islamic Research Cell (IRC) in 1984 and launched targeted advocacy and orientation programs. An expert with religious education and background ran the IRC. The leaders were taught that Islam directly or indirectly promotes family welfare from the viewpoint of the health and economic needs of the family, and that the Qur'an nowhere argues that family planning is forbidden. The Qur'an actually encourages prolonged breastfeeding and the avoidance of unwanted births. Orientation courses, seminars, a national conference, and the distribution of educational printed media eventually convinced the religious leaders to support family planning. Male involvement in family planning is essential in such a male-dominated society.

  6. Bangladesh's SMP earns top marks.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    A recent evaluation funded by the US Agency for International Development (AID) confirms that Bangladesh's contraceptive social marketing program has exceeded its planner's goals and demonstrated the ability of such a system to widely distribute contraceptive products at a low cost. The project, which began contraceptive sales in 1975, distributes condoms, oral contraceptives, and foaming vaginal tablets. Almost 25% of contraceptive users in Bangladesh are serviced by the social marketing program. By the end of 1983, the program was providing 1,022,000 couple years of protection; this included 84 million condoms, 1.7 million pill cycles, and 5.1 million spermicidal tablets each year. The program's cost for 1 couple year of protection is US$1.66. Social marketing sales have accounted for all increases in couple years of protection experienced by the country's national population program since 1975. Sales have been boosted by recent efforts to draw rural medical practitioners into family planning activities. Mobile film units have further increased sales. The USAID report identifies 3 elements that have spearheaded the social marketing program's achievements: 1) the existence of a committed core management team, 2) the granting of autonomy to make daily decisions to this management team, and 3) central control fo the product distribution system by management rather than by subcontractors. Overall, the social marketing program is credited with legitimizing discussion of contraception in a country formerly considered too conservative to tolerate open product promotion.

  7. Understanding the connection of extreme water levels to mortality in the megacity Dhaka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele-Eich, Insa; Burkart, Katrin; Simmer, Clemens

    2015-04-01

    To quantitatively assess the impact of extreme water levels on a local scale we study both low and high water levels and their connection to mortality in the megacity Dhaka. Dhaka is currently threatened by a range of natural hazards such as earth quakes, tropical cyclones and - on an almost annual basis - flooding . Flooding in the megacity is largely determined by the close proximity to the confluence of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers upstream as well as the conjunction with the Meghna river further downstream. The risk of flooding is aggravated through rapid urbanization and concurrent encroachment on retention areas, as well as increasing problems with both the natural and man-made drainage system. A growing population, continuing urbanization and climate change are all expected to worsen the situation in Dhaka. This prompted us to study historical trends in extreme water levels using over 100 years of daily water level data with respect to trends in frequency, magnitude and duration, focusing on rare but particularly high-risk events using extreme-value theory. In a further step, the complex link between water levels and mortality are studied using a distributed lag non-linear model with mortality data available on a daily basis for a five-year period (2003-2007). Our analysis suggests that water levels have indeed changed over the course of the past century. While the magnitude and duration of average flood events decreased, the frequency of extreme flood events has increased. Low water levels have also changed, with a significant decrease in the annual minimum water level when comparing the time periods 1909-1939 and 1979-2009. Results further indicate that for the period of 2003-2007, which entails two major flood events in 2004 and 2007, high water levels do not lead to a significant increase in relative mortality, which indicates a good level of adaptation and capacity to cope with flooding. However, following low water levels, an increase in mortality

  8. Land Use, Livelihoods, Vulnerabilities, and Resilience in Coastal Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Wilson, C.

    2014-12-01

    The densely populated, low-lying coast of Bangladesh is famously associated with vulnerability to sea-level rise, storms, and flooding. Simultaneously, land-use change has significantly altered local sediment transport, causing elevation loss and degradation of drainage. The rapid growth of shrimp aquaculture has also affected soil chemistry in former agricultural areas and the stock of riverine fisheries through intense larval harvesting. To understand the net impact of these environmental changes on the region's communities, it is necessary to examine interactions across scale - from externally driven large scale environmental change to smaller scale, but often more intense, local change - and also between the physical environment and social, political, and economic conditions. We report on a study of interactions between changing communities and changing environment in coastal Bangladesh, exploring the role of societal and physical factors in shaping the different outcomes and their effects on people's lives. Land reclamation projects in the 1960s surrounded intertidal islands with embankments. This allowed rice farming to expand, but also produced significant elevation loss, which rendered many islands vulnerable to waterlogging and flooding from storm surges. The advent of large-scale shrimp aquaculture added environmental, economic, social, and political stresses, but also brought much export revenue to a developing nation. Locally, attempts to remedy environmental stresses have produced mixed results, with similar measures succeeding in some communities and failing in others. In this context, we find that people are continually adapting to changing opportunities and constraints for food, housing, and income. Niches that support different livelihood activities emerge and dwindle, and their occupants' desires affect the political context. Understanding and successfully responding to the impacts of environmental change requires understanding not only the

  9. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Bangladesh

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    time. maputra in Bangladesh in the wake of the floods of 1987 "Saudi government and people will be happy to extend and 1988 which caused widespread...the Holy Mosques, King Fahd-bin-Abdul Aziz, was deeply Bangladesh in November 1989 and carried out studies in distressed at the devastation caused by...Khaleda Zia briefed the delegation on the damage irrigation projects under Burichang, Devidar, Commilla caused by the cyclone, relief operation, and

  10. Rice scientists lay biotech network foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-29

    To help agricultural researchers in poorly funded Asian laboratories improve food crops, the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is proposing a biotechnology network that would disseminate instruments, plant genetic materials, chemicals, and scientific information free of charge. The network will focus primarily on Asian researchers trained at the Philippines-based IRRI who are trying to breed high-yield, disease-resistant rice strains and thereby pump up the world's rice production by about 10 million metric tons a year. The total crop in 1990 was about 520 million tons. Not all biological substances are legal to import and export, and this may impede distributing some plant genetic material to network scientists. However, at present it is legal to ship molecular DNA markers that are essential for tagging important genes in lab studies. As a test balloon for the network, markers are being distributed to scientists in national agricultural research programs in Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. IRRI is seeking $5.5 million in funding, enough to run the network for 5 years. If the network becomes a reality, Asian rice scientists may pluck out of the mail something far more valuable than DNA markers or even sweepstakes notices: genetically engineered plants, which might be allowed across national boundaries in 2 or 3 years.

  11. Costs of integrating demand-based reproductive health commodity model into the Government and NGO service delivery systems in Bangladesh: a supply side perspective.

    PubMed

    Islam, Ziaul; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Anwar, Shahela; Kabir, Humayun; Gazi, Rukhsana

    2015-01-01

    To estimate additional total cost and average cost of integrating the demand-based reproductive health commodity model into the existing Government and NGO facilities in Bangladesh. Activity based cost analysis was conducted during 2006-2008 in two low performing rural sub-districts (Nabigong and Raipur sub-district) and one urban slum area in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Activity-based cost data were collected using ingredient approach, which comprised of listing all types of inputs by activity, quantities and prices for each input. Total cost was presented according to capital and recurrent items. The supply side perspective was considered for entire analysis. The total cost of integrating demand-based reproductive health commodity (DBRHC) model into the Government and NGO service delivery system was estimated to BDT 18,667,634 (US$274,524). The proportion of capital cost was 59 % and the recurrent cost was 41 % of the total cost. The average cost per beneficiaries was BDT 230 (US$3.38) only for introducing this model into the existing health system. The built-in interventions of DBRHC model were doable at low-cost at the selected Government and NGO settings at the grass-root level. The model has potential of further cost containment during scaling up-if the intervention costs are adjusted with the existing functionaries of the Government and NGOs.

  12. Decline in epidemic of multidrug resistant Salmonella typhi is not associated with increased incidence of antibiotic-susceptible strain in Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M.; Ahmad, A.; Shoma, S.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1987, multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of Salmonella Typhi, resistant simultaneously to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, have caused epidemics of severe typhoid fever in Asia and Africa. A retrospective analysis of blood culture results (1989-96) in a Diarrhoea Treatment Centre in Dhaka, Bangladesh detected MDR strains in 0.3% (8 of 2793) of samples in 1990. The isolation rate peaked to 3.2% (240 of 7501) in 1994 (P < 0.01) and decreased to 1.8% (165 of 9348) in 1995 and further to 1.0% (82 of 8587) in 1996 (P < 0.01 compared to 1994) indicating the emergence and decline of MDR typhoid epidemic. Ten of 15 MDR strains tested had a 176 kb conjugative R plasmid that mediates resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to Escherichia coli K12. Unlike MDR strains, the isolation rate (approximately 3.3%) of susceptible S. Typhi remained remarkably unchanged during the study. The significant decrease in isolation of MDR strains suggests that cheaper and effective first-line antibiotics may re-emerge as drugs of choice for the treatment of typhoid fever in Bangladesh. PMID:12211593

  13. Peanut-based ready-to-use therapeutic food: how acceptable and tolerated is it among malnourished pregnant and lactating women in Bangladesh?

    PubMed

    Ali, Engy; Zachariah, Rony; Shams, Zubair; Manzi, Marcel; Akter, Tajmary; Alders, Petra; Allaouna, Malik; Delchevalerie, Pascale; Harries, Anthony D

    2015-10-01

    Within a Medecins Sans Frontieres's nutrition programme in Kamrangirchar slum, Dhaka, Bangladesh this study was conducted to assess the acceptability of a peanut-based ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) - Plumpy'nut(®) (PPN) among malnourished pregnant and lactating women (PLW). This was a cross-sectional survey using semi-structure questionnaire that included all PLW admitted in the nutrition programme, who were either malnourished or at risk of malnutrition and who had received PPN for at least 4 weeks. A total of 248 women were interviewed of whom 99.6% were at risk of malnutrition. Overall, 212 (85%) perceived a therapeutic benefit. Despite this finding, 193 (78%) women found PPN unacceptable, of whom 12 (5%) completely rejected it after 4 weeks of intake. Reasons for unacceptability included undesirable taste (60%) and unwelcome smell (43%) - more than half of the latter was due to the peanut-based smell. Overall, 39% attributed side effects to PPN intake including nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal distension and pain. Nearly 80% of women felt a need to improve PPN - 82% desiring a change in taste and 48% desiring a change in smell. Overall, only 146 (59%) understood the illustrated instructions on the package. Despite a perceived beneficial therapeutic effect, only two in 10 women found PPN acceptable for nutritional rehabilitation. We urge nutritional agencies and manufacturers to intensify their efforts towards developing more RUTF alternatives that have improved palatability and smell for adults and that have adequate therapeutic contents for treating malnourished PLW in Bangladesh.

  14. Estimating the cost of cholera-vaccine delivery from the societal point of view: A case of introduction of cholera vaccine in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Islam, Ziaul; Khan, Iqbal Ansary; Saha, Amit; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Cravioto, Alejandro; Clemens, John David; Qadri, Firdausi; Khan, Jahangir A M

    2015-09-11

    Cholera is a major global public health problem that causes both epidemic and endemic disease. The World Health Organization recommends oral cholera vaccines as a public health tool in addition to traditional prevention practices and treatments in both epidemic and endemic settings. In many developing countries like Bangladesh, the major issue concerns the affordability of this vaccine. In February 2011, a feasibility study entitled, "Introduction of Cholera Vaccine in Bangladesh (ICVB)", was conducted for a vaccination campaign using inactivated whole-cell cholera vaccine (Shanchol) in a high risk area of Mirpur, Dhaka. Empirical data obtained from this trial was used to determine the vaccination cost for a fully immunized person from the societal perspective. A total of 123,661 people were fully vaccinated receiving two doses of the vaccine, while 18,178 people received one dose of the same vaccine. The total cost for vaccine delivery was US$ 492,238 giving a total vaccination cost per fully-vaccinated individual of US$ 3.98. The purchase cost of the vaccine accounted for 58% of the overall cost of vaccination. Attempts to reduce the per-dose cost of the vaccine are likely to have a large impact on the cost of similar vaccination campaigns in the future.

  15. Source apportionment and pollution evaluation of heavy metals in water and sediments of Buriganga River, Bangladesh, using multivariate analysis and pollution evaluation indices.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad Amir Hossain; Dampare, Samuel B; Islam, M A; Suzuki, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals in water and sediment samples of Buriganga River in the capital city Dhaka, Bangladesh, were studied to understand the level of heavy metals and their source apportionment. The results showed that the mean concentrations of heavy metals both in water and sediment samples were very high and, in most cases, exceeded the permissible limits recommended by the Bangladesh government and other international organizations. Significantly higher concentrations of Pb, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd were found in sediment samples. However, average concentrations of metals both in water and sediment samples were above the effect range median. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and degree of contamination (Cd) yielded different results in water samples despite significant correlations between them. The heavy metal evaluation index (HEI) showed strong correlations with HPI and Cd and provided better assessment of pollution levels. The enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) showed the elevated value of Cr, Pb, and Cd in access of background values. The measured elements were subjected to positive matrix factorization (PMF) and examining correlations in order to explain the content, behavior, and source apportionment of metals. PMF resulted in a successful partitioning of variances into sources related to background geochemistry and contaminant influences. However, the PMF approach successfully demarcated the major sources of metals from tannery, paint, municipal sewage, textiles, and agricultural activities.

  16. Relationship between Serum Iron Profile and Blood Groups among the Voluntary Blood Donors of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M M; Adnan, S D; Karim, S; Al-Mamun, M A; Faruki, M A; Islam, K; Nandy, S

    2016-04-01

    Blood donation results in a substantial iron loss and subsequent mobilization from body stores. Chronic iron deficiency is a well-recognized complication of regular blood donation. The present study conducted to compare the level of serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and percentage transferrin saturation in different ABO and Rhesus type blood groups among the voluntary blood donors of Bangladesh. The present prospective study included 100 healthy voluntary donors attending at Department of Blood Transfusion, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka between the periods of July 2013 to Jun 2014. From each donor 10mL venous blood sample was taken and divided into heparinized and non-heparinized tubes for determination of hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and serum ferritin by standard laboratory methods. Percentage of transferrin saturation (TS) calculated from serum iron and TIBC. Data were analyzed with SPSS (version 16) software and comparisons between groups were made using student's t-test and one way ANOVA. In the present study mean±SD of age of the respondents was 27.2±6.5 years with a range of 18 to 49 years and 81.0% were male and 19.0% were female. Among the donors 18.0% had blood group A, 35.0% had blood group B, 14.0% had blood group AB and 33.0% had blood group O. Among the donors 91.0% had rhesus positive and 9.0% had rhesus negative. Donors with blood group O had lowest haemoglobin, serum iron and transferring saturation levels. Donors with blood group A had highest TIBC level. Donors with blood group B had lowest serum ferritin level. An independent samples 't' test showed statistically significant difference in serum ferritin and percentage transferrin saturation between blood group AB and blood group O and in percentage transferrin saturation between blood group B and blood group O. One way ANOVA showed that there is no significant difference in haemoglobin, serum iron, serum

  17. Floods in Northeast India and Bangladesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the past two weeks floods have ravaged Bangladesh (center) and eastern India (draped around Bangladesh to the north), killing over 50 people and displacing hundreds of thousands from their homes. These false-color images acquired on July 15 and 16, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite show some of the worst flooding. The dark brown, swollen river in the images (top right on July 16; center on July 15) is the Brahmaputra River, which flows through the middle of the Indian state of Assam at the foothills of the Himalaya Mountains. A large, black area south of the Brahmaputra (partially obscured by clouds) shows flooded areas in Bangladesh. Floods of this magnitude have been known to occur in southern Bangladesh and are caused by storms washing seawater over coastal regions. This year, however, unrelenting torrential rains across the entire eastern sub-continent gave rise to the deluge. The massive amounts of rainwater that fell on Nepal and Assam drained into an already waterlogged eastern Bangladesh. Normally, the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines, and the large black patches in Bangladesh would be the color of the rest of the land surface, tan. In these false-color images, land is tan, and clouds are pink and white. Water comes across as black or dark brown, depending on its sediment level, with clearer water being closer to black. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  18. [Children and bankers in Bangladesh].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, B

    1991-06-01

    This critique of the World Bank's role in developing country population programs begins with a description of a 1987 case in which an 80-year- old Bangladeshi man was persuaded to undergo vasectomy and then robbed of his incentive payment by the health agent. For over 20 years, the World Bank has pressured 3rd World governments to implement population control programs. Although there are divergent opinions within the World Bank, the most dominant is the neomalthusian view that the poor through their high fertility help perpetuate their own poverty. This view hides the real source of poverty in the Third World: the unequal distribution of resources within these countries and between the developed and developing countries. The World Bank has always been blind to the inequalities, and has associated with the elites of developing countries who monopolize the resources of their countries and thereby impede authentic development. Furthermore, the emphasis on population control distorts social policy and hinders the implementation of safe and voluntary family planning services. In many countries the World Bank has required governments to give greater priority to population control than to basic health services. It has pressured them to relax contraceptive prescription norms and has promoted the more effective methods without regard to proper use or side effects. In Bangladesh the World Bank has sponsored sterilization programs that rely on coercion and incentives. In that country of enormous inequities, 10% of landowners control over 50% of lands, while nearly half the population is landless and chronically underemployed. Political power is concentrated in the military government, which annually receives over 1.5 billion dollars in external aid. External aid primarily benefits the wealthy. 3/4 of the population are undernourished and less than 1/3 are literate or have access to basic health care. The poor of Bangladesh, as in many other countries, feel that their only

  19. High levels of inorganic arsenic in rice in areas where arsenic-contaminated water is used for irrigation and cooking.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-10-15

    Rice is the staple food for the people of arsenic endemic South (S) and South-East (SE) Asian countries. In this region, arsenic contaminated groundwater has been used not only for drinking and cooking purposes but also for rice cultivation during dry season. Irrigation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater for rice cultivation has resulted high deposition of arsenic in topsoil and uptake in rice grain posing a serious threat to the sustainable agriculture in this region. In addition, cooking rice with arsenic-contaminated water also increases arsenic burden in cooked rice. Inorganic arsenic is the main species of S and SE Asian rice (80 to 91% of the total arsenic), and the concentration of this toxic species is increased in cooked rice from inorganic arsenic-rich cooking water. The people of Bangladesh and West Bengal (India), the arsenic hot spots in the world, eat an average of 450g rice a day. Therefore, in addition to drinking water, dietary intake of arsenic from rice is supposed to be another potential source of exposure, and to be a new disaster for the population of S and SE Asian countries. Arsenic speciation in raw and cooked rice, its bioavailability and the possible health hazard of inorganic arsenic in rice for the population of S and SE Asia have been discussed in this review.

  20. Female migrants in an urban setting -- the dimensions of spatial / physical adaptation. The case of Dhaka.

    PubMed

    Huq-hussain, S

    1996-01-01

    This study determines the settlement and social adjustment patterns among female migrants in Dhaka. Data were obtained from a survey conducted among migrant households in selected slums of Dhaka during 1988-90. The sample covers three zones: old, central, and peripheral. It includes 399 migrant households, which were drawn randomly among 2.5% of the poor in the city's 75 wards. Findings include a description of initial settlement patterns, housing construction materials and the organization of housing, floor space, basic facilities, type of structure, ownership, monthly rent, women's role in housing construction, choice of location, and changes in location. Findings suggest that migrants initially experienced housing shortages. Women did not have much choice and settled in highly congested areas. Relatives and friends provided assistance upon arrival. Most arrivals lived in high-density spaces with few amenities. The close contact and use of communal facilities fostered social adjustment and knowledge of urban living patterns. Length of migrant stay was associated with better housing conditions in the type of structure, access to utilities, and floor space. Long-term migrants had greater mobility and choice in housing. New migrants faced exploitation in rents and eviction problems. 63% of migrants lived in rental houses, and 37% lived rent-free. Monthly rent accounted for about 25% of total family income; food accounted for another 20%. Almost 25% of migrants lived in self-built structures on government land. 66% of slum housing was constructed of poor materials. 18% of slum dwellers lived in extremely poor housing of low height and built with flimsy materials. About 38% of slum population lived in bamboo sheds of normal height. 42% lived in tin shed structures. Most migrants lived in single-room bamboo structures.

  1. Bangladesh SMP test markets ORS.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    The Bangladesh Social Marketing Program (SMP) is completing test marketing of a US-manufactured oral rehydration salt (ORS) called "Orasaline," according to William Schellstede, resident advisor with Population Services International (PSI), the project's technical contractor. While the results have not yet been assessed, Schellstede says about 45,000 sachets have been sold throughout the country's 8 sales districts since the test marketing began several months ago. Each sachet contains 14 g of orasaline and makes 500 cc of prepared solution. The ORS product was made available through a grant from the Ford Foundation to PSI to determine the public health impact of selling Orasaline at full cost. Its 5 taka ($.20 US) consumer price covers raw material, manufacturing, distribution, and promotion costs. "Both the general retailers and rural medical practitioners responded favorably to the product and found its use easily explained," Schellstede says. "About 60% of them bought the product and 48% have already placed orders for more. In 3 or 4 of the sales areas, the SMP's stocks were exhausted." However, he expects the test results to show that a subsidized ORS product would greatly intensify its public health impact by allowing a much lower consumer price. "Cheaper ORS products, often bootlegged from free sources are available in the country," explains Schellstede. The SMP is negotiating with Norway's governmental aid agency, NORAD, for donated ORS packets, he adds. ORS sales represent the SMP's 2nd expansion of its product line in the past year. In cooperation with the Bangladesh government, the SMP previously introduced a "safe delivery kit" to help midwives reduce infant and maternal mortality, tetanus, and other birth-related diseases.

  2. Labile Organic Carbon in Recharge and its Impact on Groundwater Arsenic Concentrations in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, R. B.; Ashfaque, K. N.; Badruzzaman, A. M.; Ali, M.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Harvey, C. F.

    2009-12-01

    Researchers have puzzled over the origin of dissolved arsenic in the aquifers of the Ganges Delta since widespread arsenic poisoning from groundwater was publicized two decades ago. Previous work has concluded that biological oxidation of organic carbon drives geochemical transformations that mobilize arsenic from sediments; however, the source of the organic carbon that fuels these processes remains controversial. A combined hydrologic and biogeochemical analysis of a typical site in Bangladesh, where constructed ponds and groundwater-irrigated rice fields are the main sources of recharge, shows that only recharge through pond sediments provides the biologically degradable organic carbon that can drive arsenic mobilization. Numerical groundwater simulations as well as chemical and isotopic indicators suggest that contaminated groundwater originates from excavated ponds and that water originating from rice fields is low in arsenic. In fact, rice fields act as an arsenic sink. Irrigation moves arsenic-rich groundwater from the aquifers and deposits it on the rice fields. Most of the deposited arsenic does not return to the aquifers; it is sorbed by the field’s surface soil and bunds, and is swept away in the monsoon floods. The findings indicate that patterns of arsenic contamination in the shallow aquifer are due to recharge-source variation and complex three-dimensional flow.

  3. Characterizing Temporal and Spatial Trends in Soil Geochemistry on Polder 32, Southwest Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, J. C.; Fry, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Soil samples were collected during three field campaigns to determine seasonal and spatial trends of soil salinity, soil acidity and arsenic concentrations on Polder 32 in coastal Bangladesh. Many farmers on Polder 32 use a crop rotation of rice cultivation in the wet season and shrimp farming in the dry season, and studies have shown that this rotation can increase soil salinity and acidity. Soil samples were collected in May 2013, October 2013 and May 2014 from rice paddies and shrimp ponds on the polder, from adjacent tidal channels, and from the Sunderbans mangrove forest to the SE of the polder, and analyzed for both geochemical and physical parameters and then subjected to statistical tests and mapped using geographic information system software to find correlations. Results support the belief that soil salinity, acidity and arsenic concentration exhibit spatial variation, and soil salinity and acidity show seasonal variation with salinity elevated in the dry season (May) and acidity elevated in the wet season (October). Results suggest that Hydrous Ferric Oxyhydroxides (HFOs) are present in October and sulfides are present in May, so that reducing conditions that lead to reduction of HFOs and precipitation of sulfides must occur between October and May. Rice grown in paddies should be unaffected by salt concentrations in the wet season, while arsenic concentrations in soil may be high enough to cause unsafe As levels in produced rice. No evidence of soil acidification was found, most likely due to the presence of soil carbonate.

  4. Burden of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Gugnani, H C; Denning, D W; Rahim, R; Sadat, A; Belal, M; Mahbub, M S

    2017-02-04

    In Bangladesh there are several published papers on superficial mycoses. Deep mycoses are also recognized as an important emerging problem. Here, we estimate the annual incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh. Demographic data were obtained from world population reports and the data on TB and HIV extracted from the online publications on tuberculosis in Bangladesh and Asia Pacific research statistical data information resources AIDS Data HUB. All the published papers on fungal infections in Bangladesh were identified through extensive search of literature. We estimated the number of affected people from populations at risk and local epidemiological data. Bangladesh has a population of ∼162.6 million, 31% children and only 6% over the age of 60 years. The pulmonary TB caseload reported in 2014 was 119,520, and we estimate a prevalence of 30,178 people with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 80% attributable to TB. An anticipated 90,262 and 119,146 patients have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or severe asthma with fungal sensitization. Only 8,000 people are estimated to be HIV-infected, of whom 2900 are not on ART with a CD4 count <350 μL, Pneumocystis pneumonia and cryptococcal meningitis being rare. Superficial mycoses are very common with Trichophyton rubrum as the predominant etiological agent (80.6%). Numerous cases of mycotic keratitis have been reported from several parts of Bangladesh. Candida bloodstream infection was estimated based on a 5 per 100,000 rate (8100 cases) and invasive aspergillosis based primarily on leukemia and COPD rates, at 5166 cases. Histoplasmosis was documented in 16 cases mostly with disseminated disease and presumed in 21 with HIV infection. This study constitutes the first attempt to estimate the burden of several types of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

  5. Recharge of low-arsenic aquifers tapped by community wells in Araihazar, Bangladesh, inferred from environmental isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihajlov, I.; Stute, M.; Schlosser, P.; Mailloux, B. J.; Zheng, Y.; Choudhury, I.; Ahmed, K. M.; van Geen, A.

    2016-05-01

    More than 100,000 community wells have been installed in the 150-300 m depth range throughout Bangladesh over the past decade to provide low-arsenic drinking water (<10 µg/L As), but little is known about how aquifers tapped by these wells are recharged. Within a 25 km2 area of Bangladesh east of Dhaka, groundwater from 65 low-As wells in the 35-240 m depth range was sampled for tritium (3H), oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of water (18O/16O and 2H/1H), carbon isotope ratios in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, 14C/12C and 13C/12C), noble gases, and a suite of dissolved constituents, including major cations, anions, and trace elements. At shallow depths (<90 m), 24 out of 42 wells contain detectable 3H of up to 6 TU, indicating the presence of groundwater recharged within 60 years. Radiocarbon (14C) ages in DIC range from modern to 10 kyr. In the 90-240 m depth range, however, only five wells shallower than 150 m contain detectable 3H (<0.3 TU) and 14C ages of DIC cluster around 10 kyr. The radiogenic helium (4He) content in groundwater increases linearly across the entire range of 14C ages at a rate of 2.5 × 10-12 ccSTP 4He g-1 yr-1. Within the samples from depths >90 m, systematic relationships between 18O/16O, 2H/1H, 13C/12C, and 14C/12C, and variations in noble gas temperatures, suggest that changes in monsoon intensity and vegetation cover occurred at the onset of the Holocene, when the sampled water was recharged. Thus, the deeper low-As aquifers remain relatively isolated from the shallow, high-As aquifer.

  6. Characteristics of Diarrheal Illnesses in Non-Breast Fed Infants Attending a Large Urban Diarrheal Disease Hospital in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Sanjoy Kumer; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Das, Sumon Kumar; Shaha, Chandan Kumar; Ferdous, Farzana; Farzana, Fahmida Dil; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Malek, Mohammad Abdul; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of breast feeding is associated with higher morbidity and case-fatality from both bacterial and viral etiologic diarrheas. However, there is very limited data on the characteristics of non–breastfed infants attending hospital with diarrheal illnesses caused by common bacterial and viral pathogens. Our objective was to assess the impact of lack of breast feeding on diarrheal illnesses in infants living in urban Bangladesh. Methods We extracted data of infants (0–11 months) for analyses from the data archive of Diarrheal Disease Surveillance System (DDSS) of the Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b for the period 2008–2011. Results The prevalence of breastfeeding in infants attending the hospital with diarrhea reduced from 31% in 2008 to 17% in 2011, with corresponding increase in the prevalence of non-breastfed (chi square for trend <0.001). Among breastfed infants, the incidence of rotavirus infections was higher (43%) among the 0–5 months age group than infants aged 9–11 months (18%). On the other hand, among non-breastfed infants, the incidence of rotavirus infections was much higher (82%) among 9–11 months old infants compared to those in 0–5 months age group (57%) (chi square for trend <0.001). Very similar trends were also observed in the incidence of cholera and ETEC diarrheas among different age groups of breastfed and non-breastfed infants (chi square for trend 0.020 and 0.001 respectively). However, for shigellosis, the statistical difference remained unchanged among both the groups (chi square for trend 0.240). Conclusion and Significance We observed protective role of breastfeeding in infantile diarrhea caused by the major viral and common bacterial agents. These findings underscore the importance of promotion and expansion of breastfeeding campaigns in Bangladesh and elsewhere. PMID:23520496

  7. Building renewable electricity supply in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Fulton, L.M.

    1997-12-31

    Bangladesh is experiencing a severe electric power capacity crisis that is only likely to worsen over the next 15 years. Further, over 80% of Bangladesh`s population still lives with no electricity, and the rate of grid expansion to connect rural villages is threatened by the looming capacity shortage. There are a number of underlying reasons for the crisis, but ultimately the country lacks the fossil fuel resources required to conduct a large scale grid-expansion program. Alternative approaches to electrifying the country must be found. This paper outlines the prospects for wind and solar power in Bangladesh, and estimates the potential for commercial applications now and in the future. This includes a technical assessment, a market assessment, an environmental assessment, and a policy assessment. The paper concludes that Bangladesh holds the potential to cost-effectively meet a significant fraction of its future electricity demand through the use of renewable generation technologies, possibly adding as much renewable capacity as the current overall electric power capacity of the country. Many parts of the country have favorable solar and wind conditions and there are many potentially cost-effective applications. But the country must develop a policy framework that allows and encourages private investors to develop renewable energy projects in order to realize the enormous potential of renewables.

  8. Emerging Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Al Mamun, Mohammad; Rumana, Nahid; Pervin, Kumkum; Azad, Muhammad Chanchal; Shahana, Nahid; Choudhury, Sohel Reza; Zaman, M Mostafa; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    As a result of an epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases for last few decades, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are being considered as an important cause of mortality and morbidity in many developing countries including Bangladesh. Performing an extensive literature search, we compiled, summarized, and categorized the existing information about CVD mortality and morbidity among different clusters of Bangladeshi population. The present review reports that the burden of CVD in terms of mortality and morbidity is on the rise in Bangladesh. Despite a few non-communicable disease prevention and control programs currently running in Bangladesh, there is an urgent need for well-coordinated national intervention strategies and public health actions to minimize the CVD burden in Bangladesh. As the main challenge for CVD control in a developing country is unavailability of adequate epidemiological data related to various CVD events, the present review attempted to accumulate such data in the current context of Bangladesh. This may be of interest to all stakeholder groups working for CVD prevention and control across the country and globe.

  9. CSM a success in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    The Bangladesh Social Marketing Project (SMP), providing contraceptives at an annual rate of 931,000 couple years of protection (CYP) as of June 1983, is a success. This figure has grown markedly since the start of the program in late 1975, when the SMP provided 80,000 CYPs, or 8% of nonclinical protection provided. The SMP has contributed to the steadily increasing national nonclinical contraceptive distribution. Currently, SMP distribution accounts for as much as the government and nongovernment programs combined. When clinical methods (including sterilizations) are added to national distribution, the SMP share represents about 28% of total contraceptive use. The SMP does not provide clinical methods, but the entire increase in nonclinical protection provided by the national program since 1975 has been the result of SMP product sales. The SMP utilizes the available mass media for promotion, including print, radio, television, as well as outdoor media and point of purchase materials. Mobile Film Units (MFUs) are an innovative promotional method employed by the SMP. Approximately 80 night time outdoor showings are organized each month in rural areas by SMP promoters. Typically, several short films, usually a popular story with a family planning theme, are run. Between each film the SMP products are of advertised. Products are often sold during and after the films. Retail outlets for SMP products include general stores, pharmacies, and other small shops. When products were introduced in 1975 retail outlets totaled 7500. By August 1983 the number of country wide retailers carrying SMP products had grown to nearly 100,000. In 1982 a marketing strategy emphasizing the role of doctors and rural medical practitioners (RMPs) was introduced. There are between 70,00-100,000 RMPs in Bangladesh. They are well known and respected "doctors" in their villages and add an extensive family planning outreach to the SMP system. The most important advantage of using the RMPs is their

  10. Clinical risk factors, bacterial aetiology, and outcome of urinary tract infection in children hospitalized with diarrhoea in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    DAS, R; Ahmed, T; Saha, H; Shahrin, L; Afroze, F; Shahid, A S M S B; Shahunja, K M; Bardhan, P K; Chisti, M J

    2017-04-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in children aged <5 years with diarrhoea, but little is known about risk factors, aetiology and outcome of such children. We aimed to evaluate these knowledge gaps of UTI in children aged <5 years with diarrhoea. We enrolled all children aged <5 years with diarrhoea admitted to Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, between May 2011 and April 2013, who had history of fever (⩾38 °C) and obtained a urine sample for culture. Diarrhoea with UTI (confirmed by culture) constituted cases (n = 26) and those without UTI constituted controls (n = 78). Threefold controls were randomly selected. The case-fatality rate was comparable in cases and controls (4% vs. 1%, P = 0·439). Escherichia coli (69%) and Klebsiella (15%) were the most commonly isolated pathogens. Persistent diarrhoea, pneumonia and prior antibiotics use were identified as risk factors for UTI in logistic regression analysis (P < 0·05 for all). Thus, children with diarrhoea presenting with persistent diarrhoea, pneumonia, and prior antibiotic use should be investigated for UTI for their prompt management that may reduce morbidity.

  11. Arsenic accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.): human exposure through food chain.

    PubMed

    Azizur Rahman, M; Hasegawa, H; Mahfuzur Rahman, M; Mazid Miah, M A; Tasmin, A

    2008-02-01

    Although human exposure to arsenic is thought to be caused mainly through arsenic-contaminated underground drinking water, the use of this water for irrigation enhances the possibility of arsenic uptake into crop plants. Rice is the staple food grain in Bangladesh. Arsenic content in straw, grain and husk of rice is especially important since paddy fields are extensively irrigated with underground water having high level of arsenic concentration. However, straw and husk are widely used as cattle feed. Arsenic concentration in rice grain was 0.5+/-0.02 mg kg(-1) with the highest concentrations being in grains grown on soil treated with 40 mg As kg(-1) soil. With the average rice consumption between 400 and 650 g/day by typical adults in the arsenic-affected areas of Bangladesh, the intake of arsenic through rice stood at 0.20-0.35 mg/day. With a daily consumption of 4 L drinking water, arsenic intake through drinking water stands at 0.2mg/day. Moreover, when the rice plant was grown in 60 mg of As kg(-1) soil, arsenic concentrations in rice straw were 20.6+/-0.52 at panicle initiation stage and 23.7+/-0.44 at maturity stage, whereas it was 1.6+/-0.20 mg kg(-1) in husk. Cattle drink a considerable amount of water. So alike human beings, arsenic gets deposited into cattle body through rice straw and husk as well as from drinking water which in turn finds a route into the human body. Arsenic intake in human body from rice and cattle could be potentially important and it exists in addition to that from drinking water. Therefore, a hypothesis has been put forward elucidating the possible food chain pathways through which arsenic may enter into human body.

  12. Variation in grain arsenic assessed in a diverse panel of rice (Oryza sativa) grown in multiple sites.

    PubMed

    Norton, Gareth J; Pinson, Shannon R M; Alexander, Jill; McKay, Susan; Hansen, Helle; Duan, Gui-Lan; Rafiqul Islam, M; Islam, Shofiqul; Stroud, Jacqueline L; Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve P; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Lahner, Brett; Yakubova, Elena; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Tarpley, Lee; Eizenga, Georgia C; Salt, David E; Meharg, Andrew A; Price, Adam H

    2012-02-01

    • Inorganic arsenic (As(i) ) in rice (Oryza sativa) grains is a possible threat to human health, with risk being strongly linked to total dietary rice consumption and consumed rice As(i) content. This study aimed to identify the range and stability of genetic variation in grain arsenic (As) in rice. • Six field trials were conducted (one each in Bangladesh and China, two in Arkansas, USA over 2 yr, and two in Texas, USA comparing flooded and nonflood treatments) on a large number of common rice cultivars (c. 300) representing genetic diversity among international rice cultivars. • Within each field there was a 3-34 fold range in grain As concentration which varied between rice subpopulations. Importantly, As(i) correlated strongly with total As among a subset of 40 cultivars harvested in Bangladesh and China. • Genetic variation at all field sites was a large determining factor for grain As concentration, indicating that cultivars low in grain As could be developed through breeding. The temperate japonicas exhibited lower grain As compared with other subpopulations. Effects for year, location and flooding management were also statistically significant, suggesting that breeding strategies must take into account environmental factors.

  13. Food security in the face of climate change, population growth, and resource constraints: implications for Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Islam M; Parveen, Saila

    2004-10-01

    Ensuring food security has been one of the major national priorities of Bangladesh since its independence in 1971. Now, this national priority is facing new challenges from the possible impacts of climate change in addition to the already existing threats from rapid population growth, declining availability of cultivable land, and inadequate access to water in the dry season. In this backdrop, this paper has examined the nature and magnitude of these threats for the benchmark years of 2030 and 2050. It has been shown that the overall impact of climate change on the production of food grains in Bangladesh would probably be small in 2030. This is due to the strong positive impact of CO2 fertilization that would compensate for the negative impacts of higher temperature and sea level rise. In 2050, the negative impacts of climate change might become noticeable: production of rice and wheat might drop by 8% and 32%, respectively. However, rice would be less affected by climate change compared to wheat, which is more sensitive to a change in temperature. Based on the population projections and analysis of future agronomic innovations, this study further shows that the availability of cultivable land alone would not be a constraint for achieving food self-sufficiency, provided that the productivity of rice and wheat grows at a rate of 10% or more per decade. However, the situation would be more critical in terms of water availability. If the dry season water availability does not decline from the 1990 level of about 100 Bm3, there would be just enough water in 2030 for meeting both the agricultural and nonagricultural needs. In 2050, the demand for irrigation water to maintain food self-sufficiency would be about 40% to 50% of the dry season water availability. Meeting such a high agricultural water demand might cause significant negative impacts on the domestic and commercial water supply, fisheries, ecosystems, navigation, and salinity management.

  14. The character of organic carbon in recharge water and arsenic mobilization in Bangladesh aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracht, L. E.; Fussell, A. H.; Polizzotto, M.; Badruzzaman, A. M.; Ali, M. A.; Neumann, R. B.

    2012-12-01

    In Bangladesh, arsenic-contaminated groundwater, used for both drinking and irrigation supplies, negatively affects the health of millions of people. Past work at our site in Munshiganj suggests that current patterns of arsenic concentration in the aquifer are related to groundwater flow and recharge chemistry. Constructed ponds and groundwater-irrigated rice fields serve as the primary aquifer recharge sources, with pond recharge evolving into high-arsenic groundwater and rice field recharge evolving into low-arsenic groundwater. The composition of these water types vary in concentrations and character of dissolved organic carbon, a presumed key component in the mechanism of arsenic release from sediments. Here we present results from an experiment-based laboratory study that directly tests the role of organic carbon character and bioavailability on arsenic mobilization. Incubation experiments using sediment samples collected from Bangladesh and waters with different carbon sources (e.g., pond and rice field recharge water and artificial water with model carbon compounds) were conducted to show the phase transformations carbon undergoes during arsenic mobilization processes, to isolate the carbon components and characteristics most responsible for mobilization reactions, and to investigate the importance of secondary chemical constituents for completion of these physiochemical reactions. Water, gas, and sediment samples collected from the incubations were analyzed for nutrient, metal, anion, and carbon concentrations, as well as carbon character. The results clarify the chemical components most critical in arsenic mobilization and provide insight into the in situ chemical reactions occurring in the aquifer. Moreover, this better chemical understanding helps elucidate the potential impact of altered recharge patterns and recharge chemistry on arsenic concentrations of Bangladeshi groundwater supplies.

  15. Cancer in the Third World: Bangladesh 1980.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, H T; Rahim, M A

    1981-01-01

    Bangladesh exemplifies all of the problems of Third World countries: poverty, hunger, reduced longevity, and an illiteracy rate hovering at more than 80 per cent. The current status of oncology in Bangladesh was surveyed. Staff physicians, deans, medical students, nurses, and patients at six of the eight medical college hospitals, seven village hospitals, and a large private hospital provided background and clinical material. There are no medical or surgical oncologists in Bangladesh. The eight qualified radiation therapists are able to provide only meager diagnostic potential or radiation therapy with their antiquated equipment. Pathology service was severely handicapped by understaffing and outmoded equipment. With a relatively modest investment, epidemiological studies could be undertaken and an effective cancer control program established since oral and cervical cancers are common. PMID:7270764

  16. Providing hope: midwifery teaching in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kent, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Bangladesh is recognised as a resource-poor country that has made some very positive steps to reducing maternal mortality over the last decade. However the death rate of women directly caused by pregnancy and childbirth still remains much higher than countries such as the UK, often due to lack of access to good quality and affordable basic health care. In this article, Anna Kent writes of her experiences teaching obstetric emergency clinical skills to Bangladesh's first ever student midwives. The students were recruited from rural villages to complete a three-year fully funded Midwifery Diploma Programme at one of seven education centres across the country. The goal of the programme is for the students to eventually return and practise as midwives in their home communities, enabling greater access for women to good quality basic health care, directly reducing maternal mortality across Bangladesh.

  17. Complementary feeding practices among mothers in selected slums of Dhaka city: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Farzana; Ara, Ferdous; Hoque, Md Asirul; Alam, Md Safiul

    2014-03-01

    Improper complementary feeding (CF) practice is one of the main reasons for malnutrition among Bangladeshi children aged less than two years. In this context, using the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO), this study assessed the CF practices among mothers in four selected slums (Tejgoan, Rayerbazar, Beribadh, and Jafrabad) of Dhaka city. This descriptive study, conducted during January-June 2010, included 120 mother-child pairs from the selected slums. Samples were selected conveniently, and the sociodemographic profiles of mothers in the four slums were similar. The mean (standard deviation) age of the children was 14.68 +/- 5.55 months. A questionnaire, developed following the guidelines of WHO for CF practices, was used for collecting data. Twenty-seven (23%) mothers were exclusively breastfeeding (EBF) their children. Among non-EBF mothers, 15 (16%) started CF after the recommended time. At 6-8 months of age, 2 (40%) of the EBF and 12 (67%) of the non-EBF mothers gave complementary foods twice a day to their children. In both the groups--9-11 months of age--about 70% mothers gave complementary foods twice a day to their children. The frequency of CF was acceptable (3 times a day) in 13 (81%) of the EBF and 32 (56%) of the non-EBF children at 12-23 months of age. Complementary foods given by 24 (89%) of the EBF and 86 (93%) of the non-EBF mothers to their children were not adequate in energy contents. Two (7%) EBF and 16 (17%) non-EBF mothers did not wash their hands after defaecation. Three (11%) EBF and 24 (26%) non-EBF mothers did not properly clean their hands and utensils before feeding. Nine (33%) EBF mothers did not wash their children's hands. Fifty (54%) non-EBF mothers also did not do this. Feeding with psychosocial care practices was not perfect in either of the groups. The findings showed that, according to the WHO guidelines, the CF practices among mothers of children aged less than two years were very poor in the selected slums of

  18. Flood risk assessment and robust management under deep uncertainty: Application to Dhaka City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojtahed, Vahid; Gain, Animesh Kumar; Giupponi, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    in future and based on a meaningful synthesis of parameters' values with control of their correlations for maintaining internal consistencies. This paper aims at incorporating a set of data mining and sampling tools to assess uncertainty of model outputs under future climatic and socio-economic changes for Dhaka city and providing a decision support system for robust flood management and mitigation policies. After constructing an uncertainty matrix to identify the main sources of uncertainty for Dhaka City, we identify several hazard and vulnerability maps based on future climatic and socio-economic scenarios. The vulnerability of each flood management alternative under different set of scenarios is determined and finally the robustness of each plausible solution considered is defined based on the above assessment.

  19. Hygiene on maternity units: lessons from a needs assessment in Bangladesh and India.

    PubMed

    Cross, Suzanne; Afsana, Kaosar; Banu, Morsheda; Mavalankar, Dileep; Morrison, Emma; Rahman, Atiya; Roy, Tapash; Saxena, Deepak; Vora, Kranti; Graham, Wendy J

    2016-01-01

    Background As the proportion of deliveries in health institutions increases in low- and middle-income countries, so do the challenges of maintaining standards of hygiene and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) in mothers and babies. Adequate water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and infection prevention and control (IPC) in these settings should be seen as integral parts of the broader domain of quality care. Assessment approaches are needed which capture standards for both WASH and IPC, and so inform quality improvement processes. Design A needs assessment was conducted in seven maternity units in Gujarat, India, and eight in Dhaka Division, Bangladesh in 2014. The WASH & CLEAN study developed and applied a suite of tools - a 'walkthrough checklist' which included the collection of swab samples, a facility needs assessment tool and document review, and qualitative interviews with staff and recently delivered women - to establish the state of hygiene as measured by visual cleanliness and the presence of potential pathogens, and individual and contextual determinants or drivers. Results No clear relationship was found between visually assessed cleanliness and the presence of pathogens; findings from qualitative interviews and the facility questionnaire found inadequacies in IPC training for healthcare providers and no formal training at all for ward cleaners. Lack of written policies and protocols, and poor monitoring and supervision also contributed to suboptimal IPC standards. Conclusions Visual assessment of cleanliness and hygiene is an inadequate marker for 'safety' in terms of the presence of potential pathogens and associated risk of infection. Routine environmental screening of high-risk touch sites using simple microbiology could improve detection and control of pathogens. IPC training for both healthcare providers and ward cleaners represents an important opportunity for quality improvement. This should occur in conjunction with broader

  20. Hand hygiene knowledge and practice among university students: evidence from Private Universities of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Marufa; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Hossain, Sarder Mahmud

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene has achieved the reputation of being a convenient means of preventing communicable diseases. Although causal links between hand hygiene and rates of infectious disease have also been established earlier, studies focusing on hand hygiene among university-going students are not adequate in number. This study evaluated handwashing knowledge, practice, and other related factors among the selected university students in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 undergraduate students from four selected universities. A pretested, semistructured questionnaire, that included a checklist associated with handwashing practice, was applied to capture all relevant data. The mean (± SD) age of the participants was 20.4 (±1.8) years. The majority of the students washed their hands with water, but only 22.5% washed their hands effectively by maintaining the correct steps and frequency of handwashing with water, and soap or hand sanitizer. The mean (± SD) score of the participants’ hand hygiene practice was 50.81 (±4.79), while the total score with all perfect answers was considered as 66. Regression coefficient demonstrated that age has a negative influence on hand hygiene practice, as older students have lower scores compared to the younger ones (P<0.01). However, the unmarried students were a significant predictor for influencing the incensement of handwashing practice compared to the married ones (P<0.01). Findings of this study designate widespread insufficient hand hygiene practice in the university-going students and indicate a need for an extensive public health education program on this topic. Furthermore, availability of soap and sufficient water supply is needed within the university setting to facilitate handwashing. Therefore, supporting quantity and quality of available campus-based public health education programs along with providing health-washing equipment is suggested. PMID:26929673

  1. Prevalence of Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial resistance profiles in poultry of Savar area, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Md Showkat; Bari, Md Latiful; Hossain, M Anwar

    2011-10-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the major concerns in the poultry industry and some serovars of Salmonella involve in zoonosis. This study determines the seroprevalence of Salmonella in poultry and their drug-resistant patterns, variability in infectivity and mortality rate of birds, and predilection of some serovars to cause zoonoses. The average seroprevalance of Salmonella in three different age groups was found to be 37.9%. A total of 503 samples were examined over a period of 1 year from five different poultry farms of a semiurban area of Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The prevalence of Salmonella was recorded to be 21.1%. Salmonella was found high in dead birds (31.2%) than live birds (18.1%). Salmonella infection was higher (23.6%) in summer than in winter (12.9%) season. Among the 106 isolates, 46 belong to serogroup B (43%) and 60 isolates to serogroup D (57%). The highest Salmonella infection was recorded as 47.9% on the 30-35-week-old birds. A total of 106 Salmonella isolates were used for antimicrobial susceptibility test against 10 common antibiotics and 17 multiple drug resistance patterns were found. Among the isolates, 69 (65%) harbored plasmids 1-4 with size variation between >1.63 and >40 kb and rest 37 (35%) isolates were plasmid free but showed resistance against 5-10 antibiotics. The results of the present investigation suggested that multiple drug resistance is common among the Salmonella isolates of poultry and some of these isolates may have zoonotic implications.

  2. Changes in plaque fluoride levels by school-based fluoride rinsing and tablet programs in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Abu Nasir Mohammad Nazmul; Sampaio, Fabio Correia; von der Fehr, Frithjof Ramm; Arneberg, Pål

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of school-based fluoride rinsing and tablet programs on plaque fluoride levels. A total of 42 children (8-9 years) were selected from two neighboring schools in Dhaka, Bangladesh. After caries recordings, vestibular plaque samples from the maxillary central incisors and mandibular first molars were collected and frozen on day 0 (baseline). The subjects of one school (rinsing group, n = 15) rinsed with 0.05% NaF, while those from the other school (tablet group, n = 16) used a 0.5 mg F tablet on the 5 school days during a 3-week period. The surfaces were sampled on the first and last school day every week. The fluoride and protein contents of each sample were analyzed using micro-techniques. The median plaque fluoride levels were 9.1 ppm at baseline in the rinsing group and 2.5 ppm in the tablet group (P < 0.05). This difference could in part be related to reported fluoride toothpaste usage. After 4 days on the fluoride programs, plaque fluoride levels in the rinsing group increased to 27.3, 24.5 and 14.2 ppm in the 3 consecutive weeks. The corresponding values after tablet usage were 8.0, 6.5 and 7.1 ppm, respectively. After 3 days without fluoride during the weekends, levels declined towards baseline values in both groups. Hence, the plaque fluoride levels in 8 to 9-year-old Bangladeshi children were increased by both rinsing and tablet programs, but the effect was not detectable 3 days later.

  3. Hand hygiene knowledge and practice among university students: evidence from Private Universities of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Marufa; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Hossain, Sarder Mahmud

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene has achieved the reputation of being a convenient means of preventing communicable diseases. Although causal links between hand hygiene and rates of infectious disease have also been established earlier, studies focusing on hand hygiene among university-going students are not adequate in number. This study evaluated handwashing knowledge, practice, and other related factors among the selected university students in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 undergraduate students from four selected universities. A pretested, semistructured questionnaire, that included a checklist associated with handwashing practice, was applied to capture all relevant data. The mean (± SD) age of the participants was 20.4 (±1.8) years. The majority of the students washed their hands with water, but only 22.5% washed their hands effectively by maintaining the correct steps and frequency of handwashing with water, and soap or hand sanitizer. The mean (± SD) score of the participants' hand hygiene practice was 50.81 (±4.79), while the total score with all perfect answers was considered as 66. Regression coefficient demonstrated that age has a negative influence on hand hygiene practice, as older students have lower scores compared to the younger ones (P<0.01). However, the unmarried students were a significant predictor for influencing the incensement of handwashing practice compared to the married ones (P<0.01). Findings of this study designate widespread insufficient hand hygiene practice in the university-going students and indicate a need for an extensive public health education program on this topic. Furthermore, availability of soap and sufficient water supply is needed within the university setting to facilitate handwashing. Therefore, supporting quantity and quality of available campus-based public health education programs along with providing health-washing equipment is suggested.

  4. Hygiene on maternity units: lessons from a needs assessment in Bangladesh and India

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Suzanne; Afsana, Kaosar; Banu, Morsheda; Mavalankar, Dileep; Morrison, Emma; Rahman, Atiya; Roy, Tapash; Saxena, Deepak; Vora, Kranti; Graham, Wendy J

    2016-01-01

    Background As the proportion of deliveries in health institutions increases in low- and middle-income countries, so do the challenges of maintaining standards of hygiene and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) in mothers and babies. Adequate water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and infection prevention and control (IPC) in these settings should be seen as integral parts of the broader domain of quality care. Assessment approaches are needed which capture standards for both WASH and IPC, and so inform quality improvement processes. Design A needs assessment was conducted in seven maternity units in Gujarat, India, and eight in Dhaka Division, Bangladesh in 2014. The WASH & CLEAN study developed and applied a suite of tools – a ‘walkthrough checklist’ which included the collection of swab samples, a facility needs assessment tool and document review, and qualitative interviews with staff and recently delivered women – to establish the state of hygiene as measured by visual cleanliness and the presence of potential pathogens, and individual and contextual determinants or drivers. Results No clear relationship was found between visually assessed cleanliness and the presence of pathogens; findings from qualitative interviews and the facility questionnaire found inadequacies in IPC training for healthcare providers and no formal training at all for ward cleaners. Lack of written policies and protocols, and poor monitoring and supervision also contributed to suboptimal IPC standards. Conclusions Visual assessment of cleanliness and hygiene is an inadequate marker for ‘safety’ in terms of the presence of potential pathogens and associated risk of infection. Routine environmental screening of high-risk touch sites using simple microbiology could improve detection and control of pathogens. IPC training for both healthcare providers and ward cleaners represents an important opportunity for quality improvement. This should occur in conjunction with

  5. Arsenate Reduction of Sediment is a Critical Step for Arsenic Release in Bangladesh Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailloux, B. J.; Silvern, R. F.; Kim, C.; Sun, J.; Ahmed, K.; van Geen, A.; Choudhury, I.; Bostick, B. C.

    2013-12-01

    Long-term exposure to trace levels of arsenic (As) in shallow groundwater puts millions of people at risk for chronic diseases in Bangladesh. Though the arsenic is naturally occurring in the shallow aquifers, the mobilization of arsenic from the sediment to the groundwater is predominantly driven by the coupling of microbial metabolism to the reduction of iron (Fe) oxides. However, it is unknown whether the reduction of arsenate, As(V), to arsenite, As(III), is a critical part of the mobilization process. The goal of this work was to determine the mineral phase speciation of arsenic in sediment across two arsenic gradients in shallow aquifers. Sediment cores were collected from two well-characterized sites in Araihazar, Bangladesh located about 25km east of the capital, Dhaka. Site B, a high arsenic, slow recharge, shallow aquifer, was located in the village of Baylakandi, and site F, a low arsenic, fast recharge, shallow aquifer, was located in the village of Lashkardi. Samples were collected from drill cuttings and cores taken every five feet from the surface to 60 feet at site B and 88 feet at site F and preserved in glycerol for analysis. The sediment was characterized for arsenic speciation using x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) on beamline 11-2 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource which in bulk mode can determine As speciation on samples with less than 1 mg/kg As in the solid phase. Arsenic XANES linear combination fits were described by As(V), As(III) and As2S3 standards for each depth. At both sites, at depths with low concentrations of aqueous As the sediment was dominated by As(V). In contrast, at depths with elevated concentrations of aqueous As the sediment was dominated by As(III). These changes in solid phase As speciation cannot be accounted for by changes in aqueous As concentrations and indicate a bulk change occurs in the As speciation of the sediment in zones of elevated aqueous As concentrations. Therefore, reduction of

  6. Creating a public space and dialogue on sexuality and rights: a case study from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Sabina Faiz; Standing, Hilary; Mohiuddin, Mahrukh; Ahmed, Farah Mahjabeen

    2011-06-16

    This article describes and analyses a research based engagement by a university school of public health in Bangladesh aimed at raising public debate on sexuality and rights and making issues such as discrimination more visible to policy makers and other key stakeholders in a challenging context. The impetus for this work came from participation in an international research programme with a particular interest in bridging international and local understandings of sexual and reproductive rights. The research team worked to create a platform to broaden discussions on sexuality and rights by building on a number of research activities on rural and urban men's and women's sexual health concerns, and on changing concepts of sexuality and understandings of sexual rights among specific population groups in Dhaka city, including sexual minorities. Linked to this on-going process of improving the evidence base, there has been a series of learning and capacity building activities over the last four years consisting of training workshops, meetings, conferences and dialogues. These brought together different configurations of stakeholders - members of sexual minorities, academics, service providers, advocacy organisations, media and policy makers. This process contributed to developing more effective advocacy strategies through challenging representations of sexuality and rights in the public domain. Gradually, these efforts brought visibility to hidden or stigmatised sexuality and rights issues through interim outcomes that have created important steps towards changing attitudes and policies. These included creating safe spaces for sexual minorities to meet and strategise, development of learning materials for university students and engagement with legal rights groups on sexual rights. Through this process, it was found to be possible to create a public space and dialogue on sexuality and rights in a conservative and challenging environment like Bangladesh by bringing

  7. Environmental Enteropathy, Oral Vaccine Failure and Growth Faltering in Infants in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Caitlin; Lu, Miao; Haque, Rashidul; Mondal, Dinesh; Buonomo, Erica; Nayak, Uma; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Kirkpatrick, Beth; Colgate, Ross; Carmolli, Marya; Dickson, Dorothy; van der Klis, Fiona; Weldon, William; Steven Oberste, M.; Ma, Jennie Z.; Petri, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a subclinical enteric condition found in low-income countries that is characterized by intestinal inflammation, reduced intestinal absorption, and gut barrier dysfunction. We aimed to assess if EE impairs the success of oral polio and rotavirus vaccines in infants in Bangladesh. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study of 700 infants from an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh from May 2011 to November 2014. Infants were enrolled in the first week of life and followed to age one year through biweekly home visits with EPI vaccines administered and growth monitored. EE was operationally defied as enteric inflammation measured by any one of the fecal biomarkers reg1B, alpha-1-antitrypsin, MPO, calprotectin, or neopterin. Oral polio vaccine success was evaluated by immunogenicity, and rotavirus vaccine response was evaluated by immunogenicity and protection from disease. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01375647. Findings EE was present in greater than 80% of infants by 12 weeks of age. Oral poliovirus and rotavirus vaccines failed in 20.2% and 68.5% of the infants respectively, and 28.6% were malnourished (HAZ < − 2) at one year of age. In contrast, 0%, 9.0%, 7.9% and 3.8% of infants lacked protective levels of antibody from tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, diphtheria and measles vaccines respectively. EE was negatively associated with oral polio and rotavirus response but not parenteral vaccine immunogenicity. Biomarkers of systemic inflammation and measures of maternal health were additionally predictive of both oral vaccine failure and malnutrition. The selected biomarkers from multivariable analysis accounted for 46.3% variation in delta HAZ. 24% of Rotarix® IgA positive individuals can be attributed to the selected biomarkers. Interpretation EE as well as systemic inflammation and poor maternal health were associated with oral but not parenteral vaccine

  8. Hepatitis-B Infections among the Injection Drug Abusers: An Emerging Risk in Public Health, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, K J; Nandi, A K

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the incidence of Hepatitis-B (HBV) infection among the injection drugs abusers (IDUs). The research work was a cross-sectional study. A total of 400 IDUs were selected from July 2012 to June 2013 at the Outpatient Department of the Central Drug Addiction Treatment Center, Tejgaon, Dhaka, Bangladesh. They were selected consecutively following the purposive sampling method on the basis of defined selection criteria. Research instruments were a pre-tested interviewer questionnaire and blood specimen. Results showed that 79.70%(315) of the IDUs were found literate and 20.3%(85) illiterate. In present occupation, majority of them 60.5%(242) had no work and 39.5%(158) specific occupation. The mean age of them was 27.9±6.4 years. In marital status, 46.5%(186) were unmarried, 20.7%(83) married after addiction and 30.3%(121) married before addiction. Majority of the IDUs 75.2%(289) started their addiction with cannabis. In addition to injection drugs use, all of them were multiple drug abusers. In response to the sharing of needle, 35.7%(143) of the IDUs shared needle uncommonly and 64.3%(257) did not shared it at all. Ninety-three percent (372) of them were heterosexual and polygamous having extramarital sex with multiple partners. The quality of sex-partners was wife, friends, brothel & hotel based sex sellers and street sex sellers. Majority of IDUs {82.0%(328)} did not use condom at all and 15.5(62) sold blood several times in their lifetime. Seven percent {7.0%(28)} injection drug abusers had been suffering from hepatitis-B virus (HBV) infection. HBV infection was found to be significantly (p≥0.05) associated with the quality of sex partners and number of sex partners, and age and marital status. There is no significant association with sharing of needle particularly occasional sharing of needle. Altering the behaviors of IDUs, especially their sexual lifestyles, drug habit, using of disposable syringe without sharing of

  9. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Nasar, Abu; Rahman, Aminoor; Hoque, Nazmul; Kumar Talukder, Anup; Das, Ziban Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Results: Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4%) were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 145.0±0.12, 110.0±0.07, 120.0±0.22, and 128.0±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price, outbreak of endemic

  10. Survival of classic cholera in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Siddique, A K; Baqui, A H; Eusof, A; Haider, K; Hossain, M A; Bashir, I; Zaman, K

    1991-05-11

    During the present cholera pandemic the El Tor biotype of Vibrio cholerae has completely displaced the classic biotype, except in Bangladesh. We studied the distribution of these two biotypes in twenty-four rural districts during epidemics in 1988-89; there was clustering of the classic biotype in the southern region and of the El Tor biotype in all other regions. These findings suggest that the southern coastal region is now (and may always have been) the habitat of classic cholera. The selective distribution of V cholerae O1 biotypes in Bangladesh may have been affected by ecological changes occurring in the country.

  11. Population and social security projections for Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Beekman, J A

    1984-01-01

    The author presents population projections for Bangladesh using data from the 1981 census, U.N. sources, and other official and nonofficial sources. "Confidence intervals for year 1986 and year 2001 populations for Bangladesh are developed. Rural-urban shifts in population are analyzed through Markov chains, and reveal a significant projected redistribution to urban areas. A study is presented of the actuarial cost of a potential social security program designed to meet the financial needs of an increasing set of urban dwellers.... Aggregate projected contributions and benefits for the years 1975, 2005, 2015, and 2025 illustrate the possible program."

  12. Role of debris cover to control specific ablation of adjoining Batal and Sutri Dhaka glaciers in Chandra Basin (Himachal Pradesh) during peak ablation season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Parmanand; Patel, Lavkush K.; Ravindra, Rasik; Singh, Ajit; K, Mahalinganathan; Thamban, Meloth

    2016-04-01

    As part of the on-going annual mass balance measurements on Batal and Sutri Dhaka glaciers, observations were made during peak ablation (August-September) season in 2013 to understand the response of debris covered and clean-ice (debris free) glacier surface to melting processes. Though, both the Batal and Sutri Dhaka glaciers have almost similar geographical disposition, Batal shows extensive debris cover (90% of the ablation area), while the latter is free from debris (only 5% of the ablation area). The thickness of debris in Batal glacier is inversely proportional to altitude, whereas Sutri Dhaka mostly experienced debris-free zone except snout area. Observation revealed that the vertical gradient of ablation rate in ablation area is contrastingly opposite in these two glaciers, reflecting significant control of debris thickness and their distribution over glacier surface on the ablation rates. While different thickness (2-100 cm) of debris have attenuated melting rates up to 70% of total melting, debris cover of <2 cm thickness has accelerated melting up to 10% of the total melting. Estimated melt ratio reveals that about 90% of the ablation area has experienced inhibited melting in Batal glacier, whereas only less than 5% ablation area of Sutri Dhaka has undergone inhibited melting. Comparison of topographical maps of 1962 with successive satellite images of the area demonstrates a terminus retreat of 373 ± 33.5 m and 579 ± 33.5 m for Batal and Sutri Dhaka glaciers for the period 1962-2013, respectively.

  13. Ecological Determinants of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) Outbreaks in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed S. U.; Ersbøll, Annette K.; Biswas, Paritosh K.; Christensen, Jens P.; Hannan, Abu S. M. A.; Toft, Nils

    2012-01-01

    duck-rice cultivation interacted ecology are not significant determinants for Bangladesh. These findings will refine current understanding of the HPAI-H5N1 epidemiology in Bangladesh. PMID:22470496

  14. Evaluation of clinical signs to diagnose anaemia in Uganda and Bangladesh, in areas with and without malaria.

    PubMed

    Kalter, H D; Burnham, G; Kolstad, P R; Hossain, M; Schillinger, J A; Khan, N Z; Saha, S; de Wit, V; Kenya-Mugisha, N; Schwartz, B; Black, R E

    1997-01-01

    The object of this study was to assess the ability of pallor and other clinical signs, including those in the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines developed by WHO and UNICEF, to identify severe anaemia and some anaemia in developing country settings with and without malaria. A total of 1226 and 668 children aged 2 months to 5 years were prospectively sampled from patients presenting at, respectively, a district hospital in rural Uganda and a children's hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The study physicians obtained a standardized history and carried out a physical examination that included pallor, signs of respiratory distress, and the remaining IMCI referral signs. The haematocrit or haemoglobin level was determined in all children with conjunctival or palmar pallor, and in a sample of the rest. Children with a blood level measurement and assessment of pallor at both sites were included in the anaemia analysis. Using the haematocrit or haemoglobin level as the reference standard, the correctness of assessments using severe and some pallor and other clinical signs in classifying severe and some anaemia was determined. While the full IMCI process would have referred most of the children in Uganda and nearly all the children in Bangladesh with severe anaemia to hospital, few would have received a diagnosis of severe anaemia. Severe palmar and conjunctival pallor, individually and together, had 10-50% sensitivity and 99% specificity for severe anaemia; the addition of grunting increased the sensitivity to 37-80% while maintaining a reasonable positive predictive value. Palmar pallor did not work as well as conjunctival pallor in Bangladesh for the detection for severe or some anaemia. Combining "conjunctival or palmar pallor" detected 71-87% of moderate anaemia and half or more of mild anaemia. About half the children with no anaemia were incorrectly classified as having "moderate or mild" anaemia. Anaemia was more easily diagnosed in Uganda in

  15. Methane Emissions from Bangladesh: Bridging the Gap Between Ground-based and Space-borne Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, C.; Bennartz, R.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Gaining an understanding of methane (CH4) emission sources and atmospheric dispersion is an essential part of climate change research. Large-scale and global studies often rely on satellite observations of column CH4 mixing ratio whereas high-spatial resolution estimates rely on ground-based measurements. Extrapolation of ground-based measurements on, for example, rice paddies to broad region scales is highly uncertain because of spatio-temporal variability. We explore the use of ground-based river stage measurements and independent satellite observations of flooded area along with satellite measurements of CH4 mixing ratio to estimate the extent of methane emissions. Bangladesh, which comprises most of the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna (GBM) delta, is a region of particular interest for studying spatio-temporal variation of methane emissions due to (1) broadscale rice cultivation and (2) seasonal flooding and atmospheric convection during the monsoon. Bangladesh and its deltaic landscape exhibit a broad range of environmental, economic, and social circumstances that are relevant to many nations in South and Southeast Asia. We explore the seasonal enhancement of CH4 in Bangladesh using passive remote sensing spectrometer CH4 products from the SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). The seasonal variation of CH4 is compared to independent estimates of seasonal flooding from water gauge stations and space-based passive microwave water-to-land fractions from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager (TRMM-TMI). Annual cycles in inundation (natural and anthropogenic) and atmospheric CH4 concentrations show highly correlated seasonal signals. NOAA's HYSPLIT model is used to determine atmospheric residence time of ground CH4 fluxes. Using the satellite observations, we can narrow the large uncertainty in extrapolation of ground-based CH4 emission estimates from rice paddies

  16. Arsenic Mitigation and Social Mobilisation in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rammelt, Crelis F.; Boes, Jan

    2004-01-01

    For the people of Bangladesh, mostly in rural areas, a new disaster is emerging. Two-thirds of the deep tube wells installed over the last three decades--roughly 3 million in total--contain arsenic concentrations above the permissible levels set by the WHO. These wells were installed to contribute to a secure and reliable drinking water supply,…

  17. Gender, Parenting, and Adolescent Functioning in Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sunita Mahtani; Bond, Michael Harris; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M.; Ma, Stefan S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined associations of self-esteem, relationship harmony, and academic achievement with perceptions of parents' styles and supervisory practices among 212 adolescents in Islamic Bangladesh. Found that parental supervisory practices were associated with a warm parental style for girls and parental dominating control for boys. Girls' (but not…

  18. Non-Formal Education in Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Journal of Adult Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Describes many ecological, social, and economic problems of Bangladesh in order to show the need for development of nonformal education to increase productivity in agriculture and related industries. Describes nine nonformal education projects in various areas of rural development, cooperatives, extension services, and adult education. (MF)

  19. Women's Struggle against Tradition in Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Mainus

    1994-01-01

    In rural Bangladesh, women's participation in a literacy program was opposed by Mullahs for several reasons: content encouraged decision making, monopoly of the Qur'anic schools was threatened, Mullahs' leadership and spiritual roles were potentially subverted, and it conflicted with the practice of polygamy. (SK)

  20. Strategic Intervention of ODL in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashid, A. Q. M. Bazlur; Rahman, M. Rokibur

    2010-01-01

    Education has been considered as a priority sector and a great challenge to the Bangladesh Government, with a view to transforming human potential into a productive workforce. The conventional face to face education system is not enough to cope with the need of an ever increasing population, rapid changes in human knowledge and the global context…

  1. First case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sophie, Brun; Coralie, Zumelzu; Mai Ba, Hoanganh; Annie, Levy; Dea, Garcia-Hermoso; Liliane, Laroche; Arezki, Izri

    2015-01-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a rare and chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous infection caused by black fungi and mostly reported in tropical and subtropical areas. Here we report the first case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh. Molecular biology permitted to identify Fonsecaea nubica, and the patient responded well to antifungal treatment alone. PMID:26484011

  2. Digital geologic and geophysical data of Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persits, Feliks M.; Wandrey, C.J.; Milici, R.C.; Manwar, Abdullah

    1997-01-01

    The data set for these maps includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and geophysical fields of Bangladesh. Political boundaries are provided to show the general location of administrative regions and state boundaries. Major base topographic data like cities, rivers, etc. were derived from the same paper map source as the geology.

  3. Educational Access in Bangladesh. Country Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Manzoor

    2008-01-01

    This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schooling in Bangladesh. It outlines types of educational provision and provides some basic statistics on access, vulnerability and exclusion, as well as insights into the characteristics of those denied access. It is based on findings from the "Country Analytic Review on Access…

  4. Gender Disparities in Secondary Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huq, Molla; Rahman, Pk Md. Motiur

    2008-01-01

    Enrolment and success rates are very crucial for any educational system in the world but they are more important for the developing countries like Bangladesh. Gender differences in enrolment and success rates are also emerging issues. This study investigated the enrolment and success rate's status in secondary educational system of Bangladesh…

  5. Recognizing Child Maltreatment in Bangladesh. Brief Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Naila Z.; Lynch, Margaret A.

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the range of cases of child abuse and neglect already being identified by professionals in Bangladesh. Also discusses the larger paradoxes revolving around child protection related to sociocultural practices and economic factors, including early marriage of girls, domestic child workers, and child labor in export factories. (CR)

  6. Teacher Educators' Attitude towards Computer: Perspective Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Mohammad Ataur

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how teacher educators perceive the attitude towards use of computer technology in Teachers' Training Colleges in Bangladesh. This study investigated teacher educators' computer attitudes by using the valid and reliable instruments of Loyd and Gressard's (1984) Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). The data was collected through …

  7. Speciation and Localization of Arsenic in White and Brown Rice Grains

    SciTech Connect

    Meharg, Andrew A.; Lombi, Enzo; Williams, Paul N.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea; Zhu, Yongguan; Islam, Rafiql

    2008-06-30

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) was utilized to locate arsenic (As) in polished (white) and unpolished (brown) rice grains from the United States, China, and Bangladesh. In white rice As was generally dispersed throughout the grain, the bulk of which constitutes the endosperm. In brown rice As was found to be preferentially localized at the surface, in the region corresponding to the pericarp and aleurone layer. Copper, iron, manganese, and zinc localization followed that of arsenic in brown rice, while the location for cadmium and nickel was distinctly different, showing relatively even distribution throughout the endosperm. The localization of As in the outer grain of brown rice was confirmed by laser ablation ICP?MS. Arsenic speciation of all grains using spatially resolved X-ray absorption near edge structure (?-XANES) and bulk extraction followed by anion exchange HPLC?ICP?MS revealed the presence of mainly inorganic As and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). However, the two techniques indicated different proportions of inorganic:organic As species. A wider survey of whole grain speciation of white (n = 39) and brown (n = 45) rice samples from numerous sources (field collected, supermarket survey, and pot trials) showed that brown rice had a higher proportion of inorganic arsenic present than white rice. Furthermore, the percentage of DMA present in the grain increased along with total grain arsenic.

  8. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F.; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs. PMID:25653837

  9. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs.

  10. Relationships between groundwater, surface water, and soil salinity in Polder 32, Southwest Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, D. C.; Ayers, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    In the coastal areas of Southwest Bangladesh polders are surrounded by tidal channels filled with brackish water. In the wet season, farmers create openings in the embankments to irrigate rice paddies. In the dry season, farmers do the same to create saline shrimp ponds. Residents on Polder 32, located within the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta system, practice these seasonal farming techniques. Soils in the area are entisols, being sediment recently deposited, and contain mostly silt-sized particles. Brackish water in brine shrimp ponds may deposit salt in the soil, causing soil salinization. However, saline connate groundwater could also be contributing to soil salinization. Groundwater, surface water (fresh water pond, rice paddy and tidal channel water) and soil samples have been analyzed via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy and ion chromatography in an attempt to correlate salinity measurements with each other in order to determine major sources of soil salinity. Multiple parameters, including distances of samples from tidal channels, inland streams, shrimp ponds and tube wells were measured to see if spatial correlations exist. Similarly, values from wet and dry seasons were compared to quantify temporal variations. Salt content in many soil samples were found to be high enough to significantly decrease rice yields. Continued soil salinization can decrease these yields even more, leading to farmers not producing enough food to sustain their families.

  11. Attitude towards induced abortion in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, R

    1979-01-01

    In practice the Bangladesh law, allowing abortion only to save the life of the mother, is essentially obsolete. The government has recognized the role of abortion in curing rapid population growth, and it is believed that the attitude towards abortion in Bangladesh is at least not unfavorable. The attempt was made to determine whether this belief is corroborated by the available facts. Data from the Bangladesh Fertility Survey provides a unique framework for discussion of current attitude towards and prevalence of abortion in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Fertility Survey (BFS) was conducted on a nationally representative sample of 6513 ever-married women under age 50. An overwhelming majority of Bangladeshi women (over 88%) approved of abortion if the woman had conceived as a result of rape and premarital sex. Danger to mother's life (53% approving) was a more acceptable basis for abortion than danger of a malformed child (30%). Abortion on economic grounds was acceptable to only 17% of women. Urban women held more liberal views on abortion than rural residents. Educated couples were found to be more approving of abortion than the less educated. Women with parity 4 or more viewed abortion more favorably than those with lower parity. This was more pronounced among women under the age of 30. The most conservative approval of abortion was expressed by the older women who had a parity of less than 4. Women with the most liberal views on abortion were also contracepting and relying on efficient contraceptive methods. Wider support for abortion was expressed by currently married, fecund, nonpregnant women who were currently using contraception, and this support was more pronounced among women aged 30 and older.

  12. Maternal education and child healthcare in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Huq, Mohammed Nazmul; Tasnim, Tarana

    2008-01-01

    Child health is one of the important indicators for describing mortality conditions, health progress and the overall social and economic well being of a country. During the last 15 years, although Bangladesh has achieved a significant reduction in the child mortality rate, the levels still remain very high. The utilization of qualified providers does not lead to the desired level; only a third relies on qualified providers. This study is mainly aimed at investigating the influence of maternal education on health status and the utilization of child healthcare services in Bangladesh. This study is based on the data of the Household Income Expenditure Survey (HIES) conducted by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) during 2000. The analysis of the findings reveals that 19.4% of the children under five reported sickness during 30 days prior to the survey date. Moreover, approximately one out of every thirteen children suffers from diarrhoea in the country. It is striking to note that a significant portion of the parents relied on unqualified or traditional providers for the children's healthcare because of low cost, easy accessibility and familiarity of the services. The study suggests that maternal education is a powerful and significant determinant of child health status in Bangladesh. Maternal education also positively affects the number of children receiving vaccination. In order to improve the health condition of children in Bangladesh maternal education should be given top priority. The public policies should not just focus on education alone, but also consider other factors, such as access to health facilities and quality of services. Health awareness campaign should be strengthened as part of the public health promotion efforts. More emphasis should also be given to government-NGO (Non Government Organization) partnerships that make vaccination programs successful and, thereby, reduce the incidence of preventable diseases.

  13. Calculation of the Carbon Footprint to Determine Sustainability Status: A Comparative Analysis of Some Selected Planned and Unplanned Areas of Dhaka Megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, S. M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Resource scarcity is considered to be one of the most serious issues plaguing Dhaka city. Because of the massive pressure of increasing population (15.931 million), a very unsustainable situation is waiting for this city in the upcoming future. It is inevitable to know how far this city is from being sustainable. This paper embodies the comparative analysis of the carbon footprint of four different areas in Dhaka city. It is considered as one of the most important key indicators of sustainability. It calculates the amount of biologically productive land in order to produce all the resources consumed by an individual or a particular community. This research has been conducted in both the planned and unplanned areas of this city. Among compound, component and direct method, component method was used to calculate the carbon footprint. Primary data were collected from door to door questionnaire survey. Total 371 samples were drawn from all the study areas at 95 % confidence level and 5% confidence interval. After finishing data analysis it was clear that the per capita carbon footprint of the selected study areas exceeds the per capita biocapacity of Dhaka city. And there exists a huge variation between the planned and unplanned areas of Old Dhaka and New Dhaka. Per capita carbon footprint of Gulshan & Jhigatola (part of New Dhaka) is higher than the per capita carbon footprint of Gandaria & Wari (part of Old Dhaka) that means resource stress is higher in Gulshan & Jhigatola in comparison with Gandaria & Wari because of the difference of daily consumption pattern. One of the most important findings of this study is that the per capita carbon footprint is the highest in Gulshan (1.2407 gha) among all the study areas and it is 85.56 times greater than the per capita biocapacity of Dhaka city (0.0145 gha) that means a single resident of this area needs 1.2407 gha land in order to support his/her demand on nature but only 0.0145 gha land (in an average) is available for

  14. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae diarrhea, Bangladesh, 2004.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Firdausi; Khan, Ashraful I; Faruque, Abu Syed G; Begum, Yasmin Ara; Chowdhury, Fahima; Nair, Gopinath B; Salam, Mohammed A; Sack, David A; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2005-07-01

    Flooding in Dhaka in July 2004 caused epidemics of diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was almost as prevalent as Vibrio cholerae O1 in diarrheal stools. ETEC that produced heat-stable enterotoxin alone was most prevalent, and 78% of strains had colonization factors. Like V. cholerae O1, ETEC can cause epidemic diarrhea.

  15. Determinants of rice residue burning in the field.

    PubMed

    Haider, Mohammed Ziaul

    2013-10-15

    This study determines the factors that influence rice residue burning in the field. We consider the southwest region of Bangladesh as the study site. Our results indicate that while straw length, low-elevation land, and distance of the plot from homestead positively and significantly influence the rice residue burning decision, residue price negatively and significantly influences the residue burning decision of farmers. Our study proposes subsidies for the purchase of new varieties of seeds and/or education in order to persuade farmers to move to short-straw varieties on high/medium-elevation lands as policy interventions for handling the residue burning issue. Another option might be to switch from residue burning to incorporation. Research and development efforts into shortening straw length and shortening the time period between planting and harvesting time are among other options that would mitigate the problem under consideration.

  16. Development of agribiotechnology and biosafety regulations used to assess safety of genetically modified crops in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nasiruddin, Khondoker M; Nasim, Anwar

    2007-01-01

    Bangladesh is on the verge of adopting genetically modified (GM) crops for commercial cultivation and consumption as feed and food. Most of the laboratories are engaged in tissue culture and molecular characterization on plants, whereas some have started living modified organism research with shortages of trained manpower, infrastructure, and funding. Nutritionally improved Golden Rice, biotech brinjal, and late blight-resistant potato are in contained trials in a greenhouse, and potato ring spot virus-resistant papaya is in the process of approval for a field trial. The government has taken some initiative in support of GM organism research, which include the formation of a Biotechnology Department in all institutes and the formation of the apex body, the National Task Force Committee on Biotechnology of Bangladesh under the chairpersonship of the Prime Minister. Biosafety policy guidelines and related aspects of biotechnology issues have been approved, and the laws are in the process of being promulgated. Being a party to the Cartagena Protocol, proper biosafety measures are regulated by the appropriate authority as stated. Although there are no laws made yet directly for biosafety of GM crops/foods, the relevant laws on agriculture, medicine, food, import, trade, environment, etc. may suffice and explain the situation.

  17. Contaminated Turmeric Is a Potential Source of Lead Exposure for Children in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Kelsey; Shine, James P.; Shobnam, Nadia; Rokoff, Lisa B.; Suchanda, Hafiza Sultana; Ibne Hasan, Md Omar Sharif; Mostofa, Golam; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Kile, Molly L.; Bellinger, David C.; Christiani, David C.; Wright, Robert O.; Mazumdar, Maitreyi

    2014-01-01

    Background. During the conduct of a cohort study intended to study the associations between mixed metal exposures and child health outcomes, we found that 78% of 309 children aged 20–40 months evaluated in the Munshiganj District of Bangladesh had blood lead concentrations ≥5 µg/dL and 27% had concentrations ≥10 µg/dL. Hypothesis. Environmental sources such as spices (e.g., turmeric, which has already faced recalls in Bangladesh due to high lead levels) may be a potential route of lead exposure. Methods. We conducted visits to the homes of 28 children randomly selected from among high and low blood lead concentration groups. During the visits, we administered a structured questionnaire and obtained soil, dust, rice, and spice samples. We obtained water samples from community water sources, as well as environmental samples from neighborhood businesses. Results. Lead concentrations in many turmeric samples were elevated, with lead concentrations as high as 483 ppm. Analyses showed high bioaccessibility of lead. Conclusions. Contamination of turmeric powder is a potentially important source of lead exposure in this population. PMID:25214856

  18. Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions in the Poldered Landscape of Southwest Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, C.; Hornberger, G. M.; Wilson, C.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Bangladesh is shaped by the largest and most active delta system in the world. The Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna river networks carve the low lying deltaic plains of the southern part of the country. Much of the tidal mangrove forest ecosystem of the lower delta was converted to poldered islands that sustain a Bangladesh population of 150 million though shrimp farming and rice production. These polder inhabitants lack potable water resources due to pathogen laden surface water and saline groundwater. This study examines polder groundwater-surface water interactions of fresh and saline water sources. Preliminary sampling of the polder groundwater suggests unpredictable apportioning of freshwater in the brackish aquifer. Using a broadband electromagnetic induction technique, we examine the conductivity profile of the shallow subsurface stratigraphy to identify potential rainwater recharge sites. Transects of nested piezometers, equipped with conductivity, temperature, and depth sensors, help determine the extent of tidal channel-aquifer interactions. Lithology from cores indicates that a highly variable clay cap likely regulates recharge. A better understanding of groundwater-surface water interactions will aid in the search for potable groundwater.

  19. Crab burrows as conduits for groundwater-surface water exchange in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Mason O.; Tarek, M. H.; Yeo, Darren C. J.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Harvey, Charles F.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater recharge affects water budgets and groundwater quality on the deltas and floodplains of South and Southeast Asia. Rain and flooding rivers recharge groundwater during the monsoon; irrigated rice fields and surface water bodies recharge aquifers during the dry season. Groundwater throughout the region is severely contaminated by arsenic, and recent research suggests that quantifying and characterizing recharge is important to understand whether recharge flushes or mobilizes arsenic from aquifers. At a field site in Bangladesh, we found that burrows of terrestrial crabs short-circuit low-permeability surface sediments, providing the primary conduit for recharge. We combine field observations along with a model that couples isotope and water balances to quantify the effect of crab burrows on aquifer recharge. Given the wide distribution of burrowing crabs and the surficial geology, we suggest that crab burrows provide widespread conduits for groundwater recharge.

  20. Analyses of genetic diversity of bacterial blight pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae using IS1112 in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Rashidul; Alam, Md Samiul; Khan, Ashik Iqbal; Hossain, Ismail; Adam, Lorne R; Daayf, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial blight (BB) is caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), a most destructive disease of rice, mostly in Asia, including Bangladesh. Altogether 96 isolates of Xoo were collected from 19 rice-growing districts of Bangladesh in both the rain-fed and irrigated seasons of 2014 to assess their pathotypic and genetic variation. Pathotypic analyses were carried out on a set of 12 Near Isogenic Lines (NILs) of rice containing a single resistance gene and two check varieties IR24 and TN1 by the leaf clipping inoculation method. A total of 24 pathotypes were identified based on their virulence patterns on the NILs tested. Among these, pathotypes VII, XII and XIV, considered as major, containing a maximum number of isolates (9.38% each), are frequently distributed in seven northern to mid-eastern districts of Bangladesh. The most virulent pathotype I was recorded in the Habiganj and Brahmanbaria districts. The molecular analysis of variability among the isolates was carried out through PCR analysis using multi-locus primers Jel1 and Jel2 (based on the repetitive element IS1112 in the Xoo genome). Using the genotypic data, a dendrogram was constructed with 17 clusters along with 17 molecular haplotypes at the 65% similarity index. Cluster I was composed of 46 isolates considered as major, whereas clusters X, XI, XII and XVII were represented by a single isolate. A phenogram was constructed based on virulence to interpret the relationship between the pathotypes and the molecular haplotypes. At the 50% similarity level, among 10 clusters, cluster I, considered as major, consisted of a maximum of 10 pathotypes out of 24. In case of haplotypes, a maximum of 7 haplotypes were obtained from pathotype XII, whereas pathotypes IX, X, XV, XXII and XXIV were represented by a single haplotype. However, the present study revealed that different isolates belonging to the same pathotypes belonged to different haplotypes. Conversely, genetically similar haplotypes were also

  1. An integrated framework to assess plausible future livelihood and poverty changes in deltas: an application to coastal Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lázár, A. N.; Payo, A.; Nicholls, R. J.; Hutton, C.; Adams, H.; Salehin, M.; Haque, A.; Clarke, D.; Bricheno, L.; Fernandes, J. A.; Rahman, M.; Ahmed, A.; Streatfield, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Deltas represent one of the most densely populated areas in the world. This is especially true for the coastal zone of Bangladesh where more than a thousand people live in each square kilometre of land. Livelihoods, food security and poverty in Bangladesh are strongly dependent on natural resources affected by several factors including climate variability and change, upstream river flow modifications, commercial fish catches in the Bay of Bengal, and engineering interventions such as polderisation. The scarcity of fresh water, saline water intrusion and natural disasters (e.g. river flooding, cyclones and storm surges) have negative impact on drinking water availability and crop irrigation potential; thus severely affect land use and livelihood opportunities of the coastal population. Hydro-environmental changes can be especially detrimental for the well-being of the poorest households that are highly dependent on natural resources. The ESPA Deltas project aims to holistically examine the interaction between the coupled bio-physical environment and the livelihoods of these poor populations in coastal Bangladesh. Here we describe a new integrated model that allows the long-term analysis of the possible changes in this system by linking projected changes in physical processes (e.g. river flows, nutrients), with productivity (e.g. fish, rice), social processes (e.g. access, property rights, migration) and governance/management (e.g. fisheries, agriculture, water and land use management). This integrated approach is designed to provide Bangladeshi policy makers with science-based evidence of possible development trajectories within the coastal delta plain over timescales up to 50 years, including the likely robustness of different governance options on natural resource conservation and poverty levels. This presentation describes the model framework and aims to illustrate the cause-effect relationship in-between changes of the hydro-environment and the livelihoods and

  2. Coronary artery disease in Bangladesh: A review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, A.K.M. Monwarul; Majumder, A.A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is an increasingly important medical and public health problem, and is the leading cause of mortality in Bangladesh. Like other South Asians, Bangladeshis are unduly prone to develop CAD, which is often premature in onset, follows a rapidly progressive course and angiographically more severe. The underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood. Genetic predisposition, high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and conventional risk factors play important role. Lifestyle related factors, including poor dietary habits, excess saturated and trans fat, high salt intake, and low-level physical activity may be important as well. Some novel risk factors, including hypovitaminosis D, arsenic contamination in water and food-stuff, particulate matter air pollution may play unique role. At the advent of the new millennium, we know little about our real situation. Largescale epidemiological, genetic and clinical researches are needed to explore the different aspects of CAD in Bangladesh. PMID:23993003

  3. Bangladesh: recognizing adolescents as a great resource.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    This article presents the initiatives undertaken by the government and other organizations to improve adolescent reproductive health in Bangladesh. The Health and Population Sector Programme under the 5-year Health and Population Sector Strategy (HPSS) of Bangladesh targeted married youth and soon-to-be-married adolescents. It has provided training of field workers so they can provide health services in an adolescent-friendly atmosphere. The Government has also collaborated with nongovernmental organizations and agencies that could help in the formulation of well-planned policy for adolescent health. These agencies include the UN International Children's Emergency Fund, UN Population Fund and WHO. In addition, on-going multisectoral coordination of various sectors, such as education, labor law and justice, youth and social affairs, has been developed and has contributed to the success of the Programme.

  4. Bangladesh women scientists' association honours ICDDR,B scientist.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Dr. Ayesha Molla, an ICDDR,B biochemist-nutritionist, was awarded a gold medal by the Bangladesh Women Scientists' Association and named Best Woman Scientist of the Year. She was honored for outstanding achievements in diarrhea/nutrition research especially in her classic studies on nutrient absorption during diarrhea. Her recent work has focused on the diarrhea/malnutrition mechanism in children. Her findings indicate that eating during acute diarrhea should be encouraged to reduce post-diarrhea malnutriton in vulnerable developing country children. In another study in collaboration with her husband, a pediatrician and gastroenterologist, it was found that diarrhea has a negligible effect on secretion of digestive enzymes which partially explains why significant digestion and absorption continue during diarrhea. Dr. Molla was also honored for related studies on the vitamin A/diarrhea/malnutrition mechanism. This is of immense importance in developing countries since repeated diarrheal infections in children aggravate malnutrition and lead to vitamin A deficiency blindness. Most blindness seems to be associated with or preceded by recurrent diarrheal infections. Dr. Molla found that water-soluble vitamin A administrated orally was associated with rapid improvement of deteriorating eye conditions. A brief outline of her background is given and her current work discussed. She is presently involved in seeking the best possible diet for children suffering from severe protein energy malnutrition (PEM). This problem results in coincident lack of varying proportions of protein and energy. Dr. Molla is attempting to determine the fastest, most tolerable, low cost, readily available and culturally acceptable diet. Maternal training in feeding practices will be provided. In collaboration with her husband, Dr. Molla is also studying the 2nd generation Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS). They are working to substitute rice or other staples for the traditional sugar in ORS.

  5. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Bangladesh

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    worked on six drilling locations resulting in the discovery in English 10 Jul 91 p 5 of three gasfields at Begumganj, Feni and Kamta. Now, Bangladesh...hopes to receive Soviet assistance on grant, [Article by M. Liaquat Ali Khan, assistant director of the turn-key or soft loan basis for drilling two more...international and bilateral relations where for drilling . The earlier agreement was renewed in March their views will be close and complementary. There

  6. Phenotypic screening and molecular analysis of blast resistance in fragrant rice for marker assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Ashik Iqbal; Sen, Partha Pratim; Bhuiyan, Rejwan; Kabir, Enamul; Chowdhury, Abul Kashem; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Ali, Ansar; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2014-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to identify blast-resistant fragrant genotypes for the development of a durable blast-resistant rice variety during years 2012-2013. The results indicate that out of 140 test materials including 114 fragrant germplasms, 25 differential varieties (DVs) harbouring 23 blast-resistant genes, only 16 fragrant rice germplasms showed comparatively better performance against a virulent isolate of blast disease. The reaction pattern of single-spore isolate of Magnaporthe oryzae to differential varieties showed that Pish, Pi9, Pita-2 and Pita are the effective blast-resistant genes against the tested blast isolates in Bangladesh. The DNA markers profiles of selected 16 rice germplasms indicated that genotype Chinigura contained Pish, Pi9 and Pita genes; on the other hand, both BRRI dhan50 and Bawaibhog contained Pish and Pita genes in their genetic background. Genotypes Jirakatari, BR5, and Gopalbhog possessed Pish gene, while Uknimodhu, Deshikatari, Radhunipagol, Kalijira (3), Chinikanai each contained the Pita gene only. There are some materials that did not contain any target gene(s) in their genetic background, but proved resistant in pathogenicity tests. This information provided valuable genetic information for breeders to develop durable blast-resistant fragrant or aromatic rice varieties in Bangladesh.

  7. PREDICTIVE MODELING OF CHOLERA OUTBREAKS IN BANGLADESH

    PubMed Central

    Koepke, Amanda A.; Longini, Ira M.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Wakefield, Jon; Minin, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    Despite seasonal cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh, little is known about the relationship between environmental conditions and cholera cases. We seek to develop a predictive model for cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh based on environmental predictors. To do this, we estimate the contribution of environmental variables, such as water depth and water temperature, to cholera outbreaks in the context of a disease transmission model. We implement a method which simultaneously accounts for disease dynamics and environmental variables in a Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SIRS) model. The entire system is treated as a continuous-time hidden Markov model, where the hidden Markov states are the numbers of people who are susceptible, infected, or recovered at each time point, and the observed states are the numbers of cholera cases reported. We use a Bayesian framework to fit this hidden SIRS model, implementing particle Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to sample from the posterior distribution of the environmental and transmission parameters given the observed data. We test this method using both simulation and data from Mathbaria, Bangladesh. Parameter estimates are used to make short-term predictions that capture the formation and decline of epidemic peaks. We demonstrate that our model can successfully predict an increase in the number of infected individuals in the population weeks before the observed number of cholera cases increases, which could allow for early notification of an epidemic and timely allocation of resources. PMID:27746850

  8. Bangladesh: giving girls the "key of keys".

    PubMed

    Chhabra, R

    1998-01-01

    In Bangladesh, 100 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have worked with the government to create approximately 52,000 nonformal schools for children who have never attended school or have dropped out. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) alone has 34,000 nonformal education centers. The BRAC program has been particularly effective at increasing educational opportunities for girls, and BRAC is a major implementing agency of the agreement forged by the International Labor Organization and the UN Children's Fund with the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers Export Association, which gives about 10,000 former child garment workers a meager stipend allowing them to study instead of work. BRAC, the Grameen Bank, and several other NGOs are also developing alternative income-generating methods to compete with the exploitative working conditions suffered by impoverished girls. BRAC now has more than a million students enrolled each year, 700,000 of whom are girls. Students participate in special condensed courses in classes that average 33 pupils (20 must be girls). Gender sensitivity is incorporated at every level. BRAC also relies on community participation in running the schools, and the flexible hours and imaginative curriculum have resulted in very high attendance rates. Government actions (making primary education compulsory and tripling education expenditure) have also resulted in increased primary enrollment while special programs seek to increase the number of girls in secondary schools.

  9. Floods in Bangladesh and Northeast India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the past month heavy monsoon rains have led to massive flooding in eastern India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, which have killed over 500 people and left millions homeless. This false-color image acquired on August 5, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft shows the extent of this flooding. In the upper right-hand corner of the image, the swollen Brahmaputra River runs east to west through the Indian state of Assam. Normally, the river and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines. Moving to the upper left-hand corner, flooding can be seen along the Ganges River in the state of Bihar, India. Both of these rivers flow into Bangladesh along with many others from India and Nepal. Heavy monsoon rains from all across the region have inundated the small country with water this year. Floodwaters have all but covered northeastern Bangladesh, which is usually dry. The Jamuna River, which runs down the center of the country off of the Brahmaputra River, now resembles a narrow lake. Millions of dollars in crops have been destroyed and thousands have been left stranded in their villages or on rafts. Forecasters are warning that flooding could get worse. In the false-color image, land is green, and water is black and dark brown. Clouds appear pink, red and white. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  10. Rainfall variability and seasonality in northern Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul; Husna, Noor-E.-Ashmaul

    2016-05-01

    This paper aimed at the analysis of rainfall seasonality and variability for the northern part of South-Asian country, Bangladesh. The coefficient of variability was used to determine the variability of rainfall. While rainfall seasonality index (SI ) and mean individual seasonality index ( overline{SI_i} ) were used to identify seasonal contrast. We also applied Mann-Kendall trend test and sequential Mann-Kendall test to determine the trend in seasonality. The lowest variability was found for monsoon among the four seasons whereas winter has the highest variability. Observed variability has a decreasing tendency from the northwest region towards the northeast region. The mean individual seasonality index (0.815378 to 0.977228) indicates that rainfall in Bangladesh is "markedly seasonal with a long dry season." It was found that the length of the dry period is lower at the northeastern part of northern Bangladesh. Trend analysis results show no significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in this region. Regression analysis of overline{SI_i} and SI, and longitude and mean individual seasonality index show a significant linear correlation for this area.

  11. Influence of cooking method on arsenic retention in cooked rice related to dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H; Rahman, M Arifur; Rahman, M Mahfuzur; Miah, M A Majid

    2006-10-15

    Arsenic concentration in raw rice is not only the determinant in actual dietary exposure. Though there have been many reports on arsenic content in raw rice and different tissues of rice plant, little is known about arsenic content retained in cooked rice after being cooked following the traditional cooking methods employed by the people of arsenic epidemic areas. A field level experiment was conducted in Bangladesh to investigate the influence of cooking methods on arsenic retention in cooked rice. Rice samples were collected directly from a severely arsenic affected area and also from an unaffected area, to compare the results. Rice was cooked according to the traditional methods employed by the population of subjected areas. Arsenic concentrations were 0.40+/-0.03 and 0.58+/-0.12 mg/kg in parboiled rice of arsenic affected area, cooked with excess water and 1.35+/-0.04 and 1.59+/-0.07 mg/kg in gruel for BRRI dhan28 and BRRI hybrid dhan1, respectively. In non-parboiled rice, arsenic concentrations were 0.39+/-0.04 and 0.44+/-0.03 mg/kg in rice cooked with excess water and 1.62+/-0.07 and 1.74+/-0.05 mg/kg in gruel for BRRI dhan28 and BRRI hybrid dhan1, respectively. Total arsenic content in rice, cooked with limited water (therefore gruel was absorbed completely by rice) were 0.89+/-0.07 and 1.08+/-0.06 mg/kg (parboiled) and 0.75+/-0.04 and 1.09+/-0.06 mg/kg (non-parboiled) for BRRI dhan28 and BRRI hybrid dhan1, respectively. Water used for cooking rice contained 0.13 and 0.01 mg of As/l for contaminated and non-contaminated areas, respectively. Arsenic concentrations in cooked parboiled and non-parboiled rice and gruel of non-contaminated area were significantly lower (p<0.01) than that of contaminated area. The results imply that cooking of arsenic contaminated rice with arsenic contaminated water increases its concentration in cooked rice.

  12. Bangladesh to prepare for rise in gas demand

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Bangladesh is moving to expand its natural gas infrastructure in response to rising domestic demand. This paper reports that Bangladesh natural gas demand is expected to rise to 700-850 MMcfd in the next few years from the current level of about 500 MMcfd, the Prime Minister Khaleda Zia.

  13. Engineering Education in Bangladesh--An Indicator of Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Harun; Alam, Firoz

    2012-01-01

    Developing nations including Bangladesh are significantly lagging behind the millennium development target due to the lack of science, technology and engineering education. Bangladesh as a least developing country has only 44 engineers per million people. Its technological education and gross domestic product growth are not collinear. Although…

  14. Children's Access to Pre-School Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Samir Ranjan; Sylva, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Using the "Education Watch" household survey database, this paper explores children's access to pre-school education in Bangladesh. Participation in pre-school education has been increasing in Bangladesh at the rate of 0.6% per year and the net enrolment rate was found to be 13.4% in 2005. Enrolment of over-aged children in pre-school…

  15. Young Adults' Linguistic Manipulation of English in Bangla in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Shaila

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed in the print media that bilingual young adults in Bangladesh are subjugated by the colonial legacy of English and they are "polluting" Bangla, the national language of Bangladesh, by their indiscriminate insertion of English in it. However, this ethnographic study on a group of young adults in a university in…

  16. Rayada specialty: the forgotten resource of elite features of rice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Crop domestication and thereafter gradual selection or directional breeding have narrowed the genetic diversity of elite varieties and even promoted gathering of deleterious mutations in their stress response mechanisms, whereas local ecotypes, landraces and wild relatives still growing on native environment and preferences keep the genetic diversities for features like stress tolerance. Rayada is such an exceptional ecotype, variant of typical deepwater rice, completely endemic to certain areas of Madhumati river tracts of Bangladesh and still shares some features of wild rices. Multiple physiological features of Rayadas are distinctly different from typical deepwater rice. Tolerance to prolonged flood, submergence and cold are special features along with strong photoperiod sensitivity and lack of dormancy. Moreover, longer root system and prompt recovery capacity make it as an elite resource of stress tolerance. However, it has long been neglected because of mainly its long life cycle and poor yield. This review examines the specialty of Rayada rice and the potential use of its unique traits. PMID:24359642

  17. Maternal and foetal outcome of 206 high risk pregnancy cases in border guard hospital, dhaka.

    PubMed

    Shapla, N R; Islam, M A; Shahida, S M; Parveen, Z; Lipe, Y S

    2015-04-01

    This observational study was carried out to identify the various types of high risk pregnancy and to determine the maternal and foetal outcome. The study was carried out on 206 pregnant high risk women in the Gynecology and Obstetrics department of Border Guard Hospital, Dhaka from January 2012 to December 2012. During mentioned period among 598 pregnant women 206 high risk pregnancy cases were randomly selected. Pregnant women (gestational age from 34 weeks upto 40 weeks) having medical condition and pregnancy related high risk factors were included and uncomplicated pregnancy, pregnancy before 37 weeks, post dated pregnancy were excluded from this study. Data was collected from semi structured history sheet and data analysis done by percentage. High risk pregnant women were grouped into three. Group A and Group B includes pregnant women having medical condition before and during pregnancy respectively. Group C consists of pregnant women had pregnancy related high risk issues. Among 206 high risk pregnancy cases majority 47.57% women had medical condition during pregnancy, 31.55% patient had medical condition before pregnancy. Among them majority 30.58% of the patient suffered from pregnancy induced hypertension, 15.04% patients suffered from gestational Diabetes Mellitus and premature rupture of membranes were 12.13%. In this study majority 43.68% of high risk pregnant patients were in age group of 30-35 years, 19.90% pregnant women were in age group of >35 years and 19.40% were in age group of upto 20 years. Among study groups maximum 65.04% of the patients were multiparous. Among 206 study population 60.19% high risk pregnant women were at term at the time of delivery and 39.8% women delivered their babies preterm. Caesarean section was done in 69.41% of high risk pregnant women. After delivery majority 77.66% women had no complication, only 10.19%, 8.25%, 2.91% and 0.97% high risk pregnant women suffered from fever, UTI, abdominal wound infection and post

  18. Climate change impacts on future flooding in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, M.

    2003-04-01

    Bangladesh is located at the tail end of the three large river systems- the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna. About 92.5% of the basin area is located outside of its boundary. The country is frequently devastated by floods and can engulf up to 70% of the country. Economic damage could be as high as 10% of the GDP. Cross border and local precipitation plays a major role in generating floods in Bangladesh. However, precipitation over some cross border areas is really crucial for the flooding process. Any change in precipitation regime in those areas in future may aggravate flooding in Bangladesh. In this paper future flooding situation in Bangladesh has been assessed in a three-step procedure. First, stepwise regression method was applied to identify climatologically important regions those contribute to flooding. Second, precipitation scenarios were constructed. Third, the scenarios were applied in the regression models to determine future flood discharges in the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers in Bangladesh.

  19. Indoor exposure to particulate matter and age at first acute lower respiratory infection in a low-income urban community in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Gurley, Emily S; Salje, Henrik; Homaira, Nusrat; Ram, Pavani K; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A; Bresee, Joseph; Moss, William J; Luby, Stephen P; Breysse, Patrick; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2014-04-15

    The timing of a child's first acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) is important, because the younger a child is when he or she experiences ALRI, the greater the risk of death. Indoor exposure to particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) has been associated with increased frequency of ALRI, but little is known about how it may affect the timing of a child's first ALRI. In this study, we aimed to estimate the association between a child's age at first ALRI and indoor exposure to PM2.5 in a low-income community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We followed 257 children from birth through age 2 years to record their age at first ALRI. Between May 2009 and April 2010, we also measured indoor concentrations of PM2.5 in children's homes. We used generalized gamma distribution models to estimate the relative age at first ALRI associated with the mean number of hours in which PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 100 µg/m(3). Each hour in which PM2.5 levels exceeded 100 µg/m(3) was independently associated with a 12% decrease (95% confidence interval: 2, 21; P = 0.021) in age at first ALRI. Interventions to reduce indoor exposure to PM2.5 could increase the ages at which children experience their first ALRI in this urban community.

  20. Association between infant- and child-feeding index and nutritional status: results from a cross-sectional study among children attending an urban hospital in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Tahmina; Mollah, Md Abid Hossain; Choudhury, Ahmed Murtaza; Islam, M Munirul; Rahman, Kazi Mizanur

    2011-08-01

    Integration of infant- and child-feeding index (ICFI) addressing the multidimensional child-feeding practices into one age-specific summary index is gaining importance. This cross-sectional study was aimed at understanding the association between the ICFI and the nutritional status of 259 children, aged 6-23 months, who attended the paediatric outpatient department of the Dhaka Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh. The mean length-for-age z-score (LAZ) of children aged 12-23 months was significantly (p < 0.05) higher among those who were at the upper ICFI tercile compared to those who were at the middle or lower ICFI tercile (-2.01 and -3.20 respectively). A significant correlation was found between the ICFI and the LAZ (r = 0.24, p = 0.01 and r = 0.29, p = 0.01) in children aged 6-8-months and 12-23-months. Multivariable analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, also found a significant association between the ICFI and the LAZ (beta = 0.13, p = 0.03). The predictive capability of the proposed ICFI on nutritional status of children, especially length-for-age, needs to be further evaluated prospectively among healthy children in the community.

  1. Can a woman refuse sex if her husband has a sexually transmitted infection? Attitudes toward safer-sex negotiation among married women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Cready, Cynthia M

    2014-06-01

    In developing countries, HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy take an enormous toll on women's reproductive health, yet preventive programmes are lacking as married women's risks are frequently underestimated. We examined predictors of married Bangladeshi women's attitudes towards safer-sex negotiation using data on 15,178 currently married women aged 15-49 from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. Approximately 92% of women believed that a wife's refusal to have sex with her husband is justified if he has an STI. Multilevel logistic regression analysis revealed that the likelihood of a woman holding this belief increased with her autonomy, as measured by the ability to go to a health centre/hospital without another adult, participation in household decision making and rejection of wife beating (p < 0.001). Other significant predictors were knowledge/awareness of STIs (p < 0.05), living in Dhaka division (p < 0.001) and younger age (p < 0.01). Our findings suggest that sexual health education programmes may be more effective if they include strategies to address social norms and cultural practices that limit women's autonomy in society.

  2. New Horizons: Higher Education Academic Link between King Alfred's College, Winchester and the Universities of Dhaka and Khulna, Bangledesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentki, Tim

    2000-01-01

    Explains the Higher Education Academic link, which promotes Theatre for Development in both the university and non-governmental organization sectors in Bangladesh. Highlights some of the most important and innovative issues which emerged from the link. Describes activities in the university sector which engaged students in practical workshops…

  3. Research in rice fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Between 1987 and 1999, 2.4-3 million acres of rice were planted annually nationwide. Rice fields are a major component of the contemporary landscapes in the Gulf Coastal Plain, the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, and Central Valley of California. In 1998, approximately 600,000 acres of rice were planted in Louisiana. In the Louisiana plant commodities report for 1998, total value for rice was over $350 million; sugarcane was the only plant commodity that exceeded this value. Louisiana has over 2,000 rice farmers supporting over 12,000 jobs in the state. Rice fields in the United States receive high use by wildlife, especially shorebirds, wading birds, and waterfowl. Waterbirds use rice fields for food, shelter, and breeding habitat.

  4. Analysis of human rotavirus strains prevailing in Bangladesh in relation to nationwide floods brought by the 1988 monsoon.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M U; Urasawa, S; Taniguchi, K; Urasawa, T; Kobayashi, N; Wakasugi, F; Islam, A I; Sahikh, H A

    1991-10-01

    The virologic character of human rotavirus strains prevailing in Bangladesh was investigated in relation to the devastating nationwide floods brought by the 1988 monsoon. Human rotaviruses contained in stool specimens that were collected from inpatients with infantile and adult diarrhea in two hospitals in Mymensingh over a 13-month period (January 1988 to January 1989) and in one hospital in Dhaka over a 3-month period (February to April 1988) were examined for their subgroup, VP7 serotype, and RNA electropherotype. In concurrence with the spread of the flood (from the middle of August 1988), the number of infantile and adult diarrhea patients increased greatly. At the same time, the proportion of rotavirus-positive specimens in all diarrhea cases also increased remarkably, reaching 54 and 45% in September and October, respectively. An electrophoretic analysis of viral RNA revealed 17 distinct patterns of viral RNA (14 long and 3 short electropherotypes) and a considerable number of mixed electropherotypes, suggesting the simultaneous infection of some patients with more than two rotavirus strains. It was noteworthy that electropherotypes of rotavirus strains prevailing in the community changed considerably after the spreading of the flood and that the frequency of virus specimens showing mixed electropherotypes increased significantly during the flood period. These results suggest that sudden environmental change caused by the devastating floods seriously affected the epidemiology of rotavirus infections by increasing the opportunity of transmission of the virus and by reducing the resistance of the host to infection. In both pediatric and adult patient groups, serotypes 1 and 2 were the most frequent ones detected, followed by serotype 4.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Point of care HIV testing with oral fluid among returnee migrants in a rural area of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Md Shah; Khan, Sharful I.; Reza, Masud; Shahriar, Ahmed; Sarker, Md Safiullah; Rahman, Anisur; Rahman, Mustafizur; Azim, Tasnim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine HIV prevalence and assess the acceptability of HIV testing using oral fluid as a point of care (PoC) test method among returnee migrants in a rural area of Bangladesh. Design A cross-sectional study. Methods Matlab is a rural area southeast of Dhaka where icddr,b hosts a health and demographic surveillance system covering 225 826 people of whom 934 are returnee migrants. The sample size of 304 was proportionately distributed among randomly selected households. HIV antibodies in oral fluid were tested using OraQuick Rapid HIV 1/2 antibody test. To understand reasons of acceptability a short questionnaire was applied and 32 in-depth interviews were conducted. Results Of 304 returnee migrants approached, 97.4% accepted the test. The prevalence of HIV was 0.3% without a confirmatory blood test. Reasons for acceptance included easy accessibility of the test at the door-step which saved resources (i.e., time and money), comfortable test-procedure without any pain and fear, and receiving quick results with confidentiality. Some described knowing HIV status as a way to ‘get certified’ (of sexual fidelity) and to confront a prevailing silent stigma against migrants. Acceptability was moreover found to be grounded in icddr,b's institutional reputation and its close relationship with the local community. Conclusions The PoC oral fluid test for HIV has shown for the first time that assessment of HIV prevalence in rural-based returnee migrants is possible. Findings also suggest that PoC oral fluid test has the potential of increasing accessibility to HIV testing as it was found to be highly acceptable. PMID:26945144

  6. A high performance neutron powder diffractometer at 3 MW Triga Mark-II research reactor in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, I.; Yunus, S. M.; Datta, T. K.; Zakaria, A. K. M.; Das, A. K.; Aktar, S.; Hossain, S.; Berliner, R.; Yelon, W. B.

    2016-07-01

    A high performance neutron diffractometer called Savar Neutron Diffractometer (SAND) was built and installed at radial beam port-2 of TRIGA Mark II research reactor at AERE, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Structural studies of materials are being done by this technique to characterize materials crystallograpohically and magnetically. The micro-structural information obtainable by neutron scattering method is very essential for determining its technological applications. This technique is unique for understanding the magnetic behavior in magnetic materials. Ceramic, steel, electronic and electric industries can be benefited from this facility for improving their products and fabrication process. This instrument consists of a Popovicimonochromator with a large linear position sensitive detector array. The monochromator consists of nine blades of perfect single crystal of silicon with 6mm thickness each. The monochromator design was optimized to provide maximum flux on 3mm diameter cylindrical sample with a relatively flat angular dependence of resolution. Five different wave lengths can be selected by orienting the crystal at various angles. A sapphire filter was used before the primary collimator to minimize the first neutron. The detector assembly is composed of 15 linear position sensitive proportional counters placed at either 1.1 m or 1.6 m from the sample position and enclosed in a air pad supported high density polythene shield. Position sensing is obtained by charge division using 1-wide NIM position encoding modules (PEM). The PEMs communicate with the host computer via USB. The detector when placed at 1.1 m, subtends 30˚ (2θ) at each step and covers 120˚ in 4 steps. When the detector is placed at 1.6 m it subtends 20˚ at each step and covers 120˚ in 6 steps. The instrument supports both low and high temperature sample environment. The instrument supports both low and high temperature sample environment. The diffractometer is a state-of-the art technology

  7. Building Social Networks for Maternal and Newborn Health in Poor Urban Settlements: A Cross-Sectional Study in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Alayne M.; Nababan, Herfina Y.; Hanifi, S. M. Manzoor Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Background The beneficial influence of social networks on health and wellbeing is well-established. In poor urban settlements in Bangladesh, BRAC’s Manoshi programme trains community health workers (CHWs) to support women through pregnancy, delivery and postpartum periods. This paper test the hypothesis that the introduction of CHWs as weak ties into the social networks of Manoshi members mediates improvements in maternal and neonatal health (MNH) best practices by providing support, facilitating ideational change, connecting mother to resources, and strengthening or countering the influence of strong ties. Methods 1000 women who had given birth in the last three months were identified and interviewed as part of ongoing monitoring of 5 poor urban settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A social networks questionnaire was administered which elicited women’s perceived networks around pregnancy, delivery and post-partum periods. Mediation analysis was performed to test the hypothesis that penetration of Manoshi CHWs into women’s perceived networks has a beneficial effect on MNH best practises. Results The presence and influence of Manoshi CHWs in women’s networks significantly mediated the effect of Manoshi membership on MNH best practices. Respondents who were Manoshi members and who listed Manoshi CHWs as part of their support networks were significantly more likely to deliver with a trained birth attendant (OR 3.61; 95%CI 2.36–5.51), to use postnatal care (OR 3.09; 95%CI 1.83–5.22), and to give colostrum to their newborn (OR 7.51; 95%CI 3.51–16.05). Conclusion Manoshi has succeeded in penetrating the perceived pregnancy, delivery and post-partum networks of poor urban women through the introduction of trained CHWs. Study findings demonstrate the benefits of moving beyond urban health care delivery models that concentrate on the provision of clinical services by medical providers, to an approach that nurtures the power of social networks as a means to

  8. GPS Velocity Field in Bangladesh: Delta Subsidence, Seasonal Water Loading and Shortening Across the Burma Accretionary Prism and Shillong Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckler, M. S.; Mondal, D. R.; Nooner, S. L.; Akhter, S. H.; Seeber, L.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Sazedul Karim, C.; Howe, M.; Masson, F.; Maurin, T.; Rangin, C.

    2013-12-01

    accretionary prism indicate E-W shortening at ~17 mm/y and N-S dextral shear at ~45 mm/y. Most of the shear occurs on the Sagaing Fault in Myanmar and the Churachandpur-Mao Fault in India, with only ~5 mm/y in Bangladesh. The shortening is consistent with elastic deformation above a locked, shallowly dipping megathrust. A small amount of the shortening could be accommodated by a backthrust on the eastern side of the Indo-Burman Ranges. Despite uncertainties from merging the Indian and Bangladeshi GPS surveys, the Shillong Massif is consistent with elastic deformation above a locked blind thrust fault dipping at ~30° at 7-8 mm/y. The seasonal signal of up to 5-6 cm is due to elastic deformation from the weight of >100GT water impounded during the monsoon. Most of the delta yields a Young's modulus (E) of ~80 GPa, however the two stations landward of the hinge zone yield larger values indicative of cratonic lithosphere. Long-term subsidence of NW Bangladesh landward of the hinge zone marking the edge of the Indian craton is <1 mm/y. The Sylhet Basin, the foredeep of Dauki-Shillong thrust-anticline is sinking at 7-12 mm/y, while the coastal belt subsides at 3-7 mm/y. Dhaka subsides at 12 mm/y due to groundwater pumping. The foldbelt shows variable uplift and subsidence congruent with the structural position of the GPS sites.

  9. Calibration of a new experimental chamber for PIXE analysis at the Accelerator Facilities Division of Atomic Energy Centre Dhaka (AECD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Md. Taufique; Shariff, Md. Asad; Hossein, Amzad; Abedin, Md. Joynal; Fazlul Hoque, A. K. M.; Chowdhuri, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    A new experimental chamber has been installed at the 3 MV Van de Graaff Accelerator Facilities Division in the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka, to perform different Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques. The calibration of this new setup for Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique has been done using a set of thin MicroMatter standards and GUPIX (PIXE spectrum analysis software), which is explicated in this paper. The effective thicknesses of the beryllium window of the X-ray detector and of the different absorbers used were determined. For standardization, the so called instrumental constant H (product of detector solid angle and the correction factor for the setup) as function of X-ray energy were determined and stored inside the GUPIX library for further PIXE analysis.

  10. Harnessing pluralism for better health in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Evans, Timothy G; Standing, Hilary; Mahmud, Simeen

    2013-11-23

    How do we explain the paradox that Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in health and human development, yet its achievements have taken place within a health system that is frequently characterised as weak, in terms of inadequate physical and human infrastructure and logistics, and low performing? We argue that the development of a highly pluralistic health system environment, defined by the participation of a multiplicity of different stakeholders and agents and by ad hoc, diffused forms of management has contributed to these outcomes by creating conditions for rapid change. We use a combination of data from official sources, research studies, case studies of specific innovations, and in-depth knowledge from our own long-term engagement with health sector issues in Bangladesh to lay out a conceptual framework for understanding pluralism and its outcomes. Although we argue that pluralism has had positive effects in terms of stimulating change and innovation, we also note its association with poor health systems governance and regulation, resulting in endemic problems such as overuse and misuse of drugs. Pluralism therefore requires active management that acknowledges and works with its polycentric nature. We identify four key areas where this management is needed: participatory governance, accountability and regulation, information systems, and capacity development. This approach challenges some mainstream frameworks for managing health systems, such as the building blocks approach of the WHO Health Systems Framework. However, as pluralism increasingly defines the nature and the challenge of 21st century health systems, the experience of Bangladesh is relevant to many countries across the world.

  11. A Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Dipen; Mridha, Shahjahan; Afroz, Maqsuda

    2015-08-01

    In its strategic planning for the "Astronomy for Development Project," the International Astronomical Union (IAU) has ecognized, among other important missions, the role of astronomy in understanding the far-reaching possibilities for promoting global tolerance and citizenship. Furthermore, astronomy is deemed inspirational for careers in science and technology. The "Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh"--the first of its kind in the country--aspires to fulfill these missions. As Bangladesh lacks resources to promote astronomy education in universities and schools, the role of disseminating astronomy education to the greater community falls on citizen science organizations. One such group, Anushandhitshu Chokro (AChokro) Science Organization, has been carrying out a successful public outreach program since 1975. Among its documented public events, AChokro organized a total solar eclipse campaign in Bangladesh in 2009, at which 15,000 people were assembled in a single open venue for the eclipse observation. The organization has actively pursued astronomy outreach to dispel public misconceptions about astronomical phenomena and to promote science. AChokro is currently working to build an observatory and Science Outreach Center around a recently-acquired 14-inch Scmidt-Cassegrain telescope and a soon-to-be-acquired new 16-inch reflector, all funded by private donations. The telescopes will be fitted with photometers, spectrometers, and digital and CCD cameras to pursue observations that would include sun spot and solar magnetic fields, planetary surfaces, asteroid search, variable stars and supernovae. The Center will be integrated with schools, colleges, and community groups for regular observation and small-scale research. Special educational and observing sessions for adults will also be organized. Updates on the development of the Center, which is expected to be functioning by the end of 2015, will be shared and feedback invited on the fostering of

  12. Resistance Pattern and Molecular Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Strains Isolated in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Yasmin A.; Talukder, K. A.; Azmi, Ishrat J.; Shahnaij, Mohammad; Sheikh, A.; Sharmin, Salma; Svennerholm, A.-M.; Qadri, Firdausi

    2016-01-01

    Background Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common cause of bacterial infection leading to acute watery diarrhea in infants and young children as well as in travellers to ETEC endemic countries. Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent nowadays used for the treatment of diarrhea. This study aimed to characterize ciprofloxacin resistant ETEC strains isolated from diarrheal patients in Bangladesh. Methods A total of 8580 stool specimens from diarrheal patients attending the icddr,b Dhaka hospital was screened for ETEC between 2005 and 2009. PCR and Ganglioside GM1- Enzyme Linked Immuno sorbent Assay (ELISA) was used for detection of Heat labile (LT) and Heat stable (ST) toxins of ETEC. Antimicrobial susceptibilities for commonly used antibiotics and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin were examined. DNA sequencing of representative ciprofloxacin resistant strains was performed to analyze mutations of the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE. PCR was used for the detection of qnr, a plasmid mediated ciprofloxacin resistance gene. Clonal variations among ciprofloxacin resistant (CipR) and ciprofloxacin susceptible (CipS) strains were determined by Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results Among 1067 (12%) ETEC isolates identified, 42% produced LT/ST, 28% ST and 30% LT alone. Forty nine percent (n = 523) of the ETEC strains expressed one or more of the 13 tested colonization factors (CFs) as determined by dot blot immunoassay. Antibiotic resistance of the ETEC strains was observed as follows: ampicillin 66%, azithromycin 27%, ciprofloxacin 27%, ceftriazone 13%, cotrimaxazole 46%, doxycycline 44%, erythromycin 96%, nalidixic acid 83%, norfloxacin 27%, streptomycin 48% and tetracycline 42%. Resistance to ciprofloxacin increased from 13% in 2005 to 34% in 2009. None of the strains was resistant to mecillinam. The MIC of the nalidixic acid and

  13. Breastfeeding in infancy: identifying the program-relevant issues in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh, many programs and projects have been promoting breastfeeding since the late 1980 s. Breastfeeding practices, however, have not improved accordingly. Methods For identifying program-relevant issues to improve breastfeeding in infancy, quantitative data were collected through visits to households (n = 356) in rural Chittagong and urban slums in Dhaka, and qualitative data from sub-samples by applying semi-structured in-depth interviews (n = 42), focus group discussions (n = 28), and opportunistic observations (n = 21). Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) (n = 26) were conducted in the above sites and rural Sylhet to determine how best to design further interventions. Our analysis focused on five breastfeeding practices recommended by the World Health Organization: putting baby to the breast within the first hour of birth, feeding colostrum and not giving fluids, food or other substances in the first days of life, breastfeeding on demand, not feeding anything by bottle, and exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months. Results The biggest gaps were found to be in putting baby to the breast within the first hour of birth (76% gap), feeding colostrum and not giving other fluids, foods or substances within the first three days (54% gap), and exclusive breastfeeding from birth through 180 days (90% gap). Lack of knowledge about dangers of delaying initiation beyond the first hour and giving other fluids, foods or substances, and the common perception of "insufficient milk" were main reasons given by mothers for these practices. Health workers had talked to only 8% of mothers about infant feeding during antenatal and immunization visits, and to 34% of mothers during sick child visits. The major providers of infant feeding information were grandmothers (28%). Conclusions The findings showed that huge gaps continue to exist in breastfeeding behaviors, mostly due to lack of awareness as to why the recommended breastfeeding practices are

  14. Behavioral risk factors for STD/HIV transmission in Bangladesh's trucking industry.

    PubMed

    Gibney, Laura; Saquib, Nazmus; Metzger, Jesse

    2003-04-01

    To examine behaviors that could influence STD/HIV transmission in Bangladesh's trucking industry, a survey was orally administered to 388 truck drivers/helpers at Tejgaon truck stand in Dhaka. A two-tiered sampling strategy was used: 38 trucking agencies were randomly selected and a mean of 10.2 subjects was recruited from each agency. Focus group and in-depth interviews were also conducted. The focus was on behaviors that affect (i) exposure to STD/HIV infection, (ii) efficiency of transmission of infection and (iii) duration of infectiousness. The findings illustrated that intravenous drug use was not an important risk factor; only 1 subject had used drugs intravenously. Sexual risk behaviors, however, were prevalent: the mean number of sexual partners in the past year was 4.57 (SD=8.70) and in the past 3 months was 1.82 (SD=3.27). Premarital and extramarital sex was common, often with commercial sex workers (CSW); 54% of all subjects had relations with at least 1 CSW in the past year. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, subjects who engaged in other types of socially risky behavior (drinking alcohol, ingesting or smoking recreational drugs, having sex with other men) were significantly (p<0.05) more likely to have had sex with a CSW in the past year. While 7.2% of subjects had a male sex partner in the past year, 21% had ever had one (likely youthful experimentation for most). Condom use was very infrequent: of the 343 subjects who had ever had sexual intercourse only 31% had ever used a condom and most of those subjects had used only once or occasionally. Having sex with CSWs, being married, having heard of AIDS and age were significantly associated (p<0.05) with ever use of condoms. Frequently, subjects who had genital symptoms either did not have those symptoms treated at all or treated in a timely fashion, and over 1/3 did not change their sexual behavior while infected. To reduce the potential for the spread of STD/HIV in this population

  15. Cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties; impacted by rice temperature during milling.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois

    2015-03-01

    Rice milling plays a key factor in determining rice quality and value. Therefore accurate quality assessments are critical to the rice industry. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of exposing rice to elevated temperatures during milling, on cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties. Two long (Cybonnett and Francis) and one medium (Jupiter) rice (oryzae sativa L.) cultivars were milled using McGill laboratory mill for 30 and 40 s after warmed up the mill before milling. Four different milling temperatures per milling duration were achieved. Cooked rice texture properties were assessed using a uniaxial compression test and rice flour pasting properties measured using a TA-2000 rheometer. Results of this study showed that exposure of rice to high temperatures during milling significantly decreased cooked rice firmness. An increase in milled rice temperature after milling from 10.0 to 13.3 °C resulted in a 5.4 and 8.1 N decrease in cooked rice firmness. Although not always significant, the increase in milled rice temperature during milling resulted in an increase in cooked rice stickiness. The increase in milling temperature also showed significant increase in rice flour pasting properties. Changes in rice functional characteristics were attributed to the changes occurring to rice chemical constituents due to temperature exposure as indicated by the increase in rice protein hydrophobicity. Proteins are known to affect rice starch water holding capacity and other starch gelatinization properties.

  16. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addy, Susan Elizabeth Amrose

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation (ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550--580 mug/L arsenic (including both As[III] and As[V] in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 mug/L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA/cm2 > 0.07 mA/cm2 > 0.30--1.1 mA/cm2 > 5.0--100 mA/cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA/cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mum membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100--500 mug/L) in real Bangladesh tube well water collected

  17. Social marketing of contraceptives in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Schellstede, W P; Ciszewski, R L

    1984-01-01

    Since 1975 there has been a family planning program operating in Bangladesh which advertises and commercially distributes contraceptive products in both rural and urban areas throughout the country. The program, known as the Social Marketing Project (SMP) and managed by Population Services International (PSI), now serves almost 1 million acceptors per month at an annual cost per couple of less than US$6.50, including the cost of donated contraceptives. This paper looks at the evolution of the project and its growth through the years, and addresses some primary concerns of planners of social marketing programs.

  18. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Addy, Susan Amrose

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 μg=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 μg=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100

  19. Availability and rational use of drugs in primary healthcare facilities following the national drug policy of 1982: is Bangladesh on right track?

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Islam, Qazi Shafayetul

    2012-03-01

    In Bangladesh, the National Drug Policy (NDP) 1982 was instrumental in improving the supply of essential drugs of quality at an affordable price, especially in the early years. However, over time, evidence showed that the situation deteriorated in terms of both availability of essential drugs and their rational use. The study examined the current status of the outcome of the NDP objectives in terms of the availability and rational use of drugs in the primary healthcare (PHC) facilities in Bangladesh, including affordability by consumers. The study covered a random sample (n=30) of rural Upazila Health Complexes (UHCs) and a convenient sample (n=20) of urban clinics (UCs) in the Dhaka metropolitan area. Observations on prescribing and dispensing practices were made, and exit-interviews with patients and their attendants, and a mini-market survey were conducted to collect data on the core drug-use indicators of the World Health Organization from the health facilities. The findings revealed that the availability of essential drugs for common illnesses was poor, varying from 6% in the UHCs to 15% in the UCs. The number of drugs dispensed out of the total number of drugs prescribed was higher in the UHCs (76%) than in the UCs (44%). The dispensed drugs were not labelled properly, although >70% of patients/care-givers (n=1,496) reported to have understood the dosage schedule. The copy of the list of essential drugs was available in 55% and 47% of the UCs and UHCs respectively, with around two-thirds of the drugs being prescribed from the list. Polypharmacy was higher in the UCs (46%) than in the UHCs (33%). An antibiotic was prescribed in 44% of encounters (n=1,496), more frequently for fever (36-40%) and common cold (26-34%) than for lower respiratory tract infection, including pneumonia (10-20%). The prices of key essential drugs differed widely by brands (500% or more), seriously compromising the affordability of the poor people. Thus, the availability and rational

  20. Tectonics and petroleum prospects in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, A.N.

    1995-07-10

    Bangladesh is a part of the Bengal basin, bordered to the west and northwest by Jurassic-early Cretaceous volcanic trap rocks of the Rajmahal Hills, underlain by Precambrian shield and Gondwana sediments. The Bengal basin is the largest delta basin (approximately 23,000 sq miles) in the world, at the confluence of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. The deep sea fan complex that is being built outward into the Bay of Bengal has in excess of 12 km of sediments. Rate of sediment transportation within the basin, from the Himalayas and the mountains and hills to the north, east, and west, exceeds 1 billion tons/year. The tectonic and sedimentary history of Bangladesh is favorable for hydrocarbon accumulation. The basin is an underexplored region of 207,000 sq km where only 52 exploratory wells have been drilled with a success rate of more than 30%. In addition to the folded belt in the east, where gas and some oil have been found, the Garo-Rajmahal gap to the north and the deep sea fan to the south merit detailed exploration using state of the art technology. The paper describes the tectonics, sedimentation, petroleum prospects, and seismic surveys.

  1. Earthquake Occurrence in Bangladesh and Surrounding Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hussaini, T. M.; Al-Noman, M.

    2011-12-01

    The collision of the northward moving Indian plate with the Eurasian plate is the cause of frequent earthquakes in the region comprising Bangladesh and neighbouring India, Nepal and Myanmar. Historical records indicate that Bangladesh has been affected by five major earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7.0 (Richter scale) during 1869 to 1930. This paper presents some statistical observations of earthquake occurrence in fulfilment of a basic groundwork for seismic hazard assessment of this region. An up to date catalogue covering earthquake information in the region bounded within 17°-30°N and 84°-97°E for the period of historical period to 2010 is derived from various reputed international sources including ISC, IRIS, Indian sources and available publications. Careful scrutiny is done to remove duplicate or uncertain earthquake events. Earthquake magnitudes in the range of 1.8 to 8.1 have been obtained and relationships between different magnitude scales have been studied. Aftershocks are removed from the catalogue using magnitude dependent space window and time window. The main shock data are then analyzed to obtain completeness period for different magnitudes evaluating their temporal homogeneity. Spatial and temporal distribution of earthquakes, magnitude-depth histograms and other statistical analysis are performed to understand the distribution of seismic activity in this region.

  2. Bangladesh Agro-Climatic Environmental Monitoring Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vermillion, C.; Maurer, H.; Williams, M.; Kamowski, J.; Moore, T.; Maksimovich, W.; Obler, H.; Gilbert, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Agro-Climatic Environmental Monitoring Project (ACEMP) is based on a Participating Agency Service Agreement (PASA) between the Agency for International Development (AID) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). In FY80, the Asia Bureau and Office of Federal Disaster Assistance (OFDA), worked closely to develop a funding mechanism which would meet Bangladesh's needs both for flood and cyclone warning capability and for application of remote sensing data to development problems. In FY90, OFDA provided for a High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) receiving capability to improve their forecasting accuracy for cyclones, flooding and storm surges. That equipment is primarily intended as a disaster prediction and preparedness measure. The ACEM Project was designed to focus on the development applications of remote sensing technology. Through this Project, AID provided to the Bangladesh Government (BDG) the equipment, technical assistance, and training necessary to collect and employ remote sensing data made available by satellites as well as hydrological data obtained from data collection platforms placed in major rivers. The data collected will enable the BDG to improve the management of its natural resources.

  3. Social implications of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M Manzurul; Atkins, Peter J; Dunn, Christine E

    2005-11-01

    Besides its toxicity, groundwater arsenic contamination creates widespread social problems for its victims and their families in Bangladesh. There is, for instance, a tendency to ostracise arsenic-affected people, arsenicosis being thought of as a contagious disease. Within the community, arsenic-affected people are barred from social activities and often face rejection, even by their immediate family members. Women with visible arsenicosis symptoms are unable to get married and some affected housewives are divorced by their husbands. Children with symptoms are not sent to school in an effort to hide the problem. This paper employs mainly qualitative methods to interpret people's understandings about the toxic impact of groundwater arsenic poisoning on their social lives. Arsenic-affected patients in southwest Bangladesh were asked to determine their 'own priorities' in measuring arsenic toxicity on their social activities and to explore their perceptions about their own survival strategies. We found that patients' experiences reveal severe negative social impacts, and a sharp difference of perceptions about arsenic and social issues between arsenicosis patients and unaffected people.

  4. Arsenic contamination in groundwater of Samta, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Yokota, H; Tanabe, K; Sezaki, M; Yano, Y; Hamabe, K; Yabuuchi, K; Tokunaga, H

    2002-01-01

    In March 1997, we analyzed the water of all tubewells used for drinking in Samta village in the Jessore district, Bangladesh. It has been confirmed from the survey that the arsenic contamination in Samta was one of the worst in the Ganges basin including West Bengal, India. 90% of the tubewells had arsenic concentrations above the Bangladesh standard of 0.05 mg/l. Tubewells with higher arsenic concentrations of over 0.50 mg/l were distributed in the southern area with a belt-like shape from east to west, and the distribution of arsenic concentration showed gradual decreasing toward northern area of the village. In order to examine the characteristics of the arsenic distribution in Samta, we have performed investigations such as: 1) the characteristics of groundwater flow, 2) the distribution of arsenic in the ground, 3) the concentration of arsenic and the other dissolved materials in groundwater, and 4) the distribution of arsenic concentration of trivalence and pentavalence. This paper examines the mechanism of arsenic release to groundwater and explains the above-mentioned characteristics of the arsenic contamination in Samta through the investigations of the survey results for these years.

  5. Geographical variation in total and inorganic arsenic content of polished (white) rice.

    PubMed

    Meharg, Andrew A; Williams, Paul N; Adomako, Eureka; Lawgali, Youssef Y; Deacon, Claire; Villada, Antia; Cambell, Robert C J; Sun, Guoxin; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Islam, Rafiqul; Hossain, Shahid; Yanai, Junta

    2009-03-01

    An extensive data set of total arsenic analysis for 901 polished (white) grain samples, originating from 10 countries from 4 continents, was compiled. The samples represented the baseline (i.e., notspecifically collected from arsenic contaminated areas), and all were for market sale in major conurbations. Median total arsenic contents of rice varied 7-fold, with Egypt (0.04 mg/kg) and India (0.07 mg/kg) having the lowest arsenic content while the U.S. (0.25 mg/kg) and France (0.28 mg/kg) had the highest content. Global distribution of total arsenic in rice was modeled by weighting each country's arsenic distribution by that country's contribution to global production. A subset of 63 samples from Bangladesh, China, India, Italy, and the U.S. was analyzed for arsenic species. The relationship between inorganic arsenic contentversus total arsenic contentsignificantly differed among countries, with Bangladesh and India having the steepest slope in linear regression, and the U.S. having the shallowest slope. Using country-specific rice consumption data, daily intake of inorganic arsenic was estimated and the associated internal cancer risk was calculated using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cancer slope. Median excess internal cancer risks posed by inorganic arsenic ranged 30-fold for the 5 countries examined, being 0.7 per 10,000 for Italians to 22 per 10,000 for Bangladeshis, when a 60 kg person was considered.

  6. Poverty-led higher population growth in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nakibullah, A; Rahman, A

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the issue whether population growth is exogenous or endogenous in the economic development of Bangladesh. Overpopulation adversely affects food supplies, foreign exchange, and human resources. Moreover, it depresses savings per capita and retards growth of physical capital per labor. Underdeveloped countries, like Bangladesh, are faced with the problem of allocating resources between infrastructure, education, and health service that are essential for human capital development and population control measures. With this, determination whether fertility is exogenous or endogenous is important for policy purposes in the context of Bangladesh. Results showed that there is a correlation between population growth and real gross domestic products per capita. Based on Granger causality test, population growth is endogenous in the development process of Bangladesh and its overpopulation is due to poverty. Thus, there is a need for appropriate policy to take measures to improve human capital and decrease fertility rates.

  7. History, problems, and prospects of Islamic insurance (Takaful) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, Issa; Rahman, Noor Naemah Binti Abdul; Yusoff, Mohd Yakub Zulkifli Bin Mohd; Nor, Mohd Roslan Bin Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This study explains the history, current problems, and future possibilities of Islamic insurance (takaful) in Bangladesh. To articulate these issues, the researcher has adopted the qualitative method, and data has been collected through secondary sources i.e. articles, books, and online resources. The study reveals that Islamic insurance in Bangladesh is regulated by the Insurance Act 2010 which is contradictory with Islamic insurance causing numerous problems for Islamic insurance. This study also points out that Islamic insurance is a fast growing industry with huge prospects in Bangladesh. The government should introduce separate regulations for both Islamic and conventional insurance. The research concludes with suggestions for the further development of Islamic insurance in Bangladesh.

  8. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  9. The quiet revolution in Asia's rice value chains.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Thomas; Chen, Kevin Z; Minten, Bart; Adriano, Lourdes; Dao, The Anh; Wang, Jianying; Gupta, Sunipa Das

    2014-12-01

    There is a rapid transformation afoot in the rice value chain in Asia. The upstream is changing quickly-farmers are undertaking capital-led intensification and participating in burgeoning markets for land rental, fertilizer and pesticides, irrigation water, and seed, and shifting from subsistence to small commercialized farms; in some areas landholdings are concentrating. Midstream, in wholesale and milling, there is a quiet revolution underway, with thousands of entrepreneurs investing in equipment, increasing scale, diversifying into higher quality, and the segments are undergoing consolidation and vertical coordination and integration. Mills, especially in China, are packaging and branding, and building agent networks in wholesale markets, and large mills are building direct relationships with supermarkets. The downstream retail segment is undergoing a "supermarket revolution," again with the lead in change in China. In most cases the government is not playing a direct role in the market, but enabling this transformation through infrastructural investment. The transformation appears to be improving food security for cities by reducing margins, offering lower consumer rice prices, and increasing quality and diversity of rice. This paper discusses findings derived from unique stacked surveys of all value chain segments in seven zones, more and less developed, around Bangladesh, China, India, and Vietnam.

  10. Characterizing the Occurrence and Transport of Brackish Groundwater in Southwest Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    worland, S.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Bangladesh is host to the largest and the most active delta system in the world. The morphology of the southern part of the country is characterized by low lying deltaic plains partitioned by the distributary networks of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river systems. Much of the tidal mangrove forest ecosystem of the lower delta has been converted into poldered islands that sustain shrimp farming and rice production. The polder inhabitants depend on shallow groundwater as a primary source for drinking water and sanitation. Understanding the origin and hydrologic controls on the distribution of the brackish water and freshwater on the polder is a necessary step to ensuring a sustainable and potable freshwater source for drinking and irrigation. Preliminary sampling from shallow tube wells on Polder 32 in southwest Bangladesh suggests sporadic lateral apportioning of fresh water in the primarily brackish aquifer. This research characterizes the occurrence, transport and fate of the brackish groundwater through a combination of 3H and 14C dating, geochemical signatures, subsurface mapping using inversions from electromagnetic induction, and a 1D finite difference model and a 2D finite element model. The geochemical analysis and radiometric dating suggest that the salt water originates from paleo-brackish estuarine water deposited ~5000 years ago along with the sediments that compose the shallow aquifer. Inversions of electromagnetic survey data show potential freshwater recharge areas where the clay cap pinches out. The finite difference model demonstrates that recharge from the distributary channels is unlikely due to the low transmissivity of the clay channel beds. The finite element model gives reasonable estimates of the flushing rates of the connate brackish water beneath the polder. Inversion of electromagnetic data from a two hundred meter transect taken on Polder 32 Head gradient and groundwater flow vectors for fixed head boundary conditions across Polder

  11. Multi-Factor Impact Analysis of Agricultural Production in Bangladesh with Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruane, Alex C.; Major, David C.; Yu, Winston H.; Alam, Mozaharul; Hussain, Sk. Ghulam; Khan, Abu Saleh; Hassan, Ahmadul; Al Hossain, Bhuiya Md. Tamim; Goldberg, Richard; Horton, Radley M.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Diverse vulnerabilities of Bangladesh's agricultural sector in 16 sub-regions are assessed using experiments designed to investigate climate impact factors in isolation and in combination. Climate information from a suite of global climate models (GCMs) is used to drive models assessing the agricultural impact of changes in temperature, precipitation, carbon dioxide concentrations, river floods, and sea level rise for the 2040-2069 period in comparison to a historical baseline. Using the multi-factor impacts analysis framework developed in Yu et al. (2010), this study provides new sub-regional vulnerability analyses and quantifies key uncertainties in climate and production. Rice (aman, boro, and aus seasons) and wheat production are simulated in each sub-region using the biophysical Crop Environment REsource Synthesis (CERES) models. These simulations are then combined with the MIKE BASIN hydrologic model for river floods in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Basins, and the MIKE21Two-Dimensional Estuary Model to determine coastal inundation under conditions of higher mean sea level. The impacts of each factor depend on GCM configurations, emissions pathways, sub-regions, and particular seasons and crops. Temperature increases generally reduce production across all scenarios. Precipitation changes can have either a positive or a negative impact, with a high degree of uncertainty across GCMs. Carbon dioxide impacts on crop production are positive and depend on the emissions pathway. Increasing river flood areas reduce production in affected sub-regions. Precipitation uncertainties from different GCMs and emissions scenarios are reduced when integrated across the large GBM Basins' hydrology. Agriculture in Southern Bangladesh is severely affected by sea level rise even when cyclonic surges are not fully considered, with impacts increasing under the higher emissions scenario.

  12. Relating raw rice color and composition to cooked rice color.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, the color of milled rice is economically important. The whiter the rice the more it is preferred by consumers and the more value it has in the market place. Little attention has been given to relating raw rice color to cooked milled rice color and, specifically, to determining the i...

  13. Past and future flooding in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele-Eich, Insa; Hopson, Thomas; Simmer, Clemens; Simon, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Currently, an average of about 20 % of the land surface in Bangladesh is flooded each year, affecting one of the most densely populated regions in the world. We aim to understand the processes currently determining flooding in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin, in particular the role of precipitation and sea-level rise, as well as to assess how climate change might impact flood characteristics in the future. Water level and discharge data were provided by the Bangladesh Water Development Board on a daily basis for a period of 1909-2009. Monthly maps based on daily sea level anomalies from the Data Unification Altimeter Combination System DUACS are available on a 0.25° by 0.25° grid for the time period 1993-2014. Ensemble model output for upper catchment precipitation and annual mean thermosteric sea-level rise is taken from historical and RCP scenario runs conducted with the CCSM4. We first analyzed daily water levels of the past 100 years in order to detect potential shifts in extremes. The available observations are then used to set up a generalized linear model to detect how precipitation influences flooding in the GBM basin. This model can then be used to give a prognosis on changes in future flooding. Our analysis suggests that water levels have indeed changed over the course of the past century. While the magnitude and duration of average flood events decreased, the frequency of extreme flood events has increased. Low water levels have also changed, with a significant decrease in the annual minimum water level most noticeable when we compare the time periods 1909-1939 and 1979-2009. For the future, first results confirm the decrease in return periods of strong flood events found in previous studies. The impact of climate change on flooding will also be compared to the impact of man-made structures such as Farakka barrage, built across the Ganges on the border between India and Bangladesh and operating since 1975. This is of particular interest as

  14. Retention of female volunteer community health workers in Dhaka urban slums: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) are a key approach to improving community-based maternal and child health services in developing countries. BRAC, a large Bangladeshi non-governmental organization (NGO), has employed female volunteer CHWs in its community-based health programs since 1977, recently including its Manoshi project, a community-based maternal and child health intervention in the urban slums of Bangladesh. A case–control study conducted in response to high dropout rates in the first year of the project showed that financial incentives, social prestige, community approval and household responsibilities were related to early retention in the project. In our present prospective cohort study, we aimed to better understand the factors associated with retention of volunteer CHWs once the project was more mature. Methods We used a prospective cohort study design to examine the factors affecting retention of volunteer CHWs who remained in the project after the initial start-up period. We surveyed a random sample of 542 CHWs who were working for BRAC Manoshi in December 2008. In December 2009, we revisited this cohort of CHWs and interviewed those who had dropped out about the main reasons for their dropping out. We used a multivariable generalized linear model regression analysis with a log link to estimate the relative risk (RR) of independent factors on retention. Results Of the 542 CHWs originally enrolled, 120 had dropped out by the end of one year, mainly because they left the slums. CHWs who received positive community appraisal (adjusted RR = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10 to 1.91) or were associated with other NGOs (adjusted RR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.23) were more likely to have been retained in the project. Although refresher training was also associated with increased retention (adjusted RR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.08 to 4.71) in this study, too few CHWs had not attended refresher training

  15. Uptake and translocation of metals in different parts of crop plants irrigated with contaminated water from DEPZ area of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Goni, M A; Ahmad, J U; Halim, M A; Mottalib, M A; Chowdhury, D A

    2014-06-01

    Metal contamination in arable soils and crops grown in and around an industrial area of Bangladesh were measured, and the transfer factor from soils to crops was calculated accordingly. The highest concentration was observed for Fe and the order of metal concentration was Fe > Zn > Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd in soils. Bioaccumulation and translocation of metals from roots to edible parts of the crop plants were varied for almost all elements studied. Absorption of metals was significantly more in the roots compared to other plant parts. Accumulation of all metals in the edible parts of the plants was compared with the recommended maximum tolerable levels proposed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Bioconcentration factors values based on dry weights were below one for all metals except Cu in the rice roots and decreased in the order of Cu > Zn > Fe > Pb > Ni > Cd > Cr.

  16. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  17. Making rice even healthier!

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is a naturally healthy food, but what if it could be made even healthier? Would Americans eat more rice if it could be advertised to be a 'New and Improved' source of calcium to promote bone growth, or iron to prevent anemia? Grocery stores are full of foods that are vitamin enhanced to attract...

  18. DNA barcoding of the vegetable leafminer Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Bangladesh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA barcoding revealed the presence of the polyphagous leafminer pest Liriomyza sativae Blanchard in Bangladesh. DNA barcode sequences for mitochondrial COI were generated for Agromyzidae larvae, pupae and adults collected from field populations across Bangladesh. BLAST sequence similarity searches ...

  19. Variation in coat protein genes among five geographically different isolates of rice tungro spherical virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Lee, G; Davies, J W; Hull, R

    1997-01-01

    The variation in the sequence of the coat protein genes of four isolates of rice tungro spherical virus from different countries, Malaysia, Thailand, India and Bangladesh, was compared with an isolate from the Philippines. The evidence from RT-PCR, Southern blot hybridization and sequences of the coat protein genes indicated that the isolates appeared to fall into two groups. One comprised the Philippine and Malaysian isolates (about 95% sequence similarity) and the other the Bangladeshi and Indian isolates, the sequences of which differed by about 15% from that of the Philippine isolate. The Thai isolate seemed to be a mixture of these two subgroups.

  20. Educating girls in Bangladesh: exploding the myth.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M

    1993-01-01

    Poor landless families in Bangladesh typically see no need to educate their girls. Even where school fees are waived, exercise books, pencils, and school clothes cost money, and girls are especially needed to care for siblings and do other household chores. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), however, has found it possible to get girls to school by adapting education to the circumstances of poverty instead of requiring families and students to adjust to the conventional rules of primary school. The BRAC non-formal primary education (NFPE) program in five years has expanded to 12,000 centers serving 360,000 children in two programs of three-year duration each for 8-10 year olds and 11-14 year olds. Reflecting the policy of giving priority to girls, more than 70% of enrolled children are female. Almost all teachers are also female and typically young, married, from the neighborhood, and with 9-10 years of schooling. Each center is a thatch or tin-roofed hut accommodating thirty children managed by a village committee and a parent-teacher committee at a cost of US$18 per child per year. All learning materials are provided at the center for the three hours of courses six days per week set according to students' availability and convenience. The course for the younger children offers the equivalent of three years of primary education, while the course for the older children offers basic literacy and life skills. The success of the BRAC centers demonstrates how parents and children may respond when education is socially and culturally acceptable, affordable, and strives to meet parents' and child's expectations.

  1. Arsenic intake via water and food by a population living in an arsenic-affected area of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Koichi; Yanase, Tatsuya; Matsuo, Yuki; Kimura, Tetsuro; Rahman, M Hamidur; Magara, Yasumoto; Matsui, Yoshihiko

    2007-08-01

    More and more people in Bangladesh have recently become aware of the risk of drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater, and have been trying to obtain drinking water from less arsenic-contaminated sources. In this study, arsenic intakes of 18 families living in one block of a rural village in an arsenic-affected district of Bangladesh were evaluated to investigate their actual arsenic intake via food, including from cooking water, and to estimate the contribution of each food category and of drinking water to the total arsenic intake. Water consumption rates were estimated by the self-reporting method. The mean drinking water intake was estimated as about 3 L/d without gender difference. Arsenic intakes from food were evaluated by the duplicate portion sampling method. The duplicated foods from each family were divided into four categories (cooked rice, solid food, cereals for breakfast, and liquid food), and the arsenic concentrations of each food category and of the drinking water were measured. The mean arsenic intake from water and food by all 18 respondents was 0.15 +/-0.11 mg/d (range, 0.043 - 0.49), that by male subjects was 0.18 +/- 0.13 mg/d (n = 12) and that by female subjects was 0.096 +/- 0.007 mg/d (n = 6). The average contributions to the total arsenic intake were, from drinking water, 13%; liquid food, 4.4%; cooked rice, 56%; solid food, 11%; and cereals, 16%. Arsenic intake via drinking water was not high despite the highly contaminated groundwater in the survey area because many families had changed their drinking water sources to less-contaminated ones. Instead, cooked rice contributed most to the daily arsenic intake. Use of contaminated water for cooking by several families was suspected based on comparisons of arsenic concentrations between drinking water and liquid food, and between rice before and after cooking. Detailed investigation suggested that six households used contaminated water for cooking but not drinking, leading to an increase of

  2. India’s Decisive Intervention: Effectiveness of Its Assistance during the Liberation War of Bangladesh-1971

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    ART AND SCIENCE Military History by MOHAMMAD KAMRUL HASAN, MAJOR, BANGLADESH ARMY M.D.S., Bangladesh University of Professionals... history of Bangladesh. The courage and tenacity displayed by Bangladeshi forces act as beacon of revitalizing Bangladeshi spirit in building a...biggest event in the history of Bangladesh. The courage and tenacity displayed by Bangladeshi forces act as beacon of revitalizing Bangladeshi spirit in

  3. Arsenic Concentrations in Rice and Associated Health Risks Along the Upper Mekong Delta, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barragan, L.; Seyfferth, A.; Fendorf, S.

    2011-12-01

    The consumption of arsenic contaminated food, such as rice, can be a significant portion of daily arsenic exposure, even for populations already exposed through drinking water. While arsenic contamination of rice grains has been documented in parts of Southern Asia, (e.g. Bangladesh), little research has been conducted on arsenic contamination of Cambodian-grown rice. We collected rice plant samples at various locations within the upper Mekong River Delta near Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and we analyzed total arsenic concentrations in plant digests of grains, husk, and straw. In addition, we used CaCl2-, DTPA-, and oxalate-extractable arsenic to define plant-available soil pools. We found variability of arsenic concentration in the plants, with grain arsenic ranging from 0.046 to 0.214 μg g-1; other researchers have shown that concentrations higher than 0.1 μg g-1 could be a concern for human health. Although more extensive sampling is needed to assess the risk of arsenic exposure from rice consumption on a country-wide basis, our work clearly illustrates the risk within regions of the Mekong Delta.

  4. Arsenic accumulation in a paddy field in Bangladesh: seasonal dynamics and trends over a three-year monitoring period.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Jessica; Voegelin, Andreas; Roberts, Linda C; Hug, Stephan J; Saha, Ganesh C; Ali, M Ashraf; Badruzzaman, A Borhan M; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2010-04-15

    Shallow groundwater, often rich in arsenic (As), is widely used for irrigation of dry season boro rice in Bangladesh. In the long term, this may lead to increasing As contents in rice paddy soils, which threatens rice yields, food quality, and human health. The objective of this study was to quantify gains and losses of soil As in a rice paddy field during irrigation and monsoon flooding over a three-year period. Samples were collected twice a year on a 3D-sampling grid to account for the spatially heterogeneous As distribution within the soil. Gains and losses of soil As in different depth segments were calculated using a mass-balance approach. Annual As input with irrigation water was estimated as 4.4 +/- 0.4 kg ha(-1) a(-1). Within the top 40 cm of soil, the mean As accumulation over three years amounted to 2.4 +/- 0.4 kg ha(-1) a(-1), implying that on average 2.0 kg ha(-1) a(-1) were lost from the soil. Seasonal changes of soil As showed that 1.05 to 2.1 kg ha(-1) a(-1) were lost during monsoon flooding. The remaining As-loss (up to 0.95 kg ha(-1) a(-1)) was attributed to downward flow with percolating irrigation water. Despite these losses, we estimate that total As within the top 40 cm of soil at our field site would further increase by a factor of 1.5 to 2 by the year 2050 under current cultivation practices.

  5. Environmental assessment in slum improvement programs: Some evidence from a study on infrastructure projects in two Dhaka slums

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, Farhat Jahan . E-mail: farhat@ait.ac.th; Amin, A.T.M. Nurul . E-mail: amin@ait.ac.th

    2006-08-15

    This paper reports findings from a study on slum improvement projects to show the difference that environmental assessment (EA) can make in such interventions and to suggest mechanisms for its integration into such projects. The findings are based on a field survey that was carried out in two slums of Dhaka where infrastructure projects were implemented. In one slum, the EA process was considered in designing and locating infrastructure and in the other it was not. The survey results traced the severe problems that existed in both slums before the implementation of infrastructure improvement projects and reveal that after the intervention the situation has considerably improved in the slum where EA was conducted. In contrast, some problems still persist in the other slum where EA was not considered. To make it worse, the newly built infrastructures have even given rise to a set of new problems. In order to avoid such negative outcomes from development interventions, the paper finally develops the mechanism for integration of EA into slum improvement project.

  6. Replication of urban innovations - prioritization of strategies for the replication of Dhaka's community-based decentralized composting model.

    PubMed

    Yedla, Sudhakar

    2012-01-01

    Dhaka's community-based decentralized composting (DCDC) is a successful demonstration of solid waste management by adopting low-cost technology, local resources community participation and partnerships among the various actors involved. This paper attempts to understand the model, necessary conditions, strategies and their priorities to replicate DCDC in the other developing cities of Asia. Thirteen strategies required for its replication are identified and assessed based on various criteria, namely transferability, longevity, economic viability, adaptation and also overall replication. Priority setting by multi-criteria analysis by applying analytic hierarchy process revealed that immediate transferability without long-term and economic viability consideration is not advisable as this would result in unsustainable replication of DCDC. Based on the analysis, measures to ensure the product quality control; partnership among stakeholders (public-private-community); strategies to achieve better involvement of the private sector in solid waste management (entrepreneurship in approach); simple and low-cost technology; and strategies to provide an effective interface among the complementing sectors are identified as important strategies for its replication.

  7. An integrated framework to assess future livelihood and poverty changes in deltas: an application to coastal Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Lazar, Attlia; Payo, Andres; Adams, Helen; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Haque, Anisul; Clarke, Derek; Bricheno, Lucy; Fernandes, Jose; Rahman, Mofizur; Ahmed, Ali; Streatfield, Kim

    2016-04-01

    Coastal deltas represent some of the most densely populated areas in the world. A good example is the coastal zone of Bangladesh where there are more than 1000 people/km2 in the rural areas. Livelihoods, food security and poverty in this area is strongly dependent on natural resources affected by several factors including climate variability and change, upstream river flow modifications, commercial fish catches in the Bay of Bengal, and engineering interventions such as polderisation. The scarcity of fresh water, saline water intrusion and natural disasters (e.g. river flooding, cyclones and storm surges) have negative impact on drinking water availability and crop irrigation potential. This severely affects land use and livelihood opportunities of the coastal population. Hydro-environmental changes can be especially detrimental for the well-being of the poorest households that are highly dependent on natural resources. The ESPA Deltas project aims to holistically examine the interaction between the coupled bio-physical environment and the livelihoods of these poor populations in coastal Bangladesh. Here we describe a new integrated model that allows the long-term analysis of the possible changes in this system by linking projected changes in physical processes (e.g. river flows, nutrients), with productivity (e.g. fish catches, rice production), social processes (e.g. access, property rights, migration) and governance/management (e.g. fisheries, agriculture, water and land use management). This includes the development and application of a range of scenarios, including expert-derived scenarios on issues such as climate change, and stakeholder-derived scenarios on more local issues in Bangladesh. This integrated approach is designed to provide Bangladeshi policy makers with science-based evidence of possible development trajectories within the coastal delta plain over timescales up to 50 years, including the likely robustness of different governance options on

  8. Impact of industrial effluent on growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in silty clay loam soil.

    PubMed

    Anwar Hossain, Mohammad; Rahman, Golum Kibria Muhammad Mustafizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mizanur; Molla, Abul Hossain; Mostafizur Rahman, Mohammad; Khabir Uddin, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    Degradation of soil and water from discharge of untreated industrial effluent is alarming in Bangladesh. Therefore, buildup of heavy metals in soil from contaminated effluent, their entry into the food chain and effects on rice yield were quantified in a pot experiment. The treatments were comprised of 0, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% industrial effluents applied as irrigation water. Effluents, initial soil, different parts of rice plants and post-harvest pot soil were analyzed for various elements, including heavy metals. Application of elevated levels of effluent contributed to increased heavy metals in pot soils and rice roots due to translocation effects, which were transferred to rice straw and grain. The results indicated that heavy metal toxicity may develop in soil because of contaminated effluent application. Heavy metals are not biodegradable, rather they accumulate in soils, and transfer of these metals from effluent to soil and plant cells was found to reduce the growth and development of rice plants and thereby contributed to lower yield. Moreover, a higher concentration of effluent caused heavy metal toxicity as well as reduction of growth and yield of rice, and in the long run a more aggravated situation may threaten human lives, which emphasizes the obligatory adoption of effluent treatment before its release to the environment, and regular monitoring by government agencies needs to be ensured.

  9. The Bangladesh paradox: exceptional health achievement despite economic poverty.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Rasheed, Sabrina; Hussain, Zakir; Chen, Lincoln C

    2013-11-23

    Bangladesh, the eighth most populous country in the world with about 153 million people, has recently been applauded as an exceptional health performer. In the first paper in this Series, we present evidence to show that Bangladesh has achieved substantial health advances, but the country's success cannot be captured simplistically because health in Bangladesh has the paradox of steep and sustained reductions in birth rate and mortality alongside continued burdens of morbidity. Exceptional performance might be attributed to a pluralistic health system that has many stakeholders pursuing women-centred, gender-equity-oriented, highly focused health programmes in family planning, immunisation, oral rehydration therapy, maternal and child health, tuberculosis, vitamin A supplementation, and other activities, through the work of widely deployed community health workers reaching all households. Government and non-governmental organisations have pioneered many innovations that have been scaled up nationally. However, these remarkable achievements in equity and coverage are counterbalanced by the persistence of child and maternal malnutrition and the low use of maternity-related services. The Bangladesh paradox shows the net outcome of successful direct health action in both positive and negative social determinants of health--ie, positives such as women's empowerment, widespread education, and mitigation of the effect of natural disasters; and negatives such as low gross domestic product, pervasive poverty, and the persistence of income inequality. Bangladesh offers lessons such as how gender equity can improve health outcomes, how health innovations can be scaled up, and how direct health interventions can partly overcome socioeconomic constraints.

  10. The environment associated with significant tornadoes in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikos, Dan; Finch, Jonathan; Case, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the environmental parameters favoring significant tornadoes in Bangladesh through a simulation of ten high-impact events. A climatological perspective is first presented on classifying significant tornadoes in Bangladesh, noting the challenges since reports of tornadoes are not documented in a formal manner. The statistical relationship between United States and Bangladesh tornado-related deaths suggests that significant tornadoes do occur in Bangladesh so this paper identifies the most significant tornadic events and analyzes the environmental conditions associated with these events. Given the scarcity of observational data to assess the near-storm environment in this region, high-resolution (3-km horizontal grid spacing) numerical weather prediction simulations are performed for events identified to be associated with a significant tornado. In comparison to similar events over the United States, significant tornado environments in Bangladesh are characterized by relatively high convective available potential energy, sufficient deep-layer vertical shear, and a propensity for deviant (i.e., well to the right of the mean flow) storm motion along a low-level convergence boundary.

  11. Determinants of drinking arsenic-contaminated tubewell water in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, M M H; Aklimunnessa, Khandoker; Kabir, M; Mori, Mitsuru

    2007-09-01

    Bangladesh has already experienced the biggest catastrophe in the world due to arsenic contamination of drinking water. This study investigates the association of drinking arsenic-contaminated water (DACW) with both personal and household characteristics of 9116 household respondents using the household data of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2004. Here DACW means that arsenic level in the drinking water is greater than the permissible limit (50 microg/l) of Bangladesh. The overall rate of DACW was 7.9%. It was found to be significantly associated with education, currently working, and division of Bangladesh, either by cross tabulation or multivariate logistic regression analyses or both. Similarly, household characteristics -- namely television, bicycle, materials of the wall and floor, total family members, number of sleeping rooms, and availability of foods -- were significantly associated in bivariate analyses. Many household characteristics -- namely electricity, television, wall and floor materials, and number of sleeping rooms -- revealed significant association in the logistic regression analysis when adjusted for age, education and division. This study indicates that respondents from Chittagong division and lower socio-economic groups (indicated by household characteristics) are at significantly higher risk of DACW. These findings should be taken into account during the planning of future intervention activities in Bangladesh.

  12. Risk practices for animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Saiful; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Mikolon, Andrea; Parveen, Shahana; Khan, M. Salah Uddin; Haider, Najmul; Chakraborty, Apurba; Titu, Abu Mohammad Naser; Rahman, M. Waliur; Sazzad, Hossain M. S.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Gurley, Emily S.; Luby, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction From August 2009 to October 2010, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh and the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research together investigated 14 outbreaks of anthrax which included 140 animal and 273 human cases in 14 anthrax-affected villages. Our investigation objectives were to explore the context in which these outbreaks occurred, including livestock rearing practices, human handling of sick and dead animals, and the anthrax vaccination program. Methods Field anthropologists used qualitative data-collection tools, including 15 hours of unstructured observations, 11 key informant interviews, 32 open-ended interviews, and 6 group discussions in 5 anthrax-affected villages. Results Each cattle owner in the affected communities raised a median of six ruminants on their household premises. The ruminants were often grazed in pastures and fed supplementary rice straw, green grass, water hyacinth, rice husk, wheat bran, and oil cake; lactating cows were given dicalcium phosphate. Cattle represented a major financial investment. Since Islamic law forbids eating animals that die from natural causes, when anthrax-infected cattle were moribund, farmers often slaughtered them on the household premises while they were still alive so that the meat could be eaten. Farmers ate the meat and sold it to neighbors. Skinners removed and sold the hides from discarded carcasses. Farmers discarded the carcasses and slaughtering waste into ditches, bodies of water, or open fields. Cattle in the affected communities did not receive routine anthrax vaccine due to low production, poor distribution, and limited staffing for vaccination. Conclusion Slaughtering anthrax-infected animals and disposing of butchering waste and carcasses in environments where ruminants live and graze, combined with limited vaccination, provided a context that permitted repeated anthrax outbreaks in animals and humans. Because of strong financial incentives

  13. Stresses and storms: the case of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, N

    1993-01-01

    The problems of women and environmental degradation have recently come to be addressed by women's groups, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and government policies in Bangladesh. NGOs have been the most active, with 600 registered organizations: 40% international, 38% national, and 22% local. NGOs have promoted the recent inclusion of environmental concerns into development plans. About 100 NGOs are engaged in forestry projects. The National Association for Resource Improvement, for example, involves women in tree planting along roadsides and income-generating activities. About 75% of upazilas (administrative units) have environmental and women's projects, but under 20% of all villages are affected and 1% of landless people are reached. Women's groups have created awareness of women's problems and advocated for socioeconomic changes. Women, despite cultural and social restrictions on their social behavior, have changed environmental and economic conditions. Women's leadership and organizing abilities have contributed to public awareness of environmental degradation. Because Bangladesh is a delta, a rise in sea level from greenhouse effects would have serious consequences for the land and population. Global warming has contributed to river flooding and climate changes that have increased rainfall and tropical storms. Deforestation upriver adds to the water runoff problems. About 20% of the cultivable land area is affected by natural disasters. Population density is 760 persons per sq km. About 50% of forested areas have been destroyed within the past 20 years. 4% of gross domestic product comes from forest activity. The lack of wood fuel limits the ability of people to boil water and contributes to the increased incidence of diarrhea, other intestinal problems, and less nutritious food. Drought is another problem. Urban migration has overwhelmed the ability of urban centers to provide basic services. Coastal areas have been settled by 20% of total population

  14. Local environmental predictors of cholera in Bangladesh and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Emch, Michael; Feldacker, Caryl; Yunus, Mohammad; Streatfield, Peter Kim; DinhThiem, Vu; Canh, Do Gia; Ali, Mohammad

    2008-05-01

    Environmental factors have been shown to be related to cholera and thus might prove useful for prediction. In Bangladesh and Vietnam, temporal cholera distributions are related to satellite-derived and in-situ environmental time series data in order to examine the relationships between cholera and the local environment. Ordered probit models examine associations in Bangladesh; probit models examine associations at 2 sites in Vietnam. Increases in ocean chlorophyll concentration are related to an increased magnitude of cholera in Bangladesh. Increases in sea surface temperature are most influential in Hue, Vietnam, whereas increases in river height have a significant role in Nha Trang, Vietnam. Cholera appearance and epidemic magnitude are related to the local environment. Local environmental parameters have consistent effects when cholera is regular and more prevalent in endemic settings, but in situations where cholera epidemics are rare there are differential environmental effects.

  15. Is Bangladesh going through an epidemiological and nutritional transition?

    PubMed

    Mascie-Taylor, Nicholas

    2012-12-01

    Bangladesh is going through an epidemiological transition with large reductions in mortality due to acute, infectious, and parasitic diseases and increases in non-communicable, degenerative, and chronic diseases over the last 20 years. There is also evidence of an adult nutritional transition with increases in pre-obesity and obesity particularly in urban areas. However a high percentage of the population of Bangladesh remain undernourished and economically poor and ultra-poor development programmes indicate that improving their nutritional status might not be achievable as a bi-product of the development programme. Bangladesh like many developing countries has many burdens of under and over-nutrition, high levels of infectious diseases as well as growing levels of non-communicable diseases.

  16. Review of domiciliary newborn-care practices in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Darmstadt, Gary L; Syed, Uzma; Patel, Zohra; Kabir, Nazma

    2006-12-01

    In Bangladesh, high proportions of infant deaths (two-thirds) and deaths among children aged less than five years (38%) occur in the neonatal period. Although most of these deaths occur at home due to preventable causes, little is known about routine domiciliary newborn-care practices and care-seeking for neonatal illness. As an initial step in strategic planning for the implementation of interventions in Bangladesh to improve neonatal outcomes, a review of the literature of antenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum care practices for mothers and newborns in Bangladeshi communities and homes was conducted. A dearth of information was found and summarized, and priority areas for future formative research were identified. The information gained from this review was used for informing development of a guide to formative research on maternal and neonatal care practices in developing-country communities and forms a cornerstone for formulation of behaviour change-communication strategies and messages to advance neonatal health and survival in Bangladesh.

  17. Climate change and soil salinity: The case of coastal Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David

    2015-12-01

    This paper estimates location-specific soil salinity in coastal Bangladesh for 2050. The analysis was conducted in two stages: First, changes in soil salinity for the period 2001-2009 were assessed using information recorded at 41 soil monitoring stations by the Soil Research Development Institute. Using these data, a spatial econometric model was estimated linking soil salinity with the salinity of nearby rivers, land elevation, temperature, and rainfall. Second, future soil salinity for 69 coastal sub-districts was projected from climate-induced changes in river salinity and projections of rainfall and temperature based on time trends for 20 Bangladesh Meteorological Department weather stations in the coastal region. The findings indicate that climate change poses a major soil salinization risk in coastal Bangladesh. Across 41 monitoring stations, the annual median projected change in soil salinity is 39 % by 2050. Above the median, 25 % of all stations have projected changes of 51 % or higher.

  18. Adolescent contraceptive use and its determinants in Bangladesh: evidence from Bangladesh Fertility Survey 1989.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, M; Islam, M M

    1995-09-01

    This study is concerned with contraceptive use among the currently married adolescents in Bangladesh utilizing the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey (BFS) data. The study analyzes the factors affecting the current use of contraception among the adolescents through bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The results indicate that although adolescents have almost universal knowledge about contraceptive methods, only 15 percent are currently using any method of contraception. The corresponding figures for the adults and for the nation as a whole are 34.4 percent and 31.4 percent, respectively. Among the individual methods currently used by the adolescents, the pill appears as the most popular method, followed by safe period. A substantial proportion of the adolescents were found to rely on the traditional methods of contraception. Among the socio-economic variables (as revealed by the logistic regression analysis), respondents' education, participation in the family planning decision, visit by family planning workers, region of residence, husband's occupation and possession of electricity in the household appear as the most significant factors determining the current use of contraception among the adolescents.

  19. Molecular Dating of HIV-1 Subtype C from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Bontell, Irene; Sarker, Md. Safiullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Afrad, Mokibul Hassan; Sönnerborg, Anders; Azim, Tasnim

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh has an overall low HIV prevalence of <0.1% in the general population and <1% among key affected populations, but it is one of few Asian countries that has yet to reverse the epidemic. In order to do this, it is important to understand the transmission dynamics in this country. The aim of this study was to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of HIV-1 subtype C strains from Bangladesh and related strains from other countries, and thereby clarify when and from where subtype C was introduced in the country and how it subsequently spread within Bangladesh. The phylogenetic analysis included 118 Bangladeshi gag sequences and 128 sequences from other countries and was performed using the BEAST package. Our analysis revealed that the vast majority of Bangladeshi sequences (97/118, 82%) fall into a large regional cluster of samples from Bangladesh, India, China and Myanmar, which dates back to the early 1960’s. Following its establishment in the region, this strain has entered Bangladesh multiple times from around 1975 and onwards, but extensive in-country transmission could only be detected among drug users and not through sexual transmission. In addition, there have been multiple (at least ten) introductions of subtype C to Bangladesh from outside this region, but no extensive spread could be detected for any of these. Since many HIV-infections remain undetected while asymptomatic, the true extent of the transmission of each strain remains unknown, especially among hard to reach groups such as clients of sex workers and returning migrants with families. PMID:24223905

  20. Issues in developing a mitigation strategy for Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Asaduzzaman, M.

    1996-12-31

    Bangladesh, it is by now well-known, is at the receiving end, in the literal sense of the term, of the global climate change and its potential impacts. She contributes very little to the current global emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Emission Inventory under the present umbrella project, Bangladesh Climate Change Study (BCCS), has found that her annual emission of carbon has been only 3.99 mn metric tons per year. An earlier study arrived at exactly the same figure. The figures for estimated release of methane is far less firm. The estimated methane emission in 1990 could be anywhere between 1 million and 6 million metric tons. In any case the total emission is unlikely to be more than one-half of one percent of the global total. On the other hand, however, she faces specter of widespread and more frequent floods, more frequent droughts, cyclones and above all sea-level rise (SLR) which may inundate a substantial part of the country all of these bringing in immeasurable misery and destitution and loss of income, employment and growth. One would expect that in such a situation, Bangladesh`s basic concern should be to prepare an appropriate adaptation strategy. This is already a major policy concern of the Government. There is, however, an increasing realization that Bangladesh should as well emphasize an appropriate mitigation strategy (MS). There may be at least three reasons why this should be so. The first is that she is a signatory of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The second is that in the medium, if not short term she expects major growth due to a developing economy. Third is that Bangladesh depends primarily on fossil fuel imports for energy, and will become a larger source with further development.

  1. Malnutrition, menarche, and marriage in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A K; Huffman, S L; Curlin, G T

    1977-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of nutritional status on the onset of menarche and the association between age at menarche and age at marriage, a survey of 1155 girls, ages 10 through 20, was conducted in a rural area of Bangladesh in March 1976. In order to obtain an estimated mean of age of menarche, probit analysis was used. The mean age of menarche using this technique is estimated at 15.65 for Muslims and 15.91 for Hindus. It was learned that in recent years the age of menarche has increased in a rural area. This increase seems to be associated with malnutrition caused by the war, postwar inflation, floods and famines during the 1971-75 period. When age is controlled for, the prominent effect of weight on menstrual status is evident. 98% of the girls whose weights were 88 pounds or greater had reached menarche compared to only 1% of those weighing less than 66 pounds. Body weight appears to be 1 of the most important factors for the determination of onset of menarche. There exists a seasonality of onset of menarche with a peak in winter. Age of marriage among this rural population has increased and may be associated with the increasing age of menarche. Since both age of menarche and age of marriage have increased, fertility among females age 15-19 may be expected to decrease in the future if this pattern continues.

  2. Sexual violence towards married women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum

    2013-05-01

    This article explored the magnitude and nature of within marriage sexual violence against women and factors associated with physically forced sex by husbands in urban and rural Bangladesh using population-based survey data from 2001 (n = 2,702). Results showed high prevalence of lifetime sexual violence: 37 % in urban and 50 % in rural areas. An overwhelming majority of the women reported being sexually abused by husbands more than once. Logistic regression analyses revealed that six out of ten independent variables included in the models were significant. The factors positively associated with physically forced sex by husbands during the last 12 months were: history of physical abuse of husband's mother by his father; level of controlling behavior by husband; and forced or coerced first sex. Women's age (20-24 compared to 15-19) and dowry demand at marriage increased the likelihood of this violence in the rural area. Urban women in the second and third income quartiles were more likely to be exposed to this violence compared to women in the first quartile. Results highlight the need for prevention programs targeting men, which would help at the same time to break the cycle of intergenerational exposure and thereby transmission of violence. Notions of gender equality; women's sexual rights; and women's right to consent and choice need to be widely promoted particularly among men.

  3. Natural disasters and population mobility in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Gray, Clark L; Mueller, Valerie

    2012-04-17

    The consequences of environmental change for human migration have gained increasing attention in the context of climate change and recent large-scale natural disasters, but as yet relatively few large-scale and quantitative studies have addressed this issue. We investigate the consequences of climate-related natural disasters for long-term population mobility in rural Bangladesh, a region particularly vulnerable to environmental change, using longitudinal survey data from 1,700 households spanning a 15-y period. Multivariate event history models are used to estimate the effects of flooding and crop failures on local population mobility and long-distance migration while controlling for a large set of potential confounders at various scales. The results indicate that flooding has modest effects on mobility that are most visible at moderate intensities and for women and the poor. However, crop failures unrelated to flooding have strong effects on mobility in which households that are not directly affected but live in severely affected areas are the most likely to move. These results point toward an alternate paradigm of disaster-induced mobility that recognizes the significant barriers to migration for vulnerable households as well their substantial local adaptive capacity.

  4. Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment characteristics and geochemistry of arsenic-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in central Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsudduha, M.; Uddin, A.; Saunders, J. A.; Lee, M.-K.

    2008-07-01

    This study focuses on the Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment composition, mineralogy, and geochemistry of arsenic (As)-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in the central Bangladesh. Arsenic concentrations in 85 tubewells in Manikganj area, 70 km northwest of Dhaka City, range from 0.25 µg/L to 191 µg/L with a mean concentration of 33 µg/L. Groundwater is mainly Ca-HCO3 type with high concentrations of dissolved As, Fe, and Mn, but low level of SO4. The uppermost aquifer occurs between 10 m and 80 m below the surface that has a mean arsenic concentration of 35 µg/L. Deeper aquifer (> 100 m depth) has a mean arsenic concentration of 18 µg/L. Sediments in the upper aquifer are mostly gray to dark-gray, whereas sediments in the deep aquifer are mostly yellowing-gray to brown. Quartz, feldspar, mica, hornblende, garnet, kyanite, tourmaline, magnetite, ilmenite are the major minerals in sediments from both aquifers. Biotite and potassium feldspar are dominant in shallow aquifer, although plagioclase feldspar and garnet are abundant in deep aquifer sediments. Sediment composition suggests a mixed provenance with sediment supplies from both orogenic belts and cratons. High arsenic concentrations in sediments are found within the upper 50 m in drilled core samples. Statistical analysis shows that As, Fe, Mn, Ca, and P are strongly correlated in sediments. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Bi also show strong correlations with arsenic in the Manikganj sediment cores. Authigenic goethite concretions, possibly formed by bacteria, are found in the shallow sediments, which contain arsenic of a concentration as high as 8.8 mg/kg. High arsenic concentrations in aquifers are associated with fine-grained sediments that were derived mostly from the recycled orogens and relatively rapidly deposited mainly by meandering channels during the Early to Middle Holocene rising sea-level conditions.

  5. Heavy metal contamination of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and prawn feed in Bangladesh: A market-based study to highlight probable health risks.

    PubMed

    Rabiul Islam, G M; Habib, Mohammad Ruzlan; Waid, Jillian L; Rahman, M Safiur; Kabir, J; Akter, S; Jolly, Y N

    2017-03-01

    An assessment of the dietary risk of heavy metal exposure to humans is important since it is the main source of exposure. This study aimed to estimate the degree of contamination and assess the probable health risk in the prawn food chain. In prawn feed, the concentrations of metals were detected in the following order: Hg > Co > Pb > Cd. The concentrations of heavy metals in prawn were the highest for Co and lowest for Cd. Trace amounts of As and Cr were detected in the analyzed sample. Target hazard quotients for heavy metals for adults were >1 for Pb, Cd, Hg, and Co, and for children, the same were high for Co and Hg, indicating significant health risks upon dietary exposure. All the prawn samples contained nine-fold and fourteen-fold higher concentrations than the maximum acceptable levels for Pb and Hg, respectively (0.5 mg kg(-1); WHO/FAO). Human health risk due to the Co exposure is quite alarming as the level of exposure was found to be very high. In the prawn samples intended for human consumption, the hazard index (HI) was highest in the samples obtained from Bagerhat (3.25 in flesh and 3.26 in skin), followed by the samples obtained from Satkhira (2.84 in flesh and 3.10 in skin) and Dhaka City Corporation (2.81 in flesh and 3.42 in Skin); this indicates a potential risk of prawn consumption obtained from Southeast Bangladesh. This is particularly problematic as this area accounts for the majority of prawn production and export of the country.

  6. Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment characteristics and geochemistry of arsenic-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in central Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shamsudduha, M; Uddin, A; Saunders, J A; Lee, M-K

    2008-07-29

    This study focuses on the Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment composition, mineralogy, and geochemistry of arsenic (As)-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in the central Bangladesh. Arsenic concentrations in 85 tubewells in Manikganj area, 70 km northwest of Dhaka City, range from 0.25 microg/L to 191 microg/L with a mean concentration of 33 microg/L. Groundwater is mainly Ca-HCO(3) type with high concentrations of dissolved As, Fe, and Mn, but low level of SO(4). The uppermost aquifer occurs between 10 m and 80 m below the surface that has a mean arsenic concentration of 35 microg/L. Deeper aquifer (>100 m depth) has a mean arsenic concentration of 18 microg/L. Sediments in the upper aquifer are mostly gray to dark-gray, whereas sediments in the deep aquifer are mostly yellowing-gray to brown. Quartz, feldspar, mica, hornblende, garnet, kyanite, tourmaline, magnetite, ilmenite are the major minerals in sediments from both aquifers. Biotite and potassium feldspar are dominant in shallow aquifer, although plagioclase feldspar and garnet are abundant in deep aquifer sediments. Sediment composition suggests a mixed provenance with sediment supplies from both orogenic belts and cratons. High arsenic concentrations in sediments are found within the upper 50 m in drilled core samples. Statistical analysis shows that As, Fe, Mn, Ca, and P are strongly correlated in sediments. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Bi also show strong correlations with arsenic in the Manikganj sediment cores. Authigenic goethite concretions, possibly formed by bacteria, are found in the shallow sediments, which contain arsenic of a concentration as high as 8.8 mg/kg. High arsenic concentrations in aquifers are associated with fine-grained sediments that were derived mostly from the recycled orogens and relatively rapidly deposited mainly by meandering channels during the Early to Middle Holocene rising sea-level conditions.

  7. Women-focused development intervention reduces delays in accessing emergency obstetric care in urban slums in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recognizing the burden of maternal mortality in urban slums, in 2007 BRAC (formally known as Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) has established a woman-focused development intervention, Manoshi (the Bangla abbreviation of mother, neonate and child), in urban slums of Bangladesh. The intervention emphasizes strengthening the continuum of maternal, newborn and child care through community, delivery centre (DC) and timely referral of the obstetric complications to the emergency obstetric care (EmOC) facilities. This study aimed to assess whether Manoshi DCs reduces delays in accessing EmOC. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted during October 2008 to January 2009 in the slums of Dhaka city among 450 obstetric complicated cases referred either from DCs of Manoshi or from their home to the EmOC facilities. Trained female interviewers interviewed at their homestead with structured questionnaire. Pearson's chi-square test, t-test and Mann-Whitney test were performed. Results The median time for making the decision to seek care was significantly longer among women who were referred from home than referred from DCs (9.7 hours vs. 5.0 hours, p < 0.001). The median time to reach a facility and to receive treatment was found to be similar in both groups. Time taken to decide to seek care was significantly shorter in the case of life-threatening complications among those who were referred from DC than home (0.9 hours vs.2.3 hours, p = 0.002). Financial assistance from Manoshi significantly reduced the first delay in accessing EmOC services for life-threatening complications referred from DC (p = 0.006). Reasons for first delay include fear of medical intervention, inability to judge maternal condition, traditional beliefs and financial constraints. Role of gender was found to be an important issue in decision making. First delay was significantly higher among elderly women, multiparity, non life-threatening complications and who were not involved in

  8. Underground coal gasification with extended CO2 utilization as economic and carbon neutral approach to address energy and fertilizer supply shortages in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Islam, Rafiqul; Kempka, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The application of underground coal gasification (UCG) with proven carbon mitigation techniques may provide a carbon neutral approach to tackle electricity and fertilizer supply shortages in Bangladesh. UCG facilitates the utilization of deep-seated coal seams, not economically exploitable by conventional coal mining. The high-calorific synthesis gas produced by UCG can be used for e.g. electricity generation or as chemical raw material for hydrogen, methanol and fertilizer production. Kempka et al. (2010) carried out an integrated assessment of UCG operation, demonstrating that about 19 % of the CO2 produced during UCG may be mitigated by CO2 utilization in fertilizer production. In the present study, we investigated an extension of the UCG system by introducing excess CO2 storage in the gas deposit of the Bahkrabad gas field (40 km east of Dhaka, Bangladesh). This gas field still holds natural gas resources of 12.8 million tons of LNG equivalent, but is close to abandonment due to a low reservoir pressure. Consequently, applying enhanced gas recovery (EGR) by injection of excess carbon dioxide from the coupled UCG-urea process may mitigate carbon emissions and support natural gas production from the Bahkrabad gas field. To carry out an integrated techno-economic assessment of the coupled system, we adapted the techno-economic UCG-CCS model developed by Nakaten et al. (2014) to consider the urea and EGR processes. Reservoir simulations addressing EGR in the Bakhrabad gas field by utilization of excess carbon dioxide from the UCG process were carried out to account for the induced pressure increase in the reservoir, and thus additional gas recovery potentials. The Jamalganj coal field in Northwest Bangladesh provides favorable geological and infrastructural conditions for a UCG operation at coal seam depths of 640 m to 1,158 m. Excess CO2 can be transported via existing pipeline networks to the Bahkrabad gas field (about 300 km distance from the coal deposit) to be

  9. Probable impacts of climate change on public health in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Shamsuddin

    2010-07-01

    The recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change confirmed that there is overwhelming evidence that the global climate will severely affect human health. Climate change might have severe consequences on public health in Bangladesh, especially in light of the poor state of the country's public health infrastructure. A number of possible direct and indirect impacts of climate change on public health in Bangladesh have been identified in this article. Adaptive measures that should be taken to reduce the negative consequences of climate change on public health have also been discussed.

  10. Women’s empowerment revisited: a case study from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Farzana; Rottach, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the changing dimensions of women's empowerment over time in three Bangladesh villages where one of the authors has been conducting research since 1991. The article discusses theoretical issues related to the measurement of women's empowerment, and describes findings from a recent study in the villages exploring the current salience of indicators developed for a 1992 survey. In the article we discuss the types of social, economic, and political change that affect the measurement of women’s empowerment; propose and explain a new set of indicators for the rural Bangladesh setting; and discuss implications for measuring women's empowerment in other settings. PMID:20856695

  11. Shaping a better rice plant.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathan

    2010-06-01

    Two studies describe how regulatory variation at the rice gene OsSPL14 can lead to altered plant morphology and improve grain yield. These studies support the possibility of improving rice yield through changing plant architecture.

  12. Pattern of Pulmonary Involvement and Outcome of Aspiration Pneumonia in Patients with Altered Consciousness Admitted in Dhaka Medical College Hospital.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, R A; Azad, A K; Sardar, H; Siddiqui, M R; Saad, S; Rahman, S; Sikder, A S

    2016-01-01

    Aspiration is well recognized as a cause of pulmonary disease and is not uncommon in patients with altered consciousness.The mortality rate of aspiration pneumonia is approximately 1% in outpatient setting and upto 25% in those requiring hospitalization. This study was done to see the pattern of pulmonary involvement and outcome of aspiration pneumonia in patients with altered consciousness admitted in medicine department of a tertiary care hospital in our country. This was a prospective observational study conducted among the 52 adult patients of aspiration pneumonia with altered consciousness admitted in the medicine department of Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH), during June 2010 to December 2010. Aspiration pneumonia was confirmed by clinical examination and laboratory investigations. Hematologic measurements (TC of WBC, Hb%, ESR, platelet count), chest X-ray, blood gas analysis, blood urea, creatinine and random blood sugar, sputum for Gram staining, sputum for culture sensitivity and blood culture were done in all patients.Assessment of altered conscious patient was done by application of the Glasgow Coma Scale. Case record forms with appropriate questionnaire were filled for all patients. The mean±SD age was 57.42±13.63 years with ranged from 25 to 90 years. Out of 52 patients, 37(71.15%) patients were male and 15(28.85%) patients were female. Following aspiration 76.92% patients developed pneumonitis, 13.46% patients developed lung abscess and only 9.62% patients developed ARDS. Most (33) of the patients had opacity in right lower zone and 13 patients had opacity in the left lower zone, 6 patients had opacity in right mid zone. Only 10 patients had opacity in both lower zones. In this study overall mortality rate was 23%. If only one lobe was involved radiologically, mortality was 8.33%. If two or more lobes on one or both sides were involved, mortality was in the range of 25-91%.

  13. Remediation Options for the Arsenic Crisis in Bangladesh: Implications From the Recent Survey of 5000 wells in Araihazar Upazila.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geen, A.; Horneman, A.; Horneman, A.; Dhar, R.; Zheng, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Stute, M.; Stute, M.; Simpson, H. J.; Gelman, A.; Ahmed, K. M.

    2001-05-01

    Over the past three decades, millions of tube-wells have been installed in the Ganges-Brahmuputra Delta to provide pathogen-free water for cooking and drinking. Sadly, perhaps one third of these wells contain arsenic at concentrations exceeding the Bangladesh drinking water standard of 50 ug/l. In partnership with Bangladeshi scientists, Columbia University researchers recently collected water samples from 5000 contiguous tube wells in Araihazar Upazila, ~20 km east of Dhaka. The sampling program is intended to set the stage for a large epidemiological cohort study of arsenicosis to be conducted over 5 years under the NIEHS/Superfund Basic Research Program. The analysis of all tube well samples by graphite-furnace atomic absorption was recently completed. The results show that 48 percent of the population in Araihazar is currently exposed to arsenic levels above 50 ug/L. One fifth of the population is exposed to levels ranging from 200 to 900 ug/L. The depth of the sampled tube wells ranged between 8-100 m, with a particularly elevated proportion of high-As wells in the 15-30 m depth range. The geo-referenced data indicate an extremely heterogeneous spatial distribution of arsenic in the aquifers underlying the study area. An important objective of our study is to reduce the exposure of the population in Araihazar. One potential form of remediation, at least for the short term, appears to be well-switching. The proportion of the population in Araihazar exposed to As levels in water above 50 ug/L could be reduced from 48 to 9 percent if households were able to fetch their drinking and cooking water from neighboring wells up to 200 m away. Social barriers to such sharing of private resources need to be studied. Our geo-referenced data set also lends itself to determining where the installation of a limited number of 100-m deep communal wells providing low-arsenic water would have the highest impact in terms of reducing exposure.

  14. Concentrations of Inorganic Arsenic in Milled Rice from China and Associated Dietary Exposure Assessment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yatao; Wang, Min; Mao, Xuefei; Qian, Yongzhong; Chen, Tianjin; Zhang, Ying

    2015-12-23

    Total arsenic (As) and inorganic As (Asi) in milled rice (n = 1653) collected from China were studied to evaluate the contamination level, distribution, and health risks. The mean concentrations of the total As and Asi were 116.5 and 90.9 μg/kg, respectively. There were significant differences (P < 0.01) between the 11 provinces, and 1.1% of samples exceeded the maximum contaminant level established by Chinese legislation. According to the exposure assessment method of probabilistic simulation, all values of the target hazard quotients (THQs) for chronic noncarcinogenic risks (skin lesions as the point of departure) were below 1, suggesting that the Chinese population will not encounter a significant noncarcinogenic risk. However, the mean values of margin of exposure (MOE) for lung cancer risks ranging from 3.86 to 8.54 were under 100 for all age groups and genders of the Chinese population; moreover, MOE values for some major rice-producing and -consuming countries, such as Japan, Thailand, Bangladesh, and the United States, were all also below 100. More attention should be paid to carcinogenic risks from rice Asi intake, and some control measures to reduce rice Asi intake should be taken.

  15. Child marriage in Bangladesh: trends and determinants.

    PubMed

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul; Ying, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the trends and determinants of child marriage among women aged 20-49 in Bangladesh. Data were extracted from the last six nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys conducted during 1993-2011. Simple cross-tabulation and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were adopted. According to the survey conducted in 2011, more than 75% of marriages can be categorized as child marriages. This is a decline of 10 percentage points in the prevalence of child marriage compared with the survey conducted in 1993-1994. Despite some improvements in education and other socioeconomic indicators, Bangladeshi society still faces the relentless practice of early marriage. The mean age at first marriage has increased by only 1.4 years over the last one and half decades, from 14.3 years in 1993-1994 to 15.7 years in 2011. Although the situation on risk of child marriage has improved over time, the pace is sluggish. Both the year-of-birth and year-of-marriage cohorts of women suggest that the likelihood of marrying as a child has decreased significantly in recent years. The risk of child marriage was significantly higher when husbands had no formal education or little education, and when the wives were unemployed or unskilled workers. Muslim women living in rural areas have a greater risk of child marriage. Women's education level was the single most significant negative determinant of child marriage. Thus, the variables identified as important determinants of child marriage are: education of women and their husbands, and women's occupation, place of residence and religion. Programmes to help and motivate girls to stay in school will not only reduce early marriage but will also support overall societal development. The rigid enforcement of the legal minimum age at first marriage could be critical in decreasing child marriage.

  16. Aerosol pollution over Northern India and Bangladesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The skies over Northern India are filled with a thick soup of aerosol particles all along the southern edge of the Himalayan Mountains, and streaming southward over Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal. Notice that the air over the Tibetan Plateau to the north of the Himalayas is very clear, whereas the view of the land surface south of the mountains is obstructed by the brownish haze. Most of this air pollution comes from human activities. The aerosol over this region is notoriously rich in sulfates, nitrates, organic and black carbon, and fly ash. These particles not only represent a health hazard to those people living in the region, but scientists have also recently found that they can have a significant impact on the region's hydrological cycle and climate (click to read the relevant NASA press release). This true-color image was acquired on December 4, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. It is interesting to compare the image above with this earlier MODIS image over the region, acquired on October 23, 2001. Notice the difference in the clarity of the air over the region in the earlier image. Under the thick plume of aerosol, the Brahmaputra (upper right) and Ganges Rivers are still visible. The many mouths of the Ganges have turned the northern waters of the Bay of Bengal a murky brown as they empty their sediment-laden waters into the bay. Toward the upper lefthand corner of the image, there appears to be a fresh swath of snow on the ground just south of the Himalayas.

  17. Bangladesh: Feasibility Study for Non-Formal Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John P.

    Bangladesh is currently suffering from a number of debilitating weaknesses in its education system. Seventy percent of all children are enrolled in primary school, but 75% of these children do not reach grade five. Futhermore, with absentee rates of 50% for both students and teachers, it is estimated that 35% of children who attend school are…

  18. Factors Influencing Primary Students' Learning Achievement in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Samir Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Using "Education Watch" database of 2008, this article explores the factors associated with learning achievement of primary school students in Bangladesh. The sample consists of 7,093 fifth graders (final year of compulsory primary education) from 440 primary schools. Based on nationally adopted competencies for primary education, a…

  19. Household Schooling and Child Labor Decisions in Rural Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2007-01-01

    Using empirical methods, this paper examines household schooling and child labor decisions in rural Bangladesh. The results suggest the following: poverty and low parental education are associated with lower schooling and greater child labor; asset-owning households are more likely to have children combine child labor with schooling; households…

  20. The Succeed Project: