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Sample records for rice gall midge

  1. Analysis of SSH library of rice variety Aganni reveals candidate gall midge resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Divya, Dhanasekar; Singh, Y Tunginba; Nair, Suresh; Bentur, J S

    2016-03-01

    The Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae, is a serious insect pest causing extensive yield loss. Interaction between the gall midge and rice genotypes is known to be on a gene-for-gene basis. Here, we report molecular basis of HR- (hypersensitive reaction-negative) type of resistance in Aganni (an indica rice variety possessing gall midge resistance gene Gm8) through the construction and analysis of a suppressive subtraction hybridization (SSH) cDNA library. In all, 2,800 positive clones were sequenced and analyzed. The high-quality ESTs were assembled into 448 non-redundant gene sequences. Homology search with the NCBI databases, using BlastX and BlastN, revealed that 73% of the clones showed homology to genes with known function and majority of ESTs belonged to the gene ontology category 'biological process'. Validation of 27 putative candidate gall midge resistance genes through real-time PCR, following gall midge infestation, in contrasting parents and their derived pre-NILs (near isogenic lines) revealed induction of specific genes related to defense and metabolism. Interestingly, four genes, belonging to families of leucine-rich repeat (LRR), heat shock protein (HSP), pathogenesis related protein (PR), and NAC domain-containing protein, implicated in conferring HR+ type of resistance, were found to be up-regulated in Aganni. Two of the reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI)-scavenging-enzyme-coding genes Cytosolic Ascorbate Peroxidase1, 2 (OsAPx1 and OsAPx2) were found up-regulated in Aganni in incompatible interaction possibly suppressing HR. We suggest that Aganni has a deviant form of inducible, salicylic acid (SA)-mediated resistance but without HR.

  2. Phylogeography of the Asian rice gall midge Orseolia oryzae (Wood Mason) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Janique, Solene; Sriratanasak, Wantana; Ketsuwan, Kulchana; Jairin, Jirapong; Jeratthitikul, Ekgachai

    2017-02-01

    The Asian rice gall midge (RGM) Orseolia oryzae (Wood Mason) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a major pest of rice, leading to yield losses in Thailand and many Asian countries. Despite an increasing number of reported midge outbreaks and the presence of many susceptible rice varieties, only a few studies have focused on the genetic variation of the midges. Therefore, we analyzed the phylogeography among Thai RGM populations covering north, northeast and central Thailand. Two mitochondrial DNA genes, cytochrome C oxidase I (COI) and 12S, and a non-coding repeat region (RR) situated just before COI were amplified. Overall, the haplotype diversity for COI and 12S genes of the Thai population was high, but the nucleotide diversity was quite low. Altogether, the phylogenetic tree and pairwise F st values indicated that Thai RGM populations recently expanded and were homogeneously distributed throughout the country, except for some populations in the north, which most likely became recently isolated from the main population. Two non-coding repeat motifs, that were recently observed in the mitogenome of RGM in India, were absent in Thai populations and replaced by an 89 bp non-coding sequence. Tandem nucleotide repeats of the sequence TA were also observed. The repeat copy number varied from 2 to 11 and was not correlated with geographical repartition of the midge. Finally, COI barcoding divergence between Indian and Thai populations was high (6.3% in average), giving insights into the potential existence of an RGM species complex in Asia.

  3. The Asian Rice Gall Midge (Orseolia oryzae) Mitogenome Has Evolved Novel Gene Boundaries and Tandem Repeats That Distinguish Its Biotypes

    PubMed Central

    Atray, Isha; Bentur, Jagadish Sanmallappa; Nair, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Diptera; Cecidomyiidae) was sequenced, annotated and analysed in the present study. The circular genome is 15,286 bp with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and a 578 bp non-coding control region. All protein coding genes used conventional start codons and terminated with a complete stop codon. The genome presented many unusual features: (1) rearrangement in the order of tRNAs as well as protein coding genes; (2) truncation and unusual secondary structures of tRNAs; (3) presence of two different repeat elements in separate non-coding regions; (4) presence of one pseudo-tRNA gene; (5) inversion of the rRNA genes; (6) higher percentage of non-coding regions when compared with other insect mitogenomes. Rearrangements of the tRNAs and protein coding genes are explained on the basis of tandem duplication and random loss model and why intramitochondrial recombination is a better model for explaining rearrangements in the O. oryzae mitochondrial genome is discussed. Furthermore, we evaluated the number of iterations of the tandem repeat elements found in the mitogenome. This led to the identification of genetic markers capable of differentiating rice gall midge biotypes and the two Orseolia species investigated. PMID:26226163

  4. Feltiella acarisuga (predatory gall midge)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga is one of the most effective and widespread natural enemies of spider mites. Because of their flying and prey detecting capabilities, and high feeding potential, it is considered an important natural enemy of the two-spotted spider mite in a number of cr...

  5. QTL Mapping in Three Rice Populations Uncovers Major Genomic Regions Associated with African Rice Gall Midge Resistance.

    PubMed

    Yao, Nasser; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Semagn, Kassa; Sow, Mounirou; Nwilene, Francis; Kolade, Olufisayo; Bocco, Roland; Oyetunji, Olumoye; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Ndjiondjop, Marie-Noëlle

    2016-01-01

    African rice gall midge (AfRGM) is one of the most destructive pests of irrigated and lowland African ecologies. This study aimed to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with AfRGM pest incidence and resistance in three independent bi-parental rice populations (ITA306xBW348-1, ITA306xTOG7106 and ITA306xTOS14519), and to conduct meta QTL (mQTL) analysis to explore whether any genomic regions are conserved across different genetic backgrounds. Composite interval mapping (CIM) conducted on the three populations independently uncovered a total of 28 QTLs associated with pest incidence (12) and pest severity (16). The number of QTLs per population associated with AfRGM resistance varied from three in the ITA306xBW348-1 population to eight in the ITA306xTOG7106 population. Each QTL individually explained 1.3 to 34.1% of the phenotypic variance. The major genomic region for AfRGM resistance had a LOD score and R2 of 60.0 and 34.1% respectively, and mapped at 111 cM on chromosome 4 (qAfrGM4) in the ITA306xTOS14519 population. The meta-analysis reduced the number of QTLs from 28 to 17 mQTLs, each explaining 1.3 to 24.5% of phenotypic variance, and narrowed the confidence intervals by 2.2 cM. There was only one minor effect mQTL on chromosome 1 that was common in the TOS14519 and TOG7106 genetic backgrounds; all other mQTLs were background specific. We are currently fine-mapping and validating the major effect genomic region on chromosome 4 (qAfRGM4). This is the first report in mapping the genomic regions associated with the AfRGM resistance, and will be highly useful for rice breeders.

  6. QTL Mapping in Three Rice Populations Uncovers Major Genomic Regions Associated with African Rice Gall Midge Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Semagn, Kassa; Sow, Mounirou; Nwilene, Francis; Kolade, Olufisayo; Bocco, Roland; Oyetunji, Olumoye; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Ndjiondjop, Marie-Noëlle

    2016-01-01

    African rice gall midge (AfRGM) is one of the most destructive pests of irrigated and lowland African ecologies. This study aimed to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with AfRGM pest incidence and resistance in three independent bi-parental rice populations (ITA306xBW348-1, ITA306xTOG7106 and ITA306xTOS14519), and to conduct meta QTL (mQTL) analysis to explore whether any genomic regions are conserved across different genetic backgrounds. Composite interval mapping (CIM) conducted on the three populations independently uncovered a total of 28 QTLs associated with pest incidence (12) and pest severity (16). The number of QTLs per population associated with AfRGM resistance varied from three in the ITA306xBW348-1 population to eight in the ITA306xTOG7106 population. Each QTL individually explained 1.3 to 34.1% of the phenotypic variance. The major genomic region for AfRGM resistance had a LOD score and R2 of 60.0 and 34.1% respectively, and mapped at 111 cM on chromosome 4 (qAfrGM4) in the ITA306xTOS14519 population. The meta-analysis reduced the number of QTLs from 28 to 17 mQTLs, each explaining 1.3 to 24.5% of phenotypic variance, and narrowed the confidence intervals by 2.2 cM. There was only one minor effect mQTL on chromosome 1 that was common in the TOS14519 and TOG7106 genetic backgrounds; all other mQTLs were background specific. We are currently fine-mapping and validating the major effect genomic region on chromosome 4 (qAfRGM4). This is the first report in mapping the genomic regions associated with the AfRGM resistance, and will be highly useful for rice breeders. PMID:27508500

  7. Gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Marcela Skuhrav& #225; ; Marcela NO-VALUE

    1991-01-01

    The family Cecidomyiidae is one of the largest of the Diptera. Gall midges are small, inconspicuous flies, but they may be very important both in forest ecosystems and in agroecosystems. Many phytophagous gall midge species attack forest trees, and some of them can be serious pests, such as the Dasineura rozhkovii Mamaev and Nikolsky, which develops...

  8. Tagging and mapping of a rice gall midge resistance gene, Gm8, and development of SCARs for use in marker-aided selection and gene pyramiding.

    PubMed

    Jain, A; Ariyadasa, R; Kumar, A; Srivastava, M N; Mohan, M; Nair, S

    2004-11-01

    Using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs), we have tagged and mapped Gm8, a gene conferring resistance to the rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae), a major insect pest of rice, onto rice chromosome 8. Using AFLPs, two fragments, AR257 and AS168, were identified that were linked to the resistant and susceptible phenotypes, respectively. Another resistant phenotype-specific marker, AP19(587), was also identified using RAPDs. SCAR primers based on the sequence of the fragments AR257 and AS168 failed to reveal polymorphism between the resistant and the susceptible parents. However, PCR using primers based on the regions flanking AR257 revealed polymorphism that was phenotype-specific. In contrast, PCR carried out using primers flanking the susceptible phenotype-associated fragment AS168 produced a monomorphic fragment. Restriction digestion of these monomorphic fragments revealed polymorphism between the susceptible and resistant parents. Nucleotide BLAST searches revealed that the three fragments show strong homology to rice PAC and BAC clones that formed a contig representing the short arm of chromosome 8. PCR amplification using the above-mentioned primers on a larger population, derived from a cross between two indica rice varieties, Jhitpiti (resistant parent) and TN1 (susceptible parent), showed that there is a tight linkage between the markers and the Gm8 locus. These markers, therefore, have potential for use in marker-aided selection and pyramiding of Gm8 along with other previously tagged gall midge resistance genes [ Gm2, Gm4(t), and Gm7].

  9. Gall midges (Hessian flies) as plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Jeff J; Chen, Ming-Shun; Shukle, Richard; Harris, Marion O

    2012-01-01

    Gall midges constitute an important group of plant-parasitic insects. The Hessian fly (HF; Mayetiola destructor), the most investigated gall midge, was the first insect hypothesized to have a gene-for-gene interaction with its host plant, wheat (Triticum spp.). Recent investigations support that hypothesis. The minute larval mandibles appear to act in a manner that is analogous to nematode stylets and the haustoria of filamentous plant pathogens. Putative effector proteins are encoded by hundreds of genes and expressed in the HF larval salivary gland. Cultivar-specific resistance (R) genes mediate a highly localized plant reaction that prevents the survival of avirulent HF larvae. Fine-scale mapping of HF avirulence (Avr) genes provides further evidence of effector-triggered immunity (ETI) against HF in wheat. Taken together, these discoveries suggest that the HF, and other gall midges, may be considered biotrophic, or hemibiotrophic, plant pathogens, and they demonstrate the potential that the wheat-HF interaction has in the study of insect-induced plant gall formation.

  10. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of female African rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzivora Harris and Gagné, to host plant volatiles.

    PubMed

    Ogah, Emmanuel O; Smart, Lesley E; Woodcock, Christine M; Caulfield, John C; Birkett, Michael A; Pickett, John A; Nwilene, Francis E; Bruce, Toby J

    2017-01-01

    African rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzivora Harris and Gagné, is a major pest of rice in Africa. Depsite its economic importance, its chemical ecology is not well understood. Here, we assessed behavioral and electrophysiological responses of O. oryzivora to host plant volatiles. In olfactometer bioassays, mated female O. oryzivora were attracted to volatiles emitted from intact rice plants but were repelled by volatiles collected from plants infested by conspecifics. In a choice test, there was a preference for volatiles from uninfested plants over those from infested plants. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography analyses of panicle volatiles isolated four electrophysiologically active components: (S)-linalool, 4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, (E)-caryophyllene, and (R/S)-(E)-nerolidol. A synthetic blend of volatiles at the same concentration and ratio as that from an intact plant was attractive to mated females, whereas a blend based on the ratio of volatiles from an infested plant was repellent. This suggests that O. oryzivora uses olfaction for host plant recognition. The identification of blends of volatiles emitted by plants that can both attract and repel O. oryzivora may aid the development of sustainable control measures.

  11. Bud gall midges - potential invaders on larches in North America

    Treesearch

    Yuri N. Baranchikov

    2007-01-01

    Larch bud gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) form a specialized group of gall insects inhabiting buds of larch (Larix) in the northern Palaearctic Region. Currently there are four described species in this group. Dasineura kellneri Henschel is found in Central Europe and infests Larix decidua; D....

  12. Significance of phytohormones in Siberian larch-bud gall midge interaction

    Treesearch

    Rida M. Matrenina

    1991-01-01

    Interrelations of the bud gall midge and the Siberian larch are of scientific and practical interest because of the bud gall midge's role as a plant endoparasite. We know that attack by the gall midge sets off a reaction in the entire plant. Invasion by the insect results in a certain interaction between physiological mechanisms of the insect and the plant which...

  13. Oviposition cues of the blueberry gall midge, dasineura oxycoccana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The blueberry gall midge oviposits into blueberry flower buds and leaf buds, reducing yield up to 80%. We developed an efficient rearing method with a low level of direct handling, and high levels of survival and chance of mating. We also collected and identified volatiles from blueberry flower bu...

  14. Tripius gyraloura n. sp. (Aphelenchoidea: Sphaerulariidae) parasitic in the gall midge Lasioptera donacis Coutin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new nematode, Tripius gyraloura sp. n., is described from the arundo gall midge, Lasioptera donacis Coutin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). This gall midge is being considered as a biological control agent for use in North America against the introduced giant reed, Arundo donax (L.) (Poaceae: Cyperales)....

  15. MicroRNA Variants, Expression, and Putative Target Genes in the Gall Midge Mayetiola Destructor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play roles in nearly all biological processes and therefore may provide opportunities to develop new means to combat the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, a gall midge and a destructive pest of wheat. This study conducted a comprehensive analysis of miRNAs via deep-sequencing sa...

  16. Massive shift in gene expression during transitions between developmental stages of the Gall Midge, Mayetiola destructor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The gall midge Mayetiola destructor is a destructive pest of wheat worldwide and a model organism for studying plant – insect interactions. The insect has six different developmental stages including eggs, three instars of larvae, pupae, and adults. Molecular mechanisms controlling the transition ...

  17. Celticecis, a Genus of Gall Midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Newly Reported for the Western Palearctic Region

    Treesearch

    Raymond J. Gagné; John C. Moser

    1997-01-01

    Many Holarctic genera of trees and shrubs are host over much of their ranges to particular genera of Cecidomyiidae. As examples, willows host gall midges of Rabdophaga and Iteomyia, oaks host Macrodiplosis and Polystepha, and birches host Semudobia in both the Nearctic and...

  18. Unusual conservation among genes encoding small secreted salivary gland proteins from a gall midge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Shun; Liu, Xuming; Yang, Ziheng; Zhao, Huixian; Shukle, Richard H; Stuart, Jeffrey J; Hulbert, Scot

    2010-09-28

    In most protein-coding genes, greater sequence variation is observed in noncoding regions (introns and untranslated regions) than in coding regions due to selective constraints. During characterization of genes and transcripts encoding small secreted salivary gland proteins (SSSGPs) from the Hessian fly, we found exactly the opposite pattern of conservation in several families of genes: the non-coding regions were highly conserved, but the coding regions were highly variable. Seven genes from the SSSGP-1 family are clustered as one inverted and six tandem repeats within a 15 kb region of the genome. Except for SSSGP-1A2, a gene that encodes a protein identical to that encoded by SSSGP-1A1, the other six genes consist of a highly diversified, mature protein-coding region as well as highly conserved regions including the promoter, 5'- and 3'-UTRs, a signal peptide coding region, and an intron. This unusual pattern of highly diversified coding regions coupled with highly conserved regions in the rest of the gene was also observed in several other groups of SSSGP-encoding genes or cDNAs. The unusual conservation pattern was also found in some of the SSSGP cDNAs from the Asian rice gall midge, but not from the orange wheat blossom midge. Strong positive selection was one of the forces driving for diversification whereas concerted homogenization was likely a mechanism for sequence conservation. Rapid diversification in mature SSSGPs suggests that the genes are under selection pressure for functional adaptation. The conservation in the noncoding regions of these genes including introns also suggested potential mechanisms for sequence homogenization that are not yet fully understood. This report should be useful for future studies on genetic mechanisms involved in evolution and functional adaptation of parasite genes.

  19. Evaluation of emergence traps for monitoring blueberry gall midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) adults and within field distribution of midge infestation.

    PubMed

    Roubos, Craig R; Liburd, Oscar E

    2010-08-01

    The blueberry gall midge, Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a key pest of rabbiteye blueberry, Vaccinium virgatum Aiton, in the southeastern United States, but it has not been studied extensively and little is known about its ecology and management. Studies were conducted to develop an improved method for monitoring D. oxycoccana adults and to determine the within-field distribution of infestation. Four emergence traps were evaluated in an organic rabbiteye blueberry planting for their effectiveness in capturing D. oxycoccana adults early in the season. These traps included a jar trap, wheat blossom midge trap, petri dish trap, and bucket trap. The petri dish and bucket traps captured the highest numbers of adults in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Both traps had a clear plastic panel coated with adhesive. Adult midges emerging from the soil beneath the traps were caught in the adhesive as they flew up toward the light. Emergence traps are useful for detecting the presence of adults early in the season before larval infestation is apparent in the flower buds. To determine the pattern of midge infestation, flower buds were collected weekly from January to March in 2006 from rabbiteye blueberry plants located in a plot at the southwest border of an existing blueberry planting. There were no differences found in the number of larvae collected from various distances within blueberry rows. However, when flower buds were collected from an isolated rabbiteye plot in 2007 and 2008, D. oxycoccana infestation was not uniform. In both years, the southern border row had a significantly higher number of midge larvae per bud compared with the other rows.

  20. New records and new species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) developing on Chenopodiaceae in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Ayman Khamis; Skuhravá, Marcela; Karam, Hedaya Hamza; Elminshawy, Abdelaziz; Al-Eryan, Mohamed Awad

    2015-01-05

    The Cecidomyiidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha) fauna of Egypt is poorly known. Investigations in northern Egypt in 2013 revealed the presence of seven species of gall midges on three host plant species: Atriplex halimus L., Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric.) and Suaeda pruniosa Lange (all Chenopodiaceae). Among the gall midges, Baldratia salicorniae  Kieffer and Stefaniella trinacriae De Stefani are reconfirmed records in Egypt; Houardiella gracilis Dorchin & Freidberg and Asphondylia punica Marchal are new records; and Baldratia karamae Elsayed & Skuhraván. sp. , Primofavilla aegyptiaca Elsayed n. sp. and Stefaniella skuhravae Elsayed n. sp. are new to science. Adult morphology of the latter three new species is described and illustrated, and their biology and geographic distribution are given. 

  1. Carotenoids in unexpected places: gall midges, lateral gene transfer, and carotenoid biosynthesis in animals.

    PubMed

    Cobbs, Cassidy; Heath, Jeremy; Stireman, John O; Abbot, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    Carotenoids are conjugated isoprenoid molecules with many important physiological functions in organisms, including roles in photosynthesis, oxidative stress reduction, vision, diapause, photoperiodism, and immunity. Until recently, it was believed that only plants, microorganisms, and fungi were capable of synthesizing carotenoids and that animals acquired them from their diet, but recent studies have demonstrated that two arthropods (pea aphid and spider mite) possess a pair of genes homologous to those required for the first step of carotenoid biosynthesis. Absent in all other known animal genomes, these genes appear to have been acquired by aphids and spider mites in one or several lateral gene transfer events from a fungal donor. We report the third case of fungal carotenoid biosynthesis gene homologs in an arthropod: flies from the family Cecidomyiidae, commonly known as gall midges. Using phylogenetic analyses we show that it is unlikely that lycopene cyclase/phytoene synthase and phytoene desaturase homologs were transferred singly to an ancient arthropod ancestor; instead we propose that genes were transferred independently from related fungal donors after divergence of the major arthropod lineages. We also examine variation in intron placement and copy number of the carotenoid genes that may underlie function in the midges. This trans-kingdom transfer of carotenoid genes may represent a key innovation, underlying the evolution of phytophagy and plant-galling in gall midges and facilitating their extensive diversification across plant lineages.

  2. Does gall midge larvae cause pre-dispersal seed mortality and limit cornflower population growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprdova, Stanislava; Bellanger, Solène; Skuhrovec, Jiří; Darmency, Henri

    2015-11-01

    Many kinds of pests can reduce seed production. Some directly attack seeds before they are released, and some are hosted by the fruit and impact seed ripening and viability indirectly. Pre-dispersal seed mortality may have strong effects on plant population dynamics and evolution. Our goals were to determine to what extent insect-mediated pre-dispersal seed mortality contributes to population-level declines of cornflower, Centaurea cyanus L. We recorded occurrence and abundance of seed-feeding insects on flower heads in twelve cornflower populations. We measured flower head size, number of disc florets, seed production, and seed viability and germination. Larger flower heads had proportionally fewer healthy seeds. Although we observed no visible damage to the C. cyanus seed, the presence of gall midge (Cecidomyiidae) larvae inside the flower head correlated with four times fewer viable seeds. It seems that gall midges could have a significant impact on ovule fertilization, seed abortion and viability of fully developed cornflower seeds. The higher rate of aborted seeds in the presence of gall midge larvae could have been because the larvae extracted resources from the seeds, or because the larvae repelled pollinators. The viability of apparently healthy seeds was 40% lower in flower heads that contained larvae and/or aborted seed. Insect-mediated pre-dispersal mortality could select against evolution toward larger flower head, and have detrimental consequences on seed number, viability and germination, all of which could limit the spread of C. cyanus populations.

  3. Size, age and composition: characteristics of plant taxa as diversity predictors of gall-midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Araújo, Walter S

    2011-12-01

    Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the diversity of gall-midge insects (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), some of them taking into account plant diversity. This study aims to test the importance of size, age and composition of host plant taxa in the diversity of Cecidomyiidae. For this we used inventories data on the diversity of galling and host plants in Brazil. We found that Asterales, Myrtales and Malpighiales, were the most important orders, with 34, 33 and 25, gall morphotypes, respectively. The most representative host families were Asteraceae (34 morphotypes), Myrtaceae (23) and Fabaceae (22). In general, the order size and the plant family were good predictors of the galling diversity, but not the taxon age. The most diverse host genera for gall-midges were Mikania, Eugenia and Styrax, with 15, 13 and nine galler species, respectively. The size of plant genera showed no significant relationship with the richness of Cecidomyiidae, contrary to the prediction of the plant taxon size hypothesis. The plant genera with the greatest diversity of galling insects are not necessarily those with the greatest number of species. These results indicate that some plant taxa have a high intrinsic richness of galling insects, suggesting that the plant species composition may be equally or more important for the diversity of gall-midges than the size or age of the host taxon.

  4. An Attractant of the Aphidophagous Gall Midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza From Honeydew of Aphis gossypii.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yano, Eizi; Higashida, Keita; Hasegawa, Syouichi; Takabayashi, Junji; Ozawa, Rika

    2016-02-01

    Many natural enemies of insects use honeydew as a volatile cue to locate hosts or prey, as an oviposition stimulant, and as an arrestant for foraging. The aphidophagous gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) has predacious larval stages and can be used to control aphid populations, especially in greenhouses. Previous studies have shown that the honeydew, excreted by the aphid Myzus persicae, attracts A. aphidimyza, but the crucial attractants have not been identified. Using an olfactometer, we studied behavioral responses of female A. aphidimyza to volatiles emitted from honeydew excreted by the aphid Aphis gossypii on eggplants. The volatiles attracted female midges and induced oviposition. Moreover, using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), we identified phenylacetaldehyde as the attractant compound in the honeydew, although it did not induce oviposition in olfactometer experiments.

  5. Lopesia davillae (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), a new species of gall midge from Brazil associated with Davilla rugosa (Dilleniaceae).

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Monteiro, R F

    2017-11-01

    Lopesia davillae, a new species of gall midge associated with the reproductive structures of Davilla rugosa (Dilleniaceae), is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female, and damage) based on material collected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This new species is compared with its congeneric species. This is the first record of Lopesia on Dilleniaceae.

  6. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism via genotyping-by-sequencing in the gall midge Mayetiola Destructor (Hessian Fly)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) is a recently developed technology that has been used to identify DNA markers and map genes for specific traits in many organisms. The gall midge Mayetiola destructor, commonly known as Hessian fly, is a global destructive pest of wheat. In this study, we identified ...

  7. Wheat Mds-1 encodes a heat-shock protein and governs susceptibility towards the Hessian fly gall midge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant pests including insects must manipulate plants in order to utilize the nutrition and environment of the host. Here, we show that the heat-shock protein gene Mayetiola destructor susceptibility gene-1 (Mds-1) is a major susceptibility gene in wheat that allows the gall midge M. destructor, com...

  8. Study on the sensitivity of three oat varieties to the saddle gall midge, haplodiplosis margina ta (von Roser) (Diptera: cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Censier, F; Chavalle, S; G, San Martin Y Gomez; De Proft, M; Bodson, B

    2013-01-01

    The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginota (von Roser, 1840) is a univoltine pest of cereals which occurs in Europe. The larvae feed on stems and attractive saddle-shaped depressions, driving to important yield losses when the galls are numerous. After 40 years without any reporting, large populations of H. marginata and important damage have been observed since 2010 in wheat crops in Belgium, especially in the Flemish Polders where clay soils and intensive farming of cereals favour heavy infestations. According to some research conducted in the 1960s during the last outbreak, oat (Avena sativa L.) is known to be one of the less favourable hosts to the saddle gall midge. Our study was performed in order to assess the host sensitivity of three oat varieties currently grown in Belgium: EVITA, EFFEKTIv and FREDDY. Therefore, oat varieties were sown on infested soil in two separate enclosures in a glasshouse. In the first enclosure, only the three oat varieties were grown; in the second one, these three oat varieties were grown together with two varieties of spring wheat: GRANNY and KWS CHAMSIN. TWO parameters were measured: the percentage of leaves with laid eggs, and the number of galls per stem. The percentage of leaves with eggs showed that the infestation was significantly lower on oats when they were in presence of wheat. The egg infestation was also significantly higher on wheat than on oat, which means oat is a much less favourable host plant than spring wheat for egg laying. Oat varieties were significantly different from each other regarding the number of galls per stem, but with very little damage compared to wheat. The FREDDY variety even seemed to be completely resistant to saddle gall midge, as no galls were observed although there was a similar percentage of leaves with eggs for the three oat varieties. Cropping oat could thus contribute to reduce infestations of H. morginato.

  9. Identification of female-produced sex pheromone of the honey locust gall midge, Dasineura gleditchiae.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Béla; Kárpáti, Zsolt; Szocs, Gábor; Hall, David R

    2009-06-01

    The honey locust gall midge, Dasineura gleditchiae Osten Sacken 1866 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is the main pest of ornamental varieties of the honey locust tree, Gleditsia triacanthos L., in North America, and is now becoming a pest of concern in Europe. Female midges were observed to emerge in the early morning with their ovipositor extended until they mated. Volatiles were collected from virgin females in a closed-loop stripping apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to electroantennographic (EAG) recording from the antenna of a male midge. A single EAG response was observed, which was assumed to be to the major component of the female sex pheromone. This was identified as (Z)-2-acetoxy-8-heptadecene by comparison of its mass spectrum and GC retention times on different columns with those of synthetic standards and by micro-analytical reactions. This compound was synthesized, and the individual enantiomers were produced by kinetic resolution with lipase from Candida antarctica. Analysis of the naturally-produced compound on a cyclodextrin GC column indicated it was the (R)-enantiomer. In EAG dose-response measurements, the (R)-enantiomer alone or in the racemic mixture evoked significant responses from the antennae of male D. gleditchiae, whereas the (S)-enantiomer did not. In field trapping tests, the (R)-enantiomer attracted male D. gleditchiae. The racemic compound was equally attractive, but the (S)-enantiomer was not attractive. Both the pure (R)-enantiomer or racemic (Z)-2-acetoxy-8-heptadecene, applied to red rubber septa in a dose range of 3-30 microg, constitute a strongly attractive bait in sticky traps for monitoring the flight of D. gleditchiae.

  10. Biology and efficacy of Aprostocetus (Eulophidae: hymenoptera) as a parasitoid of the blueberry gall midge complex: Dasineura oxycoccana Johnson and Prodiplosis vaccinii (Felt) (Diptera: cecidomyiidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the southeastern US, bud-infesting larvae of two gall midge species, Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson) and Prodiplosis vaccinii (Felt), destroy from 20% to 80% of the rabbiteye blueberry crop, Vaccinium virgatum Aiton. Fortunately, these midge larvae fall prey to five species of endoparasitic wasps....

  11. Why oviposit there? Fitness consequences of a gall midge choosing the plant's youngest leaf.

    PubMed

    Ganehiarachchi, G A S M; Anderson, Kirk M; Harmon, Jason; Harris, Marion O

    2013-02-01

    For animals that lay eggs, a longstanding question is, why do females choose particular oviposition sites? For insects that lay eggs on plants there are three hypotheses: maximizing suitable habitat for juveniles, maximizing female lifespan, and maximizing egg survival. We investigated the function of the oviposition-site choice behavior of a gall midge, the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say). In spite of living less than a day and having hundreds of eggs, the ovipositing female is choosy about the placement of eggs. Choosiness makes sense. The tiny gall-making neonate larva has limited movement and strict requirements for colonization. We examined whether offspring benefit from the Hessian fly female's preference for the plant's youngest leaf. To do this we restricted the female's access to the first, second, or third leaf of a seedling (wheat Triticum aestivum L.) plant. Being placed on older leaves did not impact egg survival or larval survival during migration to attack sites at the base of the plant, but did have negative impacts on egg-to-adult survival (reduced by 48%) and reproductive potential (reduced by 30-45%). These negative impacts appear to come from larvae having to search harder to find the limited number of reactive plant cells that can be reprogrammed to form the gall nutritive tissue. We propose that the ability of larvae to find these reactive cells in spite of being placed on an older leaf is important because it creates leeway for female behavior to evolve in the face of other selection pressures, e.g., attack by egg parasitoids.

  12. Taxonomy and biology of a new ambrosia gall midge Daphnephila urnicola sp. nov. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) inducing urn-shaped leaf galls on two species of Machilus (Lauraceae) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Pan, Liang-Yu; Chiang, Tung-Chuan; Weng, Yu-Chu; Chen, Wen-Neng; Hsiao, Shu-Chuan; Tokuda, Makoto; Tsai, Cheng-Lung; Yang, Man-Miao

    2015-05-05

    Recent field surveys show that galls induced by Daphnephila spp. (Cecidomyiidae) on Machilus spp. (Lauraceae) are common in Taiwan, yet only five species, four leaf-gall inducers and one stem-gall inducer on M. thunbergii, have been named in the past. Here we describe a new species, Daphnephila urnicola sp. nov. Chiang, Yang & Tokuda, inducing urn-shaped galls on leaves of both M. zuihoensis and M. mushaensis. Comparisons of D. urnicola populations on M. zuihoensis and on M. mushaensis, indicate that they belong to one species, a result supported by gall midge morphology, life-history traits, gall shape and structure, the developmental process of gall tissues, fungal associations, and DNA-sequencing data. Size and structure of the gall operculum was found to differ between M. zuihoensis and M. mushahaensis.

  13. Pyrosequencing Reveals the Predominance of Pseudomonadaceae in Gut Microbiome of a Gall Midge

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Raman; Hulbert, Scot H.; Reese, John C.; Whitworth, Robert J.; Stuart, Jeffrey J.; Chen, Ming-Shun

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbes are known to play various roles in insects such as digestion of inaccessible nutrients, synthesis of deficient amino acids, and interaction with ecological environments, including host plants. Here, we analyzed the gut microbiome in Hessian fly, a serious pest of wheat. A total of 3,654 high quality sequences of the V3 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene were obtained through 454-pyrosequencing. From these sequences, 311 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained at the ≥97% similarity cutoff. In the gut of 1st instar, otu01, a member of Pseudomonas, was predominant, representing 90.2% of total sequences. otu13, an unidentified genus in the Pseudomonadaceae family, represented 1.9% of total sequences. The remaining OTUs were each less than 1%. In the gut of the 2nd instar, otu01 and otu13 decreased to 85.5% and 1.5%, respectively. otu04, a member of Buttiauxella, represented 9.7% of total sequences. The remaining OTUs were each less than 1%. In the gut of the 3rd instar, otu01 and otu13 further decreased to 29.0% and 0%, respectively. otu06, otu08, and otu16, also three members of the Pseudomonadaceae family were 13.2%, 8.6%, and 2.3%, respectively. In addition, otu04 and otu14, two members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, were 4.7% and 2.5%; otu18 and otu20, two members of the Xanthomonadaceae family, were 1.3% and 1.2%, respectively; otu12, a member of Achromobacter, was 4.2%; otu19, a member of Undibacterium, was 1.4%; and otu9, otu10, and otu15, members of various families, were 6.1%, 6.3%, and 1.9%, respectively. The investigation into dynamics of Pseudomonas, the most abundant genera, revealed that its population level was at peak in freshly hatched or 1 day larvae as well as in later developmental stages, thus suggesting a prominent role for this bacterium in Hessian fly development and in its interaction with host plants. This study is the first comprehensive survey on bacteria associated with the gut of a gall midge, and

  14. Varietal Preferences and Within-Orchard and Tree Distribution of Newly Recorded Gall Midges, Dasineura amaramanjarae and Procontarinia mangiferae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), From Commercial Mango Cultivars in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rehman, H M; Mahmood, R; Razaq, M; Saeed, R; Jamil, M; Reddy, G V P

    2017-08-01

    Gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) damage mango by feeding on flowers and fruit tissues, inducing galls on leaves, and providing inoculums of anthracnose. Dasineura amaramanjarae Grover and Procontarinia mangiferae (Felt), two gall midges that damage flowers in all mango-growing areas of the world, have recently been recorded in Pakistan, and studies were conducted in 2011 and 2012 on the within-tree and orchard distribution patterns and cultivar preference of both species in Pakistan at one location (Rahim Yar Khan). Both gall midge species were found on all mango cultivars examined (Chaunsa, Fajri, Dusehri, Surkha, Sindhri, and Anwar Ratul), with the most damage occurring to Surkha and Dusehri. Research on midge distribution patterns in different parts of mango orchards (central, southern, northern, eastern, and western sides) showed these species to be found in all areas, with the greatest numbers in the central and southern regions. In addition, both species were most abundant on the lower parts of the mango tree canopy. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Functional responses and prey-stage preferences of a predatory gall midge and two predacious mites wtih twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae as host

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of vegetables and other crops. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the potential role of three commercially available predators, predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Diptera: Ceci...

  16. Biology and efficacy of Aprostocetus (Eulophidae: Hymenoptera) as a parasitoid of the blueberry gall midge complex: Dasineura oxycoccana and Prodiplosis vaccinii (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Sampson, Blair J; Roubos, Craig R; Stringer, Stephen J; Marshall, Donna; Liburd, Oscar E

    2013-02-01

    In the southeastern United States, bud-infesting larvae of two gall midge species, Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson) and Prodiplosis vaccinii (Felt), destroy from 20 to 80% of the rabbiteye blueberry crop, Vaccinium virgatum Aiton (syn. V. ashei Reade). These midge larvae are attacked by five species of parasitoid wasps. The most effective of these is the bivoltine eulophid Aprostocetus sp. nr. marylandensis (Eulophidae), whose adults constitute one-third of the gall midge parasitoids, active in both conventional and organic blueberry fields. Broods of Aprostocetus use several reproductive strategies to keep sole possession of their larval hosts. As solitary endoparasitoids as well as facultative hyperparasitoids, precocial larvae of Aprostocetus devour hosts organs along with any younger siblings and rival parasitoid broods. Although larger hosts are preferred, any sized larvae can be parasitized, which reduces brood congestion and infanticide. An Aprostocetus female spends an hour or more in a systematic hunt for hosts, during which time 40 to 100% of midge larvae encountered are parasitized. Aprostocetus females could have located hosts more quickly had they recognized host-feeding scars as cues. Even so, high rates of larval parasitism achieved by Aprostocetus may kill as many midges as insecticides do.

  17. Manipulation of host plant biomass allocation and resource regulation by the larch bud gall midge

    Treesearch

    Yuri N. Baranchikov

    1991-01-01

    Intensive herbivory may influence the resources available to the next generation of herbivore in three ways: quantity may decrease, be unchanged, or increase. There are now two good examples of the last possibility. One of them concerns Monochamus beetles on firs in Siberia (Isaev et al. 1984), and the other a galling sawfly on willow in Arizona (...

  18. A Simulation Approach to Assessing Sampling Strategies for Insect Pests: An Example with the Balsam Gall Midge

    PubMed Central

    Carleton, R. Drew; Heard, Stephen B.; Silk, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of pest density is a basic requirement for integrated pest management in agriculture and forestry, and efficiency in density estimation is a common goal. Sequential sampling techniques promise efficient sampling, but their application can involve cumbersome mathematics and/or intensive warm-up sampling when pests have complex within- or between-site distributions. We provide tools for assessing the efficiency of sequential sampling and of alternative, simpler sampling plans, using computer simulation with “pre-sampling” data. We illustrate our approach using data for balsam gall midge (Paradiplosis tumifex) attack in Christmas tree farms. Paradiplosis tumifex proved recalcitrant to sequential sampling techniques. Midge distributions could not be fit by a common negative binomial distribution across sites. Local parameterization, using warm-up samples to estimate the clumping parameter k for each site, performed poorly: k estimates were unreliable even for samples of n∼100 trees. These methods were further confounded by significant within-site spatial autocorrelation. Much simpler sampling schemes, involving random or belt-transect sampling to preset sample sizes, were effective and efficient for P. tumifex. Sampling via belt transects (through the longest dimension of a stand) was the most efficient, with sample means converging on true mean density for sample sizes of n∼25–40 trees. Pre-sampling and simulation techniques provide a simple method for assessing sampling strategies for estimating insect infestation. We suspect that many pests will resemble P. tumifex in challenging the assumptions of sequential sampling methods. Our software will allow practitioners to optimize sampling strategies before they are brought to real-world applications, while potentially avoiding the need for the cumbersome calculations required for sequential sampling methods. PMID:24376556

  19. A simulation approach to assessing sampling strategies for insect pests: an example with the balsam gall midge.

    PubMed

    Carleton, R Drew; Heard, Stephen B; Silk, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of pest density is a basic requirement for integrated pest management in agriculture and forestry, and efficiency in density estimation is a common goal. Sequential sampling techniques promise efficient sampling, but their application can involve cumbersome mathematics and/or intensive warm-up sampling when pests have complex within- or between-site distributions. We provide tools for assessing the efficiency of sequential sampling and of alternative, simpler sampling plans, using computer simulation with "pre-sampling" data. We illustrate our approach using data for balsam gall midge (Paradiplosis tumifex) attack in Christmas tree farms. Paradiplosis tumifex proved recalcitrant to sequential sampling techniques. Midge distributions could not be fit by a common negative binomial distribution across sites. Local parameterization, using warm-up samples to estimate the clumping parameter k for each site, performed poorly: k estimates were unreliable even for samples of n ∼ 100 trees. These methods were further confounded by significant within-site spatial autocorrelation. Much simpler sampling schemes, involving random or belt-transect sampling to preset sample sizes, were effective and efficient for P. tumifex. Sampling via belt transects (through the longest dimension of a stand) was the most efficient, with sample means converging on true mean density for sample sizes of n ∼ 25-40 trees. Pre-sampling and simulation techniques provide a simple method for assessing sampling strategies for estimating insect infestation. We suspect that many pests will resemble P. tumifex in challenging the assumptions of sequential sampling methods. Our software will allow practitioners to optimize sampling strategies before they are brought to real-world applications, while potentially avoiding the need for the cumbersome calculations required for sequential sampling methods.

  20. Populations of the gall midge Dasineura oxycoccana on cranberry and blueberry produce and respond to different sex pheromones.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Sheila M; Gries, Regine; Khaskin, Grigori; Peach, Daniel A H; Iwanski, Jessika; Gries, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    We identified and field-tested the sex pheromones of Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) midges collected from cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton, and from highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., commonly named cranberry tipworm (CTW) and blueberry gall midge (BGM), respectively. Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of pheromone gland extract from the ovipositor of calling CTW females revealed one component (<10 pg per ovipositor/pheromone gland) that elicited antennal responses from CTW males. Stepwise identification was based on its mass spectrum in a concentrated sample with 300 pheromone gland equivalents, retention indices (RI) on three GC columns (DB-5, DB-23, and DB 210), RI inter-column differentials, and RIs and double bond positions of other midge pheromones. These analyses indicated that (8Z)-2,14-diacetoxy-8-heptadecene (2,14-8Z-17) was the candidate pheromone of the CTW. GC-EAD analysis of pheromone gland extract from calling BGM females revealed two components that elicited antennal responses from BGM males. Retention times on the three GC columns were consistent with 2,14-8Z-17 and 2,14-17, indicating that these were candidate pheromone components of the BGM. The four stereoisomers of 2,14-8Z-17 were stereoselectively synthesized and field-tested in cranberry. Delta-type traps baited with SS-2,14-8Z-17 captured significantly more CTW males than did traps baited with any other single stereoisomer or with all four stereoisomers combined. In blueberry, delta-type traps baited with RR-2,14-8Z-17 captured significantly more BGM males than did traps baited with any other single stereoisomer or with all four stereoisomers combined. Subsequent field experiments demonstrated that RR-2,14-17 is the major pheromone component of BGM, and that RR-2,14-8Z-17 is a pheromone component that does not enhance attractiveness of RR-2,14-17. The BGM pheromone RR-2,14-17 has no antagonistic effect on

  1. Deep sequencing and genome-wide analysis reveals the expansion of MicroRNA genes in the gall midge Mayetiola destructor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in regulating post transcriptional gene expression. Gall midges encompass a large group of insects that are of economic importance and also possess fascinating biological traits. The gall midge Mayetiola destructor, commonly known as the Hessian fly, is a destructive pest of wheat and model organism for studying gall midge biology and insect – host plant interactions. Results In this study, we systematically analyzed miRNAs from the Hessian fly. Deep-sequencing a Hessian fly larval transcriptome led to the identification of 89 miRNA species that are either identical or very similar to known miRNAs from other insects, and 184 novel miRNAs that have not been reported from other species. A genome-wide search through a draft Hessian fly genome sequence identified a total of 611 putative miRNA-encoding genes based on sequence similarity and the existence of a stem-loop structure for miRNA precursors. Analysis of the 611 putative genes revealed a striking feature: the dramatic expansion of several miRNA gene families. The largest family contained 91 genes that encoded 20 different miRNAs. Microarray analyses revealed the expression of miRNA genes was strictly regulated during Hessian fly larval development and abundance of many miRNA genes were affected by host genotypes. Conclusion The identification of a large number of miRNAs for the first time from a gall midge provides a foundation for further studies of miRNA functions in gall midge biology and behavior. The dramatic expansion of identical or similar miRNAs provides a unique system to study functional relations among miRNA iso-genes as well as changes in sequence specificity due to small changes in miRNAs and in their mRNA targets. These results may also facilitate the identification of miRNA genes for potential pest control through transgenic approaches. PMID:23496979

  2. Unbalanced activation of glutathione metabolic pathways suggests potential involvement in plant defense against the gall midge Mayetiola destructor in wheat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuming; Zhang, Shize; Whitworth, R Jeff; Stuart, Jeffrey J; Chen, Ming-Shun

    2015-01-28

    Glutathione, γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine, exists abundantly in nearly all organisms. Glutathione participates in various physiological processes involved in redox reactions by serving as an electron donor/acceptor. We found that the abundance of total glutathione increased up to 60% in resistant wheat plants within 72 hours following attack by the gall midge Mayetiola destructor, the Hessian fly. The increase in total glutathione abundance, however, is coupled with an unbalanced activation of glutathione metabolic pathways. The activity and transcript abundance of glutathione peroxidases, which convert reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG), increased in infested resistant plants. However, the enzymatic activity and transcript abundance of glutathione reductases, which convert GSSG back to GSH, did not change. This unbalanced regulation of the glutathione oxidation/reduction cycle indicates the existence of an alternative pathway to regenerate GSH from GSSG to maintain a stable GSSG/GSH ratio. Our data suggest the possibility that GSSG is transported from cytosol to apoplast to serve as an oxidant for class III peroxidases to generate reactive oxygen species for plant defense against Hessian fly larvae. Our results provide a foundation for elucidating the molecular processes involved in glutathione-mediated plant resistance to Hessian fly and potentially other pests as well.

  3. Purification and partial characterization of thermal hysteresis proteins from overwintering larvae of pine needle gall midge, Thecodiplosis japonensis (Diptera: cecidomiidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Gong, H; Park, H Y

    2000-01-01

    The pine needle gall midge of Thecodiplosis japonensis is a serious forest pest and overwinters as a 3rd instar larva at soil surface in Korea. The time necessary for killing 50% of larvae at -15 degree C is 160 min. During overwintering period, T. japonensis larvae accumulate relatively high content of trehalose as the main cryoprotectant. In this paper, the proteinaceous cryoprotectants were identified. Two thermal hysteresis proteins (THP-1S and 2S) were purified from overwintering larvae by ethanol fractionation, trichloroacetic acid precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sephadex A-25) and gel permeation chromatography (Sephadex G-100). Their molecular weights are 34.9 and 37.8 kD respectively. T. japonensis THPs cannot be stained by periodic acid-Schiffs' reagent, suggesting no carbohydrate in them. The thermal hysteresis activity of THP-2 at the concentration of 50 mg/ml is 11.02 +/- 0.08 degree C (mean +/- SD, n=10), perhaps the highest active insect THP. It is the first report of purified T. japonensis THPs in Diptera.

  4. Unbalanced Activation of Glutathione Metabolic Pathways Suggests Potential Involvement in Plant Defense against the Gall Midge Mayetiola destructor in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuming; Zhang, Shize; Whitworth, R. Jeff; Stuart, Jeffrey J.; Chen, Ming-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione, γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine, exists abundantly in nearly all organisms. Glutathione participates in various physiological processes involved in redox reactions by serving as an electron donor/acceptor. We found that the abundance of total glutathione increased up to 60% in resistant wheat plants within 72 hours following attack by the gall midge Mayetiola destructor, the Hessian fly. The increase in total glutathione abundance, however, is coupled with an unbalanced activation of glutathione metabolic pathways. The activity and transcript abundance of glutathione peroxidases, which convert reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG), increased in infested resistant plants. However, the enzymatic activity and transcript abundance of glutathione reductases, which convert GSSG back to GSH, did not change. This unbalanced regulation of the glutathione oxidation/reduction cycle indicates the existence of an alternative pathway to regenerate GSH from GSSG to maintain a stable GSSG/GSH ratio. Our data suggest the possibility that GSSG is transported from cytosol to apoplast to serve as an oxidant for class III peroxidases to generate reactive oxygen species for plant defense against Hessian fly larvae. Our results provide a foundation for elucidating the molecular processes involved in glutathione-mediated plant resistance to Hessian fly and potentially other pests as well. PMID:25627558

  5. Morphological and Molecular Revision of the Genus Ozirhincus (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)—Long-Snouted Seed-Feeding Gall Midges on Asteraceae

    PubMed Central

    Dorchin, Netta; Astrin, Jonas J.; Bodner, Levona; Harris, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    The Palaearctic gall-midge genus Ozirhincus is unique among the Cecidomyiidae for its morphology and biology. Unlike most other phytophagous gall midges, species in this genus do not induce galls but develop inside achenes of Asteraceae plants. The heads of adults are characterized by an unusually elongate proboscis, the function of which is unclear. Despite a lot of attention from taxonomists in the 19th and early 20th century, a proper revision of the genus has been hindered by complex host associations, the loss of most relevant type material, and the lack of a thorough comparative study of all life stages. The present revision integrated morphological, molecular, and life-history data to clearly define species boundaries within Ozirhincus, and delimit host-plant ranges for each of them. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes confirmed the validity of four distinct species but did not resolve the relationships among them. All species are oligophages, and some may occur together on the same host plant. Species with wider host-plant ranges have wider European and circum-Mediterranean distribution ranges, whereas species with narrower host ranges are limited to Europe and the Russian Far East. As part of the present work, O. hungaricus is reinstated from synonymy, O. tanaceti is synonymized under O. longicollis, neotypes are designated for O. longicollis and O. millefolii, and a lectotype is designated for O. anthemidis. PMID:26134526

  6. Reactive Oxygen Species Are Involved in Plant Defense against a Gall Midge[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuming; Williams, Christie E.; Nemacheck, Jill A.; Wang, Haiyan; Subramanyam, Subhashree; Zheng, Cheng; Chen, Ming-Shun

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a major role in plant defense against pathogens, but evidence for their role in defense against insects is still preliminary and inconsistent. In this study, we examined the potential role of ROS in defense of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rice (Oryza sativa) against Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) larvae. Rapid and prolonged accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was detected in wheat plants at the attack site during incompatible interactions. Increased accumulation of both H2O2 and superoxide was detected in rice plants during nonhost interactions with the larvae. No increase in accumulation of either H2O2 or superoxide was observed in wheat plants during compatible interactions. A global analysis revealed changes in the abundances of 250 wheat transcripts and 320 rice transcripts encoding proteins potentially involved in ROS homeostasis. A large number of transcripts encoded class III peroxidases that increased in abundance during both incompatible and nonhost interactions, whereas the levels of these transcripts decreased in susceptible wheat during compatible interactions. The higher levels of class III peroxidase transcripts were associated with elevated enzymatic activity of peroxidases at the attack site in plants during incompatible and nonhost interactions. Overall, our data indicate that class III peroxidases may play a role in ROS generation in resistant wheat and nonhost rice plants during response to Hessian fly attacks. PMID:19965963

  7. Taxonomy and molecular phylogeny of Daphnephila gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) inducing complex leaf galls on Lauraceae, with descriptions of five new species associated with Machilus thunbergii in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Makoto; Yang, Man-Miao; Yukawa, Junichi

    2008-05-01

    Five new species of the genus Daphnephila (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae: Asphondyliini), D. ornithocephala, D. stenocalia, D. sueyenae, D. taiwanensis, and D. truncicola, all associated with Machilus thunbergii (Lauraceae), are described from Taiwan, and one previously known species, D. machilicola, is redescribed from Japan. Among the five new species, D. truncicola induces stem galls and the other four species induce leaf galls. A molecular phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene suggests that in this genus the stem-galling habit is a more ancestral state compared to the leaf-galling habit. Daphnephila seems to be of tropical origin and to have dispersed to Japan through Taiwan.

  8. Aprostocetus xiphopunctus Sampson nov. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidea): A new natural ememy of a gall midge complex (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new endoparasitoid kills 40 – 100% of Dasineura oxycoccana and Prodiplosis vaccinii larvae, pest midges that seriously reduce blueberry yield. Female wasps methodically probe leaf buds for host larvae and their parasitism can be more effective than chemical control. With each successive molt, host...

  9. Functional Responses and Prey-Stage Preferences of a Predatory Gall Midge and Two Predacious Mites with Twospotted Spider Mites, Tetranychus Urticae, as Host

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yingfang; Osborne, Lance S.; Chen, Jianjun; McKenzie, Cindy L.

    2013-01-01

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of vegetables and other economically important crops. This study evaluated the functional responses and prey-stage preferences of three species of predators, a predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), and two predatory mite species, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Amblyseius swirskii (AnthiasHenriot), with T. urticae as the host, under laboratory conditions. The results showed that F. acarisuga was highly effective and the two species of predacious mites were moderately effective in feeding on T. urticae eggs. Logistic regression analysis suggested Type II (convex) functional responses for all three species. However, based on the estimates of the handling time and the attacking rates, the three predators had different predation capacities. Among the three species, F. acarisuga had the highest predation on T. urticae. The maximum daily predation by a larval F. acarisuga was 50 eggs/day, followed by a female N. californicus (25.6 eggs/day) and a female A. swirskii (15.1 eggs/day). A female N. californicus produced more eggs than a female A. swirskii did when they both fed on T. urticae eggs. In addition, all three predator species had no preystage preference for either prey eggs or nymphs. The findings from this study could help select better biological control agents for effective control of T. urticae and other pests in vegetable productions. PMID:23879370

  10. Mycophagous gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae: Lestremiinae, Micromyinae, Winnertziinae, Porricondylinae): first records in Sweden and descriptions of closely related new species from elsewhere.

    PubMed

    Jaschhof, Mathias; Jaschhof, Catrin

    2017-01-30

    Thirty species of gall midges, Cecidomyiidae, of the mycophagous subfamilies Lestremiinae, Micromyinae, Winnertziinae, and Porricondylinae are reported from Sweden for the first time, including several extremely seldom collected species. Genera newly found in Sweden are Allaretella Meyer & Spungis (in Lestremiinae), Tekomyia Möhn (in Micromyinae), Nikandria Mamaev (in Winnertziinae), Arctepidosis Mamaev, Dallaiella Mamaev, Epicola Spungis, and Lamellepidosis Mamaev (all in Porricondylinae). Peromyia trimera (Edwards, 1938) stat. rev. is revived from the synonymy with P. ramosa (Edwards, 1938). Descriptions of the male morphology are provided of the micromyines Aprionus aberrantis Mamaev, Campylomyza abjecta Mamaev, Peromyia leveillei Kieffer (type species of the genus Peromyia Kieffer), Peromyia trimera, and Tekomyia populi Möhn; the winnertziine Nikandria brevitarsis Mamaev; and the porricondylines Arctepidosis jamalensis Mamaev, Dallaiella petrosa Mamaev, and Lamellepidosis spungisi Mamaev. Bryomyia amurensis Mamaev & Økland, Campylomyza abjecta Mamaev, and Peromyia gotohi Jaschhof (all in Micromyinae) are new records in the Western Palearctic. New species described are Peromyia sororia spec. nov. from Japan, a close relative of P. leveillei, and Nikandria australis spec. nov. from New Zealand, only the second species in the genus Nikandria Mamaev. An intersexual specimen of Lamellepidosis spungisi with female antennae and male genitalia is described.

  11. Ustilaginoidea virens infection of rice in Arkansas: Toxicity of false smut galls, their extracts and the Ustiloxin fraction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cool, wet conditions in the southern U.S. during the maturing stages of rice in 1998 contributed to outbreaks of false smut caused by Ustilaginoidea virens. Water extracts of false smut galls in Asia have been reported to contain ustiloxin toxins, cyclic peptide antibiotics that interfered with mi...

  12. First new world record of a gall midge from palms: a new species of Contarinia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) from Geonoma cuneata in Costa Rica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contarinia geonomae Gagné, new species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described from galls found on the infructescences of Geonoma cuneata (Arecaceae) in Costa Rica. The galls are cylindrical in shape and develop concurrently with or instead of the spherical fruit. The larval chamber is located at the...

  13. Crown Gall

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crown gall disease occurs on diverse dicotyledonous and gymnospermous plant species worldwide. Reports of crown gall on hop date back to at least 1929, and the disease has been reported from most countries where hop is or has been grown commercially. The epidemiology of the causal bacterium, Agrob...

  14. A massive expansion of effector genes underlies gall-formation in the wheat pest Mayetiola destructor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mechanisms arthropods use to induce plant gall formation are poorly understood. However, there is growing evidence that effector proteins are involved. To examine this hypothesis, we sequenced the genome of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor, M. des), an obligate plant parasitic gall midge an...

  15. Revision of early taxa of Australian gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Kolesik, Peter; Gagné, Raymond J

    2016-12-07

    Australian Cecidomyiidae described by Schiner (1868), Skuse (1888, 1890), Koebele (1893), Felt (1915), Edwards (1916) and Rübsaamen (1916), totalling 111 species and three subgenera, are revised. Chastomera Skuse, 1888 is confirmed to be a junior synonym of Haplusia Karsch, 1878 and Gonioclema Skuse, 1888 and Necrophlebia Skuse, 1888 are declared nomina dubia. Twenty-two species are placed to genus, an additional four species are placed to supertribe or subfamily, all of them redescribed. The remaining species are declared junior synonyms or nomina dubia. Diadiplosis koebelei (Koebele, 1893) is a new junior synonym of Diadiplosis plumbea (Skuse, 1888). Dasineura tomentosa Dorchin, 2011 is a new junior synonym of Dasineura frauenfeldi (Schiner, 1868). Sphenolasioptera Kolesik & Gagné gen. nov. (Cecidomyiinae: Lasiopterini) is erected to contain Sphenolasioptera vastatrix (Skuse, 1888) n. comb. The following genera are recorded from Australia for the first time: Ledomyia Kieffer (Cecidomyiinae: Ledomyiini), represented by L. vitulans (Skuse), n. comb.; Bremia Rondani (Cecidomyiinae: Aphidoletini), represented by B. actiosa (Skuse) n. comb. and B. oreas (Skuse) n. comb.; Divellepidosis Fedotova & Sidorenko (Porricondylinae: Porricondylini), represented by D. pallidina (Skuse) n. comb. and D. indubitata (Skuse) n. comb. Additions are made to the key to genera of Cecidomyiinae of Australia and Papua New Guinea (Kolesik 2014) to accomodate Bremia, Ledomyia and Sphenolasioptera.

  16. Galle Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 June 2002) The Science This image is of part of Galle Crater, located at 51.9S, 29.5W. This image was taken far enough south and late enough into the southern hemisphere fall to catch observe water ice clouds partially obscuring the surface. The most striking aspect of the surface is the dissected layered unit to the left in the image. Other areas also appear to have layering, but they are either more obscured by clouds or are less well defined on the surface. The layers appear to be mostly flat lying and layer boundaries appear as topographic lines would on a map, but there are a few areas where it appears that these layers have been deformed to some level. Other areas of the image contain rugged, mountainous terrain as well as a separate pitted terrain where the surface appears to be a separate unit from the mountains and the layered terrain. The Story Galle Crater is officially named after a German astronomer who, in 1846, was the first to observe the planet Neptune. It is better known, however, as the 'Happy Face Crater.' The image above focuses on too small an area of the crater to see its beguiling grin, but you can catch the rocky line of a 'half-smile' in the context image to the right (to the left of the red box). While water ice clouds make some of the surface harder to see, nothing detracts from the fabulous layering at the center left-hand edge of the image. If you click on the above image, the scalloped layers almost look as if a giant knife has swirled through a landscape of cake frosting. These layers, the rugged, mountains near them, and pits on the surface (upper to middle section of the image on the right-hand side) all create varying textures on the crater floor. With such different features in the same place, geologists have a lot to study to figure out what has happened in the crater since it formed.

  17. Galle Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 June 2002) The Science This image is of part of Galle Crater, located at 51.9S, 29.5W. This image was taken far enough south and late enough into the southern hemisphere fall to catch observe water ice clouds partially obscuring the surface. The most striking aspect of the surface is the dissected layered unit to the left in the image. Other areas also appear to have layering, but they are either more obscured by clouds or are less well defined on the surface. The layers appear to be mostly flat lying and layer boundaries appear as topographic lines would on a map, but there are a few areas where it appears that these layers have been deformed to some level. Other areas of the image contain rugged, mountainous terrain as well as a separate pitted terrain where the surface appears to be a separate unit from the mountains and the layered terrain. The Story Galle Crater is officially named after a German astronomer who, in 1846, was the first to observe the planet Neptune. It is better known, however, as the 'Happy Face Crater.' The image above focuses on too small an area of the crater to see its beguiling grin, but you can catch the rocky line of a 'half-smile' in the context image to the right (to the left of the red box). While water ice clouds make some of the surface harder to see, nothing detracts from the fabulous layering at the center left-hand edge of the image. If you click on the above image, the scalloped layers almost look as if a giant knife has swirled through a landscape of cake frosting. These layers, the rugged, mountains near them, and pits on the surface (upper to middle section of the image on the right-hand side) all create varying textures on the crater floor. With such different features in the same place, geologists have a lot to study to figure out what has happened in the crater since it formed.

  18. Gall stones and carcinoma gall bladder.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S C; Misra, V; Singh, P A; Roy, A; Misra, S P; Gupta, A K

    2000-04-01

    One hundred and fifty surgically resected gall bladder specimens were included in the study to evaluate the relationship between the prevalence of gall stones and histochemical alteration in sequential changes of metaplasia, dysplasia and neoplasia in gall bladder epithelium. Multiple sections were processed and stained with haematoxylin and eosin, Periodic acid Schiff's stain, Alcian blue (pH 2.5)/Periodic acid, Orcein/Alcian blue (pH 2.5) and Alcian Blue/Periodic acid/Potassium borohydride saponifications stains. Details of gall stones present were also noted. Prevalence of gall stones in gall bladders with metaplastic, dysplastic and neoplastic mucosal changes was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than those gall bladders which had no epithelial changes. Increase in sialomucin with a corresponding decrease in sulphomucin was observed from metaplasia to malignancy. Neutral mucin increased in metaplastic cells but was significantly reduced in neoplastic cells. Loss of O-acylation in sialmucin was also present in neoplastic cells. The histochemical changes suggest that chronic injury due to cholelithiasis induces appearance of neutral mucin positive metaplastic cells, which may further dedifferentiate to sialomucin containing dysplastic or neoplastic cells if the stimulation persists.

  19. Galling by Rhopalomyia solidaginis alters Solidago altissima architecture and litter nutrient dynamics in an old-field ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Crutsinger, Greg; Habenicht, Melissa N; Classen, Aimee T; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Sanders, Dr. Nathan James

    2008-01-01

    Plant-insect interactions can alter ecosystem processes, especially if the insects modify plant architecture, quality, or the quantity of leaf litter inputs. In this study, we investigated the interactions between the gall midge Rhopalomyia solidaginis and tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima, to quantify the degree to which the midge alters plant architecture and how the galls affect rates of litter decomposition and nutrient release in an old-field ecosystem. R. solidaginis commonly leads to the formation of a distinct apical rosette gall on S. altissima and approximately 15% of the ramets in a S. altissima patch were galled (range: 3-34%). Aboveground biomass of galled ramets was 60% higher and the leaf area density was four times greater on galled leaf tissue relative to the portions of the plant that were not affected by the gall. Overall decomposition rate constants did not differ between galled and ungalled leaf litter. However, leaf-litter mass loss was lower in galled litter relative to ungalled litter, which was likely driven by modest differences in initial litter chemistry; this effect diminished after 12 weeks of decomposition in the field. The proportion of N remaining was always higher in galled litter than in ungalled litter at each collection date indicating differential release of nitrogen in galled leaf litter. Several studies have shown that plant-insect interactions on woody species can alter ecosystem processes by affecting the quality or quantity of litter inputs. Our results illustrate how plant-insect interactions in an herbaceous species can affect ecosystem processes by altering the quality and quantity of litter inputs. Given that S. altissima dominates fields and roadsides and that R. solidaginis galls are highly abundant throughout eastern North America, these interactions are likely to be important for both the structure and function of old-field ecosystems.

  20. Description, host range and distribution of a new Macrodiplosis species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) that induces leaf-margin fold galls on deciduous Quercus (Fagaceae) with comparative notes on Palaearctic congeners.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wanggyu; Yukawa, Junichi; Harris, Keith M; Minami, Tsuneo; Matsuo, Kazunori; Skrzypczyńska, Małgorzata

    2014-06-20

    A gall midge that induces upwardly folded leaf-margin galls on Quercus serrata, Q. mongolica and Q. dentata (Fagaceae) in Japan and South Korea is described as Macrodiplosis selenis sp. n. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). M. selenis is distinguished from Palaearctic congeners by a combination of morphological characters. Genetic differences supported the result of morphological comparison and indicated that M. selenis is closely related to the European M. roboris, whose gall is similar to that of M. selenis.

  1. Symbiotic fungal flora in leaf galls induced by Illiciomyia yukawai (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) and in its mycangia.

    PubMed

    Kobune, Shun; Kajimura, Hisashi; Masuya, Hayato; Kubono, Takanori

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the association between a gall midge, Illiciomyia yukawai, and its symbiotic fungi on Japanese star anise, Illicium anisatum. The number of fungal species isolated from the galls increased with development of the galls, whereas those from the leaves showed a different trend. Botryosphaeria dothidea was dominant in the galls from June to October, and after that Phomopsis sp. 1, Colletotrichum sp., and Pestalotiopsis sp. became dominant. Although B. dothidea was not isolated from the leaves, it was detected from mycangia (abdominal sternite VII) of egg-laying adults at a high isolation frequency (>90%). However, B. dothidea was not isolated from mycangia of adults emerging from galls that were enclosed by plastic bags. This indicates that I. yukawai is closely associated with B. dothidea and that its newly emerged adults do not take the fungus into mycangia directly from the galls where they had developed. Also, the fungus from the fungal layers of ambrosia galls has less ability to propagate on artificial media despite the presence of its mycelial mass in mature galls.

  2. The Goldenrod Ball Gall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1974-01-01

    The paper presents a generalized life history of the goldenrod ball gall, a ball-shaped swelling found almost exclusively on the Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis, and caused by a peacock fly know as Eurosta soldiaginis. (KM)

  3. Phermonal Control of Biting Midges (Culicoides SPP).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-28

    AD-A113 915 FLORIDA MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY LAB VERO BEACH F/G 6/3 PHERMONAL CONTROL OF BITING MIDGES ( CULICOIDES SPP ).(U) APR 82 J R LINLEY» D A...BITING MIDGES ( CULICOIDES SPP .) By Dr. 0. R. Linley, co-principal investigator, Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, Institute of Food and...CONTROL OF BITING MIDGES ( CULICOIDES SPP .) Annual ’ 35/01/81-04/30/82 7. AUTHORS J. R. Unley 0. A. Carlson » PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME

  4. Host manipulation by the orange leafhopper Cicadulina bipunctata: gall induction on distant leaves by dose-dependent stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukura, Keiichiro; Matsumura, Masaya; Tokuda, Makoto

    2009-09-01

    The evolution of the gall-inducing ability in insects and the adaptive significance of the galling habit have been addressed by many studies. Cicadulina bipunctata, the maize orange leafhopper, is an ideal study organism for evaluating these topics because it can be mass-reared and it feeds on model plants such as rice ( Oryza sativa) and maize ( Zea mays). To reveal differences between gall inductions by C. bipunctata and other gall inducers, we conducted four experiments concerning (a) the relationship between the feeding site and gall-induction sites of C. bipunctata on maize, (b) the effects of leafhopper sex and density, (c) the effects of length of infestation on gall induction, and (d) the effects of continuous infestation. C. bipunctata did not induce galls on the leaves where it fed but induced galls on other leaves situated at more distal positions. The degree of gall induction was significantly correlated with infestation density and length. These results indicate that C. bipunctata induces galls in a dose-dependent manner on leaves distant from feeding sites, probably by injecting chemical(s) to the plant during feeding. We suggest that insect galls are induced by a chemical stimulus injected by gall inducers during feeding into the hosts.

  5. Pest management update on sunflower midge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sunflower midge (Contarinia schulzi) is a serious insect pest of sunflower, causing bud and head deformation that lead to poor seed development, and in many cases no seed development. This presentation describes the life cycle of the sunflower midge and shows images of infested sunflower heads. ...

  6. Layers in Galle Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-31

    This image shows a layered deposit in Galle Crater, located in the Southern cratered highlands. The geologic history of Galle Crater is not well constrained, and it contains a variety of features that have been interpreted as fluvial, lacustrine or glacial deposits. The deposit pictured here contains multiple unconformities (sudden or irregular changes from one deposit to another), indicating periods of erosion and non deposition. The map is projected here at a scale of 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) per pixel. [The original image scale is 25.7 centimeters (10.1 inches) per pixel (with 1 x 1 binning); objects on the order of 77 centimeters (30.3 inches) across are resolved.] North is up. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21575

  7. Galle Crater Floor

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-05

    The unusual texture seen in this image of Galle Crater is likely layered deposits that have been eroded. Small dune and windstreak features in this image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft, indicate that winds are part of the erosive process. Orbit Number: 57733 Latitude: -51.7743 Longitude: 329.135 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2014-12-19 11:13 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19191

  8. Mechanisms Driving Galling Success in a Fragmented Landscape: Synergy of Habitat and Top-Down Factors along Temperate Forest Edges.

    PubMed

    Kelch, Nina-S; Neves, Frederico S; Fernandes, G Wilson; Wirth, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg.), we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58%) identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude) and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46%) on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control.

  9. Galle Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-22

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of the floor of Galle Crater. Dark dunes are visible in the center of the image. The dark blue color typically indicates basaltic sand. Orbit Number: 58800 Latitude: -51.5789 Longitude: 328.788 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-03-17 07:20 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20243

  10. Galle Cr. Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03637 Galle Cr. Dunes

    These dunes are located on the floor of Galle Crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 51.5S, Longitude 329.0E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Schmallenberg virus in Culicoides spp. biting midges, the Netherlands, 2011.

    PubMed

    Elbers, Armin R W; Meiswinkel, Rudy; van Weezep, Erik; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M; Kooi, Engbert A

    2013-01-01

    To determine which species of Culicoides biting midges carry Schmallenberg virus (SBV), we assayed midges collected in the Netherlands during autumn 2011. SBV RNA was found in C. scoticus, C. obsoletus sensu stricto, and C. chiopterus. The high proportion of infected midges might explain the rapid spread of SBV throughout Europe.

  12. Schmallenberg Virus in Culicoides spp. Biting Midges, the Netherlands, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Meiswinkel, Rudy; van Weezep, Erik; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M.; Kooi, Engbert A.

    2013-01-01

    To determine which species of Culicoides biting midges carry Schmallenberg virus (SBV), we assayed midges collected in the Netherlands during autumn 2011. SBV RNA was found in C. scoticus, C. obsoletus sensu stricto, and C. chiopterus. The high proportion of infected midges might explain the rapid spread of SBV throughout Europe. PMID:23260040

  13. A massive expansion of effector genes underlies gall-formation in the wheat pest Mayetiola destructor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chaoyang; Escalante, Lucio Navarro; Chen, Hang; Benatti, Thiago R; Qu, Jiaxin; Chellapilla, Sanjay; Waterhouse, Robert M; Wheeler, David; Andersson, Martin N; Bao, Riyue; Batterton, Matthew; Behura, Susanta K; Blankenburg, Kerstin P; Caragea, Doina; Carolan, James C; Coyle, Marcus; El-Bouhssini, Mustapha; Francisco, Liezl; Friedrich, Markus; Gill, Navdeep; Grace, Tony; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; Herndon, Nicolae; Holder, Michael; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Jackson, LaRonda; Javaid, Mehwish; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Johnson, Alisha J; Kalra, Divya; Korchina, Viktoriya; Kovar, Christie L; Lara, Fremiet; Lee, Sandra L; Liu, Xuming; Löfstedt, Christer; Mata, Robert; Mathew, Tittu; Muzny, Donna M; Nagar, Swapnil; Nazareth, Lynne V; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Ongeri, Fiona; Perales, Lora; Peterson, Brittany F; Pu, Ling-Ling; Robertson, Hugh M; Schemerhorn, Brandon J; Scherer, Steven E; Shreve, Jacob T; Simmons, DeNard; Subramanyam, Subhashree; Thornton, Rebecca L; Xue, Kun; Weissenberger, George M; Williams, Christie E; Worley, Kim C; Zhu, Dianhui; Zhu, Yiming; Harris, Marion O; Shukle, Richard H; Werren, John H; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Chen, Ming-Shun; Brown, Susan J; Stuart, Jeffery J; Richards, Stephen

    2015-03-02

    Gall-forming arthropods are highly specialized herbivores that, in combination with their hosts, produce extended phenotypes with unique morphologies [1]. Many are economically important, and others have improved our understanding of ecology and adaptive radiation [2]. However, the mechanisms that these arthropods use to induce plant galls are poorly understood. We sequenced the genome of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor; Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a plant parasitic gall midge and a pest of wheat (Triticum spp.), with the aim of identifying genic modifications that contribute to its plant-parasitic lifestyle. Among several adaptive modifications, we discovered an expansive reservoir of potential effector proteins. Nearly 5% of the 20,163 predicted gene models matched putative effector gene transcripts present in the M. destructor larval salivary gland. Another 466 putative effectors were discovered among the genes that have no sequence similarities in other organisms. The largest known arthropod gene family (family SSGP-71) was also discovered within the effector reservoir. SSGP-71 proteins lack sequence homologies to other proteins, but their structures resemble both ubiquitin E3 ligases in plants and E3-ligase-mimicking effectors in plant pathogenic bacteria. SSGP-71 proteins and wheat Skp proteins interact in vivo. Mutations in different SSGP-71 genes avoid the effector-triggered immunity that is directed by the wheat resistance genes H6 and H9. Results point to effectors as the agents responsible for arthropod-induced plant gall formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Regional differences in constituents of gall stones.

    PubMed

    Ashok, M; Nageshwar Reddy, D; Jayanthi, V; Kalkura, S N; Vijayan, V; Gokulakrishnan, S; Nair, K G M

    2005-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pigment and mixed gall stone formation remains elusive. The elemental constituents of gall stones from southern states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka have been characterized. Our aim was to determine the elemental concentration of representative samples of pigment, mixed and cholesterol gall stones from Andhra Pradesh using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a 3 MV horizontal pelletron accelerator. Pigment gall stones had significantly high concentrations of copper, iron and lead; chromium was absent. Except for iron all these elements were significantly low in cholesterol gall stones and intermediate levels were seen in mixed gall stones. Highest concentrations of chromium was seen in cholesterol and titanium in mixed gall stones respectively; latter similar to other southern states. Arsenic was distinctly absent in cholesterol and mixed gall stones. The study has identified differences in elemental components of the gall stones from Andhra Pradesh.

  15. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges.

    PubMed

    Snyder, D; Cernicchiaro, N; Allan, S A; Cohnstaedt, L W

    2016-06-01

    The mixing of an insecticide with sugar solution creates an oral toxin or insecticidal sugar bait (ISB) useful for reducing adult insect populations. The ability of ISBs to kill the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a vector of bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and vesicular stomatitis viruses, was tested. The commercial insecticide formulations (percentage active ingredient) tested included bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and spinosad. Mortality rates were determined for various concentrations of commercial formulations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3%) and observed at 1, 4, 10 and 24 h post-exposure to the ISB. In the first set of assays, laboratory-reared midges were fed sugar ad libitum and then exposed to insecticide-treated sugar solutions to measure mortality. The second assay assessed competitive feeding: midges were provided with a control sugar solution (10% sucrose) in one vial, and a sugar and insecticide solution in another. Pyrethroid treatments resulted in the greatest mortality in the first hour at the lowest concentrations and spinosad consumption resulted in the least mortality. Biting midges were not deterred from feeding on the 1% ISB solutions despite the presence of an insecticide-free alternative source of sugar. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Biting Midges: Current Status and Trends

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biting midges are a significant pest of livestock and humans. They often emerge in huge numbers that can be a major annoyance as well as lead to serious livestock issues. This group of biting flies is known to vector numerous important livestock diseases including bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic d...

  17. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the latest trends in mosquito control is the use of insecticidal sugar baits (ISBs) to reduce adult mosquito populations. Tested here is the ability of ISB’s to knock-down the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis, a disease vector of bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, and vesicular sto...

  18. Phylogeny, evolution, and classification of gall wasps: the plot thickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gall wasps (Cynipidae) represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total...

  19. Galle Crater Scene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-547, 17 November 2003

    This November 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows gullies, sand dunes, and streaks formed by dust devils in southern Galle Crater. The gullies are seen in the upper left (northwest) corner; they originate at layered rock exposures on a hillslope, and meander downslope through a deposit of dark, windblown sand. The gullies might have formed by running water. All of the darker surfaces in this image are dunes; these dunes were covered with bright dust during the previous winter (it is now summer in the southern hemisphere of Mars). Dust devils have been darkening the dunes by removing or disrupting the coating of dust, leaving behind a chaotic plethora of darks streaks. The image is located near 51.9oS, 31.4oW. The area shown is about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide by 6.8 km (4.2 mi) high. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  20. Gall bladder malignancy: an unusual association.

    PubMed

    Appukutty, Sona J; Worthington, Tim; Bagwan, Izhar N

    2013-06-01

    Gall bladder malignancy predominantly comprises adenocarcinoma and is found mostly in a late stage whereas primary lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) within the gall bladder is exceedingly rare and has an incidental presentation. We report a case of well differentiated adenocarcinoma with MALT lymphoma of the gall bladder in an 83 year old woman. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a carcinoma and lymphoma occurring simultaneously in the gall bladder.

  1. A revision of the early taxa of Australian gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Australian Cecidomyiidae described by Schiner (1868), Skuse (1888, 1890), Koebele (1893), Felt (1915), Edwards (1916) and Rübsaamen (1916), totalling 111 species and three subgenera, are revised. Subgenus Chastomera Skuse is confirmed to be a junior synonym of the genus Haplusia Karsch and subgenera...

  2. Unconventional conservation among genes encoding small secreted salivary sland proteins from a gall midge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to functional constraints associated with protein-coding sequences, introns and the 3’-untranslated region (UTR) of most genes vary the most, followed by the 5’-UTR. The coding region is the most conserved due to stronger functional constraints. During characterization of transcripts and gene...

  3. Molecular marker assisted gene stacking for biotic and abiotic stress resistance genes in an elite rice cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Das, Gitishree; Rao, G. J. N.

    2015-01-01

    Severe yield loss due to various biotic stresses like bacterial blight (BB), gall midge (insect) and Blast (disease) and abiotic stresses like submergence and salinity are a serious constraint to the rice productivity throughout the world. The most effective and reliable method of management of the stresses is the enhancement of host resistance, through an economical and environmentally friendly approach. Through the application of marker assisted selection (MAS) technique, the present study reports a successful pyramidization of genes/QTLs to confer resistance/tolerance to blast (Pi2, Pi9), gall Midge (Gm1, Gm4), submergence (Sub1), and salinity (Saltol) in a released rice variety CRMAS2621-7-1 as Improved Lalat which had already incorporated with three BB resistance genes xa5, xa13, and Xa21 to supplement the Xa4 gene present in Improved Lalat. The molecular analysis revealed clear polymorphism between the donor and recipient parents for all the markers that are tagged to the target traits. The conventional backcross breeding approach was followed till BC3F1 generation and starting from BC1F1 onwards, marker assisted selection was employed at each step to monitor the transfer of the target alleles with molecular markers. The different BC3F1s having the target genes/QTLs were inter crossed to generate hybrids with all 10 stress resistance/tolerance genes/QTLs into a single plant/line. Homozygous plants for resistance/tolerance genes in different combinations were recovered. The BC3F3 lines were characterized for their agronomic and quality traits and promising progeny lines were selected. The SSR based background selection was done. Most of the gene pyramid lines showed a high degree of similarity to the recurrent parent for both morphological, grain quality traits and in SSR based background selection. Out of all the gene pyramids tested, two lines had all the 10 resistance/tolerance genes and showed adequate levels of resistance/tolerance against the five target

  4. Molecular marker assisted gene stacking for biotic and abiotic stress resistance genes in an elite rice cultivar.

    PubMed

    Das, Gitishree; Rao, G J N

    2015-01-01

    Severe yield loss due to various biotic stresses like bacterial blight (BB), gall midge (insect) and Blast (disease) and abiotic stresses like submergence and salinity are a serious constraint to the rice productivity throughout the world. The most effective and reliable method of management of the stresses is the enhancement of host resistance, through an economical and environmentally friendly approach. Through the application of marker assisted selection (MAS) technique, the present study reports a successful pyramidization of genes/QTLs to confer resistance/tolerance to blast (Pi2, Pi9), gall Midge (Gm1, Gm4), submergence (Sub1), and salinity (Saltol) in a released rice variety CRMAS2621-7-1 as Improved Lalat which had already incorporated with three BB resistance genes xa5, xa13, and Xa21 to supplement the Xa4 gene present in Improved Lalat. The molecular analysis revealed clear polymorphism between the donor and recipient parents for all the markers that are tagged to the target traits. The conventional backcross breeding approach was followed till BC3F1 generation and starting from BC1F1 onwards, marker assisted selection was employed at each step to monitor the transfer of the target alleles with molecular markers. The different BC3F1s having the target genes/QTLs were inter crossed to generate hybrids with all 10 stress resistance/tolerance genes/QTLs into a single plant/line. Homozygous plants for resistance/tolerance genes in different combinations were recovered. The BC3F3 lines were characterized for their agronomic and quality traits and promising progeny lines were selected. The SSR based background selection was done. Most of the gene pyramid lines showed a high degree of similarity to the recurrent parent for both morphological, grain quality traits and in SSR based background selection. Out of all the gene pyramids tested, two lines had all the 10 resistance/tolerance genes and showed adequate levels of resistance/tolerance against the five target

  5. Pheromonal Control of Biting Midges (Culicoides Spp.).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    4 I. INTRODUCTION Biting midges, principally of the genus Culicoides, are important as vectors of human and animal diseases. Particularly, in the...this species could be held relatively easily in laboratory culture. II. OBJECTIVES * The principal objectives of the study were as follows. (1...their capacity to stimulate males sexually. These studies also examined whether killing the females or removing their wings affected the - stimulus

  6. Gall-bladder duplication - case report.

    PubMed

    Koszman, Bogusław

    2014-12-18

    Gall-bladder duplication is a rare anatomical variation, which can affect safe performance of cholecystectomy and be a cause of persistent symptoms and a need for reoperation in case of accessory gall-bladder omission. A case of successfully performed elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a patient with duplicated gall-bladder accidentally intraoperatively disclosed is presented. The identified anomaly was classified according to the Harlaftis Classification of Multiple Gall-bladders. Attention was drawn to the uneffectivenes of ultrasound scanning in multiple gall-bladders preoperative detecting, and presence of other non-biliary anatomical variation in the same individual as well.

  7. Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods.

  8. Sugar-feeding status alters biting midge photoattraction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biting midges transmit disease in livestock and wildlife that result in significant loss of value. Therefore understanding biting midge attraction to light is important for monitoring the insect populations and possibly using traps to reduce populations. This study determined that color of light is ...

  9. Mechanisms Driving Galling Success in a Fragmented Landscape: Synergy of Habitat and Top-Down Factors along Temperate Forest Edges

    PubMed Central

    Kelch, Nina-S.; Neves, Frederico S.; Fernandes, G. Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg.), we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58%) identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude) and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46%) on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control. PMID:27310599

  10. Benefits of photosynthesis for insects in galls.

    PubMed

    Haiden, S A; Hoffmann, J H; Cramer, M D

    2012-12-01

    Insect-induced plant galls are predominantly reputed to act as strong carbon sinks, although many types of galls contain chlorophyll and have the potential to photosynthesize. We investigated whether the photosynthetic capacity of bud galls induced by a Pteromalid wasp, Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae, in Acacia longifolia subsidises carbon budgets or provides O(2) to the larvae while concurrently consuming CO(2) in the dense gall tissue, thereby maintaining (O(2)) and (CO(2)) within the range of larval tolerance. Low (O(2)) (<5 % v/v) were found within the internal tissues of galls, and these concentrations responded only marginally to light, suggesting that the photosynthetic activity within the gall is inconsequential in the provision of O(2) to the larvae. The metabolic response of larvae to reduced (O(2)) and elevated (CO(2)) indicated that larvae were tolerant of hypoxia/hypercarbia and also capable of reducing their respiratory rates to cope with hypercarbia. The low mortality of larvae in galls shaded with Al-foil for 20 days showed that photosynthesis was not vital for the survival of the larvae, although growth of shaded galls was substantially reduced. Gas exchange measurements confirmed that, while photosynthesis never fully compensated for the respiratory costs of galls, it contributed substantially to the maintenance and growth, especially of young galls, reducing their impact as carbon sinks on the host. We conclude that, although photosynthesis may contribute to O(2) provision, its main role is to reduce the dependence of the insect-induced gall on the host plant for photosynthates, thereby reducing intra-plant, inter-gall competition and enhancing the probability that each gall will reach maturity.

  11. Duplex gall bladder: bystander or culprit.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jogender; Yadav, Arushi

    2017-08-30

    Gall bladder (GB) duplication is a rare anatomical malformation, which can be detected by preoperative imaging study. We present a case of duplex gall bladder in a 14-year-old boy who presented with abdominal pain. On ultrasound, he had right nephrolithiasis and duplex gall bladder. Duplex gall bladder was confirmed on MR cholangiopancreatography. There was a dilemma for surgical management of duplex gall bladder; however, he became asymptomatic after conservative treatment. Prophylactic surgery is not recommended for asymptomatic incidentally detected duplex gall bladder. Radiologists and paediatric surgeons should be sensitised about the exact anatomy of this entity. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Gall induction may benefit host plant: a case of a gall wasp and eucalyptus tree.

    PubMed

    Rocha, S; Branco, M; Boas, L Vilas; Almeida, M H; Protasov, A; Mendel, Z

    2013-04-01

    Gall-inducing insects display intimate interactions with their host plants, usually described as parasitic relationships; the galls seem to favor the galler alone. We report on a case in which the presence of the galls induced by Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera; Eulophidae) benefit its host plant, the river red gum Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Field observations showed that E. camaldulensis plants infected by this gall wasp were less susceptible to cold injury than neighboring conspecific plants without galls. In the laboratory, frost resistance was compared between galled and non-galled plants which were both divided into two subgroups: cold-acclimated plants and plants that were non-acclimated. Galled plants displayed higher frost resistance than the non-galled ones, and the differences were higher in non-acclimated plants compared with acclimated ones. Physiological changes in host plant were determined by chemical analyses of chlorophylls, proteins, soluble sugars and anthocyanin contents. The results showed higher values of all physiological parameters in the galled plants, supporting the hypothesis that the presence of the gall wasp induces physiological changes on the plant foliage, which may in turn increase plant defense mechanisms against cold. Therefore, the toll of galling by the herbivore may pay off by the host plant acquiring increased frost resistance. This work provides evidence for physiological changes induced by a herbivore which might have a positive indirect effect on the host plant, promoting frost resistance such as cold acclimation.

  13. High resistance to oxidative damage in the Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica, and developmentally linked expression of genes encoding superoxide dismutase, catalase and heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Martinez, Giancarlo; Elnitsky, Michael A; Benoit, Joshua B; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L

    2008-08-01

    Intense ultraviolet radiation, coupled with frequent bouts of freezing-thawing and anoxia, have the potential to generate high levels of oxidative stress in Antarctic organisms. In this study, we examined mechanisms used by the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica, to counter oxidative stress. We cloned genes encoding two key antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat), and showed that SOD mRNA was expressed continuously and at very high levels in larvae, but not in adults, while Cat mRNA was expressed in both larvae and adults but at a somewhat reduced level. SOD mRNA was expressed at even higher levels in larvae that were exposed to direct sunlight. Catalase, a small heat shock protein, Hsp70 and Hsp90 mRNAs were also strongly upregulated in response to sunlight. Total antioxidant capacity of the adults was higher than that of the larvae, but levels in both stages of the midge were much higher than observed in a freeze-tolerant, temperate zone insect, the gall fly Eurosta solidaginis. Assays to measure oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation TBARS and carbonyl proteins) demonstrated that the Antarctic midge is highly resistant to oxidative stress.

  14. Arthropods associated with fungal galls: do large galls support more abundant and diverse inhabitants?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funamoto, Daichi; Sugiura, Shinji

    2017-02-01

    Fungus-induced galls can attract spore-feeding arthropods as well as gall-feeding ones, resulting in diverse communities. Do large fungal galls support more abundant and diverse arthropod communities than small fungal galls? To address this question, we investigated the structure of the arthropod community associated with bud galls induced by the fungus Melanopsichium onumae on the tree species Cinnamomum yabunikkei (Lauraceae) in central Japan. Thirteen species of arthropods were associated with M. onumae galls. Dominant arthropod species were represented by the larvae of a salpingid beetle (a spore feeder), a nitidulid beetle (a spore feeder), a cosmopterigid moth (a spore feeder), an unidentified moth (a gall tissue feeder), and a drosophilid species (a gall tissue feeder). Arthropod abundance and species richness were positively correlated with gall diameter. The majority of the most abundant species were more frequently found in large galls than in small ones, indicating that large fungal galls, which have more food and/or space for arthropods, could support a more abundant and diverse arthropod community.

  15. Arthropods associated with fungal galls: do large galls support more abundant and diverse inhabitants?

    PubMed

    Funamoto, Daichi; Sugiura, Shinji

    2017-02-01

    Fungus-induced galls can attract spore-feeding arthropods as well as gall-feeding ones, resulting in diverse communities. Do large fungal galls support more abundant and diverse arthropod communities than small fungal galls? To address this question, we investigated the structure of the arthropod community associated with bud galls induced by the fungus Melanopsichium onumae on the tree species Cinnamomum yabunikkei (Lauraceae) in central Japan. Thirteen species of arthropods were associated with M. onumae galls. Dominant arthropod species were represented by the larvae of a salpingid beetle (a spore feeder), a nitidulid beetle (a spore feeder), a cosmopterigid moth (a spore feeder), an unidentified moth (a gall tissue feeder), and a drosophilid species (a gall tissue feeder). Arthropod abundance and species richness were positively correlated with gall diameter. The majority of the most abundant species were more frequently found in large galls than in small ones, indicating that large fungal galls, which have more food and/or space for arthropods, could support a more abundant and diverse arthropod community.

  16. The biology of gall-inducing arthropods.

    Treesearch

    Gyuri Csoka; William J. Mattson; Graham N. Stone; Peter W. Price

    1998-01-01

    This proceedings explores many facets of the ever intriguing and enigmatic relationships between plants and their gall-forming herbivores. The research reported herein ranges from studies on classical biology and systematics of galling to molecular phylogeny, population genetics, and ecological and evolutionary theory. Human kind has much to learn and gain from...

  17. Reflections on the Gall-Peters Projection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Arthur H.

    1987-01-01

    Explains the cartographic qualities of rectangular world maps and compares the merits of various projections such as the Mercator and the recently-created Gall-Peters. States that the Gall-Peters projection does not provide a reasonable base for a general world map; that no rectangular projection does. (JDH)

  18. The salivary secretome of the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are hematophagous insects with over 1400 species distributed throughout the world. Many of these species are of particular agricultural importance as primary vectors of bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and Schmallenberg viruses. Detailed s...

  19. Midge-transmitted bluetongue in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Oura, C A L; El Harrak, M

    2011-09-01

    The role of domestic dogs in the long-distance spread of bluetongue virus (BTV) remains unproven. It is currently known that dogs are capable of being infected with BTV, can mount an antibody response to the virus and in some cases die showing severe clinical signs of disease. Infection of dogs is currently thought to be by oral ingestion of infected meat or meat products rather than through vector feeding. In this study we show that a high percentage of domestic dogs in Morocco (21%) were seropositive for BTV and, as these dogs were fed tinned commercial food only, and had no access to other meat products, the most likely source of infection was through Culicoides midges. This finding increases the chances of dogs being infected with BTV during an outbreak but their role in the onward transmission of BTV remains unproven.

  20. Bringing the Outside In: Insects and Their Galls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel; Wilkens, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Introduces gall-making insects and explains gall development. Explains how to bring galls into the classroom and conduct experiments. Suggests using gall systems to introduce students to the concepts of genetic control, biodiversity, plant and animal development, species interactions, biodiversity, and the flow of energy through the food web. (YDS)

  1. Bringing the Outside In: Insects and Their Galls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel; Wilkens, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Introduces gall-making insects and explains gall development. Explains how to bring galls into the classroom and conduct experiments. Suggests using gall systems to introduce students to the concepts of genetic control, biodiversity, plant and animal development, species interactions, biodiversity, and the flow of energy through the food web. (YDS)

  2. 77 FR 73654 - Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company, Eau Galle Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ...] Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company, Eau Galle Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed October 12, 2012, Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company informed the Commission that its exemption..., 1987,\\1\\ and transferred to Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company by letter.\\2\\ The project is located on...

  3. Fossil oak galls preserve ancient multitrophic interactions.

    PubMed

    Stone, Graham N; van der Ham, Raymond W J M; Brewer, Jan G

    2008-10-07

    Trace fossils of insect feeding have contributed substantially to our understanding of the evolution of insect-plant interactions. The most complex phenotypes of herbivory are galls, whose diagnostic morphologies often allow the identification of the gall inducer. Although fossil insect-induced galls over 300Myr old are known, most are two-dimensional impressions lacking adequate morphological detail either for the precise identification of the causer or for detection of the communities of specialist parasitoids and inquilines inhabiting modern plant galls. Here, we describe the first evidence for such multitrophic associations in Pleistocene fossil galls from the Eemian interglacial (130000-115000 years ago) of The Netherlands. The exceptionally well-preserved fossils can be attributed to extant species of Andricus gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galling oaks (Quercus), and provide the first fossil evidence of gall attack by herbivorous inquiline gallwasps. Furthermore, phylogenetic placement of one fossil in a lineage showing obligate host plant alternation implies the presence of a second oak species, Quercus cerris, currently unknown from Eemian fossils in northwestern Europe. This contrasts with the southern European native range of Q. cerris in the current interglacial and suggests that gallwasp invasions following human planting of Q. cerris in northern Europe may represent a return to preglacial distribution limits.

  4. The transcriptional landscape of insect galls: psyllid (Hemiptera) gall formation in Hawaiian Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Bailey, Sebastian; Percy, Diana M; Hefer, Charles A; Cronk, Quentin C B

    2015-11-16

    Recent studies show that galling Hymenoptera and Diptera are able to synthesize the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (auxin) from tryptophan and that plant response to insect-produced auxin is implicated in gall formation. We examined the leaf transcriptome of galled and ungalled leaves of individuals of the Hawaiian endemic plant Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae) subject to infestation by psyllid (Hemiptera) gall-makers in the genus Trioza (Triozidae). Transcript libraries were sequenced using Illumina technology and the reads assembled de novo into contigs. Functional identification of contigs followed a two-step procedure, first identifying contigs by comparison to the completely sequenced genome of the related Eucalyptus, followed by identifying the equivalent Arabidopsis gene using a pre-computed mapping between Eucalyptus and Arabidopsis genes. This allowed us to use the rich functional annotation of the Arabidopsis genome to assess the transcriptional landscape of galling in Metrosideros. Comparing galled and ungalled leaves, we find a highly significant enrichment of expressed genes with a gene ontology (GO) annotation to auxin response in the former. One gene consistently expressed in all galled trees examined but not detected in any libraries from ungalled leaves was the Metrosideros version of SMALL AUXIN UPREGULATED (SAUR) 67 which appears to be a marker for leaf-galling in Metrosideros. We conclude that an auxin response is involved in galling by Metrosideros psyllids. The possibility should therefore be considered that psyllids (like other insects examined) are able to synthesize auxin.

  5. Induction of Crown Gall on Carrot Slices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, H.; Fox, K. D.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the transfer of plasmid from a bacterium to a plant cell has received little attention. Presents an experiment for studying this type of genetic transformation using the causative agent of crown gall, a malignant plant tumor. (DDR)

  6. Induction of Crown Gall on Carrot Slices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, H.; Fox, K. D.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the transfer of plasmid from a bacterium to a plant cell has received little attention. Presents an experiment for studying this type of genetic transformation using the causative agent of crown gall, a malignant plant tumor. (DDR)

  7. Leafy gall formation by Rhodococcus fascians.

    PubMed

    Goethals, K; Vereecke, D; Jaziri, M; Van Montagu, M; Holsters, M

    2001-01-01

    Rhodococcus fascians infects a wide range of plants, initiating the formation of leafy galls that consist of centers of shoot amplification and shoot growth inhibition. R. fascians is an epiphyte but it also can establish endophytic populations. Bacterial signals involved in symptom development initiate de novo cell division and shoot meristem formation in differentiated tissues. The R. fascians signals exert activities that are distinct from mere cytokinin effects, and the evidence points to a process that adopted cytokinin biosynthetic enzymes to form derivatives with unique activity. Genes implicated in leafy gall formation are located on a linear plasmid and are subject to a highly controlling, complex regulatory network, integrating autoregulatory compounds and environmental signals. Leafy galls are considered as centers with specific metabolic features, a niche where populations of R. fascians experience a selective advantage. Such "metabolic habitat modification" might be universal for gall-inducing bacteria.

  8. Unusual presentation of metastatic gall bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Piyush; Roy, Soumyajit; Tiwari, Vivek; Mohanti, Bidhu K

    2014-01-01

    To report the first case of rare isolated breast metastasis from carcinoma gall bladder. Single patient case report. A 35-year-old pre-menopausal female presented with 2 * 2 cm right upper outer quadrant breast lump. Post-mastectomy, histology confirmed it to be metastatic adenocarcinoma positive for both Cytokeratin (CK) 7 and CK20. Past history as told by the patient revealed that 2 years back, cholecystectomy was performed for gall stones, of which no histology reports were present; she had a port site scar recurrence which showed it to be adenocarcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy was advised which the patient did not complete. This is probably the first case reported of isolated breast metastasis from gall bladder carcinoma, diagnosed retrospectively. It also highlights the importance of adjuvant treatment in gall bladder malignancy.

  9. Gall bladder flip technique in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Munish; Vindal, Anubhav; Lal, Pawanindra

    2017-01-01

    The precise steps for the removal of gall bladder from the gall bladder bed are not well standardised. The dissection becomes more difficult near the fundus where the assistant's grasper holding the fundus creates a 'tug of war' like situation. This is a description of a simple technique that aids in accurate dissection of the gallbladder from liver bed. As the gallbladder dissection approaches fundus and more than two-third of gallbladder is dissected from liver bed, the medial and lateral peritoneal folds of gall bladder are further incised. The assistant is asked to leave the traction from the gallbladder fundus, while the surgeon holds the dissected surface of gall bladder around 2-3 cm away from its attachment with liver and flip it above the liver. Further dissection is carried out using a hook or a dissector till it is disconnected completely from the liver bed. We have employed 'Flip technique' in around 645 consecutive cases of laparoscopic cholecystectomy operated in the past 3 years. Only one case of liver bed bleeding and two cases of injury to gall bladder wall were noted during this part of dissection in this study. Ease of dissection by surgeons was rated as 9.6 on a scale of 1-10. Gallbladder 'Flip technique' is a simple and easily reproducible technique employed for dissection of gall bladder from liver bed that reduces complications and makes dissection easier.

  10. Double gall-bladder--two pathologies: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pitiakoudis, M; Papanas, N; Polychronidis, A; Maltezos, E; Prassopoulos, P; Simopoulos, C

    2008-01-01

    True gall-bladder duplication is a rare biliary anomaly, which is usually discovered as an incidental finding. There are reports of double gall-bladders missed during the first operation. We present the case of a double gall-bladder which, albeit suspected during the operation, was confirmed post-operatively. The patient underwent successful laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the examination of the resected gall-bladder revealed two chambers, only one containing stones. Predisposing factors for the development of gall-stones in one gall-bladder only, as well as surgical options, are briefly discussed.

  11. Gall-ID: tools for genotyping gall-causing phytopathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Tabima, Javier F.; Grunwald, Niklaus J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the population structure and genetic diversity of plant pathogens, as well as the effect of agricultural practices on pathogen evolution, is important for disease management. Developments in molecular methods have contributed to increase the resolution for accurate pathogen identification, but those based on analysis of DNA sequences can be less straightforward to use. To address this, we developed Gall-ID, a web-based platform that uses DNA sequence information from 16S rDNA, multilocus sequence analysis and whole genome sequences to group disease-associated bacteria to their taxonomic units. Gall-ID was developed with a particular focus on gall-forming bacteria belonging to Agrobacterium, Pseudomonas savastanoi, Pantoea agglomerans, and Rhodococcus. Members of these groups of bacteria cause growth deformation of plants, and some are capable of infecting many species of field, orchard, and nursery crops. Gall-ID also enables the use of high-throughput sequencing reads to search for evidence for homologs of characterized virulence genes, and provides downloadable software pipelines for automating multilocus sequence analysis, analyzing genome sequences for average nucleotide identity, and constructing core genome phylogenies. Lastly, additional databases were included in Gall-ID to help determine the identity of other plant pathogenic bacteria that may be in microbial communities associated with galls or causative agents in other diseased tissues of plants. The URL for Gall-ID is http://gall-id.cgrb.oregonstate.edu/. PMID:27547538

  12. Predation on rose galls: parasitoids and predators determine gall size through directional selection.

    PubMed

    László, Zoltán; Sólyom, Katalin; Prázsmári, Hunor; Barta, Zoltán; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2014-01-01

    Both predators and parasitoids can have significant effects on species' life history traits, such as longevity or clutch size. In the case of gall inducers, sporadically there is evidence to suggest that both vertebrate predation and insect parasitoid attack may shape the optimal gall size. While the effects of parasitoids have been studied in detail, the influence of vertebrate predation is less well-investigated. To better understand this aspect of gall size evolution, we studied vertebrate predation on galls of Diplolepis rosae on rose (Rosa canina) shrubs. We measured predation frequency, predation incidence, and predation rate in a large-scale observational field study, as well as an experimental field study. Our combined results suggest that, similarly to parasitoids, vertebrate predation makes a considerable contribution to mortality of gall inducer larvae. On the other hand, its influence on gall size is in direct contrast to the effect of parasitoids, as frequency of vertebrate predation increases with gall size. This suggests that the balance between predation and parasitoid attack shapes the optimal size of D. rosae galls.

  13. Predation on Rose Galls: Parasitoids and Predators Determine Gall Size through Directional Selection

    PubMed Central

    László, Zoltán; Sólyom, Katalin; Prázsmári, Hunor; Barta, Zoltán; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2014-01-01

    Both predators and parasitoids can have significant effects on species’ life history traits, such as longevity or clutch size. In the case of gall inducers, sporadically there is evidence to suggest that both vertebrate predation and insect parasitoid attack may shape the optimal gall size. While the effects of parasitoids have been studied in detail, the influence of vertebrate predation is less well-investigated. To better understand this aspect of gall size evolution, we studied vertebrate predation on galls of Diplolepis rosae on rose (Rosa canina) shrubs. We measured predation frequency, predation incidence, and predation rate in a large-scale observational field study, as well as an experimental field study. Our combined results suggest that, similarly to parasitoids, vertebrate predation makes a considerable contribution to mortality of gall inducer larvae. On the other hand, its influence on gall size is in direct contrast to the effect of parasitoids, as frequency of vertebrate predation increases with gall size. This suggests that the balance between predation and parasitoid attack shapes the optimal size of D. rosae galls. PMID:24918448

  14. Phylogeny, Evolution and Classification of Gall Wasps: The Plot Thickens

    PubMed Central

    Ronquist, Fredrik; Nieves-Aldrey, José-Luis; Buffington, Matthew L.; Liu, Zhiwei; Liljeblad, Johan; Nylander, Johan A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Gall wasps (Cynipidae) represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total-evidence analyses of higher-level gall wasp relationships. We studied more than 100 taxa representing a rich selection of outgroups and the majority of described cynipid genera outside the diverse oak gall wasps (Cynipini), which were more sparsely sampled. About 5 kb of nucleotide data from one mitochondrial (COI) and four nuclear (28S, LWRh, EF1alpha F1, and EF1alpha F2) markers were analyzed separately and in combination with morphological and life-history data. According to previous morphology-based studies, gall wasps evolved in the Northern Hemisphere and were initially herb gallers. Inquilines originated once from gall inducers that lost the ability to initiate galls. Our results, albeit not conclusive, suggest a different scenario. The first gall wasps were more likely associated with woody host plants, and there must have been multiple origins of gall inducers, inquilines or both. One possibility is that gall inducers arose independently from inquilines in several lineages. Except for these surprising results, our analyses are largely consistent with previous studies. They confirm that gall wasps are conservative in their host-plant preferences, and that herb-galling lineages have radiated repeatedly onto the same set of unrelated host plants. We propose a revised classification of the family into twelve tribes, which are strongly supported as monophyletic across independent datasets. Four are new: Aulacideini, Phanacidini, Diastrophini and Ceroptresini. We present a key to the tribes and discuss their morphological and biological diversity. Until the relationships among the tribes are resolved, the origin and early evolution of gall wasps will remain elusive

  15. Phylogeny, evolution and classification of gall wasps: the plot thickens.

    PubMed

    Ronquist, Fredrik; Nieves-Aldrey, José-Luis; Buffington, Matthew L; Liu, Zhiwei; Liljeblad, Johan; Nylander, Johan A A

    2015-01-01

    Gall wasps (Cynipidae) represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total-evidence analyses of higher-level gall wasp relationships. We studied more than 100 taxa representing a rich selection of outgroups and the majority of described cynipid genera outside the diverse oak gall wasps (Cynipini), which were more sparsely sampled. About 5 kb of nucleotide data from one mitochondrial (COI) and four nuclear (28S, LWRh, EF1alpha F1, and EF1alpha F2) markers were analyzed separately and in combination with morphological and life-history data. According to previous morphology-based studies, gall wasps evolved in the Northern Hemisphere and were initially herb gallers. Inquilines originated once from gall inducers that lost the ability to initiate galls. Our results, albeit not conclusive, suggest a different scenario. The first gall wasps were more likely associated with woody host plants, and there must have been multiple origins of gall inducers, inquilines or both. One possibility is that gall inducers arose independently from inquilines in several lineages. Except for these surprising results, our analyses are largely consistent with previous studies. They confirm that gall wasps are conservative in their host-plant preferences, and that herb-galling lineages have radiated repeatedly onto the same set of unrelated host plants. We propose a revised classification of the family into twelve tribes, which are strongly supported as monophyletic across independent datasets. Four are new: Aulacideini, Phanacidini, Diastrophini and Ceroptresini. We present a key to the tribes and discuss their morphological and biological diversity. Until the relationships among the tribes are resolved, the origin and early evolution of gall wasps will remain elusive.

  16. Reduced cholesterol metastability of hepatic bile and its further decline in gall bladder bile in patients with cholesterol gall stones.

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, K; Chijiiwa, K

    1993-01-01

    The reduced metastability of biliary cholesterol in the gall bladder bile of patients with cholesterol gall stones has been well shown. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that such a difference in metastability already exists in hepatic bile. Paired hepatic and gall bladder bile samples were collected from 10 patients with cholesterol gall stones and six patients without gall stones. Cholesterol nucleation time, biliary lipid concentration, vesicular cholesterol distribution, and biliary protein concentration were measured and compared. The nucleation time in the hepatic bile of patients with cholesterol gall stones was significantly shorter than the gall stone free patients (8.2 (7.2) v 15.7 (5.8) days, p < 0.05), and was associated with a greater concentration of biliary lipid despite the lack of a difference in the cholesterol saturation index (CSI) and total protein concentration. During the storage of bile in the gall bladder, the nucleation time became quicker in the patients with cholesterol gall stone (2.9 (1.7) days) while it was similar in the gall stone free patients (17.3 (5.7) days) compared with that of the corresponding hepatic bile. These differences were associated with a higher CSI (1.44 (0.33) v 1.13 (0.14), p < 0.05) and a greater vesicular cholesterol distribution (19.7 (11.9) v 4.4 (1.4)%, p < 0.01) in the patients with cholesterol gall stones than the gall stone free patients. The concentrations of total lipid and protein in gall bladder bile were not significantly different between the two groups. In conclusion, patients with cholesterol gall stones produce less metastable hepatic bile by the evidence of shorter nucleation time. During the storage of the bile in the gall bladder, the metastability is reduced further only in the cholesterol gall stone patients but not in the gall stone free patients. PMID:8504975

  17. Adaptive significance of gall formation for a gall-inducing aphids on Japanese elm trees.

    PubMed

    Takei, Mami; Yoshida, Sayaka; Kawai, Takashi; Hasegawa, Morifumi; Suzuki, Yoshihito

    2015-01-01

    Insect galls are abnormal plant tissues induced by external stimuli from parasitizing insects. It has been suggested that the stimuli include phytohormones such as auxin and cytokinins produced by the insects. In our study on the role of hormones in gall induction by the aphid Tetraneura nigriabdominalis, it was found that feedback regulation related to auxin and cytokinin activity is absent in gall tissues, even though the aphids contain higher concentrations of those phytohormones than do plant tissues. Moreover, jasmonic acid signaling appears to be compromised in gall tissue, and consequently, the production of volatile organic compounds, which are a typical defense response of host plants to herbivory, is diminished. These findings suggest that these traits of the gall tissue benefit aphids, because the gall tissue is highly sensitive to auxin and cytokinin, which induce and maintain it. The induced defenses against aphid feeding are also compromised. The abnormal responsiveness to phytohormones is regarded as a new type of extended phenotype of gall-inducing insects.

  18. STRESS PROTEINS OF THE ANTARCTIC MIDGE, BELGICA ANTARCTICA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antarctica presents one of the earth’s most inhospitable environments. Though an abundance of animals have adapted to life associated with the sea in this part of the world, few animals have adapted to the rigors of a terrestrial existence. One exception is the flightless midge Belgica antarctica ...

  19. PUTATIVE STRESS REGULATED GENES OF THE ANTARCTIC MIDGE, BELGICA ANTARCTICA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antarctica presents one of the earth’s most inhospitable environments. Though an abundance of animals have adapted to life associated with the sea in this part of the world, few animals have adapted to the rigors of a terrestrial existence. One exception is the flightless midge Belgica antarctica ...

  20. Estimating Culicoides sonorensis biting midge abundance using digital image analysis.

    PubMed

    Osborne, C J; Mayo, C E; Mullens, B A; Maclachlan, N J

    2014-12-01

    ImageJ is an open-source software tool used for a variety of scientific objectives including cell counting, shape analysis and image correction. This technology has previously been used to estimate mosquito abundance in surveillance efforts. However, the utility of this application for estimating abundance or parity in the surveillance of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) has not yet been tested. Culicoides sonorensis (Wirth and Jones), a biting midge often measuring 2.0-2.5 mm in length, is an economically important vector of ruminant arboviruses in California. Current surveillance methods use visual sorting for the characteristics of midges and are very time-intensive for large studies. This project tested the utility of ImageJ as a tool to assist in gross trap enumeration as well as in parity analysis of C. sonorensis in comparison with traditional visual methods of enumeration using a dissecting microscope. Results confirmed that automated counting of midges is a reliable means of approximating midge numbers under certain conditions. Further evaluation confirmed accurate and time-efficient parity analysis in comparison with hand sorting. The ImageJ software shows promise as a tool that can assist and expedite C. sonorensis surveillance. Further, these methods may be useful in other insect surveillance activities.

  1. XX1 Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, is an invasive pest of chestnut in Japan, Europe, and the United States. D. kuriphilus induces formation of galls on all chestnut species. Damage caused by galling reduces commercial chestnut yields and threatens restoration of American chestnut i...

  2. Chemotherapy and targeted therapy for gall bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Sirohi, Bhawna; Singh, Ashish; Jagannath, P; Shrikhande, Shailesh V

    2014-06-01

    Gall bladder cancer is a common cancer in the Ganges belt of North-eastern India. In view of incidental diagnosis of gall bladder cancer by physicians and surgeons, the treatment is not optimised. Most patients present in advanced stages and surgery remains the only option to cure. This review highlights the current evidence in advances in systemic therapy of gall bladder cancer.

  3. Gall bladder Adenocarcinoma in a Young Girl.

    PubMed

    Date, Shivprasad V; Rizvi, S J

    2015-04-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with abdominal discomfort, weakness, and jaundice. General examination revealed deep icterus with hard lymph nodes in left supraclavicular region. On gastrointestinal examination, we appreciated a hard intra-abdominal lump in the right hypochondrium. Biochemical evaluation showed features of obstructive jaundice. Imaging confirmed the presence of gall bladder lump with multiple intra-abdominal lymph nodes. Fine needle aspiration cytology of neck nodes demonstrated metastatic adenocarcinoma. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the gall bladder lump (done under sonographic guidance) confirmed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, malignancy of the gall bladder has not been reported in individuals less than 18 years in India, and only three cases have been reported worldwide in English literature.

  4. Comparison of gene expression in the salivary glands of three major insect pests of cereals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Hessian fly, the wheat midge, and the rice gall midge are among the most important insect pests of cereals worldwide. Plant resistance is the most effective method of control; however, the use of resistant cultivars leads to the development of biotypes that can survive on formerly resistant cult...

  5. Effect of barley chromosome addition on the susceptibility of wheat to feeding by a gall-inducing leafhopper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumashiro, Shun; Matsukura, Keiichiro; Kawaura, Kanako; Matsumura, Masaya; Ogihara, Yasunari; Tokuda, Makoto

    2011-11-01

    The maize orange leafhopper Cicadulina bipunctata is distributed widely in tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World and feeds on various Poaceae. The leafhopper is recognized as an important pest of maize in several countries. Adults as well as nymphs of C. bipunctata induce growth stunting and galls characterized by the severe swelling of leaf veins on many cereal crops including wheat, rice, and maize, but do not on barley. To clarify the mechanism of growth stunting and gall induction by C. bipunctata, we used six barley chromosome disomic addition lines of wheat (2H-7H) and investigated the effect of barley (cv. Betzes) chromosome addition on the susceptibility of wheat (cv. Chinese Spring) to feeding by the leafhopper. Feeding by C. bipunctata significantly stunted the growth in 2H, 3H, 4H, and 5H, but did not in 6H and 7H. The degree of gall induction was significantly weaker and severer in 3H and 5H than in Chinese Spring, respectively. These results suggest that barley genes resistant to growth stunting and gall induction exist in 6H and 7H, and 3H, respectively. 5H is considered to be useful for future assays investigating the mechanism of gall induction by this leafhopper because of the high susceptibility to the feeding by C. bipunctata. Significant correlation between the degrees of growth stunting and gall induction was not detected in the six chromosome addition lines and Chinese spring. This implies that these two symptoms are independent phenomena although both are initiated by the feeding of C. bipunctata.

  6. Discovery of a gall-forming midge, Asphondylia pilosa Kieffer (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), on Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link) Fabaceae)

    Treesearch

    George P. Markin; Carol J. Horning

    2010-01-01

    Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius: (L.) Link), a native European perennial shrub, was introduced to the U.S. before the turn of the century as an ornamental for its bright yellow, pea-like flower. The plant found the western U.S. maritime zone to be an ideal habitat, thus it soon escaped from cultivation, and became an invasive weed now widely distributed from northern...

  7. Nonselective oviposition by a fastidious insect: the laboratory host range of the melaleuca gall midge Lophodiplosis trifida (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasion by the Australian paperbark, Melaleuca quinquenervia, has degraded large expanses of south Florida wetlands. Restoration of these wetlands requires the removal of expansive monocultures of this large tree while simultaneously curtailing its spread. Management strategies developed by feder...

  8. Unbalanced activation of glutathione metabolic pathways suggests potential involvement in plant defense against the gall midge mayetiola destructor in wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glutathione, a thiol tripeptide of '-glutamylcysteinylglycine, exists abundantly in nearly all organisms. Glutathione participates in various physiological processes involved in redox reactions by serving as an electron donor/acceptor. In this study, we found that the abundance of total glutathion...

  9. Phytohormone dynamics associated with gall insects, and their potential role in the evolution of the gall-inducing habit.

    PubMed

    Tooker, John F; Helms, Anjel M

    2014-07-01

    While plant galls can be induced by a variety of organisms, insects produce the most diverse and complex galls found in nature; yet, how these galls are formed is unknown. Phytohormones have long been hypothesized to play a key role in gall production, but their exact role, and how they influence galls, has been unclear. Research in the past decade has provided better insight into the role of plant hormones in gall growth and plant defenses. We review and synthesize recent literature on auxin, cytokinins, and abscisic, jasmonic, and salicylic acids to provide a broader understanding of how these phytohormones might effect gall production, help plants defend against galls, and/or allow insects to overcome host-plant defenses. After reviewing these topics, we consider the potential for phytohormones to have facilitated the evolution of insect galls. More specialized research is needed to provide a mechanistic understanding of how phytohormones operate in gall-insect-plant interactions, but current evidence strongly supports phytohormones as key factors determining the success and failure of insect galls.

  10. Collective Behaviour without Collective Order in Wild Swarms of Midges

    PubMed Central

    Attanasi, Alessandro; Cavagna, Andrea; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Giardina, Irene; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Pohl, Oliver; Rossaro, Bruno; Shen, Edward; Silvestri, Edmondo; Viale, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    Collective behaviour is a widespread phenomenon in biology, cutting through a huge span of scales, from cell colonies up to bird flocks and fish schools. The most prominent trait of collective behaviour is the emergence of global order: individuals synchronize their states, giving the stunning impression that the group behaves as one. In many biological systems, though, it is unclear whether global order is present. A paradigmatic case is that of insect swarms, whose erratic movements seem to suggest that group formation is a mere epiphenomenon of the independent interaction of each individual with an external landmark. In these cases, whether or not the group behaves truly collectively is debated. Here, we experimentally study swarms of midges in the field and measure how much the change of direction of one midge affects that of other individuals. We discover that, despite the lack of collective order, swarms display very strong correlations, totally incompatible with models of non-interacting particles. We find that correlation increases sharply with the swarm's density, indicating that the interaction between midges is based on a metric perception mechanism. By means of numerical simulations we demonstrate that such growing correlation is typical of a system close to an ordering transition. Our findings suggest that correlation, rather than order, is the true hallmark of collective behaviour in biological systems. PMID:25057853

  11. Distinct antimicrobial activities in aphid galls on Pistacia atlantica

    PubMed Central

    Yoram, Gerchman; Inbar, Moseh

    2011-01-01

    Gall-formers are parasitic organisms that manipulate plant traits for their own benefit. Galls have been shown to protect their inhabitants from natural enemies such as predators and parasitoids by various chemical and mechanical means. Much less attention, however, has been given to the possibility of defense against microbial pathogens in the humid and nutrient-rich gall environment. We found that the large, cauliflower-shaped, galls induced by the aphid Slavum wertheimae on buds of Pistacia atlantica trees express antibacterial and antifungal activities distinct from those found in leaves. Antibacterial activity was especially profound against Bacillus spp (a genus of many known insect pathogen) and against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a known plant pathogen). Antifungal activity was also demonstrated against multiple filamentous fungi. Our results provide evidence for the protective antimicrobial role of galls. This remarkable antibacterial and antifungal activity in the galls of S. wertheimae may be of agricultural and pharmaceutical value. PMID:22105034

  12. Gall bladder carcinoma presenting with spinal metastasis: a rare phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Mohit K; Joshi, Richa; Chadha, Manish; Alam, Shan E; Varshneya, Hemant; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-05-01

    Skeletal metastasis as a primary presentation of gall bladder carcinoma is rare. A 50-year-old lady presented with neck pain and weakness in her right upper limb of 3 months duration. Clinical and imaging work-up suggested locally advanced gall bladder carcinoma with metastasis to cervical vertebra and sternum. Only one case till date has been reported where the patient presented with neurological symptoms due to pathological fracture secondary to metastasis from an occult gall bladder carcinoma. Although rare, an occult gall bladder cancer may present with neurological symptoms due to pathological fracture of spine secondary to metastasis. We present a brief review of literature of patients who presented with skeletal metastases in clinically silent gall bladder malignancy. Palliative care issues in advanced gall bladder carcinoma have also been discussed.

  13. Anatomic Variant of Liver, Gall Bladder and Inferior Vena Cava.

    PubMed

    Sontakke, Yogesh Ashok; Gladwin, V; Chand, Parkash

    2016-07-01

    The morphology and relations of liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava are cardinal. Their anatomical variations may be a reason for the adverse surgical outcome. During routine anatomy dissection of an abdomen, we noticed a variant liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava in a 63-year-old male cadaver. In the specimen, a retrohepatic segment of inferior vena cava was found to be intrahepatic. On dissection, it was observed that inferior vena cava was covered entirely by a liver tissue on its dorsal aspect. In the same specimen, the gall bladder had undulated inferior surface. On dissection of the gall bladder, numerous mucosal folds were present in the interior. A band of fibrous tissue was found, which was extending from the right side of the gall bladder to the falciform ligament. Hence, preoperative scanning of congenital variations of the liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava may be compassionate in planning safe surgeries and interventional abdominal procedures.

  14. Gall stones and chronic pancreatitis: the black box in between.

    PubMed

    Yan, M-X; Li, Y-Q

    2006-04-01

    The relation between gall stones and chronic pancreatitis is uncertain; there are differing opinions on this issue. Firstly, gall stones are the most common reason for acute pancreatitis, but it cannot cause chronic pancreatitis. Secondly, a connection between gall stones and chronic inflammation of the pancreas might exist. Numerous studies or investigations have shown that changes associated with chronic pancreatitis are common in gallstone patients. Although it seems that gall stones might be a cause of chronic pancreatitis according to these findings, clinical and experimental studies are still needed for confirmation, and further studies are required to determine the mechanisms involved.

  15. Method refinements for the midge life-cycle, Chironomus dilutus test

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval stages of non-biting midges can be found in almost any freshwater ecosystem, and one of the commonly tested midges is Chironomus dilutus (Chironomidae, Diptera) which is used for toxicity testing and ecological risk assessment of freshwater contaminants. USEPA, ASTM, Envir...

  16. Biology of a Pine Needle Sheath Midge, Contarinia Acuta Gagne (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), on Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    Julie C. Weatherby; John C. Moser; Raymond J. Gagné; Huey N. Wallace

    1989-01-01

    The biology of a pine needle sheath midge, Contarinia acuta Gagné is described for a new host in Louisiana. This midge was found feeding within the needle sheath on elongating needles of loblolly pine, P. taeda L. Needle droop and partial defoliation were evident on heavily infested trees. Overwintering C. acuta...

  17. Method refinements for the midge life-cycle, Chironomus dilutus test

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval stages of non-biting midges can be found in almost any freshwater ecosystem, and one of the commonly tested midges is Chironomus dilutus (Chironomidae, Diptera) which is used for toxicity testing and ecological risk assessment of freshwater contaminants. USEPA, ASTM, Envir...

  18. Do secretions from the uropygial gland of birds attract biting midges and black flies?

    PubMed

    Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Rivero-de Aguilar, Juan; Del Cerro, Sara; Argüello, Anastasio; Merino, Santiago

    2011-12-01

    Bird susceptibility to attacks by blood-sucking flying insects could be influenced by urogypial gland secretions. To determine the effect of these secretions on biting midges and black flies, we set up a series of tests. First, we placed uropygial gland secretions from blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus broods inside empty nest boxes while empty nest boxes without gland secretions were treated as controls. Blue tit broods, from which we had obtained uropygial secretions, were affected by biting midges and black flies. However, these insects were absent in nest boxes both with and without secretions from nestlings' uropygial glands. We subsequently tested for the effects of uropygial gland secretions from feral pigeons Columba livia monitoring the number of biting midges captured using miniature CDC traps. There was no significant difference in the number of biting midges captured. Overall, our results did not support a potential role of avian uropygial gland secretions in attracting biting midges and black flies.

  19. Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of gall bladder: report of an extremely rare histological type of primary gall bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zubair; Qureshi, Asim

    2010-09-07

    Signet ring cell carcinoma is an extremely rare type of gall bladder carcinoma composed overwhelmingly (90%) of signet ring cells. It is necessary to exclude a gastric or colonic signet ring cell carcinoma secondarily involving the gall bladder. The primary aim of this case report is to describe the histopathological aspects of this tumour. Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of gall bladder shows dysplastic surface gall bladder epithelium with infiltration of gall bladder wall. It is also necessary to exclude benign signet ring change, which sometimes occurs in the gall bladder. However, it is always confined to the mucosa and does not infiltrate the wall. This case showed grossly diffuse thickening of the gall bladder wall and dysplastic surface epithelium of the gall bladder on histology, with sheets of signet ring cells infiltrating full thickness of the wall. It is also necessary to exclude benign signet ring cell change, which sometimes occurs in the gall bladder. However it is always confined to the mucosa and does not infiltrate the wall.

  20. Dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestation of horned oak galls.

    PubMed

    Eliason, E A; Potter, D A

    2000-06-01

    Pin oak, Quercus palustris Muenchhausen, is the primary host for the gall wasp Callirhytis cornigera (Osten Sacken). Woody stem galls formed by C. cornigera may be infested by the dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), an important pest of flowering dogwood, Cornus florida L. Previous research has shown that S. scitula has a bimodal seasonal flight pattern, with peaks in late spring and midsummer. We tested the hypothesis that moths emerging from dogwoods largely account for the first flight pulse, whereas emergence from stem galls contributes disproportionately to the second pulse. Seasonal flight activity of S. scitula was monitored with pheromone traps baited with Z,Z-3,13-octadecadien-1-ol acetate. Traps were hung near plantings of dogwoods in suburban landscapes or near heavily galled pin oaks. Borer emergence from dogwood was monitored by sampling infested trees for pupal exuviae, and from galls that were collected and held in outdoor rearing cages. The impact of S. scitula on C. cornigera larvae was assessed by weighing, measuring, and dissecting galls. Flight activity of S. scitula began on 5 May and ended on 13 October 1999, with peaks in late May and in late July to early August. The flight pattern was similar for the two types of trapping sites, and moths emerged from both hosts during both flight periods. Proportionately more moths emerged from dogwoods during the first flight pulse than during the second, but emergence from galls was nearly evenly divided between the two flight peaks. We therefore reject the hypothesis that emergence of borers from galls contributes disproportionately to the second flight period. Approximately 12-15% of stem galls (2-3 yr old) contained S. scitula larvae. Feeding and tunneling by borers contributed to gall desiccation and reduced horn development, but rarely killed C. cornigera larvae. This study has implications for management of S. scitula because borers emerging from horned oak galls may represent a threat to

  1. Non-destructive characterisation of iron gall ink drawings: not such a galling problem.

    PubMed

    Strlic, Matija; Cséfalvayová, Linda; Kolar, Jana; Menart, Eva; Kosek, Joanna; Barry, Caroline; Higgitt, Catherine; Cassar, May

    2010-04-15

    Iron gall inks are of extraordinary historical significance considering their widespread use for over a millennium. Due to their corrosiveness, which is a consequence of their acidity and content of transition metals, iron gall inks accelerate the degradation of the writing or drawing support, which in this study is rag paper. Characterisation of acidity (pH) and degree of polymerisation (DP) of cellulose in paper is thus of high interest as it enables the estimation of material stability and assessment of risks associated with its handling. Based on a well-characterised set of samples with iron gall ink from the 18th and 19th centuries, we developed a near infrared spectroscopic method with partial least squares calibration for non-destructive determination of pH and DP of both inked areas and paper. Using this method, 27 18th and 19th century iron gall ink drawings from the British Museum collection were analysed and in all cases, inked areas turned out to be more acidic and degraded than the surrounding paper. Based on the obtained DP data, we were able to estimate the time needed for the inked areas to degrade to the point when they become at risk of damage due to handling. Using the average uncertainty of the calculated lifetime, we propose a quantitative stability classification method which could contribute to the curatorial and conservation decision-making process.

  2. Acute Renal Failure after Consumption of Fish Gall Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Yu Yao, Bian

    2014-01-01

    A case of acute renal failure after consumption of fish gall bladder as traditional medical remedy is reported. The patient fully recovered with conservative treatment. The risk of acute kidney failure and even multiple organ dysfunction syndrome following ingestion of fish gall bladder is highlighted. PMID:24829840

  3. Fish gall bladder consumption presenting as acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A; Karnik, ND; Gupta, VA; Hase, NK

    2015-01-01

    A forty two year old male was admitted with history of anuria and breathlessness following consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder. He had azotemia and required hemodialysis. His renal failure improved over a period of about four weeks. Incidences have been reported from South East Asian countries associating consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder with acute renal failure. PMID:26440398

  4. Evaluation of wild juglans species for crown gall resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A. tumefaciens is a soil-borne Gram-negative bacterium which causes crown gall on many dicotyledonous plant species including walnut. Crown gall symptoms on walnut are characterized by large tumors located near the crown of the tree but can occur near wounds caused by bleeding cuts or at the graft u...

  5. Winter Biology and Freeze Tolerance in the Goldenrod Gall Fly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandro, Luke H.; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a variety of opportunities for educational activities that can be found in the complex, yet easy-to-manipulate, trophic relationships between goldenrod plants, insects that induce gall formation, and the natural enemies of these gallmakers. Gall collection, measurement, and observation (exit holes, larval response,…

  6. Occurrence of Goldenrod Galls: Study of Insect Ovipositing Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Sandra J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise that takes advantage of the abundant number of species of goldenrod galls that exist in the environment to explore a question concerning the behavior of the female gall-forming insects as they lay eggs on the goldenrod plant. (ZWH)

  7. Winter Biology and Freeze Tolerance in the Goldenrod Gall Fly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandro, Luke H.; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a variety of opportunities for educational activities that can be found in the complex, yet easy-to-manipulate, trophic relationships between goldenrod plants, insects that induce gall formation, and the natural enemies of these gallmakers. Gall collection, measurement, and observation (exit holes, larval response,…

  8. Occurrence of Goldenrod Galls: Study of Insect Ovipositing Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Sandra J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise that takes advantage of the abundant number of species of goldenrod galls that exist in the environment to explore a question concerning the behavior of the female gall-forming insects as they lay eggs on the goldenrod plant. (ZWH)

  9. Gall bladder contractility in children with beta-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Nasr, M R; Shaker, M; Mahdy, H; Hafez, A

    2009-01-01

    We studied gall bladder contractility in 61 children with beta-thalassaemia who were asymptomatic for gall bladder disease and 51 sex- and age-matched controls in Cairo, Egypt, using, andreal-time ultrasonography. Multiple gall bladder stones were present in 18.0% of thalassaemia patients and sludge in 6.6%. There were statistically significant differences between thalassaemia patients controls in gall bladder fasting volume, residual volume, emptying time and contraction index. There was significant positive correlation between fasting and residual volumes and age, weight and height, and between fasting volume and body mass index and serum ferritin level. Contraction index was negatively correlated with serum total bilirubin. Impaired gall bladder motility was evident in patients with beta-thalassaemia and it may be related to disease duration, serum ferritin and total serum bilirubin level.

  10. Gall bladder sludge and stones in multitransfused Egyptian thalassaemic patients.

    PubMed

    el-Nawawy, A; Kassem, A S; Eissa, M; Abdel-Fattah, M; Safwat, M

    2001-01-01

    One hundred Egyptian beta-thalassaemic patients on a long-term transfusion/chelation programme were evaluated for the prevalence of gall bladder sludge and stones and the associated risk factors. Fifty healthy individuals served as controls. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed that 14% of the thalassaemic patients had gall bladder sludge or stones (6% stones and 8% sludge). The thalassaemic patients with this complication were older, had a higher prevalence of gall bladder symptoms, higher levels of pretransfusion haemoglobin, larger amounts of transfused red cells, and more were regularly transfused. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence that gall bladder symptoms and the amount of transfused red cells were the only significant predictors of the occurrence of gall bladder sludge or stones.

  11. The salivary secretome of the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis

    PubMed Central

    Lehiy, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are hematophagous insects with over 1400 species distributed throughout the world. Many of these species are of particular agricultural importance as primary vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses, yet little is known about Culicoides genomics and proteomics. Detailed studies of members from other blood-feeding Dipteran families, including those of mosquito (Culicidae) and black fly (Simuliidae), have shown that protein components within the insect’s saliva facilitate the blood feeding process. To determine the protein components in Culicoides sonorensis midges, secreted saliva was collected for peptide sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry. Forty-five secreted proteins were identified, including members of the D7 odorant binding protein family, Kunitz-like serine protease inhibitors, maltase, trypsin, and six novel proteins unique to C. sonorensis. Identifying the complex myriad of proteins in saliva from blood-feeding Dipteran species is critical for understanding their role in blood feeding, arbovirus transmission, and possibly the resulting disease pathogenesis. PMID:24949243

  12. Spatial feeding preferences of ornithophilic mosquitoes, blackflies and biting midges.

    PubMed

    Cerný, O; Votýpka, J; Svobodová, M

    2011-03-01

    The section of habitat used by particular bloodsucking insects when seeking bloodmeals may influence the spectrum of hosts to which they have access and consequently the diseases they transmit. The vertical distribution of ornithophilic bloodsucking Diptera (Culicidae, Simuliidae and Ceratopogonidae) was studied using bird-baited traps set at both ground and tree canopy levels. In total, 1240 mosquito females of eight species, 1201 biting midge females of 11 species, and 218 blackfly females of two species were captured during 2003-2005. Culex pipiens (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) was found to prefer ground-level habitats, whereas Anopheles plumbeus (Stephens) (Diptera: Culicidae), biting midges [Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)] and Eusimulium angustipes (Edwards) (Diptera: Simuliidae) preferred the canopy. The results of this study with regard to Cx. pipiens behaviour differ from those of most previous studies and may indicate different spatial feeding preferences in geographically separate populations. The occurrence of E. angustipes in the canopy is concordant with its role in the transmission of avian trypanosomes. These findings may be important for surveillance programmes focusing on ornithophilic Diptera which transmit various pathogenic agents.

  13. Not all oak gall wasps gall oaks: the description of Dryocosmus rileypokei, a new, apostate species of Cynipini from California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cynipini gall wasps are commonly known as oak gall wasps for their almost exclusive use of oak (Quercus spp.) as their host plant. Previously, only three of the nearly1000 species of Cynipini have been recorded from a host plant other than Quercus. These three species are known from western chinqu...

  14. Dose to the gall bladder from a /sup 99m/Tc labeled gall bladder scanning agent

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, S.R.; Chen, S.M.

    1981-06-01

    A mathematical gall bladder was added to the mathematical phantom and the specific absorbed fractions (PHI) were calculated for the 22 target organs (for the source in the gall bladder) by the Monte Carlo code. From these data and the /sup 99m/Tc decay scheme data, the S factors (rads per ..mu..Ci-day residence) for the organs when the source is in the gall bladder were estimated. From the reciprocity relationship for PHI, the S factors for the gall bladder when the source is located in any of the 22 source organs of the phantom were also estimated. The dose to the gall bladder wall from a single injection of the /sup 99m/Tc labeled scanning agent into man is estimated to be approx. 0.52 rads/mCi plus or minus about 1/2 this value depending on the assumptions in the estimation of this value.

  15. Need for Prophylactic Cholecystectomy in Silent Gall Stones in North India.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Alok Vardhan

    2015-09-01

    One of the criteria for recommending cholecystectomy for silent gall stones, is gall stones in regions with high incidence of gall bladder cancer. Both gall stones and gall bladder cancer are common in North India. All tertiary care centres in India report high rates of gall bladder cancer (GBC) incidence and poor treatment outcomes in the majority of cases due to advanced stage of presentation. Csendes of Chile has reported very high incidence of gallbladder cancer in Chile and Bolivia and advocated prophylactic cholecystectomy in asymptomatic patients. Incidence rate of gall bladder cancer in Indian males is equal to that of Chile, whereas in females, the rates are almost double the rates of Chile. Indians have also been found to have high concentrations of heavy metals in gall bladder wall, and antibodies to tumor suppressor genes. In India, gall bladder cancer is the commonest GI cancer in women and fourth commonest cancer overall in the female population. In view of the epidemiology and clinical scenario of gall bladder cancer and proven safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, there is a need to act before it is too late in the current rates of gall bladder cancer. This study looks at the evidence correlating gall stones and gall bladder cancer, in relation to India. There is pressing evidence today to justify a strategy of prophylactic cholecystectomy in silent gall stones in North India. Data for this study was selected through an internet based search for literature concerning gall stones and gall bladder cancer in India, and for prophylactic cholecystectomy.

  16. Transmission of Oropouche virus from man to hamster by the midge Culicoides paraensis.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, F P; Travassos da Rosa, A P; Gomes, M L; LeDuc, J W; Hoch, A L

    1982-03-05

    Oropouche virus (arbovirus family Bunyaviridae, Simbu serological group) was experimentally transmitted from man to hamster by the bite of the midge Culicoides paraensis. Infection rates and transmission rates were determined after the midge had engorged on patients with viremia. The threshold titer necessary to enable infection or transmission by the midges was approximately 5.3 log10 of the median lethal dose of the virus in suckling mice per milliliter of blood. Transmission was achieved 6 to 12 days after C. paraensis had taken the infective blood meal. This represents conclusive evidence of transmission of an arbovirus of public health importance to man by a member of the Ceratopogonidae family.

  17. Rapid spread of Schmallenberg virus-infected biting midges (Culicoides spp.) across Denmark in 2012.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, L D; Kirkeby, C; Bødker, R; Kristensen, B; Rasmussen, T B; Belsham, G J; Bøtner, A

    2014-02-01

    Detection of Schmallenberg virus RNA, using real-time RT-PCR, in biting midges (Culicoides spp.) caught at 48 locations in 2011 and four well-separated farms during 2012 in Denmark, revealed a remarkably rapid spread of virus-infected midges across the country. During 2012, some 213 pools of obsoletus group midges (10 specimens per pool) were examined, and of these, 35 of the 174 parous pools were Schmallenberg virus RNA positive and 11 of them were positive in the heads. Culicoides species-specific PCRs identified both C. obsoletus and C. dewulfi as vectors of Schmallenberg virus.

  18. Ectopic thyroid in duplicated gall bladder: a rare entity. Case report.

    PubMed

    Kachare, Manohar B; Khandelwal, Ashish; Kulkarni, Sanjay B; Saboo, Sachin S

    2013-03-01

    Duplication of the gall bladder is a rare anomaly. Ectopic thyroid in a gall bladder is also exceedingly rare with only four cases of ectopic thyroid tissue in the gall bladder reported in English literature. We report the unique case of ectopic thyroid tissue in a duplicated gall bladder in a 51-year-old female with recurrent right upper quadrant pain. Abdominal sonography revealed a duplicated gall bladder with the cystic-solid mass in the septum separating the two gall bladders while subsequent histopathology from the cholecystectomy specimen confirmed ectopic thyroid tissue within the wall of double gall bladder.

  19. Patterns of phenolic compounds in leafy galls of tobacco.

    PubMed

    Vereecke, D; Messens, E; Klarskov, K; De Bruyn, A; Van Montagu, M; Goethals, K

    1997-03-01

    The chemical composition of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from leafy galls produced after infection of Nicotiana tabacum L. plants with Rhodococcus fascians was drastically changed compared to uninfected controls. Chlorogenic acid was abundant both in uninfected and infected plants, but caffeic acid and another cinnamoyl analogue were new in leafy galls. The most pronounced product induced in leafy galls was identified as 7-O-methyl-6-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl coumarin (7-methyl esculin). This is the first report of the presence of this coumarin derivative in tobacco. Interestingly, 7-methyl esculin did not accumulate in the presence of avirulent R. fascians strains nor was it found in leafy galls on other plant species. However, it did appear in crown galls induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens on tobacco plants. Intriguingly, none of the phenolics known to accumulate in Solanaceae under pathogen attack were found in leafy galls. 7-Methyl esculin barely affected growth of R. fascians nor was it catabolized. Microscopical analysis showed that autofluorescent compounds were located mainly in the abundant meristematic regions of the leafy galls. We postulate that 7-methyl esculin might locally influence plant cell division.

  20. Symptomatic and silent gall stones in the community.

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, K W; Braddon, F E; Mountford, R A; Hughes, A O; Emmett, P M

    1991-01-01

    The prevalence of gall stone disease in a stratified random sample of 1896 British adults (72.2% of those approached) was established using real time ultrasound. The prevalence rose with age, except in women of 40-49 years, so that at 60-69 years, 22.4% of women and 11.5% of men had gall stones or had undergone cholecystectomy. The cholecystectomy rate of people with gall stone disease was higher in women than in men (43.5% v 24%, p less than 0.05). Very few subjects with gall stones had convincing biliary symptoms. In women, 10.4% had symptoms according to a questionnaire definition of biliary pain and 6.3% according to conventional history taking, while no men at all admitted to biliary pain. Nevertheless, cholecystectomy in men had nearly always been preceded by convincing biliary symptoms. The age at cholecystectomy was, on average, nine years less than the age at detection of silent gall stones in both sexes. It is concluded that either gall stones are especially prone to cause symptoms in younger people or that there are two kinds of cholelithiasis - symptomatic and silent. The lack of symptomatic gall stones in cross sectional surveys is probably due to their rapid diagnosis and treatment. PMID:2013429

  1. THE FILLING AND EMPTYING OF THE GALL BLADDER

    PubMed Central

    Copher, Glover H.; Kodama, Shuichi; Graham, Evarts A.

    1926-01-01

    As a result of the control of the flow of bile into the duodenum largely by tonus and movements of the duodenum, bile intermittently enters the gall bladder where it is concentrated and undergoes other changes. The gall bladder empties itself of its content through the cystic duct (1) by the washing out of its contents by bile from the liver, (2) by the elasticity or contractile mechanism of its walls, and (3) by variations of intraabdominal pressure due to respiratory movements, contiguous organs, etc. A fourth manner of emptying of the gall bladder is by absorption of a portion of its content through its walls. The gall bladder is never entirely empty but tends to come to a state of partial collapse, when its contents are under minimum pressure. We have been unable to demonstrate rhythmic contractions of the gall bladder due to its musculature. If they are present they may aid but they are not essential for its emptying or filling. Experimentally, in the dog, a rubber bag which was substituted for the gall bladder functioned in a manner very similar to that of the normal gall bladder as shown by cholecystographic studies. The concentrating function, however, was absent. PMID:19869174

  2. Surgical outcome of carcinosarcoma of the gall bladder: a review.

    PubMed

    Okabayashi, Takehiro; Sun, Zhao-Li; Montgomey, Robert A; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2009-10-21

    Carcinosarcoma, which comprises less than one percent of all gall bladder neoplasms, is characterized by the presence of variable proportions of carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. Recently, several reports have described patients suffering from carcinosarcoma of the gall bladder. However, there are no large studies regarding the clinicopathologic features, therapeutic management, and surgical outcome of this disease because the number of patients who undergo resection of gall bladder carcinosarcoma at a single institution is limited. A Medline search was performed using the keywords 'gall bladder' and 'carcinosarcoma'. Additional articles were obtained from references within the papers identified by the Medline search. Optimal adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy protocols for carcinosarcoma of the gall bladder have not been established. Curative surgical resection offers the only chance for long-term survival from this disease. The outcome of 36 patients who underwent surgical resection for carcinosarcoma of the gall bladder was poor; the 3-year overall survival rate was only 31.0% and the median survival time was 7.0 mo. Since the postoperative prognosis of carcinosarcoma of the gall bladder is worse than that of adenocarcinoma, new adjuvant chemotherapies and/or radiation techniques are essential for improvement of surgical outcome.

  3. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Crown Galls Host Distinct Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Faist, Hanna; Keller, Alexander; Hentschel, Ute; Deeken, Rosalia

    2016-09-15

    Crown gall disease of grapevine is caused by virulent Agrobacterium strains and establishes a suitable habitat for agrobacteria and, potentially, other bacteria. The microbial community associated with grapevine plants has not been investigated with respect to this disease, which frequently results in monetary losses. This study compares the endophytic microbiota of organs from grapevine plants with or without crown gall disease and the surrounding vineyard soil over the growing seasons of 1 year. Amplicon-based community profiling revealed that the dominating factor causing differences between the grapevine microbiota is the sample site, not the crown gall disease. The soil showed the highest microbial diversity, which decreased with the distance from the soil over the root and the graft union of the trunk to the cane. Only the graft union microbiota was significantly affected by crown gall disease. The bacterial community of graft unions without a crown gall hosted transient microbiota, with the three most abundant bacterial species changing from season to season. In contrast, graft unions with a crown gall had a higher species richness, which in every season was dominated by the same three bacteria (Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacteriaceae sp., and Agrobacterium vitis). For in vitro-cultivated grapevine plantlets, A. vitis infection alone was sufficient to cause crown gall disease. Our data show that microbiota in crown galls is more stable over time than microbiota in healthy graft unions and that the microbial community is not essential for crown gall disease outbreak. The characterization of bacterial populations in animal and human diseases using high-throughput deep-sequencing technologies, such as 16S amplicon sequencing, will ideally result in the identification of disease-specific microbiota. We analyzed the microbiota of the crown gall disease of grapevine, which is caused by infection with the bacterial pathogen Agrobacterium vitis. All other Agrobacterium

  4. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Crown Galls Host Distinct Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Faist, Hanna; Keller, Alexander; Hentschel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Crown gall disease of grapevine is caused by virulent Agrobacterium strains and establishes a suitable habitat for agrobacteria and, potentially, other bacteria. The microbial community associated with grapevine plants has not been investigated with respect to this disease, which frequently results in monetary losses. This study compares the endophytic microbiota of organs from grapevine plants with or without crown gall disease and the surrounding vineyard soil over the growing seasons of 1 year. Amplicon-based community profiling revealed that the dominating factor causing differences between the grapevine microbiota is the sample site, not the crown gall disease. The soil showed the highest microbial diversity, which decreased with the distance from the soil over the root and the graft union of the trunk to the cane. Only the graft union microbiota was significantly affected by crown gall disease. The bacterial community of graft unions without a crown gall hosted transient microbiota, with the three most abundant bacterial species changing from season to season. In contrast, graft unions with a crown gall had a higher species richness, which in every season was dominated by the same three bacteria (Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacteriaceae sp., and Agrobacterium vitis). For in vitro-cultivated grapevine plantlets, A. vitis infection alone was sufficient to cause crown gall disease. Our data show that microbiota in crown galls is more stable over time than microbiota in healthy graft unions and that the microbial community is not essential for crown gall disease outbreak. IMPORTANCE The characterization of bacterial populations in animal and human diseases using high-throughput deep-sequencing technologies, such as 16S amplicon sequencing, will ideally result in the identification of disease-specific microbiota. We analyzed the microbiota of the crown gall disease of grapevine, which is caused by infection with the bacterial pathogen Agrobacterium vitis. All

  5. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  6. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  7. Papular dermatitis induced in guinea pigs by the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and ...

  8. Schmallenberg Virus in Culicoides Biting Midges in the Netherlands in 2012.

    PubMed

    Elbers, A R W; Meiswinkel, R; van Weezep, E; Kooi, E A; van der Poel, W H M

    2015-06-01

    A total of 130 pools of Culicoides biting midges collected between May and September 2012 in the Netherlands were assayed for Schmallenberg virus (SBV). The Culicoides midges were caught in the same area as where in 2011 a high proportion of Culicoides pools tested positive for SBV, in majority with a high viral load (Ct values between 20 and 30). Two of a total of 42 pools comprising 50 midges/pool of the Obsoletus complex from the 2012 collection tested weak positive (Ct values: 34.96 and 37.66), indicating a relatively low viral load. On an individual midge level, the proportion of SBV-infected Culicoides of the Obsoletus complex caught in the same area and in a comparable period of the year was significantly lower in 2012 (0.1% = 1 per 1050 tested) compared with 2011 (0.56% = 13 per 2300 tested).

  9. Avirulence Effector Discovery in a Plant Galling and Plant Parasitic Arthropod, the Hessian Fly (Mayetiola destructor)

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Rajat; Subramanyam, Subhashree; Zhao, Chaoyang; Chen, Ming-Shun; Harris, Marion O.; Stuart, Jeff J.

    2014-01-01

    Highly specialized obligate plant-parasites exist within several groups of arthropods (insects and mites). Many of these are important pests, but the molecular basis of their parasitism and its evolution are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that plant parasitic arthropods use effector proteins to defeat basal plant immunity and modulate plant growth. Because avirulence (Avr) gene discovery is a reliable method of effector identification, we tested this hypothesis using high-resolution molecular genetic mapping of an Avr gene (vH13) in the Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor), an important gall midge pest of wheat (Triticum spp.). Chromosome walking resolved the position of vH13, and revealed alleles that determine whether HF larvae are virulent (survive) or avirulent (die) on wheat seedlings carrying the wheat H13 resistance gene. Association mapping found three independent insertions in vH13 that appear to be responsible for H13-virulence in field populations. We observed vH13 transcription in H13-avirulent larvae and the salivary glands of H13-avirulent larvae, but not in H13-virulent larvae. RNA-interference-knockdown of vH13 transcripts allowed some H13-avirulent larvae to escape H13-directed resistance. vH13 is the first Avr gene identified in an arthropod. It encodes a small modular protein with no sequence similarities to other proteins in GenBank. These data clearly support the hypothesis that an effector-based strategy has evolved in multiple lineages of plant parasites, including arthropods. PMID:24964065

  10. Sex pheromone of orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Regine; Gries, G.; Khaskin, Grigori; King, Skip; Olfert, Owen; Kaminski, Lori-Ann; Lamb, Robert; Bennett, Robb

    Pheromone extract of the female orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (SM) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, DB-23 or SP-1000. These analyses revealed a single, EAD-active candidate pheromone which was identified as 2,7-nonanediyl dibutyrate. In experiments in wheat fields in Saskatchewan, traps baited with (2S,7S)-2,7-nonanediyl dibutyrate attracted significant numbers of male SM. The presence of other stereoisomers did not adversely affect trap captures. Facile synthesis of stereoisomeric 2,7-nonanediyl dibutyrate will facilitate the development of pheromone-based monitoring or even control of SM populations.

  11. Biting Midges of the Genus Culicoides in South Carolina Zoos

    PubMed Central

    Nelder, Mark P.; Swanson, Dustin A.; Adler, Peter H.; Grogan, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected during the summer of 2007 at the Greenville and Riverbanks Zoos in South Carolina with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps equipped with ultraviolet or incandescent lights and baited with carbon dioxide. Sixteen species of Culicoides were collected, four of which represented more than 80%. They were Culicoides guttipennis (Coquillett), Culicoides mulrenanni Beck, Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen), and Culicoides sanguisuga (Coquillett). C. guttipennis was found on a dead colobus monkey and a dead golden-headed lion tamarin; Culicoides husseyi Wirth & Blanton was collected from an unidentified, abandoned bird's nest. Ultraviolet light-equipped traps captured significantly more Culicoides specimens than traps with incandescent light. Half of the collected species previously have been associated with vertebrate pathogens, indicating a potential risk to captive animals. PMID:20569132

  12. Culicoides midge trap enhancement with animal odour baits in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Mands, V; Kline, D L; Blackwell, A

    2004-12-01

    Examples of the commercial trap Mosquito Magnet Pro (MMP emitting attractant 1-octen-3-ol in carbon dioxide 500 mL/min generated from propane fuel), were run 24 h/day on the Isle of Skye, Scotland, during June-August 2001 and evaluated for catching Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). From 30 days trapping, the catch averaged 2626 +/- 1358 Culicoides females/trap/day (mean +/- SE, range 558 +/- 139 to 6088 +/- 3597, for five sets of six consecutive nights), predominantly the pest Culicoides impunctatus Goetghebuer (68% overall), plus C. vexans (Staeger) > C. delta Edwards > C. pulicaris (L.) > C. lupicaris Downs & Kettle > C. albicans (Winnertz) > other Culicoides spp. Attempts were made to enhance the odour baiting system by adding hexane-extracts (2.1 mg/day) of hair samples from large host animals, resulting in the following effects on Culicoides collections: sheep - 53 %, red deer - 26 %, calf + 20%, pony + 40%, water buffalo + 262%, with greatest increases for C. impunctatus and C. pulicaris. Serial concentrations of these animal extracts (10(-1) - 10(-3) x 2.2 g/mL) were assayed on parous female C. impunctatus response in a Y-tube olfactometer (air-flow 150 mL/min), and by electroantennogram (EAG) on Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen laboratory-reared parous females. Positive behavioural responses to host odours were dose-dependent: the water buffalo extract being most active (threshold 0.22 g/mL), similar to deer, whereas other host extracts were > or = 10-fold less active. Correspondingly, the EAG threshold was lowest for water buffalo, 10-fold greater for deer, calf and pony, but not detected for sheep. If the active component(s) of these host extracts can be identified and synthesized, they might be employed to improve the capture of Culicoides midges for local control by removal trapping.

  13. Identification of sex pheromone components of the pea midge, Contarinia pisi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter; Arn, Heinrich; Bengtsson, Marie; Löfqvist, Jan; Biddle, Anthony J.; Smitt, Olof; Högberg, Hans-Erik; Plass, Ernst; Franke, Stephan; Francke, Wittko

    Three components in extract of pheromone glands of female pea midges, Contarinia pisi, were found to be active on male pea midge antennae by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection. The EAD active components were identified as 2-acetoxytridecane, (2S,11S)-diacetoxytridecane, and (2S,12S)-diacetoxytridecane. A blend of these compounds proved to be highly attractive to males in windtunnel experiments.

  14. Laser ablation of gall bladder stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marafi, M.; Makdisi, Y.; Bhatia, K. S.; Abdulah, A. H.; Kokaj, Y.; Mathew, K.; Quinn, F.; Qabazard, A.

    1999-06-01

    Study of laser interaction with calculi is presented. A system of Nd-Yag and Ho-Yag pulsed lasers were used to produce fluorescence and plasma signals at the stone surface surrounded by saline and bile fluids. Fourth harmonic from Nd-Yag laser was transmitted to the samples by graded UV optical fibres. Gall bladder stones of various compositions were subjected to the high power Ho-Yag laser. Temporal transients and spectral evolution of plasma and fluorescence signals were monitored by a streak camera. A profile of acoustic pressures generated by shock waves was recorded with sensitive hydrophones placed in the surrounding fluids. Ablation threshold, cavitation process and fluorescence dependence on the laser parameters were studied in detail. Potential of stone identification by fluorescence and possible hydrodynamic model for ablation of biological samples is discussed.

  15. Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.

    PubMed

    Cooper, William R; Rieske, Lynne K

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA- inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses.

  16. Using Goldenrod Galls to Teach Science Process Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peard, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of using examples from the student's environment to aid in teaching science process skills. The author uses diagrams to aid in discussing the various uses of goldenrod (Solidago sp) galls in the classroom. (ZWH)

  17. Effects of various food ingredients on gall bladder emptying.

    PubMed

    Marciani, L; Cox, E F; Hoad, C L; Totman, J J; Costigan, C; Singh, G; Shepherd, V; Chalkley, L; Robinson, M; Ison, R; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2013-11-01

    The emptying of the gall bladder in response to feeding is pivotal for the digestion of fat, but the role of various food ingredients in contracting the gall bladder postprandially is not well understood. We hypothesized that different food ingredients, when consumed, will have a different effect on stimulating gall bladder emptying. To investigate this we designed two randomized, investigator-blind, cross-over studies in healthy subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gall bladder volumes serially and non-invasively. Study 1: exploratory study evaluating the effects of 10 different food ingredients on gall bladder emptying in eight healthy subjects. The choice of ingredients varied from common items like coffee, tea and milk to actives like curcumin and potato protease inhibitor. Study 2: mechanistic study investigating the cholecystokinin (CCK) dose response to the best performer ingredient from Study 1 in 21 healthy subjects four ways. The largest gall bladder volume change in Study 1 was observed with fat, which therefore became the dose-response ingredient in Study 2, where the maximum % gall bladder volume change correlated well with CCK. These serial test-retest studies showed that the fasted gall bladder volume varied remarkably between individuals and that individual day-to-day variability had wide coefficients of variation. Improved knowledge of how to stimulate bile release using food ingredients will be useful to improve in vitro-in vivo correlation of bioavailability testing of hydrophobic drugs. It could improve performance of cholesterol-lowering plant stanol and sterol products and possibly aid understanding of some cholesterol gallstone disease.

  18. Effects of various food ingredients on gall bladder emptying

    PubMed Central

    Marciani, L; Cox, E F; Hoad, C L; Totman, J J; Costigan, C; Singh, G; Shepherd, V; Chalkley, L; Robinson, M; Ison, R; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives: The emptying of the gall bladder in response to feeding is pivotal for the digestion of fat, but the role of various food ingredients in contracting the gall bladder postprandially is not well understood. We hypothesized that different food ingredients, when consumed, will have a different effect on stimulating gall bladder emptying. To investigate this we designed two randomized, investigator-blind, cross-over studies in healthy subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gall bladder volumes serially and non-invasively. Subjects/methods: Study 1: exploratory study evaluating the effects of 10 different food ingredients on gall bladder emptying in eight healthy subjects. The choice of ingredients varied from common items like coffee, tea and milk to actives like curcumin and potato protease inhibitor. Study 2: mechanistic study investigating the cholecystokinin (CCK) dose response to the best performer ingredient from Study 1 in 21 healthy subjects four ways. Results: The largest gall bladder volume change in Study 1 was observed with fat, which therefore became the dose-response ingredient in Study 2, where the maximum % gall bladder volume change correlated well with CCK. Conclusions: These serial test-retest studies showed that the fasted gall bladder volume varied remarkably between individuals and that individual day-to-day variability had wide coefficients of variation. Improved knowledge of how to stimulate bile release using food ingredients will be useful to improve in vitro–in vivo correlation of bioavailability testing of hydrophobic drugs. It could improve performance of cholesterol-lowering plant stanol and sterol products and possibly aid understanding of some cholesterol gallstone disease. PMID:24045793

  19. The importance of beta diversity in local gall-inducing arthropod distribution.

    PubMed

    Medianero, Enrique; Ibáñez, Alicia; Nieves-Aldrey, José L

    2010-01-01

    Many studies over the past twenty years have documented the richness of arthropod galling species around the world, and some have proposed hypotheses to explain local and global patterns of galling species richness. However, few studies have been directed toward understanding how the gall-inducing species are locally distributed. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of gall-inducing arthropods species at Coiba National Park, a tropical habitat on the Pacific coast of Panama. Our results suggest that more gall-inducing species had an aggregated distribution, and gall-inducing arthropod diversity shows a strong beta diversity component. Geographic distance was not correlated with similarity in gall-inducing species composition between the studied sites. This fact has important implications when trying to estimate gall-inducing arthropod richness and general patterns, and could cause contradictory results for hypotheses that attempt to explain the local and global patterns of galling species richness.

  20. Gall volatiles defend aphids against a browsing mammal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plants have evolved an astonishing array of survival strategies. To defend against insects, for example, damaged plants emit volatile organic compounds that attract the herbivore’s natural enemies. So far, plant volatile responses have been studied extensively in conjunction with leaf chewing and sap sucking insects, yet little is known about the relationship between plant volatiles and gall-inducers, the most sophisticated herbivores. Here we describe a new role for volatiles as gall-insects were found to benefit from this plant defence. Results Chemical analyses of galls triggered by the gregarious aphid Slavum wertheimae on wild pistachio trees showed that these structures contained and emitted considerably higher quantities of plant terpenes than neighbouring leaves and fruits. Behavioural assays using goats as a generalist herbivore confirmed that the accumulated terpenes acted as olfactory signals and feeding deterrents, thus enabling the gall-inducers to escape from inadvertent predation by mammals. Conclusions Increased emission of plant volatiles in response to insect activity is commonly looked upon as a “cry for help” by the plant to attract the insect’s natural enemies. In contrast, we show that such volatiles can serve as a first line of insect defences that extends the ‘extended phenotype’ represented by galls, beyond physical boundaries. Our data support the Enemy hypothesis insofar that high levels of gall secondary metabolites confer protection against natural enemies. PMID:24020365

  1. Surgically Resected Gall Bladder: Is Histopathology Needed for All?

    PubMed

    Talreja, Vikash; Ali, Aun; Khawaja, Rabel; Rani, Kiran; Samnani, Sunil Sadruddin; Farid, Farah Naz

    2016-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered to be gold standard for symptomatic gall stones. As a routine every specimen is sent for histopathological examination postoperatively. Incidentally finding gall bladder cancers in those specimens is around 0.5-1.1%. The aim of this study is to identify those preoperative and intraoperative factors in patients with incidental gall bladder cancer to reduce unnecessary work load on pathologist and cost of investigation particularly in a developing world. Methods. Retrospective records were analyzed from January 2005 to February 2015 in a surgical unit. Demographic data, preoperative imaging, peroperative findings, macroscopic appearance, and histopathological findings were noted. Gall bladder wall was considered to be thickened if ≥3 mm on preoperative imaging or surgeons comment (on operative findings) and histopathology report. AJCC TNM system was used to stage gall bladder cancer. Results. 973 patients underwent cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease. Gallbladder carcinoma was incidentally found in 11 cases. Macroscopic abnormalities of the gallbladder were found in all those 11 patients. In patients with a macroscopically normal gallbladder, there were no cases of gallbladder carcinoma. Conclusion. Preoperative and operative findings play a pivotal role in determining incidental chances of gall bladder malignancy.

  2. The septum transversum mesenchyme induces gall bladder development.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yohei; Kojima, Takuya; Takahashi, Naoki

    2013-08-15

    The liver, gall bladder, and ventral pancreas are formed from the posterior region of the ventral foregut. After hepatic induction, Sox17+/Pdx1+ pancreatobiliary common progenitor cells differentiate into Sox17+/Pdx1- gall bladder progenitors and Sox17-/Pdx1+ ventral pancreatic progenitors, but the cell-extrinsic signals that regulate this differentiation process are unknown. This study shows that the septum transversum mesenchyme (STM) grows in the posterior direction after E8.5, becoming adjacent to the presumptive gall bladder region, to induce gall bladder development. In this induction process, STM-derived BMP4 induces differentiation from common progenitor cells adjacent to the STM into gall bladder progenitor cells, by maintaining Sox17 expression and suppressing Pdx1 expression. Furthermore, the STM suppresses ectopic activation of the liver program in the posterior region of the ventral foregut following hepatic induction through an Fgf10/Fgfr2b/Sox9 signaling pathway. Thus, the STM plays pivotal roles in gall bladder development by both inductive and suppressive effects.

  3. The septum transversum mesenchyme induces gall bladder development

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Yohei; Kojima, Takuya; Takahashi, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Summary The liver, gall bladder, and ventral pancreas are formed from the posterior region of the ventral foregut. After hepatic induction, Sox17+/Pdx1+ pancreatobiliary common progenitor cells differentiate into Sox17+/Pdx1− gall bladder progenitors and Sox17−/Pdx1+ ventral pancreatic progenitors, but the cell-extrinsic signals that regulate this differentiation process are unknown. This study shows that the septum transversum mesenchyme (STM) grows in the posterior direction after E8.5, becoming adjacent to the presumptive gall bladder region, to induce gall bladder development. In this induction process, STM-derived BMP4 induces differentiation from common progenitor cells adjacent to the STM into gall bladder progenitor cells, by maintaining Sox17 expression and suppressing Pdx1 expression. Furthermore, the STM suppresses ectopic activation of the liver program in the posterior region of the ventral foregut following hepatic induction through an Fgf10/Fgfr2b/Sox9 signaling pathway. Thus, the STM plays pivotal roles in gall bladder development by both inductive and suppressive effects. PMID:23951403

  4. [Monitoring of biting midges (Culicoides spp.), the potential vectors of the bluetongue virus, in the 12 climatic regions of Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, C; Schaffner, F; Mathis, A

    2009-05-01

    Midges of the genus Culicoides are the only known biological vectors of the bluetongue disease virus (BTV). Their occurrence at altitudes below 900 meters above sea level (m a.s.l.) is monitored in Switzerland by the Swiss Federal Veterinary Office, to determine vector-free periods around winter. In this study, data about the number of midges caught at stations representing the 12 climatic regions of Switzerland are shown. The tiny midges of 1-3 mm in size were caught once per week with UV light traps and grouped under the stereomicroscope into Obsoletus complex, Pulicaris complex and other Culicoides spp. Midges were caught at all stations, albeit in very different numbers. The highest monthly average was 10,000 midges per night (Dittingen/BL); the third highest average of all 12 stations was recorded for the highest-located station (Juf/GR, 2130 m a.s.l.). At stations below 1500 m a.s.l., midges of the Obsoletus complex (98% in Dittingen), which in Central Europe are most likely considered to be responsible for the transmission of BTV, were predominant. With increasing altitude, midges of the Pulicaris complex prevailed (91% in Juf). Hence, there are no regions of the populated areas in Switzerland which are free of midges, but the vector competence regarding BTV of the various midges needs to be urgently clarified.

  5. Randomized-Control Screening Trials to Lower Gall Bladder Cancer Mortality in High Risk Populations.

    PubMed

    Krishnatreya, Manigreeva; Kataki, Amal Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Gall bladder cancer is generally fatal. The high morbidity and mortality due to gall bladder cancer exerts a significant impact on efforts towards cancer control in high risk populations of the World and a rationale program for control of gall bladder cancer mortality has remained as an unmet need in these populations. Currently there are no effective strategies for controlling gall bladder cancer mortality. This mini review is to highlight the need and feasibility for secondary prevention of gall bladder cancer by screening in high risk populations. A way forward is to assess the role of secondary prevention of gall bladder cancers by conducting randomized- controlled screening trials in high risk populations.

  6. Low prevalence of Helicobacteraceae in gall-stone disease and gall-bladder carcinoma in the German population.

    PubMed

    Bohr, U R M; Kuester, D; Meyer, F; Wex, T; Stillert, M; Csepregi, A; Lippert, H; Roessner, A; Malfertheiner, P

    2007-05-01

    Colonisation of the hepatobiliary system with bile-resistant Helicobacter spp. has been proposed as a novel risk-factor in the pathogenesis of gall-bladder carcinoma (GBC). There are reports that biliary Helicobacter colonisation is frequent in countries with a high incidence of gall-bladder carcinoma. However, the prevalence of Helicobacteraceae in the gall-bladders of patients with GBC in Germany, a region with a low incidence of GBC, is unknown. Therefore, gall-bladder tissue from 99 patients who had undergone cholecystectomy was tested, including 57 cases of gall-stone disease (GSD), 20 cases of GBC, and 22 control patients. The presence of Helicobacter spp. was investigated by culture, immunohistochemistry and a group-specific PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene of all currently known Helicobacteraceae. Of the 99 cases investigated, only one patient with GSD was PCR-positive for Helicobacteraceae. For this individual, sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that it had homology closest to the 16S rRNA sequence of Helicobacter ganmani. Helicobacteraceae were not detected by culture or immunohistochemistry. The low prevalence of Helicobacteraceae in the gall-bladders investigated suggests that Helicobacteraceae do not play a predominant role in the pathogenesis of GSD and GBC in the German population. The low prevalence could be a possible explanation for a relatively low incidence of GBC in the German population, despite the fact that GSD, the major risk-factor for GBC, is highly prevalent.

  7. For t 2 DNA vaccine prevents Forcipomyia taiwana (biting midge) allergy in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, M-F; Song, P-P; Lin, T-M; Chiu, Y-T; Chen, Y-H

    2016-04-01

    Forcipomyia taiwana (biting midge) is the most prevalent allergenic biting insect in Taiwan, and 60% of the exposed subjects develop allergic reactions. Subjects with insect allergy frequently limit their outdoor activities to avoid the annoyingly intense itchy allergic reactions, leading to significant worsening of their quality of life. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only known therapy that provides long-term host immune tolerance to the allergen, but is time-consuming and cumbersome. This study tested whether the For t 2 DNA vaccine can prevent allergic symptoms in For t 2-sensitized mice. Two consecutive shots of For t 2 DNA vaccine were given to mice with a 7-day interval before sensitization with recombinant For t 2 proteins, using the two-step sensitization protocol reported previously. The For t 2 DNA vaccine at 50 μg prevented the production of For t 2-specific IgE (P < 0.05), as well as midge allergen-challenge-induced scratch bouts, midge allergen-induced IL-13 and IL-4 production from splenocytes, and inflammatory cell infiltrations in the lesions 48 h after intradermal challenge. This study is the first to demonstrate that DNA vaccine encoding midge allergen is effective in preventing allergic skin inflammation induced by biting midge. Immunotherapy using For t 2 DNA vaccine can protect mice from being sensitized by midge allergen and may be a promising treatment for biting midge allergy in the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Comparison of two trapping methods for Culicoides biting midges and determination of African horse sickness virus prevalence in midge populations at Onderstepoort, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Scheffer, Elisabeth G; Venter, Gert J; Labuschagne, Karien; Page, Patrick C; Mullens, Bradley A; MacLachlan, N James; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Guthrie, Alan J

    2012-04-30

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of a variety of pathogens including African horse sickness virus (AHSV), a member of the family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus. AHSV causes African horse sickness (AHS), an endemic disease of equids with an extremely high mortality rate in horses in sub-Saharan Africa. Culicoides (Avaritia) imicola Kieffer is considered to be the principal vector of AHSV and is the dominant Culicoides species in South Africa. Due to the global distribution of Culicoides vectors, there is a potential risk of AHS spreading from endemic areas to areas traditionally free of the disease, which could have a severe economical impact on the affected equine industry. As part of any risk assessment it is essential to monitor known vectors as well as potential vector species. In the present study, sampling of Culicoides insects was compared using overnight collections in the conventional Onderstepoort light trap and mechanical aspiration of midges at sunset from bait horses. Culicoides imicola was confirmed as the predominant species using both trapping methods. Other species, mainly Culicoides (Avaritia) bolitinos Meiswinkel and Culicoides (Avaritia) gulbenkiani Caeiro, were highly underrepresented in the light trap collections, but made a significant contribution to the mechanical aspiration catches. The time for optimal collection differed between the trapping methods, leading to the conclusion that mechanical aspiration is a useful addition to conventional light trap collection and possibly the better choice when investigating insect vectors. An infection rate of 1.14% was calculated for the midge population based on real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays of collected Culicoides midges, which exceeds previous estimates. This is probably due to the increased sensitivity of the RT-qPCR assay used in this study as compared to the virus isolation assays used in previous studies. RT

  9. Galling wear of cobalt-free hardfacing alloys. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vikstroem, J.

    1994-05-01

    Cobalt-base alloys have been used as hardfacing materials for nuclear power plant valves, turbines and pumps. In nuclear power plants cobalt is transported to reactor core region due to wear of valves and pumps; it is transmuted to Co{minus}60. Objective of this work was to find a cobalt-free hardfacing material that has better wear-resistance than the widely used cobalt-base alloy Stellite 6{sup TM} Six iron-base and four nickel-base alloys were compared to Stellite 6. The alloys were deposited on austenitic stainless steel by GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding), PTAW (Plasma Transferred Arc Welding), plasma spray fuse and laser processes. One alloy was in HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressed) condition. All alloys were tested for galling resistance in air at room temperature at applied stresses were 140, 275 and 415 MPa. Alloy microstructure and hardness values were post-test wear surfaces, were examined using a light and scanning electron microscopy, and microhardness measurements. Crack-free deposits can be manufactured from all of the alloys, and no problems were encountered during machining of the deposits. Self-mated galling resistance of Stellite 6 was comparable to galling resistance in earlier studies for this alloy. Self-mated iron-base Elmax, APM 2311, NOREM A, Nelsit, Everit 50 So alloys and Ni-/Fe-base alloy combination showed significantly better galling behaviour than Stellite 6, especially Elmax and APM 2311 alloys. Nickel-base Deloro alloys showed galling resistance inferior to Stellite 6. No correlation was observed between the microstructural characteristics and galling resistance. Further, the galling resistance is not related to the hardness of the deposit.

  10. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  11. Analysis of iron gall inks by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnar, Miloš; Uršič, Mitja; Simčič, Jure; Pelicon, Primož; Kolar, Jana; Šelih, Vid Simon; Strlič, Matija

    2006-02-01

    Micro- or non-destructive analytical approach is an imperative when analysing historical artefacts. Due to its practically non-destructive character, proton induced X-ray spectrometry (PIXE) has become a method of choice for the study of historical documents. In the present paper, use of in-air PIXE method for analysis of iron gall inks applied at handwriting of documents is evaluated. The errors arising from the non-uniform ink deposit, proton penetration depth and size of the proton beam versus width of ink lines, effects of surface roughness, as well as the importance of the PIXE set-up geometry on the accuracy of the results are discussed. It follows that the main problems can be attributed to the fact that PIXE is a surface technique and that the analysis is limited to a small amount of material, while ink deposit on the paper is usually non-uniform in depth as well as on the paper surface. Despite possible systematic uncertainties when applying the PIXE method, good correlation between determinations obtained by PIXE and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) on model samples clearly demonstrate that the errors are well within a reasonable limit of a few percents.

  12. Midges as palaeoindicators of lake productivity, eutrophication and hypolimnetic oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodersen, Klaus Peter; Quinlan, Roberto

    2006-08-01

    The sedimentary record from lakes can be used as an archive of past environmental changes and for events related to anthropogenic activities in the catchment area. In this paper, we review the more recent studies on zoobenthos responses to changes in lake productivity and to altered sublittoral and hypolimnetic oxygen conditions, as reflected from subfossil midge (Diptera: Chironomidae) assemblages and palaeostratigraphies. We discuss how the importance of different environmental variables is scale dependent in both time and space and we summarize some of the classical and general patterns in chironomid palaeolimnology. The recent advances in quantitative reconstructions using chironomid transfer functions and numerical analyses are presented and compared. A consensus ranking of species trophic optima and respiratory adaptations from published data sets showed good agreement. Factors such as lake depth, stratification patterns, water level change, sediment conditions, submerged vegetation and ecological thresholds are all important for interpretation of palaeolimnological trajectories. We use previously published and new data to document how these factors determine, change or preserve the "lake identity" over time. We conclude that subfossil chironomids have proven to be very effective indicators for lake trophic development (productivity) and hypolimnetic oxygen conditions. Challenges in interpreting the subfossil chironomid record include the interaction between a range of scale-dependent variables and processes.

  13. Phylogenetics of pond and lake lifestyles in Chaoborus midge larvae.

    PubMed

    Berendonk, Thomas U; Barraclough, Timothy G; Barraclough, Jonelle C

    2003-09-01

    Aquatic invertebrates experience strong trade-offs between habitats due to the selective effects of different predators. Diel vertical migration and small body size are thought to be effective strategies against fish predation in lakes. In the absence of fish in small ponds, migration is ineffective against invertebrate predators and large body size is an advantage. Although widely discussed, this phenomenon has never been tested in a phylogenetic context. We reconstructed a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) tree to investigate the phylogenetic distribution of pond and lake lifestyles among 10 species of northern temperate Chaoborus midge larvae. The mtDNA tree is similar to previous morphological trees for Chaoborus, the only difference being the disruption of the subgenus Chaoborus sensu stricto. At least three shifts have occurred between pond and lake lifestyles, each time associated with evolution of diel vertical migration in the lake taxon. The trend in larval body size with habitat type is sensitive to tree and character reconstruction methods, only weakly consistent with the effects of fish predation. Despite long time periods over which adaptation to each habitat type could have occurred, there remains significant phylogenetic heritability in larval body size. The tree provides a framework for comparative studies of the metapopulation genetic consequences of pond and lake lifestyles.

  14. [Occurrence of biting midges (Culicoides spp.) at three different altitudes in an alpine region of Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Tschuor, A C; Kaufmann, C; Schaffner, F; Mathis, A

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this field study was to investigate the occurrence of biting midges (Culicoides spp.), the potential vectors of the bluetongue virus (BTV), in an alpine region of Switzerland (Vals/GR) at altitudes between 1300 and 2000 meters above sea level (m a.s.l.). For this purpose, insects were caught with UV-light traps once weekly from the end of June to the end of October 2008. Midges were found on all altitudes investigated, but distinct differences in the abundance at different stations were noticed. Most midges were caught at the intermediate station (about 1500 m a.s.l.) whereas the catches on the two alps (approximately 2000 m a.s.l.) varied considerably. The predominance of midges belonging to the Pulicaris complex, whose vector competence regarding bluetongue virus (BTV) is largely unknown, rose with increasing altitude. To identify potential breeding habitats, 17 soil samples of three farms were incubated in the laboratory. Different insects emerged but none of them was a Culicoides spp. and, therefore, the habitats of juvenile stages remain unknown. From our results we can conclude that most likely there are no midges-free zones in all of the agriculturally utilized areas (including the alpine summer pastures) of Switzerland. This strongly indicates that cattle, sheep, goats and camelids which are permanently or temporarily kept in regions of higher altitude in Switzerland should be vaccinated against bluetongue.

  15. PCR identification of Culicoides dewulfi midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), potential vectors of bluetongue in Germany.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Anja; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Bauer, Burkhard; Steuber, Stephan

    2009-08-01

    Due to the severe outbreaks of bluetongue disease (BTD) in the years 2006/2007 in Germany in the absence of the main African vector Culicoides imicola, a rapid and easy applicable method for identification of autochthonous Culicoides spp. had to be developed. Morphological identification is time-consuming, rendering impossible the identification of large numbers of midges in a short period of time. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based procedure in connection with a species-specific primer greatly simplifies the identification process. The region of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) of the ribosomal DNA has shown great potential for developing a reliable PCR-based procedure. Culicoides midges were caught with ultraviolet-light traps installed on different farms in Germany during 2007 and 2008. The midges were mounted on slides and morphologically characterised. Midge DNA was extracted and the ITS-1 region amplified using conservative primers. Potential primer regions within ITS-1 were determined and a species-specific Culicoides dewulfi primer was developed to correctly identify autochthonous C. dewulfi, one of the suspected BTV vectors in northwestern Europe. The developed primer was used to identify C. dewulfi in a pool of Culicoides midges from a farm in the state of Brandenburg.

  16. Roles of gall bladder emptying and intestinal transit in the pathogenesis of octreotide induced gall bladder stones.

    PubMed Central

    Hussaini, S H; Pereira, S P; Veysey, M J; Kennedy, C; Jenkins, P; Murphy, G M; Wass, J A; Dowling, R H

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Octreotide treatment of acromegalic patients increases the % deoxycholic acid conjugates and the cholesterol saturation of gall bladder bile, and induces gall stone formation. AIMS--To study the roles of gall bladder emptying and intestinal transit in these phenomena. METHODS AND PATIENTS--Gall bladder emptying and mouth to caecum transit was measured in (a) control subjects and acromegalic patients given saline or 50 micrograms of octreotide, and (b) acromegalic patients taking long term octreotide. In the second group, large bowel transit was also measured. RESULTS--A single dose of octreotide inhibited meal stimulated gall bladder emptying, the ejection fraction falling from mean (SEM) 66.0 (2.3)% to 7.0 (5.3)% in controls (p < 0.001); from 72.5 (2.1) to 16.6 (5.1)% in untreated acromegalic patients (p < 0.001), and to 30.4 (9.5)% in acromegalic patients taking long term octreotide (p < 0.001 v untreated acromegalic group). Octreotide prolonged mouth to caecum transit time, from 112 (15) min to 237 (13) min in controls (p < 0.001), from 170 (13) min to 282 (11) min in untreated acromegalic patients (p < 0.001), and to 247 (10) min in acromegalic patients taking long term octreotide (p < 0.001 v untreated acromegalic patients). The mean large bowel transit in octreotide untreated compared with treated acromegalic patients remained unchanged (40 (6) h v 47 (6) h). CONCLUSIONS--Prolongation of intestinal transit and impaired gall bladder emptying may contribute to lithogenic changes in bile composition and gall stone formation in patients receiving long term octreotide. PMID:8707128

  17. Ecology and evolution of gall-forming insects. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P.W.; Mattson, W.J.; Baranchikov, Y.N.

    1994-09-21

    ;Partial Contents: Ecology and Population Dynamics; Effects of the Physical Environment on the Ecology of Gall Insects; Biodiversity and Distribution; Genetic Variation in Host Plant Resistance; Evolutionary Perspectives on Gall Insects.

  18. Chronic effects of Cd on the reproduction of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) through Cd-accumulated midge larvae (Chironomus yoshimatsui).

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, S; Yasuno, M

    1987-12-01

    Chronic effects of Cd on the growth and reproduction of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) were studied using a food chain model, midge larvae as prey and guppy as predator. The transfer rate of Cd from the midge to the guppy was between 0.5 and 1% during the 30-day experiment. Growth rate of the guppy fed Cd-accumulated midge larvae (270 micrograms/g dry wt) for 30 days was not impaired. Cumulative numbers of fry produced by the guppy fed Cd-accumulated midge larvae (210 micrograms/g) for 2 months decreased to ca. 80% of the control. Guppies had been fed the Cd-accumulated midges from 30 days old for 7 months. Cumulative numbers of fry produced by the guppy fed midge larvae-accumulated 500, 800, and 1,300 micrograms Cd/g for 6 months decreased to 79, 65, and 55% of the control, respectively. Similar effects of Cd on the reproduction of guppy were shown between the guppies fed the Cd-accumulated midge larvae (500 micrograms Cd/g) and exposed to 10 or 20 micrograms Cd/liter for the 6 months. The Cd concentrations of the digestive tract, liver, and kidney increased strongly, indicating that such Cd accumulation was brought on mainly through the Cd-accumulated midges. Mortality of the female guppies fed larvae-accumulated 1,300 micrograms Cd/g increased abruptly from the 6 months of the experiment, whereas no male guppy died during the experiment.

  19. A northwest North American training set: distribution of freshwater midges in relation to air temperature and lake depth

    Treesearch

    Erin M. Barley; Ian R. Walker; Joshua Kurek; Les C. Cwynar; Rolf W. Mathewes; Konrad Gajewski; Bruce P. Finney

    2006-01-01

    Freshwater midges, consisting of Chironomidae, Chaoboridae, and Ceratopogonidae, were assessed as a biological proxy for palaeoclimate in eastern Beringia. The northwest North American training set consists of midge assemblages and data for 17 environmental variables collected from 145 lakes in Alaska, British Columbia, Yukon, Northwest Territories, and the Canadian...

  20. Chronic effects of Cd on the reproduction of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) through Cd-accumulated midge larvae (Chironomus yoshimatsui)

    SciTech Connect

    Hatakeyama, S.; Yasuno, M.

    1987-12-01

    Chronic effects of Cd on the growth and reproduction of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) were studied using a food chain model, midge larvae as prey and guppy as predator. The transfer rate of Cd from the midge to the guppy was between 0.5 and 1% during the 30-day experiment. Growth rate of the guppy fed Cd-accumulated midge larvae (270 micrograms/g dry wt) for 30 days was not impaired. Cumulative numbers of fry produced by the guppy fed Cd-accumulated midge larvae (210 micrograms/g) for 2 months decreased to ca. 80% of the control. Guppies had been fed the Cd-accumulated midges from 30 days old for 7 months. Cumulative numbers of fry produced by the guppy fed midge larvae-accumulated 500, 800, and 1300 micrograms Cd/g for 6 months decreased to 79, 65, and 55% of the control, respectively. Similar effects of Cd on the reproduction of guppy were shown between the guppies fed the Cd-accumulated midge larvae (500 micrograms Cd/g) and exposed to 10 or 20 micrograms Cd/liter for the 6 months. The Cd concentrations of the digestive tract, liver, and kidney increased strongly, indicating that such Cd accumulation was brought on mainly through the Cd-accumulated midges. Mortality of the female guppies fed larvae-accumulated 1300 micrograms Cd/g increased abruptly from the 6 months of the experiment, whereas no male guppy died during the experiment.

  1. 9 CFR 95.17 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like... STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.17 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow, and various like...

  2. 9 CFR 95.17 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like... STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.17 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow, and various like...

  3. 9 CFR 95.17 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like... STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.17 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow, and various like...

  4. 9 CFR 95.17 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like... STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.17 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow, and various like...

  5. 9 CFR 95.17 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like... STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.17 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow, and various like...

  6. Taxonomic identity of a galling adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) from three spruce species in central Japan

    Treesearch

    Masakazu Sano; Nathan P. Havill; Kenichi. Ozaki

    2011-01-01

    Gall-forming insects are commonly highly host-specific, and galling species once thought to be oligo- or polyphagous are often found to represent a complex of host-specific races or cryptic species. A recent DNA barcoding study documented that an unidentified species of the genus Adelges is a gall-former associated with four spruce species (...

  7. Resistance to galling adelgids varies among families of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmani P.)

    Treesearch

    William J. Mattson; Alvin Yanchuk; Gyula Kiss; Bruce Birr

    1999-01-01

    Cooley gall adelgids, Adelges cooleyi, and round gall adelgids, Adelges abietis, differentially infested 110 half-sib families of Engelmann spruce, Picea engelmannii at 9 study sites in British Columbia. There was a negative genetic correlation (-0.53) between the infestations of the two gall-forming species....

  8. Leaf-derived cecidomyiid galls are sinks in Machilus thunbergii (Lauraceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meng-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Dar; Chou, Hsueh-Mei; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Chen, Chang-Chang; Chen, Pei-Ju; Chang, Yung-Ta; Yang, Chi-Ming

    2014-11-01

    Three relevant hypotheses - nutrition, environment and the enemies hypothesis - often invoked to explore source and sink relationships between galls and their host plants are still under dispute. In this research, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange capacity, stomatal conductance, total carbon and nitrogen, total soluble sugars and starches, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy of two types of galls were used to investigate source-sink relationships. Compared with host leaves, these galls demonstrated slightly lower chlorophyll fluorescence; however, gas exchange capacity and stomatal conductance were not detected at all. Scanning electron micrographs demonstrated that the abaxial epidermis of host leaves contain normal amounts of stomata, whereas no stomata were observed on the exterior and interior surfaces of both types of galls. In addition, gall inner surfaces were covered with many kinds of fungal hyphae. Gall total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) levels were lower but the C/N ratio was higher in galls than host leaves. Both types of galls accumulated higher total soluble sugars and starches than host leaves. Transmission electron micrographs also revealed that both types of galls contain plastoglobuli and giant starch granules during gall development. Results strongly indicate that leaf-derived cecidomyiid galls are sinks in Machilus thunbergii leaves. However, it is perplexing how larvae cycle and balance CO(2) and O(2) in gall growth chambers without stomata.

  9. Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants which house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). ...

  10. Gall-Stone Ileus--Own Patients And Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Kozieł, Sławomir; Papaj, Piotr; Dobija-Kubica, Katarzyna; Śleziński, Przemysław; Wróbel, Józef

    2015-05-01

    Cholelithiasis is diagnosed in 10% of the population of the USA and Western Europe. A rare but serious complication of cholelithiasis is the obstruction of the digestive tract caused by a gall-stone (Bernard syndrome). It can add up to 1-4% of the mechanical obstructions of a small intestine among the general population but it can result in nonstriangulational mechanical obstructions of a small intestine in 25% cases among the patients over the age of 65. 5 patients have undergone an operation due to a small intestine gall-stone ileus in years 2011-2013 (within 27 months) in the General Surgery Ward of the Beskid Oncology Center - Municipal Hospital. In 4 patients simple enterotomy with a gall-stone extraction was performed. In the fifth patient enterolitotomy was conducted together with cholecystectomy and fistulotomy.

  11. OBSERVATIONS ON SOME CAUSES OF GALL STONE FORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Rous, Peyton; McMaster, Philip D.; Drury, Douglas R.

    1924-01-01

    Gall stones frequently form in dogs intubated for the collection of bile under sterile conditions, in the absence of stasis and of gall bladder influence. The stones consist almost entirely of two substances—calcium carbonate and calcium bilirubinate—and they are remarkably uniform in character, as would follow from the limiting conditions of their development. They are not the result of bile loss, for similar ones may be recovered from the wall of glass tubes interpolated in ducts with intestinal connection undisturbed. The study of them has brought out evidence on the general problem of cholelithiasis. Some factors in their causation and that of gall stones as a class will be considered in succeeding papers. PMID:19868836

  12. Spontaneous rupture of the gall bladder: an unusual forensic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dean, Dorothy E; Jamison, Jennifer M; Lane, Jason L

    2014-07-01

    Peritonitis secondary to spontaneous rupture/perforation of the gall bladder is a rare condition overall and is even less common in the forensic population. We report the case of a middle-aged man who died from generalized peritonitis from gall bladder perforation due to acute acalculous cholecystitis. This condition usually occurs in critical patients with systemic illness, and although the exact pathogenesis remains unclear, the development of acalculous cholecystitis appears to be multifactorial. Antemortem diagnosis is reliant upon clinical presentation, laboratory data, and radiologic studies. Surgery and appropriate antibiotics are mainstays of treatment; however, there is an emerging role for minimally invasive procedures. Histopathologic features show significant overlap with the calculous type. Although increasing numbers of acalculous cholecystitis have been diagnosed in the critically ill, the fatal presentation of a perforated gall bladder following an undiagnosed case of acute acalculous cholecystitis is unusual in a nonhospitalized and ambulatory man. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. The role of thionins in rice defence against root pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hongli; Gheysen, Godelieve; Ullah, Chhana; Verbeek, Ruben; Shang, Chenjing; De Vleesschauwer, David; Höfte, Monica; Kyndt, Tina

    2015-10-01

    Thionins are antimicrobial peptides that are involved in plant defence. Here, we present an in-depth analysis of the role of rice thionin genes in defence responses against two root pathogens: the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola and the oomycete Pythium graminicola. The expression of rice thionin genes was observed to be differentially regulated by defence-related hormones, whereas all analysed genes were consistently down-regulated in M. graminicola-induced galls, at least until 7 days post-inoculation (dpi). Transgenic lines of Oryza sativa cv. Nipponbare overproducing OsTHI7 revealed decreased susceptibility to M. graminicola infection and P. graminicola colonization. Taken together, these results demonstrate the role of rice thionin genes in defence against two of the most damaging root pathogens attacking rice.

  14. Spontaneous perforation of acalculous gall bladder presenting as acute abdomen.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Usha; Majumder, Shounak; Banerjee, Pinaki; Kapoor, Nisha; Nandi, Subhabrata; Sethy, Pradeepta K; Goenka, Mahesh K

    2012-10-01

    Acute abdominal pain is commonly encountered in the emergency department (ED), but a diagnosis of gall bladder perforation (GBP) is rarely considered in the absence of predisposing factors. This article will highlight the risk factors, diagnosis, and management of GBP, a rare but potentially life-threatening biliary pathology. A 73-year-old diabetic man presented to the ED with a 12-h history of severe upper abdominal pain. He was hemodynamically stable, but abdominal examination showed distention, guarding, and diffuse tenderness. Abdominal X-ray study showed mildly distended small bowel loops without any air-fluid levels. Abdominal sonography revealed mild ascites and pericholecystic fluid collection but no gall bladder calculi. Laboratory reports documented a white blood cell count of 13,700/mm(3) and elevated serum amylase of 484 IU/L. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen suggested discontinuity of the gall bladder wall along with fluid accumulation in the pericholecystic, perihepatic, right subphrenic, and right paracolic spaces. In view of the possibility of spontaneous GBP developing as a complication of acute acalculous cholecystitis, laparotomy was planned. At surgery, several liters of bile-stained peritoneal fluid were aspirated and inspection of the gall bladder revealed a perforation at the fundus. After cholecystectomy, the patient had an uneventful recovery. The diagnosis of spontaneous gall bladder perforation should be considered in elderly patients presenting to the ED with symptoms and signs of peritonitis even in the absence of pre-existing gall bladder disease. Abdominal CT scan is an invaluable tool for the diagnosis, and early surgical intervention is usually life-saving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Abundance of biting midge species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, Culicoides spp.) on cattle farms in Korea.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Kwon, Mee-Soon; Kim, Toh-Kyung; Lee, Tae-Uk; Bae, You-Chan

    2013-01-01

    Culicoides biting midges were collected on three cattle farms weekly using light traps overnight from May to October between 2010 and 2011 in the southern part of Korea. The seasonal and geographical abundance of Culicodes spp. were measured. A total of 16,538 biting midges were collected from 2010 to 2011, including seven species of Culicoides, four of which represented 98.42% of the collected specimens. These four species were Culicodes (C.) punctatus (n = 14,413), C. arakawae (n = 1,120), C. oxystoma (n = 427), and C. maculatus (n = 318). C. punctatus was the predominant species (87.15%).

  16. Effects of simulated CO₂ escape from sediments on the development of midge Chironomus riparius.

    PubMed

    Khosrovyan, A; DelValls, T A; Riba, I

    2014-11-01

    The acidification of freshwater caused by potential CO2 gas seepage from sediment layers has not previously been studied, although freshwater is likely to be affected by the accidental escape of this gas from onshore storage facilities. In this study, two riparian sediments with different contamination levels were subjected to acidification via direct injection of CO2 gas, simulating the potential leak of CO2. Tests with the midge Chironomus riparius larvae were used to assess metal fluxes and vulnerability of benthic invertebrates to the effects of acidification. The midges were grown in whole sediments over 28d after which midge emergence and ability to reproduce were tested. The results revealed that acidification is an important factor controlling the development of the midges. Although larval development and emergence were affected by neither acidity (pH 7.5 and 7.0) nor contamination levels, none of the eggs, laid during the exposure, hatched. In less contaminated sediment, Chironomus larvae succumbed to the impact of pH 6.5 and 6.0, showing suppressed growth and metamorphosis and consequently, no emergence. In highly contaminated sediment, pH 6.5 level retarded larval growth and inhibited emergence, while pH 6.0 caused mortality. The latter could also be attributed to metal mobilization effects facilitated by an increase in the ambient acidity. Experimentation on clean sediments at pH 6.5 and 6.0 also showed absence of emergence during the experimental period. These results suggest that acidity factor could seriously diminish the vitality of midge larvae and ability of midge to produce offspring, challenging the commonly known tolerance of midges to high acidity (up to pH 3.5). Whilst larval midges can survive acidity and/or metal exposure, stimulated by creeping CO2 gas, and even emerge as adults, physiological impairments may take place which may seriously threaten the resilience of C. riparius population and subsequently lead to the decline of the

  17. Culicoides biting midges, arboviruses and public health in Europe.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Simon; Groschup, Martin H; Garros, Claire; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Purse, Bethan V

    2013-10-01

    The emergence of multiple strains of bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recent discovery of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in Europe have highlighted the fact that exotic Culicoides-borne arboviruses from remote geographic areas can enter and spread rapidly in this region. This review considers the potential for this phenomenon to impact on human health in Europe, by examining evidence of the role of Culicoides biting midges in the zoonotic transmission and person-to-person spread of arboviruses worldwide. To date, the only arbovirus identified as being primarily transmitted by Culicoides to and between humans is Oropouche virus (OROV). This member of the genus Orthobunyavirus causes major epidemics of febrile illness in human populations of South and Central America and the Caribbean. We examine factors promoting sustained outbreaks of OROV in Brazil from an entomological perspective and assess aspects of the epidemiology of this arbovirus that are currently poorly understood, but may influence the risk of incursion into Europe. We then review the secondary and rarely reported role of Culicoides in the transmission of high-profile zoonotic infections, while critically reviewing evidence of this phenomenon in endemic transmission and place this in context with the presence of other potential vector groups in Europe. Scenarios for the incursions of Culicoides-borne human-to-human transmitted and zoonotic arboviruses are then discussed, along with control measures that could be employed to reduce their impact. These measures are placed in the context of legislative measures used during current and ongoing outbreaks of Culicoides-borne arboviruses in Europe, involving both veterinary and public health sectors. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel finding of carbamazepine induced gall bladder granulomatous vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Haddad, R; O'Brien, B; Evans, J; Orr, C

    2014-07-01

    We report a 63-year-old male patient who presented with eosinophilic granulomatous vasculitis of the gall bladder secondary to carbamazepine drug therapy. Following commencement of carbamazepine for treatment of partial seizures, the patient developed an allergic cutaneous drug rash. He continued to take carbamazepine postdischarge despite cessation by the treating team. He represented 7 weeks later with acute pancreatitis and cholecystis. Gall bladder histopathology showed a granulomatous vasculitis. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  19. Estimation of gestational age from gall-bladder length.

    PubMed

    Udaykumar, K; Udaykumar, Padmaja; Nagesh, K R

    2016-01-01

    Establishing a precise duration of gestation is vital in situations such as infanticide and criminal abortions. The present study attempted to estimate the gestational age of the foetus from gall-bladder length. Foetuses of various gestational age groups were dissected, and the length of the gall bladder was measured. The results were analysed, and a substantial degree of correlation was statistically confirmed. This novel method is helpful when the foetus is fragmented, putrefied or eviscerated, where this method can be used as an additional parameter to improve the accuracy of foetal age estimation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Changes in clonal poplar leaf chemistry caused by stem galls alter herbivory and leaf litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Künkler, Nora; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gall-inducing insects are highly specialized herbivores that modify the phenotype of their host plants. Beyond the direct manipulation of plant morphology and physiology in the immediate environment of the gall, there is also evidence of plant-mediated effects of gall-inducing insects on other species of the assemblages and ecosystem processes associated with the host plant. We analysed the impact of gall infestation by the aphid Pemphigus spirothecae on chemical leaf traits of clonal Lombardy poplars (Populus nigra var. italica) and the subsequent effects on intensity of herbivory and decomposition of leaves across five sites. We measured the herbivory of two feeding guilds: leaf-chewing insects that feed on the blade (e.g. caterpillars and sawfly larvae) and skeletonising insects that feed on the mesophyll of the leaves (e.g. larvae of beetles). Galled leaves had higher phenol (35%) and lower nitrogen and cholorophyll contents (35% respectively 37%) than non-galled leaves, and these differences were stronger in August than in June. Total herbivory intensity was 27% higher on galled than on non-galled leaves; damage by leaf chewers was on average 61% higher on gall infested leaves, whereas damage by skeletonising insects was on average 39% higher on non-galled leaves. After nine months the decomposition rate of galled leaf litter was 15% lower than that of non-galled leaf litter presumably because of the lower nitrogen content of the galled leaf litter. This indicated after-life effects of gall infestation on the decomposers. We found no evidence for galling x environment interactions.

  1. Incidental Gall Bladder Carcinoma in Patients Undergoing Cholecystectomy: A Report of 7 Cases.

    PubMed

    Waghmare, Ramesh S; Kamat, Rima N

    2014-09-01

    Carcinoma gall bladder accounts for 98% of all the gall bladder malignancies and is the sixth most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract worldwide. Incidental gall bladder carcinoma (IGBC) is an incidental finding of carcinoma diagnosed during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy or on histopathological examination of gall bladder specimen removed for benign gall bladder diseases. The incidence of IGBC is around 0.19 - 3.3% in the literature. The aim of the present study was to report our experience with gall bladder cancers which were incidentally diagnosed during histopathological examination of cholecystectomy specimens done for benign gall bladder disease and follow up of the cases. This study includes 270 cholecystectomy specimens which were removed, during June 2010 to July 2011 in a tertiary care hospital. The clinicopathological findings of cases with incidentally detected gall bladder cancers were recorded; age, sex, presenting symptoms, presence of gall stones and histologic grade and staging of tumours were included. Exclusion criteria included preoperative suspicion of malignancy before cholecystectomy. American joint committee on cancer (AJCC) staging system was used for staging incidental gall bladder carcinoma. In our study laparoscopy or open cholecystectomy was attempted in 270 cases during the one year period. Incidental gall bladder carcinomas were diagnosed in 7 cases (2.59%), with mean age of 50 years. Pain, vomiting, and dysphagia were the presenting complaints. USG revealed thickened gall bladder in 6 cases, and polyp in one case. Gall stones were seen in 6 cases. Histopathology showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma in all the cases. AJCC staging of gall bladder carcinoma revealed 6 cases in pT2 stage and pT1 a stage in one case. On follow up at 22 months, 6 cases were alive while one expired due to tumour metastasis. Prognosis of incidental gall bladder carcinoma is better, if diagnosed in early stages.

  2. Accessory Lobe of Liver Associated with a "Bean Shaped" Gall Bladder.

    PubMed

    Nayak Satheesha, B; Reghunathan, D; George, B M; Mishra, S

    Occurrence of accessory lobes of liver and anomalies of gall bladder is quite common. A thorough knowledge of their variation can minimise diagnostic and surgical errors. We found concurrent variations of liver and gall bladder. A small accessory liver lobe was attached to the quadrate lobe through a stalk formed by peritoneum. The gall bladder was "bean shaped" due to the presence of a constriction in the middle of its body. Since the accessory lobe was quite close to gall bladder, it could compress the gall bladder and hinder normal functioning of it. The knowledge of these variations might be of importance to radiologists and surgeons dealing with the hepatobiliary system.

  3. Dating of iron gall ink using the dissolution-diffusion method.

    PubMed

    Li, Biao; Xie, Peng

    2015-03-01

    In many criminal and civil cases, some questioned documents are written with iron gall ink. Determining the date when an iron gall ink entry was written can be important to assess the authenticity of a document. A dissolution-diffusion method was successfully employed to draw aging curves of iron gall ink entries stored in controlled conditions over 40 months. Calibration curves were created to indicate the relationship between the average dissolution-diffusion rate of ink components and the age of ink entries stored under natural aging conditions. As preliminary findings of this study, the mixed solution of dimethyl formamide (DMF) and anhydrous ethanol was suitable to dissolve the dye of iron gall ink strokes made at different time. It was also determined that brands of iron gall inks, types of paper, and thickness of iron gall ink strokes had varying impacts on estimating the dates of iron gall ink strokes.

  4. Non-communicating multiseptate gall bladder and choledochal cyst: a case report and review of publications.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, C E; Howard, E R; Driver, M; Murray-Lyon, I M

    1993-01-01

    A 14 year old girl with multiseptate gall bladder and cystic dilatation of the biliary tree is presented. This is the 20th published case report of patients with multiseptate gall bladder and only the second to be associated with a choledochal cyst. The cystic spaces of the gall bladder did not communicate with the neck of the gall bladder or the rest of the biliary tree, and this unusual feature has not been previously described. A multiseptate gall bladder with a normal biliary tree commonly causes symptoms suggestive of cholecystitis, although gall stones are seldom present. Diagnosis is confirmed by an oral cholecystogram or ultrasound scan that may show the fine intraluminal septae, and these features should be looked for in patients with biliary symptoms without biliary calculi. Cholecystectomy is curative for the isolated gall bladder anomaly but hepaticojejunostomy may be necessary for an associated choledochal cyst. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8314522

  5. Resistance of chestnut trees to Asia chestnut gall wasp

    Treesearch

    S. Anagnostakis; S.L. Clark; H. McNab

    2011-01-01

    Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphihus) was introduced into Georgia (USA) in 1975 and has been spreading north throughout the range of American chestnut (Castanea dentate). This pest is now present throughout most of Tennessee. In 2003, it was found near Cleveland, Ohio and has been spreading south from there. In 1995, hybrid chestnuts with C. dentate female...

  6. Testing Optimal Foraging Theory Using Bird Predation on Goldenrod Galls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahnke, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    All animals must make choices regarding what foods to eat, where to eat, and how much time to spend feeding. Optimal foraging theory explains these behaviors in terms of costs and benefits. This laboratory exercise focuses on optimal foraging theory by investigating the winter feeding behavior of birds on the goldenrod gall fly by comparing…

  7. EVALUATION OF WILD JUGLANS SPECIES FOR CROWN GALL RESISTANCE

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crown Gall disease of walnut is caused by the ubiquitous soil-borne bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens which is able to transfer a specific piece of its own DNA into the genome of the plant host cell. The result of this genetic transformation is the autonomous undifferentiated massive growth of i...

  8. Evaluaton of Wild Juglans Species for Crown Gall Resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crown Gall disease of walnut is caused by the ubiquitous soil-borne bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which is able to transfer a specific piece of its own DNA into the genome of the plant host cell. The result of this genetic transformation is the autonomous undifferentiated massive growth of ...

  9. Cynipid gall-wasp communities correlate with oak chemistry.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, Warren G; Hunter, Mark D; Melika, George; Price, Peter W

    2003-01-01

    Host-plant association data, gathered from field surveys conducted throughout Florida and from the literature, were used to identify the specificity of cynipid gall inducers to one or more of six Quercus species that occur at Archbold Biological Station, Lake Placid, Florida, USA, including the red oaks Q. laevis, Q. myrtifolia, and Q. inopina, and the white oaks Q. chapmanii, Q. geminata, and Q. minima. Quercus myrtifolia had the highest cynipid richness and diversity (37 cynipid species, Shannon H' = 3.61, Simpson's D = 0.97), followed by Q. chapmanii, Q. laevis, Q. inopina, Q. geminata, and finally Q. minima (10 species, H' = 2.30, D = 0.90). All cynipid species showed strong fidelity to a particular host plant or a restricted set of host plants. An ordination of gall-wasp host associations indicated that the cynipid communities of each oak species were distinct and specific to a given oak species. Leaf samples taken from each oak species were analyzed for condensed and hydrolyzable tannins, total phenolics, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, nitrogen, and carbon. All of these chemical traits, with the exception of carbon, differed by oak species, and the differences were strongly correlated with the axes of the cynipid-species ordination. These results suggest that gall-wasp occurrence is influenced by oak chemistry and imply that experimental studies of cynipid gall inducers that examine host-plant chemistry and female oviposition choice and larval performance will yield useful insights.

  10. Laparoscopic management of a two staged gall bladder torsion

    PubMed Central

    Sunder, Yadav Kamal; Akhilesh, Sali Priyanka; Raman, Garg; Deborshi, Sharma; Shantilal, Mehta Hitesh

    2015-01-01

    Gall bladder torsion (GBT) is a relatively uncommon entity and rarely diagnosed preoperatively. A constant factor in all occurrences of GBT is a freely mobile gall bladder due to congenital or acquired anomalies. GBT is commonly observed in elderly white females. We report a 77-year-old, Caucasian lady who was originally diagnosed as gall bladder perforation but was eventually found with a two staged torsion of the gall bladder with twisting of the Riedel’s lobe (part of tongue like projection of liver segment 4A). This together, has not been reported in literature, to the best of our knowledge. We performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy and she had an uneventful post-operative period. GBT may create a diagnostic dilemma in the context of acute cholecystitis. Timely diagnosis and intervention is necessary, with extra care while operating as the anatomy is generally distorted. The fundus first approach can be useful due to altered anatomy in the region of Calot’s triangle. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has the benefit of early recovery. PMID:26730287

  11. Evaluation of wild Juglans species for crown gall resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Paradox, the most widely used rootstock in CA walnut production, is highly susceptible to the causal agent of crown gall (CG) Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The bacterial pathogen induces the formation of large tumors around the crown of the tree resulting in a reduction in both vigor and yield. If left...

  12. The ecology and evolution of gall-forming insects.

    Treesearch

    Peter W. Price; William J. Mattson; Yuri N. Baranchikov

    1994-01-01

    This international proceedings focuses on the biology, ecology, and evolution of gall-forming insects and their uniquely specialized relationships with their host plants. The individual contributions range in scope from detailed descriptive to profoundly theoretical, synthetic studies. One underlying theme of the proceedings is the important contribution of knowledge...

  13. Antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf gall extracts.

    PubMed

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Raman Shanthi; Subbaramaiah, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals are implicated in several metabolic diseases and the medicinal properties of plants have been explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Syzygium cumini (S. cumini), which have been extensively used in traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the standard ascorbic acid. The presence of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids, and reducing sugars was identified in both the extracts. When compared, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents at 474±2.2 mg of GAE/g d.w and 668±1.4 mg of QUE/g d.w, respectively. The significant high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. The present study confirms the folklore use of S. cumini leaves gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justifies its ethnobotanical use. Further, the result of antioxidant properties encourages the use of S. cumini leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications.

  14. Antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf gall extracts

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Raman Shanthi; Subbaramaiah, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Free radicals are implicated in several metabolic diseases and the medicinal properties of plants have been explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Syzygium cumini (S. cumini), which have been extensively used in traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. Methods: The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. Results: In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the standard ascorbic acid. The presence of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids, and reducing sugars was identified in both the extracts. When compared, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents at 474±2.2 mg of GAE/g d.w and 668±1.4 mg of QUE/g d.w, respectively. The significant high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. Conclusion: The present study confirms the folklore use of S. cumini leaves gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justifies its ethnobotanical use. Further, the result of antioxidant properties encourages the use of S. cumini leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications. PMID:25035854

  15. Hypoxylon Canker of Aspen Associated With Saperda inornata Galls

    Treesearch

    Neil A. Anderson; Michael E. Ostry; Gerald W. Anderson

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary findings from a study to gain information on the inflection process and genetics of resistance of the Hypoxylon canker fungue (Hypoxylon mammatum) on aspen (Populus tremuloides) indicate that the poplar-gall Saperda (Saperda inornata) may be involved. This paper describes the types of wounds made by...

  16. Science Galls Me: What Is a Niche Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Kristy Lynn; Lankford, Deanna Marie

    2009-01-01

    The authors have developed a lesson to investigate basic principles of ecology, more specifically niche partitioning, while using a jigsaw activity that explores galling insects' interactions with goldenrods. Not only does this lesson capture secondary students' interest and keeps them engaged in hands-on activities, the content addresses two…

  17. Science Galls Me: What Is a Niche Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Kristy Lynn; Lankford, Deanna Marie

    2009-01-01

    The authors have developed a lesson to investigate basic principles of ecology, more specifically niche partitioning, while using a jigsaw activity that explores galling insects' interactions with goldenrods. Not only does this lesson capture secondary students' interest and keeps them engaged in hands-on activities, the content addresses two…

  18. Franz Joseph Gall and music: the faculty and the bump.

    PubMed

    Eling, Paul; Finger, Stanley; Whitaker, Harry

    2015-01-01

    The traditional story maintains that Franz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) scientific program began with his observations of schoolmates with bulging eyes and good verbal memories. But his search to understand human nature, in particular individual differences in capacities, passions, and tendencies, can also be traced to other important observations, one being of a young girl with an exceptional talent for music. Rejecting contemporary notions of cognition, Gall concluded that behavior results from the interaction of a limited set of basic faculties, each with its own processes for perception and memory, each with its own territory in both cerebral or cerebellar cortices. Gall identified 27 faculties, one being the sense of tone relations or music. The description of the latter is identical in both his Anatomie et Physiologie and Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau et sur Celles de Chacune de ses Parties, where he provided positive and negative evidences and discussed findings from humans and lower animals, for the faculty. The localization of the cortical faculty for talented musicians, he explained, is demonstrated by a "bump" on each side of the skull just above the angle of the eye; hence, the lower forehead of musicians is broader or squarer than in other individuals. Additionally, differences between singing and nonsinging birds also correlate with cranial features. Gall even brought age, racial, and national differences into the picture. What he wrote about music reveals much about his science and creative thinking.

  19. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Appendix B

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This report consists of Volume 2, which consists of the GALL literature review tables for the NUMARC Industry Reports reviewed for the report.

  20. Laparoscopic management of a two staged gall bladder torsion.

    PubMed

    Sunder, Yadav Kamal; Akhilesh, Sali Priyanka; Raman, Garg; Deborshi, Sharma; Shantilal, Mehta Hitesh

    2015-12-27

    Gall bladder torsion (GBT) is a relatively uncommon entity and rarely diagnosed preoperatively. A constant factor in all occurrences of GBT is a freely mobile gall bladder due to congenital or acquired anomalies. GBT is commonly observed in elderly white females. We report a 77-year-old, Caucasian lady who was originally diagnosed as gall bladder perforation but was eventually found with a two staged torsion of the gall bladder with twisting of the Riedel's lobe (part of tongue like projection of liver segment 4A). This together, has not been reported in literature, to the best of our knowledge. We performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy and she had an uneventful post-operative period. GBT may create a diagnostic dilemma in the context of acute cholecystitis. Timely diagnosis and intervention is necessary, with extra care while operating as the anatomy is generally distorted. The fundus first approach can be useful due to altered anatomy in the region of Calot's triangle. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has the benefit of early recovery.

  1. Carcinoma transverse colon masquerading as carcinoma gall bladder.

    PubMed

    Munghate, Anand; Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Harnam; Singh, Gurpreet; Singh, Bimaljot; Chauhan, Mahak

    2014-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancer worldwide .Its incidence is reported to be increasing in developing countries. It commonly presents with weight loss, anaemia, lump abdomen, change of bowel habit, obstruction or fresh rectal bleeding. Beside these common modes of presentations, there are some rare manifestations which masqueraded as different disease like obstructive jaundice, empyema gall bladder or cholecystitis. A 60-year-old male presented to hospital with right sided pain abdomen. On abdominal examination mild tenderness was present in right hypochondrium. Intra operatively gall bladder was separated from the adjoining gut, peritoneum and liver bed and was removed. On further exploration, there was a large mass in the vicinity of the gall bladder related to transverse colon. Extended right hemicolectomy was done. Histopathological examination of gut mass revealed adenocarcinoma of transverse colon with free margins and gall bladder showed cholecystitis with no evidence of malignancy. We present an interesting case of colon cancer colon that caused diagnostic confusion by mimicking as cholecystitis. Colorectal cancer constitutes a major public health issue globally. Therefore, public awareness, screening of high-risk populations, early diagnosis and effective treatment and follow-up will help to reduce its occurance and further complications.

  2. Testing Optimal Foraging Theory Using Bird Predation on Goldenrod Galls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahnke, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    All animals must make choices regarding what foods to eat, where to eat, and how much time to spend feeding. Optimal foraging theory explains these behaviors in terms of costs and benefits. This laboratory exercise focuses on optimal foraging theory by investigating the winter feeding behavior of birds on the goldenrod gall fly by comparing…

  3. A Method for Rearing Pupae of Net-Winged Midges (Diptera: Blephariceridae) and Other Torrenticolous Flies

    Treesearch

    Gregory W. Courtney

    1998-01-01

    A method for obtaining reared adults of net-winged midges (Diptera: Blephariceridae) is presented. Rocks with attached pupae are removed from the stream and placed in a container maintained at high humidity. Survival and emergence rates exceeding 60% were recorded for several species of Nearctic Blephaecera. This method is ideal for associating...

  4. Understanding and exploiting olfaction for the surveillance and control of Culicoides biting midges

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are found worldwide with the exception of only a few countries including New Zealand, Patagonia, the Hawaiian Isles and Antarctica. They are a nuisance pest to human beings, but transmit a number of diseases that mainly affect livestock. Like many haema...

  5. Culicoides Midge Bites Modulate the Host Response and Impact on Bluetongue Virus Infection in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Pages, Nonito; Talavera, Sandra; Viarouge, Cyril; Lorca-Oro, Cristina; Jouneau, Luc; Charley, Bernard; Zientara, Stéphan; Bensaid, Albert; Solanes, David; Pujols, Joan; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Many haematophagous insects produce factors that help their blood meal and coincidently favor pathogen transmission. However nothing is known about the ability of Culicoides midges to interfere with the infectivity of the viruses they transmit. Among these, Bluetongue Virus (BTV) induces a hemorrhagic fever- type disease and its recent emergence in Europe had a major economical impact. We observed that needle inoculation of BTV8 in the site of uninfected C. nubeculosus feeding reduced viraemia and clinical disease intensity compared to plain needle inoculation. The sheep that developed the highest local inflammatory reaction had the lowest viral load, suggesting that the inflammatory response to midge bites may participate in the individual sensitivity to BTV viraemia development. Conversely compared to needle inoculation, inoculation of BTV8 by infected C. nubeculosus bites promoted viraemia and clinical symptom expression, in association with delayed IFN- induced gene expression and retarded neutralizing antibody responses. The effects of uninfected and infected midge bites on BTV viraemia and on the host response indicate that BTV transmission by infected midges is the most reliable experimental method to study the physio-pathological events relevant to a natural infection and to pertinent vaccine evaluation in the target species. It also leads the way to identify the promoting viral infectivity factors of infected Culicoides in order to possibly develop new control strategies against BTV and other Culicoides transmitted viruses. PMID:24421899

  6. Gene characterization of two digestive serine proteases in orange blossom wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two full length cDNA sequences, encoding digestive serine proteases (designated as SmPROT-1 and SmPROT-2), were recovered from the midgut of the wheat midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana in an ongoing EST project. The deduced amino acid sequences shared homology with digestive serine proteases from insect...

  7. An Improved, high-throughput method for detection of bluetongue virus RNA in Culicodes midges

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new rapid (less than 6 h from insect-to-results) high-throughput assay is reported that is sensitive and specific for detecting BTV RNA in Culicoides biting midges. Homogenization and extraction of nucleic acids from individual Culicoides specimens were performed in a 96-well plate format using sp...

  8. Management of North American Culicoides biting midges: Current knowledge and research needs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of two important viruses infecting North American ruminants: bluetongue (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHDV). While these viruses have been identified for over 60 years, we still lack an adequate understanding of t...

  9. Community Structure of Chironomidae (Midges) in Two Brazilian Rivers in Relation to Contrasting Land Uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonoda, K. C.; Matthaei, C.; Vettorazzi, C. A.; Trivinho-Strixino, S.

    2005-05-01

    We investigated whether the conversion of riparian land use from indigenous forest to pasture is associated with changes in midge community composition in two South Brasilian rivers. Our study was conducted in the main rivers (Sao Jose dos Dourados 6th order; Aguapei 7th order) of two catchments in Sao Paulo State. Both catchments are dominated by agricultural ecosystems but retain substantial patches of native riparian forest in certain areas. Replicated artificial substrates (baskets filled with clay rocks) were exposed in forested and pasture reaches in both rivers. Both land uses had to be present for at least 500m along both river banks, and the riparian forest had to be at least 50m wide. In each river, six baskets per reach type were sampled after a colonization period of 44 days, and all Chironomidae in these samples were sorted and identified to genus level (a total of 3399 individuals belonging to 28 different taxa). As expected, land use affected midge communities. Total midge density was significantly higher in pasture reaches than in forested reaches. By contrast, midge taxon richness was higher at the forested reaches. These results show the importance of native riparian forests for preserving aquatic biodiversity in Brasilian rivers.

  10. Culicoides midge bites modulate the host response and impact on bluetongue virus infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Pages, Nonito; Bréard, Emmanuel; Urien, Céline; Talavera, Sandra; Viarouge, Cyril; Lorca-Oro, Cristina; Jouneau, Luc; Charley, Bernard; Zientara, Stéphan; Bensaid, Albert; Solanes, David; Pujols, Joan; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Many haematophagous insects produce factors that help their blood meal and coincidently favor pathogen transmission. However nothing is known about the ability of Culicoides midges to interfere with the infectivity of the viruses they transmit. Among these, Bluetongue Virus (BTV) induces a hemorrhagic fever- type disease and its recent emergence in Europe had a major economical impact. We observed that needle inoculation of BTV8 in the site of uninfected C. nubeculosus feeding reduced viraemia and clinical disease intensity compared to plain needle inoculation. The sheep that developed the highest local inflammatory reaction had the lowest viral load, suggesting that the inflammatory response to midge bites may participate in the individual sensitivity to BTV viraemia development. Conversely compared to needle inoculation, inoculation of BTV8 by infected C. nubeculosus bites promoted viraemia and clinical symptom expression, in association with delayed IFN- induced gene expression and retarded neutralizing antibody responses. The effects of uninfected and infected midge bites on BTV viraemia and on the host response indicate that BTV transmission by infected midges is the most reliable experimental method to study the physio-pathological events relevant to a natural infection and to pertinent vaccine evaluation in the target species. It also leads the way to identify the promoting viral infectivity factors of infected Culicoides in order to possibly develop new control strategies against BTV and other Culicoides transmitted viruses.

  11. Papular Dermatitis Induced in Guinea Pig by Biting Midge Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidaie)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and h...

  12. Dehydration, rehydration and overhydration alter patterns of gene expression in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We investigated molecular responses elicited by three types of dehydration (fast, slow and cryoprotective), rehydration and overhydration in larvae of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica. The larvae spend most the year encased in ice but during the austral summer are vulnerable to summer storms,...

  13. Cryoprotective dehydration and the resistance to inoculative freezing in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During winter, larvae of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica (Diptera, Chironomidae), must endure 7–8 months of continuous subzero temperatures, encasement in a matrix of soil and ice, and severely desiccating conditions. This environment, along with the fact that larvae possess a high rate of w...

  14. UPREGULATION OF STRESS ASSOCIATED GENES IN THE OVERWINTERING STAGES OF THE ANTARCTIC MIDGE, BELGICA ANTARCTICA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have investigated the molecular basis of stress resistance in the midge Belgica antarctica, the largest known free-living animal to adapt to a terrestrial existence on the Antarctic continent. Prevalent in specific locations throughout the Antarctic peninsula, this insect has a two-year life cyc...

  15. Gastromermis kolleonis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae), a Parasite of Midges (Chironomus sp. Chironomidae) from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    de Doucet, Maria M. A.; Poinar, George O.

    1984-01-01

    Gastromermis kolleonis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) is described from the Arroyo Saldan River in Córdoba, Argentina. This species parasitizes midges of the genus Chironomus (Chironomidae: Diptera). It is distinguished from other members of the genus by the presence of six longitudinal chords, vulval flaps, degree of ventral displacement of the mouth, and size and shape of the spicule and amphids. PMID:19294020

  16. Description of a new species of Aphanogmus Thomson (Hymenoptera, Ceraphronidae) that parasitizes acarivorous gall midges of Feltiella (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Kazunori; Ganaha-Kikumura, Tomoko; Ohno, Suguru; Yukawa, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In 2008–2009, we reared small ceraphronids (about 0.5 mm in body length) from cocoons that had been made possibly by two acarivorous species, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) and Feltiella acarivora (Zehntner) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Okinawa, Japan. Detailed morphological observation revealed that the ceraphronid was a new species of Aphanogmus Thomson (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae). We describe it as Aphanogmus flavigastris Matsuo, sp. n. Identification of the Aphanogmus species is essential to evaluate its possibly negative effects on the predatory activity of Feltiella species that have been used as control agents against tetranychid mites. PMID:27408578

  17. [Causal mechanisms of nuclear movement and division during early cleavage stages in the egg of a gall midge,Wachtliella persicariae L.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Rainer

    1973-03-01

    Between each mitotic cycle, the cleavage nuclei ofWachtliella move over long distances, thus populating the ooplasm within a short time. Besides being shifted passively by flowing pulses of the ooplasm, thenuclei are also migrating actively. The active movements are accompanied by such oscillations of yolk particles as are known from the eggs of other insects, too. For a closer analysis of these "quivering movements" the inseminated eggs werepressed, either totally or partially, reducing their smaller diameters to ooplasmic layers of 30 μm or between 12 and 4 μm, respectively. Along with the experimental reduction of the radius of the curvature at the egg surface, there is anincreased tendency of cell membrane formation, resulting in anearly total cleavage already at the 2-nuclei-stage. Furthermore, theinitial region of cleavage (= initial region of quivering movements)may be shifted to a site free from nuclei; the initial region even may becomesplit up into two, one near each of the egg's poles. Yet, in flattened eggs, division and migration activities of the nuclei are not prevented. Untreated as well as flattened eggs have been analysed by means of time-lapse motion pictures taken either by the phase contrast or by the differential interference contrast method, using apochromatic objectives of maximum resolution, combined with an inverted microscope.According to the rhythm of the cleavage divisions,waves of irregular quivering movements spread from the initial region(s) of cleavage throughout the whole egg space. They are composed of irregular oscillations of yolk particles, probably caused by the effect of actively shortening, dynamic elements irregularly spread within the ooplasm. The presence ofcleavage nuclei obviously exerts a kind ofregulative effect: Shortly before such a wave of quivering movements reaches a metaphasic cleavage energide, regular oscillations and approximations of yolk particles are visible in the surroundings of the nucleus. The movements in question are radially adjusted towards the spindle poles, starting at the one which is reached first by the wave of quivering movements. These "radial quivering movements" are caused by abig cytaster, each originating from its spindle pole and distally reaching far into the ooplasm. Synchronous with the beginning of the shortening process of the astral rays, the cleavage nucleus passes through anaphase and telophase, and the spindle poles arepulled apart. During the then following migration of each daughter nucleus, its spindle pole-the kinetocentre of the previous spindle-is preserved and becomes the centre of a "migration cytaster". Its longest rays measure up to at least 80 μm. Their distal ends temporarily insert either in motile, or in elastically suspended, or in rigid egg components.By the recurrent short-time insertions and irregular shortening processes of the astral rays,the nucleus, displaying a strong affinity to its own kinetocentre,is pulled foreward. This movement always occurs in the direction of the biggest ooplasmic region still free from nuclei and therefore permitting the greatest spacial extension of the migration cytasters. This could explain the so-called mutual "repulsion" of the energides, leading to their even dispersion all over the egg space.In some of the eggs it has been possible toseparate the cleavage nuclei from their cytaster systems experimentally. Deprived of their nuclei such migration cytasters behave autonomously, i. e. they are actively moving within the ooplasm, possibly even retaining their division power. On the other hand, thenuclei without their cytasters have lost their mobility and therefore at first remain in their sites. But they seem to be capable ofinducing new spindle poles and migration cytasters of their own and to carry out further cleavage divisions.The migration cytasters of all cleavage energides develop by division from the very cytaster whose formation had been induced by the sperm nucleus after entering the egg. On the other hand thefemale pronucleus, remainingwithout a migration cytaster and therefore lacking migration activity, ismoved towards the male nucleus, pulled by the probably permanently inserted astral rays of the latter. Thus the final act of fertilization, i.e. nuclear fusion, comes about by the affinity between the (female pro-)nucleus and the (alien) migration cytaster (of the male nucleus).Judged by their derivation from the "polar rays" of the spindle apparatus, the astral rays with high probability are built up oftubuli, the evidence being left to electron microscopical investigations. Functional structures related to the causal mechanism of the migration cytaster are suggested and their supposed derivation from the mitotic apparatus is discussed. The existence of migration cytasters might not only represent an adaptation to the specific conditions of cleavage within spacious eggs, but also could be essential for the stretching of the spindle and the separation of the daughter nuclei during the division process of many other animal cells.

  18. The spruce shoot gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae): Piceacecis, a new genus for a non-native pest of Norway spruce from Europe and its native American relative

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dasineura abietiperda (Henschel), a European pest of Norway spruce, Picea abies (Pinaceae), is reported as new to North America. Damage symptoms are illustrated and an outline of its biology is given. A new genus, Piceacecis Gagné is described to include it and its North American relative, Phytophag...

  19. Evaluation of corn plant as potential banker plant for supporting predatory gall Midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in greenhouse vegetable production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most important and highly polyphagous pests of vegetables and other crops worldwide. In this study, several experiments were conducted under laboratory and greenhouse conditions to evaluate whether corn plant ...

  20. Diversity of insect galls associated with coastal shrub vegetation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Fernandes, Sheila P; Ascendino, Sharlene; Maia, Valéria C; Couri, Márcia S

    2016-09-01

    Surveys in the coastal sandy plains (restingas) of Rio de Janeiro have shown a great richness of galls. We investigated the galling insects in two preserved restingas areas of Rio de Janeiro state: Parque Estadual da Costa do Sol and Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Fazenda Caruara. The collections were done each two months, from June 2011 to May 2012. We investigated 38 points during 45 minutes each per collection. The galls were taken to the laboratory for rearing the insects. A total number of 151 insect galls were found in 82 plant species distributed into 34 botanic families. Most of the galls occurred on leaves and the plant families with the highest richness of galls were Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. All the six insect orders with galling species were found in this survey, where Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) was the main galler group. Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera were found as parasitoids and inquilines in 29 galls. The richness of galls in the surveyed areas reveals the importance of restinga for the composition and diversity of gall-inducing insect fauna.

  1. Does Gnomoniopsis castanea contribute to the natural biological control of chestnut gall wasp?

    PubMed

    Vannini, Andrea; Vettraino, AnnaMaria; Martignoni, Diana; Morales-Rodriguez, Carmen; Contarini, Mario; Caccia, Romina; Paparatti, Bruno; Speranza, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Gnomoniopsis castanea has been reported as the causal agent of necrosis of chestnut wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) galls. The fungus is frequently observed on galls in chestnut stands infested by the insect in Italy. In the present study the impact of gall necrosis and the dynamic of its development have been studied in mature and young Castanea sativa stands in Central Italy during spring and early summer, before the D. kuriphilus adult flies. Results suggest that gall necrosis develops from resident endophytic inoculum of G. castanea. During the 2 y of monitoring, no differences were found in incidence and severity of the disease. Gall necrosis increased exponentially during the season, reaching 75,4% of galls totally necrotized in the investigated site in mid July. Gall necrosis was shown to have a severe impact on D. kuriphilus vitality, mostly impacting the adults inside the galls. Gall necrosis by G. castanea appears to efficiently control gall wasp in chestnut stands, although the high virulence of the fungus to chestnut fruits precludes its use as biocontrol agent in biological control strategies.

  2. Sugary secretions of wasp galls: a want-to-be extrafloral nectar?

    PubMed

    Aranda-Rickert, Adriana; Rothen, Carolina; Diez, Patricia; González, Ana María; Marazzi, Brigitte

    2017-06-29

    The most widespread form of protective mutualisms is represented by plants bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) that attract ants and other arthropods for indirect defence. Another, but less common, form of sugary secretion for indirect defence occurs in galls induced by cynipid wasps. Until now, such galls have been reported only for cynipid wasps that infest oak trees in the northern hemisphere. This study provides the first evidence of galls that exude sugary secretions in the southern hemisphere and asks whether they can be considered as analogues of plants' EFNs. The ecology and anatomy of galls and the chemical composition of the secretion were investigated in north-western Argentina, in natural populations of the host trees Prosopis chilensis and P. flexuosa . To examine whether ants protect the galls from natural enemies, ant exclusion experiments were conducted in the field. The galls produce large amounts of sucrose-rich, nectar-like secretions. No typical nectary and sub-nectary parenchymatic tissues or secretory trichomes can be observed; instead there is a dense vascularization with phloem elements reaching the gall periphery. At least six species of ants, but also vespid wasps, Diptera and Coleoptera, consumed the gall secretions. The ant exclusion experiment showed that when ants tended galls, no differences were found in the rate of successful emergence of gall wasps or in the rate of parasitism and inquiline infestation compared with ant-excluded galls. The gall sugary secretion is not analogous to extrafloral nectar because no nectar-producing structure is associated with it, but is functionally equivalent to arthropod honeydew because it provides indirect defence to the plant parasite. As in other facultative mutualisms mediated by sugary secretions, the gall secretion triggers a complex multispecies interaction, in which the outcome of individual pair-wise interactions depends on the ecological context in which they take place.

  3. Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling compound involved in defenses against insects and pathogens, and in the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of structures (galls) on their host plants which house immature wasps and provide them with nu...

  4. Effect of Temperature on Galling Behavior of SS 316, 316 L and 416 Under Self-Mated Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harsha, A. P.; Limaye, P. K.; Tyagi, Rajnesh; Gupta, Ankit

    2016-11-01

    Galling behavior of three different stainless steels (SS 316, 316 L and 416) was evaluated at room temperature and 300 °C under a self-mated condition. An indigenously fabricated galling tester was used to evaluate the galling performance of mated materials as per ASTM G196-08 standard. The variation in frictional torque was recorded online during the test to assess the onset of galling. The galling50 (G50) stress value was used to compare the galling resistance of a combination of materials, and the results indicate a significant influence of temperature on the galling resistance of the materials tested. This has been attributed to the decrease in hardness and yield strength at elevated temperature which results in softening of the steel and limits its ability to resist severe deformation. Scanning electron micrographs of the galled surface reflected a severe plastic deformation in sliding direction, and a typical adhesive wear mechanism is prevalent during the galling process.

  5. The fauna of cynipid oak gall wasps and their parasitoids in Lorestan province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Azizkhani, E; Rasoulian, G R; Kharazi-Pakdel, A; Omid, R; Moniri, V R; Melika, G

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out in the period 2003-2005 to collect and identify gall wasps and their parasitoids on oak species in Lorestan province. There are two oak species, Quercus brantii and Q. infectoria, with different dispersion patterns in the province. Thus, 3 study sampling sites were selected to cover distributional pattern of oak forests. Collected galls maintained in the laboratory condition. Based on results obtained, overall, 26 different galls-formed on various plant parts (catkins, buds, fruits, leaves) were collected on two oak species; of which, 11 gall wasps are active on Q. brantii and 13 gall wasps on Q. infectoria. 19 parasitoid wasps of 12 genera and 6 families belong to Chalcidoidea superfamily with various frequency and dispersal were collected from mentioned galls.

  6. Isolated non-necrotising granulomatous vasculitis of the gall bladder- a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Prasaad, Priavadhana Rajan; Shekhar, Shubhranshu; Priyadharshini, S Anu

    2014-10-01

    Gall bladder diseases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Gall bladder diseases comprise a wide spectrum of disease entities including non specific inflammatory diseases, acute and chronic cholecystitis, follicular cholecystitis, granulomatous cholecystitis, metaplasic and dysplastic diseases of the gall bladder mucosa, gall bladder polyps and carcinomas. Here, we describe an unusual and a rare case of granulomatous vasculitis of the gall bladder incidentally diagnosed in a 38-year-old female, in a routine cholecystectomy specimen. Granulomatous vasculitis has been reported as a part of localised vasculitis of the gastrointestinal tract in the literature. The case is presented here for the rarity of the diagnosis of an isolated non-necrotising granulomatous vasculitis of the gall bladder.

  7. Conservative management of accidental gall bladder puncture during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Nikhil A.; Patil, Siddangouda B.; Biradar, Ashok N.; Desai, Anup S.

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has been an excellent option for the management of kidney stones. There have been many complications in regards to solid organ injury during PCNL. Here we discuss an interesting case of 45-year-old woman, who underwent PCNL for right renal staghorn calculus, and had an accidental puncture of the gall bladder. Post operatively, the patient was conservatively managed and recovered well. A small number of cases has been reported until now in literature. PMID:25140237

  8. Antioxidant activities of ficus glomerata (moraceae) leaf gall extracts

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Shanthi; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2015-01-01

    An excess production or decreased scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders such as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Hence the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment of such diseases linked to free radicals. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Ficus glomerata (F. glomerata), which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The presences of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 370 ± 3.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g dw) and 155 ± 3.2 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg QUE/g dw), respectively. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the aqueous extract. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals

  9. Conservative management of accidental gall bladder puncture during percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nikhil A; Kundargi, Vinay S; Patil, Siddangouda B; Biradar, Ashok N; Desai, Anup S

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has been an excellent option for the management of kidney stones. There have been many complications in regards to solid organ injury during PCNL. Here we discuss an interesting case of 45-year-old woman, who underwent PCNL for right renal staghorn calculus, and had an accidental puncture of the gall bladder. Post operatively, the patient was conservatively managed and recovered well. A small number of cases has been reported until now in literature.

  10. DNA methylation mediated control of gene expression is critical for development of crown gall tumors.

    PubMed

    Gohlke, Jochen; Scholz, Claus-Juergen; Kneitz, Susanne; Weber, Dana; Fuchs, Joerg; Hedrich, Rainer; Deeken, Rosalia

    2013-01-01

    Crown gall tumors develop after integration of the T-DNA of virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains into the plant genome. Expression of the T-DNA-encoded oncogenes triggers proliferation and differentiation of transformed plant cells. Crown gall development is known to be accompanied by global changes in transcription, metabolite levels, and physiological processes. High levels of abscisic acid (ABA) in crown galls regulate expression of drought stress responsive genes and mediate drought stress acclimation, which is essential for wild-type-like tumor growth. An impact of epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation on crown gall development has been suggested; however, it has not yet been investigated comprehensively. In this study, the methylation pattern of Arabidopsis thaliana crown galls was analyzed on a genome-wide scale as well as at the single gene level. Bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that the oncogenes Ipt, IaaH, and IaaM were unmethylated in crown galls. Nevertheless, the oncogenes were susceptible to siRNA-mediated methylation, which inhibited their expression and subsequently crown gall growth. Genome arrays, hybridized with methylated DNA obtained by immunoprecipitation, revealed a globally hypermethylated crown gall genome, while promoters were rather hypomethylated. Mutants with reduced non-CG methylation developed larger tumors than the wild-type controls, indicating that hypermethylation inhibits plant tumor growth. The differential methylation pattern of crown galls and the stem tissue from which they originate correlated with transcriptional changes. Genes known to be transcriptionally inhibited by ABA and methylated in crown galls became promoter methylated upon treatment of A. thaliana with ABA. This suggests that the high ABA levels in crown galls may mediate DNA methylation and regulate expression of genes involved in drought stress protection. In summary, our studies provide evidence that epigenetic processes regulate gene

  11. Constraints on growth and allocation patterns of Silphium integrifolium (Asteraceae) caused by a cynipid gall wasp.

    PubMed

    Fay, P A; Hartnett, D C

    1991-10-01

    Insect herbivory can have important effects on plant life histories and architecture. We quantified the impact that a cynipid gall wasp, Antistrophus silphii, had on growth, reproduction, and biomass allocation patterns of Silphium integrifolium growing in the tallgrass prairie of northeastern Kansas. Experimentally galled individual Silphium shoots (ramets) had reduced shoot growth, leaf and flower head production, and delayed flowering compared to gall-free control shoots. Gall formation completely halted normal apical growth in 65% of the shoots. Galling did not affect individual flower head weight, the numbers of achenes per flower head or achene weight. Silphium plants (genets) with a high proportion of galled shoots had lower total biomass, a lower proportion of total biomass allocated to flower heads, higher allocation to leaves, but no change in allocation to stems or rhizome. High gall densities reduced the number of flower heads per plant and shortened the time between flower head initiation and maturity. An adaptive interpretation of these results would be that the survivorship and future performance of galled Silphium may be promoted by maintaining allocation to rhizome. However, reduced shoot growth and delayed reproduction in galled Silphium may weaken its competitive ability and reduce pollination success, so that any adaptive advantage to Silphium's allocation responses to galls may be outweighed by disadvantages from its growth and flowering phenology responses. We conclude that a more parsimonious interpretation of these results is that gall-induced allocation changes are due to architectural constraints placed by galls on meristem activity, rather than to any adaptive response on the part of the plant.

  12. Phosphorus Equilibrium Characteristics for Soils in the Upper Eau Galle River Watershed, Wisconsin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    ERDC WQTN-PD-18 March 2006 Phosphorus Equilibrium Characteristics for Soils in the Upper Eau Galle River Watershed, Wisconsin by William F...collected from different land use practices in the Upper Eau Galle River watershed (Wisconsin). Land use practices included grazed pasture, row and...different land use practices in a Wisconsin watershed that drains into a eutrophic Corps of Engineers impoundment. METHODS: The Upper Eau Galle River

  13. Demonstration of GSSHA Hydrology and Sediment at Eau Galle Watershed Near Spring Valley, Wisconsin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    sediment transport features being demonstrated include: ERDC TN-SWWRP-08-2 March 2008 Demonstration of GSSHA Hydrology and Sediment at Eau Galle...Demonstration of GSSHA Hydrology and Sediment at Eau Galle Watershed Near Spring Valley, Wisconsin 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...WATERSHED: The Eau Galle River watershed encompasses a 402 km2 area in northwest Wisconsin (Figure 1). In addition to this demonstration, the U.S

  14. Laboratory galling tests of several commercial cobalt-free weld hardfacing alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cockeram, B.V.; Buck, R.F.; Wilson, W.L.

    1997-04-01

    Since the mechanical properties of most wear materials are generally insufficient for structural applications, hardfacing alloys have been traditionally weld deposited to provide a wear resistance surface for a base material. An important attribute of a hardfacing alloy that is subjected to high load sliding contact is the resistance to adhesive (galling) damage. Although Co-base hardfacing alloys generally possess excellent galling wear resistance, there is interest in developing cobalt-free replacement hardfacings to reduce radiation exposure costs. A laboratory galling test has been developed for weld hardfacing deposits that is a modification of the standardized ASTM G98-91 galling test procedure. The procedure for testing a weld hardfacing deposit on a softer base metal using a button-on-block configuration is described. The contact stresses for the initiation of adhesive galling damage were measured to rank the galling resistance of several commercial Fe-base, Ni-base and Co-base hardfacing alloys. Although the galling resistance of the Fe-base alloys was generally superior to the Ni-base alloys, neither system approached the excellent galling resistance of the Co-base alloys. Microstructure examinations were used to understand the micro-mechanisms for the initiation and propagation of galling damage. A physical model for the initiation and propagation of adhesive wear is used to explain the lower galling resistance for the Ni-base hardfacings and to understand the influence of composition on the galling resistance of Ni-base alloys. The composition of some Ni base hardfacings was modified in a controlled manner to quantify the influence of specific elements on the galling resistance.

  15. New species of Tetradiplosis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) inducing galls on Prosopis caldenia (Fabaceae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Juan José; Corró-molas, Barbara; Alfonso, Graciela L

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Tetradiplosis inducing galls on Prosopis caldenia are described from Argentina: Tetradiplosis panghitruz Martínez n. sp. and Tetradiplosis rayen Martínez n. sp. Tetradiplosispanghitruz induces multilocular galls on vegetative stems, whereas T. rayen induces unilocular galls containing multiple larvae on the rachis of the developing inflorescences. The adult male, female, pupa and larva are described and illustrated for both species. A key to the known species of the genus is provided.

  16. Plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and crown gall development

    PubMed Central

    Gohlke, Jochen; Deeken, Rosalia

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease on various plant species by introducing its T-DNA into the genome. Therefore, Agrobacterium has been extensively studied both as a pathogen and an important biotechnological tool. The infection process involves the transfer of T-DNA and virulence proteins into the plant cell. At that time the gene expression patterns of host plants differ depending on the Agrobacterium strain, plant species and cell-type used. Later on, integration of the T-DNA into the plant host genome, expression of the encoded oncogenes, and increase in phytohormone levels induce a fundamental reprogramming of the transformed cells. This results in their proliferation and finally formation of plant tumors. The process of reprogramming is accompanied by altered gene expression, morphology and metabolism. In addition to changes in the transcriptome and metabolome, further genome-wide (“omic”) approaches have recently deepened our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of crown gall tumor formation. This review summarizes the current knowledge about plant responses in the course of tumor development. Special emphasis is placed on the connection between epigenetic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, and morphological changes in the developing tumor. These changes not only result in abnormally proliferating host cells with a heterotrophic and transport-dependent metabolism, but also cause differentiation and serve as mechanisms to balance pathogen defense and adapt to abiotic stress conditions, thereby allowing the coexistence of the crown gall and host plant. PMID:24795740

  17. Looking for gall bladder disease in the patient's iris.

    PubMed Central

    Knipschild, P.

    1988-01-01

    In alternative health care iridology is used as a diagnostic aid. The diagnosis of gall bladder disease was used to study its validity and interperformer consistency. The presence of an inflamed gall bladder containing gall stones is said to be easily recognised by certain signs in the lower lateral part of the iris of the right eye. Stereo colour slides were made of the right eye. Stereo colour slides were made of the right eye of 39 patients with this disease and 39 control subjects of the same sex and age. The slides were presented in a random order to five leading iridologists without supplementary information. The prevalence of the disease was estimated at 56%. The median validity was 51% with 54% sensitivity and 52% specificity. These results were close to chance validity (iota = 0.03). None of the iridologists reached a high validity. The median interperformer consistency was 60%. This was only slightly higher than chance consistency (kappa = 0.18). This study showed that iridology is not a useful diagnostic aid. PMID:3147081

  18. Looking for gall bladder disease in the patient's iris.

    PubMed

    Knipschild, P

    1988-12-17

    In alternative health care iridology is used as a diagnostic aid. The diagnosis of gall bladder disease was used to study its validity and interperformer consistency. The presence of an inflamed gall bladder containing gall stones is said to be easily recognised by certain signs in the lower lateral part of the iris of the right eye. Stereo colour slides were made of the right eye. Stereo colour slides were made of the right eye of 39 patients with this disease and 39 control subjects of the same sex and age. The slides were presented in a random order to five leading iridologists without supplementary information. The prevalence of the disease was estimated at 56%. The median validity was 51% with 54% sensitivity and 52% specificity. These results were close to chance validity (iota = 0.03). None of the iridologists reached a high validity. The median interperformer consistency was 60%. This was only slightly higher than chance consistency (kappa = 0.18). This study showed that iridology is not a useful diagnostic aid.

  19. Retroperitoneal abscess with retained gall-stones as a late complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Mateusz; Nowicki, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the golden standard, considering treatment of cholelithiasis. During the laparoscopic procedure one may often observe damage to the gall-bladder wall, as well as presence of gall-stones in the peritoneal cavity, as compared to classical surgery. These gall-stones may be associated with the occurrence of various complications following surgery. The study presented a rare case of a retroperitoneal abscess, as a consequence of retained gall-stones, in a female patient who was subject to laparoscopic cholecystectomy two years earlier.

  20. Skeletal Metastasis From Carcinoma of the Gall Bladder: Need for Bone Scintigraphy Justified?

    PubMed

    Aswani, Yashant; Hira, Priya

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma of the gall bladder has a guarded prognosis with predominant sites of involvement being liver and regional nodes. Osseous metastasis in carcinoma of the gall bladder is rare and hence bone scintigraphy does not form a part of the routine work-up for such patients. We describe two patients with carcinoma of the gall bladder with osteolytic metastasis (stage 4). Conservative treatment was planned but both of them succumbed to the illness. We thus highlight the importance of performing a bone scan or PET CT in cases of carcinoma of the gall bladder. Besides, our cases challenge Paget's seed - soil theory for sites of metastasis.

  1. Further characterisation of allergens associated with hypersensitivity to the "green nimitti" midge (Cladotanytarsus lewisi, Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Tee, R D; Cranston, P S; Kay, A B

    1987-01-01

    Chironomid midges are small (2-15 mm) non-biting flies, characteristically seen swarming by water at dusk. Allergens of the "green nimitti" midge, Cladotanytarsus lewisi (Freeman) (Diptera: Chironomidae), a cause of widespread hypersensitivity in the Sudan, were isolated and partially characterized by Sephacryl S200 chromatography. The allergenicity of the fractions was identified by "rocket" autoradiography, RAST inhibition, skin "prick" tests, and the immunoblot technique. The fractions were further analysed by isoelectric focusing and SDS-PAGE. Two major allergens with pI's ranging from 4.3 to 6.0 were identified and had molecular weights of approximately 17,000 and 32,000 daltons, sizes compatible with their being monomeric and dimeric haemoglobins. Since chironomids occur in nuisance numbers worldwide and their haemoglobins have been shown to produce severe hypersensitivity reactions in man, they should be seen as an important potential cause of environmental and occupational allergy.

  2. A fossil biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from early Eocene Indian amber with a complex pheromone evaporator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Rühr, Peter T.; Singh, Hukam; Hammel, Jörg U.; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Rust, Jes

    2016-10-01

    The life-like fidelity of organisms captured in amber is unique among all kinds of fossilization and represents an invaluable source for different fields of palaeontological and biological research. One of the most challenging aspects in amber research is the study of traits related to behaviour. Here, indirect evidence for pheromone-mediated mating behaviour is recorded from a biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) in 54 million-year-old Indian amber. Camptopterohelea odora n. sp. exhibits a complex, pocket shaped structure on the wings, which resembles the wing folds of certain moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and scent organs that are only known from butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) so far. Our studies suggests that pheromone releasing structures on the wings have evolved independently in biting midges and might be much more widespread in fossil as well as modern insects than known so far.

  3. Compact genome of the Antarctic midge is likely an adaptation to an extreme environment.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Joanna L; Peyton, Justin T; Fiston-Lavier, Anna-Sophie; Teets, Nicholas M; Yee, Muh-Ching; Johnston, J Spencer; Bustamante, Carlos D; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L

    2014-08-12

    The midge, Belgica antarctica, is the only insect endemic to Antarctica, and thus it offers a powerful model for probing responses to extreme temperatures, freeze tolerance, dehydration, osmotic stress, ultraviolet radiation and other forms of environmental stress. Here we present the first genome assembly of an extremophile, the first dipteran in the family Chironomidae, and the first Antarctic eukaryote to be sequenced. At 99 megabases, B. antarctica has the smallest insect genome sequenced thus far. Although it has a similar number of genes as other Diptera, the midge genome has very low repeat density and a reduction in intron length. Environmental extremes appear to constrain genome architecture, not gene content. The few transposable elements present are mainly ancient, inactive retroelements. An abundance of genes associated with development, regulation of metabolism and responses to external stimuli may reflect adaptations for surviving in this harsh environment.

  4. A fossil biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from early Eocene Indian amber with a complex pheromone evaporator

    PubMed Central

    Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Rühr, Peter T.; Singh, Hukam; Hammel, Jörg U.; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Rust, Jes

    2016-01-01

    The life-like fidelity of organisms captured in amber is unique among all kinds of fossilization and represents an invaluable source for different fields of palaeontological and biological research. One of the most challenging aspects in amber research is the study of traits related to behaviour. Here, indirect evidence for pheromone-mediated mating behaviour is recorded from a biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) in 54 million-year-old Indian amber. Camptopterohelea odora n. sp. exhibits a complex, pocket shaped structure on the wings, which resembles the wing folds of certain moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and scent organs that are only known from butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) so far. Our studies suggests that pheromone releasing structures on the wings have evolved independently in biting midges and might be much more widespread in fossil as well as modern insects than known so far. PMID:27698490

  5. Are midge swarms bound together by an effective velocity-dependent gravity?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Andrew M; Sinhuber, Michael; Ouellette, Nicholas T

    2017-04-01

    Midge swarms are a canonical example of collective animal behaviour where local interactions do not clearly play a major role and yet the animals display group-level cohesion. The midges appear somewhat paradoxically to be tightly bound to the swarm whilst at the same time weakly coupled inside it. The microscopic origins of this behaviour have remained elusive. Models based on Newtonian gravity do, however, agree well with experimental observations of laboratory swarms. They are biologically plausible since gravitational interactions have similitude with long-range acoustic and visual interactions, and they correctly predict that individual attraction to the swarm centre increases linearly with distance from the swarm centre. Here we show that the observed kinematics implies that this attraction also increases with an individual's flight speed. We find clear evidence for such an attractive force in experimental data.

  6. Toward development of neem-based repellents against the Scottish Highland biting midge Culicoides impunctatus.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, A; Evans, K A; Strang, R H C; Cole, M

    2004-12-01

    Oil of neem, from the tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae), was evaluated for repellent and antifeedant activity against Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), by three complementary methods with serial dilutions. Electroantennograms revealed the sensitivity of Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) females to neem > or = 0.10%. Culicoides impunctatus Goetghebuer females were repelled by > or = 1% in a Y-tube olfactometer, Using a membrane feeder for wild-caught parous females of C. impunctatus, the proportion blood-feeding was significantly reduced by topical applications of neem oil > or = 0.10% concentrations, with blood-feeding completely prevented by > or =1%. On the basis of these response data, we developed 2% neem-based formulations for personal protection against biting midges.

  7. Compact genome of the Antarctic midge is likely an adaptation to an extreme environment

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Joanna L.; Peyton, Justin T.; Fiston-Lavier, Anna-Sophie; Teets, Nicholas M.; Yee, Muh-Ching; Johnston, J. Spencer; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Lee, Richard E.; Denlinger, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The midge, Belgica antarctica, is the only insect endemic to Antarctica, and thus it offers a powerful model for probing responses to extreme temperatures, freeze tolerance, dehydration, osmotic stress, ultraviolet radiation and other forms of environmental stress. Here we present the first genome assembly of an extremophile, the first dipteran in the family Chironomidae, and the first Antarctic eukaryote to be sequenced. At 99 megabases, B. antarctica has the smallest insect genome sequenced thus far. Although it has a similar number of genes as other Diptera, the midge genome has very low repeat density and a reduction in intron length. Environmental extremes appear to constrain genome architecture, not gene content. The few transposable elements present are mainly ancient, inactive retroelements. An abundance of genes associated with development, regulation of metabolism and responses to external stimuli may reflect adaptations for surviving in this harsh environment. PMID:25118180

  8. Bovine Arboviruses in Culicoides Biting Midges and Sentinel Cattle in Southern Japan from 2003 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Shirafuji, H; Tanaka, S; Sato, M; Yamakawa, M; Tsuda, T; Yanase, T

    2016-12-01

    Epizootic congenital abnormalities, encephalomyelitis and febrile illnesses in cattle caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are prevalent in Japan. Causative viruses including orthobunyaviruses, orbiviruses and rhabdovirus are thought to be transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. Recently, the incursions of several arboviruses, potentially Culicoides-borne, were newly confirmed in Japan. However, their spread pattern and exact vector species are currently uncertain. Attempts to isolate arboviruses from Culicoides biting midges and sentinel cattle were conducted in Kagoshima, located at the southernmost end of the main islands of Japan, a potentially high-risk area for incursion of arboviral diseases and outbreak of endemic ones. Seventy-eight isolates comprising Akabane, Peaton and Sathuperi viruses of the genus Orthobunyavirus of the family Bunyaviridae, bluetongue virus serotype 16, D'Aguilar virus, Bunyip Creek virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus serotype 1 of the genus Orbivirus of the family Reoviridae, a potentially novel rhabdovirus of the genus Ephemerovirus and unidentified orbivirus-like viruses were obtained from Culicoides biting midges and sentinel cattle between 2003 and 2013. Akabane, Sathuperi, D'Aguilar and Bunyip Creek viruses were selectively isolated from Culicoides oxystoma, suggesting this vector's responsibility for these arbovirus outbreaks. The results of virus isolation also implied that C. tainanus, C. jacobsoni and C. punctatus are competent for the transmission of bluetongue virus serotype 16, Peaton virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus serotype 1, respectively. Our monitoring in Culicoides biting midges and sentinel cattle detected the circulation of Akabane virus just prior to the accumulations of bovine congenital abnormalities and encephalomyelitis by it around study sites in 2003, 2006, 2008 and 2013. Silent circulations of the other arboviruses, including potentially new viruses, were also

  9. Comparison of different light sources for trapping Culicoides biting midges, mosquitoes and other dipterans.

    PubMed

    González, Mikel; Alarcón-Elbal, Pedro María; Valle-Mora, Javier; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2016-08-15

    The response of Culicoides biting midges, mosquitoes and other dipterans to different wavelengths was evaluated in a farm meadow in northern Spain. A total of 9449 specimens of 23 species of Culicoides, 5495 other ceratopogonids (non-biting midges), 602 culicids and 12428 other mixed dipterans were captured. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suction light traps fitted with five light emitting diodes (LEDs) (white, green, red, blue, ultraviolet) were run for 15 consecutive nights. Significantly more Culicoides were collected in those traps fitted with green, blue or ultraviolet (UV) lights than in red and white-baited LED traps for the most abundant species captured: C. punctatus (37.5%), C. cataneii (26.5%) and C. obsoletus/C. scoticus (20.4%). Similar results were obtained for non-Culicoides ceratopogonids, mosquitoes and other mixed dipterans. Wavelengths in green (570nm) resulted effective for targeting some Culicoides species, culicids and other midges. In a second trial, the effectiveness of 4-W white and UV tubes was compared to traps fitted with UV LED and a standard incandescent light bulb. More specimens of all taxa were collected with fluorescent black light (UV) traps than with the other light sources, except culicids, which were recovered in high numbers from fluorescent white light traps.

  10. Interacting effects of toxicants and organic matter on the midge Chironomus riparius in polluted river water.

    PubMed

    Stuijfzand, S C; Helms, M; Kraak, M H; Admiraal, W

    2000-07-01

    Toxicants and organic matter in river water have contrasting impacts on macrofauna. Through manipulations of both factors, their interactive effects on organisms were evaluated. This way, an attempt was made to clarify the presence or absence of pollution-"tolerant" and -"sensitive" species in rivers affected by mixed sources of pollution. Under controlled conditions, larval growth of the "tolerant" midge Chironomus riparius was measured in different types of river water containing varying levels of particles (obtained by selective filtration) and toxicants (either complex mixtures or metals). Exposure of first-instar larvae to water from the polluted rivers Meuse and Dommel revealed that growth was less inhibited by toxicant levels in river water than expected based on laboratory toxicity tests. Factors present in polluted river water stimulated growth of midges to such an extent that inhibiting effects of high toxicant concentrations were neutralized, and at low toxicant levels, were overcompensated for. It was found that particulate matter has great potential to reduce inhibiting effects of toxicants on C. riparius, not (only) by reducing the bioavailability of toxicants, but by serving as a supplementary, superior food source. The success of the "pollution-tolerant" midge was not explained by tolerance of this species to toxicants, but by its ability to take advantage of coinciding organic enrichment. It is hypothesized that the extent to which beneficial effects of organic compounds on organisms occur is species specific.

  11. Host preferences of ornithophilic biting midges of the genus Culicoides in the Eastern Balkans.

    PubMed

    Bobeva, A; Zehtindjiev, P; Ilieva, M; Dimitrov, D; Mathis, A; Bensch, S

    2015-09-01

    Many biting midges of the genus Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are competent vectors of a diverse number of pathogens. The identification of their feeding behaviour and of vector-host associations is essential for understanding their transmission capacity. By applying two different nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, of which one targeted the avian cyt b gene and the other targeted the COI gene of a wide range of vertebrates, we identified the blood hosts of six biting midge species including Culicoides circumscriptus, Culicoides festivipennis, Culicoides punctatus, Culicoides pictipennis, Culicoides alazanicus and Culicoides cf. griseidorsum, the latter two of which are reported in Bulgaria for the first time. Bird DNA was found in 50.6% of 95 investigated bloodmeals, whereas mammalian DNA was identified in 13.7%. Two Culicoides species were found to feed on both birds and mammals. There was remarkable diversity in the range of avian hosts: 23 species from four orders were identified in the abdomens of four Culicoides species. The most common bird species identified was the magpie, Pica pica (n = 7), which was registered in all four ornithophilic biting midge species. Six bloodmeals from the great tit, Parus major, were recorded only in C. alazanicus. None of the studied species of Culicoides appeared to be restricted to a single avian host. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  12. [The reception of Franz Joseph Gall's doctrine on phrenology in Holland shortly after 1800].

    PubMed

    Heiningen, T

    1997-01-01

    Between 1800 and 1810 Gall's 'Hersen-Schedelleer' [= doctrine on phrenology] received increasing attention in Holland, just as it did in Germany and France. Gall had tried to connect visible human skull marks with brain anatomy, brain functioning and behaviour, a relationship in which he also compared man and animal. Scientists as well as people in non-scientific circles tried to find an answer to the question to what extent Gall's ideas on human brain anatomy and the development of the skull in relation to behaviour were acceptable. Besides there was a growing interest in the possible consequences of Gall's theory for moral life. However, Gall's doctrine was largely based on unproved and unprovable assumptions. Gall's visit to Holland, in the early spring of 1806, had a polarizing effect on supporters and adversaries, as it had had in Germany. In Holland Gerard Vrolik, professor at the Amsterdam Athenaeum Illustre, published the first treatise on this subject, in which he revealed himself to be a hesitant and prudent supporter of Gall's theories. From early 1804 Jacob Eliza Doornik, physician and scientist, and Martinus Stuart, theologist and historian, played a leading part in the discussion on this subject. The former opposed all aspects of Gall's theory. The latter - contrary to what one would expect - supported Gall in every way, with both regard to his explanation of brain anatomy and physiology and to his views on the relationship between the shape of the brain and the development of the skull. Remarkably he accepted Gall's materialism and rejected his fatalism. We can only explain Stuart's defence of Gall's moral views supposing he considered these in a religious framework. In Stuart's conviction God had given man a certain tendency to evil which man has to accept as a necessity in the fight against evil and the search for good. ...

  13. Sink Status and Photosynthetic Rate of the Leaflet Galls Induced by Bystracoccus mataybae (Eriococcidae) on Matayba guianensis (Sapindaceae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Denis C; Moreira, Ana Silvia F P; Isaias, Rosy M S; Martini, Vitor; Rezende, Uiara C

    2017-01-01

    The galling insect Bystracoccus mataybae (Eriococcidae) induces green and intralaminar galls on leaflets of Matayba guianensis (Sapindaceae), and promotes a high oxidative stress in host plant tissues. This biotic stress is assumed by the histochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS), whose production alters gall physiology. Thus, we hypothesize that high levels of nutrients are accumulated during gall development in response to a local maintenance of photosynthesis and to the galling insect activity. Moreover, the maintenance of low levels of photosynthesis may guarantee O2 production and CO2 consumption, as well as may avoid hypoxia and hypercarbia in gall tissues. To access the photosynthesis performance, the distribution of chlorophyllous tissues and the photochemical and carboxylation rates in gall tissues were analyzed. In addition, histochemical tests for hydrogen peroxide and phenolic derivatives were performed to confirm the biotic stress, and set the possible sites where stress dissipation occurs. The contents of sugars and nitrogen were evaluated to quantify the gall sink. Currently, we assume that the homeostasis in gall tissues is ruptured by the oxidative stress promoted by the galling insect activity. Thus, to supply the demands of gall metabolism, the levels of water-soluble polysaccharides and starch increase in gall tissues. The low values of maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) indicate a low photosynthetic performance in gall tissues. In addition, the decrease of PSII operating efficiency, (F'm-F')/F'm, and Rfd (instantaneous fluorescence decline ratio in light, to measure tissue vitality) demonstrate that the tissues of B. mataybae galls are more susceptible to damage caused by stressors than the non-galled tissues. Thus, the high oxidative stress in gall developmental sites is dissipated not only by the accumulation of phenolic derivatives in the protoplast, but also of lignins in the walls of neoformed

  14. Free amino Acid contents of stem and phylloxera gall tissue cultures of grape.

    PubMed

    Warick, R P; Hildebrandt, A C

    1966-04-01

    Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents.

  15. Metatranscriptome Analysis of Fig Flowers Provides Insights into Potential Mechanisms for Mutualism Stability and Gall Induction.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Ellen O; Hackett, Jeremiah D; Machado, Carlos A; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    A striking property of the mutualism between figs and their pollinating wasps is that wasps consistently oviposit in the inner flowers of the fig syconium, which develop into galls that house developing larvae. Wasps typically do not use the outer ring of flowers, which develop into seeds. To better understand differences between gall and seed flowers, we used a metatranscriptomic approach to analyze eukaryotic gene expression within fig flowers at the time of oviposition choice and early gall development. Consistent with the unbeatable seed hypothesis, we found significant differences in gene expression between gall- and seed flowers in receptive syconia prior to oviposition. In particular, transcripts assigned to flavonoids and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly up-regulated in gall flowers relative to seed flowers. In response to oviposition, gall flowers significantly up-regulated the expression of chalcone synthase, which previously has been connected to gall formation in other plants. We propose several genes encoding proteins with signal peptides or associations with venom of other Hymenoptera as candidate genes for gall initiation or growth. This study simultaneously evaluates the gene expression profile of both mutualistic partners in a plant-insect mutualism and provides insight into a possible stability mechanism in the ancient fig-fig wasp association.

  16. Metatranscriptome Analysis of Fig Flowers Provides Insights into Potential Mechanisms for Mutualism Stability and Gall Induction

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, Ellen O.; Hackett, Jeremiah D.; Machado, Carlos A.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    A striking property of the mutualism between figs and their pollinating wasps is that wasps consistently oviposit in the inner flowers of the fig syconium, which develop into galls that house developing larvae. Wasps typically do not use the outer ring of flowers, which develop into seeds. To better understand differences between gall and seed flowers, we used a metatranscriptomic approach to analyze eukaryotic gene expression within fig flowers at the time of oviposition choice and early gall development. Consistent with the unbeatable seed hypothesis, we found significant differences in gene expression between gall- and seed flowers in receptive syconia prior to oviposition. In particular, transcripts assigned to flavonoids and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly up-regulated in gall flowers relative to seed flowers. In response to oviposition, gall flowers significantly up-regulated the expression of chalcone synthase, which previously has been connected to gall formation in other plants. We propose several genes encoding proteins with signal peptides or associations with venom of other Hymenoptera as candidate genes for gall initiation or growth. This study simultaneously evaluates the gene expression profile of both mutualistic partners in a plant-insect mutualism and provides insight into a possible stability mechanism in the ancient fig-fig wasp association. PMID:26090817

  17. Multivesicular bodies differentiate exclusively in nutritive fast-dividing cells in Marcetia taxifolia galls.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Bruno G; Carneiro, Renê G S; Isaias, Rosy M S

    2015-09-01

    Marcetia taxifolia (A. St.-Hil.) DC. hosts two gall morphotypes, a pistil-shaped gall induced by a Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) and a fusiform stem gall induced by a Lepidoptera. The cytological study of these galls aimed to answer how the difference in nutritive tissues of Diptera and Lepidoptera galls could be explained on cytological basis. The nutritive tissues of lepidopteran galls have a fast-dividing cell zone, the storage nutritive tissue, which replaces the cells of the typical nutritive tissue, where the larvae feed. The differentiation of multivesicular bodies in the plasma membrane occurred exclusively in these fast-dividing cells of the lepidopteran galls, evidencing the meristematic condition of such tissue. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) analyzed in situ in the nutritive cells is not sufficient to induce programmed cell death (PCD), as the cells of M. taxifolia have plastoglobules and accumulate polyphenols and terpenoids, which are diagnostic defenses against oxidative stress. The two taxa of galling insects have different nutritional requirements, thus inducing specific cytoplasm-enriched cells on their nutritive tissues.

  18. A native and an introduced parasitoid utilize an exotic gall-maker host

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) is non-native to North America and induces formation of galls on petioles and leaves of all chestnut (Castanea spp., Fagales: Fagaceae). We investigated the interactions between the gall wasp D. kuriphilus, a native parasitoid, Ormyrus labotus (Hymenopt...

  19. Two new species of Selitrichodes (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) inducing galls on Casuarina (Casuarinaceae).

    PubMed

    Fisher, Nicole; Moore, Aubrey; Brown, Bradley; Purcell, Matthew; Taylor, Gary S; La Salle, John

    2014-04-23

    Two new species of gall-inducing wasps, Selitrichodes casuarinae Fisher & La Salle sp. n. and Selitrichodes utilis Fisher & La Salle sp. n., are described from Micronesia (Guam, Rota and Palau Islands) and Australia respectively. These species induce galls on Casuarina and can cause extensive damage to the trees. Their status as pest or beneficial species is discussed.

  20. Systemically Applied Insecticides for Treatment of Erythrina Gall Wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Treesearch

    Joseph J. Doccola; Sheri L. Smith; Brian L. Strom; Arthur C. Medeiros; Erica. von Allmen

    2009-01-01

    The erythrina gall wasp (EGW), believed native to Africa, is a recently described species and now serious invasive pest of Erythrina (coral trees) in tropical and subtropical locales. Erythrina are favored ornamental and landscape trees, as well as native members of threatened ecosystems. The EGW is a tiny, highly mobile, highly invasive wasp that deforms (galls) host...

  1. Free Amino Acid Contents of Stem and Phylloxera Gall Tissue Cultures of Grape 1

    PubMed Central

    Warick, R. P.; Hildebrandt, A. C.

    1966-01-01

    Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and α-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents. Images PMID:16656290

  2. The interrelationships of three gall makers and their natural enemies, on hackberry (Celtis Occidentalis L.)

    Treesearch

    John C. Moser

    1965-01-01

    This bulletin describes three hackberry galls, the insects which make them, and 19 of their natural enemies in the Cayuga Valley near Ithaca, N.Y. Two galls were caused by psyllids and the third by a cecidomyiid. The taxonomy, biology, morphology, and distribution of the species are discussed. Fourteen natural enemies attacked the psyllid...

  3. Occult mucin secreting adenocarcinoma of gall bladder with metastasis to urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Tarun; Mandal, Soumendra Nath; Kamal, Mir Reza; Das, Anjan Kumar; Karmakar, Dilip

    2012-09-01

    Mucin secreting adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder is rare. Although it has propensity to metastasise, urinary metastasis is extremely unusual. We report a case with mucin secreting adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder with metastasis to the urinary bladder. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of its kind in the literature.

  4. Gall bladder emptying in normal subjects--a data base for clinical cholescintigraphy.

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, C R; Baxter, J N; Grime, J S; Hulks, G; Cuschieri, A

    1987-01-01

    Biliary excretion scintigraphy with a cholagogic test meal may be used to assess patients with suspected disorders of gall bladder motility. The interpretation of results is frustrated, however, by the lack of information about the range of normal responses in a form suitable for comparative analysis. We present the results of 41 gall bladder emptying studies on 32 normal healthy subjects (14 men, 18 women) 30 minutes after intravenous injection of 74 MBq 99Tcm-EHIDA. Gall bladder emptying was provoked by the ingestion of 300 ml milk. Gamma camera scintigraphy was used to plot gall bladder activity against time. Gall bladder emptying occurred within 10 minutes in all men and 12/18 women (p = 0.02). Gall bladder ejection fractions were significantly greater in women (p less than 0.05). Duplicate studies in nine subjects showed good reproducibility (r = 0.959). A plot of mean and (m + 2 SD) values of gall bladder activity against time has been derived. The data provide an estimate of normal gall bladder emptying response, which may be used to aid interpretation of clinical studies. PMID:3644773

  5. 9 CFR 95.18 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like...), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.18 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow,...

  6. 9 CFR 95.18 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like...), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.18 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow,...

  7. 9 CFR 95.18 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like...), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.18 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow,...

  8. 9 CFR 95.18 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like...), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.18 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow,...

  9. Variation in the Degree of Pectin Methylesterification during the Development of Baccharis dracunculifolia Kidney-Shaped Gall

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Magalhães, Thiago Alves; Ferreira, Bruno Garcia; Teixeira, Cristiane Trindade; Formiga, Anete Teixeira; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Insect galls may be study models to test the distribution of pectins and arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) and their related functions during plant cell cycles. These molecules are herein histochemically and immunocitochemically investigated in the kidney-shaped gall induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Psyllidae) on leaves of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae) on developmental basis. The homogalacturonans (HGAs) (labeled by JIM5) and the arabinans (labeled by LM6) were detected either in non-galled leaves or in young galls, and indicated stiffening of epidermal cell walls, which is an important step for cell redifferentiation. The labeling of HGAs by JIM7 changed from young to senescent stage, with an increase in the rigidity of cell walls, which is important for the acquaintance of the final gall shape and for the mechanical opening of the gall. The variation on the degree of HGAs during gall development indicated differential PMEs activity during gall development. The epitopes recognized by LM2 (AGP glycan) and LM5 (1–4-β-D-galactans) had poor alterations from non-galled leaves towards gall maturation and senescence. Moreover, the dynamics of pectin and AGPs on two comparable mature kidney-shaped galls on B. dracunculifolia and on B. reticularia revealed specific peculiarities. Our results indicate that similar gall morphotypes in cogeneric host species may present distinct cell responses in the subcelular level, and also corroborate the functions proposed in literature for HGAs. PMID:24747777

  10. Absorption of Bile Pigments by the Gall Bladder*

    PubMed Central

    Ostrow, J. Donald

    1967-01-01

    A technique is described for preparation in the guinea pig of an in situ, isolated, vascularized gall bladder that exhibits normal absorptive functions. Absorption of labeled bile pigments from the gall bladder was determined by the subsequent excretion of radioactivity in hepatic bile. Over a wide range of concentrations, unconjugated bilirubin-14C was well absorbed, whereas transfer of conjugated bilirubin proceeded slowly. Mesobilirubinogen-3H was absorbed poorly from whole bile, but was absorbed as rapidly as unconjugated bilirubin from a solution of pure conjugated bile salt. Bilirubin absorption was not impaired by iodoacetamide, 1.5 mM, or dinitrophenol, 1.0 mM, even though water transport was affected. This indicated that absorption of bilirubin was not dependent upon water transport, nor upon energy-dependent processes. The linear relationship between absorption and concentration of pigment at low concentrations in bile salt solutions suggested that pigment was transferred by passive diffusion. At higher pigment concentrations or in whole bile, this simple relationship was modified by interactions of pigment with bile salts and other constituents of bile. These interactions did not necessarily involve binding of bilirubin in micelles. The slow absorption of the more polar conjugates and photo-oxidative derivatives of bilirubin suggested that bilirubin was absorbed principally by nonionic, and partially, by ionic diffusion. Concentrations of pure conjugated bile salts above 3.5 mM were found to be injurious to the gall bladder mucosa. This mucosal injury did not affect the kinetics of bilirubin absorption. During in vitro incubation of bile at 37°C, decay of bilirubin and hydrolysis of the conjugate proceeded as first-order reactions. The effects of these processes on the kinetics of bilirubin absorption, and their possible role in the formation of “white bile” and in the demonstrated appearance of unconjugated bilirubin in hepatic bile, are discussed

  11. Gall bladder dysmotility: a risk factor for gall stone formation in hypertriglyceridaemia and reversal on triglyceride lowering therapy by bezafibrate and fish oil

    PubMed Central

    Jonkers, I J A M; Smelt, A H M; Ledeboer, M; Hollum, M E; Biemond, I; Kuipers, F; Stellaard, F; Boverhof, R; Meinders, A E; Lamers, C H B W; Masclee, A A M

    2003-01-01

    Background and aim: The aim of this study was to unravel the mechanisms responsible for the increased risk of gall stone disease in hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG) and to compare the effects of triglyceride lowering therapy by bezafibrate and fish oil on determinants of cholelithiasis (biliary lipid composition and gall bladder motility) in HTG patients. Patients and methods: Gall bladder motility (ultrasonography) was studied postprandially and during infusion of cholecystokinin (CCK). Determinants of cholelithiasis and serum lipids were compared between nine HTG patients and 10 age, sex, and body mass index matched normolipidaemic controls. The effects of bezafibrate and fish oil in HTG patients were studied in a randomised cross over trial. Results: HTG patients showed 14-fold higher serum triglyceride (TG) levels than controls. Biliary lipid composition, fasting gall bladder volumes, and CCK levels did not differ between HTG patients and controls. Gall bladder emptying was reduced in HTG patients compared with controls during CCK infusion (−22%) as well as in response to a meal (−37%; both p<0.001). Postprandial CCK levels were significantly higher in HTG patients. Both bezafibrate and fish oil reduced serum TG levels (−68% and −51% v baseline, respectively; both p<0.01). Fasting CCK levels were not affected whereas CCK induced gall bladder emptying increased during bezafibrate (+29%; p<0.001) and tended to increase on fish oil therapy (+13%; p=0.07). Postprandial gall bladder motility improved on bezafibrate and fish oil (+47 and +25% v baseline, respectively; both p<0.02) at least partly due to increased gall bladder sensitivity to CCK (both p<0.05 v baseline). Bezafibrate but not fish oil increased the molar ratio of cholesterol to bile acids (+40%; p≤0.05) but no effects on cholesterol saturation index were seen with either treatment. Conclusions: We suggest that impaired gall bladder motility occurs in HTG patients due to decreased sensitivity to CCK

  12. Reproductive division of labour coevolves with gall size in Australian thrips with soldiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, T. E.; Chapman, T. W.; Kranz, B. D.; Schwarz, M. P.

    2001-12-01

    An analysis of multiple species of Australian gall-inducing thrips with soldiers reveals a significant negative correlation between the size of gall produced and the reproductive division of labour. This correlation suggests that the evolution of smaller galls limited the available space and feeding sites for the offspring of female soldiers, and was a major factor that led to the evolution of an altruistic caste in the gall-inducers. We argue that high levels of inbreeding by singly mated foundresses and incestuous mating by her soldier offspring are key to this evolutionary relationship because they make the relatedness of a female soldier to her daughters and sisters approximately equal. Evidence that relatedness plays an important role is strengthened by the observation of outbred multiply mated foundresses and unbiased sex ratio of dispersers in Oncothrips waterhousei, and the inference that both gall volume and skew decreased along this lineage.

  13. Activation of lipase by a factor present in the gall-bladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    Fedeli, G; Guarnieri, C; Fussi, F

    1975-01-01

    The action of a bovine gall-bladder extract is studied on two lipolytic systems: the pancreas lipase and the plasma lipoproteinlipase. For pancreas lipase the lipolytic activity of pancreas homogenates of different species is evaluated in the presence of different quantities of gall-bladder extract. For plasma lipoproteinlipase, the enzyme is induced by injection of optimal doses of heparin associated with different quantities of gall-bladder extract and the activity is evaluated by measuring the clarifying power of the plasmas of the treated animals. The results confirm that the gall-bladder contains a factor activating the pancreas lipase and put in evidence some differences between lipase activities in different species. For plasma lipolytic activation, the action of the gall-bladder extract is particularly evident in the inductive phase of lipoproteinlipase, according to a typical process of saturation.

  14. Gall-bladder agenesis presenting with obstructive jaundice and elevated CA 19-9.

    PubMed

    Trompetas, V; Panagopoulos, E; Ramantanis, G

    2004-06-01

    We report the case of an 81-year-old man with agenesis of the gall-bladder that presented with choledocholithiasis, obstructive jaundice, and very high CA 19-9 serum level (2765 U/ml). On ultrasound and CT scan, the gallbladder was not visualised and it was assumed shrunken and filled with gall-stones. After repeated unsuccessful endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, the patient was operated on for common bile duct (CBD) stones. At laparotomy the gall-bladder was not identified but a 3 cm long gall-stone was removed from the CBD. After decompression of the CBD all symptoms disappeared and the CA 19-9 returned to normal. We believe that this is the first report in the literature of gall-bladder agenesis presenting with high serum level of CA 19-9.

  15. Rare Presentation of Gall Bladder Tuberculosis in a Non Immuno-Compromised Patient.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pawan; Hazrah, Priya; Taneja, Anil; Ahuja, Arvind; Sharma, Deborshi

    2015-04-24

    The gall bladder is least common intra-abdominal organ to be involved by tuberculosis. It is either part of systemic miliary tuberculosis or abdominal tuberculosis. Isolated gall bladder tuberculosis is even rarer, can presents either as calculus or acalculus cholecystitis. Gall bladder tuberculosis presenting as a localized perforation with a sinus formation into anterior abdominal wall is unreported complication in a non immuno-compromised person. A 48-year old female presented with a gradually increasing swelling in right hypochondrium. Abdominal ultrasound showed superficial collection over right hypochondrium with intraperitoneal extension. Computed tomography showed localized gall bladder perforation with extension to the abdominal wall. Patient underwent emergency exploration and cholecystectomy with excision of sinus tract and drainage of abdominal wall abscess. Histopathological examination showed granulomatous cholecystitis suggestive of tuberculosis of gall bladder with extension into the sinus tract. She had an uneventful recovery and was treated with 6-month antitubercular therapy after surgery.

  16. Tuberculosis of the gall bladder clinically mimicking carcinoma--a case report.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sangeeta; Bansal, Rani; Agrawal, Nivesh; Khare, Anjali; Bharosay, V V

    2012-06-01

    Gall bladder tuberculosis is very rare and curable but, sometimes can be confused with the clinical diagnosis like carcinoma. A 32-year-old male presented with acute pain in right abdomen for one month and fever off and on for two months. CT scan (whole abdomen) showed features suggestive of lymphadenopathy although peroperatively no significant lymph node could be identified but there were multiple white patches on gastrohepatic ligament and neck of gall bladder probably which were identified as lymph nodes on scanning. On the basis of peroperative findings clinician diagnosed it as a case of carcinoma gall bladder and was subjected to cholecystectomy. On histopathological examination it turned out to be tuberculosis gall bladder. Therefore tuberculosis of gall bladder can mimic carcinoma clinically.

  17. Matters of sex and gender in F. J. Gall's Organology: a primary approach.

    PubMed

    Cornel, Tabea

    2014-01-01

    The originator of phrenology, F. J. Gall (1758-1828), saw himself as a natural scientist and physiologist. His approach consisted of brain anatomy but also of palpating skulls and inferring mental faculties. Unlike some of the philosophical principles underlying Gall's work, his conception of sex/gender has not yet been examined in detail. In this article, I will focus on Gall's treatment of men and women, his idea of sex differences, and how far an assumed existence of dichotomous sexes influenced his work. In examining his primary writings, I will argue that Gall held some contradictory views concerning the origin and manifestation of sex/gender characteristics, which were caused by the collision of his naturalistic ideas and internalized gender stereotypes. I will conclude that Gall did not aim at deducing or legitimizing sex/gender relations scientifically, but that he tried to express metaphysical reasons for a given social order in terms of functional brain mechanisms.

  18. Stability of cholesterol gall stones after 165 years of burial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Alan H B; Bellantoni, Nicholas F

    2003-05-01

    A woman who died in 1837 was exhumed for the purposes of moving the grave to another location. During the excavation, small white deposits of stone were uncovered in the right abdominal region, inferior to the rib cage and superior to the ilium blade. These stones were analyzed for cholesterol, bilirubin, and calcium following solubilization using methyl tert-butyl ether as a solvent. The results of these clinical chemistry analyses showed that these stones consisted primarily of cholesterol. Under these particular soil conditions encountered in this case, cholesterol gall stones are stable for at least 165 years.

  19. Sweet's syndrome as the presenting manifestation of gall bladder adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Rashmi; Jain, Anshu; Mittal, Ankur; Shirazi, Nadia

    2012-10-12

    Sweet's syndrome is a neutrophilic inflammatory dermatosis presenting with sudden onset tender red to purple papules and nodules, fever and neutrophilia. Gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections, pregnancy, inflammatory bowel disease, drugs and malignancy are some of the known aetiological factors. Paraneoplastic Sweet's syndrome accounts for 15-20% cases and thus forms an important subset. At times its onset helps in suspecting an underlying malignancy, thus making timely intervention possible. In the present case report Sweet's syndrome was the presenting feature of gall bladder adenocarcinoma; an association that has been rarely reported before.

  20. Could the Extended Phenotype Extend to the Cellular and Subcellular Levels in Insect-Induced Galls?

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Renê Gonçalves da Silva; Pacheco, Priscilla; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Neo-ontogenesis of plant galls involves redifferentiation of host plant tissues to express new phenotypes, when new cell properties are established via structural-functional remodeling. Herein, Psidium cattleianum leaves and Nothotrioza cattleiani galls are analyzed by developmental anatomy, cytometry and immunocytochemistry of cell walls. We address hypothesis-driven questions concerning the organogenesis of globoid galls in the association of P. cattleianum - N. cattleianum, and P. myrtoides - N. myrtoidis. These double co-generic systems represent good models for comparing final gall shapes and cell lineages functionalities under the perspective of convergent plant-dependent or divergent insect-induced characteristics. Gall induction, and growth and development are similar in both galls, but homologous cell lineages exhibit divergent degrees of cell hypertrophy and directions of elongation. Median cortical cells in P. cattleianum galls hypertrophy the most, while in P. myrtoides galls there is a centrifugal gradient of cell hypertrophy. Cortical cells in P. cattleianum galls tend to anisotropy, while P. myrtoidis galls have isotropically hypertrophied cells. Immunocytochemistry evidences the chemical identity and functional traits of cell lineages: epidermal cells walls have homogalacturonans (HGAs) and galactans, which confer rigidity to sites of enhanced cell division; oil gland cell walls have arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) that help avoiding cell death; and parenchyma cell walls have HGAs, galactans and arabinans, which confer porosity. Variations in such chemical identities are related to specific sites of hypertrophy. Even though the double co-generic models have the same macroscopic phenotype, the globoid morphotype, current analyses indicate that the extended phenotype of N. cattleiani is substantiated by cellular and subcellular specificities. PMID:26053863

  1. Could the Extended Phenotype Extend to the Cellular and Subcellular Levels in Insect-Induced Galls?

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Renê Gonçalves da Silva; Pacheco, Priscilla; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Neo-ontogenesis of plant galls involves redifferentiation of host plant tissues to express new phenotypes, when new cell properties are established via structural-functional remodeling. Herein, Psidium cattleianum leaves and Nothotrioza cattleiani galls are analyzed by developmental anatomy, cytometry and immunocytochemistry of cell walls. We address hypothesis-driven questions concerning the organogenesis of globoid galls in the association of P. cattleianum-N. cattleianum, and P. myrtoides-N. myrtoidis. These double co-generic systems represent good models for comparing final gall shapes and cell lineages functionalities under the perspective of convergent plant-dependent or divergent insect-induced characteristics. Gall induction, and growth and development are similar in both galls, but homologous cell lineages exhibit divergent degrees of cell hypertrophy and directions of elongation. Median cortical cells in P. cattleianum galls hypertrophy the most, while in P. myrtoides galls there is a centrifugal gradient of cell hypertrophy. Cortical cells in P. cattleianum galls tend to anisotropy, while P. myrtoidis galls have isotropically hypertrophied cells. Immunocytochemistry evidences the chemical identity and functional traits of cell lineages: epidermal cells walls have homogalacturonans (HGAs) and galactans, which confer rigidity to sites of enhanced cell division; oil gland cell walls have arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) that help avoiding cell death; and parenchyma cell walls have HGAs, galactans and arabinans, which confer porosity. Variations in such chemical identities are related to specific sites of hypertrophy. Even though the double co-generic models have the same macroscopic phenotype, the globoid morphotype, current analyses indicate that the extended phenotype of N. cattleiani is substantiated by cellular and subcellular specificities.

  2. Composition of gall bladder stones associated with octreotide: response to oral ursodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Hussaini, S H; Pereira, S P; Murphy, G M; Kennedy, C; Wass, J A; Besser, G M; Dowling, R H

    1995-01-01

    Octreotide, an effective treatment for acromegaly, induces gall bladder stones in 13-60% of patients. Because knowledge of stone composition is essential for studies of their pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention, this was investigated by direct and indirect methods in 14 octreotide treated acromegalic patients with gall stones. Chemical analysis of gall stones retrieved at cholecystectomy from two patients, showed that they contained 71% and 87% cholesterol by weight. In the remaining 12 patients, localised computed tomography of the gall bladder showed that eight had stones with maximum attenuation scores of < 100 Hounsfield units (values of < 100 HU predict cholesterol rich, dissolvable stones). Gall bladder bile was obtained by ultrasound guided, fine needle puncture from six patients. All six patients had supersaturated bile (mean (SEM) cholesterol saturation index of 1.19 (0.08) (range 1.01-1.53)) and all had abnormally rapid cholesterol microcrystal nucleation times (< 4 days (range 1-4)), whilst in four, the bile contained cholesterol microcrystals immediately after sampling. Of the 12 patients considered for oral ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment, two had a blocked cystic duct and were not started on UDCA while one was lost to follow up. After one year of treatment, five of the remaining nine patients showed either partial (n = 3) or complete (n = 2) gall stone dissolution, suggesting that their stones were cholesterol rich. This corresponds, by actuarial (life table) analysis, to a combined gall stone dissolution rate of 58.3 (15.9%). In conclusion, octreotide induced gall stones are generally small, multiple, and cholesterol rich although, in common with spontaneous gall stone disease, at presentation some patients will have a blocked cystic duct and some gall stones containing calcium. Images Figure 1 PMID:7890216

  3. Synchronism between Aspidosperma macrocarpon (Apocynaceae) resources allocation and the establishment of the gall inducer Pseudophacopteron sp. (Hemiptera: Psylloidea).

    PubMed

    Castro, Ariane C; Oliveira, Denis C; Moreira, Ana Silvia F P; lsaias, Rosy M S

    2013-12-01

    The joint interpretation of phenology and nutritional metabolism provides important data on plant tissues reactivity and the period of gall induction. A population of Aspidosperma macrocarpon (Apocynaceae) with leaf galls induced by a Pseudophacopteron sp. (Psylloidea) was studied in Goiás state, Brazil. Assuming the morphological similarity between host leaves and intralaminar galls, a gradient from non-galled leaves towards galls should be generated, establishing a morpho-physiological continuum. The phenology, infestation of galls, and the carbohydrate and nitrogen contents were monthly evaluated in 10-20 individuals, from September 2009 to September 2010. Our objective was to analyze the nutritional status and the establishment of a physiological continuum between the galls and the non-galled leaves of A. macrocarpon. The period of leaf flushing coincided with the highest levels of nitrogen allocated to the new leaves, and to the lowest levels of carbohydrates. The nutrients were previously consumed by the growing leaves, by the time of gall induction. The levels of carbohydrates were higher in galls than in non-galled leaves in time-based analyses, which indicateed their potential sink functionality. The leaves were infested in October, galls developed along the year, and gall senescence took place from March to September, together with host leaves. This first senescent leaves caused insect mortality. The higher availability of nutrients at the moment of gall induction was demonstrated and seems to be important not only for the establishment of the galling insect but also for the responsiveness of the host plant tissues.

  4. Gradients of metabolite accumulation and redifferentiation of nutritive cells associated with vascular tissues in galls induced by sucking insects

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Renê Gonçalves da Silva; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells respond to abiotic and biotic stimuli, which generate adaptive phenotypes in plant organs. In the case of plant galls, cell phenotypes are adaptive for the gall inducer and assume characteristics mainly linked to its protection and nutrition. Herein, the cytological development and histochemical profile of Nothotrioza cattleiani galls, a sucking insect, on the leaves of Psidium cattleianum are compared with those of other galls, especially N. myrtoidis galls, searching for conserved and divergent alterations in cell fates and cycles. Leaf cell fates are completely changed within galls, except for epidermal cells, but the comparison between Nothotrioza spp. galls shows conserved fates. Nevertheless, cytological development of N. cattleiani galls is different from the standby-redifferentiation of N. myrtoidis galls. Starch and lignins, and reducing sugars form centrifugal and centripetal gradients of accumulation, respectively. Proteins, total phenolics, terpenoids, proanthocyanidins and reactive oxygen species are detected in bidirectional gradients, i.e. weak or undetectable reaction in the median cortical cells that is gradually more intense in the cell layers towards the inner and outer surfaces of the gall. True nutritive cells associated with vascular tissues, together with the bidirectional gradients of metabolite accumulation, are herein reported for the first time in insect galls. The globoid galls of N. cattleiani, though macro-morphologically similar to the galls of N. myrtoidis, are distinct and unique among insect galls, as far as the cellular, subcellular and histochemical traits are concerned. Thus, the traits of the galls on P. cattleianum studied herein represent the extended phenotypes of their inducers. PMID:26209687

  5. [Studies on the massive flights of chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) as nuisance insects and plans for their control in the Lake Suwa area, central Japan. 3. Some experimental trials for control of nuisance midges and proposed counterplans].

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, K

    1991-06-01

    In the present paper the author tried to forecast the massive emergence of adult Tokunagayusurika akamusi midges from Lake Suwa. Furthermore, several control measures for chironomids were examined. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The forecast for the emergence of adult midges from the lake. A survey of the chironomid larva population was carried out at three stations in the lake. T. akamusi emerged at about the tenth day after the decrease of the larval number and at this time the temperature of the bottom water was within the range of 11-18 degrees C. The flights of adult midges were closely related to environmental factors such as air temperature, the strength and the direction of the wind and the light conditions. 2. The attraction of adult midges to lamps of various colors and wattages was studied. A comparative study on various colors of lights of the same intensity (100 W) showed that white was more attractive to chironomids than yellow, and that both colors were preferred to red, green, or blue. The experiment on light intensity showed that 100 W was more effective than 40 W and 20 W and that no differences in preference were observed between 100 W and 60 W white lamps. Therefore, the light intensity was thought to be more important than color for the control of adult midges. 3. Cyprinus is the natural enemy of the larva and pupae of T. akamusi. The total numbers of adult T. akamusi emerging from Enclosure A (in which there were 10 times as many Cyprinus as in the natural lake water), Enclosure B (no predator was present), and Station C (the natural lake) were 458, 1108, and 684 ind./m2, respectively. It was estimated that 38% of larvae or pupae were eaten by the fish in the lake, and by putting Cyprinus into the water, the percentage increased to 58%. It seems that Cyprinus has a significant effect in reducing the number of midges in field trials. 4. The control of T. akamusi may also be achieved by employing general prevention, by physical and

  6. Bioconcentration of 5,5',6-trichlorobiphenyl and pentachlorophenol in the midge, Chironomus riparius, as measured by a pharmacokinetic model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lydy, M.J.; Hayton, W.L.; Staubus, A.E.; Fisher, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    A two compartment pharmacokinetic model was developed which describes the uptake and elimination of 5,5',6-trichlorobiphenyl (TCB) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in the midge, Chironomus riparius. C. riparius were exposed to nominal TCB (2 ??g L-1) and PCP (9 ??g L-1) concentrations during a 16 h static uptake phase. Depuration was determined over approximately 45 h using a flowthrough system without feeding. The uptake clearance (P) was 330 ?? 61 ml g-1 midge h-1 for TCB and 55 ?? 4 ml g-1 midge h-1 for PCP, while measured bioconcentration factors (BCF) were 35,900 and 458 for TCB and PCP, respectively. Overall, the clearance-volume- based pharmacokinetic model predicted BCF values that were consistent with published values as well as with BCF values obtained from the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)).

  7. Culicoides Latreille biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) of the Dongzhaigang mangrove forest, Hainan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Hui; Gopurenko, David; Cai, DU-Cheng; Yang, Ye-Meng; Hu, Rong; Thepparat, Arunrat; Wardhana, April H; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Myung-Soon; Bellis, Glenn A

    2017-01-31

    The biting midge fauna of Dongzhaigang Mangrove Forest, Hainan Province, China was sampled on 14 October 2015 using three methods: a pan light trap operated from dusk until dawn the following morning and sweep net and human landing collections performed between 16:15-17:15 hr. Eight species, including two new records for China, Culicoides palawanensis and C. niphanae, and one new record for Hainan, C. circumbasalis, were collected. A key to assist with identification of specimens of these species is provided. DNA barcodes supported the morphological identification of some of these species and identified the potential presence of cryptic species and/or deep population structure in others. The newly recorded species were morphologically similar to species previously reported from Hainan, highlighting the need for further investigation into the taxonomy of biting midges in this region. Species composition and abundance varied considerably between the three collection techniques suggesting that multiple techniques likely provide a more comprehensive sample of biting midge fauna.

  8. Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Savitri; Kaushik, Vasuki Srinivas; Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Ramanna, Latha Muuaiah; Lakkappa, Dhananjaya Bhadrapura

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the detailed pharmacognostic profile of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria olivier) (Fagaceae), an important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine. Methods Samples of galls of Q. infectoria were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physiochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis and othjer methods for standardization as recommended by WHO. Results Macroscopically, the crude drug is globose with horny appearances on external surface (1.4-2.3 cm in length and 1-1.5 cm in diameter), with greyish-brown to brownish-black in colour externally and dark brown buff colored. Surface is smooth with numerous horny protuberances giving rough touch, and with unpleasant odour. Microscopically, a wide zone of radially elongated parenchyma cells between upper and lower epidermis were found. The vascular strands were present at all places and radially elongated sclerides touched the lower epidermis. In physico-chemical studies, the moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble, water soluble, petroleum ether, chloroform extractive value and tannin content were found to be 2.790, 5.020, 0.110, 38.780, 41.210, 0.402, 1.590 and 49.200 percentage respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. Conclusions The results of the present study serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this medicinally important plant drug material for future investigations and applications. PMID:24144128

  9. The Ultrastructural Route of Fluid Transport in Rabbit Gall Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Tormey, John McD.; Diamond, Jared M.

    1967-01-01

    The route of fluid transport across the wall of the rabbit gall bladder has been examined by combined physiological and morphological techniques. Fluid transport was either made maximal or was inhibited by one of six physiological methods (metabolic inhibition with cyanide-iodoacetate, addition of ouabain, application of adverse osmotic gradients, low temperature, replacement of Cl by SO4, or replacement of NaCl by sucrose). Then the organ was rapidly fixed and subsequently embedded, sectioned, and examined by light and electron microscopy. The structure of the gall bladder is presented with the aid of electron micrographs, and changes in structure are described and quantitated. The most significant morphological feature seems to be long, narrow, complex channels between adjacent epithelial cells; these spaces are closed by tight junctions at the luminal surface of the epithelium but are open at the basal surface. They are dilated when maximal fluid transport occurs, but are collapsed under all the conditions which inhibit transport. Additional observations and experiments make it possible to conclude that this dilation is the result of fluid transport through the spaces. Evidently NaCl is constantly pumped from the epithelial cells into the spaces, making them hypertonic, so that water follows osmotically. It is suggested that these spaces may represent a "standing-gradient flow system," in which osmotic equilibration takes place progressively along the length of a long channel. PMID:6056012

  10. The impact of gallic acid on iron gall ink corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouchon-Quillet, V.; Remazeilles, C.; Bernard, J.; Wattiaux, A.; Fournes, L.

    Many old manuscripts suffer from iron-gall ink corrosion, threatening our graphic heritage. Corroded papers become brown and brittle with age. The chemical reactions involved in this corrosion are relatively well known: they include both acidic hydrolysis and oxidation catalysed by free iron(II). Yet, a great variety of iron-gall ink recipes, including a wide range of constituents can be found in the literature and the visual aspect of old inks, can be very different from one inscription to another, even if they have been written on the same sheet of paper. This suggests that even if the free iron(II) plays a dominant role in the paper alteration, the contribution of other ingredients should not be neglected. For this reason, we explored the impact gallic acid may have on the corrosion mechanisms and in particular on the oxidation reactions. These investigations were carried out on laboratory probes prepared with paper sheets immersed in different solutions, all containing the same amount of iron sulphate, and different gallic acid concentrations. These probes were then artificially aged and their degradation state was evaluated by bursting strength measurements, FTIR spectrometry and Mössbauer spectrometry. All these analyses lead us to conclude that gallic acid has an influence on the iron(III)/iron(II) ratio, probably because of its reducing properties.

  11. Occupational allergy to aquarium fish food: red midge larva, freshwater shrimp, and earthworm. A clinical and immunological study.

    PubMed

    Meseguer Arce, J; Villajos, I M Sánchez-Guerrero; Iraola, V; Carnés, J; Fernández Caldas, E

    2013-01-01

    Chironomids seem to be the main cause of occupational allergy to aquarium fish food. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of occupational sensitization to 3 different arthropod species used as components of aquarium fish food. The study sample comprised 8 workers from a fish food packing department. The control group comprised 40 atopic patients (20 of whom were allergic to mites). We performed prick tests with extracts of red midge larva (Chironomus thummi), freshwater shrimp (Gammarus species), earthworm (Tubifex species), and other arthropod species and a battery of common inhalant allergens. We measured peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E and performed a methacholine challenge test, nasal challenge test, and immunoblotting. Cross-reactivity analyses were completed using immunoblotting and CAP inhibition. Prick test results were positive to red midge larvae in 7 patients (87.5%), Gammarus in 5 (62.5%), Tubifex in 3 (37.5%), and mites in 6 (75%). In the mite-allergic controls, 30% had positive prick test results to red midge larvae. PEFR decreased > or = 20% during the packing process in all patients, and in 1 patient it indicated a dual asthmatic response. Methacholine challenge test results were positive in all participants. Nasal challenge tests were performed in 4 patients, and the results were positive. Specific IgE to red midge larvae was detected in 62.5%, Gammarus in 50%, and Tubifex in 16%. Bands of approximately 14-15 kDa and 31 kDa were observed in Gammarus and red midge larvae extracts. Cross-reactivity assays demonstrated that Gammarus totally inhibited red midge larvae, while Tubifex did so partially. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus showed very low inhibitory capacity. Aquarium fish food arthropods are potent allergens with an elevated prevalence of sensitization and variable degree of crossreactivity. This is the first report of occupational allergy to Tubifex. More data are necessary to identify and

  12. Entomopathogenic Fungus as a Biological Control for an Important Vector of Livestock Disease: The Culicoides Biting Midge

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Minshad Ali; Pope, Edward C.; Carpenter, Simon; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Butt, Tariq M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The recent outbreak of bluetongue virus in northern Europe has led to an urgent need to identify control measures for the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges that transmit it. Following successful use of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larval stages of biting midge Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen, we investigated the efficacy of this strain and other fungi (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea and Lecanicillium longisporum) as biocontrol agents against adult C. nubeculosus in laboratory and greenhouse studies. Methodology/Findings Exposure of midges to ‘dry’ conidia of all fungal isolates caused significant reductions in survival compared to untreated controls. Metarhizium anisopliae strain V275 was the most virulent, causing a significantly decrease in midge survival compared to all other fungal strains tested. The LT50 value for strain V275 was 1.42 days compared to 2.21–3.22 days for the other isolates. The virulence of this strain was then further evaluated by exposing C. nubeculosus to varying doses (108–1011 conidia m−2) using different substrates (horse manure, damp peat, leaf litter) as a resting site. All exposed adults were found to be infected with the strain V275 four days after exposure. A further study exposed C. nubeculosus adults to ‘dry’ conidia and ‘wet’ conidia (conidia suspended in 0.03% aq. Tween 80) of strain V275 applied to damp peat and leaf litter in cages within a greenhouse. ‘Dry’ conidia were more effective than ‘wet’ conidia, causing 100% mortality after 5 days. Conclusion/Significance This is the first study to demonstrate that entomopathogenic fungi are potential biocontrol agents against adult Culicoides, through the application of ‘dry’ conidia on surfaces (e.g., manure, leaf litter, livestock) where the midges tend to rest. Subsequent conidial transmission between males and females may cause an increased level of fungi-induced mortality in midges

  13. Entomopathogenic fungus as a biological control for an important vector of livestock disease: the Culicoides biting midge.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Minshad Ali; Pope, Edward C; Carpenter, Simon; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Butt, Tariq M

    2011-01-10

    The recent outbreak of bluetongue virus in northern Europe has led to an urgent need to identify control measures for the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges that transmit it. Following successful use of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larval stages of biting midge Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen, we investigated the efficacy of this strain and other fungi (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea and Lecanicillium longisporum) as biocontrol agents against adult C. nubeculosus in laboratory and greenhouse studies. Exposure of midges to 'dry' conidia of all fungal isolates caused significant reductions in survival compared to untreated controls. Metarhizium anisopliae strain V275 was the most virulent, causing a significantly decrease in midge survival compared to all other fungal strains tested. The LT(50) value for strain V275 was 1.42 days compared to 2.21-3.22 days for the other isolates. The virulence of this strain was then further evaluated by exposing C. nubeculosus to varying doses (10(8)-10(11) conidia m(-2)) using different substrates (horse manure, damp peat, leaf litter) as a resting site. All exposed adults were found to be infected with the strain V275 four days after exposure. A further study exposed C. nubeculosus adults to 'dry' conidia and 'wet' conidia (conidia suspended in 0.03% aq. Tween 80) of strain V275 applied to damp peat and leaf litter in cages within a greenhouse. 'Dry' conidia were more effective than 'wet' conidia, causing 100% mortality after 5 days. This is the first study to demonstrate that entomopathogenic fungi are potential biocontrol agents against adult Culicoides, through the application of 'dry' conidia on surfaces (e.g., manure, leaf litter, livestock) where the midges tend to rest. Subsequent conidial transmission between males and females may cause an increased level of fungi-induced mortality in midges thus reducing the incidence of disease.

  14. Fossil midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) as palaeoclimatic indicators for the Eurasian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Stephen J.

    2006-08-01

    Chironomids (non-biting midges) have been used in palaeoenvironmental studies in Eurasia since the 1920s. Initially changes in chironomid assemblages were largely interpreted as a response to changes in trophic status or water depth. It was only with the advent of chironomid-temperature inference models in the early 1990s that their potential as palaeoclimatic indicators was fully exploited. This paper provides a brief review of the pioneering studies but focuses on the most recent advances. Better taxonomic resolution of fossil midges, expansion of modern training sets, use of air temperature data derived from meteorological stations rather than surface-water temperature data, and Bayesian statistical approaches have lead to improvements in the performance of chironomid-temperature transfer functions. Applications of these transfer functions to derive chironomid-inferred temperature estimates from Lateglacial (ca 15,000-11,200 cal. yr BP) and Holocene (11,200 cal. yr BP to Present) sequences from throughout Eurasia are reviewed in this paper. Chironomid-inferred Lateglacial reconstructions closely reflect oxygen isotope records from Greenland ice cores. Holocene reconstructions are less consistent. Some closely follow instrumental records or corroborate other proxy data, while other reconstructions are less successful. As a result of soil development during the Holocene, changes in pH, nutrients, DO and DOC had a greater influence than temperature on the composition of some midge assemblages. One way to mitigate this is through consensus temperature reconstructions from several sites in the same region. The challenge for future workers is for further improvement in taxonomic resolution of sub-fossil chironomid larvae, to improve further the performance of chironomid-temperature inference models, to develop training sets for southern Europe and Russia and to improve our understanding of the ecological responses of chironomids.

  15. Faustovirus-Like Asfarvirus in Hematophagous Biting Midges and Their Vertebrate Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Azza, Saïd; Decloquement, Philippe; Khalil, Jacques Y. Bou; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Jardot, Priscilla; Robert, Catherine; La Scola, Bernard; Mediannikov, Oleg Y.; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Faustovirus, a new Asfarviridae-related giant virus, was recently isolated in Vermamoeba vermiformis, a protist found in sewage water in various geographical locations and occasionally reported in human eye infection cases. As part of a global metagenomic analysis of viral communities existing in biting midges, we report here for the first time the identification and isolation of a Faustovirus-like virus in hematophagous arthropods and its detection in their animal hosts. The DNA virome analysis of three pools of Culicoides sp., engorged female Culicoides imicola and non-engorged male/female C. imicola biting midges collected in Senegal, revealed the presence of amoeba-infecting giant viruses and, among them, a majority of sequences related to Faustovirus. Phylogenetic analyses conducted on several structural genes of Faustovirus confirmed the clustering of the arthropod-borne Faustovirus with sewage-borne Faustoviruses, with a distinct geographical clustering of Senegalese Faustovirus strains. Transmission electron microscopy identified viral particles with morphologies and diameters which were compatible with Faustovirus. The presence of infectious arthropod-borne Faustovirus was finally confirmed by successful isolation on V. vermiformis amoeba. Global proteomic analysis of biting midges identified that arthropods' blood meal originating from cattle, rodents and humans. Further screening of cattle sera and rodent tissue resulted in prevalence of Faustovirus being estimated at 38% in rodents and 14% in cattle, suggesting a possible origin of Faustovirus presence in arthropods via the ingestion of contaminated blood meal. Viral loads were the highest in rodents' urine and kidney samples, suggesting a possible excretion of viral particles into the environment. Faustovirus DNA polymerase-related sequences were also detected in more than 9 and 11% of febrile patients and healthy Senegalese human sera, respectively. Our study thus, highlights the need to investigate

  16. Critical body residues for lethal and sublethal effects of membrane narcotics in the midge, Chironomus riparius

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.W.; Hwang, H.; Landrum, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    The concept of the critical body residue (CBR) offers a compelling new way to evaluate hazard posed by persistent contaminants such as PCBs. The authors tested the utility of using CBRs for PCBs in an invertebrate species, Chironomus riparius. Acute toxicity (< 10 d) tests were performed with 2nd instar larvae by adding trace amounts of {sup 14}C-labeled PCBs to unlabeled PCBs in amounts sufficient to generate a dose-responsive mortality curve. Because of the limited water solubility of the PCBs tested, it was not possible to produce a toxic tissue concentration via aqueous exposure. This difficulty was overcome by allowing the midges to feed upon contaminated algae (Chlorella vulgaris) which could be loaded with much higher levels of PCBs than would dissolve in water. CBRs for acute toxicity were measured for 3 PCBs; an average CBR of about 1 mmol/kg was determined. If the midge CBRs are lipid normalized, they fall into the range of values that have previously been determined for vertebrates. The authors also evaluated CBRs in midges for a variety of sublethal impairments including development time within a stadium, larval weight and fecundity. A CBR of 1.09 {micro}mol/kg resulted in a significant increase in larval development time and decrease in larval weight for second instar larvae. Tissue residues declined in the third and fourth instars, despite continuing exposure suggesting that the animals developed attenuating mechanisms or that contaminant loss at ecdysis is significant. Despite declining tissue residues throughout the larval instars, fecundity was reduced from 284 eggs/female in controls to 244 eggs/female in animals exposed to the highest sublethal concentration.

  17. Faustovirus-Like Asfarvirus in Hematophagous Biting Midges and Their Vertebrate Hosts.

    PubMed

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Azza, Saïd; Decloquement, Philippe; Khalil, Jacques Y Bou; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Jardot, Priscilla; Robert, Catherine; La Scola, Bernard; Mediannikov, Oleg Y; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Faustovirus, a new Asfarviridae-related giant virus, was recently isolated in Vermamoeba vermiformis, a protist found in sewage water in various geographical locations and occasionally reported in human eye infection cases. As part of a global metagenomic analysis of viral communities existing in biting midges, we report here for the first time the identification and isolation of a Faustovirus-like virus in hematophagous arthropods and its detection in their animal hosts. The DNA virome analysis of three pools of Culicoides sp., engorged female Culicoides imicola and non-engorged male/female C. imicola biting midges collected in Senegal, revealed the presence of amoeba-infecting giant viruses and, among them, a majority of sequences related to Faustovirus. Phylogenetic analyses conducted on several structural genes of Faustovirus confirmed the clustering of the arthropod-borne Faustovirus with sewage-borne Faustoviruses, with a distinct geographical clustering of Senegalese Faustovirus strains. Transmission electron microscopy identified viral particles with morphologies and diameters which were compatible with Faustovirus. The presence of infectious arthropod-borne Faustovirus was finally confirmed by successful isolation on V. vermiformis amoeba. Global proteomic analysis of biting midges identified that arthropods' blood meal originating from cattle, rodents and humans. Further screening of cattle sera and rodent tissue resulted in prevalence of Faustovirus being estimated at 38% in rodents and 14% in cattle, suggesting a possible origin of Faustovirus presence in arthropods via the ingestion of contaminated blood meal. Viral loads were the highest in rodents' urine and kidney samples, suggesting a possible excretion of viral particles into the environment. Faustovirus DNA polymerase-related sequences were also detected in more than 9 and 11% of febrile patients and healthy Senegalese human sera, respectively. Our study thus, highlights the need to investigate

  18. Is a Gall an Extended Phenotype of the Inducing Insect? A Comparative Study of Selected Morphological and Physiological Traits of Leaf and Stem Galls on Machilus thunbergii (Lauraceae) Induced by Five Species of Daphnephila (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Northeastern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Pan, Liang-Yu; Chen, Wen-Neng; Chiu, Shau-Ting; Raman, Anantanarayanan; Chiang, Tung-Chuang; Yang, Man-Miao

    2015-06-01

    Mature galls induced by Daphnephila truncicola, D. taiwanensis, D. sueyenae, D. stenocalia, and D. ornithocephala on Machilus thunbergii in northern Taiwan were examined to verify the dictum that the morphology of galls is an expression of the extended phenotype of the respective gall-inducing insect. Based on their length-width ratio, the materials were grouped into either fleshy (those induced by D. taiwanensis and D. sueyenae) or slim galls (those induced by D. truncicola, D. stenocalia, and D. ornithocephala). Stem galls induced by D. truncicola showed an energy level of 0.0178 kJ/g. Among leaf galls, the greatest energy level was in the one induced by D. stenocalia (0.0193 kJ/g), followed by D. sueyenae (0.0192 kJ/g), D. taiwanensis (0.0189 kJ/g), and D. ornithocephala (0.0160 kJ/g). The numbers of reserve and nutritive cell layers in galls were greater in the stem galls induced by D. truncicola, similar to those in the fleshy leaf galls, than in the slim leaf galls. Based on the fungal taxa isolated from the larval chambers and considering the similarities and divergences among gall characteristics, the galls induced by D. truncicola and D. taiwanensis clustered into one, whereas those of D. sueyenae aligned with the 'D. stenocalia-D. ornithocephala' cluster. The present study verified that shapes, structure, nutritive tissues, energy levels, and multiple coexisting fungal taxa within galls reinforce that they are extended phenotypes of the respective gall-inducing Daphnephila species and they represent adaptive evolution of Daphnephila on M. thunbergii.

  19. The influence of pruning on wasp inhabitants of galls induced by Hemadas nubilipennis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on lowbush blueberry.

    PubMed

    Hayman, David I; MacKenzie, Kenna E; Reekie, Edward G

    2003-08-01

    The efficacy of pruning methods for managing blueberry stem galls caused by the chalcid wasp, Hemadas nubilipennis (Ashmead), was studied in five commercial lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) fields in Nova Scotia, Canada, between October 1999 and May 2000. Blueberry fields were mowed in the fall, and burning treatments were subsequently applied either in the fall or the spring. Three treatments were compared: mowing only, mowing plus fall burning, and mowing plus spring burning. Galls collected from the mow plus spring-burn treatment had the least wasp emergence of the three treatments, while the total number of galls was not affected by treatment. Wasp mortality, not gall destruction, is why wasp emergence is reduced in burn treatments. More galls were located and, for the burn treatments, higher wasp emergence was seen from galls found within the leaf litter than those above it. Five co-inhabitants emerged from blueberry stem galls in this study. Three, Eurytoma solenozopheriae (Ashmead), Sycophila vacciniicola (Balduf), and Orymus vacciniicola (Ashmead) are commonly found associates. The other two, Eupelmus vesicularis (Ritzius) and Pteromalus spp., are new records for Nova Scotia. O. vacciniicola is likely an inquiline because it is the largest wasp emerging from galls, and there was a positive relationship between its emergence and that of H. nubilipennis. Larger gall size improved H. nubilipennis emergence from mow and spring-burn galls. After a field has been mowed in the fall, we recommend a spring burn to reduce gall populations and the threat of product contamination.

  20. A new algorithm quantifies the roles of wind and midge flight activity in the bluetongue epizootic in northwest Europe.

    PubMed

    Sedda, Luigi; Brown, Heidi E; Purse, Bethan V; Burgin, Laura; Gloster, John; Rogers, David J

    2012-06-22

    The 2006 bluetongue (BT) outbreak in northwestern Europe had devastating effects on cattle and sheep in that intensively farmed area. The role of wind in disease spread, through its effect on Culicoides dispersal, is still uncertain, and remains unquantified. We examine here the relationship between farm-level infection dates and wind speed and direction within the framework of a novel model involving both mechanistic and stochastic steps. We consider wind as both a carrier of host semio-chemicals, to which midges might respond by upwind flight, and as a transporter of the midges themselves, in a more or less downwind direction. For completeness, we also consider midge movement independent of wind and various combinations of upwind, downwind and random movements. Using stochastic simulation, we are able to explain infection onset at 94 per cent of the 2025 affected farms. We conclude that 54 per cent of outbreaks occurred through (presumably midge) movement of infections over distances of no more than 5 km, 92 per cent over distances of no more than 31 km and only 2 per cent over any greater distances. The modal value for all infections combined is less than 1 km. Our analysis suggests that previous claims for a higher frequency of long-distance infections are unfounded. We suggest that many apparent long-distance infections resulted from sequences of shorter-range infections; a 'stepping stone' effect. Our analysis also found that downwind movement (the only sort so far considered in explanations of BT epidemics) is responsible for only 39 per cent of all infections, and highlights the effective contribution to disease spread of upwind midge movement, which accounted for 38 per cent of all infections. The importance of midge flight speed is also investigated. Within the same model framework, lower midge active flight speed (of 0.13 rather than 0.5 m s(-1)) reduced virtually to zero the role of upwind movement, mainly because modelled wind speeds in the area

  1. Control techniques for Culicoides biting midges and their application in the U.K. and northwestern Palaearctic.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, S; Mellor, P S; Torr, S J

    2008-09-01

    The recent emergence of bluetongue virus (Reoviridae: Orbivirus) (BTV) in northern Europe, for the first time in recorded history, has led to an urgent need for methods to control the disease caused by this virus and the midges that spread it. This paper reviews various methods of vector control that have been employed elsewhere and assesses their likely efficacy for controlling vectors of BTV in northern Europe. Methods of controlling Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) have included: (a) application of insecticides and pathogens to habitats where larvae develop; (b) environmental interventions to remove larval breeding sites; (c) controlling adult midges by treating either resting sites, such as animal housing, or host animals with insecticides; (d) housing livestock in screened buildings, and (e) using repellents or host kairomones to lure and kill adult midges. The major vectors of BTV in northern Europe are species from the Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen) and Culicoides pulicaris (L.) groups, for which there are scant data on breeding habits, resting behaviour and host-oriented responses. Consequently, there is little information on which to base a rational strategy for controlling midges or for predicting the likely impact of interventions. However, data extrapolated from the results of vector control operations conducted elsewhere, combined with some assessment of how acceptable or not different methods may be within northern Europe, indicate that the treatment of livestock and animal housing with pyrethroids, the use of midge-proofed stabling for viraemic or high-value animals and the promotion of good farm practice to at least partially eliminate local breeding sites are the best options currently available. Research to assess and improve the efficacy of these methods is required and, in the longer term, efforts should be made to develop better bait systems for monitoring and, possibly, controlling midges. All these studies will need better methods of

  2. The biting and predaceous midges of Guadeloupe (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). II. Species of the subfamily Dasyheleinae.

    PubMed

    Grogan, Willliam L Jr; Díaz, Florentina; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Ronderos, Maria M

    2016-11-03

    We provide descriptions, photographs and illustrations of 13 new species and new records of eight other species of biting midges in the genus Dasyhelea Kieffer from Guadeloupe. Included are the first Guadeloupe records of D. bermudae Wirth & Williams, D. caribbeana Spinelli & Wirth, D. cincta (Coquillett), D. flavifrons (Guérin-Méneville), D. grisea (Coquillett), D. griseola Wirth, D. luteogrisea Wirth & Williams and D. pseudoincisurata Waugh & Wirth. The previously unknown male of D. caribbeana is described and illustrated, and, a key is provided for the 24 species of Dasyhelea known from Guadeloupe.

  3. Allerod--younger dryas lake temperatures from midge fossils in atlantic Canada.

    PubMed

    Walker, I R; Mott, R J; Smol, J P

    1991-08-30

    Remains of freshwater midges are abundant in lake sediments, and their species distributions are closely related to the surface-water temperature of lakes; their distributions thus provide a powerful tool for paleoclimatology. The distribution of species in a core from Splan Pond in Atlantic Canada indicates that there were abrupt transitions in late-glacial temperatures between warm and cold states. The transitions are correlative with the well-known warm Allerød and cold Younger Dryas events in Europe. These data thus confirm the inference from palynological data that these events affected regions on both sides of the Atlantic.

  4. Species diversity and seasonal abundance of Culicoides biting midges in northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Aybar, C A Veggiani; Juri, M J Dantur; De Grosso, M S Lizarralde; Spinelli, G R

    2010-03-01

    The species diversity and seasonal abundance of biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were studied in northwestern Argentina during the period 2003-2005. A total of 5437 Culicoides specimens were collected using CDC light traps in three areas of the mountainous rainforest area. The most common species were Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi) and C. insignis Lutz, Culicoides lahillei (Iches), C. venezuelensis Ortiz & Mirsa, C. debilipalpis Lutz and C. crescentis Wirth & Blanton were also collected. Culicoides paraensis was abundant during the summer, and C. insignis and C. lahillei during late summer and early fall. Accumulated rainfall was the climatic variable most related to fluctuation in abundance of C. paraensis.

  5. Transmission of Oropouche Virus from Man to Hamster by the Midge ’Culicoides Paraensis’,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    AD-AI09 916 ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH UNIT APO NEW YORK 09676. FIG 6/5 "MTRANSMISSION OF OROPOUCHE VIRUS FROM MAN TO HAMSTER BT THE MIOG--ETC(U) UNLSIID...NO- 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMUE I ’ r14 7’ j 16 4. TITLE ( nd Subtitle) . TYPE O REPORT &PE OCTRANSMISS ION OF OROPOUCHE VIRUS FROM MAN TO HAMSTER...Washington, DC 20005 Dear Sirs: Please consider the inclosed manuscript, "Transmission of Oropouche virus from man to hamster by the midge Culicoides

  6. The Neotropical species of the predaceous midge genus Austrohelea Wirth & Grogan (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Ronderos, Maria M; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Grogan, Willliam L Jr

    2017-06-11

    Two new Neotropical species of the predaceous midge genus Austrohelea Wirth & Grogan, A. sirii n. sp. and A. spinosa n. sp., and the previously known A. shannoni (Wirth & Blanton) are described, illustrated and photomicrographs provided of male and female specimens collected from several localities in Argentine and Chilean Patagonia. The similarities and differences between the three Neotropical species are discussed, and a key is provided of the males and females of these three species. The distribution of A. shannoni is extended to the southernmost region of South America.

  7. Acute toxicity of selected herbicides and surfactants to larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Faerber, Neil L.

    1989-01-01

    The acute toxicities of eight commercial herbicides and two surfactants to early fourth instar larvae of the midgeChironomus riparius were determined under static conditions. The formulated herbicides tested were Eradicane® (EPTC), Fargo® (triallate), Lasso® (alachlor), ME4 Brominal® (bromoxynil), Ramrod® (propachlor), Rodeo® (glyphosate), Sencor®(metribuzin), and Sutan (+)® (butylate); the two surfactants were Activator N.F.® and Ortho X-77®. In addition, technical grade alachlor, metribuzin, propachlor, and triallate were tested for comparison with the formulated herbicides. The relative toxicity of the commercial formulations, based on percent active ingredient, varied considerably. The EC50 values ranged from 1.23 mg/L for Fargo® to 5,600 mg/L for Rodeo®. Fargo®, ME4 Brominal®, and Ramrod®were moderately toxic to midge larvae; Lasso®, Sutan (+)®, and Eradicane® were slightly toxic; and Sencor® and Rodeo® were practically non-toxic. The 48-hr EC50 values of the two surfactants were nearly identical and were considered moderately toxic to midges. For two of the herbicides in which the technical grade material was tested, the inert ingredients in the formulations had a significant effect on the toxicity of the active ingredients. Fargo® was twice as toxic as technical grade triallate, whereas Sencor® was considerably less toxic than technical grade metribuzin. A comparison of the slope function values indicated that the toxic action of all the compounds occurred within a relatively narrow range. Published acute toxicity data on these compounds for other freshwater biota were tabulated and compared with our results. In general, the relative order of toxicity toC. riparius was similar to those for other freshwater invertebrates and fish. Maximum concentrations of each herbicide in bulk runoff during a projected “critical” runoff event were calculated as a percentage of the application rate lost in a given volume of runoff. A comparison

  8. All stages of the Palaearctic predaceous midge Palpomyia schmidti Goetghebuer, 1934 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Szadziewski, Ryszard; Golovatyuk, Larisa V; Sontag, Elżbieta; Urbanek, Aleksandra; Zinchenko, Tatiana D

    2016-07-08

    All stages and the ecology of the Southern Palaearctic Palpomyia schmidti collected from the vicinity of the saline Lake Elton in Russia are described and illustrated. The morphology of larvae and pupae as well as the detailed ecology of the larvae are described for the first time. P. schmidti is a halobiontic biting midge, widely distributed in the steppes and deserts of the Palaearctic region. It is proposed that the Palpomyia schmidti group should include five Holarctic species. P. downesi Grogan & Wirth, 1979 from north-western North America is recognized as a new junior synonym of the Eastern Palaearctic P. tuvae Remm, 1972. New synonymy.

  9. The influence of host number on the attraction of biting midges, Culicoides spp., to light traps.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Saenz, A; McCarter, P; Baylis, M

    2011-03-01

    A preliminary study was undertaken to investigate how the number of sheep below a light-suction trap affects the number of female Culicoides obsoletus Meigen (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) caught. As the number of sheep increased from zero to three, the number of midges caught increased, but there appeared to be no further increase when six sheep were used. The lack of increase between three and six sheep is attributable to different activity rates on certain nights, perhaps in response to weather, and suggests, therefore, that catches in light traps increase linearly with sheep numbers, at least for small host numbers.

  10. Characterization of microsatellite loci for the pitcher plant midge, Metriocnemus knabi Coq. (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Rasic, Gordana; Maxwell, Sheri A; Keyghobadi, Nusha

    2009-09-01

    As a component of the inquiline community of the purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea), the pitcher plant midge Metriocneus knabi has been the subject of various ecological studies. However, very little is known about its characteristics beyond the larval stage, in particular the dispersal ability of adults. This study presents new molecular tools developed for testing of evolutionary and ecological questions in natural populations of this species. We describe a set of 12 microsatellite loci specific to M. knabi that are sufficiently polymorphic to provide insight into population genetic structure and dispersal patterns.

  11. Comparative anatomy of gall development on Gypsophila paniculata induced by bacteria with different mechanisms of pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Chalupowicz, L; Barash, I; Schwartz, M; Aloni, R; Manulis, S

    2006-07-01

    Galls induced on Gypsophila paniculata by Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae (Pag) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (At), bacteria with different mechanisms of pathogenicity, were compared morphologically and anatomically. The pathogenicity of Pag is dependent on the presence of an indigenous plasmid that harbors hrp gene cluster, genes encoding Hop virulence proteins and biosynthetic genes for auxin (IAA) and cytokinins (CKs), whereas that of At involves host transformation. The Pag-induced gall was rough, brittle and exhibited limited growth, in contrast to the smooth, firm appearance and continuous growth of the At-induced gall. Anatomical analysis revealed the presence of cells with enlarged nuclei and multiple nucleoli, giant cells and suberin deposition in Pag that were absent from At-induced galls. Although circular vessels were observed in both gall types, they were more numerous and the vascular system was more organized in At. An aerenchymal tissue was observed in the upper part of the galls. Ethylene emission from Pag galls, recorded 6 days after inoculation, was eight times as great as that from non-infected controls. In contrast, a significant decrease in ethylene production was observed in Gypsophila cuttings infected with Pag mutants deficient in IAA and CK production. The results presented are best accounted for by the two pathogens having distinct pathogenicity mechanisms that lead to their differential recognition by the host as non-self (Pag) and self (At).

  12. Evolution of a complex behavior: the origin and initial diversification of foliar galling by Permian insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachat, Sandra R.; Labandeira, Conrad C.

    2015-04-01

    A central notion of the early evolution of insect galling is that this unique behavior was uncommon to rare before the diversification of angiosperms 135 to 125 m.yr. ago. However, evidence accumulated during recent years shows that foliar galls were diverse and locally abundant as early as the Permian Period, 299 to 252 m.yr. ago. In particular, a diversity of leaf galling during the Early Permian has recently been documented by the plant-damage record of foliar galls and, now, our interpretation of the body-fossil record of culprit insect gallers. Small size is a prerequisite for gallers. Wing-length measurements of Permian insects indicate that several small-bodied hemipteroid lineages originated early during the Permian, some descendant lineages of which gall the leaves of seed plants to the present day. The earliest foliar gallers likely were Protopsyllidiidae (Hemiptera) and Lophioneuridae (Thripida). Much of the Early Permian was a xeric interval, and modern galls are most common in dry, extra-tropical habitats such as scrubland and deserts. Plant-damage, insect body fossils, and the paleoclimate record collectively support the ecological expansion of foliar galling during the Early Permian and its continued expansion through the Late Permian.

  13. Evolution of a complex behavior: the origin and initial diversification of foliar galling by Permian insects.

    PubMed

    Schachat, Sandra R; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2015-04-01

    A central notion of the early evolution of insect galling is that this unique behavior was uncommon to rare before the diversification of angiosperms 135 to 125 m.yr. ago. However, evidence accumulated during recent years shows that foliar galls were diverse and locally abundant as early as the Permian Period, 299 to 252 m.yr. ago. In particular, a diversity of leaf galling during the Early Permian has recently been documented by the plant-damage record of foliar galls and, now, our interpretation of the body-fossil record of culprit insect gallers. Small size is a prerequisite for gallers. Wing-length measurements of Permian insects indicate that several small-bodied hemipteroid lineages originated early during the Permian, some descendant lineages of which gall the leaves of seed plants to the present day. The earliest foliar gallers likely were Protopsyllidiidae (Hemiptera) and Lophioneuridae (Thripida). Much of the Early Permian was a xeric interval, and modern galls are most common in dry, extra-tropical habitats such as scrubland and deserts. Plant-damage, insect body fossils, and the paleoclimate record collectively support the ecological expansion of foliar galling during the Early Permian and its continued expansion through the Late Permian.

  14. Patterns of Gall Bladder Wall Thickening in Dengue Fever: A Mirror of the Severity of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Jitendra Premjibhai; Mohan, Chander; Vora, Maulik

    2017-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is a major public health problem with an increased incidence in recent years. Gall bladder wall thickening has been reported as one of the most common findings in dengue fever. There is a paucity of literature regarding the various patterns of gall bladder wall thickening in dengue fever and their significance in predicting the severity of disease. Methodology and Significant Findings Out of 93 seropositive patients included in the study, 54 patients with dengue fever had gall bladder wall thickening. 4 patterns of gall bladder wall thickening are demonstrated in this study. A uniform echogenic pattern in 20 patients, striated or tram track pattern in 11 patients, an asymmetric pattern in 2 patients and a honeycombing pattern in 21 patients. The range of patterns of wall thickening included normal wall thickening or uniform echogenic wall thickening in DF without warning signs, a striated or tram track pattern, and a honeycomb pattern in severe DF. Serial ultrasound done on consecutive alternate days revealed a change in the pattern of gall bladder wall thickening according to the severity of disease. Conclusion The present study revealed 4 distinct patterns of gall bladder wall thickening. The uniform echogenic pattern was found to be more prevalent in dengue fever without warning signs, while the honeycomb pattern was found to be more prevalent in severe dengue fever. A change in the pattern of gall bladder wall thickening on subsequent serial ultrasound can predict the severity of the disease. PMID:28603785

  15. Agrobacterium rhizogenes GALLS Protein Contains Domains for ATP Binding, Nuclear Localization, and Type IV Secretion▿

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Larry D.; Vergunst, Annette C.; Neal-McKinney, Jason; den Dulk-Ras, Amke; Moyer, Deborah M.; Hooykaas, Paul J. J.; Ream, Walt

    2006-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes are closely related plant pathogens that cause different diseases, crown gall and hairy root. Both diseases result from transfer, integration, and expression of plasmid-encoded bacterial genes located on the transferred DNA (T-DNA) in the plant genome. Bacterial virulence (Vir) proteins necessary for infection are also translocated into plant cells. Transfer of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and Vir proteins requires a type IV secretion system, a protein complex spanning the bacterial envelope. A. tumefaciens translocates the ssDNA-binding protein VirE2 into plant cells, where it binds single-stranded T-DNA and helps target it to the nucleus. Although some strains of A. rhizogenes lack VirE2, they are pathogenic and transfer T-DNA efficiently. Instead, these bacteria express the GALLS protein, which is essential for their virulence. The GALLS protein can complement an A. tumefaciens virE2 mutant for tumor formation, indicating that GALLS can substitute for VirE2. Unlike VirE2, GALLS contains ATP-binding and helicase motifs similar to those in TraA, a strand transferase involved in conjugation. Both GALLS and VirE2 contain nuclear localization sequences and a C-terminal type IV secretion signal. Here we show that mutations in any of these domains abolished the ability of GALLS to substitute for VirE2. PMID:17012398

  16. Phytohormones related to host plant manipulation by a gall-inducing leafhopper.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Makoto; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Matsukura, Keiichiro; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kumashiro, Shun; Matsumura, Masaya; Kamiya, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    The maize orange leafhopper Cicadulina bipunctata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) induces galls characterized by growth stunting and severe swelling of leaf veins on various plants of Poaceae. Previous studies revealed that galls are induced not on feeding site but on distant, newly extended leaves during the feeding, and strongly suggested that some chemicals injected by the leafhopper affect at the leaf primordia. To approach the mechanism underlying gall induction by C. bipunctata, we examined physiological response of plants to feeding by the leafhopper. We performed high-throughput and comprehensive plant hormone analyses using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Galled maize leaves contained higher contents of abscisic acid (ABA) and trans-Zeatin (tZ) and lower contents of gibberellins (GA1 and GA4) than ungalled maize leaves. Leafhopper treatment significantly increased ABA and tZ contents and decreased GA1 and GA4 contents in extending leaves. After the removal of leafhoppers, contents of tZ and gibberellins in extending leaves soon became similar to the control values. ABA content was gradually decreased after the removal of leafhoppers. Such hormonal changes were not observed in leafhopper treatment on leaves of resistant maize variety. Water contents of galled leaves were significantly lower than control leaves, suggesting water stress of galled leaves and possible reason of the increase in ABA content. These results imply that ABA, tZ, and gibberellins are related to gall induction by the leafhopper on susceptible variety of maize.

  17. Leaf-galling phylloxera on grapes reprograms host metabolism and morphology.

    PubMed

    Nabity, Paul D; Haus, Miranda J; Berenbaum, May R; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-10-08

    Endoparasitism by gall-forming insects dramatically alters the plant phenotype by altering growth patterns and modifying plant organs in ways that appear to directly benefit the gall former. Because these morphological and physiological changes are linked to the presence of the insect, the induced phenotype is said to function as an extension of the parasite, albeit by unknown mechanisms. Here we report the gall-forming aphid-like parasite phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, induces stomata on the adaxial surface of grape leaves where stomata typically do not occur. We characterized the function of the phylloxera-induced stomata by tracing transport of assimilated carbon. Because induction of stomata suggests a significant manipulation of primary metabolism, we also characterized the gall transcriptome to infer the level of global reconfiguration of primary metabolism and the subsequent changes in downstream secondary metabolism. Phylloxera feeding induced stomata formation in proximity to the insect and promoted the assimilation and importation of carbon into the gall. Gene expression related to water, nutrient, and mineral transport; glycolysis; and fermentation increased in leaf-gall tissues. This shift from an autotrophic to a heterotrophic profile occurred concurrently with decreased gene expression for nonmevalonate and terpenoid synthesis and increased gene expression in shikimate and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, secondary metabolite systems that alter defense status in grapes. These functional insect-induced stomata thus comprise part of an extended phenotype, whereby D. vitifoliae globally reprograms grape leaf development to alter patterns of primary metabolism, nutrient mobilization, and defense investment in favor of the galling habit.

  18. Contribution of gall microscopic structure to taxonomy of gallicolous aphids on Pistacia.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, R; Martinez, J-J I; Muñoz-Viveros, A L; Molist, P; Abad-González, J; Nieto Nafría, J M

    2016-09-01

    Aphids inducing galls on Pistacia plants belong to the tribe Fordini. According to the Heie & Wegierek classification, the genera are grouped into three subtribes. Previous microscopic studies showed that this taxonomy is not consistent with the histological characteristics of the galls. In this paper, galls induced by Aplonerura lentisci, Asiphonella cynodonti, Forda riccobonii, Slavun wertheimae and Smynthurodes betae were analyzed for the first time, as well as nine other galls previously described. Based on histological features three groups of galls can be establish: the first group comprises closed galls, induced by Baizongia pistaciae, Geoica utricularia, Rectinasus buxtoni and Slavun wertheimae; the second group includes two species of Geopemphigus (G. blackmani and G. torsus), and the third one is divided into two subgroups, the first comprises Aplonerura lentisci, Asiphonella cynodonti and Geopemphigus morral, and the second that includes Forda formicaria, F. marginata, F. riccobonii, Paracletus cimiciformis and Smynthurodes betae. An identification key of species based on microscopic features of galls is presented. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Defective development of the gall bladder and cystic duct in Lgr4- hypomorphic mice.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Ryo; Takegawa, Yumiko; Sakumoto, Machiko; Nakahara, Mai; Kawazu, Haruna; Hoshii, Takayuki; Araki, Kimi; Yokouchi, Yuji; Yamamura, Ken-ichi

    2009-04-01

    Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) -containing G protein coupled receptor (LGR) family members are characterized by the presence of a seven-transmembrane domain and LRR motifs. We describe a new function for Lgr4 in the development of the gall bladder and cystic duct and in the epithelium-mesenchyme interaction. Lgr4 expression was observed in the gall bladder epithelium when the gall bladder primordium elongated ventrally. Although Lgr4 hypomorphic mutant (Lgr4(Gt/Gt)) embryos developed a normal gall bladder bud at embryonic day (E) 10.25, no further elongation was observed at later stages. At E12.5, the mesenchyme surrounding the gall bladder had completely disappeared in Lgr4(Gt/Gt) embryos, while the gall bladder remained unelongated. Neighboring tissues such as liver and pancreas were unaffected, as revealed by expression of marker genes. This is the first report of a mutant mouse that lacks a gall bladder and cystic duct without affecting the other tissues that derive from the same hepatic diverticulum. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Estimation of the volume of the gall bladder of 32 dogs from linear ultrasonographic measurements.

    PubMed

    Atalan, G; Barr, F J; Holt, P E

    2007-01-27

    The maximum length and depth of the longitudinal section, and the maximum width and depth of the transverse section of the gall bladders of 32 dog cadavers were measured ultrasonographically; the contents of the gall bladder were then aspirated and its actual volume measured. The volume of the gall bladder was estimated from the ultrasonographic measurements by using formulae suggested for assessment of the volumes of the urinary bladder in human beings and the gall bladder of dogs, and these formulae were compared with a formula derived from the measurements made in this study. In 21 of the dogs, the measurements were repeated twice so that their reproducibility could be evaluated. All the formulae gave good estimations of the volume of the dogs' gall bladders, but the formula for the human urinary bladder volume was better than the other two. The actual volume of the gall bladder was related to the dogs' bodyweight. There were no significant differences between the repeated measurements of the maximum length and depth of the longitudinal section or the width of the transverse section of the gall bladder, but there were significant variations in the depth of the transverse section.

  1. Patterns of Gall Bladder Wall Thickening in Dengue Fever: A Mirror of the Severity of Disease.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Jitendra Premjibhai; Mohan, Chander; Vora, Maulik

    2017-04-01

    Dengue fever is a major public health problem with an increased incidence in recent years. Gall bladder wall thickening has been reported as one of the most common findings in dengue fever. There is a paucity of literature regarding the various patterns of gall bladder wall thickening in dengue fever and their significance in predicting the severity of disease. Out of 93 seropositive patients included in the study, 54 patients with dengue fever had gall bladder wall thickening. 4 patterns of gall bladder wall thickening are demonstrated in this study. A uniform echogenic pattern in 20 patients, striated or tram track pattern in 11 patients, an asymmetric pattern in 2 patients and a honeycombing pattern in 21 patients. The range of patterns of wall thickening included normal wall thickening or uniform echogenic wall thickening in DF without warning signs, a striated or tram track pattern, and a honeycomb pattern in severe DF. Serial ultrasound done on consecutive alternate days revealed a change in the pattern of gall bladder wall thickening according to the severity of disease. The present study revealed 4 distinct patterns of gall bladder wall thickening. The uniform echogenic pattern was found to be more prevalent in dengue fever without warning signs, while the honeycomb pattern was found to be more prevalent in severe dengue fever. A change in the pattern of gall bladder wall thickening on subsequent serial ultrasound can predict the severity of the disease.

  2. Somatostatin receptor subtypes 2 and 5 mediate inhibition of egg yolk-induced gall bladder emptying in mice.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, P; Singh, V; Cashen, D E; Yang, L; Berk, S; Pasternak, A; Xiong, Y; Shen, D-M; Hutchins, S M; Chapman, K; Wiedenmann, B; Schaeffer, J M; Strowski, M Z

    2010-02-01

    Somatostatin inhibits gall bladder contraction. Impaired gall bladder emptying is associated with gall bladder stone formation. The incidence of cholecystolithiasis is high in patients treated with a somatostatin agonist octreotide, which predominantly interacts with somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2). Therefore, it is believed that SSTR2 regulates gall bladder contraction; however, evidence has not been provided. Here, we evaluate the effects of SSTR1-SSTR5-selective agonists on egg yolk-induced gall bladder contraction in mice. Homozygous deletion of SSTR2 and SSTR5 was generated by cross-mating of SSTR2(-/-) with SSTR5(-/-) mice. Mice of different genotypes were injected with SSTR1-5-selective agonists or octreotide 15 min before induction of gall bladder emptying by egg yolk. One hour later, gall bladders were removed and weighed. Egg yolk-reduced gall bladder weights in all mice, irrespective of their genotype. Octreotide was the most potent inhibitor of gall bladder emptying in wild-type mice. In contrast, agonists with high selectivity for SSTR2 or SSTR5 inhibited gall bladder emptying by approximately 50-60%, whereas SSTR1-, SSTR3- and SSTR4-selective agonists failed to influence gall bladder contraction. In SSTR2(-/-) mice, octreotide and an SSTR5-selective agonist inhibited gall bladder emptying by approximately 50%, whereas SSTR2-selective agonists were inactive. Octreotide inhibited gall bladder emptying in SSTR5(-/-) mice by approximately 50%, without any effect in SSTR2(-/-)/SSTR5(-/-) mice. Our study provides evidence for the role of SSTR2 and SSTR5 in regulating gall bladder emptying in mice.

  3. Unexpected High Diversity of Galling Insects in the Amazonian Upper Canopy: The Savanna Out There

    PubMed Central

    Julião, Genimar R.; Venticinque, Eduardo M.; Fernandes, G. Wilson; Price, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    A relatively large number of studies reassert the strong relationship between galling insect diversity and extreme hydric and thermal status in some habitats, and an overall pattern of a greater number of galling species in the understory of scleromorphic vegetation. We compared galling insect diversity in the forest canopy and its relationship with tree richness among upland terra firme, várzea, and igapó floodplains in Amazonia, Brazil. The soils of these forest types have highly different hydric and nutritional status. Overall, we examined the upper layer of 1,091 tree crowns. Galling species richness and abundance were higher in terra firme forests compared to várzea and igapó forests. GLM-ANCOVA models revealed that the number of tree species sampled in each forest type was determinant in the gall-forming insect diversity. The ratio between galling insect richness and number of tree species sampled (GIR/TSS ratio) was higher in the terra firme forest and in seasonally flooded igapó, while the várzea presented the lowest GIR/TSS ratio. In this study, we recorded unprecedented values of galling species diversity and abundance per sampling point. The GIR/TSS ratio from várzea was approximately 2.5 times higher than the highest value of this ratio ever reported in the literature. Based on this fact, we ascertained that várzea and igapó floodplain forests (with lower GIA and GIR), together with the speciose terra firme galling community emerge as the gall diversity apex landscape among all biogeographic regions already investigated. Contrary to expectation, our results also support the “harsh environment hypothesis”, and unveil the Amazonian upper canopy as similar to Mediterranean vegetation habitats, hygrothermically stressed environments with leaf temperature at lethal limits and high levels of leaf sclerophylly. PMID:25551769

  4. Unexpected high diversity of galling insects in the Amazonian upper canopy: the savanna out there.

    PubMed

    Julião, Genimar R; Venticinque, Eduardo M; Fernandes, G Wilson; Price, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    A relatively large number of studies reassert the strong relationship between galling insect diversity and extreme hydric and thermal status in some habitats, and an overall pattern of a greater number of galling species in the understory of scleromorphic vegetation. We compared galling insect diversity in the forest canopy and its relationship with tree richness among upland terra firme, várzea, and igapó floodplains in Amazonia, Brazil. The soils of these forest types have highly different hydric and nutritional status. Overall, we examined the upper layer of 1,091 tree crowns. Galling species richness and abundance were higher in terra firme forests compared to várzea and igapó forests. GLM-ANCOVA models revealed that the number of tree species sampled in each forest type was determinant in the gall-forming insect diversity. The ratio between galling insect richness and number of tree species sampled (GIR/TSS ratio) was higher in the terra firme forest and in seasonally flooded igapó, while the várzea presented the lowest GIR/TSS ratio. In this study, we recorded unprecedented values of galling species diversity and abundance per sampling point. The GIR/TSS ratio from várzea was approximately 2.5 times higher than the highest value of this ratio ever reported in the literature. Based on this fact, we ascertained that várzea and igapó floodplain forests (with lower GIA and GIR), together with the speciose terra firme galling community emerge as the gall diversity apex landscape among all biogeographic regions already investigated. Contrary to expectation, our results also support the "harsh environment hypothesis", and unveil the Amazonian upper canopy as similar to Mediterranean vegetation habitats, hygrothermically stressed environments with leaf temperature at lethal limits and high levels of leaf sclerophylly.

  5. Effect of the Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa on Hydraulic Architecture in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Plants.

    PubMed

    Tong, You-Gui; Ding, Xiao-Xi; Zhang, Kai-Cun; Yang, Xin; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera; Eulophidae), is a devastating pest of eucalypt plantations in the Middle East, the Mediterranean basin, Africa, India, South-East Asia, and China. Heavy galling causes the leaves to warp and in extreme cases it may stunt the growth of the trees of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying how L. invasa inhibits the growth of plants of E. camaldulensis are unclear. Because the growth rate of plants is mainly dependent on photosynthesis that is largely correlated with hydraulic architecture, we speculate that galling of L. invasa depresses hydraulic conductance of stem and leaf. In the present study, we examined the effects of L. invasa galling on hydraulic architecture and photosynthetic parameters in E. camaldulensis plants. We found that galling of L. invasa significantly decreased stem hydraulic conductance (K stem), midday leaf water potential (Ψmd), minor vein density, and stomatal density (SD). Furthermore, the stomatal conductance (g s), chlorophyll content, CO2 assimilation rate (A n) and photosynthetic electron flow were reduced in infected plants. Therefore, the galling of L. invasa not only declined the water supply from stem to leaves, but also restricted water transport within leaf. As a result, galled plants of E. camaldulensis reduced leaf number, leaf area, SD and g s to balance water supply and transpirational demand. Furthermore, galled plants had lower leaf nitrogen content, leading to decreases in chlorophyll content, CO2 assimilation rate and photosynthetic electron flow. These results indicate that the change in hydraulic architecture is responsible for the inhibition of growth rate in galled plants.

  6. Agenesis of gall bladder in laparoscopic cholecystectomy-A case report.

    PubMed

    Al-Hakkak, Samer Makki Mohamed

    2017-08-03

    Agenesis of gallbladder is a rare congenital anomaly of biliary tree that may be associated with other biliary and extra biliary congenital anomalies. A 43- year- old female presented with a 4 months history of upper abdominal pain associated with nausea and vomiting. It was associated with dyspeptic symptoms and become worse following ingestion of high-fat meal contents. Clinically, a differential of gall stone disease was considered. Ultrasonography of abdomen revealed a contracted gallbladder with multiple stones with normal wall thickness, so the fact of clinical diagnosis considering finding cholithiasis. She was submitted to laparoscopic exploration which revealed that the gall bladder was absent within gall bladder fossa. In this case, the differential of cholithiasis symptoms considered support by ultrasonography, symptomatic gall stones presented more than half of cases of gall bladder agenesis, Diagnosis of gall bladder disease usually done by ultrasound modality, it must be done by expert one. Awareness of this entity by clinicians, surgeons and radiologists are essential because many of these patients present with biliary symptoms and have unnecessary operations. Agenesis of gallbladder should be kept in mind whenever the gall bladder was improperly visualized in routine imaging methods. Ultrasonography operated dependent we must not depend on single one or even multiple done by the same person. Avoid a needless surgical exploration, which might be risky. Non-visualized gall bladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is challenging should not convert to open unless sure that the gall bladder was present. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of the Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa on Hydraulic Architecture in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tong, You-Gui; Ding, Xiao-Xi; Zhang, Kai-Cun; Yang, Xin; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera; Eulophidae), is a devastating pest of eucalypt plantations in the Middle East, the Mediterranean basin, Africa, India, South-East Asia, and China. Heavy galling causes the leaves to warp and in extreme cases it may stunt the growth of the trees of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying how L. invasa inhibits the growth of plants of E. camaldulensis are unclear. Because the growth rate of plants is mainly dependent on photosynthesis that is largely correlated with hydraulic architecture, we speculate that galling of L. invasa depresses hydraulic conductance of stem and leaf. In the present study, we examined the effects of L. invasa galling on hydraulic architecture and photosynthetic parameters in E. camaldulensis plants. We found that galling of L. invasa significantly decreased stem hydraulic conductance (Kstem), midday leaf water potential (Ψmd), minor vein density, and stomatal density (SD). Furthermore, the stomatal conductance (gs), chlorophyll content, CO2 assimilation rate (An) and photosynthetic electron flow were reduced in infected plants. Therefore, the galling of L. invasa not only declined the water supply from stem to leaves, but also restricted water transport within leaf. As a result, galled plants of E. camaldulensis reduced leaf number, leaf area, SD and gs to balance water supply and transpirational demand. Furthermore, galled plants had lower leaf nitrogen content, leading to decreases in chlorophyll content, CO2 assimilation rate and photosynthetic electron flow. These results indicate that the change in hydraulic architecture is responsible for the inhibition of growth rate in galled plants. PMID:26913043

  8. Gall-induction in insects: evolutionary dead-end or speciation driver?

    PubMed

    Hardy, Nate B; Cook, Lyn G

    2010-08-25

    The tree of life is significantly asymmetrical - a result of differential speciation and extinction - but general causes of such asymmetry are unclear. Differences in niche partitioning are thought to be one possible general explanation. Ecological specialization might lead to increases in diversification rate or, alternatively, specialization might limit the evolutionary potential of specialist lineages and increase their extinction risk. Here we compare the diversification rates of gall-inducing and non-galling insect lineages. Compared with other insect herbivores feeding on the same host plant, gall-inducing insects feed on plant tissue that is more nutritious and less defended, and they do so in a favorable microhabitat that may also provide some protection from natural enemies. We use sister-taxon comparisons to test whether gall-inducing lineages are more host-specific than non-galling lineages, and more or less diverse than non-gallers. We evaluate the significance of diversity bipartitions under Equal Rates Markov models, and use maximum likelihood model-fitting to test for shifts in diversification rates. We find that, although gall-inducing insect groups are more host-specific than their non-galling relatives, there is no general significant increase in diversification rate in gallers. However, gallers are found at both extremes - two gall-inducing lineages are exceptionally diverse (Euurina sawflies on Salicaceae and Apiomorpha scale insects on Eucalytpus), and one gall-inducing lineage is exceptionally species-poor (Maskellia armored scales on Eucalyptus). The effect of ecological specialization on diversification rates is complex in the case of gall-inducing insects, but host range may be an important factor. When a gall-inducing lineage has a host range approximate to that of its non-galling sister, the gallers are more diverse. When the non-galler clade has a much wider host range than the galler, the non-galler is also much more diverse. There are

  9. Agrocinopine A, a phosphorylated opine is secreted from crown gall cells

    PubMed Central

    Messens, E.; Lenaerts, A.; Hedges, R. W.; Montagu, M. Van

    1985-01-01

    We showed that phosphorus-containing metabolites of crown gall tissues were all taken up by appropriate pTi+ agrobacteria. All but one were also taken up by pTi- bacteria. This one compound, produced by nopaline-, but not by octopine-type tumours, was the only phosphorylated organic compound actively secreted by healthy crown gall cells, and it appears to be agrocinopine A. Testing crown gall cell exudates may be a general procedure for the identification of opines by transformed plant cells. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:15926217

  10. Ruptured Gall Bladder containing Stones following Blunt Trauma Abdomen: A Rare Presentation of Hemodynamic Instability.

    PubMed

    Goel, V; Kumar, N; Soni, N

    2015-01-01

    Gall bladder injuries are seen in 2% of patients undergoing laparotomy for blunt trauma abdomen. Isolated gall bladder injury is a rare event with associated presence of stones is even rarer. The associated visceral injuries lead to intraoperative identification in most cases. Here we present a case of 30 years old male with isolated gall bladder laceration following blunt abdominal trauma. The diagnosis of gallbladder perforation after blunt injury may be suspected in patients with signs of an acute abdomen and hypotension that is not explained by blood loss. Early suspicion and prompt exploration is imperative. Cholecystectomy is an adequate treatment for the condition.

  11. Characterization of Viral Communities of Biting Midges and Identification of Novel Thogotovirus Species and Rhabdovirus Genus

    PubMed Central

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Robert, Catherine; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg; Desnues, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    More than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them RNA viruses represent the majority. Ceratopogonidae (genus Culicoides) are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.). They are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the Oropouche virus. Female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. In this context, we report here the analysis of RNA viral communities of Senegalese biting midges using next-generation sequencing techniques as a preliminary step toward the identification of potential viral biohazards. Sequencing of the RNA virome of three pools of Culicoides revealed the presence of a significant diversity of viruses infecting plants, insects and mammals. Several novel viruses were detected, including a novel Thogotovirus species, related but genetically distant from previously described tick-borne thogotoviruses. Novel rhabdoviruses were also detected, possibly constituting a novel Rhabdoviridae genus, and putatively restricted to insects. Sequences related to the major viruses transmitted by Culicoides, i.e., African horse sickness, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses were also detected. This study highlights the interest in monitoring the emergence and circulation of zoonoses and epizooties using their arthropod vectors. PMID:26978389

  12. The genomic basis of circadian and circalunar timing adaptations in a midge.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Tobias S; Poehn, Birgit; Szkiba, David; Preussner, Marco; Sedlazeck, Fritz J; Zrim, Alexander; Neumann, Tobias; Nguyen, Lam-Tung; Betancourt, Andrea J; Hummel, Thomas; Vogel, Heiko; Dorner, Silke; Heyd, Florian; von Haeseler, Arndt; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin

    2016-12-01

    Organisms use endogenous clocks to anticipate regular environmental cycles, such as days and tides. Natural variants resulting in differently timed behaviour or physiology, known as chronotypes in humans, have not been well characterized at the molecular level. We sequenced the genome of Clunio marinus, a marine midge whose reproduction is timed by circadian and circalunar clocks. Midges from different locations show strain-specific genetic timing adaptations. We examined genetic variation in five C. marinus strains from different locations and mapped quantitative trait loci for circalunar and circadian chronotypes. The region most strongly associated with circadian chronotypes generates strain-specific differences in the abundance of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II.1 (CaMKII.1) splice variants. As equivalent variants were shown to alter CaMKII activity in Drosophila melanogaster, and C. marinus (Cma)-CaMKII.1 increases the transcriptional activity of the dimer of the circadian proteins Cma-CLOCK and Cma-CYCLE, we suggest that modulation of alternative splicing is a mechanism for natural adaptation in circadian timing.

  13. Biting rates and developmental substrates for biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Iquitos, Peru.

    PubMed

    Mercer, David R; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B

    2003-11-01

    Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 periurban and rural sites around Iquitos, Peru, between 17 October 1996 and 26 May 1997. Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi), the principal vector of Oropouche virus, was the most commonly collected species (9,086 flies) with Culicoides insinuatus Wirth & Blanton second (7,229 flies). Although both species were collected at all sampling sites (linear (distance surveyed approximately 25 km), C. paraensis dominated at northern collection sites (> 90%), whereas C. insinuatus prevailed at southern collection sites (> 60%). C. paraensis were collected from human sentinels at a constant rate throughout daylight hours, at similar rates during wet and dry months, and regardless of rainfall. Larval developmental substrates for C. paraensis included decaying platano (Musa x paradisiaca L. [Musaceae]) stems, stumps, flowers, fruits, and debris beneath platano trees as well as from soil beneath a fruiting mamay (Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry [Myrtaceae] ) tree and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline. C. insinuatus adults likewise emerged from decaying platano and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline, but also from debris accumulated in the axils of aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L. [Palmae]) fronds and decaying citrus fruit. Despite high numbers of biting adults near putative substrates, adults of neither species emerged from other decomposing plant material, soil, phytotelmata, or artificial containers. Because both species of biting midges emerged in high numbers from all parts of platano (ubiquitous in Iquitos), it will be challenging to control them through sanitation.

  14. Characterization of Viral Communities of Biting Midges and Identification of Novel Thogotovirus Species and Rhabdovirus Genus.

    PubMed

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Robert, Catherine; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg; Desnues, Christelle

    2016-03-11

    More than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them RNA viruses represent the majority. Ceratopogonidae (genus Culicoides) are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.). They are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the Oropouche virus. Female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. In this context, we report here the analysis of RNA viral communities of Senegalese biting midges using next-generation sequencing techniques as a preliminary step toward the identification of potential viral biohazards. Sequencing of the RNA virome of three pools of Culicoides revealed the presence of a significant diversity of viruses infecting plants, insects and mammals. Several novel viruses were detected, including a novel Thogotovirus species, related but genetically distant from previously described tick-borne thogotoviruses. Novel rhabdoviruses were also detected, possibly constituting a novel Rhabdoviridae genus, and putatively restricted to insects. Sequences related to the major viruses transmitted by Culicoides, i.e., African horse sickness, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses were also detected. This study highlights the interest in monitoring the emergence and circulation of zoonoses and epizooties using their arthropod vectors.

  15. Continuous activity and no cycling of clock genes in the Antarctic midge during the polar summer.

    PubMed

    Kobelkova, Alena; Goto, Shin G; Peyton, Justin T; Ikeno, Tomoko; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L

    2015-10-01

    The extreme seasonal shifts of day length in polar regions, ranging from constant light in the summer to constant darkness in the winter, pose an intriguing environment for probing activity rhythms and the functioning of circadian clocks. Here, we monitor locomotor activity during the summer on the Antarctic Peninsula and under laboratory conditions, as well as the accompanying patterns of clock gene expression in the Antarctic midge, the only insect endemic to Antarctica. Larvae and adults are most active during the warmest portion of the day, but at a constant temperature they remain continuously active regardless of the photoregime, and activity also persists in constant darkness. The canonical clock genes period, timeless, Clock, and vrille are expressed in the head but we detected no cycling of expression in either the field or under diverse photoregimes in the laboratory. The timekeeping function of the clock has possibly been lost, enabling the midge to opportunistically exploit the unpredictable availability of permissive thermal conditions for growth, development, and reproduction during the short summer in Antarctica.

  16. Toxicity of eight metals to Malaysian freshwater midge larvae Chironomus javanus (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Yakub, Nadzifah; Umirah, Nur Shahirul; Abas, Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    Fourth instars larvae of freshwater midge Chironomus javanus (Diptera, Chironomidae) were exposed for a 4-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), aluminium (Al) and manganese (Mn) concentrations. Mortality was assessed and median lethal concentrations (LC(50)) were calculated. LC(50) increased with the decrease in mean exposure times, for all metals. LC(50)s for 96 hours for Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Al and Mn were 0.17, 0.06, 5.57, 0.72, 5.32, 0.62, 1.43 and 5.27 mg/L, respectively. Metals bioconcentration in C. javanus increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cd was the most toxic to C. javanus, followed by Cu, Fe, Pb, Al, Mn, Zn and Ni (Cd > Cu > Fe > Pb > Al > Mn > Zn > Ni). Comparison of LC(50) values for metals for this species with those for other freshwater midges reveals that C. javanus is equally or more sensitive to metals than most other tested dipteran.

  17. Design features of a proposed insecticidal sugar trap for biting midges.

    PubMed

    Cohnstaedt, Lee William; Snyder, Darren

    2016-09-30

    Insecticidal sugar baits for mosquitoes and house ies have proven e cacy to reduce insect populations and consequently, disease transmission rates. The new insecticidal sugar trap (IST) is designed speci cally for controlling biting midge disease vector populations around livestock and near larval habitats. The trap operates by combining light-emitting diode (LED) technology with insecticidal sugar baits. The positive photo attraction of Culicoides elicited by the LEDs, draws the insects to the insecticidal sugar bait, which can be made from various commercial insecticide formulations (pyrethroids, neonicotinoids, etc.) or naturally derived formulations (boric acid, garlic oil, etc.) lethal to Culicoides. Insecticidal sugar trap advantages include: customizable LED lights, they can be used with several di erent oral insecticides that have di erent modes of action to help combat the evolution of pesticide resistance, screening on the trap reduces non-target insect feeding (for example bees and butter ies), targets males and females of the species because both must feed on sugar, and low energy LEDs and a solar panel reduce trap maintenance to re lling sugar baits, rather than replacing batteries. This article discusses key components of an IST, which increase the traps e ectiveness for biting midge control.

  18. Anti-inflammatory triterpenes from Pistacia terebinthus galls.

    PubMed

    Giner-Larza, Eva M; Máñez, Salvador; Giner, Rosa M; Recio, M Carmen; Prieto, José M; Cerdá-Nicolás, Miguel; Ríos, José Luis

    2002-04-01

    From the galls of Pistacia terebinthus we obtained an extract that proved to be effective against chronic and acute inflammation. Now we report on the isolation and identification of three triterpenes: two tirucallane-type lanostanoids and one oleanane, which we have identified as masticadienonic acid (1), masticadienolic acid (2), and morolic acid (3), respectively. All of them showed effectiveness on the mouse ear inflammation induced by repeated applications of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate and on the phospholipase A2-induced foot paw edema. The pharmacological activity of the compounds was ratified by a histological study of the ear samples. In addition, they inhibited leukotriene B4 production in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated with calcium ionophore A 23187.

  19. Octopine Accumulation Early in Crown Gall Development is Progressive 1

    PubMed Central

    Toothman, Penelope

    1982-01-01

    A purification of octopine from crown gall tissue was developed to quantitate conversion of precursor [3H]arginine into [3H]octopine. Plant wound tissue which was sterile or infected with an avirulent strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens did not accumulate detectable quantities of octopine, consistent with opine synthesis not being induced by wounding or infection. Octopine was only recovered from tissue infected with virulent tumor-inducing strains of A. tumefaciens. In every case tested, the morphological appearance of tumors preceded the accumulation of octopine by at least 1 week, and in some instances 3 weeks. Thus, what was necessary and sufficient for the expression of plant hormones (auxin and cytokinin) required for tumor growth was not sufficient for the accumulation of octopine. The possible nature of the temporal difference in the expression of hormone autotrophy and octopine synthesis is discussed. Images PMID:16662161

  20. Ptotic gall bladder with hepatic masses: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Hasan; Aydin, Z Banu; Hekimoğlu, Baki; Görmeli, Ayşe

    2013-01-01

    Gall bladder (GB) may be found in a variety of abnormal positions. Most of them are due to arrested development of embryonic growth at different stages. A 63-year-old female patient was admitted to our radiology unit for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver for the lesions identified in abdominal ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT). MRI showed that there was a lobulated heterogenous mass in the left lobe of the liver and a smaller one in the right lobe of the liver with the same appearance. The inferior pole of the liver was located in the pelvic space, and the GB, which contained sludges and stones, was lying down to the upper pelvic space. Hepatic masses were considered to be hemangiomas, and GB was diagnosed as ptotic GB with luminal sludge and stones. In this case, especially, MR imaging helped the surgeon to plan a proper approach to the GB in abnormal localization.

  1. Production of anticandidal cotton textiles treated with oak gall extract.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F; Abdel-Monem, Omnia A; El-Sabbagh, Sabha M; Alsohim, Abdullah S; El-Refai, Elham M

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans, one of the most dreadful fungal pathogens threatening humans, could not be easily prevented. The anticandidal activity of oak gall extract, Quercus infectoria (QIE), was investigated as a potential natural alternative to synthetic and chemical fungicides. QIE anticandidal potentiality was confirmed using both qualitative and quantitative assays. Cotton textiles were treated with QIE and then evaluated as anticandidal fabrics. QIE-treated textiles had a potent anticandidal activity, which could completely inhibit the inoculated C. albicans cells. The durability of anticandidal activity in QIE-treated textiles almost completely disappeared after the fourth laundering cycle. QIE could be recommended, however, as a potent anticandidal agent for preparing antiseptic solutions and emulsions and as a finishing agent for manufacturing anticandidal disposable diapers and hygienic clothes. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. VIII. Fergusobia from small galls on shoot buds, with descriptions of four new species.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kerrie A; Bartholomaeus, Faerlie; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Ye, Weimin; Taylor, Gary S; Thomas, W Kelley

    2014-08-28

    Small shoot bud galls induced by the Fergusobia (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae)/Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) mutualism occur on various Eucalyptus spp. Four new species of Fergusobia, collected from small shoot bud galls on Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. gomphocephala and E. leucoxylon, are described. Fergusobia gomphocephalae Davies n. sp. is morphologically characterized by a combination of a small C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a variable, conoid tail, a small C-shaped infective female with a hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate or J-shaped male with a broad tail, angular spicule and short peloderan bursa. Fergusobia leucoxylonae Davies n. sp. has a C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a conoid tail with a narrowly rounded tip, an arcuate infective female with a broadly rounded tail tip, and an almost straight to barely J-shaped male with angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicule and short bursa. Fergusobia schmidti Davies & Bartholomaeus n. sp. has an arcuate to open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a relatively large body diameter, relatively long stylet and small tail with a broadly rounded tail tip, an open C-shaped infective female with a broadly rounded to hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate to barely J-shaped male with spicules angular at about 33% of their length and peloderan bursa arising at about half body length. Fergusobia sporangae Davies n. sp. has an arcuate to open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a relatively long stylet and a broadly rounded tail tip, an arcuate infective female with a short tail with a broadly rounded to hemispherical tip, and an arcuate to barely J-shaped male with angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicule and short peloderan bursa. Various forms of small shoot bud galls are described. From phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the D2/D3 expansion segment of the large subunit rRNA gene, the four new species belong to two sister clades of Fergusobia. The larval shield morphology of their associated

  3. Revision of the net-winged midges of the genus Blepharicera macquart (diptera: blephariceridae) of eastern North America

    Treesearch

    Gregory W. Courtney

    2000-01-01

    The net-winged midges (Diptera: Blephariceridae: Blepharicera Macquart) of eastern North America are revised to include 16 species. Seven new species are described: B. caudata, n. sp., B. chooga, n. sp, B. corniculata, n. sp., B. magna, n. sp., and B. tuberosa, n. sp. from the southern Appalachians; B....

  4. Gouty pitch midge damage to ponderosa pines planted on fertile and infertile soils in the western Sierra Nevada

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell; William D. Bedard; James L. Jenkinson

    1987-01-01

    Crown damage caused by gouty pitch midge (GPM) and its effects on tree growth were assessed in two 14-year-old ponderosa pine plantations, one on a shallow, infertile soil derived from serpentine and the other on a deeper, more fertile nonserpentine soil of marine parent material. Seed sources for each plantation were nearby indigenous stands on the same soils. Trees...

  5. Leaf-Mining and Gall-Forming Insects: Tools for Teaching Population Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Valerie K.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the use of leaf mines (formed by larvae of small moths or flies) and galls (wasps' larvae) in various insect population studies. Also considers the advantages of using these structures for instructional purposes. (DH)

  6. Do Cecidomyiidae galls of Aspidosperma spruceanum (Apocynaceae) fit the pre-established cytological and histochemical patterns?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Magalhães, Thiago Alves; Carneiro, Renê Gonçalves Silva; Alvim, Marina Neiva; Isaias, Rosy Mary Santos

    2010-06-01

    Cecidomyiidae galls commonly present a zonation of tissues with lignified cell layers externally limiting a reserve tissue and internally limiting a specialized nutritive tissue next to the larval chamber. The cytological aspects of this specialized tissue indicate high metabolic activity as well as carbohydrate accumulation. In Aspidosperma spruceanum-Cecidomyiidae gall system, ultrastructural and histochemical investigations corroborated this pattern and also revealed the storage of proteins in the nutritive cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), callose, and pectin accumulation were related to the feeding activity of the galling herbivore. Phosphorylase, glucose-6-phosphatase, acid phosphatases, invertases, and sucrose synthase activities were detected for the first time, in the Neotropical region, and discussed in relation to gall maintenance and the feeding activity of the Cecidomyiidae.

  7. Population Heterogeneity of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Galls of Populus L. from a Single Nursery

    PubMed Central

    Nesme, Xavier; Michel, Marie-France; Digat, Bernard

    1987-01-01

    This study focused on the natural crown gall infections occurring in a Leuce poplar nursery. Soil effects on crown gall frequency were detected, indicating that contamination was due to a resident Agrobacterium tumefaciens population, which was present before seedling plantation. The crown gall frequency on poplar progenies varied from 3 to 67%, indicating the feasibility of improvement in crown gall resistance. Of 129 tumor isolates, 128 were pathogenic. These isolates were of biotype 1 or 2. Biochemical, serological, and antibiotic resistance typing results concurred, indicating the presence of four biotype 1 and two biotype 2 resident subpopulations. No significant change was noticed in the relative proportions of subpopulations from one year to another. Pathogenic subpopulations both in vitro and in planta were susceptible to Kerr K84 (P. B. New and A. Kerr, J. Appl. Bacteriol. 90:172-179, 1972). In addition, no serological cross-reactions were found to occur between K84 and the pathogenic subpopulations. PMID:16347314

  8. Preliminary report on the segregation of resistance in chestnuts to infestation by oriental chestnut gall wasp

    Treesearch

    S Anagnostakis; Stacy Clark; Henry Mcnab

    2009-01-01

    In 1995, hybrid chestnuts were planted in North Carolina, (southern U.S.A.),where the introduced insect Oriental Chestnut Gall Wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) ispresent. Of the 93 trees planted, 53 survived 12 years and were evaluated for the

  9. Non-operative treatment for gall-stone ileus - a case report.

    PubMed

    Mishin, Igor; Ghidirim, Gheorghe; Zastavnitsky, Gheorghe

    2011-04-01

    Gall-stone intestinal obstruction (GSO) is an unusual form of mechanical obstruction and a rare complication of cholelithiasis. The treatment options are controversial, usually the management is surgical but associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A spontaneous evacuation of the gall-stone that had induced GSO is even more exceptional, only few reports being published up to date. We report the case of an 81-year-old female patient presenting GSO admitted to our department due to abdominal pain and vomiting. Computed tomography revealed pneumobilia, distention of the ileum and a calcified mass in the small bowel lumen. The diagnosis of GSO was established, but since the gall-stone was <25 mm and severe cardiorespiratory co-morbidities conservative treatment was initiated and spontaneous evacuation of the gall-stone was obtained. Diagnostic and management modalities of GSO as well as literature reviews are reported.

  10. Leaf-Mining and Gall-Forming Insects: Tools for Teaching Population Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Valerie K.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the use of leaf mines (formed by larvae of small moths or flies) and galls (wasps' larvae) in various insect population studies. Also considers the advantages of using these structures for instructional purposes. (DH)

  11. Anti-Lipoxygenase Activity of Leaf Gall Extracts of Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Ramachandra, Yarappa Lakshmikantha; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Subbaiah, Sujan Ganapathy Pasura; Austin, Richard Surendranath; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2016-01-01

    Lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors are the promising therapeutic target for treating a wide spectrum of inflammatory-related diseases such as cancer, asthma, lymphoma, leukemia, and autoimmune disorders. In the present study, the photochemical constituents and the anti-LOX potential of leaf galls of Terminalia chebula are evaluated to exemplify its further potential development as medicine. Extracts of T. chebula galls were tested for anti-LOX activity using linoleic acid as substrate and lipoxidase as an enzyme and also the total content of polyphenols with phytochemical analysis of the extract were determined. The presence of highest total phenolic and flavonoid content of 141 ± 2.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g d.w and 125 ± 1.4 mg of quercetin equivalent/g d.w and maximal LOX inhibitory activity (52.67%) at 800 μg/mL concentrations were identified in the ethanolic extracts of leaf galls of T.chebula. The higher LOX inhibitory activity was positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of T. chebula leaves gall extracts as a natural anti-inflammatory agent and justify its ethnobotanical use. Therefore, the results encourage the use of T. chebula leave gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food, and nutraceuticals applications. SUMMARY The present investigation demonstrated promising anti-LOX proper-ties of T. chebula leaves gall extracts. Presumably, these activities could be attributed in part to the polyphenolic features of the extract, as there was a strong correlation of higher LOX inhibiting activities with that of high total phenolic and flavonoid content in the methanolic leaf gall extracts of T. chebula. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of T. chebula leaves gall extracts as a natural anti-inflammatory agent and justify the ethnobotanical approach in the search for novel bioactive com-pounds. PMID:26941541

  12. Ultrasonic parameters of renal calculi and gall bladder stones as a function of density.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, R

    1998-01-01

    In this investigation, ultrasonic parameters of complex renal calculi and gall bladder stones, in vitro are measured using a double-probe contact by pulse-echo technique. Due to the variation in the chemical composition of the stones, a large variation in the value of ultrasonic parameters is found. A correlation between ultrasonic parameters and various renal calculi and gall bladder stone pathologies are also discussed. The ultrasonic parameters are found to vary as a function of density of the specimen used.

  13. [Physical and colloidal properties picture of gall in patients with hepatitis on background standard diet].

    PubMed

    Neronov, V A

    2009-01-01

    Changes of physical properties and colloidal properties and microscopic picture of gall and liver bladder are detected in patients with virus hepatic B and C. A big number of chrystal elements (cholesterol chrystals gall acids, calcium belirubinates, microlytes) as well as cyllindic epithelium cells are revealed. The revealed changes degree isn't conncted with virus hepatitis ethyology, but proportionate to intensity of expressive changes in liver parenchyma.

  14. Evaluation of biofilm removal activity of Quercus infectoria galls against Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi-Sichani, Maryam; Karbasizadeh, Vajihe; Dokhaharani, Samaneh Chaharmiri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting humans of all ages. Streptococcus mutans has an important role in the development of dental caries by acid production. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and biofilm disinfective effects of the oak tree Quercus infectoria galls against S. mutans. Materials and Methods: The bacterial strain used in this study was S. mutans (ATCC: 35668). Two kinds of galls, Mazouj and Ghalghaf were examined. Galls were extracted by methanol, ethanol and acetone by Soxhlet apparatus, separately. Extracts were dissolved in sterile distilled water to a final concentration of 10.00, 5.00, 2.50, 1.25, 0.63, 0.31, and 0.16 mg/ml. Microdilution determined antibacterial activities. The biofilm removal activities of the extracts were examined using crystal violet-stained microtiter plate method. One-way ANOVA was used to compare biofilm formation in the presence or absence of the extracts. Results: The methanolic, ethanolic, and acetonic extracts of Q. infectoria galls showed the strong inhibitory effects on S. mutans (P < 0.05). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for the Mazouj and Ghalghaf gall extracts against S. mutans were identical. The MIC values ranged from 160 μg/ml to 320 μg/ml, whereas the MBC values ranged from 320 μg/ml to 640 μg/ml. All extracts of Q. infectoria galls significantly (P < 0.05) reduced biofilm biomass of S. mutans at the concentrations higher than 9.8 μg/ml. Conclusion: Three different extracts of Q. infectoria galls were similar in their antibacterial activity against S. mutans. These extracts had the highest biofilm removal activities at 312.5 μg/ml concentration. The galls of Q. infectoria are potentially good sources of antibacterial and biofilm disinfection agent. PMID:26962315

  15. Heat Tolerance and Aging of the Anhydrobiotic Seed Gall Nematode with SEM Observations.

    PubMed

    Eisenback, J D; Wei, Ma; Roane, C W

    2013-03-01

    The seed gall nematode, Anguina agrostis, feeds and reproduces within the developing ovaries of bentgrass seeds and overwinters in seed galls as anhydrobiotic juveniles. These dormant juveniles can survive within the seed gall for many years. In this dehydrated state, they are more tolerant to extreme environmental conditions than are their hydrated counterparts. Nematodes in seed galls were exposed to various high temperatures (80 to 160°C) for time intervals of 5 to 30 min. Survival decreased as time and temperature increased. Remarkably, these nematodes survived exposure to 155°C for 5 min, higher than that recorded for any other metazoan. In contrast, seed galls that had been stored at room temperature and humidity for 5 yr also survived exposure to extreme temperatures; however, their survival rates were not as high as those for freshly collected galls. Juveniles within the seed gall were coiled and grouped together conforming to the shape of the seed gall. The gross morphology of the cuticle of the juveniles was very smooth and relatively undistorted by the shrinkage from the loss water from their body tissues. Wherever the nematodes were cut with a razor blade, a small amount of their contents oozed out of the opening and coalesced with that of other nearby specimens and appeared gel-like. Elucidation of the mechanisms that enable these nematodes to remain viable after exposure to extreme heat remains a mystery. Understanding the changes that occur in these nematodes as they rehydrate and return to life from an ametabolic state may have major impacts on the life sciences, including insights into the answer of the age-old question: "What is life?"

  16. Chronic and acute infection of the gall bladder by Salmonella Typhi: understanding the carrier state

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Escobedo, Geoffrey; Marshall, Joanna M.; Gunn, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite major treatment and prevention efforts, millions of new typhoid infections occur worldwide each year. For a subset of infected individuals, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi colonizes the gall bladder and remains there long after symptoms subside, serving as a reservoir for the further spread of the disease. In this Progress article, we explore recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which Salmonella spp. — predominantly S. Typhi — colonize and persist in the human gall bladder. PMID:21113180

  17. Patterns of cell elongation in the determination of the final shape in galls of Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Psyllidae) on Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Thiago Alves; de Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Suzuki, Aline Yasko Marinho; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Cell redifferentiation, division, and elongation are recurrent processes, which occur during gall development, and are dependent on the cellulose microfibrils reorientation. We hypothesized that changes in the microfibrils orientation from non-galled tissues to galled ones occur and determine the final gall shape. This determination is caused by a new tissue zonation, its hyperplasia, and relative cell hypertrophy. The impact of the insect's activity on these patterns of cell development was herein tested in Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae-Baccharis dracunculifolia system. In this system, the microfibrils are oriented perpendicularly to the longest cell axis in elongated cells and randomly in isodiametric ones, either in non-galled or in galled tissues. The isodiametric cells of the abaxial epidermis in non-galled tissues divided and elongated periclinally, forming the outer gall epidermis. The anticlinally elongated cells of the abaxial palisade layer and the isodiametric cells of the spongy parenchyma originated the gall outer cortex with hypertrophied and periclinally elongated cells. The anticlinally elongated cells of the adaxial palisade layer originated the inner cortex with hypertrophied and periclinally elongated cells in young and mature galls and isodiametric cells in senescent galls. The isodiametric cells of the adaxial epidermis elongated periclinally in the inner gall epidermis. The current investigation demonstrates the role of cellulose microfibril reorientation for gall development. Once many factors other than this reorientation act on gall development, it should be interesting to check the possible relationship of the new cell elongation patterns with the pectic composition of the cell walls.

  18. Histopathogenesis of the Galls Induced by Nothanguina phyllobia in Solanum elaeagnifolium

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, J. A.; Orr, C. C.; Robinson, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    The histopathogenesis of the foliar galls induced by Nothanguina phyllobia Thorne in Solanum elaeagnilolium Cav. was examined via serial sections prepared from plant shoots at 11 time intervals (0.5-30 days) following inoculation. Nematodes infected the blades and petioles of young leaves surrounding the shoot apex. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the palisade, pith, cortical, and vascular parenchyma resulted in the formation of confluent leaf, petiole, and stem galls up to 25 cm³ in volume. Externally, leaf galls were irregular, light-green, convoluted spheroid bulges distending the abaxial surface. Mature galls contained a cavity lined with parenchymogenous nutritive tissue comprising intercellular spaces and actively dividing hypertrophied cells. These cells contained granular cytoplasm, hypertrophied nuclei, and brightly stained large nucleoli. Vascular tissues were not discernibly affected during the early stages of gall development. As gall development progressed, however, vascular elements were often displaced and disoriented. The histopathology of this nematode indicates that N. phyllobia is a highly specialized parasite and, for that reason, is suitable as a biological control agent. PMID:19300686

  19. The effect of Quercus brantii gall extract on burn wound healing in rat

    PubMed Central

    Haghdoost, Faraidoon; Baradaran Mahdavi, Mohammad Mehdi; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Najafi, Somaye; Zandifar, Alireza; Manouchehri, Navid; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Quercus brantii galls extract on the rat skin burn wound healing. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract of the galls of Q. brantii was used to treat the induced burn wounds on the back of 32 Wistar rats divided into 4 groups. The groups were treated by placebo, 1%, 2% and 4% concentration gall extract gels for 14 days and the efficacy of treatment was assessed based on reduction of burn wound area, as well as histological and molecular characteristics. Results: The mean wound surface in the 14th day, in all groups treated by Q. brantii gall extracts were larger than control group and the differences were statistically significant (P=0.043). The mean histological wound healing scores were not statistically different. Analysis of nitric oxide and platelet derived growth factor concentration in wound fluids in the 5th day of study showed that there was not any significant difference between groups (P=0.468 and 0.312 respectively). Fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) concentration in the wound fluids, was significantly higher in group treated with 1% gall extract gel in comparison to the control group (P=0.026). Conclusion: Our results could not prove the significant positive effect of Q. brantii galls extract on the burning wound healing. More studies with more groups treated with different doses of the Q. brantii extract are recommended. PMID:27872712

  20. Diversity of galling insects in Styrax pohlii (Styracaceae): edge effect and use as bioindicators.

    PubMed

    de Araújol, Walter Santos; Julião, Genimar Rebouças; Ribeiro, Bárbara Araújo; Silva, Isadora Portes Abraham; dos Santos, Benedito Baptista

    2011-12-01

    Impacts of forest fragmentation and edge effect on plant-herbivores interactions are relatively unknown, and the relationships between galling insects and their host plants are very susceptible to environmental variations. The goal of our study was to test the edge effect hypothesis for galling insects associated with Styrax pohlii (Styracaceae) host plant. Samplings were conducted at a fragment of semi-deciduous forest in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. Thirty host plant individuals (15 at fragment edge and 15 in its interior) were sampled in July of 2007; in each plant, 10 apical branches were collected at the top, middle and bottom crown levels. Our results supported the prediction of greater richness of gall morphotypes in the edge habitat compared with remnant interior. In a similar way, gall abundance and frequency of attacked leaves were also greater in the fragment edge. These findings consequently suggest a positive response of galling insect diversity to edge effect; in the Saint-Hilaire forest, this effect probably operates through the changes in microclimatic conditions of edge habitats, which results in an increased hygrothermal stress, a determinant factor to distribution patterns of galling insects. We also concluded that these organisms could be employed as biological indicators (i) because of their host-specificity, (ii) they are sensitive to changes in plant quality, and (iii) present dissimilar and specific responses to local variation in habitat conditions.

  1. Histopathogenesis of the Galls Induced by Nothanguina phyllobia in Solanum elaeagnifolium.

    PubMed

    Skinner, J A; Orr, C C; Robinson, A F

    1980-04-01

    The histopathogenesis of the foliar galls induced by Nothanguina phyllobia Thorne in Solanum elaeagnilolium Cav. was examined via serial sections prepared from plant shoots at 11 time intervals (0.5-30 days) following inoculation. Nematodes infected the blades and petioles of young leaves surrounding the shoot apex. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the palisade, pith, cortical, and vascular parenchyma resulted in the formation of confluent leaf, petiole, and stem galls up to 25 cm(3) in volume. Externally, leaf galls were irregular, light-green, convoluted spheroid bulges distending the abaxial surface. Mature galls contained a cavity lined with parenchymogenous nutritive tissue comprising intercellular spaces and actively dividing hypertrophied cells. These cells contained granular cytoplasm, hypertrophied nuclei, and brightly stained large nucleoli. Vascular tissues were not discernibly affected during the early stages of gall development. As gall development progressed, however, vascular elements were often displaced and disoriented. The histopathology of this nematode indicates that N. phyllobia is a highly specialized parasite and, for that reason, is suitable as a biological control agent.

  2. Clinical findings and prognostic factors for dogs undergoing cholecystectomy for gall bladder mucocele.

    PubMed

    Malek, Sarah; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Hosgood, Giselle; Moens, Noel M M; Baily, Trina; Boston, Sarah E

    2013-05-01

    To report clinical findings and explore prognostic factors for dogs that had cholecystectomy for gall bladder mucocele. Retrospective case series. Dogs (n = 43) with gall bladder mucoceles. Diagnosis of gall bladder mucoceles was confirmed by histopathology and 74% were diagnosed based on preoperative abdominal ultrasonography. Intraoperative evidence of gall bladder rupture was noted in 10 dogs (23%), and 16 (37%) had evidence of previous leakage in the abdominal cavity. One dog had positive bacterial growth from the gall bladder content. The most common histopathologic findings in liver biopsies obtained at surgery were cholangiohepatitis, biliary hyperplasia, or cholestasis. Univariate analysis showed evidence of postoperative hypotension (P = .05) to be significantly negatively associated with survival. Significant difference in mean postoperative serum lactate (P = .034) and postoperative packed cell volume (P = .063) between dogs that survived and died was also noted. Elevations in postoperative serum lactate concentrations and immediate postoperative hypotension in dogs undergoing cholecystectomy for gall bladder mucoceles are associated with poor clinical outcome. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  3. Relationship between gastric emptying of solids and gall bladder emptying in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, J N; Grime, J S; Critchley, M; Shields, R

    1985-01-01

    Very little is known about the normal temporal and quantitative relationships between gastric emptying and gall bladder emptying. Using a non-invasive double isotope technique these relationships were investigated in 22 normal healthy adults. 99Tcm EHIDA was used as the biliary tracer and 113Inm labelled bran as the gastric content tracer. Gastric emptying was monoexponential with a t1/2 of 45 +/- 3 minutes (mean +/- SEM). In 15 subjects the gall bladder emptied in relation to eating according to a double exponential function. In these subjects 15.0 +/- 1.6% of gall bladder contents emptied before gastric emptying began. They could be further divided into two clear cut types (p less than 0.001), according to the ejection fraction at 10 minutes and the t1/2 of the first exponential. Emptying of the gall bladder was faster and more of its contents were ejected in subjects with a type I response (n = 9) than in subjects with a type II response (n = 6). In the remaining seven subjects the gall bladder began to empty spontaneously, unrelated to eating. These observations suggest that gall bladder emptying: (a) may have a cephalic phase, (b) can be expressed as a double exponential function, (c) may occur unrelated to eating, (d) which occurs only in relation to eating would appear to be either fast (type I) or slow (type II). PMID:3979907

  4. High-Temperature Galling Characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V with and without Surface Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian; ERDMAN III, DONALD L; Ohriner, Evan Keith; Jolly, Brian C

    2011-01-01

    Galling is a severe form of surface damage in metals and alloys that typically arises under relatively high normal force, low-sliding speed, and in the absence of effective lubrication. It can lead to macroscopic surface roughening and seizure. The occurrence of galling can be especially problematic in high-temperature applications like diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation system components and adjustable turbocharger vanes, because suitable lubricants may not be available, moisture desorption promotes increased adhesion, and the yield strength of metals decreases with temperature. Oxidation can counteract these effects to some extent by forming lubricative oxide films. Two methods to improve the galling resistance of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V were investigated: (a) applying an oxygen diffusion treatment, and (b) creating a metal-matrix composite with TiB2 using a high-intensity infrared heating source. A new, oscillating three-pin-on-flat, high-temperature test method was developed and used to characterize galling behavior relative to a cobalt-based alloy (Stellite 6B ). The magnitude of the oscillating torque, the surface roughness, and observations of surface damage were used as measures of galling resistance. Owing to the formation of lubricative oxide films, the galling resistance of the Ti-alloy at 485o C, even non-treated, was considerably better than it was at room temperature. The IR-formed composite displayed reduced surface damage and lower torque than the substrate titanium alloy.

  5. Characterization of Isolates of Meloidogyne from Rice-Wheat Production Fields in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Pokharel, Ramesh R.; Abawi, George S.; Zhang, Ning; Duxbury, John M.; Smart, Christine D.

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-three isolates of root-knot nematode were recovered from soil samples from rice-wheat fields in Nepal and maintained on rice cv. BR 11. The isolates were characterized using morphology, host range and DNA sequence analyses in order to ascertain their identity. Results indicated phenotypic similarity (juvenile measurements, perennial pattern, host range and gall shape) of the Nepalese isolates with Meloidogyne graminicola, with minor variations. The rice varieties LA 110 and Labelle were susceptible to all of the Nepalese isolates, but differences in the aggressiveness of the isolates were observed. Phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of partial internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the rRNA genes indicated that all Nepalese isolates formed a distinct clade with known isolates of M. graminicola with high bootstrap support. Furthermore, two groups were identified within the M. graminicola clade. No correlation between ITS haplotype and aggressiveness or host range was found among the tested isolates. PMID:19259491

  6. Manipulation of host plant cells and tissues by gall-inducing insects and adaptive strategies used by different feeding guilds.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D C; Isaias, R M S; Fernandes, G W; Ferreira, B G; Carneiro, R G S; Fuzaro, L

    2016-01-01

    Biologists who study insect-induced plant galls are faced with the overwhelming diversity of plant forms and insect species. A challenge is to find common themes amidst this diversity. We discuss common themes that have emerged from our cytological and histochemical studies of diverse neotropical insect-induced galls. Gall initiation begins with recognition of reactive plant tissues by gall inducers, with subsequent feeding and/or oviposition triggering a cascade of events. Besides, to induce the gall structure insects have to synchronize their life cycle with plant host phenology. We predict that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in gall induction, development and histochemical gradient formation. Controlled levels of ROS mediate the accumulation of (poly)phenols, and phytohormones (such as auxin) at gall sites, which contributes to the new cell developmental pathways and biochemical alterations that lead to gall formation. The classical idea of an insect-induced gall is a chamber lined with a nutritive tissue that is occupied by an insect that directly harvests nutrients from nutritive cells via its mouthparts, which function mechanically and/or as a delivery system for salivary secretions. By studying diverse gall-inducing insects we have discovered that insects with needle-like sucking mouthparts may also induce a nutritive tissue, whose nutrients are indirectly harvested as the gall-inducing insects feeds on adjacent vascular tissues. Activity of carbohydrate-related enzymes across diverse galls corroborates this hypothesis. Our research points to the importance of cytological and histochemical studies for elucidating mechanisms of induced susceptibility and induced resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of calcium and iodine in gall bladder stone using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekinci, Neslihan; Şahin, Yusuf

    2002-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques were used to analyze gall bladder stones. Enrichment of Ca and I was observed in the gall bladder stone taken from a patient. The concentration of Ca has been determined with an annular 55Fe radioactive source and the concentration of I with an annular 241Am radioactive source using the standard addition method in 2π geometry. A Si(Li)-detector was used to measure Ca and I concentrations in the gall bladder stones.

  8. Refining methods for conducting long-term sediment and water toxicity tests with Chironomus dilutus: Formation of a midge chronic testing work group

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard methods have been established by USEPA, ASTM International, Environment Canada and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for conducting sediment toxicity tests with various species of midges including Chironomus dilutus. Short-term 10-day exposures are ty...

  9. Functional Validation of Apoptosis Genes IAP1 and DRONC in Midgut Tissue of the Biting Midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) by RNAi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Culicoides biting midges transmit multiple ruminant viruses, including bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, causing significant economic burden worldwide due to trade restrictions and production loss. To limit the spread of these viruses, control strategies focus on ...

  10. Refining methods for conducting long-term sediment and water toxicity tests with Chironomus dilutus: Formation of a midge chronic testing work group

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard methods have been established by USEPA, ASTM International, Environment Canada and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for conducting sediment toxicity tests with various species of midges including Chironomus dilutus. Short-term 10-day exposures are ty...

  11. A cysteine-clamp gene drives embryo polarity in the midge Chironomus*

    PubMed Central

    Klomp, Jeff; Athy, Derek; Kwan, Chun Wai; Bloch, Natasha I.; Sandmann, Thomas; Lemke, Steffen; Schmidt-Ott, Urs

    2015-01-01

    In the common fruit fly Drosophila, head formation is driven by a single gene, bicoid, which generates head-to-tail polarity of the main embryonic axis. Bicoid deficiency results in embryos with tail-to-tail polarity and no head. However, most insects lack bicoid, and the molecular mechanism for establishing head-to-tail polarity is poorly understood. We have identified a gene that establishes head-to-tail polarity of the mosquito-like midge, Chironomus riparius. This gene, named panish, encodes a cysteine-clamp DNA binding domain and operates through a different mechanism than bicoid. This finding, combined with the observation that the phylogenetic distributions of panish and bicoid are limited to specific families of flies, reveals frequent evolutionary changes of body axis determinants and a remarkable opportunity to study gene regulatory network evolution. PMID:25953821

  12. A Key to the Pupal Exuviae of the Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of Everglades National Park, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobsen, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    A key has been developed for identifying the pupal exuviae of 132 taxa of chironomid midges collected in Everglades National Park, as well as 18 additional species from freshwater habitats adjacent to the Park. Descriptions and illustrations are based upon voucher specimens from extensive collections of chironomid pupal exuviae for faunal surveys and biomonitoring research conducted in ENP and surrounding freshwater areas from 1998 to 2007. The key includes taxonomic comments for confirming identifications, as well as brief summaries of the distribution and ecology of each species in southern Florida waters. Information is also provided on the morphology of chironomid pupal exuviae, recommended references for identifying pupal exuviae, techniques for making slides, and methods to confirm proper identification.

  13. A morphological investigation of Culicoides spp. biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Alison

    2004-06-01

    Features of the antennae, maxillary palps, and mouthparts of the females of seven species of Culicoides spp. biting midges collected from a montane rainforest site in Trinidad, West Indies, were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. Comparisons were made with two British species, Culicoides impunctatus and Culicoides nubeculosus. Species-specific differences were demonstrated in the camber and pitch of mandibular teeth, the size and shape of the subapical labral sensilla, the size and depth of the palpal sensory pit, and the number and shape of heads of the palpal sensilla. Counts of sensilla coeloconica and palpal sensilla were suggested as being contributory features for the prediction of host preference, indicating that Culicoides darlingtonae, Culicoides glabellus, Culicoides insinuatus, Culicoides paraensis, and Culicoides pseudodiabolicus were probably mammalophilic species. The host preferences of Culicoides heliconiae and Culicoides flavivenula could not be determined accurately.

  14. Sensitivity of midge larvae of Chironomus tentans Fabricius (Diptera Chironomidae) to heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1989-03-01

    The discharge of heavy metals into the natural waters has numerous obvious impacts on physical, chemical and biological parameters of aquatic ecosystem. Bioassay tests are important steps in establishing appropriate water quality criteria and standards for diverse use of ponds, lakes, streams and river waters. Therefore, the acute toxicities of various heavy metals to water flea Daphnia magna, and snail Lymnaea acuminata, and toad tadpoles Bufo mentanostictus have been reported from the authors' laboratory. Chironomid larvae might be particularly useful as indicators of water quality because they are widely distributed in freshwater systems and often from diverse communities within particular habitat. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of ten heavy metals to the midge larvae Chironomus tentans Fabricius, which forms an important link in aquatic food chain(s).

  15. Sugar-feeding behaviour and longevity of European Culicoides biting midges.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, C; Mathis, A; Vorburger, C

    2015-03-01

    Most haematophagous insect vectors can also use sugar as an energy source; thus their sugar-feeding behaviour influences their longevity and blood-feeding rate and hence their vectorial capacity. Scant information is available on the sugar-feeding behaviour of Culicoides Latreille biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), which are vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses. The longevity of laboratory-reared Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) under fluctuating temperatures (16 and 28 °C) and with access to water or water and blood was on average 6.4 days and 8.9 days, respectively, which was around one third of the lifespan of siblings with access to sugar or sugar and blood (22.2 days and 27.1 days, respectively). Access to honeydew significantly increased the midge's longevity, whereas the provision of extrafloral nectaries had no impact. Females with access to sugar produced a significantly higher number of eggs (65.5 ± 5.2) than their starved sisters (45.4 ± 8.4). More than 80% of field-caught female Culicoides from the two most abundant European groups, Obsoletus (n = 2243) and Pulicaris (n = 805), were fructose-positive. Fructose-positivity was high in all physiological stages and no seasonal variability was noted. The high rate of natural sugar feeding of Culicoides offers opportunities for the development of novel control strategies using toxic sugar baits and for the monitoring of vector-borne diseases using sugar-treated FTA (nucleic acid preservation) cards in the field. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  16. Dehydration, rehydration, and overhydration alter patterns of gene expression in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Martinez, Giancarlo; Benoit, Joshua B; Rinehart, Joseph P; Elnitsky, Michael A; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L

    2009-05-01

    We investigated molecular responses elicited by three types of dehydration (fast, slow and cryoprotective), rehydration and overhydration in larvae of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica. The larvae spend most the year encased in ice but during the austral summer are vulnerable to summer storms, osmotic stress from ocean spray and drying conditions due to wind and intense sunlight. Using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH), we obtained clones that were potentially responsive to dehydration and then used northern blots to evaluate the gene's responsiveness to different dehydration rates and hydration states. Among the genes most responsive to changes in the hydration state were those encoding heat shock proteins (smHsp, Hsp70, Hsp90), antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase), detoxification (metallothionein, cytochrome p450), genes involved in altering cell membranes (fatty acid desaturase, phospholipase A2 activating protein, fatty acyl CoA desaturase) and the cytoskeleton (actin, muscle-specific actin), and several additional genes including a zinc-finger protein, pacifastin and VATPase. Among the three types of dehydration evaluated, fast dehydration elicited the strongest response (more genes, higher expression), followed by cryoprotective dehydration and slow dehydration. During rehydration most, but not all, genes that were expressed during dehydration continued to be expressed; fatty acid desaturase was the only gene to be uniquely upregulated in response to rehydration. All genes examined, except VATPase, were upregulated in response to overhydration. The midge larvae are thus responding quickly to water loss and gain by expressing genes that encode proteins contributing to maintenance of proper protein function, protection and overall cell homeostasis during times of osmotic flux, a challenge that is particularly acute in this Antarctic environment.

  17. Moonlight receptor of the "1-h-midge" Clunio marinus studied by micro-XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkenberg, G.; Fleissner, Ge; Neumann, D.; Wellenreuther, G.; Alraun, P.; Fleissner, Gue

    2013-10-01

    Melanin is a pigment widely occurring in animals, plants, fungi and algae. It does not only colour skin, hair and eyes but serves mainly as photoprotectant and prevents overload with minerals induced by inflammations, infections and degenerative diseases. Therefore, the mechanisms underlying melanisation gained increasing interest in the field of biomedical research and clinic. So far, the processes of melanogenesis are only partly analysed, nearly nothing is known on a putative switch between melanins of different types. Here we offer a model organism to study these mechanisms as part of a naturally cycling change of transparency of the retinal shielding pigment. A marine midge, Clunio marinus, living in coastal regions, underlies a complex timing of its development by solar and lunar climatic periodicities, which synchronise biological clocks. The question was how the animals can discriminate changing sunlight from moonlight intensities. For the first time, we could show a "moonlight window" in the larval ocelli of this midge, and propose a hypothesis on the underlying mechanisms. Driven by a lunar clock the image forming ocelli become transparent and convert during moonlit nights to a sensitive photometer, which can record the dynamics of environmental light. High resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of the distribution of trace minerals in single melanosomes combined with their fine structural details in various states of the lunar cycle provide a first insight into the enzymatic pathways for the generation of a dark melanin (like eumelanin) and a light coloured melanin (like phaeomelanin). Essential advantage of this approach is the spatial and temporal resolution of the metals associated with melanisation processes, which could never before be demonstrated in these details. The data may stimulate further research projects in biomedicine.

  18. Cryoprotective dehydration and the resistance to inoculative freezing in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica.

    PubMed

    Elnitsky, Michael A; Hayward, Scott A L; Rinehart, Joseph P; Denlinger, David L; Lee, Richard E

    2008-02-01

    During winter, larvae of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica (Diptera, Chironomidae), must endure 7-8 months of continuous subzero temperatures, encasement in a matrix of soil and ice, and severely desiccating conditions. This environment, along with the fact that larvae possess a high rate of water loss and are extremely tolerant of desiccation, may promote the use of cryoprotective dehydration as a strategy for winter survival. This study investigates the capacity of larvae to resist inoculative freezing and undergo cryoprotective dehydration at subzero temperatures. Slow cooling to -3 degrees C in an environment at equilibrium with the vapor pressure of ice reduced larval water content by approximately 40% and depressed the body fluid melting point more than threefold to -2.6 degrees C. This melting point depression was the result of the concentration of existing solutes (i.e. loss of body water) and the de novo synthesis of osmolytes. By day 14 of the subzero exposure, larval survival was still >95%, suggesting larvae have the capacity to undergo cryoprotective dehydration. However, under natural conditions the use of cryoprotective dehydration may be constrained by inoculative freezing as result of the insect's intimate contact with environmental ice. During slow cooling within a substrate of frozen soil, the ability of larvae to resist inoculative freezing and undergo cryoprotective dehydration was dependent upon the moisture content of the soil. As detected by a reduction of larval water content, the percentage of larvae that resisted inoculative freezing increased with decreasing soil moisture. These results suggest that larvae of the Antarctic midge have the capacity to resist inoculative freezing at relatively low soil moisture contents and likely undergo cryoprotective dehydration when exposed to subzero temperatures during the polar winter.

  19. Stacking resistance to crown gall and nematodes in walnut rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Walawage, Sriema L; Britton, Monica T; Leslie, Charles A; Uratsu, Sandra L; Li, YingYue; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2013-10-01

    Crown gall (CG) (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and the root lesion nematodes (RLNs) (Pratylenchus vulnus) are major challenges faced by the California walnut industry, reducing productivity and increasing the cost of establishing and maintaining orchards. Current nematode control strategies include nematicides, crop rotation, and tolerant cultivars, but these methods have limits. Developing genetic resistance through novel approaches like RNA interference (RNAi) can address these problems. RNAi-mediated silencing of CG disease in walnut (Juglans regia L.) has been achieved previously. We sought to place both CG and nematode resistance into a single walnut rootstock genotype using co-transformation to stack the resistance genes. A. tumefaciens, carrying self-complimentary iaaM and ipt transgenes, and Agrobacterium rhizogenes, carrying a self-complimentary Pv010 gene from P. vulnus, were used as co-transformation vectors. RolABC genes were introduced by the resident T-DNA in the A. rhizogenes Ri-plasmid used as a vector for plant transformation. Pv010 and Pv194 (transgenic control) genes were also transferred separately using A. tumefaciens. To test for resistance, transformed walnut roots were challenged with P. vulnus and microshoots were challenged with a virulent strain of A. tumefaciens. Combining the two bacterial strains at a 1:1 rather than 1:3 ratio increased the co-transformation efficiency. Although complete immunity to nematode infection was not observed, transgenic lines yielded up to 79% fewer nematodes per root following in vitro co-culture than untransformed controls. Transgenic line 33-3-1 exhibited complete crown gall control and 32% fewer nematodes. The transgenic plants had thicker, longer roots than untransformed controls possibly due to insertion of rolABC genes. When the Pv010 gene was present in roots with or without rolABC genes there was partial or complete control of RLNs. Transformation using only one vector showed 100% control in some lines

  20. Stacking resistance to crown gall and nematodes in walnut rootstocks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Crown gall (CG) (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and the root lesion nematodes (RLNs) (Pratylenchus vulnus) are major challenges faced by the California walnut industry, reducing productivity and increasing the cost of establishing and maintaining orchards. Current nematode control strategies include nematicides, crop rotation, and tolerant cultivars, but these methods have limits. Developing genetic resistance through novel approaches like RNA interference (RNAi) can address these problems. RNAi-mediated silencing of CG disease in walnut (Juglans regia L.) has been achieved previously. We sought to place both CG and nematode resistance into a single walnut rootstock genotype using co-transformation to stack the resistance genes. A. tumefaciens, carrying self-complimentary iaaM and ipt transgenes, and Agrobacterium rhizogenes, carrying a self-complimentary Pv010 gene from P. vulnus, were used as co-transformation vectors. RolABC genes were introduced by the resident T-DNA in the A. rhizogenes Ri-plasmid used as a vector for plant transformation. Pv010 and Pv194 (transgenic control) genes were also transferred separately using A. tumefaciens. To test for resistance, transformed walnut roots were challenged with P. vulnus and microshoots were challenged with a virulent strain of A. tumefaciens. Results Combining the two bacterial strains at a 1:1 rather than 1:3 ratio increased the co-transformation efficiency. Although complete immunity to nematode infection was not observed, transgenic lines yielded up to 79% fewer nematodes per root following in vitro co-culture than untransformed controls. Transgenic line 33-3-1 exhibited complete crown gall control and 32% fewer nematodes. The transgenic plants had thicker, longer roots than untransformed controls possibly due to insertion of rolABC genes. When the Pv010 gene was present in roots with or without rolABC genes there was partial or complete control of RLNs. Transformation using only one vector showed 100

  1. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F.; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs. PMID:25653837

  2. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs.

  3. To bite or not to bite! A questionnaire-based survey assessing why some people are bitten more than others by midges

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Scottish biting midge, Culicoides impunctatus, responsible for more than 90% of biting attacks on human beings in Scotland, is known to demonstrate a preference for certain human hosts over others. Methods In this study we used a questionnaire-based survey to assess the association between people's perception of how badly they get bitten by midges and their demographic, lifestyle and health related characteristics. Results Most people (85.8%) reported being bitten sometimes, often or always with only 14.2% reporting never being bitten by midges when in Scotland. There was no association between level of bites received and age, smoking, diet, exercise, medication, eating strongly flavoured foods or alcohol consumption. However, there was a strong association between the probability of being bitten and increasing height (in men) and BMI (in women). A large proportion of participants (33.8%) reported experiencing a bad/severe reaction to midge bites while 53.1% reported a minor reaction and 13.1% no reaction at all. Also, women tend to react more than men to midge bites. Additionally, the results indicated that the susceptibility to being bitten by midges is hereditary. Conclusions This study suggests that midges prefer to bite men that are tall and women that have a large BMI, and that the tendency for a child to be bitten or not could be inherited from their parent. The study is questionnaire-based; therefore, the interpretation of the results may be limited by the subjectivity of the answers given by the respondents. Although the results are relevant only to the Scottish biting midge, the approach used here could be useful for investigating human-insect interactions for other insects, particularly those which transmit pathogens that cause disease. PMID:20500852

  4. The Biting Midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Is Capable of Developing Late Stage Infections of Leishmania enriettii

    PubMed Central

    Seblova, Veronika; Sadlova, Jovana; Vojtkova, Barbora; Votypka, Jan; Carpenter, Simon; Bates, Paul Andrew; Volf, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite their importance in animal and human health, the epidemiology of species of the Leishmania enriettii complex remains poorly understood, including the identity of their biological vectors. Biting midges of the genus Forcipomyia (Lasiohelea) have been implicated in the transmission of a member of the L. enriettii complex in Australia, but the far larger and more widespread genus Culicoides has not been investigated for the potential to include vectors to date. Methodology/Principal Findings Females from colonies of the midges Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen and C. sonorensis Wirth & Jones and the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Nevia (Diptera: Psychodidae) were experimentally infected with two different species of Leishmania, originating from Australia (Leishmania sp. AM-2004) and Brazil (Leishmania enriettii). In addition, the infectivity of L. enriettii infections generated in guinea pigs and golden hamsters for Lu. longipalpis and C. sonorensis was tested by xenodiagnosis. Development of L. enriettii in Lu. longipalpis was relatively poor compared to other Leishmania species in this permissive vector. Culicoides nubeculosus was not susceptible to infection by parasites from the L. enriettii complex. In contrast, C. sonorensis developed late stage infections with colonization of the thoracic midgut and the stomodeal valve. In hamsters, experimental infection with L. enriettii led only to mild symptoms, while in guinea pigs L. enriettii grew aggressively, producing large, ulcerated, tumour-like lesions. A high proportion of C. sonorensis (up to 80%) feeding on the ears and nose of these guinea pigs became infected. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that L. enriettii can develop late stage infections in the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis. This midge was found to be susceptible to L. enriettii to a similar degree as Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of Leishmania infantum in South America. Our results support the hypothesis that some

  5. Leaf-galling phylloxera on grapes reprograms host metabolism and morphology

    PubMed Central

    Nabity, Paul D.; Haus, Miranda J.; Berenbaum, May R.; DeLucia, Evan H.

    2013-01-01

    Endoparasitism by gall-forming insects dramatically alters the plant phenotype by altering growth patterns and modifying plant organs in ways that appear to directly benefit the gall former. Because these morphological and physiological changes are linked to the presence of the insect, the induced phenotype is said to function as an extension of the parasite, albeit by unknown mechanisms. Here we report the gall-forming aphid-like parasite phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, induces stomata on the adaxial surface of grape leaves where stomata typically do not occur. We characterized the function of the phylloxera-induced stomata by tracing transport of assimilated carbon. Because induction of stomata suggests a significant manipulation of primary metabolism, we also characterized the gall transcriptome to infer the level of global reconfiguration of primary metabolism and the subsequent changes in downstream secondary metabolism. Phylloxera feeding induced stomata formation in proximity to the insect and promoted the assimilation and importation of carbon into the gall. Gene expression related to water, nutrient, and mineral transport; glycolysis; and fermentation increased in leaf-gall tissues. This shift from an autotrophic to a heterotrophic profile occurred concurrently with decreased gene expression for nonmevalonate and terpenoid synthesis and increased gene expression in shikimate and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, secondary metabolite systems that alter defense status in grapes. These functional insect-induced stomata thus comprise part of an extended phenotype, whereby D. vitifoliae globally reprograms grape leaf development to alter patterns of primary metabolism, nutrient mobilization, and defense investment in favor of the galling habit. PMID:24067657

  6. The role of cyclooxygenase enzymes in the growth of human gall bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Grossman, E M; Longo, W E; Panesar, N; Mazuski, J E; Kaminski, D L

    2000-07-01

    Information suggests that the cyclooxygenase (COX) metabolites, the prostanoids, play a role in gall bladder physiology and disease. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which inhibit COX enzymes have been shown in vivo and in vitro to alter the growth patterns of intestinal epithelial cells, and specific COX-2 inhibitors have been shown to decrease mitogenesis in intestinal epithelial cells. The present study was intended to evaluate the effect of specific COX inhibitors on the growth patterns of gall bladder cancer cells. Employing a human gall bladder cancer cell line, mitogenesis, apoptosis and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) formation were evaluated in response to serum and hepatocyte growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha stimulation in the presence and absence of specific COX-1 and -2 inhibitors. The effect of the mitogens on COX enzyme expression was also evaluated. Serum and the growth factors increased COX enzyme expression and mitogenesis, and decreased apoptosis as evaluated by the percentage of cells that were floating in culture media rather than attached. There was more DNA degradation in floating than in attached cells. The specific COX-2 inhibitor, but not the COX-1 inhibitor, decreased mitogenesis and increased gall bladder cell apoptosis as evaluated by the number of floating versus attached cells and the number of floating cells in the terminal phase of apoptosis or dead. The inhibition of mitogenesis and the increased apoptosis produced by the COX-2 inhibitor was associated with decreased PGE(2) production. The inhibition of replication of gall bladder cancer cells and the increase in apoptosis produced by the selective COX-2 inhibitor suggests that the COX enzymes and the prostanoids may play a role in the development of gall bladder cancer and that the COX-2 inhibitors may have a therapeutic role in the prevention of gall bladder neoplasms.

  7. Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. IV. Fergusobia from flat leaf galls on Eucalyptus and Corymbia, with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kerrie A; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Ye, Weimin; Taylor, Gary S; Thomas, W Kelley

    2013-11-26

    Two new species of Fergusobia are described. Both were collected from flat leaf galls from South Australia, one on Eucalyptus microcarpa and the other on E. porosa. Fergusobia microcarpae n. sp. Davies is characterised by the combination of a C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a short, broadly rounded conoid tail, an arcuate to open C-shaped infective female with an hemispherical tail tip, and arcuate to J-shaped males with angular spicules and short peloderan bursa. Fergusobia porosae n. sp. Davies is similar in having an arcuate to C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a small conoid tail, an almost straight to arcuate infective female with an hemispherical tail tip, and males that are almost straight to barely J-shaped with angular spicules and short peloderan bursa. They differ in that the bodies of parthenogenetic and infective females of F. microcarpae n. sp. are more curved than in F. porosae n. sp. Other known similar forms of Fergusobia/Fergusonina galls are outlined and the larval shield morphologies of their associated mutualistic Fergusonina fly species are discussed where known. An inventory of all known Fergusobia/Fergusonina associations from flat leaf galls from Corymbia spp. and Eucalyptus spp. is presented. Relationships of Fergusobia nematodes were inferred from analysis of sequences of 28S rDNA D2/D3 domains and a portion of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtCOI). Nematodes from flat leaf galls appeared in two clades. 

  8. Triterpenoid saponins from the fruits and galls of Sapindus mukorossi.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Chi; Wu, Ming-Der; Tsai, Wei-Jern; Liao, Sin-Chung; Liaw, Chia-Ching; Hsu, Li-Chuan; Wu, Yang-Chang; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2008-05-01

    Six saponins, sapinmusaponin K (1) [hederagenin-3-O-(3-O-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside], sapinmusaponin L (2) [hederagenin-3-O-(4-O-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabino-pyranoside], sapinmusaponin M (3) [hederagenin-3-O-(2,3-O-diacetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside], sapinmusaponin N (4) [hederagenin-3-O-(2,4-O-diacetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside], sapinmusaponin O (5) [3,7,20(S)-trihydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside], and sapinmusaponin P (6) [3,7,20(R)-trihydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-d-glucopyranoside], along with seven known saponins (7-13), were isolated from fruits and the galls of Sapindus mukorossi. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and acid hydrolysis. Biological evaluation indicated that saponins 1-4 and 7-13 showed moderate cytotoxicity against several human tumor cell lines.

  9. The leafy gall syndrome induced by Rhodococcus fascians.

    PubMed

    Stes, Elisabeth; Francis, Isolde; Pertry, Ine; Dolzblasz, Alicja; Depuydt, Stephen; Vereecke, Danny

    2013-05-01

    The Actinomycete Rhodococcus fascians causes the leafy gall syndrome, an infectious plant disease that affects a wide range of plants, primarily dicotyledonous herbs. The syndrome is associated with delayed senescence, loss of apical dominance, activation of dormant axillary meristems, and formation of multiple inflorescences, leading to a stunted and bushy plant appearance. A major breakthrough in the elucidation of the virulence strategy of this pathogen was the discovery of a linear virulence plasmid, pFiD188 for R. fascians strain D188. Upon perception of a compatible host plant, an autoregulatory mechanism mediated by the att operon directs a switch in the bacterial life style from a harmless epiphyte into a pathogenic endophyte and, concomitantly, activates gene expression of the fas operon that encodes a cytokinin biosynthesis pathway. A mixture of five cytokinins determines the cytokinin activity of R. fascians that directly affects plant responses and development. Moreover, the bacterial cytokinins stimulate the host to produce auxins and polyamines, that function as accessory signals to aid in symptom development. The plant reacts against the developmental hijacking by R. fascians by activating a set of counteracting measures that ultimately results in a delicate balance, allowing a long-lasting biotrophic interaction.

  10. Is gall bladder cancer a bad cancer per se?

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Vinay K

    2015-07-27

    Gall bladder cancer (GBC) has one of the poorest outcomes of all cancers. Early GBC is difficult to diagnose on even computed tomography. GB has no submucosa and the cancer infiltrates directly into the muscularis propria. GB wall is thin and important adjacent organs viz. liver, duodenum and pancreas get easily infiltrated. Tumor in the GB neck often needs extended right hepatectomy. Infiltration of duodenum/pancreas may necessitate pancreato-duodenectomy or even hepato-pancreato-duodenectomy. Mortality of surgical procedures, when performed for GBC, is higher than when performed for other cancers. Survival in GBC, even after R0 resection, is poor. There is no proven role of neo-adjuvant or adjuvant therapy for loco-regionally advanced GBC. There is no role of palliative surgery in metastatic GBC. Early GBC is diagnosed incidentally after cholecystectomy for stones and requires reoperation for completion extended cholecystectomy but unfortunately, most surgeons are not aware of this. GBC has a peculiar epidemiology and is uncommon in the West and has, therefore, not received much attention. Preventive cholecystectomy for asymptomatic stones is not recommended and there is no serum marker for screening. With all factors pitched against it, it does appear that GBC is a bad cancer per se!

  11. Is gall bladder cancer a bad cancer per se?

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Vinay K

    2015-01-01

    Gall bladder cancer (GBC) has one of the poorest outcomes of all cancers. Early GBC is difficult to diagnose on even computed tomography. GB has no submucosa and the cancer infiltrates directly into the muscularis propria. GB wall is thin and important adjacent organs viz. liver, duodenum and pancreas get easily infiltrated. Tumor in the GB neck often needs extended right hepatectomy. Infiltration of duodenum/pancreas may necessitate pancreato-duodenectomy or even hepato-pancreato-duodenectomy. Mortality of surgical procedures, when performed for GBC, is higher than when performed for other cancers. Survival in GBC, even after R0 resection, is poor. There is no proven role of neo-adjuvant or adjuvant therapy for loco-regionally advanced GBC. There is no role of palliative surgery in metastatic GBC. Early GBC is diagnosed incidentally after cholecystectomy for stones and requires reoperation for completion extended cholecystectomy but unfortunately, most surgeons are not aware of this. GBC has a peculiar epidemiology and is uncommon in the West and has, therefore, not received much attention. Preventive cholecystectomy for asymptomatic stones is not recommended and there is no serum marker for screening. With all factors pitched against it, it does appear that GBC is a bad cancer per se! PMID:26225192

  12. Biliary cystadenocarcinoma of the gall bladder: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction While biliary cystadenoma and biliary cystadenocarcinoma involving the liver are not uncommon, biliary cystadenocarcinoma of the gall bladder is an extremely rare lesion and can be very difficult to diagnose. Case presentation A 50-year-old Indian woman presented with pain and swelling in the right hypochondrium. An ultrasonography revealed a cystic lesion arising from the gallbladder fossa. This lesion was initially managed with aspiration and antibiotics by the treating physician. The patient was referred for surgical management because the abscess was not resolved through conservative treatment. A diagnosis of an infected nonparasitic cyst was made and deroofing of the cyst was performed. A histopathological examination of the excised cyst wall showed cystadenocarcinoma. The patient subsequently underwent a successful surgical excision of the lesion. Conclusion Infective lesions of the liver are common in developing countries and are usually managed through aspiration and antibiotics. Cystadenocarcinoma of the gallbladder needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions arising from the gallbladder fossa. A high index of suspicion and cytological examination from the wall of such complex lesions will help in the timely management of such lesions. PMID:19946551

  13. Biliary cystadenocarcinoma of the gall bladder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sistla, Sarath Chandra; Sankar, Gomati; Basu, Debadutta; Venkatesan, Bhuvaneswari

    2009-10-15

    While biliary cystadenoma and biliary cystadenocarcinoma involving the liver are not uncommon, biliary cystadenocarcinoma of the gall bladder is an extremely rare lesion and can be very difficult to diagnose. A 50-year-old Indian woman presented with pain and swelling in the right hypochondrium. An ultrasonography revealed a cystic lesion arising from the gallbladder fossa. This lesion was initially managed with aspiration and antibiotics by the treating physician. The patient was referred for surgical management because the abscess was not resolved through conservative treatment. A diagnosis of an infected nonparasitic cyst was made and deroofing of the cyst was performed. A histopathological examination of the excised cyst wall showed cystadenocarcinoma. The patient subsequently underwent a successful surgical excision of the lesion. Infective lesions of the liver are common in developing countries and are usually managed through aspiration and antibiotics. Cystadenocarcinoma of the gallbladder needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions arising from the gallbladder fossa. A high index of suspicion and cytological examination from the wall of such complex lesions will help in the timely management of such lesions.

  14. Computed tomography in predicting gall stone solubility: a prospective trial.

    PubMed Central

    Caroli, A; Del Favero, G; Di Mario, F; Spigariol, F; Scalon, P; Meggiato, T; Zambelli, C; Naccarato, R

    1992-01-01

    This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the correlation between densitometric values of gall stones assessed by computed tomography and the success rate of litholytic therapy in 28 patients eligible for oral treatment. A densitometric study of the stones was performed in all patients before treatment. A cut off point of 60 Hounsfield units (HU) was chosen to divide the subjects into two groups--group 1, 14 patients with low density stones (less than 60 HU) and group 2, 14 patients with high density stones (greater than 60 HU). All patients were treated with ursodeoxycholic acid (8-10 mg/kg/day) for 12 months and followed up by ultrasound. In group 1, dissolution was complete in 50% of the patients and partial in a further 20%. In group 2 patients, complete dissolution was not observed but 33% showed partial dissolution. The number of patients with total dissolution at 12 months was significantly higher in group 1 compared with group 2 (p less than 0.02). These results suggest that computed tomography can be used to select patients with a better likelihood of successful stone dissolution after bile acid therapy. PMID:1612490

  15. Study on the Relation between Colorectal Cancer and Gall Bladder Disease.

    PubMed

    Gosavi, Siddharth; Mishra, R Rama; Kumar, Vsm Praveen

    2017-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is cancer of the large intestine, the lower part of digestive system which includes the sigmoid colon and rectum. To study the relation of incidence of colorectal cancer with previous gall bladder disease or post-cholecystectomy status, a relation between gall bladder disease and smoking in particular and the most common region of colon involved in colorectal cancer in gall bladder disease and non-gall bladder disease patients. A total of 256 patients with symptoms of rectal bleeding, change in bowel habit, unexplained tiredness, weight loss, pelvic pain, jaundice and abdominal distension were screened by using colonoscopy among whom 30 patients were diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Detailed history was taken with the help of a modified questionnaire and the patients were assessed, examined and the list of investigations such as faecal occult blood test, ultrasound of abdomen and pelvis, colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, barium enema, Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the abdomen and pelvis, tumour markers like Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) and biopsy were collected. Patient pool was categorized into Gall Bladder Disease (GBD) and Non Gall Bladder Disease (NGBD). Proportions test and Fisher's-Exact test were used to calculate the p-values. Ten patients had previous gall bladder disease (33%) which was significant with a p-value of 0.016 by proportions test. Two patients underwent cholecystectomy, two patients underwent Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio Pancreatography (ERCP) and the remaining six patients did not take any treatment for their gall bladder disease. Five patients with previous gall bladder disease were found to be smokers with a p-value of 0.091. The average age was 47.2 years in males and 42.2 years in females. Males constituted 66.6% (20 males) of the diseased population whereas, females constituted 33.4% (10 females). Rectal bleeding and altered bowel habits were the commonest symptoms. Confirmation of the

  16. Iatrogenic gall bladder perforations in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an audit of 200 cases.

    PubMed

    Zubair, M; Habib, L; Mirza, M R; Channa, M A; Yousuf, M

    2010-07-01

    This study was done to evaluate the frequency of iatrogenic gall bladder perforation (IGBP) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy and to determine its association with gender, adhesions in right upper quadrant and types of gall bladder. This retrospective descriptive study included 200 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis at Jamal Noor Hospital and Hamdard University Hospital, Karachi from January 2007 to January 2009. Video recording of all 200 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were analyzed for the IGBP. The different factors; sex of the patient, type of gall bladder, presence of adhesions in the right upper quadrant, timing of perforation, site of perforation, cause of perforation and spillage of stones were recorded. Data was entered and analyzed on SPSS 15. Pearson Chi Square test was applied to check the significance of these factors in IGBP where applicable. In this study there were 173 females and 27 male patients. IGBP occurred in 51 patients (25.5%) and among them 40(23.12%) were females and 11(40.74%) males. Statistical analysis failed to prove male gender a significant factor in the IGBP (p=0.051). Spillage of stones occurred in 23 patients (11.5% in total study population). In 32(18.49%) patients with chronic calculus cholecystitis IGBP occured while in other cluster of 27 patients suffering from acute cholecystitis, empyema & mucocele, 19(70.37%) had IGBP. Hence the condition of gall bladder (acute cholecystitis, empyema and mucocele) was proved statistically a significant factor in IGBP (p=0.000). Adhesiolysis in right upper quadrant was required in 109 patients in whom 31 patients (28.44%) had IGBP while in 91 patients in whom no adhesiolysis was required, 20 patients (21.98%) had IGBP. Statistically no significant difference was present regarding this factor (p=0.296). In total of 51 patients of IGBP, fundus of gall bladder was the commonest site of perforation in 21(41.18%), followed by body of gall bladder in

  17. An inducible HSP70 gene from the midge Chironomus dilutus: Characterization and transcription profile under environmental stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karouna-Renier, N. K.; Rao, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we identified and characterized an inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) from the midge Chironomus dilutus and investigated the transcriptional profile of the gene under baseline and environmentally stressful conditions. Using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we observed increased expression of CD-HSP70-1 in response to both heat shock and copper stress. We also investigated the expression of this gene during midge development. All C. dilutus developmental stages expressed CD-HSP70-1 under normal conditions, although at extremely low levels. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequence demonstrated distinct clustering of this gene with inducible HSP70s from other insect species. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  18. Holmium-YAG laser for gall stone fragmentation: an endoscopic tool.

    PubMed Central

    Blomley, M J; Nicholson, D A; Bartal, G; Foster, C; Bradley, A; Myers, M; Man, W; Li, S; Banks, L M

    1995-01-01

    A systematic review of the 2.1 mu holmium-YAG laser for gall stone lithotripsy was undertaken. This infrared laser, which can be used endoscopically and percutaneously, has safety advantages over other lasers and has potential as a general purpose vascular and surgical tool. Twenty nine gall stones (mean mass 1.3 g) were fragmented in vitro using pulse energies of 114 to 159 mJ/pulse at 5 Hz with a 0.6 mm fibre, while being held in an endoscopy basket. All stones were successfully fragmented, requiring an average of 566 pulses with a 5 Hz pulse repetition frequency. The number of pulses required increased with gall stone size and mass (p < 0.01), and decreased with both pulse energy (p < 0.01) and operator experience (p < 0.05). The biochemical content of the stone did not significantly affect the number of pulses needed. The potential hazard of the laser to the biliary endothelium was investigated. At the pulse energies used, five pulses at close contact penetrated into the serosa of fresh gall bladder wall. No damage was seen when two pulses were fired. This laser shows considerable promise in gall stone lithotripsy. Until further safety data are available, however, its use with endoscopic vision is advised. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7698706

  19. Solid state (13)C NMR analysis of human gallstones from cancer and benign gall bladder diseases.

    PubMed

    Jayalakshmi, K; Sonkar, Kanchan; Behari, Anu; Kapoor, V K; Sinha, Neeraj

    2009-09-01

    Natural abundance (13)C cross polarized (CP) magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of human gall bladder stones collected from patients suffering from malignant and benign gall bladder disease was carried out which revealed different polymorphs of cholesterol in these stones. All gall bladder stones in present study had cholesterol as their main constituent. (13)C CP-MAS NMR analysis revealed three forms of cholesterol molecules in these stones, which are anhydrous form, monohydrate crystalline with amorphous form and monohydrate crystalline form. Our study revealed that stones collected from patients associated with chronic cholecystitis (CC) disease have mostly different polymorph of cholesterol than stones collected from patients associated with gall bladder cancer (GBC). Such study will be helpful in understanding the mechanism of formation of gallstones which are associated with different gall bladder diseases. This is the first study by solid state NMR revealing different crystal polymorphism of cholesterol in human gallstones, extending the applicability of (13)C CP-MAS NMR technique for the routine study of gallstones.

  20. Crown gall transformation of tobacco callus cells by cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, A.; Manzara, T.; Lurquin, P.F.

    1984-09-17

    Incubation of cells from squashed tobacco callus tissue with virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens leads to the production of cells displaying a crown gall phenotype. In vitro crown gall transformation of dicotyledonous plant cells has been demonstrated after cocultivation of cell-wall regenerating mesophyll protoplasts with Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells. In addition, it has been shown that protoplasts freshly isolated from suspension cultures, when treated with A. tumefaciens spheroplasts and a fusogen, also generated cells displaying a typical crown gall phenotype, i.e., phytohormone-independent growth and opine synthesis. Subsequently, both techniques were used to transfer and express foreign genes in plant cells via A. tumefaciens T-DNA integration. For practical purposes, it would be advantageous to be able to perform crown gall transformation of plant cells in tissue culture. The authors report here for the first time the production of Nicotiana tabacum crown gall cells after cocultivation of callus tissue with A. tumefaciens A136 cells. 11 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  1. Is it necessary to submit grossly normal looking gall bladder specimens for histopathological examination?

    PubMed

    Tayeb, Muhammad; Rauf, Fozia; Ahmad, Khurshid; Khan, Faiz Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to: 1) determine the frequency of incidental malignancy in unsuspected/grossly normal looking gall bladders; 2) determine the frequency of malignancy in suspected/grossly abnormal looking gall bladders. This prospective, cross sectional study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan, during a four year period (Jan 2009-dec2012). All the cholecystectomy cases performed for gallstone diseases were examined initially by a surgeon and later on by a pathologist for macroscopic abnormalities and accordingly assigned to one of the three categories i.e. grossly normal, suspicious, abnormal/malignant. Frequency of incidental carcinoma in these categories was observed after receiving the final histopathology report. A total of 426 patients underwent cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis, with a 1:4 male: female ratio. Mean age of the patients was 45 years with a range of 17-80 years. The frequency of incidental gallbladder carcinoma was found to be 0.70 %(n=3). All the cases of gallbladder carcinoma were associated with some macroscopic abnormality. Not a single case of incidental carcinoma gallbladder was diagnosed in 383 'macroscopically normal looking' gallbladders. Incidental finding of gall bladder cancer was not observed in any of macroscopically normal looking gall bladders and all the cases reported as carcinoma gallbladder had some gross abnormality that made them suspicious. We suggest histopathologic examination of only those gall bladders with some gross abnormality.

  2. Gall Bladder Agenesis: A Rare Embryonic Cause of Recurrent Biliary Colic.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Aarthi; Piya, Albina

    2017-04-02

    BACKGROUND Gallbladder agenesis (GA) is an extremely rare anatomic anomaly with a reported incidence of less than 0.5%. It is usually asymptomatic, but can present with features of biliary colic and cholecystitis. We present here a case of GA in a patient with recurrent biliary colic.  CASE REPORT A 24-year-old African American woman presented with recurrent episodes of right upper-quadrant abdominal pain. During her first episode, she was found to have elevated transaminases and clinical features of cholecystitis, but ultrasound did not visualize a gallbladder and she was discharged with a diagnosis of biliary colic. She returned within a week with worsening liver enzymes, severe pain, and vomiting. A hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scan was done, which again did not show the gall bladder. On clinical suspicion of acute cholecystitis, she underwent laparoscopic surgery. Intraoperatively, the gall bladder fossa was empty and a diagnosis of gall bladder agenesis was made. She presented a third time with similar complaints and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) was done, which showed normal biliary tract anatomy and absent gall bladder. A diagnosis of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction was made and she was discharged on antispasmodics. CONCLUSIONS Diagnosing GA is challenging. The rarity of this entity combined with classic clinical features of cholecystitis and non-visualization of the gall bladder on routine investigation prompts unnecessary surgical intervention. Awareness of this condition, along with use of better imaging modalities like preoperative MRCP, can aide physicians to appropriately manage this uncommon clinical condition.

  3. Laboratory and field evaluations of chemical and plant-derived potential repellents against Culicoides biting midges in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    González, M; Venter, G J; López, S; Iturrondobeitia, J C; Goldarazena, A

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of 23 compounds in repelling Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), particularly Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen) females, was determined by means of a Y-tube olfactometer. The 10 most effective compounds were further evaluated in landing bioassays. The six most promising compounds (including chemical and plant-derived repellents) were evaluated at 10% and 25% concentrations in field assays using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps. At least three compounds showed promising results against Culicoides biting midges with the methodologies used. Whereas olfactometer assays indicated DEET at 1 µg/µL to be the most effective repellent, filter paper landing bioassays showed plant-derived oils to be better. Light traps fitted with polyester mesh impregnated with a mixture of octanoic, decanoic and nonanoic fatty acids at 10% and 25% concentrations collected 2.2 and 3.6 times fewer midges than control traps and were as effective as DEET, which is presently considered the reference standard insect repellent. The best plant-derived product was lemon eucalyptus oil. Although these have been reported as safe potential repellents, the present results indicate DEET and the mixture of organic fatty acids to be superior and longer lasting. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  4. Efficient shedding of accumulated metals during metamorphosis in metal-adapted populations of the midge Chironomus riparius

    SciTech Connect

    Groenendijk, D.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W. . Dept. of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology)

    1999-06-01

    Metal accumulation and loss during metamorphosis were investigated in Chironomus riparius populations in a metal contaminated lowland river. Cadmium and zinc levels were measured in imagoes and larvae at reference and metal-exposed sites. It was hypothesized that the relationship between metal concentrations in biota and environmental compartments would be influenced by the presence of metal-adapted chironomids. In contrast to the large interpopulation differences in larval body burdens of cadmium, body burdens in imagoes vanished to background levels for all midge populations. This indicated that any cadmium accumulated in larval stages was lost during metamorphosis. This nearly 100% efficiency in shedding of cadmium is most likely caused by an increased metal handling capacity present in exposed midges. In agreement with the cadmium measurements, larval body burdens of zinc showed also highly significant interpopulation differences. In contrast with the cadmium values, however, body burdens of zinc in imagoes showed highly significant interpopulation differences and differences were even recorded between the two exposed sites, indicating interpopulation differences in shedding capacity for zinc. It is concluded that the highly efficient shedding of accumulated metals reflected the metal adaptation recorded in earlier studies of metal-exposed C. riparius populations from the River Dommel. Based on the differences in metal accumulation and the differences found in shedding of metals between the two exposed midge populations, it was concluded that population differentiation due to metal stress is a gradual process rather than an all-or-nothing situation.

  5. Effects of exposure to pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and carbamazepine) spiked sediments in the midge, Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Nieto, Elena; Corada-Fernández, Carmen; Hampel, Miriam; Lara-Martín, Pablo A; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Blasco, Julián

    2017-12-31

    Human and veterinary pharmaceuticals and degradation products are continuously introduced into the environment. To date, there is a lack of information about the effects of pharmaceuticals in spiked toxicity tests with non-target organisms. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of exposure to two common pharmaceuticals in the midge Chironomus riparius in spiked sediment experiments. The selected pharmaceuticals are the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID): diclofenac (DF) and the anti-depressant drug carbamazepine (CBZ). In order to assess the effects of the pharmaceuticals, a chronic toxicity test with the midge was carried out. The endpoints survival, growth and developmental stage by means of biomass, were measured after 10days, and emergence rates and sex-ratio (male/female) were measured after 21days of exposure. Significant mortality was observed in organisms at day 10 with a 40% of larvae surviving in the highest exposure concentration of CBZ. DF decreased the emergence ratio with respect to the controls in organisms exposed at concentrations of 34.0μg·g(-1) whereas CBZ reduced the growth of the midges (30,6% with respect to the control) and induced a significant change in sex-ratio at concentrations of 31.4μg·g(-1). The results obtained in the present study indicate possible adverse effects on aquatic invertebrates, which should be taken into account for environmental risk assessment of pharmaceutical compounds in sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Complete development of three species of Haemoproteus (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae) in the biting midge Culicoides impunctatus (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Liutkevicius, Gediminas; Iezhova, Tatjana A

    2002-10-01

    Development of Haemoproteus balmorali, H. dolniki, and H. tartakovskyi was followed in experimentally infected biting midges Culicoides impunctatus on the Curonian Spit in the Baltic Sea. Wild-caught flies were allowed to take blood meals on naturally infected spotted flycatchers Muscicapa striata, chaffinches Fringilla coelebs, or crossbills Loxia curvirostra harboring mature gametocytes of these parasites. The engorged biting midges were collected, held at 14-18 C, and dissected daily. Mature ookinetes of H. balmorali, H. dolniki, and H. tartakovskyi were numerous in the midgut content 36 hr postinfection (PI). Oocysts were first seen in the midgut wall 3 days PI. They were numerous in the midgut on the fourth day PI. Sporozoites were seen in salivary glands 5 days PI. The percentage of experimentally infected biting midges with sporozoites of H. balmorali was 36.1%: 8.8% with H. dolniki and 31.2% with H. tartakovskyi. Culicoides impunctatus is likely to be an important vector of Haemoproteus spp. in Europe. All investigated species of parasites can be distinguished on the basis of morphology or size (or both) of their vector stages. Morphological features of the ookinetes, oocysts, and sporozoites should be given more prominence in the description of new species of hemoproteids.

  7. Cuticular and internal chemical composition of biting midges Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), potential vectors of viral diseases.

    PubMed

    González, Mikel; López, Sergio; Rosell, Gloria; Goldarazen, Arturo; Guerrero, Angel

    2014-08-01

    The chemical profile of the cuticle and internal tissues of four species of Culicoides have been studied for the first time by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chemical composition of females of C. obsoletus s.l. and C. lupicaris, vectors of diverse viral diseases, have been compared with that of other biting midges, such as C. kibunensis and C. fascipennis, and the non-biting midge Forcipomyia bipunctata. A total of 61 compounds belonging to 8 major chemical classes were identified in cuticular and internal tissues in n-hexane extracts. The compounds include carboxylic acids (CAs) (C6-C20), with C16:0, C16:1 and C18:1 being dominant, branched hydrocarbons (C29 to C38 mono/di/trimethylalkanes), linear hydrocarbons (C15 to C33, mainly odd chain carbons), terpenes (geranylacetone, geranylgeraniol acetate, squalene, terpenic alcohol), steroids (cholesterol), aldehydes (C9-C10 and even chain C20 to C30), and esters. The chemical profile depends on the species and whether the extracts are external (cuticle) or internal. The contents of linear and branched hydrocarbons and aldehydes was high in cuticular extracts but practically absent in internal tissues, which were, in contrast, rich in CAs, terpenes and steroids. The results are discussed and compared with other Culicoides midges and mosquito-related species.

  8. From Midges to Spiders: Mercury Biotransport in Riparian Zones Near the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), USA.

    PubMed

    Pennuto, C M; Smith, M

    2015-12-01

    Riparian communities can receive environmental contaminants from adjacent aquatic 'donor' habitats. We investigated mercury biotransport from aquatic to terrestrial habitats via aquatic insect emergence and uptake by riparian spiders at sites within and upstream of the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), a site with known sediment Hg contamination. Mercury concentration in emerging midges was roughly 10× less than contaminated sediment levels with the AOC, but biomagnification factors from midges to spiders ranged from 2.0 to 2.65 between sites. There was a significantly negative body mass:total mercury relationship in spiders (p < 0.001), indicating that mercury depuration is rapid or tissue dilution occurs in these riparian predators. Spiders contained significantly more mercury than their midge prey and spiders upstream of the AOC had higher mercury concentrations than spiders from within the AOC. Collectively, these data indicate that riparian spiders can be good mercury sentinels in urban environments, and that riparian communities upstream from the AOC may be at greater risk to mercury than has been previously considered.

  9. Mycotoxin contamination in corn smut (Ustilago maydis) galls in the field and in the commercial food products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn infected with Ustilago maydis, causal agent of common smut disease, produces galls that are used as food in certain cultures, but may be contaminated with mycotoxins. The objective of this study was to determine mycotoxin levels in common smut galls (CSGs) collected from the field at corn ear ...

  10. FARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES ON THE SOUTH INDIAN MARKET SAMPLE OF KARKATASRINGI (KADUKKAIPOO) – TERMINALIA CHEBUL (GAERTN. LEAF GALL)

    PubMed Central

    Santha, T. R.; Shetty, J. K. P.; Yoganarasimhan, S. N.; Sudha, R.

    1991-01-01

    Pharmacognostical studies on the South Indian market sample of Karkatasringi (Terminalia chebula leaf galls) were carried out along with comparative studies on Pistacia integerima which is the accepted source of Karkatasringi. The galls of T. chebula are also known as Kadukkai Poo in Siddha system. PMID:22556552

  11. 77 FR 46127 - Interim Staff Guidance on Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2 AMP XI.M41, ``Buried and Underground... recommended AMPs in NUREG-1801, Revision 2, ``Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report,'' and the NRC staff... issues LR-ISG to communicate insights and lessons learned and to address emergent issues not covered...

  12. Inhibitory motor innervation of the gall bladder musculature by intrinsic neurones containing nitric oxide in the Australian Brush-tailed possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)

    PubMed Central

    Meedeniya, A; Al-Jiffry, B; Konomi, H; Schloithe, A; Toouli, J; Saccone, G

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Gall bladder functions are modulated by neurones intrinsic to the organ. Data are available on the neurochemical composition of intrinsic and extrinsic nerves innervating the gall bladder but are lacking on specific functional classes of gall bladder neurones.
AIMS—To characterise the intrinsic motor neurones of the gall bladder and identify their roles using pharmacological techniques.
METHODS—Retrograde tracing from the possum gall bladder muscle in vitro allowed identification of intrinsic motor neurones. Subsequently, their content of choline acetyltransferase and nitric oxide synthase, markers of acetylcholine and nitric oxide containing neurones, was established using immunohistochemical techniques. Organ bath pharmacology was used to evaluate neurotransmission by acetylcholine and nitric oxide in gall bladder muscle strips.
RESULTS—Innervation of the gall bladder musculature by neurones of both the muscular and serosal plexuses was demonstrated. A large proportion (62%) of these motor neurones were immunoreactive for nitric oxide synthase. All gall bladder neurones showed immunoreactivity for choline acetyltransferase. Organ bath pharmacology confirmed the neuroanatomical data, showing acetylcholine and nitric oxide mediating neurotransmission to the gall bladder musculature.
CONCLUSIONS—Neurones containing acetylcholine and nitric oxide, located within the muscular and serosal plexuses, provide excitatory and inhibitory motor innervation of the gall bladder, respectively. The large inhibitory innervation suggests active relaxation of the gall bladder during filling, mediated by intrinsic nerves.


Keywords: excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmission; gall bladder; motility; nitric oxide; acetylcholine; possum PMID:11600474

  13. Phylogeny of Rhus gall aphids (Hemiptera:Pemphigidae) based on combined molecular analysis of nuclear EF1α and mitochondrial COII genes

    Treesearch

    Zi-xiang Yang; Xiao-ming Chen; Nathan P. Havill; Ying Feng; Hang. Chen

    2010-01-01

    Rhus gall aphids (Fordinae : Melaphidini) have a disjunct distribution in East Asia and North America and have specific host plant relationships. Some of them are of economic importance and all species form sealed galls which show great variation in shape, size, structure, and galling-site. We present a phylogeny incorporating ten species and four...

  14. On the origins of organology: Franz Joseph Gall and a girl named Bianchi.

    PubMed

    Eling, Paul; Finger, Stanley; Whitaker, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) introduced a new theory of mind and brain at the end of the eighteenth century, which he referred to as organology, dealing with mental functions and their cortical localizations. Gall wrote that observations regarding the verbal learning capacities of his schoolmates brought about his new way of thinking. This widely accepted view, however, requires qualification. Although Gall's experiences and observations as a schoolboy were relevant, especially for his craniology, these childhood memories might have been recalled and reinterpreted after he had started to think about the faculties of mind-specifically after he had met Bianchi, a 5-year-old girl with a special talent for music.

  15. DNA extraction techniques for DNA barcoding of minute gall-inhabiting wasps.

    PubMed

    Dittrich-Schröder, Gudrun; Wingfield, Michael J; Klein, Hildegard; Slippers, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    DNA extraction from minute hymenopterans and their larvae is difficult and challenging because of their small size indicating a low amount of starting material. Hence, 11 DNA extraction methods were compared to determine their efficacy in isolating DNA. Success of each method was scored on a 2% agarose gel after PCR of the cox 1 mitochondrial locus. A silica-membrane-based approach was the most successful, followed by a method using a combination of incubation buffers and a method using magnetic beads. The method using buffers was the most cost- and time effective. Using this method, larvae from Eucalyptus seed capsule galls could be assigned a role (parasitoid, gall former or inquiline) in the gall-inhabiting complex.

  16. Divergent host-plant use promotes reproductive isolation among cynipid gall wasp populations.

    PubMed

    Egan, Scott P; Hood, Glen R; Feder, Jeff L; Ott, James R

    2012-08-23

    Ecological speciation occurs when reproductive isolation evolves as a consequence of divergent natural selection among environments. A direct prediction of this process is that ecologically divergent pairs of populations will exhibit greater reproductive isolation than ecologically similar pairs of populations. By comparing allopatric populations of the cynipid gall wasp Belonocnema treatae infesting Quercus virginiana and Quercus geminata, we tested the role that divergent host use plays in generating ecological divergence and sexual isolation. We found differences in body size and gall structure associated with divergent host use, but no difference in neutral genetic divergence between populations on the same or different host plant. We observed significant assortative mating between populations from alternative host plants but not between allopatric populations on the same host plant. Thus, we provide evidence that divergent host use promotes speciation among gall wasp populations.

  17. Immature embryoid teratoma of the gall bladder: case of a primary primitive neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Naim, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    This study presents diagnostic histopathological features of a primary embryoid teratomatous neoplasm in the gall bladder of a 60-year-old woman, and also discusses its pathogenesis. Sections revealed immature and typical embryoid bodies and dispersed syncytial trophoblasts along with mature and immature neuroectodermal and mesodermal elements. The residual endothelial lining of the gall bladder showed in situ and proliferative changes characteristic of an endodermal tumour. Ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of the rest of the abdominal and pelvic organs appeared normal. Results show that the mature adult gall bladder is susceptible to primary neoplasms of a primitive nature ranging from immature embryoma and teratoma to neuroectodermal tumour. Such primitive neoplasms in adult organs where benign neuroectodermal elements are present may evolve from a constituent cell of an adult organ acquired during embryogenesis from a morula that differentiated into trophoblastic (outer) and embryoblastic (inner) cells, and existing dormant cells at rest until reactivation during oncogenesis.

  18. Spontaneous cholecysto-cutaneous fistula complicating carcinoma of the gall bladder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Kuljinder; Athar, Mohd; Kumar, Vijay; Sharma, Inder D; Husain, Nuzhat

    2012-04-01

    Most cholecystocutaneous fistulas are postoperative complications of liver and biliary tract surgery or trauma. External biliary fistulas rarely occur spontaneously as a result of intrahepatic abscess (pyogenic or parasitic), necrosis or perforation of the gallbladder, or other inflammatory process involving the biliary tree. A cholecystocutaneous fistula as a presentation of an underlying cancer arising from the gall bladder is an extremely uncommon finding. Over the past 50 years fewer than 20 cases of spontaneous cholecystocutaneous fistulas have been described in the medical literature but so far there has been no published report of a cholecystocutaneous fistula arising from adenocarcinoma of gall bladder. We here report a case of a patient presenting with spontaneous cholecystocutaneous fistula from cancer of gall bladder.

  19. Transport of Salt and Water in Rabbit and Guinea Pig Gall Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Jared M.

    1964-01-01

    A simple and reproducible method has been developed for following fluid transport by an in vitro preparation of mammalian gall bladder, based upon weighing the organ at 5 minute intervals. Both guinea pig and rabbit gall bladders transport NaCl and water in isotonic proportions from lumen to serosa. In the rabbit bicarbonate stimulates transport, but there is no need for exogenous glucose. The transport rate is not affected by removal of potassium from the bathing solutions. Albumin causes a transient weight loss from the gall bladder wall, apparently by making the serosal smooth muscle fibers contract. Active NaCl transport can carry water against osmotic gradients of up to two atmospheres. Under passive conditions water may also move against its activity gradient in the presence of a permeating solute. The significance of water movement against osmotic gradients during active solute transport is discussed. PMID:14212148

  20. Spontaneous gall bladder haemorrhage in a renal dialysis patient following haemodialysis with tinzaparin.

    PubMed

    Borman, Natalie; Graetz, Keith

    2010-08-01

    Spontaneous gall bladder haemorrhage is a rare and serious occurrence with a few cases reported in the literature in haemodialysis patients. This report describes this complication following dialysis with a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) tinzaparin. This patient presented with acute right upper quadrant pain and intermittent haematemesis following 4 hours of haemodialysis. Despite being well established on dialysis, LMWH had only been used once previously. There was no history of trauma or pre-existing gall bladder pathology and no clinical or biochemical evidence of inflammation or infection. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed an extensive gall bladder haemorrhage. The patient was treated conservatively with analgesia, and blood transfusion and symptoms settled without intervention. This case report highlights a rare site of bleeding following LMWH use in a haemodialysis patient.

  1. Single-Port Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Gall Bladder Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Joong Choi, Chan; Kim, Min Chan; Choi, Hong Jo; Kim, Young Hoon; Jung, Ghap Joong

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC) was introduced to improve patients' postoperative quality of life and cosmesis over the conventional approach (CLC). The purpose of this case–control study was to compare the outcome of SPLC with that of CLC in a specific disease: gall bladder (GB) polyps. Methods: Eligible for the study were all patients with GB polyps who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy between June 1, 2009, and June 30, 2011. The 112 patients studied (56 each for SPLC and CLC) were matched by using a propensity score that included gender, age, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, history of previous abdominal operation, and pathology outcome. To avoid selection bias caused by the surgeon's choice (often dependent on the degree of inflammation) and to investigate the efficacy of SPLC for a single disease, GB polyps, we excluded patients with acute or chronic cholecystitis. Results: Characteristics of the patients matched by a propensity score between SPLC and CLC showed no significant difference. Incidentally detected malignancy was in postoperative pathology in cases in both groups. Although operative time was shorter for SPLC, there was no significant difference in time between the 2 groups. There were 3 open conversions in the CLC group, and an additional port was used in the SPLC group. There was no difference between the groups in hospital stay and postoperative complications. Conclusion: In the management of GB polyps, the operative results of SPLC are comparable to those of CLC. We conclude that SPLC is as safe as CLC and has the potential for greater cosmetic satisfaction for patients than CLC. Further trials for objective appraisal of cosmetic outcomes are needed. PMID:26229419

  2. Prospective study of malabsorption induced risk of gall stone formation in relation to fall in plasma cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, T I; Andersen, B; Hylander, E; Jensen, L I; Laursen, K; Klein, H C

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between cholesterol in plasma and risk of gall stone formation was investigated in 210 obese patients who underwent jejunoileal bypass surgery and were free of gall stone disease at the time. Among 185, successfully reexamined on average 19 months after surgery, 26 (14%) developed gall stones. The fall in plasma cholesterol after surgery exhibited a U-shaped relation to risk of gall stone formation with a minimum risk around the average fall (2.6 mmol/l). This was confirmed by multivariate logistic regression analysis (p less than 0.01) taking into account other possible determinants. The relation was not significantly dependent on weight loss or ratio between jejunum and ileum left in function. The study suggests that malabsorption induced fall in plasma cholesterol is related to risk of gall stone formation by two oppositely working mechanisms, one enhancing and one reducing the risk.

  3. Management of gall bladder perforation evaluation on ultrasonography: report of six rare cases with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Singal, Rikki; Mittal, Amit; Gupta, Samita; Singh, Bir; Jain, Parul

    2011-11-14

    Perforation of the gall bladder with cholecystohepatic communication is a rare cause of liver abscess. We are reporting here six rare cases of gall bladder perforation with variable clinical presentations. Most patients presented with right hypochondrium pain and fever but two patients presented with only pain in the abdomen. Ultrasonography (USG) and Computed Tomography (CT) were used for diagnosis. The patients were also successfully treated. There was a gall bladder perforation with cholecystohepatic communication, leading to liver abscess formation in most cases on USG and CT. The final diagnosis was confirmed on surgery. The perforation of the gall bladder which leads to liver abscess is a rare complication of acute, chronic or empyema gall bladder. USG and CT scans are the most important diagnostic tool in diagnosing this rare complication. In the set up, where advanced options are not available, the only treatment of choice is the conservative one or surgery, according to the status of the patients.

  4. Intermediate activity of midge antifreeze protein is due to a tyrosine-rich ice-binding site and atypical ice plane affinity.

    PubMed

    Basu, Koli; Wasserman, Samantha S; Jeronimo, Paul S; Graham, Laurie A; Davies, Peter L

    2016-04-01

    An antifreeze protein (AFP) from a midge (Chironomidae) was recently discovered and modelled as a tightly wound disulfide-braced solenoid with a surface-exposed rank of stacked tyrosines. New isoforms of the midge AFP have been identified from RT-PCR and are fully consistent with the model. Although they differ in the number of 10-residue coils, the row of tyrosines that form the putative ice-binding site is conserved. Recombinant midge AFP has been produced, and the properly folded form purified by ice affinity. This monomeric AFP has a distinct circular dichroism spectrum, a melting temperature between 35 and 50 °C and is fully renaturable on cooling. Mutagenesis of the middle tyrosine in the rank of seven eliminates antifreeze activity, whereas mutation of a tyrosine off this predicted ice-binding face had no such effect. This AFP has unusual properties compared to other known AFPs. First, its freezing-point depression activity is intermediate between that of the hyperactive and moderately active AFPs. As with hyperactive AFPs, when midge AFP-bound ice crystals exceed their freezing-point depression, ice grows explosively perpendicular to the c-axis. However, midge AFP does not bind to the basal plane of ice as do hyperactive AFPs, but rather to a pyramidal plane that is at a shallower angle relative to the basal plane than binding planes of moderate AFPs. These properties distinguish midge AFP from all other ice-binding proteins and the intermediate activity level fits well to the modest challenge of protecting newly emerged adult insects from late spring frosts. Nucleotide sequences of new midge AFP isoforms are available in the GenBank database under accession numbers KU094814-8. Sequences will be released after publication. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  5. Moving Your Sons to Safety: Galls Containing Male Fig Wasps Expand into the Centre of Figs, Away From Enemies

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hui; Compton, Stephen G.

    2012-01-01

    Figs are the inflorescences of fig trees (Ficus spp., Moraceae). They are shaped like a hollow ball, lined on their inner surface by numerous tiny female flowers. Pollination is carried out by host-specific fig wasps (Agaonidae). Female pollinators enter the figs through a narrow entrance gate and once inside can walk around on a platform generated by the stigmas of the flowers. They lay their eggs into the ovules, via the stigmas and styles, and also gall the flowers, causing the ovules to expand and their pedicels to elongate. A single pollinator larva develops in each galled ovule. Numerous species of non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW, belonging to other families of Chalcidoidea) also make use of galled ovules in the figs. Some initiate galls, others make use of pollinator-generated galls, killing pollinator larvae. Most NPFW oviposit from the outside of figs, making peripherally-located pollinator larvae more prone to attack. Style length variation is high among monoecious Ficus spp. and pollinators mainly oviposit into more centrally-located ovules, with shorter styles. Style length variation is lower in male (wasp-producing) figs of dioecious Ficus spp., making ovules equally vulnerable to attack by NPFW at the time that pollinators oviposit. We recorded the spatial distributions of galled ovules in mature male figs of the dioecious Ficus hirta in Southern China. The galls contained pollinators and three NPFW that kill them. Pollinators were concentrated in galls located towards the centre of the figs, NPFW towards the periphery. Due to greater pedicel elongation by male galls, male pollinators became located in more central galls than their females, and so were less likely to be attacked. This helps ensure that sufficient males survive, despite strongly female-biased sex ratios, and may be a consequence of the pollinator females laying mostly male eggs at the start of oviposition sequences. PMID:22295113

  6. Carcinoma of Gall bladder with distant metastasis to breast parenchyma. Report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Damodara; Anamalai, Manikandan; Velu, Umesh; Nambirajan, Aruna; Julka, Pramod Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Gall bladder carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in India. Gall bladder cancer with metastasis to the breast is very rare. Herein we intend to report a case of carcinoma gall bladder with breast metastasis and a short review of the literature. This report describes an interesting and unusual case of gall bladder carcinoma presenting with breast metastasis. A 38-year lady presented with complaints of right abdominal pain. Bilateral breast examination showed 2×2cm palpable lump in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast. Contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed circumferential thickening of gall bladder with the loss of fat plane with the adjacent liver parenchyma. Biopsy from the breast lump was reported as metastatic adenocarcinoma compatible with primary in the gall bladder. Whole body PET-CT showed gall bladder mass with abdominal and pelvic nodes with metastasis to liver, left breast, C7 vertebral body and left supra-clavicular node. She was diagnosed to have disseminated carcinoma gall bladder with liver, breast and supraclavicular nodal metastasis. She received palliative chemotherapy with gemcitabine and carboplatin and radiotherapy to C7 vertebra. After receiving 3 cycles of chemotherapy, chemotherapy was changed to the second line with single agent capecitabine. In spite of two lines of chemotherapy, she succumbed to disease progression and expired. There are limited examples of gall bladder adenocarcinoma with simultaneous metastasis to breast in the English literature. Our case showed an unusual dissemination of gall bladder cancer. Copyright © 2016 National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rice Production and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briers, Gary; Lee, Jasper S.

    This guide contains lesson plans for use in secondary programs of agricultural education in geographical areas in which rice is produced. Six units and 13 problem areas are organized into teaching plans that cover the broad nature of rice production. The six units are: (1) determining the importance and history of rice production; (2) determining…

  8. Comparative genome sequencing reveals genomic signature of extreme desiccation tolerance in the anhydrobiotic midge

    PubMed Central

    Gusev, Oleg; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Cornette, Richard; Kawashima, Takeshi; Logacheva, Maria D.; Kondrashov, Alexey S.; Penin, Aleksey A.; Hatanaka, Rie; Kikuta, Shingo; Shimura, Sachiko; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Katayose, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Shagimardanova, Elena; Alexeev, Dmitry; Govorun, Vadim; Wisecaver, Jennifer; Mikheyev, Alexander; Koyanagi, Ryo; Fujie, Manabu; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Shigenobu, Shuji; Shibata, Tomoko F.; Golygina, Veronika; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Okuda, Takashi; Satoh, Nori; Kikawada, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Anhydrobiosis represents an extreme example of tolerance adaptation to water loss, where an organism can survive in an ametabolic state until water returns. Here we report the first comparative analysis examining the genomic background of extreme desiccation tolerance, which is exclusively found in larvae of the only anhydrobiotic insect, Polypedilum vanderplanki. We compare the genomes of P. vanderplanki and a congeneric desiccation-sensitive midge P. nubifer. We determine that the genome of the anhydrobiotic species specifically contains clusters of multi-copy genes with products that act as molecular shields. In addition, the genome possesses several groups of genes with high similarity to known protective proteins. However, these genes are located in distinct paralogous clusters in the genome apart from the classical orthologues of the corresponding genes shared by both chironomids and other insects. The transcripts of these clustered paralogues contribute to a large majority of the mRNA pool in the desiccating larvae and most likely define successful anhydrobiosis. Comparison of expression patterns of orthologues between two chironomid species provides evidence for the existence of desiccation-specific gene expression systems in P. vanderplanki. PMID:25216354

  9. Vector species of Culicoides midges implicated in the 2012‑2014 Bluetongue epidemics in Italy.

    PubMed

    Goffredo, Maria; Catalani, Monica; Federici, Valentina; Portanti, Ottavio; Marini, Valeria; Mancini, Giuseppe; Quaglia, Michela; Santilli, Adriana; Teodori, Liana; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, serotypes 1 and 4 of bluetongue virus (BTV) entered and co‑circulated in Sardinia. The following year, BTV‑1 spread all over Sardinia and invaded Sicily and the Italian Tyrrenian coast. In 2014, this strain spread extensively in mainland Italy, causing severe outbreaks. In late 2014, BTV‑4 was detected in Southern Italy (Apulia region). This study reports the detection of BTV in species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected in Italy during the epidemics between 2012 and 2014. A total of 2,925 pools (83,102 midges), sorted from 651 collections made on 339 affected farms of 12 Italian regions, were tested for the presence of BTV by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR). The study clearly shows that Culicoides imicola and Obsoletus complex have played a crucial role in the bluetongue (BT) epidemics in Italy in 2012‑2014. Nevertheless, it also shows that other species may have played a role in transmitting BTV during these outbreaks. Culicoides dewulfi and at least 3 species of the Pulicaris complex, namely Culicoides pulicaris, Culicoides newsteadi and Culicoides punctatus, were found positive to BTV. Serotype 1 was detected in all species tested, whereas the BTV‑4 was detected in the Obsoletus complex, C. imicola, and C. newsteadi.

  10. Partial characterization of allergens associated with hypersensitivity to the 'green nimitti' midge (Cladotanytarsus lewisi, Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Tee, R D; Cromwell, O; Longbottom, J L; Cranston, P S; Kay, A B

    1984-03-01

    Allergens in extracts of the 'green nimitti' midge, Cladotanytarsus lewisi Freeman (Diptera: Chironomidae), a cause of widespread hypersensitivity in the Sudan, were isolated and partially characterized by assays which depend on the binding of 125I-anti-IgE to allergen-IgE complexes. These methods included RAST inhibition, crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE) and rocket radioimmunoelectrophoresis (RRIE). Following Sephadex G100 chromatography the 'major peak' of allergenicity as determined by RAST inhibition, RRIE and SDS-PAGE was associated with molecules of approximately 17 000 daltons. The peak eluting at Vo contained material of molecular weight 66 000 daltons which also bound 125I-anti-IgE, but had only 61% of the activity of the 'major peak' by RAST inhibition. By isoelectric focusing and RRIE of fractions obtained by chromatofocusing with polybuffer exchanger 94, the 'major peak' was associated with multiple bands with a pI range of 3.5-5.5. These results indicate that the major allergens from C. lewisi are a group of closely related acidic peptides.

  11. Distinct contractile and cytoskeletal protein patterns in the Antarctic midge are elicited by desiccation and rehydration.

    PubMed

    Li, Aiqing; Benoit, Joshua B; Lopez-Martinez, Giancarlo; Elnitsky, Michael A; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L

    2009-05-01

    Desiccation presents a major challenge for the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica. In this study, we use proteomic profiling to evaluate protein changes in the larvae elicited by dehydration and rehydration. Larvae were desiccated at 75% relative humidity (RH) for 12 h to achieve a body water loss of 35%, approximately half of the water that can be lost before the larvae succumb to dehydration. To evaluate the rehydration response, larvae were first desiccated, then rehydrated for 6 h at 100% RH and then in water for 6 h. Controls were held continuously at 100% RH. Protein analysis was performed using 2-DE and nanoscale capillary LC/MS/MS. Twenty-four identified proteins changed in abundance in response to desiccation: 16 were more abundant and 8 were less abundant; 84% of these proteins were contractile or cytoskeletal proteins. Thirteen rehydration-regulated proteins were identified: 8 were more abundant and 5 were less abundant, and 69% of these proteins were also contractile or cytoskeletal proteins. Additional proteins responsive to desiccation and rehydration were involved in functions including stress responses, energy metabolism, protein synthesis, glucogenesis and membrane transport. We conclude that the major protein responses elicited by both desiccation and rehydration are linked to body contraction and cytoskeleton rearrangements.

  12. Efficacy of Biopesticides for Management of the Swede Midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Evans, Braden G; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2016-10-01

    Management of the swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii Kieffer, in North American crucifer production relies on crop rotation and the timely application of synthetic insecticides, based on pheromone trap monitoring of local adult populations. Organically acceptable formulations of azadirachtin, pyrethrin, and spinosad, and a commercial biopesticide containing the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, were evaluated for their effects on larval mortality and oviposition deterrence in the greenhouse, and on damage symptoms in the field. In greenhouse trials, pyrethrin and spinosad treatments applied up to 24 h prior to C. nasturtii exposure resulted in significant reductions in oviposition on host plants, whereas azadirachtin and B. bassiana only deterred oviposition when applied 2 h prior to exposure. Spinosad caused the highest larval reduction (∼96%) on cauliflower meristems, while azadirachtin, B. bassiana, and pyrethrin caused significant larval reduction when applied preoviposition and significant mortality when applied postoviposition. Field trials conducted with these insecticides on broccoli in 2011 produced no significant reductions in overall damage levels; however, B. bassiana treatments produced more marketable plants than did the control. In 2013, all treatments significantly reduced overall damage levels and all treatments, except B. bassiana, produced more uninfested and marketable plants than the control. Field applications of these alternative insecticides may be effective in protecting yields of broccoli and cauliflower, when combined with other tactics in an integrated pest management program. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Genomic basis of ecological niche divergence among cryptic sister species of non-biting midges

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a lack of understanding the evolutionary forces driving niche segregation of closely related organisms. In addition, pinpointing the genes driving ecological divergence is a key goal in molecular ecology. Here, larval transcriptome sequences obtained by next-generation-sequencing are used to address these issues in a morphologically cryptic sister species pair of non-biting midges (Chironomus riparius and C. piger). Results More than eight thousand orthologous open reading frames were screened for interspecific divergence and intraspecific polymorphisms. Despite a small mean sequence divergence of 1.53% between the sister species, 25.1% of 18,115 observed amino acid substitutions were inferred by α statistics to be driven by positive selection. Applying McDonald-Kreitman tests to 715 alignments of gene orthologues identified eleven (1.5%) genes driven by positive selection. Conclusions Three candidate genes were identified as potentially responsible for the observed niche segregation concerning nitrite concentration, habitat temperature and water conductivity. Additionally, signs of positive selection in the hydrogen sulfide detoxification pathway were detected, providing a new plausible hypothesis for the species’ ecological differentiation. Finally, a divergently selected, nuclear encoded mitochondrial ribosomal protein may contribute to reproductive isolation due to cytonuclear coevolution. PMID:23758757

  14. Factors affecting methylmercury biomagnification by a widespread aquatic invertebrate predator, the phantom midge larvae Chaoborus.

    PubMed

    Le Jeune, Anne-Hélène; Bourdiol, Floriane; Aldamman, Lama; Perron, Tania; Amyot, Marc; Pinel-Alloul, Bernadette

    2012-06-01

    MeHg biomagnification by the phantom midge Chaoborus in relation to MeHg concentrations in their prey and its migratory behavior was investigated in two Canadian Precambrian Shield lakes. Three Chaoborus species with contrasted migratory behavior were collected in a fishless and a fish-inhabited lake. All species accumulated MeHg through their ontogenic development. In the lake inhabited by fish, all instars of Chaoborus punctipennis displayed a marked migratory behavior and were unable to biomagnify MeHg, whereas in the fishless lake, Chaoborus americanus and Chaoborus trivittatus biomagnified MeHg. Reduced biomagnification capacity of C. trivittatus, the coexisting species living with C. americanus, was also ascribed to a progressive vertical segregation with age. Growth dilution, amount and type of prey items or trophic position could not explain the different patterns of biomagnification. Our findings demonstrate that the most common invertebrate predator of temperate planktonic food webs can biomagnify mercury, contrarily to previous reports.

  15. Warm Mediterranean mid-Holocene summers inferred from fossil midge assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samartin, Stéphanie; Heiri, Oliver; Joos, Fortunat; Renssen, Hans; Franke, Jörg; Brönnimann, Stefan; Tinner, Willy

    2017-02-01

    Understanding past climate trends is key for reliable projections of global warming and associated risks and hazards. Uncomfortably large discrepancies between vegetation-based summer temperature reconstructions (mainly based on pollen) and climate model results have been reported for the current interglacial, the Holocene. For the Mediterranean region these reconstructions indicate cooler-than-present mid-Holocene summers, in contrast with expectations based on climate models and long-term changes in summer insolation. We present new quantitative and replicated Holocene summer temperature reconstructions based on fossil chironomid midges from the northern central Mediterranean region. The Holocene thermal maximum is reconstructed 9,000-5,000 years ago and estimated to have been 1-2 °C warmer in mean July temperature than the recent pre-industrial period, consistent with glacier and marine records, and with transient climate model runs. This combined evidence implies that widely used pollen-based summer temperature reconstructions in the Mediterranean area are significantly biased by precipitation or other forcings such as early land use. Our interpretation can resolve the previous discrepancy between climate models and quantitative palaeotemperature records for millennial-scale Holocene summer temperature trends in the Mediterranean region. It also suggests that pollen-based evidence for cool mid-Holocene summers in other semi-arid to arid regions of the Northern Hemisphere may have to be reconsidered, with potential implications for global-scale reconstructions.

  16. A Determination of Metallothionein in Larvae of Freshwater Midges (Chironomus riparius) Using Brdicka Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Fabrik, Ivo; Ruferova, Zuzana; Hilscherova, Klara; Adam, Vojtech; Trnkova, Libuse; Kizek, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Among wide spectrum of biomolecules induced by various stress factors low molecular mass protein called metallothionein (MT) is suitable for assessment of the heavy metal environmental pollution. The aim of this work was to determine the metallothionein and total thiols content in larvae of freshwater midges (Chironomus riparius) sampled from laboratory exposure to cadmium(II) ions and from field studies using differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. Unique electrochemical instrument, stationary electrochemical analyser Autolab coupled with autosampler, was utilized for the analysis of the samples. The detection limit for MT was evaluated as 5 nM. The larvae exposed to two doses (50 ng/g or 50 μg/g) of cadmium(II) ions for fifteen days under laboratory controlled conditions were at the end of the exposure killed, homogenized and analysed. MT content in control samples was 1.2 μM, in larvae exposed to 50 ng Cd/g it was 2.0 μM and in larvae exposed to 50 μg Cd/g 2.9 μM. Moreover at field study chironomid larvae as well as sediment samples have been collected from eight field sites with different levels of pollution by heavy. The metals content (chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, molybdenum, cadmium, tin and lead) in the sediment and or MT content in the chironomid larvae were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or Brdicka reaction, respectively. PMID:27879923

  17. Preclinical study on combined chemo- and nonviral gene therapy for sensitization of melanoma using a human TNF-alpha expressing MIDGE DNA vector.

    PubMed

    Kobelt, Dennis; Aumann, Jutta; Schmidt, Manuel; Wittig, Burghardt; Fichtner, Iduna; Behrens, Diana; Lemm, Margit; Freundt, Greta; Schlag, Peter M; Walther, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Nonviral gene therapy represents a realistic option for clinical application in cancer treatment. This preclinical study demonstrates the advantage of using the small-size MIDGE(®) DNA vector for improved transgene expression and therapeutic application. This is caused by significant increase in transcription efficiency, but not by increased intracellular vector copy numbers or gene transfer efficiency. We used the MIDGE-hTNF-alpha vector for high-level expression of hTNF-alpha in vitro and in vivo for a combined gene therapy and vindesine treatment in human melanoma models. The MIDGE vector mediated high-level hTNF-alpha expression leads to sensitization of melanoma cells towards vindesine. The increased efficacy of this combination is mediated by remarkable acceleration and increase of initiator caspase 8 and 9 and effector caspase 3 and 7 activation. In the therapeutic approach, the nonviral intratumoral in vivo jet-injection gene transfer of MIDGE-hTNF-alpha in combination with vindesine causes melanoma growth inhibition in association with increased apoptosis in A375 cell line or patient derived human melanoma xenotransplant (PDX) models. This study represents a proof-of-concept for an anticipated phase I clinical gene therapy trial, in which the MIDGE-hTNF-alpha vector will be used for efficient combined chemo- and nonviral gene therapy of malignant melanoma.

  18. Seasonal dynamics of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, Culicoides spp.) on dairy farms of Central Germany during the 2007/2008 epidemic of bluetongue.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Peter-Henning; Stephan, Anja; Bartsch, Stefanie; Jandowsky, Anabell; Hoffmann-Köhler, Peggy; Schein, Eberhard; Mehlitz, Dieter; Bauer, Burkhard

    2009-08-01

    The unforeseen outbreak of bluetongue in north-western Europe in August 2006 raised the question, which Culicoides spp. were involved in the transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV). Based on the decision 2007/20/EU of December 2006, a large-scale entomological surveillance programme was initiated in the five affected EU member states including Germany. This paper reports on the entomological findings obtained from March/April 2007 to May 2008 at 15 sampling sites in the federal states of Lower Saxony (eastern region), Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Brandenburg and Saxony-Anhalt: The number of captured biting midges in one trap varied from none or few Culicoides during winter (December 2007 to April 2008) to up to more than 12,500 individuals during summer and autumn. Catches of the C. obsoletus group were consistently higher than those of the C. pulicaris group. C. imicola, the principal afro-asiatic vector of BTV, was not detected. High numbers of midges were caught inside the cattle sheds. Eleven pools of biting midges were RT-PCR-positive to BTV-8 including pools of non-engorged midges of the C. obsoletus and of the C. pulicaris groups. The first BTV-genome positive pool of midges was detected in August 2007; the remaining genome-positive pools were detected during October and November 2007.

  19. Inhibitory motor innervation of the gall bladder musculature by intrinsic neurones containing nitric oxide in the Australian brush-tailed possum (Trichosurus vulpecula).

    PubMed

    Meedeniya, A C; Al-Jiffry, B O; Konomi, H; Schloithe, A C; Toouli, J; Saccone, G T

    2001-11-01

    Gall bladder functions are modulated by neurones intrinsic to the organ. Data are available on the neurochemical composition of intrinsic and extrinsic nerves innervating the gall bladder but are lacking on specific functional classes of gall bladder neurones. To characterise the intrinsic motor neurones of the gall bladder and identify their roles using pharmacological techniques. Retrograde tracing from the possum gall bladder muscle in vitro allowed identification of intrinsic motor neurones. Subsequently, their content of choline acetyltransferase and nitric oxide synthase, markers of acetylcholine and nitric oxide containing neurones, was established using immunohistochemical techniques. Organ bath pharmacology was used to evaluate neurotransmission by acetylcholine and nitric oxide in gall bladder muscle strips. Innervation of the gall bladder musculature by neurones of both the muscular and serosal plexuses was demonstrated. A large proportion (62%) of these motor neurones were immunoreactive for nitric oxide synthase. All gall bladder neurones showed immunoreactivity for choline acetyltransferase. Organ bath pharmacology confirmed the neuroanatomical data, showing acetylcholine and nitric oxide mediating neurotransmission to the gall bladder musculature. Neurones containing acetylcholine and nitric oxide, located within the muscular and serosal plexuses, provide excitatory and inhibitory motor innervation of the gall bladder, respectively. The large inhibitory innervation suggests active relaxation of the gall bladder during filling, mediated by intrinsic nerves.

  20. Research in rice fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Between 1987 and 1999, 2.4-3 million acres of rice were planted annually nationwide. Rice fields are a major component of the contemporary landscapes in the Gulf Coastal Plain, the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, and Central Valley of California. In 1998, approximately 600,000 acres of rice were planted in Louisiana. In the Louisiana plant commodities report for 1998, total value for rice was over $350 million; sugarcane was the only plant commodity that exceeded this value. Louisiana has over 2,000 rice farmers supporting over 12,000 jobs in the state. Rice fields in the United States receive high use by wildlife, especially shorebirds, wading birds, and waterfowl. Waterbirds use rice fields for food, shelter, and breeding habitat.

  1. The imbalance of redox homeostasis in arthropod-induced plant galls: Mechanisms of stress generation and dissipation.

    PubMed

    Santos Isaias, Rosy Mary; Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Moreira, Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro; Soares, Geraldo Luiz Gonçalves; Carneiro, Renê Gonçalves Silva

    2015-08-01

    Galls have specialized tissues for the protection and nutrition of the inducers, and these tissues have been studied from the developmental and histochemical perspectives. Recently, the role of oxidative stress in galls has been tested histochemically through detection of H2O2 in gall tissues. Developmental processes and cytological events are revisited from the perspective of the redox-potential balance in both the apoplast and symplast, especially concerning the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The redox potential is imbalanced differently in the apoplast and symplast at gall sites, with the apoplast having lower antioxidant-buffering capacity than the symplast. The strategies to recover redox-potential homeostasis involve the dissipation of ROS by scavenging molecules, such as phenolics, flavonoid derivatives, tocopherol, and enzyme systems. Insect galls are good models to test developmental hypotheses. Although the exact mechanisms of gall induction and development have not been elucidated at the biochemical and biophysical levels, modulation of the redox potential is involved in the crucial steps of gall initiation and establishment. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Redox regulation of differentiation and de-differentiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gall production on hawthorns caused by Gymnosporangium spp.in Hatay province, Turkey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three hawthorn and related rust diseases caused by Gymnosporangium confusum on Crataegus monogyna, G. clavariiforme on C. orientalis, and G. sabinae on Pyrus communis were detected in Hatay province, Turkey. Gymnosporangium confusum was also found causing telial galls on Juniperus communis. Gymnospo...

  3. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Main report and appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Kaza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This document is Volume 1, consisting of the executive summary, summary and observations, and an appendix listing the GALL literature review tables.

  4. First Report of Crown Gall Caused by Agrobacterium sp. on Diffuse Knapweed (Centaurea diffusa)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A specimen of diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa, DK) with crown gall-like symptoms was collected July 27, 2004, in Mosier, Wasco Co., OR (N 45.6842, W 121.4021), and sent to the USDA at Ft. Detrick, MD, for identification. A bacterium was isolated on Potato Dextrose Agar that caused hyperplasia a...

  5. Early Detection Pest Advisory 2007: Identifying and managing the Erythrina Gall Wasp

    Treesearch

    R-5 and Southern Research Station U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Health Protection

    2007-01-01

    The erythrina gall wasp (EGW) was first detected in the U.S. on Oahu, HI, in April 2005. It was found on the remaining Hawaiian Islands in less than six months and now seriously threatens survival of native coral (wiliwili) trees in Hawaii's dryland forests. The wasp was detected in South Florida in October 2006, further demonstrating its invasive capabilities and...

  6. The Scotch Broom gall mite: Accidental introduction to classical biological control agent?

    Treesearch

    J. Andreas; T. Wax; E. Coombs; J. Gaskin; G. Markin; S. Sing

    2013-01-01

    The gall mite, Aceria genistae (Nal.) Castagnoli s.l., an accidentally introduced natural enemy of Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link), was first discovered in the Portland OR and Tacoma WA region in 2005. It has since been reported from southern British Columbia to southern Oregon. Observationally, the mite appears to reduce Scotch broom seed production and at...

  7. Biology of the galling wasp, Tetramesa romana, a biological control agent of giant reed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The biology of the gall-forming wasp, Tetramesa romana Walker (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), from southern France and Spain was studied for biological control of giant reed (Arundo donax L.), an exotic and invasive riparian weed in the U.S. Females developed eggs parthenogenetically and deposited them...

  8. The authority and types for the hackberry gall psyllid genus Pachypsylla (Riley) (Hemiptera-Homoptera: Psyllidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The nomenclatural problems with the hackberry gall psyllid species names are rectified. The genus Pachypsylla Riley, 1883, type species, Psylla venusta Osten-Sacken, includes 14 nominal species. These are: Pachypsylla venusta (Osten-Sacken, 1861); P. celtidismamma Riley, 1875; P. celtidisgemma Ri...

  9. Evaluation of wild walnut Juglans spp. for resistance to crown gall disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crown gall (CG) disease of walnut is caused by the ubiquitous soil-borne bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The most widely used rootstock Paradox, an interspecific hybrid between Juglans hindsii and Juglans regia, is typically highly susceptible to A. tumefaciens. Identification of a durable sou...

  10. CROWN GALL INCIDENCE: SEEDLING PARADOX WALNUT ROOTSTOCK VERSUS OWN-ROOTED ENGLISH WALNUT TREES

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seedling Paradox (Juglans hindsii x J. regia) has been the rootstock of choice for English walnut in California because of its vigor and greater tolerance of wet soil conditions. However, seedling Paradox rootstock is highly susceptible to crown gall, a disease caused by the soil-borne bacterium Agr...

  11. Anti-Candida activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against Candida species

    PubMed Central

    Baharuddin, Nur Saeida; Abdullah, Hasmah; Abdul Wahab, Wan Nor Amilah Wan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Galls of Quercus infectoria have been traditionally used to treat common ailments, including yeast infections caused by Candida species. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anti-Candida activity of Q. infectoria gall extracts against selected Candida species. Materials and Methods: Methanol and aqueous extracts of Q. infectoria galls were tested for anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the two-fold serial dilution technique of concentrations ranging from 16 mg/ml to 0.03 mg/ml. After 24 h, the minimum fungicidal concentrations were determined by subculturing the wells, which showed no turbidity on the agar plate. Potential phytochemical group in the crude extracts was screened by phytochemical qualitative tests and subsequently subjected to the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Both methanol and aqueous extracts displayed substantial anti-Candida activity and pyrogallol was the major component of both crude extracts. Conclusions: Data from current study suggested that Q. infectoria gall extracts are a potential source to be developed as anti-candidiasis. PMID:25709331

  12. Plant Galls and Ecological Concepts: A Multidisciplinary Outdoor Education Teaching Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce; And Others

    Designed for adaptation in primary through high school classes, the lessons in this resource packet use the development of plant galls (plant growths caused by irritation of the plant tissue) as a focus for outdoor education studies and activities. Emphasis is on science and ecology, though other disciplines are represented. Illustrations and…

  13. Seed galls of Semudobia betulae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on species of birch (Betula spp.)

    Treesearch

    Vaclav Skuhravy

    1991-01-01

    Semudobia betulae Winnertz, described in 1853, is the most common species of gall insect occurring on the genus Betula in the Palearctic and Nearctic regions of the world. S. betulae has been observed on four species of Betula according to Barnes (1951) and on 14 additional species according to Roskam (1977). At the Arboretum of...

  14. Incidence of gall stone formation in acromegalic patients on octreotide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Aditi A.; Ajmani, Ajay; Manchanda, Smita; Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Chopra, Shweta

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Octreotide, a long-acting synthetic somatostatin analog, has been widely used for ac-romegalic patients. Gastrointestinal (GI) side effects and gall stones are predominant side effects. We report incidence of gall stones in our cohort of acromegalic patients treated with octreotide therapy. Design: Retrospective case observational study. Setting: Endocrinology Unit, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia, Hospital, New Delhi. Materials and Methods: Patients of acromegaly on primary or secondary octreotide therapy. Intervention: Patients were enquired regarding complaints related to the GI system and their medical records were reviewed. Ultrasound films at various intervals while on octerotide therapy were evaluated by the radiologist for presence of sludge and development of gall stones. Results: Of seven patients, five developed gallstones and sludge was seen in three patients at intervals ranging from 11 to 36 months postoctreotide initiation. Conclusion: A high incidence of gall stone formation in the present study as compared to the West was noted, the reasons for which are not clear. PMID:22629508

  15. Plant Galls and Ecological Concepts: A Multidisciplinary Outdoor Education Teaching Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce; And Others

    Designed for adaptation in primary through high school classes, the lessons in this resource packet use the development of plant galls (plant growths caused by irritation of the plant tissue) as a focus for outdoor education studies and activities. Emphasis is on science and ecology, though other disciplines are represented. Illustrations and…

  16. [Surgical treatment for gall bladder cancer with a confluence stone-a case report].

    PubMed

    Ota, Hideo; Ohtsuru, Minoru; Komai, Takanori; Katayama, Tomohiro; Machida, Tomohiko; Ishii, Takaaki; Hiraoka, Kunihiko; Sinozaki, Kouji; Kawasaki, Yasuhito; Ikeda, Yukio; Senba, Hidemine; Yasuda, Seiji

    2012-11-01

    The patient was a 71-year-old man. In September 2011, he experienced abdominal pain with high fever. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) diagnosed acute cholecystitis with a confluence stone (corlette classification type II). He underwent total cholecystectomy and placement of a T-tube in the main bile duct through the gall bladder duct. However, pathological investigations revealed gall bladder cancer in the neck and body part of the gall bladder, leading to a diagnosis of gall bladder adenocarcinoma(Gbn, Flat type, tub2, INF β,pSS, pHinf0, pBinf1, pPV0, pA0, pT3) with a confluence stone. We suspected that the tumor was present in the common bile duct. Therefore, in October 2011, he underwent choledochectomy, resection of the liver bed, lymph node dissection, and choledocho-jejunostomy. Pathological findings revealed that the tumor was present in the common bile duct. He died 8 months after the last surgery because of recurrence of peritoneal metastasis.

  17. Spilled gall stones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sathesh-Kumar, T; Saklani, A P; Vinayagam, R; Blackett, R L

    2004-02-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with spillage of gall stones in 5%-40% of procedures, but complications occur very rarely. There are, however, isolated case reports describing a range of complications occurring both at a distance from and near to the subhepatic area. This review looks into the various modes of presentation, ways to minimise spillage, treating the complications, and the legal implications.

  18. Galling problems – the Fergusobia nematode/Fergusonina fly mutualism on Myrtaceous hosts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fergusobia (Sphaerularioidea, Tylenchidae) is the only known nematode to have a dicyclic life cycle with a generation in a plant (a myrtaceous host) followed by one in an insect (a Fergusonina fly). The nematode and fly have a mutualistic association, with the nematode inducing a plant gall on which...

  19. Host-driven diversification of gall-inducing Acacia thrips and the aridification of Australia.

    PubMed

    McLeish, Michael J; Chapman, Thomas W; Schwarz, Michael P

    2007-01-26

    Insects that feed on plants contribute greatly to the generation of biodiversity. Hypotheses explaining rate increases in phytophagous insect diversification and mechanisms driving speciation in such specialists remain vexing despite considerable attention. The proliferation of plant-feeding insects and their hosts are expected to broadly parallel one another where climate change over geological timescales imposes consequences for the diversification of flora and fauna via habitat modification. This work uses a phylogenetic approach to investigate the premise that the aridification of Australia, and subsequent expansion and modification of arid-adapted host flora, has implications for the diversification of insects that specialise on them. Likelihood ratio tests indicated the possibility of hard molecular polytomies within two co-radiating gall-inducing species complexes specialising on the same set of host species. Significant tree asymmetry is indicated at a branch adjacent to an inferred transition to a Plurinerves ancestral host species. Lineage by time diversification plots indicate gall-thrips that specialise on Plurinerves hosts differentially experienced an explosive period of speciation contemporaneous with climatic cycling during the Quaternary period. Chronological analyses indicated that the approximate age of origin of gall-inducing thrips on Acacia might be as recent as 10 million years ago during the Miocene, as truly arid landscapes first developed in Australia. Host-plant diversification and spatial heterogeneity of hosts have increased the potential for specialisation, resource partitioning, and unoccupied ecological niche availability for gall-thrips on Australian Acacia.

  20. Effects of furfural on nematode populations and galling on tomato and pepper

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A commercial formulation of furfural (Multiguard® Protect) was evaluated in greenhouse trials over three seasons for effects on parasitic and beneficial nematode populations in roots and soil, plant growth, and galling on tomato and bell pepper caused by Meloidogyne incognita. ‘Tiny Tim’ tomato (So...