Science.gov

Sample records for rice gall midge

  1. Analysis of SSH library of rice variety Aganni reveals candidate gall midge resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Divya, Dhanasekar; Singh, Y Tunginba; Nair, Suresh; Bentur, J S

    2016-03-01

    The Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae, is a serious insect pest causing extensive yield loss. Interaction between the gall midge and rice genotypes is known to be on a gene-for-gene basis. Here, we report molecular basis of HR- (hypersensitive reaction-negative) type of resistance in Aganni (an indica rice variety possessing gall midge resistance gene Gm8) through the construction and analysis of a suppressive subtraction hybridization (SSH) cDNA library. In all, 2,800 positive clones were sequenced and analyzed. The high-quality ESTs were assembled into 448 non-redundant gene sequences. Homology search with the NCBI databases, using BlastX and BlastN, revealed that 73% of the clones showed homology to genes with known function and majority of ESTs belonged to the gene ontology category 'biological process'. Validation of 27 putative candidate gall midge resistance genes through real-time PCR, following gall midge infestation, in contrasting parents and their derived pre-NILs (near isogenic lines) revealed induction of specific genes related to defense and metabolism. Interestingly, four genes, belonging to families of leucine-rich repeat (LRR), heat shock protein (HSP), pathogenesis related protein (PR), and NAC domain-containing protein, implicated in conferring HR+ type of resistance, were found to be up-regulated in Aganni. Two of the reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI)-scavenging-enzyme-coding genes Cytosolic Ascorbate Peroxidase1, 2 (OsAPx1 and OsAPx2) were found up-regulated in Aganni in incompatible interaction possibly suppressing HR. We suggest that Aganni has a deviant form of inducible, salicylic acid (SA)-mediated resistance but without HR. PMID:26801786

  2. Analysis of SSH library of rice variety Aganni reveals candidate gall midge resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Divya, Dhanasekar; Singh, Y Tunginba; Nair, Suresh; Bentur, J S

    2016-03-01

    The Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae, is a serious insect pest causing extensive yield loss. Interaction between the gall midge and rice genotypes is known to be on a gene-for-gene basis. Here, we report molecular basis of HR- (hypersensitive reaction-negative) type of resistance in Aganni (an indica rice variety possessing gall midge resistance gene Gm8) through the construction and analysis of a suppressive subtraction hybridization (SSH) cDNA library. In all, 2,800 positive clones were sequenced and analyzed. The high-quality ESTs were assembled into 448 non-redundant gene sequences. Homology search with the NCBI databases, using BlastX and BlastN, revealed that 73% of the clones showed homology to genes with known function and majority of ESTs belonged to the gene ontology category 'biological process'. Validation of 27 putative candidate gall midge resistance genes through real-time PCR, following gall midge infestation, in contrasting parents and their derived pre-NILs (near isogenic lines) revealed induction of specific genes related to defense and metabolism. Interestingly, four genes, belonging to families of leucine-rich repeat (LRR), heat shock protein (HSP), pathogenesis related protein (PR), and NAC domain-containing protein, implicated in conferring HR+ type of resistance, were found to be up-regulated in Aganni. Two of the reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI)-scavenging-enzyme-coding genes Cytosolic Ascorbate Peroxidase1, 2 (OsAPx1 and OsAPx2) were found up-regulated in Aganni in incompatible interaction possibly suppressing HR. We suggest that Aganni has a deviant form of inducible, salicylic acid (SA)-mediated resistance but without HR.

  3. A novel mechanism of gall midge resistance in the rice variety Kavya revealed by microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Nidhi; Chiruvuri Naga, Neeraja; Raman Meenakshi, Sundaram; Nair, Suresh; Bentur, Jagadish S

    2012-06-01

    The Asian rice gall midge [Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason)] is an important rice pest causing an annual average yield loss of about US $80 million in India. Rice varieties possess several discrete resistance (R) genes conferring resistance against the pest in two distinct ways, i.e., with (HR+ type) or without (HR- type) the expression of hypersensitive reaction (HR). The aim of the present work is to understand the molecular basis of compatible and incompatible (HR- type) rice gall midge interactions between the rice variety Kavya and the two gall midge biotypes: the virulent GMB4M and the avirulent GMB1 using transcriptional microarray gene expression analysis. A large number of differentially expressed genes (602genes in incompatible interaction and 1,330 genes in compatible interaction with at least twofold changes, p value <0.05) was obtained from the microarray analysis that could be grouped into six clusters based on their induction during both or either of the interactions. MapMan software was used for functional characterization of these genes into 13 categories (BINs). Real-time polymerase chain reaction validation of 26 genes selected through the analysis revealed four genes viz. NADPH oxidase, AtrbohF, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, and von Willebrand factor type A domain containing protein coding genes to be significantly upregulated during the incompatible interaction. But most of the signature genes related to HR+ type resistance like salicylic acid pathway-related genes and disease resistance protein coding genes were downregulated. On the other hand, during the compatible interaction, genes related to primary metabolism and nutrient transport were upregulated and genes for defense and signaling were downregulated. We propose a hypothesis that HR- type of resistance in the rice variety Kavya against gall midge could be due to the constitutive expression of an R gene and a case of extreme resistance which is devoid of cell death. Compatible interaction

  4. The Asian Rice Gall Midge (Orseolia oryzae) Mitogenome Has Evolved Novel Gene Boundaries and Tandem Repeats That Distinguish Its Biotypes

    PubMed Central

    Atray, Isha; Bentur, Jagadish Sanmallappa; Nair, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Diptera; Cecidomyiidae) was sequenced, annotated and analysed in the present study. The circular genome is 15,286 bp with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and a 578 bp non-coding control region. All protein coding genes used conventional start codons and terminated with a complete stop codon. The genome presented many unusual features: (1) rearrangement in the order of tRNAs as well as protein coding genes; (2) truncation and unusual secondary structures of tRNAs; (3) presence of two different repeat elements in separate non-coding regions; (4) presence of one pseudo-tRNA gene; (5) inversion of the rRNA genes; (6) higher percentage of non-coding regions when compared with other insect mitogenomes. Rearrangements of the tRNAs and protein coding genes are explained on the basis of tandem duplication and random loss model and why intramitochondrial recombination is a better model for explaining rearrangements in the O. oryzae mitochondrial genome is discussed. Furthermore, we evaluated the number of iterations of the tandem repeat elements found in the mitogenome. This led to the identification of genetic markers capable of differentiating rice gall midge biotypes and the two Orseolia species investigated. PMID:26226163

  5. Feltiella acarisuga (predatory gall midge)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga is one of the most effective and widespread natural enemies of spider mites. Because of their flying and prey detecting capabilities, and high feeding potential, it is considered an important natural enemy of the two-spotted spider mite in a number of cr...

  6. QTL Mapping in Three Rice Populations Uncovers Major Genomic Regions Associated with African Rice Gall Midge Resistance.

    PubMed

    Yao, Nasser; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Semagn, Kassa; Sow, Mounirou; Nwilene, Francis; Kolade, Olufisayo; Bocco, Roland; Oyetunji, Olumoye; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Ndjiondjop, Marie-Noëlle

    2016-01-01

    African rice gall midge (AfRGM) is one of the most destructive pests of irrigated and lowland African ecologies. This study aimed to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with AfRGM pest incidence and resistance in three independent bi-parental rice populations (ITA306xBW348-1, ITA306xTOG7106 and ITA306xTOS14519), and to conduct meta QTL (mQTL) analysis to explore whether any genomic regions are conserved across different genetic backgrounds. Composite interval mapping (CIM) conducted on the three populations independently uncovered a total of 28 QTLs associated with pest incidence (12) and pest severity (16). The number of QTLs per population associated with AfRGM resistance varied from three in the ITA306xBW348-1 population to eight in the ITA306xTOG7106 population. Each QTL individually explained 1.3 to 34.1% of the phenotypic variance. The major genomic region for AfRGM resistance had a LOD score and R2 of 60.0 and 34.1% respectively, and mapped at 111 cM on chromosome 4 (qAfrGM4) in the ITA306xTOS14519 population. The meta-analysis reduced the number of QTLs from 28 to 17 mQTLs, each explaining 1.3 to 24.5% of phenotypic variance, and narrowed the confidence intervals by 2.2 cM. There was only one minor effect mQTL on chromosome 1 that was common in the TOS14519 and TOG7106 genetic backgrounds; all other mQTLs were background specific. We are currently fine-mapping and validating the major effect genomic region on chromosome 4 (qAfRGM4). This is the first report in mapping the genomic regions associated with the AfRGM resistance, and will be highly useful for rice breeders. PMID:27508500

  7. QTL Mapping in Three Rice Populations Uncovers Major Genomic Regions Associated with African Rice Gall Midge Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Semagn, Kassa; Sow, Mounirou; Nwilene, Francis; Kolade, Olufisayo; Bocco, Roland; Oyetunji, Olumoye; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Ndjiondjop, Marie-Noëlle

    2016-01-01

    African rice gall midge (AfRGM) is one of the most destructive pests of irrigated and lowland African ecologies. This study aimed to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with AfRGM pest incidence and resistance in three independent bi-parental rice populations (ITA306xBW348-1, ITA306xTOG7106 and ITA306xTOS14519), and to conduct meta QTL (mQTL) analysis to explore whether any genomic regions are conserved across different genetic backgrounds. Composite interval mapping (CIM) conducted on the three populations independently uncovered a total of 28 QTLs associated with pest incidence (12) and pest severity (16). The number of QTLs per population associated with AfRGM resistance varied from three in the ITA306xBW348-1 population to eight in the ITA306xTOG7106 population. Each QTL individually explained 1.3 to 34.1% of the phenotypic variance. The major genomic region for AfRGM resistance had a LOD score and R2 of 60.0 and 34.1% respectively, and mapped at 111 cM on chromosome 4 (qAfrGM4) in the ITA306xTOS14519 population. The meta-analysis reduced the number of QTLs from 28 to 17 mQTLs, each explaining 1.3 to 24.5% of phenotypic variance, and narrowed the confidence intervals by 2.2 cM. There was only one minor effect mQTL on chromosome 1 that was common in the TOS14519 and TOG7106 genetic backgrounds; all other mQTLs were background specific. We are currently fine-mapping and validating the major effect genomic region on chromosome 4 (qAfRGM4). This is the first report in mapping the genomic regions associated with the AfRGM resistance, and will be highly useful for rice breeders. PMID:27508500

  8. Oviposition cues of the blueberry gall midge, dasineura oxycoccana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The blueberry gall midge oviposits into blueberry flower buds and leaf buds, reducing yield up to 80%. We developed an efficient rearing method with a low level of direct handling, and high levels of survival and chance of mating. We also collected and identified volatiles from blueberry flower bu...

  9. Tripius gyraloura n. sp. (Aphelenchoidea: Sphaerulariidae) parasitic in the gall midge Lasioptera donacis Coutin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new nematode, Tripius gyraloura sp. n., is described from the arundo gall midge, Lasioptera donacis Coutin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). This gall midge is being considered as a biological control agent for use in North America against the introduced giant reed, Arundo donax (L.) (Poaceae: Cyperales)....

  10. The North American gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) of hackberries (Cannabaceae: Celtis spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-three species of gall midges occur exclusively on hackberries in North America north of Mexico. Twenty-one of them belong to Celticecis and form complex, dehiscent galls on leaves and the current year’s twigs. Celticecis are definitely known only from the typical subgenus of Celtis that is di...

  11. Edaphic environment, gall midges, and goldenrod clonal expansion in a mid-successional old-field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Michael J.; Abrahamson, Warren G.; Landis, Kelly

    2006-11-01

    During the middle stage of old-field succession, genets of clonal plants vie to take over space from annual and short-lived perennial plants. We studied factors that may influence the relative rates of expansion of Solidago altissima genets in an old-field population attacked by the gall midge Rhopalomyia solidaginis. Genets growing in more clayey soil expanded more slowly, as evidenced by differences in rhizome growth. Edaphic conditions also affected galling frequencies, with genets in more sandy soil having twice as many galls. Gall midges reduced goldenrod stem growth, and stem height was positively correlated with rhizome growth. For a given stem height, galled ramets allocated relatively more biomass to rhizome growth than ungalled ramets. The end result was that galled ramets produced the same number and sizes of rhizomes as ungalled ramets.

  12. Artocarpus (Moraceae)-gall midge pollination mutualism mediated by a male-flower parasitic fungus.

    PubMed

    Sakai, S; Kato, M; Nagamasu, H

    2000-03-01

    A previously undescribed pollination system involving a monoecious tree species, Artocarpus integer (Moraceae), pollinator gall midges, and fungi is reported from a mixed dipterocarp forest in Sarawak, Borneo. The fungus Choanephora sp. (Choanephoraceae, Mucorales, Zygomycetes) infects male inflorescences of A. integer, and gall midges (Contarinia spp., Cecidomyiinae, Diptera) feed on the fungal mycelia and oviposit on the inflorescence. Their larvae also feed on the mycelia and pupate in the inflorescence. The gall midges are also attracted by female inflorescences lacking mycelia, probably due to a floral fragrance similar to that of male inflorescences. Because of the sticky pollen, dominance of Contarinia spp. in flower visitors, and pollen load observed on Contarinia spp. collected on both male and female inflorescences, Artocarpus integer is thought to be pollinated by the gall midges. Although several pathogenic fungi have been reported to have interactions with pollinators, this is the first report on a pollination mutualism in which a fungus plays an indispensable role. The pollination system described here suggests that we should be more aware of the roles fungi can play in pollinations.

  13. Massive shift in gene expression during transitions between developmental stages of the Gall Midge, Mayetiola destructor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gall midge Mayetiola destructor is a destructive pest of wheat worldwide and a model organism for studying plant – insect interactions. The insect has six different developmental stages including eggs, three instars of larvae, pupae, and adults. Molecular mechanisms controlling the transition ...

  14. Rampant host- and defensive phenotype-associated diversification in a goldenrod gall midge.

    PubMed

    Stireman, J O; Devlin, H; Abbot, P

    2012-10-01

    Natural selection can play an important role in the genetic divergence of populations and their subsequent speciation. Such adaptive diversification, or ecological speciation, might underlie the enormous diversity of plant-feeding insects that frequently experience strong selection pressures associated with host plant use as well as from natural enemies. This view is supported by increasing documentation of host-associated (genetic) differentiation in populations of plant-feeding insects using alternate hosts. Here, we examine evolutionary diversification in a single nominal taxon, the gall midge Asteromyia carbonifera (O.S.), with respect to host plant use and gall phenotype. Because galls can be viewed as extended defensive phenotypes of the midges, gall morphology is likely to be a reflection of selective pressures by enemies. Using phylogenetic and comparative analyses of mtDNA and nuclear sequence data, we find evidence that A. carbonifera populations are rapidly diversifying along host plant and gall morphological lines. At a broad scale, geography explains surprisingly little genetic variation, and there is little evidence of strict co-cladogenesis with their Solidago hosts. Gall morphology is relatively labile, distinct gall morphs have evolved repeatedly and colonized multiple hosts, and multiple genetically and morphologically distinct morphs frequently coexist on a single host plant species. These results suggest that Asteromyia carbonifera is in the midst of an adaptive radiation driven by multitrophic selective pressures. Similar complex community pressures are likely to play a role in the diversification of other herbivorous insect groups.

  15. New records and new species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) developing on Chenopodiaceae in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Ayman Khamis; Skuhravá, Marcela; Karam, Hedaya Hamza; Elminshawy, Abdelaziz; Al-Eryan, Mohamed Awad

    2015-01-05

    The Cecidomyiidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha) fauna of Egypt is poorly known. Investigations in northern Egypt in 2013 revealed the presence of seven species of gall midges on three host plant species: Atriplex halimus L., Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric.) and Suaeda pruniosa Lange (all Chenopodiaceae). Among the gall midges, Baldratia salicorniae  Kieffer and Stefaniella trinacriae De Stefani are reconfirmed records in Egypt; Houardiella gracilis Dorchin & Freidberg and Asphondylia punica Marchal are new records; and Baldratia karamae Elsayed & Skuhraván. sp. , Primofavilla aegyptiaca Elsayed n. sp. and Stefaniella skuhravae Elsayed n. sp. are new to science. Adult morphology of the latter three new species is described and illustrated, and their biology and geographic distribution are given. 

  16. Does gall midge larvae cause pre-dispersal seed mortality and limit cornflower population growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprdova, Stanislava; Bellanger, Solène; Skuhrovec, Jiří; Darmency, Henri

    2015-11-01

    Many kinds of pests can reduce seed production. Some directly attack seeds before they are released, and some are hosted by the fruit and impact seed ripening and viability indirectly. Pre-dispersal seed mortality may have strong effects on plant population dynamics and evolution. Our goals were to determine to what extent insect-mediated pre-dispersal seed mortality contributes to population-level declines of cornflower, Centaurea cyanus L. We recorded occurrence and abundance of seed-feeding insects on flower heads in twelve cornflower populations. We measured flower head size, number of disc florets, seed production, and seed viability and germination. Larger flower heads had proportionally fewer healthy seeds. Although we observed no visible damage to the C. cyanus seed, the presence of gall midge (Cecidomyiidae) larvae inside the flower head correlated with four times fewer viable seeds. It seems that gall midges could have a significant impact on ovule fertilization, seed abortion and viability of fully developed cornflower seeds. The higher rate of aborted seeds in the presence of gall midge larvae could have been because the larvae extracted resources from the seeds, or because the larvae repelled pollinators. The viability of apparently healthy seeds was 40% lower in flower heads that contained larvae and/or aborted seed. Insect-mediated pre-dispersal mortality could select against evolution toward larger flower head, and have detrimental consequences on seed number, viability and germination, all of which could limit the spread of C. cyanus populations.

  17. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism via genotyping-by-sequencing in the gall midge Mayetiola Destructor (Hessian Fly)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) is a recently developed technology that has been used to identify DNA markers and map genes for specific traits in many organisms. The gall midge Mayetiola destructor, commonly known as Hessian fly, is a global destructive pest of wheat. In this study, we identified ...

  18. Identification of female-produced sex pheromone of the honey locust gall midge, Dasineura gleditchiae.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Béla; Kárpáti, Zsolt; Szocs, Gábor; Hall, David R

    2009-06-01

    The honey locust gall midge, Dasineura gleditchiae Osten Sacken 1866 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is the main pest of ornamental varieties of the honey locust tree, Gleditsia triacanthos L., in North America, and is now becoming a pest of concern in Europe. Female midges were observed to emerge in the early morning with their ovipositor extended until they mated. Volatiles were collected from virgin females in a closed-loop stripping apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to electroantennographic (EAG) recording from the antenna of a male midge. A single EAG response was observed, which was assumed to be to the major component of the female sex pheromone. This was identified as (Z)-2-acetoxy-8-heptadecene by comparison of its mass spectrum and GC retention times on different columns with those of synthetic standards and by micro-analytical reactions. This compound was synthesized, and the individual enantiomers were produced by kinetic resolution with lipase from Candida antarctica. Analysis of the naturally-produced compound on a cyclodextrin GC column indicated it was the (R)-enantiomer. In EAG dose-response measurements, the (R)-enantiomer alone or in the racemic mixture evoked significant responses from the antennae of male D. gleditchiae, whereas the (S)-enantiomer did not. In field trapping tests, the (R)-enantiomer attracted male D. gleditchiae. The racemic compound was equally attractive, but the (S)-enantiomer was not attractive. Both the pure (R)-enantiomer or racemic (Z)-2-acetoxy-8-heptadecene, applied to red rubber septa in a dose range of 3-30 microg, constitute a strongly attractive bait in sticky traps for monitoring the flight of D. gleditchiae. PMID:19459010

  19. Biology and efficacy of Aprostocetus (Eulophidae: hymenoptera) as a parasitoid of the blueberry gall midge complex: Dasineura oxycoccana Johnson and Prodiplosis vaccinii (Felt) (Diptera: cecidomyiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the southeastern US, bud-infesting larvae of two gall midge species, Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson) and Prodiplosis vaccinii (Felt), destroy from 20% to 80% of the rabbiteye blueberry crop, Vaccinium virgatum Aiton. Fortunately, these midge larvae fall prey to five species of endoparasitic wasps....

  20. Why oviposit there? Fitness consequences of a gall midge choosing the plant's youngest leaf.

    PubMed

    Ganehiarachchi, G A S M; Anderson, Kirk M; Harmon, Jason; Harris, Marion O

    2013-02-01

    For animals that lay eggs, a longstanding question is, why do females choose particular oviposition sites? For insects that lay eggs on plants there are three hypotheses: maximizing suitable habitat for juveniles, maximizing female lifespan, and maximizing egg survival. We investigated the function of the oviposition-site choice behavior of a gall midge, the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say). In spite of living less than a day and having hundreds of eggs, the ovipositing female is choosy about the placement of eggs. Choosiness makes sense. The tiny gall-making neonate larva has limited movement and strict requirements for colonization. We examined whether offspring benefit from the Hessian fly female's preference for the plant's youngest leaf. To do this we restricted the female's access to the first, second, or third leaf of a seedling (wheat Triticum aestivum L.) plant. Being placed on older leaves did not impact egg survival or larval survival during migration to attack sites at the base of the plant, but did have negative impacts on egg-to-adult survival (reduced by 48%) and reproductive potential (reduced by 30-45%). These negative impacts appear to come from larvae having to search harder to find the limited number of reactive plant cells that can be reprogrammed to form the gall nutritive tissue. We propose that the ability of larvae to find these reactive cells in spite of being placed on an older leaf is important because it creates leeway for female behavior to evolve in the face of other selection pressures, e.g., attack by egg parasitoids.

  1. Massive Shift in Gene Expression during Transitions between Developmental Stages of the Gall Midge, Mayetiola Destructor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming-Shun; Liu, Sanzhen; Wang, Haiyan; Cheng, Xiaoyan; El Bouhssini, Mustapha; Whitworth, R. Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Mayetiola destructor is a destructive pest of wheat and has six developmental stages. Molecular mechanisms controlling the transition between developmental stages remain unknown. Here we analyzed genes that were expressed differentially between two successive developmental stages, including larvae at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days, pupae, and adults. A total of 17,344 genes were expressed during one or more of these studied stages. Among the expressed genes, 38–68% were differently expressed between two successive stages, with roughly equal percentages of up- and down-regulated genes. Analysis of the functions of the differentially expressed genes revealed that each developmental stage had some unique types of expressed genes that are characteristic of the physiology at that stage. This is the first genome-wide analysis of genes differentially expressed in different stages in a gall midge. The large dataset of up- and down-regulated genes in each stage of the insect shall be very useful for future research to elucidate mechanisms regulating insect development and other biological processes. PMID:27224654

  2. Behavioural, ecological and genetic evidence confirm the occurrence of host-associated differentiation in goldenrod gall-midges.

    PubMed

    Dorchin, N; Scott, E R; Clarkin, C E; Luongo, M P; Jordan, S; Abrahamson, W G

    2009-04-01

    Host-associated differentiation (HAD) is considered a step towards ecological speciation and an important mechanism promoting diversification in phytophagous insects. Although the number of documented cases of HAD is increasing, these still represent only a small fraction of species and feeding guilds among phytophagous insects, and most reports are based on a single type of evidence. Here we employ a comprehensive approach to present behavioural, morphological, ecological and genetic evidence for the occurrence of HAD in the gall midge Dasineura folliculi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on two sympatric species of goldenrods (Solidago rugosa and S. gigantea). Controlled experiments revealed assortative mating and strong oviposition fidelity for the natal-host species. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA showed an amount of genetic divergence between the two host-associated populations compatible with cryptic species rather than host races. Lower levels of within-host genetic divergence, gall development and natural-enemy attack in the S. gigantea population suggest this is the derived host.

  3. Pyrosequencing Reveals the Predominance of Pseudomonadaceae in Gut Microbiome of a Gall Midge

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Raman; Hulbert, Scot H.; Reese, John C.; Whitworth, Robert J.; Stuart, Jeffrey J.; Chen, Ming-Shun

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbes are known to play various roles in insects such as digestion of inaccessible nutrients, synthesis of deficient amino acids, and interaction with ecological environments, including host plants. Here, we analyzed the gut microbiome in Hessian fly, a serious pest of wheat. A total of 3,654 high quality sequences of the V3 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene were obtained through 454-pyrosequencing. From these sequences, 311 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained at the ≥97% similarity cutoff. In the gut of 1st instar, otu01, a member of Pseudomonas, was predominant, representing 90.2% of total sequences. otu13, an unidentified genus in the Pseudomonadaceae family, represented 1.9% of total sequences. The remaining OTUs were each less than 1%. In the gut of the 2nd instar, otu01 and otu13 decreased to 85.5% and 1.5%, respectively. otu04, a member of Buttiauxella, represented 9.7% of total sequences. The remaining OTUs were each less than 1%. In the gut of the 3rd instar, otu01 and otu13 further decreased to 29.0% and 0%, respectively. otu06, otu08, and otu16, also three members of the Pseudomonadaceae family were 13.2%, 8.6%, and 2.3%, respectively. In addition, otu04 and otu14, two members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, were 4.7% and 2.5%; otu18 and otu20, two members of the Xanthomonadaceae family, were 1.3% and 1.2%, respectively; otu12, a member of Achromobacter, was 4.2%; otu19, a member of Undibacterium, was 1.4%; and otu9, otu10, and otu15, members of various families, were 6.1%, 6.3%, and 1.9%, respectively. The investigation into dynamics of Pseudomonas, the most abundant genera, revealed that its population level was at peak in freshly hatched or 1 day larvae as well as in later developmental stages, thus suggesting a prominent role for this bacterium in Hessian fly development and in its interaction with host plants. This study is the first comprehensive survey on bacteria associated with the gut of a gall midge, and

  4. Functional responses and prey-stage preferences of a predatory gall midge and two predacious mites wtih twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae as host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of vegetables and other crops. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the potential role of three commercially available predators, predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Diptera: Ceci...

  5. An equal sex ratio followed by differential sex mortality causes overestimation of females in gall midges: no evidence for sex ratio regulation.

    PubMed

    Tabadkani, Seyed Mohammad; Ashouri, Ahmad; Qolizadeh, Majid

    2012-06-01

    Monogeny, the production of unisexual broods by individual females, has been recognized for nearly 80 years. The genetic nature of gall midges' sex determination predicts an equal numbers of male-producing and female-producing females in the populations such that the overall sex ratio is expected to be nearly 1:1. However, observations of some strictly monogenous populations with biased sex ratio, mainly toward females, have raised the question of whether gall midges are able to adjust their offspring sex ratio in response to changes in environmental conditions, and some authors have even considered sex ratio regulation as a strong force in the course of the evolution of monogeny. In this paper, first, by studying the sex ratio variations of the predatory gall midge, Aphidoletes aphidimyza within a generation, we showed that adult males emerge up to 1 day earlier and have shorter life span than females (less than 4 days and up to 6 days, respectively). Although, the sex ratio of A. aphidimyza at the time of emergence was nearly 1:1 (52.41% males), a simple population simulation indicated that the differential mortality of sexes can lead to a female-biased sex ratio estimation (57.88% females) under random sampling in the natural environments. Our results imply that the primary sex ratio of monogenous gall midges is nearly 1:1 and that the arrhenogenic/thelygenic gall midges are not able to alter the number of their male/female progenies in response to changes in environmental conditions. PMID:22643882

  6. An equal sex ratio followed by differential sex mortality causes overestimation of females in gall midges: no evidence for sex ratio regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabadkani, Seyed Mohammad; Ashouri, Ahmad; Qolizadeh, Majid

    2012-06-01

    Monogeny, the production of unisexual broods by individual females, has been recognized for nearly 80 years. The genetic nature of gall midges' sex determination predicts an equal numbers of male-producing and female-producing females in the populations such that the overall sex ratio is expected to be nearly 1:1. However, observations of some strictly monogenous populations with biased sex ratio, mainly toward females, have raised the question of whether gall midges are able to adjust their offspring sex ratio in response to changes in environmental conditions, and some authors have even considered sex ratio regulation as a strong force in the course of the evolution of monogeny. In this paper, first, by studying the sex ratio variations of the predatory gall midge, Aphidoletes aphidimyza within a generation, we showed that adult males emerge up to 1 day earlier and have shorter life span than females (less than 4 days and up to 6 days, respectively). Although, the sex ratio of A. aphidimyza at the time of emergence was nearly 1:1 (52.41 % males), a simple population simulation indicated that the differential mortality of sexes can lead to a female-biased sex ratio estimation (57.88 % females) under random sampling in the natural environments. Our results imply that the primary sex ratio of monogenous gall midges is nearly 1:1 and that the arrhenogenic/thelygenic gall midges are not able to alter the number of their male/female progenies in response to changes in environmental conditions.

  7. A simulation approach to assessing sampling strategies for insect pests: an example with the balsam gall midge.

    PubMed

    Carleton, R Drew; Heard, Stephen B; Silk, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of pest density is a basic requirement for integrated pest management in agriculture and forestry, and efficiency in density estimation is a common goal. Sequential sampling techniques promise efficient sampling, but their application can involve cumbersome mathematics and/or intensive warm-up sampling when pests have complex within- or between-site distributions. We provide tools for assessing the efficiency of sequential sampling and of alternative, simpler sampling plans, using computer simulation with "pre-sampling" data. We illustrate our approach using data for balsam gall midge (Paradiplosis tumifex) attack in Christmas tree farms. Paradiplosis tumifex proved recalcitrant to sequential sampling techniques. Midge distributions could not be fit by a common negative binomial distribution across sites. Local parameterization, using warm-up samples to estimate the clumping parameter k for each site, performed poorly: k estimates were unreliable even for samples of n ∼ 100 trees. These methods were further confounded by significant within-site spatial autocorrelation. Much simpler sampling schemes, involving random or belt-transect sampling to preset sample sizes, were effective and efficient for P. tumifex. Sampling via belt transects (through the longest dimension of a stand) was the most efficient, with sample means converging on true mean density for sample sizes of n ∼ 25-40 trees. Pre-sampling and simulation techniques provide a simple method for assessing sampling strategies for estimating insect infestation. We suspect that many pests will resemble P. tumifex in challenging the assumptions of sequential sampling methods. Our software will allow practitioners to optimize sampling strategies before they are brought to real-world applications, while potentially avoiding the need for the cumbersome calculations required for sequential sampling methods.

  8. Unbalanced activation of glutathione metabolic pathways suggests potential involvement in plant defense against the gall midge Mayetiola destructor in wheat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuming; Zhang, Shize; Whitworth, R Jeff; Stuart, Jeffrey J; Chen, Ming-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione, γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine, exists abundantly in nearly all organisms. Glutathione participates in various physiological processes involved in redox reactions by serving as an electron donor/acceptor. We found that the abundance of total glutathione increased up to 60% in resistant wheat plants within 72 hours following attack by the gall midge Mayetiola destructor, the Hessian fly. The increase in total glutathione abundance, however, is coupled with an unbalanced activation of glutathione metabolic pathways. The activity and transcript abundance of glutathione peroxidases, which convert reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG), increased in infested resistant plants. However, the enzymatic activity and transcript abundance of glutathione reductases, which convert GSSG back to GSH, did not change. This unbalanced regulation of the glutathione oxidation/reduction cycle indicates the existence of an alternative pathway to regenerate GSH from GSSG to maintain a stable GSSG/GSH ratio. Our data suggest the possibility that GSSG is transported from cytosol to apoplast to serve as an oxidant for class III peroxidases to generate reactive oxygen species for plant defense against Hessian fly larvae. Our results provide a foundation for elucidating the molecular processes involved in glutathione-mediated plant resistance to Hessian fly and potentially other pests as well. PMID:25627558

  9. Morphological and Molecular Revision of the Genus Ozirhincus (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)—Long-Snouted Seed-Feeding Gall Midges on Asteraceae

    PubMed Central

    Dorchin, Netta; Astrin, Jonas J.; Bodner, Levona; Harris, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    The Palaearctic gall-midge genus Ozirhincus is unique among the Cecidomyiidae for its morphology and biology. Unlike most other phytophagous gall midges, species in this genus do not induce galls but develop inside achenes of Asteraceae plants. The heads of adults are characterized by an unusually elongate proboscis, the function of which is unclear. Despite a lot of attention from taxonomists in the 19th and early 20th century, a proper revision of the genus has been hindered by complex host associations, the loss of most relevant type material, and the lack of a thorough comparative study of all life stages. The present revision integrated morphological, molecular, and life-history data to clearly define species boundaries within Ozirhincus, and delimit host-plant ranges for each of them. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes confirmed the validity of four distinct species but did not resolve the relationships among them. All species are oligophages, and some may occur together on the same host plant. Species with wider host-plant ranges have wider European and circum-Mediterranean distribution ranges, whereas species with narrower host ranges are limited to Europe and the Russian Far East. As part of the present work, O. hungaricus is reinstated from synonymy, O. tanaceti is synonymized under O. longicollis, neotypes are designated for O. longicollis and O. millefolii, and a lectotype is designated for O. anthemidis. PMID:26134526

  10. Aprostocetus xiphopunctus Sampson nov. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidea): A new natural ememy of a gall midge complex (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new endoparasitoid kills 40 – 100% of Dasineura oxycoccana and Prodiplosis vaccinii larvae, pest midges that seriously reduce blueberry yield. Female wasps methodically probe leaf buds for host larvae and their parasitism can be more effective than chemical control. With each successive molt, host...

  11. Ustilaginoidea virens infection of rice in Arkansas: Toxicity of false smut galls, their extracts and the Ustiloxin fraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cool, wet conditions in the southern U.S. during the maturing stages of rice in 1998 contributed to outbreaks of false smut caused by Ustilaginoidea virens. Water extracts of false smut galls in Asia have been reported to contain ustiloxin toxins, cyclic peptide antibiotics that interfered with mi...

  12. Expression of rice gall dwarf virus outer coat protein gene (S8) in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guo-cheng; Gao, Fang-luan; Wei, Tai-yun; Huang, Mei-ying; Xie, Li-yan; Wu, Zu-jian; Lin, Qi-ying; Xie, Lian-hui

    2010-12-01

    To obtain the P8 protein of Rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV) with biological activity, its outer coat protein gene S8 was expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. The S8 gene was subcloned into the pFastBac™1 vector, to produce the recombinant baculovirus transfer vector pFB-S8. After transformation, pFB-S8 was introduced into the competent cells (E. coli DH10Bac) containing a shuttle vector, Bacmid, generating the recombinant bacmid rbpFB-S8. After being infected by recombinant baculovirus rvpFB-S8 at different multiplicities of infection, Sf9 cells were collected at different times and analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. The expression level of the P8 protein was highest between 48-72 h after transfection of Sf9 cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that P8 protein of RGDV formed punctate structures in the cytoplasm of Sf9 cells.

  13. Molecular characterization of the genome segments S4, S6 and S7 of rice gall dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H M; Yang, J; Xin, X; Chen, J P; Adams, M J

    2007-01-01

    Rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV) is a member of the genus Phytoreovirus within the family Reovirdae. Its genome has 12 segments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), of which the nucleotide sequences of segments S4, S6, and S7 were determined, providing the first complete genome sequence of RGDV. Each of the segments S4, S6, and S7 contained conserved terminal sequences conforming to the RGDV consensus, 5'-GGXA ... UGAU-3' (X = U or C). Each segment had a single predicted open reading frame encoding proteins with calculated molecular weights of 79.8, 58.6, and 53.3 kDa. These proteins appeared to be homologous to those encoded by the corresponding segments of rice dwarf virus and wound tumor virus, the other known members of the same genus, having about 20-30% amino acid identity to them. It is therefore likely that RGDV S4 and S6 encode non-structural proteins and S7 an inner core protein. Probable homologies between the segments of all known phytoreoviruses are summarized. Beyond these similarities, the RGDV proteins displayed no significant similarity to any other reported viral proteins.

  14. Insect galls of Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ).

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Silva, L O

    2016-04-19

    Thirty-one morphotypes of insect galls and two flower damages were found on 16 families, 22 genera and 24 plant species in Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ). Fabaceae and Myrtaceae were the plant families with the greatest richness of insect galls (4 and 6 morphotypes, respectively), and the greatest number of galled plants (four and three species, respectively). Galls were mostly found on leaves and stems (77% and 10%, respectively). The galling insects are represented by Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hemiptera. The majority of the galls (81%) were induced by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera).

  15. Crown gall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown gall is uncommon in alfalfa. The disease has been reported from alfalfa stands in the Imperial Valley of California, but rare infected plants can be found occasionally in other parts of the U.S. Symptoms: The galls or tumor-like overgrowths form on the crown branches at or slightly below t...

  16. A massive expansion of effector genes underlies gall-formation in the wheat pest Mayetiola destructor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms arthropods use to induce plant gall formation are poorly understood. However, there is growing evidence that effector proteins are involved. To examine this hypothesis, we sequenced the genome of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor, M. des), an obligate plant parasitic gall midge an...

  17. Insect galls from Serra de São José (Tiradentes, MG, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Fernandes, G W

    2004-08-01

    One hundred thirty-seven morphotypes of insect galls were found on 73 plant species (47 genera and 30 families) in Serra de São José, in Tiradentes, MG, Brazil. Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Asteraceae, and Melastomataceae were the plant families that supported most of the galls (49.6% of the total). Galls were mostly found on leaves and stems (66.4% and 25.5%, respectively). Galls were induced by Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha), Hymenoptera, and Thysanoptera. The majority of them (73.7%) were induced by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera). Besides the gall inducers, other insects found associated with the galls were parasitoids (Hymenoptera), inquilines (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera), and predators (Diptera).

  18. Galle Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 June 2002) The Science This image is of part of Galle Crater, located at 51.9S, 29.5W. This image was taken far enough south and late enough into the southern hemisphere fall to catch observe water ice clouds partially obscuring the surface. The most striking aspect of the surface is the dissected layered unit to the left in the image. Other areas also appear to have layering, but they are either more obscured by clouds or are less well defined on the surface. The layers appear to be mostly flat lying and layer boundaries appear as topographic lines would on a map, but there are a few areas where it appears that these layers have been deformed to some level. Other areas of the image contain rugged, mountainous terrain as well as a separate pitted terrain where the surface appears to be a separate unit from the mountains and the layered terrain. The Story Galle Crater is officially named after a German astronomer who, in 1846, was the first to observe the planet Neptune. It is better known, however, as the 'Happy Face Crater.' The image above focuses on too small an area of the crater to see its beguiling grin, but you can catch the rocky line of a 'half-smile' in the context image to the right (to the left of the red box). While water ice clouds make some of the surface harder to see, nothing detracts from the fabulous layering at the center left-hand edge of the image. If you click on the above image, the scalloped layers almost look as if a giant knife has swirled through a landscape of cake frosting. These layers, the rugged, mountains near them, and pits on the surface (upper to middle section of the image on the right-hand side) all create varying textures on the crater floor. With such different features in the same place, geologists have a lot to study to figure out what has happened in the crater since it formed.

  19. Caterpillar mimicry by plant galls as a visual defense against herbivores.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    Plant galls, induced by arthropods and various other organisms have an intimate relationship with host plants, and gall-inducers have limited mobility. In addition to their own photosynthesis, galls are resource sinks rich with nutrients, with neighboring plant organs commonly serving as external photosynthate sources. Galls, if not well defended, may therefore be attractive food sources for herbivores. Galls produced by some aphids, jumping plant lice, thrips, and gall midges in Japan, Palearctic region and in the Middle East visually resemble lepidopteran caterpillars. I propose that such visual resemblance may reduce herbivory of galls and surrounding plant tissues, resulting in an increase in galler survival due to reduced gall damage and in enhanced galler growth due to improved nutrient inflow to the galls, when herbivores avoid colonizing or consuming plant parts that look as if they have been occupied by other herbivores. Potential predators and parasitoids of caterpillars may be attracted to the caterpillar-like galls and then attack real caterpillars and other invertebrate herbivores, which would also be beneficial for both gallers and their hosts. PMID:27220745

  20. Galling by Rhopalomyia solidaginis alters Solidago altissima architecture and litter nutrient dynamics in an old-field ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Crutsinger, Greg; Habenicht, Melissa N; Classen, Aimee T; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Sanders, Dr. Nathan James

    2008-01-01

    Plant-insect interactions can alter ecosystem processes, especially if the insects modify plant architecture, quality, or the quantity of leaf litter inputs. In this study, we investigated the interactions between the gall midge Rhopalomyia solidaginis and tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima, to quantify the degree to which the midge alters plant architecture and how the galls affect rates of litter decomposition and nutrient release in an old-field ecosystem. R. solidaginis commonly leads to the formation of a distinct apical rosette gall on S. altissima and approximately 15% of the ramets in a S. altissima patch were galled (range: 3-34%). Aboveground biomass of galled ramets was 60% higher and the leaf area density was four times greater on galled leaf tissue relative to the portions of the plant that were not affected by the gall. Overall decomposition rate constants did not differ between galled and ungalled leaf litter. However, leaf-litter mass loss was lower in galled litter relative to ungalled litter, which was likely driven by modest differences in initial litter chemistry; this effect diminished after 12 weeks of decomposition in the field. The proportion of N remaining was always higher in galled litter than in ungalled litter at each collection date indicating differential release of nitrogen in galled leaf litter. Several studies have shown that plant-insect interactions on woody species can alter ecosystem processes by affecting the quality or quantity of litter inputs. Our results illustrate how plant-insect interactions in an herbaceous species can affect ecosystem processes by altering the quality and quantity of litter inputs. Given that S. altissima dominates fields and roadsides and that R. solidaginis galls are highly abundant throughout eastern North America, these interactions are likely to be important for both the structure and function of old-field ecosystems.

  1. Molecular analysis of the genome segments S1, S4, S6, S7 and S12 of a Rice gall dwarf virus isolate from Thailand; completion of the genomic sequence.

    PubMed

    Moriyasu, Y; Maruyama-Funatsuki, W; Kikuchi, A; Ichimi, K; Zhong, B; Yan, J; Zhu, Y; Suga, H; Watanabe, Y; Ichiki-Uehara, T; Shimizu, T; Hagiwara, K; Kamiunten, H; Akutsu, K; Omura, T

    2007-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of the double-stranded RNA segments S1, S4, S6, S7 and S12 of the genome of a Rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV) isolate from Thailand were determined. The segments consisted of 4505, 2622, 1648, 1652 and 853 nucleotides, encoding putative proteins of 1458, 725, 489, 511 and 206 amino acids with molecular masses of approximately 166, 80, 53, 59 and 24 kDa, respectively. Homology searches indicated that each of the putative proteins has a counterpart in isolates of Rice dwarf virus (RDV) and Wound tumor virus, two other species in the genus Phytoreovirus. However, no similarities were found to other registered sequences, including those of other viruses that belong to the family Reoviridae. The identities between homologous structural proteins of RGDV and RDV ranged from 34 to 51% and were thus higher than those between homologous non-structural proteins of RGDV and RDV (16-37%). Among the nonstructural proteins, the highest amino acid sequence identity (37%) was observed for RGDV Pns11 and RDV Pns10, a constituent of tubular inclusions. This observation suggests that a specific amino acid backbone might be required for maintaining not only the three-dimensional structure of virions but also that of inclusions. The entire sequence of the RGDV genome is now available.

  2. The Goldenrod Ball Gall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1974-01-01

    The paper presents a generalized life history of the goldenrod ball gall, a ball-shaped swelling found almost exclusively on the Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis, and caused by a peacock fly know as Eurosta soldiaginis. (KM)

  3. Host manipulation by the orange leafhopper Cicadulina bipunctata: gall induction on distant leaves by dose-dependent stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukura, Keiichiro; Matsumura, Masaya; Tokuda, Makoto

    2009-09-01

    The evolution of the gall-inducing ability in insects and the adaptive significance of the galling habit have been addressed by many studies. Cicadulina bipunctata, the maize orange leafhopper, is an ideal study organism for evaluating these topics because it can be mass-reared and it feeds on model plants such as rice ( Oryza sativa) and maize ( Zea mays). To reveal differences between gall inductions by C. bipunctata and other gall inducers, we conducted four experiments concerning (a) the relationship between the feeding site and gall-induction sites of C. bipunctata on maize, (b) the effects of leafhopper sex and density, (c) the effects of length of infestation on gall induction, and (d) the effects of continuous infestation. C. bipunctata did not induce galls on the leaves where it fed but induced galls on other leaves situated at more distal positions. The degree of gall induction was significantly correlated with infestation density and length. These results indicate that C. bipunctata induces galls in a dose-dependent manner on leaves distant from feeding sites, probably by injecting chemical(s) to the plant during feeding. We suggest that insect galls are induced by a chemical stimulus injected by gall inducers during feeding into the hosts.

  4. Biology and epidemiology of rice viruses.

    PubMed

    Hibino, H

    1996-01-01

    The 15 known viruses that occur in rice are rice black-streaked dwarf, rice bunchy stunt, rice dwarf, rice gall dwarf, rice giallume, rice grassy stunt, rice hoja blanca, rice necrosis mosaic, rice ragged stunt, rice stripe necrosis, rice stripe, rice transitory yellowing, rice tungro bacilliform, rice tungro spherical, and rice yellow mottle viruses. This paper describes their geographical distribution, relation to vectors, infection cycles, field dispersal, and development, and lists recorded outbreaks of the viruses. Many rice viruses have become serious problems since rice cultivation has been intensified. Double-cropping of rice using improved, photo-insensitive cultivars of short growth duration has significantly influenced the incidence of these viruses. PMID:15012543

  5. Mechanisms Driving Galling Success in a Fragmented Landscape: Synergy of Habitat and Top-Down Factors along Temperate Forest Edges.

    PubMed

    Kelch, Nina-S; Neves, Frederico S; Fernandes, G Wilson; Wirth, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg.), we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58%) identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude) and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46%) on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control.

  6. Galle Cr. Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03637 Galle Cr. Dunes

    These dunes are located on the floor of Galle Crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 51.5S, Longitude 329.0E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Phylogeny, evolution, and classification of gall wasps: the plot thickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gall wasps (Cynipidae) represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total...

  8. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the latest trends in mosquito control is the use of insecticidal sugar baits (ISBs) to reduce adult mosquito populations. Tested here is the ability of ISB’s to knock-down the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis, a disease vector of bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, and vesicular sto...

  9. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges.

    PubMed

    Snyder, D; Cernicchiaro, N; Allan, S A; Cohnstaedt, L W

    2016-06-01

    The mixing of an insecticide with sugar solution creates an oral toxin or insecticidal sugar bait (ISB) useful for reducing adult insect populations. The ability of ISBs to kill the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a vector of bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and vesicular stomatitis viruses, was tested. The commercial insecticide formulations (percentage active ingredient) tested included bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and spinosad. Mortality rates were determined for various concentrations of commercial formulations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3%) and observed at 1, 4, 10 and 24 h post-exposure to the ISB. In the first set of assays, laboratory-reared midges were fed sugar ad libitum and then exposed to insecticide-treated sugar solutions to measure mortality. The second assay assessed competitive feeding: midges were provided with a control sugar solution (10% sucrose) in one vial, and a sugar and insecticide solution in another. Pyrethroid treatments resulted in the greatest mortality in the first hour at the lowest concentrations and spinosad consumption resulted in the least mortality. Biting midges were not deterred from feeding on the 1% ISB solutions despite the presence of an insecticide-free alternative source of sugar. PMID:26789534

  10. Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. PMID:25344264

  11. Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods.

  12. Molecular marker assisted gene stacking for biotic and abiotic stress resistance genes in an elite rice cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Das, Gitishree; Rao, G. J. N.

    2015-01-01

    Severe yield loss due to various biotic stresses like bacterial blight (BB), gall midge (insect) and Blast (disease) and abiotic stresses like submergence and salinity are a serious constraint to the rice productivity throughout the world. The most effective and reliable method of management of the stresses is the enhancement of host resistance, through an economical and environmentally friendly approach. Through the application of marker assisted selection (MAS) technique, the present study reports a successful pyramidization of genes/QTLs to confer resistance/tolerance to blast (Pi2, Pi9), gall Midge (Gm1, Gm4), submergence (Sub1), and salinity (Saltol) in a released rice variety CRMAS2621-7-1 as Improved Lalat which had already incorporated with three BB resistance genes xa5, xa13, and Xa21 to supplement the Xa4 gene present in Improved Lalat. The molecular analysis revealed clear polymorphism between the donor and recipient parents for all the markers that are tagged to the target traits. The conventional backcross breeding approach was followed till BC3F1 generation and starting from BC1F1 onwards, marker assisted selection was employed at each step to monitor the transfer of the target alleles with molecular markers. The different BC3F1s having the target genes/QTLs were inter crossed to generate hybrids with all 10 stress resistance/tolerance genes/QTLs into a single plant/line. Homozygous plants for resistance/tolerance genes in different combinations were recovered. The BC3F3 lines were characterized for their agronomic and quality traits and promising progeny lines were selected. The SSR based background selection was done. Most of the gene pyramid lines showed a high degree of similarity to the recurrent parent for both morphological, grain quality traits and in SSR based background selection. Out of all the gene pyramids tested, two lines had all the 10 resistance/tolerance genes and showed adequate levels of resistance/tolerance against the five target

  13. Midge Diversity and Bioassessment in the Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, R. E.

    2005-05-01

    Everglades midge community composition is strongly dependent upon hydroperiod (HP) and water quality. Longer HPs are generally associated with higher alpha diversity, species density, and total species richness. However, the development of extensive calcareous periphyton growth in marshes with 4-10 month HPs strongly influences community structure, and diversity and richness measures show no change along marl prairie HP gradients. Increases in species density with hydroperiod represent increases in habitat volume and productivity, not changes in community structure. Beta diversity is greatest when transitioning from marshes with 7-10 month HPs to those with >10 month HPs. At these HP lengths / water depths, plant communities that permit extensive periphyton growth are replaced by plant communities that inhibit periphyton growth, enable more organic soil development, and provide habitat for more specialized species. Point-source nutrient enrichment produces strong shifts in Everglades midge community composition, thereby increasing gamma diversity along nutrient gradients. Biologists studying invertebrate communities have reported either little structural change, or increases in species density, diversity and richness near sources of enrichment. I will report on midge community structural responses along a variety of nutrient gradients in the Everglades, and discuss important differences between pupal exuviae sampling and conventional larvae sampling.

  14. Mechanisms Driving Galling Success in a Fragmented Landscape: Synergy of Habitat and Top-Down Factors along Temperate Forest Edges

    PubMed Central

    Kelch, Nina-S.; Neves, Frederico S.; Fernandes, G. Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg.), we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58%) identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude) and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46%) on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control. PMID:27310599

  15. Mechanisms Driving Galling Success in a Fragmented Landscape: Synergy of Habitat and Top-Down Factors along Temperate Forest Edges.

    PubMed

    Kelch, Nina-S; Neves, Frederico S; Fernandes, G Wilson; Wirth, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg.), we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58%) identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude) and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46%) on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control. PMID:27310599

  16. Gall induction may benefit host plant: a case of a gall wasp and eucalyptus tree.

    PubMed

    Rocha, S; Branco, M; Boas, L Vilas; Almeida, M H; Protasov, A; Mendel, Z

    2013-04-01

    Gall-inducing insects display intimate interactions with their host plants, usually described as parasitic relationships; the galls seem to favor the galler alone. We report on a case in which the presence of the galls induced by Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera; Eulophidae) benefit its host plant, the river red gum Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Field observations showed that E. camaldulensis plants infected by this gall wasp were less susceptible to cold injury than neighboring conspecific plants without galls. In the laboratory, frost resistance was compared between galled and non-galled plants which were both divided into two subgroups: cold-acclimated plants and plants that were non-acclimated. Galled plants displayed higher frost resistance than the non-galled ones, and the differences were higher in non-acclimated plants compared with acclimated ones. Physiological changes in host plant were determined by chemical analyses of chlorophylls, proteins, soluble sugars and anthocyanin contents. The results showed higher values of all physiological parameters in the galled plants, supporting the hypothesis that the presence of the gall wasp induces physiological changes on the plant foliage, which may in turn increase plant defense mechanisms against cold. Therefore, the toll of galling by the herbivore may pay off by the host plant acquiring increased frost resistance. This work provides evidence for physiological changes induced by a herbivore which might have a positive indirect effect on the host plant, promoting frost resistance such as cold acclimation. PMID:23513035

  17. Gall-Bladder Agenesis and Associated Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Brian; Spigelman, Allan D.

    1995-01-01

    Congenital absence of the gall-bladder is a rare condition. It is sometimes associated with other congenital defects. We report here two cases of gall-bladder agenesis discovered at laparoscopy. Both had a history of skeletal and cardiovascular anomalies. The investigation of patients with absent gall-bladder can be very difficult. Ultrasound scanning is usually inconclusive and further noninvasive tests should be performed to establish the diagnosis and prevent an unnecessary operation. The presence of other congenital defects should alert the clinician to the possibility of gall-bladder agenesis. PMID:18612357

  18. Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

    PubMed

    Cooper, W Rodney; Rieske, Lynne K

    2010-06-01

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants that house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). An improved understanding of the interactions among D. kuriphilus, its host, and its natural enemies is critical for the development of effective management strategies against this pest. The objective of our study was to evaluate the D. kuriphilus community interactions, and relate these interactions to variations among gall traits. Galls were collected from four locations throughout the eastern United States from May (gall initiation) through August (after gall wasp emergence), and January. Gall characteristics (volume, weight, and schlerenchyma layer thickness), gall inhabitants (D. kuriphilus, parasitoids, and chamber fungi), and other community associates (insect herbivores and lesions thought to be caused by endophytes) were evaluated and correlated using canonical correlation analyses. The primary mortality factors for D. kuriphilus were parasitism, gall chamber-invading fungi, and failure of adult gall wasps to emerge. Larger gall size and thicker schlerenchyma layers surrounding the larval chambers were negatively correlated with parasitoids and chamber fungi, indicating these gall traits are important defenses. External fungal lesions and insect herbivory were positively correlated with the absence of D. kuriphilus within galls. This study provides support for the protective role of cynipid galls for the gall inducer, identifies specific gall traits that influence gall wasp mortality, and improves our knowledge of D. kuriphilus ecology in North America.

  19. Pheromone-based action thresholds for control of the swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), and residual insecticide efficacy in cole crops.

    PubMed

    Hallett, Rebecca H; Sears, Mark K

    2013-02-01

    The swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer), is an invasive gall midge causing economic damage to cole crops (Brassica oleracea L.) and other crucifers in eastern Canada and United States. An effective decision-making tool for timing insecticide applications is a critical part of an integrated pest management program against C. nasturtii. Experiments were undertaken over 2 yr and at three locations in southern Ontario to develop pheromone-based action thresholds for C. nasturtii in cabbage and broccoli. An economic comparison between action threshold and calendar insecticide regimes was undertaken. The threshold approach was both economically viable and successful at minimizing swede midge damage for cabbage, and an action threshold of five males per trap per day with a minimum 7 d retreatment interval successfully reduced damage to acceptable levels. However, this approach was not successful with broccoli, which, unlike cabbage, is susceptible to damage by C. nasturtii through all plant stages, including heading. Acetamiprid and lambda-cyhalothrin both demonstrated approximately 7 d residual activity against C. nasturtii. Registration labels for both insecticides specify a minimum 7 d retreatment interval, which is supported by residual efficacy results. More effective insecticidal products may have longer residual efficacy and improve efficacy of the action threshold approach for broccoli and cabbage. PMID:23448040

  20. Roughness characterization of the galling of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, C.; Marteau, J.; Deltombe, R.; Chen, Y. M.; Bigerelle, M.

    2014-09-01

    Several kinds of tests exist to characterize the galling of metals, such as that specified in ASTM Standard G98. While the testing procedure is accurate and robust, the analysis of the specimen's surfaces (area=1.2 cm) for the determination of the critical pressure of galling remains subject to operator judgment. Based on the surface's topography analyses, we propose a methodology to express the probability of galling according to the macroscopic pressure load. After performing galling tests on 304L stainless steel, a two-step segmentation of the S q parameter (root mean square of surface amplitude) computed from local roughness maps (100 μ m× 100 μ m) enables us to distinguish two tribological processes. The first step represents the abrasive wear (erosion) and the second one the adhesive wear (galling). The total areas of both regions are highly relevant to quantify galling and erosion processes. Then, a one-parameter phenomenological model is proposed to objectively determine the evolution of non-galled relative area A e versus the pressure load P, with high accuracy ({{A}e}=100/(1+a{{P}2}) with a={{0.54}+/- 0.07}× {{10}-3} M P{{a}-2} and with {{R}2}=0.98). From this model, the critical pressure of galling is found to be equal to 43MPa. The {{S}5 V} roughness parameter (the five deepest valleys in the galled region's surface) is the most relevant roughness parameter for the quantification of damages in the ‘galling region’. The significant valleys’ depths increase from 10 μm-250 μm when the pressure increases from 11-350 MPa, according to a power law ({{S}5 V}=4.2{{P}0.75}, with {{R}2}=0.93).

  1. Bringing the Outside In: Insects and Their Galls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel; Wilkens, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Introduces gall-making insects and explains gall development. Explains how to bring galls into the classroom and conduct experiments. Suggests using gall systems to introduce students to the concepts of genetic control, biodiversity, plant and animal development, species interactions, biodiversity, and the flow of energy through the food web. (YDS)

  2. The salivary secretome of the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are hematophagous insects with over 1400 species distributed throughout the world. Many of these species are of particular agricultural importance as primary vectors of bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and Schmallenberg viruses. Detailed s...

  3. 77 FR 73654 - Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company, Eau Galle Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company, Eau Galle Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed October 12, 2012, Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company informed the..., originally issued March 10, 1987,\\1\\ and transferred to Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company by letter.\\2\\...

  4. Sugar-feeding status alters biting midge photoattraction.

    PubMed

    Snyder, D; Cernicchiaro, N; Cohnstaedt, L W

    2016-03-01

    The biting midge Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) transmits pathogens to both livestock and wildlife. Biting midge surveillance relies heavily on light traps for collection; however, little is known about the light spectra preferences of C. sonorensis midges. A light assay arena was constructed and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) of various light spectra were used as light sources to evaluate midge photoattraction. A comparison of responses to light spectra indicated the highest proportions of C. sonorensis were attracted to ultraviolet (UV) light and that midges differentiated 10-nm differences in wavelength. Stronger intensities of UV light resulted in greater attraction. Midges exhibited both sugar-seeking and escape behaviours under different conditions of sugar supplementation before and during the experiment. These behaviours occurred with lights of 355 nm and 365 nm in wavelength. Based on the results of this study, the attraction of C. sonorensis to light traps can be improved through the use of bright LEDs at 355 nm or 365 nm. PMID:26555011

  5. Woody stem galls interact with foliage to affect community associations.

    PubMed

    Cooper, W R; Rieske, L K

    2009-04-01

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) hijack the physiology of their host plant to produce galls that house wasps throughout their immature stages. The gall-maker-host plant interaction is highly evolved, and galls represent an extended phenotype of the gall wasp. We evaluated two-way interactions between stem galls produced by Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu on Castanea spp. (Fagales: Fagaceae) and foliage directly attached to galls (gall leaves) using gall leaf excision experiments and herbivore bioassays. Early season gall leaf excision decreased the dry weight per chamber (nutritive index) and thickness of the protective schlerenchyma layer and increased the number of empty chambers and the occurrence and size of exterior fungal lesions. Leaf excision also caused a modestly significant (alpha = 0.1) increase in the incidence of feeding chamber fungi and herbivory by Curculio sayi Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and a modest decrease in parasitoids. This study shows that gall leaves are important for stem gall development, quality, and defenses, adding support for the nutrient and enemy hypotheses. We also evaluated the effects of stem galls on the suitability of gall leaves to Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) herbivory to assess the extent of gall defenses in important source leaves. Relative growth rate of L. dispar larvae was greater on gall leaves compared with normal leaves, indicating that, despite their importance, gall leaves may be more suitable to generalist insect herbivores, suggesting limitations to the extended phenotype of the gall wasp. Our results improve our knowledge of host-cynipid interactions, gall source-sink relations, and D. kuriphilus community interactions.

  6. Induction of Crown Gall on Carrot Slices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, H.; Fox, K. D.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the transfer of plasmid from a bacterium to a plant cell has received little attention. Presents an experiment for studying this type of genetic transformation using the causative agent of crown gall, a malignant plant tumor. (DDR)

  7. Predation on Rose Galls: Parasitoids and Predators Determine Gall Size through Directional Selection

    PubMed Central

    László, Zoltán; Sólyom, Katalin; Prázsmári, Hunor; Barta, Zoltán; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2014-01-01

    Both predators and parasitoids can have significant effects on species’ life history traits, such as longevity or clutch size. In the case of gall inducers, sporadically there is evidence to suggest that both vertebrate predation and insect parasitoid attack may shape the optimal gall size. While the effects of parasitoids have been studied in detail, the influence of vertebrate predation is less well-investigated. To better understand this aspect of gall size evolution, we studied vertebrate predation on galls of Diplolepis rosae on rose (Rosa canina) shrubs. We measured predation frequency, predation incidence, and predation rate in a large-scale observational field study, as well as an experimental field study. Our combined results suggest that, similarly to parasitoids, vertebrate predation makes a considerable contribution to mortality of gall inducer larvae. On the other hand, its influence on gall size is in direct contrast to the effect of parasitoids, as frequency of vertebrate predation increases with gall size. This suggests that the balance between predation and parasitoid attack shapes the optimal size of D. rosae galls. PMID:24918448

  8. Predation on rose galls: parasitoids and predators determine gall size through directional selection.

    PubMed

    László, Zoltán; Sólyom, Katalin; Prázsmári, Hunor; Barta, Zoltán; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2014-01-01

    Both predators and parasitoids can have significant effects on species' life history traits, such as longevity or clutch size. In the case of gall inducers, sporadically there is evidence to suggest that both vertebrate predation and insect parasitoid attack may shape the optimal gall size. While the effects of parasitoids have been studied in detail, the influence of vertebrate predation is less well-investigated. To better understand this aspect of gall size evolution, we studied vertebrate predation on galls of Diplolepis rosae on rose (Rosa canina) shrubs. We measured predation frequency, predation incidence, and predation rate in a large-scale observational field study, as well as an experimental field study. Our combined results suggest that, similarly to parasitoids, vertebrate predation makes a considerable contribution to mortality of gall inducer larvae. On the other hand, its influence on gall size is in direct contrast to the effect of parasitoids, as frequency of vertebrate predation increases with gall size. This suggests that the balance between predation and parasitoid attack shapes the optimal size of D. rosae galls.

  9. Gall-ID: tools for genotyping gall-causing phytopathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Davis Ii, Edward W; Weisberg, Alexandra J; Tabima, Javier F; Grunwald, Niklaus J; Chang, Jeff H

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the population structure and genetic diversity of plant pathogens, as well as the effect of agricultural practices on pathogen evolution, is important for disease management. Developments in molecular methods have contributed to increase the resolution for accurate pathogen identification, but those based on analysis of DNA sequences can be less straightforward to use. To address this, we developed Gall-ID, a web-based platform that uses DNA sequence information from 16S rDNA, multilocus sequence analysis and whole genome sequences to group disease-associated bacteria to their taxonomic units. Gall-ID was developed with a particular focus on gall-forming bacteria belonging to Agrobacterium, Pseudomonas savastanoi, Pantoea agglomerans, and Rhodococcus. Members of these groups of bacteria cause growth deformation of plants, and some are capable of infecting many species of field, orchard, and nursery crops. Gall-ID also enables the use of high-throughput sequencing reads to search for evidence for homologs of characterized virulence genes, and provides downloadable software pipelines for automating multilocus sequence analysis, analyzing genome sequences for average nucleotide identity, and constructing core genome phylogenies. Lastly, additional databases were included in Gall-ID to help determine the identity of other plant pathogenic bacteria that may be in microbial communities associated with galls or causative agents in other diseased tissues of plants. The URL for Gall-ID is http://gall-id.cgrb.oregonstate.edu/. PMID:27547538

  10. Gall-ID: tools for genotyping gall-causing phytopathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Tabima, Javier F.; Grunwald, Niklaus J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the population structure and genetic diversity of plant pathogens, as well as the effect of agricultural practices on pathogen evolution, is important for disease management. Developments in molecular methods have contributed to increase the resolution for accurate pathogen identification, but those based on analysis of DNA sequences can be less straightforward to use. To address this, we developed Gall-ID, a web-based platform that uses DNA sequence information from 16S rDNA, multilocus sequence analysis and whole genome sequences to group disease-associated bacteria to their taxonomic units. Gall-ID was developed with a particular focus on gall-forming bacteria belonging to Agrobacterium, Pseudomonas savastanoi, Pantoea agglomerans, and Rhodococcus. Members of these groups of bacteria cause growth deformation of plants, and some are capable of infecting many species of field, orchard, and nursery crops. Gall-ID also enables the use of high-throughput sequencing reads to search for evidence for homologs of characterized virulence genes, and provides downloadable software pipelines for automating multilocus sequence analysis, analyzing genome sequences for average nucleotide identity, and constructing core genome phylogenies. Lastly, additional databases were included in Gall-ID to help determine the identity of other plant pathogenic bacteria that may be in microbial communities associated with galls or causative agents in other diseased tissues of plants. The URL for Gall-ID is http://gall-id.cgrb.oregonstate.edu/. PMID:27547538

  11. Gall-ID: tools for genotyping gall-causing phytopathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Davis Ii, Edward W; Weisberg, Alexandra J; Tabima, Javier F; Grunwald, Niklaus J; Chang, Jeff H

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the population structure and genetic diversity of plant pathogens, as well as the effect of agricultural practices on pathogen evolution, is important for disease management. Developments in molecular methods have contributed to increase the resolution for accurate pathogen identification, but those based on analysis of DNA sequences can be less straightforward to use. To address this, we developed Gall-ID, a web-based platform that uses DNA sequence information from 16S rDNA, multilocus sequence analysis and whole genome sequences to group disease-associated bacteria to their taxonomic units. Gall-ID was developed with a particular focus on gall-forming bacteria belonging to Agrobacterium, Pseudomonas savastanoi, Pantoea agglomerans, and Rhodococcus. Members of these groups of bacteria cause growth deformation of plants, and some are capable of infecting many species of field, orchard, and nursery crops. Gall-ID also enables the use of high-throughput sequencing reads to search for evidence for homologs of characterized virulence genes, and provides downloadable software pipelines for automating multilocus sequence analysis, analyzing genome sequences for average nucleotide identity, and constructing core genome phylogenies. Lastly, additional databases were included in Gall-ID to help determine the identity of other plant pathogenic bacteria that may be in microbial communities associated with galls or causative agents in other diseased tissues of plants. The URL for Gall-ID is http://gall-id.cgrb.oregonstate.edu/.

  12. The gall of subordination: changes in gall bladder function associated with social stress.

    PubMed Central

    Earley, Ryan L.; Blumer, Lawrence S.; Grober, Matthew S.

    2004-01-01

    Diverse physiological and behavioural mechanisms allow animals to effectively deal with stressors, but chronic activation of the stress axis can have severe consequences. We explored the effects of chronic social stress on agonistic behaviour and gall bladder function, a critical but widely neglected component of stress-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction. Prolonged cohabitation with dominant individuals elicited behavioural modifications and dramatically increased bile retention in subordinate convict cichlid fish (Archocentrus nigrofasciatum). The key predictor of gall bladder hypertrophy was social subordination rather than status-related differences in food intake or body size. Stress-induced inhibition of gall bladder emptying could affect energy assimilation such that subordinate animals would not be able to effectively convert energy-rich food into mass gain. These results parallel changes in gall bladder function preceding cholesterol gallstone formation in humans and other mammals. Thus, social stress may be an important diagnostic criterion in understanding pathologies associated with gall bladder dysfunction. PMID:15002765

  13. Host plant susceptibility to the swede midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Hallett, Rebecca H

    2007-08-01

    The relative resistance and susceptibility of various cruciferous plants to swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), damage was investigated to provide growers with planting recommendations and to identify potential sources of resistance to the swede midge. Broccoli cultivars experienced more severe damage than cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts. The broccoli 'Paragon', 'Eureka', and 'Packman' are highly susceptible to the swede midge, whereas 'Triathlon' and 'Regal' showed reduced susceptibility to damage and slower development of damage symptoms. No differences were found between normal and red cultivars of cabbage and cauliflower in damage severity and progression of damage symptoms. Four new plant species (Brassica juncea Integlifolia group, Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O. E. Shulz., Lepidium campestre (L.) R.Br., and Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic.) are reported as hosts of the swede midge. The weed species Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb, Camelina microcarpa Andrz. ex Dc., and Erysimum cheiranthoides L. exhibited no damage symptoms, and they seem to be nonhost crucifers for the swede midge. PMID:17849887

  14. Phylogeny, evolution and classification of gall wasps: the plot thickens.

    PubMed

    Ronquist, Fredrik; Nieves-Aldrey, José-Luis; Buffington, Matthew L; Liu, Zhiwei; Liljeblad, Johan; Nylander, Johan A A

    2015-01-01

    Gall wasps (Cynipidae) represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total-evidence analyses of higher-level gall wasp relationships. We studied more than 100 taxa representing a rich selection of outgroups and the majority of described cynipid genera outside the diverse oak gall wasps (Cynipini), which were more sparsely sampled. About 5 kb of nucleotide data from one mitochondrial (COI) and four nuclear (28S, LWRh, EF1alpha F1, and EF1alpha F2) markers were analyzed separately and in combination with morphological and life-history data. According to previous morphology-based studies, gall wasps evolved in the Northern Hemisphere and were initially herb gallers. Inquilines originated once from gall inducers that lost the ability to initiate galls. Our results, albeit not conclusive, suggest a different scenario. The first gall wasps were more likely associated with woody host plants, and there must have been multiple origins of gall inducers, inquilines or both. One possibility is that gall inducers arose independently from inquilines in several lineages. Except for these surprising results, our analyses are largely consistent with previous studies. They confirm that gall wasps are conservative in their host-plant preferences, and that herb-galling lineages have radiated repeatedly onto the same set of unrelated host plants. We propose a revised classification of the family into twelve tribes, which are strongly supported as monophyletic across independent datasets. Four are new: Aulacideini, Phanacidini, Diastrophini and Ceroptresini. We present a key to the tribes and discuss their morphological and biological diversity. Until the relationships among the tribes are resolved, the origin and early evolution of gall wasps will remain elusive.

  15. Phylogeny, Evolution and Classification of Gall Wasps: The Plot Thickens

    PubMed Central

    Ronquist, Fredrik; Nieves-Aldrey, José-Luis; Buffington, Matthew L.; Liu, Zhiwei; Liljeblad, Johan; Nylander, Johan A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Gall wasps (Cynipidae) represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total-evidence analyses of higher-level gall wasp relationships. We studied more than 100 taxa representing a rich selection of outgroups and the majority of described cynipid genera outside the diverse oak gall wasps (Cynipini), which were more sparsely sampled. About 5 kb of nucleotide data from one mitochondrial (COI) and four nuclear (28S, LWRh, EF1alpha F1, and EF1alpha F2) markers were analyzed separately and in combination with morphological and life-history data. According to previous morphology-based studies, gall wasps evolved in the Northern Hemisphere and were initially herb gallers. Inquilines originated once from gall inducers that lost the ability to initiate galls. Our results, albeit not conclusive, suggest a different scenario. The first gall wasps were more likely associated with woody host plants, and there must have been multiple origins of gall inducers, inquilines or both. One possibility is that gall inducers arose independently from inquilines in several lineages. Except for these surprising results, our analyses are largely consistent with previous studies. They confirm that gall wasps are conservative in their host-plant preferences, and that herb-galling lineages have radiated repeatedly onto the same set of unrelated host plants. We propose a revised classification of the family into twelve tribes, which are strongly supported as monophyletic across independent datasets. Four are new: Aulacideini, Phanacidini, Diastrophini and Ceroptresini. We present a key to the tribes and discuss their morphological and biological diversity. Until the relationships among the tribes are resolved, the origin and early evolution of gall wasps will remain elusive

  16. Adaptive significance of gall formation for a gall-inducing aphids on Japanese elm trees.

    PubMed

    Takei, Mami; Yoshida, Sayaka; Kawai, Takashi; Hasegawa, Morifumi; Suzuki, Yoshihito

    2015-01-01

    Insect galls are abnormal plant tissues induced by external stimuli from parasitizing insects. It has been suggested that the stimuli include phytohormones such as auxin and cytokinins produced by the insects. In our study on the role of hormones in gall induction by the aphid Tetraneura nigriabdominalis, it was found that feedback regulation related to auxin and cytokinin activity is absent in gall tissues, even though the aphids contain higher concentrations of those phytohormones than do plant tissues. Moreover, jasmonic acid signaling appears to be compromised in gall tissue, and consequently, the production of volatile organic compounds, which are a typical defense response of host plants to herbivory, is diminished. These findings suggest that these traits of the gall tissue benefit aphids, because the gall tissue is highly sensitive to auxin and cytokinin, which induce and maintain it. The induced defenses against aphid feeding are also compromised. The abnormal responsiveness to phytohormones is regarded as a new type of extended phenotype of gall-inducing insects. PMID:25437243

  17. Adaptive significance of gall formation for a gall-inducing aphids on Japanese elm trees.

    PubMed

    Takei, Mami; Yoshida, Sayaka; Kawai, Takashi; Hasegawa, Morifumi; Suzuki, Yoshihito

    2015-01-01

    Insect galls are abnormal plant tissues induced by external stimuli from parasitizing insects. It has been suggested that the stimuli include phytohormones such as auxin and cytokinins produced by the insects. In our study on the role of hormones in gall induction by the aphid Tetraneura nigriabdominalis, it was found that feedback regulation related to auxin and cytokinin activity is absent in gall tissues, even though the aphids contain higher concentrations of those phytohormones than do plant tissues. Moreover, jasmonic acid signaling appears to be compromised in gall tissue, and consequently, the production of volatile organic compounds, which are a typical defense response of host plants to herbivory, is diminished. These findings suggest that these traits of the gall tissue benefit aphids, because the gall tissue is highly sensitive to auxin and cytokinin, which induce and maintain it. The induced defenses against aphid feeding are also compromised. The abnormal responsiveness to phytohormones is regarded as a new type of extended phenotype of gall-inducing insects.

  18. Nucleation time of gall bladder bile in gall stone patients: influence of bile acid treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Sahlin, S; Ahlberg, J; Angelin, B; Reihnér, E; Einarsson, K

    1991-01-01

    The time required for precipitation of cholesterol crystals (nucleation time, NT) was determined and related to the cholesterol saturation in gall bladder bile of gall stone free subjects (n = 11), patients with pigment stones (n = 3), and patients with cholesterol gall stones (n = 30) undergoing cholecystectomy. Seven of the gall stone patients had been treated with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and nine with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), 15 mg/kg/day for three weeks before operation. NT was longer in gall stone free subjects (mean, 20 days), patients with pigment stones (14 days) and patients treated with CDCA (24 days) and UDCA (17 days) compared with untreated patients with cholesterol gall stones (1.5 days). In spite of low cholesterol saturation and prolonged NT, and in contrast to those treated with CDCA, four of the nine patients treated with UDCA had cholesterol crystals in their bile. These observations give further support to the concept that the mechanism for inducing gall stone dissolution may be different for CDCA and UDCA. PMID:1773966

  19. XX1 Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, is an invasive pest of chestnut in Japan, Europe, and the United States. D. kuriphilus induces formation of galls on all chestnut species. Damage caused by galling reduces commercial chestnut yields and threatens restoration of American chestnut i...

  20. Gall bladder Adenocarcinoma in a Young Girl.

    PubMed

    Date, Shivprasad V; Rizvi, S J

    2015-04-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with abdominal discomfort, weakness, and jaundice. General examination revealed deep icterus with hard lymph nodes in left supraclavicular region. On gastrointestinal examination, we appreciated a hard intra-abdominal lump in the right hypochondrium. Biochemical evaluation showed features of obstructive jaundice. Imaging confirmed the presence of gall bladder lump with multiple intra-abdominal lymph nodes. Fine needle aspiration cytology of neck nodes demonstrated metastatic adenocarcinoma. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the gall bladder lump (done under sonographic guidance) confirmed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, malignancy of the gall bladder has not been reported in individuals less than 18 years in India, and only three cases have been reported worldwide in English literature. PMID:26139973

  1. Gall bladder Adenocarcinoma in a Young Girl.

    PubMed

    Date, Shivprasad V; Rizvi, S J

    2015-04-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with abdominal discomfort, weakness, and jaundice. General examination revealed deep icterus with hard lymph nodes in left supraclavicular region. On gastrointestinal examination, we appreciated a hard intra-abdominal lump in the right hypochondrium. Biochemical evaluation showed features of obstructive jaundice. Imaging confirmed the presence of gall bladder lump with multiple intra-abdominal lymph nodes. Fine needle aspiration cytology of neck nodes demonstrated metastatic adenocarcinoma. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the gall bladder lump (done under sonographic guidance) confirmed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, malignancy of the gall bladder has not been reported in individuals less than 18 years in India, and only three cases have been reported worldwide in English literature.

  2. Estimating Culicoides sonorensis biting midge abundance using digital image analysis.

    PubMed

    Osborne, C J; Mayo, C E; Mullens, B A; Maclachlan, N J

    2014-12-01

    ImageJ is an open-source software tool used for a variety of scientific objectives including cell counting, shape analysis and image correction. This technology has previously been used to estimate mosquito abundance in surveillance efforts. However, the utility of this application for estimating abundance or parity in the surveillance of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) has not yet been tested. Culicoides sonorensis (Wirth and Jones), a biting midge often measuring 2.0-2.5 mm in length, is an economically important vector of ruminant arboviruses in California. Current surveillance methods use visual sorting for the characteristics of midges and are very time-intensive for large studies. This project tested the utility of ImageJ as a tool to assist in gross trap enumeration as well as in parity analysis of C. sonorensis in comparison with traditional visual methods of enumeration using a dissecting microscope. Results confirmed that automated counting of midges is a reliable means of approximating midge numbers under certain conditions. Further evaluation confirmed accurate and time-efficient parity analysis in comparison with hand sorting. The ImageJ software shows promise as a tool that can assist and expedite C. sonorensis surveillance. Further, these methods may be useful in other insect surveillance activities.

  3. Unbalanced activation of glutathione metabolic pathways suggests potential involvement in plant defense against the gall midge mayetiola destructor in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glutathione, a thiol tripeptide of '-glutamylcysteinylglycine, exists abundantly in nearly all organisms. Glutathione participates in various physiological processes involved in redox reactions by serving as an electron donor/acceptor. In this study, we found that the abundance of total glutathion...

  4. Anatomic Variant of Liver, Gall Bladder and Inferior Vena Cava.

    PubMed

    Sontakke, Yogesh Ashok; Gladwin, V; Chand, Parkash

    2016-07-01

    The morphology and relations of liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava are cardinal. Their anatomical variations may be a reason for the adverse surgical outcome. During routine anatomy dissection of an abdomen, we noticed a variant liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava in a 63-year-old male cadaver. In the specimen, a retrohepatic segment of inferior vena cava was found to be intrahepatic. On dissection, it was observed that inferior vena cava was covered entirely by a liver tissue on its dorsal aspect. In the same specimen, the gall bladder had undulated inferior surface. On dissection of the gall bladder, numerous mucosal folds were present in the interior. A band of fibrous tissue was found, which was extending from the right side of the gall bladder to the falciform ligament. Hence, preoperative scanning of congenital variations of the liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava may be compassionate in planning safe surgeries and interventional abdominal procedures. PMID:27630832

  5. Anatomic Variant of Liver, Gall Bladder and Inferior Vena Cava

    PubMed Central

    Gladwin, V.; Chand, Parkash

    2016-01-01

    The morphology and relations of liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava are cardinal. Their anatomical variations may be a reason for the adverse surgical outcome. During routine anatomy dissection of an abdomen, we noticed a variant liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava in a 63-year-old male cadaver. In the specimen, a retrohepatic segment of inferior vena cava was found to be intrahepatic. On dissection, it was observed that inferior vena cava was covered entirely by a liver tissue on its dorsal aspect. In the same specimen, the gall bladder had undulated inferior surface. On dissection of the gall bladder, numerous mucosal folds were present in the interior. A band of fibrous tissue was found, which was extending from the right side of the gall bladder to the falciform ligament. Hence, preoperative scanning of congenital variations of the liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava may be compassionate in planning safe surgeries and interventional abdominal procedures. PMID:27630832

  6. Percutaneous cholecystolithotomy: is gall stone recurrence inevitable?

    PubMed Central

    Donald, J J; Cheslyn-Curtis, S; Gillams, A R; Russell, R C; Lees, W R

    1994-01-01

    Using radiological interventional techniques the gall bladder can be cleared of stones with a high success rate. As with any treatment option that leaves the gall bladder in situ there is an accompanying risk of stone recurrence, which is currently unknown for the radiological method. One hundred patients were studied prospectively to determine the recurrence rate of stones and clinical outcome after successful percutaneous cholecystolithotomy. Follow up included both clinical assessment and ultrasound examination at 3, 6, and 12 months and then annual intervals thereafter. The overall stone recurrence rate was 31% at a mean follow up of 26 months (range, 3-50 months). By actuarial life table analysis, the cumulative proportion of gall stone recurrence was 7, 19, 28, 35, and 44% at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months respectively. Of the 31 patients with recurrent stones; 17 remain asymptomatic, seven have experienced biliary colic, two abdominal pain, three non-specific upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and two jaundice secondary to common duct stones. Thirteen of the stone free patients have remained symptomatic; six with abdominal pain and seven with nonspecific upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Eight patients have subsequently had a cholecystectomy. No significant difference was found between the sex of the patient or the number of stones before treatment and the stone recurrence rates. The cumulative stone recurrence rate was significantly less in the 56 patients who received adjuvant chemolitholysis (p < 0.05). These data show that stone recurrence after successful percutaneous cholecystolithotomy occurs in the minority, and is usually asymptomatic. It is concluded that the technique remains justified in the management of selected patients with gall stones. PMID:8200568

  7. Collective Behaviour without Collective Order in Wild Swarms of Midges

    PubMed Central

    Attanasi, Alessandro; Cavagna, Andrea; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Giardina, Irene; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Pohl, Oliver; Rossaro, Bruno; Shen, Edward; Silvestri, Edmondo; Viale, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    Collective behaviour is a widespread phenomenon in biology, cutting through a huge span of scales, from cell colonies up to bird flocks and fish schools. The most prominent trait of collective behaviour is the emergence of global order: individuals synchronize their states, giving the stunning impression that the group behaves as one. In many biological systems, though, it is unclear whether global order is present. A paradigmatic case is that of insect swarms, whose erratic movements seem to suggest that group formation is a mere epiphenomenon of the independent interaction of each individual with an external landmark. In these cases, whether or not the group behaves truly collectively is debated. Here, we experimentally study swarms of midges in the field and measure how much the change of direction of one midge affects that of other individuals. We discover that, despite the lack of collective order, swarms display very strong correlations, totally incompatible with models of non-interacting particles. We find that correlation increases sharply with the swarm's density, indicating that the interaction between midges is based on a metric perception mechanism. By means of numerical simulations we demonstrate that such growing correlation is typical of a system close to an ordering transition. Our findings suggest that correlation, rather than order, is the true hallmark of collective behaviour in biological systems. PMID:25057853

  8. Method refinements for the midge life-cycle, Chironomus dilutus test

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval stages of non-biting midges can be found in almost any freshwater ecosystem, and one of the commonly tested midges is Chironomus dilutus (Chironomidae, Diptera) which is used for toxicity testing and ecological risk assessment of freshwater contaminants. USEPA, ASTM, Envir...

  9. Transcriptome analyses of blood and sugar digestive processes in female Culicoides sonorensis midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) midges vector numerous diseases impacting livestock and humans. The molecular physiology of this midge has been under-studied, so our approach was to gain an understanding of basic processes of blood and sucrose digestion using tra...

  10. Winter Biology and Freeze Tolerance in the Goldenrod Gall Fly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandro, Luke H.; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a variety of opportunities for educational activities that can be found in the complex, yet easy-to-manipulate, trophic relationships between goldenrod plants, insects that induce gall formation, and the natural enemies of these gallmakers. Gall collection, measurement, and observation (exit holes, larval response,…

  11. Occurrence of Goldenrod Galls: Study of Insect Ovipositing Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Sandra J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise that takes advantage of the abundant number of species of goldenrod galls that exist in the environment to explore a question concerning the behavior of the female gall-forming insects as they lay eggs on the goldenrod plant. (ZWH)

  12. Fish gall bladder consumption presenting as acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Karnik, N D; Gupta, V A; Hase, N K

    2015-01-01

    A forty two year old male was admitted with history of anuria and breathlessness following consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder. He had azotemia and required hemodialysis. His renal failure improved over a period of about four weeks. Incidences have been reported from South East Asian countries associating consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder with acute renal failure.

  13. Fish gall bladder consumption presenting as acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Karnik, N D; Gupta, V A; Hase, N K

    2015-01-01

    A forty two year old male was admitted with history of anuria and breathlessness following consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder. He had azotemia and required hemodialysis. His renal failure improved over a period of about four weeks. Incidences have been reported from South East Asian countries associating consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder with acute renal failure. PMID:26440398

  14. Evaluation of wild juglans species for crown gall resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A. tumefaciens is a soil-borne Gram-negative bacterium which causes crown gall on many dicotyledonous plant species including walnut. Crown gall symptoms on walnut are characterized by large tumors located near the crown of the tree but can occur near wounds caused by bleeding cuts or at the graft u...

  15. Gall bladder sludge and stones in multitransfused Egyptian thalassaemic patients.

    PubMed

    el-Nawawy, A; Kassem, A S; Eissa, M; Abdel-Fattah, M; Safwat, M

    2001-01-01

    One hundred Egyptian beta-thalassaemic patients on a long-term transfusion/chelation programme were evaluated for the prevalence of gall bladder sludge and stones and the associated risk factors. Fifty healthy individuals served as controls. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed that 14% of the thalassaemic patients had gall bladder sludge or stones (6% stones and 8% sludge). The thalassaemic patients with this complication were older, had a higher prevalence of gall bladder symptoms, higher levels of pretransfusion haemoglobin, larger amounts of transfused red cells, and more were regularly transfused. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence that gall bladder symptoms and the amount of transfused red cells were the only significant predictors of the occurrence of gall bladder sludge or stones.

  16. Carcinoma of gall bladder presenting as dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhaiah, Deepti Akkihebbal; Premkumar, Jennifer Anne; Moses, Viju; Chacko, Geeta

    2011-01-01

    Cancer-related muscle diseases are usually paraneoplastic disorders. Dermatomyositis (DM) is a type of inflammatory myopathy that is strongly associated with a broad range of malignant disorders. The malignancy can occur before, concomitantly or after the onset of myositis. The malignancies most commonly associated with DM are carcinomas of ovary, lung, stomach, colorectal and pancreas, as well as non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. An association of DM with carcinoma of the gall bladder (GB) is extremely rare with only two previously reported cases in the literature. We report a case of carcinoma of GB with DM as the paraneoplastic manifestation. PMID:21655205

  17. Dose to the gall bladder from a /sup 99m/Tc labeled gall bladder scanning agent

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, S.R.; Chen, S.M.

    1981-06-01

    A mathematical gall bladder was added to the mathematical phantom and the specific absorbed fractions (PHI) were calculated for the 22 target organs (for the source in the gall bladder) by the Monte Carlo code. From these data and the /sup 99m/Tc decay scheme data, the S factors (rads per ..mu..Ci-day residence) for the organs when the source is in the gall bladder were estimated. From the reciprocity relationship for PHI, the S factors for the gall bladder when the source is located in any of the 22 source organs of the phantom were also estimated. The dose to the gall bladder wall from a single injection of the /sup 99m/Tc labeled scanning agent into man is estimated to be approx. 0.52 rads/mCi plus or minus about 1/2 this value depending on the assumptions in the estimation of this value.

  18. Phenotypic plasticity and similarity among gall morphotypes on a superhost, Baccharis reticularia (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Formiga, A T; Silveira, F A O; Fernandes, G W; Isaias, R M S

    2015-03-01

    Understanding factors that modulate plant development is still a challenging task in plant biology. Although research has highlighted the role of abiotic and biotic factors in determining final plant structure, we know little of how these factors combine to produce specific developmental patterns. Here, we studied patterns of cell and tissue organisation in galled and non-galled organs of Baccharis reticularia, a Neotropical shrub that hosts over ten species of galling insects. We employed qualitative and quantitative approaches to understand patterns of growth and differentiation in its four most abundant gall morphotypes. We compared two leaf galls induced by sap-sucking Hemiptera and stem galls induced by a Lepidopteran and a Dipteran, Cecidomyiidae. The hypotheses tested were: (i) the more complex the galls, the more distinct they are from their non-galled host; (ii) galls induced on less plastic host organs, e.g. stems, develop under more morphogenetic constraints and, therefore, should be more similar among themselves than galls induced on more plastic organs. We also evaluated the plant sex preference of gall-inducing insects for oviposition. Simple galls were qualitative and quantitatively more similar to non-galled organs than complex galls, thereby supporting the first hypothesis. Unexpectedly, stem galls had more similarities between them than to their host organ, hence only partially supporting the second hypothesis. Similarity among stem galls may be caused by the restrictive pattern of host stems. The opposite trend was observed for host leaves, which generate either similar or distinct gall morphotypes due to their higher phenotypic plasticity. The Relative Distance of Plasticity Index for non-galled stems and stem galls ranged from 0.02 to 0.42. Our results strongly suggest that both tissue plasticity and gall inducer identity interact to determine plant developmental patterns, and therefore, final gall structure.

  19. Effect of vegetarianism on development of gall stones in women.

    PubMed

    Pixley, F; Wilson, D; McPherson, K; Mann, J

    1985-07-01

    Real time ultrasonography was used to compare the prevalence of gall stones in two groups of women aged 40-69: 632 women recruited from general practice registers and 130 vegetarians. One hundred and fifty-six (25%) of the 632 women who ate meat and 15 (12%) of the 130 vegetarian women either had gall stones visible on ultrasonography or had previously undergone cholecystectomy (p less than 0.01). The prevalence of gall stones was found to increase with age and body mass index. The 2.5 fold increase in risk of developing gall stones in non-vegetarians compared with vegetarians was reduced to 1.9 when controlling for these two potentially confounding factors, but remained significant. A family history of gall stones was reported more often by women with gall stones, but no association was found with parity or use of exogenous oestrogens. Thus the importance of age and obesity to determine the prevalence of gall stone was confirmed, and a dietary factor associated with vegetarianism may prevent this common condition.

  20. Goldenrod ball gall effects on Solidago altissima: /sup 14/C translocation and growth. [Eurosta solidaginis

    SciTech Connect

    McCrea, K.D.; Abrahamson, W.G.; Weis, A.E.

    1985-12-01

    Individual leaves of S. altissima were labeled with carbon-14 introduced as CO/sub 2/. The /sup 14/C was introduced into ramets that had ball galls caused by the fly Eurosta solidaginis and into ungalled control ramets; gall size (large vs. small) and point of introduction of the label (above vs. below the gall) were experimental factors. After 5 d the ramets were harvested and their component organs were assayed for /sup 14/C using liquid scintillation. In addition, a field cohort of 359 galled and ungalled ramets was followed during the period of gall growth to determine the effect of the gall on stem height growth. Gall size and labeling position had no effect on the percent of /sup 14/C translocated out of the labeled leaf but did affect the distribution of translocated /sup 14/C. Translocation to underground organs was reduced when the label was introduced above the gall, the reduction being related to gall size. Large galls reduced translocation to the apical bud when the label was introduced below the gall, but small galls did not. Translocation to underground organs was not affected by the gall when the label was introduced below the gall and translocation to the apical bud was not affected by the gall when the label was introduced above the gall; these results indicate that the goldenrod ball gall is a nonmobilizing gall. The presence of a gall did not significantly affect final stem height but did slow the growth of ramets during the period of most rapid gall growth.

  1. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Gall Bladder.

    PubMed

    Haid, Max; Gahju, Badri; Schulz, Craig; Sterner, David; Falconer, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the gall bladder (SCCGB) is a rare condition, with only 53 prior cases reported in the world literature when our case was first diagnosed. Our patient was found to have limited stage disease and was treated with sequential laparoscopic cholecystectomy, etoposide/carboplatin chemotherapy followed by consolidating loco-regional radiation therapy. She is alive and well without evidence of disease more than 132 months since diagnosis. We describe here our experience in the diagnosis, staging workup, treatment, and surveillance of a case of SCCGB and review the published literature. Treated aggressively with currently available methods, patients with limited stage SCCGB can have an excellent prognosis. The authors' intent is to provide a reasonable plan of treatment for other physicians facing such an unusual patient. PMID:27197345

  2. Surgical treatment of gall-bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Masior, Łukasz; Krasnodębski, Maciej; Kobryń, Konrad; Grąt, Michał; Krawczyk, Marek

    2015-06-01

    Despite the aggressive nature and poor prognosis of gall-bladder cancer there is a group of patients who can achieve significant benefits from a radical surgical treatment. The possibility of obtaining long-term survival, even in case of patients with locally advanced cancer and metastases to regional lymph nodes, prompts to verify nihilistic approach to the treatment of this disease. Obviously such therapy can and should be performed only in centers specializing in hepatobiliary surgery. Due to the high recurrence rate, most of which are systemic, the hope of improving treatment outcomes should be sought in the use of combination therapy, based on a new chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy regimens with the addition of targeted therapy. Unfortunately, the current application of these methods did not bring the expected benefits. PMID:26247506

  3. Laser ablation of gall bladder stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marafi, M.; Makdisi, Y.; Bhatia, K. S.; Abdulah, A. H.; Kokaj, Y.; Mathew, K.; Quinn, F.; Qabazard, A.

    1999-06-01

    Study of laser interaction with calculi is presented. A system of Nd-Yag and Ho-Yag pulsed lasers were used to produce fluorescence and plasma signals at the stone surface surrounded by saline and bile fluids. Fourth harmonic from Nd-Yag laser was transmitted to the samples by graded UV optical fibres. Gall bladder stones of various compositions were subjected to the high power Ho-Yag laser. Temporal transients and spectral evolution of plasma and fluorescence signals were monitored by a streak camera. A profile of acoustic pressures generated by shock waves was recorded with sensitive hydrophones placed in the surrounding fluids. Ablation threshold, cavitation process and fluorescence dependence on the laser parameters were studied in detail. Potential of stone identification by fluorescence and possible hydrodynamic model for ablation of biological samples is discussed.

  4. Chestnut Species and Jasmonic Acid Treatment Influence Development and Community Interactions of Galls Produced by the Asian Chestnut Gall Wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, William R.; Rieske, Lynne K.

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant—signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA– inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses. PMID:22233098

  5. Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.

    PubMed

    Cooper, William R; Rieske, Lynne K

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA- inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses.

  6. Using Goldenrod Galls to Teach Science Process Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peard, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of using examples from the student's environment to aid in teaching science process skills. The author uses diagrams to aid in discussing the various uses of goldenrod (Solidago sp) galls in the classroom. (ZWH)

  7. K-ras gene mutation in gall bladder carcinomas and dysplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Ajiki, T; Fujimori, T; Onoyama, H; Yamamoto, M; Kitazawa, S; Maeda, S; Saitoh, Y

    1996-01-01

    Epithelial dysplasia of gall bladder is an important precancerous lesion of gall bladder carcinogenesis. To investigate the frequency of K-ras gene mutation in gall bladder carcinoma and dysplasia, K-ras codon 12 mutations were investigated by the polymerase chain reaction/restriction enzyme based method following direct sequencing. Mutation was detected in 59% (30 of 51) of gall bladder carcinomas, in 73% (8 of 11) of gall bladder dysplasia in gall stone cases, and in 0% of the normal gall bladder epithelium. There was, however, no correlation between K-ras mutation and clinicopathological factors of gall bladder carcinoma. K-ras gene mutation occurs even in gall bladder dysplasia at an incidence similar to that in carcinomas, suggesting that testing for K-ras gene mutation may prove useful as an adjunct to bile cytological or biopsy analysis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8675098

  8. Papular dermatitis induced in guinea pigs by the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and ...

  9. Impact of biting midges on residential property values in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, Jay; Dale, Pat E; Sipe, Neil G; Daniels, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Biting midges (Culicoides spp.) are an important environmental health issue in Hervey Bay, an area of rapid population growth in Australia. It is also the gateway to a World Heritage area (Great Sandy Strait) and a destination for tourists. The spread of housing developments into suburbs close to midge breeding habitats has led to a problem for the local government responsible for managing biting insects in its area. Suburbs with a severe biting midge problem were found to have significantly lower residential property values than less affected suburbs. The gross reduction in value in due to the midge problem was estimated to range from more than AUS dollar 25 million, based on actual sale price, to more than AUS dollar 55 million, based on the perceptions of the most severely affected residents. PMID:16646336

  10. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  11. Sex pheromone of orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Regine; Gries, G.; Khaskin, Grigori; King, Skip; Olfert, Owen; Kaminski, Lori-Ann; Lamb, Robert; Bennett, Robb

    Pheromone extract of the female orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (SM) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, DB-23 or SP-1000. These analyses revealed a single, EAD-active candidate pheromone which was identified as 2,7-nonanediyl dibutyrate. In experiments in wheat fields in Saskatchewan, traps baited with (2S,7S)-2,7-nonanediyl dibutyrate attracted significant numbers of male SM. The presence of other stereoisomers did not adversely affect trap captures. Facile synthesis of stereoisomeric 2,7-nonanediyl dibutyrate will facilitate the development of pheromone-based monitoring or even control of SM populations.

  12. Biting midges of the genus Culicoides in South Carolina zoos.

    PubMed

    Nelder, Mark P; Swanson, Dustin A; Adler, Peter H; Grogan, William L

    2010-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected during the summer of 2007 at the Greenville and Riverbanks Zoos in South Carolina with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps equipped with ultraviolet or incandescent lights and baited with carbon dioxide. Sixteen species of Culicoides were collected, four of which represented more than 80%. They were Culicoides guttipennis (Coquillett), Culicoides mulrenanni Beck, Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen), and Culicoides sanguisuga (Coquillett). C. guttipennis was found on a dead colobus monkey and a dead golden-headed lion tamarin; Culicoides husseyi Wirth & Blanton was collected from an unidentified, abandoned bird's nest. Ultraviolet light-equipped traps captured significantly more Culicoides specimens than traps with incandescent light. Half of the collected species previously have been associated with vertebrate pathogens, indicating a potential risk to captive animals.

  13. Gall volatiles defend aphids against a browsing mammal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plants have evolved an astonishing array of survival strategies. To defend against insects, for example, damaged plants emit volatile organic compounds that attract the herbivore’s natural enemies. So far, plant volatile responses have been studied extensively in conjunction with leaf chewing and sap sucking insects, yet little is known about the relationship between plant volatiles and gall-inducers, the most sophisticated herbivores. Here we describe a new role for volatiles as gall-insects were found to benefit from this plant defence. Results Chemical analyses of galls triggered by the gregarious aphid Slavum wertheimae on wild pistachio trees showed that these structures contained and emitted considerably higher quantities of plant terpenes than neighbouring leaves and fruits. Behavioural assays using goats as a generalist herbivore confirmed that the accumulated terpenes acted as olfactory signals and feeding deterrents, thus enabling the gall-inducers to escape from inadvertent predation by mammals. Conclusions Increased emission of plant volatiles in response to insect activity is commonly looked upon as a “cry for help” by the plant to attract the insect’s natural enemies. In contrast, we show that such volatiles can serve as a first line of insect defences that extends the ‘extended phenotype’ represented by galls, beyond physical boundaries. Our data support the Enemy hypothesis insofar that high levels of gall secondary metabolites confer protection against natural enemies. PMID:24020365

  14. Surgically Resected Gall Bladder: Is Histopathology Needed for All?

    PubMed

    Talreja, Vikash; Ali, Aun; Khawaja, Rabel; Rani, Kiran; Samnani, Sunil Sadruddin; Farid, Farah Naz

    2016-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered to be gold standard for symptomatic gall stones. As a routine every specimen is sent for histopathological examination postoperatively. Incidentally finding gall bladder cancers in those specimens is around 0.5-1.1%. The aim of this study is to identify those preoperative and intraoperative factors in patients with incidental gall bladder cancer to reduce unnecessary work load on pathologist and cost of investigation particularly in a developing world. Methods. Retrospective records were analyzed from January 2005 to February 2015 in a surgical unit. Demographic data, preoperative imaging, peroperative findings, macroscopic appearance, and histopathological findings were noted. Gall bladder wall was considered to be thickened if ≥3 mm on preoperative imaging or surgeons comment (on operative findings) and histopathology report. AJCC TNM system was used to stage gall bladder cancer. Results. 973 patients underwent cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease. Gallbladder carcinoma was incidentally found in 11 cases. Macroscopic abnormalities of the gallbladder were found in all those 11 patients. In patients with a macroscopically normal gallbladder, there were no cases of gallbladder carcinoma. Conclusion. Preoperative and operative findings play a pivotal role in determining incidental chances of gall bladder malignancy. PMID:27123469

  15. Culicoides midge trap enhancement with animal odour baits in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Mands, V; Kline, D L; Blackwell, A

    2004-12-01

    Examples of the commercial trap Mosquito Magnet Pro (MMP emitting attractant 1-octen-3-ol in carbon dioxide 500 mL/min generated from propane fuel), were run 24 h/day on the Isle of Skye, Scotland, during June-August 2001 and evaluated for catching Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). From 30 days trapping, the catch averaged 2626 +/- 1358 Culicoides females/trap/day (mean +/- SE, range 558 +/- 139 to 6088 +/- 3597, for five sets of six consecutive nights), predominantly the pest Culicoides impunctatus Goetghebuer (68% overall), plus C. vexans (Staeger) > C. delta Edwards > C. pulicaris (L.) > C. lupicaris Downs & Kettle > C. albicans (Winnertz) > other Culicoides spp. Attempts were made to enhance the odour baiting system by adding hexane-extracts (2.1 mg/day) of hair samples from large host animals, resulting in the following effects on Culicoides collections: sheep - 53 %, red deer - 26 %, calf + 20%, pony + 40%, water buffalo + 262%, with greatest increases for C. impunctatus and C. pulicaris. Serial concentrations of these animal extracts (10(-1) - 10(-3) x 2.2 g/mL) were assayed on parous female C. impunctatus response in a Y-tube olfactometer (air-flow 150 mL/min), and by electroantennogram (EAG) on Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen laboratory-reared parous females. Positive behavioural responses to host odours were dose-dependent: the water buffalo extract being most active (threshold 0.22 g/mL), similar to deer, whereas other host extracts were > or = 10-fold less active. Correspondingly, the EAG threshold was lowest for water buffalo, 10-fold greater for deer, calf and pony, but not detected for sheep. If the active component(s) of these host extracts can be identified and synthesized, they might be employed to improve the capture of Culicoides midges for local control by removal trapping.

  16. Biting rates of Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) on sheep in northeastern Spain in relation to midge capture using UV light and carbon dioxide-baited traps.

    PubMed

    Gerry, Alec C; Sarto i Monteys, V; Moreno Vidal, J O; Francino, O; Mullens, Bradley A

    2009-05-01

    Biting midges in the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected near sunset by direct aspiration from sheep in northeastern Spain to determine species-specific biting rates and crepuscular activity. Midges were also collected by UV-baited light traps and CO2-baited traps over the same period to compare species diversity and abundance using these common surveillance methods to actual sheep attack rates. Culicoides aspirated from sheep included C. obsoletus, C. parroti, C. scoticus, C. punctatus, and C. imicola. Peak host-seeking activity during the time period examined for the two most commonly collected species (C. obsoletus and C. parroti) occurred just before sunset and activity ceased within 1 h after sunset. Host attack rates near sunset averaged 0.9 midges/min for both species with maximum attack rates of 3/min for C. obsoletus and 4/min for C. parroti. For both species, approximately 35% of midges collected from the sheep were engorged, giving a maximum biting rate of 1.1/min for C. obsoletus and 1.5/min for C. parroti. Traps baited with CO2 collected fewer midges of each species relative to other collection methods. Traps baited with UV light provided a good indication of species richness but significantly underestimated the host attack rate of C. obsoletus and C. parroti while overestimating the host attack rate of C. imicola. Animal-baited collecting is critical to interpret the epidemiological significance of light trap collections used for surveillance of the midge vectors of bluetongue virus and African horse sickness virus.

  17. Roles of gall bladder emptying and intestinal transit in the pathogenesis of octreotide induced gall bladder stones.

    PubMed Central

    Hussaini, S H; Pereira, S P; Veysey, M J; Kennedy, C; Jenkins, P; Murphy, G M; Wass, J A; Dowling, R H

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Octreotide treatment of acromegalic patients increases the % deoxycholic acid conjugates and the cholesterol saturation of gall bladder bile, and induces gall stone formation. AIMS--To study the roles of gall bladder emptying and intestinal transit in these phenomena. METHODS AND PATIENTS--Gall bladder emptying and mouth to caecum transit was measured in (a) control subjects and acromegalic patients given saline or 50 micrograms of octreotide, and (b) acromegalic patients taking long term octreotide. In the second group, large bowel transit was also measured. RESULTS--A single dose of octreotide inhibited meal stimulated gall bladder emptying, the ejection fraction falling from mean (SEM) 66.0 (2.3)% to 7.0 (5.3)% in controls (p < 0.001); from 72.5 (2.1) to 16.6 (5.1)% in untreated acromegalic patients (p < 0.001), and to 30.4 (9.5)% in acromegalic patients taking long term octreotide (p < 0.001 v untreated acromegalic group). Octreotide prolonged mouth to caecum transit time, from 112 (15) min to 237 (13) min in controls (p < 0.001), from 170 (13) min to 282 (11) min in untreated acromegalic patients (p < 0.001), and to 247 (10) min in acromegalic patients taking long term octreotide (p < 0.001 v untreated acromegalic patients). The mean large bowel transit in octreotide untreated compared with treated acromegalic patients remained unchanged (40 (6) h v 47 (6) h). CONCLUSIONS--Prolongation of intestinal transit and impaired gall bladder emptying may contribute to lithogenic changes in bile composition and gall stone formation in patients receiving long term octreotide. PMID:8707128

  18. Ecology and evolution of gall-forming insects. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P.W.; Mattson, W.J.; Baranchikov, Y.N.

    1994-09-21

    ;Partial Contents: Ecology and Population Dynamics; Effects of the Physical Environment on the Ecology of Gall Insects; Biodiversity and Distribution; Genetic Variation in Host Plant Resistance; Evolutionary Perspectives on Gall Insects.

  19. Gall insects can avoid and alter indirect plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Tooker, John F; Rohr, Jason R; Abrahamson, Warren G; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2008-01-01

    Parasitic species can dramatically alter host traits. Some of these parasite-induced changes can be considered adaptive manipulations that benefit the parasites. Gall-inducing insects are parasites well known for their ability to alter host-plant morphology and physiology, including the distribution of plant defensive compounds. Here it was investigated whether gall-inducing species alter indirect plant defenses, involving the release of volatile compounds that are attractive to foraging natural enemies. Using field and factorial laboratory experiments, volatile production by goldenrod (Solidago altissima) plants was examined in response to attack by two gall-inducing species, the tephritid fly Eurosta solidaginis and the gelechiid moth Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis, as well as the meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius, and the generalist caterpillar Heliothis virescens. Heliothis virescens elicited strong indirect defensive responses from S. altissima, but the gall-inducing species and spittlebugs did not. More significantly, infestation by E. solidaginis appeared to suppress volatile responses to subsequent attack by the generalist caterpillar. The extensive control that E. solidaginis apparently exerts over host-plant defense responses may reduce the predation risk for the gall inducer and the subsequent herbivore, and could influence community-level dynamics, including the distribution of herbivorous insect species associated with S. altissima parasitized by E. solidaginis.

  20. Need for Prophylactic Cholecystectomy in Silent Gall Stones in North India.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Alok Vardhan

    2015-09-01

    One of the criteria for recommending cholecystectomy for silent gall stones, is gall stones in regions with high incidence of gall bladder cancer. Both gall stones and gall bladder cancer are common in North India. All tertiary care centres in India report high rates of gall bladder cancer (GBC) incidence and poor treatment outcomes in the majority of cases due to advanced stage of presentation. Csendes of Chile has reported very high incidence of gallbladder cancer in Chile and Bolivia and advocated prophylactic cholecystectomy in asymptomatic patients. Incidence rate of gall bladder cancer in Indian males is equal to that of Chile, whereas in females, the rates are almost double the rates of Chile. Indians have also been found to have high concentrations of heavy metals in gall bladder wall, and antibodies to tumor suppressor genes. In India, gall bladder cancer is the commonest GI cancer in women and fourth commonest cancer overall in the female population. In view of the epidemiology and clinical scenario of gall bladder cancer and proven safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, there is a need to act before it is too late in the current rates of gall bladder cancer. This study looks at the evidence correlating gall stones and gall bladder cancer, in relation to India. There is pressing evidence today to justify a strategy of prophylactic cholecystectomy in silent gall stones in North India. Data for this study was selected through an internet based search for literature concerning gall stones and gall bladder cancer in India, and for prophylactic cholecystectomy. PMID:27217672

  1. 9 CFR 95.17 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like... STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.17 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow, and various like...

  2. 9 CFR 95.17 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like... STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.17 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow, and various like...

  3. 9 CFR 95.17 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like... STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.17 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow, and various like...

  4. 9 CFR 95.17 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like... STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.17 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow, and various like...

  5. 9 CFR 95.17 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like... STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.17 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow, and various like...

  6. Clinodiplosis agerati (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), a new galling species associated with Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Araújo, L

    2016-04-19

    Clinodiplosis agerati, a new galling species that induces stem galls on Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall) based on material collected in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species is compared with the other Neotropical species. This is the first record of the Clinodiplosis in Ageratum.

  7. Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants which house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). ...

  8. Clinodiplosis agerati (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), a new galling species associated with Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Araújo, L

    2016-04-19

    Clinodiplosis agerati, a new galling species that induces stem galls on Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall) based on material collected in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species is compared with the other Neotropical species. This is the first record of the Clinodiplosis in Ageratum. PMID:27097086

  9. Identity and diversity of blood meal hosts of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Host preference studies in haematophagous insects e.g. Culicoides biting midges are pivotal to assess transmission routes of vector-borne diseases and critical for the development of veterinary contingency plans to identify which species should be included due to their risk potential. Species of Culicoides have been found in almost all parts of the world and known to live in a variety of habitats. Several parasites and viruses are transmitted by Culicoides biting midges including Bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus. The aim of the present study was to determine the identity and diversity of blood meals taken from vertebrate hosts in wild-caught Culicoides biting midges near livestock farms. Methods Biting midges were collected at weekly intervals for 20 weeks from May to October 2009 using light traps at four collection sites on the island Sealand, Denmark. Blood-fed female biting midges were sorted and head and wings were removed for morphological species identification. The thoraxes and abdomens including the blood meals of the individual females were subsequently subjected to DNA isolation. The molecular marker cytochrome oxidase I (COI barcode) was applied to identify the species of the collected biting midges (GenBank accessions JQ683259-JQ683374). The blood meals were first screened with a species-specific cytochrome b primer pair for cow and if negative with a universal cytochrome b primer pair followed by sequencing to identify mammal or avian blood meal hosts. Results Twenty-four species of biting midges were identified from the four study sites. A total of 111,356 Culicoides biting midges were collected, of which 2,164 were blood-fed. Specimens of twenty species were identified with blood in their abdomens. Blood meal sources were successfully identified by DNA sequencing from 242 (76%) out of 320 Culicoides specimens. Eight species of mammals and seven species of birds were identified as blood meal hosts. The most common host species was

  10. Responses of the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius to DEET exposure.

    PubMed

    Campos, Diana; Gravato, Carlos; Quintaneiro, Carla; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Pestana, João L T

    2016-03-01

    N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) is the active ingredient of many commercial insect repellents. Despite being detected worldwide in effluents, surface water and groundwater, there is still limited information on DEET's toxicity toward non-target aquatic invertebrates. Thus, our main objective was to assess the effects of DEET in the life cycle of Chironomus riparius and assess its biochemical effects. Laboratory assays showed that DEET reduced developmental rates (reduced larval growth, delayed emergence) of C. riparius larvae and also caused a decrease in the size of adult midges. Concerning the biochemical responses, a short exposure to DEET caused no effects in lipid peroxidation, despite the significant inhibition of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase activities and of total glutathione contents. Moreover, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity was also observed showing neurotoxic effects. Environmental risk assessment of insect repellents is needed. Our results showed moderate toxicity of DEET toward C. riparius, however, due to their mode of action, indirect ecological effects of DEET and of other insect repellents cannot be excluded and should be evaluated. PMID:26773354

  11. Estimation of gestational age from gall-bladder length.

    PubMed

    Udaykumar, K; Udaykumar, Padmaja; Nagesh, K R

    2016-01-01

    Establishing a precise duration of gestation is vital in situations such as infanticide and criminal abortions. The present study attempted to estimate the gestational age of the foetus from gall-bladder length. Foetuses of various gestational age groups were dissected, and the length of the gall bladder was measured. The results were analysed, and a substantial degree of correlation was statistically confirmed. This novel method is helpful when the foetus is fragmented, putrefied or eviscerated, where this method can be used as an additional parameter to improve the accuracy of foetal age estimation. PMID:25990829

  12. What should I do about my patient's gall stones?

    PubMed Central

    Dennison, A. R.; Azoulay, D.; Oakley, N.; Baer, H.; Paraskevopoulos, J. A.; Maddern, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    The problem of benign biliary disease is one that causes significant morbidity and social economic strain in the western world. The classical treatment, cholecystectomy, has been challenged by various medical and surgical techniques in a seemingly random nature. The development of the treatment of gall stone disease is reviewed by analysis of published studies over the last 20 years. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed as an overview and summary of the current management of gall stone disease in the light of our knowledge of its malignant potential. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8552535

  13. Chronic effects of Cd on the reproduction of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) through Cd-accumulated midge larvae (Chironomus yoshimatsui)

    SciTech Connect

    Hatakeyama, S.; Yasuno, M.

    1987-12-01

    Chronic effects of Cd on the growth and reproduction of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) were studied using a food chain model, midge larvae as prey and guppy as predator. The transfer rate of Cd from the midge to the guppy was between 0.5 and 1% during the 30-day experiment. Growth rate of the guppy fed Cd-accumulated midge larvae (270 micrograms/g dry wt) for 30 days was not impaired. Cumulative numbers of fry produced by the guppy fed Cd-accumulated midge larvae (210 micrograms/g) for 2 months decreased to ca. 80% of the control. Guppies had been fed the Cd-accumulated midges from 30 days old for 7 months. Cumulative numbers of fry produced by the guppy fed midge larvae-accumulated 500, 800, and 1300 micrograms Cd/g for 6 months decreased to 79, 65, and 55% of the control, respectively. Similar effects of Cd on the reproduction of guppy were shown between the guppies fed the Cd-accumulated midge larvae (500 micrograms Cd/g) and exposed to 10 or 20 micrograms Cd/liter for the 6 months. The Cd concentrations of the digestive tract, liver, and kidney increased strongly, indicating that such Cd accumulation was brought on mainly through the Cd-accumulated midges. Mortality of the female guppies fed larvae-accumulated 1300 micrograms Cd/g increased abruptly from the 6 months of the experiment, whereas no male guppy died during the experiment.

  14. Changes in Clonal Poplar Leaf Chemistry Caused by Stem Galls Alter Herbivory and Leaf Litter Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Künkler, Nora; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gall-inducing insects are highly specialized herbivores that modify the phenotype of their host plants. Beyond the direct manipulation of plant morphology and physiology in the immediate environment of the gall, there is also evidence of plant-mediated effects of gall-inducing insects on other species of the assemblages and ecosystem processes associated with the host plant. We analysed the impact of gall infestation by the aphid Pemphigus spirothecae on chemical leaf traits of clonal Lombardy poplars (Populus nigra var. italica) and the subsequent effects on intensity of herbivory and decomposition of leaves across five sites. We measured the herbivory of two feeding guilds: leaf-chewing insects that feed on the blade (e.g. caterpillars and sawfly larvae) and skeletonising insects that feed on the mesophyll of the leaves (e.g. larvae of beetles). Galled leaves had higher phenol (35%) and lower nitrogen and cholorophyll contents (35% respectively 37%) than non-galled leaves, and these differences were stronger in August than in June. Total herbivory intensity was 27% higher on galled than on non-galled leaves; damage by leaf chewers was on average 61% higher on gall infested leaves, whereas damage by skeletonising insects was on average 39% higher on non-galled leaves. After nine months the decomposition rate of galled leaf litter was 15% lower than that of non-galled leaf litter presumably because of the lower nitrogen content of the galled leaf litter. This indicated after-life effects of gall infestation on the decomposers. We found no evidence for galling x environment interactions. PMID:24260333

  15. Induction of a 58,000 dalton protein during goldenrod gall formation.

    PubMed

    Carango, P; McCrea, K D; Abrahamson, W G; Chernin, M I

    1988-05-16

    Despite the widespread occurrence of plant-gallmaker interactions, little is known about the actual mechanisms of gall formation. To further characterize this type of parasite-host interaction, the mechanism of gall formation in Solidago altissima, tall goldenrod, by the larva of the tephritid fly Eurosta solidaginis was studied. Proteins produced by galled and ungalled tissues were examined, and the hyperinduction of a 58 kilodalton protein was observed in galled tissues for the second and third week of gall growth. The presence of this protein suggests that a substance secreted by the larva may function as a trans-acting gene regulator.

  16. Development and evaluation of real-time PCR assays for bloodmeal identification in Culicoides midges.

    PubMed

    VAN DER Saag, M R; Gu, X; Ward, M P; Kirkland, P D

    2016-06-01

    Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) midges are the biological vectors of a number of arboviruses of veterinary importance. However, knowledge relating to the basic biology of some species, including their host-feeding preferences, is limited. Identification of host-feeding preferences in haematophagous insects can help to elucidate the transmission dynamics of the arboviruses they may transmit. In this study, a series of semi-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to identify the vertebrate host sources of bloodmeals of Culicoides midges was developed. Two pan-reactive species group and seven species-specific qPCR assays were developed and evaluated. The assays are quick to perform and less expensive than nucleic acid sequencing of bloodmeals. Using these assays, it was possible to rapidly test nearly 700 blood-fed midges of various species from several geographic locations in Australia. PMID:26854008

  17. Contribution of gall microscopic structure to taxonomy of gallicolous aphids on Pistacia.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, R; Martinez, J-J I; Muñoz-Viveros, A L; Molist, P; Abad-González, J; Nieto Nafría, J M

    2016-09-01

    Aphids inducing galls on Pistacia plants belong to the tribe Fordini. According to the Heie & Wegierek classification, the genera are grouped into three subtribes. Previous microscopic studies showed that this taxonomy is not consistent with the histological characteristics of the galls. In this paper, galls induced by Aplonerura lentisci, Asiphonella cynodonti, Forda riccobonii, Slavun wertheimae and Smynthurodes betae were analyzed for the first time, as well as nine other galls previously described. Based on histological features three groups of galls can be establish: the first group comprises closed galls, induced by Baizongia pistaciae, Geoica utricularia, Rectinasus buxtoni and Slavun wertheimae; the second group includes two species of Geopemphigus (G. blackmani and G. torsus), and the third one is divided into two subgroups, the first comprises Aplonerura lentisci, Asiphonella cynodonti and Geopemphigus morral, and the second that includes Forda formicaria, F. marginata, F. riccobonii, Paracletus cimiciformis and Smynthurodes betae. An identification key of species based on microscopic features of galls is presented.

  18. Contribution of gall microscopic structure to taxonomy of gallicolous aphids on Pistacia.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, R; Martinez, J-J I; Muñoz-Viveros, A L; Molist, P; Abad-González, J; Nieto Nafría, J M

    2016-09-01

    Aphids inducing galls on Pistacia plants belong to the tribe Fordini. According to the Heie & Wegierek classification, the genera are grouped into three subtribes. Previous microscopic studies showed that this taxonomy is not consistent with the histological characteristics of the galls. In this paper, galls induced by Aplonerura lentisci, Asiphonella cynodonti, Forda riccobonii, Slavun wertheimae and Smynthurodes betae were analyzed for the first time, as well as nine other galls previously described. Based on histological features three groups of galls can be establish: the first group comprises closed galls, induced by Baizongia pistaciae, Geoica utricularia, Rectinasus buxtoni and Slavun wertheimae; the second group includes two species of Geopemphigus (G. blackmani and G. torsus), and the third one is divided into two subgroups, the first comprises Aplonerura lentisci, Asiphonella cynodonti and Geopemphigus morral, and the second that includes Forda formicaria, F. marginata, F. riccobonii, Paracletus cimiciformis and Smynthurodes betae. An identification key of species based on microscopic features of galls is presented. PMID:27259077

  19. Culicoides biting midges, arboviruses and public health in Europe.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Simon; Groschup, Martin H; Garros, Claire; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Purse, Bethan V

    2013-10-01

    The emergence of multiple strains of bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recent discovery of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in Europe have highlighted the fact that exotic Culicoides-borne arboviruses from remote geographic areas can enter and spread rapidly in this region. This review considers the potential for this phenomenon to impact on human health in Europe, by examining evidence of the role of Culicoides biting midges in the zoonotic transmission and person-to-person spread of arboviruses worldwide. To date, the only arbovirus identified as being primarily transmitted by Culicoides to and between humans is Oropouche virus (OROV). This member of the genus Orthobunyavirus causes major epidemics of febrile illness in human populations of South and Central America and the Caribbean. We examine factors promoting sustained outbreaks of OROV in Brazil from an entomological perspective and assess aspects of the epidemiology of this arbovirus that are currently poorly understood, but may influence the risk of incursion into Europe. We then review the secondary and rarely reported role of Culicoides in the transmission of high-profile zoonotic infections, while critically reviewing evidence of this phenomenon in endemic transmission and place this in context with the presence of other potential vector groups in Europe. Scenarios for the incursions of Culicoides-borne human-to-human transmitted and zoonotic arboviruses are then discussed, along with control measures that could be employed to reduce their impact. These measures are placed in the context of legislative measures used during current and ongoing outbreaks of Culicoides-borne arboviruses in Europe, involving both veterinary and public health sectors.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic midge Parochlus steinenii (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghee; Kim, Hanna; Shin, Seung Chul

    2016-09-01

    Parochlus steinenii is a winged midge found in the Antarctic Peninsula and its offshore islands. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. steinenii, which is comprised of 16 803 nucleotides and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and the large (rrnL) and small (rrnS) rRNA genes. Its total A + T content is 72.5%. The PCG arrangement of P. steinenii is identical to that of the ancestral Diptera ground pattern. This is the first report on the mitogenome sequence of an Antarctic midge, and provides insights into the evolution of dipterans in Antarctica. PMID:26642812

  1. Abundance of biting midge species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, Culicoides spp.) on cattle farms in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Kwon, Mee-Soon; Kim, Toh-Kyung; Lee, Tae-Uk

    2013-01-01

    Culicoides biting midges were collected on three cattle farms weekly using light traps overnight from May to October between 2010 and 2011 in the southern part of Korea. The seasonal and geographical abundance of Culicodes spp. were measured. A total of 16,538 biting midges were collected from 2010 to 2011, including seven species of Culicoides, four of which represented 98.42% of the collected specimens. These four species were Culicodes (C.) punctatus (n = 14,413), C. arakawae (n = 1,120), C. oxystoma (n = 427), and C. maculatus (n = 318). C. punctatus was the predominant species (87.15%). PMID:23388441

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic midge Parochlus steinenii (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghee; Kim, Hanna; Shin, Seung Chul

    2016-09-01

    Parochlus steinenii is a winged midge found in the Antarctic Peninsula and its offshore islands. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. steinenii, which is comprised of 16 803 nucleotides and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and the large (rrnL) and small (rrnS) rRNA genes. Its total A + T content is 72.5%. The PCG arrangement of P. steinenii is identical to that of the ancestral Diptera ground pattern. This is the first report on the mitogenome sequence of an Antarctic midge, and provides insights into the evolution of dipterans in Antarctica.

  3. Testing Optimal Foraging Theory Using Bird Predation on Goldenrod Galls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahnke, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    All animals must make choices regarding what foods to eat, where to eat, and how much time to spend feeding. Optimal foraging theory explains these behaviors in terms of costs and benefits. This laboratory exercise focuses on optimal foraging theory by investigating the winter feeding behavior of birds on the goldenrod gall fly by comparing…

  4. In vitro comparison of different gall stone dissolution solvents.

    PubMed

    Vergunst, H; Terpstra, O T; Nijs, H G; Steen, G

    1991-02-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) of gall bladder stones leaves residual fragments that need to be dissolved by chemical solvents. In this study we compared the in vitro dissolving capacity of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), mono-octanoin, limonene, and limonene/mono-octanoin (70%/30%). From nine sets of five human gall stones obtained at cholecystectomy, four stones were used for dissolution and the fifth was used for chemical analysis of cholesterol, calcium, and bilirubin contents. Eight sets were cholesterol stones with a mean (SD) cholesterol content of 89.9 (5.6)%. These stones dissolved completely in either solvent, often leaving sand-like debris, with the exception of one stone. MTBE dissolved cholesterol gall stones 100 times faster than mono-octanoin and 10 times faster than limonene or the limonene/mono-octanoin mixture (p less than 0.001). The combination of limonene and mono-octanoin was as effective as limonene alone. Of the four solvents, MTBE is the best one to evaluate for dissolution of residual fragments after ESWL treatment of gall bladder stones.

  5. Evaluaton of Wild Juglans Species for Crown Gall Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown Gall disease of walnut is caused by the ubiquitous soil-borne bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which is able to transfer a specific piece of its own DNA into the genome of the plant host cell. The result of this genetic transformation is the autonomous undifferentiated massive growth of ...

  6. Evaluation of wild Juglans species for crown gall resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Paradox, the most widely used rootstock in CA walnut production, is highly susceptible to the causal agent of crown gall (CG) Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The bacterial pathogen induces the formation of large tumors around the crown of the tree resulting in a reduction in both vigor and yield. If left...

  7. Science Galls Me: What Is a Niche Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Kristy Lynn; Lankford, Deanna Marie

    2009-01-01

    The authors have developed a lesson to investigate basic principles of ecology, more specifically niche partitioning, while using a jigsaw activity that explores galling insects' interactions with goldenrods. Not only does this lesson capture secondary students' interest and keeps them engaged in hands-on activities, the content addresses two…

  8. Laparoscopic management of a two staged gall bladder torsion.

    PubMed

    Sunder, Yadav Kamal; Akhilesh, Sali Priyanka; Raman, Garg; Deborshi, Sharma; Shantilal, Mehta Hitesh

    2015-12-27

    Gall bladder torsion (GBT) is a relatively uncommon entity and rarely diagnosed preoperatively. A constant factor in all occurrences of GBT is a freely mobile gall bladder due to congenital or acquired anomalies. GBT is commonly observed in elderly white females. We report a 77-year-old, Caucasian lady who was originally diagnosed as gall bladder perforation but was eventually found with a two staged torsion of the gall bladder with twisting of the Riedel's lobe (part of tongue like projection of liver segment 4A). This together, has not been reported in literature, to the best of our knowledge. We performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy and she had an uneventful post-operative period. GBT may create a diagnostic dilemma in the context of acute cholecystitis. Timely diagnosis and intervention is necessary, with extra care while operating as the anatomy is generally distorted. The fundus first approach can be useful due to altered anatomy in the region of Calot's triangle. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has the benefit of early recovery. PMID:26730287

  9. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Appendix B

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This report consists of Volume 2, which consists of the GALL literature review tables for the NUMARC Industry Reports reviewed for the report.

  10. Franz Joseph Gall and music: the faculty and the bump.

    PubMed

    Eling, Paul; Finger, Stanley; Whitaker, Harry

    2015-01-01

    The traditional story maintains that Franz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) scientific program began with his observations of schoolmates with bulging eyes and good verbal memories. But his search to understand human nature, in particular individual differences in capacities, passions, and tendencies, can also be traced to other important observations, one being of a young girl with an exceptional talent for music. Rejecting contemporary notions of cognition, Gall concluded that behavior results from the interaction of a limited set of basic faculties, each with its own processes for perception and memory, each with its own territory in both cerebral or cerebellar cortices. Gall identified 27 faculties, one being the sense of tone relations or music. The description of the latter is identical in both his Anatomie et Physiologie and Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau et sur Celles de Chacune de ses Parties, where he provided positive and negative evidences and discussed findings from humans and lower animals, for the faculty. The localization of the cortical faculty for talented musicians, he explained, is demonstrated by a "bump" on each side of the skull just above the angle of the eye; hence, the lower forehead of musicians is broader or squarer than in other individuals. Additionally, differences between singing and nonsinging birds also correlate with cranial features. Gall even brought age, racial, and national differences into the picture. What he wrote about music reveals much about his science and creative thinking. PMID:25684283

  11. Franz Joseph Gall and music: the faculty and the bump.

    PubMed

    Eling, Paul; Finger, Stanley; Whitaker, Harry

    2015-01-01

    The traditional story maintains that Franz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) scientific program began with his observations of schoolmates with bulging eyes and good verbal memories. But his search to understand human nature, in particular individual differences in capacities, passions, and tendencies, can also be traced to other important observations, one being of a young girl with an exceptional talent for music. Rejecting contemporary notions of cognition, Gall concluded that behavior results from the interaction of a limited set of basic faculties, each with its own processes for perception and memory, each with its own territory in both cerebral or cerebellar cortices. Gall identified 27 faculties, one being the sense of tone relations or music. The description of the latter is identical in both his Anatomie et Physiologie and Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau et sur Celles de Chacune de ses Parties, where he provided positive and negative evidences and discussed findings from humans and lower animals, for the faculty. The localization of the cortical faculty for talented musicians, he explained, is demonstrated by a "bump" on each side of the skull just above the angle of the eye; hence, the lower forehead of musicians is broader or squarer than in other individuals. Additionally, differences between singing and nonsinging birds also correlate with cranial features. Gall even brought age, racial, and national differences into the picture. What he wrote about music reveals much about his science and creative thinking.

  12. Description of a new species of Aphanogmus Thomson (Hymenoptera, Ceraphronidae) that parasitizes acarivorous gall midges of Feltiella (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Kazunori; Ganaha-Kikumura, Tomoko; Ohno, Suguru; Yukawa, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In 2008–2009, we reared small ceraphronids (about 0.5 mm in body length) from cocoons that had been made possibly by two acarivorous species, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) and Feltiella acarivora (Zehntner) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Okinawa, Japan. Detailed morphological observation revealed that the ceraphronid was a new species of Aphanogmus Thomson (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae). We describe it as Aphanogmus flavigastris Matsuo, sp. n. Identification of the Aphanogmus species is essential to evaluate its possibly negative effects on the predatory activity of Feltiella species that have been used as control agents against tetranychid mites. PMID:27408578

  13. Description of a new species of Aphanogmus Thomson (Hymenoptera, Ceraphronidae) that parasitizes acarivorous gall midges of Feltiella (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kazunori; Ganaha-Kikumura, Tomoko; Ohno, Suguru; Yukawa, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    In 2008-2009, we reared small ceraphronids (about 0.5 mm in body length) from cocoons that had been made possibly by two acarivorous species, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) and Feltiella acarivora (Zehntner) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Okinawa, Japan. Detailed morphological observation revealed that the ceraphronid was a new species of Aphanogmus Thomson (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae). We describe it as Aphanogmus flavigastris Matsuo, sp. n. Identification of the Aphanogmus species is essential to evaluate its possibly negative effects on the predatory activity of Feltiella species that have been used as control agents against tetranychid mites. PMID:27408578

  14. The spruce shoot gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae): Piceacecis, a new genus for a non-native pest of Norway spruce from Europe and its native American relative

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dasineura abietiperda (Henschel), a European pest of Norway spruce, Picea abies (Pinaceae), is reported as new to North America. Damage symptoms are illustrated and an outline of its biology is given. A new genus, Piceacecis Gagné is described to include it and its North American relative, Phytophag...

  15. A new species of gall midge associated with Diplopterys pubipetala (A.Juss.) Anderson and Davis (Malpighiaceae) from Altinópolis, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Urso-Guimarães, M V; Carmo-Neto, A M

    2015-01-01

    Clinodiplosis bellum sp. nov. associated with Diplopterys pubipetala (A.Juss.) Anderson and Davis (Malpighiaceae) from Brazil are described. This is the first species of Clinodiplosis described to State of São Paulo and the first formal description of Diplopterys pubipetala (Malpighiaceae) as host plant of Cecidomyiidae species. Description and illustration of the Clinodiplosis bellum sp. nov. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) are given.

  16. Evaluation of corn plant as potential banker plant for supporting predatory gall Midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in greenhouse vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most important and highly polyphagous pests of vegetables and other crops worldwide. In this study, several experiments were conducted under laboratory and greenhouse conditions to evaluate whether corn plant ...

  17. Diversity of insect galls associated with coastal shrub vegetation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Fernandes, Sheila P; Ascendino, Sharlene; Maia, Valéria C; Couri, Márcia S

    2016-09-01

    Surveys in the coastal sandy plains (restingas) of Rio de Janeiro have shown a great richness of galls. We investigated the galling insects in two preserved restingas areas of Rio de Janeiro state: Parque Estadual da Costa do Sol and Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Fazenda Caruara. The collections were done each two months, from June 2011 to May 2012. We investigated 38 points during 45 minutes each per collection. The galls were taken to the laboratory for rearing the insects. A total number of 151 insect galls were found in 82 plant species distributed into 34 botanic families. Most of the galls occurred on leaves and the plant families with the highest richness of galls were Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. All the six insect orders with galling species were found in this survey, where Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) was the main galler group. Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera were found as parasitoids and inquilines in 29 galls. The richness of galls in the surveyed areas reveals the importance of restinga for the composition and diversity of gall-inducing insect fauna.

  18. Diversity of insect galls associated with coastal shrub vegetation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Fernandes, Sheila P; Ascendino, Sharlene; Maia, Valéria C; Couri, Márcia S

    2016-09-01

    Surveys in the coastal sandy plains (restingas) of Rio de Janeiro have shown a great richness of galls. We investigated the galling insects in two preserved restingas areas of Rio de Janeiro state: Parque Estadual da Costa do Sol and Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Fazenda Caruara. The collections were done each two months, from June 2011 to May 2012. We investigated 38 points during 45 minutes each per collection. The galls were taken to the laboratory for rearing the insects. A total number of 151 insect galls were found in 82 plant species distributed into 34 botanic families. Most of the galls occurred on leaves and the plant families with the highest richness of galls were Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. All the six insect orders with galling species were found in this survey, where Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) was the main galler group. Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera were found as parasitoids and inquilines in 29 galls. The richness of galls in the surveyed areas reveals the importance of restinga for the composition and diversity of gall-inducing insect fauna. PMID:27627066

  19. Papular Dermatitis Induced in Guinea Pig by Biting Midge Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidaie)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and h...

  20. An Improved, high-throughput method for detection of bluetongue virus RNA in Culicodes midges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new rapid (less than 6 h from insect-to-results) high-throughput assay is reported that is sensitive and specific for detecting BTV RNA in Culicoides biting midges. Homogenization and extraction of nucleic acids from individual Culicoides specimens were performed in a 96-well plate format using sp...

  1. Culicoides Midge Bites Modulate the Host Response and Impact on Bluetongue Virus Infection in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Pages, Nonito; Talavera, Sandra; Viarouge, Cyril; Lorca-Oro, Cristina; Jouneau, Luc; Charley, Bernard; Zientara, Stéphan; Bensaid, Albert; Solanes, David; Pujols, Joan; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Many haematophagous insects produce factors that help their blood meal and coincidently favor pathogen transmission. However nothing is known about the ability of Culicoides midges to interfere with the infectivity of the viruses they transmit. Among these, Bluetongue Virus (BTV) induces a hemorrhagic fever- type disease and its recent emergence in Europe had a major economical impact. We observed that needle inoculation of BTV8 in the site of uninfected C. nubeculosus feeding reduced viraemia and clinical disease intensity compared to plain needle inoculation. The sheep that developed the highest local inflammatory reaction had the lowest viral load, suggesting that the inflammatory response to midge bites may participate in the individual sensitivity to BTV viraemia development. Conversely compared to needle inoculation, inoculation of BTV8 by infected C. nubeculosus bites promoted viraemia and clinical symptom expression, in association with delayed IFN- induced gene expression and retarded neutralizing antibody responses. The effects of uninfected and infected midge bites on BTV viraemia and on the host response indicate that BTV transmission by infected midges is the most reliable experimental method to study the physio-pathological events relevant to a natural infection and to pertinent vaccine evaluation in the target species. It also leads the way to identify the promoting viral infectivity factors of infected Culicoides in order to possibly develop new control strategies against BTV and other Culicoides transmitted viruses. PMID:24421899

  2. Culicoides midge bites modulate the host response and impact on bluetongue virus infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Pages, Nonito; Bréard, Emmanuel; Urien, Céline; Talavera, Sandra; Viarouge, Cyril; Lorca-Oro, Cristina; Jouneau, Luc; Charley, Bernard; Zientara, Stéphan; Bensaid, Albert; Solanes, David; Pujols, Joan; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Many haematophagous insects produce factors that help their blood meal and coincidently favor pathogen transmission. However nothing is known about the ability of Culicoides midges to interfere with the infectivity of the viruses they transmit. Among these, Bluetongue Virus (BTV) induces a hemorrhagic fever- type disease and its recent emergence in Europe had a major economical impact. We observed that needle inoculation of BTV8 in the site of uninfected C. nubeculosus feeding reduced viraemia and clinical disease intensity compared to plain needle inoculation. The sheep that developed the highest local inflammatory reaction had the lowest viral load, suggesting that the inflammatory response to midge bites may participate in the individual sensitivity to BTV viraemia development. Conversely compared to needle inoculation, inoculation of BTV8 by infected C. nubeculosus bites promoted viraemia and clinical symptom expression, in association with delayed IFN- induced gene expression and retarded neutralizing antibody responses. The effects of uninfected and infected midge bites on BTV viraemia and on the host response indicate that BTV transmission by infected midges is the most reliable experimental method to study the physio-pathological events relevant to a natural infection and to pertinent vaccine evaluation in the target species. It also leads the way to identify the promoting viral infectivity factors of infected Culicoides in order to possibly develop new control strategies against BTV and other Culicoides transmitted viruses.

  3. Management of North American Culicoides biting midges: Current knowledge and research needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of two important viruses infecting North American ruminants: bluetongue (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHDV). While these viruses have been identified for over 60 years, we still lack an adequate understanding of t...

  4. Understanding and exploiting olfaction for the surveillance and control of Culicoides biting midges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are found worldwide with the exception of only a few countries including New Zealand, Patagonia, the Hawaiian Isles and Antarctica. They are a nuisance pest to human beings, but transmit a number of diseases that mainly affect livestock. Like many haema...

  5. Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling compound involved in defenses against insects and pathogens, and in the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of structures (galls) on their host plants which house immature wasps and provide them with nu...

  6. Effect of Temperature on Galling Behavior of SS 316, 316 L and 416 Under Self-Mated Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harsha, A. P.; Limaye, P. K.; Tyagi, Rajnesh; Gupta, Ankit

    2016-10-01

    Galling behavior of three different stainless steels (SS 316, 316 L and 416) was evaluated at room temperature and 300 °C under a self-mated condition. An indigenously fabricated galling tester was used to evaluate the galling performance of mated materials as per ASTM G196-08 standard. The variation in frictional torque was recorded online during the test to assess the onset of galling. The galling50 (G50) stress value was used to compare the galling resistance of a combination of materials, and the results indicate a significant influence of temperature on the galling resistance of the materials tested. This has been attributed to the decrease in hardness and yield strength at elevated temperature which results in softening of the steel and limits its ability to resist severe deformation. Scanning electron micrographs of the galled surface reflected a severe plastic deformation in sliding direction, and a typical adhesive wear mechanism is prevalent during the galling process.

  7. Effects of nutrient treatment and previous stem galling on biomass allocation in tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.S.; Abrahamson, W.G.; McCrea, K.D.

    1987-07-01

    Ramets from six goldenrod clones of known resistance to the gallmaker (Eurosta solidaginis) were grown with and without nutrient treatment. Mated female Eurosta oviposited in ramets which were grown through flowering and harvested to determine biomass allocation. Nutrient treatment increased biomass but did not affect resistance. Gall mass was increased by nutrient treatment and was correlated with larval mass. Additional ramets from two of the susceptible clones were grown from rhizomes of ramets galled and ungalled the previous year. Galls reduced ramet growth in both years. A gall in the previous year reduced total ramet biomass as well as biomass of all component organs in the current year but a gall in the current season had no effect. The detrimental effects of a gall are carried into the next growing season.

  8. Randomized-Control Screening Trials to Lower Gall Bladder Cancer Mortality in High Risk Populations.

    PubMed

    Krishnatreya, Manigreeva; Kataki, Amal Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Gall bladder cancer is generally fatal. The high morbidity and mortality due to gall bladder cancer exerts a significant impact on efforts towards cancer control in high risk populations of the World and a rationale program for control of gall bladder cancer mortality has remained as an unmet need in these populations. Currently there are no effective strategies for controlling gall bladder cancer mortality. This mini review is to highlight the need and feasibility for secondary prevention of gall bladder cancer by screening in high risk populations. A way forward is to assess the role of secondary prevention of gall bladder cancers by conducting randomized- controlled screening trials in high risk populations. PMID:27221939

  9. Manipulation of the phenolic chemistry of willows by gall-inducing sawflies

    PubMed Central

    Nyman, Tommi; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2000-01-01

    The ability to induce galls on plants has evolved independently in many insect orders, but the adaptive significance and evolutionary consequences of gall induction are still largely unknown. We studied these questions by analyzing the concentrations of various plant defense compounds in willow leaves and sawfly galls. We found that the galls are probably nutritionally beneficial for the sawfly larvae, because the concentrations of most defensive phenolics are substantially lower in gall interiors than in leaves. More importantly, changes in chemistry occur in a similar coordinated pattern in all studied willow species, which suggests that the insects control the phenolic biosynthesis in their hosts. The resulting convergence of the chemical properties of the galls both within and between host species indicates that the role of plant chemistry in the evolution of host shifts may be fundamentally less significant in gallers than in other phytophagous insects. PMID:11078506

  10. Transformation of rice mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Hiei, Y; Komari, T; Kubo, T

    1997-09-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been routinely utilized in gene transfer to dicotyledonous plants, but monocotyledonous plants including important cereals were thought to be recalcitrant to this technology as they were outside the host range of crown gall. Various challenges to infect monocotyledons including rice with Agrobacterium had been made in many laboratories, but the results were not conclusive until recently. Efficient transformation protocols mediated by Agrobacterium were reported for rice in 1994 and 1996. A key point in the protocols was the fact that tissues consisting of actively dividing, embryonic cells, such as immature embryos and calli induced from scutella, were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium in the presence of acetosyringonc, which is a potent inducer of the virulence genes. It is now clear that Agrobacterium is capable of transferring DNA to monocotyledons if tissues containing 'competent' cells are infected. The studies of transformation of rice suggested that numerous factors including genotype of plants, types and ages of tissues inoculated, kind of vectors, strains of Agrobacterium, selection marker genes and selective agents, and various conditions of tissue culture, are of critical importance. Advantages of the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in rice, like on dicotyledons, include the transfer of pieces of DNA with defined ends with minimal rearrangements, the transfer of relatively large segments of DNA, the integration of small numbers of copies of genes into plant chromosomes, and high quality and fertility of transgenic plants. Delivery of foreign DNA to rice plants via A. tumefaciens is a routine technique in a growing number of laboratories. This technique will allow the genetic improvement of diverse varieties of rice, as well as studies of many aspects of the molecular biology of rice. PMID:9291974

  11. Antioxidant activities of ficus glomerata (moraceae) leaf gall extracts

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Shanthi; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2015-01-01

    An excess production or decreased scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders such as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Hence the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment of such diseases linked to free radicals. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Ficus glomerata (F. glomerata), which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The presences of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 370 ± 3.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g dw) and 155 ± 3.2 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg QUE/g dw), respectively. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the aqueous extract. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals

  12. DNA methylation mediated control of gene expression is critical for development of crown gall tumors.

    PubMed

    Gohlke, Jochen; Scholz, Claus-Juergen; Kneitz, Susanne; Weber, Dana; Fuchs, Joerg; Hedrich, Rainer; Deeken, Rosalia

    2013-01-01

    Crown gall tumors develop after integration of the T-DNA of virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains into the plant genome. Expression of the T-DNA-encoded oncogenes triggers proliferation and differentiation of transformed plant cells. Crown gall development is known to be accompanied by global changes in transcription, metabolite levels, and physiological processes. High levels of abscisic acid (ABA) in crown galls regulate expression of drought stress responsive genes and mediate drought stress acclimation, which is essential for wild-type-like tumor growth. An impact of epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation on crown gall development has been suggested; however, it has not yet been investigated comprehensively. In this study, the methylation pattern of Arabidopsis thaliana crown galls was analyzed on a genome-wide scale as well as at the single gene level. Bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that the oncogenes Ipt, IaaH, and IaaM were unmethylated in crown galls. Nevertheless, the oncogenes were susceptible to siRNA-mediated methylation, which inhibited their expression and subsequently crown gall growth. Genome arrays, hybridized with methylated DNA obtained by immunoprecipitation, revealed a globally hypermethylated crown gall genome, while promoters were rather hypomethylated. Mutants with reduced non-CG methylation developed larger tumors than the wild-type controls, indicating that hypermethylation inhibits plant tumor growth. The differential methylation pattern of crown galls and the stem tissue from which they originate correlated with transcriptional changes. Genes known to be transcriptionally inhibited by ABA and methylated in crown galls became promoter methylated upon treatment of A. thaliana with ABA. This suggests that the high ABA levels in crown galls may mediate DNA methylation and regulate expression of genes involved in drought stress protection. In summary, our studies provide evidence that epigenetic processes regulate gene

  13. The Agrobacterium rhizogenes GALLS gene encodes two secreted proteins required for genetic transformation of plants.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Larry D; Lee, Lan-Ying; McNett, Henry; Gelvin, Stanton B; Ream, Walt

    2009-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes are related pathogens that cause crown gall and hairy root diseases, which result from integration and expression of bacterial genes in the plant genome. Single-stranded DNA (T strands) and virulence proteins are translocated into plant cells by a type IV secretion system. VirD2 nicks a specific DNA sequence, attaches to the 5' end, and pilots the DNA into plant cells. A. tumefaciens translocates single-stranded DNA-binding protein VirE2 into plant cells where it likely binds T strands and may aid in targeting them into the nucleus. Although some A. rhizogenes strains lack VirE2, they transfer T strands efficiently due to the GALLS gene, which complements an A. tumefaciens virE2 mutant for tumor formation. Unlike VirE2, full-length GALLS (GALLS-FL) contains ATP-binding and helicase motifs similar to those in TraA, a strand transferase involved in conjugation. GALLS-FL and VirE2 contain nuclear localization signals (NLS) and secretion signals. Mutations in any of these domains abolish the ability of the GALLS gene to substitute for virE2. Here, we show that the GALLS gene encodes two proteins from one open reading frame: GALLS-FL and a protein comprised of the C-terminal domain, which initiates at an internal in-frame start codon. On some hosts, both GALLS proteins were required to substitute for VirE2. GALLS-FL tagged with yellow fluorescent protein localized to the nucleus of tobacco cells in an NLS-dependent manner. In plant cells, the GALLS proteins interacted with themselves, VirD2, and each other. VirD2 interacted with GALLS-FL and localized inside the nucleus, where its predicted helicase activity may pull T strands into the nucleus. PMID:18952790

  14. Laboratory galling tests of several commercial cobalt-free weld hardfacing alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cockeram, B.V.; Buck, R.F.; Wilson, W.L.

    1997-04-01

    Since the mechanical properties of most wear materials are generally insufficient for structural applications, hardfacing alloys have been traditionally weld deposited to provide a wear resistance surface for a base material. An important attribute of a hardfacing alloy that is subjected to high load sliding contact is the resistance to adhesive (galling) damage. Although Co-base hardfacing alloys generally possess excellent galling wear resistance, there is interest in developing cobalt-free replacement hardfacings to reduce radiation exposure costs. A laboratory galling test has been developed for weld hardfacing deposits that is a modification of the standardized ASTM G98-91 galling test procedure. The procedure for testing a weld hardfacing deposit on a softer base metal using a button-on-block configuration is described. The contact stresses for the initiation of adhesive galling damage were measured to rank the galling resistance of several commercial Fe-base, Ni-base and Co-base hardfacing alloys. Although the galling resistance of the Fe-base alloys was generally superior to the Ni-base alloys, neither system approached the excellent galling resistance of the Co-base alloys. Microstructure examinations were used to understand the micro-mechanisms for the initiation and propagation of galling damage. A physical model for the initiation and propagation of adhesive wear is used to explain the lower galling resistance for the Ni-base hardfacings and to understand the influence of composition on the galling resistance of Ni-base alloys. The composition of some Ni base hardfacings was modified in a controlled manner to quantify the influence of specific elements on the galling resistance.

  15. New species of Tetradiplosis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) inducing galls on Prosopis caldenia (Fabaceae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Juan José; Corró-molas, Barbara; Alfonso, Graciela L

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Tetradiplosis inducing galls on Prosopis caldenia are described from Argentina: Tetradiplosis panghitruz Martínez n. sp. and Tetradiplosis rayen Martínez n. sp. Tetradiplosispanghitruz induces multilocular galls on vegetative stems, whereas T. rayen induces unilocular galls containing multiple larvae on the rachis of the developing inflorescences. The adult male, female, pupa and larva are described and illustrated for both species. A key to the known species of the genus is provided.

  16. [Studies on the massive flights of chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) as nuisance insects and plans for their control in the Lake Suwa area, central Japan. 2. Quantitative evaluations of the nuisance of chironomid midges].

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, K

    1991-06-01

    In order to make clear the present "nuisance" caused by chironomid midges around a eutrophic lake, a questionnaire survey of 249 leaders of the Hygiene Self-governing Association of the cities of Suwa and Okaya and the town of Shimosuwa near Lake Suwa was conducted. The results are as follows: 1. More than 90% of the respondents had specific knowledge about the chironomid midge, but 40% of them didn't know about its role as a purifier in the lake. 2. More than 10% of respondents answered that they were "can not able to stand any more" massive flights of chironomid midges, and about half of them lived within 500 m of the lake shore. The damages "nuisances" were "running laundry or defacing walls (67.1%) and "contamination of food (15.3%)", suggesting that chironomid midges influenced the daily life of the residents. 3. The selected causes of massive flights of chironomid midges were "pollution in Lake Suwa" and "decreases in the numbers of birds and dragonflies" as well as others. This means that the deterioration of the environmental situation around the lake may cause the "nuisance" of chironomid midges. 4. The respondents were more strongly interested in counterplans for the control of the chironomid midges made by administrative authorities than in plans made by each family. 5. "The distance from the lake shore" was the major factor contributing to the impression of chironomid damage. "The occupation of the respondent" was the second important factor. To redirect the insect flights away from the residential area, and to decrease the number of adult midges coming from the lake, are thought to be the most important measures for the resolution of this problem. PMID:1890774

  17. Plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and crown gall development.

    PubMed

    Gohlke, Jochen; Deeken, Rosalia

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease on various plant species by introducing its T-DNA into the genome. Therefore, Agrobacterium has been extensively studied both as a pathogen and an important biotechnological tool. The infection process involves the transfer of T-DNA and virulence proteins into the plant cell. At that time the gene expression patterns of host plants differ depending on the Agrobacterium strain, plant species and cell-type used. Later on, integration of the T-DNA into the plant host genome, expression of the encoded oncogenes, and increase in phytohormone levels induce a fundamental reprogramming of the transformed cells. This results in their proliferation and finally formation of plant tumors. The process of reprogramming is accompanied by altered gene expression, morphology and metabolism. In addition to changes in the transcriptome and metabolome, further genome-wide ("omic") approaches have recently deepened our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of crown gall tumor formation. This review summarizes the current knowledge about plant responses in the course of tumor development. Special emphasis is placed on the connection between epigenetic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, and morphological changes in the developing tumor. These changes not only result in abnormally proliferating host cells with a heterotrophic and transport-dependent metabolism, but also cause differentiation and serve as mechanisms to balance pathogen defense and adapt to abiotic stress conditions, thereby allowing the coexistence of the crown gall and host plant. PMID:24795740

  18. Retroperitoneal abscess with retained gall-stones as a late complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Mateusz; Nowicki, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the golden standard, considering treatment of cholelithiasis. During the laparoscopic procedure one may often observe damage to the gall-bladder wall, as well as presence of gall-stones in the peritoneal cavity, as compared to classical surgery. These gall-stones may be associated with the occurrence of various complications following surgery. The study presented a rare case of a retroperitoneal abscess, as a consequence of retained gall-stones, in a female patient who was subject to laparoscopic cholecystectomy two years earlier. PMID:27096773

  19. Compact genome of the Antarctic midge is likely an adaptation to an extreme environment

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Joanna L.; Peyton, Justin T.; Fiston-Lavier, Anna-Sophie; Teets, Nicholas M.; Yee, Muh-Ching; Johnston, J. Spencer; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Lee, Richard E.; Denlinger, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The midge, Belgica antarctica, is the only insect endemic to Antarctica, and thus it offers a powerful model for probing responses to extreme temperatures, freeze tolerance, dehydration, osmotic stress, ultraviolet radiation and other forms of environmental stress. Here we present the first genome assembly of an extremophile, the first dipteran in the family Chironomidae, and the first Antarctic eukaryote to be sequenced. At 99 megabases, B. antarctica has the smallest insect genome sequenced thus far. Although it has a similar number of genes as other Diptera, the midge genome has very low repeat density and a reduction in intron length. Environmental extremes appear to constrain genome architecture, not gene content. The few transposable elements present are mainly ancient, inactive retroelements. An abundance of genes associated with development, regulation of metabolism and responses to external stimuli may reflect adaptations for surviving in this harsh environment. PMID:25118180

  20. A fossil biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from early Eocene Indian amber with a complex pheromone evaporator

    PubMed Central

    Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Rühr, Peter T.; Singh, Hukam; Hammel, Jörg U.; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Rust, Jes

    2016-01-01

    The life-like fidelity of organisms captured in amber is unique among all kinds of fossilization and represents an invaluable source for different fields of palaeontological and biological research. One of the most challenging aspects in amber research is the study of traits related to behaviour. Here, indirect evidence for pheromone-mediated mating behaviour is recorded from a biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) in 54 million-year-old Indian amber. Camptopterohelea odora n. sp. exhibits a complex, pocket shaped structure on the wings, which resembles the wing folds of certain moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and scent organs that are only known from butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) so far. Our studies suggests that pheromone releasing structures on the wings have evolved independently in biting midges and might be much more widespread in fossil as well as modern insects than known so far. PMID:27698490

  1. Evidence incriminating midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) as potential vectors of Leishmania in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dougall, Annette M; Alexander, Bruce; Holt, Deborah C; Harris, Tegan; Sultan, Amal H; Bates, Paul A; Rose, Karrie; Walton, Shelley F

    2011-04-01

    The first autochthonous Leishmania infection in Australia was reported by Rose et al. (2004) and the parasite was characterised as a unique species. The host was the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) but the transmitting vector was unknown. To incriminate the biological vector, insect trapping by a variety of methods was undertaken at two field sites of known Leishmania transmission. Collected sand flies were identified to species level and were screened for Leishmania DNA using a semi-quantitative real-time PCR. Collections revealed four species of sand fly, with a predominance of the reptile biter Sergentomyia queenslandi (Hill). However, no Leishmania-positive flies were detected. Therefore, alternative vectors were investigated for infection, giving startling results. Screening revealed that an undescribed species of day-feeding midge, subgenus Forcipomyia (Lasiohelea) Kieffer, had a prevalence of up to 15% for Leishmania DNA, with high parasitemia in some individuals. Manual gut dissections confirmed the presence of promastigotes and in some midges material similar to promastigote secretory gel, including parasites with metacyclic-like morphology. Parasites were cultured from infected midges and sequence analysis of the Leishmania RNA polymerase subunit II gene confirmed infections were identical to the original isolated Leishmania sp. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the closest known species to be Leishmania enriettii, with this and the Australian species confirmed as members of Leishmania sensu stricto. Collectively the results strongly suggest that the day-feeding midge (F. (Lasiohelea) sp. 1) is a potential biological vector of Leishmania in northern Australia, which is to our knowledge the first evidence of a vector other than a phlebotomine sand fly anywhere in the world. These findings have considerable implications in the understanding of the Leishmania life cycle worldwide.

  2. Comparison of different light sources for trapping Culicoides biting midges, mosquitoes and other dipterans.

    PubMed

    González, Mikel; Alarcón-Elbal, Pedro María; Valle-Mora, Javier; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2016-08-15

    The response of Culicoides biting midges, mosquitoes and other dipterans to different wavelengths was evaluated in a farm meadow in northern Spain. A total of 9449 specimens of 23 species of Culicoides, 5495 other ceratopogonids (non-biting midges), 602 culicids and 12428 other mixed dipterans were captured. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suction light traps fitted with five light emitting diodes (LEDs) (white, green, red, blue, ultraviolet) were run for 15 consecutive nights. Significantly more Culicoides were collected in those traps fitted with green, blue or ultraviolet (UV) lights than in red and white-baited LED traps for the most abundant species captured: C. punctatus (37.5%), C. cataneii (26.5%) and C. obsoletus/C. scoticus (20.4%). Similar results were obtained for non-Culicoides ceratopogonids, mosquitoes and other mixed dipterans. Wavelengths in green (570nm) resulted effective for targeting some Culicoides species, culicids and other midges. In a second trial, the effectiveness of 4-W white and UV tubes was compared to traps fitted with UV LED and a standard incandescent light bulb. More specimens of all taxa were collected with fluorescent black light (UV) traps than with the other light sources, except culicids, which were recovered in high numbers from fluorescent white light traps. PMID:27514882

  3. [Construction of PPENK-MIDGE-NLS gene vector and the expression in rat].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Xu, Xuemin; Peng, Xijuan; Jiang, Wei; Yao, Linong

    2015-02-01

    Increasing the production and secretion of endogenous opioid peptide by immune cell can significantly induce myocardial protective effects against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Gene therapy is promising to increase endogenous enkephalin (ENK). However, classical viral and plasmid vectors for gene delivery are hampered by immunogenicity, gene recombination, oncogene activation, the production of antibacterial antibody and changes in physiological gene expression. Minimalistic immunologically defined gene expression (MIDGE) can overcome all the deficients of viral and plasmid vectors. The exon of rat's preproenkephalin (PPENK) gene was amplified by PCR and the fragments were cloned into pEGFP-N1 plasmids. The recombined plasmids were digested with enzymes to obtain a linear vector contained promoter, preproenkephalin gene, RNA stable sequences and oligodesoxy nucleotides (ODNs) added to both ends of the gene vector to protect gene vector from exonuclease degradation. A nuclear localization sequence (NLS) was attached to an ODN to ensure the effective transport to the nucleus and transgene expression. Flow cytometry, laser confocal microscopy and Western blotting demonstrated that PPENK-MIDGE-NLS can transfect leukocyte of rat in vivo, increase the expression of proenkephalin (PENK) in tissue, and the transfection efficiency depends on gene vector's dosage. These results indicate that PPENK-MIDGE-NLS could be an innovative method to protect and treatment of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  4. Metatranscriptome Analysis of Fig Flowers Provides Insights into Potential Mechanisms for Mutualism Stability and Gall Induction

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, Ellen O.; Hackett, Jeremiah D.; Machado, Carlos A.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    A striking property of the mutualism between figs and their pollinating wasps is that wasps consistently oviposit in the inner flowers of the fig syconium, which develop into galls that house developing larvae. Wasps typically do not use the outer ring of flowers, which develop into seeds. To better understand differences between gall and seed flowers, we used a metatranscriptomic approach to analyze eukaryotic gene expression within fig flowers at the time of oviposition choice and early gall development. Consistent with the unbeatable seed hypothesis, we found significant differences in gene expression between gall- and seed flowers in receptive syconia prior to oviposition. In particular, transcripts assigned to flavonoids and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly up-regulated in gall flowers relative to seed flowers. In response to oviposition, gall flowers significantly up-regulated the expression of chalcone synthase, which previously has been connected to gall formation in other plants. We propose several genes encoding proteins with signal peptides or associations with venom of other Hymenoptera as candidate genes for gall initiation or growth. This study simultaneously evaluates the gene expression profile of both mutualistic partners in a plant-insect mutualism and provides insight into a possible stability mechanism in the ancient fig-fig wasp association. PMID:26090817

  5. Metatranscriptome Analysis of Fig Flowers Provides Insights into Potential Mechanisms for Mutualism Stability and Gall Induction.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Ellen O; Hackett, Jeremiah D; Machado, Carlos A; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    A striking property of the mutualism between figs and their pollinating wasps is that wasps consistently oviposit in the inner flowers of the fig syconium, which develop into galls that house developing larvae. Wasps typically do not use the outer ring of flowers, which develop into seeds. To better understand differences between gall and seed flowers, we used a metatranscriptomic approach to analyze eukaryotic gene expression within fig flowers at the time of oviposition choice and early gall development. Consistent with the unbeatable seed hypothesis, we found significant differences in gene expression between gall- and seed flowers in receptive syconia prior to oviposition. In particular, transcripts assigned to flavonoids and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly up-regulated in gall flowers relative to seed flowers. In response to oviposition, gall flowers significantly up-regulated the expression of chalcone synthase, which previously has been connected to gall formation in other plants. We propose several genes encoding proteins with signal peptides or associations with venom of other Hymenoptera as candidate genes for gall initiation or growth. This study simultaneously evaluates the gene expression profile of both mutualistic partners in a plant-insect mutualism and provides insight into a possible stability mechanism in the ancient fig-fig wasp association.

  6. Holopothrips molzi sp.n. (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae): natural history and interactions in Myrtaceae galls.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Mariana Flores; Mendonça, Milton De Souza Jr; Cavalleri, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    Holopothrips molzi sp. n. (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is described from southern Brazil inducing leaf galls on Myrcia guianensis (Myrtaceae). Field observations revealed that the numbers of this thrips were highly variable within galls, and two other insect species were recorded living in these galls: Myrciathrips variabilis Cavalleri et al. (Phlaeothripidae) and an eulophid wasp (Hymenoptera). We investigated here if morphological traits of leaf and gall and abundance of the invader thrips were correlated with the gall inducer's abundance. In order to determine the feeding habit and behaviour of M. variabilis and its interactions with the gall inducer we performed observations ad libitum and attack simulation tests on both thrips species to observe their response to possible invaders. Our results showed that leaf size is not related to H. molzi abundance, and gall size is relevant only when total numbers of both thrips species are considered. Myrciathrips variabilis was observed feeding on gall tissues, and no direct antagonistic interactions between the two thrips were recorded. The results of the behavioural tests simulating attacks were remarkably different in the two thrips species, indicating different strategies when threatened or disturbed. The interaction between the two thrips species is probably a case of inquilinism. PMID:27395120

  7. A native and an introduced parasitoid utilize an exotic gall-maker host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) is non-native to North America and induces formation of galls on petioles and leaves of all chestnut (Castanea spp., Fagales: Fagaceae). We investigated the interactions between the gall wasp D. kuriphilus, a native parasitoid, Ormyrus labotus (Hymenopt...

  8. Free amino Acid contents of stem and phylloxera gall tissue cultures of grape.

    PubMed

    Warick, R P; Hildebrandt, A C

    1966-04-01

    Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents. PMID:16656290

  9. 9 CFR 95.18 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like...), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.18 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow,...

  10. 9 CFR 95.18 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like...), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.18 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow,...

  11. 9 CFR 95.18 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like...), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.18 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow,...

  12. 9 CFR 95.18 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like...), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.18 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow,...

  13. 9 CFR 95.18 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like...), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.18 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow,...

  14. Reproductive division of labour coevolves with gall size in Australian thrips with soldiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, T. E.; Chapman, T. W.; Kranz, B. D.; Schwarz, M. P.

    2001-12-01

    An analysis of multiple species of Australian gall-inducing thrips with soldiers reveals a significant negative correlation between the size of gall produced and the reproductive division of labour. This correlation suggests that the evolution of smaller galls limited the available space and feeding sites for the offspring of female soldiers, and was a major factor that led to the evolution of an altruistic caste in the gall-inducers. We argue that high levels of inbreeding by singly mated foundresses and incestuous mating by her soldier offspring are key to this evolutionary relationship because they make the relatedness of a female soldier to her daughters and sisters approximately equal. Evidence that relatedness plays an important role is strengthened by the observation of outbred multiply mated foundresses and unbiased sex ratio of dispersers in Oncothrips waterhousei, and the inference that both gall volume and skew decreased along this lineage.

  15. Rare Presentation of Gall Bladder Tuberculosis in a Non Immuno-Compromised Patient.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pawan; Hazrah, Priya; Taneja, Anil; Ahuja, Arvind; Sharma, Deborshi

    2015-04-24

    The gall bladder is least common intra-abdominal organ to be involved by tuberculosis. It is either part of systemic miliary tuberculosis or abdominal tuberculosis. Isolated gall bladder tuberculosis is even rarer, can presents either as calculus or acalculus cholecystitis. Gall bladder tuberculosis presenting as a localized perforation with a sinus formation into anterior abdominal wall is unreported complication in a non immuno-compromised person. A 48-year old female presented with a gradually increasing swelling in right hypochondrium. Abdominal ultrasound showed superficial collection over right hypochondrium with intraperitoneal extension. Computed tomography showed localized gall bladder perforation with extension to the abdominal wall. Patient underwent emergency exploration and cholecystectomy with excision of sinus tract and drainage of abdominal wall abscess. Histopathological examination showed granulomatous cholecystitis suggestive of tuberculosis of gall bladder with extension into the sinus tract. She had an uneventful recovery and was treated with 6-month antitubercular therapy after surgery. PMID:26236458

  16. International trade in bear gall bladders: forensic source inference.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, E O; Shafer, J A; Hagey, L R

    1993-11-01

    Fresh and desiccated gall bladders of the Ursidae family (bears) obtained as criminal evidence were characterized by analysis of the principal biliary components, mainly ursodeoxycholyl-taurine, cholyl-taurine and chenodeoxycholyl-taurine using TLC and HPLC. This bile acids profile appears to be an Ursidae family characteristic. Results show that of the samples from Asia only 3% were from the Ursidae family and 18% were from "farmed bears." Samples seized in the U.S.A. and Canada showed that 22.6% and 85% respectively, were from Ursids. The remaining samples were consistent with bile from the domestic pig (Suidae). PMID:8263479

  17. Biliary peritonitis due to gall bladder perforation after percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Nikhil; Singh, Rana Pratap; Tiwary, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    A 19-year-old male patient underwent right percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for right renal 1.5 × 1.5 cm lower pole stone. The procedure was completed uneventfully with complete stone clearance. The patient developed peritonitis and shock 48 h after the procedure. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large amount of bile in the abdomen along with three small perforations in the gall bladder (GB) and one perforation in the caudate lobe of the liver. Retrograde cholecystectomy was performed but the patient did not recover and expired post-operatively. This case exemplifies the high mortality of GB perforation after PNL and the lack of early clinical signs. PMID:26166971

  18. Could the Extended Phenotype Extend to the Cellular and Subcellular Levels in Insect-Induced Galls?

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Renê Gonçalves da Silva; Pacheco, Priscilla; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Neo-ontogenesis of plant galls involves redifferentiation of host plant tissues to express new phenotypes, when new cell properties are established via structural-functional remodeling. Herein, Psidium cattleianum leaves and Nothotrioza cattleiani galls are analyzed by developmental anatomy, cytometry and immunocytochemistry of cell walls. We address hypothesis-driven questions concerning the organogenesis of globoid galls in the association of P. cattleianum-N. cattleianum, and P. myrtoides-N. myrtoidis. These double co-generic systems represent good models for comparing final gall shapes and cell lineages functionalities under the perspective of convergent plant-dependent or divergent insect-induced characteristics. Gall induction, and growth and development are similar in both galls, but homologous cell lineages exhibit divergent degrees of cell hypertrophy and directions of elongation. Median cortical cells in P. cattleianum galls hypertrophy the most, while in P. myrtoides galls there is a centrifugal gradient of cell hypertrophy. Cortical cells in P. cattleianum galls tend to anisotropy, while P. myrtoidis galls have isotropically hypertrophied cells. Immunocytochemistry evidences the chemical identity and functional traits of cell lineages: epidermal cells walls have homogalacturonans (HGAs) and galactans, which confer rigidity to sites of enhanced cell division; oil gland cell walls have arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) that help avoiding cell death; and parenchyma cell walls have HGAs, galactans and arabinans, which confer porosity. Variations in such chemical identities are related to specific sites of hypertrophy. Even though the double co-generic models have the same macroscopic phenotype, the globoid morphotype, current analyses indicate that the extended phenotype of N. cattleiani is substantiated by cellular and subcellular specificities. PMID:26053863

  19. Could the Extended Phenotype Extend to the Cellular and Subcellular Levels in Insect-Induced Galls?

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Renê Gonçalves da Silva; Pacheco, Priscilla; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Neo-ontogenesis of plant galls involves redifferentiation of host plant tissues to express new phenotypes, when new cell properties are established via structural-functional remodeling. Herein, Psidium cattleianum leaves and Nothotrioza cattleiani galls are analyzed by developmental anatomy, cytometry and immunocytochemistry of cell walls. We address hypothesis-driven questions concerning the organogenesis of globoid galls in the association of P. cattleianum - N. cattleianum, and P. myrtoides - N. myrtoidis. These double co-generic systems represent good models for comparing final gall shapes and cell lineages functionalities under the perspective of convergent plant-dependent or divergent insect-induced characteristics. Gall induction, and growth and development are similar in both galls, but homologous cell lineages exhibit divergent degrees of cell hypertrophy and directions of elongation. Median cortical cells in P. cattleianum galls hypertrophy the most, while in P. myrtoides galls there is a centrifugal gradient of cell hypertrophy. Cortical cells in P. cattleianum galls tend to anisotropy, while P. myrtoidis galls have isotropically hypertrophied cells. Immunocytochemistry evidences the chemical identity and functional traits of cell lineages: epidermal cells walls have homogalacturonans (HGAs) and galactans, which confer rigidity to sites of enhanced cell division; oil gland cell walls have arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) that help avoiding cell death; and parenchyma cell walls have HGAs, galactans and arabinans, which confer porosity. Variations in such chemical identities are related to specific sites of hypertrophy. Even though the double co-generic models have the same macroscopic phenotype, the globoid morphotype, current analyses indicate that the extended phenotype of N. cattleiani is substantiated by cellular and subcellular specificities. PMID:26053863

  20. Could the Extended Phenotype Extend to the Cellular and Subcellular Levels in Insect-Induced Galls?

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Renê Gonçalves da Silva; Pacheco, Priscilla; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Neo-ontogenesis of plant galls involves redifferentiation of host plant tissues to express new phenotypes, when new cell properties are established via structural-functional remodeling. Herein, Psidium cattleianum leaves and Nothotrioza cattleiani galls are analyzed by developmental anatomy, cytometry and immunocytochemistry of cell walls. We address hypothesis-driven questions concerning the organogenesis of globoid galls in the association of P. cattleianum-N. cattleianum, and P. myrtoides-N. myrtoidis. These double co-generic systems represent good models for comparing final gall shapes and cell lineages functionalities under the perspective of convergent plant-dependent or divergent insect-induced characteristics. Gall induction, and growth and development are similar in both galls, but homologous cell lineages exhibit divergent degrees of cell hypertrophy and directions of elongation. Median cortical cells in P. cattleianum galls hypertrophy the most, while in P. myrtoides galls there is a centrifugal gradient of cell hypertrophy. Cortical cells in P. cattleianum galls tend to anisotropy, while P. myrtoidis galls have isotropically hypertrophied cells. Immunocytochemistry evidences the chemical identity and functional traits of cell lineages: epidermal cells walls have homogalacturonans (HGAs) and galactans, which confer rigidity to sites of enhanced cell division; oil gland cell walls have arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) that help avoiding cell death; and parenchyma cell walls have HGAs, galactans and arabinans, which confer porosity. Variations in such chemical identities are related to specific sites of hypertrophy. Even though the double co-generic models have the same macroscopic phenotype, the globoid morphotype, current analyses indicate that the extended phenotype of N. cattleiani is substantiated by cellular and subcellular specificities.

  1. Gradients of metabolite accumulation and redifferentiation of nutritive cells associated with vascular tissues in galls induced by sucking insects

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Renê Gonçalves da Silva; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells respond to abiotic and biotic stimuli, which generate adaptive phenotypes in plant organs. In the case of plant galls, cell phenotypes are adaptive for the gall inducer and assume characteristics mainly linked to its protection and nutrition. Herein, the cytological development and histochemical profile of Nothotrioza cattleiani galls, a sucking insect, on the leaves of Psidium cattleianum are compared with those of other galls, especially N. myrtoidis galls, searching for conserved and divergent alterations in cell fates and cycles. Leaf cell fates are completely changed within galls, except for epidermal cells, but the comparison between Nothotrioza spp. galls shows conserved fates. Nevertheless, cytological development of N. cattleiani galls is different from the standby-redifferentiation of N. myrtoidis galls. Starch and lignins, and reducing sugars form centrifugal and centripetal gradients of accumulation, respectively. Proteins, total phenolics, terpenoids, proanthocyanidins and reactive oxygen species are detected in bidirectional gradients, i.e. weak or undetectable reaction in the median cortical cells that is gradually more intense in the cell layers towards the inner and outer surfaces of the gall. True nutritive cells associated with vascular tissues, together with the bidirectional gradients of metabolite accumulation, are herein reported for the first time in insect galls. The globoid galls of N. cattleiani, though macro-morphologically similar to the galls of N. myrtoidis, are distinct and unique among insect galls, as far as the cellular, subcellular and histochemical traits are concerned. Thus, the traits of the galls on P. cattleianum studied herein represent the extended phenotypes of their inducers. PMID:26209687

  2. Gradients of metabolite accumulation and redifferentiation of nutritive cells associated with vascular tissues in galls induced by sucking insects.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Renê Gonçalves da Silva; Isaias, Rosy Mary Dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells respond to abiotic and biotic stimuli, which generate adaptive phenotypes in plant organs. In the case of plant galls, cell phenotypes are adaptive for the gall inducer and assume characteristics mainly linked to its protection and nutrition. Herein, the cytological development and histochemical profile of Nothotrioza cattleiani galls, a sucking insect, on the leaves of Psidium cattleianum are compared with those of other galls, especially N. myrtoidis galls, searching for conserved and divergent alterations in cell fates and cycles. Leaf cell fates are completely changed within galls, except for epidermal cells, but the comparison between Nothotrioza spp. galls shows conserved fates. Nevertheless, cytological development of N. cattleiani galls is different from the standby-redifferentiation of N. myrtoidis galls. Starch and lignins, and reducing sugars form centrifugal and centripetal gradients of accumulation, respectively. Proteins, total phenolics, terpenoids, proanthocyanidins and reactive oxygen species are detected in bidirectional gradients, i.e. weak or undetectable reaction in the median cortical cells that is gradually more intense in the cell layers towards the inner and outer surfaces of the gall. True nutritive cells associated with vascular tissues, together with the bidirectional gradients of metabolite accumulation, are herein reported for the first time in insect galls. The globoid galls of N. cattleiani, though macro-morphologically similar to the galls of N. myrtoidis, are distinct and unique among insect galls, as far as the cellular, subcellular and histochemical traits are concerned. Thus, the traits of the galls on P. cattleianum studied herein represent the extended phenotypes of their inducers. PMID:26209687

  3. Synchronism between Aspidosperma macrocarpon (Apocynaceae) resources allocation and the establishment of the gall inducer Pseudophacopteron sp. (Hemiptera: Psylloidea).

    PubMed

    Castro, Ariane C; Oliveira, Denis C; Moreira, Ana Silvia F P; lsaias, Rosy M S

    2013-12-01

    The joint interpretation of phenology and nutritional metabolism provides important data on plant tissues reactivity and the period of gall induction. A population of Aspidosperma macrocarpon (Apocynaceae) with leaf galls induced by a Pseudophacopteron sp. (Psylloidea) was studied in Goiás state, Brazil. Assuming the morphological similarity between host leaves and intralaminar galls, a gradient from non-galled leaves towards galls should be generated, establishing a morpho-physiological continuum. The phenology, infestation of galls, and the carbohydrate and nitrogen contents were monthly evaluated in 10-20 individuals, from September 2009 to September 2010. Our objective was to analyze the nutritional status and the establishment of a physiological continuum between the galls and the non-galled leaves of A. macrocarpon. The period of leaf flushing coincided with the highest levels of nitrogen allocated to the new leaves, and to the lowest levels of carbohydrates. The nutrients were previously consumed by the growing leaves, by the time of gall induction. The levels of carbohydrates were higher in galls than in non-galled leaves in time-based analyses, which indicateed their potential sink functionality. The leaves were infested in October, galls developed along the year, and gall senescence took place from March to September, together with host leaves. This first senescent leaves caused insect mortality. The higher availability of nutrients at the moment of gall induction was demonstrated and seems to be important not only for the establishment of the galling insect but also for the responsiveness of the host plant tissues.

  4. The impact of gallic acid on iron gall ink corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouchon-Quillet, V.; Remazeilles, C.; Bernard, J.; Wattiaux, A.; Fournes, L.

    Many old manuscripts suffer from iron-gall ink corrosion, threatening our graphic heritage. Corroded papers become brown and brittle with age. The chemical reactions involved in this corrosion are relatively well known: they include both acidic hydrolysis and oxidation catalysed by free iron(II). Yet, a great variety of iron-gall ink recipes, including a wide range of constituents can be found in the literature and the visual aspect of old inks, can be very different from one inscription to another, even if they have been written on the same sheet of paper. This suggests that even if the free iron(II) plays a dominant role in the paper alteration, the contribution of other ingredients should not be neglected. For this reason, we explored the impact gallic acid may have on the corrosion mechanisms and in particular on the oxidation reactions. These investigations were carried out on laboratory probes prepared with paper sheets immersed in different solutions, all containing the same amount of iron sulphate, and different gallic acid concentrations. These probes were then artificially aged and their degradation state was evaluated by bursting strength measurements, FTIR spectrometry and Mössbauer spectrometry. All these analyses lead us to conclude that gallic acid has an influence on the iron(III)/iron(II) ratio, probably because of its reducing properties.

  5. Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Savitri; Kaushik, Vasuki Srinivas; Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Ramanna, Latha Muuaiah; Lakkappa, Dhananjaya Bhadrapura

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the detailed pharmacognostic profile of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria olivier) (Fagaceae), an important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine. Methods Samples of galls of Q. infectoria were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physiochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis and othjer methods for standardization as recommended by WHO. Results Macroscopically, the crude drug is globose with horny appearances on external surface (1.4-2.3 cm in length and 1-1.5 cm in diameter), with greyish-brown to brownish-black in colour externally and dark brown buff colored. Surface is smooth with numerous horny protuberances giving rough touch, and with unpleasant odour. Microscopically, a wide zone of radially elongated parenchyma cells between upper and lower epidermis were found. The vascular strands were present at all places and radially elongated sclerides touched the lower epidermis. In physico-chemical studies, the moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble, water soluble, petroleum ether, chloroform extractive value and tannin content were found to be 2.790, 5.020, 0.110, 38.780, 41.210, 0.402, 1.590 and 49.200 percentage respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. Conclusions The results of the present study serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this medicinally important plant drug material for future investigations and applications. PMID:24144128

  6. Phytohormones Related to Host Plant Manipulation by a Gall-Inducing Leafhopper

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Makoto; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Matsukura, Keiichiro; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kumashiro, Shun; Matsumura, Masaya; Kamiya, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    The maize orange leafhopper Cicadulina bipunctata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) induces galls characterized by growth stunting and severe swelling of leaf veins on various plants of Poaceae. Previous studies revealed that galls are induced not on feeding site but on distant, newly extended leaves during the feeding, and strongly suggested that some chemicals injected by the leafhopper affect at the leaf primordia. To approach the mechanism underlying gall induction by C. bipunctata, we examined physiological response of plants to feeding by the leafhopper. We performed high-throughput and comprehensive plant hormone analyses using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Galled maize leaves contained higher contents of abscisic acid (ABA) and trans-Zeatin (tZ) and lower contents of gibberellins (GA1 and GA4) than ungalled maize leaves. Leafhopper treatment significantly increased ABA and tZ contents and decreased GA1 and GA4 contents in extending leaves. After the removal of leafhoppers, contents of tZ and gibberellins in extending leaves soon became similar to the control values. ABA content was gradually decreased after the removal of leafhoppers. Such hormonal changes were not observed in leafhopper treatment on leaves of resistant maize variety. Water contents of galled leaves were significantly lower than control leaves, suggesting water stress of galled leaves and possible reason of the increase in ABA content. These results imply that ABA, tZ, and gibberellins are related to gall induction by the leafhopper on susceptible variety of maize. PMID:23638047

  7. Gall insects and indirect plant defenses: A case of active manipulation?

    PubMed

    Tooker, John F; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2008-07-01

    Many plants can defend themselves against insect herbivory by attracting natural enemies that kill feeding herbivores and limit the damage they inflict. Such "indirect defenses" can be induced by insects feeding on different plant tissues and using a variety of feeding styles. However, we have recently shown that gall-inducing insect species can avoid the indirect defenses of their host plant species and even alter volatile emissions following subsequent herbivory. One of the species we studied, Eurosta solidaginis, induces galls on goldenrod (Solidago altissima) and appears to exert a unique influence over the indirect defenses of its host plant that is not readily explained by levels of defense-related phytohormones, gall formation or resource depletion. Our evidence suggests that this gall-insect species may be able to manipulate its host plant species to avoid and/or modify its defensive responses. The results also provide insight into gall induction because the gall-insect species that we screened did not increase levels of jasmonic acid, which, in addition to triggering volatile emissions, is a powerful growth regulator that could prevent the cell growth and division that leads to gall formation.

  8. Agrobacterium rhizogenes GALLS protein contains domains for ATP binding, nuclear localization, and type IV secretion.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Larry D; Vergunst, Annette C; Neal-McKinney, Jason; den Dulk-Ras, Amke; Moyer, Deborah M; Hooykaas, Paul J J; Ream, Walt

    2006-12-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes are closely related plant pathogens that cause different diseases, crown gall and hairy root. Both diseases result from transfer, integration, and expression of plasmid-encoded bacterial genes located on the transferred DNA (T-DNA) in the plant genome. Bacterial virulence (Vir) proteins necessary for infection are also translocated into plant cells. Transfer of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and Vir proteins requires a type IV secretion system, a protein complex spanning the bacterial envelope. A. tumefaciens translocates the ssDNA-binding protein VirE2 into plant cells, where it binds single-stranded T-DNA and helps target it to the nucleus. Although some strains of A. rhizogenes lack VirE2, they are pathogenic and transfer T-DNA efficiently. Instead, these bacteria express the GALLS protein, which is essential for their virulence. The GALLS protein can complement an A. tumefaciens virE2 mutant for tumor formation, indicating that GALLS can substitute for VirE2. Unlike VirE2, GALLS contains ATP-binding and helicase motifs similar to those in TraA, a strand transferase involved in conjugation. Both GALLS and VirE2 contain nuclear localization sequences and a C-terminal type IV secretion signal. Here we show that mutations in any of these domains abolished the ability of GALLS to substitute for VirE2. PMID:17012398

  9. Biology and systematics of gall-inducing triozids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) associated with Psidium spp. (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Carneiro, René G S; Burckhardt, Daniel; Isaias, Rosy M S

    2013-01-01

    Psidium myrtoides (Myrtaceae) shelters the gall inducer Nothotrioza myrtoidis gen. et sp. n. (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) which is described and illustrated here. Nothotrioza belongs to the family Triozidae and is probably most closely related to Neolithus, a monotypic Neotropical genus associated with Sapiun (Euphorbiaceae). Three species are recognized within Nothotrioza: the type species N. myrtoidis sp. n. associated with Psidium myrtoides, N. cattleiani sp. n. (misidentified by Butignol & Pedrosa-Macedo as Neotrioza tavaresi) with Psidium cattleianum, and N. tavaresi (Crawford) comb. n. (from Neotrioza) with an unidentified species of Malpighiaceae, respectively. A lectotype is designated here for Neotrioza tavaresi. Also, the diversity of insect galls associated with P. myrtoides and the biology of N. myrtoidis were examined. N. myrtoidis presents five instars and an annual life cycle synchronised with the phenology of P. myrtoides. Gall size was proportional to the insect developmental stages, and rates of parasitism and mortality were 15.7 % and 29.8 %, respectively. The red colour is an important macroscopic diagnostic feature of the gall that could be associated with parasite-free condition of the galling insect. The biological features presented by the system Psidium myrtoides--Nothotrioza myrtoidis are in accordance with other systems involving sucking galling insects, however, it is exceptional by its univoltine life cycle associated with a perennial plant in the Neotropics. The galls induced by the three known Nothotrioza spp. are morphologically similar, i.e. closed, globoid and unilocular, as well as the opening mechanism for releasing the adults. PMID:26120700

  10. Evolution of a complex behavior: the origin and initial diversification of foliar galling by Permian insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachat, Sandra R.; Labandeira, Conrad C.

    2015-04-01

    A central notion of the early evolution of insect galling is that this unique behavior was uncommon to rare before the diversification of angiosperms 135 to 125 m.yr. ago. However, evidence accumulated during recent years shows that foliar galls were diverse and locally abundant as early as the Permian Period, 299 to 252 m.yr. ago. In particular, a diversity of leaf galling during the Early Permian has recently been documented by the plant-damage record of foliar galls and, now, our interpretation of the body-fossil record of culprit insect gallers. Small size is a prerequisite for gallers. Wing-length measurements of Permian insects indicate that several small-bodied hemipteroid lineages originated early during the Permian, some descendant lineages of which gall the leaves of seed plants to the present day. The earliest foliar gallers likely were Protopsyllidiidae (Hemiptera) and Lophioneuridae (Thripida). Much of the Early Permian was a xeric interval, and modern galls are most common in dry, extra-tropical habitats such as scrubland and deserts. Plant-damage, insect body fossils, and the paleoclimate record collectively support the ecological expansion of foliar galling during the Early Permian and its continued expansion through the Late Permian.

  11. Evolution of a complex behavior: the origin and initial diversification of foliar galling by Permian insects.

    PubMed

    Schachat, Sandra R; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2015-04-01

    A central notion of the early evolution of insect galling is that this unique behavior was uncommon to rare before the diversification of angiosperms 135 to 125 m.yr. ago. However, evidence accumulated during recent years shows that foliar galls were diverse and locally abundant as early as the Permian Period, 299 to 252 m.yr. ago. In particular, a diversity of leaf galling during the Early Permian has recently been documented by the plant-damage record of foliar galls and, now, our interpretation of the body-fossil record of culprit insect gallers. Small size is a prerequisite for gallers. Wing-length measurements of Permian insects indicate that several small-bodied hemipteroid lineages originated early during the Permian, some descendant lineages of which gall the leaves of seed plants to the present day. The earliest foliar gallers likely were Protopsyllidiidae (Hemiptera) and Lophioneuridae (Thripida). Much of the Early Permian was a xeric interval, and modern galls are most common in dry, extra-tropical habitats such as scrubland and deserts. Plant-damage, insect body fossils, and the paleoclimate record collectively support the ecological expansion of foliar galling during the Early Permian and its continued expansion through the Late Permian.

  12. Comparative anatomy of gall development on Gypsophila paniculata induced by bacteria with different mechanisms of pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Chalupowicz, L; Barash, I; Schwartz, M; Aloni, R; Manulis, S

    2006-07-01

    Galls induced on Gypsophila paniculata by Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae (Pag) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (At), bacteria with different mechanisms of pathogenicity, were compared morphologically and anatomically. The pathogenicity of Pag is dependent on the presence of an indigenous plasmid that harbors hrp gene cluster, genes encoding Hop virulence proteins and biosynthetic genes for auxin (IAA) and cytokinins (CKs), whereas that of At involves host transformation. The Pag-induced gall was rough, brittle and exhibited limited growth, in contrast to the smooth, firm appearance and continuous growth of the At-induced gall. Anatomical analysis revealed the presence of cells with enlarged nuclei and multiple nucleoli, giant cells and suberin deposition in Pag that were absent from At-induced galls. Although circular vessels were observed in both gall types, they were more numerous and the vascular system was more organized in At. An aerenchymal tissue was observed in the upper part of the galls. Ethylene emission from Pag galls, recorded 6 days after inoculation, was eight times as great as that from non-infected controls. In contrast, a significant decrease in ethylene production was observed in Gypsophila cuttings infected with Pag mutants deficient in IAA and CK production. The results presented are best accounted for by the two pathogens having distinct pathogenicity mechanisms that lead to their differential recognition by the host as non-self (Pag) and self (At).

  13. Evolution of a complex behavior: the origin and initial diversification of foliar galling by Permian insects.

    PubMed

    Schachat, Sandra R; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2015-04-01

    A central notion of the early evolution of insect galling is that this unique behavior was uncommon to rare before the diversification of angiosperms 135 to 125 m.yr. ago. However, evidence accumulated during recent years shows that foliar galls were diverse and locally abundant as early as the Permian Period, 299 to 252 m.yr. ago. In particular, a diversity of leaf galling during the Early Permian has recently been documented by the plant-damage record of foliar galls and, now, our interpretation of the body-fossil record of culprit insect gallers. Small size is a prerequisite for gallers. Wing-length measurements of Permian insects indicate that several small-bodied hemipteroid lineages originated early during the Permian, some descendant lineages of which gall the leaves of seed plants to the present day. The earliest foliar gallers likely were Protopsyllidiidae (Hemiptera) and Lophioneuridae (Thripida). Much of the Early Permian was a xeric interval, and modern galls are most common in dry, extra-tropical habitats such as scrubland and deserts. Plant-damage, insect body fossils, and the paleoclimate record collectively support the ecological expansion of foliar galling during the Early Permian and its continued expansion through the Late Permian. PMID:25783809

  14. Biology and systematics of gall-inducing triozids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) associated with Psidium spp. (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Carneiro, René G S; Burckhardt, Daniel; Isaias, Rosy M S

    2013-01-01

    Psidium myrtoides (Myrtaceae) shelters the gall inducer Nothotrioza myrtoidis gen. et sp. n. (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) which is described and illustrated here. Nothotrioza belongs to the family Triozidae and is probably most closely related to Neolithus, a monotypic Neotropical genus associated with Sapiun (Euphorbiaceae). Three species are recognized within Nothotrioza: the type species N. myrtoidis sp. n. associated with Psidium myrtoides, N. cattleiani sp. n. (misidentified by Butignol & Pedrosa-Macedo as Neotrioza tavaresi) with Psidium cattleianum, and N. tavaresi (Crawford) comb. n. (from Neotrioza) with an unidentified species of Malpighiaceae, respectively. A lectotype is designated here for Neotrioza tavaresi. Also, the diversity of insect galls associated with P. myrtoides and the biology of N. myrtoidis were examined. N. myrtoidis presents five instars and an annual life cycle synchronised with the phenology of P. myrtoides. Gall size was proportional to the insect developmental stages, and rates of parasitism and mortality were 15.7 % and 29.8 %, respectively. The red colour is an important macroscopic diagnostic feature of the gall that could be associated with parasite-free condition of the galling insect. The biological features presented by the system Psidium myrtoides--Nothotrioza myrtoidis are in accordance with other systems involving sucking galling insects, however, it is exceptional by its univoltine life cycle associated with a perennial plant in the Neotropics. The galls induced by the three known Nothotrioza spp. are morphologically similar, i.e. closed, globoid and unilocular, as well as the opening mechanism for releasing the adults.

  15. Acquisition of freezing tolerance in early autumn and seasonal changes in gall water content influence inoculative freezing of gall fly larvae, Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Lee, R E; Hankison, S J

    2003-04-01

    We examined seasonal changes in freeze tolerance and the susceptibility of larvae of the gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis to inoculative freezing within the goldenrod gall (Solidago sp.). In late September, when the water content of the galls was high (approximately 55%), more than half of the larvae froze within their galls when held at -2.5 degrees C for 24 h, and nearly all larvae froze at -4 or -6 degrees C. At this time, most larvae survived freezing at > or = -4 degrees C. By October plants had senesced, and their water content had decreased to 33%. Correspondingly, the number of larvae that froze by inoculation at -4 and -6 degrees C also decreased, however the proportion of larvae that survived freezing increased markedly. Gall water content reached its lowest value (10%) in November, when few larvae froze during exposure to subzero temperatures > or = -6 degrees C. In winter, rain and melting snow transiently increased gall water content to values as high as 64% causing many larvae to freeze when exposed to temperatures as high as -4 degrees C. However, in the absence of precipitation, gall tissues dried and, as before, larvae were not likely to freeze by inoculation. Consequently, in nature larvae freeze earlier in the autumn and/or at higher temperatures than would be predicted based on the temperature of crystallization (T(c)) of isolated larvae. However, even in early September when environmental temperatures are relatively high, larvae exhibited limited levels of freezing tolerance sufficient to protect them if they did freeze.

  16. Unexpected high diversity of galling insects in the Amazonian upper canopy: the savanna out there.

    PubMed

    Julião, Genimar R; Venticinque, Eduardo M; Fernandes, G Wilson; Price, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    A relatively large number of studies reassert the strong relationship between galling insect diversity and extreme hydric and thermal status in some habitats, and an overall pattern of a greater number of galling species in the understory of scleromorphic vegetation. We compared galling insect diversity in the forest canopy and its relationship with tree richness among upland terra firme, várzea, and igapó floodplains in Amazonia, Brazil. The soils of these forest types have highly different hydric and nutritional status. Overall, we examined the upper layer of 1,091 tree crowns. Galling species richness and abundance were higher in terra firme forests compared to várzea and igapó forests. GLM-ANCOVA models revealed that the number of tree species sampled in each forest type was determinant in the gall-forming insect diversity. The ratio between galling insect richness and number of tree species sampled (GIR/TSS ratio) was higher in the terra firme forest and in seasonally flooded igapó, while the várzea presented the lowest GIR/TSS ratio. In this study, we recorded unprecedented values of galling species diversity and abundance per sampling point. The GIR/TSS ratio from várzea was approximately 2.5 times higher than the highest value of this ratio ever reported in the literature. Based on this fact, we ascertained that várzea and igapó floodplain forests (with lower GIA and GIR), together with the speciose terra firme galling community emerge as the gall diversity apex landscape among all biogeographic regions already investigated. Contrary to expectation, our results also support the "harsh environment hypothesis", and unveil the Amazonian upper canopy as similar to Mediterranean vegetation habitats, hygrothermically stressed environments with leaf temperature at lethal limits and high levels of leaf sclerophylly. PMID:25551769

  17. Effect of the Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa on Hydraulic Architecture in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Plants.

    PubMed

    Tong, You-Gui; Ding, Xiao-Xi; Zhang, Kai-Cun; Yang, Xin; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera; Eulophidae), is a devastating pest of eucalypt plantations in the Middle East, the Mediterranean basin, Africa, India, South-East Asia, and China. Heavy galling causes the leaves to warp and in extreme cases it may stunt the growth of the trees of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying how L. invasa inhibits the growth of plants of E. camaldulensis are unclear. Because the growth rate of plants is mainly dependent on photosynthesis that is largely correlated with hydraulic architecture, we speculate that galling of L. invasa depresses hydraulic conductance of stem and leaf. In the present study, we examined the effects of L. invasa galling on hydraulic architecture and photosynthetic parameters in E. camaldulensis plants. We found that galling of L. invasa significantly decreased stem hydraulic conductance (K stem), midday leaf water potential (Ψmd), minor vein density, and stomatal density (SD). Furthermore, the stomatal conductance (g s), chlorophyll content, CO2 assimilation rate (A n) and photosynthetic electron flow were reduced in infected plants. Therefore, the galling of L. invasa not only declined the water supply from stem to leaves, but also restricted water transport within leaf. As a result, galled plants of E. camaldulensis reduced leaf number, leaf area, SD and g s to balance water supply and transpirational demand. Furthermore, galled plants had lower leaf nitrogen content, leading to decreases in chlorophyll content, CO2 assimilation rate and photosynthetic electron flow. These results indicate that the change in hydraulic architecture is responsible for the inhibition of growth rate in galled plants.

  18. Effect of the Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa on Hydraulic Architecture in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tong, You-Gui; Ding, Xiao-Xi; Zhang, Kai-Cun; Yang, Xin; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera; Eulophidae), is a devastating pest of eucalypt plantations in the Middle East, the Mediterranean basin, Africa, India, South-East Asia, and China. Heavy galling causes the leaves to warp and in extreme cases it may stunt the growth of the trees of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying how L. invasa inhibits the growth of plants of E. camaldulensis are unclear. Because the growth rate of plants is mainly dependent on photosynthesis that is largely correlated with hydraulic architecture, we speculate that galling of L. invasa depresses hydraulic conductance of stem and leaf. In the present study, we examined the effects of L. invasa galling on hydraulic architecture and photosynthetic parameters in E. camaldulensis plants. We found that galling of L. invasa significantly decreased stem hydraulic conductance (Kstem), midday leaf water potential (Ψmd), minor vein density, and stomatal density (SD). Furthermore, the stomatal conductance (gs), chlorophyll content, CO2 assimilation rate (An) and photosynthetic electron flow were reduced in infected plants. Therefore, the galling of L. invasa not only declined the water supply from stem to leaves, but also restricted water transport within leaf. As a result, galled plants of E. camaldulensis reduced leaf number, leaf area, SD and gs to balance water supply and transpirational demand. Furthermore, galled plants had lower leaf nitrogen content, leading to decreases in chlorophyll content, CO2 assimilation rate and photosynthetic electron flow. These results indicate that the change in hydraulic architecture is responsible for the inhibition of growth rate in galled plants. PMID:26913043

  19. Unexpected High Diversity of Galling Insects in the Amazonian Upper Canopy: The Savanna Out There

    PubMed Central

    Julião, Genimar R.; Venticinque, Eduardo M.; Fernandes, G. Wilson; Price, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    A relatively large number of studies reassert the strong relationship between galling insect diversity and extreme hydric and thermal status in some habitats, and an overall pattern of a greater number of galling species in the understory of scleromorphic vegetation. We compared galling insect diversity in the forest canopy and its relationship with tree richness among upland terra firme, várzea, and igapó floodplains in Amazonia, Brazil. The soils of these forest types have highly different hydric and nutritional status. Overall, we examined the upper layer of 1,091 tree crowns. Galling species richness and abundance were higher in terra firme forests compared to várzea and igapó forests. GLM-ANCOVA models revealed that the number of tree species sampled in each forest type was determinant in the gall-forming insect diversity. The ratio between galling insect richness and number of tree species sampled (GIR/TSS ratio) was higher in the terra firme forest and in seasonally flooded igapó, while the várzea presented the lowest GIR/TSS ratio. In this study, we recorded unprecedented values of galling species diversity and abundance per sampling point. The GIR/TSS ratio from várzea was approximately 2.5 times higher than the highest value of this ratio ever reported in the literature. Based on this fact, we ascertained that várzea and igapó floodplain forests (with lower GIA and GIR), together with the speciose terra firme galling community emerge as the gall diversity apex landscape among all biogeographic regions already investigated. Contrary to expectation, our results also support the “harsh environment hypothesis”, and unveil the Amazonian upper canopy as similar to Mediterranean vegetation habitats, hygrothermically stressed environments with leaf temperature at lethal limits and high levels of leaf sclerophylly. PMID:25551769

  20. Repellency of two deet formulations and Avon Skin-So-Soft against biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Magnon, G J; Robert, L L; Kline, D L; Roberts, L W

    1991-03-01

    Two U.S. military issue deet repellent formulations (75% deet liquid and 33% deet lotion) and Avon Skin-So-Soft were tested against ceratopogonid midges under field conditions in Honduras. Test subjects were U.S. military personnel deployed to Honduras for training. Culicoides furens accounted for 96.3% of all midges collected. The liquid and lotion formulations of deet and Avon Skin-So-Soft provided 97.9, 95.9 and 71.4% protection, respectively, compared with the untreated control. Both deet formulations provided significantly better protection (P less than 0.05) than Avon Skin-So-Soft. The latter provided protection by trapping the midges in the oily film and not by repelling the insects as did the deet formulations.

  1. Bioconcentration of 5,5',6-trichlorobiphenyl and pentachlorophenol in the midge, Chironomus riparius, as measured by a pharmacokinetic model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lydy, M.J.; Hayton, W.L.; Staubus, A.E.; Fisher, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    A two compartment pharmacokinetic model was developed which describes the uptake and elimination of 5,5',6-trichlorobiphenyl (TCB) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in the midge, Chironomus riparius. C. riparius were exposed to nominal TCB (2 ??g L-1) and PCP (9 ??g L-1) concentrations during a 16 h static uptake phase. Depuration was determined over approximately 45 h using a flowthrough system without feeding. The uptake clearance (P) was 330 ?? 61 ml g-1 midge h-1 for TCB and 55 ?? 4 ml g-1 midge h-1 for PCP, while measured bioconcentration factors (BCF) were 35,900 and 458 for TCB and PCP, respectively. Overall, the clearance-volume- based pharmacokinetic model predicted BCF values that were consistent with published values as well as with BCF values obtained from the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)).

  2. Gall-induction in insects: evolutionary dead-end or speciation driver?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The tree of life is significantly asymmetrical - a result of differential speciation and extinction - but general causes of such asymmetry are unclear. Differences in niche partitioning are thought to be one possible general explanation. Ecological specialization might lead to increases in diversification rate or, alternatively, specialization might limit the evolutionary potential of specialist lineages and increase their extinction risk. Here we compare the diversification rates of gall-inducing and non-galling insect lineages. Compared with other insect herbivores feeding on the same host plant, gall-inducing insects feed on plant tissue that is more nutritious and less defended, and they do so in a favorable microhabitat that may also provide some protection from natural enemies. We use sister-taxon comparisons to test whether gall-inducing lineages are more host-specific than non-galling lineages, and more or less diverse than non-gallers. We evaluate the significance of diversity bipartitions under Equal Rates Markov models, and use maximum likelihood model-fitting to test for shifts in diversification rates. Results We find that, although gall-inducing insect groups are more host-specific than their non-galling relatives, there is no general significant increase in diversification rate in gallers. However, gallers are found at both extremes - two gall-inducing lineages are exceptionally diverse (Euurina sawflies on Salicaceae and Apiomorpha scale insects on Eucalytpus), and one gall-inducing lineage is exceptionally species-poor (Maskellia armored scales on Eucalyptus). Conclusions The effect of ecological specialization on diversification rates is complex in the case of gall-inducing insects, but host range may be an important factor. When a gall-inducing lineage has a host range approximate to that of its non-galling sister, the gallers are more diverse. When the non-galler clade has a much wider host range than the galler, the non-galler is

  3. Agrocinopine A, a phosphorylated opine is secreted from crown gall cells

    PubMed Central

    Messens, E.; Lenaerts, A.; Hedges, R. W.; Montagu, M. Van

    1985-01-01

    We showed that phosphorus-containing metabolites of crown gall tissues were all taken up by appropriate pTi+ agrobacteria. All but one were also taken up by pTi- bacteria. This one compound, produced by nopaline-, but not by octopine-type tumours, was the only phosphorylated organic compound actively secreted by healthy crown gall cells, and it appears to be agrocinopine A. Testing crown gall cell exudates may be a general procedure for the identification of opines by transformed plant cells. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:15926217

  4. Entomopathogenic Fungus as a Biological Control for an Important Vector of Livestock Disease: The Culicoides Biting Midge

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Minshad Ali; Pope, Edward C.; Carpenter, Simon; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Butt, Tariq M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The recent outbreak of bluetongue virus in northern Europe has led to an urgent need to identify control measures for the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges that transmit it. Following successful use of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larval stages of biting midge Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen, we investigated the efficacy of this strain and other fungi (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea and Lecanicillium longisporum) as biocontrol agents against adult C. nubeculosus in laboratory and greenhouse studies. Methodology/Findings Exposure of midges to ‘dry’ conidia of all fungal isolates caused significant reductions in survival compared to untreated controls. Metarhizium anisopliae strain V275 was the most virulent, causing a significantly decrease in midge survival compared to all other fungal strains tested. The LT50 value for strain V275 was 1.42 days compared to 2.21–3.22 days for the other isolates. The virulence of this strain was then further evaluated by exposing C. nubeculosus to varying doses (108–1011 conidia m−2) using different substrates (horse manure, damp peat, leaf litter) as a resting site. All exposed adults were found to be infected with the strain V275 four days after exposure. A further study exposed C. nubeculosus adults to ‘dry’ conidia and ‘wet’ conidia (conidia suspended in 0.03% aq. Tween 80) of strain V275 applied to damp peat and leaf litter in cages within a greenhouse. ‘Dry’ conidia were more effective than ‘wet’ conidia, causing 100% mortality after 5 days. Conclusion/Significance This is the first study to demonstrate that entomopathogenic fungi are potential biocontrol agents against adult Culicoides, through the application of ‘dry’ conidia on surfaces (e.g., manure, leaf litter, livestock) where the midges tend to rest. Subsequent conidial transmission between males and females may cause an increased level of fungi-induced mortality in midges

  5. Critical body residues for lethal and sublethal effects of membrane narcotics in the midge, Chironomus riparius

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.W.; Hwang, H.; Landrum, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    The concept of the critical body residue (CBR) offers a compelling new way to evaluate hazard posed by persistent contaminants such as PCBs. The authors tested the utility of using CBRs for PCBs in an invertebrate species, Chironomus riparius. Acute toxicity (< 10 d) tests were performed with 2nd instar larvae by adding trace amounts of {sup 14}C-labeled PCBs to unlabeled PCBs in amounts sufficient to generate a dose-responsive mortality curve. Because of the limited water solubility of the PCBs tested, it was not possible to produce a toxic tissue concentration via aqueous exposure. This difficulty was overcome by allowing the midges to feed upon contaminated algae (Chlorella vulgaris) which could be loaded with much higher levels of PCBs than would dissolve in water. CBRs for acute toxicity were measured for 3 PCBs; an average CBR of about 1 mmol/kg was determined. If the midge CBRs are lipid normalized, they fall into the range of values that have previously been determined for vertebrates. The authors also evaluated CBRs in midges for a variety of sublethal impairments including development time within a stadium, larval weight and fecundity. A CBR of 1.09 {micro}mol/kg resulted in a significant increase in larval development time and decrease in larval weight for second instar larvae. Tissue residues declined in the third and fourth instars, despite continuing exposure suggesting that the animals developed attenuating mechanisms or that contaminant loss at ecdysis is significant. Despite declining tissue residues throughout the larval instars, fecundity was reduced from 284 eggs/female in controls to 244 eggs/female in animals exposed to the highest sublethal concentration.

  6. Faustovirus-Like Asfarvirus in Hematophagous Biting Midges and Their Vertebrate Hosts.

    PubMed

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Azza, Saïd; Decloquement, Philippe; Khalil, Jacques Y Bou; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Jardot, Priscilla; Robert, Catherine; La Scola, Bernard; Mediannikov, Oleg Y; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Faustovirus, a new Asfarviridae-related giant virus, was recently isolated in Vermamoeba vermiformis, a protist found in sewage water in various geographical locations and occasionally reported in human eye infection cases. As part of a global metagenomic analysis of viral communities existing in biting midges, we report here for the first time the identification and isolation of a Faustovirus-like virus in hematophagous arthropods and its detection in their animal hosts. The DNA virome analysis of three pools of Culicoides sp., engorged female Culicoides imicola and non-engorged male/female C. imicola biting midges collected in Senegal, revealed the presence of amoeba-infecting giant viruses and, among them, a majority of sequences related to Faustovirus. Phylogenetic analyses conducted on several structural genes of Faustovirus confirmed the clustering of the arthropod-borne Faustovirus with sewage-borne Faustoviruses, with a distinct geographical clustering of Senegalese Faustovirus strains. Transmission electron microscopy identified viral particles with morphologies and diameters which were compatible with Faustovirus. The presence of infectious arthropod-borne Faustovirus was finally confirmed by successful isolation on V. vermiformis amoeba. Global proteomic analysis of biting midges identified that arthropods' blood meal originating from cattle, rodents and humans. Further screening of cattle sera and rodent tissue resulted in prevalence of Faustovirus being estimated at 38% in rodents and 14% in cattle, suggesting a possible origin of Faustovirus presence in arthropods via the ingestion of contaminated blood meal. Viral loads were the highest in rodents' urine and kidney samples, suggesting a possible excretion of viral particles into the environment. Faustovirus DNA polymerase-related sequences were also detected in more than 9 and 11% of febrile patients and healthy Senegalese human sera, respectively. Our study thus, highlights the need to investigate

  7. Faustovirus-Like Asfarvirus in Hematophagous Biting Midges and Their Vertebrate Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Azza, Saïd; Decloquement, Philippe; Khalil, Jacques Y. Bou; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Jardot, Priscilla; Robert, Catherine; La Scola, Bernard; Mediannikov, Oleg Y.; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Faustovirus, a new Asfarviridae-related giant virus, was recently isolated in Vermamoeba vermiformis, a protist found in sewage water in various geographical locations and occasionally reported in human eye infection cases. As part of a global metagenomic analysis of viral communities existing in biting midges, we report here for the first time the identification and isolation of a Faustovirus-like virus in hematophagous arthropods and its detection in their animal hosts. The DNA virome analysis of three pools of Culicoides sp., engorged female Culicoides imicola and non-engorged male/female C. imicola biting midges collected in Senegal, revealed the presence of amoeba-infecting giant viruses and, among them, a majority of sequences related to Faustovirus. Phylogenetic analyses conducted on several structural genes of Faustovirus confirmed the clustering of the arthropod-borne Faustovirus with sewage-borne Faustoviruses, with a distinct geographical clustering of Senegalese Faustovirus strains. Transmission electron microscopy identified viral particles with morphologies and diameters which were compatible with Faustovirus. The presence of infectious arthropod-borne Faustovirus was finally confirmed by successful isolation on V. vermiformis amoeba. Global proteomic analysis of biting midges identified that arthropods' blood meal originating from cattle, rodents and humans. Further screening of cattle sera and rodent tissue resulted in prevalence of Faustovirus being estimated at 38% in rodents and 14% in cattle, suggesting a possible origin of Faustovirus presence in arthropods via the ingestion of contaminated blood meal. Viral loads were the highest in rodents' urine and kidney samples, suggesting a possible excretion of viral particles into the environment. Faustovirus DNA polymerase-related sequences were also detected in more than 9 and 11% of febrile patients and healthy Senegalese human sera, respectively. Our study thus, highlights the need to investigate

  8. Faustovirus-Like Asfarvirus in Hematophagous Biting Midges and Their Vertebrate Hosts.

    PubMed

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Azza, Saïd; Decloquement, Philippe; Khalil, Jacques Y Bou; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Jardot, Priscilla; Robert, Catherine; La Scola, Bernard; Mediannikov, Oleg Y; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Faustovirus, a new Asfarviridae-related giant virus, was recently isolated in Vermamoeba vermiformis, a protist found in sewage water in various geographical locations and occasionally reported in human eye infection cases. As part of a global metagenomic analysis of viral communities existing in biting midges, we report here for the first time the identification and isolation of a Faustovirus-like virus in hematophagous arthropods and its detection in their animal hosts. The DNA virome analysis of three pools of Culicoides sp., engorged female Culicoides imicola and non-engorged male/female C. imicola biting midges collected in Senegal, revealed the presence of amoeba-infecting giant viruses and, among them, a majority of sequences related to Faustovirus. Phylogenetic analyses conducted on several structural genes of Faustovirus confirmed the clustering of the arthropod-borne Faustovirus with sewage-borne Faustoviruses, with a distinct geographical clustering of Senegalese Faustovirus strains. Transmission electron microscopy identified viral particles with morphologies and diameters which were compatible with Faustovirus. The presence of infectious arthropod-borne Faustovirus was finally confirmed by successful isolation on V. vermiformis amoeba. Global proteomic analysis of biting midges identified that arthropods' blood meal originating from cattle, rodents and humans. Further screening of cattle sera and rodent tissue resulted in prevalence of Faustovirus being estimated at 38% in rodents and 14% in cattle, suggesting a possible origin of Faustovirus presence in arthropods via the ingestion of contaminated blood meal. Viral loads were the highest in rodents' urine and kidney samples, suggesting a possible excretion of viral particles into the environment. Faustovirus DNA polymerase-related sequences were also detected in more than 9 and 11% of febrile patients and healthy Senegalese human sera, respectively. Our study thus, highlights the need to investigate

  9. Acute toxicity of selected herbicides and surfactants to larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Faerber, Neil L.

    1989-01-01

    The acute toxicities of eight commercial herbicides and two surfactants to early fourth instar larvae of the midgeChironomus riparius were determined under static conditions. The formulated herbicides tested were Eradicane® (EPTC), Fargo® (triallate), Lasso® (alachlor), ME4 Brominal® (bromoxynil), Ramrod® (propachlor), Rodeo® (glyphosate), Sencor®(metribuzin), and Sutan (+)® (butylate); the two surfactants were Activator N.F.® and Ortho X-77®. In addition, technical grade alachlor, metribuzin, propachlor, and triallate were tested for comparison with the formulated herbicides. The relative toxicity of the commercial formulations, based on percent active ingredient, varied considerably. The EC50 values ranged from 1.23 mg/L for Fargo® to 5,600 mg/L for Rodeo®. Fargo®, ME4 Brominal®, and Ramrod®were moderately toxic to midge larvae; Lasso®, Sutan (+)®, and Eradicane® were slightly toxic; and Sencor® and Rodeo® were practically non-toxic. The 48-hr EC50 values of the two surfactants were nearly identical and were considered moderately toxic to midges. For two of the herbicides in which the technical grade material was tested, the inert ingredients in the formulations had a significant effect on the toxicity of the active ingredients. Fargo® was twice as toxic as technical grade triallate, whereas Sencor® was considerably less toxic than technical grade metribuzin. A comparison of the slope function values indicated that the toxic action of all the compounds occurred within a relatively narrow range. Published acute toxicity data on these compounds for other freshwater biota were tabulated and compared with our results. In general, the relative order of toxicity toC. riparius was similar to those for other freshwater invertebrates and fish. Maximum concentrations of each herbicide in bulk runoff during a projected “critical” runoff event were calculated as a percentage of the application rate lost in a given volume of runoff. A comparison

  10. Field test of a lemon eucalyptus repellent against Leptoconops biting midges.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Scott P; Loye, Jenella

    2006-09-01

    We tested a lemon eucalyptus-based repellent against the biting midge Leptoconops carteri Hoffman in the Central Valley of California. This relatively new active ingredient has demonstrated high efficacy in a number of studies with mosquitoes. Ten subjects tested spray and lotion formulations on 2 consecutive days, along with a deet-positive control and an untreated control, with 6 h of continuous exposure per treatment. Half of the eucalyptus subjects received no bites, and the true median protection time probably exceeded the test duration. PMID:17067050

  11. Field test of a lemon eucalyptus repellent against Leptoconops biting midges.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Scott P; Loye, Jenella

    2006-09-01

    We tested a lemon eucalyptus-based repellent against the biting midge Leptoconops carteri Hoffman in the Central Valley of California. This relatively new active ingredient has demonstrated high efficacy in a number of studies with mosquitoes. Ten subjects tested spray and lotion formulations on 2 consecutive days, along with a deet-positive control and an untreated control, with 6 h of continuous exposure per treatment. Half of the eucalyptus subjects received no bites, and the true median protection time probably exceeded the test duration.

  12. All stages of the Palaearctic predaceous midge Palpomyia schmidti Goetghebuer, 1934 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Szadziewski, Ryszard; Golovatyuk, Larisa V; Sontag, Elżbieta; Urbanek, Aleksandra; Zinchenko, Tatiana D

    2016-01-01

    All stages and the ecology of the Southern Palaearctic Palpomyia schmidti collected from the vicinity of the saline Lake Elton in Russia are described and illustrated. The morphology of larvae and pupae as well as the detailed ecology of the larvae are described for the first time. P. schmidti is a halobiontic biting midge, widely distributed in the steppes and deserts of the Palaearctic region. It is proposed that the Palpomyia schmidti group should include five Holarctic species. P. downesi Grogan & Wirth, 1979 from north-western North America is recognized as a new junior synonym of the Eastern Palaearctic P. tuvae Remm, 1972. New synonymy. PMID:27395743

  13. Effects of pH on the toxicity and uptake of (14C)lindane in the midge, Chironomus riparius

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.W.

    1985-10-01

    The toxicity of the insecticide, lindane, was measured in the midge, Chironomus riparius, at pH 4, 6, and 8 with the finding that lindane is significantly more toxic at pH 6 than at pH 4 and 8. The higher toxicity of lindane at pH 6 is a product of two factors. First the penetration of the compound into the midge is lower at pH 4 than at pH 6 and 8. Second, a greater percentage of total radioactivity is contributed by parent compound at pH 6.

  14. A new algorithm quantifies the roles of wind and midge flight activity in the bluetongue epizootic in northwest Europe.

    PubMed

    Sedda, Luigi; Brown, Heidi E; Purse, Bethan V; Burgin, Laura; Gloster, John; Rogers, David J

    2012-06-22

    The 2006 bluetongue (BT) outbreak in northwestern Europe had devastating effects on cattle and sheep in that intensively farmed area. The role of wind in disease spread, through its effect on Culicoides dispersal, is still uncertain, and remains unquantified. We examine here the relationship between farm-level infection dates and wind speed and direction within the framework of a novel model involving both mechanistic and stochastic steps. We consider wind as both a carrier of host semio-chemicals, to which midges might respond by upwind flight, and as a transporter of the midges themselves, in a more or less downwind direction. For completeness, we also consider midge movement independent of wind and various combinations of upwind, downwind and random movements. Using stochastic simulation, we are able to explain infection onset at 94 per cent of the 2025 affected farms. We conclude that 54 per cent of outbreaks occurred through (presumably midge) movement of infections over distances of no more than 5 km, 92 per cent over distances of no more than 31 km and only 2 per cent over any greater distances. The modal value for all infections combined is less than 1 km. Our analysis suggests that previous claims for a higher frequency of long-distance infections are unfounded. We suggest that many apparent long-distance infections resulted from sequences of shorter-range infections; a 'stepping stone' effect. Our analysis also found that downwind movement (the only sort so far considered in explanations of BT epidemics) is responsible for only 39 per cent of all infections, and highlights the effective contribution to disease spread of upwind midge movement, which accounted for 38 per cent of all infections. The importance of midge flight speed is also investigated. Within the same model framework, lower midge active flight speed (of 0.13 rather than 0.5 m s(-1)) reduced virtually to zero the role of upwind movement, mainly because modelled wind speeds in the area

  15. Histopathogenesis of Galls Induced by Meloidogyne naasi in Wheat Roots

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, I. A.; Taylor, D. P.

    1970-01-01

    Histopathogenesis of galls induced by Meloidogyne naasi in wheat roots was studied. Large numbers of larvae penetrated wheat root tips within 24 hr; larvae migrated both inter- and intracellularly, causing cortical hypertrophy. Giant cells were formed in the stele around the head of each nematode within 4 to 5 days. Initial pathological alterations in giant cell formation consisted of hypertrophy of protophloem and protoxylem cells, their nuclei and nucleoli. Giant ceils contained 2 to 8 agglomerated multinucleolate nuclei. Synchronous mitotic divisions were first observed 9 days after inoculation. After 21 days, giant cells became highly vacuolate. Observations 40 days after inoculation revealed a complete degeneration of cell contents in many giant cells but their thick walls remained intact. Abnormal xylem completely surrounded the degenerated or partially degenerated giant cells. PMID:19322304

  16. Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. VIII. Fergusobia from small galls on shoot buds, with descriptions of four new species.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kerrie A; Bartholomaeus, Faerlie; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Ye, Weimin; Taylor, Gary S; Thomas, W Kelley

    2014-08-28

    Small shoot bud galls induced by the Fergusobia (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae)/Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) mutualism occur on various Eucalyptus spp. Four new species of Fergusobia, collected from small shoot bud galls on Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. gomphocephala and E. leucoxylon, are described. Fergusobia gomphocephalae Davies n. sp. is morphologically characterized by a combination of a small C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a variable, conoid tail, a small C-shaped infective female with a hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate or J-shaped male with a broad tail, angular spicule and short peloderan bursa. Fergusobia leucoxylonae Davies n. sp. has a C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a conoid tail with a narrowly rounded tip, an arcuate infective female with a broadly rounded tail tip, and an almost straight to barely J-shaped male with angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicule and short bursa. Fergusobia schmidti Davies & Bartholomaeus n. sp. has an arcuate to open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a relatively large body diameter, relatively long stylet and small tail with a broadly rounded tail tip, an open C-shaped infective female with a broadly rounded to hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate to barely J-shaped male with spicules angular at about 33% of their length and peloderan bursa arising at about half body length. Fergusobia sporangae Davies n. sp. has an arcuate to open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a relatively long stylet and a broadly rounded tail tip, an arcuate infective female with a short tail with a broadly rounded to hemispherical tip, and an arcuate to barely J-shaped male with angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicule and short peloderan bursa. Various forms of small shoot bud galls are described. From phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the D2/D3 expansion segment of the large subunit rRNA gene, the four new species belong to two sister clades of Fergusobia. The larval shield morphology of their associated

  17. Wild rice, hypoallergenic rice--immunologic comparison.

    PubMed

    Yum, Hye-Yung; Lee, Kyung Eun; Choi, Sung Youn; Yang, Hea Sun; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Earn; Lee, Sang-Il

    2006-01-01

    Rice is a cereal that is mainly produced and widely consumed in Asian countries including Korea. Several reports have suggested a role of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity in asthma and eczema associated with ingestion or inhalation of rice. In Japan, hypoallergenic rices are used for a substitute of common rice in some atopic patients. We performed this study to identify major allergens of rice and changed allergenicity in cooked and hypoallergenic rice. We purified crude extracts from a variety of rice and analyzed their protein distributions by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Based on UniCAP test and skin-prick test, we selected sera with high sensitivity and analyzed specific IgE binding to rice by immunoblotting. In addition, the inhibition rate among some rice was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and CAP test. As the result of this study, rice with various origins and polishing levels had no difference in protein band pattern. After cooking, it was difficult to detect protein bands distributed in raw rice; and, even through IgE immunoblot analysis, it was impossible to differentiate between wild and hypoallergenic rice. In addition, both wild and hypoallergenic rice still had IgE binding activity on their remaining protein bands. In conclusion, almost all proteins of rice were excluded or weakened in the process of boiling and IgE binding activity still remained even in hypoallergenic rice.

  18. Developmental pathway from leaves to galls induced by a sap-feeding insect on Schinus polygamus (Cav.) Cabrera (Anacardiaceae).

    PubMed

    Dias, Graciela G; Ferreira, Bruno G; Moreira, Gilson R P; Isaias, Rosy M S

    2013-03-01

    Galling sap-feeding insects are presumed to cause only minor changes in host plant tissues, because they usually do not require development of nutritive tissues for their own use. This premise was examined through comparison of the histometry, cytometry and anatomical development of non-galled leaves and galls of Calophya duvauae (Scott) (Hemiptera: Calophyidae) on Schinus polygamus (Cav.) Cabrera (Anacardiaceae). Cell fates changed from non-galled leaves to galls during the course of tissue differentiation. C. duvauae caused changes in dermal, ground, and vascular systems of the leaves of S. polygamus. Its feeding activity induced the homogenization of the parenchyma, and the neoformation of vascular bundles and trichomes. The histometric and cytometric data revealed compensatory effects of hyperplasia and cell hypertrophy in the epidermis, with hyperplasia predominating in the adaxial epidermis. There was a balance between these processes in the other tissues. Thus, we found major differences between the developmental pathways of non-galled leaves and galls. These changes were associated with phenotypic alterations related to shelter and appropriate microenvironmental conditions for the gall inducer. The nondifferentiation of a typical nutritive tissue in this case was compared to other non-phylogenetically related arthropod gall systems, and is suggested to result from convergence associated with the piercing feeding apparatus of the corresponding gall-inducer.

  19. Galled by the Gallbladder?: Your Tiny, Hard-Working Digestive Organ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Galled by the Gallbladder? Your Tiny, Hard-Working Digestive Organ Most of us give little thought to ... among the most common and costly of all digestive system diseases. By some estimates, up to 20 ...

  20. Leaf-Mining and Gall-Forming Insects: Tools for Teaching Population Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Valerie K.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the use of leaf mines (formed by larvae of small moths or flies) and galls (wasps' larvae) in various insect population studies. Also considers the advantages of using these structures for instructional purposes. (DH)

  1. Population Heterogeneity of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Galls of Populus L. from a Single Nursery

    PubMed Central

    Nesme, Xavier; Michel, Marie-France; Digat, Bernard

    1987-01-01

    This study focused on the natural crown gall infections occurring in a Leuce poplar nursery. Soil effects on crown gall frequency were detected, indicating that contamination was due to a resident Agrobacterium tumefaciens population, which was present before seedling plantation. The crown gall frequency on poplar progenies varied from 3 to 67%, indicating the feasibility of improvement in crown gall resistance. Of 129 tumor isolates, 128 were pathogenic. These isolates were of biotype 1 or 2. Biochemical, serological, and antibiotic resistance typing results concurred, indicating the presence of four biotype 1 and two biotype 2 resident subpopulations. No significant change was noticed in the relative proportions of subpopulations from one year to another. Pathogenic subpopulations both in vitro and in planta were susceptible to Kerr K84 (P. B. New and A. Kerr, J. Appl. Bacteriol. 90:172-179, 1972). In addition, no serological cross-reactions were found to occur between K84 and the pathogenic subpopulations. PMID:16347314

  2. Heat Tolerance and Aging of the Anhydrobiotic Seed Gall Nematode with SEM Observations

    PubMed Central

    Eisenback, J. D.; Wei, Ma; Roane, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    The seed gall nematode, Anguina agrostis, feeds and reproduces within the developing ovaries of bentgrass seeds and overwinters in seed galls as anhydrobiotic juveniles. These dormant juveniles can survive within the seed gall for many years. In this dehydrated state, they are more tolerant to extreme environmental conditions than are their hydrated counterparts. Nematodes in seed galls were exposed to various high temperatures (80 to 160°C) for time intervals of 5 to 30 min. Survival decreased as time and temperature increased. Remarkably, these nematodes survived exposure to 155°C for 5 min, higher than that recorded for any other metazoan. In contrast, seed galls that had been stored at room temperature and humidity for 5 yr also survived exposure to extreme temperatures; however, their survival rates were not as high as those for freshly collected galls. Juveniles within the seed gall were coiled and grouped together conforming to the shape of the seed gall. The gross morphology of the cuticle of the juveniles was very smooth and relatively undistorted by the shrinkage from the loss water from their body tissues. Wherever the nematodes were cut with a razor blade, a small amount of their contents oozed out of the opening and coalesced with that of other nearby specimens and appeared gel-like. Elucidation of the mechanisms that enable these nematodes to remain viable after exposure to extreme heat remains a mystery. Understanding the changes that occur in these nematodes as they rehydrate and return to life from an ametabolic state may have major impacts on the life sciences, including insights into the answer of the age-old question: “What is life?” PMID:23589659

  3. Anti-Lipoxygenase Activity of Leaf Gall Extracts of Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Ramachandra, Yarappa Lakshmikantha; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Subbaiah, Sujan Ganapathy Pasura; Austin, Richard Surendranath; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2016-01-01

    Lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors are the promising therapeutic target for treating a wide spectrum of inflammatory-related diseases such as cancer, asthma, lymphoma, leukemia, and autoimmune disorders. In the present study, the photochemical constituents and the anti-LOX potential of leaf galls of Terminalia chebula are evaluated to exemplify its further potential development as medicine. Extracts of T. chebula galls were tested for anti-LOX activity using linoleic acid as substrate and lipoxidase as an enzyme and also the total content of polyphenols with phytochemical analysis of the extract were determined. The presence of highest total phenolic and flavonoid content of 141 ± 2.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g d.w and 125 ± 1.4 mg of quercetin equivalent/g d.w and maximal LOX inhibitory activity (52.67%) at 800 μg/mL concentrations were identified in the ethanolic extracts of leaf galls of T.chebula. The higher LOX inhibitory activity was positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of T. chebula leaves gall extracts as a natural anti-inflammatory agent and justify its ethnobotanical use. Therefore, the results encourage the use of T. chebula leave gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food, and nutraceuticals applications. SUMMARY The present investigation demonstrated promising anti-LOX proper-ties of T. chebula leaves gall extracts. Presumably, these activities could be attributed in part to the polyphenolic features of the extract, as there was a strong correlation of higher LOX inhibiting activities with that of high total phenolic and flavonoid content in the methanolic leaf gall extracts of T. chebula. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of T. chebula leaves gall extracts as a natural anti-inflammatory agent and justify the ethnobotanical approach in the search for novel bioactive com-pounds. PMID:26941541

  4. Evaluation of biofilm removal activity of Quercus infectoria galls against Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi-Sichani, Maryam; Karbasizadeh, Vajihe; Dokhaharani, Samaneh Chaharmiri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting humans of all ages. Streptococcus mutans has an important role in the development of dental caries by acid production. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and biofilm disinfective effects of the oak tree Quercus infectoria galls against S. mutans. Materials and Methods: The bacterial strain used in this study was S. mutans (ATCC: 35668). Two kinds of galls, Mazouj and Ghalghaf were examined. Galls were extracted by methanol, ethanol and acetone by Soxhlet apparatus, separately. Extracts were dissolved in sterile distilled water to a final concentration of 10.00, 5.00, 2.50, 1.25, 0.63, 0.31, and 0.16 mg/ml. Microdilution determined antibacterial activities. The biofilm removal activities of the extracts were examined using crystal violet-stained microtiter plate method. One-way ANOVA was used to compare biofilm formation in the presence or absence of the extracts. Results: The methanolic, ethanolic, and acetonic extracts of Q. infectoria galls showed the strong inhibitory effects on S. mutans (P < 0.05). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for the Mazouj and Ghalghaf gall extracts against S. mutans were identical. The MIC values ranged from 160 μg/ml to 320 μg/ml, whereas the MBC values ranged from 320 μg/ml to 640 μg/ml. All extracts of Q. infectoria galls significantly (P < 0.05) reduced biofilm biomass of S. mutans at the concentrations higher than 9.8 μg/ml. Conclusion: Three different extracts of Q. infectoria galls were similar in their antibacterial activity against S. mutans. These extracts had the highest biofilm removal activities at 312.5 μg/ml concentration. The galls of Q. infectoria are potentially good sources of antibacterial and biofilm disinfection agent. PMID:26962315

  5. Antitumor properties of two traditional aromatic rice genotypes (Kalijira and Chinigura)

    PubMed Central

    Mannan, Mohammad Abdul; Sarker, Tushar Chandra; Kabir, Ahmad Humayan; Rahman, Mostafizur; Alam, Mohammad Firoz

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Methanol extract of bran and unpolished grain of two traditional aromatic rice genotypes viz. Kalijira and Chinigura were assayed for their activity on the growth and initiation of crown-gall tumors on potato disks. Materials and Methods: Three Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens) strain AtSl0105, AtTa0112, and AtAc0114 were used as the tumor forming agent. Collected rice was separated to bran and unpolished grain by different milling processes and made into fine powder before extracting using methanol. Antitumor assay of plant extracts was performed according to standard potato disc bioassay. Disc diffusion assay (Kirby-Bauer Method) was used to screen A. tumefaciens sensitivity test. Results: The results demonstrated a high correlation between the ability of aromatic rice to inhibit the initiation and growth of crown-gall tumors on potato disks. Maximum tumor inhibitions were observed against the strain AtSl0105 by Kalijira bran (73.91%) and Chinigura bran (69.56%). Both unpolished grains showed significant effect (Kalijira 57.43%, Chinigura 55.53%) to inhibit the tumor. Conclusion: It can be concluded that aromatic rice (Kalijira and Chinigura) might be a potential source of antitumor agent that can be used for further drug development for tumor treatment. PMID:25050299

  6. Bioavailability of sediment-sorbed chlorobenzenes to larvae of the midge, Chironomus decorus

    SciTech Connect

    Knezovich, J.P.; Harrison, F.L.

    1988-04-01

    Larval stages of the midge, Chironomus decorus, were used to define the bioaccumulation of sediment-sorbed mono-, di-, tri-, and hexachlorobenzene. Larvae were exposed to high- and low-organic-content sediments that had been equilibrated with individual radiolabeled chlorobenzenes prior to testing. Equilibrium or nonequilibrium aqueous concentrations of the volatile test chemicals were flowed through sealed chambers in a sediment-water exposure system. The uptake of chlorobenzenes by midge larvae was rapid for all compounds tested, and apparent steady-state conditions were reached within 48 hr of exposure. Bioconcentration factors for the accumulation of chlorobenzenes from sediments and from interstitial and overlying waters were related to the octanol/water partition coefficients of the compounds. Because the diffusion of chlorobenzenes to overlying water during nonequilibrium flow through conditions was very slow, bioaccumulation was dependent on the concentration of the chemicals in interstitial water. These results show how benthic organisms may be able to accumulate significant levels of chlorinated aromatic compounds from ecosystems where their concentrations in the water column are relatively low.

  7. Aquaporins in the antarctic midge, an extremophile that relies on dehydration for cold survival.

    PubMed

    Goto, Shin G; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L

    2015-08-01

    The terrestrial midge Belgica antarctica relies extensively on dehydration to survive the low temperatures and desiccation stress that prevail in its Antarctic habitat. The loss of body water is thus a critical adaptive mechanism employed at the onset of winter to prevent injury from internal ice formation; a rapid mechanism for rehydration is equally essential when summer returns and the larva resumes the brief active phase of its life. This important role for water movement suggests a critical role for aquaporins (AQPs). Recent completion of the genome project on this species revealed the presence of AQPs in B. antarctica representing the DRIP, PRIP, BIB, RPIP, and LHIP families. Treatment with mercuric chloride to block AQPs also blocks water loss, thereby decreasing cell survival at low temperatures. Antibodies directed against mammalian or Drosophila AQPs suggest a wide tissue distribution of AQPs in the midge and changes in protein abundance in response to dehydration, rehydration, and freezing. Thus far, functional studies have been completed only for PRIP1. It appears to be a water-specific AQP, but expression levels are not altered by dehydration or rehydration. Functional assays remain to be completed for the additional AQPs. PMID:26338869

  8. Proteomic evaluation of cadmium toxicity on the midge Chironomus riparius Meigen larvae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Eun; Yoo, Dong-hun; Son, Jino; Cho, Kijong

    2006-02-01

    Heavy-metal pollution of aquatic ecosystems is a widespread phenomenon after industrial consumption. Whether aquatic organisms are adapted to the heavy-metal pollutants or not, such environmental stress causes changes in physiological responses. In this study, the aquatic midge, Chironomus riparius Meigen, was used to find changes of expression of proteins in relation to cadmium exposure. Dose-response relationships between cadmium concentrations and mortality of 3rd instar midge larvae were observed and the protein levels were compared using PD-Quest after 2-DE. Comparing the intensity of protein spots, 21 proteins decreased and 18 proteins increased in response to cadmium treatment. With increased proteins, three enzymes such as S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, O-methyltransferase, and aspartokinase were involved in the glutathione biosynthesis and a key enzyme regulating fatty acid biosynthesis, oleyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase was also identified. According to the functional classification of decreased levels of proteins, they were involved in energy production, protein fate, nucleotide biosynthesis, cell division, transport and binding, signal transduction, and fatty acid and phospholipid metabolism in the cell. In addition, phenol hydroxylase, thioesterase, zinc metalloprotease, and aspartate kinase were newly expressed after cadmium exposure at the concentration of the LC(10 )value. Therefore, these proteins seem to be potential biomarkers for cadmium exposure in the aquatic ecosystems. PMID:16372273

  9. Characterization of Viral Communities of Biting Midges and Identification of Novel Thogotovirus Species and Rhabdovirus Genus.

    PubMed

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Robert, Catherine; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg; Desnues, Christelle

    2016-03-11

    More than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them RNA viruses represent the majority. Ceratopogonidae (genus Culicoides) are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.). They are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the Oropouche virus. Female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. In this context, we report here the analysis of RNA viral communities of Senegalese biting midges using next-generation sequencing techniques as a preliminary step toward the identification of potential viral biohazards. Sequencing of the RNA virome of three pools of Culicoides revealed the presence of a significant diversity of viruses infecting plants, insects and mammals. Several novel viruses were detected, including a novel Thogotovirus species, related but genetically distant from previously described tick-borne thogotoviruses. Novel rhabdoviruses were also detected, possibly constituting a novel Rhabdoviridae genus, and putatively restricted to insects. Sequences related to the major viruses transmitted by Culicoides, i.e., African horse sickness, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses were also detected. This study highlights the interest in monitoring the emergence and circulation of zoonoses and epizooties using their arthropod vectors.

  10. Aquaporins in the antarctic midge, an extremophile that relies on dehydration for cold survival.

    PubMed

    Goto, Shin G; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L

    2015-08-01

    The terrestrial midge Belgica antarctica relies extensively on dehydration to survive the low temperatures and desiccation stress that prevail in its Antarctic habitat. The loss of body water is thus a critical adaptive mechanism employed at the onset of winter to prevent injury from internal ice formation; a rapid mechanism for rehydration is equally essential when summer returns and the larva resumes the brief active phase of its life. This important role for water movement suggests a critical role for aquaporins (AQPs). Recent completion of the genome project on this species revealed the presence of AQPs in B. antarctica representing the DRIP, PRIP, BIB, RPIP, and LHIP families. Treatment with mercuric chloride to block AQPs also blocks water loss, thereby decreasing cell survival at low temperatures. Antibodies directed against mammalian or Drosophila AQPs suggest a wide tissue distribution of AQPs in the midge and changes in protein abundance in response to dehydration, rehydration, and freezing. Thus far, functional studies have been completed only for PRIP1. It appears to be a water-specific AQP, but expression levels are not altered by dehydration or rehydration. Functional assays remain to be completed for the additional AQPs.

  11. Continuous activity and no cycling of clock genes in the Antarctic midge during the polar summer.

    PubMed

    Kobelkova, Alena; Goto, Shin G; Peyton, Justin T; Ikeno, Tomoko; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L

    2015-10-01

    The extreme seasonal shifts of day length in polar regions, ranging from constant light in the summer to constant darkness in the winter, pose an intriguing environment for probing activity rhythms and the functioning of circadian clocks. Here, we monitor locomotor activity during the summer on the Antarctic Peninsula and under laboratory conditions, as well as the accompanying patterns of clock gene expression in the Antarctic midge, the only insect endemic to Antarctica. Larvae and adults are most active during the warmest portion of the day, but at a constant temperature they remain continuously active regardless of the photoregime, and activity also persists in constant darkness. The canonical clock genes period, timeless, Clock, and vrille are expressed in the head but we detected no cycling of expression in either the field or under diverse photoregimes in the laboratory. The timekeeping function of the clock has possibly been lost, enabling the midge to opportunistically exploit the unpredictable availability of permissive thermal conditions for growth, development, and reproduction during the short summer in Antarctica.

  12. Characterization of Viral Communities of Biting Midges and Identification of Novel Thogotovirus Species and Rhabdovirus Genus

    PubMed Central

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Robert, Catherine; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg; Desnues, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    More than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them RNA viruses represent the majority. Ceratopogonidae (genus Culicoides) are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.). They are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the Oropouche virus. Female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. In this context, we report here the analysis of RNA viral communities of Senegalese biting midges using next-generation sequencing techniques as a preliminary step toward the identification of potential viral biohazards. Sequencing of the RNA virome of three pools of Culicoides revealed the presence of a significant diversity of viruses infecting plants, insects and mammals. Several novel viruses were detected, including a novel Thogotovirus species, related but genetically distant from previously described tick-borne thogotoviruses. Novel rhabdoviruses were also detected, possibly constituting a novel Rhabdoviridae genus, and putatively restricted to insects. Sequences related to the major viruses transmitted by Culicoides, i.e., African horse sickness, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses were also detected. This study highlights the interest in monitoring the emergence and circulation of zoonoses and epizooties using their arthropod vectors. PMID:26978389

  13. Wild swarms of midges linger at the edge of an ordering phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardina, Irene

    2014-03-01

    The most notable hallmark of collective behavior in biological systems is the emergence of order: individuals synchronize their state, giving the stunning impression that the group behaves as one. Birds flocks, fish schools and mammal herds are just a few common examples of polarized animal groups. Mating swarms of mosquitoes and midges, on the other hand, do not display global order and it is therefore unclear whether swarms are a true instance of collective behavior or a mere epiphenomenon of the independent response of each insect to an environmental stimulus. The crucial task for a group, however, is not simply to achieve an ordered state, but to respond collectively to the environmental stimuli. For this to happen, correlation must be large, namely individuals must be able to influence each other's behavioral changes on a group scale. In this work, we experimentally study wild swarms of midges and find that, despite the lack of collective order, swarms display strong correlation, comparable to that found in highly ordered groups of vertebrates. Correlation is orders of magnitude larger in natural swarms than in random systems, indicating the existence of large clusters of insects responding together. We also find that the total amount of correlation, i.e. the susceptibility, increases sharply with the swarm density, a distinctive mark of an incipient ordering phase transition. Swarms, however, live at the near-critical edge of this transition, never plunging in the ordered phase, suggesting that their size and density are tuned to maximize collective response.

  14. Characterization of Viral Communities of Biting Midges and Identification of Novel Thogotovirus Species and Rhabdovirus Genus.

    PubMed

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Robert, Catherine; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg; Desnues, Christelle

    2016-03-01

    More than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them RNA viruses represent the majority. Ceratopogonidae (genus Culicoides) are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.). They are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the Oropouche virus. Female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. In this context, we report here the analysis of RNA viral communities of Senegalese biting midges using next-generation sequencing techniques as a preliminary step toward the identification of potential viral biohazards. Sequencing of the RNA virome of three pools of Culicoides revealed the presence of a significant diversity of viruses infecting plants, insects and mammals. Several novel viruses were detected, including a novel Thogotovirus species, related but genetically distant from previously described tick-borne thogotoviruses. Novel rhabdoviruses were also detected, possibly constituting a novel Rhabdoviridae genus, and putatively restricted to insects. Sequences related to the major viruses transmitted by Culicoides, i.e., African horse sickness, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses were also detected. This study highlights the interest in monitoring the emergence and circulation of zoonoses and epizooties using their arthropod vectors. PMID:26978389

  15. Diversity of galling insects in Styrax pohlii (Styracaceae): edge effect and use as bioindicators.

    PubMed

    de Araújol, Walter Santos; Julião, Genimar Rebouças; Ribeiro, Bárbara Araújo; Silva, Isadora Portes Abraham; dos Santos, Benedito Baptista

    2011-12-01

    Impacts of forest fragmentation and edge effect on plant-herbivores interactions are relatively unknown, and the relationships between galling insects and their host plants are very susceptible to environmental variations. The goal of our study was to test the edge effect hypothesis for galling insects associated with Styrax pohlii (Styracaceae) host plant. Samplings were conducted at a fragment of semi-deciduous forest in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. Thirty host plant individuals (15 at fragment edge and 15 in its interior) were sampled in July of 2007; in each plant, 10 apical branches were collected at the top, middle and bottom crown levels. Our results supported the prediction of greater richness of gall morphotypes in the edge habitat compared with remnant interior. In a similar way, gall abundance and frequency of attacked leaves were also greater in the fragment edge. These findings consequently suggest a positive response of galling insect diversity to edge effect; in the Saint-Hilaire forest, this effect probably operates through the changes in microclimatic conditions of edge habitats, which results in an increased hygrothermal stress, a determinant factor to distribution patterns of galling insects. We also concluded that these organisms could be employed as biological indicators (i) because of their host-specificity, (ii) they are sensitive to changes in plant quality, and (iii) present dissimilar and specific responses to local variation in habitat conditions. PMID:22208076

  16. High-Temperature Galling Characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V with and without Surface Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian; ERDMAN III, DONALD L; Ohriner, Evan Keith; Jolly, Brian C

    2011-01-01

    Galling is a severe form of surface damage in metals and alloys that typically arises under relatively high normal force, low-sliding speed, and in the absence of effective lubrication. It can lead to macroscopic surface roughening and seizure. The occurrence of galling can be especially problematic in high-temperature applications like diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation system components and adjustable turbocharger vanes, because suitable lubricants may not be available, moisture desorption promotes increased adhesion, and the yield strength of metals decreases with temperature. Oxidation can counteract these effects to some extent by forming lubricative oxide films. Two methods to improve the galling resistance of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V were investigated: (a) applying an oxygen diffusion treatment, and (b) creating a metal-matrix composite with TiB2 using a high-intensity infrared heating source. A new, oscillating three-pin-on-flat, high-temperature test method was developed and used to characterize galling behavior relative to a cobalt-based alloy (Stellite 6B ). The magnitude of the oscillating torque, the surface roughness, and observations of surface damage were used as measures of galling resistance. Owing to the formation of lubricative oxide films, the galling resistance of the Ti-alloy at 485o C, even non-treated, was considerably better than it was at room temperature. The IR-formed composite displayed reduced surface damage and lower torque than the substrate titanium alloy.

  17. Effect of calcium, magnesium and sodium ions on in vitro nucleation of human gall bladder bile.

    PubMed Central

    Neithercut, W D

    1989-01-01

    The effect of increasing the calcium, magnesium and sodium concentration in gall bladder bile samples from 21 patients with gall stones and nine controls on the in vitro rate of formation of cholesterol microcrystals and numbers of cholesterol microcrystals formed was examined. Addition of these cations to raise the mean maximum concentration of calcium ions to 19.8 mmol/l, of magnesium ions to 20 mmol/l and sodium ions to 998 mmol/l did not trigger nucleation in control bile samples or samples from patients with gall stones. Increasing the mean concentration of calcium ions to 8.6 mmol/l and of sodium to 320 mmol/l increased the numbers of cholesterol monohydrate crystals/0.1 mm3 counted by light polarisation phase contrast microscopy at the time of nucleation in samples from patients with gall stones from a median of 2 (range 1-10) in control portions to 18 (range 2-128) for calcium ions and 10 (range 2-141) for sodium ions (p less than 0.001). Calcium and magnesium ions were more effective than sodium ions, and calcium ions could increase crystal numbers at concentrations found in samples from patients with gall stones, median 4.6 mmol/l (range 2.7-16.9 mmol/l). The concentrations of calcium and magnesium present in bile may therefore influence the rate of development of gall stones. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2731760

  18. Diversity of galling insects in Styrax pohlii (Styracaceae): edge effect and use as bioindicators.

    PubMed

    de Araújol, Walter Santos; Julião, Genimar Rebouças; Ribeiro, Bárbara Araújo; Silva, Isadora Portes Abraham; dos Santos, Benedito Baptista

    2011-12-01

    Impacts of forest fragmentation and edge effect on plant-herbivores interactions are relatively unknown, and the relationships between galling insects and their host plants are very susceptible to environmental variations. The goal of our study was to test the edge effect hypothesis for galling insects associated with Styrax pohlii (Styracaceae) host plant. Samplings were conducted at a fragment of semi-deciduous forest in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. Thirty host plant individuals (15 at fragment edge and 15 in its interior) were sampled in July of 2007; in each plant, 10 apical branches were collected at the top, middle and bottom crown levels. Our results supported the prediction of greater richness of gall morphotypes in the edge habitat compared with remnant interior. In a similar way, gall abundance and frequency of attacked leaves were also greater in the fragment edge. These findings consequently suggest a positive response of galling insect diversity to edge effect; in the Saint-Hilaire forest, this effect probably operates through the changes in microclimatic conditions of edge habitats, which results in an increased hygrothermal stress, a determinant factor to distribution patterns of galling insects. We also concluded that these organisms could be employed as biological indicators (i) because of their host-specificity, (ii) they are sensitive to changes in plant quality, and (iii) present dissimilar and specific responses to local variation in habitat conditions.

  19. Patterns of cell elongation in the determination of the final shape in galls of Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Psyllidae) on Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Thiago Alves; de Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Suzuki, Aline Yasko Marinho; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Cell redifferentiation, division, and elongation are recurrent processes, which occur during gall development, and are dependent on the cellulose microfibrils reorientation. We hypothesized that changes in the microfibrils orientation from non-galled tissues to galled ones occur and determine the final gall shape. This determination is caused by a new tissue zonation, its hyperplasia, and relative cell hypertrophy. The impact of the insect's activity on these patterns of cell development was herein tested in Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae-Baccharis dracunculifolia system. In this system, the microfibrils are oriented perpendicularly to the longest cell axis in elongated cells and randomly in isodiametric ones, either in non-galled or in galled tissues. The isodiametric cells of the abaxial epidermis in non-galled tissues divided and elongated periclinally, forming the outer gall epidermis. The anticlinally elongated cells of the abaxial palisade layer and the isodiametric cells of the spongy parenchyma originated the gall outer cortex with hypertrophied and periclinally elongated cells. The anticlinally elongated cells of the adaxial palisade layer originated the inner cortex with hypertrophied and periclinally elongated cells in young and mature galls and isodiametric cells in senescent galls. The isodiametric cells of the adaxial epidermis elongated periclinally in the inner gall epidermis. The current investigation demonstrates the role of cellulose microfibril reorientation for gall development. Once many factors other than this reorientation act on gall development, it should be interesting to check the possible relationship of the new cell elongation patterns with the pectic composition of the cell walls.

  20. Efficacy of alphacypermethrin-treated high density polyethylene mesh applied to jet stalls housing horses against Culicoides biting midges in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Page, P C; Labuschagne, K; Venter, G J; Schoeman, J P; Guthrie, A J

    2015-05-30

    The efficacy of alphacypermethrin-treated high density polyethylene (HDPE) mesh applied to jet stalls against Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) was determined by mechanical aspiration of midges from horses and using Onderstepoort 220 V downdraught black light traps in four blocks of a 3 × 2 randomised design under South African field conditions. The alphacypermethrin-treated HDPE mesh applied to the stall significantly (P = 0.008) reduced the number of Culicoides midges, predominantly Culicoides (Avaritia) imicola Kieffer, mechanically aspirated from horses housed in the stall. The mesh reduced the Culicoides midge attack rate in the treated stall compared to the untreated stall and a sentinel horse by 6 times and 14 times, respectively. The number of Culicoides midges and C. imicola collected in light traps from the untreated and alphacypermethrin HDPE mesh-treated stalls did not differ significantly (P = 0.82). Alphacypermethrin-treated HDPE mesh could be used to reduce exposure of horses in jet stalls to Culicoides midges, specifically C. imicola, and the risk of midge-borne Orbivirus transmission. PMID:25794942

  1. Efficacy of alphacypermethrin-treated high density polyethylene mesh applied to jet stalls housing horses against Culicoides biting midges in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Page, P C; Labuschagne, K; Venter, G J; Schoeman, J P; Guthrie, A J

    2015-05-30

    The efficacy of alphacypermethrin-treated high density polyethylene (HDPE) mesh applied to jet stalls against Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) was determined by mechanical aspiration of midges from horses and using Onderstepoort 220 V downdraught black light traps in four blocks of a 3 × 2 randomised design under South African field conditions. The alphacypermethrin-treated HDPE mesh applied to the stall significantly (P = 0.008) reduced the number of Culicoides midges, predominantly Culicoides (Avaritia) imicola Kieffer, mechanically aspirated from horses housed in the stall. The mesh reduced the Culicoides midge attack rate in the treated stall compared to the untreated stall and a sentinel horse by 6 times and 14 times, respectively. The number of Culicoides midges and C. imicola collected in light traps from the untreated and alphacypermethrin HDPE mesh-treated stalls did not differ significantly (P = 0.82). Alphacypermethrin-treated HDPE mesh could be used to reduce exposure of horses in jet stalls to Culicoides midges, specifically C. imicola, and the risk of midge-borne Orbivirus transmission.

  2. The histo structure of galls induced by aphids as a useful taxonomic character: the case of Rectinasus (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Eriosomatinae).

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Rafael; Molist, Pilar; González-Sierra, Silvia; Martinez, Jean Jacques Itzhak; Nafría, Juan M Nieto

    2014-09-17

    Morphological differentiation of gall tissues induced on plants may play a role to characterize the real taxonomic position of the gall inducer. We verified this hypothesis with galls induced by Rectinasus buxtoni on Pistacia palaestina. There is controversy about the taxonomic localization of genus Rectinasus: in one classification it is situated with the genera Forda and Paracletus while in another it is linked to the genera Geoica and Baizongia. Histological examination of the walls of the galls reveals the presence of two opposed vascular bundles and an inner surface of the gall with cavities. These features place Rectinasus in the same group as Geoica and Baizongia, and not with Paracletus and Forda, whose galls have a different histological structure, as generally admitted.

  3. Influence of carbon dioxide on numbers of Culicoides midges collected with suction light traps in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Venter, G J; Boikanyo, S N B; Majatladi, D M; Morey, L

    2016-03-01

    To implement risk management against diseases transmitted by species of Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), it is essential to identify all potential vectors. Light traps are the most commonly used tool for the collection of Culicoides midges. Given the indiscriminate artificial attraction of light, traps will collect all night-flying insects rather than only livestock-associated Culicoides midges. Factors that may increase the efficacy of traps, especially for livestock-associated Culicoides midges, require investigation. In the present study, results obtained with Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Onderstepoort light traps baited with carbon dioxide (CO2 ) were compared with those of unbaited controls. Comparisons were made using two replicates of a 4 × 4 randomized Latin square design. With both trap types, the mean numbers of Culicoides midges collected in 16 baited traps were higher than those caught in 16 unbaited traps. Although exceptionally low numbers were collected with the CDC traps, the increases in the numbers and frequency of collection of Culicoides imicola Kieffer, 1913 were more pronounced in the CDC traps compared with the Onderstepoort traps. These results indicate that the addition of CO2 may increase the efficiency of these traps for the collection of C. imicola and other livestock-associated Culicoides species. PMID:26522279

  4. Manipulation of host plant cells and tissues by gall-inducing insects and adaptive strategies used by different feeding guilds.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D C; Isaias, R M S; Fernandes, G W; Ferreira, B G; Carneiro, R G S; Fuzaro, L

    2016-01-01

    Biologists who study insect-induced plant galls are faced with the overwhelming diversity of plant forms and insect species. A challenge is to find common themes amidst this diversity. We discuss common themes that have emerged from our cytological and histochemical studies of diverse neotropical insect-induced galls. Gall initiation begins with recognition of reactive plant tissues by gall inducers, with subsequent feeding and/or oviposition triggering a cascade of events. Besides, to induce the gall structure insects have to synchronize their life cycle with plant host phenology. We predict that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in gall induction, development and histochemical gradient formation. Controlled levels of ROS mediate the accumulation of (poly)phenols, and phytohormones (such as auxin) at gall sites, which contributes to the new cell developmental pathways and biochemical alterations that lead to gall formation. The classical idea of an insect-induced gall is a chamber lined with a nutritive tissue that is occupied by an insect that directly harvests nutrients from nutritive cells via its mouthparts, which function mechanically and/or as a delivery system for salivary secretions. By studying diverse gall-inducing insects we have discovered that insects with needle-like sucking mouthparts may also induce a nutritive tissue, whose nutrients are indirectly harvested as the gall-inducing insects feeds on adjacent vascular tissues. Activity of carbohydrate-related enzymes across diverse galls corroborates this hypothesis. Our research points to the importance of cytological and histochemical studies for elucidating mechanisms of induced susceptibility and induced resistance. PMID:26620152

  5. Manipulation of host plant cells and tissues by gall-inducing insects and adaptive strategies used by different feeding guilds.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D C; Isaias, R M S; Fernandes, G W; Ferreira, B G; Carneiro, R G S; Fuzaro, L

    2016-01-01

    Biologists who study insect-induced plant galls are faced with the overwhelming diversity of plant forms and insect species. A challenge is to find common themes amidst this diversity. We discuss common themes that have emerged from our cytological and histochemical studies of diverse neotropical insect-induced galls. Gall initiation begins with recognition of reactive plant tissues by gall inducers, with subsequent feeding and/or oviposition triggering a cascade of events. Besides, to induce the gall structure insects have to synchronize their life cycle with plant host phenology. We predict that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in gall induction, development and histochemical gradient formation. Controlled levels of ROS mediate the accumulation of (poly)phenols, and phytohormones (such as auxin) at gall sites, which contributes to the new cell developmental pathways and biochemical alterations that lead to gall formation. The classical idea of an insect-induced gall is a chamber lined with a nutritive tissue that is occupied by an insect that directly harvests nutrients from nutritive cells via its mouthparts, which function mechanically and/or as a delivery system for salivary secretions. By studying diverse gall-inducing insects we have discovered that insects with needle-like sucking mouthparts may also induce a nutritive tissue, whose nutrients are indirectly harvested as the gall-inducing insects feeds on adjacent vascular tissues. Activity of carbohydrate-related enzymes across diverse galls corroborates this hypothesis. Our research points to the importance of cytological and histochemical studies for elucidating mechanisms of induced susceptibility and induced resistance.

  6. Determination of calcium and iodine in gall bladder stone using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekinci, Neslihan; Şahin, Yusuf

    2002-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques were used to analyze gall bladder stones. Enrichment of Ca and I was observed in the gall bladder stone taken from a patient. The concentration of Ca has been determined with an annular 55Fe radioactive source and the concentration of I with an annular 241Am radioactive source using the standard addition method in 2π geometry. A Si(Li)-detector was used to measure Ca and I concentrations in the gall bladder stones.

  7. Stacking resistance to crown gall and nematodes in walnut rootstocks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Crown gall (CG) (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and the root lesion nematodes (RLNs) (Pratylenchus vulnus) are major challenges faced by the California walnut industry, reducing productivity and increasing the cost of establishing and maintaining orchards. Current nematode control strategies include nematicides, crop rotation, and tolerant cultivars, but these methods have limits. Developing genetic resistance through novel approaches like RNA interference (RNAi) can address these problems. RNAi-mediated silencing of CG disease in walnut (Juglans regia L.) has been achieved previously. We sought to place both CG and nematode resistance into a single walnut rootstock genotype using co-transformation to stack the resistance genes. A. tumefaciens, carrying self-complimentary iaaM and ipt transgenes, and Agrobacterium rhizogenes, carrying a self-complimentary Pv010 gene from P. vulnus, were used as co-transformation vectors. RolABC genes were introduced by the resident T-DNA in the A. rhizogenes Ri-plasmid used as a vector for plant transformation. Pv010 and Pv194 (transgenic control) genes were also transferred separately using A. tumefaciens. To test for resistance, transformed walnut roots were challenged with P. vulnus and microshoots were challenged with a virulent strain of A. tumefaciens. Results Combining the two bacterial strains at a 1:1 rather than 1:3 ratio increased the co-transformation efficiency. Although complete immunity to nematode infection was not observed, transgenic lines yielded up to 79% fewer nematodes per root following in vitro co-culture than untransformed controls. Transgenic line 33-3-1 exhibited complete crown gall control and 32% fewer nematodes. The transgenic plants had thicker, longer roots than untransformed controls possibly due to insertion of rolABC genes. When the Pv010 gene was present in roots with or without rolABC genes there was partial or complete control of RLNs. Transformation using only one vector showed 100

  8. Characterization of Isolates of Meloidogyne from Rice-Wheat Production Fields in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Pokharel, Ramesh R.; Abawi, George S.; Zhang, Ning; Duxbury, John M.; Smart, Christine D.

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-three isolates of root-knot nematode were recovered from soil samples from rice-wheat fields in Nepal and maintained on rice cv. BR 11. The isolates were characterized using morphology, host range and DNA sequence analyses in order to ascertain their identity. Results indicated phenotypic similarity (juvenile measurements, perennial pattern, host range and gall shape) of the Nepalese isolates with Meloidogyne graminicola, with minor variations. The rice varieties LA 110 and Labelle were susceptible to all of the Nepalese isolates, but differences in the aggressiveness of the isolates were observed. Phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of partial internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the rRNA genes indicated that all Nepalese isolates formed a distinct clade with known isolates of M. graminicola with high bootstrap support. Furthermore, two groups were identified within the M. graminicola clade. No correlation between ITS haplotype and aggressiveness or host range was found among the tested isolates. PMID:19259491

  9. The role of pectic composition of cell walls in the determination of the new shape-functional design in galls of Baccharis reticularia (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Formiga, Anete Teixeira; de Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Ferreira, Bruno Garcia; Magalhães, Thiago Alves; de Castro, Ariane Chagas; Fernandes, G Wilson; Isaias, Rosy Mary Dos Santos

    2013-08-01

    The pectic composition of cell wall is altered during the processes of cell differentiation, plant growth, and development. These alterations may be time-dependent, and fluctuate in distinct regions of the same cell or tissue layer, due to the biotic stress caused by the activity of the gall inducer. Among the roles of the pectins in cell wall, elasticity, rigidity, porosity, and control of cell death may be crucial during gall development. Galls on Baccharis reticularia present species-specific patterns of development leading to related morphotypes where pectins were widely detected by Ruthenium red, and the pectic epitopes were labeled with specific monoclonal antibodies (LM1, LM2, LM5, LM6, JIM5, and JIM7) in distinct sites of the non-galled and the galled tissues. In the studied system B. reticularia, the epitopes for extensins were not labeled in the non-galled tissues, as well as in those of the rolling and kidney-shaped galls. The high methyl-esterified homogalacturonans (HGA) were labeled all over the tissues either of non-galled leaves or of the three gall morphotypes, while the intense labeling for arabinogalactans was obtained just in the rolling galls. The pectic composition of non-galled leaves denotes their maturity. The kidney-shaped gall was the most similar to the non-galled leaves. The pectic dynamics in the gall tissues was particularly altered in relation to low methyl-esterified HGA, which confers elasticity and expansion, as well as porosity and adhesion to cell walls, and are related to the homogenization and hypertrophy of gall cortex, and to translocation of solutes to the larval chamber. Herein, the importance of the pectic dynamics of cell walls to the new functional design established during gall development is discussed for the first time. The repetitive developmental patterns in galls are elegant models for studies on cell differentiation. PMID:23255001

  10. Leaf-galling phylloxera on grapes reprograms host metabolism and morphology

    PubMed Central

    Nabity, Paul D.; Haus, Miranda J.; Berenbaum, May R.; DeLucia, Evan H.

    2013-01-01

    Endoparasitism by gall-forming insects dramatically alters the plant phenotype by altering growth patterns and modifying plant organs in ways that appear to directly benefit the gall former. Because these morphological and physiological changes are linked to the presence of the insect, the induced phenotype is said to function as an extension of the parasite, albeit by unknown mechanisms. Here we report the gall-forming aphid-like parasite phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, induces stomata on the adaxial surface of grape leaves where stomata typically do not occur. We characterized the function of the phylloxera-induced stomata by tracing transport of assimilated carbon. Because induction of stomata suggests a significant manipulation of primary metabolism, we also characterized the gall transcriptome to infer the level of global reconfiguration of primary metabolism and the subsequent changes in downstream secondary metabolism. Phylloxera feeding induced stomata formation in proximity to the insect and promoted the assimilation and importation of carbon into the gall. Gene expression related to water, nutrient, and mineral transport; glycolysis; and fermentation increased in leaf-gall tissues. This shift from an autotrophic to a heterotrophic profile occurred concurrently with decreased gene expression for nonmevalonate and terpenoid synthesis and increased gene expression in shikimate and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, secondary metabolite systems that alter defense status in grapes. These functional insect-induced stomata thus comprise part of an extended phenotype, whereby D. vitifoliae globally reprograms grape leaf development to alter patterns of primary metabolism, nutrient mobilization, and defense investment in favor of the galling habit. PMID:24067657

  11. Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. IV. Fergusobia from flat leaf galls on Eucalyptus and Corymbia, with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kerrie A; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Ye, Weimin; Taylor, Gary S; Thomas, W Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Fergusobia are described. Both were collected from flat leaf galls from South Australia, one on Eucalyptus microcarpa and the other on E. porosa. Fergusobia microcarpae n. sp. Davies is characterised by the combination of a C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a short, broadly rounded conoid tail, an arcuate to open C-shaped infective female with an hemispherical tail tip, and arcuate to J-shaped males with angular spicules and short peloderan bursa. Fergusobia porosae n. sp. Davies is similar in having an arcuate to C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a small conoid tail, an almost straight to arcuate infective female with an hemispherical tail tip, and males that are almost straight to barely J-shaped with angular spicules and short peloderan bursa. They differ in that the bodies of parthenogenetic and infective females of F. microcarpae n. sp. are more curved than in F. porosae n. sp. Other known similar forms of Fergusobia/Fergusonina galls are outlined and the larval shield morphologies of their associated mutualistic Fergusonina fly species are discussed where known. An inventory of all known Fergusobia/Fergusonina associations from flat leaf galls from Corymbia spp. and Eucalyptus spp. is presented. Relationships of Fergusobia nematodes were inferred from analysis of sequences of 28S rDNA D2/D3 domains and a portion of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtCOI). Nematodes from flat leaf galls appeared in two clades.  PMID:25112980

  12. Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. IV. Fergusobia from flat leaf galls on Eucalyptus and Corymbia, with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kerrie A; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Ye, Weimin; Taylor, Gary S; Thomas, W Kelley

    2013-11-26

    Two new species of Fergusobia are described. Both were collected from flat leaf galls from South Australia, one on Eucalyptus microcarpa and the other on E. porosa. Fergusobia microcarpae n. sp. Davies is characterised by the combination of a C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a short, broadly rounded conoid tail, an arcuate to open C-shaped infective female with an hemispherical tail tip, and arcuate to J-shaped males with angular spicules and short peloderan bursa. Fergusobia porosae n. sp. Davies is similar in having an arcuate to C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a small conoid tail, an almost straight to arcuate infective female with an hemispherical tail tip, and males that are almost straight to barely J-shaped with angular spicules and short peloderan bursa. They differ in that the bodies of parthenogenetic and infective females of F. microcarpae n. sp. are more curved than in F. porosae n. sp. Other known similar forms of Fergusobia/Fergusonina galls are outlined and the larval shield morphologies of their associated mutualistic Fergusonina fly species are discussed where known. An inventory of all known Fergusobia/Fergusonina associations from flat leaf galls from Corymbia spp. and Eucalyptus spp. is presented. Relationships of Fergusobia nematodes were inferred from analysis of sequences of 28S rDNA D2/D3 domains and a portion of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtCOI). Nematodes from flat leaf galls appeared in two clades. 

  13. Is gall bladder cancer a bad cancer per se?

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Vinay K

    2015-07-27

    Gall bladder cancer (GBC) has one of the poorest outcomes of all cancers. Early GBC is difficult to diagnose on even computed tomography. GB has no submucosa and the cancer infiltrates directly into the muscularis propria. GB wall is thin and important adjacent organs viz. liver, duodenum and pancreas get easily infiltrated. Tumor in the GB neck often needs extended right hepatectomy. Infiltration of duodenum/pancreas may necessitate pancreato-duodenectomy or even hepato-pancreato-duodenectomy. Mortality of surgical procedures, when performed for GBC, is higher than when performed for other cancers. Survival in GBC, even after R0 resection, is poor. There is no proven role of neo-adjuvant or adjuvant therapy for loco-regionally advanced GBC. There is no role of palliative surgery in metastatic GBC. Early GBC is diagnosed incidentally after cholecystectomy for stones and requires reoperation for completion extended cholecystectomy but unfortunately, most surgeons are not aware of this. GBC has a peculiar epidemiology and is uncommon in the West and has, therefore, not received much attention. Preventive cholecystectomy for asymptomatic stones is not recommended and there is no serum marker for screening. With all factors pitched against it, it does appear that GBC is a bad cancer per se! PMID:26225192

  14. Refining methods for conducting long-term sediment and water toxicity tests with Chironomus dilutus: Formation of a midge chronic testing work group

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard methods have been established by USEPA, ASTM International, Environment Canada and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for conducting sediment toxicity tests with various species of midges including Chironomus dilutus. Short-term 10-day exposures are ty...

  15. A Key to the Pupal Exuviae of the Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of Everglades National Park, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobsen, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    A key has been developed for identifying the pupal exuviae of 132 taxa of chironomid midges collected in Everglades National Park, as well as 18 additional species from freshwater habitats adjacent to the Park. Descriptions and illustrations are based upon voucher specimens from extensive collections of chironomid pupal exuviae for faunal surveys and biomonitoring research conducted in ENP and surrounding freshwater areas from 1998 to 2007. The key includes taxonomic comments for confirming identifications, as well as brief summaries of the distribution and ecology of each species in southern Florida waters. Information is also provided on the morphology of chironomid pupal exuviae, recommended references for identifying pupal exuviae, techniques for making slides, and methods to confirm proper identification.

  16. A cysteine-clamp gene drives embryo polarity in the midge Chironomus*

    PubMed Central

    Klomp, Jeff; Athy, Derek; Kwan, Chun Wai; Bloch, Natasha I.; Sandmann, Thomas; Lemke, Steffen; Schmidt-Ott, Urs

    2015-01-01

    In the common fruit fly Drosophila, head formation is driven by a single gene, bicoid, which generates head-to-tail polarity of the main embryonic axis. Bicoid deficiency results in embryos with tail-to-tail polarity and no head. However, most insects lack bicoid, and the molecular mechanism for establishing head-to-tail polarity is poorly understood. We have identified a gene that establishes head-to-tail polarity of the mosquito-like midge, Chironomus riparius. This gene, named panish, encodes a cysteine-clamp DNA binding domain and operates through a different mechanism than bicoid. This finding, combined with the observation that the phylogenetic distributions of panish and bicoid are limited to specific families of flies, reveals frequent evolutionary changes of body axis determinants and a remarkable opportunity to study gene regulatory network evolution. PMID:25953821

  17. Sensitivity of midge larvae of Chironomus tentans Fabricius (Diptera Chironomidae) to heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1989-03-01

    The discharge of heavy metals into the natural waters has numerous obvious impacts on physical, chemical and biological parameters of aquatic ecosystem. Bioassay tests are important steps in establishing appropriate water quality criteria and standards for diverse use of ponds, lakes, streams and river waters. Therefore, the acute toxicities of various heavy metals to water flea Daphnia magna, and snail Lymnaea acuminata, and toad tadpoles Bufo mentanostictus have been reported from the authors' laboratory. Chironomid larvae might be particularly useful as indicators of water quality because they are widely distributed in freshwater systems and often from diverse communities within particular habitat. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of ten heavy metals to the midge larvae Chironomus tentans Fabricius, which forms an important link in aquatic food chain(s).

  18. Gastric and gall bladder emptying of a mixed meal are not coordinated in liver cirrhosis--a simultaneous sonographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Acalovschi, M; Dumitraşcu, D L; Csakany, I

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: An impaired contractility has been suggested as a contributor to the increased incidence of gallstones in liver cirrhosis, but the few studies on gall bladder emptying in cirrhotics offered contradictory results. Ingestion of a meal triggers the physiological pathway of gall bladder emptying; therefore, it was decided to analyse postprandial kinetics by investigating simultaneously the rates of gastric and gall bladder emptying of a mixed meal in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: Gastric and gall bladder emptying were measured using ultrasound techniques after a solid-liquid meal (14 g fat, 425 kcal) in 24 patients with liver cirrhosis and in 12 controls. None of the subjects had gall bladder disease. Sequential changes in cross sectional area of the gastric antrum and in gall bladder volume were represented as a monoexponential process after the test meal. Cirrhotic patients were analysed according to the severity of disease (Child classes). The presence of portal gastropathy was assessed by endoscopy. Differences between groups were assessed using the two tailed Student's t test for unpaired observations and the correlations by linear regression (Pearson's coefficient). RESULTS: It was found that gastric emptying after the solid-liquid meal was delayed in cirrhotic patients compared with controls. Gall bladder emptying was significantly diminished in cirrhotic patients: the area under curve was greater in Child A (p = 0.01), Child B (p = 0.04), and Child C (p = 0.014) cirrhotics compared with controls. No correlation was found between the variables of gastric and gall bladder emptying. Gall bladder refilling began earlier in cirrhotics than in controls, before completion of gastric emptying. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate the lack of coordination between gastric and gall bladder emptying in liver cirrhosis. They also support the hypothesis that diminished gall bladder contractility might contribute to the increased gallstone

  19. Sugar-feeding behaviour and longevity of European Culicoides biting midges.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, C; Mathis, A; Vorburger, C

    2015-03-01

    Most haematophagous insect vectors can also use sugar as an energy source; thus their sugar-feeding behaviour influences their longevity and blood-feeding rate and hence their vectorial capacity. Scant information is available on the sugar-feeding behaviour of Culicoides Latreille biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), which are vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses. The longevity of laboratory-reared Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) under fluctuating temperatures (16 and 28 °C) and with access to water or water and blood was on average 6.4 days and 8.9 days, respectively, which was around one third of the lifespan of siblings with access to sugar or sugar and blood (22.2 days and 27.1 days, respectively). Access to honeydew significantly increased the midge's longevity, whereas the provision of extrafloral nectaries had no impact. Females with access to sugar produced a significantly higher number of eggs (65.5 ± 5.2) than their starved sisters (45.4 ± 8.4). More than 80% of field-caught female Culicoides from the two most abundant European groups, Obsoletus (n = 2243) and Pulicaris (n = 805), were fructose-positive. Fructose-positivity was high in all physiological stages and no seasonal variability was noted. The high rate of natural sugar feeding of Culicoides offers opportunities for the development of novel control strategies using toxic sugar baits and for the monitoring of vector-borne diseases using sugar-treated FTA (nucleic acid preservation) cards in the field.

  20. Mosquitoes and Culicoides biting midges: vector range and the influence of climate change.

    PubMed

    Elbers, A R W; Koenraadt, C J M; Meiswinkel, R

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne animal diseases pose a continuous and substantial threat to livestock economies around the globe. Increasing international travel, the globalisation of trade, and climate change are likely to play a progressively more important role in the introduction, establishment and spread of arthropod-borne pathogens worldwide. A review of the literature reveals that many climatic variables, functioning singly or in combination, exert varying effects on the distribution and range of Culicoides vector midges and mosquitoes. For example, higher temperatures may be associated with increased insect abundance--thereby amplifying the risk of disease transmission--but there are no indications yet of dramatic shifts occurring in the geographic range of Culicoides midges. However, the same cannot be said for mosquitoes: over the last few decades, multiple Asian species have established themselves in Europe, spread and are unlikely to ever be eradicated. Research on how insects respond to changes in climate is still in its infancy. The authors argue that we need to grasp how other annectant changes, such as extremes in precipitation (drought and flooding), may affect the dispersal capability of mosquitoes. Models are useful for assessing the interplay between mosquito vectors expanding their range and the native flora and fauna; however, ecological studies employing classical mark-release-recapture techniques remain essential for addressing fundamental questions about the survival and dispersal of mosquito species, with the resulting parameters fed directly into new-generation disease transmission models. Studies on the eventual impact of mosquitoes on animal and human health should be tackled through large-scale integrated research programmes. Such an approach calls for more collaborative efforts, along the lines of the One Health Initiative. PMID:26470453

  1. Moonlight receptor of the "1-h-midge" Clunio marinus studied by micro-XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkenberg, G.; Fleissner, Ge; Neumann, D.; Wellenreuther, G.; Alraun, P.; Fleissner, Gue

    2013-10-01

    Melanin is a pigment widely occurring in animals, plants, fungi and algae. It does not only colour skin, hair and eyes but serves mainly as photoprotectant and prevents overload with minerals induced by inflammations, infections and degenerative diseases. Therefore, the mechanisms underlying melanisation gained increasing interest in the field of biomedical research and clinic. So far, the processes of melanogenesis are only partly analysed, nearly nothing is known on a putative switch between melanins of different types. Here we offer a model organism to study these mechanisms as part of a naturally cycling change of transparency of the retinal shielding pigment. A marine midge, Clunio marinus, living in coastal regions, underlies a complex timing of its development by solar and lunar climatic periodicities, which synchronise biological clocks. The question was how the animals can discriminate changing sunlight from moonlight intensities. For the first time, we could show a "moonlight window" in the larval ocelli of this midge, and propose a hypothesis on the underlying mechanisms. Driven by a lunar clock the image forming ocelli become transparent and convert during moonlit nights to a sensitive photometer, which can record the dynamics of environmental light. High resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of the distribution of trace minerals in single melanosomes combined with their fine structural details in various states of the lunar cycle provide a first insight into the enzymatic pathways for the generation of a dark melanin (like eumelanin) and a light coloured melanin (like phaeomelanin). Essential advantage of this approach is the spatial and temporal resolution of the metals associated with melanisation processes, which could never before be demonstrated in these details. The data may stimulate further research projects in biomedicine.

  2. Mosquitoes and Culicoides biting midges: vector range and the influence of climate change.

    PubMed

    Elbers, A R W; Koenraadt, C J M; Meiswinkel, R

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne animal diseases pose a continuous and substantial threat to livestock economies around the globe. Increasing international travel, the globalisation of trade, and climate change are likely to play a progressively more important role in the introduction, establishment and spread of arthropod-borne pathogens worldwide. A review of the literature reveals that many climatic variables, functioning singly or in combination, exert varying effects on the distribution and range of Culicoides vector midges and mosquitoes. For example, higher temperatures may be associated with increased insect abundance--thereby amplifying the risk of disease transmission--but there are no indications yet of dramatic shifts occurring in the geographic range of Culicoides midges. However, the same cannot be said for mosquitoes: over the last few decades, multiple Asian species have established themselves in Europe, spread and are unlikely to ever be eradicated. Research on how insects respond to changes in climate is still in its infancy. The authors argue that we need to grasp how other annectant changes, such as extremes in precipitation (drought and flooding), may affect the dispersal capability of mosquitoes. Models are useful for assessing the interplay between mosquito vectors expanding their range and the native flora and fauna; however, ecological studies employing classical mark-release-recapture techniques remain essential for addressing fundamental questions about the survival and dispersal of mosquito species, with the resulting parameters fed directly into new-generation disease transmission models. Studies on the eventual impact of mosquitoes on animal and human health should be tackled through large-scale integrated research programmes. Such an approach calls for more collaborative efforts, along the lines of the One Health Initiative.

  3. Crown gall transformation of tobacco callus cells by cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, A.; Manzara, T.; Lurquin, P.F.

    1984-09-17

    Incubation of cells from squashed tobacco callus tissue with virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens leads to the production of cells displaying a crown gall phenotype. In vitro crown gall transformation of dicotyledonous plant cells has been demonstrated after cocultivation of cell-wall regenerating mesophyll protoplasts with Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells. In addition, it has been shown that protoplasts freshly isolated from suspension cultures, when treated with A. tumefaciens spheroplasts and a fusogen, also generated cells displaying a typical crown gall phenotype, i.e., phytohormone-independent growth and opine synthesis. Subsequently, both techniques were used to transfer and express foreign genes in plant cells via A. tumefaciens T-DNA integration. For practical purposes, it would be advantageous to be able to perform crown gall transformation of plant cells in tissue culture. The authors report here for the first time the production of Nicotiana tabacum crown gall cells after cocultivation of callus tissue with A. tumefaciens A136 cells. 11 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  4. To bite or not to bite! A questionnaire-based survey assessing why some people are bitten more than others by midges

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Scottish biting midge, Culicoides impunctatus, responsible for more than 90% of biting attacks on human beings in Scotland, is known to demonstrate a preference for certain human hosts over others. Methods In this study we used a questionnaire-based survey to assess the association between people's perception of how badly they get bitten by midges and their demographic, lifestyle and health related characteristics. Results Most people (85.8%) reported being bitten sometimes, often or always with only 14.2% reporting never being bitten by midges when in Scotland. There was no association between level of bites received and age, smoking, diet, exercise, medication, eating strongly flavoured foods or alcohol consumption. However, there was a strong association between the probability of being bitten and increasing height (in men) and BMI (in women). A large proportion of participants (33.8%) reported experiencing a bad/severe reaction to midge bites while 53.1% reported a minor reaction and 13.1% no reaction at all. Also, women tend to react more than men to midge bites. Additionally, the results indicated that the susceptibility to being bitten by midges is hereditary. Conclusions This study suggests that midges prefer to bite men that are tall and women that have a large BMI, and that the tendency for a child to be bitten or not could be inherited from their parent. The study is questionnaire-based; therefore, the interpretation of the results may be limited by the subjectivity of the answers given by the respondents. Although the results are relevant only to the Scottish biting midge, the approach used here could be useful for investigating human-insect interactions for other insects, particularly those which transmit pathogens that cause disease. PMID:20500852

  5. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F.; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs. PMID:25653837

  6. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs.

  7. Morphology based field rice density detection from rice transplant stage to rice jointing stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, X. D.; Cao, Z. G.; Wang, Y.; Ye, M. N.; Yu, Z. H.; Li, Y. N.

    2013-10-01

    Rice yield estimation is an important aspect in the agriculture research field. For the rice yield estimation, rice density is one of its useful factors. In this paper, we propose a new method to automatically detect the rice density from the rice transplanting stage to rice jointing stage. It devotes to detect rice planting density by image low-level features of the rice image sequences taken in the fields. Moreover, a rice jointing stage automatic detection method is proposed so as to terminate the rice density detection algorithm. The validities of the proposed rice density detection method and the rice jointing stage automatic detection method are proved in the experiment.

  8. The Biting Midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Is Capable of Developing Late Stage Infections of Leishmania enriettii

    PubMed Central

    Seblova, Veronika; Sadlova, Jovana; Vojtkova, Barbora; Votypka, Jan; Carpenter, Simon; Bates, Paul Andrew; Volf, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite their importance in animal and human health, the epidemiology of species of the Leishmania enriettii complex remains poorly understood, including the identity of their biological vectors. Biting midges of the genus Forcipomyia (Lasiohelea) have been implicated in the transmission of a member of the L. enriettii complex in Australia, but the far larger and more widespread genus Culicoides has not been investigated for the potential to include vectors to date. Methodology/Principal Findings Females from colonies of the midges Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen and C. sonorensis Wirth & Jones and the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Nevia (Diptera: Psychodidae) were experimentally infected with two different species of Leishmania, originating from Australia (Leishmania sp. AM-2004) and Brazil (Leishmania enriettii). In addition, the infectivity of L. enriettii infections generated in guinea pigs and golden hamsters for Lu. longipalpis and C. sonorensis was tested by xenodiagnosis. Development of L. enriettii in Lu. longipalpis was relatively poor compared to other Leishmania species in this permissive vector. Culicoides nubeculosus was not susceptible to infection by parasites from the L. enriettii complex. In contrast, C. sonorensis developed late stage infections with colonization of the thoracic midgut and the stomodeal valve. In hamsters, experimental infection with L. enriettii led only to mild symptoms, while in guinea pigs L. enriettii grew aggressively, producing large, ulcerated, tumour-like lesions. A high proportion of C. sonorensis (up to 80%) feeding on the ears and nose of these guinea pigs became infected. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that L. enriettii can develop late stage infections in the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis. This midge was found to be susceptible to L. enriettii to a similar degree as Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of Leishmania infantum in South America. Our results support the hypothesis that some

  9. Field and in vitro insecticidal efficacy of alphacypermethrin-treated high density polyethylene mesh against Culicoides biting midges in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Page, P C; Labuschagne, K; Venter, G J; Schoeman, J P; Guthrie, A J

    2014-06-16

    The efficacy of untreated and alphacypermethrin-treated high density polyethylene (HDPE) mesh against Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) was determined using Onderstepoort downdraught black light traps and a contact bioassay. Three traps were operated overnight in four replicates of a 3×3 randomised Latin square design near horses under South African field conditions. Both the untreated and alphacypermethrin-treated HDPE mesh significantly (P<0.05) reduced the numbers of Culicoides midges, predominantly Culicoides (Avaritia) imicola Kieffer, collected in the light traps by 4.2 and 7.2 times, respectively. A repellent effect of the alphacypermethrin-treated mesh was not confirmed because the number of midges collected in the light traps with untreated and alphacypermethrin-treated HDPE mesh was not significantly different (P=0.656). Bioassay of the insecticidal contact efficacy indicated median C. imicola mortality of 100% from 30 and 10 min following exposure to the alphacypermethrin-treated HDPE mesh for 1 or 3 min, respectively. In the bioassay, mortality was significantly higher (P=0.016) at 5 min post exposure in the midges exposed to the alphacypermethrin-treated mesh for 3 min (74.8%) compared to the 1 min exposure group (59.5%). The HDPE mesh could be used to reduce exposure of housed animals to Culicoides midges, specifically C. imicola, and viruses transmitted by these midges. Mesh treated with alphacypermethrin had the additional benefit of a rapid insecticidal effect on C. imicola. PMID:24655725

  10. Screening of oomycete fungi for their potential role in reducing the biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) larval populations in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Kirsty; Kurtböke, D Ipek

    2011-05-01

    Biting midges are globally distributed pests causing significant economic losses and transmitting arbovirus diseases to both animals and humans. Current biological and chemical control strategies for biting midge target destruction of adult forms, but strategies directed at immature stages of the insect have yet to be explored in Australia. In the present study, coastal waters of Hervey Bay region in Queensland, Australia were screened to detect the habitats of biting midge at immature stages. These results were then correlated to local environmental conditions and naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungal flora, in particular the Oomycete fungi, to determine their reducing effect on insect immature stages in the search for biological control agents in the region. The dominant species of biting midge found within this study was Culicoides subimmaculatus occuring between mean high water neaps and mean high water spring tide levels. Within this intertidal zone, the presence of C. subimmaculatus larvae was found to be influenced by both sediment size and distance from shore. Halophytophthora isolates colonized both dead and alive pupae. However, the association was found to be surface colonization rather than invasion causing the death of the host. Lack of aggressive oomycete fungal antagonists towards midge larvae might correlate with increased incidences of biting midge infestations in the region.

  11. Screening of Oomycete Fungi for Their Potential Role in Reducing the Biting Midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Larval Populations in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Kirsty; Kurtböke, D. Ipek

    2011-01-01

    Biting midges are globally distributed pests causing significant economic losses and transmitting arbovirus diseases to both animals and humans. Current biological and chemical control strategies for biting midge target destruction of adult forms, but strategies directed at immature stages of the insect have yet to be explored in Australia. In the present study, coastal waters of Hervey Bay region in Queensland, Australia were screened to detect the habitats of biting midge at immature stages. These results were then correlated to local environmental conditions and naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungal flora, in particular the Oomycete fungi, to determine their reducing effect on insect immature stages in the search for biological control agents in the region. The dominant species of biting midge found within this study was Culicoides subimmaculatus occuring between mean high water neaps and mean high water spring tide levels. Within this intertidal zone, the presence of C. subimmaculatus larvae was found to be influenced by both sediment size and distance from shore. Halophytophthora isolates colonized both dead and alive pupae. However, the association was found to be surface colonization rather than invasion causing the death of the host. Lack of aggressive oomycete fungal antagonists towards midge larvae might correlate with increased incidences of biting midge infestations in the region. PMID:21655137

  12. FARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES ON THE SOUTH INDIAN MARKET SAMPLE OF KARKATASRINGI (KADUKKAIPOO) – TERMINALIA CHEBUL (GAERTN. LEAF GALL)

    PubMed Central

    Santha, T. R.; Shetty, J. K. P.; Yoganarasimhan, S. N.; Sudha, R.

    1991-01-01

    Pharmacognostical studies on the South Indian market sample of Karkatasringi (Terminalia chebula leaf galls) were carried out along with comparative studies on Pistacia integerima which is the accepted source of Karkatasringi. The galls of T. chebula are also known as Kadukkai Poo in Siddha system. PMID:22556552

  13. Inhibitory motor innervation of the gall bladder musculature by intrinsic neurones containing nitric oxide in the Australian Brush-tailed possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)

    PubMed Central

    Meedeniya, A; Al-Jiffry, B; Konomi, H; Schloithe, A; Toouli, J; Saccone, G

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Gall bladder functions are modulated by neurones intrinsic to the organ. Data are available on the neurochemical composition of intrinsic and extrinsic nerves innervating the gall bladder but are lacking on specific functional classes of gall bladder neurones.
AIMS—To characterise the intrinsic motor neurones of the gall bladder and identify their roles using pharmacological techniques.
METHODS—Retrograde tracing from the possum gall bladder muscle in vitro allowed identification of intrinsic motor neurones. Subsequently, their content of choline acetyltransferase and nitric oxide synthase, markers of acetylcholine and nitric oxide containing neurones, was established using immunohistochemical techniques. Organ bath pharmacology was used to evaluate neurotransmission by acetylcholine and nitric oxide in gall bladder muscle strips.
RESULTS—Innervation of the gall bladder musculature by neurones of both the muscular and serosal plexuses was demonstrated. A large proportion (62%) of these motor neurones were immunoreactive for nitric oxide synthase. All gall bladder neurones showed immunoreactivity for choline acetyltransferase. Organ bath pharmacology confirmed the neuroanatomical data, showing acetylcholine and nitric oxide mediating neurotransmission to the gall bladder musculature.
CONCLUSIONS—Neurones containing acetylcholine and nitric oxide, located within the muscular and serosal plexuses, provide excitatory and inhibitory motor innervation of the gall bladder, respectively. The large inhibitory innervation suggests active relaxation of the gall bladder during filling, mediated by intrinsic nerves.


Keywords: excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmission; gall bladder; motility; nitric oxide; acetylcholine; possum PMID:11600474

  14. Mapping of crown gall resistance locus Rcg1 in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Kuczmog, Anett; Galambos, Anikó; Horváth, Szabina; Mátai, Anikó; Kozma, Pál; Szegedi, Ernő; Putnoky, Péter

    2012-11-01

    Agrobacteria are efficient plant pathogens. They are able to transform plant cells genetically resulting in abnormal cell proliferation. Cultivars of Vitis vinifera are highly susceptible to many virulent Agrobacterium strains but certain wild Vitis species, including Vitis amurensis have resistant genotypes. Studies of the molecular background of such natural resistance are of special importance, not only for practical benefits in agricultural practice but also for understanding the role of plant genes in the transformation process. Earlier, crown gall resistance from V. amurensis was introgressed into V. vinifera through interspecific breeding and it was shown to be inherited as a single and dominant Mendelian trait. To develop this research further, towards understanding underlying molecular mechanisms, a mapping population was established, and resistance-coupled molecular DNA markers were identified by three different approaches. First, RAPD makers linked to the resistance locus (Rcg1) were identified, and on the basis of their DNA sequences, we developed resistance-coupled SCAR markers. However, localization of these markers in the grapevine genome sequence failed due to their similarity to many repetitive regions. Next, using SSR markers of the grapevine reference linkage map, location of the resistance locus was established on linkage group 15 (LG15). Finally, this position was supported further by developing new chromosome-specific markers and by the construction of the genetic map of the region including nine loci in 29.1 cM. Our results show that the closest marker is located 3.3 cM from the Rcg1 locus that may correspond to 576 kb. PMID:22801874

  15. Mapping of crown gall resistance locus Rcg1 in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Kuczmog, Anett; Galambos, Anikó; Horváth, Szabina; Mátai, Anikó; Kozma, Pál; Szegedi, Ernő; Putnoky, Péter

    2012-11-01

    Agrobacteria are efficient plant pathogens. They are able to transform plant cells genetically resulting in abnormal cell proliferation. Cultivars of Vitis vinifera are highly susceptible to many virulent Agrobacterium strains but certain wild Vitis species, including Vitis amurensis have resistant genotypes. Studies of the molecular background of such natural resistance are of special importance, not only for practical benefits in agricultural practice but also for understanding the role of plant genes in the transformation process. Earlier, crown gall resistance from V. amurensis was introgressed into V. vinifera through interspecific breeding and it was shown to be inherited as a single and dominant Mendelian trait. To develop this research further, towards understanding underlying molecular mechanisms, a mapping population was established, and resistance-coupled molecular DNA markers were identified by three different approaches. First, RAPD makers linked to the resistance locus (Rcg1) were identified, and on the basis of their DNA sequences, we developed resistance-coupled SCAR markers. However, localization of these markers in the grapevine genome sequence failed due to their similarity to many repetitive regions. Next, using SSR markers of the grapevine reference linkage map, location of the resistance locus was established on linkage group 15 (LG15). Finally, this position was supported further by developing new chromosome-specific markers and by the construction of the genetic map of the region including nine loci in 29.1 cM. Our results show that the closest marker is located 3.3 cM from the Rcg1 locus that may correspond to 576 kb.

  16. Characterization of the enzyme responsible for nopaline and ornaline synthesis in sunflower crown gall tissues.

    PubMed

    Sutton, D W; Kemp, J D; Hack, E

    1978-09-01

    Extracts prepared from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) crown gall tissues induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains C58 and T37 (nopaline utilizers) catalyze the synthesis of nopaline and ornaline. These compounds are not synthesized in extracts of crown gall tissues induced by strains B6, 15955 (octopine utilizers), and AT1 (utilizes neither octopine nor nopaline) or in extracts of habituated sunflower callus. Both synthetic activities require NADPH, alpha-ketoglutarate, and either arginine or ornithine; histidine and lysine will not substitute. Incorporation of arginine or ornithine into product is inhibited by the other substrate but not by histidine or lysine. On the basis of inhibition and K(m) data, both activities appear to be catalyzed by one enzyme and the same enzyme is apparently present in crown gall tissues induced by strains C58 and T37.

  17. TRANSPORT OF SALT AND WATER IN RABBIT AND GUINEA PIG GALL BLADDER.

    PubMed

    DIAMOND, J M

    1964-09-01

    A simple and reproducible method has been developed for following fluid transport by an in vitro preparation of mammalian gall bladder, based upon weighing the organ at 5 minute intervals. Both guinea pig and rabbit gall bladders transport NaCl and water in isotonic proportions from lumen to serosa. In the rabbit bicarbonate stimulates transport, but there is no need for exogenous glucose. The transport rate is not affected by removal of potassium from the bathing solutions. Albumin causes a transient weight loss from the gall bladder wall, apparently by making the serosal smooth muscle fibers contract. Active NaCl transport can carry water against osmotic gradients of up to two atmospheres. Under passive conditions water may also move against its activity gradient in the presence of a permeating solute. The significance of water movement against osmotic gradients during active solute transport is discussed. PMID:14212148

  18. Gall stone disease in African patients with sickle cell anaemia: a preliminary report from Yaounde, Cameroon.

    PubMed Central

    Billa, R F; Biwole, M S; Juimo, A G; Bejanga, B I; Blackett, K

    1991-01-01

    Cholecystosonography was undertaken in 90 patients with sickle cell disease aged 15 years and over. Gall stones were found in 26 (28.9%) patients. There was no sex difference, but the incidence increased with age from 13.2% at under 20 years to 75% at 30 years and over. The mean serum cholesterol and total and unconjugated bilirubin concentrations were not significantly different between patients with and without gall stones. As most (80.8%) stones were radiolucent they were probably of pigment type, containing little or no calcium, and further investigation into how they are produced is needed. Sickle cell patients with acute abdominal crisis should have gall bladder disease excluded before a diagnosis of vascular crisis is made. PMID:2040479

  19. Rapid cholesterol nucleation time and cholesterol gall stone formation after subtotal or total colectomy in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Makino, I; Chijiiwa, K; Higashijima, H; Nakahara, S; Kishinaka, M; Kuroki, S; Mibu, R

    1994-01-01

    Changes in biliary lipid composition, pH, ionised calcium, total and unconjugated bilirubin, and cholesterol nucleation time of gall bladder bile samples were examined in six patients who had undergone subtotal or total colectomy between five months and seven years previously, and values were compared with those in control patients with no gall stones. The colectomy group mainly comprised patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatosis coli, in whom only a short length of the terminal ileum (mean (SEM) 2.25 (0.57) cm) had been resected. The reconstruction procedures were ileoanal anastomosis in two patients, terminal ileostomy in two, ileorectal anastomosis in one, and J shaped ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in one patient. The distributions of age, sex, and relative body weight were similar in the two groups. The gall bladder bile was lithogenic in the post colectomy group--these patients had a significantly increased cholesterol saturation index (p < 0.01) and rapid cholesterol nucleation time (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. A significant increase in the molar percentage of cholesterol and a decrease in that of total bile acid associated with significantly decreased secondary bile acids (p < 0.05) were observed in the post colectomy group. Gall stones formed in two of six patients after colectomy were cholesterol stones containing more than 80% cholesterol by dry weight. Total and unconjugated bilirubin, pH, and ionised calcium values were similar in the two groups. The results indicate that after total or subtotal colectomy the composition of gall bladder bile increases the risk of cholesterol gall stone formation. PMID:7829016

  20. Effect of sediment contact and uptake mechanisms on accumulation of three chlorinated hydrocarbons in the midge, Chironomus riparius

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.M.; Fisher, S.W. )

    1990-05-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs) are major contaminants of bottom sediments in many freshwater systems. The behavior and availability of sediment-sorbed compounds arouse much controversy due to the potential impact these contaminants could have on the ecosystem if they were to get into the food chain. Benthic organisms are at great risk from sediment-sorbed contaminants since they inhabit bottom sediments. In this investigation, uptake of sediment-sorbed 5,5{prime},6-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB), p,p{prime}-DDE and PCP by the midge (Chironomus riparius) was examined under 3 conditions. Uptake from direct contact with contaminated sediment (sediment + water) was compared to uptake levels by the midge when it was screened from contaminated sediment contact (screened sediment) and to uptake in dead organisms exposed to contaminated sediment (passive).

  1. An inducible HSP70 gene from the midge Chironomus dilutus: Characterization and transcription profile under environmental stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karouna-Renier, N. K.; Rao, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we identified and characterized an inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) from the midge Chironomus dilutus and investigated the transcriptional profile of the gene under baseline and environmentally stressful conditions. Using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we observed increased expression of CD-HSP70-1 in response to both heat shock and copper stress. We also investigated the expression of this gene during midge development. All C. dilutus developmental stages expressed CD-HSP70-1 under normal conditions, although at extremely low levels. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequence demonstrated distinct clustering of this gene with inducible HSP70s from other insect species. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  2. From Midges to Spiders: Mercury Biotransport in Riparian Zones Near the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), USA.

    PubMed

    Pennuto, C M; Smith, M

    2015-12-01

    Riparian communities can receive environmental contaminants from adjacent aquatic 'donor' habitats. We investigated mercury biotransport from aquatic to terrestrial habitats via aquatic insect emergence and uptake by riparian spiders at sites within and upstream of the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), a site with known sediment Hg contamination. Mercury concentration in emerging midges was roughly 10× less than contaminated sediment levels with the AOC, but biomagnification factors from midges to spiders ranged from 2.0 to 2.65 between sites. There was a significantly negative body mass:total mercury relationship in spiders (p < 0.001), indicating that mercury depuration is rapid or tissue dilution occurs in these riparian predators. Spiders contained significantly more mercury than their midge prey and spiders upstream of the AOC had higher mercury concentrations than spiders from within the AOC. Collectively, these data indicate that riparian spiders can be good mercury sentinels in urban environments, and that riparian communities upstream from the AOC may be at greater risk to mercury than has been previously considered. PMID:26387024

  3. Laboratory and field evaluations of chemical and plant-derived potential repellents against Culicoides biting midges in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    González, M; Venter, G J; López, S; Iturrondobeitia, J C; Goldarazena, A

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of 23 compounds in repelling Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), particularly Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen) females, was determined by means of a Y-tube olfactometer. The 10 most effective compounds were further evaluated in landing bioassays. The six most promising compounds (including chemical and plant-derived repellents) were evaluated at 10% and 25% concentrations in field assays using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps. At least three compounds showed promising results against Culicoides biting midges with the methodologies used. Whereas olfactometer assays indicated DEET at 1 µg/µL to be the most effective repellent, filter paper landing bioassays showed plant-derived oils to be better. Light traps fitted with polyester mesh impregnated with a mixture of octanoic, decanoic and nonanoic fatty acids at 10% and 25% concentrations collected 2.2 and 3.6 times fewer midges than control traps and were as effective as DEET, which is presently considered the reference standard insect repellent. The best plant-derived product was lemon eucalyptus oil. Although these have been reported as safe potential repellents, the present results indicate DEET and the mixture of organic fatty acids to be superior and longer lasting. PMID:25079042

  4. From Midges to Spiders: Mercury Biotransport in Riparian Zones Near the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), USA.

    PubMed

    Pennuto, C M; Smith, M

    2015-12-01

    Riparian communities can receive environmental contaminants from adjacent aquatic 'donor' habitats. We investigated mercury biotransport from aquatic to terrestrial habitats via aquatic insect emergence and uptake by riparian spiders at sites within and upstream of the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), a site with known sediment Hg contamination. Mercury concentration in emerging midges was roughly 10× less than contaminated sediment levels with the AOC, but biomagnification factors from midges to spiders ranged from 2.0 to 2.65 between sites. There was a significantly negative body mass:total mercury relationship in spiders (p < 0.001), indicating that mercury depuration is rapid or tissue dilution occurs in these riparian predators. Spiders contained significantly more mercury than their midge prey and spiders upstream of the AOC had higher mercury concentrations than spiders from within the AOC. Collectively, these data indicate that riparian spiders can be good mercury sentinels in urban environments, and that riparian communities upstream from the AOC may be at greater risk to mercury than has been previously considered.

  5. Efficient shedding of accumulated metals during metamorphosis in metal-adapted populations of the midge Chironomus riparius

    SciTech Connect

    Groenendijk, D.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W. . Dept. of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology)

    1999-06-01

    Metal accumulation and loss during metamorphosis were investigated in Chironomus riparius populations in a metal contaminated lowland river. Cadmium and zinc levels were measured in imagoes and larvae at reference and metal-exposed sites. It was hypothesized that the relationship between metal concentrations in biota and environmental compartments would be influenced by the presence of metal-adapted chironomids. In contrast to the large interpopulation differences in larval body burdens of cadmium, body burdens in imagoes vanished to background levels for all midge populations. This indicated that any cadmium accumulated in larval stages was lost during metamorphosis. This nearly 100% efficiency in shedding of cadmium is most likely caused by an increased metal handling capacity present in exposed midges. In agreement with the cadmium measurements, larval body burdens of zinc showed also highly significant interpopulation differences. In contrast with the cadmium values, however, body burdens of zinc in imagoes showed highly significant interpopulation differences and differences were even recorded between the two exposed sites, indicating interpopulation differences in shedding capacity for zinc. It is concluded that the highly efficient shedding of accumulated metals reflected the metal adaptation recorded in earlier studies of metal-exposed C. riparius populations from the River Dommel. Based on the differences in metal accumulation and the differences found in shedding of metals between the two exposed midge populations, it was concluded that population differentiation due to metal stress is a gradual process rather than an all-or-nothing situation.

  6. Interrelationship between the raspberry cane midge, Resseliella theobaldi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) and its parasitoid, Aprostocetus epicharmus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    PubMed

    Vétek, G; Thuróczy, C; Pénzes, B

    2006-08-01

    The raspberry cane midge Resseliella theobaldi (Barnes) is one of the most important pests of cultivated red raspberry Rubus idaeus L. throughout Europe. For the last 50 years several studies have been made on the biology, life cycle and control of the pest. Some data can also be found on its natural enemies, but among these species only the chalcidoid Tetrastichus inunctus Nees turned out to be important in controlling raspberry cane midge populations. However, this species name is now ambiguous as the type is lost. In the present study, Aprostocetus epicharmus Walker was the chalcidoid species that parasitized the larvae of the raspberry cane midge, and its biology seems to be very similar to that of T. inunctus. It is therefore probable that the eulophid species earlier referred to as T. inunctus in the literature is A. epicharmus. Besides discussing this problem, particular consideration and detailed data are given on the biology and life cycle of A. epicharmus in relation to R. theobaldi. Different factors having effect on the population dynamics of both species are also discussed as results of a survey on several red raspberry cultivars, carried out in Hungary between 2002 and 2005.

  7. Selection, management, and early outcome of 113 patients with symptomatic gall stones treated by percutaneous cholecystolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Cheslyn-Curtis, S; Gillams, A R; Russell, R C; Donald, J J; Lake, S P; Ainley, C A; Hatfield, A R; Lees, W R

    1992-09-01

    Between January 1988 and December 1990, 283 patients with symptomatic gall stones were referred for non-operative treatment. After ultrasound scanning including a functional assessment, 220 (78%) patients were found to be suitable for percutaneous cholecystolithotomy. Of these, 113 underwent the procedure including 10 in whom extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy or methyl tert-butyl ether therapy had failed. Forty four patients underwent extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, methyl tert-butyl ether therapy or rotary lithotripsy, 46 chose laparoscopic cholecystectomy or minicholecystectomy and 27 declined treatment. Percutaneous cholecystolithotomy was successfully performed in 100 patients. Thirty four patients were a high operative risk and 14 presented with an acute complication of gall stone disease. Complications developed in 15 patients, all of whom were managed conservatively and most occurred during development of the technique. Outcome has been assessed clinically and by ultrasound scanning in 92 patients with a median follow up period of 14 months (six to 37 months). Seventy nine per cent were completely cured of their symptoms. Ninety three per cent of gall bladders were shown to be functioning and nine (9.8%) contained stones, although five of these are believed to have developed from residual fragments. Percutaneous cholecystolithotomy is a safe, non-operative treatment for symptomatic gall stones and enabled the patient to fully recover within two to three weeks; it has a definite role in the management of the elderly and high risk patient but its use for the treatment of other groups is likely to remain controversial.

  8. Induced gall-bladder contraction accelerates fragment clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Ziegenhagen, D J; Zehnter, E; Kruis, W; Pohl, C

    1993-01-01

    At the end of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) gallstone fragments are dispersed throughout the gall-bladder. In this state they should be expelled more easily than when later sedimented to the gall-bladder fundus. Thus, a randomized study was performed to evaluate the clinical benefit of induced gall-bladder contraction after ESWL. One hundred and five patients with radiolucent gallstones (1-3 stones, diameter < or = 30 mm) were randomized to received either saline or an infusion of 0.2 micrograms/kg ceruletide. Stone clearance rates and incidence of biliary symptoms were recorded. Clearance rates at 6 weeks and 3 months after ESWL were significantly (P < 0.025) improved by the ceruletide infusion. This effect, resulting in shortened bile acid therapy, was limited to patients with small solitary stones and dependent on a good initial fragmentation. Major side effects attributable to ceruletide were not observed. These results suggest that induced gall-bladder contraction can be successfully applied as an adjuvant treatment in a subgroup of patients with small solitary gallstones.

  9. CROWN GALL INCIDENCE: SEEDLING PARADOX WALNUT ROOTSTOCK VERSUS OWN-ROOTED ENGLISH WALNUT TREES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedling Paradox (Juglans hindsii x J. regia) has been the rootstock of choice for English walnut in California because of its vigor and greater tolerance of wet soil conditions. However, seedling Paradox rootstock is highly susceptible to crown gall, a disease caused by the soil-borne bacterium Agr...

  10. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Main report and appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Kaza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This document is Volume 1, consisting of the executive summary, summary and observations, and an appendix listing the GALL literature review tables.

  11. [Surgical treatment for gall bladder cancer with a confluence stone-a case report].

    PubMed

    Ota, Hideo; Ohtsuru, Minoru; Komai, Takanori; Katayama, Tomohiro; Machida, Tomohiko; Ishii, Takaaki; Hiraoka, Kunihiko; Sinozaki, Kouji; Kawasaki, Yasuhito; Ikeda, Yukio; Senba, Hidemine; Yasuda, Seiji

    2012-11-01

    The patient was a 71-year-old man. In September 2011, he experienced abdominal pain with high fever. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) diagnosed acute cholecystitis with a confluence stone (corlette classification type II). He underwent total cholecystectomy and placement of a T-tube in the main bile duct through the gall bladder duct. However, pathological investigations revealed gall bladder cancer in the neck and body part of the gall bladder, leading to a diagnosis of gall bladder adenocarcinoma(Gbn, Flat type, tub2, INF β,pSS, pHinf0, pBinf1, pPV0, pA0, pT3) with a confluence stone. We suspected that the tumor was present in the common bile duct. Therefore, in October 2011, he underwent choledochectomy, resection of the liver bed, lymph node dissection, and choledocho-jejunostomy. Pathological findings revealed that the tumor was present in the common bile duct. He died 8 months after the last surgery because of recurrence of peritoneal metastasis.

  12. Evaluation of wild walnut Juglans spp. for resistance to crown gall disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown gall (CG) disease of walnut is caused by the ubiquitous soil-borne bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The most widely used rootstock Paradox, an interspecific hybrid between Juglans hindsii and Juglans regia, is typically highly susceptible to A. tumefaciens. Identification of a durable sou...

  13. Mössbauer spectrometry applied to the study of laboratory samples made of iron gall ink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgaud, C.; Rouchon, V.; Refait, P.; Wattiaux, A.

    2008-07-01

    Iron gall inks consist of a mixture of vitriol, gall nut extracts and gum arabic. The association of the iron(II) sulphate present in vitriols, and the carboxyphenolic acids present in gall nut extracts leads to the formation of dark coloured iron-based precipitates. In order to evaluate the percentage of iron used in the formation of these precipitates, transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) measurements were performed on laboratory made inks at room temperature. These were completed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The samples consisted of several solutions of iron(II) sulphate, gallic acid and gum arabic. After evaporation, the residues were analysed. Up to eight different Mössbauer signatures were detected, most of them correlated to iron sulphates. The Mössbauer signature of the iron gall precipitate was also isolated. It is not distinctly defined and may overlap with the signatures of iron(III) hydroxy-sulphates, such as jarosite or copiapite. Raman spectrometry then proved to be a useful complementary technique for the identification of the precipitate.

  14. Plant Galls and Ecological Concepts: A Multidisciplinary Outdoor Education Teaching Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce; And Others

    Designed for adaptation in primary through high school classes, the lessons in this resource packet use the development of plant galls (plant growths caused by irritation of the plant tissue) as a focus for outdoor education studies and activities. Emphasis is on science and ecology, though other disciplines are represented. Illustrations and…

  15. Diet, alcohol, and relative weight in gall stone disease: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Scragg, R K; McMichael, A J; Baghurst, P A

    1984-01-01

    A case control study of gall stone disease in relation to diet, alcohol, and relative weight was undertaken. The study population comprised 267 hospital patients with newly diagnosed gall stone disease, 241 individually matched controls selected from the community, and 359 controls who were patients in hospital. Dietary intake was estimated with a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the net association between individual nutrients and the risk of formation of gall stones. Variations in risk with sex and age were examined in the light of prior evidence of influences of sex hormones and age on hepatobiliary metabolism. In both sexes increased intake of alcohol was associated with a decreased risk of developing gall stones; increased intake of simple sugars in drinks and sweets was associated with an increased risk; and increased intake of energy or fat was associated with an increased risk in young subjects. Obesity was associated with an increased risk only in young women. PMID:6424754

  16. The authority and types for the hackberry gall psyllid genus Pachypsylla (Riley) (Hemiptera-Homoptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nomenclatural problems with the hackberry gall psyllid species names are rectified. The genus Pachypsylla Riley, 1883, type species, Psylla venusta Osten-Sacken, includes 14 nominal species. These are: Pachypsylla venusta (Osten-Sacken, 1861); P. celtidismamma Riley, 1875; P. celtidisgemma Ri...

  17. Ecosystem engineering by a gall-forming wasp indirectly suppresses diversity and density of herbivores on oak trees.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, William C; Screen, Robyn M; Li, Ivana; McKenzie, Jennifer; Phillips, Kyle A; Cruz, Melissa; Zhang, Wenbo; Greene, Austin; Lee, Esther; Singh, Nuray; Tran, Carolyn; Yang, Louie H

    2016-02-01

    Ecosystem engineers, organisms that modify the physical environment, are generally thought to increase diversity by facilitating species that benefit from engineered habitats. Recent theoretical work, however, suggests that ecosystem engineering could initiate cascades of trophic interactions that shape community structure in unexpected ways, potentially having negative indirect effects on abundance and diversity in components of the community that do not directly interact with the habitat modifications. We tested the indirect effects of a gall-forming wasp on arthropod communities in surrounding unmodified foliage. We experimentally removed all senesced galls from entire trees during winter and sampled the arthropod community on foliage after budburst. Gall removal resulted in 59% greater herbivore density, 26% greater herbivore richness, and 27% greater arthropod density five weeks after budburst. Gall removal also reduced the differences in community composition among trees (i.e., reduced beta diversity), even when accounting for differences in richness. The community inside galls during winter and through the growing season was dominated by jumping spiders (Salticidae; 0.87 ± 0.12 spiders per gall). We suggest that senesced galls provided habitat for spiders, which suppressed herbivorous arthropods and increased beta diversity by facilitating assembly of unusual arthropod communities. Our results demonstrate that the effects of habitat modification by ecosystem engineers can extend beyond merely providing habitat for specialists; the effects can propagate far enough to influence the structure of communities that do not directly interact with habitat modifications.

  18. Ecosystem engineering by a gall-forming wasp indirectly suppresses diversity and density of herbivores on oak trees.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, William C; Screen, Robyn M; Li, Ivana; McKenzie, Jennifer; Phillips, Kyle A; Cruz, Melissa; Zhang, Wenbo; Greene, Austin; Lee, Esther; Singh, Nuray; Tran, Carolyn; Yang, Louie H

    2016-02-01

    Ecosystem engineers, organisms that modify the physical environment, are generally thought to increase diversity by facilitating species that benefit from engineered habitats. Recent theoretical work, however, suggests that ecosystem engineering could initiate cascades of trophic interactions that shape community structure in unexpected ways, potentially having negative indirect effects on abundance and diversity in components of the community that do not directly interact with the habitat modifications. We tested the indirect effects of a gall-forming wasp on arthropod communities in surrounding unmodified foliage. We experimentally removed all senesced galls from entire trees during winter and sampled the arthropod community on foliage after budburst. Gall removal resulted in 59% greater herbivore density, 26% greater herbivore richness, and 27% greater arthropod density five weeks after budburst. Gall removal also reduced the differences in community composition among trees (i.e., reduced beta diversity), even when accounting for differences in richness. The community inside galls during winter and through the growing season was dominated by jumping spiders (Salticidae; 0.87 ± 0.12 spiders per gall). We suggest that senesced galls provided habitat for spiders, which suppressed herbivorous arthropods and increased beta diversity by facilitating assembly of unusual arthropod communities. Our results demonstrate that the effects of habitat modification by ecosystem engineers can extend beyond merely providing habitat for specialists; the effects can propagate far enough to influence the structure of communities that do not directly interact with habitat modifications. PMID:27145617

  19. Rice Production and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briers, Gary; Lee, Jasper S.

    This guide contains lesson plans for use in secondary programs of agricultural education in geographical areas in which rice is produced. Six units and 13 problem areas are organized into teaching plans that cover the broad nature of rice production. The six units are: (1) determining the importance and history of rice production; (2) determining…

  20. Comparative genome sequencing reveals genomic signature of extreme desiccation tolerance in the anhydrobiotic midge

    PubMed Central

    Gusev, Oleg; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Cornette, Richard; Kawashima, Takeshi; Logacheva, Maria D.; Kondrashov, Alexey S.; Penin, Aleksey A.; Hatanaka, Rie; Kikuta, Shingo; Shimura, Sachiko; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Katayose, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Shagimardanova, Elena; Alexeev, Dmitry; Govorun, Vadim; Wisecaver, Jennifer; Mikheyev, Alexander; Koyanagi, Ryo; Fujie, Manabu; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Shigenobu, Shuji; Shibata, Tomoko F.; Golygina, Veronika; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Okuda, Takashi; Satoh, Nori; Kikawada, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Anhydrobiosis represents an extreme example of tolerance adaptation to water loss, where an organism can survive in an ametabolic state until water returns. Here we report the first comparative analysis examining the genomic background of extreme desiccation tolerance, which is exclusively found in larvae of the only anhydrobiotic insect, Polypedilum vanderplanki. We compare the genomes of P. vanderplanki and a congeneric desiccation-sensitive midge P. nubifer. We determine that the genome of the anhydrobiotic species specifically contains clusters of multi-copy genes with products that act as molecular shields. In addition, the genome possesses several groups of genes with high similarity to known protective proteins. However, these genes are located in distinct paralogous clusters in the genome apart from the classical orthologues of the corresponding genes shared by both chironomids and other insects. The transcripts of these clustered paralogues contribute to a large majority of the mRNA pool in the desiccating larvae and most likely define successful anhydrobiosis. Comparison of expression patterns of orthologues between two chironomid species provides evidence for the existence of desiccation-specific gene expression systems in P. vanderplanki. PMID:25216354

  1. Increased cadmium excretion in metal-adapted populations of the midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Postma, J.F.; Nugteren, P. van; Buckert-De Jong, M.B.

    1996-03-01

    Cadmium kinetics were studied in cadmium-adapted and nonadapted field populations of the midge Chironomus riparius. Accumulation and elimination experiments were carried out using first-generation laboratory-reared animals. Differences between populations were, therefore, assumed to have a genetic basis. Larvae were dissected to analyze the guts and the remainder of the larvae separately. First-order one-compartment models were not always successful in describing accumulation processes, probably due to acclimation. No interpopulation differences were observed in larval development based on dry weights, whereas some differences existed based on pupation rate. In most cases more than 80% of the total amount of cadmium was found in the guts of all populations. Larvae from cadmium-adapted populations showed a decreased net accumulation rate as well as higher equilibrium values (15--20%) compared to nonadapted populations. In addition, cadmium excretion efficiency was increased for cadmium-adapted larvae, which was due to an increased elimination rate from the guts. It was concluded that exposure to high cadmium concentrations in the field resulted in populations of C. riparius with an increased storage capability and an increased excretion efficiency, especially regarding the guts.

  2. Efficacy of Biopesticides for Management of the Swede Midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Evans, Braden G; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2016-10-01

    Management of the swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii Kieffer, in North American crucifer production relies on crop rotation and the timely application of synthetic insecticides, based on pheromone trap monitoring of local adult populations. Organically acceptable formulations of azadirachtin, pyrethrin, and spinosad, and a commercial biopesticide containing the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, were evaluated for their effects on larval mortality and oviposition deterrence in the greenhouse, and on damage symptoms in the field. In greenhouse trials, pyrethrin and spinosad treatments applied up to 24 h prior to C. nasturtii exposure resulted in significant reductions in oviposition on host plants, whereas azadirachtin and B. bassiana only deterred oviposition when applied 2 h prior to exposure. Spinosad caused the highest larval reduction (∼96%) on cauliflower meristems, while azadirachtin, B. bassiana, and pyrethrin caused significant larval reduction when applied preoviposition and significant mortality when applied postoviposition. Field trials conducted with these insecticides on broccoli in 2011 produced no significant reductions in overall damage levels; however, B. bassiana treatments produced more marketable plants than did the control. In 2013, all treatments significantly reduced overall damage levels and all treatments, except B. bassiana, produced more uninfested and marketable plants than the control. Field applications of these alternative insecticides may be effective in protecting yields of broccoli and cauliflower, when combined with other tactics in an integrated pest management program. PMID:27567223

  3. A staging scheme for the development of the moth midge Clogmia albipunctata.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Guri, Eva; Wotton, Karl R; Gavilán, Brenda; Jaeger, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Model organisms, such as Drosophila melanogaster, allow us to address a wide range of biological questions with experimental rigour. However, studies in model species need to be complemented by comparative studies if we are to fully understand the functional properties and evolutionary history of developmental processes. The establishment of new model organisms is crucial for this purpose. One of the first essential steps to establish a species as an experimental model is to carefully describe its life cycle and development. The resulting staging scheme serves as a framework for molecular studies, and allows us to homologise developmental processes between species. In this paper, we have characterised the life cycle and development of an emerging non-drosophilid dipteran model system: the moth midge Clogmia albipunctata. In particular, we focus on early embryogenesis (cleavage and blastoderm cycles before gastrulation), on formation and retraction of extraembryonic tissues, and on formation of the germ line. Considering the large evolutionary distance between the two species (approximately 250 million years), we find that the development of C. albipunctata is remarkably conserved compared to D. melanogaster. On the other hand, we detect significant differences in morphology and timing affecting the development of extraembryonic tissues and the germ line. Moreover, C. albipunctata shows several heterochronic shifts, and lacks head involution and associated processes during late stages of development. PMID:24409296

  4. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Martín García Island, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ronderos, María M; Marino, Pablo I; Díaz, Florentina; Estévez, Ana L

    2011-09-01

    Nearly 230 species of biting midges have been recorded or described from Argentina; 38 of them are known from the Buenos Aires province and only one is cited from Martín García Island. This paper presents the results raised from six collecting trips which took place on the island during spring 2005, summer 2006 and autumn 2009. Diverse sampling sites including permanent and temporary aquatic environments were chosen, most of the ten sampling sites were ponds of diverse origin, some of these environments were covered with floating vegetation as Lemna gibba, Lemna minuscule, Salvinia biloba, Salvinia minima, Azolla filiculoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia, Wolffiella oblonga and Wolffia columbiana. Other sites were placed in urban and suburban areas. Adults were collected with sweep nets at sunrise and sunset and with light traps at intervals of four to five hours at night, depending on electricity availability on the island. Larvae and pupae were collected with different implements depending on characteristics of each surveyed aquatic habitat. In free standing water, they were captured with small sieves or hand pipettes and micropipettes, flotation techniques were utilized for sampling vegetated areas, free and rooted floating hydrophytes were extracted for removing insects among them. Thirteen species of Ceratopogonidae were collected, three of Atrichopogon Kieffer, three of Forcipomyia Meigen, two of Dasyhelea Kieffer, four of Culicoides Latreille, and one of Bezzia Kieffer, all representing new records from the island. PMID:22017124

  5. Vector species of Culicoides midges implicated in the 2012‑2014 Bluetongue epidemics in Italy.

    PubMed

    Goffredo, Maria; Catalani, Monica; Federici, Valentina; Portanti, Ottavio; Marini, Valeria; Mancini, Giuseppe; Quaglia, Michela; Santilli, Adriana; Teodori, Liana; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, serotypes 1 and 4 of bluetongue virus (BTV) entered and co‑circulated in Sardinia. The following year, BTV‑1 spread all over Sardinia and invaded Sicily and the Italian Tyrrenian coast. In 2014, this strain spread extensively in mainland Italy, causing severe outbreaks. In late 2014, BTV‑4 was detected in Southern Italy (Apulia region). This study reports the detection of BTV in species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected in Italy during the epidemics between 2012 and 2014. A total of 2,925 pools (83,102 midges), sorted from 651 collections made on 339 affected farms of 12 Italian regions, were tested for the presence of BTV by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR). The study clearly shows that Culicoides imicola and Obsoletus complex have played a crucial role in the bluetongue (BT) epidemics in Italy in 2012‑2014. Nevertheless, it also shows that other species may have played a role in transmitting BTV during these outbreaks. Culicoides dewulfi and at least 3 species of the Pulicaris complex, namely Culicoides pulicaris, Culicoides newsteadi and Culicoides punctatus, were found positive to BTV. Serotype 1 was detected in all species tested, whereas the BTV‑4 was detected in the Obsoletus complex, C. imicola, and C. newsteadi.

  6. Factors affecting methylmercury biomagnification by a widespread aquatic invertebrate predator, the phantom midge larvae Chaoborus.

    PubMed

    Le Jeune, Anne-Hélène; Bourdiol, Floriane; Aldamman, Lama; Perron, Tania; Amyot, Marc; Pinel-Alloul, Bernadette

    2012-06-01

    MeHg biomagnification by the phantom midge Chaoborus in relation to MeHg concentrations in their prey and its migratory behavior was investigated in two Canadian Precambrian Shield lakes. Three Chaoborus species with contrasted migratory behavior were collected in a fishless and a fish-inhabited lake. All species accumulated MeHg through their ontogenic development. In the lake inhabited by fish, all instars of Chaoborus punctipennis displayed a marked migratory behavior and were unable to biomagnify MeHg, whereas in the fishless lake, Chaoborus americanus and Chaoborus trivittatus biomagnified MeHg. Reduced biomagnification capacity of C. trivittatus, the coexisting species living with C. americanus, was also ascribed to a progressive vertical segregation with age. Growth dilution, amount and type of prey items or trophic position could not explain the different patterns of biomagnification. Our findings demonstrate that the most common invertebrate predator of temperate planktonic food webs can biomagnify mercury, contrarily to previous reports. PMID:22420993

  7. Factors affecting methylmercury biomagnification by a widespread aquatic invertebrate predator, the phantom midge larvae Chaoborus.

    PubMed

    Le Jeune, Anne-Hélène; Bourdiol, Floriane; Aldamman, Lama; Perron, Tania; Amyot, Marc; Pinel-Alloul, Bernadette

    2012-06-01

    MeHg biomagnification by the phantom midge Chaoborus in relation to MeHg concentrations in their prey and its migratory behavior was investigated in two Canadian Precambrian Shield lakes. Three Chaoborus species with contrasted migratory behavior were collected in a fishless and a fish-inhabited lake. All species accumulated MeHg through their ontogenic development. In the lake inhabited by fish, all instars of Chaoborus punctipennis displayed a marked migratory behavior and were unable to biomagnify MeHg, whereas in the fishless lake, Chaoborus americanus and Chaoborus trivittatus biomagnified MeHg. Reduced biomagnification capacity of C. trivittatus, the coexisting species living with C. americanus, was also ascribed to a progressive vertical segregation with age. Growth dilution, amount and type of prey items or trophic position could not explain the different patterns of biomagnification. Our findings demonstrate that the most common invertebrate predator of temperate planktonic food webs can biomagnify mercury, contrarily to previous reports.

  8. Investigating incursions of bluetongue virus using a model of long-distance Culicoides biting midge dispersal.

    PubMed

    Burgin, L E; Gloster, J; Sanders, C; Mellor, P S; Gubbins, S; Carpenter, S

    2013-06-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an economically important pathogen of ruminants that is the aetiological agent of the haemorrhagic disease bluetongue. Bluetongue virus is biologically transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), and long-range dispersal of infected vector species contributes substantially to the rapid spread of the virus. The range of semi-passive flights of infected Culicoides on prevailing winds has been inferred to reach several hundred kilometres in a single night over water bodies. In this study, an atmospheric dispersion model was parameterized to simulate Culicoides flight activity based on dedicated entomological data sets collected in the UK. Five outbreaks of BTV in Europe were used to evaluate the model for use as an early warning tool and for retrospective analyses of BTV incursions. In each case, the generated predictions were consistent with epidemiological observations confirming its reliability for use in disease outbreak management. Furthermore, the model aided policy makers to predict, contain and eradicate BTV outbreaks in the UK during 2007 and 2008.

  9. Gall Bladder and Extrahepatic Bile Duct Lymphomas: Clinicopathological observations and biological implications

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Haresh; Climent, Fina; Colomo, Lluís; Pittaluga, Stefania; Raffeld, Mark; Jaffe, Elaine S.

    2010-01-01

    Lymphomas of the gall bladder and extrahepatic bile ducts are exceedingly rare. We present the clinicopathological features of 19 cases from our files; 14 patients had primary lymphoma (13 involving gall bladder and one involving common hepatic duct), while five had systemic lymphoma on further work-up. Most patients presented with symptoms mimicking cholecystitis. The most common primary lymphoma types were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL), B-lymphoblastic lymphoma (B-LBL) and follicular lymphoma (FL). Two cases had features of lymphomatous polyposis, one a case of FL and the second a case of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), with disease limited to the mantle zones, so-called in situ MCL. Other rare lymphoma subtypes not previously described in this site included the extracavitary variant of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL). Patients with DLBCL and EMZL were older (mean age 75.8 years) than those with other subtypes (mean age 47 years) and more likely to have gallstones (60% vs. 12.5%). A comprehensive literature review revealed 36 primary gall bladder and 16 primary extrahepatic bile duct lymphomas. When compared to primary gall bladder lymphomas, those involving the extrahepatic bile ducts present at a younger age (47 years vs. 63 years) usually with obstructive jaundice, and are less often associated with gallstones (17% vs. 50%) or regional lymph node involvement (6% vs. 31%). In conclusion, primary lymphomas of the gall bladder and extrahepatic bile ducts show a broad spectrum of disease types, but in many respects mirror the spectrum of primary lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:20679881

  10. Innervation of the gall bladder and biliary pathways in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Cai, W Q; Gabella, G

    1983-01-01

    The innervation of the gall bladder and the biliary pathways was studied in guinea-pigs by means of histochemical methods for catecholamines and for acetylcholinesterase on whole mount preparations, on cryostat sections and on sections of plastic-embedded tissues. The gall bladder contains on average 367 neurons in a ganglionated plexus which lies at the outer surface of the muscle coat. The overall appearance of this plexus is rather similar to that of the submucosal plexus of the duodenum. From the gall bladder the plexus extends into the cystic duct, the hepatic duct and the common bile duct, but from the middle portion of the common bile duct downwards, it is positioned at or near the inner surface of the muscle coat. Concurrently with the marked increase in muscle thickness in the lower parts of the common bile duct, another ganglionated plexus appears, which is truly intramuscular. The latter plexus is highly developed, lies usually between longitudinal and circular muscle and resembles in appearance the myenteric plexus of the duodenum, with which it is in continuity. Throughout the biliary system, the extent of the ganglionated plexus is roughly related to the extent of the musculature. An exchange of adrenergic fibres between the ganglionated plexus and perivascular nerves is observed in the gall bladder. Another nerve plexus, without ganglia but rich in adrenergic and acetylcholinesterase-positive fibres, lies between the mucosa and the muscle coat. Very few nerve fibres run into the musculature of the gall bladder. On the other hand, in the thick musculature of the lower portion of the common bile duct, several intramuscular nerve fibres are found. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6833124

  11. Life-cycle effects of sediment-associated 2,4,5-trichlorophenol on two groups of the midge Chironomus riparius with different exposure histories.

    PubMed

    Ristola, T; Parker, D; Kukkonen, J V

    2001-08-01

    Effects of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) on life-cycle traits of the midge Chironomus riparius and the ability of the midge to evolve tolerance to TCP were assessed using a reference group and a group preexposed to TCP during three generations, both originating from the same laboratory culture. F1 larvae of these groups were then exposed to nominal TCP concentrations of 51, 177, 355, and 532 micromol TCP/kg dry sediment and a control sediment in a life-cycle experiment. Most studied life-cycle traits (mortality, egg production, life span, male dry wt) were fairly insensitive to TCP, and significant effects were observed only at high (> or = 355 micromol/kg) concentrations. Larval development rate was variable, and in some cases it responded more readily to low TCP concentrations than other life-cycle parameters. Some of the observed responses were attributed to changes in food availability. No clear evidence of tolerance to 2,4,5-trichlorophenol was found, but the preexposed midges produced more eggs than the reference group. They also emerged earlier and at a smaller size than the reference midges. These differences between the midge groups suggest that some changes toward tolerance induction had occurred during the preexposure.

  12. Mode of existence and seasonality of midge larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) in man-made lakes in the Coachella Valley, southern California.

    PubMed

    Lothrop, B B; Mulla, M S

    1995-03-01

    Over the past 2 decades, numerous man-made ponds and lakes constructed in country clubs and on golf courses in the Coachella Valley have become ideal habitats for various chironomid species. Large numbers of adult midges emerging from these water bodies pose nuisance and economic problems. During 1992 and 1993 we initiated comprehensive studies on the nature and scope of the nuisance midge problem in the valley. We sampled on a biweekly basis 2 lakes supplied with well water, 2 supplied with tertiary effluent water, and one supplied with a mixture of these 2 sources, to determine the midge larval fauna and the mode of existence, seasonal abundance, and population trends of these midges. Climbers, clingers, portable sand tube builders, and tube builders on plants predominated in well-water habitats with submerged vegetation and detritus bottoms. Tube builders and burrowers predominated in the tertiary water, which characteristically had a detritus bottom, devoid of vegetation. Habitats holding a mixture of the 2 water types with sandy bottoms supported midge larvae known to be sprawlers.

  13. Research in rice fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Between 1987 and 1999, 2.4-3 million acres of rice were planted annually nationwide. Rice fields are a major component of the contemporary landscapes in the Gulf Coastal Plain, the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, and Central Valley of California. In 1998, approximately 600,000 acres of rice were planted in Louisiana. In the Louisiana plant commodities report for 1998, total value for rice was over $350 million; sugarcane was the only plant commodity that exceeded this value. Louisiana has over 2,000 rice farmers supporting over 12,000 jobs in the state. Rice fields in the United States receive high use by wildlife, especially shorebirds, wading birds, and waterfowl. Waterbirds use rice fields for food, shelter, and breeding habitat.

  14. Effects of pH on the acute toxicity and uptake of (14C)pentachlorophenol in the midge, Chironomus riparius

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.W.; Wadleigh, R.W.

    1986-02-01

    The acute toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was determined at pH levels 4, 6, 9 to the midge, Chironomus riparius, with the findings that PCP is of greatest toxicity at pH 4 and of least toxicity at pH 9. This differential toxicity is attributable to variations in uptake levels at the respective pH levels. At pH 4, PCP is fully protonated and therefore highly lipophilic. The amount of (14C)PCP present in the midges at 24 hr is thus highest at pH 4. Conversely, at pH 9, the compound is completely ionized. The reduction in lipophilicity at pH 9 decreases the ability of the compound to penetrate into the midge, thereby decreasing the observed toxicity of the compound.

  15. Extraction of light filth from rice flours, extruded rice products, and rice paper: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Dent, R G

    1982-09-01

    Two new methods were developed for the extraction of rodent hairs and insect fragments from rice products: one for rice flour and one for extruded rice products and rice paper. A 100 g sample of rice flour was extracted with mineral oil-40% isopropanol, followed by a water phase as needed for additional cycles. For extruded rice products and rice paper, a 225 g sample of each was initially extracted as above, followed by a single extraction with mineral oil-20% isopropanol. Both methods used an acid hydrolysis pretreatment followed by wet sieving and a percolator extraction. Average rodent hair recoveries were 77.8% for rice flour and 82.2% for extruded rice products and rice paper. Average insect fragment recoveries were 89.6% for rice flour and 91.9% for extruded rice products and rice paper. Both methods were adopted official first action. PMID:7130079

  16. In vivo Toxicity Studies on Gall Extracts of Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Ramachandra, Y. L.; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Subbaiah, Sujan Ganapathy Pasura; Austin, Richard Surendranath; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2016-01-01

    The galls of Terminala chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (Combretaceae) are used for the treatment of various diseases in folk medicine and has been found to posses anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-helmintic, anti-tyrosinase, and anti-aging activities. Considering the ethano-botanical and diverse pharmacological applications of galls of T. chebula, in this study, we investigate the possible toxic effects of different gall extracts of T. chebula by Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity assay. The cytotoxicity test of leaf gall extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, and aqueous) of T. chebula was evaluated by Brine shrimp (A. salina) toxicity assay, which is based on the ability to kill laboratory cultured Artemia nauplii (animals eggs) and also total content of polyphenols, flavonoids with other qualitative phytochemical analysis of the extract were determined. It was observed that the petroleum ether extract was virtually nontoxic on the shrimps, and exhibited very low toxicity with LC50 value of 4356.76 μg/ml. Furthermore, the chloroform extract exhibited very low toxicity, giving LC50 value of 1462.2 μg/ml. On the other hand, the ethanol extract was very toxic to brine shrimps with LC50 value of 68.64 μg/ml. The ethanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content of 136 ± 1.5 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g d.w and 113 ± 1.6 mg of quercetin equivalent/g d.w, respectively. The higher toxicity effect was positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids in the extract. This significant lethality of different extracts to brine shrimp is an indicative of the presence of potent cytotoxic components which warrants further investigation. SUMMARY The present study investigates the toxicity effect of different extracts of galls of T. chebulla, which would serve as an index for formulation of drugs for treatment of various diseases. Presumably, these activities could be attributed in part to the polyphenolic features of

  17. Interactive effects of acidity and aluminum exposure on the life cycle of the midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Palawski, D.U.; Hunn, J.B.; Chester, D.N.; Wiedneyer, R.H. )

    1989-12-01

    The chronic toxicity of acidic pH and the toxicity of aluminum at pH 5.6 and pH 5.0 to the midge Chironomus riparius were determined in 30-day flow-through exposures. Larvae were exposed to water pHs of 7.2, 6.2, 5.8, 5.3, and 4.5; total aluminum concentrations were 14.6, 34.8, 61.4, 128.7, and 259.2 microgram/L at a water pH of 5.6 and to aluminum concentrations of 15.6, 32.5, 56.9, 111.4, and 235.2 microgram/L at a water pH of 5.0. The survival of midges was only 11% at pH 4.5 and 52.3% at pH 5.8. In soft water (12 mg/L as CaCO3) at pH 5.6, survival declined significantly at aluminum concentrations of 61 to 259 microgram/L, but significantly increased at 14.6 microgram/L. In soft water at pH 5.0, survival increased at concentrations of 14.6 to 111.4 microgram/L but decreased significantly at 235.2 microgram/L. At both pH 5.6 and pH 5.0, the toxicological response of midges to aluminum was thus bimodal, in that acid stress was slightly ameliorated by relatively low aluminum concentrations, but exacerbated by higher concentrations. 25 refs., 55 tabs.

  18. Effects of acid-volatile sulfide on metal bioavailability and toxicity to midge (Chironomus tentans) larvae in black shale sediments.

    PubMed

    Ogendi, George M; Brumbaugh, William G; Hannigan, Robyn E; Farris, Jerry L

    2007-02-01

    Metal bioavailability and toxicity to aquatic organisms are greatly affected by variables such as pH, hardness, organic matter, and sediment acid-volatile sulfide (AVS). Sediment AVS, which reduces metal bioavailability and toxicity by binding and immobilizing metals as insoluble sulfides, has been studied intensely in recent years. Few studies, however, have determined the spatial variability of AVS and its interaction with simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) in sediments containing elevated concentrations of metals resulting from natural geochemical processes, such as weathering of black shales. We collected four sediment samples from each of four headwater bedrock streams in northcentral Arkansa (USA; three black shale-draining streams and one limestone-draining stream). We conducted 10-d acute whole-sediment toxicity tests using the midge Chironomus tentans and performed analyses for AVS, total metals, SEMs, and organic carbon. Most of the sediments from shale-draining streams had similar total metal and SEM concentrations but considerable differences in organic carbon and AVS. Zinc was the leading contributor to the SEM molar sum, averaging between 68 and 74%, whereas lead and cadmium contributed less than 3%. The AVS concentration was very low in all but two samples from one of the shale streams, and the sum of the SEM concentrations was in molar excess of AVS for all shale stream sediments. No significant differences in mean AVS concentrations between sediments collected from shale-draining or limestone-draining sites were noted (p > 0.05). Midge survival and growth in black shale-derived sediments were significantly less (p < 0.001) than that of limestone-derived sediments. On the whole, either SEM alone or SEM-AVS explained the total variation in midge survival and growth about equally well. However, survival and growth were significantly greater (p < 0.05) in the two sediment samples that contained measurable AVS compared with the two sediments from the

  19. Efficacy of aerial spray applications using fuselage booms on Air Force C-130H aircraft against mosquitoes and biting midges.

    PubMed

    Breidenbaugh, Mark S; Haagsma, Karl A; Wojcik, George M; De Szalay, Ferenc A

    2009-12-01

    The effectiveness of a novel fuselage boom configuration was tested with flat-fan nozzles on U.S. Air Force C-130H aircraft to create ultra-low volume sprays to control mosquitoes (Culicidae) and biting midges (Ceratopogonidae). The mortality of mosquitoes and biting midges in bioassay cages and natural populations, using the organophosphate adulticide, naled, was measured. Mosquitoes in bioassay cages had 100% mortality at 639 m downwind in all single-pass spray trials, and most trials had >90% mortality up to 1491 m downwind. Mosquito mortality was negatively correlated with distance from the spray release point (r2 = 0.38, P < 0.001). The volume median diam of droplets collected was 44 tm at 213 m and decreased to 11 microm at 2130 m downwind of the release point. Droplet density decreased from an average of 18.4 drops/cm2 at 213 m to 2 drops/cm2 at 2130 m. Droplet densities of 10-18 droplets/cm2 were recorded at sampling stations with high mosquito mortality rates (>90%). In wide-area operational applications, numbers of mosquitoes from natural populations 1 wk postspray were 83% (range 55%-95%), lower than prespray numbers (P < 0.05). Biting midge numbers were reduced by 86% (range 53%-97%) on average (P = 0.051) after 7 days. The results of these field trials indicate that the fuselage boom configuration on C-130H aircraft are an effective method to conduct large-scale aerial sprays during military operations and public health emergencies. PMID:20099594

  20. Effects of acid-volatile sulfide on metal bioavailability and toxicity to midge (Chironomus tentans) larvae in black shale sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogendi, G.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Hannigan, R.E.; Farris, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Metal bioavailability and toxicity to aquatic organisms are greatly affected by variables such as pH, hardness, organic matter, and sediment acid-volatile sulfide (AVS). Sediment AVS, which reduces metal bioavailability and toxicity by binding and immobilizing metals as insoluble sulfides, has been studied intensely in recent years. Few studies, however, have determined the spatial variability of AVS and its interaction with simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) in sediments containing elevated concentrations of metals resulting from natural geochemical processes, such as weathering of black shales. We collected four sediment samples from each of four headwater bedrock streams in northcentral Arkansa (USA; three black shale-draining streams and one limestone-draining stream). We conducted 10-d acute whole-sediment toxicity tests using the midge Chironomus tentans and performed analyses for AVS, total metals, SEMs, and organic carbon. Most of the sediments from shale-draining streams had similar total metal and SEM concentrations but considerable differences in organic carbon and AVS. Zinc was the leading contributor to the SEM molar sum, averaging between 68 and 74%, whereas lead and cadmium contributed less than 3%. The AVS concentration was very low in all but two samples from one of the shale streams, and the sum of the SEM concentrations was in molar excess of AVS for all shale stream sediments. No significant differences in mean AVS concentrations between sediments collected from shale-draining or limestone-draining sites were noted (p > 0.05). Midge survival and growth in black shale-derived sediments were significantly less (p < 0.001) than that of limestone-derived sediments. On the whole, either SEM alone or SEM-AVS explained the total variation in midge survival and growth about equally well. However, survival and growth were significantly greater (p < 0.05) in the two sediment samples that contained measurable AVS compared with the two sediments from the

  1. Laboratory evaluation of molluscicidal activity of extracts from Cotula cinerea (L) and Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls (Oliv.).

    PubMed

    Redwane, A; Markouk, M; Lazrek, H B; Amarouch, H; Jana, M

    1998-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the molluscicidal activity of different extracts obtained from Cotula cinerea and Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls. The hydroalcoholic extract of Cotula cinerea, acetonic extract and gallotanin of Quercus infectoria galls have presented high activity against Bulinus truncatus. The hydroalcoholic extract of Cotula cinerea was fractionated by chromatography on silica gel column. We have isolated two very active fractions at concentrations respectively of 52.5 and 27.5 ppm.

  2. A genome-wide association study of a global rice panel reveals resistance in Oryza sativa to root-knot nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Dimkpa, Stanley O. N.; Lahari, Zobaida; Shrestha, Roshi; Douglas, Alex; Gheysen, Godelieve; Price, Adam H.

    2016-01-01

    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola is one of the most serious nematode pests worldwide and represents a major constraint on rice production. While variation in the susceptibility of Asian rice (Oryza sativa) exists, so far no strong and reliable resistance has been reported. Quantitative trait loci for partial resistance have been reported but no underlying genes have been tagged or cloned. Here, 332 accessions of the Rice Diversity Panel 1 were assessed for gall formation, revealing large variation across all subpopulations of rice and higher susceptibility in temperate japonica accessions. Accessions Khao Pahk Maw and LD 24 appeared to be resistant, which was confirmed in large pot experiments where no galls were observed. Detailed observations on these two accessions revealed no nematodes inside the roots 2 days after inoculation and very few females after 17 days (5 in Khao Pahk Maw and <1 in LD 24, in comparison with >100 in the susceptible controls). These two cultivars appear ideal donors for breeding root-knot nematode resistance. A genome-wide association study revealed 11 quantitative trait loci, two of which are close to epistatic loci detected in the Bala x Azucena population. The discussion highlights a small number of candidate genes worth exploring further, in particular many genes with lectin domains and genes on chromosome 11 with homology to the Hordeum Mla locus. PMID:26552884

  3. New records of predaceous midges from the Middle East, with the description of two new species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Dominiak, Patrycja; Alwin, Alicja; Giłka, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Two new distinctive species of predaceous biting midges of the tribe Ceratopogonini are described and illustrated from the Middle East. Brachypogon freidbergi sp. nov., with a unique Y-shaped gonostylus, is recorded from Israel. We also provide the first records of Brachypogon vitiosus (Winnertz) and B. aethiopicus (Clastrier, Rioux & Descous) from this country, and a key to the adult males of the genus Brachypogon Kieffer from the Middle East. Ceratopogon azari sp. nov., described from Lebanon, shows a distinctive structure of the male genital apparatus, and is the southernmost species of that genus in the Western Palaearctic. PMID:24872285

  4. Diversity of Non-Biting Midge Larvae Assemblages in the Jacuí River Basin, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Floss, Elzira Cecília Serafini; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Márcia Regina; Secretti, Elisangela

    2012-01-01

    The richness and composition of a mountain-river chironomid larvae assemblage in the Jacuí River basin, Brazil were studied, and compared with other riverine non-biting midge larvae assemblages previously studied in the country. Additionally, the influence of some regional-scale environmental characteristics on the spatial distribution of these assemblages was tested. The specimens were collected at 12 sites in the middle course of the Jacuí River basin (in the state of Rio Grande do Sul) between April 2000 and May 2002. Around 100 taxa were recorded. The dominant taxa belonged to the genera Rheotanytarsus, Cricotopus, Polypedilum, and Pseudochironomus. Twenty-two rare taxa were found, representing 22% of the total of taxa inventoried. Fourteen genera (Aedokritus, Axarus, Endotribelos, Kiefferulus, Manoa, Oukuriella, Phaenopsectra, Stenochironomus, Xenochironomus, Xestochironomus, Cardiocladius, Metriocnemus, Paracladius, and Rheocricotopus) represent new occurrences in Rio Grande do Sul. The similarity analysis of the chironomid larvae assemblages inventoried in 32 regions of Brazil indicated five groups with similarity higher than 50%. The groups, when the effects of spatial autocorrelation were removed, displayed a weak positive correlation between the assemblage composition and the aquatic system or hydraulic conditions and the hydrographic basin, and a weak negative correlation in relation to the biome. The altitude showed no correlation with the composition of the assemblage. The relatively high richness of the region surveyed in relation to other Brazilian regions corroborates some tendencies already noted in other parts of the world, such as: i) lotic systems may constitute an exception to the rule that diversity is greater in tropical regions, ii) regions of transitional relief may contain the greatest richness of Chironomidae, and iii) in rivers, the group might have its spatial distribution influenced to a greater extent by local environmental

  5. Hazard evaluation of ten organophosphorous insecticides against the midge, Chironomus riparius via QSAR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landrum, Peter F.; Fisher, Susan W.; Hwang, Haejo; Hickey, James P.

    1999-01-01

    Toxicities of ten organophosphorus (OP) insecticides were measured against midge larvae (Chironomus riparius) under varying temperature (11, 18, and 25°C) and pH (6, 7, and 8) conditions and with and without sediment. Toxicity usually increased with increasing temperature and was greater in the absence of sediment. No trend was found with varying pH. A series of unidimensional parameters and multidimensional models were used to describe the changes in toxicity. Log Kow was able to explain about 40–60% of the variability in response data for aqueous exposures while molecular volume and aqueous solubility were less predictive. Likewise, the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) model only explained 40–70% of the response variability, suggesting that factors other than solubility were most important for producing the observed response. Molecular connectivity was the most useful for describing the variability in the response. In the absence of sediment, 1χv and 3κ were best able to describe the variation in response among all compounds at each pH (70–90%). In the presence of sediment, even molecular connectivity could not describe the variability until the partitioning potential to sediment was accounted for by assuming equilibrium partitioning. After correcting for partitioning, the same molecular connectivity terms as in the aqueous exposures described most of the variability, 61–87%, except for the 11°C data where correlations were not significant. Molecular connectivity was a better tool than LSER or the unidimensional variables to explain the steric fitness of OP insecticides which was crucial to the toxicity.

  6. Colonization of the Mediterranean basin by the vector biting midge species Culicoides imicola: an old story.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, S; Garros, C; Lombaert, E; Walton, C; Restrepo, J; Allene, X; Baldet, T; Cetre-Sossah, C; Chaskopoulou, A; Delecolle, J-C; Desvars, A; Djerbal, M; Fall, M; Gardes, L; de Garine-Wichatitsky, M; Goffredo, M; Gottlieb, Y; Gueye Fall, A; Kasina, M; Labuschagne, K; Lhor, Y; Lucientes, J; Martin, T; Mathieu, B; Miranda, M; Pages, N; Pereira da Fonseca, I; Ramilo, D W; Segard, A; Setier-Rio, M-L; Stachurski, F; Tabbabi, A; Talla Seck, M; Venter, G; Zimba, M; Balenghien, T; Guis, H; Chevillon, C; Bouyer, J; Huber, K

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the demographic history and genetic make-up of colonizing species is critical for inferring population sources and colonization routes. This is of main interest for designing accurate control measures in areas newly colonized by vector species of economically important pathogens. The biting midge Culicoides imicola is a major vector of orbiviruses to livestock. Historically, the distribution of this species was limited to the Afrotropical region. Entomological surveys first revealed the presence of C. imicola in the south of the Mediterranean basin by the 1970s. Following recurrent reports of massive bluetongue outbreaks since the 1990s, the presence of the species was confirmed in northern areas. In this study, we addressed the chronology and processes of C. imicola colonization in the Mediterranean basin. We characterized the genetic structure of its populations across Mediterranean and African regions using both mitochondrial and nuclear markers, and combined phylogeographical analyses with population genetics and approximate Bayesian computation. We found a west/east genetic differentiation between populations, occurring both within Africa and within the Mediterranean basin. We demonstrated that three of these groups had experienced demographic expansions in the Pleistocene, probably because of climate changes during this period. Finally, we showed that C. imicola could have colonized the Mediterranean basin in the Late Pleistocene or Early Holocene through a single event of introduction; however, we cannot exclude the hypothesis involving two routes of colonization. Thus, the recent bluetongue outbreaks are not linked to C. imicola colonization event, but rather to biological changes in the vector or the virus.

  7. Diversity of non-biting midge larvae assemblages in the Jacuí River basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Floss, Elzira Cecília Serafini; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Márcia Regina; Secretti, Elisangela

    2012-01-01

    The richness and composition of a mountain-river chironomid larvae assemblage in the Jacuí River basin, Brazil were studied, and compared with other riverine non-biting midge larvae assemblages previously studied in the country. Additionally, the influence of some regional-scale environmental characteristics on the spatial distribution of these assemblages was tested. The specimens were collected at 12 sites in the middle course of the Jacuí River basin (in the state of Rio Grande do Sul) between April 2000 and May 2002. Around 100 taxa were recorded. The dominant taxa belonged to the genera Rheotanytarsus, Cricotopus, Polypedilum, and Pseudochironomus. Twenty-two rare taxa were found, representing 22% of the total of taxa inventoried. Fourteen genera (Aedokritus, Axarus, Endotribelos, Kiefferulus, Manoa, Oukuriella, Phaenopsectra, Stenochironomus, Xenochironomus, Xestochironomus, Cardiocladius, Metriocnemus, Paracladius, and Rheocricotopus) represent new occurrences in Rio Grande do Sul. The similarity analysis of the chironomid larvae assemblages inventoried in 32 regions of Brazil indicated five groups with similarity higher than 50%. The groups, when the effects of spatial autocorrelation were removed, displayed a weak positive correlation between the assemblage composition and the aquatic system or hydraulic conditions and the hydrographic basin, and a weak negative correlation in relation to the biome. The altitude showed no correlation with the composition of the assemblage. The relatively high richness of the region surveyed in relation to other Brazilian regions corroborates some tendencies already noted in other parts of the world, such as: i) lotic systems may constitute an exception to the rule that diversity is greater in tropical regions, ii) regions of transitional relief may contain the greatest richness of Chironomidae, and iii) in rivers, the group might have its spatial distribution influenced to a greater extent by local environmental

  8. One host shift leads to another? Evidence of host-race formation in a predaceous gall-boring beetle.

    PubMed

    Eubanks, Micky D; Blair, Catherine P; Abrahamson, Warren G

    2003-01-01

    We show that a predator, the tumbling flower beetle Mordellistena convicta (Coleoptera: Mordellidae), has formed host races in response to a host-plant shift and subsequent host-race formation by its prey, the gall-inducing fly Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae). This fly has formed two host races, one that induces stem galls on the ancestral host plant, Solidago altissima (Compositae), and another that induces stem galls on the closely related S. gigantea. We found that subpopulations of M. convicta that attack E. solidaginis galls on the different host plants have significantly different emergence times and, although slight, these allochronic differences are consistent across a range of temperatures. More importantly, we found that beetles assortatively mate according to their natal host plants, and female M. convicta preferentially attack and/or their offspring have higher survival in galls on natal host plants. Our data suggest that subpopulations of M. convicta that attack E. solidaginis galls on S. altissima and S. gigantea have formed host races. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate that a host shift and subsequent host-race formation by an herbivorous insect may have resulted in subsequent diversification by one of its natural enemies.

  9. Structure and development of 'witches' broom' galls in reproductive organs of Byrsonima sericea (Malpighiaceae) and their effects on host plants.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, A L A; Neufeld, P M; Santiago-Fernandes, L D R; Vieira, A C M

    2015-03-01

    Galls are anomalies in plant development of parasitic origin that affect the cellular differentiation or growth and represent a remarkable plant-parasite interaction. Byrsonima sericea DC. (Malpighiaceae) is a super host of several different types of gall in both vegetative and reproductive organs. The existence of galls in reproductive organs and their effects on the host plant are seldom described in the literature. In this paper, we present a novel study of galls in plants of the Neotropical region: the 'witches' broom' galls developed in floral structures of B. sericea. The unaffected inflorescences are characterised by a single indeterminate main axis with spirally arranged flower buds. The flower buds developed five unaffected brownish hairy sepals and five pairs of elliptical yellow elaiophores, five yellow fringed petals, 10 stamens and a pistil with superior tricarpellar and trilocular ovary. The affected inflorescences showed changes in architecture, with branches arising from the main axis and flower buds. The flower buds exhibited several morphological and anatomical changes. The sepals, petals and carpels converted into leaf-like structures after differentiation. Stamens exhibited degeneration of the sporogenous tissue and structures containing hyphae and spores. The gynoecium did not develop, forming a central meristematic region, from which emerges the new inflorescence. In this work, we discuss the several changes in development of reproductive structures caused by witches' broom galls and their effects on reproductive success of the host plants.

  10. Structure of floral galls of Byrsonima sericea (Malpighiaceae) induced by Bruggmanniella byrsonimae (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera) and their effects on host plants.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, A L A; Cruz, S M S; Vieira, A C M

    2014-03-01

    Galls are anomalies in plant development from parasitic origin, and affect cellular differentiation or growth of plants. This parasite-plant interaction occurs in many environments and typically in vegetative organs of plants. The existence of galls in reproductive organs and their effects on the host plant are seldom described in the literature. In this paper, we present a novel study of galls in plants of the neotropical region. Galls of Bruggmmaniella byrsonimae develop in the flower buds of Byrsonima sericea DC. (Malpighiaceae) and affect development of the reproductive organs and the reproductive effort of these plants. The sepals and petals show hypertrophy of parenchyma tissues after differentiation, and the stamens exhibit degeneration of the sporogenic tissue. The gynoecium is not entirely developed; ovary and ovules are often absent. Changes in vascular tissues are also frequent, which may indicate high demand for nutrient resources by the new tissues initiated by the larva. We compared the amount of inflorescences, galls and fruits to evaluate possible effects on host reproduction. The results suggest that the Cecidomyiidae galls in flower organs affect fruit set and the reproductive success of B. sericea.

  11. Structure and development of 'witches' broom' galls in reproductive organs of Byrsonima sericea (Malpighiaceae) and their effects on host plants.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, A L A; Neufeld, P M; Santiago-Fernandes, L D R; Vieira, A C M

    2015-03-01

    Galls are anomalies in plant development of parasitic origin that affect the cellular differentiation or growth and represent a remarkable plant-parasite interaction. Byrsonima sericea DC. (Malpighiaceae) is a super host of several different types of gall in both vegetative and reproductive organs. The existence of galls in reproductive organs and their effects on the host plant are seldom described in the literature. In this paper, we present a novel study of galls in plants of the Neotropical region: the 'witches' broom' galls developed in floral structures of B. sericea. The unaffected inflorescences are characterised by a single indeterminate main axis with spirally arranged flower buds. The flower buds developed five unaffected brownish hairy sepals and five pairs of elliptical yellow elaiophores, five yellow fringed petals, 10 stamens and a pistil with superior tricarpellar and trilocular ovary. The affected inflorescences showed changes in architecture, with branches arising from the main axis and flower buds. The flower buds exhibited several morphological and anatomical changes. The sepals, petals and carpels converted into leaf-like structures after differentiation. Stamens exhibited degeneration of the sporogenous tissue and structures containing hyphae and spores. The gynoecium did not develop, forming a central meristematic region, from which emerges the new inflorescence. In this work, we discuss the several changes in development of reproductive structures caused by witches' broom galls and their effects on reproductive success of the host plants. PMID:25124715

  12. Checklist of host plants of insect galls in the state of Goiás in the Midwest Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Porfírio Júnior, Eder Dasdoriano; Ribeiro, Bárbara Araújo; Silva, Taiza Moura; Silva, Elienai Cândida e; Guilherme, Frederico Augusto Guimarães; Scareli-Santos, Claudia; dos Santos, Benedito Baptista

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Surveys of host plants of insect galls have been performed in different regions of Brazil. The knowledge of species of host plants of insect galls is fundamental to further studies of plant-galling insect interactions. However, a list of host plant species of gall-inducing insects has not yet been compiled for the flora of the Midwest Region of Brazil. New information We provide a compilation of the plant species reported to host insect galls in the Cerrado of the state of Goiás in the Midwest Region of Brazil. Altogether we found records for 181 species of 47 families of host plants, which hosted 365 distinct gall morphotypes. PMID:26696767

  13. Electronic nose as an innovative tool for the diagnosis of grapevine crown gall.

    PubMed

    Blasioli, S; Biondi, E; Braschi, I; Mazzucchi, U; Bazzi, C; Gessa, C E

    2010-07-01

    For the first time, a portable electronic nose was used to discriminate between healthy and galled grapevines, experimentally inoculated with two tumourigenic strains of Agrobacterium vitis. The volatile profile of target cutting samples was analysed by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Spectra from tumoured samples revealed the presence of styrene which is compatible with decarboxylation of cinnamic acid involved in secondary metabolism of plants. Principal Component Analysis confirmed the difference in volatile profiles of infected vines and their healthy controls. Linear Discriminant Analysis allowed the correct discrimination between healthy and galled grapevines (83.3%, cross-validation). Although a larger number of samples should be analysed to create a more robust model, our results give novel interesting clues to go further with research on the diagnostic potential of this innovative system associated with multi-dimensional chemometric techniques. PMID:20579484

  14. Spontaneous Perforation of Common Bile Duct: A Rare Presentation of Gall Stones Disease

    PubMed Central

    Udayakumara, Edippuli Arachchige Don; Somathilaka, Upul; Huruggamuwa, Milinda

    2016-01-01

    Background. Spontaneous perforation of the extrahepatic biliary system is a rare presentation of gall stones. Very few cases of bile duct perforation have been reported in adults. It is rarely suspected or correctly diagnosed preoperatively. Case Presentation. A 66-year-old female presented at the surgical emergency with 3 days' history of severe upper abdominal pain with distension and repeated episodes of vomiting, as she had evidence of generalized peritonitis and underwent an exploratory laparotomy. A single 0.5 cm × 0.5 cm free perforation was present on the anterolateral surface of the common bile duct at the junction of cystic duct. A cholecystectomy and the CBD exploration were performed. Conclusion. Spontaneous perforation of the extrahepatic bile duct is a rare but important presentation of gall stones in adults. Therefore, awareness of the clinical presentation, expert ultrasound examination, and surgery are important aspects in the management. PMID:27433361

  15. Determination of elemental concentrations of iron gall ink components by PIXE

    SciTech Connect

    Budnar, Milos; Simcic, Jure; Ursic, Mitja; Rupnik, Zdravko; Kolar, Jana; Strlic, Matija

    2003-08-26

    The harmful effects of the iron gall ink on the supporting media (i.e. paper, parchment) are known for a long time. High contents of the catalytic ions and acids present in the ink can cause corrosion of the support and even its irreversible damage. Several historical documents from National and University Library (NUL) are being studied. The samples were measured nondestructively by the in-air PIXE for determination of the iron gall elemental composition. The measured concentrations prove that the analyzed inks contain a variety of different transition metals, which may influence the ink's corrosive character. For already measured documents dating from 14th to 19th century the ink and paper elemental concentrations and their ratios to iron were studied by the statistical methods.

  16. Acupuncture Treatment of Pain along the Gall Bladder Meridian in 15 Horses.

    PubMed

    Still, Jan

    2015-10-01

    This study reports on clinically significant relief of pain along the gall bladder meridian in 15 sport horses. Both local and distant points were needled in this study. Pain relief was marked not only locally but also in remote areas along the gall bladder meridian. Clinical improvement was observed in all 15 horses within 30 seconds to 2 minutes after the treatment had started. Twelve horses and three horses were rated as "cured" and "improved", respectively, when they were re-examined 1-8 days after the treatment. The relief of somatic pain was often associated with improved riding performance of the horses. These data are relevant in terms of equine clinical pain relief, as well as in terms of meridian therapy and the scientific theory of acupuncture.

  17. Acupuncture Treatment of Pain along the Gall Bladder Meridian in 15 Horses.

    PubMed

    Still, Jan

    2015-10-01

    This study reports on clinically significant relief of pain along the gall bladder meridian in 15 sport horses. Both local and distant points were needled in this study. Pain relief was marked not only locally but also in remote areas along the gall bladder meridian. Clinical improvement was observed in all 15 horses within 30 seconds to 2 minutes after the treatment had started. Twelve horses and three horses were rated as "cured" and "improved", respectively, when they were re-examined 1-8 days after the treatment. The relief of somatic pain was often associated with improved riding performance of the horses. These data are relevant in terms of equine clinical pain relief, as well as in terms of meridian therapy and the scientific theory of acupuncture. PMID:26433804

  18. Adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of gall bladder carcinoma: What is the current evidence.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Supriya; Benson, Rony; Haresh, K P; Julka, P K; Rath, G K

    2016-03-01

    Gall bladder carcinoma (GBC) is considered the fifth most common one of the most aggressive gastro intestinal tract malignancies. Owing to their large incidence randomised controlled trials have hardly been conducted to look into their optimum treatment. Over the years surgical resection has been considered the only curative treatment of these tumors. However, the outcome still remains guarded. The predominant pattern of failure is loco-regional followed by systemic. Hence, local adjuvant radiation has been used by different institutes with concurrent and adjuvant chemotherapy. The large retrospective series with their limitations showed improved survival in patients with regional spread or tumors infiltrating the liver when treated with adjuvant radiotherapy. In the present era with modern radiation techniques and target delineation radiation may further improve upon the impact without adding to the toxicity profile. Hence, radiation in gall bladder cancer needs a relook to optimize treatment outcome of such aggressive disease. PMID:26265290

  19. Virulence mechanisms and host specificity of gall-forming Pantoea agglomerans.

    PubMed

    Barash, Isaac; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit

    2007-12-01

    Pantoea agglomerans has been transformed from a commensal bacterium associated with many plants into a host-specific gall-forming pathogen by acquiring a plasmid-borne pathogenicity island. This pathogenicity island harbors the hrp/hrc gene cluster, in addition to genes encoding type III effector proteins, biosynthesis of the phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid and cytokinin, multiple diverse insertion sequences and pseudogenes. This review describes a unique model for understanding the emergence of new pathogens or new pathogenic variants, offering an insight into the function of type III effectors in host specificity and the evolution of a pathogen into pathovars. It also addresses the primary role of type III effectors in gall initiation as compared with a secondary role of phytohormones secreted by the pathogen.

  20. Indian carp (Labeo rohita) gall bladder poisoning-report of four cases in a single family.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Rashmi; Kar, Subhranshu Sekhar; Ray, Rajib; Mahapatro, Samarendra

    2011-06-01

    The ingestion of Indian carp gallbladder may result in transient hepatitis with subsequent acute renal failure. This case series also illustrates the importance of understanding the use and potential serious complications of alternative medicines. So fish gallbladder poisoning should be considered in unexplained acute renal failure in Chinese and Asian patients. We report four family members who developed acute renal failure and toxic hepatitis at the same time following ingestion of raw Indian carp (Labeo rohita) gall bladder.

  1. First report of crown gall caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens on Euphorbia esula/virgata in Europe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hypertrophy and hyperplasia resembling crown galls were found on roots of Euphorbia esula virgata occurring at a single site (47°34’32.52”N, 21° 27’ 38.31”E) in east-central Hungary in 2005. Leafy spurge (E. esula/virgata) is an invasive species causing substantial economic losses to the value of gr...

  2. Polar auxin transport is essential for gall formation by Pantoea agglomerans on Gypsophila.

    PubMed

    Chalupowicz, Laura; Weinthal, Dan; Gaba, Victor; Sessa, Guido; Barash, Isaac; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit

    2013-02-01

    The virulence of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae (Pag) on Gypsophila paniculata depends on a type III secretion system (T3SS) and its effectors. The hypothesis that plant-derived indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) plays a major role in gall formation was examined by disrupting basipetal polar auxin transport with the specific inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). On inoculation with Pag, galls developed in gypsophila stems above but not below lanolin rings containing TIBA or NPA, whereas, in controls, galls developed above and below the rings. In contrast, TIBA and NPA could not inhibit tumour formation in tomato caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The colonization of gypsophila stems by Pag was reduced below, but not above, the lanolin-TIBA ring. Following Pag inoculation and TIBA treatment, the expression of hrpL (a T3SS regulator) and pagR (a quorum-sensing transcriptional regulator) decreased four-fold and that of pthG (a T3SS effector) two-fold after 24 h. Expression of PIN2 (a putative auxin efflux carrier) increased 35-fold, 24 h after Pag inoculation. However, inoculation with a mutant in the T3SS effector pthG reduced the expression of PIN2 by two-fold compared with wild-type infection. The results suggest that pthG might govern the elevation of PIN2 expression during infection, and that polar auxin transport-derived IAA is essential for gall initiation.

  3. Quorum-sensing system affects gall development incited by Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae.

    PubMed

    Chalupowicz, Laura; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit; Itkin, Maxim; Sacher, Ayelet; Sessa, Guido; Barash, Isaac

    2008-08-01

    The quorum-sensing (QS) regulatory system of the gall-forming Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae was identified. Mass spectral analysis, together with signal-specific biosensors, demonstrated that P. agglomerans pv. gypsophilae produced N-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) as a major and N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) as a minor QS signal. Homologs of luxI and luxR regulatory genes, pagI and pagR, were characterized in strain P. agglomerans pv. gypsophilae Pag824-1 and shown to be convergently transcribed and separated by 14 bp. The deduced PagI (23.8 kDa) and PagR (26.9 kDa) show high similarity with SmaI (41% identity) and SmaR (43% identity), respectively, of Serratia sp. American Type Culture Collection 39006. PagR possesses characteristic autoinducer binding and a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain. Gall formation by P. agglomerans pv. gypsophilae depends on a plasmid-borne hrp/hrc gene cluster, type III effectors, and phytohormones. Disruption of pagI, pagR, or both genes simultaneously in Pag824-1 reduced gall size in gypsophila cuttings by 50 to 55% when plants were inoculated with 10(6) CFU/ml. Higher reductions in gall size (70 to 90%) were achieved by overexpression of pagI or addition of exogenous C4-HSL. Expression of the hrp/hrc regulatory gene hrpL and the type III effector pthG in the pagI mutant, as measured with quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, was reduced by 5.8 and 6.6, respectively, compared with the wild type, suggesting an effect of the QS system on the Hrp regulon.

  4. Breaking up the Wall: Metal-Enrichment in Ovipositors, but Not in Mandibles, Co-Varies with Substrate Hardness in Gall-Wasps and Their Associates

    PubMed Central

    Polidori, Carlo; García, Alberto Jorge; Nieves-Aldrey, José L.

    2013-01-01

    The cuticle of certain insect body parts can be hardened by the addition of metals, and because niche separation may require morphological adaptations, inclusion of such metals may be linked to life history traits. Here, we analysed the distribution and enrichment of metals in the mandibles and ovipositors of a large family of gall-inducing wasps (Cynipidae, or Gall-Wasps) (plus one gall-inducing Chalcidoidea), and their associated wasps (gall-parasitoids and gall-inquilines) (Cynipidae, Chalcidoidea and Ichneumonoidea). Both plant types/organs where galls are induced, as well as galls themselves, vary considerably in hardness, thus making this group of wasps an ideal model to test if substrate hardness can predict metal enrichment. Non-galler, parasitic Cynipoidea attacking unconcealed hosts were used as ecological “outgroup”. With varying occurrence and concentration, Zn, Mn and Cu were detected in mandibles and ovipositors of the studied species. Zn tends be exclusively concentrated at the distal parts of the organs, while Mn and Cu showed a linear increase from the proximal to the distal parts of the organs. In general, we found that most of species having metal-enriched ovipositors (independently of metal type and concentration) were gall-invaders. Among gall-inducers, metals in the ovipositors were more likely to be found in species inducing galls in woody plants. Overall, a clear positive effect of substrate hardness on metal concentration was detected for all the three metals. Phylogenetic relationships among species, as suggested by the most recent estimates, seemed to have a weak role in explaining metal variation. On the other hand, no relationships were found between substrate hardness or gall-association type and concentration of metals in mandibles. We suggest that ecological pressures related to oviposition were sufficiently strong to drive changes in ovipositor elemental structure in these gall-associated Hymenoptera. PMID:23894668

  5. Breaking up the wall: metal-enrichment in Ovipositors, but not in mandibles, co-varies with substrate hardness in gall-wasps and their associates.

    PubMed

    Polidori, Carlo; García, Alberto Jorge; Nieves-Aldrey, José L

    2013-01-01

    The cuticle of certain insect body parts can be hardened by the addition of metals, and because niche separation may require morphological adaptations, inclusion of such metals may be linked to life history traits. Here, we analysed the distribution and enrichment of metals in the mandibles and ovipositors of a large family of gall-inducing wasps (Cynipidae, or Gall-Wasps) (plus one gall-inducing Chalcidoidea), and their associated wasps (gall-parasitoids and gall-inquilines) (Cynipidae, Chalcidoidea and Ichneumonoidea). Both plant types/organs where galls are induced, as well as galls themselves, vary considerably in hardness, thus making this group of wasps an ideal model to test if substrate hardness can predict metal enrichment. Non-galler, parasitic Cynipoidea attacking unconcealed hosts were used as ecological "outgroup". With varying occurrence and concentration, Zn, Mn and Cu were detected in mandibles and ovipositors of the studied species. Zn tends be exclusively concentrated at the distal parts of the organs, while Mn and Cu showed a linear increase from the proximal to the distal parts of the organs. In general, we found that most of species having metal-enriched ovipositors (independently of metal type and concentration) were gall-invaders. Among gall-inducers, metals in the ovipositors were more likely to be found in species inducing galls in woody plants. Overall, a clear positive effect of substrate hardness on metal concentration was detected for all the three metals. Phylogenetic relationships among species, as suggested by the most recent estimates, seemed to have a weak role in explaining metal variation. On the other hand, no relationships were found between substrate hardness or gall-association type and concentration of metals in mandibles. We suggest that ecological pressures related to oviposition were sufficiently strong to drive changes in ovipositor elemental structure in these gall-associated Hymenoptera.

  6. Purification and characterization of the crown gall specific enzyme nopaline synthase.

    PubMed

    Kemp, J D; Sutton, D W; Hack, E

    1979-08-21

    Nopaline synthase of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) crown gall tissue induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58 or T37 (nopaline utilizers) was purified to homogeneity as judged by analytical disc gel electrophoresis. The native enzyme elutes from a column of Ultrogen AcA 34 as a single peak with an estimated molecular weight of 158,000. The dissociated enzyme migrates on NaDodSO4-polyacrylamide gels as a single band with a molecular weight of 40,000. Thus, the native enzyme appears to be composed of four equal-weight subunits. Nopaline synthesizing activity is found exclusively in crown gall tissues induced by strains of A. tumefaciens that utilize nopaline (e.g., C58 and T37). We found the same tissue specificity for the purified protein that we believe represents nopaline synthase. The results of kinetic studies of the purified enzyme are consistent with a ter-bi rapid-equilibrium random-order mechanism. Nopaline synthase is probably responsible for the in vivo synthesis of both N2-(1,3-dicarboxypropyl)arginine (nopaline) and N2-(1,3-dicarboxypropyl)ornithine (ornaline) in crown gall tissues since substrate specificities and Km values do not change during purification.

  7. Historical account on gaining insights on the mechanism of crown gall tumorigenesis induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Kado, Clarence I

    2014-01-01

    The plant tumor disease known as crown gall was not called by that name until more recent times. Galls on plants were described by Malpighi (1679) who believed that these extraordinary growth are spontaneously produced. Agrobacterium was first isolated from tumors in 1897 by Fridiano Cavara in Napoli, Italy. After this bacterium was recognized to be the cause of crown gall disease, questions were raised on the mechanism by which it caused tumors on a variety of plants. Numerous very detailed studies led to the identification of Agrobacterium tumefaciens as the causal bacterium that cleverly transferred a genetic principle to plant host cells and integrated it into their chromosomes. Such studies have led to a variety of sophisticated mechanisms used by this organism to aid in its survival against competing microorganisms. Knowledge gained from these fundamental discoveries has opened many avenues for researchers to examine their primary organisms of study for similar mechanisms of pathogenesis in both plants and animals. These discoveries also advanced the genetic engineering of domesticated plants for improved food and fiber. PMID:25147542

  8. Historical account on gaining insights on the mechanism of crown gall tumorigenesis induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Kado, Clarence I.

    2014-01-01

    The plant tumor disease known as crown gall was not called by that name until more recent times. Galls on plants were described by Malpighi (1679) who believed that these extraordinary growth are spontaneously produced. Agrobacterium was first isolated from tumors in 1897 by Fridiano Cavara in Napoli, Italy. After this bacterium was recognized to be the cause of crown gall disease, questions were raised on the mechanism by which it caused tumors on a variety of plants. Numerous very detailed studies led to the identification of Agrobacterium tumefaciens as the causal bacterium that cleverly transferred a genetic principle to plant host cells and integrated it into their chromosomes. Such studies have led to a variety of sophisticated mechanisms used by this organism to aid in its survival against competing microorganisms. Knowledge gained from these fundamental discoveries has opened many avenues for researchers to examine their primary organisms of study for similar mechanisms of pathogenesis in both plants and animals. These discoveries also advanced the genetic engineering of domesticated plants for improved food and fiber. PMID:25147542

  9. Occurrence patterns of coral-dwelling gall crabs (Cryptochiridae) over depth intervals in the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    van Tienderen, Kaj M.

    2016-01-01

    Coral-associated invertebrates form a major part of the diversity on reefs, but their distribution and occurrence patterns are virtually unstudied. For associated taxa data are lacking on their distribution across shelves and environmental gradients, but also over various depths. Off Curaçao we studied the prevalence and density of coral-dwelling gall crabs (Cryptochiridae), obligate symbionts of stony corals. Belt transects (10 × 0.5m2) were laid out at 6, 12 and 18 m depth intervals at 27 localities. Twenty-one known host coral species were surveyed, measured, and the number of crab dwellings was recorded to study the influence of host occurrence, depth distribution, and colony size on the occurrence rates of three Atlantic gall crab species: Opecarcinus hypostegus, Troglocarcinus corallicola and Kroppcarcinus siderastreicola. The overall gall crab prevalence rate was 20.3% across all available host corals at all depths. The agariciid-associated species O. hypostegus was found to mostly inhabit Agaricia lamarcki and its prevalence was highest at deeper depths, following the depth distribution of its host. Kroppcarcinus siderastreicola, associated with Siderastrea and Stephanocoenia, inhabited shallower depths despite higher host availability at deeper depths. The generalist species T. corallicola showed no clear host or depth specialisation. These results show that the primary factors affecting the distribution and occurrence rates over depth intervals differed between each of the three Atlantic cryptochirid species, which in turn influences their vulnerability to reef degradation. PMID:26989629

  10. Occurrence patterns of coral-dwelling gall crabs (Cryptochiridae) over depth intervals in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    van Tienderen, Kaj M; van der Meij, Sancia E T

    2016-01-01

    Coral-associated invertebrates form a major part of the diversity on reefs, but their distribution and occurrence patterns are virtually unstudied. For associated taxa data are lacking on their distribution across shelves and environmental gradients, but also over various depths. Off Curaçao we studied the prevalence and density of coral-dwelling gall crabs (Cryptochiridae), obligate symbionts of stony corals. Belt transects (10 × 0.5m(2)) were laid out at 6, 12 and 18 m depth intervals at 27 localities. Twenty-one known host coral species were surveyed, measured, and the number of crab dwellings was recorded to study the influence of host occurrence, depth distribution, and colony size on the occurrence rates of three Atlantic gall crab species: Opecarcinus hypostegus, Troglocarcinus corallicola and Kroppcarcinus siderastreicola. The overall gall crab prevalence rate was 20.3% across all available host corals at all depths. The agariciid-associated species O. hypostegus was found to mostly inhabit Agaricia lamarcki and its prevalence was highest at deeper depths, following the depth distribution of its host. Kroppcarcinus siderastreicola, associated with Siderastrea and Stephanocoenia, inhabited shallower depths despite higher host availability at deeper depths. The generalist species T. corallicola showed no clear host or depth specialisation. These results show that the primary factors affecting the distribution and occurrence rates over depth intervals differed between each of the three Atlantic cryptochirid species, which in turn influences their vulnerability to reef degradation. PMID:26989629

  11. Characterization of the bile and gall bladder microbiota of healthy pigs

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Esther; Sánchez, Borja; Farina, Annarita; Margolles, Abelardo; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    Bile is a biological fluid synthesized in the liver, stored and concentrated in the gall bladder (interdigestive), and released into the duodenum after food intake. The microbial populations of different parts of mammal's gastrointestinal tract (stomach, small and large intestine) have been extensively studied; however, the characterization of bile microbiota had not been tackled until now. We have studied, by culture-dependent techniques and a 16S rRNA gene-based analysis, the microbiota present in the bile, gall bladder mucus, and biopsies of healthy sows. Also, we have identified the most abundant bacterial proteins in the bile samples. Our data show that the gall bladder ecosystem is mainly populated by members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Furthermore, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) allowed us to visualize the presence of individual bacteria of different morphological types, in close association with either the epithelium or the erythrocytes, or inside the epithelial cells. Our work has generated new knowledge of bile microbial profiles and functions and might provide the basis for future studies on the relationship between bile microbiota, gut microbiota, and health. PMID:25336405

  12. Characterization of the bile and gall bladder microbiota of healthy pigs.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Esther; Sánchez, Borja; Farina, Annarita; Margolles, Abelardo; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2014-12-01

    Bile is a biological fluid synthesized in the liver, stored and concentrated in the gall bladder (interdigestive), and released into the duodenum after food intake. The microbial populations of different parts of mammal's gastrointestinal tract (stomach, small and large intestine) have been extensively studied; however, the characterization of bile microbiota had not been tackled until now. We have studied, by culture-dependent techniques and a 16S rRNA gene-based analysis, the microbiota present in the bile, gall bladder mucus, and biopsies of healthy sows. Also, we have identified the most abundant bacterial proteins in the bile samples. Our data show that the gall bladder ecosystem is mainly populated by members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Furthermore, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) allowed us to visualize the presence of individual bacteria of different morphological types, in close association with either the epithelium or the erythrocytes, or inside the epithelial cells. Our work has generated new knowledge of bile microbial profiles and functions and might provide the basis for future studies on the relationship between bile microbiota, gut microbiota, and health. PMID:25336405

  13. Phosphodiesterase-1 Inhibitory Activity of Two Flavonoids Isolated from Pistacia integerrima J. L. Stewart Galls

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Muhammad; Uddin, Ghias; Siddiqui, Bina S.; Khan, Haroon; Raza, Muslim; Hamid, Syeda Zehra; Khan, Ajmal; Maione, Francesco; Mascolo, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Pistacia integerrima is one of twenty species among the genus Pistacia. Long horn-shaped galls that develop on this plant are harvested and used in Ayurveda and Indian traditional medicine to make “karkatshringi”, a herbal medicine used for the treatment of asthma and different disorders of respiratory tract. However, until now, the molecular mechanisms of action of “karkatshringi” and its chemical characterization are partially known. This study deals with the isolation and characterization of the active constituents from the methanolic extract of P. integerrima galls and it was also oriented to evaluate in vitro and in silico their potential enzymatic inhibitory activity against phosphodiesterase-1 (PDE1), a well-known enzyme involved in airway smooth muscle activity and airway inflammation. Our results showed that the methanolic extract of P. integerrima galls and some of its active constituents [naringenin (1) and 3,5,7,4′-tetrahydroxy-flavanone (2)] are able in vitro to inhibit PDE1 activity (59.20 ± 4.95%, 75.90 ± 5.90%, and 65.25 ± 5.25%, resp.) and demonstrate in silico an interesting interaction with this enzymatic site. Taken together, our results add new knowledge of chemical constituents responsible for the biological activity of P. integerrima and contextually legitimate the use of this plant in folk medicine. PMID:25945110

  14. Effects of cisapride on gall bladder emptying, intestinal transit, and serum deoxycholate: a prospective, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Veysey, M; Malcolm, P; Mallet, A; Jenkins, P; Besser, G; Murphy, G; Dowling, R

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Octreotide inhibits gall bladder emptying and prolongs intestinal transit. This leads to increases in the proportion of deoxycholic acid in, and cholesterol saturation of, gall bladder bile, factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of octreotide induced gall stones.
AIMS—To see if an intestinal prokinetic, cisapride, could overcome these adverse effects of octreotide and if so, be considered as a candidate prophylactic drug for preventing iatrogenic gall bladder stones.
METHODS—A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover design was used to examine the effects of cisapride (10 mg four times daily) on gall bladder emptying, mouth to caecum and large bowel transit times, and the proportions of deoxycholic acid and other bile acids, in fasting serum from: (i) control subjects (n=6), (ii) acromegalic patients not treated with octreotide (n=6), (iii) acromegalics on long term octreotide (n=8), and (iv) patients with constipation (n=8).
RESULTS—Cisapride had no prokinetic effect on the gall bladder. In fact, it significantly increased both fasting and postprandial gall bladder volumes. However, it shortened mouth to caecum (from 176 (13) to 113 (11) minutes; p<0.001) and large bowel (from 50 (3.0) to 31 (3.4) h; p<0.001) transit times. It also reduced the proportion of deoxycholic acid in serum from 26 (2.3) to 15 (1.8)% (p<0.001), with a reciprocal increase in the proportion of cholic acid from 40 (3.5) to 51 (3.8)% (p<0.01). There were significant linear relationships between large bowel transit time and the proportions of deoxycholic acid (r=0.81; p<0.001) and cholic acid (r=−0.53; p<0.001) in fasting serum.
INTERPRETATION/SUMMARY—Cisapride failed to overcome the adverse effects of octreotide on gall bladder emptying but it countered octreotide induced prolongation of small and large bowel transit. Therefore, if changes in intestinal transit contribute to the development of octreotide induced gall bladder stones

  15. Exploring the utility of DNA barcoding in species delimitation of Polypedilum (Tripodura) non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Song, Chao; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ruilei; Sun, Bingjiao; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested the utility of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) as the barcode region to deal with taxonomical problems of Polypedilum (Tripodura) non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae). The 114 DNA barcodes representing 27 morphospecies are divided into 33 well separated clusters based on both Neighbor Joining and Maximum Likelihood methods. DNA barcodes revealed an 82% success rate in matching with morphospecies. The selected DNA barcode data support 37-64 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on the methods of Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) and Poisson Tree Process (PTP). Furthermore, a priori species based on consistent phenotypic variations were attested by molecular analysis, and a taxonomical misidentification of barcode sequences from GenBank was found. We could not observe a distinct barcode gap but an overlap ranged from 9-12%. Our results supported DNA barcoding as an ideal method to detect cryptic species, delimit sibling species, and associate different life stages in non-biting midges. PMID:27394207

  16. Effects of exposure to azaarenes on emergence and mouthpart development in the midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Bleeker, E.A.J.; Leslie, H.A.; Groenendijk, D.; Plans, M.; Admiraal, W.

    1999-08-01

    Adverse effects of azaarenes on emergence and mouthpart development of the midge Chironomus riparius were analyzed using six closely related three-ringed isomers and metabolites. Effects on growth rate were examined by comparing the average day of emergence of exposed midges with that of controls. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in the pecten epipharyngis was examined as a measure of developmental abnormality. Delayed emergence was found at concentrations as low as 2% of the acute LC50, so emergence day appears to be a useful sensitive parameter to quantity life cycle effects. No differences in FA were found between exposed and control larvae, although, in other studies, all compounds have been proven to be genotoxic. The differences in FA were found between exposed and control larvae, although, in other studies, all compounds have been proven to be genotoxic. The differences in the genotoxic and FA-inducing properties of these compounds indicate that different mechanisms are involved in expressing these adverse effects. This study also illustrates that the choice of the morphological parameter strongly influences the results of developmental disturbance analyses and thus the risk qualification of a potentially hazardous compound.

  17. First detection of endosymbiotic bacteria in biting midges Culicoides pulicaris and Culicoides punctatus, important Palaearctic vectors of bluetongue virus.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S E; Rice, A; Hurst, G D D; Baylis, M

    2014-12-01

    Heritable bacteria have been highlighted as important components of vector biology, acting as required symbionts with an anabolic role, altering competence for disease transmission, and affecting patterns of gene flow by altering cross compatibility. In this paper, we tested eight U.K. species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) midge for the presence of five genera of endosymbiotic bacteria: Cardinium (Bacteroidales: Bacteroidaceae); Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae); Spiroplasma (Entomoplasmatales: Spiroplasmataceae); Arsenophonus (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), and Rickettsia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae). Cardinium spp. were detected in both sexes of Culicoides pulicaris and Culicoides punctatus, two known vectors of bluetongue virus. Cardinium spp. were not detected in any other species, including the Culicoides obsoletus group, the main vector of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses in northern Europe. The other endosymbionts were not detected in any Culicoides species. The Cardinium strain detected in U.K. Culicoides species is very closely related to the Candidatus Cardinium hertigii group C, previously identified in Culicoides species in Asia. Further, we infer that the symbiont is not a sex ratio distorter and shows geographic variation in prevalence within a species. Despite its detection in several species of Culicoides that vector arboviruses worldwide, the absence of Cardinium in the C. obsoletus group suggests that infections of these symbionts may not be necessary to the arboviral vector competence of biting midges.

  18. Bringing gay and lesbian activism to the White House: Midge Costanza and the National Gay Task Force Meeting.

    PubMed

    Mattingly, Doreen J; Boyd, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    In March 1977, President Carter's Assistant Margaret "Midge" Costanza made history by meeting with representatives from the National Gay Task Force (NGTF) to hear their grievances about discriminatory federal policies. The effects of the meeting were many, including changes in policies of the Bureau of Prisons and the Public Health Service. It also initiated policy discussions that would continue for decades and contributed to the incorporation of gay rights within the Democratic Party. Midge Costanza was fundamental to the process. It was her decision to hold the meeting and to advocate on behalf of the NGTF, and she bore many of the meeting's political costs. In this article we make use of Costanza's own papers and multiple interviews with her to closely analyze Costanza's role in the historic meeting. In addition to adding detail to its politics and policy impacts of the meeting, we also look at her complex motivations for holding such a controversial meeting. Costanza maintained until her death in 2010 that she was motivated by her feminism and overall commitment to social justice, rather than her own identity or experiences. PMID:23855947

  19. Identification of Cattle-Derived Volatiles that Modulate the Behavioral Response of the Biting Midge Culicoides nubeculosus.

    PubMed

    Isberg, Elin; Bray, Daniel Peter; Birgersson, Göran; Hillbur, Ylva; Ignell, Rickard

    2016-01-01

    Identification of host-derived volatiles is an important step towards the development of novel surveillance and control tools for Culicoides biting midges. In this study, we identified compounds from headspace collections of cattle hair and urine that modulate the behavioral response of Culicoides nubeculosus, a research model species with a similar host-range as the vectors of Bluetongue disease and Schmallenberg disease in Europe. Combined gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analysis revealed 23 bioactive compounds, of which 17, together with octanal, were evaluated in a two-choice behavioral assay in the presence of CO2. Decanal, 2-phenylethanal, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-ethylhexanol, 3-methylindole, phenol, and 3-ethylphenol elicited attraction of host seeking C. nubeculosus, whereas heptanal, octanal, nonanal, 3-propylphenol, and 4-propylphenol inhibited the insects' attraction to CO2, when compared to CO2 alone. 6-Methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 3-methylphenol, 4-methylphenol, and 4-ethylphenol elicited both attraction and inhibition. The behavioral responses were dependent on the concentration tested. Our results show that cattle-derived odors have the potential to be used for the manipulation of the behavior of Culicoides biting midges. PMID:26687092

  20. Interaction between two invasive organisms on the European chestnut: does the chestnut blight fungus benefit from the presence of the gall wasp?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joana B; Gallien, Laure; Prospero, Simone

    2015-11-01

    The impact of invasive fungal pathogens and pests on trees is often studied individually, thereby omitting possible interactions. In this study the ecological interaction between the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica and the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus was investigated. We determined if abandoned galls could be colonized by C. parasitica and thereby act as an entry point and a source of pathogen inoculum. Moreover we assessed the identity and diversity of other gall-colonizing fungal species. A total of 1973 galls were randomly sampled from 200 chestnut trees in eight Swiss stands. In a stand C. parasitica was isolated from 0.4-19.2% of the galls. The incidence of C. parasitica on the galls and the fungal diversity significantly increased with the residence time of D. kuriphilus in a stand. All but one C. parasitica cultures were virulent. The predominant fungus isolated from galls was Gnomoniopsis castanea whose abundance influenced negatively that of C. parasitica. This study shows that D. kuriphilus galls can be colonized by virulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus C. parasitica. This can have effects on the chestnut blight incidence even in chestnut stands where the disease is successfully controlled by hypovirulence. The gall wasp presence influences also the fungal species composition on chestnut trees.

  1. Interaction between two invasive organisms on the European chestnut: does the chestnut blight fungus benefit from the presence of the gall wasp?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joana B; Gallien, Laure; Prospero, Simone

    2015-11-01

    The impact of invasive fungal pathogens and pests on trees is often studied individually, thereby omitting possible interactions. In this study the ecological interaction between the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica and the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus was investigated. We determined if abandoned galls could be colonized by C. parasitica and thereby act as an entry point and a source of pathogen inoculum. Moreover we assessed the identity and diversity of other gall-colonizing fungal species. A total of 1973 galls were randomly sampled from 200 chestnut trees in eight Swiss stands. In a stand C. parasitica was isolated from 0.4-19.2% of the galls. The incidence of C. parasitica on the galls and the fungal diversity significantly increased with the residence time of D. kuriphilus in a stand. All but one C. parasitica cultures were virulent. The predominant fungus isolated from galls was Gnomoniopsis castanea whose abundance influenced negatively that of C. parasitica. This study shows that D. kuriphilus galls can be colonized by virulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus C. parasitica. This can have effects on the chestnut blight incidence even in chestnut stands where the disease is successfully controlled by hypovirulence. The gall wasp presence influences also the fungal species composition on chestnut trees. PMID:26472577

  2. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  3. A new gall-inducing genus and species of Eriococcidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) on Sapindaceae from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Chris; Isaias, Rosy M S; Oliveira, D C

    2013-11-06

    A new gall-inducing genus and species of felt scales (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) found on the leaves and twigs of Matayba guianensis (Sapindaceae) in Brazil is described: Bystracoccus Hodgson gen n. and B. mataybae Hodgson, Isaias & Oliveira sp. n.  This is the first record of an eriococcid inducing leaf and stem galls on Sapindaceae and is only the second example of a member of the Eriococcidae to induce stem galls in which the insects diapause during the dry (winter) season.  Only the adult female, second-instar female and crawler are known.  The species overwinters as the first-instar nymph in pit galls on the twigs but spends the rest of the year associated with two-chambered galls on the leaves.  It has recently become clear that South America has a rich felt-scale insect fauna many of which induce galls. It has proved very difficult to place this new genus in a family as it appears to fall between the Eriococcidae and Beesoniidae but is here placed in the eriococcids based on the similarity of the first-instar nymphs and the abundance of this family in the Neotropics.  However, the dorsum of the abdomen of the mature adult female becomes heavily sclerotised, forming a round plug-like structure that completely fills the gall orifice.  This structure shows remarkable morphological similarities to that of the beesoniid Danumococcus parashoreae Takagi & Hodgson found on Parashorea tomentella (Dipterocarpaceae) in Sabah, Malaysia, with which it is compared along with other eriococcid genera known from South America.

  4. Life-cycle changes and zinc shortage in cadmium-tolerant midges, Chironomus riparius (Diptera), reared in the absence of cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Postma, J.F.; Mol, S.; Larsen, H.; Admiraal, W. . Section of Aquatic Ecotoxicology)

    1995-01-01

    Adaptation to selected metals is known to modify life-cycle characteristics of some invertebrates and can modify the response to other metals. The reverse process, i.e., adaptation to nonpolluted conditions in a metal-tolerant strain, was studied here for a cadmium-tolerant population of the midge Chironomus riparius to detect whether this backward adaptation followed the same lines. It appeared that cadmium-tolerant populations, reared in the absence of cadmium, continued to suffer from high mortality rates and lowered larval growth rates and reproductive success. Also, some cadmium-tolerant populations accumulated more zinc than did nontolerant populations. Successive experiments in which both cadmium-tolerant and nontolerant populations were exposed to zinc indicated that the reduced growth rate and reproduction were a direct consequence of zinc shortage in tolerant midges reared in the absence of cadmium. Mortality among cadmium-tolerant midges was, however, not lowered by zinc exposure and, judged by their high mortality rates, these midges were even more sensitive to zinc than were nontolerant chironomids. It was concluded that cadmium-tolerant chironomid populations recovering from prolonged exposure are affected by an increased need for zinc as well as by an increased mortality rate as a direct consequence of their earlier adaptation process.

  5. Identification, expression, and characterization of a major salivary allergen (Cul s 1) of the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis relevant for summer eczema in horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salivary proteins of Culicoides biting midges are thought to play a key role in the induction of summer eczema (SE), a seasonal recurrent allergic dermatitis in horses. The present study describes the identification of a candidate allergen in artificially collected saliva of the North American speci...

  6. The reference transcriptome of the adult female biting midge (Culicoides sonorensis) and differential gene expression profiling during teneral, blood, and sucrose feeding conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike other important vectors such as mosquitoes and sandflies, genetic and genomic tools for Culicoides biting midges are lacking, despite the fact that they vector a large number of arboviruses and other pathogens impacting humans and domestic animals world-wide. In North America, female Culicoid...

  7. A systematic analysis of the gap gene system in the moth midge Clogmia albipunctata.

    PubMed

    García-Solache, Mónica; Jaeger, Johannes; Akam, Michael

    2010-08-01

    The segmentation gene hierarchy of Drosophila melanogaster represents one of the best understood of the gene networks that generate pattern during embryogenesis. Some components of this network are ancient, while other parts of the network have evolved within the higher Diptera. To further understand the evolution of this gene network, we are studying the role of gap genes in a representative of a basally diverging dipteran lineage, the moth midge Clogmia albipunctata. We have isolated orthologues of all of the Drosophila trunk gap genes from Clogmia, and determined their domains of expression during the blastoderm stage of development, in relation to one another, and in relation to the expression of even-skipped (Calb-eve), a component of the pair-rule system that is directly regulated by the gap genes in Drosophila. We find that hunchback (Calb-hb), Krüppel (Calb-Kr), knirps (Calb-knl), giant (Calb-gt) and tailless (Calb-tll) are all expressed in patterns consistent with a gap segmentation role during blastoderm formation, but huckebein (Calb-hkb) is not. In the anterior half of the embryo, the relative positions of the gap gene expression domains in relation to one another, and in relation to the eve stripes, are rather well conserved. In the posterior half of the embryo, there are significant differences. Posteriorly, Calb-gt is expressed only transiently and very weakly, in a domain that overlaps entirely with that of Calb-knl. At late blastoderm stages, none of the candidate genes we have tested is expressed in the region between the posterior Calb-knl domain and Calb-tll. It is likely that the regulation of Calb-eve expression in this posterior region depends on combinations of gap gene factors that differ from those utilised for the same stripes in Drosophila. Both the gap and the pair-rule patterns of gene expression are dynamic in Clogmia, as they are in Drosophila, shifting anteriorly as blastoderm development proceeds. PMID:20433825

  8. Making rice even healthier!

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is a naturally healthy food, but what if it could be made even healthier? Would Americans eat more rice if it could be advertised to be a 'New and Improved' source of calcium to promote bone growth, or iron to prevent anemia? Grocery stores are full of foods that are vitamin enhanced to attract...

  9. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  10. Cost effectiveness of adjuvant bile salt treatment in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for the treatment of gall bladder stones.

    PubMed

    Nicholl, J P; Ross, B; Milner, P C; Brazier, J E; Westlake, L; Kohler, B; Frost, E; Williams, B T; Johnson, A G

    1994-09-01

    The relative cost effectiveness of adjuvant urso and chenodeoxycholic acid treatment in extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been assessed as part of a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of ESWL as a treatment of gall bladder stones. Of the first patients with gall stone volume < 4 cm3 randomised to ESWL in the main trial, 24 were randomised to have ESWL alone and 26 to have adjuvant bile acid treatment, one of whom died before the end of the 12 month follow up period. At 12 months after treatment, differences in gall stone clearance between ESWL alone (3/24 (13%) clear, 5 (21%) referred for surgery) and ESWL and bile acids (6/25 (24%) clear, 2 (8%) referred for surgery) were not significant (p = 0.36, log rank test). Patients in both groups had substantial and significant health gains (according to biliary pain frequency and severity, Nottingham Health Profile scores, visual analogue scale symptom scores, and complications) but there were no significant differences between the groups. Improvements in both groups usually occurred within a few weeks of treatment and were unrelated to gall stone clearance. Costs were greater in the bile salt group (95% confidence intervals for estimated cost difference: 90 pounds to 630 pounds). If the purpose of treatment is symptom relief rather than gall stone clearance then adjuvant bile salt treatment seems to be unnecessary.

  11. New gall wasp species attacking chestnut trees: Dryocosmus zhuili n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Castanea henryi from southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dao-Hong; Liu, Zhiwei; Lu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Su, Cheng-Yuan; Liu, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A new gall wasp species, Dryocosmus zhuili Liu et Zhu, is herein described from the southeastern Fujian province of China. The new species induces galls on trees of Henry's chestnut, Castanea henryi, which is also a native host for the notorious Oriental chestnut gall wasp (OCGW, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu). D. zhuili overlaps with OCGW in emergence time and induces galls morphologically similar to that of OCGW on similar plant parts. In a previous study, we reported considerable divergence between mtDNA CO1 (mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) sequences of these wasps and the true OCGW wasps and suggested the existence of a cryptic species. Herein, we confirm the identity of the new species based on morphological and biological differences and provide a formal description. Although the new species is relatively easily separated from OCGW on basis of morphology, field identification involving the two species can still be problematic because of their small body size, highly similar gall morphology, and other life history traits. We further discussed the potential of the new species to be a pest for the chestnut industry and the consequences of accidental introduction of this species into nonnative areas, especially with regard to the bisexual reproduction mode of the new species in contrast to the parthenogenetic reproduction mode of OCGW.

  12. New Gall Wasp Species Attacking Chestnut Trees: Dryocosmus zhuili n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Castanea henryi from Southeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dao-Hong; Liu, Zhiwei; Lu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Su, Cheng-Yuan; Liu, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A new gall wasp species, Dryocosmus zhuili Liu et Zhu, is herein described from the southeastern Fujian province of China. The new species induces galls on trees of Henry’s chestnut, Castanea henryi, which is also a native host for the notorious Oriental chestnut gall wasp (OCGW, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu). D. zhuili overlaps with OCGW in emergence time and induces galls morphologically similar to that of OCGW on similar plant parts. In a previous study, we reported considerable divergence between mtDNA CO1 (mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) sequences of these wasps and the true OCGW wasps and suggested the existence of a cryptic species. Herein, we confirm the identity of the new species based on morphological and biological differences and provide a formal description. Although the new species is relatively easily separated from OCGW on basis of morphology, field identification involving the two species can still be problematic because of their small body size, highly similar gall morphology, and other life history traits. We further discussed the potential of the new species to be a pest for the chestnut industry and the consequences of accidental introduction of this species into nonnative areas, especially with regard to the bisexual reproduction mode of the new species in contrast to the parthenogenetic reproduction mode of OCGW. PMID:26516167

  13. Discovery and Evolution of Bunyavirids in Arctic Phantom Midges and Ancient Bunyavirid-Like Sequences in Insect Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Bruenn, Jeremy A.; Hay, John; Czechowski, Donna; Taylor, Derek J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bunyaviridae is a large family of RNA viruses chiefly comprised of vertebrate and plant pathogens. We discovered novel bunyavirids that are approximately equally divergent from each of the five known genera. We characterized novel genome sequences for two bunyavirids, namely, Kigluaik phantom virus (KIGV), from tundra-native phantom midges (Chaoborus), and Nome phantom virus (NOMV), from tundra-invading phantom midges, and demonstrated that these bunyavirid-like sequences belong to an infectious virus by passaging KIGV in mosquito cell culture, although the infection does not seem to be well sustained beyond a few passages. Virus and host gene sequences from individuals collected on opposite ends of North America, a region spanning 4,000 km, support a long-term, vertically transmitted infection of KIGV in Chaoborus trivittatus. KIGV-like sequences ranging from single genes to full genomes are present in transcriptomes and genomes of insects belonging to six taxonomic orders, suggesting an ancient association of this clade with insect hosts. In Drosophila, endogenous virus genes have been coopted, forming an orthologous tandem gene family that has been maintained by selection during the radiation of the host genus. Our findings indicate that bunyavirid-host interactions in nonbloodsucking arthropods have been much more extensive than previously thought. IMPORTANCE Very little is known about the viral diversity in polar freshwater ponds, and perhaps less is known about the effects that climate-induced habitat changes in these regions will have on virus-host interactions in the coming years. Our results show that at the tundra-boreal boundary, a hidden viral landscape is being altered as infected boreal phantom midges colonize tundra ponds. Likewise, relatively little is known of the deeper evolutionary history of bunyavirids that has led to the stark lifestyle contrasts between some genera. The discovery of this novel bunyavirid group suggests that ancient

  14. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on growth of Arundo donax and on rearing of a biological control agent, the shoot gall-forming wasp Tetramesa romana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen augmentation often leads to increased feeding and/or reproduction by herbivorous insects, but little is known about the effects on insects that gall grasses. The shoot tip-galling wasp Tetramesa romana has been released for biological control of the giant grass arundo (Arundo donax) in the...

  15. Effect of water deficit on generation time and reproduction of the gall wasp, Tetramesa romana, a biological control agent of giant reed (Arundo donax)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water deficit stress can reduce the reproductive performance of galling insects, but its effects on a galling insect introduced for biological control of a perennial grass weed have not previously been examined. The effects of water deficit were examined for the wasp Tetramesa romana Walker (Hymeno...

  16. 77 FR 14446 - Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2 AMP XI.M41, “Buried and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    .... ML100920158), for which a notice of availability was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2010 (75 FR... COMMISSION Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2 AMP XI.M41, ``Buried and... program in NUREG-1801, Revision 2, ``Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report,'' and the NRC...

  17. Sequential radiation of unrelated organisms: the gall fly Eurosta solidaginis and the tumbling flower beetle Mordellistena convicta.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, W G; Blair, C P; Eubanks, M D; Morehead, S A

    2003-09-01

    Host shifts and the formation of insect-host races are likely common processes in the speciation of herbivorous insects. The interactions of goldenrods Solidago (Compositae), the gall fly Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the beetle Mordellistena convicta (Coleoptera: Mordellidae) provide behavioural, ecological and genetic evidence of host races that may represent incipient species forming via sympatric speciation. We summarize evidence for Eurosta host races and show that M. convicta has radiated from goldenrod stems to Eurosta galls to form host-part races and, having exploited the galler's host shift, has begun to differentiate into host races within galls. Thus, host-race formation has occurred in two interacting, but unrelated organisms representing two trophic levels, resulting in 'sequential radiation' (escalation of biodiversity up the trophic system). Distributions of host races and their behavioural isolating mechanisms suggest sympatric differentiation. Such differentiation suggests host-race formation and subsequent speciation may be an important source of biodiversity.

  18. Molecular markers and cell cycle inhibitors show the importance of cell cycle progression in nematode-induced galls and syncytia.

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Engler, J; De Vleesschauwer, V; Burssens, S; Celenza, J L; Inzé, D; Van Montagu, M; Engler, G; Gheysen, G

    1999-01-01

    Root knot and cyst nematodes induce large multinucleated cells, designated giant cells and syncytia, respectively, in plant roots. We have used molecular markers to study cell cycle progression in these specialized feeding cells. In situ hybridization with two cyclin-dependent kinases and two cyclins showed that these genes were induced very early in galls and syncytia and that the feeding cells progressed through the G2 phase. By using cell cycle blockers, DNA synthesis and progression through the G2 phase, or mitosis, were shown to be essential for gall and syncytium establishment. When mitosis was blocked, further gall development was arrested. This result demonstrates that cycles of endoreduplication or other methods of DNA amplification are insufficient to drive giant cell expansion. On the other hand, syncytium development was much less affected by a mitotic block; however, syncytium expansion was inhibited. PMID:10330466

  19. A new species of Dasineura Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in flower galls of Camassia (Asparagaceae: Agavoideae) in the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Raymond J; Barosh, Theresa; Kephart, Susan

    2014-01-01

    A new species, Dasineura camassiae Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described, illustrated and compared to some of its congeners from related hosts and western North America. The new species causes flower galls on Camassia (Agavoideae; Asparagaceae) in the Pacific Northwest. Its current known distribution is Oregon and Washington, USA. Larvae develop in spring in flowers of Camassia spp., causing the young ovaries to enlarge prematurely and eventually abort, without forming seeds or mature fruit. Full-grown larvae crawl out of the gall in rapid succession and drop to the soil where they pupate; they remain there until spring of the following year when the adults emerge and lay eggs. The galls they induce in camas lily buds represent the first known association of the cosmopolitan genus Dasineura with the group of plants that includes Agave and its relatives. PMID:25543738

  20. Early and late complications after endoscopic sphincterotomy for biliary lithiasis with and without the gall bladder 'in situ'.

    PubMed Central

    Escourrou, J; Cordova, J A; Lazorthes, F; Frexinos, J; Ribet, A

    1984-01-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy has gained wide acceptance in the treatment of biliary lithiasis. We attempted endoscopic sphincterotomy in 443 patients and were successful in 407 (92%). Sphincterotomy was carried out with the gall bladder in situ in 234 cases (57%) of advanced age or high surgical risk. Immediate complications occurred in 7%, of which haemorrhage was the most frequent. The mortality rate was 1.5%. Three hundred and sixteen endoscopic sphincterotomies were performed more than six months before writing and follow up was available for 226 (72%) from six to 78 months. Late complications were observed in 16 patients with gall bladder 'in situ' (12%); the most frequent was cholecystitis in 6%. In five patients of the group without gall bladder, four had cholangitis related to retained or recurrent stones, and one restenosed . No episodes of cholangitis were observed in patients without stones despite reflux of barium up the biliary tree as observed during a barium meal examination. PMID:6735245

  1. Galling arthropod diversity in adjacent swamp forests and restinga vegetation in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Milton De S; Piccardi, Hosana M F; Jahnke, Simone M; Dalbem, Ricardo V

    2010-01-01

    Galling arthropods create plant structures inside which they find shelter. Factors acting on galler diversity are still being discussed, with this fauna considered more diverse in xeric than mesic environments (higrothermic stress hypothesis, HSH), and also in more plant diverse sites. Here we compare galler abundance (N), equitability (E), species richness (S) and composition between adjacent restinga (xeric) and swamp forests (mesic) in Parque Estadual de Itapeva (29°21' S, 49°45' W), Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Five trails, two in swamp forest and three in restingas, were sampled four times each (January/December 2005). After an effort of 60h/person, 621 galled plant individuals belonging to 104 gall morphotypes were recorded. This suggests a high galler diversity for the Park, comparable to the richest places known. No differences were found for N, E or S between restingas and swamp forests. However, faunal composition differs significantly between the vegetation types. The dominant (most abundant) species are different in either vegetation type, and are rare or absent on the other vegetation type. Such species composition analysis is still largely ignored for gallers, and stresses the fact that the HSH cannot explain this pattern, since the latter is based on preferences by the ovipositing galler for xeric sites instead of mesic ones. The two habitats differ in microclimate, but species richness, as would be predicted by the HSH, does not differ. This small scale pattern can perhaps be attributed to biogeographic processes on larger scales, as suggested by the resource synchronisation hypothesis.

  2. Comparison of single- and multi-scale models for the prediction of the Culicoides biting midge distribution in Germany.

    PubMed

    Lühken, Renke; Gethmann, Jörn Martin; Kranz, Petra; Steffenhagen, Pia; Staubach, Christoph; Conraths, Franz J; Kiel, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study analysed Culicoides presence-absence data from 46 sampling sites in Germany, where monitoring was carried out from April 2007 until May 2008. Culicoides presence-absence data were analysed in relation to land cover data, in order to study whether the prevalence of biting midges is correlated to land cover data with respect to the trapping sites. We differentiated eight scales, i.e. buffer zones with radii of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7.5 and 10 km, around each site, and chose several land cover variables. For each species, we built eight single-scale models (i.e. predictor variables from one of the eight scales for each model) based on averaged, generalised linear models and two multiscale models (i.e. predictor variables from all of the eight scales) based on averaged, generalised linear models and generalised linear models with random forest variable selection. There were no significant differences between performance indicators of models built with land cover data from different buffer zones around the trapping sites. However, the overall performance of multi-scale models was higher than the alternatives. Furthermore, these models mostly achieved the best performance for the different species using the index area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. However, as also presented in this study, the relevance of the different variables could significantly differ between various scales, including the number of species affected and the positive or negative direction. This is an even more severe problem if multi-scale models are concerned, in which one model can have the same variable at different scales but with different directions, i.e. negative and positive direction of the same variable at different scales. However, multi-scale modelling is a promising approach to model the distribution of Culicoides species, accounting much more for the ecology of biting midges, which uses different resources (breeding sites, hosts, etc.) at different scales

  3. Osmoregulation and salinity tolerance in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica: seawater exposure confers enhanced tolerance to freezing and dehydration.

    PubMed

    Elnitsky, Michael A; Benoit, Joshua B; Lopez-Martinez, Giancarlo; Denlinger, David L; Lee, Richard E

    2009-09-01

    Summer storms along the Antarctic Peninsula can cause microhabitats of the terrestrial midge Belgica antarctica to become periodically inundated with seawater from tidal spray. As microhabitats dry, larvae may be exposed to increasing concentrations of seawater. Alternatively, as a result of melting snow or following rain, larvae may be immersed in freshwater for extended periods. The present study assessed the tolerance and physiological response of B. antarctica larvae to salinity exposure, and examined the effect of seawater acclimation on their subsequent tolerance of freezing, dehydration and heat shock. Midge larvae tolerated extended exposure to hyperosmotic seawater; nearly 50% of larvae survived a 10-day exposure to 1000 mOsm kg(-1) seawater and approximately 25% of larvae survived 6 days in 2000 mOsm kg(-1) seawater. Exposure to seawater drastically reduced larval body water content and increased hemolymph osmolality. By contrast, immersion in freshwater did not affect water content or hemolymph osmolality. Hyperosmotic seawater exposure, and the accompanying osmotic dehydration, resulted in a significant correlation between the rate of oxygen consumption and larval water content and induced the de novo synthesis and accumulation of several organic osmolytes. A 3-day exposure of larvae to hyperosmotic seawater increased freezing tolerance relative to freshwater-acclimated larvae. Even after rehydration, the freezing survival of larvae acclimated to seawater was greater than freshwater-acclimated larvae. Additionally, seawater exposure increased the subsequent tolerance of larvae to dehydration. Our results further illustrate the similarities between these related, yet distinct, forms of osmotic stress and add to the suite of physiological responses used by larvae to enhance survival in the harsh and unpredictable Antarctic environment. PMID:19684222

  4. Chemotypes of essential oil of unripe galls of Pistacia atlantica Desf. from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Sifi, Ibrahim; Gourine, Nadhir; Gaydou, Emile M; Yousfi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils (EOs) of unripe galls (from male and female plants) of a total number of 52 samples of Pistacia atlantica collected from different regions in Algeria were analysed by GC/MS and GC. The yields of the extraction of the EO by hydrodistillation vary from low to high values (0.08-1.89% v/w). The results of both methods of principal component analysis and hierarchical ascendant classification revealed the presence of two different chemotypes: α-pinene chemotype and α-pinene/sabinene/terpinen-4-ol chemotype.

  5. Structure and synthesis of histopine, a histidine derivative produced by crown gall tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, H.A.; Kaushal, A.; Deng, P.N.; Sciaky, D.

    1984-07-03

    Histopine, an unusual amino acid derivative of histidine isolated from crown gall tumors of sunflowers (Helianthus annus) inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain B/sub 6/, was previously assigned the gross structure N-(1-carboxyethyl)histidine. A diastereomeric mixture containing histopine was readily prepared by reductive alkylation of (S)-histidine with pyruvic acid and sodium cyanoborohydride. The individual diastereomers were prepared by reaction of (S)-histidine with (R)- and (S)-2-bromopropionic acid. (R)-N-(1-Carboxyethyl)-(S)-histidine supports the growth of A. tumefaciens whereas (S)-N-(1-carboxyethyl)-(S)-histidine is inactive.

  6. [Physiological and biochemical characteristics of the cells of a carrot gall tumor developing in weightlessness].

    PubMed

    Tairbekov, M G; Voronkov, L A; Guzhova, N A

    1982-01-01

    The paper presents the results of experiments with the carrot tissues infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens flown onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-1129 in cooperation with the US scientists. Postflight, the respiratory activity of tumour cells was determined and K+ and Na+ permeability of cell membranes was measured. The resulting data give evidence that in weightlessness the development of the carrot gall tumour is accompanied by changes in the above physiological and biochemical parameters. The changes are, however, within the physiological limits, leading to no pathologies of the whole cell.

  7. Plant senescence cues entry into diapause in the gall fly Eurosta solidaginis: resulting metabolic depression is critical for water conservation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jason B; Lee, Richard E

    2005-12-01

    Mechanisms and possible cues for seasonal increases in desiccation resistance in larvae of the goldenrod gall fly Eurosta solidaginis, were examined before and after natural and premature plant senescence, or after being removed from their gall and placed in either 100, 95 or 75% relative humidity (RH). Rates of water loss were 8.6-fold lower, averaging 0.7+/-0.2 microg mm(-2) h(-1), in larvae from senescent gall tissue and after all RH treatments than in control larvae from pre-senescent plants. Enhanced desiccation resistance occurred quickly, within 3 days of removal from their gall. Contrary to most previous reports, a large majority of the increased desiccation resistance (approximately 85%) was due to reduced respiratory transpiration with the remainder being the result of a lowered cuticular permeability. Rates of cuticular water loss were reduced by the presence of a vapor pressure gradient between the larval hemolymph and environmental water vapor and were probably due to increases in cuticular lipids and/or production of the cryoprotectant glycerol. Metabolic rate was reduced by over fourfold, averaging 0.07+/-0.01 microl CO2 g(-1) h(-1), in larvae from senescent gall tissue and all RH treatments compared to larvae from pre-senescent plants. The magnitude of the reduction in metabolic rates indicated that these larvae had entered diapause. In addition, larvae entered diapause in response to removal from, or degeneration of, the gall tissue they feed, on rather than seasonal changes in temperature or photoperiod. The low metabolic rates of the diapausing larvae probably allowed them to dramatically reduce their respiratory transpiration and total rate of water loss compared with non-diapausing controls. Thus, diapause, with its associated lowered metabolic rate, may be essential for conserving water in overwintering temperate insects, which may be dormant for six or more months of the year.

  8. Resistance to crown gall disease in transgenic grapevine rootstocks containing truncated virE2 of Agrobacterium.

    PubMed

    Krastanova, Stoyanka V; Balaji, Vasudevan; Holden, Michele R; Sekiya, Mary; Xue, Baodi; Momol, Esengul A; Burr, Thomas J

    2010-12-01

    A truncated form of the Ti-plasmid virE2 gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains C58 and A6, and A. vitis strain CG450 was transferred and expressed in somatic embryos of grapevine rootstocks 110 Richter (Vitis rupestris × V. berlandieri), 3309 Couderc (V. rupestris × V. riparia) and Teleki 5C (V. berlandieri × V. riparia) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to confer resistance to crown gall disease. Transformation was confirmed in 98% of the 322 lines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the neomycin phosphotransferase II protein and 97% of 295 lines by polymerase chain reaction for the truncated virE2 transgene. Southern blot analysis revealed the insertion of truncated virE2 at one to three loci in a subset of seven transgenic 110 Richter lines. In vitro resistance screening assays based on inoculations of shoot internode sections showed reduced tumorigenicity and very small galls in 23 of 154 transgenic lines. Non-transformed controls had a 100% tumorigenicity rate with very large galls. Disease resistance assay at the whole plant level in the greenhouse revealed seven transgenic lines (3 lines of 110 Richter, 2 lines of 3309 Couderc and 2 lines of Teleki 5C) were resistant to A. tumefaciens strain C58 and A. vitis strains TM4 and CG450 with a substantially reduced percentage of inoculation sites showing gall as compared to controls. No association was found between the level of resistance to crown gall disease and the source Agrobacterium strain of virE2. Taken together, our data showed that resistance to crown gall disease can be achieved by expressing a truncated form of virE2 in grapevines. PMID:20182792

  9. Morphological abnormalities in gall-forming aphids in a radiation-contaminated area near Fukushima Daiichi: selective impact of fallout?

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Shin-Ichi

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on organisms, this study compared the morphology and viability of gall-forming aphids between the Fukushima population and control populations from noncontaminated areas. This study, in particular, focused on the morphology of first-instar gall formers derived from the first sexual reproduction after the accident. Of 164 first instars from Tetraneura sorini galls collected 32 km from Fukushima Daiichi in spring 2012, 13.2% exhibited morphological abnormalities, including four conspicuously malformed individuals (2.4%). In contrast, in seven control areas, first instars with abnormal morphology accounted for 0.0-5.1% (on average, 3.8%). The proportions of abnormalities and mortality were significantly higher in Fukushima than in the control areas. Similarly, of 134 first instars from T. nigriabdominalis galls, 5.9% exhibited morphological abnormalities, with one highly malformed individual. However, of 543 second-generation larvae produced in T. sorini galls, only 0.37% had abnormalities, suggesting that abnormalities found in the first generation were not inherited by the next generation. Although investigation is limited to one study site, this result suggests that radioactive contamination had deleterious effects on embryogenesis in eggs deposited on the bark surface, but a negligible influence on the second generation produced in closed galls. Furthermore, analysis of both species samples collected in spring 2013 indicated that the viability and healthiness of the aphids were significantly improved compared to those in the 2012 samples. Thus, the results of this study suggest the possibility that a reduced level of radiation and/or selection for radiation tolerance may have led to the improved viability and healthiness of the Fukushima population.

  10. Diverse Filters to Sense: Great Variability of Antennal Morphology and Sensillar Equipment in Gall-Wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

    PubMed Central

    Polidori, Carlo; Nieves-Aldrey, José L.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies on antennal sensillar equipment in insects are largely lacking, despite their potential to provide insights into both ecological and phylogenetic relationships. Here we present the first comparative study on antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in female Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera), a large and diverse group of wasps, with special reference to the so-called gall-wasps (Cynipidae). A SEM analysis was conducted on 51 species from all extant cynipoid families and all cynipid tribes, and spanning all known life-histories in the superfamily (gall-inducers, gall-inquilines, and non-gall associated parasitoids). The generally filiform, rarely clavate, antennal flagellum of Cynipoidea harbours overall 12 types of sensilla: s. placoidea (SP), two types of s. coeloconica (SCo-A, SCo-B), s. campaniformia (SCa), s. basiconica (SB), five types of s. trichoidea (ST-A, B, C, D, E), large disc sensilla (LDS) and large volcano sensilla (LVS). We found a great variability in sensillar equipment both among and within lineages. However, few traits seem to be unique to specific cynipid tribes. Paraulacini are, for example, distinctive in having apical LVS; Pediaspidini are unique in having ≥3 rows of SP, each including 6–8 sensilla per flagellomere, and up to 7 SCo-A in a single flagellomere; Eschatocerini have by far the largest SCo-A. Overall, our data preliminarily suggest a tendency to decreased numbers of SP rows per flagellomere and increased relative size of SCo-A during cynipoid evolution. Furthermore, SCo-A size seems to be higher in species inducing galls in trees than in those inducing galls in herbs. On the other hand, ST seem to be more abundant on the antennae of herb-gallers than wood-gallers. The antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in Cynipoidea are the complex results of different interacting pressures that need further investigations to be clarified. PMID:25003514

  11. Diverse filters to sense: great variability of antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in gall-wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

    PubMed

    Polidori, Carlo; Nieves-Aldrey, José L

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies on antennal sensillar equipment in insects are largely lacking, despite their potential to provide insights into both ecological and phylogenetic relationships. Here we present the first comparative study on antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in female Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera), a large and diverse group of wasps, with special reference to the so-called gall-wasps (Cynipidae). A SEM analysis was conducted on 51 species from all extant cynipoid families and all cynipid tribes, and spanning all known life-histories in the superfamily (gall-inducers, gall-inquilines, and non-gall associated parasitoids). The generally filiform, rarely clavate, antennal flagellum of Cynipoidea harbours overall 12 types of sensilla: s. placoidea (SP), two types of s. coeloconica (SCo-A, SCo-B), s. campaniformia (SCa), s. basiconica (SB), five types of s. trichoidea (ST-A, B, C, D, E), large disc sensilla (LDS) and large volcano sensilla (LVS). We found a great variability in sensillar equipment both among and within lineages. However, few traits seem to be unique to specific cynipid tribes. Paraulacini are, for example, distinctive in having apical LVS; Pediaspidini are unique in having ≥3 rows of SP, each including 6-8 sensilla per flagellomere, and up to 7 SCo-A in a single flagellomere; Eschatocerini have by far the largest SCo-A. Overall, our data preliminarily suggest a tendency to decreased numbers of SP rows per flagellomere and increased relative size of SCo-A during cynipoid evolution. Furthermore, SCo-A size seems to be higher in species inducing galls in trees than in those inducing galls in herbs. On the other hand, ST seem to be more abundant on the antennae of herb-gallers than wood-gallers. The antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in Cynipoidea are the complex results of different interacting pressures that need further investigations to be clarified.

  12. Morphological abnormalities in gall-forming aphids in a radiation-contaminated area near Fukushima Daiichi: selective impact of fallout?

    PubMed Central

    Akimoto, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on organisms, this study compared the morphology and viability of gall-forming aphids between the Fukushima population and control populations from noncontaminated areas. This study, in particular, focused on the morphology of first-instar gall formers derived from the first sexual reproduction after the accident. Of 164 first instars from Tetraneura sorini galls collected 32 km from Fukushima Daiichi in spring 2012, 13.2% exhibited morphological abnormalities, including four conspicuously malformed individuals (2.4%). In contrast, in seven control areas, first instars with abnormal morphology accounted for 0.0–5.1% (on average, 3.8%). The proportions of abnormalities and mortality were significantly higher in Fukushima than in the control areas. Similarly, of 134 first instars from T. nigriabdominalis galls, 5.9% exhibited morphological abnormalities, with one highly malformed individual. However, of 543 second-generation larvae produced in T. sorini galls, only 0.37% had abnormalities, suggesting that abnormalities found in the first generation were not inherited by the next generation. Although investigation is limited to one study site, this result suggests that radioactive contamination had deleterious effects on embryogenesis in eggs deposited on the bark surface, but a negligible influence on the second generation produced in closed galls. Furthermore, analysis of both species samples collected in spring 2013 indicated that the viability and healthiness of the aphids were significantly improved compared to those in the 2012 samples. Thus, the results of this study suggest the possibility that a reduced level of radiation and/or selection for radiation tolerance may have led to the improved viability and healthiness of the Fukushima population. PMID:24634721

  13. Bioassay and Attributes of a Growth Factor Associated with Crown Gall Tumors 1

    PubMed Central

    Lippincott, Barbara B.; Lippincott, James A.

    1970-01-01

    An improved bioassay is described for a factor that promotes tumor growth which was first obtained from extracts of pinto bean leaves with crown gall tumors. Sixteen primary pinto bean leaves per sample are inoculated with sufficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens to initiate about 5 to 10 tumors per leaf and treated with tumor growth factor at day 3 after inoculation. The diameters of 30 to 48 round tumors (no more than 3 randomly selected per leaf) are measured per test sample at day 6. Mean tumor diameter increased linearly with the logarithm of the concentration of tumor growth factor applied. The tumor growth factor was separated by column chromatography from an ultraviolet light-absorbing compound previously reported to be associated with fractions having maximal tumor growth factor activity. Partly purified tumor growth factor showed no activity in a cytokinin bioassay or an auxin bioassay, and negligible activity in gibberellin bioassays. Representatives of these three classes of growth factors did not promote tumor growth. Extracts from crown gall tumors on primary pinto bean leaves, primary castor bean leaves, Bryophyllum leaves, carrot root slices, and tobacco stems showed tumor growth factor activity, whereas extracts from healthy control tissues did not. Extracts from actively growing parts of healthy pinto beans, Bryophyllum, and tobacco, however, showed tumor growth factor activity. Tumor growth factor is proposed to be a normal plant growth factor associated with rapidly growing tissues. Its synthesis may be activated in nongrowing tissues by infection with Agrobacterium sp. PMID:16657534

  14. Diapause development in frozen larvae of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis fitch (diptera: tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Irwin, J T; Bennett, V A; Lee, R E

    2001-04-01

    Seasonal changes in metabolic rate and the potential for morphological development demonstrated that third-instar larvae of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis Fitch, exhibit a distinct winter diapause. Metabolic rate (CO2 production) was significantly lower from 15 October to 9 February than in early autumn (9 September) and spring (1 March) samples. The induction of diapause coincided with the development of cold-hardening, maximum larval mass, and gall senescence, but our experiments did not identify specific cues triggering diapause induction. We examined the influence of exposure to 0 degrees C and -20 degrees C on diapause development. Diapause development in larvae stored at 0 degrees C occurred at approximately the same rate as in nature. Until 15 December the larvae were in the refractory phase of diapause (incapable of morphological development, even at permissive temperatures), but afterward moved to the activated phase within which diapause intensity decreased until termination in February. Diapause development occurred in larvae collected during the winter and stored at -20 degrees C for periods of 1 week to 3 months. Diapause intensity decreased in frozen larvae through the winter but at a slower rate than in larvae stored at 0 degrees C.

  15. Direct Derivation of the Gravitational Red Shift (Einstein Shift) with the frequency dependent Gall metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, Clarence A.

    1999-05-01

    When an electromagnetic radiation (EMR) source is in uniform motion with respect to an observer, a spectral (Doppler) shift in frequency is seen (blue as it approaches, red as it recedes). Since special relativity is limited to coordinate systems in uniform relative motion, this theory should be subject to this condition. On the other hand, the gravitational red shift (Einstein; Relativity: The Special and the General Theory, Crown,(1961), p.129) claims that EMR frequency decreases as the gravitational field, where the source is located, increases. As a gravitational effect, one would expect its derivation from a solution of the general relativistic field equations (R_μσ=0). Up to now, it has only been possible to derive it indirectly, by comparing the gravitational field to a (centrifugal) field produced by coordinate systems in relative rotational motion as an approximation of special relativity. Since rotation implies acceleration, it does not meet the conditions of special relativity so this is unsatisfactory. This work shows that the problem lies in the Schwarzschild metric which is independent of EMR frequency. By contrast it is easy to deduce the gravitational red shift from the frequency dependent Gall metric (Gall in AIP Conference Proceedings 308, The Evolution of X-Ray Binaries,(1993), p. 87).

  16. Bioassay and attributes of a growth factor associated with crown gall tumors.

    PubMed

    Lippincott, B B; Lippincott, J A

    1970-11-01

    An improved bioassay is described for a factor that promotes tumor growth which was first obtained from extracts of pinto bean leaves with crown gall tumors. Sixteen primary pinto bean leaves per sample are inoculated with sufficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens to initiate about 5 to 10 tumors per leaf and treated with tumor growth factor at day 3 after inoculation. The diameters of 30 to 48 round tumors (no more than 3 randomly selected per leaf) are measured per test sample at day 6. Mean tumor diameter increased linearly with the logarithm of the concentration of tumor growth factor applied. The tumor growth factor was separated by column chromatography from an ultraviolet light-absorbing compound previously reported to be associated with fractions having maximal tumor growth factor activity. Partly purified tumor growth factor showed no activity in a cytokinin bioassay or an auxin bioassay, and negligible activity in gibberellin bioassays. Representatives of these three classes of growth factors did not promote tumor growth. Extracts from crown gall tumors on primary pinto bean leaves, primary castor bean leaves, Bryophyllum leaves, carrot root slices, and tobacco stems showed tumor growth factor activity, whereas extracts from healthy control tissues did not. Extracts from actively growing parts of healthy pinto beans, Bryophyllum, and tobacco, however, showed tumor growth factor activity. Tumor growth factor is proposed to be a normal plant growth factor associated with rapidly growing tissues. Its synthesis may be activated in nongrowing tissues by infection with Agrobacterium sp. PMID:16657534

  17. VirE1-Mediated Resistance to Crown Gall in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Humann, Jodi; Andrews, Sarah; Ream, Walt

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Crown gall disease, caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, remains a serious agricultural problem despite current biocontrol methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfers single-stranded DNA (T-strands) into plant cells along with several virulence proteins, including a single-stranded DNA-binding protein (VirE2). In plant cells, T-strands are protected from nucleases and targeted to the nucleus by VirE2, which is essential for efficient transmission (transfer and integration) of T-strands. VirE1 is the secretory chaperone for VirE2; it prevents VirE2 from forming aggregates and from binding the T-strands in bacterial cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that sufficient quantities of VirE1 expressed in plant cells might block T-DNA transmission by preventing VirE2 from binding T-strands. Here we show that root explants from Arabidopsis thaliana plants that expressed virE1 formed 3.5-fold fewer tumors than roots from plants without virE1. Also, this resistance was specific for VirE2-mediated Agrobacterium transformation. Plants that have been genetically altered to resist crown gall may prove more effective than biological control. PMID:18944210

  18. Potential fecundity of a highly invasive gall maker, Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

    PubMed

    Graziosi, Ignazio; Rieske, Lynne K

    2014-08-01

    Fecundity is a key factor in modulating population growth rate, and is of particular significance when considering the invasiveness of introduced species. In insects, fecundity is affected by body size, age, and nutrition. We investigated the potential fecundity of the invasive Asian chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), an introduced parthenogenetic gall former of Asian origin and a global pest of chestnut (Castanea spp.), to better understand its invasiveness. We compared ovarian, egg, and body metrics of adult wasps of different age. We evaluated insect weight, body length, mesosomal and metasomal lengths and widths, hind femur length, number of eggs, and size of eggs in wasps from four age cohorts. Adult weight and metasomal width were positively correlated with number of eggs. Egg load decreased with wasp age, and egg size initially increased before decreasing. Our findings suggest that adult D. kuriphilus, previously reported as proovigenic, may be resorping eggs in the absence of suitable hosts, and reallocating nutritive resources for body maintenance and egg quality to increase fitness, implicating a plasticity in its reproductive strategy. D. kuriphilus may be able to vary its potential fecundity in response to nutrition and host availability, thus increasing its invasiveness.

  19. Clinicopathological Spectrum Of Gall Bladder Cancer In Kashmir - An Institutional Study.

    PubMed

    Makhdoomi, R; Bashir, N; Bhat, N; Bashir, S; Mustafa, F; Aiman, A; Charaki, A; Hussain, S; Shafi, S; Baht, S; Bashir, N; Zahir, Z; Shah, P

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a highly aggressive malignancy that usually presents at an advanced incurable stage. It is the fifth most common gastro-intestinal tumor and leads to approximately 2800 deaths in United States annually. This was a retrospective study carried out in the Department of Pathology, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, a 650-bed super speciality hospital in Kashmir valley. We reviewed the histopathological records of all the patients who were diagnosed as carcinoma gallbladder from Dec 2009-Dec 2013. Gross findings and histopathological findings were noted from the departmental archival material and clinical records of the patients including the clinical presentation, laboratory investigations, radiological investigations, pre-operative diagnosis and intra-operative findings, were retrieved from the hospital records. We analyzed 57 cases of carcinoma gallbladder for their clinicopathological features It included 19 males and 37 females. In our study, adenocarcinomas accounted for 87.5% of total carcinomas. Incidentally, all but one patient where gall stones were found, adenocarcinomas were seen. We have 4 patients of squamous cell carcinoma. In our series we have a single case of small cell carcinoma which was positive for neuroendocrine markers. In our study, gall stones were seen only in 8 cases (14%) of the total cases. PMID:27050183

  20. Recent evolution of bacterial pathogens: the gall-forming Pantoea agglomerans case.

    PubMed

    Barash, Isaac; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit

    2009-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans, a widespread epiphyte and commensal bacterium, has evolved into an Hrp-dependent and host-specific tumorigenic pathogen by acquiring a plasmid containing a pathogenicity island (PAI). The PAI was evolved on an iteron plasmid of the IncN family, which is distributed among genetically diverse populations of P. agglomerans. The structure of the PAI supports the premise of a recently evolved pathogen. This review offers insight into a unique model for emergence of new bacterial pathogens. It illustrates how horizontal gene transfer was the major driving force in the creation of the PAI, although a pathoadaptive mechanism might also be involved. It describes the crucial function of plant-produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinines (CK) in gall initiation as opposed to the significant but secondary role of pathogen-secreted phytohormones. It also unveils the role of type III effectors in determination of host specificity and evolution of the pathogen into pathovars. Finally, it describes how interactions between the quorum sensing system, hrp regulatory genes, and bacterially secreted IAA or CKs affect gall formation and epiphytic fitness.

  1. Diapause development in frozen larvae of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis fitch (diptera: tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Irwin, J T; Bennett, V A; Lee, R E

    2001-04-01

    Seasonal changes in metabolic rate and the potential for morphological development demonstrated that third-instar larvae of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis Fitch, exhibit a distinct winter diapause. Metabolic rate (CO2 production) was significantly lower from 15 October to 9 February than in early autumn (9 September) and spring (1 March) samples. The induction of diapause coincided with the development of cold-hardening, maximum larval mass, and gall senescence, but our experiments did not identify specific cues triggering diapause induction. We examined the influence of exposure to 0 degrees C and -20 degrees C on diapause development. Diapause development in larvae stored at 0 degrees C occurred at approximately the same rate as in nature. Until 15 December the larvae were in the refractory phase of diapause (incapable of morphological development, even at permissive temperatures), but afterward moved to the activated phase within which diapause intensity decreased until termination in February. Diapause development occurred in larvae collected during the winter and stored at -20 degrees C for periods of 1 week to 3 months. Diapause intensity decreased in frozen larvae through the winter but at a slower rate than in larvae stored at 0 degrees C. PMID:11352100

  2. Psorinum therapy in treating stomach, gall bladder, pancreatic, and liver cancers: a prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Aradeep; Biswas, Jaydip; Chatterjee, Ashim; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Mukhopadhyay, Bishnu; Mandal, Syamsundar

    2011-01-01

    We prospectively studied the clinical efficacy of an alternative cancer treatment "Psorinum Therapy" in treating stomach, gall bladder, pancreatic and liver cancers. Our study was observational, open level and single arm. The participants' eligibility criteria included histopathology/cytopathology confirmation of malignancy, inoperable tumor, and no prior chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The primary outcome measures of the study were (i) to assess the radiological tumor response (ii) to find out how many participants survived at least 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, 4 years and finally 5 years after the beginning of the study considering each type of cancer. Psorinum-6x was administered orally to all the participants up to 0.02 ml/Kg body weight as a single dose in empty stomach per day for 2 years along with allopathic and homeopathic supportive cares. 158 participants (42 of stomach, 40 of gall bladder, 44 of pancreatic, 32 of liver) were included in the final analysis of the study. Complete tumor response occurred in 28 (17.72%) cases and partial tumor response occurred in 56 (35.44%) cases. Double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial should be conducted for further scientific exploration of this alternative cancer treatment.

  3. Psorinum Therapy in Treating Stomach, Gall Bladder, Pancreatic, and Liver Cancers: A Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aradeep; Biswas, Jaydip; Chatterjee, Ashim; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Mukhopadhyay, Bishnu; Mandal, Syamsundar

    2011-01-01

    We prospectively studied the clinical efficacy of an alternative cancer treatment “Psorinum Therapy” in treating stomach, gall bladder, pancreatic and liver cancers. Our study was observational, open level and single arm. The participants' eligibility criteria included histopathology/cytopathology confirmation of malignancy, inoperable tumor, and no prior chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The primary outcome measures of the study were (i) to assess the radiological tumor response (ii) to find out how many participants survived at least 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, 4 years and finally 5 years after the beginning of the study considering each type of cancer. Psorinum-6x was administered orally to all the participants up to 0.02 ml/Kg body weight as a single dose in empty stomach per day for 2 years along with allopathic and homeopathic supportive cares. 158 participants (42 of stomach, 40 of gall bladder, 44 of pancreatic, 32 of liver) were included in the final analysis of the study. Complete tumor response occurred in 28 (17.72%) cases and partial tumor response occurred in 56 (35.44%) cases. Double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial should be conducted for further scientific exploration of this alternative cancer treatment. PMID:21197093

  4. Shaping a better rice plant.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathan

    2010-06-01

    Two studies describe how regulatory variation at the rice gene OsSPL14 can lead to altered plant morphology and improve grain yield. These studies support the possibility of improving rice yield through changing plant architecture.

  5. Rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter while replacing white rice with brown rice.

    PubMed

    Manickavasagan, Annamalai; Al-Marhubi, Insaaf Mohd; Dev, Satyanarayan

    2014-06-01

    Rice-blackgram batter is a raw material for many traditional convenience foods in Asia. Reformulation of traditional convenience food by replacing white rice with whole rice (brown rice) is a novel method to reduce the consumption of refined grain and increase the intake of whole grain in our diet. In this study, rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter was investigated while replacing white rice with brown rice at five levels (T1--0% replacement (control), T2--25% replacement, T3--50% replacement, T4--75% replacement, and T5--100% replacement). The shear stress versus shear rate plot indicates that the rice-blackgram batter exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior (shear thinning property) even after 100% replacement of white rice with brown rice. The rheological characteristics of rice-blackgram batters fitted reasonably well in Cassan (r2 = 0.8521-0.9856) and power law (r2 = 0.8042-0.9823) models. Brown rice replacement at all levels did not affect the flow behavior index, yield stress, consistency coefficient, and apparent viscosity of batter at 25 degrees C. However, at higher temperature, the viscosity was greater for T4 and T5 (no difference between them) than T1, T2, and T3 (no difference between them) batters. Further research is required to determine the sensory attributes and acceptability of the cooked products with brown rice-blended batter.

  6. Rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter while replacing white rice with brown rice.

    PubMed

    Manickavasagan, Annamalai; Al-Marhubi, Insaaf Mohd; Dev, Satyanarayan

    2014-06-01

    Rice-blackgram batter is a raw material for many traditional convenience foods in Asia. Reformulation of traditional convenience food by replacing white rice with whole rice (brown rice) is a novel method to reduce the consumption of refined grain and increase the intake of whole grain in our diet. In this study, rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter was investigated while replacing white rice with brown rice at five levels (T1--0% replacement (control), T2--25% replacement, T3--50% replacement, T4--75% replacement, and T5--100% replacement). The shear stress versus shear rate plot indicates that the rice-blackgram batter exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior (shear thinning property) even after 100% replacement of white rice with brown rice. The rheological characteristics of rice-blackgram batters fitted reasonably well in Cassan (r2 = 0.8521-0.9856) and power law (r2 = 0.8042-0.9823) models. Brown rice replacement at all levels did not affect the flow behavior index, yield stress, consistency coefficient, and apparent viscosity of batter at 25 degrees C. However, at higher temperature, the viscosity was greater for T4 and T5 (no difference between them) than T1, T2, and T3 (no difference between them) batters. Further research is required to determine the sensory attributes and acceptability of the cooked products with brown rice-blended batter. PMID:23751544

  7. Nutrient stress and gall flies interact to affect floral-sex ratio in gynomonoecious Solidago altissima (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Wise, Michael J; Coffey, Lindsay E; Abrahamson, Warren G

    2008-10-01

    A main tenet of sex-allocation theory is that environmental stress should lead to increased maleness because reproducing through pollen is generally cheaper than producing fruits and seeds. Though this prediction has held for many species, it has been little tested for gynomonoecious plants, in which individuals produce both female and perfect flowers. We exposed eight ramets of each of 22 genets of a gynomonoecious goldenrod, Solidago altissima (Asteraceae), to a factorial combination of nutrient stress and herbivory by the gall-inducer Eurosta solidaginis (Tephritidae). Nutrient stress alone increased relative femaleness: Stressed ramets produced fewer flowers total and a higher ratio of ray (female) flowers to disk (perfect) flowers. Galling caused no change in fertilized ramets, but the combination of nutrient stress and galling caused an increase in relative maleness: Nutrient-stressed, galled ramets produced fewer flowers total and had a higher disk to ray ratio. In addition to being phenotypically plastic, floral-sex ratio had a great deal of genetic variation, with a broad-sense heritability of 0.68. While the floral-sex ratio responses of gynomonoecious plants may be more complicated than for plants of other breeding systems, they offer the potential to test and refine the already rich body of sex-allocation theory.

  8. Agrobacterium rhizogenes GALLS protein substitutes for Agrobacterium tumefaciens single-stranded DNA-binding protein VirE2.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Larry D; Cuperus, Josh; Ream, Walt

    2004-05-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes transfer plasmid-encoded genes and virulence (Vir) proteins into plant cells. The transferred DNA (T-DNA) is stably inherited and expressed in plant cells, causing crown gall or hairy root disease. DNA transfer from A. tumefaciens into plant cells resembles plasmid conjugation; single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is exported from the bacteria via a type IV secretion system comprised of VirB1 through VirB11 and VirD4. Bacteria also secrete certain Vir proteins into plant cells via this pore. One of these, VirE2, is an ssDNA-binding protein crucial for efficient T-DNA transfer and integration. VirE2 binds incoming ssT-DNA and helps target it into the nucleus. Some strains of A. rhizogenes lack VirE2, but they still transfer T-DNA efficiently. We isolated a novel gene from A. rhizogenes that restored pathogenicity to virE2 mutant A. tumefaciens. The GALLS gene was essential for pathogenicity of A. rhizogenes. Unlike VirE2, GALLS contains a nucleoside triphosphate binding motif similar to one in TraA, a strand transferase conjugation protein. Despite their lack of similarity, GALLS substituted for VirE2. PMID:15126468

  9. The use of root gall ratings to determine high risk zones in cotton fields infested by Meloidogyne Incognita

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton farmers need a reliable, accurate, and inexpensive method for determining the potential threat of root-knot nematodes (RKN) to cotton within individual fields for site specific application of nematicides. Evaluation of cotton roots for RKN galling at harvest may be an alternative to soil ana...

  10. The Phantom Strikes: The Use of Simulation to Teach the Radiologic Technology Student to Radiograph the Gall Bladder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reibling, Louis Albert

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between the extent to which an actual vocational setting is simulated in teaching and the competency of students in performing radiographic technique. The research design randomly placed the students, after a lecture on gall bladder technique, into one of three simulation treatments,…

  11. A new genus and species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) from leaf blister galls on Ribes (Grosulariaceae)in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ribesia sarae Gagné, new genus, new species(Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described from simple leaf blister galls on Ribes aureum(Grossulariaceae) from Montana. The female abdomen is superficially similar to that of CystiphoraKieffer and SackenomyiaFelt. The three genera are compared. Because of stro...

  12. Description of the female, pupa and gall of Pisphondylia brasiliensis Couri and Maia, 1992 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, Schizomyiina) with new records.

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Fleury, G; Soares, G L G; Isaias, R M S

    2010-11-01

    The gall of Pisphondylia brasiliensis on Guapira opposita, its female and pupa are described and illustrated. The geographic distribution of this species is now widened to Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). For the first time, a female of the genus is described.

  13. Bovine gall-bladder mucin contains two distinct tandem repeating sequences: evidence for scavenger receptor cysteine-rich repeats.

    PubMed

    Nunes, D P; Keates, A C; Afdhal, N H; Offner, G D

    1995-08-15

    Gall-bladder mucin is a densely glycosylated macromolecule which is the primary secretory product of the gall-bladder epithelium. It has been shown to bind cholesterol and other biliary lipids and to promote cholesterol crystal nucleation in vitro. In order to understand the molecular basis for mucin-lipid interactions, bovine gall-bladder mucin cDNAs were identified by expression cloning and were isolated and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences of these cDNAs revealed two distinct tandem repeating domains. One of these domains contained a 20-amino acid tandem repeating sequence enriched in threonine, serine and proline. This sequence was similar to, but not identical with, the short tandem repeating sequences identified previously in other mammalian mucins. The other domain contained a 127-amino acid tandem repeating sequence enriched in cysteine and glycine. This repeat displayed considerable sequence similarity to a family of receptor- and ligand-binding proteins containing scavenger receptor cysteine-rich repeats. By analogy with other proteins containing these cysteine-rich repeats, it is possible that, in gall-bladder mucin, this domain serves as a binding site for hydrophobic ligands such as bilirubin, cholesterol and other biliary lipids.

  14. Changing the content of phenolic compounds as the response of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) leaves after blackcurrant leaf midge (Dasineura tetensi Rübs.) infestation.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Wojciech; Oszmiański, Jan; Wojdyło, Aneta; Łabanowska, Barbara H

    2016-09-01

    Blackcurrant leaf midge (Dasineura tetensi) is one of the most common pests of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum). The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the content of phenolic compounds in the leaves damaged by the larvae of this pest. Additionally, susceptibility of different blackcurrant cultivars to the midge attack was investigated. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of control and pest-infested blackcurrant leaves were performed using LC-PDA-QTOF/MS and UPLC-PDA-FL systems. A total of 39 types of phenolic compounds were identified in blackcurrant leaf extracts and they included 3 flavan-3-ols, 14 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, and 22 flavonols. Feeding of blackcurrant leaf midge on blackcurrant leaves lowered the content of leaf polyphenolic compounds. The greatest differences in polyphenolics between control and infected leaves were observed in 'Ruben', 'Fariegh', 'Foxendown', 'Ores', 'Ben Hope', 'Ben Connan' and 'Tisel' cultivars that were probably highly susceptible to the pest attack. In the other cultivars: 'Ben Finlay', 'Polares', 'Tiben', and 'Gofert' the differences in phenolics content were less pronounced, so they were probably less susceptible to D. tetensi attack. Plant polyphenolic compounds was strongly involved in pathogen-plant interaction, and their accumulation significantly decreased as a result of the pathogen attack. PMID:27161581

  15. Principal climatic and edaphic determinants of Culicoides biting midge abundance during the 2007-2008 bluetongue epidemic in the Netherlands, based on OVI light trap data.

    PubMed

    Scolamacchia, F; VAN DEN Broek, J; Meiswinkel, R; Heesterbeek, J A P; Elbers, A R W

    2014-06-01

    Palaearctic Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) represent a vital link in the northward advance of certain arboviral pathogens of livestock such as that caused by bluetongue virus. The effects of relevant ecological factors on weekly Culicoides vector abundances during the bluetongue virus serotype 8 epidemics in the Netherlands in 2007 and 2008 were quantified within a hurdle modelling framework. The relative role of meteorological parameters showed a broadly consistent association across species, with larger catches linked to temperature-related variables and lower wind speed. Moreover, vector abundance was found to be influenced by edaphic factors, likely related to species-specific breeding habitat preferences that differed markedly amongst some species. This is the first study on Culicoides vector species in the Netherlands identified during an entomological surveillance programme, in which an attempt is made to pinpoint the factors that influence midge abundance levels. In addition to providing key inputs into risk-mitigating tools for midge-borne pathogens and disease transmission models, the adoption of methods that explicitly address certain features of abundance datasets (frequent zero-count observations and over-dispersion) helped enhance the robustness of the ecological analysis. PMID:24148154

  16. Cytological cycles and fates in Psidium myrtoides are altered towards new cell metabolism and functionalities by the galling activity of Nothotrioza myrtoidis.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, R G S; Isaias, R M S

    2015-03-01

    The morphogenesis of galls occurs by the redifferentiation of cells that assume new functions in the modified host plant organs. The redifferentiated cells in the galls of Nothotrioza myrtoidis on Psidium myrtoides have low complexity metabolism and are photosynthesis-deficient. These galls were studied in search for evidences of the establishment of new cell cycles and fates and cytological gradients that corroborate their metabolic profile. Young and mature leaves of P. myrtoides and leaf galls induced by N. myrtoidis at different developmental stages were collected along 24 months and analyzed under light and transmission electron microscopy. The leaves of P. myrtoides are long-lasting and did not senesce within the analyzed period, while the galls have a shorter cycle, and senesce within 1 year. A homogenous parenchyma is established by a "standby-redifferentiation" of the chlorophyllous tissues, and sclerenchyma cells redifferentiate from parenchyma cells in the outer cortex of the mature galls. The lack of organelles, the underdeveloped lamellation of chloroplasts, and the occurrence of few plastoglobules are related to the photosynthetic deficiency of the galls. No cytological gradients were observed, but the organelle-rich cells of the vascular and perivascular parenchymas are similar to those of the nutritive tissues of galls induced by other insect taxa. These cells nearest to the feeding sites of N. myrtoidis present higher metabolism and well-developed apparatus for the prevention of oxidative stress. The features herein described corroborate the low metabolic profile of the galls as the cell cycles and fates of P. myrtoides are manipulated for completely new functionalities. PMID:25272990

  17. Cytological cycles and fates in Psidium myrtoides are altered towards new cell metabolism and functionalities by the galling activity of Nothotrioza myrtoidis.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, R G S; Isaias, R M S

    2015-03-01

    The morphogenesis of galls occurs by the redifferentiation of cells that assume new functions in the modified host plant organs. The redifferentiated cells in the galls of Nothotrioza myrtoidis on Psidium myrtoides have low complexity metabolism and are photosynthesis-deficient. These galls were studied in search for evidences of the establishment of new cell cycles and fates and cytological gradients that corroborate their metabolic profile. Young and mature leaves of P. myrtoides and leaf galls induced by N. myrtoidis at different developmental stages were collected along 24 months and analyzed under light and transmission electron microscopy. The leaves of P. myrtoides are long-lasting and did not senesce within the analyzed period, while the galls have a shorter cycle, and senesce within 1 year. A homogenous parenchyma is established by a "standby-redifferentiation" of the chlorophyllous tissues, and sclerenchyma cells redifferentiate from parenchyma cells in the outer cortex of the mature galls. The lack of organelles, the underdeveloped lamellation of chloroplasts, and the occurrence of few plastoglobules are related to the photosynthetic deficiency of the galls. No cytological gradients were observed, but the organelle-rich cells of the vascular and perivascular parenchymas are similar to those of the nutritive tissues of galls induced by other insect taxa. These cells nearest to the feeding sites of N. myrtoidis present higher metabolism and well-developed apparatus for the prevention of oxidative stress. The features herein described corroborate the low metabolic profile of the galls as the cell cycles and fates of P. myrtoides are manipulated for completely new functionalities.

  18. Differentially expressed small RNAs in Arabidopsis galls formed by Meloidogyne javanica: a functional role for miR390 and its TAS3-derived tasiRNAs.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Javier; Barcala, Marta; García, Alejandra; Rio-Machín, Ana; Medina, Clémence; Jaubert-Possamai, Stephanie; Favery, Bruno; Maizel, Alexis; Ruiz-Ferrer, Virginia; Fenoll, Carmen; Escobar, Carolina

    2016-03-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) induce inside the vascular cylinder the giant cells (GCs) embedded in the galls. The distinctive gene repression in early-developing GCs could be facilitated by small RNAs (sRNA) such as miRNAs, and/or epigenetic mechanisms mediated by 24nt-sRNAs, rasiRNAs and 21-22nt-sRNAs. Therefore, the sRNA-population together with the role of the miR390/TAS3/ARFs module were studied during early gall/GC formation. Three sRNA libraries from 3-d-post-inoculation (dpi) galls induced by Meloidogyne javanica in Arabidopsis and three from uninfected root segments were sequenced following Illumina-Solexa technology. pMIR390a::GUS and pTAS3::GUS lines were assayed for nematode-dependent promoter activation. A sensor line indicative of TAS3-derived tasiRNAs binding to the ARF3 sequence (pARF3:ARF3-GUS) together with a tasiRNA-resistant ARF3 line (pARF3:ARF3m-GUS) were used for functional analysis. The sRNA population showed significant differences between galls and controls, with high validation rate and correspondence with their target expression: 21-nt sRNAs corresponding mainly to miRNAs were downregulated, whilst 24-nt-sRNAs from the rasiRNA family were mostly upregulated in galls. The promoters of MIR390a and TAS3, active in galls, and the pARF3:ARF3-GUS line, indicated a role of TAS3-derived-tasiRNAs in galls. The regulatory module miR390/TAS3 is necessary for proper gall formation possibly through auxin-responsive factors, and the abundance of 24-nt sRNAs (mostly rasiRNAs) constitutes a gall hallmark.

  19. Modeling moisture movement in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is one of the leading food crops in the world. At harvest, rice normally has higher moisture content than the moisture content considered safe for its storage, which creates the necessity for a drying process before its storage. In addition to drying, moisture movement within the rice kernels a...

  20. Evaluation of Protocol for Assessing the Reaction of Rice and Wheat Germplasm to Infection by Meloidogyne graminicola

    PubMed Central

    Pokharel, Ramesh R.; Duxbury, John M.; Abawai, George

    2012-01-01

    Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne graminicola), an important and widespread pathogen, causes high yield losses in rice with limited information on wheat and on efficient management. Absence of uniform screening protocols is contributing to slow progress of host resistance development. To develop an efficient screening protocol, several greenhouse studies were conducted, and effects of incubation period, inoculum level, inoculation method, seedling age, and their interactions on root-galling severity (RGS) ratings and reproductive factor (RF) values of M. graminicola were determined. At 2 eggs/cm3 soil, significantly lower RGS but higher RF values were observed at 60 days than at 45 days of incubation. Meloidogyne graminicola reproduced six times more on rice than on wheat where the RGS index in both crops increased steadily with increasing inoculum levels, but RF increased at lower levels and decreased beyond a maximum at medium inoculum levels. Inoculum level, container size, seedling age, inoculation method, and their interactions impacted nematode infection and reproduction. The protocol was verified on eleven rice germplasm lines and seven wheat cultivars using the resistance index (RI) calculated from RGS and RF, to screen rice and wheat germplasm. PMID:23481227

  1. Insect herbivores associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae): responses of gall-forming and free-feeding insects to latitudinal variation.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Marcílio; Fernandes, G Wilson

    2011-09-01

    The spatial heterogeneity hypothesis has been invoked to explain the increase in species diversity from the poles to the tropics: the tropics may be more diverse because they contain more habitats and micro-habitats. In this paper, the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis prediction was tested by evaluating the variation in richness of two guilds of insect herbivores (gall-formers and free-feeders) associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae) along a latitudinal variation in Brazil. The seventeen populations of B. dracunculifolia selected for insect herbivores sampling were within structurally similar habitats, along the N-S distributional limit of the host plant, near the Brazilian sea coast. Thirty shrubs were surveyed in each host plant population. A total of 8 201 galls and 864 free-feeding insect herbivores belonging to 28 families and 88 species were sampled. The majority of the insects found on B. dracunculifolia were restricted to a specific site rather than having a geographic distribution mirroring that of the host plant. Species richness of free-feeding insects was not affected by latitudinal variation corroborating the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis. Species richness of gall-forming insects was positively correlated with latitude, probably because galling insect associated with Baccharris genus radiated in Southern Brazil. Other diversity indices and evenness estimated for both gall-forming and free feeding insect herbivores, did not change with latitude, suggesting a general structure for different assemblages of herbivores associated with the host plant B. dracunculifolia. Thus it is probable that, insect fauna sample in each site resulted of large scale events, as speciation, migration and coevolution, while at local level, the population of these insects is regulated by ecological forces which operate in the system. PMID:22017142

  2. Insect herbivores associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae): responses of gall-forming and free-feeding insects to latitudinal variation.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Marcílio; Fernandes, G Wilson

    2011-09-01

    The spatial heterogeneity hypothesis has been invoked to explain the increase in species diversity from the poles to the tropics: the tropics may be more diverse because they contain more habitats and micro-habitats. In this paper, the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis prediction was tested by evaluating the variation in richness of two guilds of insect herbivores (gall-formers and free-feeders) associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae) along a latitudinal variation in Brazil. The seventeen populations of B. dracunculifolia selected for insect herbivores sampling were within structurally similar habitats, along the N-S distributional limit of the host plant, near the Brazilian sea coast. Thirty shrubs were surveyed in each host plant population. A total of 8 201 galls and 864 free-feeding insect herbivores belonging to 28 families and 88 species were sampled. The majority of the insects found on B. dracunculifolia were restricted to a specific site rather than having a geographic distribution mirroring that of the host plant. Species richness of free-feeding insects was not affected by latitudinal variation corroborating the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis. Species richness of gall-forming insects was positively correlated with latitude, probably because galling insect associated with Baccharris genus radiated in Southern Brazil. Other diversity indices and evenness estimated for both gall-forming and free feeding insect herbivores, did not change with latitude, suggesting a general structure for different assemblages of herbivores associated with the host plant B. dracunculifolia. Thus it is probable that, insect fauna sample in each site resulted of large scale events, as speciation, migration and coevolution, while at local level, the population of these insects is regulated by ecological forces which operate in the system.

  3. Evaluating the Anticancer Potential of Ethanolic Gall Extract of Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ravi Shankara, B. E.; Ramachandra, Y. L.; Rajan, S. Sundara; Ganapathy, P. S. Sujan; Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Richard, S. A.; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been an important source for discovery of anticancer compounds. With the current decline in the number of new molecular entities from the pharmaceutical industry, novel anticancer agents are being sought from traditional medicines; therefore the anticancer efficacy of many plants that are used in traditional medicine is yet to be verified. The objective of the study was to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of ethanolic leaf gall extract of Terminalia chebula are evaluated against buffalo rat liver 3A, MCF-7 (Human mammary gland adenocarcinoma) and A-549 (Human lung cancer) cell lines. The cytotoxic effect of the ethanolic extract was evaluated by MTT assay. The extract was potent and effective in inducing cytotoxic effects in all the cell lines with an IC50 value of 305.18 ± 1.7 μg/mL, 643.13 ± 4.2 μg/mL, and 208.16 ± 3.7 μ/mL, respectively. The extract was more effective against A549 cell lines when compared to others. The presences of phenolics, triterpenoids, and flavonoids were identified in the extract. The extract showed total phenolic and flavonoid content of 478 ± 2.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g d.w and 538 ± 1.4 mg of quercetinequivalent/g d.w, respectively. This higher content of total phenolics and flavonoids found in the ethanolic extract was directly associated to higher cytotoxicity activity. Conclusion: The ethanolic leaf gall extract of T. chebula showed effective cytotoxic activities; which might be attributed to the phenolics/flavonoids present in higher concentration. Future work will be interesting to know the chemical composition of the extract and also better understand the mechanism of action of the constituents present in the extract to develop it as drug for therapeutic application. SUMMARY The present investigation establishes the anticancer activities of T. chebula leaf gall extracts on BRL3A, MCF-7, and A-549 cells. Presumably, these activities could be attributed in part to the phenolics/flavanoids features of the

  4. Extreme resistance to desiccation in overwintering larvae of the gall fly Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera, tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Ramløv, H; Lee, R E

    2000-02-01

    During winter, larvae of the goldenrod gall fly Eurosta solidaginis are exposed for extended periods to severe low ambient temperatures and low humidities within plant galls. The resistance of these larvae to desiccation at various temperatures and humidities, the transition (critical) temperature, and the effects of treatment with organic solvents on the larval rates of water loss and on changes in osmolality during desiccation were examined. The water loss rates of the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis under desiccating conditions were also measured. The water permeability of the cuticle of E. solidaginis larvae was very low (0.038 microgram h(-1 )cm(-2 )Pa(-1) at 20 C and 4% relative humidity) compared with that of larvae of other species. The value for E. solidaginis is equivalent to that of the very drought-resistant larvae of the tenebrionid beetle Tenebrio molitor (0.038 microgram h(-1)cm(-2)Pa(-1) at 30 C). In contrast, the permeability of larvae of the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis at 20 C and 4 % relative humidity was 0.331 microgram h(-1) cm(-2)Pa(-1). The thermal dependence of the cuticular permeability increased with temperature by approximately 0.0010 +microgram h(-1) cm(-2)Pa(-1) C(-1) in the interval between 4 and 40 C. At the transition temperature of 40 C, the thermal dependence of the permeability increased abruptly to 0.0400 microgram h(-1)cm(-2)Pa(-1) C(-1). Larvae treated with hexane and acetone remained remarkably resistant to water loss. However, treatment with chloroform:methanol increased the water loss rate approximately 25-fold. During desiccation at 4 C and 4% relative humidity for 21 days, E. solidaginis larvae showed a mass loss of 18.5+/-4.4 % (mean +/- s.e.m., N=6). Animals dried under the same conditions over the same period showed a haemolymph osmolality of 851+/-75 mosmol kg(-1) (N=4). Larvae freshly removed from the galls showed a haemolymph osmolality of 918+/-67 mosmol kg(-1)(N=3). A higher osmolality in the dried compared

  5. Attempts to Detect Agrobacterium tumefaciens DNA in Crown-Gall Tumor Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Merlo, Donald J.; Kemp, John D.

    1976-01-01

    Primary and secondary crown gall tissue cultures were established from sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus, variety Mammoth Russian) wound-inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith and Townsend) Conn strain B6. Growth rates of tumor tissues and habituated healthy sunflower stem section tissues on basal medium lacking auxin and cytokinin were compared to those of healthy sunflower stem section tissue grown on the same medium with added phytohormones. No difference was detected in the thermal denaturation midpoints (74.8 C) and melting profiles in 25 mm sodium phosphate (pH 6.8), or the buoyant densities in cesium chloride equilibrium centrifugation (1.687 g cm−3), between deoxyribonucleic acids (DNAs) isolated from crude nuclear preparations of the four tissue types. No satellite DNA was observed in equilibrium centrifugation of unsheared plant DNAs. Heterologous DNA renaturation kinetic analyses were performed in 0.14 m sodium phosphate (pH 6.8) at 70 C. Thermal stability measurements of reassociated DNA revealed less than 1% of mismatched base pairs. Reannealing of sheared, denatured, radioactive A. tumefaciens B6 DNA (molecular weight, 325,000 daltons) in the presence of a 5400-fold excess of sheared calf thymus, healthy tissue, or secondary sunflower crown gall DNA obeyed second order kinetics, with a Cot½ of 2.8, identical to that observed when B6 DNA was reannealed in the absence of foreign DNA. Reannealing rates of B6 DNA in the presence of 5400-fold excesses of DNA from two lines of primary sunflower crown gall were increased 2.24- or 1.47-fold. Digestion of the tumor DNA preparations with pancreatic deoxyribonuclease I until no detectable DNA remained, followed by restoration of solution viscosity by added calf thymus DNA, failed to remove the acceleration effect of the tumor DNA preparations. Reisolation of the reannealed nucleic acid formed in this experiment, and digestion with ribonuclease A or deoxyribonuclease I revealed that the double

  6. Survey of arsenic and its speciation in rice products such as breakfast cereals, rice crackers and Japanese rice condiments.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guo-Xin; Williams, Paul N; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Deacon, Claire; Carey, Anne-Marie; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Meharg, Andrew A

    2009-04-01

    Rice has been demonstrated to be one of the major contributors to arsenic (As) in human diets in addition to drinking water, but little is known about rice products as an additional source of As exposure. Rice products were analyzed for total As and a subset of samples were measured for arsenic speciation using high performance liquid chromatography interfaced with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). A wide range of rice products had total and inorganic arsenic levels that typified those found in rice grain including, crisped rice, puffed rice, rice crackers, rice noodles and a range of Japanese rice condiments as well as rice products targeted at the macrobiotic, vegan, lactose intolerant and gluten intolerance food market. Most As in rice products are inorganic As (75.2-90.1%). This study provides a wider appreciation of how inorganic arsenic derived from rice products enters the human diet. PMID:18775567

  7. Methane potential and biodegradability of rice straw, rice husk and rice residues from the drying process.

    PubMed

    Contreras, L M; Schelle, H; Sebrango, C R; Pereda, I

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural solid residues are a potential renewable energy source. Rice harvesting and production in Sancti Spíritus province, Cuba, currently generates residues without an environmentally sustainable disposal route. Rice residues (rice straw, rice husk and rice residues from the drying process) are potentially an important carbon source for anaerobic digestion. For this paper, rice residues were placed for 36 days retention time in anaerobic batch reactor environments at both mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) conditions. Biogas and methane yield were determined as well as biogas composition. The results showed that rice straw as well as rice residues from the drying process had the highest biogas and methane yield. Temperature played an important role in determining both biogas yield and kinetics. In all cases, rice straw produced the highest yields; under mesophilic conditions the biogas yield was 0.43 m(3) kg(VS)(-1), under thermophilic conditions biogas yield reached 0.52 m(3) kg(VS)(-1). In the case of the rice husk, the biodegradability was very low. Methane content in all batches was kept above 55% vol. All digested material had a high carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio, even though significant biodegradation was recorded with the exception of rice husk. A first-order model can be used to describe the rice crop residues fermentation effectively.

  8. Effect of rice variety and nutrient management on rice productivity in organic rice system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for organic rice has been increasing for decades. However, the information on sustainable organic rice production systems is still lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of soil amendment products, nitrogen rate, and variety on rice grain yield, yield components, ...

  9. Rust fungi causing galls, witches' brooms, and other abnormal plant growths in northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Hernández, José R; Hennen, Joe F

    2003-01-01

    Conspicuous galls and witches' brooms frequently are symptoms of rust infections on plant hosts in the ecologically diverse northwestern region of Argentina. These symptoms are caused by systemic or locally systemic spermogonial-aecial infections, although uredinial and telial infections also might be involved. Sixteen species of rust fungi are treated in this paper, most of which cause a plant response that results in enlarged growth. Ypsilospora tucumanensis J.R. Hern. & J.F. Hennen on Inga edulis is described as a species new to science. Puccinia cordiae Arthur is cited as a new record for Argentina. These rusts also are included: Chaconia ingae, Gerwasia imperialis, Kuehneola loeseneriana, Prospodium appendiculatum, Prospodium elegans, Prospodium perornatum, Puccinia bougainvilleae, Puccinia pampeana, Ravenelia argentinica, Ravenelia hieronymi, Ravenelia papillosa, Ravenelia spegazziniana, Uromyces cestri and Uropyxis rickiana. For some of the scientific names, lectotype specimens have been designated.

  10. Genetic Identification of functions of TL-DNA transcripts in octopine crown galls

    PubMed Central

    Leemans, J.; Deblaere, R.; Willmitzer, L.; Greve, H. De; Hernalsteens, J.P.; Montagu, M. Van; Schell, J.

    1982-01-01

    The TL-DNA in octopine crown galls encodes seven transcripts most, if not all, expressed from individual promoters. Site-specific deletions and substitutions in the T-region of the octopine plasmid pTiB6S3 indicate some of the functions of the TL-DNA transcripts. Two of the seven genes are sufficient to allow tumorous growth. T-DNA transfer and oncogenicity are controlled by different and independently acting functions. None of the transcripts of TL-DNA appear to be essential for T-DNA transfer. Four, possibly five, of the TL-DNA transcripts act by suppressing organ development. Shoot and root formation are suppressed by the action of different transcripts. ImagesFig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:16453404

  11. Larvicidal activity of oak Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) gall extracts against Anopheles stephensi Liston.

    PubMed

    Aivazi, Ali-Ashraf; Vijayan, V A

    2009-06-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of botanical insecticides to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides in order to avoid environmental side effects. Anopheles stephensi is the primary vector of urban malaria, an endemic disease in India. So, an effort to assay An. stephensi larvae with gall extracts of Quercus infectoria was made under laboratory conditions at Mysore. Ethyl-acetate extract was found to be the most effective of all the five extracts tested for larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae, with LC(50) of 116.92 ppm followed by gallotannin, n-butanol, acetone, and methanol with LC(50) values of 124.62, 174.76, 299.26, and 364.61 ppm, respectively. The efficacy in killing mosquito larvae may make this plant promising for the development of new botanical larvicide.

  12. Detection and Quantitation of Octopine in Normal Plant Tissue and in Crown Gall Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Roosevelt; Guderian, Ronald H.; Eden, Francine; Chilton, Mary-Dell; Gordon, Milton P.; Nester, Eugene W.

    1974-01-01

    Octopine has been detected in normal tobacco leaf and stem tissue, normal sunflower stem tissue, pinto bean leaves, and normal tobacco callus tissue in culture. Octopine was identified in extracts by means of electrophoresis and chromatography in several solvent systems. Tobacco and sunflower tumor lines induced by various strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens were found to contain from 1 to 240 times as much octopine as the normal plant tissues examined. Several strains of A. tumefaciens produce undifferentiated tobacco tumors containing high levels of octopine, but produce undifferentiated sunflower tumors containing normal levels of octopine and high levels of arginine. Further, strain CGIC of A. tumefaciens produces in tobacco an undifferentiated tumor which contains high levels of octopine and a teratoma which contains normal levels of octopine. This evidence shows that there is no consistent relationship between the causative strain of A. tumefaciens and the octopine content of the resulting crown gall tumor. PMID:16592142

  13. High-speed photography during laser-based gall bladder stone lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokaj, Jahja O.

    2001-04-01

    Shadowgraphy of gall bladder stone, which is held by a basket and immersed in a civete is performed. The exposure time is determined by the time of a N-Dye laser pulse used as a lightening source for photography. The shadowgram is projected in the objective of a camera which is connected to a microscope. The light coming from the laser, illuminates the civete collecting optical information of the stone and physical phenomena appearing above the stone. On top of the stone a tip of optical fiber is fixed, which is used for transmitting Ho:Yag laser power to the stone. Using a computer and time delay the laser pulses used for destruction and illumination are synchronized. Since the N-Dye laser pulse is pico-second range and the Ho:Yag laser pulse is in the range of micro-second, many image frames are obtained within the time of one pulse applied during the destruction. It is known that in the process of stone destruction several phenomena like plume, plasma, shock wave and bubble formation take place. However, the physical mechanism of the stone destruction is not yet completely understood. From the obtained results the above phenomena are studied which gives new information and clue for understanding some of the mentioned phenomena. The laser power which is guided by an optical fiber into the gall bladder or kidney of the human body can damage the living tissue and cause some serious health problems. For this reason the fiber needs to be oriented properly during the action of the laser power.

  14. RNAi-mediated oncogene silencing confers resistance to crown gall tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Escobar, M A; Civerolo, E L; Summerfelt, K R; Dandekar, A M

    2001-11-01

    Crown gall disease, caused by the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, results in significant economic losses in perennial crops worldwide. A. tumefaciens is one of the few organisms with a well characterized horizontal gene transfer system, possessing a suite of oncogenes that, when integrated into the plant genome, orchestrate de novo auxin and cytokinin biosynthesis to generate tumors. Specifically, the iaaM and ipt oncogenes, which show approximately 90% DNA sequence identity across studied A. tumefaciens strains, are required for tumor formation. By expressing two self-complementary RNA constructions designed to initiate RNA interference (RNAi) of iaaM and ipt, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and Lycopersicon esculentum plants that are highly resistant to crown gall disease development. In in vitro root inoculation bioassays with two biovar I strains of A. tumefaciens, transgenic Arabidopsis lines averaged 0.0-1.5% tumorigenesis, whereas wild-type controls averaged 97.5% tumorigenesis. Similarly, several transformed tomato lines that were challenged by stem inoculation with three biovar I strains, one biovar II strain, and one biovar III strain of A. tumefaciens displayed between 0.0% and 24.2% tumorigenesis, whereas controls averaged 100% tumorigenesis. This mechanism of resistance, which is based on mRNA sequence homology rather than the highly specific receptor-ligand binding interactions characteristic of traditional plant resistance genes, should be highly durable. If successful and durable under field conditions, RNAi-mediated oncogene silencing may find broad applicability in the improvement of tree crop and ornamental rootstocks. PMID:11687652

  15. Head capsule deformities in midge larvae exposed to Burlington Harbor (Lake Champlain) sediments -- field and laboratory investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, D.; Williams, A.; McIntosh, A.; Lacey, R.

    1994-12-31

    Investigations of sediment associated contaminants in Burlington Harbor indicated the harbor contains elevated levels of a number of pollutants. Lead, silver, mercury and total PAH levels exceed NOAA`s ER-M at numerous sites in the harbor. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations (ranging from 0.055 to 6.64 ug/g (dry wt.)) exceed the ER-M at a number of sites. Pyrene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, chrysene, anthracene and fluorene also exceed the ER-M at a number of stations within the harbor. Despite these relatively high levels of contaminants found in harbor sediments, solid phase and pore water exposures with Ceriodaphnia dubia indicate acute toxicity at only a limited number of sites. Examination of midge larvae populations from the harbor, however, indicates a high rate of head capsule deformities at some sites. Preliminary work which exposed laboratory cultures of Chironomus tentans to harbor sediment induced a 17% incidence in deformities in the F{sub 1} generation, a 50% incidence in the F{sub 2} generation and a 75% in the F{sub 3} generation. The incidence of deformities decreased substantially when F{sub 3} generation organisms were reared in clean substrate. Laboratory cultures of C. tentans are being exposed to sediments from various harbor sites for determination of head capsule deformity induction. In addition, several generations of larvae will be reared in sediment to determine the overall impacts on survival and whether deformities increase in subsequent generations.

  16. Suitability of morphological parameters for instar determination of pestiferous midges Chironomus crassicaudatus and Glyptotendipes paripes (Diptera: Chironomidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Frouz, Jan; Ali, Arshad; Lobinske, Richard J

    2002-09-01

    The midges Chironomus crassicaudatus and Glyptotendipes paripes were reared in the laboratory on artificial food under constant temperature (30 degrees C) and a 14:10 h light: dark photoperiod for 31 days, from eggs laid by field-collected females. Sequential samples of developing immature stages were taken and measured. Eggs were on average 254 microm long and 102 microm wide at the widest point for C. crassicaudatus and 286 microm long and 113 microm wide at the widest point for G. paripes. Mean larval lengths ranged from 0.9 mm after hatching to 16.3 mm before pupation in C. crassicaudatus and from 0.8 mm after hatching to 9.7 mm before pupation in G. paripes. Mean length of pupae was 8.7 mm and 8.3 mm in C. crassicaudatus and G. paripes, respectively. Four morphometric head parameters (length, width, mentum width, and cephalolabial length) were tested for differentiation of larval instars. All parameters revealed 4 larval instars in both species, with head capsule width apparently the most sensitive indicator for instar differentiation. The cephalolabial length was the most sensitive indicator of sex differentiation in last instar. All investigated morphological parameters of head capsule of both species followed Dyar's law. PMID:12322946

  17. Developing acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios for lead, cadmium, and zinc using rainbow trout, a mayfly, and a midge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, C.A.; Hennessy, D.P.; Dillon, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to estimate acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios (ACRs) relevant to a coldwater stream community, we exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in 96-h acute and 60+ day early-life stage (ELS) exposures. We also tested the acute and sublethal responses of a mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus) and a midge (Chironomus dilutus, formerly C. tentans) with Pb. We examine the statistical interpretation of test endpoints and the acute-to-chronic ratio concept. Increasing the number of control replicates by 2 to 3x decreased the minimum detectable differences by almost half. Pb ACR estimates mostly increased with increasing acute resistance of the organisms (rainbow trout ACRs

  18. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Non-Biting Midge Larvae Assemblages in Streams in a Mountainous Region in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Floss, Elzira Cecília Serafini; Secretti, Elisangela; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Marcia Regina; Pires, Mateus Marques

    2013-01-01

    The spatial and temporal structure of non-biting midge (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae assemblages and some environmental factors that affect their distribution were analyzed in a montane river and its tributaries in a temperate climate region of southernmost Brazil. In total, 69 taxa were recorded after four seasonal samplings (winter, spring, summer, and autumn). The dominant taxa were Rheotanytarsus sp. 1, Rheotanytarsus sp. 2, Cricotopus sp. 2, and Polypedilum (Polypedilum) sp., although dominance varied among the four sampling sites. The variations in dominance, abundance, and richness among the different sites were affected by environmental characteristics, such as the presence of marginal vegetation and a heterogeneous substratum, and also by human activities. Strictly environmental factors, such as altitude, and factors related to annual weather patterns, such as mean temperature and precipitation, influenced the spatial and temporal distribution of certain taxa and the structure of faunal assemblages. The influence of the riparian vegetation and riverbed heterogeneity on the composition, richness, and abundance of the chironomid larvae assemblages indicates that human activities, such as deforestation and the construction of dams, constitute a serious threat to the conservation of these insects and to the fauna that depends on them for food. PMID:24784953

  19. Spatial and temporal distribution of non-biting midge larvae assemblages in streams in a mountainous region in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Floss, Elzira Cecília Serafini; Secretti, Elisangela; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Marcia Regina; Pires, Mateus Marques

    2013-01-01

    The spatial and temporal structure of non-biting midge (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae assemblages and some environmental factors that affect their distribution were analyzed in a montane river and its tributaries in a temperate climate region of southernmost Brazil. In total, 69 taxa were recorded after four seasonal samplings (winter, spring, summer, and autumn). The dominant taxa were Rheotanytarsus sp. 1, Rheotanytarsus sp. 2, Cricotopus sp. 2, and Polypedilum (Polypedilum) sp., although dominance varied among the four sampling sites. The variations in dominance, abundance, and richness among the different sites were affected by environmental characteristics, such as the presence of marginal vegetation and a heterogeneous substratum, and also by human activities. Strictly environmental factors, such as altitude, and factors related to annual weather patterns, such as mean temperature and precipitation, influenced the spatial and temporal distribution of certain taxa and the structure of faunal assemblages. The influence of the riparian vegetation and riverbed heterogeneity on the composition, richness, and abundance of the chironomid larvae assemblages indicates that human activities, such as deforestation and the construction of dams, constitute a serious threat to the conservation of these insects and to the fauna that depends on them for food.

  20. Rice disease management under organic production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in organic rice production has increased because of the increased market demand for organic rice. Texas organic rice acreage has constantly increased over the last decade, reaching 32,000 acres in 2012. Texas is now the leading state in organic rice production in the U.S. Organic rice is p...

  1. Organic Rice Production: Challenges and Opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The market demand for organically produced rice has grown steadily with the majority of the acreage now being located in Texas and California. A wide range of organic products are marketed including conventional long and medium grain rice, aromatic or scented rice, rice with colored bran, and rice f...

  2. Antibacterial activity of clove, gall nut methanolic and ethanolic extracts on Streptococcus mutans PTCC 1683 and Streptococcus salivarius PTCC 1448

    PubMed Central

    Mirpour, Mirsasan; Gholizadeh Siahmazgi, Zohreh; Sharifi Kiasaraie, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Antimicrobial compounds from herbal sources have good therapeutic potential. In this study, the antibacterial effects of clove and gall nut, methanolic and ethanolic extractions, were evaluated for their effect on Streptococcus mutans PTCC 1683 and Streptococcus salivarius PTCC 1448, as both the two cause oral diseases. Method The clove and gall nut methanolic and ethanolic extracts were prepared and antibacterial activity was evaluated for S. mutans and S. salivarius in the base of inhibition zone diameter using agar diffusion method. In this part minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were assessed. Results These extracts showed effective antibacterial activity on bacteria. Antibacterial activity of Methanolic extract of clove was more than that of ethanolic extract, and ethanolic extracts of gall nut had antibacterial activity more than that of methanolic extracts. MIC and MBC results for clove methanolic extract were 1.5 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml for S. mutans and 6.25 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. These results for clove ethanolic extracts were 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml for S. mutans and 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. MIC and MBC results for gall nut methanolic extract were 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. mutans and 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. These results for gall nut ethanolic extracts were 3.1 mg/ml and 6.2 mg/ml for S. mutans and 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. Discussion The results showed effective antibacterial activity using clove and gall nut methanolic extracts. If other properties such as tolerance of tissue can also be studied, these extracts can be used as a mouthwash. PMID:25853041

  3. Exploring Japan through Rice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the role of rice in Japanese culture by presenting historical background and teaching activities in a variety of categories, such as language, sociology, history, and contemporary politics. Suggests teachers create cross-cultural comparisons; for example, the role of corn in the United States. Provides a list of teacher resources. (CMK)

  4. Rice Glycosyltransferase (GT) Phylogenomic Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ronald, Pamela

    The Ronald Laboratory staff at the University of California-Davis has a primary research focus on the genes of the rice plant. They study the role that genetics plays in the way rice plants respond to their environment. They created the Rice GT Database in order to integrate functional genomic information for putative rice Glycosyltransferases (GTs). This database contains information on nearly 800 putative rice GTs (gene models) identified by sequence similarity searches based on the Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZy) database. The Rice GT Database provides a platform to display user-selected functional genomic data on a phylogenetic tree. This includes sequence information, mutant line information, expression data, etc. An interactive chromosomal map shows the position of all rice GTs, and links to rice annotation databases are included. The format is intended to "facilitate the comparison of closely related GTs within different families, as well as perform global comparisons between sets of related families." [From http://ricephylogenomics.ucdavis.edu/cellwalls/gt/genInfo.shtml] See also the primary paper discussing this work: Peijian Cao, Laura E. Bartley, Ki-Hong Jung and Pamela C. Ronalda. Construction of a Rice Glycosyltransferase Phylogenomic Database and Identification of Rice-Diverged Glycosyltransferases. Molecular Plant, 2008, 1(5): 858-877.

  5. Evidence of Differences between the Communities of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Colonizing Galls and Roots of Prunus persica Infected by the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita▿

    PubMed Central

    Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Lozano, Zenaida; Roldán, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play important roles as plant protection agents, reducing or suppressing nematode colonization. However, it has never been investigated whether the galls produced in roots by nematode infection are colonized by AMF. This study tested whether galls produced by Meloidogyne incognita infection in Prunus persica roots are colonized by AMF. We also determined the changes in AMF composition and biodiversity mediated by infection with this root-knot nematode. DNA from galls and roots of plants infected by M. incognita and from roots of noninfected plants was extracted, amplified, cloned, and sequenced using AMF-specific primers. Phylogenetic analysis using the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) data set revealed 22 different AMF sequence types (17 Glomus sequence types, 3 Paraglomus sequence types, 1 Scutellospora sequence type, and 1 Acaulospora sequence type). The highest AMF diversity was found in uninfected roots, followed by infected roots and galls. This study indicates that the galls produced in P. persica roots due to infection with M. incognita were colonized extensively by a community of AMF, belonging to the families Paraglomeraceae and Glomeraceae, that was different from the community detected in roots. Although the function of the AMF in the galls is still unknown, we hypothesize that they act as protection agents against opportunistic pathogens. PMID:21984233

  6. Response of a gall wasp community to genetic variation in the host plant Quercus crispula: a test using half-sib families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Masato; Ozaki, Kenichi

    2005-02-01

    The structure of a herbivore community may change consistently along the genetic cline of a host plant, change at particular points along the cline, or respond independently of the cline. To reveal such relationships between a gall wasp community and genetic variation in the host plant Quercus crispula, we examined patterns in the species richness and abundance of gall wasps along a genetic cline of the host plant, using 12 half-sib families from six different regions. The genetic relationships among the half-sib families of Q. crispula were quantified on the basis of leaf morphology, which represented a morphological cline from leaves typical of Q. crispula to leaves resembling another oak species, Q. dentata. The morphological cline could be regarded as a genetic cline caused by a history of hybridization with Q. dentata. The mean numbers of gall types varied among the half-sib families, but did not show a consistent increase or decrease along the genetic cline. This pattern could be explained by the fact that responses to host plant variation differed among the gall wasp species. The half-sib families were classified into three groups based on an ordination analysis of the species composition of the gall wasp community that to some extent also reflected the genetic cline of Q. crispula. This suggests that the species composition of gall wasps changed intermittently along the genetic cline, rather than gradually and consistently along the cline.

  7. Study of wear and galling in aircraft fuel pump drive shafts and gears using the surface layer activation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallmann, A.; Natter, B.; Molinari, M. A.

    1988-10-01

    The surface layer activation technique (SLA) has been applied to study galling and wear in moving parts of Boeing 747 engines. Radioactive 56Co was formed by the reaction 56Fe(p, n) 56Co in fuel pump drive shafts and gears, and their residual activities in these activated parts were measured in situ during routine inspections over more than one year. The study of the wear was done on shafts made of a new alloy and on gears having a new tooth geometry. Wear determined by SLA was corroborated by a profile measurement made when one of the pumps was disassembled. The study of the galling (with release of metallic fragments) of a drive shaft consisted in checking the condition of the critical zone of the splines with the SLA technique. The main originality of the present work is that for the first time such measurements were performed on engines in revenue service.

  8. Differences in susceptibility of Arabidopsis ecotypes to crown gall disease may result from a deficiency in T-DNA integration.

    PubMed Central

    Nam, J; Matthysse, A G; Gelvin, S B

    1997-01-01

    We show that among ecotypes of Arabidopsis, there is considerable variation in their susceptibility to crown gall disease. Differences in susceptibility are heritable and, in one ecotype, segregate as a single major contributing locus. In several ecotypes, recalcitrance to tumorigenesis results from decreased binding of Agrobacterium to inoculated root explants. The recalcitrance of another ecotype occurs at a late step in T-DNA transfer. Transient expression of a T-DNA-encoded beta-glucuronidase gusA gene is efficient, but the ecotype is deficient in crown gall tumorigenesis, transformation to kanamycin resistance, and stable GUS expression. This ecotype is also more sensitive to gamma radiation than is a susceptible ecotype. DNA gel blot analysis showed that after infection by Agrobacterium, less T-DNA was integrated into the genome of the recalcitrant ecotype than was integrated into the genome of a highly susceptible ecotype. PMID:9090878

  9. Haemoproteus minutus and Haemoproteus belopolskyi (Haemoproteidae): complete sporogony in the biting midge Culicoides impunctatus (Ceratopogonidae), with implications on epidemiology of haemoproteosis.

    PubMed

    Ziegytė, Rita; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Bernotienė, Rasa; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2014-10-01

    Species of Haemoproteus (Haemoproteidae) are cosmopolitan haemosporidian parasites, some of which cause severe diseases in birds. Numerous recent studies address molecular characterization, distribution and genetic diversity of haemoproteids. However, the information about their vectors is scarce. We investigated sporogonic development of two widespread species of Haemoproteus (Haemoproteus minutus and Haemoproteus belopolskyi) in the experimentally infected biting midge Culicoides impunctatus. Wild-caught flies were allowed to take blood meals on naturally infected common blackbirds Turdus merula and icterine warblers Hippolais icterina harboring mature gametocytes of H. minutus (lineage hTURDUS2) and H. belopolskyi (hHIICT1), respectively. The engorged flies were collected, transported to the laboratory, held at 15-18°C, and dissected daily in order to obtain ookinetes, oocysts and sporozoites. Mature ookinetes of H. minutus developed blisteringly rapidly; they were numerous in the midgut content between 1 and 4 h post exposure. Ookinetes of H. belopolskyi developed slower and were reported 1 day post exposure (dpe). Oocysts of both parasites were seen in the midgut wall 3-4 dpe. Sporozoites of H. minutus and H. belopolskyi were first observed in the salivary glands preparations 7 dpe. The percentage of experimentally infected flies with sporozoites of H. minutus was 82.1% and 91.7% with H. belopolskyi. In accordance with microscopy data, polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing confirmed presence of the corresponding parasite lineages in experimentally infected biting midges. Sporogonic stages of these parasites were described and illustrated. This study indicates that C. impunctatus is involved in the transmission of deadly H. minutus, which kills captive parrots in Europe. This biting midge is an important vector of avian haemoproteids and worth more attention in epidemiology research of avian haemoproteosis. PMID:25102434

  10. Evidence for a novel cryoprotective protein from freeze-tolerant larvae of the goldenrod gall fly Eurosta solidaginis.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Nancy L; Moqueet, Nasheed; Shapiro, Craig A

    2007-02-01

    Third-instar larvae of the goldenrod gall fly Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae) from populations in northern North America transition from freeze-susceptible to freeze-tolerant just prior to the onset of winter. While studies have documented the accumulation of carbohydrate cryoprotectants during this transition, protein cryoprotectants common to other freeze-tolerant species have not been reported in the gall fly. Using larvae collected from a population in Madison County, NY, which changes from freeze-susceptible to freeze-tolerant in early October, we assayed for the presence of factors that could preserve the catalytic activity of the cold-labile enzyme, rabbit muscle lactate dehydrogenase. Freezing this enzyme with a heat-stable, hydrophilic fraction derived from homogenates of both freeze-tolerant larvae and those in the process of becoming freeze-tolerant preserved between 70% and 80% of this enzyme's activity. Neither a comparable solution of bovine serum albumin nor the naturally-occurring carbohydrates (glycerol, sorbitol, or trehalose) conferred this level of cryoprotection. The putative cryoprotective protein from gall fly larvae did not bind to a weak anion exchanger, implying that its character may be cationic.

  11. Parallel Patterns of Morphological and Behavioral Variation among Host-Associated Populations of Two Gall Wasp Species

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Scott P.; Hood, Glen R.; DeVela, Gabriel; Ott, James R.

    2013-01-01

    A powerful approach to address the general factors contributing to ecological speciation is to compare distantly related taxa that inhabit the same selective environments. In this design, similarities among taxa can elucidate general mechanisms of the process whereas differences may uncover specific factors important to the process for individual taxa. Herein, we present evidence of parallel patterns of morphological and behavioral variation among host-associated populations of two species of cynipid gall wasps, Belonocnema treatae and Disholcaspis quercusvirens, that each exhibit a life cycle intimately tied to the same two host plant environments, Quercus geminata and Q. virginiana. Across both gall-former species we find consistent differences in body size and gall morphology associated with host plant use, as well as strong differences in host plant preference, a measure of habitat isolation among populations. These consistent differences among taxa highlight the important role of host plant use in promoting reproductive isolation and morphological variation among herbivorous insect populations–a prerequisite for ecological speciation. PMID:23349952

  12. Cuticular lipids and desiccation resistance in overwintering larvae of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Nelson, Dennis R; Lee, Richard E

    2004-07-01

    Within their gall, larvae of the goldenrod gall fly (Eurosta solidaginis) experience severe desiccating conditions as well as highly variable thermal conditions and extreme cold during winter. Through the autumn and early winter, field-collected larvae acquired markedly enhanced resistance to desiccation and freezing. At the same time, they increased their cuticular surface hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons were the major lipid class extracted by hexane or chloroform from the cuticular surface of overwintering gall fly larvae. The major hydrocarbon classes were the 2-methylalkanes which consisted mainly of 2-methyltriacontane. 2-Methyltriacontane comprised 48-68% of the total hydrocarbons during the larval stages. Total hydrocarbons increased from 122 ng/larva in early third instar larvae collected in September to 4900 ng/larva in those collected in January. Although washing of the cuticular surface with chloroform or chloroform:methanol (2:1, v:v) caused marked increases in rates of water loss, treatment with hexane and methanol had little effect on water loss rates.

  13. Seasonal variations in roadside conditions and the performance of a gall-forming insect and its food plant.

    PubMed

    Martel, J

    1995-01-01

    A transplant experiment using potted plants was performed over two years in a field located along a heavily used highway to test for the effects of seasonal variations in roadside conditions on the performance of a gall-forming insect, Eurosta solidaginis Fitch, and its perennial host plant, Solidago altissima L. The experiment was designed to separate temporally the two major classes of road pollutants (air pollutants versus de-icing salt). The population density and survivorship of E. solidaginis were not affected by road-stressed goldenrods. However, gall-forming larvae had a greater biomass when they were grown on plants exposed to road air pollutants, although these effects were tempered by a simultaneous exposure to de-icing salt. The shoot growth of S. altissima was severely affected by road stress during each growing season but after two years the biomass of roots and rhizomes combined did not differ between the treatments. This experiment showed that the effects of air pollutants and de-icing salt on a gall-forming insect via stressed host plants are less than additive.

  14. Biological control of crown gall on grapevine and root colonization by nonpathogenic Rhizobium vitis strain ARK-1.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Akira

    2013-01-01

    A nonpathogenic strain of Rhizobium vitis ARK-1 was tested as a biological control agent for grapevine crown gall. When grapevine roots were soaked in a cell suspension of strain ARK-1 before planting in the field, the number of plants with tumors was reduced. The results from seven field trials from 2009 to 2012 were combined in a meta-analysis. The integrated relative risk after treatment with ARK-1 was 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.07-0.29, P0.001), indicating that the disease incidence was significantly reduced by ARK-1. In addition, the results from four field trials from 2007 to 2009 using R. vitis VAR03-1, a previously reported biological control agent for grapevine crown gall, were combined in a meta-analysis. The integrated relative risk after treatment with VAR03-1 was 0.24 (95% confidence interval: 0.11-0.53, P0.001), indicating the superiority of ARK-1 in inhibiting grapevine crown gall over VAR03-1 under field conditions. ARK-1 did not cause necrosis on grapevine shoot explants. ARK-1 established populations on roots of grapevine tree rootstock and persisted inside roots for two years. PMID:23708779

  15. Franz Joseph Gall on greatness in the fine arts: A collaboration of multiple cortical faculties of mind.

    PubMed

    Eling, Paul; Finger, Stanley

    2015-10-01

    Although Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) is well known for his organology, i.e., his theory of cortical localization of function largely derived from skull features, little has been written about his ideas pertaining to specific faculties other than speech, and even less attention has been drawn to how the individual faculties might work together in specific situations. Our focus shall be on how Franz Joseph Gall viewed the fine arts, with special emphasis on what one must possess to be outstanding in this field, which he associated with perceiving and understanding relationships, and several higher faculties of mind, including color, "constructiveness," locality, and recognizing people. How these faculties are utilized, he tells us, will vary with whether an artist does portraits, landscapes, historical scenes, still life compositions, etc., as well as with the selected medium (e.g., oil paints, sketching on paper, stones to be carved). To put Gall's thoughts about the fine arts in context, brief mention will be made of his scientific career, his guiding philosophy, the questions he most wanted to answer, what he construed as "evidence," how he eliminated the soul or "controller" from his system, and how he presented his work to the public. Some comparisons will be made to what he wrote about having a talent for music. PMID:26188788

  16. Sink-source interactions between a galling aphid and its narrowleaf cottonwood host: Within and between plant variation

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    The authors examined within and between plant variation in the capacity of the leaf gallin aphid, Pemphigus betae, to manipulate the sink-source translocation patterns of its host, narrowleaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia). Within a plant, a series of {sup 14}C-labeling experiments showed that P. betae actively manipulated host translocation patterns by acting as a strong sink and fed on assimilates produced in surrounding plant tissues serving as sources. Food resources drawn into the galled leaf from storage tissues in the stem and from surrounding leaves were a major resource for this herbivore in addition to resources from the galled leaf blade. Aphids compete for resources with natural plant sinks, such as developing fruits. In common gardens containing aphid resistant and aphid susceptible clones, I tested the hypothesis that aphid gall success on resistant trees is limited by competition between aphid-induced sinks and the plant's natural sinks, and that the intensity of intraplant competition was determined by the genetically determined architecture of the tree. Through bud removal, a resistant clone could be given the architecture of a susceptible clone. Aphid survival was increased two fold on architecturally modified resistant clones.

  17. A new species of the predaceous midge genus Brachypogon Kieffer from the Neotropical Region and first description of the female of Brachypogon (Isohelea) cuacuahuitlus Huerta & Borkent (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Huerta, Herón; Spinelli, Gustavo R

    2016-01-01

    The predaceous midge genus Brachypogon Kieffer is presently known in Mexico by Brachypogon (Brachypogon) fuscivenosus (Lutz, 1914), B. (B.) bimaculatus Spinelli & Grogan, 1998, B. (B.) woodruffi Spinelli & Grogan, 1998 and B. (Isohelea) cuacuahuitlus Huerta & Borkent, 2005. In this contribution a new species, Brachypogon (Brachypogon) ginue, is described and illustrated from a male specimen collected in Tlanchinol, State of Hidalgo, Mexico. This new species belongs to the impar species group. The first description of the female of Brachypogon (Isohelea) cuacuahuitlus Huerta & Borkent is also provided. PMID:27395848

  18. Biting midges of the tribe Ceratopogonini (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from the Middle East, with keys and descriptions of new species.

    PubMed

    Alwin-Kownacka, Alicja; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Szwedo, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Middle East predatory biting midges of the tribe Ceratopogonini, covering 22 species of 7 genera are reviewed. Three new species are described and illustrated: Allohelea israelensis Szadziewski & Alwin sp. nov., Kolenohelea levantica Szadziewski & Alwin sp. nov. and Serromyia galilaeae Szadziewski & Alwin sp. nov. The genus Boreohelea Clastrier & Delécolle, 1990 syn. nov. is recognized as a junior synonym of Allohelea Kieffer, 1917. Thysanognathus nilogenes Kieffer, 1925 syn. nov. from Egypt is a junior synonym of Alluaudomyia melanosticta (Ingram & Macfie, 1922). Keys to identification of subfamilies, tribes, genera and species of Ceratopogonini of the Middle East are also provided. PMID:27394208

  19. Prevalence and dynamics of the zoosporic pathogen Catenaria uncinata in a natural population of the midge Glyptotendipes lobiferus.

    PubMed

    Martin, W Wallace; Warren, Alyssa

    2016-09-01

    A qPCR assay specific for zoospores of Catenaria uncinata, a fungal parasite in eggs of the midge Glyptotendipes lobiferus, was developed and used in parallel with traditional microscopic methods in a season-long study of a C. uncinata/G. lobiferus association in a local pond. Twenty-six consecutive weekly collections of egg masses were screened with a microscope to obtain percentages of infection and mortality in organogenetic egg masses and weekly water samples were processed by absolute quantification using qPCR to obtain estimates of zoospore density. Overall, 36.0% of G. lobiferus egg masses were infected to varying degrees and 11.2% of eggs were killed by C. uncinata. Continuous infection of egg masses occurred during a 6-wk period in May-June and a 7-wk period in September-October. Infection by C. uncinata was absent during a 10-week interval between periods of infection. Abrupt declines in zoospore density occurred during both infection periods and occurred only when water temperatures met or exceeded the viability threshold for zoospores (⩾31.0°C). The episodic death of zoospores during weeks in which egg infection and mortality levels were continuous likely resulted from distribution of zoospores throughout the water column and a temperature gradient in which zoospores sampled near the surface were subjected to lethal temperatures while non-sampled zoospores at lower depths were provided low temperature sanctuary. The hiatus of infection during the 10-week interval was likely due to lethal temperatures throughout the water column as average water temperatures exceeded 31.0°C over the period. A positive correlation between weekly zoospore densities obtained from qPCR and levels of infection/mortality in egg masses obtained from counts with a microscope supports the use of the qPCR assay alone in future studies that can rapidly and accurately determine parasite presence, prevalence and geographical range. PMID:27418147

  20. Ecdysteroid synthesis and imaginal disc development in the midge Chironomus riparius as biomarkers for endocrine effects of tributyltin.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Torsten; Schulz, Ralf

    2002-05-01

    Acute effects of the endocrine disruptor bis(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO) on molting-hormone biosynthesis and imaginal-disc development were investigated in larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius (Meigen). Ecdysteroid synthesis was measured by 24-h incubation of molting-hormone-synthesizing tissues (prothoracic glands) in vitro with or without the addition of TBTO. The amount of ecdysteroids produced was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Developmental effects in vivo were investigated by determining the developmental phase of the genital imaginal discs before and after a 48-h exposure to TBTO in water. Sex-specific effects were found with both endpoints. Ecdysteroid synthesis was significantly reduced (analysis of variance [ANOVA], p < or = 0.005) in female larvae at all concentrations (TBTO-Sn at 50, 500, and 5,000 ng/L), whereas a significant elevation of the biosynthesis rate occurred in male larvae in the 500-ng/L treatment (ANOVA, p < or = 0.05). In vivo experiments with development of the genital imaginal disc within a 48-h exposure period revealed a significantly slower development in female larvae and a significantly faster development in male larvae (contingency tables, p < or = 0.001) at all concentrations tested (TBTO-Sn at 10, 50, 200, and 1,000 ng/L). These results partly coincided with the in vitro effects on molting-hormone synthesis. The 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) was 25 microg/L (20-30 microg/L 95% confidence intervals). The combination of in vitro and in vivo methods has proven to be a useful approach for the detection of endocrine effects of TBTO in C. riparius at levels 2,000-fold below the LC50 value. High sensitivity and short test duration suggest that chironomids may have potential as freshwater sentinel organisms for endocrine-disrupting chemicals. PMID:12013127

  1. Quantitative Temperature Reconstructions from Holocene and Late Glacial Lake Sediments in the Tropical Andes using Chironomidae (non-biting midges)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews-Bird, F.; Gosling, W. D.; Brooks, S. J.; Montoya, E.; Coe, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Chironomidae (non-biting midges) is a family of two-winged aquatic insects of the order Diptera. They are globally distributed and one of the most diverse families within aquatic ecosystems. The insects are stenotopic, and the rapid turnover of species and their ability to colonise quickly favourable habitats means chironomids are extremely sensitive to environmental change, notably temperature. Through the development of quantitative temperature inference models chironomids have become important palaeoecological tools. Proxies capable of generating independent estimates of past climate are crucial to disentangling climate signals and ecosystem response in the palaeoecological record. This project has developed the first modern environmental calibration data set in order to use chironomids from the Tropical Andes as quantitative climate proxies. Using surface sediments from c. 60 lakes from Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador we have developed an inference model capable of reconstructing temperatures, with a prediction error of 1-2°C, from fossil assemblages. Here we present the first Lateglacial and Holocene chironomid-inferred temperature reconstructions from two sites in the tropical Andes. The first record, from a high elevation (4153 m asl) lake in the Bolivian Andes, shows persistently cool temperatures for the past 15 kyr, punctuated by warm episodes in the early Holocene (9-10 kyr BP). The chironomid-inferred Holocene temperature trends from a lake sediment record on the eastern Andean flank of Ecuador (1248 m asl) spanning the last 5 millennia are synchronous with temperature changes in the NGRIP ice core record. The temperature estimates suggest along the eastern flank of the Andes, at lower latitudes (~1°S), climate closely resemble the well-established fluctuations of the Northern Hemisphere for this time period. Late-glacial climate fluctuations across South America are still disputed with some palaeoecological records suggesting evidence for Younger Dryas

  2. Evolution of early development in dipterans: reverse-engineering the gap gene network in the moth midge Clogmia albipunctata (Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Crombach, Anton; García-Solache, Mónica A; Jaeger, Johannes

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the developmental and evolutionary dynamics of regulatory networks is essential if we are to explain the non-random distribution of phenotypes among the diversity of organismic forms. Here, we present a comparative analysis of one of the best understood developmental gene regulatory networks today: the gap gene network involved in early patterning of insect embryos. We use gene circuit models, which are fitted to quantitative spatio-temporal gene expression data for the four trunk gap genes hunchback (hb), Krüppel (Kr), giant (gt), and knirps (kni)/knirps-like (knl) in the moth midge Clogmia albipunctata, and compare them to equivalent reverse-engineered circuits from our reference species, the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster. In contrast to the single network structure we find for D. melanogaster, our models predict four alternative networks for C. albipunctata. These networks share a core structure, which includes the central regulatory feedback between hb and knl. Other interactions are only partially determined, as they differ between our four network structures. Nevertheless, our models make testable predictions and enable us to gain specific insights into gap gene regulation in C. albipunctata. They suggest a less central role for Kr in C. albipunctata than in D. melanogaster, and show that the mechanisms causing an anterior shift of gap domains over time are largely conserved between the two species, although shift dynamics differ. The set of C. albipunctata gene circuit models presented here will be used as the starting point for data-constrained in silico evolutionary simulations to study patterning transitions in the early development of dipteran species. PMID:24911671

  3. Foraging range of arthropods with veterinary interest: New insights for Afrotropical Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) using the ring method.

    PubMed

    Bakhoum, M T; Fall, M; Seck, M T; Gardès, L; Fall, A G; Diop, M; Mall, I; Balenghien, T; Baldet, T; Gimonneau, G; Garros, C; Bouyer, J

    2016-05-01

    The identification of blood meal source of arthropod vector species contributes to the understanding of host-vector-pathogen interactions. The aim of the current work was to identify blood meal source in Culicoides biting midge species, biological vectors of internationally important arboviruses of livestock and equids, using a new ecological approach. We examined the correlation between blood meal source identified in engorged Culicoides females collected in a suction light trap and the available vertebrate hosts along four rings (200, 500, 1000 and 2000 m) centered at the trap site and described the foraging range of the three main vector species of veterinary interest present in the study area, Culicoides imicola, Culicoides kingi and Culicoides oxystoma. The study was performed in four sites localized in the Niayes region of Senegal (West Africa) where recent outbreaks of African horse sickness occurred. Blood meal source identification was carried out by species-specific multiplex PCRs with genomic DNA extracted from the abdomen of engorged females collected during nine night collections for twenty-six collections. The four most abundant hosts present in the studied area (horse, cattle, goat and sheep) were surveyed in each ring zone. The blood meal source varied according to Culicoides species and host availability in each site. C. oxystoma and C. imicola females mainly fed on horses readily available at 200 m maximum from the trap location whereas females of C. kingi fed mainly on cattle, at variable distances from the traps (200 to 2000 m). C. oxystoma may also feed on other vertebrates. We discuss the results in relation with the transmission of Culicoides-borne arboviruses and the species dispersion capacities. PMID:26826391

  4. Host-associated genetic differentiation in the goldenrod elliptical-gall moth, Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Nason, John D; Heard, Stephen B; Williams, Frederick R

    2002-07-01

    Careful study of apparently generalist phytophagous insects often reveals that they instead represent complexes of genetically differentiated host races or cryptic species. The goldenrod elliptical-gall moth, Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis, attacks two goldenrods in the Solidago canadensis complex: S. altissima and S. gigantea (Asteraceae). We tested for host-associated genetic differentiation in G. gallaesolidaginis via analysis of variation at 12 allozyme loci among larvae collected at six sites in Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska. Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis from each host are highly polymorphic (3.6-4.7 alleles/locus and expected heterozygosity 0.28-0.38 within site-host combinations). Although there were no fixed differences between larvae from S. altissima and S. gigantea at any site, these represent well differentiated host forms, with 11 of 12 loci showing significantly different allele frequencies between host-associated collections at one or more sites. Host plant has a larger effect on genetic structure among populations than does location (Wright's FST = 0.16 between host forms vs. F(ST) = 0.061 and 0.026 among altissima and gigantea populations, respectively). The estimated F(ST) between host forms suggests that the historical effective rate of gene flow has been low (N(e)m approximately 1.3). Consistent with this historical estimate is the absence of detectable recombinant (hybrid and introgressant between host form) individuals in contemporary populations (none of 431 genotyped individuals). Upper 95% confidence limits for the frequency of recombinant individuals range from 5% to 9%. Host association is tight, but imperfect, with only one likely example of a host mismatch (a larva galling the wrong host species). Our inferences about hybridization and host association are based on new maximum-likelihood methods for estimating frequencies of genealogical classes (in this case, two parental classes, F1 and F2 hybrids, and backcrosses) in a population

  5. Systemically applied insecticides for treatment of erythrina gall wasp, quadrastichus erythrinae kim hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doccola, J.J.; Smith, S.L.; Strom, B.L.; Medeiros, A.C.; Von Allmen, E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The erythrina gall wasp (EGW), believed native to Africa, is a recently described species and now serious invasive pest of Erythrina (coral trees) in tropical and subtropical locales. Erythrina are favored ornamental and landscape trees, as well as native members of threatened ecosystems. The EGW is a tiny, highly mobile, highly invasive wasp that deforms (galls) host trees causing severe defoliation and tree death. The first detection of EGW in the United States was in O'ahu, Hawai'i in April 2005. It quickly spread through the Hawai'ian island chain (U.S.) killing ornamental and native Erythrina in as little as two years. At risk are endemic populations of Erythrinaas well as ornamental landscape species in the same genus, the latter of which have already been killed and removed from O'ahu at a cost of more than USD $1 million. Because EGW are so small and spread so quickly, host injury is usually detected before adult wasps are observed, making prophylactic treatments less likely than therapeutic ones. This study evaluates two stem-injected insecticides, imidacloprid (IMA-jet??) and emamectin benzoate, delivered through Arborjet Tree I.V.?? equipment, for their ability to affect E. sandwicensis (wiliwili) canopy demise under severe EGW exposure. IMA-jet, applied at a rate of 0.16 g AI/cm basal diameter (0.4 g AI/in. dia.), was the only effective treatment for maintaining canopy condition of wiliwili trees. Emamectin benzoate, applied at a rate of -0.1 g AI/cm basal diameter (-0.25 g AI/in. dia.), was not effective in this application, although it was intermediate in effect between IMA-jet and untreated trees. The relatively high concentrations of imidacloprid in leaves, and its durability for at least 13 months in native wiliwili growing on a natural, dryland site, suggest that treatment applications against EGW can impact canopy recovery even under suboptimal site and tree conditions. ?? 2009 International Society of Arboriculture.

  6. Larvae and Nests of Six Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded

    PubMed Central

    Bogusch, Petr; Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Wetland species of aculeate Hymenoptera are poorly known, even though many of them may serve as diagnostic or flagship species in nature conservation. Here we examined 6,018 galls induced ≥1 year prior their collection by the chloropid flies Lipara spp. The galls were collected at 34 sites in Central Europe. We examined 1,389 nests (4,513 individuals) of nine species, part of which were parasitized by one dipteran and two chrysidid parasitoid species. We describe the nests of seven dominant species and larvae of four species (Pemphredon fabricii, Trypoxylon deceptorium, Hoplitis leucomelana and Hylaeus pectoralis) and two parasitoids (Trichrysis cyanea and Thyridanthrax fenestratus, both in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium). All the species, but H. pectoralis, preferred robust galls at very thin stalks (induced typically by Lipara lucens) over the narrow galls on thick stalks. The larvae of P. fabricii and T. deceptorium resembled strongly their sibling species (Pemphredon lethifer and Trypoxylon attenuatum sensu lato, respectively). The larvae of T. fenestratus showed features different from those previously described. By hatching set of another 10,583 galls induced by Lipara spp. ≥1 year prior their collection, we obtained 4,469 individuals of 14 nesting hymenopteran species, two cleptoparasites, three chrysidid and one dipteran parasitoid. Of these species, four new nesting species have been recorded for the first time in galls induced by Lipara spp.: Chelostoma campanularum, Heriades rubicola, Pseudoanthidium lituratum and Hylaeus incongruus. We also provide first records of their nest cleptoparasites Stelis breviuscula and Stelis ornatula, and the parasitoid Holopyga fastuosa generosa. Thyridanthrax fenestratus formed strong populations in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium, which are both newly recorded hosts for T. fenestratus. The descriptions provided here allow for the first time to identify the larvae of

  7. Larvae and Nests of Six Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded.

    PubMed

    Bogusch, Petr; Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Wetland species of aculeate Hymenoptera are poorly known, even though many of them may serve as diagnostic or flagship species in nature conservation. Here we examined 6,018 galls induced ≥1 year prior their collection by the chloropid flies Lipara spp. The galls were collected at 34 sites in Central Europe. We examined 1,389 nests (4,513 individuals) of nine species, part of which were parasitized by one dipteran and two chrysidid parasitoid species. We describe the nests of seven dominant species and larvae of four species (Pemphredon fabricii, Trypoxylon deceptorium, Hoplitis leucomelana and Hylaeus pectoralis) and two parasitoids (Trichrysis cyanea and Thyridanthrax fenestratus, both in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium). All the species, but H. pectoralis, preferred robust galls at very thin stalks (induced typically by Lipara lucens) over the narrow galls on thick stalks. The larvae of P. fabricii and T. deceptorium resembled strongly their sibling species (Pemphredon lethifer and Trypoxylon attenuatum sensu lato, respectively). The larvae of T. fenestratus showed features different from those previously described. By hatching set of another 10,583 galls induced by Lipara spp. ≥1 year prior their collection, we obtained 4,469 individuals of 14 nesting hymenopteran species, two cleptoparasites, three chrysidid and one dipteran parasitoid. Of these species, four new nesting species have been recorded for the first time in galls induced by Lipara spp.: Chelostoma campanularum, Heriades rubicola, Pseudoanthidium lituratum and Hylaeus incongruus. We also provide first records of their nest cleptoparasites Stelis breviuscula and Stelis ornatula, and the parasitoid Holopyga fastuosa generosa. Thyridanthrax fenestratus formed strong populations in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium, which are both newly recorded hosts for T. fenestratus. The descriptions provided here allow for the first time to identify the larvae of

  8. Concordant phylogeography and cryptic speciation in two Western Palaearctic oak gall parasitoid species complexes.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, James A; Preuss, Sonja; Hayward, Alexander; Melika, George; Csóka, György; Nieves-Aldrey, José-Luis; Askew, Richard R; Tavakoli, Majid; Schönrogge, Karsten; Stone, Graham N

    2010-02-01

    Little is known about the evolutionary history of most complex multi-trophic insect communities. Widespread species from different trophic levels might evolve in parallel, showing similar spatial patterns and either congruent temporal patterns (Contemporary Host-tracking) or later divergence in higher trophic levels (Delayed Host-tracking). Alternatively, host shifts by natural enemies among communities centred on different host resources could disrupt any common community phylogeographic pattern. We examined these alternative models using two Megastigmus parasitoid morphospecies associated with oak cynipid galls sampled throughout their Western Palaearctic distributions. Based on existing host cynipid data, a parallel evolution model predicts that eastern regions of the Western Palaearctic should contain ancestral populations with range expansions across Europe about 1.6 million years ago and deeper species-level divergence at both 8-9 and 4-5 million years ago. Sequence data from mitochondrial cytochrome b and multiple nuclear genes showed similar phylogenetic patterns and revealed cryptic genetic species within both morphospecies, indicating greater diversity in these communities than previously thought. Phylogeographic divergence was apparent in most cryptic species between relatively stable, diverse, putatively ancestral populations in Asia Minor and the Middle East, and genetically depauperate, rapidly expanding populations in Europe, paralleling patterns in host gallwasp species. Mitochondrial and nuclear data also suggested that Europe may have been colonized multiple times from eastern source populations since the late Miocene. Temporal patterns of lineage divergence were congruent within and across trophic levels, supporting the Contemporary Host-tracking Hypothesis for community evolution.

  9. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in overwintering larvae of cold-hardy goldenrod gall insects

    PubMed

    Joanisse; Storey

    1996-01-01

    Antioxidant and pro-oxidant systems were studied in overwintering larvae of two cold-hardy gall insect species, the freeze-tolerant fly Eurosta solidaginis and the freeze-avoiding moth Epiblema scudderiana. An increase in the levels of the oxidized form of glutathione suggested slight oxidative stress in both species during the winter. Freeze-tolerant Eurosta solidaginis larvae generally had decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes in the winter, indicating that these larvae do not face increased challenge from oxidative stress during the numerous freeze-thaw events they experience. Instead, existing defences must be sufficient to prevent any damage. By contrast, increased winter activities of antioxidant enzymes in freeze-avoiding Epiblema scudderiana suggest that these larvae must defend against the formation of reactive oxygen species. This may result from the oxidative nature of winter metabolism in these larvae, as well as a dependence on lipid oxidation as their fuel over this season. Xanthine dehydrogenase activity decreased dramatically in both species during the autumn, reducing the potential for the formation of the pro-oxidant xanthine oxidase. Indeed, xanthine oxidase activity fell to undetectable levels by winter in Epiblema scudderiana and was not detectable at any time in Eurosta solidaginis.

  10. Purification and Characterization of the Crown Gall-specific Enzyme, Octopine Synthase.

    PubMed

    Hack, E; Kemp, J D

    1980-05-01

    A single enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of all four N(2)-(1-carboxyethyl)-amino acid derivatives found in a crown gall tumor tissue induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (E. F. Sm. and Town.) Conn strain B6 on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). This enzyme, octopine synthase, has been purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and chromatography on diethylaminoethylcellulose, blue agarose, and hydroxylapatite. The purified enzyme has all the N(2)-(1-carboxyethyl)-amino acid synthesizing activities found in crude preparations, and the relative activities with six amino acids remain nearly constant during purification. Although the maximum velocities (V) and Michaelis constants (K(m)) differ, the ratio V/K(m) is the same for all amino acid substrates. Thus an equimolar mixture of amino acids will give rise to an equimolar mixture of products. The kinetic properties of the enzyme are consistent with a partially ordered mechanism with arginine (NADPH, then arginine or pyruvate). Octopine synthase is a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 39,000 by gel filtration and 38,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  11. New bioactive metabolites from a crown gall induced on an Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. tree.

    PubMed

    Salama, Maha M; Ezzat, Shahira M; El Dine, Riham Salah; El-Sayed, Aly M; Sleem, Amany A

    2013-01-01

    Applying a bioactivity-guided isolation strategy for the ethanolic extract of crown gall tumours induced on an Eucalyptus tereticornis tree, two new compounds in addition to a known one were isolated. The new compounds were identified as an amino acid derivative named 1-ethyl-6-(1'-methyl-1'-phenylethyl) piperidin-2-one (1) and a lanostane tetracyclic triterpene named 3beta-hydroxy-24-methyllanosta-8,17(20),24(28)-trien-22-oic acid (2), together with stigmasterol-3-O-glucoside (3). The three compounds exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against two human cell lines, breast (MCF7) and colon (HCT116), with IC50 values of 1.01, 1.54, and 2.15 microg/ml, respectively, against MCF7 and 3.49, 3.83, and 3.39 microg/ ml, respectively, against HCT116. Furthermore, in rats elevated levels of blood cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDLc) were significantly reduced, while the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDLc) was significantly increased by administration of the ethanolic extract as well as of 3. These results support a correlation between the reduction of blood cholesterol levels and improvement of colorectal cancer. PMID:24601084

  12. Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov., isolated from crown gall tumors on raspberry and cherry plum.

    PubMed

    Kuzmanović, Nemanja; Puławska, Joanna; Prokić, Anđelka; Ivanović, Milan; Zlatković, Nevena; Jones, Jeffrey B; Obradović, Aleksa

    2015-09-01

    Two plant-tumorigenic strains KFB 330(T) and KFB 335 isolated from galls on raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in Serbia, and a non-pathogenic strain AL51.1 recovered from a cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) tumor in Poland, were genotypically and phenotypically characterized. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on 16S rDNA placed them within the genus Agrobacterium, with A. nepotum as their closest relative. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on the partial sequences of atpD, glnA, gyrB, recA and rpoB housekeeping genes suggested that these three strains represent a new Agrobacterium species, that clustered with type strains of A. nepotum, A. radiobacter, "A. fabrum" and A. pusense. This was further supported by average nucleotide identity values (<92%) between the whole genome sequences of strain KFB 330(T) and related Agrobacterium species. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strains were 18:1 w7c (72.8-77.87%) and 16:0 (6.82-8.58%). Phenotypic features allowed their differentiation from closely related species. Polyphasic characterization showed that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Agrobacterium, for which the name Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. arsenijevicii is KFB 330(T) (= CFBP 8308(T) = LMG 28674(T)). PMID:26117193

  13. Cell division factors from crown gall tumors: a strategy for structural elucidation

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, K.S.

    1985-01-01

    Mitogenic compounds present in extracts of Vinca rosea crown gall tumor tissue were investigated. An isolation procedure, consisting of solvent partitions and reverse phase chromatography, has yielded a group of isomeric compounds which show activity in the tobacco pith bioassay. Initial characterizations revealed an unsaturated base, a sugar residue, a ..beta..-linked glucose, an allylic alcohol, and two methyl groups. A two part strategy of mass spectrometry (MS) in combination with proton nuclear magnetic resonance (/sup 1/H NMR) was envisioned. The aglycone structure would be determined by MS and the regiochemical relationships among the structural units would be defined by /sup 1/H NMR data. The utility of this approach was demonstrated by the structure assignment of a specific inhibitor of ..beta..-D-glucuronidase, 2(S)-carboxy-3(R),4(R),5(S)-trihydroxypiperidine. The relative stereochemistry of the hydroxyls was revealed by /sup 1/H NMR and the absolute configuration was deduced by a comparison of Cotton effects with a model compound. The use of /sup 1/H NMR to establish regiochemical relationships was investigated. Terpenes containing quaternary carbons and methyl groups were excellent models for the regiochemical problems presented by the mitogenic factors. This /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy has been applied to the cell division factor structure problem. These data, with information from two dimensional nOe experiments, have defined some of the regio-relationships among the structural units present in the isolated factors.

  14. Indian Council of Medical Research consensus document for the management of gall bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Hari Shankar; Sirohi, Bhawna; Behari, Anu; Sharma, Atul; Majumdar, Jahar; Ganguly, Manomoy; Tewari, Mallika; Kumar, Sandeep; Saini, Sunil; Sahni, Peush; Singh, Tomcha; Kapoor, Vinay Kumar; Sucharita, V; Kaur, Tanvir; Shukla, Deepak Kumar; Rath, Goura Kishor

    2015-01-01

    The document is based on consensus among the experts and best available evidence pertaining to Indian population and is meant for practice in India.All postcholecystectomy gallbladder specimens should be opened and examined carefully by the operating surgeon and be sent for histopathological examination.All "incidental" gall bladder cancers (GBCs) picked up on histopathological examination should have an expert opinion.Evaluation of a patient with early GBC should include essential tests: A computed tomography (CT) scan (multi-detector or helical) of the abdomen and pelvis for staging with a CT chest or chest X-ray, and complete blood counts, renal and liver function tests. magnetic resonance imaging/positron emission tomography (PET)-CT are not recommended for all patients.For early stage disease (up to Stage IVA), surgery is recommended. The need for adjuvant treatment would be guided by the histopathological analysis of the resected specimen.Patients with Stage IVB/metastatic disease must be assessed for palliative e.g. endoscopic or radiological intervention, chemotherapy versus best supportive care on an individual basis. These patients do not require extensive workup outside of a clinical trial setting.There is an urgent need for multicenter trials from India covering various aspects of epidemiology (viz., identification of population at high-risk, organized follow-up), clinical management (viz., bile spill during surgery, excision of all port sites, adjuvant/neoadjuvant therapy) and basic research (viz., what causes GBC). PMID:26157282

  15. Survival of Agrobacterium radiobacter K84 on various carriers for crown gall control.

    PubMed Central

    Pesenti-Barili, B; Ferdani, E; Mosti, M; Degli-Innocenti, F

    1991-01-01

    Screening was performed on nine carriers to find an improved formulation for Agrobacterium radiobacter K84 cells. The survival data showed that it is possible to preserve A. radiobacter cells on dry solid supports for a long time provided that the storage temperature is 4 degrees C and that the inoculation volume for 4 x 10(9) CFU g-1 is not less than 0.15 ml g of carrier-1. On the other hand, a substantial carrier water content was necessary for room temperature storage. Many materials proved to be suitable as microbial carriers; in some cases, vermiculite allowed long storage times comparable to those reported for peat or carboxymethyl cellulose, which are already employed in some commercial A. radiobacter K84 products. Furthermore, vermiculite assured full and immediate biological activity in the prevention of crown gall, showing that it is suitable for a new formulation of strain K84. A hypothesis to explain the different survival abilities in wet and dry conditions is presented. PMID:1892394

  16. Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov., isolated from crown gall tumors on raspberry and cherry plum.

    PubMed

    Kuzmanović, Nemanja; Puławska, Joanna; Prokić, Anđelka; Ivanović, Milan; Zlatković, Nevena; Jones, Jeffrey B; Obradović, Aleksa

    2015-09-01

    Two plant-tumorigenic strains KFB 330(T) and KFB 335 isolated from galls on raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in Serbia, and a non-pathogenic strain AL51.1 recovered from a cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) tumor in Poland, were genotypically and phenotypically characterized. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on 16S rDNA placed them within the genus Agrobacterium, with A. nepotum as their closest relative. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on the partial sequences of atpD, glnA, gyrB, recA and rpoB housekeeping genes suggested that these three strains represent a new Agrobacterium species, that clustered with type strains of A. nepotum, A. radiobacter, "A. fabrum" and A. pusense. This was further supported by average nucleotide identity values (<92%) between the whole genome sequences of strain KFB 330(T) and related Agrobacterium species. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strains were 18:1 w7c (72.8-77.87%) and 16:0 (6.82-8.58%). Phenotypic features allowed their differentiation from closely related species. Polyphasic characterization showed that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Agrobacterium, for which the name Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. arsenijevicii is KFB 330(T) (= CFBP 8308(T) = LMG 28674(T)).

  17. Metals in Human Gall, Bladder, and Kidney Stones Based on an Electron Microprobe Investigation.

    PubMed

    Moser, Reinhard; Zaccarini, Federica; Moser, Waltraud; Schrittwieser, Rudolf; Kerbl, Reinhold

    2015-10-01

    Several particles of copper accompanied by a few particles of nickel, lead, and a compound composed of selenium containing minor Ni, Si, Cu, and Co were found in human gall, kidney, and bladder stones. The investigated particles occur as tiny grains, <10 µm in size, that are irregularly dispersed in the stones. Therefore, they were studied by scanning electron microscopy and qualitatively analyzed by energy dispersive system. One grain of copper contained a small amount of Ni and Zn, and some grains of nickel proved to contain Cr as trace element. Most of the discovered metals formed a single-phase grain. However, a few grains found in two gallstones were associated with inclusions of calcium and apatite. Based on the results presented in this contribution, we argue that most of the studied metals can be classified as endogenous particles, i.e., directly precipitated from the same fluids that formed their host human stones. This observation suggests that the precipitation and accumulation of metals in some human stones can be considered an efficient way to eliminate them from the human body.

  18. Analysis of summer phosphorus fluxes within the pelagic zone of Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, W.F.; Barko, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Major phosphorus (P) fluxes to and from the pelagic zone (i.e., open water region including epilimnion, metalimnion, and hypolimnion) were estimated from data collected over a 6 year period during the summer in Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin. P inputs to the pelagic zone included profundal sediments, the watershed, groundwater, and transport of P from the littoral zone. P outputs from the pelagic zone included discharge from the reservoir, deposition, and transport of P to the littoral zone. Nighttime convective circulation was assumed to be the dominant mechanism of P exchange between the littoral and pelagic zones. Littoral P inputs, often neglected from budgetary analyses, accounted for 15% of the total measured P input and 25% of the internal P input to the pelagic zone. External P inputs were greatest, accounting for 42% of the total measured P input to the pelagic zone. These results emphasize the need for control of various sources of P inputs in the development of lake and reservoir management strategies.

  19. Generation of islet-like cells from mouse gall bladder by direct ex vivo reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, Raymond D; Galivo, Feorillo; Schug, Jonathan; Brehm, Michael A; Haft, Annelise; Wang, Yuhan; Benedetti, Eric; Gu, Guoqiang; Magnuson, Mark A; Shultz, Leonard D; Lagasse, Eric; Greiner, Dale L; Kaestner, Klaus H; Grompe, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Cell replacement is an emerging therapy for type 1 diabetes. Pluripotent stem cells have received a lot of attention as a potential source of transplantable β-cells, but their ability to form teratomas poses significant risks. Here, we evaluated the potential of primary mouse gall bladder epithelial cells (GBCs) as targets for ex vivo genetic reprogramming to the β-cell fate. Conditions for robust expansion and genetic transduction of primary GBCs by adenoviral vectors were developed. Using a GFP reporter for insulin, conditions for reprogramming were then optimized. Global expression analysis by RNA-sequencing was used to quantitatively compare reprogrammed GBCs (rGBCs) to true β-cells, revealing both similarities and differences. Adenoviral-mediated expression of NEUROG3, Pdx1, and MafA in GBCs resulted in robust induction of pancreatic endocrine genes, including Ins1, Ins2, Neurod1, Nkx2-2 and Isl1. Furthermore, expression of GBC-specific genes was repressed, including Sox17 and Hes1. Reprogramming was also enhanced by addition of retinoic acid and inhibition of Notch signaling. Importantly, rGBCs were able to engraft long term in vivo and remained insulin-positive for 15 weeks. We conclude that GBCs are a viable source for autologous cell replacement in diabetes, but that complete reprogramming will require further manipulations. PMID:23562832

  20. Indian Council of Medical Research consensus document for the management of gall bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Hari Shankar; Sirohi, Bhawna; Behari, Anu; Sharma, Atul; Majumdar, Jahar; Ganguly, Manomoy; Tewari, Mallika; Kumar, Sandeep; Saini, Sunil; Sahni, Peush; Singh, Tomcha; Kapoor, Vinay Kumar; Sucharita, V.; Kaur, Tanvir; Shukla, Deepak Kumar; Rath, Goura Kishor

    2015-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The document is based on consensus among the experts and best available evidence pertaining to Indian population and is meant for practice in India.All postcholecystectomy gallbladder specimens should be opened and examined carefully by the operating surgeon and be sent for histopathological examination.All “incidental” gall bladder cancers (GBCs) picked up on histopathological examination should have an expert opinion.Evaluation of a patient with early GBC should include essential tests: A computed tomography (CT) scan (multi-detector or helical) of the abdomen and pelvis for staging with a CT chest or chest X-ray, and complete blood counts, renal and liver function tests. magnetic resonance imaging/positron emission tomography (PET)-CT are not recommended for all patients.For early stage disease (up to Stage IVA), surgery is recommended. The need for adjuvant treatment would be guided by the histopathological analysis of the resected specimen.Patients with Stage IVB/metastatic disease must be assessed for palliative e.g. endoscopic or radiological intervention, chemotherapy versus best supportive care on an individual basis. These patients do not require extensive workup outside of a clinical trial setting.There is an urgent need for multicenter trials from India covering various aspects of epidemiology (viz., identification of population at high-risk, organized follow-up), clinical management (viz., bile spill during surgery, excision of all port sites, adjuvant/neoadjuvant therapy) and basic research (viz., what causes GBC). PMID:26157282